Operators Manual for the BMT160KS Series Turbine Engine TCU V2

Operators Manual for the BMT160KS
Series Turbine Engine
TCU V2.06
Index:
1. Introduction
i. Design
ii. Materials
iii. Electric starter
iv. Technical Data
v. Performance Data
vi. Fuel Pump
vii. Turbine Control Unit
viii. Pump Battery
ix. Ground Support Unit
p3
p3
p3
p3
p3
p4
p4
p5
p6
2. Operating the Turbine
i. Preparing to operate for first time.
ii. Fuel preparation
iii. Ignition Source
iv. Bystanders and Safety
p6
p7
p7
p7
3. Setting up the TCU
i. Setup throttle
ii. Set switch mode
iii. Adjust Gloplug
iv. Fast charge batt
v. Slow charge batt
vi. Set max airspeed
vii. Setup smoker
viii. Set date/time
ix. Do cooldown
x. Clear error
xi. Load defaults
xii. Test fuel pump
xiii. Test injector
xiv. Test starter
xv. Lube bearings
xvi. Set max rpm
xvii.
Set Pitot gains
xviii. Set Logging rate
xix. Failsafe Setup
p7
p8
p8
p12
p12
p13
p13
p13
p13
p14
p14
p14
p14
p15
p15
p15
p16
p16
p16
p16
4. Throttle Starting
p17
5. Installing TCU in Airframe
p17
6. Installing Turbine in Airframe
p17
6. Fuel System and Installation
p18
8. Starting the BMT160-KS
p18
9. Shutdown Sequence
p19
10. Errors reported by the TCU
i. Startup Error listing
ii. Runtime Error listing
iii. Startup Errors explained and remedies
iv. Runtime Errors explained and remedies
p19
p20
p20
p23
1
11. Injector Maintenance
p25
12. Adjusting Injector Flowrate
p27
13. Bearing Maintenance and Care
14. Preventing Wet Starts
p28
p28
15. The BMT160-KS in the long term
p29
16. GSU Charging
p29
17. Warrantee Information
p29
18. Figure 1. BMT KS Series electrical diagram
p30
19. Fuel System with Spill-proof refueling.
i. Figure 2. Refueling mode
ii. Figure 3. Running mode
p31
p32
20. Fuel system (Single Tank)
i. Figure 4. Refueling mode
ii. Figure 5. Running mode
p33
p34
21. Figure 6. Glow Plug Modification
p34
22. Figure 7. Thermocouple mounting
p35
23. Figure 8. Bypass ducting and tailpipe info
p36
24. Figure 9. GSU Charging adapter
p37
24. Spare Parts Listing
p38
25. Packing List
p38
2
Introduction to the BMT160-KS
Design:
The BMT160-KS is an advanced development based on the very latest state of the art
in Model Gas Turbine Engines. It follows the classic design of Single Radial
Compressor and single Axial Turbine. The combustor is annular in shape and utilizes a
low pressure fuel vaporizing system. Starting is accomplished by a micro-engineered
fuel atomizer allowing direct and safe starting on the main fuel supply. NO GAS is
required for starting. The precision ground main shaft is supported by two high speed
hybrid ceramic ball bearings.
Materials:
All materials used in the construction of the BMT160-KS are of the highest quality. The
compressor wheel is a custom designed unit. All aluminum components are aerospace
grade and the main shaft is ground from high stability heat treated tool steel. The main
shaft tunnel is ultra precision machined from a special grade of Stainless Steel. While
this carry a small weight penalty it overcomes the heat expansion ratio mismatch that
occurs with aluminum shaft bearing supports which carries the penalty of sudden
bearing failures under extreme heat conditions. All fixing screws are Stainless Steel.
The Turbine and Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV) are cast in Inconel 713 using the lost wax
process and processed in Vacuum Induction Furnaces to ISO9001 quality control
levels. The outer housing is manufactured in one seamless unit from stainless steel
sheet and is precision CNC finished to very tight tolerances and results in a 150g
weight saving over our previous system.
Electric Starter
The BMT electric starter is a thoroughly engineered unit. The main shaft of the starter
driver is independently supported using a thrust ball race and radially supporting needle
roller bearing. The electric motor within the starter is of the SPEED 400 type and is not
subject to thrust and radial loading from the main starter shaft. While this results in a
slightly longer assembly, it has a service life of more than 5000 starts and can sustain
the turbine without problem at up to 30 000 RPM. In real terms it is limited to drive up to
20 000 RPM. The electrical connection to the starter is contained within the mounting
struts. The unit is factory sealed and has no external screws or components.
Technical Data BMT160-KS
Diameter
Length
Engine weight
Auxiliary equipment
Fuel
Lubrication
108mm (4.25”)
245mm (9.6”) excl starter 320mm (12.6”) incl. starter
1450g including starter (2.9 lbs.)
320g (11 ounces) includes TCU + Pump + Battery
Jet A1 or K1 Kerosene
Aeroshell 500 or EXXON 2380
Performance Data BMT160-KS
Thrust @ 125 KRPM
Thrust @ 35 KRPM
Max RPM
158 Newton’s (33.6 lbf)
5 Newton’s ( 1 lbf)
135 000
3
Min RPM
Idle RPM
EGT
30 000
34 000
675 deg C
Ambient operating limits
5 deg C to 45 deg C
Fuel Pump:
The electric Fuel Pump is a precision gear type displacement pump with 2 barbed
fittings.
Diameter 25mm x 44mm long (1” dia x 1.75” long)
Weight: 60 grams (2 ounces)
Electronics:
The electronics of the BMT160-KS is state of the art and manufactured under ISO9001
quality control levels. Extensive use is made of SMD technology to improve reliability.
The hardware and software has been developed by André Baird, an experienced
modeler and jet pilot with many hours of experience in turbine operation and flying.
Noteworthy features not found on other systems are the integrated charger for pump
battery and other NiCad or Metal Hydride cells i.e. RX battery. While the TCU powers
up automatically via its optical sensing system when the RX system is powered, it can
also be powered independently without the RX system being powered by simply
plugging in the GSU. Similarly, removing the GSU powers down the TCU automatically
when the RX system is not powered. The GSU can be removed from the 12V supply to
be used as a fully portable instrument right up to the flightline.
Turbine Control Unit (TCU)
The TCU uses an advanced microprocessor and sophisticated software. It acts as the
throttle of the engine. It uses a four cell 4.8 Volt NiCad battery back of 2400 mAH. The
TCU does not utilize RX battery power as it is optically isolated. It can regulate a
constant 5V for its internal working from pump battery voltages between 3 and 9 Volt
and is therefore immune from battery voltage fluctuations. Because of the opto isolation
from the RC system and general good design practice, the BMT TCU will not contribute
any significant amount of RF noise to the RX.
TCU Features:
40 MHz CPU with 64K of reprogramable code memory.
Internal 2K eeprom data memory.
Internal 1K data RAM.
External 32K eeprom datalogging memory.
8 channel 12 bit Analog to Digital converter.
Switching power supply allows wildly fluctuating battery voltages as low as 2.4 Volt.
Integrated real time clock with 10 Year battery backup.
All connectors are integrated into the unit to eliminate cable clutter in the airframe.
Two external servo leads of JR type connects to RX.
No external switch required, TCU powers up when RX is turned on and/or GSU is
plugged in.
4
Inputs:
1. RPM sensing using ultra reliable magnetic pickup
2. Temperature sensing using type "K" thermocouple.
3. Pump RPM feedback.
4. Pump Battery voltage input.
5. RX Battery voltage input (opto Isolated).
6. Throttle demand input (opto isolated).
7. Auxiliary (Starting/Shutdown/Smoker) channel input (opto isolated).
8. Airspeed sensor. (Optional)
Outputs:
1. PWM output to pump.
2. PWM output to Smoker Pump.
3. Starter driver.
4. Gloplug driver
5. Fuel valve driver
6. Injector driver.
7. RJ45 connector and cable for Turbine functions.
8. RJ45 RS232 output/input to Ground support.
TCU Dimensions:
ABS case 70 x 50 x 25 mm (2.75” x 2” x 1”) Weight: 60 grams ( 2 ounces )
TCU Operation:
All aspects of turbine operation is controlled by the TCU based on normal parameters
"mapped" during programming. Deviations from these are corrected and should
operational parameters not return to normal within a specified time span, power is
reduced to a level where emergency parameters are allowed to continue operation of
the turbine if possible, otherwise the main fuel valve is shut.
Important: The pilot has the option to shut down the engine at any time by moving the
start/shutdown channel switch to SHUTDOWN or closing the throttle with the idle trim
lever down. We do not recommend R/C systems using electronic trim on the throttle
channel.
Pump Battery:
The BMT pump battery supplied is a 4 cell Sintered NiCad battery specified to provide
the necessary starter current for the standard length power cable. The user may
substitute a higher capacity or lower capacity battery if required for a particular
installation in consultation with BMT. A 5 cell pack may be used in models requiring a
particularly long starter power cable. The BMT TCU and GSU requires no adjustments
when using different amounts of cells. Lithium Ion cells (Duralites) are not suitable for
this high current application.
Battery specification:
2400mAH 4.8V Sanyo SCR cells.
Size: 90mm x 46mm x 24 mm. (3.5” x 1.8” x 0.95”)
Weight: 200 grams ( 7 ounces )
5
Ground support unit:
The GSU provides the means by which the user can access the many features within
the TCU. It also provides the charging current for the pump battery when plugged into a
12V source. The GSU acts like a dumb terminal for the TCU. For this reason it will
probably never need to have a software upgrade.
GSU Features:
1. 32 character high contrast STN LCD Display
2. Start button for automatic startup.
3. Shutdown button.
4. Abort start button.
5. Full 20 key keypad for easy navigation of menu tree and functions.
6. Integrated Rapid charger for pump NiCad and RX battery via optional
adapter.
7. 20 MHz CPU with 20K of reprogrammable code memory.
8. 8 channel 12 bit Analog to Digital converter.
9. Monitors charging current and input/output voltages.
10. Software adjustable charging current.
11. Can operate independently from 3 – 18 volts from either TCU or 12V
Source.
12. Can be carried around easily to the flight line.
13. “Molex” style connector for 12V source quickly disconnects for portability.
14. Connects to TCU via RJ45 connectors on either end using 8 way flatcable.
NOTE: The GSU may be used to charge your RX Nicad battery pack independently.
Refer to section “GSU CHARGING” for details.
Operating the Turbine
Model Gas Turbine engines are precision instruments that require a good deal of care
in handling. Because of the high rotational speeds, temperatures and energy levels
contained within the engine, a certain level of expertise is required to operate the
engine safely. Please study this manual carefully before operating the turbine. Should
you feel uncertain about any aspects do not attempt to operate the turbine. Contact
your dealer or Baird Micro Turbines directly for advice. See our website at
www.bairdtech.com/bmt for details of your nearest service agent.
Preparing to operate the engine for the first time
Familiarize yourself with all the individual components of the engine and their respective
functions. Study the connection diagrams of the electronic system in figure 1 and fuel
system (figure 2 – figure 5).
You will need a test stand to mount the engine so as to first familiarize yourself with the
operational characteristics of the engine. You will need at least one assistant to man a
fire extinguisher of the Halon or Carbon Dioxide type. Never fuel or start the engine
without a fire extinguisher. Be sure your assistant is also familiar with the operation of
the turbine. Absolutely no smoking or open flames within 15 Metres.
Warning: Serious injury may result should any bystander extend a hand closer than
two feet to any part of the turbine whilst running. Any object, hand or finger can be
6
sucked into the inlet within milliseconds. Do not touch any part of the turbine after or
during running as serious burns may result from hot metal parts or exhaust gas. Serious
eye injury may result if looking into the rear of the motor whilst running due to dust and
other particles being accelerated at high velocity.
Fuel preparation
We recommend you use Jet A or Jet A-1 only. Where unavailable K1 Kerosene may be
substituted. The BMT160-KS uses part of the fuel supply to lubricate the bearings. To
enhance the lubricating capability of the fuel, 5% of Aeroshell 500 or equivalent turbine
oil must be added to the fuel. We do not recommend 2 stroke synthetic oils. Extended
endurance tests has shown a reduction in bearing life of more than 50%. Documented
engine runs of 100+ flights and 600 starts over a period of more than a year in each
case, has shown no significant wear in either bearings when using Aeroshell 500. Over
the same period 2 stroke oils as recommended by some turbine manufacturers have
shown premature rear bearing wear after the same number of operations. While this
wear was not excessive and the bearing was still serviceable it is clear that a
substantial increase in wear can be expected when using any other oil than that
recommended by BMT.
Ignition Source
The BMT160KS uses a regular glow plug. We use the ROSSI #7 or #8 plug. Should
you ever need to replace the plug you will need to modify the new plug. The filament
wire needs to protrude from the plug bottom at least 2mm. Pull the wire carefully with
thin tweezers or a pin. See figure 6 for details.
Take care not to damage the exposed filament when replacing the plug into the engine.
Bystanders and other safety issues.
Turbines are spectacular machines and will probably draw a lot of attention. Please
ensure that bystanders are never closer than 5 yards to the engine, especially small
children. The area immediately behind the engine should be clear. All objects and
articles of clothing should be kept well away from the intake as powerful suction will
cause ingestion of loose objects within milliseconds. Always wear hearing protectors
when operating an unenclosed engine. The high frequency of induction noise is harmful
when exposed to for extended periods. A severe headache is the result even after a
short run. However, due to the frequency content this noise quickly diminishes when
enclosed or with increasing distance.
Setting up the TCU
Setting up of the TCU is done by pressing “Menu” on the GSU whilst plugged into the
TCU. The RX system needs to be powered up as well.
The menu has the following items. View options by scrolling up and down using the
<UP> and <DOWN> arrow keys. To execute an option press <E> (Enter):
NOTE: Faster navigation of the main menu options are possible using the “hotkey”
method. For example: To go directly to the fast charging option press <MENU> followed
by <4> and <E>. This works for options 1 through 9 with ‘0’ invoking TEST INJECTOR
7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
SETUP THROTTLE
SET SWITCH MODE
ADJUST GLOWPLUG
FAST CHARGE BATT
SLOW CHARGE BATT
SET MAX AIRSPEED
SETUP SMOKER
SET DATE/TIME
DO COOLDOWN
CLEAR ERROR
LOAD DEFAULTS
TEST FUEL PUMP
TEST INJECTOR
TEST STARTER
LUBE BEARINGS
SET MAX RPM
SET PITOT GAINS
SET LOGGING RATE
SETUP THROTTLE:
This option sets the throttle range for your particular Transmitter.
When “ SET THROTTLE MAX ” is displayed on the LCD set your TX throttle stick to the
full power position and press ENTER.
When “SET THROTTLE MIN” is displayed on the LCD set your TX throttle stick to idle
position and throttle trim in the center position. Press ENTER.
Exit the menu by pressing <C> and check that the display reads “THROT: 1” at idle
position and THROT: 100 at full power position. When setting the throttle stick to idle
and trim lever down, the display should read “THROT: 0”. This is the position where
the turbine would be shut down. If the display does not show “0” you may have to
increase your throttle trim range.
In the event that your throttle endpoints are to close together the message:
"RANGE < 800 MS! ADJUST ENDPOINTS" will be displayed. Adjust the endpoints
accordingly and re-enter the settings. The actual pulse width of your throttle channel is
displayed in milliseconds on the LCD screen for your convenience
PS: There is no setting of reverse switches necessary with the BMT controller.
SET SWITCH MODE
This option allows the user to select the starting, shutdown and smoker activation mode
that most suits his personal preference. All of these mode options are available through
the auxiliary input channel. This channel should be either a 3 position switch or a 2
position action toggle switch, i.e. spring loaded to always return to the “off” position.
Note that while scrolling through the mode options by using the UP and DOWN keys,
an asterisk (*) character will denote which mode is currently active. Pressing <E> on
another mode dialog screen will render it active. The menu will then proceed to prompt
you to setup the switch itself. Pressing <C> will return to the main menu tree.
8
Important: Before selecting your preferred mode first carefully study the different
modes:
MODE 1:
"<A>=START<B>=OFF <C>=STOP”
Description: Requires a 3 position switch action. The center position “<B>” is the
inactive position i.e.. “OFF”. Moving the switch to <A> will initiate the autostart
sequence. Returning the switch to the center position <B> will not interfere with the
startup sequence. Moving the switch to <C> will shutdown the engine immediately,
where after a cooldown cycle will be initiated. Thereafter another autostart sequence
may be initiated.
MODE 2:
"<A>=START/STOP <B>=OFF"
Description: Requires a 2 position switch action. The position “<B>” is the normal
position i.e.. “OFF”. Moving the switch to <A> will initiate the autostart sequence.
Returning the switch to the normal position <B> will not interfere with the startup
sequence. Moving the switch to <A> again will shutdown the engine immediately,
where after a cooldown cycle will be initiated. Subsequent switch actions will be ignored
until the cooldown cycle is completed. Thereafter another autostart sequence may be
initiated.
MODE 3:
"<A>=START
<B>=OFF "
Description: Requires a 2 position switch action. The position “<B>” is the normal
position i.e.. “OFF”. Moving the switch to <A> will initiate the autostart sequence.
Returning the switch to the normal position <B> will not interfere with the startup
sequence. Subsequent switch actions will be ignored until the turbine has been
shutdown via either the GSU or the throttle stick was moved to the idle position with the
trim lever down and the cooldown cycle is completed. Thereafter another autostart
sequence may be initiated.
MODE 4:
"<A>=START/SMOKE <B>=OFF"
Description: Requires a 2 position switch action. The position “<B>” is the normal
position i.e.. “OFF”. When the turbine is not running moving the switch to <A> will
initiate the autostart sequence. Returning the switch to the normal position <B> will not
interfere with the startup sequence. Once the Turbine RPM exceeds 80 000 and the
EGT exceeds 450 deg C, the switch will behave as follows:
Moving the switch to <A> for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will switch the smoker
pump ON.
9
Moving the switch to <A> once more for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will switch
the smoker pump OFF
Moving the switch to <A> and holding it there will switch the smoker pump ON at
the normal pump power. After 2 seconds the smoke pump power will be reduced
slowly to zero and then increased again to the maximum value programmed.
Releasing the switch at any point will set the normal pump value to that at the
time the switch was released. This setting will remain and is saved in nonvolatile memory until reset by the same action.
Should the Turbine RPM drop below 80 000 or the EGT drops below 450 deg C the
smoker pump will be turned off, regardless of the switch position. When the turbine has
been shut down via either the GSU, or the throttle stick was moved to the idle position
with the trim lever down, and the cooldown cycle have been completed, another
autostart sequence may be initiated.
MODE 5:
"<A>=START/CRUISE <B>=OFF "
Description: This mode allows you to engage cruise control and use the autostart option
via the switch channel. Requires a 2 position switch action. The position “<B>” is the
normal position i.e.. “OFF”. When the turbine is not running moving the switch to <A>
initiates the autostart sequence. Once the autostart sequence has completed and the
THROT: position exceeds 50 and the minimum airspeed of the aircraft exceeds 50Mph
(80 Km/h) the switch will behave as follows:
Moving the switch to <A> for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will engage cruise
control at the current speed of the aircraft
Moving the switch to <A> once more for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will
disengage cruise control.
NOTE: Cruise control is also automatically disengaged when moving the throttle
stick to less than 50. Function inactive with “SET MAX AIRSPEED” disabled.
MODE 6:
"<A>=START/SMOKE
<B>=OFF <C>CRUISE"
Description: This mode combines all of the functions available in one. The Smoker and
Cruise control as well as the autostart option can be selected via the switch channel.
Requires a 3 position switch action. The position “<B>” is the normal position i.e..
“OFF”. When the turbine is not running moving the switch to <A> initiates the autostart
sequence. Once the autostart sequence has completed, the switch will behave as
follows:
Once the Turbine RPM exceeds 80 000 and the EGT exceeds 450 deg C,
moving the switch to <A> for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will switch the smoker
pump ON.
10
Moving the switch to <A> once more for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will switch
the smoker pump OFF
Once the THROT: position exceeds 50 and the minimum airspeed of the aircraft
exceeds 50Mph (80 Km/h) moving the switch to <C> for a short blip (1 – 2
seconds) will engage cruise control at the current speed of the aircraft
Moving the switch to <C> once more for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will
disengage cruise control.
NOTE: Cruise control is also automatically disengaged when moving the throttle
stick to less than 50. Function inactive with “SET MAX AIRSPEED” disabled.
MODE 7:
"<A>=SMOKE
<B>=OFF "
Description: Same as mode 4 but no autostart option via the switch channel. Requires
a 2 position switch action. The position “<B>” is the normal position i.e.. “OFF”. When
the turbine is not running moving the switch to <A> has no effect. Once the Turbine
RPM exceeds 80 000 and the EGT exceeds 450 deg C, the switch will behave as
follows:
Moving the switch to <A> for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will switch the smoker
pump ON.
Moving the switch to <A> once more for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will switch
the smoker pump OFF
Moving the switch to <A> and holding it there will switch the smoker pump ON at
the normal pump power. After 2 seconds the smoke pump power will be reduced
slowly to zero and then increased again to the maximum value programmed.
Releasing the switch at any point will set the normal pump value to that at the
time the switch was released. This setting will remain and is saved in nonvolatile memory until reset by the same action.
Should the Turbine RPM drop below 80 000 or the EGT drops below 450 deg C the
smoker pump will be turned off, regardless of the switch position.
MODE 8:
"<A>=CRUISE <B>=OFF "
Description: This mode allows you to engage cruise control via the switch channel.
Requires a 2 position switch action. The position “<B>” is the normal position i.e..
“OFF”. When the turbine is not running moving the switch to <A> has no effect. Once
the THROT: position exceeds 50 and the minimum airspeed of the aircraft exceeds
50Mph (80 Km/h) the switch will behave as follows:
11
Moving the switch to <A> for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will engage cruise
control at the current speed of the aircraft
Moving the switch to <A> once more for a short blip (1 – 2 seconds) will
disengage cruise control.
NOTE: Cruise control is also automatically disengaged when moving the throttle
stick to less than 50. Function inactive with “SET MAX AIRSPEED” disabled.
MODE 9:
"DISABLE SWITCH CHANNEL "
Select this option if you do not wish to utilize the auxiliary switch channel.
Important note: When selecting to disable the auxiliary switch channel, another
method for starting the turbine remotely is activated automatically. See section
“THROTTLE STARTING” for details of remote starting your turbine using only the
throttle channel. Of course the turbine may be started by using the GSU at any time.
Once you have selected any of the modes 1 through 5, the menu will proceed to the
switch setup dialog screen "SET SWITCH <A> ".Move the switch to the ON position
i.e.. position <A>, and whilst holding it there press <E>.
The menu will then proceed to the switch setup dialog screen "SET SWITCH <B>"
Move the switch to the OFF position i.e. position <B>, and whilst holding it there press
<E>.
If you have selected modes 2 - 5 requiring a 2 position switch, the menu will then return
to the main menu tree.
If you have selected mode 1 or 6 requiring a 3 position switch, the menu will then
proceed to the switch setup dialog screen "SET SWITCH <C>"
Move the switch to the other ON position i.e. position <C>, and whilst holding it there
press <E>.
Your selection of the mode for the auxiliary channel switch is now complete.
ADJUST GLOWPLUG:
This option allows the user to set the TCU glowdriver for the Gloplug used in his turbine.
We recommend the ROSSI #7 or #8 plug. (Refer to figure 6)
Remove the Gloplug and connect to the positive lead. Use long nose pliers to hold the
body of the plug to the casing of the turbine. (negative supply)
When "SET GLOW VOLTS" is displayed press <1> followed by the “UP” key to increase
brightness and “DOWN” key to lessen the brightness. The equivalent voltage will be
displayed. The ideal brightness is the same as the brightness when lit by any normal
NiCad Driver. Press <E> to save the setting to memory. Replace Gloplug.
Note: The TCU will adjust its output automatically to compensate for varying battery
load conditions so as to ensure adequate glow heat when required.
FAST CHARGE BATT:
This option allows the user to fast charge the pump battery. This method of charging
utilizes the Delta Peak principle and will automatically terminate the charge once fully
12
charged. In order to prevent false peaking with a drained battery the first 20 seconds of
the fast charge cycle can only be terminated my pressing <C> if needed. The charge
cycle can also be terminated thereafter by pressing <C>. The input voltage of the
charge source, the charge current, pump battery voltage as well as the elapsed time for
the charge cycle is displayed in real time. Once the charge has been terminated after
the detection of the peak voltage drop, the GSU beeper will sound and the total charge
time as well as the peak voltage is displayed. This allows the charge to proceed
unattended while allowing the user to verify the charge period and peak voltage some
time later. The charge termination dialog screen can then be cleared by pressing <C>.
SLOW CHARGE BATT:
This option is useful when the Pump Battery is completely empty and needs to be
slowly trickle charged. Under these conditions the Pump Battery may not reliably fast
charge.
The input voltage of the charge source, the charge current, pump battery voltage as
well as elapsed time for the charge cycle is displayed in real time After slow charging for
a while the charge may be terminated by pressing <C> and fast charge selected. Also
use this option for overnight charging of the pump battery.
SET MAX AIRSPEED:
This option together with the optional pitot tube sensor, allows the user to set the
maximum airspeed for the airframe utilizing the BMT160KS. The airspeed can only be
adjusted between 85 and the maximum speed described in the AMA regulations for
aircraft with a higher thrust to weight ratio as described in the AMA regulation. When
the dialog "SET MAX AIRSPEED", is displayed the value may be adjusted in 10 mph
increments by pressing the <UP> or <DOWN> keys. Pressing <LEFT> or <RIGHT>
keys will adjust with increments of 1 mph. Pressing <E> will commit the new value to
non-volatile memory.
Note: To disable this feature the airspeed should be set to below the minimum value.
Consult your airframe manufacturer or alternatively an experienced airframe builder to
determine the VNE of your particular airframe. HINT: After a flight press <3> to view the
maximum airspeed recorded for that flight.
SETUP SMOKER:
This option, visible only with the selection of either auxiliary channel switch modes 4 or
5, allows the user to set the absolute maximum drive for the smoker pump. (BMT part
#SP-01). This value may be adjusted in the range of 0 – 100. It represents the
percentage of drive the TCU will pass through to the pump as a percentage of pump
battery voltage. When selected the dialog "SET SMOKER PUMP" will appear. The
current value will be displayed and may be adjusted in 10 % increments by pressing the
<UP> or <DOWN> keys. Pressing <LEFT> or <RIGHT> keys will adjust with increments
of 1 %. Pressing <E> will commit the new value to non-volatile memory. The normal
default value used in flight will be 75% of the percentage selected. Refer to SWITCH
MODE SETUP for a description of how to re-adjust the normal default value in flight.
NOTE: Should the TCU software detect a low battery voltage condition it will disable the
smoker function for the rest of the run.
13
SET DATE/TIME :
This option allows the adjustment of the real time clock within the TCU. This clock is
non-volatile and independently powered by an integrated battery backup supply good
for more than 10 years. It provides the means by which datalog records for each start
and flight may be time stamped to facilitate meaningful operational and service history.
See literature supplied with the “BMT Flight DATA Center” software for a full description
of the datalogging features within the BMT 160 KS TCU.
When selected the first dialog "SET YEAR" will appear, together with the current date
and time in the following format:
“CCYY/MM/DD HH:mm”, where
“CC” denotes the century,
“YY” the year,
“MM” the month,
“DD” the day of month,
“HH” the hour in 0 – 23 format and
“mm” the minute within the hour.
The century is not adjustable and pressing <UP> or <DOWN> will increment/decrement
the year. Pressing <E> will update the clock and the next dialog "SET MONTH”, will
appear. Follow the same procedure for "SET MONTH”, "SET DAY”, "SET HOUR" and
"SET MINUTES" dialogs until the date is current. The menu will then return to the main
menu tree.
DO COOLDOWN
This option when selected will complete a full cooldown cycle if required. Normally any
shutdown of the turbine is automatically followed by a cooldown cycle.
The coolcycle dialog will return to the main menu tree when completed or if aborted by
pressing <C>. HINT: Press <1> to engage starter and <0> to disengage for a manual
cooldown without invoking the menu.
CLEAR ERROR:
This option clears the TCU error reporting which may have occurred whilst running
and/or in flight and is displayed on the LCD after shutdown. Because the error is kept in
memory even when power is lost this error remains until cleared by the user.
LOAD DEFAULTS
Use this option only when directed to do so by a BMT service representative. The TCU
will default to factory settings.
TEST FUEL PUMP
Using this option allows the user to test the fuel pump and associated
plumbing/fueltanks. The relevant solenoid fuel valves contained within the turbine will
be set to return fuel to the main tank via the return line during the test. This is also the
14
case even when the electrical connections are temporarily disconnected. The turbine
cannot be flooded with fuel when correctly wired and plumbed. Refer to figures 1 – 5
for a full description of the fuel system and diagrams.
When selected the dialog "<1>=PRIME<2>=OFF<3>=IDLE PV: 0000" will appear.
Pressing <1> will turn on the fuel pump as it would when an autostart sequence is
initiated in order to prime the pump and injector system within the turbine.
Pressing <2> will turn the pump OFF.
Pressing <3> will set the pump to run at the idle setting. Any mechanical binding or
pump wear may be detected by monitoring the flowrate consistency and repeatability of
the pump speed when alternatively toggled between OFF and idle. The value displayed
after “PV:” reflects the internal number used by the pump control algorithm and is only
used as a diagnostic aid by BMT service personnel.
TEST INJECTOR
This function is essential for injector maintenance by the end user, should it ever be
required. Only use this option when the injector has been removed for cleaning and
placed within a suitable transparent plastic container. Refer to the section “INJECTOR
MAINTENANCE” for more details.
When selected the dialog "<1>= ON <2>= OFF <3>= SHORT BLIP" will appear.
Pressing <1> will pump fuel at the appropriate rate and pressure to the injector during
which time the spray pattern may be observed.
Pressing <2> will close the injector solenoid valve and stop the pump.
Pressing <3> will emit a fixed amount of fuel from the injector and may be used to
diagnose fuel flow rate.
Pressing <5> with the retaining screw removed will eject the injector insert. Refer to
“INJECTOR MAINTENANCE” section.
Pressing <C> will return the dialog to the main menu tree.
TEST STARTER
This function is useful for evaluating starter and/or battery supply performance. The
starter draws a significant amount of current and observing RPM together with voltage
is a good test of the starter system.
When selected the dialog "<1>=ON <2>=OFF RPM: 000 V:5.34" will appear. The
voltage displayed is that of the pump battery.
Pressing <1> will turn the starter on, during which time the RPM attained may be
observed together with the battery voltage.
Pressing <2> turns the starter off.
Pressing <C> will return the dialog to the main menu tree.
NOTE: When testing the starter with the GSU connected to a 12V source, the GSU will
supply an additional 3 Amps of current to support the pump battery.
LUBE BEARINGS
This option allows the user to easily and safely apply lubrication to the bearing system
should it become dry. For proper use of this feature refer to section "BEARING
MAINTENANCE AND CARE"
15
SET MAX RPM:
This option may be very important for airframe applications where maximum thrust may
cause the maximum flight speed of the airframe to be exceeded, in the event of the
speed limiting feature not being employed.
This option must be used with care. Please consult your supplier of the airframe to
advise you on the maximum thrust for your particular model.
When “ENTER MAX RPM” is selected “OLD MAX = xxx KRPM” will be displayed. A
new value may be selected by using the <UP> and <DOWN> keys for 10 KRPM
increments. Use the <LEFT> and <RIGHT> arrow keys to adjust in 1 KRPM increments.
Press <E> to save the new setting to TCU memory.
IMPORTANT NOTE: It is not possible to set RPM higher than the certified thrust level
requires, only less. The use of this feature however does not constitute compliance for
any particular aircraft in terms of the AMA Thrust to Weight Regulation. Consult your
dealer to effect re-certification of your turbine to the appropriate thrust level.
SET PITOT GAINS:
This option allows the pilot so set the very important parameters that will determine the
good behavior of the cruise control and speed limiter function. Refer to the datasheet
supplied with the optional speed sensor and Pitot tube kit.
SET LOGGING RATE:
This option allows the user to set the rate at which data is recorded to the internal
memory. It may be set independently for the autostart procedure and normal running
mode. Selecting a sample rate of 4 data records (32 bytes) per second during startup
could be handy when diagnosing the autostart procedure. To utilize the maximum
recordable flight time set both rates to 1 datarecord (8 bytes) per second. Each start
attempt generates a record of the settings pertaining to that start. See “Flight Data
Center” software help for more information. When selected the LCD will read as follows:
“<L><R> or <U><D>S: 4* R: 1 ”
The asterisk ‘*’ character denotes which setting is being adjusted and can be alternated
by pressing <L> or <R> arrow keys. The number following “S:” sets the rate for
STARTING mode and the number following “R:” sets the rate for RUNNING mode.
Press <U> or <D> to adjust the rates.
FAILSAFE SETUP
This option allows the user to set the failsafe behavior of the BMT160KS in the event of
failsafe being engaged by the Receiver due to loss of signal. There are two settings
that relate to this function. Firstly the time delay to failsafe shutdown must be set.
Setting this value to zero will disable this function. The TCU will then simply follow the
Throttle channel input as determined by the user in the TX failsafe setup. To set a
timeout value use the <U> and <D> arrow keys to adjust the value in 100ms intervals to
a maximum of 10 000ms or 10 seconds. You may also enter any other value by typing
16
on the keypad. Press <E> to save the value. Next the input channel width dialog will be
displayed. The pulsewidth in microseconds will be displayed for your convenience. The
value should be at least 200 microseconds outside that set in <SET THROT MIN>
dialog in <SET THROTTLE> Temporarily expand your throttle channel endpoint to
achieve this while at the same time setting this value as your “FAILSAFE” position on
the TX. Should the value entered fall outside the required limits an error message will
appear. Please remember to reset the normal channel endpoint as before. Once setup
correctly the system will behave as follows. With the RX in failsafe the Turbine will
immediately spool down to idle where it will remain. Should the failsafe condition not
clear within the time limit set the turbine will be shut down. All functions in the TCU will
cease so as to reduce any EMI to the RX that may exist. In the event of the failsafe
condition clearing before the set timeout, normal operation of the throttle function will
resume. After the subsequent normal shutdown an error message will be displayed
along with the count of failsafe “hits” encountered during the flight.
THROTTLE STARTING
As explained in section “SET SWITCH MODE” selecting modes 7, 8, or 9 enables
remote starting via the throttle stick. When the TCU is in the DORMANT state, i.e. not
starting, running or cooling down, the status LED will be STEADY GREEN.
To start the turbine move the throttle to full throttle for about a second. Then move the
throttle to closed and then up to about ¾ position. The LED will alternateRED/GREEN to
indicate the start sequence has been detected. Now move back to idle again and back
to ¾ position and once again back to idle and then back to ¾ for the third time and hold it
there. After a short delay the turbine will commence its starting sequence. Should the
sequence not be executed correctly the LED will revert to STEADY GREEN. You may
retry the sequence at this point.
Installation of TCU in the airframe
Careful consideration and planning has to be done when installing the turbine support
system in the aircraft. Ideally all wiring and cables should be as short as possible and
well insulated from turbine heat. It is also good practice to keep the TCU and
associated wiring well clear of the RX and servo wiring. The minimum safe distance
between RX and TCU is 5 cm ( 2 inches). Where possible the RX battery and TCU
battery should also be kept apart but where this may be inconvenient to obtain the
correct center of gravity please position them end to end so as to reduce the possibility
of RF “cross coupling”. Wrapping aluminum foil around both batteries is a good idea.
The RX antenna position is also important. It should be clear of any wiring and never be
allowed to run close to the metal of the exhaust ducting. Mount the thermocouple
sensor as per figure 7. Should you wish to shorten the thermocouple cable disassemble
the plug, cut the wire to length and re-attach the wires.
Important: Keep a note of the wire polarity. Bad connections here will cause the TCU
not to start or to unexpectedly shutdown the engine.
Installing the turbine in the airframe
In order to have a safe model to operate it is very important to install the turbine with
due care. If you have no experience of turbine models it is highly recommended that
you use an airframe specifically designed for turbines or obtain a suitable conversion kit
for your model. ALWAYS follow the recommendations of the airframe designer. If you
have any doubt about your ability in this regard seek professional help from your dealer
17
or airframe manufacturer. Airframes designed for Ducted Fan power is not always
suitable for direct conversion due to the following differences:
a) Turbine installed weight is higher
b) Fuel load/take-off weight is higher
c) Undercarriage loads are higher due to increased weight and landing speed.
For experienced turbine operators and airframe designers we have included some
guidelines as to inlet and exhaust ducting. Carefully study figure 8.
Air inlet ducting:
Air inlet ducting should be smooth and free of obstructions. Excessive
turbulence will cause degradation of performance and higher turbine operating
temperature. Inlet ducting around the front of the turbine must be of a suitable
material like high temperature epoxy capable of withstanding temperatures of at
least 100 deg C.
Jet exhaust ducting:
Study figure 8 for details of dimensions. Suitable material for inner duct is 0.1 0.3 mm stainless steel or ideally titanium sheet. The outer ducting may be as
thin as 0.1 mm to save weight. When using material thinner than 0.3 mm for the
inner duct it is important to reinforce the center of the tube to prevent it from
collapsing due to venturi effect. Take note of the stagger of the inner and outer
ducts to enhance the introduction of cooling air.
Fuel System and installation
Carefully study the Fuel System diagrams in figures 2 - 5. It is important to keep all
tubing as short as possible while at the same time ensuring that no possibility exists of
any of the tubing kinking. Where tubing must be routed through tight radii use elbow
joiners Try and locate the fuel cells as close as possible to the center of gravity. It is
imperative that the fuel system be clean and free from leaks to ensure safe and reliable
operation. The fuel line from pump to engine is under considerable pressure and all
joining fittings should be checked regularly. An important aspect of safe turbine
operation is the fuel shut-off solenoid valves integrated into the turbine. These valves
serves to prevent flooding of the engine which may cause potentially dangerous wet
starts. The valves are controlled by the TCU.
IMPORTANT NOTE: The Festo “Quick” Push -on connectors will after a few connects
and disconnects cause an indent to form on the fuel tubing. This may cause the tubing
to not seal properly. For this reason these joints should be checked before connecting
and where necessary the indent should be cut off or the tubing replaced. When
removing the refueling and air vent tubing after re-fueling, be careful not to spill fuel
onto the airframe. Use an absorbent rag or paper towel to wipe any fuel residues from
the airframe. Plastic parts should immediately be cleaned with a cleaning detergent
capable of removing oil residues as the turbine oil/Jet A mix degrades some plastics in
a very short space of time.
Starting the BMT160-KS
18
1. Pre-flight check:
a) Check for fuel leaks.
b) Ensure that your fire extinguisher is close at hand
c) Clear the startup area of any obstructions and spectators.
d) Ensure your helper is holding the aircraft stationary.
e) Do a complete range check of your R/C system with the TCU
powered. The range achieved should be in accordance with the
manufacturer of your equipment.
2. Connect the GSU to TCU.
3. Power up the R/C system and so the TCU. Set throttle trim to the mid position and
throttle stick to minimum.
4. Check the GSU for display of throttle value between 001 and 004.
NOTE: It is also possible to start the BMT160KS without the RC system being powered
or even plugged in. To throttle the engine manually after idle calibration use the numeric
keys to set throttle position. In this case the keys will behave as follows:
<0> = Idle.
<1> to <9> = 10% to 90% throttle.
<UP> and <DOWN> = +1% and –1% of current throttle setting respectively.
<LEFT> = idle.
<RIGHT> = 100% throttle
Once the RC system is powered it will resume control of the throttle function only once
the throttle stick position is at idle. (SAFETY FEATURE: prevents unexpected spool-up)
Should RC system be powered down again, the engine will be shut down immediately.
5. Press “START”.
NOTE: With the GSU plugged into the TCU and connected to a 12V source, the GSU
will supply an additional 3 Amps of current to support the pump battery during startup.
This is useful under cold conditions or the first starts of the day with dry bearings.
6. While the TCU is executing the automatic startup procedure it is important to listen
and observe for any abnormal conditions. Should any problem occur the TCU will
almost always shut down the engine but the user has the discretion to abort the start by
pressing the “ABORT START” button on the GSU. The TCU will calibrate the idle
position each time upon startup by slowly reducing RPM to the idle setting. Once this
has been completed the user has control of the engine via the throttle stick or keypad.
7. When the engine is running check the high RPM setting of the engine to verify the
engine is running reliably before commencing with takeoff. The first spoolup attempt will
be slower than normal as the TCU calibrates the maximum RPM setting. To shutdown
the engine move throttle and trim to the minimum position.
19
Shut-down sequence
1. Connect GSU to Aircraft system (optional)
2. Press “SHUTDOWN” OR Close Throttle and pull down trim lever.
3. The engine will be shut down by the TCU and commence with a cooldown sequence.
Once an EGT of 100 deg C has been reached the sequence is complete.
NOTE: It is preferable to shutdown the turbine after spooling up to about 60 KRPM,
waiting a few seconds and then shut down. This shortens the cooldown cycle
somewhat and reduces starter motor loading. Also, with the GSU connected to a 12V
source, the GSU will supply an additional 3 Amps of current to support the pump battery
during cooldown when the pump battery may already be low after a long flight.
Errors reported by the GSU
Two categories of errors may be encountered during turbine operation.
1) Startup Errors. These occur only during startup sequences and may be
cleared by pressing <C>
2) Runtime Errors. These occur during the running sequence and because they
are non-volatile can only be cleared by using the Menu option “CLEAR ERROR”
on the GSU. Some errors can also occur during or before startup.
NOTE: Errors cannot be cleared by powering the system down and then up
again. The errors remain until cleared by the operator using the GSU.
Startup Error listing:
"EGT PROBE FAIL! CHECK PROBE....
"GLOWPLUG FAILED!CHECK PLUG.....
"PUMP OVERSPEED! CHECK PUMP....
"PUMP UNDERSPEED!CHECK PUMP.....
"STARTER FAILURE!CHECK STARTER..
"START RPM FAIL! CHARGE BATTERY?
"START BATT LOW! CHARGE BATTERY
"TURBINE TOO HOT!RETRY START....
"RPM RUNDOWN ERR!LUBE BEARINGS?
"NO IGNITION!
CHECK INJECTOR
"POST IGNITION
TIMEOUT ERROR!
"POST IGNITION
RPM DROP ERROR!
"POST IGNITION
EGT DROP ERROR!
"POST IGNITION
EGT MAX ERROR!
"PWM INITIALISE TIMEOUT ERROR!
"PWM INITIALISE RPM DROP ERROR!
"PWM INITIALISE EGT DROP ERROR!
"PWM INITIALISE EGT MAX ERROR!
"IDLE SPOOLUP
TIMEOUT ERROR!
"IDLE SPOOLUP
RPM DROP ERROR!
"IDLE SPOOLUP
EGT DROP ERROR!
"IDLE SPOOLUP
EGT MAX ERROR!
"IDLE CALIBRATE TIMEOUT ERROR!
"IDLE CALIBRATE RPM DROP ERROR!
"IDLE CALIBRATE EGT DROP ERROR!
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
",
20
"IDLE CALIBRATE
EGT MAX ERROR!
".
Runtime error listing:
"RUN EGT HIGH!
"EGT OVER MAXED!
"RUN EGT LOW!
"FLAMEOUT ERROR!
"RUN RPM HIGH!
"RPM OVER MAXED!
"RUN RPM LOW!
"MINIMUM RPM ERR
"PUMP BATT LOW!
"RX BATTERY LOW!
"NO RX SIGNAL!
"EGT PROBE ERR!
"RUN PUMP FAIL!
"WATCHDOG TIMER!
"FAILSAFE ERROR:
CLEAR IN MENU...",
CLEAR IN MENU...",
PROBE?/FLAMEOUT?",
FUEL STARVATION?",
CLEAR IN MENU...",
CLEAR IN MENU...",
FUEL STARVATION?",
FUEL STARVATION?",
CHARGE BATTERY! ",
CHARGE RX PACK! ",
DO RANGE CHECK! ",
CHECK EGT PROBE!",
CHECK PUMP!
",
CLEAR IN MENU..."
HITS =
1
".
21
Startup Errors explained and remedies:
"EGT PROBE FAIL! CHECK PROBE.... "
Cause: The Thermocouple is not plugged in or has bad(open circuit) connection.
Effect: The TCU is unable to sense EGT.
Remedy: Check connections internally at plug by opening cover. Repair/replace
if necessary.
"GLOWPLUG FAILED!CHECK PLUG..... ",
Cause: The Gloplug is not connected or has bad(open circuit) connection.
Effect: The TCU is unable to ignite Fuel.
Remedy: Check connections externally at plug. Replace if necessary.
"PUMP OVERSPEED! CHECK PUMP....
",
Cause: The Pump is not connected, has a bad connection or the MOSFETT
transistor has shorted.
Effect: The TCU cannot reduce the pump speed.
Remedy: Check connections at plug and pump. Replace if necessary. If problem
persists, return for repair.
"PUMP UNDERSPEED!CHECK PUMP..... ",
Cause: The Pump is not connected, has a bad connection or the MOSFETT
transistor has failed open circuit.
Effect: The TCU cannot increase the pump speed.
Remedy: Check connections at plug and pump. Replace if necessary. If problem
persists, return for repair.
"STARTER FAILURE!CHECK STARTER.. ",
Cause: The Turbine Power is not connected, has a bad connection or the
MOSFETT transistor has failed open circuit.
Effect: The TCU cannot detect RPM with starter on.
Remedy: Check connections at plug and battery. Replace if necessary. If
problem persists, return for repair.
"START RPM FAIL! CHARGE BATTERY? ",
Cause: The Turbine Power has a bad connection , Battery voltage is low or the
starter is slipping on the spinner nut.
Effect: The TCU cannot detect sufficient RPM with starter on.
Remedy: Check connections at plug and battery and charge battery to full
capacity. Clean any oil from the spinner nut and starter cup “O” ring. Replace
“O” ring if necessary.
"START BATT LOW! CHARGE BATTERY
",
Cause: Battery voltage is low under starter load.
Effect: The TCU detected a too low voltage and RPM.
Remedy: Check connections at plug and battery and charge battery to full
capacity.
22
"TURBINE TOO HOT!RETRY START.... ",
Cause: The EGT after starter test rundown was excessive
Effect: The TCU cannot reliably detect ignition.
Remedy: This error pre-empts a cooldown cycle. Retry the start.
"RPM RUNDOWN ERR!LUBE BEARINGS?
",
Cause: The TCU detected a too rapid rundown time after initial starter test
sequence, possibly due to dry or binding bearings and/or rotor.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Refer to section “BEARING MAINTENANCE”
"NO IGNITION!
CHECK INJECTOR
",
Cause: The start fuel did not ignite in allowed time.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Fuel injector pressure to low, or blocked. Refer to section “INJECTOR
MAINTENANCE”
"POST IGNITION
TIMEOUT ERROR!
",
Cause: The turbine did not reach required RPM and EGT in allowed time during
this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Fuel injector pressure to low . Refer to section “ADJUSTING
INJECTOR FLOWRATE”
"POST IGNITION
RPM DROP ERROR! ",
Cause: The TCU detected an unexpected drop in RPM during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Fuel injector pressure to low or rotor bind. Refer to section
“ADJUSTING INJECTOR FLOWRATE”
"POST IGNITION
EGT DROP ERROR! ",
Cause: The TCU detected an unexpected drop in EGT during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Fuel injector pressure to low , flamed out. Refer to section
“ADJUSTING INJECTOR FLOWRATE”
"POST IGNITION
EGT MAX ERROR!
",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively high EGT during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Fuel injector pressure to high or wet start. Clear engine of any excess
fuel. Refer to section “ADJUSTING INJECTOR FLOWRATE”
"IDLE SPOOLUP
TIMEOUT ERROR!
",
Cause: The turbine did not reach required RPM and EGT in allowed time during
this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Retry the start, if problem persist, contact your BMT field
representative. Some factory settings may need adjustment.
23
"IDLE SPOOLUP
RPM DROP ERROR! ",
Cause: The TCU detected an unexpected drop in RPM during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Retry the start, if problem persist, contact your BMT field
representative. Some factory settings may need adjustment.
"IDLE SPOOLUP
EGT DROP ERROR! ",
Cause: The TCU detected an unexpected drop in EGT during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Clear engine of any excess fuel. Retry the start, if problem persist,
contact your BMT field representative. Some factory settings may need
adjustment.
"IDLE SPOOLUP
EGT MAX ERROR!
",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively high EGT during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Retry the start, if problem persist, contact your BMT field
representative. Some factory settings may need adjustment.
"IDLE CALIBRATE
TIMEOUT ERROR!
",
Cause: The turbine did not reach required RPM and EGT in allowed time during
this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Retry the start, if problem persist, contact your BMT field
representative. Some factory settings may need adjustment.
"IDLE CALIBRATE
RPM DROP ERROR! ",
Cause: The TCU detected an unexpected drop in RPM during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Retry the start, if problem persist, contact your BMT field
representative. Some factory settings may need adjustment.
"IDLE CALIBRATE
EGT DROP ERROR! ",
Cause: The TCU detected an unexpected drop in EGT during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Retry the start, if problem persist, contact your BMT field
representative. Some factory settings may need adjustment.
"IDLE CALIBRATE
EGT MAX ERROR!
",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively high EGT during this phase.
Effect: The TCU cannot complete the start sequence.
Remedy: Clear engine of any excess fuel. Retry the start, if problem persist,
contact your BMT field representative. Some factory settings may need
adjustment.
24
Runtime Errors explained and remedies:
"RUN EGT HIGH!
CLEAR IN MENU...",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively high EGT whilst running.
Effect: The TCU will reduce power to maximum 75%.
Remedy: If problem persist, contact your BMT field representative. Some factory
settings may need adjustment.
"EGT OVER MAXED! CLEAR IN MENU...",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively high EGT whilst running and could
not reduce EGT in required time.
Effect: The TCU will shutdown the engine.
Remedy: If problem persist, contact your BMT field representative. Some factory
settings may need adjustment.
"RUN EGT LOW!
PROBE?/FLAMEOUT?",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively low EGT whilst running. Probe may
be dislocated.
Effect: The TCU will reduce power to maximum 75%.
Remedy: Check Probe position in exhaust nozzle. If problem persist, contact
your BMT field representative. Some factory settings may need adjustment.
"FLAMEOUT ERROR! FUEL STARVATION?",
Cause: The TCU detected excessively low EGT and RPM whilst running.
Effect: The TCU will stop the pump.
Remedy: You ran out of fuel or if not, check fuel system and Fuel tanks for air
ingestion/bubbles
"RUN RPM HIGH!
CLEAR IN MENU...",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively high RPM whilst running.
Effect: The TCU will reduce power to maximum 75%.
Remedy: If problem persist, contact your BMT field representative. Some factory
settings may need adjustment.
"RPM OVER MAXED! CLEAR IN MENU...",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively high RPM whilst running and could
not reduce RPM in required time.
Effect: The TCU will shutdown the engine.
Remedy: If problem persist, contact your BMT field representative. Some factory
settings may need adjustment.
"RUN RPM LOW!
FUEL STARVATION?",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively low RPM whilst running.
Effect: The TCU will reduce power to maximum 75%.
Remedy: You ran out of fuel or if not, check fuel system and Fuel tanks for air
ingestion/bubbles. If problem persist, contact your BMT field representative.
Some factory settings may need adjustment.
25
"MINIMUM RPM ERR FUEL STARVATION?",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively low RPM whilst running.
Effect: The TCU will shut down the engine.
Remedy: You ran out of fuel or if not, check fuel system and Fuel tanks for air
ingestion/bubbles. If problem persist, contact your BMT field representative.
Some factory settings may need adjustment.
"PUMP BATT LOW!
CHARGE BATTERY! ",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively low Pump Battery Voltage whilst
running.
Effect: The TCU will reduce power to maximum 75%.
Remedy: Fully charge Battery. If necessary replace NiCad.
"RX BATTERY LOW! CHARGE RX PACK! ",
Cause: The TCU detected an excessively low RX Battery Voltage whilst
running.
Effect: The TCU will reduce power to maximum 75%.
Remedy: Fully charge RX Battery. If necessary replace NiCad.
"NO RX SIGNAL!
DO RANGE CHECK! ",
Cause: The TCU detected a loss of signal from the RX.
Effect: The TCU will shut down the engine
Remedy: Do range check if still possible.....
"EGT PROBE ERR!
CHECK EGT PROBE!",
Cause: The TCU detected an open circuit condition of the EGT probe.
Effect: The TCU will shut down the engine
Remedy: Check Probe and connections, replace if failed.
"RUN PUMP FAIL!
CHECK PUMP!
",
Cause: The TCU could not maintain correct pump speed.
Effect: The TCU will shut down the engine
Remedy: Check Pump and connections, replace if failed.
"WATCHDOG TIMER! CLEAR IN MENU...",
Cause: The TCU software encountered an internal error.
Effect: The TCU will reset, shutting down the engine.
Remedy: Report to factory for software reload.
"FAILSAFE ERROR! HITS = 1
",
Cause: The RX went to failsafe condition.
Effect: The TCU will reduce power to idle, eventually shutting down the engine.
Remedy: Thoroughly check RC system and installation.
INJECTOR MAINTENANCE
The BMT KS series turbine engines are unique in their ability to start on a single fuel,
i.e. Kerosene. The key component is the Start Fuel Atomizer or Injector. This
26
component utilizes very small orifices and will be prone to blockage if the fuel system is
not kept clean.
The following is essential:
1) Use only Clean well filtered fuel, free from any moisture buildup which may
cause algae to form in fuel tanks and plumbing.
2) Wherever possible use JETA or JETA-1 fuel from a sealed and certified
container obtained from an aviation depot.
3) Use an automotive type fuel filter on you flightbox refueling system, capable
of removing particles 50 micron or less.
4) When changing, removing or replacing any component of the fuel system,
follow the fuel flush procedure as described below.
Testing the injector:
Before taking the injector apart it is advisable to test the injector outside of the
turbine.
1) Remove the fuel line from injector Festo fitting by first pushing back
the blue release ring and then pulling on the tubing.
2) Unscrew the injector from the turbine by turning anti-clockwise. You
may have to move the Gloplug lead out of the way to do this.
3) Put the fuel line into a small jar, and from the “TEST INJECTOR”
menu option select <1> to flush the line by pumping into the jar. If this
proves difficult some length of fuel tubing with neoprene rubber hose as
a joiner may be used to direct the fuel into a jar outside of the airframe.
Press <2> to stop the fuel flow. This procedure aids in removing any dirt
from the system.
4) Re-connect the injector to the fuel line and from the “TEST
INJECTOR” menu option, select <3> to “BLIP” the injector. If the injector
is clear, a small amount of fuel will be sprayed from the orifice with an
approximate spray angle of 60 – 90 degrees as a fine mist. Replace
injector into turbine. If the injector fails to release any fuel or a single jet
of fuel is emitted, refer to next section.
Cleaning the Injector:
1) Ensure you have a clean working area for this task. Take care that
should some small parts be dropped, they can easily be recovered.
2) This is a good time to check the condition of the bottom and top “O”
rings. Replace if any damage is apparent. These “O” rings are less
critical to the operation of the injector.
27
3) Using the small hex key provided, carefully loosen the M2 capscrew
from the bottom of the Injector body, taking care not to lose the oval
retaining washer.
4) Using the “TEST INJECTOR” menu option, select <5> to “EJECT”
the injector insert and swirl disk into a small jar.
5) Carefully inspect the internal surfaces of the injector body and external
surfaces of the injector insert and swirl disk for any dirt or deposits. You
may want to keep a magnifying glass around for this task.
6) Inspect the injector insert “O”ring for damage. Any damage or loose
rubber shed from the surface warrants the replacement of the “O” ring.
Be careful not to use a sharp object to remove the “O” ring. It may
damage the precision fit of the parts.
7) Flush the internals of the injector body using the procedure as in
above section “Testing the Injector”.
8) Put the injector insert and swirl disk into a clean Jar with some Fuel or
Clean Acetone and shake it a bit to remove any deposits.
9) If you have compressed air available, blast some air through the
injector orifice for good measure. Take care not to blast the injector insert
and swirl disk into a no find zone....
10) Replace the swirl disk face down followed by the injector insert into
the injector body, ensuring it is all the way home, using gentle but firm
pressure.
11) Replace the oval washer making sure that only the tip of its end
applies pressure in the center of the insert. A slight kink in the washer will
do the trick .
12) Test the injector as before. If all is well replace into turbine by
carefully turning the injector clockwise until GENTLE resistance is felt,
indicating the bottom “O” ring is being slightly compressed.
NOTE: BMT can supply complete injector assemblies for the purpose of keeping a
spare injector for quick turnaround replacement in the field. Only available to BMT
owners.
ADJUSTING INJECTOR FLOWRATE
The KS autostart software is very sophisticated and largely automatic. Under some
conditions it may be necessary to adjust the initial injector pump pressure to ensure a
smooth startup. During startup some errors may occur with specific symptoms. From the
error listing you may notice that the start sequence is divided into distinct phases. Each
of these “phases” have a set of error reports associated with it, i.e.
a) Timeout errors (Generally injector pressure to low or cold day)
b) RPM drop errors (Generally injector pressure to low or cold day)
c) EGT drop errors (Generally injector pressure to low or cold day)
28
d) MAX EGT errors ( Start battery low, dry bearings or injector pressure to high)
In some phases however, timeout error is also possible under high fuel pressure with
resultant high EGT conditions i.e. flamey hot starts.
Adjusting the pump fuel pressure:
From the menu select “TEST INJECTOR “. Remove the fuel line from the injector and
direct into a small jar. Select option <1> and the fuel pump will deliver a given flowrate
into the jar. By using the <UP> and <DOWN> keys, the fuel pump voltage may be
adjusted up or down in increments of 100. This is generally too rough an adjustment, so
instead you may use the <LEFT> and <RIGHT> arrow keys to adjust in steps of 10.
Press <E> to save the value selected <C> will restore the original value Pressing <2>
will stop the pump. Replace the fuel line.
Bearing Maintenance and Care
The BMT KS series engines has a high precision bearing system and little if any
maintenance is required by the user. It may on occasion be necessary to lubricate the
bearings manually should they become dry. This may be done by selecting the <LUBE
BEARINGS> option from the menu. The following procedure is important to prevent a
wet start following this procedure.
1) Hold the engine in a vertical position with the tailpipe towards the ground. Use
a rag or paper towel to absorb any fuel that will drip from the tailpipe.
2) Press <1> to initiate lube sequence. The TCU will rotate the rotor and once it
reached the a point where RPM does not increase any further will inject a fixed
amount of fuel into the engine for a short period.
3) Observe the RPM reading on the display for an increase in RPM due to
lubrication working its way through the system.
4) The starter will continue to spin for a few seconds to aid in the expelation of
any excess fuel within the engine.
5) The procedure is timed and terminates automatically. The run down time will
be displayed for reference. Press <C> to exit the menu.
IMPORTANT NOTE: The internal construction of the KS series engines allows
all excess fuel to be removed from the housing using this method. Special drain
channels bypassing the outer NGV casting drains fuel directly into the tailpipe.
DO NOT attempt to drain fuel from the front of the engine as required for other
engine designs. The drained fuel may end up in the starter motor instead or
worse, within the front of your airframe.
PREVENTING WET STARTS
Should the turbine accumulate excess fuel for any reason, it must be cleared before
starting the turbine otherwise a very hot start may result. While the TCU takes good
care of the turbine and won’t allow excessive temperature during the startup procedure,
29
any excess fuel expelled from the housing may cause excessive tailpipe temperatures
undetected by the TCU. Select <TEST STARTER> from the menu.
1) Hold the engine in a vertical position with the tailpipe towards the ground. Use
a rag or paper towel to absorb any fuel that will drip from the tailpipe.
2) Press <1> to engage the starter. The starter will generate a positive air
pressure and a fair amount of airflow through the turbine forcing any fuel out the
rear of the engine.
3) The procedure is done when no fuel is seen to be expelled from the tailcone.
Press <C> to exit the menu.
IMPORTANT NOTE: The internal construction of the KS series engines allows
all excess fuel to be removed from the housing using this method. Special drain
channels bypassing the outer NGV casting drains fuel directly into the tailpipe.
DO NOT attempt to drain fuel from the front of the engine as required for other
engine designs. The drained fuel may end up in the starter motor instead or
worse, within the front of your airframe.
The BMT160-KS in the long term
It is important to keep your turbine in good health. Regular inspection of the engine and
keeping a log of all engine runs and possible problems encountered will help your
dealer when service is required.
The following routine inspections are mandatory:
1. Check bearings for binding, abnormal noise, tight spots and roughness. Be
aware however that dry bearings will often feel or sound rough. If in any doubt
send your turbine in for service. Any drag caused by binding rotor wheels must
be repaired by your dealer.
2. Check for any excessive discoloration of the engine casing forward of the
turbine position. This may indicate overheating due to inadequate airflow.
3. Check all valves, tubing and joiners. Should any leaks be apparent the
component must be replaced.
4. Check the engine mountings for structural integrity.
5. Change the Fuel Filter regularly.
GSU CHARGING
The GSU is equipped with its own independent software and hardware to charge any
type of NiCad or Hydride type battery packs. When the GSU is powered from a 12V
source and the TCU is disconnected, the Display will read “TCU offline... Input V: 12.0”
Press <MENU> to invoke the charge menu. Scrolling up and down will reveal different
charge rates for slow and fast charging. When using the “Charge at set rate option” the
actual charge current may be adjusted by using the <UP> and <DOWN> arrow keys.
30
A special adapter is provided to enable RX packs to be charged. See figure 9 for
details. GSU charging is also the only way to charge the pump battery when completely
discharged and unable to power up the TCU.
NOTE: When charging any battery it is important to follow the charging rate specified
for that specific type of battery.
Warrantee information
Baird Micro Turbines (BMT) will repair any defect during the first 6 months of operation
that may result due to defective materials or manufacturing. This will be done by BMT or
where applicable, our representative in your region. BMT accepts no liability of any kind
in terms of injury or damage to property due to the negligent or incompetent handling of
the turbine engine. The user of the turbine must agree to the terms and conditions of
the warrantee by signing it and returning it to BMT or an official representative of BMT
before operating the turbine.
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
Spare Parts listing
BMT Part NR Description
BATT-01
Pump battery 2000mAH
BATT-02
Pump Battery 2400mAH
TCUV2KS-01
Turbine Control Unit V2 KS
GSUV2-01
Ground Support Unit V2
TTDC-01
Turbine/TCU Data cable
TGDC-01
TCU/GSU Data cable
PCST-01
Power Cable Starter/TCU
FPKS-01
Fuel Pump KS
SP-01
Smoker Pump
FJKS-01
Fuel Injector Assembly
PCDC-01
PC Data Interface Cable
SAKS-01
Starter Assembly complete
TPCBKS-01
Turbine PCB Assembly complete
MSS-01
Mounting Strap Set
TPKS-01
Thermocouple Probe KS
FDCSW-01
Flight Data Center Software Windows
95/98/2000
IMK-01
Injector Maintenance Kit
KSFF-01
Fuel Filter
ORK-01
Spare "O"-ring Kit.
MANKS-01
Manual BMT160 KS
Price US$
Packing list BMT160 KS
QTY
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
Description
Turbine engine complete
Turbine Control Unit
Ground Support Unit
Pump Battery NiCad 2000mAH
Fuel Pump KS - Series
Turbine/TCU Data Cable
GSU/TCU Data Cable
Starter/TCU Power Cable
GSU/12 V Input Power Cable
Thermocouple Probe
Top Mounting Strap
Bottom Mounting Strap
Mounting Plate Top ( 5 holes )
Retaining Plate Bottom ( 3 holes )
Hex Key M2
Spare Oval Injector Washer
M2 Allen Cap Injector retaining screw
Spare Injector Insert "O"-ring
Spare Injector "O"-ring TOP
Spare Injector "O"-ring BOTTOM
Spare Starter Cup "O"-ring
KS160 – Operators Manual
Checked
40
41
Notes:
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
42
Download PDF
Similar pages