Aircraft Operating Instructions incl. POH &

Aircraft Operating Instructions
incl. POH &
Flight Training Supplement
applies to TAURUS 503 LSA (SELF LAUNCHING GLIDER)
equipped with Rotax 503 engine
Revision 3
(9th June, 2015)
Aircraft Registration Number: N503SF
Aircraft Serial Number: 142 T 503 LSA
This publication includes the material required to be furnished to the pilot by
ASTM F2564, F2279 & F2295.
WARNING!
This document MUST be present inside the cockpit at all times.
Should you sell this aircraft make sure this document is given to the new owner.
© Copyright Pipistrel LSA s.r.l., Via Aquileia 75, 34170 Gorizia, Italy, EU
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i-1 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
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TAURUS 503 LSA i-2
REV. 3
Performance - Specifications
Taurus 503 LSA
stall speed (flaps extended)
stall speed (flaps zero)
VNE
usable fuel capacity standard tanks 7.1 US gal/27 L, endurance (full
throttle)
usable fuel capacity optional tanks 14.2 US gal/54 L, endurance (full
throttle)
fuel flow at cruise speed
takeoff - ground roll - at MTOM
takeoff total distance over 50 ft obst. at MTOM
landing distance over 50 ft obst. (airbrakes)
absolute ceiling at MTOM (with engine running)
Rotax 503
34 kts (63 km/h)
40 kts (74 km/h)
120 kts (222 km/h)
1.5 hours
3.0 hours
4.7 gph (18 l/h )
760 ft (232 m)
1180 ft (360 m)
885 ft (270 m)
12,700 ft (3900 m)
NOTE Airbrakes are standard equipment and are always used when landing on runways short-
er than 2500 ft. The above performance figures are based on airplane weight at 1210 lbs (550 kg),
standard atmospheric conditions, level hard-surfaced dry runways and no wind. They are calculated valued derived from flight test conducted by Pipistrel LSA s.r.l. under carefully documented
conditions and will vary with individual airplanes and numerous factors (surface condition, temperature, water on wing, etc).
Taurus 503 LSA
maximum weight takeoff
maximum weight landing
empty aircraft weight (excl. parachute rescue system)
empty aircraft weight (incl. parachute rescue system)
maximum useful load
baggage allowance
fuel capacity, usable
fuel capacity, usable
fuel/oil premix
engine
propeller
Rotax 503
1210 lbs (550 kg)
1210 lbs (550 kg)
627 lbs (285 kg)
655 lbs (297 kg)
583 lbs (265 kg)
22 lbs (10 kg)
7.1/14.2 US gal
27 L/54 L
recommended 2%
Rotax 503 50 hp
fixed pitch* dia. 62’’
1600 mm
*Propeller is a fixed pitch, two-blade wooden (painted or transparent varnish) propeller, see
chapter Airplane and Systems Description for more details.
Noise levels
According to independent testing performed by German LBA-LTF noise regulations the aeroplanes,
the equivalent exhibited noise measures less than 60 dBa.
i-3 TAURUS 503 LSA
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REV. 3
Coverage
The Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) in the airplane at the time of delivery from Pipistrel LSA s.r.l.
contains information applicable to the Taurus 503 LSA aircraft and to the airframe designated by
the serial number and registration number shown on the Title Page. All information is based on data
available at the time of publication.
This POH consists of ten sections that cover all operational aspects of a standard equipped airplane.
Section 10 contains the supplements which provide amended operating procedures, performance
data and other necessary information for airplanes conducting special operations and/or are
equipped with both standard and optional equipment installed in the aeroplane. Supplements are
individual documents and may be issued or revised without regard to revision dates which apply
to the POH itself. The Log of Effective Pages should be used to determine the status of each supplement.
Revision tracking, filing and identifying
Pages to be removed or replaced in the Pilot’s Operating Handbook are determined by the Log of
Effective pages located in this section. This log contains the page number and revision level for each
page within the POH. As revisions to the POH occur, the revision level on the effected pages is updated. When two pages display the same page number, the page with the latest revision shall be used
in the POH. The revision level on the Log Of Effective Pages shall also agree with the revision level of
the page in question. Alternative to removing and/or replacing individual pages, the owner can also
print out a whole new manual in its current form, which is always available from www.pipistrel.eu.
Revised material is marked with a vertical double-bar that will extend the full length of deleted, new,
or revised text added to new or previously existing pages. This marker will be located adjacent to the
applicable text in the marking on the outer side of the page. The same system is in place when the
header, figure, or any other element inside this POH was revised. Next to the double-bar, there is also
a number indicative to which revision the change occurred in. A list of revisions is located at the beginning of the Log Of Effective Pages
Warnings, Cautions and Notes
Safety definitions used in the manual:
WARNING! Disregarding the following instructions leads to severe deterioration of flight
safety and hazardous situations, including such resulting in injury and loss of life.
CAUTION! Disregarding the following instructions leads to serious deterioration of flight
safety.
NOTE An operating procedure, technique, etc., which is considered essential to emphasize.
Online updates, service notice tracking
To log into the Owner’s section, receive relevant updates and information relevant to Service/
Airworthiness, go to: www.pipistrel.eu and log in the top right corner of the page with:
Username: owner1
Password: ab2008
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TAURUS 503 LSA i-4
REV. 3
Index of revisions
The table below indicated the Revisions, which were made from the original release to this date. Always
check with your registration authority, Pipistrel USA (www.pipistrel-usa.com) or Pipistrel LSA s.r.l (www.
pipistrel.eu) that you are familiar with the current release of the operation-relevant documentation,
which includes this POH.
Designation
Reason for
Revision
Release date
Affected
pages
Issuer
Original
Release
25 January, 2011
/
Tomazic,
Pipistrel LSA
s.r.l.
Revision 2
Reordering of chapters
to comply with ASTM
F2746-12
31 January, 2014
All
Coates,
Pipistrel LSA
s.r.l.
Revision 2
Opeating temperature
change
24 April, 2015
2-7
Coates,
Pipistrel LSA
s.r.l.
Revision 3
Changed Index Order
Section 2
9 June, 2015
2-1
Coates,
Pipistrel LSA
s.r.l.
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i-5 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Log of Effective Pages
Use to determine the currency and applicability of your POH. Pages are affected by the current
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TAURUS 503 LSA i-6
REV. 3
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CAUTION!
This manual is valid only if it contains all of the original and revised pages listed above.
Each page to be revised must be removed, shredded and later replaced with the new, revised page in
the exact same place in the manual.
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i-7 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
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TAURUS 503 LSA 0-1
REV. 3
Table of contents
1 General
2 Limitations
3 Emergency procedures
4 Normal procedures
5 Performance
6 Weight and balance
7 Description of aircraft & systems
8 Handling and servicing
9 Appendix
10 Supplements
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0-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
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TAURUS 503 LSA 1-1
General REV. 3
1 General
Introduction (1-2)
Technical brief (1-2)
3-view drawing (1-3)
Powerplant, fuel, oil (1-4)
Weights (1-6)
Centre of gravity range (1-6)
G-load factors (1-6)
1-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
General
www.pipistrel.eu
Introduction
This manual contains all information needed for appropriate and safe use of Taurus 503 LSA.
IT IS MANDATORY TO CAREFULLY STUDY THIS MANUAL PRIOR TO USE OF AIRCRAFT
In case of aircraft damage or people injury resulting form disobeying instructions in the manual
PIPISTREL LSA s.r.l. denies all responsibility.
All text, design, layout and graphics are owned by PIPISTREL LSA s.r.l. Therefore this manual and any
of its contents may not be copied or distributed in any manner (electronic, web or printed) without
the prior consent of PIPISTREL LSA s.r.l. unless they are directly related to the operation of our aircraft
by an owner or his appointed maintenance authority.
Technical brief
PROPORTIONS
Taurus 503 LSA
wing span
length
49 ft 1 inch (14.97 m)
23 ft 12 inch (7.30 m)
height (propeller extended)
8 ft 10 inch (2.70 m)
wing surface
vertical fin surface
horizontal stabilizer and elevator surface
aspect ratio
positive flap deflection (down)
negative flap deflection (up)
centre of gravity (MAC)
132 sqft (12.26 m2)
12 sqft (1.1 m2)
17.5 sqft (1.63 m2)
18.3
5°, 9 °, 18 °
-5°
23% - 45%
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3-view drawing
TAURUS 503 LSA 1-3
General REV. 3
1-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
General
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Engine, fuel, oil
Engine manufacturer: ROTAX
Engine types: ROTAX 503
The engine is not certified for aviation use, therefore, there is no assurance it cannot fail in its operation
at any given moment, without prior notice to the user.
The engine
TEMPERATURE °C / ROTAX ENGINE
cylinder head temp. (CHT); min., work, highest
max. CHT difference
exhaust gas temp. (EGT); normal, max.
max. EGT difference
air intake temp. (AIR); highest
cooling fluids temp. (WATER); min., highest
oils temp. (OIL TEMP); min., normal, highest
RPM, PRESSURE
oil pressure (OIL PRESS); lowest, highest
engine revolutions (RPM); on ground max.
RPM; max. allowable
magneto check at (RPM)
max. single magneto drop (RPM)
503 UL
100; 200; 250
20
460-580; 650
25
50
/
/
503 UL
/
6500
6800
3500
200
Fuel and oil
ROTAX ENGINE
recommended fuel
fuel to be discouraged from using
recommended oil
503 UL
leaded or
unleaded super
everything
under AKI 87
super 2-stroke
API-TC
IMPORTANT!
Two-stroke engines should be powered only by fuel complying with MON 83 (or higher) or RON 90
(or higher) classification. As for mixing fuel and oil manually, it is best to use recommended oil (see
above). Dedicated lead additives should not be used (see detailed instructions in the engine manual).
MIXING RATIO: 50 UNITS of FUEL and 1 UNIT of OIL (e.g. 2 dl of oil every 10 liters of fuel)
Provided you are unable to use unleaded fuel on a regular basis, make sure the engine parts (pistons,
cylinder heads) are decarbonized more often.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 1-5
General REV. 3
NOTES
To ensure maximum fuel capacity and minimise cross feeding when refuelling, always park the
airplane in a wings level, normal ground attitude.
The visual fuel indicator is equipped with marking for fuel status in US gal and liters. Due to the
wing dihedral the fuel indicator tops before the fuel tank is full. Pilot caution is advised.
Maximum full capacity is indicated only through the fuel filler on the wing, by visual check. At
the same time, verify that the vent tubes remain unobstructed from contamination.
Propeller
TAURUS
fixed pitch
Model 503
1600mm
Engine instrument markings
WARNING! USER IS TO FILL IN ENGINE SPECIFIC VALUES.
Instrument
Red line
(minimum)
Tachometer (RPM)
2500
Cylinder head temp.
100
Fuel quantity
Green arc
(normal)
Yellow arc
(caution)
Red line
(maximum)
6500
6800
250
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1-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
General
Weights
Taurus 503 LSA weights
WEIGHT
standard empty weight
max. takeoff weight (MTOM)
fuel capacity (full) (one tank std, two tanks optional)
fuel capacity (usable)
max. fuel weight allowable
maximum useful load
minimum combined cockpit crew weight
maximum combined cockpit crew weight (absolute max)
allowable luggage weight
503 LSA
627 lbs (285 kg)
1210 lbs (550 kg)
7.5 US gal/29 L per tank
7.1/14.2 US gal (27/54 L)
50/101 lbs (23/46 kg)
583 lbs (265 kg)
calculate per W&B
519 lbs (236 kg)
22 lbs (10 kg)
nose ballast tank (water), max weight
(20 lbs) 9 kg
WARNING! Should one of the above-listed values be exceeded, the other MUST be reduced
in order to keep MTOM below 1210 lbs (550 kg). Pay special attention to weight of cockpit crew
as it has a profound influence on centre of gravity. Exceeding pilot weight limits can shift aircraft’s balance to the point when the flight becomes uncontrollable! More information on this
topic can be found in chapter “Weight and Balance”.
WARNING! CHECK THE WATER BALANCE RESERVOIR IN FRONT-CABIN AND VERIFY
CREW’S WEIGHT BEFORE EVERY FLIGHT AS IT MAY INFLUENCE THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF
AIRCRAFT TO THE POINT WHERE IT IS NO LONGER CONTROLLABLE!
Luggage access if via the cockpit and can be reached during flight.
Centre of gravity limits
• Aircraft's safe centre of gravity position ranges between 23% and 45% of MAC (Mean
Aerodynamic Chord)
• C.G. point ranges between 9.4 inch (238 mm) and 16.9 inch (429 mm) aft of datum.
datum is leading edge of wing root.
G-load factors
max. positive wing load:
max. negative wing load:
at VA
at VNE
+ 4.6 G
– 2.30 G
+ 4.0 G
– 1.5 G
These values correspond to ASTM standards for LSA’s. All parts have been tested to a safety factor of
a minimum 1.875, meaning they were subjected to at least a load of 8.6 G
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TAURUS 503 LSA 2-1
Limitations REV. 3
2 Limitations
Introduction (2-2)
Airspeed limitations (2-2)
Airspeed reductions & VNE (2-3)
Performance limitations (2-4)
Weight limits (2-4)
Cockpit crew (2-4)
Centre of gravity limits (2-5)
Load factors (2-5)
Manoeuvre limits (2-5)
Kinds of operations (2-6)
Minimum equipment list (2-6)
Fuel limitations (2-6)
Other restrictions (2-7)
Placards (2-8)
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2-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Limitations
Introduction
This section includes operating limitations, instrument markings and basic placards necessary for
the safe operation of the airplane, it’s engine, standard system and standard equipment.
The limitations included in this section have been approved. Observance of these operating limitations is required by Federal Aviation Regulations.
Taurus 503 LSA is approved under ASTM standard F2564.
Airspeed limitations
Velocity
IAS
[km/h (kts)]
VNE
Velocity never to be
exceeded
VPE
152 (82)
VRA
Max. speed with
powerplant extended
Max. speed to extend
or retract powerplant
Maximum safe velocity
in rough air
VA
Manoeuvring velocity
152 (82)
130 (70)
VAE
Max. velocity flaps
extended
Max. velocity of
airbrake extension
VLO
Max ldg. down speed
152 (82)
VPO
VFE
222 (120)
100 (52)
152 (82)
152 (82)
Remarks
Never exceed this speed. Should the VNE be
exceeded, land as soon as possible and have
the aircraft verified for airworthiness by authorised service personnel.
Do not exceed this speed with powerplant
extended.
Do not extend or retract powerplant above
this speed.
Also known as Vb. Turbulence penetration
speed.
Do not use rough or full stick and
rudder deflections above this speed.
Do not exceed this speed with +5° or T flaps
extended. (VFE for L flaps is 110 km/h (59 kts))
Do not extend spoilers above this speed.
Once fully extended, VNE is the limit.
Do not fly with landing gear extended
above this speed
Airspeed indicator markings
MARKING
IAS [km/h (kts)]
Definition
Speed range where flaps may be extended. Lower end is defined as 110% of VS (stall speed in landing configuration at
MTOM), upper end of speed range is limited by VFE
(see above).
Speed range of normal operation. Lower end is defined as
110% of VS1 (stall speed at MTOM with flaps in neutral position), upper end is limited by VRA (see above).
white arc
69 - 130
green arc
78 - 152
yellow arc
152 - 222
red line
222
Maximum speed allowed.
100 (54)
Best climb rate speed (VY )
blue line
(37 - 70)
(42 - 82)
(82 - 120)
(120)
Manoeuvre the aircraft with great caution in calm air only.
WARNING! ABOVE PRESSURE ALTITUDE OF 1000 METERS (3300 FT) THE VNE MUST
BE TREATED AS TAS. INDICATED AIR SPEED (IAS) MUST BE REDUCED ACCORDINGLY!
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TAURUS 503 LSA 2-3
Limitations REV. 3
Indicated airspeed (IAS) to true airspeed (TAS) relation
Airspeed indicator measures the difference between total and static pressure (also called dynamic
pressure), which does not only change as speed increases, but is also linked with altitude. Flying at
high altitudes, where the air is getting thinner, results in misinterpreting airspeed which is being
indicated. The indicated airspeed value is actually lower than the true airspeed to which the aircraft
is exposed. The higher you fly, the bigger the difference between IAS and TAS. Be aware of this effect
especially when flying at high altitude at high speeds, not to exceed VNE unawarely. Bear in mind
this can happen even with the indicator still pointing within the yellow arc!
VNE at altitude (standard ICAO atmosphere)
The tables below indicate IAS to TAS relation for an altitude span of 0 - 5000m (0 - FL165) in different
atmospheres (variable is temperature). TAS is a constant of 225 km/h (122 kts) - VNE for the entire tables.
ISA-20 (-5°C at sea level):
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
225
223
0
FL16
121
121
225
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
FL98
FL115
FL131
120
118
115
113
110
107
105
218
213
209
203
198
194
FL148 FL165
189
102
185
100
ISA-10 (5°C at sea level):
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
224
219
0
FL16
121
121
225
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
FL98
FL115
FL131
118
116
113
111
108
105
103
214
209
205
199
195
191
FL148 FL165
186
100
182
98
ISA (15°C at sea level):
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
220
215
0
FL16
121
119
225
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
116
113
111
109
210
205
201
FL98 FL115 FL131 FL148 FL165
196
106
191
103
187
101
182
98
178
96
ISA+10 (25°C at sea level):
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
215
211
0
FL16
119
116
220
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
FL98
FL115
FL131
114
111
109
106
104
102
99
206
202
197
192
188
184
FL148 FL165
179
97
175
94
ISA+20 (35°C at sea level) :
Altitude (meters)
Altitude (flight level)
VNE IAS (km/h)
VNE IAS (kts)
0
500
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
211
207
0
FL16
117
114
216
FL33
FL50
FL66
FL82
FL98
FL115
FL131
112
109
106
104
102
99
97
202
197
193
189
184
180
FL148 FL165
175
94
171
92
Note how VNE decreases at higher altitudes!
WARNING! RESPECT THE LISTED VALUES AT ALL TIMES, NOT TO EXCEED FLUTTER CRITICAL SPEED.
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2-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Limitations
Performance related limitations:
VS, VS0: 34 kts (flaps L)
VS1: 35 kts (flaps T), 36.7 kts (flaps +5), 40 kts (flaps 0), 42.7 kts (flaps -5)
VW: 65 kts
Crosswind component limitation (take-off and landing): 15 kts (28 km/h)
Additional data is available under chapter “Performance”.
Propeller
Taurus
Taurus 503 LSA with Rotax 503 (50 HP)
Propeller
Pipistrel F2-80 - diameter 63 inch
(1620 mm)
Engine instrument markings
Red line
(minimum)
Green arc
(normal)
Yellow arc
(caution)
Red line
(maximum)
Tachometer (RPM)
1600
1600-5500
5500-5800
5800
Cylinder head temp.
100°C
100-220°C
220-250°C
250°C
(212°F)
(212-428°F)
(428-482°F)
(482°F)
Instrument
Weights
Taurus 503 LSA weights
WEIGHT
max. takeoff weight (MTOM)
minimum combined cockpit crew weight
maximum combined cockpit crew weight
baggage area
LSA
1210 lbs (550 kg)
119 lbs (54 kg)
519 lbs (236 kg)
85 lbs absolute limit, where the load is to
be distributed and loading not exceed
8 pounds per square foot. Always verify
baggage allowance with a
Centre of Gravity calculation!
WARNING! Should one of the above-listed values be exceeded, other MUST be reduced in
order to keep MTOM below 1210 lbs (550 kg). Pay special attention to luggage weight as this is
the only applicable mass on the airframe that has an influence on centre of gravity. Exceeding
baggage weight limits can shift aircraft’s balance to the point when the flight becomes uncontrollable! More information on baggage allowance can be found in chapter “Weight and Balance”.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 2-5
Limitations REV. 3
Centre of gravity range
•
•
C.G. point ranges between 9.4 inch (238 mm) and 16.9 inch (429 mm) aft of datum. datum is leading edge of wing root.
Aircraft’s safe centre of gravity position ranges between 23% and 45% of MAC
(Mean Aerodynamic Chord)
G-load factors
max. positive wing load:
max. negative wing load:
at VA
at VNE
+ 4.6 G
– 2.30 G
+ 4.0 G
– 1.5 G
These values correspond to ASTM standards for LSA’s. All parts have been tested to a safety factor of
a minimum 1.875, meaning they were subjected to at least a load of 8.6 G
Maneuver limits
Taurus 503 LSA is approved under ASTM standard F2564 and is intended for recreational
and instructional flight operations. In the acquisition of various pilot certificates certain
maneuvers are required and these maneuvers are permitted in this airplane.
Following NON Aerobatic manoeuvres are permitted as defined:
• Power-on and -off stalls not below 1500 feet (450 meters) above ground level.
• Power on and off lazy eights not below 1500 feet (450 meters) above ground level,
entry speed 90 kts
• Steep turns with initial speed of 80 kts (power-off )
• Chandelle maneuvers not below 500 feet (150 meters) above ground level, entry
speed 105 kts (power-off )
• Spin initiation and recovery (at most 180° in actual spinning manoeuvre) (power off )
WARNING! Aerobatic maneuvers, including full developed spins, are prohibited.
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2-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Limitations
Kinds of operations
Taurus 503 LSA is approved for DAY - NIGHT - VFR operations only. Flight
into known icing conditions is prohibited.
WARNING! Should you find water drops on the airframe during preflight check-up at tem-
peratures close to freezing, you may expect icing to appear in flight. Optional airbrakes are especially prone to icing under such circumstances. As water may accumulate underneath the top
plate(s), spoilers may freeze to the wing surface. Should this occur, you will most definitely be
unable to extend spoilers before the ice melts. Therefore, flying under circumstances mentioned
above, it is recommended to extend and retract the spoilers in flight frequently to prevent its
surface freezing to the airframe.
Minimum equipment list (DAY - VFR)
• Placards, checklist
• Airspeed indicator (functional), Altimeter (functional), Compass (functional)
• Tachometer (RPM), EGT indication (functional), CHT indication (functional),
• 12 V Main battery (functional), Alternator (functional) Safety belts (2x), Visual fuel indication
(L/R functional), Fuel shut-off valves if applicable (L/R, functional)
Minimum equipment list (NIGHT - VFR)
In addition to the MEL for DAY - VFR:
• Artificial horizon (functional)
• NAV/STROBE/LDG lights (functional), Cockpit light (functional)
• Stand-by battery (12 V), VHF COM/TRANSPONDER/ALTITUDE ENCODER/GPS - as required for
the operation
Fuel limitations
FUEL
fuel capacity (full standard tanks)
fuel capacity (full long range tanks)
fuel capacity (usable - all flight conditions, standard/long range)
unusable fuel
Taurus 503 LSA
1 x 7.5 US gal (29 L)
2 x 7.5 US gal (58 L)
7.1 /14.2 US gal
27 / 54 L
1.5 US gal
(0.4 US gal per tank)
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TAURUS 503 LSA 2-7
Limitations REV. 3
WARNING! Takeoff is prohibited if either visual fuel indicator indicates in the red area (less
than 1.3 US gal) or when unsure about the fuel quantity on board.
NOTES
To ensure maximum fuel capacity and minimise cross feeding when refuelling, always park the
airplane in a wings level, normal ground attitude.
The visual fuel indicator is equipped with marking for fuel status in US gal and liters. Due to the
wing dihedral the fuel indicator tops before the fuel tank is full. Pilot caution is advised.
Maximum full capacity is indicated only through the fuel filler on the wing, by visual check. At
the same time, verify that the vent tubes remain unobstructed from contamination.
Other restrictions
Due to flight safety reasons it is forbidden to:
• fly in heavy rainfalls;
• fly during thunderstorm activity;
• fly in a blizzard;
• fly according to instrumental flight rules (IFR) or attempt to fly in zero visibility condi-
tions (IMC);
• fly when outside air temperature (OAT) reaches 50°C (122°F) or higher;
• perform aerobatic flying;
• take off and land with flaps retracted or set to negative (-5°) position
(landing with -5° is permitted only in case of very strong winds,
but is not to be performed as a normal procedure)
• take off with airbrakes extended.
• the 12 Volt power outlet is not approved to supply power to flight-critical communi-
cation or navigation devices.
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2-8 TAURUS 503 LSA
Limitations
PASSENGER WARNING
WARNING
ROCKET FOR PARACHUTE
DEPLOYEMENT INSIDE
3000-6500 6500-6800
6800
Placards
TACHOMETER (ENGINE RPM)
THIS AIRCRAFT IS A SPECIAL
LIGHT-SPORT AIRCRAFT
AND DOES NOT COMPLY WITH
THE FEDERAL REGULATIONS
FOR STANDARD AIRCRAFT
This aircraft is equipped
with a rocket powered
ballistic rescue system.
This aircraft is equipped
with a rocket powered
ballistic rescue system.
PULL FOR PARACHUTE
DEPLOYEMENT
max useful load
max cockpit load
kg
min cockpit load
kg
without water ballast
without water ballast
kg
Reduce min cockpit load for 2.3 kg per each litre of
water ballast. Remove water ballast for duo flight!
34
40
70
82
82
VNE
kts
kts
kts
kts
kts
120 kts
Respect limits
from POH!
EAW
MTOW
CREW WT
LUGGAGE WT
kg
550 kg
see POH
10 kg
EAW
lbs
MTOW
1212 lbs
CREW WT
see POH
LUGGAGE WT
22 lbs
N
030
060
ON
N
030
060
E
120
150
S
210
240
W
300
330
PL
OS
F
U
E
L
W
300
330
OFF
pilot min.
kg
pilot max.
kg
with 9 kg nose ballast
with 9 kg nose ballast
This aircraft is approved to fly in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) only
and flights in instrumental meteorological conditions (IMC) are prohibited!
SS
OFF
F
U
E
L
S
210
240
RE
EG
ON
E
120
150
IV
E
VSO
VS1
VFE
VA
VNO
EX
REV. 3
DANGER
kg
kg
baggage max. 2kg
secure baggage at all times!
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TAURUS 503 LSA 3-1
Emergency procedures REV. 3
3 Emergency procedures
Introduction (3-2)
Stall recovery (3-2)
Spin recovery (3-2)
Engine failure (3-3)
Emergency landing /
Landing out (3-3)
Engine fire (3-3)
Smoke in cockpit (3-4)
Carburetor icing (3-4)
Electrical system failure (3-5)
Flutter (3-5)
Exceeding VNE (3-5)
Ditching (3-5)
Icing/Pneumatic failure
(3-5)
3-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Emergency procedures
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Introduction
This chapter provides information on how to react when confronted with typical flight hazards.
Stall recovery
First reduce angle of attack by easing-off on the control stick, then
1. If the engine is running, add full power (throttle lever in full forward position).
2. Resume horizontal flight.
Spin recovery
Taurus ultralight motorglider is constructed in such manner that it is difficult to be flown into a spin.
However, once spinning, react as follows:
1. If the engine is running, set throttle to idle (lever in full back position).
2. Apply full rudder deflection in the direction opposite the spin.
3. Lower the nose towards the ground to build speed (stick forward).
4. As the aircraft stops spinning neutralise rudder deflection.
5. Slowly pull up and regain horizontal flight.
Taurus tends to re-establish normal flight by itself usually after having spun for a mere 90°.
WARNING! KEEP THE CONTROL STICK CENTRED ALONG ITS LATERAL AXIS (NO AILERON
DEFLECTIONS THROUGHOUT THE RECOVERY PHASE! DO NOT ATTEMPT TO STOP THE AIRCRAFT FROM SPINNING USING AILERONS INSTEAD OF RUDDER!
WARNING! AFTER HAVING STOPPED SPINNING, RECOVERING FROM THE DIVE MUST BE
PERFORMED USING GENTLE STICK MOVEMENTS (PULL), RATHER THAN OVERSTRESSING THE
AIRCRAFT. HOWEVER, VNE MUST NOT BE EXCEEDED DURING THIS MANOEUVRE.
When the aircraft is straight and level resume normal flight.
Engine failure
Engine failure during takeoff or initial climb
Ensure proper airspeed by reducing angle of attack and land the aircraft in runway heading, avoiding eventual obstacles in your way. Set master switch to OFF position (key full left).
Land straight ahead.
WARNING! DO NOT CHANGE COURSE OR MAKE TURNS IF THIS IS NOT OF VITAL
NECESSITY! AFTER HAVING LANDED SAFELY, ENSURE PROTECTION OF AIRCRAFT AND VACATE
THE RUNWAY TO KEEP THE RUNWAY CLEAR FOR ARRIVING AND DEPARTING TRAFFIC.
DO THIS CALMLY AND CAREFULLY NOT TO CAUSE DAMAGE TO YOURSELF AND EQUIPMENT.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 3-3
Emergency procedures REV. 3
Engine failure in climb
First ensure proper airspeed by reducing angle of attack, then start scanning the terrain underneath
and choose the most appropriate site for landing out.
WARNING! THE DECISION WHERE TO LAND WHEN LANDING OUT IS FINAL! DO NOT
CHANGE YOUR MIND EVEN IF YOU HAPPEN TO COME ACROSS A DIFFERENT, PERHAPS MORE
APPROPRIATE LANDING SITE.
Provided the engine fails aloft, fist retract the propulsion unit and prepare for an
emergency landing if the conditions prevent you from gliding to the airport.
Loss of power due to a broken belt drive
In case of the ruptured propeller drive belt, you will recognise this by: Loud bang in the engine compartment, Immediate violent increase of engine RPM and complete loss of propulsion with the propeller windmilling. Proceed as follow:
1. Switch off the ignition immediately
2. Ensure the proper airspeed (85-90 km/h, 45-50 kts). Flying faster will only make the
sink rate worse.
3. Do not attempt to retract the engine as this would be impossible
4. Perform emergency landing as per “Propeller unit extended or refusing to retract”.
Emergency landing
Propulsion unit retracted
1. Master switch OFF (key in full left position).
2. Fasten your seat belts tightly.
3. Approach and land with extreme caution with +10 km/h (+5 kts) airspeed reserve if the chosen landing terrain length permits.
4. After having landed abandon the aircraft immediately.
Propulsion unit extended or refusing to retract
1. Your first priority is to fly the aircraft! Attempt to retract the propulsion unit by
setting the retraction switch up and back down IF your height is 300 m or higher.
Otherwise, proceed with emergency landing.
2. Fasten your seat belts tightly.
3. Master switch OFF (key in full left position).
4. Should the propulsion unit remain extended or partially retracted land the aircraft
onto the main wheels first in order to minimise vertical impact onto the propeller arm.
5. Fly no faster than minimum sink speed (94 km/h - 51 kts) during the approach as
more speed will only increase your rate of descent and use up to+10 km/h (+5 kts) airspeed reserve only before touchdown if the chosen landing terrain length permits.
The landing out manoeuvre MUST be preformed with regard to all normal flight parameters.
3-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Emergency procedures
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Engine fire
Engine fire on ground
Should you encounter engine fire on ground, react as follows:
1. Come to a complete standstill, shut of fuel (both valves OFF if present),
master switch OFF immediately and throttle to full forward position.
2. Keep powerplant extended.
3. Abandon the aircraft and start fire extinguishing.
WARNING! AFTER THE FIRE HAS BEEN EXTINGUISHED DO NOT ATTEMPT TO RESTART THE
ENGINE.
Engine fire in flight
1. Shut off fuel (both valves OFF if present), set ignition OFF (Ibis II)
2. Set full power (throttle lever in full forward position).
3. Open slide windows and set all ventilation devices to ON.
4. Perform side-slip (crab) manoeuvre in direction opposite the fire.
5. Perform emergency landing procedure and abandon the aircraft immediately.
Smoke in cockpit
Smoke in cockpit is usually a consequence of electrical wiring malfunction, since the engine compartment is fully enclosed and separated from the cockpit. As there is most definitely a short circuit
somewhere it is required from the pilot to react as follows:
1. Leave the engine extended and set master switch to OFF.
2. Open slide windows and set all ventilation devices to ON for adequate breathing.
3. Land as soon as possible.
Electrical system failure
With the engine retracted: Continue flying as a sailplane.
With the engine extended and not running: Look for a landing field to do a safe outlanding.
With the engine extended and running: Do not stop the engine. Fly to the next airfield and land.
The fuel pump will receive electric power directly from the generator to allow engine operation
without battery power. Avoid longer sinking flights with the engine idling as lubrication of the engine will be insufficient. Therefore stop the engine for the landing or apply some throttle at least
every 60 seconds to supply oil to the engine. Landing with the engine extended see previous page.
Landing gear failure
Should the landing gear fail to lower, fasten your seatbelts tightly and perform a landing procedure
as normal. Use full flaps to have the minimum possible speed at touch-down.
Flare at the same altitude like you would normally and in the same manner. Avoid eventual obstacles
(bumps, fences etc. on the runway or strip where you are landing.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 3-5
Emergency procedures REV. 3
Carburetor icing
First noticeable signs of carburetor icing are loud engine noises and gradual loss of power.
Carburetor icing may occur even at temperatures as high as 10°C, provided the air humidity is
increased.
Running the engine at full power under cloud base, where humidity is increased may lead to carburetor icing even in the summer. Be aware that the engine will not provide 100% power in that case
and plan your flying accordingly.
Should you suspect carburetor icing is taking place, descent immediately!
In case of complete power loss perform emergency landing out procedure.
Flutter
Flutter is described as the oscillation of control surfaces. In most cases it is caused by abrupt control
deflections at speeds close or in excess of VNE. As it occurs, the ailerons, elevator or even the whole
aircraft start to vibrate violently.
Should flutter occur, pull on the stick (and reduce power immediately)!
WARNING! FLUTTERING OF AILERONS OR TAIL SURFACES MAY CAUSE PERMANENT
STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND/OR INABILITY TO CONTROL THE AIRCRAFT.
AFTER A SAFE LANDING, THE AIRCRAFT MUST UNDERGO A SERIES OF CHECK-UPS PERFORMED BY AUTHORISED SERVICE PERSONNEL TO VERIFY AIRWORTHINESS.
Exceeding VNE
Should the VNE be exceeded, reduce airspeed slowly and continue flying using gentle control deflections. Land safely as soon as possible and have the aircraft verified for airworthiness by
authorised service personnel.
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3-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
This page is intentionally left blank.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 4-1
Normal procedures REV. 3
4 Normal procedures
Daily inspection (4-2)
Preflight inspection (4-2)
Normal procedures and
recommended speeds (4-5)
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4-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Normal procedures
Daily inspection
The daily check-up matches the preflight check-up.
Preflight inspection
WARNING! EVERY SINGLE CHECK-UP MENTIONED IN THIS CHAPTER MUST BE PER-
FORMED PRIOR TO EVERY FLIGHT, REGARDLESS OF WHEN THE PREVIOUS FLIGHT TOOK PLACE!
THE PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PREFLIGHT CHECK-UP IS THE PILOT FROM
WHOM IT IS REQUIRED TO PERFORM THE CHECK-UP IN THE UTMOST THOROUGH
AND PRECISE MANNER.
PROVIDED THE STATUS OF ANY OF THE PARTS AND/OR OPERATIONS DOES NOT COMPLY WITH
CONDITIONS STATED IN THIS CHAPTER, THE DAMAGE MUST BE REPAIRED PRIOR TO ENGINE
START-UP. DISOBEYING THIS INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN SERIOUS FURTHER DAMAGE TO
THE PLANE AND CREW, INCLUDING INJURY AND LOSS OF LIFE!
Schematic of preflight inspection
3
2
4
1
5
22
21
6
20
19
18
10
17
16
12
14
2 LH flank
8
11
15
1 Glass canopy
9
13
8 Right wing - trailing edge
15 Hor. tail surfaces (left)
9 Right airbrake
16 Fuselage, continued (left)
3 Nose tip
10 Engine, propeller (RH side)
17 Engine, propeller (LH side)
4 RH flank
11 Fuselage, continued (right)
18 Left spoiler
5 Undercarriage, RH wheel
12 Hor. tail surfaces (right)
19 Left wing - trailing edge
6 Right wing - leading edge
13 Vert. tail surfaces (right)
20 Left wingtip
7 Right wingtip
14 Vert. tail surfaces (left)
21 Left wing - leading edge
22 Undercarriage, LH wheel
7
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TAURUS 503 LSA 4-3
Normal procedures REV. 3
Glass canopy
1
Surface condition: clear, no cracks, no wavy patterns, impact spots
Attachment fork: perfect closure, no deformations
De-fogging frame holes: clear for adequate airflow
Locking levers: check for correct and smooth operation, locking pin and bushing clean and greased
Water ballast reservoir: inserted and filled-up as required
LH flank
2
Surface condition: clear, no cracks, no wavy patterns, impact spots
Fuselage - canopy frame joint: equal spacing, perfect closure
Nose tip
3
Pitot tube: firmly attached, no mechanical damage or bending. Remove protection cover and make
sure it is not blocked or full of water.
Ventilation ring: firmly attached
Fuselage - canopy frame joint: equal spacing, perfect closure
RH flank
4
Surface condition: clear, no cracks, no wavy patterns, impact spots
Fuselage - canopy frame joint: equal spacing, perfect closure
Undercarriage, wheels
5
22
Bolts: fastened
Wheel: no mechanical damage (e.g. cracks), clean
Wheel axis and nut: fastened
Oil line (hydraulic brakes): no mechanical damage and/or leakage
Tyre: no cracks, adequate pressure
Wheel fairing: undamaged, firmly attached, clean (e.g. no mud or grass on the inside)
Wheel-bay doors: undamaged, check rubber-rope tension
Retraction mechanism: no visible abnormalities, adequate grease on sliding parts, clean of larger
particles e.g. soil, dirt.
Gear bay: free of larger particles, soil, dirt etc.
Under-belly drain holes: make sure they are not blocked and clean accordingly.
Wings’ leading edge
6
21
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots, no paint and/or edge separations
Wing drain holes: make sure they are not blocked and clean accordingly.
Wingtip
7
20
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint separations
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4-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Normal procedures
Wings’ trailing edge
8
19
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots, no paint and/or edge separations
Sealing tape between wing and aileron: undamaged and in position
Aileron: pristine surface, no cracks and/or impact spots, no paint abnormalities and edge separations, no vertical or horizontal free play, smooth and unobstructed deflections
Airbrakes, fuel reservoir cap
9
18
Spoiler: firm, smooth, equal and unobstructed extension, tightly fitted when retracted, springs stiff
and intact.
Fuel reservoir cap: fastened. Make sure the pipe is completely clean
Engine, propeller, rescue parachute hood
10 17
Connection of the spindle drive to the engine for no cracks, abnormalities in aluminium plate,
engine mount and bolts
Extend the powerplant completely.
Check all screwed connections and their securing.
Check function of throttle and propeller position.
Check ignition system including wires and spark plug connectors for tight fit.
Check engine retaining cable and its connection in the engine compartment at the engine.
Check fuel lines, electrical wires, bowden cables and structural parts for wear and kinks.
Check muffler, propeller mount for tight fit and cracking.
Apply strong pressure to the propeller mount in forward, backward and sideward directions to
check if the bolted connection between engine block and propeller mount or anything else is
loose or damaged. Check the rubber engine mounts also.
Check the propeller for no visual signs of abnormalities.
Turn the propeller one full revolution by hand and listen for abnormal sounds which may indicate engine damage.
Drain condensed water from the fuel tank. The drainer is located behind the seats, on the floor
on port side of fuselage.
Parachute rescue system cover: intact and firmly in place. No deformations whatsoever.
Fuselage, continued
11 16
Under-belly drain holes: make sure they are not blocked and clean accordingly
Vertical fin bottom part: no cracks, impact spots or paint separations along main chord
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint and/or edge separations
Horizontal tail surfaces
12 15
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint and/or edge separations
Hinges: no free play in any direction
Central securing screw on top or the horizontal stabilizer: fastened and secured
Self-adhesive tape covering the gap between horizontal and vertical tail surfaces: in position
Elevator: smooth and unobstructed up-down movement, no side-to-side free play
Vertical tail surfaces
13 14
Vertical fin bottom part: no cracks, impact spots or paint separations along main chord
Surface condition: pristine, no cracks, impact spots or bumps, no paint separations
Hinges: no free play in any direction
Rudder metal rope endings: intact, bolts in position
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TAURUS 503 LSA 4-5
Normal procedures REV. 3
Tail wheel
Shock absorbing rubber: no cracks, firm and clean, check for no deformations
Tire: no cracks, adequate pressure
WHEEL FORK, FORK BASE AND BOLT: NUT TIGHTENED, NO ABNORMALITIES, BEARING IN POSITION, BOLT ATTACHED, STRAIGHT AND FASTENED
Lift the tail high enough so that the tail wheel is not touching the ground and make sure the
wheel side-to-side deflections are smooth and unobstructed
CAUTION! Preflight check-up should be performed following stations 1 through 22!
In-cockpit preflight check-up
Instrument panel and instruments: checked, Fuses: pushed in position
Master switch OFF (key in full left position): no control lights and/or electronic instrument activity
Master switch ON (key in full right position): control lights and electronic instrument active
Make sure you have set all instruments to correct initial setting.
Water ballast reservoir (front-cabin): check for water quantity and make sure it is appropriate for
your planned flight. Remove or ad water as necessary to keep the c.g. within limits.
WARNING! CHECK THE WATER BALANCE RESERVOIR IN FRONT-CABIN AND VERIFY
CREW’S WEIGHT BEFORE EVERY FLIGHT AS IT MAY INFLUENCE THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF
AIRCRAFT TO THE POINT WHERE IT IS NO LONGER CONTROLLABLE!
Main wing spars and connectors: no visible abnormalities of metal parts, spars, pins and bolts; all
bolts and nuts in position and tightened
Fuel hoses and electrical cables: correctly connected and in position
Seat belts: undamaged, verify unobstructed harness opening; fastening points intact
Glass canopy: perfect closing at all points, smooth opening, hinges firmly attached; glass immaculately clean with no cracks.
Flap handle: button spring firm, locking mechanism working properly, smooth movement along full
deflections, no free play or visible damage.
Spoilers (Airbrakes) handle: full forward and locked
Ventilation lever: as required
Radio wiring: test the switches, check connectors and headset, perform radio check
Battery: firmly in position, fittings clean with wires connected
Cockpit mirror: in position and adjusted
Emergency parachute release handle: safety pin removed. Make sure unobstructed access is
provided.
Adjust the rudder pedals according to your required legroom. Sit inside the cockpit and release the
pressure off the pedals. Pull the black knob in front of the control stick to bring the pedals closer to
you. To move the pedals further away, first release the pressure of the pedals, then pull on the knob
slightly (this will release the lock in the mechanism). Now push the pedals forward using with your
feet, while keeping the black adjustment knob in your hand.
4-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Normal procedures
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Normal procedures
and recommended speeds
To enter the cabin first unlock the canopy frame and lift the glass canopy all the way by lifting the
lock levers or lifting pads on each side of the cabin. Sit onto the cabin’s edge and support your body
by placing hands onto this same cabin edge and middle cockpit console. Drag yourself into the seat
lifting first the inner and then the outer leg over the control stick. Immediately after having sat into
the seat, check rudder pedals’ position to suit your size and needs. Bring the pedals closer or further
away by pulling the handle behind the control stick and slide them to the desired position.
To lower the canopy gently hold and pull the metal levers on the side of the cockpit. To lock the
canopy once closed, push the levers forward so that they become parallel to the surface of the glass
frame. Verify that the canopy is closed by applying upward-pressure to the canopy.
Fasten the safety harnesses according to your size.
WARNING! THE SAFETY HARNESS MUST HOLD YOU IN YOUR SEAT SECURELY. THIS IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT WHEN FLYING IN ROUGH AIR, AS OTHERWISE YOU MAY BUMP INTO THE
CANOPY OVERHEAD.
Engine start-up
Before engine start-up
CAUTION!
TO ENSURE PROPER AND SAFE USE OF AIRCRAFT IT IS ESSENTIAL FOR ONE TO
FAMILIARISE WITH ENGINE’S LIMITATIONS AND ENGINE MANUFACTURER’S SAFETY WARNINGS. BEFORE ENGINE START-UP MAKE SURE THE AREA AROUND THE PROPELLER IS CLEAR.
YOU CAN ALSO CHECK THIS IN THE INSTRUMENT PANEL MIRROR. IT IS RECOMMENDED TO
START-UP THE ENGINE WITH AIRCRAFT’S NOSE POINTING AGAINST THE WIND.
Make sure the fuel quantity will suffice for the planned flight duration.
Set both (if applicable) fuel tanks ON. In case one fuel tank is almost empty, select the fuller tank.
Make sure the pitot tube is not covered and rescue parachute safety pin removed.
Engage wheel brakes. Hold the control stick in full aft position always when on the ground.
CAUTION! SHOULD YOU NOT BE HOLDING THE CONTROL STICK IN FULL AFT POSITION,
YOU MAY TIP THE NOSE OF THE AIRCRAFT AS THE CENTRE OF PROPULSION IS HIGH ABOVE
THE FUSELAGE.
Engine start-up
Make sure the master switch is in ON position (key full right).
Extend the propulsion unit (Ibis II switch to UP position).
Set throttle 2 cm forward from idle position
After the propulsion unit is extended (indication green), set ignition on (Ibis II ignition switch ON).
Engage engine starter and keep it engaged until the engine starts.
When the engine is running, set throttle to at most 3500 RPM.
CAUTION! ON GROUND, WHEN THE ENGINE IS COLD, IT MAY NOT START IMMEDIATELY.
THIS IS CONSIDERED NORMAL DUE TO THE DESIGN OF THE ENGINE. THIS WILL HOWEVER NOT
HAPPEN IN THE AIR, THERE THE ENGINE STARTS IN FIRST ATTEMPT.
CAUTION! DUE TO THE DESIGN OF THE POWERPLANT THE RPM MUST BE KEPT ABOVE 2700
AT ALL TIMES WHEN ON GROUND. SHOULD YOU LET THE RPM SINK BELOW 2500 THE ENGINE
MAY SUFFOCATE AND SHUT DOWN BY ITSELF.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 4-7
Normal procedures REV. 3
Use of primer
With outside air temperature (OAT) less than 15 degrees Centigrade, set primer to ON before engaging starter. Should the engine not start, this means that the engine is overflowed - set primer to back
OFF, throttle to idle and re-engage the starter. With OAT of 15 degrees Centigrade and higher, flick
primer ON for short durations of time while you are pressing the starter button to assist the engine
start-up.
NOTE: THE PRIMER ONLY FUNCTIONS IF THE PRIMER SWITCH IS SET TO ON AND THE
STARTER BUTTON IS DEPRESSED AT THE SAME TIME. WHEN THE STARTER BUTTON IS NOT DEPRESSED THE PRIMER SWITCH HAS NO EFFECT ON ENGINE OPERATION.
NOTE: USE OF PRIMER (ON) FOR IN-FLIGHT START-UP IS RECOMMENDED AT ALL TIMES.
Engine warm-up procedure
A two-stroke engine should be warmed-up at 3500 RPM at most, to the point working temperature
is reached.
Warming-up the engine you should:
1 Point aircraft’s nose against the wind.
2 Verify the engine temperature ranges within operational limits.
CAUTION! AVOID ENGINE WARM-UP AT IDLE THROTTLE AS THIS CAUSES SPARK PLUGS TO
TURN DIRTY AND THE ENGINE TO OVERHEAT.
With wheel brakes engaged and control stick in full back position, first set engine power to 3500
RPM in order to perform the magneto check. Set the magneto switch on LEFT, then RIGHT and then
back into the middle to verify RPM drop of not more than 250 RPM. When the magneto check has
been completed, add full power (throttle lever full forward) while holding the stick in full aft position. Monitor engine’s RPM. Make sure they range between maximum recommended and maximum
allowable RPM limits.
CAUTION! SHOULD ENGINE’S RPM BE LOWER THAN MAX. RECOMMENDED. RPM ON
GROUND OR IN EXCESS OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RPM ON GROUND DURING THIS MANOEUVRE, CHECK ENGINE AND WIRING FOR CORRECT INSTALLATION.
Taxi
Taxing technique does not differ from other tail dragging aircraft. Prior to taxiing it is essential to
check wheel brakes for proper braking action.
In case you expect taxiing to last, take engine warm-up time into account and begin taxiing immediately after engine start-up. Warm-up the engine during taxiing not to cause engine overheating
because of prolonged ground operation.
CAUTION! TAXI AT MOST 10KM/H / 5 KTS, AS THERE ARE NO DIFFERENTIAL BRAKES AVAILABLE. STEERING IS PROVIDED BY A STEERABLE TAIL WHEEL THROUGH RUDDER INPUT.
Holding point
Make sure the temperatures at full power range within operational limits.
Make sure the safety harnesses are fastened and canopy closed and secured at both sides.
Set flaps to T position. Power idle.
4-8 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Normal procedures
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CAUTION! SHOULD THE ENGINE START TO OVERHEAT BECAUSE OF LONG TAXI AND HOLDING, SHUT DOWN THE ENGINE AND WAIT FOR THE ENGINE TEMPERATURES DROP TO REASONABLE VALUES. IF POSSIBLE, POINT THE AIRCRAFT’S NOSE TOWARDS THE WIND. THIS WILL PROVIDE COOLING MEANS WITH AIRFLOW TO COOL DOWN THE ENGINE FASTER.
Take-off and initial climb
Before lining-up verify the following:
Spoilers: retracted and secured
Fuel quantity: sufficient
Safety belts: fastened
Cabin: closed securely
Trim handle: in neutral position or slightly backward
Flap handle: T position
Runway: clear
Now pull the stick to full aft position, line up and add full power.
Verify engine for sufficient RPM at full throttle.
CAUTION! KEEP ADDING POWER GRADUALLY.
WARNING! SHOULD ENGINE RPM NOT REACH SUFFICIENT RPM WHEN AT FULL THROTTLE, ABORT TAKE-OFF IMMEDIATELY, COME TO A STANDSTILL AND VERIFY THE PROPULSION
UNIT.
Start the takeoff roll pulling the elevator full aft, then slowly ease on the stick the lift the tail wheel of
the ground as you accelerate. Reaching Vr (between 70 -75 km/h; 38-42 kts), pull on the stick to get
the aircraft airborne.
CAUTION! CROSSWIND (MAX 28 KM/H (15 KTS)) TAKEOFF SHOULD BE PERFORMED WITH
AILERONS DEFLECTED OPPOSITE THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND. SPECIAL ATTENTION SHOULD
BE PAID TO MAINTAINING RUNWAY HEADING AND NOT LOWERING THE WINGTIP TOO MUCH!
Climb
When airborne, accelerate at full power and later maintain proper speed of climb.
As you reach 100 km/h (55kts) at a height above 50 meters (165 ft), retract flaps to neutral position.
and retract the landing gear. Do not reduce power. Continue climbing with full power at 100 km/h.
WARNING! ALWAYS MOVE THE LANDING GEAR COCKPIT HANDLE STRONGLY, WITHOUT
HESITATION AND WITH ONE SINGLE CONTINUOUS MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE DESIRED
POSITION.
Adjust the trim to neutralise the stick force if necessary.
Remember to keep the temperatures and RPM within operational limits during this manoeuvre.
WARNING! CLIMB AT FULL THROTTLE TO PROVIDE ENOUGH LUBRICATION TO THE
ENGINE. DO NOT REDUCE THROTTLE DURING CLIMB. SHOULD THE RPM INCREASE BECAUSE
OF AIRSPEED RUNAWAY, REDUCE SPEED BY PULLING THE STICK, NOT BY REDUCING
THROTTLE. ALWAYS CLIMB AT FULL THROTTLE.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 4-9
Normal procedures REV. 3
Level flight
Taurus is not designed to be a cruising aircraft, however you may be able to maintain level cruise
flight should this be required. To cover distances, saw-tooth flight with interchanging full power
climbs and glides are an established common practice. When saw-toothing, plan your flight well and
always restart the engine over a landable terrain.
WARNING! CRUISING IN COMMON SENSE OF THE WORD IS TO BE STRONGLY AVOIDED
AND WILL SEVERELY DECREASED THE LIFE-TIME OF CRITICAL COMPONENTS. CONVENTIONAL
CRUISING SHOULD BE USED ONLY IF THERE IS NO OTHER OPTION. SAW-TOOTHING IS,
HOWEVER, APPROVED AND PUTS LESS STRESS TO THE AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE COMPONENTS.
WARNING! SHOULD YOU ATTEMPT LEVEL FLIGHT CRUISING, RESPECT THIS PARAGRAPH.
THE CRUISING SPEED IS LIMITED BY THE WINDMILL EFFECT AND THUS EGT ENGINE VALUES.
THESE AND THE CRUISE SPEED MAY VERY DEPENDING ON OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE,
ELEVATION AND THE HUMIDITY OF THE AIR. SHOULD EGT VALUES BE REACHING MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE LIMITS, REDUCE AIRSPEED IMMEDIATELY AND INITIATE CLIMB AT FULL
THROTTLE. USE AIRBRAKES ACCORDINGLY TO MAINTAIN LEVEL ALTITUDE. THIS WILL COOL
DOWN THE ENGINE.
WARNING! SHOULD YOU ATTEMPT LEVEL FLIGHT CRUISING, RESPECT THIS PARAGRAPH.
DUE TO THE DESIGN OF THE POWERPLANT THERE MAY BE A REGION OF RPM IN LEVEL FLIGHT
CRUISING, WHICH CAUSES INCREASED VIBRATION. THIS VIBRATION TRANSFERS FROM THE
POWERPLANT TO THE REST OF THE AIRCRAFT (ELECTRONICS, AVIONICS, INSTRUMENTS,
EQUIPMENT ETC.). THIS REGION OF SEVERE VIBRATION NORMALLY LIES SOMEWHERE
BETWEEN 5000 - 6000 RPM AND MUST BE AVOIDED. YOU SHOULD NOT, UNDER ANY
CIRCUMSTANCES, ATTEMPT TO DO LEVEL FLIGHT CRUISING WITH THE ABOVE MENTIONED
VIBRATION OCCURRING. AS A PILOT, YOU SHOULD EITHER ADD OR REDUCE POWER, LOWER
OR RAISE THE FLAPS TO AVOID RPM IN LEVEL FLIGHT CRUISING WHICH INVOKES VIBRATION.
Flights in rough atmosphere
Should you experience turbulence, reduce airspeed and continue flying with flaps set to neutral
position.
CAUTION! IN ROUGH AIR EXTEND AIRBRAKES (UNPOWERED FLIGHT) FOR SHORT TIME IF
NECESSARY TO KEEP AIRSPEED BELOW VRA.
Descent and final approach
Landing the Taurus ultralight motorglider with the engine out should be strongly avoided due to
lubrication problems with the engine on idle. It will severely decrease the life-time of critical component as well. Therefore it is recommended that you conduct the approach and landing like a glider
- with the propulsion unit in its retracted (DOWN) position.
On downwind (150-200 m, 500-700 ft), maintain a speed of 100 km/h (55 kts) and lower and secure
the landing gear. Before turning base, set the flaps to T stage, and reduce your speed to 90-95 km/h
(48-51 kts). Set trim to neutralise stick force if necessary.
CAUTION! WHEN DESCENDING, MAKE SURE THE PROPULSION UNIT IS RETRACTED.
CAUTION! WITH FLAPS IN L POSITION ONLY HALF WAY AILERON DEFLECTIONS ARE
PERMITTED.
4-10 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Normal procedures
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On final, set flaps to L position only if the runway is very short and a steep angle of arrival is
required. Align with the runway and extend airbrakes while maintaining an airspeed of 90-95 km/h
(48-51 kts). Use airbrakes to control your approach glide path.
CAUTION! CROSSWIND LANDINGS REQUIRE HIGHER FINAL APPROACH SPEEDS TO ENSURE
AIRCRAFT’S SAFE MANOEUVRABILITY.
Roundout and touchdown
CAUTION! See chapter “Performance” for landing performance.
Final roundout (flare) and touchdown should be performed at following airspeeds:
Calm air, aircraft at MTOM
75 km/h (40 kts) IAS
Rough air, aircraft at MTOM (incl. strong crosswinds up to 28 km/h (15 kts)) 78 km/h (42 kts) IAS
CAUTION! LAND THE AIRCRAFT IN SUCH A MANNER THAT ALL THREE WHEELS TOUCH THE
GROUND AT EXACTLY THE SAME TIME. WHEN TOUCHING DOWN, RUDDER MUST NOT BE DEFLECTED IN ANY DIRECTION (RUDDER PEDALS CENTRED).
When on ground, start braking action holding the control stick in full back position. Steer the aircraft
by using rudder inputs. Provided the runway length is sufficient, come to a complete standstill without engaging the brakes to ensure their long life.
WARNING! AFTER TOUCHDOWN, DO NOT RETRACT SPOILERS IMMEDIATELY, AS THIS
CAUSES SUDDEN LIFT INCREASE AND THE AIRCRAFT MAY REBOUND OFF THE GROUND.
SHOULD THIS OCCUR, HOLD THE ELEVATOR STEADY; UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES ATTEMPT
TO FOLLOW AIRCRAFT’S MOVEMENT WITH ELEVATOR DEFLECTIONS, SINCE TAURUS TENDS
TO ATTENUATE REBOUNDING BY ITSELF. HOWEVER, IT IS IMPORTANT TO MAINTAIN RUNWAY
HEADING USING THE RUDDER AT ALL TIMES. TO PREVENT THIS, RETRACT SPOILERS ONLY AFTER THE AIRCRAFT HAS COME TO A COMPLETE STANDSTILL.
WARNING! TOUCH AND GOES ARE NOT POSSIBLE!
Having reached a complete standstill, extend the engine (Engine start-up) and taxi (Taxi) off the runway.
Crosswind approach and roundout
CAUTION! CROSSWINDS PROLONG LANDING RUNWAY LENGTH (SEE CHAPTER
“PERFORMANCE”).
Performing a crosswind landing, the wing-low method should be used. When using the wing-low
method it is necessary to gradually increase the deflection of the rudder and aileron to maintain the
proper amount of drift correction.
WARNING! IF BY CHANCE THE CRAB METHOD OF DRIFT CORRECTION HAS BEEN USED
THROUGHOUT THE FINAL APPROACH AND ROUNDOUT, THE CRAB MUST BE REMOVED THE
INSTANT BEFORE TOUCHDOWN, BY APPLYING RUDDER TO ALIGN THE AIRCRAFT’S LONGITUDINAL AXIS WITH ITS DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 4-11
Normal procedures REV. 3
Parking
Come to a complete standstill by engaging brakes. Re-check RPM drop by switching magnetos OFF
and back ON, one by one. Leave the engine running at idle RPM for a minute in order to cool it down.
Set the ignition switch on IbisII OFF, then the Master switch OFF. Unlock airbrakes (handle lifted
slightly) and insert parachute rescue system handle’s safety pin. Open the canopy, unfasten safety
belts and exit the cockpit. Close and lock the canopy after you have left the aircraft. When closing
the canopy, make sure that the lock-handles are in OPEN position not to damage the locking pins.
Also, block the wheels if parking on a slope.
Apply the tubes onto fuel line vents so that fuel would not spill onto the wing in event of full fuel
tanks, temperature expansion of fuel and/or parking on a slope.
CAUTION! WHENEVER YOU LEAVE THE AIRCRAFT MAKE SURE THE CANOPY IS CLOSED AND
LOCKED. SHOULD YOU FORGET TO DO THIS THE CANOPY FRAME MAY NOT FIT THE FUSELAGE
FRAME ANY MORE WHEN YOU RETURN, SINCE THE STRETCH COEFFICIENT OF FIBRE GLASS
AND PLEXY-GLASS ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT. ALSO, COVER THE CANOPY WITH A FABRIC
COVER, TO PREVENT THE CABIN FROM OVERHEATING (PROTECTION TO INSTRUMENTS AND
SYSTEMS).
Retracting the propulsion unit in flight
This procedure applies only for retracting/extending the propulsion unit as an intentional event, be
aware you may lose up to 100m (300ft) of altitude during this procedure.
Make sure you can see the propeller in the mirror.
Maintain a speed of approx. 80 km/h (43 kt).
Set the throttle to IDLE.
When appropriate, it is recommended to fly for a time of approx. 1 min. with the engine running
idle cool down the engine, follow the CHT gauge.
Turn the ignition OFF.
After the propeller stops (check mirror). Push the engine retraction switch DOWN.
Set the propeller in vertical position using the mirror and at different airspeeds between 80 (43 kt)
and 95 km/h (51 kt), so that the propeller comes slowly in to the vertical position where it will be
locked with the limited force (spring) automatically.
When the propeller is in vertical position, the amber light on the engine control unit will light up and
the powerplant retraction will continue automatically until the green led indication light (right) on
engine control instrument shows that engine is RETRACTED
Turn the engine switch OFF
CAUTION! DURING A GLIDING FLIGHT LASTING SEVERAL HOURS, ALL NON-ESSENTIAL
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE SWITCHED OFF, SO AS TO ENSURE THAT THE BATTERY
WILL NOT BE DISCHARGED. IF THE BATTERY IS COMPLETELY DISCHARGED, THE ENGINE CANNOT BE RESTARTED AND POWER-PLANT CAN NOT BE EXTENDED OR RETRACTED. FOLLOW THE
BATTERY VOLTAGE FROM TIME TO TIME WHEN SOARING. SECOND INDEPENDENT SOARING
BATTERY IS OPTIONAL.
4-12 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Normal procedures
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Extending the propulsion unit in flight
Reduce speed to approx. 80 km/h (43 kt).
Turn engine switch ON.
Extend engine – push switch UP until green led indication (left) on engine control instrument shows
engine extended.
Set throttle to IDLE or slightly above idle.
If the engine is cold, turn the primer ON.
Turn the ignition ON.
Apply starter until the engine starts.
Perform engine warm-up with throttle idle until CHT temperature reaches 90°C (194 °F).
Set throttle to full power.
CAUTION! IN ORDER TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO THE ENGINE, IT MUST BE WARMED-UP AFTER
A RE-START WITH REDUCED POWER, SIMILAR TO PROCEDURES FOR A START ON THE GROUND,
BEFORE HIGHER POWER IS SET.
CAUTION! WITH THE POWERPLANT EXTENDED, BUT NOT RUNNING, THE RATE OF SINK OF
90 KM/H (49KTS) INCREASES APPROX. 2 M/S (394 FT/MIN). THEREFORE, RESTARTING THE ENGINE SHOULD ONLY BE DONE OVER LANDABLE TERRAIN AND NOT BELLOW 400M (1312FT).
SHOULD A FLIGHT BE CONDUCTED OVER A WIDE EXPANSE OF UNLANDABLE TERRAIN, THE
ENGINE SHOULD THEN BE RESTARTED AT 1000M (3280FT) ABOVE GROUND LEVEL, SO THAT
IF THE ENGINE DOESN’T START, ALL THE EMERGENCY STARTING PROCEDURES CAN BE FOLLOWED IN PEACE, INCLUDING RETRACTION OF THE POWERPLANT IF NECESSARY. IN A NORMAL ENGINE RESTARTING SITUATION, THE LOSS OF ALTITUDE FROM STARTING THE EXTENSION PROCEDURE UNTIL IT IS RUNNING IS ABOUT 50M (150 FT).
CAUTION! TO ACTIVATE THE AUTOMATIC EXTENSION IT IS NECESSARY THAT THE IGNITION
SWITCH IS OFF (DOWN). ENGINE WILL NOT START IF THE POWER-PLANT IS NOT EXTENDED
COMPLETE OUT (UPPER GREEN LED INDICATION LIGHT IN THE MCU)!
WARNING! BEFORE YOU ACTIVATE THE STARTER, MAKE SURE THE PROPELLER IS IN
A FULLY EXTENDED AND UPRIGHT POSITION (LEFT GREEN AND AMBER LIGHT INDICATION)!
Should the engine cool down during unpowered flight. Always start the engine with throttle 1 inch
forward from idle position.
CAUTION! DO NOT ADD FULL POWER WHILE THE ENGINE IS STILL COLD. KEEP FLYING AT
80 KM/H (43 KTS) WITH FLAPS IN L STAGE AND NOT MORE THAN 3000 RPM TO WARM-UP THE
ENGINE FIRST.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 5-1
Performance REV. 3
5 Performance
Introduction (5-2)
Airspeed indicator
calibration (5-2)
Take-off performance (5-2)
Climb performance (5-4)
Cruise (5-5)
Descent (5-5)
Landing performance (5-6)
Crosswind takeoffs &
landings (5-6)
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5-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Performance
Introduction
This section provides information on aircraft’s airspeed calibration, stall speeds and general performance. All data published was obtained from test flight analysis using average flying skills.
Taurus 503 LSA has demonstrated adequate engine cooling performance at ambient temperatures
of 38 Celsius / 100°F. This is not to be regarded as the limit temperature, however temperatures
higher than the mentioned may have adverse effects on engine cooling and overall performance.
Airspeed indicator calibration (IAS to CAS)
Pitot tube’s ingenious mounting and construction makes IAS to CAS correction values insignificant.
Therefore pilots should regard IAS to be same as CAS. IAS = CAS.
Stall speeds
Stall speeds at MTOM are as follows:
flaps in negative position; -5° (up):
flaps in neutral position; 0° (neutral):
flaps in 1st position; +5° (down):
flaps in T position; +9° (down):
flaps in L position: +18° (down):
79 km/h (42.7 kts)
74 km/h (40.0 kts)
68 km/h (36.7 kts)
65 km/h (35.0 kts)
63 km/h (34,0 kts)
Take-off performance
All data published in this section was obtained under following conditions:
aircraft at MTOM
runway elevation: 100 meters (330 feet)
wind: calm
runway: dry grass runway with low-cut grass, no significant up- or downslope
ICAO standard atmosphere
Taurus
takeoff runway length at MTOM
takeoff runway length (over 15m (50 ft) obstacle)
Model 503
760 ft (232 m)
1180 ft (360 m)
Note: in order to meet the data for takeoff runway length over 15 m obstacle maintain Vx
after take-off.
Takeoff runway length may vary depending on the wind, temperature, elevation and
wing & propeller surface condition.
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 5-3
Performance REV. 3
Effect of elevation
The table below provides data about the effect of elevation on takeoff runway length.
elevation (m)
atmosph. pressure (hPa)
outside temperature (°C)
Model 503
0
1012
15.0
760 (232)
1500 ft
954
11.7
3000 ft
898
8.5
5000 ft
845
5.2
Takeoff runway length [ft (m)]
870 (265)
1000 (305)
1220 (370)
WARNING: If the outside temperature is higher than the standard value it is mandatory to
consider the takeoff runway length prolongs as follows: L = 1,10 • (Lh + Lt - L0).
Abbreviations are as follows:
Lh = takeoff runway length at present elevation,
Lt = takeoff runway length at sea level at same atmospheric conditions,
L0 = takeoff runway length at 15°C.
Effect of the wind
Wind (head, cross or downwind - also called tailwind) affects aircraft’s ground speed (GS).
Headwind on takeoff and landing causes the Takeoff and Landing runway length to shorten as the
GS is smaller during these two flight stages. The opposite stands for tailwind on takeoff and landing
as tailwind prolongs Takeoff and Landing runway length significantly.
The data on the next page was obtained through testing and therefore serve as informative values
only.
Headwind shortens Takeoff and Landing runway length by 8 meters (25 feet) with every 5 km/h
(3 kts) of wind increase (e.g. provided there is a 10 km/h (6 kts) headwind on takeoff and landing, distances will be approximately 16 meters (50 feet) shorter then ones published in the manual).
Tailwind prolongs Takeoff and Landing runway length by 18-20 meters (60-65 feet) with every 5
km/h (3kts) wind increase (e.g. provided there is a 10 km/h (6kts) tailwind on takeoff and landing, distances will be approximately 36-40 meters (120-130 feet) longer then ones published in the manual).
3x
WARNING! TAILWIND AFFECTS TAKEOFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE BY MORE THAN
TWICE AS MUCH AS HEADWIND DOES.
The table below provides data about the effect of headwind (+) and tailwind (-) on takeoff runway
length.
windspeed
(kts)
Model 503
-6
1115 (340)
-4
-2
0
4
8
12
Takeoff runway length [ft (m)]
702 (295) 672 (258) 760 (232) 705 (215) 655 (200) 550 (168)
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5-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Performance
Effect of outside temperature
The table below provides data about the effect of outside temperature on takeoff runway length.
temperature (°C)
13
20
25
30
35
Takeoff runway length [ft (m)]
Model 503
760 (232)
820 (250)
920 (280)
970 (295)
1035 (315)
Climb performance
Taurus
best climb speed Vy
best climb rate at MTOM
Model 503
100 km/h (54 kts)
2.6 m/s (520 fpm)
Effect of elevation
The table below provides data about the effect of elevation on climb rate at best climb speed Vy.
Taurus
0 m (0 ft)
500 m (1600 ft)
1000 m (3300 ft)
1500 m (5000 ft)
Model 503
2.6 m/s (520 fpm)
2.3 m/s (460 fpm)
2.1 m/s (420 fpm)
2.0 m/s (400 fpm)
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 5-5
Performance REV. 3
Descent
The rate of descent and glide path are adjusted using airbrakes (spoilers).
Typical sink rate, with flaps set to L position and spoilers fully extended, measures
4,5 m/s (900 fpm) at 90 km/h (48 kts) and 6,0 m/sec (1200 fpm) at 100 km/h (62 kts).
Taurus
max. sink rate, spoilers extended, flaps at L and at flap speed limit
Model 503
5.8 m/sec
(1160 fpm)
Landing performance
Landing length will vary depending on the elevation, gross weight, touchdown velocity, wind direction and how aggressive the braking action is. In following conditions: aircraft at MTOM, airport
elevation 100 meters (300 feet), wind calm; the landing length measures 110 meters (330 feet). Should
you be flying solo, the length shortens by another 10 meters (30 feet).
WARNING! RUNWAY PROPORTIONS MUST BE IN EXCESS OF 400 X 30 METERS (1300 X 100
FEET) WITH NO OBSTACLES IN A 4° RANGE OFF RUNWAY HEADING IN ORDER ENSURE SAFE
FLYING ACTIVITY. USE OF SHORTER STRIPS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED A MAJOR EXCEPTION AND
SHOULD ONLY BE ATTEMPTED BY EXPERIENCED PILOTS AND AT OWN RISK.
Crosswind limitations
Maximum allowed crosswind speed for takeoff and landing with flaps in L position as well as takeoff with flaps in T position is 28 km/h (15 kts).
Gliding performance
The glide is defined as unpowered straight and level flight at a speed providing best lift over
drag ratio or minimum sink rate.
Should the engine become inoperative in flight, as a result of either intended or unintended action,
and it cannot be restarted, react as follows:
establish straight and level flight at the speed providing best lift over drag ratio, if you desire
to overcome greatest distance at reach from initial altitude.
establish straight and level flight at speed providing minimum sink rate, if you desire do stay
airborne the longest. This may come in handy in case you are forced to give way to other aircraft or if
you simply need time to determine the most appropriate site to land.
Taurus at typical take-off weight of 472 kg
minimum sink speed
minimum sink rate (prop.unit., gear retracted)
minimum sink rate(prop.unit extended.)
best lift/drag ratio speed
best lift/drag ratio (prop.unit., gear retracted)
best lift/drag ratio (prop.unit extended.)
L/D ratio at 150 km/h (80 kts)
Model 503
94 km/h (51 kts)
0.70 m/s (140 fpm)
1.52 m/s (270 fpm)
108 km/h (58 kts)
1:41
1:25
1:32
www.pipistrel.eu
5-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
Performance
Speed polar
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
80
100
120
airspeed
km/h
140
160
180
200
(472 kg, prop.unit & landing gear retracted, optimal flap settings)
glide ratio
3,0
2,5
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0,0
60
sink speed m/s
REV. 3
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TAURUS 503 LSA 6-1
Weight and balance REV. 3
6 Weight and balance
Introduction (6-2)
Weighing procedure (6-2)
Equipment list (6-3)
Determination of CG (6-3)
Sample CG calculation (6-4)
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6-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Weight and balance
Introduction
This section contains the payload range within which the aircraft may be safely operated.
Weighing procedure and procedure for calculating the in-flight c.g. are also provided.
Refer to equipment list for the installed equipment and accessories.
Weighing and c.g. calculation - empty mass
1. Completely assemble the aircraft, in closed space without any wind disturbance, and with:
- gear down
- engine, flaps and airbrakes retracted,
- control surfaces neutral,
- equipment and accessories in accordance with equipment list.
2. Remove all foreign objects, e.g. tools, maps, ...
3. Empty fuel tanks (except for the unusable fuel) and water ballast tank, remove baggage.
4. Insert scales under main and a scale with support under tail wheel in order to level the
airplane as follows:
- the slope of upper and lower contour of fuselage tailcone in front of fin must be equal, check with water scale,
- wings level.
5. Read scale readings, subtract eventual tare weight in order to get net weight.
NOTE: IF ACCURATE HIGH RANGE SCALES FOR MAIN WHEELS ARE NOT AVAILABLE, AIR-
CRAFT EMPTY MASS MAY BE DETERMINED BY ADDING UP MASSES OF ALL COMPONENTS:
LEFT-HAND WING, RIGHT-HAND WING, FUSELAGE, HORIZONTAL TAIL.
6. Measure distances »a« and »b« between verticals through axis of main wheels, tail wheel
and datum.
Use plumb line to mark verticals at the floor.
For main wheels and wing leading edges take average of Left-hand and Right-hand verticals.
NOTE: DISTANCES »A« AND »B« MAY CHANGE WITH AIRCRAFT WEIGHT DUE TO DEFLECTION OF LANDING GEAR - THEY MUST BE MEASURED AT EACH WEIGHING.
7. Calculate c.g. of empty mass as follows:
XCG.empty = (G2.b) / Gempty - a
Gempty
[kg]
G2
XCG.empty
a
[kg]
b
Datum
Empty mass (with equipment and accessories in accordance with equipment
list, but without occupant(s), fuel, baggage and water ballast).
Load on tailwheel.
[mm] Location of empty mass c.g., positive aft of datum.
[mm] Distance between main wheel axis and datum, positive for main wheel forward
of datum.
[mm] Distance between main and tail wheel axis, always positive.
Leading edge of wing root section..
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TAURUS 503 LSA 6-3
Weight and balance REV. 3
NOTE: WEIGHING AND C.G. CALCULATION OF FLIGHT MASS CAN BE DONE AS ABOVE, BUT
WITH THE FOLLOWING REMARKS:
- FLIGHT MASS INCLUDES EMPTY MASS, OCCUPANTS, FUEL, BAGGAGE AND WATER BALLAST.
- RUDDER PEDALS AND SEATING POSITION MUST BE ADJUSTED AS IN FLIGHT.
However, flight mass and c.g. are normally calculated as shown in “Flight mass and c.g.”.
Weight and balance report
(including: Useful load distribution)
Fill-up »Weight and Balance« report on the next page.
“Empty mass c.g. limits” diagram is used to find out maximum and minimum cockpit load with
respect to mass and centre of gravity of empty aircraft.
Each weighing and centre of gravity calculation has to be entered in the »Weight and Balance«.
If minimum and maximum cockpit load change with respect to last weighing, cockpit placard must
be changed or corrected as well.
After installation or removal of equipment or accessories, repair, painting, or any change which
affects weight and balance, a new »Weight and Balance« (weighed or calculated, whatever is more
appropriate) must be accomplished.
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6-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
Weight and balance
Pipistrel d.o.o.
Ajdovščina
REV. 3
Serial Number
Registration
Weight and Balance - Taurus 503
Weighing and C.G. calculation - empty mass
1
date of weighing
/
2
acomplished by
/
3
date of "Equipment list"
4
main wheel Lh
G1 Lh
kg
123,0
123,4
122,0
5
main wheel Rh
G1 Rh
kg
124,4
124,8
123,5
6
main wheel total
G1
kg
247,4
248,2
245,5
7
tail wheel
G2
kg
49,6
48,8
47,5
8
distance
a
mm
22
24
23
9
distance
b
mm
4402
4406
4400
10
empty mass =(6+7) Gempty
kg
297,0
297,0
293,0
11
empty mass C.G.
713
700
690
12
max cockpit load
180,0
175,5
169,0
1. example
2. example
3. example
/
XCG.empty
mm
without w.ballast
(from "Empty mass c.g. limits" diagram)
kg
Component
mass
a Xcg
kg
kg
kg
kg
550,0
550,0
Lh wing
incl.flaperon
Rh wing
incl.flaperon
Fuselage complete
Horiz. tail
Empty mass
b
Empty mass is with equipment and accesories per equipment list, and without occupants, fuel, baggage and water ballast.
XCG.empty = (G2.b)/Gempty - a
Useful load distribution
13
max mass
14
max useful load
= (13-10)
15
max cockpit load
16
min cockpit load
17
Inspector
without w.ballast
(declared, see Notes)
without w.ballast
(from "Empty mass c.g. limits" diagram)
signature & stamp
kg
550,0
550,0
550,0
kg
175,5
175,5
179,5
kg
175,5
less fuel
less bagage
175,5
less fuel
less bagage
169,0
kg
86,0
82,0
78,0
550,0
550,0
/
Notes: ● Declared max cockpit load without water ballast is:
14 - fuel - baggage,
12,
if 14 is less than, or equal to, 12.
if 14 is more than 12.
● Water ballast is installed for solo flight with lightweight pilot for not to exceed aft c.g. limit.
Min cockpit load may be reduced for 2,3 kg per each litre of water ballast.
● If water ballast is left in the tank for duo flight, max cockpit load must be reduced for 2,3kg per each litre of water ballast.
● Influence of fuel and baggage on aircraft c.g. (and corresponding cockpit load) is neglectable.
● Max mass of single occupant (due to structural load per seat) is 110kg.
● Fuel [kg] = 0,76 kg/litre × litres.
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 6-5
Weight and balance REV. 3
Definitions and explanations
Empty mass and c.g.
Empty mass is mass of empty aircraft with equipment and accessories in accordance with equipment list. Refer to Weight and Balance report for actual value.
»Empty mass c.g. limits« diagram provides empty mass c.g. limits within which flight mass c.g. is kept
in limits. Or differently, the diagram is used to find out cockpit load with respect to mass and c.g. of
empty aircraft.
840
830
820
810
lines of constant
max cockpit load
- front CG limits
Empty mass c.g. limits
Cockpit load in kg with respect to
mass and c.g. of empty aircraft
800
790
200
780
770
760
190
750
740
730
180
lines of constant
min cockpit load
- rear CG limits
720
710
170
700
690
680
95
160
670
90
660
650
85
150
80
640
620
610
600
590
580
570
560
550
75
140
CG of empty mass distance aft of datum in mm .
630
70
65
60
55
empty mass kg
540
280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318 320 322 324 326 328 330 332 334 336 338 340 342 344 346 348 350 352 354 356 358 360 362 364 366 368 370
Minimum cockpit load is obtained as follows:
1. Locate c.g. of empty mass XCG.empty [mm] at the Left-hand vertical axis and draw a horizontal line
through it.
2. Locate empty mass G0 [kg] at the bottom horizontal axis and draw a vertical line through it.
3. The intersection of two lines drawn determines minimum cockpit load. Interpolate between lines
of constant minimum cockpit load (RED - 65, 70, 75 kg, ...), if necessary.
NOTE: MIN. COCKPIT LOAD MAY BE REDUCED FOR 2.3 KG PER EACH LITRE OF W. BALLAST.
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6-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Weight and balance
Maximum cockpit load is obtained as follows:
1. Intersection point from the previous step 3. determines maximum cockpit load with respect to
maximum permitted front c.g. of aircraft. Interpolate between lines of constant maximum cockpit
load (BLUE - 140, 150, 160 kg, ...), if necessary.
NOTES:
IF WATER BALLAST IS LEFT IN TANK FOR DUO FLIGHT, MAXIMUM COCKPIT LOAD MUST BE
REDUCED FOR 2.3 KG PER EACH LITRE OF WATER BALLAST.
MAXIMUM COCKPIT LOAD WITH RESPECT TO AIRCRAFT MAXIMUM MASS IS OBTAINED BY
SUBTRACTING EMPTY MASS, FUEL, BAGGAGE AND WATER BALLAST FROM MAXIMUM MASS.
DECLARED MAXIMUM COCKPIT LOAD IS THE LOWEST OF TWO VALUES
Maximum mass
Maximum mass = 550 kg aircraft with parachute rescue system.
Useful load distribution
Useful load items are cockpit load, fuel, baggage, water ballast.
Cockpit load = occupants (pilot + passenger).
The sum of useful load items must not exceed max useful load.
Max useful load = max.mass - empty mass.
Aircraft flight mass and c.g. depend on quantity and distribution of useful load. Quantity and
distribution of useful load items are explained below. However, the influence of useful load items is
briefly expressed in the condition that, if for a given empty mass and c.g. the max useful, max and
min cockpit load from »Weight and Balance« or cockpit placard are respected, aircraft max mass
and in-flight c.g. will also be kept within limits. Refer to »Weight and Balance« or cockpit placard for
actual value of max useful load and its distribution.
Cockpit load
Refer to »Weight and Balance« or cockpit placard for max and min cockpit load.
Max mass of single occupant (due to structural load per seat) is 110 kg.
Fuel
Max fuel = 1×30 litre (22.8kg), fuel [kg] = 0.76kg/litre × liters.
Fuel quantity depends on useful load, cockpit load, baggage and water ballast. The sum of cockpit
load, fuel, baggage and water ballast must not exceed max useful load.
Fuel (standard in Left-hand wing only, optional 2x30 tanks in both wings where permitted)
is close to aircraft c.g.
The influence on aircraft c.g. is negligible. Negligible is also the asymmetry effect.
Baggage
Max baggage = 10kg.
Baggage quantity depends on useful load, cockpit load, fuel and water ballast. The sum of cockpit
load, fuel, baggage and water ballast must not exceed max useful load.
Baggage compartment behind the seat is close to aircraft c.g. – the influence on aircraft c.g. is
negligible.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 6-7
Weight and balance REV. 3
Water ballast
Water ballast in fuselage nose is installed for solo flight with lightweight pilot for not to exceed aft
c.g. limit. For duo flight it is normally removed, because it reduces useful and max cockpit load.
Max water ballast = 9 litre (9kg). Refer to the note of »Weight and Balance« or cockpit placard for
detailed instruction.
Flight mass and c.g.
Flight mass is the sum of empty mass, cockpit load, fuel, baggage and water ballast. Flight mass c.g.
calculation is done in a table as shown by example below:
-multiply mass by distance from datum (positive for items aft of datum) to get moment [kg.mm] of
each item,
- add up moments of all items,
- add up masses of all items,
- divide the sum of moments [kg.mm] by the sum of masses [kg] to obtain flight mass c.g. [mm].
Example of flight mass c.g. calculation
ITEM
aircraft empty
pilot
passenger
fuel
mass = 0,76×litres
baggage
water ballast
mass = litres
total
mass
[kg]
distance from
datum [mm]
moment
[kg.mm]
297,0
88,0
65,0
15,0
5,0
0,0
470,0
713
-541
-541
215
150
-1.800
211.761
-47.608
-35.165
3.225
750
0
132.963
XCG.flight [mm]
= 132.963 / 470
XCG.flight [% of mac]
= (283-39)/868
283 mm
28,1 %
where mac=868mm and 39mm is distance between datum and mac leading edge.
In-flight c.g. limit (238-429) mm or (23-45) %mac must not be exceeded !
Max mass
550 kg
must not be exceeded !
Reference masses and c.g.’s of different items
masses and c.g.’s
of different items
mass distance from datum,
positive = aft
kg
mm
-550
-541
pilot only
pilot + passenger
fuel
water ballast
baggage
instruments
parachute rescue system
tail wheel
empty mass engine retracted
empty mass engine extended
max
max
9
10
ref. value
ref. value
297
297
215
-1800
150
-1140
550
4380
713
709
77.7 % MAC
77.2 % MAC
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6-8 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
This page is intentionally left blank.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 7-1
Description of Aircraft & Systems REV. 3
7 Description of aircraft and systems
Introduction (7-2)
Cockpit controls (7-4)
Instrument panel (7-4)
Undercarriage (7-6)
Seats and safety
harnesses (7-6)
Pitot-static system (7-6)
Air brakes (7-6)
Power plant (7-7)
Fuel system (7-8)
Electrical system (7-9)
Engine cooling system (7-13)
Engine lubrication system (7-14)
Wheel brake system (7-14)
7-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Description of Aircraft & Systems
www.pipistrel.eu
Introduction
Taurus is a 15-meter-wingspan, side by side
T-tail motorglider made almost entirely of
composite materials. The wing is mid-mounted
cantilever type, propulsion system is fully retractable to enhance gliding performance
The undercarriage is a taildragger type with
two main, brake equipped wheels, which are
fully retractable. Tail wheel steerable through
rudder input.
Taurus features flaperons, which are interconnected flaps and ailerons presented in the
same deflecting surface. Flaps offer 5 settings:
neutral, 1st, T , L and the negative position of
which none have any impact on aileron deflections whatsoever. What is more, individual
main flight control levers make Taurus ideal for
initial as well as for advanced flight training.
All aileron, elevator and flap controls are connected to the cabin controls using self-fitting
push-pull tubes. Rudder deflects via cables.
The elevator trim is mechanical, spring type.
All aircraft ship with H type safety belts attached to the fuselage at three mounting
points. Rudder pedals can be adjusted to suit
your size and needs.
The fuel tank is located inside the wing. Fuel
valves (if present) are located on the bottom
side consoles in the cockpit. Fuel hose connectors are self securing - this prevents fuel
spills when disassembling the aircraft. The
gascolator is located in on the bottom central
fuselage.
Refuelling can be done by pouring fuel
through the reservoir openings on top of the
wings or by using an electrical fuel pump instead.
The canopy is either transparent or blue-tinted
plexy-glass.
Main wheel brakes are hydraulically driven disc
type. The hydraulic brake fluid used is DOT 4.
Cabin ventilation is achieved through special
ducts fitted onto the canopy frame and may
be adjusted for crew’s comfort.
To enhance aerodynamics for gliding, Taurus
fully retracts the propulsion unit. This procedure is fully automated and invoked by only a
flip of a switch on the instrument panel.
Electric circuit enables the pilot to test individual circuit items. Navigational (NAV), and anti
collision (AC) lights are an option. The engine/
propeller compartment is fully enclosed and
separated from the cockpit.
Basic instruments come installed with operational limits pre-designated.
A ballistic parachute rescue system can be installed as an option.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 7-3
Description of Aircraft & Systems REV. 3
Composite parts are made of:
fabric:
continuous fibres:
foam:
honeycomb:
GFK:
paint:
heat resistant protection
AFK 170, GG90, GG 120, GG160, GG200,
90070, 92110, 92125, 92140, 92145, KHW200
Tenax STS 5631
75 kg/m3 PVC 3mm, PVC 5 mm, PVC 8mm
kevlar 3mm
3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm of thickness
acrylic
glass-aluminium sandwich
Medal parts used are:
tubes:
sheet metal:
rods:
materials: Fe0146, Fe 0147, Fe0545, Fe1430, AC 100, CR41 in LN9369
materials: Fe0147 in Al 3571
materials: Fe 1221, Fe 4732, Č4130, Al 6082, CR41 in Al 6362
cable:
AISI 316
bolts and nuts:
8/8 steel
All composite parts are made of glass, carbon and kevlar fiber manufactured by Interglas GmbH.
All composite parts have been tested at a safety factor of 1.875.
All parts are made in moulds, therefore, no shape or structural differences can occur.
All design, manufacturing and testing complies with following regulations:
• Lufttüchtigkeitsforderungen für aerodynamisch gesteuerte Ultraleichtflugzeuge (LTF-UL) vom
30. Januar 2003, herausgegeben vom Luftfarht-Bundesamt
• JAR-1 microlight definition
• JAR-22 - certain sections
• JAR-VLA -certain sections
for Slovenian market also: Pravilnik o ultralahkih napravah Republike Slovenije.
All parts and materials present in Taurus ultralight motorglider are also being used in
glider and general aviation industry and all comply with aviation standards.
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7-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Description of Aircraft & Systems
Cockpit levers
Taurus’ cockpit levers are divided into two groups:
side window, ventilation
side window, ventilation
master switch
ventilation knob
throttle
rudder pedals (left)
rudder pedals (right)
cabin lock lever
cabin lock lever
canopy lift-pad
canopy lift-pad
ventilation nozzle
ventilation nozzle
pedal adjustment knob
fuses
12V socket
fuel valve (left)
airbrakes/wheelbrakes
control stick (left)
trim knob
fuel valve (right)
flap lever
landing gear lever
control stick (right)
Individual control levers: pilot stick, rudder pedals with belonging length adjustment levers
Shared control levers: throttle lever, flap lever, gear retraction lever, trim lever, airbrakes lever, canopy lock levers, ventilation lever and emergency parachute release handle.
Instrument panel
compass
primary flight
instruments
slip indicator
ventilation/de -fogging
knob
Ibis II
master switch
fuses
throttle lever
CHT/EG T gauge
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TAURUS 503 LSA 7-5
Description of Aircraft & Systems REV. 3
Taurus comes standard with a modern, electronic instrument panel. The panel utilizes the power of
Ibis II engine control and monitoring instrument. Besides the conventional instruments the panel includes a magnetic compass, a side-slip indicator, 12 V socket, cockpit ventilation lever, throttle lever,
master switch, fuses, CHT/EGT gauge and primary flight instruments.
Undercarriage
The undercarriage is a taildragger type with two main, brake equipped, retractable wheels and a
rudder-guided tail wheel. Main gear is retracted / lowered by operating a lever located between
both seats, accessible to both crew. Once main gear is lowered it is locked into position automatically. Wheel brakes are both engaged simultaneously when the airbrakes are fully extended and the
pilot continues to pull on the airbrake lever.
distance between main wheels:
distance between main and tail wheel axis:
tire:
tire pressure
brakes:
brake fluid:
0,68 m
4,403 m
4,00'' x 6'' (main wh.), 2,50'' x 4'' (tail wh.)
1,5 - 1,6 bar / 21-23 PSI (main wheels),
0,6 bar / 9 PSI (tail wheel)
disk type, engaged simultaneously upon full airbrake extension
DOT 4
Main gear lowered and locked (side view)
Main gear lowered and locked
(front view)
Main gear retracted (side view)
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7-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Description of Aircraft & Systems
Seats and safety belts
Seats do not offer different settings, but the configuration can be altered by using different upholstery options. All Taurus ship with H type safety belt attached to the fuselage at three mounting
points.
Pitot-Static lines
The pitot tube is inside the nose-tip. Pitot lines made of plastic materials lead from there to the instrument panel and are secured from non-intentional damage. Static ports are located on both sides
of the nose below the middle line and are marked with red circles. Static lines are led from the static
ports to the instrument panel, are of composite materials and secured.
Air brakes (spoilers)
Spoilers are most commonly used to increase drag and steepen the final approach.
During takeoff, climb and cruise spoilers MUST be retracted and locked (handle in cockpit in full forward position). To unlock and extend spoilers, pull the handle upwards.
Optimal flap settings
Taurus is equipped with flaperons which offer five (5) different flap settings. Apart from the limitations for extension of +9° and +18° flaps, there are recommendations for the use of flaps with different speed-ranges and types of flight operation.
Recommended speed ranges for certain flap settings in when gliding:
flaps in negative position; -5° (up):
flaps in neutral position; 0° (neutral):
flaps in 1st position; +5° (down):
flaps in T position; +9° (down):
flaps in L position: +18° (down):
faster than 150 km/h km/h (80 kts)
120 - 150 km/h (65 - 80 kts)
90 - 120 km/h (50 - 65 kts)
80 - 90 km/h (43 - 50 kts)
FINAL APPROACH - LANDING
Water ballast reservoir
Taurus is equipped with a water ballast reservoir to provide for better control over the aircraft’s
centre of gravity. The reservoir is placed in front-cabin and secured with two (2) fastening butterfly
screws with as the retaining mechanism. The quantity of the reservoir is 9 liters (9 kg). Lever arm for
centre of gravity calculations is -1800 mm. There are placards on the instrument panel indicating
minimum and maximum allowable crew weight with and without (9 kg) water ballast. The mentioned figures are to be respected at all times!
WARNING! CHECK THE WATER BALANCE RESERVOIR IN FRONT-CABIN AND VERIFY
CREW’S WEIGHT BEFORE EVERY FLIGHT AS IT MAY INFLUENCE THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY OF
AIRCRAFT TO THE POINT WHERE IT IS NO LONGER CONTROLLABLE!
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TAURUS 503 LSA 7-7
Description of Aircraft & Systems REV. 3
Power plant and propeller
Taurus has an engine mounted inside a fully enclosed compartment in the rear of the fuselage. The
propeller is mounted on a composite swing-arm and is driven via an enclosed belt-drive system. The
whole propulsion unit can be lowered for gliding or raised for powered flight by simple use of the
Ibis II, the propulsion control and monitoring instrument.
Engine:
Engine:
ROTAX 503 (two-stroke inline, two cylinders, 497 cm3)
cooling:
lubrication:
reduction gearbox:
reduction ratio:
el. generator output power:
starter:
engine power:
battery:
twin membrane carburated - double electronic ignition
ram air cooling
by adding oil into fuel
belt drive
1 : 2.5
170 W at 6000 RPM
electric
49 HP at 6600 RPM
12 V, 8 Ah
All metal ropes used are bowden cables.
Propeller:
Taurus propeller:
twin blade, fixed pitch wood - diameter 1600 mm
Engine, swing-arm and propeller schematic
Note: Dimensions are approximate.
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7-8 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Description of Aircraft & Systems
Ibis II - engine control & monitoring instrument
In order to simplify aircraft handling, the Ibis II system takes complete control over the propulsion
unit except for throttle and choke, which are operated by cockpit levers. The system is very light and
reliable as all switches and sensors used to monitor the operations are inductive type and as such
not sensitive to vibration, mechanical damage and/or dirt.
Panel view:
1
2
3
4
5
RPM
X10
UP
START
6
7
8
9
DOWN
I bis
II
1
Ignition warning light – when the propeller arm is extended and the ignition is still
switched off, the red light will flash and a tone will beep.
2
Propeller status light – when the propeller is in vertical position, a yellow light is on.
3
Propeller arm extended – when the propeller arm is extended, a green light is on.
4
Ignition switch – when the switch is the up position, the ignition is on. In this case the
5
Speaker
6
LED display – it displays the engine RPM while the engine is running e.g. 621 = 6210 RPM.
7
ignition warning light stops flashing. If the switch is down, the ignition is off.
When the engine is not running, the display indicates the engine hours (up to 400 hours).
If the master switch is switched off and back on while the engine is extended, the
display shows minutes of the past hour. When the master switch is switched off and
back on while the engine is retracted, the display shows total engine hours (hours
only).
Propeller arm retracted – when the propeller arm is retracted completely, a green light is
on.
8
Propeller arm control switch
9
Engine starter button – Starter will be activated only when the engine is completely
extended and the ignition is switched on. Otherwise the starter remains inactive even if this
button is pressed. The starter is also inactive while the engine is running.
This button has an additional function; while the propeller arm is retracting, press this button
to stop it in any position (in order to cool down the engine). Press the same button again to
reactivate the retraction.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 7-9
Description of Aircraft & Systems REV. 3
Extending the propeller arm:
WARNING! BEFORE EXTENDING THE PROPELLER ARM IN-FLIGHT, SET FLAPS TO T STAGE AND
REDUCE SPEED TO 50 KTS(90 KM/H).
1. Turn the master switch ON (key full to the right).
The LED display indicates the engine hours count, Propeller arm retracted and Propeller status
indicator light are on.
2. Switch the Propeller arm control switch to UP.
The propeller arm will raise to the final extension point where the Propeller arm extended indicator lights up. A tone beep(30 seconds) will be activated and the Ignition warning light will flash if
the ignition is still off at this point.
3. Switch the ignition switch ON (up) to prepare the engine for start-up.
Starting the engine (continued from Extending the propeller arm):
CAUTION! BEFORE STARTING-UP THE ENGINE, VERIFY THE PROPELLER ARM IS EXTENDED AND
PROPELLER IN VERTICAL POSITION BY CHECKING THE COCKPIT MIRROR.
1. Set throttle 1/2 and primer as necessary (see Normal Procedures).
2. Press the START button. When the engine is running, the display will show engine RPM.
Shutting-down the engine:
1. Switch the ignition switch OFF (down).
This will switch the ignition off and shut the engine down. A sound signal (30 seconds) will be
activated and the Ignition warning light will be flashing while the LED display shows the engine
working hours.
Retracting the propeller arm:
WARNING! BEFORE RETRACTING THE PROPELLER ARM IN-FLIGHT, SET FLAPS TO T STAGE
AND REDUCE SPEED TO 40 KTS (70 KM/H). THE ENGINE MUST BE STOPPED BEFORE APPLYING
THIS PROCEDURE!
1. Once the engine has stopped, switch the Propeller arm control switch to DOWN.
The system now enters retraction mode. The propeller arm is moved backwards by approximately
15 degrees to the point where the propeller needs to be positioned vertically. At the speed of
85 to 95 km/h the propeller wind-mills slowly. Use the cockpit mirror to monitor propeller windmilling and increase/reduce airspeed (or use the starter button) if necessary. When the propeller
reaches vertical position, it is automatically stuck. Propeller status is indicated by the yellow light.
The system waits for two more seconds to verify there is no further movement of the propeller,
before the propeller arm retraction continues. When the engine has completely retracted, the
green engine retraction control light comes on.
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7-10 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Description of Aircraft & Systems
Fuel system
description:
fuel selector valves:
gascolator:
fuel capacity:
unusable fuel:
fuel filter:
vented wing fuel tanks with refuelling aperture on top of the wings
only with optional 2 x 30 liter reservoir, separate for each tank
filter equipped with drain valve
1 x 30 liters (option 2 x 30 liters)
2 liters (5 liters)
metal, inside the gascolator AND paper filter before gascolator
All fuel hoses are protected with certified glass-teflon cover. There is a fuel return circuit leading excess fuel back into the port (left) wing tank.
CAUTION! DUE TO THE POSITION OF THE FUEL RESERVOIR SUPPLY POINT, FLYING IN
CONSIDERABLE SIDESLIP FOR A LONGER TIME MAY RESULT IN FUEL STARVATION TO THE ENGINE
IF THE FUEL TANK IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF THE SIDESLIP IS CLOSED. SHOULD THIS
OCCUR, RIGHTEN THE FLIGHT AND RE-OPEN THE FUEL TANK IN QUESTION (if equipped with 2 x
30 tanks) IMMEDIATELY TO PREVENT ENGINE FAILURE.
Schematic of fuel system - model 503, single fuel reservoir
carburetor
air filter
fuel distributor
engine bay
coupling
fuel pump
fuel tank
filter
drainer
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TAURUS 503 LSA 7-11
Description of Aircraft & Systems REV. 3
carburetor
air filter
fuel distributor
engine bay
coupling
fuel pump
fuel tank
filter
drainer
fuel valve
fuel valve
Electrical system
description:
master switch:
magneto switches:
battery:
Double separated magneto ignition. Standard, 12 V circuit charges the
battery and provides power to all appliances and instruments.
key type
magneto test flip-switch (default position is BOTH ON)
12 V, 8 Ah or 5 Ah
7-12 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Description of Aircraft & Systems
Schematic of electrical system (cockpit side)
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TAURUS 503 LSA 7-13
Description of Aircraft & Systems REV. 3
Schematic of electrical system (single battery)
7-14 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Description of Aircraft & Systems
www.pipistrel.eu
Engine cooling system
Rotax 503 cooling system
The Rotax 503 engine is air cooled by taking advantage of propeller airflow. Cold air accelerated by
the propeller enters the duct intake mounted on the propeller arm and is then forced to spread over
the engine cooling ribs. The air is then blown out of the engine compartment behind the engine.
Engine lubrication system
Rotax 503 is a two-stroke engine and is adequately lubricated by oil/fuel mixture. Proper lubrication
is ensured by adding 2% of synthetic of semi-synthetic oil into the fuel canister.
Wheel brake system
Wheel brake system features common braking action for both main wheels. Wheel brakes are hydraulically driven disc type.
Wheel brakes are operated by extending the airbrake lever past the full extension point.
Hydraulic brake fluid used for hydraulic type brakes is DOT 4.
If the braking action on your aircraft is poor even while the full backward pressure is applied on the
airbrake handle, please see chapter on Handling and servicing of this manual to learn how to rectify
this problem.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 8-1
Handling and servicing REV. 3
8 Handling and servicing
Special inspections (8-2)
Draining and refuelling
(8-2)
Connecting Auxiliary
power supplies (8-3)
Tie down (8-4)
Storage (8-4)
Cleaning (8-4)
Keeping your aircraft in
perfect shape (8-5)
8-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Handling and servicing
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Special inspections
After having exceeded VNE or landed in a rough manner:
Check the undercarriage, fuselage & wing surfaces and main spars for abnormalities. It is highly recommended to have the aircraft verified for airworthiness by authorised service personnel.
Clicking noise behind the cockpit
The wings are factory fitted to the fuselage to make a tight fit at approximately 70° F. When exposed
to low temperatures, materials shrink. Therefore, flying in the winter or in cold temperatures, you
may encounter “click-clack” like noises behind the cockpit your head. The remedy for this unpleasant
noises is to add washers, typically of 0,5 mm thickness in-between wing and fuselage. Washers must
be added both at rear and front bushings at one side of the fuselage only!
WARNING! It is mandatory to consult the manufacturer or authorised service personnel
before applying washers!
Draining and refuelling
Whenever draining or refuelling make sure master switch is set to OFF (key in full left position).
Draining the fuel system
The gascolator is located on the bottom of the fuselage and is reachable from the outside.
To drain the fuel system, open the drain valve on the gascolator. Drain approximately 1/2 cup of fuel.
Try to prevent ground pollution by collecting the fuel with a canister.
To close the valve simply turn it in the opposite direction. Do not use force or special tools!
CAUTION! Always drain the fuel system before you have moved the aircraft from a standstill to
prevent mixing of the fuel and eventual water or particles.
Refuelling
CAUTION! Before refuelling it is necessary to ground the aircraft!
Refuelling can be done by pouring fuel through the fuel tank openings on top of the wings or by using the electrical fuel pump
Refuelling using the electrical fuel pump:
Firstly make sure the fuel hoses are connected to wing connectors and that both fuel valves are
open.
Submerge one end of the fuel pump, which has a filter attached, into the fuel container. The other
end must be pushed through the fuel filler neck into the reservoir.
Engage the fuel pump by engaging the 12 V socket switch on the instrument panel.
Also, leave the engine running at idle power for a couple of minutes prior to taking-off and test the
engine at full power for a minimum of 30 seconds.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 8-3
Handling and servicing REV. 3
Should you be experiencing slow refuelling with the electrical fuel pump, you should replace the filter. You can use any fuel filter for this application.
It is recommended to use additional plastic tubes attached to the fuel tank vents and leading to the
ground in order to avoid over-spills of fuel onto the airframe when filling the tanks completely
CAUTION! Use authorised plastic containers to transport and store fuel only! Metal canisters
cause for water to condensate on the inside, which may later result in engine failure.
Bleeding the hydraulic brake system
Two persons are needed to perform the hydraulic brake system bleeding in the traditional way.
First, fill up the hydraulic fluid reservoir, mounted on the bottom of the fuselage behind the cockpit,
with DOT 4 fluid. Then, one person should pump the hydraulic oil towards the main landing wheels
using pumping motion on the airbrake handle. After 5-10 complete forward-aft movements, hold
the airbrakes handle in fully engaged position. Now, the second person must open the bleed valve
on one of the main wheels to bleed the air pockets from the hydraulic lines. Close the bleed valve
each time before continuing with the pumping motion on the airbrake handle.
Repeat this procedure until no more air is bled out of the bleed valve.
Then perform the same procedure for the other main wheel.
WARNING! SHOULD YOU ENCOUNTER ANY DIFFICULTIES DURING THIS PROCEDURE OR
THE AIR POCKETS WOULD NOT VENT, PLEASE CONSULT THE MANUFACTURER OR AUTHORISED
SERVICE PERSONNEL FOR FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS.
Schematic of hydraulic brakes’ lining
Poor braking action
In case you notice poor braking action even when hydraulic brakes are fully engaged (airbrake lever
full back), it is not necessary the air bubbles in the hydraulic lining, which is causing the problem.
The main wheel’s main axis’ nut (especially after a wheel and/or axis replacement nut) may be tightened incorrectly so that the brake shims do not make contact with the brake plate. Please consult
the manufacturer or authorised service personnel for further information.
8-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Handling and servicing
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Tie down
Point the aircraft into the wind and retract flaps fully. Chock all three wheels. Remove the caps covering mounting holes on the bottom part of the wing (located 15 ft from the fuselage) and carefully
screw in the two screw-in rings provided.
Secure tie-down ropes to the wing tie-down rings at an approximately 45-degree angle to the
ground. When using rope of a non-synthetic material, leave sufficient slack to avoid damage to the
aircraft, should the ropes contract. To tie down the tail, tie a rope through the tail skid and secure it
to the ground. At the end, cover the pitot tube with a protection cover.
Storage
The aircraft is ideally stored in a hangar. For increased in-hangar manoeuvrability use of original
push-cart or free turning tail wheel adapter is recommended. Mechanical towing is prohibited at all
times.
Even for over-night storage it is recommended to leave the airbrakes handle unlocked - hanging
down freely in order to reduce pressure on plate springs and maintain their original stiffness.
If a parachute rescue system is installed in your aircraft, make sure the activation handle safety pin is
inserted every time you leave the aircraft.
Apply the tubes onto fuel tank vents so that fuel will not spill onto the wing in event of full fuel
tanks, temperature expansion of fuel and/or parking on a slope.
Also, disconnect the battery from the circuit to prevent battery self-discharge (pull battery disconnection ring on the instrument panel’s switch column) during storage period.
CAUTION! Should the aircraft be stored and/or operated in areas with high atmospheric hu-
midity pay special attention to corrosion of metal parts, especially inside the wings. Under such
circumstances it is necessary to replace the airbrakes connector rod every 2 years.
Cleaning
Use fresh water and a soft piece of cloth to clean the aircraft’s exterior. If you are unable to remove
certain spots, consider using mild detergents. Afterwards, rinse the entire surface thoroughly.
Lexan glass surfaces are protected by an anti-scratch layer on the outside and an anti-fog coating on
the inside of the cabin. Always use fresh water only to clean the glass surfaces, not to damage these
protection layers and coatings.
To protect the aircraft’s surface (excluding glass surfaces) from the environmental contaminants, use
best affordable car wax. The interior is to be cleaned with a vacuum cleaner.
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 8-5
Handling and servicing REV. 3
Keeping your aircraft in perfect shape
Precautions
1) Eliminate the use of ALL aggressive cleaning solutions and organic solvents, also the window
cleaning spray, benzene, acetone, aggressive shampoos etc.
2) If you must use an organic solvent (acetone) on small areas remove certain glue leftovers or similar, the surface in question MUST be polished thereafter. The only section where polishing should be
avoided is the edge on the wing where the sealing gasket is applied.
3) When flying in regions with a lot of bugs in the air, you should protect the leading edges of the
airframe before flight (propeller, wings, tail) with Antistatic furniture spray cleaner: “Pronto (transparent), manufacturer: Johnson Wax (or anything equivalent) – Worldwide”, approximate price is only $3
USD / €3 EUR for a 300 ml spray bottle. Using such spray, do not apply it directly onto the wing but
into a soft cloth instead (old T-shirts are best).
4) After having finished with flight activity for the day, clean the leading edges of the airframe as
soon as possible with a lot of water and a drying towel (chamois, artificial leather skin). This will be
very easy to do if you applied a coat of Pronto before flight.
Detailed handling (Airframe cleaning instructions)
Every-day care after flight
Bugs, which represent the most of the dirt to be found on the airframe, are to be removed with clean
water and a soft cloth (can be also drying towel, chamois, artificial leather skin). To save time, soak all
the leading edges of the airframe fist. Make sure to wipe ALL of the aircraft’s surface until it is completely dry.
Clean the propeller and the areas with eventual greasy spots separately using a mild car shampoo
with a wax.
CAUTION! Do not, under any circumstances attempt to use aggressive cleaning solutions, as
you will severely damage the lacquer, which is the only protective layer before the structural
laminate.
When using the aircraft in difficult atmospheric conditions (intense sunshine, dusty winds, coastline,
acid rains etc.) make sure to clean the outer surface more thoroughly.
If you notice you cannot remove the bug-spots from the leading edges of the aircraft, this means the
lacquer is not protected any more, therefore it is necessary to polish these surfaces.
CAUTION! Do not, under any circumstances attempt to remove such bug-spots with abrasive
sponges and/or rough polishing pastes.
Periodical cleaning of all outer surfaces with car shampoo
Clean as you would clean your car starting at the top and working your way downwards using a soft
sponge. Be careful not to use a sponge that was contaminated with particles e.g. mud, fine sand) so
not to grind the surface. While cleaning, soak the surface and the sponge many, many times. Use a
separate sponge to clean the bottom fuselage, as is it usually more greasy than the rest of the airframe. When pouring water over the airframe, be careful not to direct it over the fuel reservoir caps,
wing-fuselage joining section, parachute rescue system straps and cover, pitot tube, tail static probe
and engine covers.
8-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Handling and servicing
www.pipistrel.eu
Always rinse the shampooed surfaces again before they become dry! Thereafter, wipe the whole of
the aircraft dry using a drying towel, chamois or artificial leather skin.
Also, clean the Mylar seals on the wing and tail control surfaces. Lift the seals gently and insert ONE
layer of cloth underneath, then move along the whole span of the seal. Ultimately, you may wish to
apply Teflon grease (in spray) over the area where the seal touch the control surfaces.
Polishing by hand
Use only the highest quality polishing compounds WITHOUT abrasive grain, such as Sonax Extreme
or similar. Start polishing on a clean, dry and cool surface, never in the sunshine!
Machine polishing requires more skills and has its own particularities, therefore it is recommended
to leave it to a professional.
Cleaning the Lexan transparent surfaces
It is most important to use really clean water (no cleaning solutions are necessary) and a really clean
drying towel (always use a separate towel ONLY for the glass surfaces). Should the glass surfaces be
dusty, remove the dust first by pouring water (not spraying!) and gliding your hand over the surface.
Using the drying towel, simply glide it over the surface, then squeeze it and soak it before touching the glass again. If there are bugs on the windshield, soak them with plenty of water first, so less
wiping is necessary. Ultimately, dry the whole surface and apply JT Plexus Spray ($10 USD / €10 EUR
per spray) or at least Pronto antistatic (transparent) spray and wipe clean with a separate soft cotton
cloth.”
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-1
Appendix REV. 3
9 Appendix
Parachute rescue system:
use, Handling and
servicing (9-1)
How fast is too fast (9-4)
Myth: I can fully deflect
the controls below
maneuvering speed! (9-7)
Training supplement (9-8)
Conversion tables (9-12)
Preflight check-up pictures
(9-18)
9-2 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Appendix
www.pipistrel.eu
Parachute rescue system: use, Handling
and servicing
System description
The GRS rocket charged parachute rescue system provides you with a chance to rescue yourself from
an unexpected situation.
The system is placed inside a durable cylinder mounted on the right hand side of the baggage compartment. Inside this cylinder is the parachute which stored inside a deployment bag with a rocket
engine underneath.
This brand new design deploys a canopy that is not gradually drawn from the container, exposed
to distortion by air currents, but it is safely open after 0,4 to 0,7 seconds in distance of 15-18 metres
above the aircraft. It is carried there in a special deployment bag, which decreases the risk of aircraft
debris fouling the canopy.
The parachute rescue system is activated manually, by pulling the activation handle mounted on the
back wall above. After being fired, the man canopy is open and fully inflated in about 3.2 seconds.
WARNING! Activation handle safety pin should be inserted when the aircraft is parked or
hangared to prevent accidental deployment. However, the instant pilot boards the aircraft, safety
pin MUST be removed!
Use of parachute rescue system
Typical situations for use of the parachute rescue system are:
• structural failure
• mid-air collision
• loss of control over aircraft
• engine failure over hostile terrain
• pilot incapacitation (incl. heart attack, stroke, temp. blindness, disorientation...)
Prior to firing the system, provided time allows:
• shut down the engine and set master switch to OFF (key in full left position)
• shut both fuel valves
• fasten safety harnesses tightly
• protect your face and body.
To deploy the parachute jerk the activation handle hard to a length of at
least 1 foot towards the instrument panel.
Once you have pulled the handle and the rocked is deployed, it will be about two seconds before
you feel the impact produced by two forces. The first force is produced by stretching of all the system. The second force follows after the inflation of the canopy from opening impact and it will seem
to you that the aircraft is pulled backwards briefly. The airspeed is reduced instantly and the aircraft
now starts to descent underneath the canopy.
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TAURUS 503 LSA 9-3
Appendix REV. 3
As a pilot you should know that the phase following parachute deployment may be a great unknown and a great adventure for the crew. You will be getting into a situation for the first time,
where a proper landing and the determination of the landing site are out of your control.
CAUTION! Should you end up in power lines (carrying electrical current), DO NOT under any
circumstances touch any metal parts inside or outside the cockpit. This also applies to anyone
attempting to help or rescue you. Be aware that anyone touching any part of the aircraft while
standing on the ground will probably suffer mayor injury or die of electrocution. Therefore, you
are strongly encouraged to confine your movements until qualified rescue personal arrives at the
site to assist you.
After the parachute rescue system has been used or if you suspect any possible damage to the system, do not hesitate and immediately contact the manufacturer!
Handling and servicing
Prior to every flight all visible parts of the system must be checked for proper condition. Special attention should be paid to corrosion on the activation handle inside the cockpit. Also, main fastening
straps on the outside of the fuselage must be undamaged at all times.
Furthermore, neither system, nor any of its parts should be exposed to moisture, vibration and UV
radiation for long periods of time to ensure proper system operation and life.
CAUTION!
It is strongly recommenced to thoroughly inspect and grease the activation handle, preferably using silicon spray, every 50 flight hours.
All major repairs and damage repairs MUST be done by the
manufacturer or authorised service personnel.
For all details concerning the GRS rescue system, please see the “GRS - Galaxy Rescue System Manual
for Assembly and Use”.
9-4 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Appendix
www.pipistrel.eu
How fast is too fast?
Based on two recent unfortunate events, where two pilots lost their newly acquired Sinus and Sinus
aircraft, the team of Pipistrel’s factory pilots decided to stress the importance of airspeed even more.
Do read this passage thoroughly as everything mentioned below affects you as the pilot directly!
The two events
Both the events took place during the first couple of hours pilots flew with their new aircraft.
Therefore it is definite they had not become completely familiar with all the flight stages Sinus and
Sinus offer. The circumstances of both the events were remarkably similar.
Soon after the pilots picked up their new aircraft at the distributor’s, the aircraft were severely damaged aloft. One during the first home-bound cross country flight and the other during the first
flights at domestic airfield. Please note the distributor independently tested both mentioned aircraft
up to VNE at altitudes reaching 300 to 500 metres (900 to 1500 feet) with great success.
Pilots flew their machines at reasonably high altitudes but at very high speeds. One of them deployed airbrakes (spoilers) at the speed of 285 km/h (155 kts) - where the VNE of the aircraft is 225 km/h
(122 kts), the other was flying at 3000 m (10.000 ft) at 270 km/h (145 kts) IAS - where the VNE of the aircraft was 250 km/h (135 kts).
They both encountered severe vibrations caused by flutter. Because of this one aircraft’s fuselage
was shredded and broken in half just behind the cabin (the craw saw saved thanks to the parachute
rescue system), other suffered inferior damage as only the flaperon control tubes went broken. The
pilot of the second machine then landed safely using elevator and rudder only. Fortunately both pilots survived the accident without being even slightly injured.
Thanks to the Brauniger ALPHA MFD’s integrated Flight Data Recorder, we were able to reconstruct
the flights and reveal what had really happened.
What was the reason for the flutter causing both accidents?
Both pilots greatly exceeded speed which should never be exceeded, the VNE.
With the IAS to TAS correction factor taken into consideration, they were both flying
faster than 315 km/h (170 kts)!
You might say: “Why did they not keep their speed within safe limits? How could they be so thoughtless to afford themselves exceeding the VNE?” Speaking with the two pilots they both confessed
they went over the line unawarely. “All just happened so suddenly!” was what they both said.
Therefore it is of vital importance to be familiar to all factors that might influence your flying to the
point of unawarely exceeding the VNE.
Human factor and performance
The human body is not intended to be travelling at 250 km/h (135 kts), nor is it built to fly. Therefore,
in flight, the human body and its signals should not be trusted at all times!
To determine the speed you are travelling at, you usually rely on two senses – the ear and the eye.
The faster the objects around are passing by, the faster you are travelling. True.
The stronger the noise caused by air circulating the airframe, the faster the airspeed. True again.
But let us confine ourselves to both events’ scenarios.
At higher altitudes, human eye loses it’s ability to determine the speed of movement precisely.
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-5
Appendix REV. 3
Because of that pilots, who are flying high up feel like they are flying terribly slow.
At high speeds the air circulating the airframe should cause tremendous noise. Wrong!
In fact the noise is caused by drag. Modern aircraft like Sinus and Sinus, manufactured of composite materials, have so little drag, that they actually sound quieter than you would expect.
Especially if you are used to wearing a headset when flying you must not rely on your ear as the
instrument for determining speed.
REMEMBER! When flying high the only reliable tool to determine airspeed
is the cockpit instrument - the airspeed indicator!
How to read and understand what the airspeed indicator
tells you?
Let us first familiarise with the terms used below:
IAS: stands for Indicated Air Speed. This is the speed the airspeed indicator reads.
CAS: stands for Calibrated Air Speed. This is IAS corrected by the factor of aircraft’s attitude. No pi-
tot tube (device to measure pressure used to indicate airspeed) is positioned exactly parallel to the
airflow, therefore the input speed – IAS – must be corrected to obtain proper airspeed readings. With
Sinus and Sinus, IAS to CAS correction factors range from 1,00 to 1,04.
TAS: stands for True Airspeed. TAS is often regarded as the speed of air to which the aircraft’s air-
frame is exposed. To obtain TAS you must have CAS as the input value and correct it by pressure altitude, temperature and air density variations.
The maximum structural speed is linked to IAS. But light planes, manufactured of carbon reinforced
plastics, with long, slick wings are more prone to flutter at high speeds than to structural failure.
So flutter is the main factor of determining VNE for us and most other carbon-reinforced-plastic
aircraft producers. Flutter speed is linked to TAS, as it is directly caused by small differences in
speed of air circulating the airframe. Hence air density is not a factor. For all who still doubt this, here
are two quotes from distinguished sources on flutter being related to TAS:
“Suffice to say that flutter relates to true airspeed (TAS) rather than equivalent airspeed (EAS), so
aircraft that are operated at or beyond their VNE at altitude - where
TAS increases for a given EAS – are more susceptible to flutter...”
New Zealand CAA’ Vector Magazine (full passage at page 5 of http://www.caa.govt.nz/fulltext/vector/vec01-4.pdf )
“The critical flutter speed depends on TAS, air density, and critical mach number. The air density
factor is almost canceled out by the TAS factor; and most of us won’t fly fast enough for mach
number to be a factor. So TAS is what a pilot must be aware of!”
Bob Cook, Flight Safety International
The airspeed indicator shows you the IAS, but this is sadly NOT the speed of air to which the
aircraft’s airframe is exposed.
IAS and TAS are almost the same at sea level but can greatly differ as the altitude increases. So
flying at high altitudes, where the air is thinner, results in misinterpreting airspeed which is being indicated. The indicated airspeed value may actually be pretty much lower than speed of air to which
the aircraft is exposed, the TAS.
So is VNE regarded as IAS or TAS? It is in fact regarded as TAS above 4000m/13100 ft!!! You
should be aware of that so that you will not exceed VNE like the two pilots mentioned have.
www.pipistrel.eu
9-6 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Appendix
How much difference is there between IAS and TAS
in practical terms?
Data is for standard atmosphere. To obtain correct speeds for particular atomospherical conditions
please take advantage of the table on page 85 of this manual.
The table below indicates how fast you may fly at a certain altitude to maintain
constant True Air Speed (TAS).
TAS [km/h (kts)] IAS [km/h (kts)] TAS [km/h (kts)] IAS [km/h (kts)]
1000 m
3300 ft
250 (135)
237 (128)
270 (145)
256 (138)
2000 m
6500 ft
250 (135)
226 (122)
270 (145)
246 (133)
3000 m
10000 ft
250 (135)
217 (117)
270 (145)
235 (126)
4000 m
13000 ft
250 (135)
206 (111)
270 (145)
226 (121)
5000 m
16500 ft
250 (135)
195 (105)
270 (145)
217 (117)
6000 m
19700 ft
250 (135)
187 (101)
270 (145)
205 (110)
7000 m
23000 ft
250 (135)
178 (96)
270 (145)
196 (103)
8000 m
26300 ft
250 (135)
169 (91)
270 (145)
185 (98)
The table below indicates how TAS increases with altitude while keeping IAS constant.
IAS [km/h (kts)] TAS [km/h (kts)] IAS [km/h (kts)] TAS [km/h (kts)]
1000 m
3300 ft
250 (135)
266 (144)
270 (145)
289 (156)
2000 m
6500 ft
250 (135)
279 (151)
270 (145)
303 (164)
3000 m
10000 ft
250 (135)
290 (157)
270 (145)
316 (171)
4000 m
13000 ft
250 (135)
303 (164)
270 (145)
329 (178)
5000 m
16500 ft
250 (135)
317 (171)
270 (145)
345 (186)
6000 m
19700 ft
250 (135)
332 (179)
270 (145)
361 (195)
7000 m
23000 ft
250 (135)
349 (188)
270 (145)
379 (204)
8000 m
26300 ft
250 (135)
366 (198)
270 (145)
404 (218)
As you can see from the table above the differences between IAS and TAS are not so little and
MUST be respected at all times!
REMEMBER!
• Do not trust your ears.
• Do not trust your eyes.
• Trust the instruments and be aware of the IAS to TAS relation!
Always respect the limitations prescribed in this manual!
Never exceed the VNE as this has proved to be fatal!
Keep that in mind every time you go flying. Pipistrel wishes you happy landings!
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-7
Appendix REV. 3
Myth: I can fully deflect the controls below
maneuvering speed!
WRONG! BELIEVE THIS AND DIE!
The wing structure in light planes is usually certified to take +3.8 G’s, -1.52 G’s (plus a certain safety
factor). Put more load on the wing than that and you should consider yourself dead.
But here is the nice part: Below a certain speed, the wing simply cannot put out a full 3.8 G’s of lift! It
will stall first! This speed is called Maneuvering Speed or Va.
Maneuvering Speed is defined as the maximum speed the plane can be flying at and still stall before
the wing breaks no matter how much you pull back on the stick. If you are going slower than the
Va and you pull the stick all the way back, the wing will stall without braking physically. If you are
going faster than the Va and you pull the stick all the way back, the wing can put out so much lift
that it can be expected to break. Therefore people think they can deflect the stick as much as they
desire below Maneuvering Speed and stay alive.
Wrong! The Maneuvering Speed is based on pulling back on the stick, not pushing it forward!
Note what was said above: The Va is defined as how fast you can fly and not be able to put out more
than 3.8 G’s of lift. But while the plane is certified for positive 3.8 G’s, it is only certified for a negative G-load of 1.52 G’s! In other words, you can fail the wing in the negative direction by pushing
forward on the stick well below the Va! Few pilots know this.
Also, for airliners, certification basis require that the rudder can be fully deflected below
Maneuvering Speed, but only if the plane is not in a sideslip of any kind! (e.g. crab method of approach) Does this make sense at all? Why would you need to fully deflect the rudder if not to reestablish wings-level flight?
In a wonderfully-timed accident shortly after Sept. 11th, 2001 of which everybody thought might be
an act of terrorism, an Airbus pilot stomped the rudder in wake turbulence while the plane was in
a considerable sideslip. The combined loads of the sideslip and the deflected rudder took the
vertical stabilizer to it’s critical load. A very simple numerical analysis based on the black box confirmed this. The airplane lost it’s vertical stabilizer in flight and you know the rest.
Also, if you are at your maximum allowable g-limit (e.g. 3.8) and you deflect the ailerons even
slightly, you are actually asking for more lift from one wing than the allowable limit!
Therefore combined elevator and aileron deflections can break the plane, even if the elevator
is positive only!
SO, WHEN YOU THINK THAT YOU CAN DO AS YOU PLEASE WITH THE CONTROLS BELOW
MANEUVERING SPEED, YOU ARE WRONG!
Please reconsider this myth and also look at the Vg diagram and the aircraft’s limitations to prove it
to yourself.
9-8 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Appendix
www.pipistrel.eu
Training/Familiarization Supplement
This chapter has been written to assist owners/pilots/instructors of Taurus 503 LSA on their quest to learn
how to safely and efficiently fly this aircraft in addition to the information already assembled in the rest
of this POH. This section will cover most operations the aircraft offers in an order established in section
Normal procedures and recommended speeds. Please consider what follows as an add-on to that chapter.
Engine start-up
First and foremost make sure you have sufficient fuel quantity on board for the desired length of
flight. If you are not completely confident there is enough, step out of the aircraft and add more fuel
into the tanks. There is an old aviators’ saying: “The only time you have too much fuel is when you are on
fire.”
When engaging the engine starter, wheel brakes MUST be engaged. To keep your propeller in
perfect condition, avoid starting up on areas where there are small stones on the ground. Those little
stones can easily be picked up by the propellers causing damage to the blades.
Warming up must be conducted below 2500 RPM. When reaching safe operational engine temperatures, verify maximum engine ground RPM. Hold the stick back completely and slowly(!) add
throttle to full power, then verify RPM.
Taxi
Taxiing with the Taurus 503 LSA is rather simple considering the steerable nose wheel. For sharper
turns on the ground you can also use wheel brakes to assist yourself. It is recommended you taxi
slow, up to 10 km/s (5 kts), while holding the stick back fully to ease the pressure of the nose wheel.
During taxiing monitor engine temperatures. Due to low airflow around the radiators the CHT and
Oil temperature will rise during long taxi periods. If you are holding position, do not leave throttle at
idle. It is better you have some 2500 RPM as this will provide some airflow from the propeller to the
radiators and the temperatures will not rise so quickly. Should you see engine temperatures exceed
safe operational values, shut off the engine, point the aircraft’s nose into the wind and wait for
the temperatures to reduce.
Take off and initial climb
Having checked and set all engine and aircraft parameters, you should be ready for take off by now.
Reverify both fuel valves be open and the airbrakes retracted and locked (handle full up). Trim
lever should be in the middle.
Start the take-off roll gradually. Keep adding throttle slowly and smoothly full power. There are
two reasons for this. First, you change flight stage from zero movement to acceleration slowly; this
provides you with time to react to conditions. Second, especially if taking-off from a gravel runway,
this method of adding full throttle will prevent the little stones on the runway from damaging the
propeller. Extremely short runways are an exception. There you should line up the aircraft, set flaps
to 2nd stage, step on the brakes, apply full power and release the brakes.
As you start to move, pull the stick 1/3 of elevator’s deflection backwards to ease the pressure on
the nose wheel and lift it off the runway slightly. Do not use full back deflection as this will cause
the aircraft’s tail to touch the ground.
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-9
Appendix REV. 3
When the nose wheel has lifted off the ground, there is nothing else but to hold the same pitch
attitude and the aircraft will become airborne. Crosswind take-offs, depending on wind strength,
require a little bit of aileron deflection into the wind. Remember, wings must stay level throughout
ground-roll, rotation and initial climb!
Having lifted off the ground, gently push the stick forward just a bit to accelerate. At some 90
km/h (50 kts) set flaps to 1st stage, at 110 km/h (60 kts) set them to neutral.
Climb
A comfortable setting for climb is flaps in neutral position, speed of 70 kts (130 km/h) at or slightly
below 5500 RPM. In summer time or when outside temperature exceeds 30°C you should consider
climbing at some 85 kts (160 km/h) to provide more airflow to the engine radiators. Trim the aircraft
for comfortable stick forces.
Cruise
Passing through 85 kts (160 km/h), set flaps to negative position (handle full down). A comfortable cruise setting is 5300 engine RPM. As the Sinus is sensitive to flap settings, especially when it
comes to fuel efficiency, ALWAYS use negative stage of flaps beyond 85 kts (160 km/h) and neutral
for level flight below 70 kts (130 km/h).
Cruising fast, do not kick-in rudder for turns! Above 85 kts (160 km/h) the rudder becomes almost
insignificant in comparison to aileron deflections when it comes to making a turn. Cruising fast, it
is extremely important to fly coordinated (ball in the middle) as this increases efficiency and decreases side-pressure onto vertical tail surfaces. Also, pay attention to turbulence. If you hit turbulence at speeds greater than VRA, reduce power immediately and pull the nose up to reduce
speed.
If flying a traffic pattern, keep flaps in neutral position and set engine power so that airspeed does
not exceed 150 km/h (80 kts).
Descent
Descending with the Sinus is the stage of flight where the most care should be taken. As the aircraft
is essentially a glider, it is very slippery and builds up speed very fast.
Start the descent by reducing throttle and keep your speed below VRA.
During initial descent it is recommended you trim for a 10 kts lower speed than the one you decided
to descent at. Do this for safety. In case you hit turbulence simply release forward pressure on the
stick and the aircraft will slow down.
Also, keep in mind you need to begin your descent quite some time before destination. A comfortable rate of descent is 500 fpm (2.5 m/s). So it takes you some 2 minutes for a 1000 ft (300 m)
drop. At 105 kts (200 km/h) this means 3.6 NM for each 1000 ft drop.
Entering the traffic pattern the aircraft must be slowing down. In order to do this, hold your altitude and reduce throttle to idle. When going below 80 kts (150 km/h), set flaps to neutral position.
Set proper engine RPM to maintain speed of 70 kts (130 km/h). Trim the aircraft for comfortable stick
forces.
9-10 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Appendix
www.pipistrel.eu
Before turning to base-leg, reduce power to idle and set flaps to 1st stage at 60 kts (110 km/h).
Once out of the turn, reduce speed towards 55 kts (100 km/h). Power remains idle from the point of
turning base all the way to touch-down. If you plan your approach this way, you will always be on
the safe side - even if your engine fails, you will still be able to safely reach the runway!
Turn to final at 55 kts (100 km/h). When in runway heading, set flaps to 2nd stage. Operate the airbrakes to obtain the desired descent path (if applicable).
How to determine how much airbrakes you need for a certain airspeed?
Open them half-way and observe the runway. If the runway threshold is moving up, you are dropping too fast - retract the airbrakes a little. If the runway threshold is disappearing below your
aircraft, you are dropping too slowly - extend airbrakes further. When working on airbrakes, it is
important to keep the airspeed/pitch angle constant throughout final all the way to flare! The
airbrakes will not impact your speed, just rate (angle) of descent. For pilots who are not used to
operating airbrakes but throttle instead, keep in mind that airbrakes in Sinus work just like throttle
does: handle back equals less throttle, handle forward equals more throttle.
CAUTION! Never drop the airbrakes handle when using them, keep holding the handle even
if you are not moving it!
Roundout (Flare) and touchdown
Your speed should be a constant 55 kts (100 km/h) throughout the final with the descent path
constant as well. At a height of 10 meters (25 feet) start a gentle flare and approach the aircraft must
touch down with the main (back) wheels first, so that you will not bounce on the runway. After
touchdown, operate the rudder pedals if necessary to maintain runway heading and try to have the
nose wheel off the ground for as long as possible. When the nose wheel is to touch the ground, rudder pedals MUST be exactly in the middle not to cause damage to the steering mechanism. While
braking, hold the stick back fully! Once you have come to a standstill, retract flaps all the way to
negative position (handle full down) and retract and lock the airbrakes - handle full up.
Should you bounce off the runway after touch-down, do not, under any circumstances, push
stick forward or retract airbrakes. Spoilers (airbrakes) stay fully extended, the stick goes backwards
slightly. Bouncing tends to reduce by itself anyhow.
Crosswind landings, depending on the windspeed, require some sort of drift correction. Most efficient is the low-wing method, where you are to lower the wing into the wind slightly and maintain
course by applying appropriate rudder deflection. You can also try the crab method.
Crosswind landings on paved runways
(asphalt, concrete, tarmac...)
In this case, special attention must be paid to straightening the aircraft before touchdown in order not to damage the undercarriage because of increased surface grip on impact.
Should the crosswind component be strong (8 kts and over), it is recommended to gently flare in
such a manner, that one of the main wheels touches-down an instant before the other (e.g. if
there is crosswind from your left, the eft wheel should touch down just before the right wheel does).
This way the undercarriage almost cannot be damaged due to side forces on cross-wind landings.
Landing in strong turbulence and/or gusty winds
First of all airspeed must be increased for half of the value of wind gusts (e.g. if the wind is gusting
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-11
Appendix REV. 3
for 6 kts , add 3 kts to the final approach speed). In such conditions I would also recommend to only
use 1st stage of flaps for increased maneuverability. In very strong winds (20 kts and more), use
neutral flaps (0 deg.) for the complete approach and roundout.
Parking
Nothing special to add here. Taxi to the apron with flaps in negative position (minimum lift) and
spoilers retracted. Again, taxi slow for reasons mentioned under “Taxi”. Come to a standstill, shut
down the engine, insert the parachute rescue system activation handle’s safety pin, unlock and
leave the airbrakes handle hanging down freely (this reduces stress to airbrake plate’s springs and
maintains their stiffness). It is recommended to shut both fuel valves for longer parking or when
parked on a slope.
Soaring
Soaring is a learned skill. Your soaring performance is vastly dependant on your weather knowledge, flying skills and judgement.
“Good judgement comes from experience. Unfortunately, the experience usually comes from bad judgement.” So be careful and do not expect to become a competition-class glider pilot over night.
Once you have shut down the engine and feathered the propeller as described in this manual, you
are a glider pilot and you must start thinking as a glider pilot.
The most important thing is to try very hard to fly as perfectly as possible.
This means perfect stick and rudder coordination and holding the same angle of attack in straight
flight as well as in turns. Only so will you be able to notice what nature and its forced to do your airplane.
When ridge soaring and flying between thermals, I would recommend to have flaps in neutral
position. When thermalling or making eights along the ridge, do have flaps in 1st stage.
Speeds range from 75 km/h (40 kts) to 100 km/h (55 kts). To quickly overfly the span between two
thermals, fly at 130 km/h (70 kts) with flaps in neutral position.
WARNING! Never make a full circle flying below the ridge’s top, fly eights instead until
you reach a height of 150 meters (500 feet) above the ridge top. From then on it is safe to fly
full circles in a thermal.
Entering and exiting a turn when flying unpowered requires more rudder input than when flying
with the engine running. So work with your legs! To quickly enter a sharp turn at speeds between
80 - 90 km/h (43 - 48 kts) basically apply full rudder quickly followed by appropriate aileron deflection
to keep the turn coordinated. Same applies for exiting a turn at that speeds.
When soaring for long periods of time in cold air, monitor engine temperatures. Note that if the engine is too cold (oil temperature around freezing point), the engine may refuse to start. Fly in such a
manner you will safely reach a landing site.
To improve your soaring knowledge I would recommend two books written by a former world
champion:
1. Helmut Reichmann - Flying Sailplanes (Segelfliegen as German original).
2. Helmut Reichmann - Cross Country Soaring (Steckenkunstflug as German original).
www.pipistrel.eu
9-12 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Appendix
Conversion tables
Kilometers per hour (km/h) - knots (kts) - metres per sec. (m/s)
km/h
kts
m/s
km/h
kts
m/s
km/h
kts
m/s
1.853
1
0.37
63.00
34
18.34
124.16
67
36.15
3.706
2
1.07
64.86
35
18.88
126.01
68
36.69
5.560
3
1.61
66.71
36
19.42
127.87
69
37.23
7.413
4
2.15
68.56
37
19.96
129.72
70
37.77
9.266
5
2.69
70.42
38
20.50
131.57
71
38.31
11.11
6
3.23
72.27
39
21.04
133.43
72
38.86
12.97
7
3.77
74.12
40
21.58
135.28
73
39.39
14.82
8
4.31
75.98
41
22.12
137.13
74
39.93
16.67
9
4.85
77.83
42
22.66
198.99
75
40.47
18.53
10
5.39
79.68
43
23.20
140.84
76
41.01
20.38
11
5.93
81.54
44
23.74
142.69
77
41.54
22.23
12
6.47
83.39
45
24.28
144.55
78
42.08
24.09
13
7.01
85.24
46
24.82
146.40
79
42.62
25.94
14
7.55
87.10
47
25.36
148.25
80
43.16
27.79
15
8.09
88.95
48
25.90
150.10
51
43.70
29.65
16
8.63
90.80
49
26.44
151.96
82
44.24
31.50
17
9.17
92.66
50
26.98
153.81
83
44.78
33.35
18
9.71
94.51
51
27.52
155.66
84
45.32
35.21
19
10.25
96.36
52
28.05
157.52
85
45.86
37.06
20
10.79
98.22
53
28.59
159.37
86
46.40
38.91
21
11.33
100.07
54
29.13
161.22
87
46.94
40.77
22
11.81
101.92
55
29.67
163.08
88
47.48
42.62
23
12.41
103.77
56
30.21
164.93
89
48.02
44.47
24
12.95
105.63
57
30.75
166.78
90
48.56
46.33
25
13.49
107.48
58
31.29
168.64
91
49.10
48.18
26
14.03
109.33
59
31.83
170.49
92
49.64
50.03
27
14.56
111.19
60
32.37
172.34
93
50.18
51.80
28
15.10
113.04
61
32.91
174.20
94
50.12
53.74
29
15.64
114.89
62
33.45
176.05
95
51.26
55.59
30
16.18
116.75
63
33.99
177.90
96
51.80
57.44
31
16.72
118.60
64
34.53
179.76
97
52.34
59.30
32
17.26
120.45
65
35.07
181.61
98
52.88
61.15
33
17.80
122.31
66
35.61
183.46
99
53.42
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-13
Appendix REV. 3
knots (kts) - metres per second (m/s)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0
0
0.51
10.28
25.43
20.57
25.72
30.86
36.00
41.15
46.30
1
0.51
5.65
10.80
15.94
21.09
26.23
31.38
36.52
41.67
46.81
2
1.02
6.17
11.31
16.46
21.60
26.75
31.89
37.04
42.18
47.32
3
1.54
6.66
11.83
16.97
22.12
27.26
32.41
37.55
42.69
47.84
4
2.05
7.20
12.34
17.49
22.63
27.76
32.92
38.06
43.21
48.35
5
2.57
7.71
12.86
18.00
23.15
28.29
33.43
38.58
43.72
48.87
6
3.08
8.23
13.37
18.52
23.66
28.80
33.95
39.09
44.24
49.38
7
3.60
8.74
13.89
19.03
24.17
29.32
34.46
39.61
44.75
49.90
8
4.11
9.26
14.40
19.54
24.69
29.83
34.98
40.12
45.27
50.41
9
4.63
9.77
14.91
20.06
25.20
30.35
35.49
40.64
45.78
50.90
metres per second (m/s) - feet per minute (100 ft/min)
m/sec.
100
ft/min
m/sec.
100
ft/min
m/sec.
100
ft/min
0.50
1
1.96
10.66
21
41.33
20.82
41
80.70
1.01
2
3.93
11.17
22
43.30
21.33
42
82.67
1.52
3
5.90
11.68
23
45.27
21.84
43
84.64
2.03
4
7.87
12.19
24
47.24
22.35
44
86.61
2.54
5
9.84
12.75
25
49.21
22.86
45
88.58
3.04
6
11.81
13.20
26
51.18
23.36
46
90.53
3.55
7
13.78
13.71
27
53.15
23.87
47
92.52
4.06
8
15.74
14.22
28
55.11
24.38
48
94.48
4.57
9
17.71
14.73
29
57.08
24.89
49
96.45
5.08
10
19.68
15.24
30
59.05
25.45
50
98.42
5.58
11
21.65
15.74
31
61.02
25.90
51
100.4
6.09
12
23.62
16.25
32
62.92
26.41
52
102.3
6.60
13
25.51
16.76
33
64.96
26.92
53
104.3
7.11
14
27.55
17.27
34
66.92
27.43
54
106.2
7.62
15
29.52
17.78
35
68.89
27.94
55
108.2
8.12
16
31.49
18.28
36
70.86
28.44
56
110.2
8.63
17
33.46
18.79
37
72.83
28.95
57
112.2
9.14
18
35.43
19.30
38
74.80
29.46
58
114.1
9.65
19
37.40
19.81
39
76.77
29.97
59
116.1
10.16
20
39.37
20.32
40
78.74
30.48
60
118.1
www.pipistrel.eu
9-14 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Appendix
ICAN (international committee for air navigation)
temperatures, relative pressure, relative density and
CAS to TAS correction factors as related to altitude
Altitude
feet
metres
Temperature
°C
°F
Relative
pressure
Relative
density
Cor.
factors
-2.000
-610
18.96
66.13
1.074
1.059
0.971
-1
-305
16.98
62.56
1.036
1.029
0.985
0
0
15
59
1
1
1
1.000
305
13.01
55.43
0.964
0.971
1.014
2.000
610
11.03
51.86
0.929
0.942
1.029
3.000
914
9.056
48.30
0.896
0.915
1.045
4.000
1219
7.075
44.73
0.863
0.888
1.061
5.000
1524
5.094
41.16
0.832
0.861
1.077
6.000
1829
3.113
37.60
0.801
0.835
1.090
1.000
2134
1.132
34.03
0.771
0.810
1.110
8.000
2438
-0.850
30.47
0.742
0.785
1.128
9.000
2743
-2.831
26.90
0.714
0.761
1.145
10.000
3090
-4.812
23.33
0.687
0.738
1.163
11.000
3353
-6.793
19.77
0.661
0.715
1.182
12.000
3658
-8.774
16.20
0.635
0.693
1.201
13.000
3916
-10.75
12.64
0.611
0.671
1.220
14.000
4267
-12.73
9.074
0.587
0.649
1.240
15.000
4572
-14.71
5.507
0.564
0.629
1.260
16.000
4877
-16.69
1.941
0.541
0.608
1.281
17.000
5182
-18.68
-1.625
0.520
0.589
1.302
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-15
Appendix REV. 3
metres (m) to feet (ft) conversion table
metres
(m)
feet
(ft)
metres
(m)
feet
(ft)
metres
(m)
feet
(ft)
0.304
1
3.280
10.36
34
111.5
20.42
67
219.81
0.609
2
6.562
10.66
35
114.8
20.72
68
223.09
0.914
3
9.843
10.97
36
118.1
21.03
69
226.37
1.219
4
13.12
11.27
37
121.3
21.33
70
229.65
1.524
5
16.40
11.58
38
124.6
21.64
71
232.94
1.828
6
19.68
11.88
39
127.9
21.91
72
236.22
2.133
7
22.96
12.19
40
131.2
22.25
73
239.50
2.438
8
26.24
12.49
41
134.5
22.55
74
242.78
2.743
9
29.52
12.80
42
137.7
22.86
75
246.06
3.048
10
32.80
13.10
43
141.1
23.16
76
249.34
3.352
11
36.08
13.41
44
144.3
23.46
77
252.62
3.657
12
39.37
13.71
45
147.6
23.77
78
255.90
3.962
13
42.65
14.02
46
150.9
24.07
79
259.18
4.267
14
45.93
14.32
47
154.1
24.38
80
262.46
4.572
15
49.21
14.63
48
157.4
24.68
81
265.74
4.876
16
52.49
14.93
49
160.7
24.99
82
269.02
5.181
17
55.77
15.24
50
164.1
25.29
83
272.31
5.48
18
59.05
15.54
51
167.3
25.60
84
275.59
5.791
19
62.33
15.84
52
170.6
25.90
85
278.87
6.096
20
65.61
16.15
53
173.8
26.21
86
282.15
6.400
21
68.89
16.45
54
177.1
26.51
87
285.43
6.705
22
72.17
16.76
55
180.4
26.82
88
288.71
7.010
23
75.45
17.06
56
183.7
27.12
89
291.99
7.310
24
78.74
17.37
57
187.0
27.43
90
295.27
7.620
25
82.02
17.67
58
190.2
27.73
91
298.55
7.948
26
85.30
17.98
59
193.5
28.04
92
301.83
8.220
27
88.58
18.28
60
196.8
28.34
93
305.11
8.530
28
91.86
18.59
61
200.1
28.65
94
308.39
8.830
29
95.14
18.89
62
203.4
28.90
95
311.68
9.144
30
98.42
19.20
63
206.6
29.26
96
314.96
9.448
31
101.7
19.50
64
209.9
29.56
97
318.24
9.750
32
104.9
19.81
65
213.2
29.87
98
321.52
10.05
33
108.2
20.12
66
216.5
30.17
99
324.80
www.pipistrel.eu
9-16 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Appendix
air pressure as related to altitude
altitude (m)
pressure
(hPa)
pressure
(inch Hg)
altitude (m)
pressure
(hPa)
pressure
(inch Hg)
-1000
1139.3
33.6
1300
866.5
25.6
-950
1132.8
33.5
1350
861.2
25.4
-900
1126.2
33.3
1400
855.9
25.3
-850
1119.7
33.1
1450
850.7
25.1
-800
1113.2
32.9
1500
845.5
25.0
-750
1106.7
32.7
1550
840.3
24.8
-700
1100.3
32.5
1600
835.2
24.7
-650
1093.8
32.3
1650
830
24.5
-600
1087.5
32.1
1700
824.9
24.4
-550
1081.1
31.9
1750
819.9
24.2
-500
1074.3
31.7
1800
814.8
24.1
-450
1068.5
31.6
1850
809.8
23.9
-400
1062.3
31.4
1900
804.8
23.8
-350
1056.0
31.2
1950
799.8
23.6
-300
1049.8
31.0
2000
794.9
23.5
-250
1043.7
30.8
2050
790.0
23.3
-200
1037.5
30.6
2100
785.1
23.2
-150
1031.4
30.5
2150
780.2
23.0
-100
1025.3
30.3
2200
775.3
22.9
-50
1019.3
30.1
2250
770.5
22.8
0
1013.3
29.9
2300
165.7
22.6
50
1007.3
29.7
2350
760.9
22.5
100
1001.3
29.6
2400
756.2
22.3
150
995.4
29.4
2450
751.4
22.2
200
989.4
29.2
2500
746.7
22.1
250
983.6
29.0
2550
742.1
21.9
300
977.7
28.9
2600
737.4
21.8
350
971.9
28.7
2650
732.8
21.6
400
966.1
28.5
2700
728.2
21.5
450
960.3
28.4
2750
723.6
21.4
500
954.6
28.2
2800
719
21.2
550
948.9
28.0
2850
714.5
21.1
600
943.2
27.9
2900
709.9
21.0
650
937.5
27.7
2950
705.5
20.8
700
931.9
27.5
3000
701.0
20.7
750
926.3
27.4
3050
696.5
20.6
800
920.0
27.2
3100
692.1
20.4
850
915.2
27.0
3150
687.7
20.3
900
909.0
26.9
3200
683.3
20.2
950
904.2
26.7
3250
679.0
20.1
1000
898.7
26.5
3300
674.6
19.9
1050
893.3
26.4
3350
670.3
19.8
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-17
Appendix REV. 3
ICAO standard atmosphere
(m)
h
(ft)
h
(°C)
T
(°K)
T
T/T0
(mmHg)
-1000
-3281
21.5
294.5
-900
-2953
20.8
-800
-2625
-700
p
(kg/m2)
p
p/p0
(kgs2/m4)
(kg/m4)
g
d
1/S d
Vs
(m2/s)
1.022
854.6
11619
1.124
0.137
1.347
1.099
0.957
344.2
13.4
293.8
1.020
844.7
11484
1.111
0.136
1.335
1.089
0.958
343.9
13.5
20.2
293.2
1.018
835
11351
1.098
0.134
1.322
1.079
0.962
343.5
13.6
-2297
19.5
292.5
1.015
825.3
11220
1.085
0.133
1.310
1.069
0.967
343.1
13.7
-600
-1969
18.9
291.9
1.013
815.7
11090
1.073
0.132
1.297
1.058
0.971
342.7
13.8
-500
-1640
18.2
291.2
1.011
806.2
10960
1.060
0.131
1.285
1.048
0.976
342.4
13.9
400
-1312
17.6
290.6
1.009
796.8
10832
1.048
0.129
1.273
1.039
0.981
342
14.0
300
-984
16.9
289.9
1.006
787.4
10705
1.036
0.128
1.261
1.029
0.985
341.6
14.1
200
-656
16.3
289.3
1.004
779.2
10580
1.024
0.127
1.249
1.019
0.990
341.2
14.3
100
-328
15.6
288.6
1.002
769.1
10455
1.011
0.126
1.237
1.009
0.995
340.9
14.4
0
0
15
288
1
760
10332
1
0.125
1.225
1
1
340.5
14.5
100
328
14.3
287.3
0.997
751.0
10210
0.988
0.123
1.213
0.990
1.004
340.1
14.6
200
656
13.7
286.7
0.995
742.2
10089
0.976
0.122
1.202
0.980
1.009
339.7
14.7
300
984
13.0
286.0
0.993
133.4
9970
0.964
0.121
-1.191
0.971
1.014
339.3
14.8
400
1312
12.4
285.4
0.991
724.6
9852
0.953
0.120
1.179
0.962
1.019
338.9
14.9
500
1640
11.1
284.7
0.988
716.0
9734
0.942
0.119
1.167
0.952
1.024
338.5
15.1
600
1969
11.1
284.1
0.986
707.4
9617
0.930
0.117
1.156
0.943
1.029
338.1
15.2
700
2297
10.4
283.4
0.984
699.0
9503
0.919
0.116
1.145
0.934
1.034
337.8
15.3
800
2625
9.8
282.8
0.981
690.6
9389
0.908
0.115
1.134
0.925
1.039
337.4
15.4
900
2953
9.1
282.1
0.979
682.3
9276
0.897
0.114
1.123
0.916
1.044
337
15.5
1000
3281
8.5
281.5
0.977
674.1
9165
0.887
0.113
1.112
0.907
1.049
336.6
15.7
1100
3609
7.8
280.8
0.975
665.9
9053
0.876
0.112
1.101
0.898
1.055
336.2
15.8
1200
3937
7.2
280.2
0.972
657.9
8944
0.865
0.111
1.090
0.889
1.060
335.8
15.9
1300
4265
6.5
279.5
0.970
649.9
8835
0.855
0.110
1.079
0.880
1.065
335.4
16.0
1400
4593
5.9
278.9
0.968
642.0
8728
0.844
0.109
1.069
0.872
1.070
335
16.2
1500
4921
5.2
278.2
0.966
634.2
8621
0.834
0.107
1.058
0.863
1.076
334.7
16.3
1600
5249
4.6
277.6
0.963
626.4
8516
0.824
0.106
1.048
0.855
1.081
334.3
16.4
1700
5577
3.9
276.9
0.961
618.7
8412
0.814
0.106
1.037
0.846
1.086
333.9
16.6
1800
5905
3.3
276.3
0.959
611.2
8309
0.804
0.104
1.027
0.838
1.092
333.5
16.7
1900
6234
2.6
275.6
0.957
603.7
8207
0.794
0.103
1.017
0.829
1.097
333.1
16.9
2000
6562
2
275
0.954
596.2
8106
0.784
0.102
1.006
0.821
1.103
332.7
17.0
2100
6890
1.3
274.3
0.952
588.8
8005
0.774
0.101
0.996
0.813
1.108
332.3
17.1
2200
7218
0.7
273.7
0.950
581.5
7906
0.765
0.100
0.986
0.805
1.114
331.9
17.3
2300
7546
0.0
273.0
0.948
574.3
7808
0.755
0.099
0.976
0.797
1.120
331.5
17.4
2400
7874
-0.6
272.4
0.945
576.2
7710
0.746
0.098
0.967
0.789
1.125
331.1
17.6
2500
8202
-1.2
271.7
0.943
560.1
7614
0.736
0.097
0.957
0.781
1.131
330.7
17.7
2600
8530
-1.9
271.1
0.941
553.1
7519
0.727
0.096
0.947
0.773
1.137
330.3
17.9
2700
8858
-2.5
270.4
0.939
546.1
7425
0.718
0.095
0.937
0.765
1.143
329.9
18.0
2800
9186
-3.2
269.8
0.936
539.3
7332
0.709
0.094
0.928
0.757
1.149
329.6
18.2
2900
9514
-3.8
269.1
0.934
532.5
7239
0.700
0.093
0.918
0.749
1.154
329.2
18.3
r
n*106
www.pipistrel.eu
9-18 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Preflight check-up pictures
Cockpit
1
Canopy, Balance weight
2
Cockpit aft
2
Nose, Pitot tube, Ventilation
3
4
Wing root
5
Undercarriage, RH wheel
5
Starboard wing - leading edge
6
www.pipistrel.eu
Starboard wingtip
7
Starboard airbrake
9
Propulsion system
10
Horizontal tail surfaces
12
TAURUS 503 LSA 9-19
Preflight check-up pictures REV. 3
Starboard wing - trailing edge
8
Wing root
10
Engine bay door
11
Vertical tail surfaces
13
www.pipistrel.eu
9-20 TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
This page is intentionally left blank.
REMOVED
Pitot tube protection cover
SET
ON
AC lights
Engine & Propeller check
Magneto RPM drop
Warm up at
RPM within limits
VERIFIED, MAX 300 RPM
2500 / 3500 RPM
ON
Magnetos
After start-up
ON
AS REQUIRED
IDLE
BOTH OPEN
CLEAR
Master switch
Choke
Throttle
Fuel valves
Area in front of aircraft
Engine start-up
SET
CHECKED
Instruments
COM, NAV
ON (PUSH)
2 POSITION
nd
Battery switch
Flaps
Brakes
RETRACTED
REMOVED
Parachute rescue system safety pin
Spoilers (if applicable)
FASTENED
SET
CLOSED
PERFORMED
Seat belts
Rudder pedals & hear rest position
Doors
Fuel system drain
Before start-up
fold here
fold here
BOTH OPEN
CHECKED
OFF
Master switch
CLOSED
OFF
Magnetos
Fuel valves
OFF
NEGATIVE
RETRACTED
SET
AS DESIRED
2nd POSITION
IDLE
AS DESIRED
SET
NEUTRAL
AC lights
Flaps
Spoilers
Brakes
Shutdown
Spoilers
Flaps
Throttle
Landing
Spoilers (if applicable)
Instruments
Flaps
Throttle
IDLE
UP
Flaps
Descent - Approach
SET
SET
2 POSITION
nd
CLOSED
RETRACTED
Elevator trim
After takeoff
Elevator trim
Flaps
Flight controls
Doors
Spoilers (if applicable)
Fuel valves
Before takeoff
Taurus 503 LSA checklist
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
This page is intentionally left blank.
www.pipistrel.eu
TAURUS 503 LSA
REV. 3
Warranty statement
Warranty applies to individual parts and components only.
The warranty does not include costs related to the transport of the product, goods and spare parts as
well as costs related to the merchandise’ temporary storage. Pipistrel does not offer guarantee for the
damage caused by every day use of the product or goods. Pipistrel does not guarantee for the lost
profit or other financial or non-financial damage to the client, objects or third party individuals .
Warranty voids:
- in case that the customer has not ratified the General Terms of ownership with his/her signature;
- in case the aircraft or the equipment is not used according to the Pipistrel’s instructions or aircraft’s
manual and eventual supplemental sheets;
- in case when the original additional and/or spare parts are replaced with non-original parts;
- in case additional equipment is built-in without Pipistrel’s prior knowledge;
- in case the purchased goods were changed or modified in any way;
- in case when the defect is caused by user’s deficient maintenance, inappropriate care and/or cleaning,
user’s negligent handling, user’s inexperience, due to use of product and/or its individual parts or
components in inadequate conditions, due to prolonged use of the product or goods, due to product
and/or parts’ over-stressing (even for a short duration), due to the fact a repair was not carried out
neither by Pipistrel nor by its authorised personnel;
- in case parts that become worn out by every day use (e.g. the covers, pneumatics, electric instruments,
electric installation, bonds and bindings, cables, brake plates, capacitors, cooling devices, various pipes,
spark-plugs, exhaust systems…)
- the owner must ensure regular engine check-outs and maintenance. Some maintenance works that
are demanded by the engine manufacturer must be carried out at Rotax’s authorised service centres.
In case the written above is not fulfilled, warranty voids.
Pipistrel LSA s.r.l.
Via Aquileia 75
34170 Gorizia
Italy, EU
info@pipistrel-usa.com
www.pipistrel-usa.com
www.pipistrel.eu
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