X-Link Data Logger
Operations & Maintenance
Manual
Includes GPRSLink, IRIDIUMLink, HSPALink and CDMALink
Part No. 8800-1190 Rev 1.76
February 2, 2018
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Includes GPRSLink, IRIDIUMLink, HSPALink and CDMALink ............................................ 1
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................... 5
1.1. Models .................................................................................................................. 6
1.2. Applications ......................................................................................................... 6
1.3. Connections .......................................................................................................... 7
1.4. Earth Ground Point............................................................................................... 8
1.5. Input Protection .................................................................................................... 8
1.6. Terminal Strips ..................................................................................................... 8
1.7. Power Connections ............................................................................................. 11
1.8. Wakeup Button ................................................................................................... 14
2. Getting Started ........................................................................................................ 15
3. Measurements ......................................................................................................... 18
3.1. Sensors ............................................................................................................... 18
3.2. Inputs Available ................................................................................................. 18
4. LinkComm ............................................................................................................... 20
4.1. Stations List View – Getting Connected ............................................................ 20
4.2. Station View – Connected or Working Offline .................................................. 26
4.3. Dashboard Tab ................................................................................................... 32
4.4. Measurements Tab ............................................................................................. 34
4.5. Data Tab ............................................................................................................. 37
4.6. Telemetry Tab .................................................................................................... 38
4.7. Other Setup......................................................................................................... 40
4.8. Diagnostics Tab .................................................................................................. 41
4.9. LinkComm for Phones and Tablets .................................................................... 46
5. Telemetry ................................................................................................................. 48
5.2. Retransmissions.................................................................................................. 50
5.3. Cell Phone Telemetry ......................................................................................... 51
5.4. Iridium Telemetry .............................................................................................. 56
5.5. Sending Messages to X-Link ............................................................................. 57
5.6. Telemetry Status ................................................................................................. 59
5.7. Message Check ................................................................................................... 61
5.8. Optimizing Data Usage ...................................................................................... 62
5.9. Transmissions and Measurements Coinciding ................................................... 63
6. Alarms ...................................................................................................................... 64
7. Setup ......................................................................................................................... 68
7.1. Measurement Setup ............................................................................................ 68
7.2. Telemetry Setup ................................................................................................. 94
7.3. Other Setup....................................................................................................... 102
8. Measurement Setup Examples............................................................................. 104
8.1. RM Young Wind Speed and Direction ............................................................ 104
8.2. Thermistor ........................................................................................................ 105
8.3. Pressure Transducer (Analog Bridge Sensor) .................................................. 106
8.4. Thermocouple Sensor ....................................................................................... 108
8.5. Tipping Bucket ................................................................................................. 109
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 3
8.6. Solar Radiation Sensor ..................................................................................... 110
8.7. SDI-12 Multi-Parameter Sensor ....................................................................... 111
8.8. ISCO Sampler triggering based on Stage ......................................................... 112
8.9. Seametrics Flow Meter..................................................................................... 113
8.10. Computing Rate of Change .............................................................................. 116
9. Logging................................................................................................................... 118
9.2. Log Events........................................................................................................ 119
10. Password ................................................................................................................ 123
10.1. Steps to Take to Protect your Station ............................................................... 123
10.2. Password Protection ......................................................................................... 123
11. Output .................................................................................................................... 127
11.1. Output Hardware .............................................................................................. 128
12. Time Keeping ........................................................................................................ 130
12.1. Iridium .............................................................................................................. 130
12.2. SDI Clock Synchronization .............................................................................. 131
13. Errors ..................................................................................................................... 132
13.1. Clearing Errors ................................................................................................. 132
13.2. Measurement Errors ......................................................................................... 132
13.3. System Errors ................................................................................................... 133
14. Command Line Interface ..................................................................................... 135
14.1. Why Use Command Line? ............................................................................... 135
14.2. About the Command Line Interface ................................................................. 135
14.3. Sending Messages ............................................................................................ 136
14.4. Status ................................................................................................................ 137
14.5. Setup ................................................................................................................. 137
14.6. Measurements................................................................................................... 139
14.7. Recording ......................................................................................................... 140
14.8. Downloading the Log ....................................................................................... 140
14.9. Examples .......................................................................................................... 141
14.10. Machine-to-Machine Communication ............................................................. 142
14.11. Auto Output ...................................................................................................... 142
14.12. Command Reference ........................................................................................ 142
14.13. Upgrading Firmware ........................................................................................ 146
15. Collecting Data ...................................................................................................... 148
15.1. Understand Your Selected Communications Method ...................................... 148
15.2. Decide where You Want the Data to Be Transmitted ...................................... 151
15.3. Estimate Communications Costs ...................................................................... 152
15.4. Sign the Agreement .......................................................................................... 155
15.5. Place the Order ................................................................................................. 156
15.6. Ordering Information ....................................................................................... 156
16. Data Formats ......................................................................................................... 160
16.1. TCP/IP Session................................................................................................. 160
16.2. Iridium Telemetry Header ................................................................................ 162
16.3. Pseudobinary B Data Format ........................................................................... 165
16.4. Pseudobinary C Data Format ........................................................................... 166
16.5. Pseudobinary D Data Format ........................................................................... 168
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 4
16.6. Six Bit Binary Encoded Format ....................................................................... 169
16.7. Pseudobinary over SMS ................................................................................... 171
16.8. SHEF and SHEFFIX Data Format ................................................................... 171
16.9. Sutron Standard CSV ....................................................................................... 173
17. More about SDI-12 ............................................................................................... 174
17.1. Overview .......................................................................................................... 174
17.2. Wiring Guidelines ............................................................................................ 175
17.3. Connector ......................................................................................................... 175
17.4. Setup of SDI sensors ........................................................................................ 175
17.5. Useful SDI commands ..................................................................................... 176
18. Modbus................................................................................................................... 177
18.1. Modbus Hardware Interface ............................................................................. 177
18.2. Modbus Setup................................................................................................... 178
18.3. Modbus Slave Function Codes......................................................................... 181
18.4. Sutron Function Codes ..................................................................................... 183
19. Appendix A – Specifications ................................................................................ 190
20. Appendix B – Sutron Customer Service Policy .................................................. 193
21. Appendix C – Commercial Warranty ................................................................. 194
21.1. Sutron Manufactured Equipment ..................................................................... 194
21.2. Non-Sutron Manufactured Equipment ............................................................. 194
21.3. Repair and Return Policy ................................................................................. 195
22. Appendix D – Installation .................................................................................... 196
22.1. Physical Mounting............................................................................................ 196
22.2. Power Budget Calculations .............................................................................. 197
22.3. Cabling Precautions.......................................................................................... 198
22.4. Antenna Mounting Details ............................................................................... 199
23. Appendix E – Approvals and Certifications ....................................................... 200
23.1. CE ..................................................................................................................... 200
23.2. Wi-Fi Module ................................................................................................... 200
23.3. IridiumLink ...................................................................................................... 201
23.4. Cellular ............................................................................................................. 202
24. Index ....................................................................................................................... 203
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 5
1. Introduction
The X-Link family of products provides simple telemetry anywhere. X-Link has
two purposes:


To collect and store data from meteorological and hydrological sensors.
To send that data wirelessly to a central system, phone or other station.
IRIDIUMLink, GPRSLink, HSPALink and CDMALink are members of the X-Link
family of products.
The only difference between the products is in the built-in communications
package:

X-Link basic unit that includes all the measurements and logging capability of
X-Link family but with no modem installed.
 IRIDIUMLink includes a transmitter that can deliver data to you from
anywhere in the world via the Iridium satellite constellation.
 GPRSLink includes a quad band GSM cell phone modem that can operate
when the unit is within range of a cell phone network of companies like AT&T
and T-Mobile.
 HSPALink includes a quad band GSM cell phone modem that can operate at
4G speeds on cell phone networks of companies like AT&T and T-Mobile.
 CDMALink includes a CMDA cell phone modem that uses networks of
companies like Sprint and Verizon.
Each X-Link has the same sensor connectors and is capable of making the same
sensor measurements. Up to 16 independent measurements can be set up to
collect data via SDI-12, analog, and digital interfaces.
LinkComm software is used to easily set up and maintain X-Link either via a
direct USB connection or remotely over cell, satellite, or Wi-Fi. LinkComm runs
on Windows PC, OS X, iPhone/iPad, and Android platforms.
X-Link was built to work with Sutron WIN. Sutron WIN makes it easy to collect
data from multiple stations over different communication networks. Sutron WIN
makes it possible to view all your data using a web browser.
Sutron Corporation
1.1.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 6
Models
X-Link comes in several versions to meet varied customer needs. The table below
shows the models currently offered. Check with Sutron for additional models or
for a customized version of X-Link.
Model
X-Link-1
X-Link-1E
IRIDIUMLink-1
IRIDIUMLink-1C
IRIDIUMLink-1E
IRIDIUMLink-1L
GPRSLink-1
GPRSLink-1C
GPRSLink-1E
GPRSLink-1L
HSPALink-1
HSPALink-1C
HSPALink-1E
HSPALink-1L
CMDALink-1
CDMALink-1C
CDMALink-1E
CDMALink-1L
1.2.
Description
Basic unit with no modem, provides measurement and data logging
capability
Basic unit in NEMA-4 box with no modem
Basic IRIDIUMLink unit
IRIDIUMLink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with battery and internal antenna
IRIDIUMLink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with connector for external antenna
IRIDIUMLink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with connector for external antenna with a
antenna lightning arrestor
Basic GPRSLink for operation on GSM networks such as T-Mobile, AT&T,
most all International service providers.
GPRSLink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with battery and internal antenna
GPRSLink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with connector for external antenna
GPRSLink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with connector for external antenna with a
antenna lightning arrestor
Basic HSPALink for operation on GSM networks such as T-Mobile, AT&T,
most all International service providers. Allows for 4G speeds.
HSPALink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with battery and internal antenna
HSPALink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with connector for external antenna
HSPALink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with connector for external antenna with a
antenna lightning arrestor
Basic CDMALink for operation on Verizon and Sprint networks
CDMALink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with battery and internal antenna
CDMALink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with connector for external antenna
CDMALink-1 in a NEMA-4 box with connector for external antenna with a
antenna lightning arrestor
Applications
X-Link products are designed to operate in a wide range of applications
including:








Surface water level, flow and quality
Groundwater level and quality
Offshore monitoring
Mining / geotechnical
Weather monitoring and warning
Oceanic monitoring and warning
Oil and gas production
Any low-power, remote data acquisition system
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 7
1.3.
Connections
1.3.1.
USB Connector
X-Link products come with a mini USB connector for connection to the USB port
on a computer. X-Link uses the USB port for serial data communication only.
Memory sticks are not supported.
LinkComm software is used to talk to an X-Link over the USB cable. LinkComm
can use USB on both Windows PCs and Mac OS X. LinkComm software ships with
every X-Link. However, the latest version is always available from
http://www.sutron.com/downloads.htm (search on “LinkComm”).
Virtual COM Port drivers created by FTDI are included with LinkComm software.
The drivers for Windows PCs are named “CDM v2.0.8.30 WHQL Certified.exe”.
The drivers for OS X (v10.9+) are named “FTDIUSBSerialDriver_v2_3.dmg”.
Please install the drivers before connecting X-Link to your PC.
Some Windows PCs are able to install the drivers automatically but only if the PC
is connected to the internet. If the PC is not connected to the internet, and XLink is connected to the PC before the drivers are installed, LinkComm may not
be able to communicate with X-Link. In that case, please install the provided
drivers and connect X-Link to a different USB port. For further help with the
drivers, please visit the FTDI website.
You will not be able to talk to X-Link without a successful installation of this
driver.
The USB connector is not compatible with USB memory sticks or the USB
connection on a smart phone or PDA.
Sutron Corporation
1.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 8
Earth Ground Point
A connection point has been provided for an Earth ground point. This critical
connection always should be made first and should never be overlooked.
Any time a sensor cable is attached to the terminal strip, exposure to dangerous
electrical surges is possible. There are many possible causes, but the most
common source of a surge is created from nearby lightning strikes. Protection is
afforded only when the earth ground is properly connected to a qualified ground
source.
Failure to properly connect the Earth ground point will lead to failures in the
field due to surges.
To install a proper ground connection point:
1. Use a copper ground rod driven into the ground at least 6 feet.
2. Attach a very heavy gauge (#4 Solid Copper) wire between the rod and the XLink Earth ground point. The connection point can accept up to a 4 gauge
solid copper wire. If a heavier gauge copper wire is used to connect to the
ground rod, a reducer may be necessary to connect to the terminal on X-Link.
Firmly secure the screw on the ground point firmly on the copper wire. Do not
rely on AC power ground connections as they are not always properly
grounded and may introduce other surges.
1.5.
Input Protection
X-Link features gas tube protection on all sensor inputs.
1.6.
Terminal Strips
The two terminal strips built into X-Link provide the connections for battery,
solar panel, sensors, and outputs. The table below describes the purpose of each
connection. Additional information on using the connections follows.
Sutron Corporation
Terminal
Block
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 9
Description
Notes
1
GND
Main Battery/Power -
2
+ BATTERY (8-16V)
Main Battery/Power +
3
GND
Solar Panel -
4
+ SOLAR (30W MAX)
Solar Panel +
5
RS485 A
SDI-12 over RS-485, Modbus slave
6
RS485 B
SDI-12 over RS-485, Modbus slave
7
WS/DIG IN1
Wind Speed or Digital Input 1
8
TB/DIG IN 2
Tipping Bucket or Digital Input 2
9
GND
10
+SW POWER
11
DOUT
12
GND
Ground for sensor
Switched Power (turned on during warm-up and analog
sensor measurement, 500mA max)
Digital Output (open collector, turned on manually, with
alarms, or via equations)
Ground for SDI-12
13
SDI-12 PWR
Power to SDI-12 sensors (500 mA max)
14
SDI-12 DATA
SDI-12 Data
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 10
Terminal
Block
26
AGND
Analog ground
25
Analog 0-5V ‘A’
Voltage input for sensors with 0-5V output
24
AGND
Analog ground
23
Analog 0-5V ‘B’
Voltage input for sensors with 0-5V output
22
DIFF ‘C’ (- )
Differential voltage input for bridge type sensors
21
DIFF ‘C’ (+)
Differential voltage input for bridge type sensors
20
AGND
19
VREF
18
DIFF ‘D’ (- )
Analog ground
2.5V output (turned on during warm-up and analog
sensor measurement)
Differential voltage input for bridge type sensors
17
DIFF ‘D’ (+)
Differential voltage input for bridge type sensors
16
AGND
Analog ground
15
4-20ma IN
Earth GND
Earth Ground
Input for 4-20ma sensor
Attach via a heavy gauge (4 to 10 AWG) wire to earth
ground rod driven 6 feet into earth.
Description
Notes
Sutron Corporation
1.7.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 11
Power Connections
1.7.1.1.
Battery
X-Link requires an external +12V power source to operate. The most common
power source is a lead-acid or gel cell type battery.
In the figure above, the battery and solar panel are shown connected
Connect the battery to terminals #1 and #2 labeled - GND and + Battery (8-16V)
on the external terminal strip.
The acceptable voltage range for X-Link to operate correctly is 8 to 16 volts. The
capacity of the battery shall be chosen to support the overall station power
budget reflecting the type of sensors, how often they are measured, and desired
length of operation without solar power input. Typical small stations reading a
few sensors once per hour will find the 4 AHr battery sufficient. Power hungry
sensors and aggressive measurement schedules will require larger batteries and
or larger solar panels.
If a SDI-12 sensor is used, a minimum of 10V may be required.
The use of 4-20ma sensors may also necessitate using a battery of 12V
minimum. Consult the sensor manual for requirements.
1.7.1.2.
Solar Panel
X-Link features a built-in solar power regulator capable of handling up to 30
watts. Connect the solar panel to terminals #3 Solar Panel - and #4 Solar Panel +.
See figure above for connection details.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 12
The solar panel input with sufficient sun illuminating the panel will power the
station in situations where the battery needs to be removed from the circuit
momentarily for replacement. Long term operation without the battery
connected is not recommended and transmissions via internal Iridium or Cellular
modems may not be possible due to the regulator not being capable of supplying
the necessary current during transmissions.
o The battery will get charged via the solar power connector.
o The solar input will handle voltages from 16 to 22 Volts DC.
o You may connect a power source other than a solar panel (e.g. a power
supply) as long as it conforms to the voltage specification above. Please
note that a battery is still required for long term operation and to ensure
enough current is available for reliable transmissions.
Typical stations with few sensors measuring infrequently may find a 2W or 5W
panel sufficient while stations with more frequent measurements will require a
larger 10 Watt or larger panel.
The internal solar panel charger is designed to output up to 1.5 Amps when peak
charging conditions from a solar panel are present. The Maximum battery size
recommended for this charger is a 4AHr gel cell battery. If the station requires
larger battery sizes, Sutron recommends using an external solar charger
regulator such as the Sutron model 5100-0411 or similar.
Assistance in calculating power budgets may be found here:
http://www.sutron.com/customerservice/Conversions_Calcuations/PowerBudget.htm
1.7.2.
SDI-12 Connections
SDI-12 sensors connect to terminals #12, #13 and #14 labeled as GND, SDI-12
PWR and SDI-12 Data. Because SDI-12 sensors are addressable, multiple SDI-12
sensors may connected to these terminals. (See page 79.)
1.7.3.
Tipping Bucket Connection
The tipping bucket connection is #8, labeled TB/DIN IN 2, and #9, labeled GND.
This input is compatible with a dry contact switch common to most tipping
buckets. In most circumstances it doesn’t matter which side of the switch is
connected to TB/DIN IN and GND. (See page 109.)
1.7.4.
Wind Speed Connection
The wind speed connection is #7, labeled WS/DIG IN 1. This input is compatible
with wind sensors with a 0-5 volt frequency output. Typically, the sensor will also
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 13
be connected to #10, + SW Power and #9 GND. For measurement setup, see the
wind speed section. (See page 104.)
1.7.5.
Digital Inputs
WS/DIG IN 1 and TB/DIG IN 2 are also general purpose digital inputs capable of
making counter, frequency, period, or level measurements. The maximum
frequency of any digital input is 10Khz.
1.7.6.
Analog Connections
The terminal has connections for five analog inputs.


The inputs labeled Analog A and Analog B are for 0-5V sensors.
The inputs labeled Analog C, and Analog D support +/-39mv, +/-312mV or +/2.5V sensors.
 There is a separate connection for 4-20ma sensors.
Detailed notes describing how to connect sensors to the terminal blocks are
provided in the Setup section of this manual, beginning on page 68.
1.7.7.
RS-485
X-Link can use the RS-485 connection in two ways: SDI-12 and Modbus.
1.7.7.1.
Modbus over RS-485
X-Link can function as a Modbus slave. In this mode, it can provide
measurement results, log file access, and more. Please see page 177 for details.
1.7.7.2.
SDI-12 over RS-485
Sutron products such as the CF Bubbler support this connection. SDI-12 over RS485 is generally used to allow longer cable lengths.
RS-485 does NOT provide power to the sensor. Do not forget to provide
appropriate power to the sensor!
1.7.8.
Outputs
The following output capability exists in the X-Link product.
1.7.8.1.
Digital Output
On Terminal #11 is the digital output (DOUT). It is an open collector switch. The
switch can be turned on and off manually (by issuing a command via LinkComm
or via a cellular, satellite, or Wi-Fi message), it can be turned on when the station
goes into alarms.
1.7.8.2.
Switched Power
Terminal #10 is the switched battery output. It is labeled +SW POWER.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 14
This line will output a voltage during the warmup for the following measurement
types: analog, SDI-12, digital, and Modbus. It will also always turn on when an
analog measurement is made.
This line will output whatever voltage is powering X-Link on the battery terminal.
1.7.8.3.
VREF
Terminal #19 outputs a 2.5 V reference during the warmup for an analog sensor
and when an analog measurement is made.
1.8.
Wakeup Button
X-Link models manufactured in 2013 or later have a wakeup button on the top
right side of the box.
Pushing the button will have X-Link turn on its Wi-Fi chip and modem. When
visiting a field station, push the button, then use your mobile phone or tablet to
connect to X-Link via Wi-Fi.
When the button is pushed, the green LED will light up for a few seconds,
indicating that Wi-Fi is now on.
If the button is held down for 5 seconds, the red LED will come on too. Keep
holding the button until the red LED turns off in order to reboot X-Link.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 15
2. Getting Started
Follow these steps to become familiar with X-Link.
1. Connect power to pins 1 and 2 as shown on page 11. A 9V battery will work
fine for short-term testing without transmitting. For longer operation or if
testing with a SDI-12 sensor, connect a larger battery or power supply.
Typical applications use a 4AH or 7AH battery with a 5 to 10 watt solar panel.
2. As soon as power is applied, the LED will flash, first rapidly and then every
several seconds. This indicates the X-Link is operating.
3. Download the LinkComm program. Go to
http://www.sutron.com/downloads.htm, search on “LinkComm”, and
download the installation package for your operating system, e.g.,
“Windows”, “OSX”, or “Android” (for “iOS”, please use App Store on your
mobile device)
o For Windows, extract all files to a folder on your computer. You may run
LinkComm directly from this folder by double-clicking “LinkComm.exe”,
or, to install LinkComm so that it appears on the Start menu, double-click
“setup.exe” (Administrator privileges are required to install LinkComm)
o For OSX, mount the downloaded disk image, and copy the LinkComm
application bundle to your “Applications” folder
o The download package contains all required software including
LinkComm, X-Link upgrade files, USB drivers, and the user manual
4. Connect the USB cable from your computer to X-Link. If the computer does
not automatically install the FTDI USB-to-serial drivers for you, install them
manually.
a. On Windows, if you installed LinkComm, then simply select Install X-Link
USB Drivers from the Windows start menu. Or, locate and run
“CDM_v2.08.30 WHQL Certified.exe” in the installation package you
downloaded in the previous step
b. On OSX, locate and run the installer in “FTDIUSBSerialBus_v2_3.dmg”
5. Run LinkComm
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 16
a. In the window that comes up, press “+” to create a new station. Set
“Station type” to match your type of X-Link, set “Connect type” to
“Serial”, and set “COM port” to the port assigned to X-Link
b. Press the “Connect” button to connect to X-Link. LinkComm will connect
to X-Link and download the setup and recent data (if those options are
selected in the station setup, above)
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 17
6. Select the Measurements tab. This is where you will set up X-Link to
measure, process, and log data. If the unit is in its factory default condition,
there will be no measurements enabled. To set up measurements, see page
68.
We recommend that you setup and test all measurements before deploying
the station in the field.
7. Select the Telemetry tab. This is where you will set up X-Link to transmit the
data. If the unit is in its factory default condition, there will be no telemetry
enabled. To set up telemetry, see page 94.
We recommend that you setup and test the telemetry setup before deploying
the station in the field.
8. Select the Diagnostics tab. This is where you set the unit to factory defaults
or to use the terminal tool. To set up diagnostics, see page 41.
9. To access the main menu, press the
button in the upper left. Use options
on the main menu to send/get setups, start/stop recording, exit the
application, etc.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 18
3. Measurements
A measurement is the process of collecting data from a sensor. X-Link provides
the ability to establish up to 16 measurements, each with its unique setup. Each
measurement will occur periodically and provide one or more results, which are
usually related to weather conditions.
Measurement results may be logged. The log can hold almost 250,000 unique
readings. Logged measurement results may be transmitted via cellular or
satellite modems.
3.1.
Sensors
As a data logger, one of X-Link's primary functions is to measure and log data
from sensors. All commonly used environmental sensors are supported.
Here is a list of some of the sensors supported and available through Sutron:






3.2.
AT/RH (Air temperature and relative humidity) - using analog or SDI-12
sensors
Precipitation – using a tipping bucket
Wind Speed / Wind Direction - RM Young or Gill ultrasonic via frequency,
analog, and SDI-12 inputs (includes vector averaging)
Stage - using SDI-12 shaft encoder, radar level recorder, stage discharge
recorder, analog submersible, bubbler
Barometric Pressure - using an SDI-12 Accubar or a built-in Accubar.
Solar Radiation via differential analog input
Inputs Available
Each of these inputs can have one sensor connected to it, except for SDI-12,
which can connect to several sensors.
Analog inputs





Two 0-5 V single ended analog inputs
Two differential analog Inputs (for bridge type sensors)
One 4-20mA input
Digital inputs
Two general purpose digital inputs that can be set up as
o Counter digital input (e.g. tipping bucket)
o Frequency/period input (e.g. wind speed)
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 19
o Level digital inputs (read line state as 1 or 0)


RS-485
o Support for certain sensors such as the Seametrics flow meter
SDI-12 input
o SDI-12 V1.3 compliant supports multiple sensors all connected to the
same bus

One Accubar connector (internal)
Please see the Measurement Setup section, beginning on page 68, for details on
how to set up a measurement.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 20
4. LinkComm
LinkComm is a software application designed to talk to X-Link. LinkComm is free.
LinkComm is used to:






Check X-Link status
Set up an X-Link station
Download and graph the log from X-Link
Upgrade X-Link firmware
Calibrate connected sensors
…and more...
Download LinkComm from here: http://www.sutron.com/downloads.htm
(search on “LinkComm”).
The PC version is supported on Windows 7 and higher. Operation on Windows
XP is possible so long as a graphics driver is installed that fully supports either
OpenGL v2.1 or DirectX 9.0.
The version for Mac supports OSX 10.x and above.
Mobile versions of LinkComm are also available to run on Apple iPad and iPhone,
and on Google Android phones and tablets. They can be found on the Apple®
App Store™, and Google® Play Store™, respectively. Quick Start Guides that
describe how to use the mobile versions of LinkComm are also available for
download from the link above.
To connect LinkComm to X-Link via USB, the FTDI USB to serial drivers must be
installed. Please see section 2, “Getting Started”, for details on how to get these
installed.
4.1.
Stations List View – Getting Connected
LinkComm requires you create a station definition before you can connect to it
or work on its setup. You’ll normally create an entry in the Stations list for every
station you manage on an on-going basis. It’s easy to add and delete station
entries, so you’ll also often create a temporary station entry for ad-hoc
connections.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 21
You use LinkComm’s “Stations List View” (sometimes called “Connect View”) to
perform station management. This is the view you first see when LinkComm
starts up.
To add a new station, press the “+” button in the stations list header. To delete a
station definition, select the station and then press the minus sign in the stations
list header. LinkComm will prompt to make sure you really want to delete the
station, since this action cannot be undone.
Note: All settings (station and connect settings, notes, and site images) for
every station you define are saved automatically as you make changes. Hence,
there is no need to select any kind of “Save” menu item.
4.1.1.
Station Settings
The top portion of the Station List View is where you configure station settings
like station type and name. This is also where you’ll find the Connect and Work
Offline buttons.
When setting up a new station, be sure to set “Station type” to the type of X-Link
you’re setting up. Also be sure to set “Station name” to the name you desire for
the station. This name is updated if it differs from the name stored in X-Link
anytime you get the setup from the actual X-Link, though you will be prompted
first regarding the difference, if any.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 22
You can change the picture used for your station definition by selecting the
“Change…” text underneath the picture. The menu that pops-up also gives you
the ability to restore the picture to its default for the station type. If a camera is
available, you also have the option of taking the picture to be used.
Press the “Connect” button to connect to X-Link. When connected, you are able
to see current data values, historical data, and the setup in the unit.
Press the “Work Offline” button if you want to make changes to the setup stored
locally for the station, without connecting to X-Link. When you later connect to
X-Link, LinkComm will notice the setup in the unit is different than the one
stored locally, and will ask you which one to use (LinkComm first asks if you want
to retrieve the setup from X-Link. If you answer “No”, LinkComm then asks you if
you want to send the local setup to X-Link).
4.1.2.
Connection Settings
There are several ways to connect to X-Link:




Directly via USB cable
Remotely via TCP/IP
Remotely through the Sutron Redirector
Locally via X-Link’s Wi-Fi
Basic features, such as checking status and changing setup are available via all
connection types. However, some features, such as upgrading the firmware, are
available only over USB. Additionally, changing some of the settings and
disabling the password is not possible remotely.
“Check setup on connect”, when checked, will cause LinkComm to retrieve the
setup from X-Link every time you connect. You may choose to disable this
feature to reduce data costs (e.g., for cellular connections that cost money).
“Get recent data on connect”, when checked, will cause LinkComm to download
the last week of data for display in a graph on the dashboard tab, every time you
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 23
connect to X-Link. This can be a considerable amount of data (several k-bytes).
Here again, you may choose to disable this feature to reduce data costs.
4.1.2.1.
Connecting via USB
LinkComm can connect directly to X-Link via a USB cable. Simply connect a USB
cable from your computer to X-Link.
USB drivers are included in the LinkComm download package. These drivers are
required to connect to X-Link over USB. Please see Section 2, Getting Started,
for more details on their installation.
Please be sure to follow the instructions in Section 2, “Getting Started”, to
download and run LinkComm, connect it to X-Link, and verify communications
before setting out to the field. Indeed, we recommend that station setup be
completed and tested at the office before deploying the station.
To connect via USB, set “Connect type” to “Serial”, and then set “COM port” to
the port assigned to X-Link by the operating system.
When X-Link is first connected to a USB port, Windows will create a virtual Com
port (e.g. COM5). Each time the cable is connected to a different USB connection,
a new port is created. The port assignment can be confirmed using Windows
Device Manager (Control Panel). If LinkComm does not list the assigned port,
please enter it manually.
4.1.2.2.
Connecting Remotely
LinkComm can also talk to a GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink over the
internet. To do so, GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink need to have the
Listening setting enabled.
Alternatively, to reduce power consumption, the system can be configured to
check for messages periodically. A message can be sent to the station asking it
to temporarily turn on listening. Please see the Message Check section on page
61 and Sending Messages to X-Link on page 57.
4.1.2.2.1.
TCP/IP
If the IP address of an HSPALink, GPRSLink, or CDMALink is known, it can be
connected to directly. It is up to cell service provider to
1. Give a static IP address. This means that the IP address of X-Link does not
change over time. Alternatively, you may send an SMS to the X-Link
asking what its current IP address is.
2. Provide VPN access. It is not always possible to directly connect to X-Link
over the internet because it is protected by the cell service provider’s
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 24
firewall. In this case, it is necessary to first connect to a VPN provided by
the cell service provider.
4.1.2.2.2.
The Redirector
Sutron provides a “redirector” service that can be used to access a GPRSLink,
HSPALink, or CDMALink station that uses a SIM card provided by Sutron. The IP
addresses of these SIM cards are behind a firewall, and so need special steps to
be taken for access.
When obtaining one of these SIM cards from Sutron, you will also receive a user
name, password, and station name to use when setting up your station
connection in LinkComm. After entering your user name and password, you may
press the “Update Station Names” button to retrieve the list of stations that are
associated with your redirector account.
4.1.2.2.3.
Dropped Connections
Please note that remote connections over cell networks, including those made
over Redirector, are not always the most reliable.
An internet TPC/IP connection to X-Link can get dropped. This can happen after
a timeout or due to a poor connection. If the connection is dropped, reconnect
by pressing the “Connect” button in the header, or by returning to the Stations
List view and pressing the “Connect” button
4.1.2.3.
Connecting via Wi-Fi
X-Link can provide a Wi-Fi hotspot that LinkComm can connect to. The Wi-Fi
feature is useful for connecting to X-Link with a mobile phone, tablet, or laptop.
X-Link models manufactured in 2013 or later feature Wi-Fi. These units are
identifiable by the button on the right side of the box.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 25
In order for LinkComm to connect to X-Link via Wi-Fi, the computer that is
running LinkComm must first connect to the Wi-Fi hotspot provided by X-Link.
To connect to X-Link via Wi-Fi, follow this sequence:
1. Have X-Link turn on the Wi-Fi by pushing the wakeup button located on
the right side of X-Link. X-Link will blink the green LED to acknowledge
the button press. Please see below for other ways to turn on Wi-Fi.
2. Have your computer (Laptop, iPhone, or Android) connect to X-Link’s WiFi hotspot.
a. X-Link will name its hotspot SutronXL_xxxx_aaaa, where xxxx is
the station name and aaaa is a unique number.
3. Create a new station in LinkComm with “Connect type” set to “Station
WiFi” (if LinkComm detects you are connected to an X-Link via WiFi, it will
set this type by default)
a. If you need to manually enter the IP address for X-Link, it is
192.168.88.1:3000.
4. LinkComm is now connected to X-Link. It is possible to check status,
change setup, download log, and perform almost all other operations.
5. Once the LinkComm session is complete, make sure to disconnect from
X-Link's WiFi hotspot.
In order to conserve power, X-Link only turns on the Wi-Fi hot spot at certain
times. There are two settings that control when X-Link turns on the Wi-Fi
hotspot:

Wifi Enable: If this setting is off, X-Link will never turn on it’s Wi-Fi
automatically. Turn Wifi Enable off if there are no plans to connect to XLink via Wi-Fi. Please note that pressing the wakeup button will turn on
the Wi-Fi hotspot even if Wifi Enable is off.

Wifi Always On: if this setting is on, the Wi-Fi spot provided by X-Link will
always be turned on. Turning this setting on will result in increased
power consumption, but it will make X-Link always available to connect
to.
The table below describes when the Wi-Fi hotspot is on.
Wifi
Enable
Wifi
On
Always
OFF
-
The Wi-Fi hotspot is off. It is only turned on if the wakeup
button is pressed. It stays on for one hour after the
button press.
ON
ON
The Wi-Fi hotspot is always on.
Result
Sutron Corporation
ON
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 26
OFF
The Wi-Fi hotspot is turned on for 10 minutes:
 at boot up
 when the station is connected to, whether via
USB, over the modem, or over Wi-Fi
 after an SMS is received
 after a TXLISTEN command.
The Wi-Fi hotspot turns on for one hour when:
 The wakeup button is pressed
 The station goes into alarm
4.1.3.
Notes
This section is typically used to enter notes in this section related to station
setup and maintenance. For example, you might store information about the last
time the station was visited, plans for future visits, and notes on calibrations, etc.
4.1.4.
Site Images
This section allows you store pictures of the site. Click “Add New Image” to
browse for images to store. If a camera is available, you’ll have the option to
take pictures to store as new site images.
When you click a site image, it expands to fill the available window.
To delete a site image, right-click (or press-and-hold) the image and select
“Delete Site Image” in the subsequent prompt.
4.1.5.
Main Menu While in Stations List View
Press the
button in the upper left to access the main menu. When the Station
list view is active, the main menu offers options to:




4.2.
See “About…” information
Visit the Sutron website
View the LinkComm event log (useful for debugging with customer service)
Exit the app (not present on mobile app)
Station View – Connected or Working Offline
After you press either “Connect” or “Work Offline” in the stations list view,
LinkComm transitions to the “Station View”, where you see several tabs, e.g.,
Dashboard, Measurements, Data, etc., each showing information about status
and/or setup for the selected X-Link.
The following picture is of the station view with the Dashboard tab selected:
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 27
The main menu is accessed by pressing the
button in the upper left. Different
tabs are selected by pressing the tab buttons at the bottom of the view. The
station view header contains two important buttons in the upper right,
described next.
4.2.1.
4.2.2.
Connect Button
The right header button is the “Connect Button”, and shows the status of the
current connection from LinkComm to X-Link. The button has two possible
states:
LinkComm is connected
to X-Link
Pressing the button in this state will cause LinkComm
to disconnect from X-Link
LinkComm is not
connected to X-Link
Pressing the button in this state will cause LinkComm
to try to connect to X-Link
Setup Status Button
The left header button is the “setup status button”. This button shows status
related to the setup, including whether the setup is “in-sync”, i.e., the same in
both LinkComm and X-Link, and recording status.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 28
Pressing the setup status button typically prompts the user to take the next
logical step towards getting the setup in-sync between LinkComm and X-Link,
with recording on.
Note: When the setup displayed by LinkComm is the same as the setup in XLink, then we say the setups are “in-sync”. When the setups are not the same,
the setup status button displays a warning sign, and you must send the setup
to X-Link to get the setups “in-sync”.
After making changes to the setup locally, you need to send those changes to XLink to bring the setups “in-sync”. You do this by pressing the setup status
button (or by selecting the main menu item, “Send Setup to X-Link”).
The following table describes the different states maintained by the setup status
button, and describes what happens when you press the button in each of the
states:
LinkComm is connected
to X-Link, recording is ON,
and the setups are “insync”
Press the button to turn off recording. LinkComm
will prompt for confirmation.
A change has been made
to the setup in LinkComm
(it no longer matches the
setup in X-Link)
Press the button to send setup changes to X-Link.
LinkComm will prompt for confirmation. If “Yes”,
only the changes required to be “in-sync” are sent. If
“No”, LinkComm prompts to retrieve the setup from
X-Link, overwriting local changes
The setup in X-Link is
unknown, and so may
differ from the one
displayed by LinkComm
Press the button to send the setup to X-Link.
LinkComm will prompt for confirmation. If “Yes”,
LinkComm first sets the setup in X-Link to defaults,
and then sends the changes required to be in-sync
Recording is OFF in X-Link.
This means no
measurements are being
made
Press the button to turn recording ON in X-Link.
LinkComm will prompt for confirmation
LinkComm is working off
line (not connected to XLink)
Press the button to connect to X-Link
Sutron Corporation
4.2.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 29
Working with Setups
Since both LinkComm and X-Link maintain separate setups, working with setups
can be a bit tricky. This section explains how to work with setups in more detail,
so you can be sure X-Link is always running the setup you intend.
An X-Link's setup dictates how it will behave when it is turned on: what sensors
to collect data from, where to transmit data, and so on. LinkComm is used to set
up a station and to manage setup files.
You make changes to the setup using the Measurements and Telemetry tabs
(described in later sections). The station name may be changed using the
Dashboard tab.
LinkComm keeps a copy of the station setup locally. It is this setup that you see
displayed in LinkComm. As you make changes to the setup, it is automatically
saved locally, so there is no need to select a “Save” menu item or button.
However, you do need to send the setup to X-Link.
The setup that is shown in LinkComm is not necessarily the same setup that is
in a connected X-Link


To read a setup from an X-Link and show it in LinkComm, you may either use
the setup status button as described in the previous section, or select the
Get Setup From X-Link item from the main menu
To give a setup created by LinkComm to X-Link, you may either use the setup
status button as described in the previous section, or select the Send Setup
To X-Link item from the main menu
Unless the setup status button menu item is selected, or the Send Setup to XLink button is clicked, none of the changes made to the setup in LinkComm will
be in X-Link!
4.2.3.1.
Getting Started with Setup
When you create a station definition in LinkComm, the local setup is empty. If
you then connect to X-Link and get the setup, the setup in X-Link becomes the
new local setup, no questions asked (since LinkComm didn’t have a previous
setup).
4.2.3.2.
Working Offline
To “work offline” means to make changes to the local setup while disconnected
from X-Link. You enter this mode by selecting “Work Offline” in the stations list
view. The changes you make to the setup are automatically saved.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 30
When you later connect to X-Link, you need to send the setup to X-Link to bring
the setups “in-sync”. If you checked “Get setup on connect” in the station’s
Connection Settings, then when you first connect, LinkComm will prompt to
overwrite your changes. If you answer “No”, LinkComm will then prompt to send
your changes to X-Link. Answer “Yes” at this point to bring the setups “in-sync”.
4.2.3.3.
Handling Setup Differences Following Setup Send
On some occasions, LinkComm will detect that differences remain after sending
setup changes to X-Link. This can happen because of a communication error, but
more commonly, it occurs because X-Link doesn’t allow certain changes to occur
remotely.
In any case, when LinkComm detects such a difference exists, LinkComm warns
you that changes still exist, and will offer a dialog to “View Differences”. To
rectify the situation, it is usually best to get the setup from X-Link to again be “insync”, and then try making and sending your changes again.
4.2.3.4.
Setup Files
You can save an X-Link setup to a file and later re-use that setup by loading it
into LinkComm. To save an X-Link setup to a file, select Export setup… from the
main menu.
You may find it helpful to save reference copies of setups outside of LinkComm,
as a backup in case you accidentally overwrite changes to the setup in
LinkComm. Use the export setup menu item to achieve this.
To load an X-Link setup from a file, select Import setup… from the main menu.
After loading the setup file, you still need to send the changes to X-Link. As
always, use either the setup status button, or the Send Setup to X-Link menu
item, to send the setup to X-Link.
4.2.3.5.
Metadata - Pictures, Wiring Diagrams, and Special Text
LinkComm enables you to associate pictures, wiring diagrams, and special text
items with your X-Link station definitions. This “metadata” is NOT stored in the
X-Link logger, since the logger needs to use its storage space for more important
things like sensor readings.
Some examples of metadata in LinkComm:


Station picture, notes, and site images
Measurement picture, model, manufacturer, description, units
Metadata is typically unique for a given station. If LinkComm detects you’ve
started using a station definition with a different X-Link, LinkComm will prompt
whether to delete the metadata. This can save you time in clearing it manually.
Sutron Corporation
4.2.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 31
Main Menu While in Station View
Press the
button in the upper left to access the main menu. When a station
view is active, the main menu offers the following options:
Stations
Connect…
Disconnect and return to the Stations List
View
Log in…
LinkComm prompts for password and
then attempts to log in to X-Link
Change password…
LinkComm prompts for new password to
use to log in to X-Link
Import setup…
Load a setup from an external file. The
setup file was typically saved by a prior
“Export setup…” action
Export setup…
Save the current setup to an external file.
The setup file is a text file containing
property-value assignments
Send setup to X-Link
Send the current setup to X-Link*
Get setup from X-Link
Get the setup from X-Link*
Start/Stop recording…
Start (or Stop, if applicable) recording*
About…
Display a dialog showing information
about LinkComm, including version
Sutron Website…
Visit the Sutron website
Event Log…
Show LinkComm event log. This is a text
file showing diagnostic information about
LinkComm operation
Exit
Exit LinkComm (not present in mobile
app)
Setup
Help
Exit
* - not present if working offline
Sutron Corporation
4.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 32
Dashboard Tab
The Dashboard tab is the first tab displayed after you connect to X-Link. When
LinkComm connects to X-Link, it always retrieves the current station status, and
current data values for measurements, and displays this data on the Dashboard.
The data displayed on the Dashboard always reflects the state of X-Link the last
time you refreshed status, regardless of the measurements you may or may
not have defined under Measurements.



4.3.1.
To refresh the current status, click the Refresh Status button
To reset the station status, including the transmission counters, tallies and
system errors, click the Clear Status button. Once the status is reset, the
previous status is lost
To show the status text actually received from the logger, press the Show
Details button
Station Status
The upper left of the Dashboard tab displays the most important information
about the station, including the station time, recording start time, number of
measurements enabled, etc.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 33
High level telemetry status is also shown on this page. To see low level details
about telemetry, please see the Telemetry tab. If the station has any active
errors, these are shown in RED just below the status area.
4.3.2.
Current Data
Just below the station status area, LinkComm displays current data values, the
time the data values were measured, and the alarm status for each data item.
This data is updated every time you click Refresh Status.
4.3.3.
Recent Data Graph
A graph of the recent data (over the last 7 days) is displayed next to current data,
for each item being measured by X-Link. This graph is automatically populated
with data on connect only if you have Get recent data on connect checked in the
station Connection Settings.
Right-clicking on the graph (or touching the graph in the mobile app), reveals a
pop-up menu that allows you to:


4.3.4.
Refresh recent data (all items, not just the selected)
View the current data item in the larger graph on the Data tab
Changing the Station Name
The station name can only be changed from the Dashboard tab, and is actually
the only setup item that can be changed from the Dashboard tab. To change the
station name, press the blue “edit” text, next to the station name.
LinkComm will prompt for the new station name. Just as with every other station
setup change, the change is not complete until you have sent the setup to X-Link.
Do this using either the setup status button in the main header, or the Send
Setup to X-Link item in the main menu.
Sutron Corporation
4.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 34
Measurements Tab
The measurements tab is the first tab displayed when you select Work Offline in
the stations list view. This is the tab where all sensors are configured. Up to 16
sensors may be enabled and configured. The measurements tab also provides
some test functions to help you ensure the sensor is properly configured.
The left side of the measurements tab shows a list of all possible measurements.
The right side of the measurements tab shows the details of the selected
measurement. Only the high level details of using the measurements tab is
discussed here. See Measurement Setup for details on configuring measurement
settings.
4.4.1.
Using Sensor Templates
LinkComm provides templates for many sensors often used with X-Link. The
templates configure default settings for the most important sensor parameters,
and also includes sensor metadata, e.g., a picture of the sensor, its wiring
diagram, manufacturer, model, description, and units.
Note: Sensor metadata (picture, wiring diagram, etc.), is NOT stored in the XLink logger, but only in the station definition in LinkComm.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 35
To set up a sensor using a sensor template, press the Sensor Template… button.
The following dialog is displayed.
You browse for different available templates by pressing the arrows displayed
over the sensor picture (which are only shown when the mouse hovers over
them), or by using the Model: drop-down control. On LinkComm for mobile
devices, you can swipe the sensor image with your finger to select different
templates.
Use Filter Options to show only a subset of sensor templates. For example, you
can show only those sensor templates for a particular Manufacturer, or only
those sensor templates for a particular sensor Interface (SDI-12, Analog, Digital,
etc.).
To use the selected template for configuring the measurement, press the Select
button. The settings from the template are then applied to the measurement
setup. As always, the changes must be sent to X-Link in order to take effect. Do
this either by using the setup status button, or by selecting the Send Setup to XLink item on the main menu.
To cancel and close the template dialog without using the template to configure
the current measurement, press the Cancel button. Note that selecting another
measurement in the measurement list on the left side of the Measurements tab
automatically cancels and closes the dialog.
Sutron Corporation
4.4.2.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 36
Resetting Measurement Defaults
A measurement entry can be reset to its default values by pressing the Mx
Defaults button, which appears at the bottom of the Sensor settings section of
the measurement settings, just above the schedule settings.
When you use the Mx Defaults button to reset measurements settings, any
metadata you’ve associated with the sensor (sensor picture, Model,
Manufacturer, Description, and Units) is also reset to defaults.
4.4.3.
Verifying the Measured Value
The Processing section of the measurement settings contains buttons to help
you verify the measured value is correct.
Press the Refresh button to retrieve and display the current value of the
measurement from X-Link. Press the Force button to cause X-Link to take a new
measurement. Press the Calibrate button to calibrate the sensor.
When you press the Calibrate button, LinkComm will prompt you to enter the
desired value for the measurement, showing you its current measured value as a
reference, and then compute a new Offset setting based on the value you enter.
Sutron Corporation
4.5.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 37
Data Tab
The data tab shows historical measurement readings made by X-Link. If recent
data was downloaded when connecting to X-Link, the graph displays this data
the first time you select the Data tab.
To zoom-in on subsets of data, click-and-drag to create a rectangle around the
data you want to zoom to. To restore the zoom to all data, double-click. When
using a touchscreen, you may use your finger to draw the rectangle, and doubletap to reset the zoom.
Right-clicking (or touching) the graph will show a menu allowing you to select all
series, deselect all series, or show points. You may select or deselect individual
data series for display using the legend just below the graph.
Change the span of the period to graph using the Span control. Several options
are available. Whenever a change to span is made, you must press the
Download button to retrieve the data for display. When the defined span no
longer matches the displayed span, the download button text changes to
“Download***”.
Press Save File… to save the raw data to a text file. Press Save Image… to save an
image of the graph to disk. On mobile platforms, rather than save files to disk,
you are prompted to “share” the files via other services like Email, Dropbox (if
installed), etc.
Sutron Corporation
4.6.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 38
Telemetry Tab
The Telemetry tab is used to configure a station for Iridium or Cellular
communications and data reporting. The contents of the tab differ for each
telemetry type.
Telemetry tab showing cellular settings:
The telemetry status section is below the setup area, and is accessed by scrolling
down.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 39
Telemetry tab showing Iridium settings:
4.6.1.
Telemetry Status
Telemetry status is displayed on the telemetry tab, just below the telemetry
setup. You may need to scroll down to see the status section.
The status text is retrieved from X-Link the first time you display the telemetry
tab, and can be refreshed as needed on demand.







Press the Refresh button to update the status text to the latest
Press the Clear Counts button to clear all telemetry tallies
Press Transmit Now to cause X-Link to transmit now
Press Show Tx Data to show the data in X-Link’s transmit buffer
Press Listen Now to have X-Link start listening for incoming TCP/IP
connections
Press Message Check to have X-Link check for incoming messages over
Iridium SBD or Cellular SMS
Press the Signal Strength button to open a dialog showing a graph of the
signal strength over time
Sutron Corporation
4.7.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 40
Other Setup
Various settings are displayed in the Other Setup dialog, which is accessed from
the Telemetry tab by pressing the Other Setup button. The settings shown
include those for:





Wi-Fi
Log daily values
DCP Command
Digital Output DOUT
Modbus RS-485
The controls in the Digital Output DOUT section can be used to view the status
of the digital output, and to control its state. Press the Refresh button to display
the current state of DOUT. The current state is displayed just above the button.
Press the ON button to turn DOUT on. Press the OFF button to turn DOUT off.
The Test Connection button is used to confirm communication between X-Link
and a Satlink, when X-Link is being used in a DCP Command configuration.
Close the Other Setup dialog by pressing the Close button.
Sutron Corporation
4.8.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 41
Diagnostics Tab
This tab provides extensive diagnostics information, and offers tools for
performing various diagnostics and maintenance operations. For example:






4.8.1.
Get diagnostics information including software versions and data usage
Terminal and Data Flow views
SDI-12 command utility
Set the clock in X-Link
Upgrade X-Link
Resetting X-Link to factory defaults
Firmware Versions and Diagnostics
The top two text areas on the Diagnostics tab display information about the
firmware installed in the connected X-Link.
The Firmware Versions section displays the current versions of firmware
installed in X-Link. If LinkComm detects a newer version of firmware is available,
this text area contains a message saying such. The Firmware Diagnostics area
displays recent diagnostics information reported by X-Link.
Press the Refresh… button to update this data to the latest. Press the Save to
file… button to save all diagnostic text data to an external file.
Sutron Corporation
4.8.2.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 42
LinkComm Versions and Diagnostics
The bottom two text areas on the Diagnostics tab display information about
LinkComm.
The LinkComm Data Usage section displays the total byte counts between
LinkComm and X-Link for the current session. The LinkComm Diagnostics section
displays LinkComm’s version information.
Press the Refresh… button to update this data to the latest. Press the Save to
file… button to save all diagnostic text data to an external file.
4.8.3.
Terminal
LinkComm features a built in terminal monitor program. All communications
between LinkComm and X-Link uses the command line interface. The Terminal
window can be used to view a history of command traffic, and can be used to
access the command line interface directly.
To see the details of the communication between LinkComm and X-Link, bring up
the terminal window via the Terminal button on the Diagnostic tab.
You may type into the terminal window. Data typed will be sent to X-Link. Any
replies from X-Link will be shown in the Terminal window.
Sutron Corporation
4.8.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 43
Data Flow
The Data Flow dialog shows recent command line traffic expressed in terms of
binary byte values, and shows traffic direction and timestamp information. To
open the dialog, press the Data Flow button on the Diagnostic tab.
When “Autoscroll on data” is checked, the window advances when new data
becomes available.
4.8.5.
SDI-12 Command Utility
The SDI-12 command utility dialog is used to send SDI-12 commands to sensors
connected to X-Link. It can also be used to quickly find what sensors are
connected to the SDI-12 bus.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 44
To send a command to an SDI-12 device connected to X-Link, enter the Address
and Command fields, and then press the Send button. Be sure to check SDI-12
over RS-485, if you need to send the command over the RS-485 bus. The results
of the command are shown in the SDI-12 history window.
To have X-Link look for any and all sensors on the SDI-12 bus, press the Find
Devices button. Information regarding what sensors are found is displayed in the
SDI-12 history window.
Press the Clear button to clear the SDI-12 history window.
4.8.6.
Setting the Clock
Press the Set Clock button on the Diagnostics tab to open the Set Clock dialog.
The Set Clock dialog is shown below:
Sutron Corporation



4.8.7.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 45
The top Start/Stop Update button is used to either start or stop polling XLink for its current time. The current time is displayed above the button
Check the Set Clock to PC time have the time set to match that of the PC,
once Set Clock is pressed
To set the time to a specific value, uncheck Set Clock to PC, enter the desired
time and date, and press the Set Clock button
Firmware Upgrade
The software running in X-Link can be upgraded. The latest version of X-Link
firmware is delivered as part of the LinkComm download package obtained from
the Sutron web site. LinkComm may be downloaded from
http://www.sutron.com/downloads.htm (search on “LinkComm”).
Upgrades may only be done via a direct USB cable.
Upgrade files are packaged into the same download with the LinkComm
program. Upgrade files will have names such as v1_05mainXLINK1298.upg and
v1_01bootOMEGA1298.upg.
To initiate an upgrade of your X-Link, select the Upgrade button on the
Diagnostics tab. If LinkComm detects a newer version of firmware on your PC,
LinkComm will suggest that an upgrade be made using it. If you select “No”, then
use the file-open dialog that follows to browse for, and select, the upgrade file to
use.
Sutron Corporation
4.8.8.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 46
Setting to Factory Defaults
Setting the station to factory defaults will permanently erase all setup and
status. The setup will be set to defaults. To set X-Link to factory defaults, press
the Factory Defaults button on the Diagnostics tab and answer “Yes” to the
prompt for confirmation.
4.8.9.
Rebooting X-Link
Clicking the Reboot button on the Diagnostics tab will have LinkComm issue the
reboot command to X-Link. X-Link will perform a software reset. LinkComm will
then disconnect from X-Link.
If you are issuing the command remotely, please note that X-Link will need a
minute to get back on the internet before it is ready to talk again.
4.9.
LinkComm for Phones and Tablets
LinkComm is available not only for PC and Mac, but also for iOS and Android
phones and tablets. On smaller screens, LinkComm is not able to show as much
information at one time.
4.9.1.
Stations List
On phones and tablets, the station list is normally hidden, and must be accessed
by selecting a link.
To access the stations list in the stations list view, press the Stations link just
below the main menu icon.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 47
4.9.2.
Measurements List
On phones and tablets, the measurements list is normally hidden, and must be
accessed by selecting a link. To access the measurements list on the
Measurements tab, press the Measurement X link just below the main menu
icon.
4.9.3.
Scroll Down to See What Used to be Right
On phones and tablets, you may need to scroll down to see data normally
displayed to the right when using the desktop version of LinkComm.
For example, the following images show how the Dashboard tab arranges
content vertically:
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 48
5. Telemetry
Every X-Link features a built in communication device that is used to deliver data
collected from sensors.

GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink use the cell phone network to send the
data.
 IRIDIUMLink uses Iridium satellites for the data transmission.
X-Link can be set up to make scheduled transmissions, delivering sensor data on
a regular interval. This is a common method of receiving your environmental
data.
We use the shorthand name Tx to mean transmission. ReTx means
retransmission.
Every X-Link station can be remotely accessed while it is in the field in order to
change the setup, check the status, access the log, and perform nearly any other
operation.

A GPRSLink, HSPALink, or CDMALink may be remotely accessed using
LinkComm.
 An IRIDIUMLink unit cannot establish a remote connection to LinkComm.
However, messages may be sent to any IRIDIUMLink via email, and
IRIDIUMLink can reply to them. It is possible to accomplish most any
operation via those messages including setup change, status check, and log
access.
X-Link can be set up for alarms. When a sensor reading reaches a user set
threshold, X-Link can send transmissions and messages informing the customer
about the alarm condition. This is useful for applications where it is important to
know about environmental conditions as soon as they happen.
Additionally, GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink units can be set up to receive
incoming connections via the Listening feature. In this case, a program like the
Sutron AutoPoll can be used to periodically gather data from X-Link. When
scheduled transmissions are set up, X-Link initiates the data transfer; in Listening
mode, an application starts the communication with X-Link.
X-Link performs message checking at least once every 24 hours. Version 1.46 is
required for message checking. A message check is the process of using X-Link's
modem to see if there are any messages waiting.
Several types of transmissions are sent by X-Link:
Sutron Corporation



5.1.1.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 49
Scheduled: these transmissions occur periodically, a time designated by the
user settings Tx Time and Tx Interval.
Alarm: alarm transmissions happen when a sensor reading goes into alarm
range.
Forced: Forced transmissions may be initiated by the user. They are used to
test a station during an installation. Additionally, a message may be sent to a
station requesting a forced transmission with specific data. SMS notification
messages are considered forced transmissions too.
Scheduled Transmission Process
The basic transmission process consists of the following steps:
1. Measurement data is read from the log and formatted into the transmission
buffer.
2. The modem is powered on and communication to the modem is tested.
3. Data is taken from the transmission buffer and handed to the modem. If the
station is sending a message, some data may remain in the transmission
buffer.
4. The modem is asked to send all the data to its destination.
5. IRIDIUMLink sends a message to the satellite.
6. GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink setup to transmit data to a server opens
a TCP/IP connection. If multiple destination servers are setup, X-Link will
deliver data to each of them.
7. GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink setup for SMS messages sends a
message.
8. If a connection is not established, X-Link will retry for Max Tx Time, which is
10 minutes by default.
9. IRIDIUMLink checks for incoming messages and handles them immediately. If
a message requested a response, the response data is handed to the modem.
10. If there is any data left in the transmission buffer, go back to step 3.
11. GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink checks for incoming messages and
handles them immediately. If a message requested a response, the response
data is handed to the modem.
12. Power to the modem is turned off.
Sutron Corporation
5.2.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 50
Retransmissions
Starting with version 1.57, X-Link is able to make retransmissions (ReTx).
Retransmissions are retries of failed scheduled transmissions.
When a scheduled transmission fails, X-Link notes the time of the failure. Once a
future scheduled transmission succeeds, X-Link will proceed to re-transmit the
data from the missing transmissions.
Here is an example of retransmissions in action:
o
o
o
o
o
o
12:00 Scheduled transmission succeeds. All is well.
12:30 Scheduled transmission fails due to lack of network.
13:00 Another scheduled transmission fails.
13:30 Scheduled transmission succeeds. Network is back up.
13:31 Retransmission with data as if it were 12:30 completes.
13:32 Retransmission with data as if it were 13:00 completes. All
previously missing data has been transmitted.
o 14: 00 Scheduled transmission completes. Back to business as usual.
For retransmissions to take place, the setting Retransmit must be enabled. It is
enabled by default. A proper Tx Format is also needed to ensure that the data in
the transmission is timestamped. Pseudobinary B is the only unacceptable
format. Use Pseudobinary D instead of Pseudobinary B.
Enable Retransmit and choose any Tx Format but Pseudobinary B to take
advantage of Retransmissions.
o Toggling recording, clearing status, and changing telemetry settings will
reset retransmissions. Rebooting a station will NOT reset transmissions.
o If X-Link does not have any data logged for the relevant time period, no
retransmission will be made.
o Loss of power cannot be overcome with retransmissions.
o Retransmissions are only useful if X-Link is still able to collect and log
sensor data.
o Data older than 7 days will not be retransmitted.
o If there are pending retransmissions, Telemetry status will show when
the first failure happened. E.g. "Retransmissions pending from
2014/11/19 12:30:00"
When multiple destination servers are setup (Cell modems only), retransmissions
will only happen if X-Link cannot deliver data to ANY of the servers . If X-Link
delivers data to some, but not to all servers, retransmissions will NOT happen.
Sutron Corporation
5.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 51
Cell Phone Telemetry
GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink use the cell phone network to connect to
the internet and deliver sensor data.
The internet connection enables X-Link to get in touch with servers that will
accept the sensor data. The diagram below shows the typical usage scenario
where the station communicates to a fixed IP or IP with a backup server:
5.3.1.
Antenna Placement
GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink must be installed in places with usable cell
phone coverage. The antenna aiming feature can help determine the quality of
signal at installation time.
5.3.2.
Two-Way Communication
Whether making a transmission to a server or receiving a connection from a
client, GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink will have established a two-way
connection. Data will be transferred to and from X-Link in real time. This means
that you can use LinkComm to connect to X-Link and download the log, change
the setup, check the status, and do almost any other operation that can be done
over USB.
5.3.3.
Scheduled Transmissions
Scheduled transmissions (sometimes called self-timed transmissions) are the
most common way of reporting data. X-Link is set up with a time and interval
dictating how often to deliver data. At designated times, X-Link will power up the
modem, establish a connection to the internet, get in touch with the user setup
primary server, and deliver the data. To use scheduled transmissions, X-Link
needs to be set up with the internet address of a primary server and, optionally,
a backup server so that it knows where to deliver the data. The backup server is
contacted only if the primary server cannot be reached.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 52
X-Link software version 1.64 added support for multiple servers. Up to three
servers may be setup. X-Link will deliver data to each of the servers that are
setup. Each of the three setups includes a main server, backup server, password,
and port. To disable delivery to additional servers, keep the main server name
blank.
If only some of the servers receive the data delivery, X-Link will note an error in
the system status such as "Server 2 had 35 delivery failures, Server 3 had 11
delivery failures". Please note that this error is only noted if data delivery to
some, but not all of the servers is successful.
If only some of the servers receive data, the transmission is still counted as a
success. An error is noted, but no retransmissions will occur and the Tx Good
count will increment.
If none of the servers receive data, the transmission is considered a failure and
retransmissions will happen if enabled.
X-Link software version 1.70 added the ability to deliver data to a FTP server.
Depending on the modem installed, X-Link may offer FTPS. Multiple FTP servers
may be setup.
5.3.4.
Listening
An X-Link can be set up to always be listening, which means that it will act as a
server, accepting TCP/IP incoming connections. Sutron's AutoPoll PC software
can periodically reach out to a listening X-Link station and collect sensor data
from X-Link. In the listening mode, X-Link will keep the modem on at all times,
resulting in higher power consumption.
The transmission status (use LinkComm's Telemetry tab or issue STATUS TX
command) indicates the IP address assigned to X-Link by the service provider.
The Listen Port setting determines which port X-Link remains open.
You can send X-Link a message with the TXLISTEN command that would cause it
to temporarily go into listening mode.
Listening is automatically turned on by X-Link for 10 minutes :



At boot up
When the station is connected to, whether via USB, over the modem, or
over Wi-Fi
When an SMS is received
When the wakeup button is pressed, and when the station goes into alarms,
listening is automatically turned on for one hour.
Sutron Corporation
5.3.5.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 53
SMS Transmissions
X-Link can use SMS (text messages) to deliver sensor data. It can use SMS
messages as a primary means of data reporting, or only if the primary and
backup servers cannot be reached.
The system is able to make scheduled transmissions to IP servers and may be
configured to transmit SMS messages if communications fail to the IP addresses.
Additionally multiple phone numbers may be used:
5.3.6.
SMS Notifications
If SMS Notification is enabled by the customer, X-Link reports certain events via
SMS to a list of user-entered phone numbers (SMS Notify Phone). The purpose of
this feature is to notify the customer that a major event has transpired at the
station.
SMS notifications are meant to be sent to a customer's cell phone. They are
meant to be immediately read by a person (rather than a computer, like Sutron
WIN). SMS notifications are the way for a customer to receive notice a station
in alarm on his cell phone.
The following events cause notifications:




Alarms: Details such as which measurement went into alarm and the
measurement reading
Station Rebooted: The time the station rebooted is sent along with the kind
of reboot (power on, watchdog reset, upgrade, etc).
Recording on: When recording is started, a SMS message will be sent. Then
the recording is turned off, no SMS is sent.
Tx Bad: A scheduled transmission failed.
Sutron Corporation

X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 54
SDI-12 sensor failure: An SDI-12 reading has failed. This notification is sent
only the first time the sensor fails and only once a day. The value logged is
the index of the measurement that failed.
All notifications have the same format. As only one SMS is sent per notification,
not all the data may fit. Here are some examples:
1. The station name is on the first line of the message.
2. The next line contains the event that caused the notification. It will look like
the corresponding log entry except that there will be no timestamp.
3. The next line contains the measurement data for each active measurement
that has a valid last reading. It will include the name of the sensor, the most
recent reading, and any alarm details.
4. At the end of the SMS are the number of transmissions made today.
Below is the boot up notification. There is no measurement data because the
system had no time to make a reading.
DEV1GPRS
Reset Upgrade,1
Tx today: good 0, bad 0
Here is an alarm notification.
DEV1GPRS
Alarm In,4
BV 14 Into Alarm
STAGE 10.157
PRECIP 0.00
TEMP 25.7
Tx today: good 1, bad 0
The number 4 after Alarm In means that measurement 4 was in alarm. The
reading that caused the alarm is BV 14 Into Alarm. Into Alarm means the reading
caused the station to go into alarm. See the Alarms section for details. (page 92.)
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 55
Below is a configuration where the station simply transmits SMS messages only:
5.3.7.
SMS transmissions vs. SMS Notifications
When scheduled and alarm transmissions are set up to transmit via SMS (Tx
Mode = SMS and Tx Mode = Internet Fallback SMS), the transmissions are
expected to be received by a computer, such as Sutron WIN. It is not expected
that the customer will receive those on a cell phone. These transmissions are
formatted in whatever Tx Format the user selected, including Pseudobinary.
They are not meant to be read by a person. Instead, those transmissions are to
be collected by a computer and the sensor data placed into a database.
SMS notifications, on the other hand, are meant to be sent directly to a
customer's cell phone. Those notifications are formatted so that a person can
read and understand them.
Here is an example of the difference:
SMS transmission:
C2+AAyMf@E@BF.L
SMS notification:
SUTRON DEV 1
Alarm In, 4
BV 13.8720 In Alarm
STAGE 10.157
PRECIP 0.00
TEMP 24.2
Tx today: good 1, bad 0
Sutron Corporation
5.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 56
Iridium Telemetry
IRIDIUMLink uses the Iridium satellite constellation to deliver sensor data.
Iridium satellite coverage is available everywhere. The diagram below shows
how the signal travels through the Iridium Gateway to an email address, etc.
5.4.1.
Iridium Antenna Placement
IRIDIUM Link's antenna must be placed where it has a clear view of the sky.
Iridium satellites are not geostationary. This means that coverage of a certain
area may vary from one minute to the next. The station must have a strong
signal for 10 to 20 minutes.
The antenna-aiming feature can aid in correct station setup. It will show the
current signal strength. Signal strength ranges from 0 (no signal) to 5 (excellent
signal).





A signal strength of 4 or higher indicates a strong signal.
IRIDIUMLink needs to consistently report a strong signal for 10 to 20 minutes
to indicate good antenna placement.
If signal strength is varying, the antenna's view of the sky is obstructed.
In theory, any signal strength above 0 means that a transmission can be
made. However, to ensure reliable and consistent data transmissions,
reposition the antenna to get better signal.
A signal strength of 0 indicates that there is no signal at all; IRIDIUMLink will
not be able to make any transmissions.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 57
When installing the station, make sure IRIDIUM link consistently reports a
signal strength of 4 or higher for at least 10 minutes.
5.4.2.
Short Burst Data
X-Link uses the Iridium Short Burst Data (SBD) capability to send transmissions
and receive messages.
Unlike GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink which set up a two-way
communication, IRIDIUMLink uses messages to communicate. Messages may be
sent to IRIDIUMLink, and IRIDIUMLink may send messages in return.
5.4.3.
Iridium Message Checking
When a scheduled transmission is made, IRIDIUMLink is notified of any incoming
messages. Checking for messages in this fashion does not incur any additional
data usage costs.
If your station is set up to make transmissions every 30 minutes, that means that
it will take up to 30 minutes for IRIDIUMLink to receive any messages sent to it. If
that is too long, you may consider turning on Listening (see below.)
5.4.4.
Listening
If Listening is enabled, IRIDIUMLink keeps the modem powered on all the time.
This enables the immediate reception of any messages sent to IRIDIUMLink.
However, it also increases power usage.
To reduce power consumption but still check for messages, please see the
Message Check section on page 61.
5.5.
Sending Messages to X-Link
GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink can receive SMS (text messages).
IRIDIUMLink can have messages sent via emails that get routed through the
Iridium system.
If Listening is enabled, X-Link receives messages immediately. In this mode, the
modem is always on, and the station consumes more power.
If Listening is disabled, X-Link checks for messages when it makes a transmission.
If the station is set up with a Tx Interval of 15 minutes, it may take up to 15
minutes for the station to receive the message sent to it. With Listening disabled,
X-Link turns off the modem between transmissions to save power.
Additionally X-Link can be setup to do periodic message checking. No matter
how it is setup, X-Link will do a message check every 24 hours as long as it has
power. Please see the Message Check section on page 61.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 58
When X-Link is turned on, it keeps the modem on for ten minutes. During that
time, it will receive messages immediately. When it does receive a message, XLink will keep the modem turned on for ten additional minutes to facilitate
additional message conversations.
Messages are treated like command line input with a few differences. Some
commands cannot be executed via a message (e.g. log download). Other
commands may have a differently formatted output (in order to reduce message
size).
See the Sending Messages section in the Command Line Interface chapter for
details on what the content of the messages should look like. (page 136.) Do
not forget to precede the commands with an exclamation point if you want the
station to reply.
To check the status of your station, send it the message
!STATUS
Password protected stations will need login information to be the very first thing
in a message:
LOGIN=XXX; !STATUS
X-Link remembers the last message received since boot up. To see it, press the
Refresh button on LinkComm's Telemetry tab or issue the STATUS TX command.
5.5.1.
Sending SMS to X-Link
You can send a message to an X-Link using your cell phone. To find out the
phone number of your X-Link, have it send you a message first. To do so, use the
Send SMS button in LinkComm's Telemetry tab. X-Link does not know its own
telephone number.
X-Link will never send more than 4 SMS in reply to a command. As each SMS is
limited to 160 bytes, this means 640 bytes is the limit of any reply.
5.5.2.
How X-Link Deletes Incoming SMS
X-Link does not keep old SMS. After it reads each incoming SMS, it will delete it.
This ensures that the SIM card of GPRSLink does not fill up preventing future
messages from being received.
5.5.3.
Sending Messages to IRIDIUMLink
Email is used to send messages to IRIDIUMLink

The email message must be sent to Data@SBD.Iridium.com
Sutron Corporation







5.6.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 59
The email's subject must be the IMEI of the Iridium modem. Each
IRIDIUMLink will have its IMEI written on the front panel. Each transmission
made by IRIDIUMLink will be stamped with its unique IMEI.
The email needs an attachment containing the command(s) to be sent. The
attachment is a simple text file and it must have the .sbd extension. Example
file names: Status.sbd, MultiCmd.sbd
The body of the email should be blank. Do not put commands for
IRIDIUMLink into the body of the email.
The attachment may not be larger than 270 bytes.
Each command may be replied with no more than two messages, for a total
of 680 bytes.
The first byte of this file must be an ! in order for IRIDIUMLink to send a
reply. E.g. !STATUS
Multiple commands may be sent in a single message. Commands can be
separated with a new line or a semicolon ; E.g. !LAST; !STATUS;
Telemetry Status
X-Link keeps a variety of diagnostic information relating to remote
communications.
Some of the status is available via LinkComm's Main tab or by issuing STATUS on
the command line. Detailed status can be seen via LinkComm's Telemetry tab or
by issuing STATUS TX on command line.
5.6.1.1.








General Status
Modem in use (GPRS, Iridium, etc.)
Current modem status
Last signal strength
Important telemetry setup such as Tx Enable and Listening
Number of good, bad, and retried transmissions made today
Number of incoming client connects total and today (clients such as AutoPoll
– GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink only)
Time and details of the next/current transmission
o Details include whether it is a forced, alarm, or scheduled transmission.
o Details also include the status of the transmission (scheduled, in
progress)
Time and details of last transmission(s)
o Details include whether it is a forced, alarm, or scheduled transmission.
o Details also include the status of the transmission (success, failed, reason
of failure)
Sutron Corporation
5.6.1.2.









5.6.1.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 60
Diagnostic Status
IP Address (GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink only)
Number of good, bad, and retried transmissions made lifetime
Number of bytes transmitted today
Number of bytes received today (GPRSLink and HSPALink only)
Number of bytes transmitted lifetime
Number of bytes received lifetime (GPRSLink and HSPALink only)
Number of messages received lifetime
Last message received
o Iridium MT (include MTMSN) and Cell SMS only
Last SBDIX and MOMSN (IRIDIUMLink Only)
CDMALink Example
CDMA Modem: Online & Listening. Signal: 3/4 bars
Tx Enable = On, Tx Mode = Internet Only
IP: 10.10.10.10
Phone: 5551234567
Tx good: total 17, today 0
Tx bad: total 19, today 1
ReTx good: total 18, today 0
Retransmissions pending from 2014/11/19 10:10:30
Msgs received:
total 0, today 0
Last Sched Tx, Completed, Server Not Found, 2014/11/19
10:10:30
Next Sched Tx, Future, 2014/11/19 10:15:30
System Time 2014/11/19 10:15:07
MEID/ESN: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Verizon
5.6.1.4.
IRIDIUMLink Example
Iridium status: On. Signal: 5/5 bars
Tx Enable = On
Tx good: total 12, today 1
Tx bad: total 2, today 0
ReTx good: total 0, today 0
Sent bytes: total 1069, today 89
Msgs received:
total 0, today 0
Last SBDIX MO St: 0 @ 2014/11/19 09:31:04
Last Sched Tx, Completed, Success, 2014/11/19 09:30:51
Next Sched Tx, Future, 2014/11/19 10:00:31
System Time 2014/11/19 09:38:02
Sutron Corporation
5.7.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 61
Message Check
A message check is the process of using X-Link's modem to see if there are any
messages waiting.



For IRIDIUMLink, this means getting in touch with the gateway.
This does incur charges: Every message check will cost money!
For CDMA, HSPA, and GPRSLink, this means talking to the cell tower to see if
there are any SMS waiting.
Message checking is controlled by a user setting called Msg Interval. This interval
defaults to 24:00:00 and has a range of 00:01:00 to 24:00:00.
Message checking happens even if recording is off!
Message checking will NOT happen if the transmission interval is faster than Msg
Interval. This is because every transmission already includes a message check.
If a unit is setup with a Tx Interval of 1 hour, and a Msg Interval of 15 minutes:





00:15:00 - Message Check
00:30:00 - Message Check
00:45:00 - Message Check
01:00:00 - Scheduled Transmission - No additional message checking
required
00:15:00 - Messages Check
With a Tx Interval of one hour and a Msg Interval of 24 hours, no additional
message checking occurs:



23:00:00 - Scheduled Transmission - No additional message checking
required
00:00:00 - Scheduled Transmission - No additional message checking
required
01:00:00 - Scheduled Transmission - No additional message checking
required
The message check serves several purposes:

It prevents the customer from permanently severing the remote connection.
Sutron Corporation

5.8.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 62
It allows stations to go into lower power mode than if Listening were
enabled.
Optimizing Data Usage
The data contained in the transmission is largely dependent on the user setup
variable Tx Data Content and the Tx Interval. Each transmission contains data
since the last transmission.
X-Link can transmit no more than one kilobyte (1KB) of data at a time. If X-Link is
unable to transmit all the required data, change the Tx Interval to make
transmissions more frequently. If all the data designated for transmission cannot
fit, it will never be transmitted! Increase transmission frequency by decreasing
the Tx Interval, decrease the amount of data that goes into transmissions, or use
a more compact Tx Format. One kilobyte of data will hold almost 150 SHEFFIX
formatted sensor readings, which is far more than most environmental
situations require.
5.8.1.
Data Usage for Internet
There is significant overhead when delivering the data over the internet. This
due to the nature of TCP/IP communications. GPRSLink, HSPALink, and
CDMALink will suffer from these overheads when data is sent to and from X-Link.
Transmitting roughly 500 bytes of sensor data will result in approximately one
kilobyte of total data being sent on the network.
Just being connected to the internet in listening mode does not carry any data
charges.
5.8.2.
Data Usage for Messages
Sometimes X-Link will send messages. GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink can
be set up to use SMS to deliver sensor data. IRIDIUMLink always transmits
messages.
The costs for sending messages are on a per message basis. One message will
cost the same no matter how much data is in it.
 Each SMS is limited to 160 bytes of data.
 Iridium packets can be no larger than 340 bytes.
A single message can only hold a limited amount of data. If there is more data
than can fit, multiple transmissions will have to be sent. In order to receive the
freshest data, the Tx Interval should be set such that only one message is sent
at one time. Given the choice of getting one transmission every 15 minutes or
getting two back-to-back transmissions every 30 minutes, opt for the 15 minute
data. The price is the same, but the data is refreshed more frequently. This only
applies to IRIDIUM and SMS transmissions.
Sutron Corporation
5.9.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 63
Transmissions and Measurements Coinciding
Make sure to have the transmission scheduled a short while after the
measurements are completed. If the measurements happen at the 15-minute
mark, set the transmission time to 16 minutes to ensure the measurements are
completed before the transmission process starts.
If the transmission coincides with the start of measurement collection, chances
are that the most recent measurements will not complete before the
transmission process starts. This will mean that the transmission will contain
missing data!
For example, if the station is set up to sample an SDI-12 sensor every 15 minutes
and transmissions are set up to go once an hour, unless the Tx Time is changed
from 00:00:00, only three readings will appear in the transmission. The Tx Time
must be changed to allow for the measurement to complete. If the SDI-12
reading takes 30 seconds, set the Tx Time to 00:01:00 to ensure ample time for
the measurement to complete before transmissions are started.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 64
6. Alarms
Alarms are used to send immediate notifications when sensor readings read a
certain threshold. They can also be used to control an output (page 127.)
When a measurement is made, if alarms are enabled for that measurement, the
sensor reading is compared to the Alarm Threshold and Alarm Deadband. If
certain criteria are met, the alarm triggers (see below).

When a sensor reading reaches a certain threshold, the station is said to go
into alarm.
 While that sensor reading stays above the threshold, the system is
considered to be in alarm.
 After the sensor reading drops below the threshold, the system goes out of
alarm.
When the station is in alarm, it is noted in the station's status.
When a station goes into or out of alarms, the reading causing the alarm is
logged. Additionally, an event is recorded in the log.
X-Link can be set up to send transmissions when it goes into alarm. Alternatively,
X-Link can be set up to make a transmission when it goes into alarm and to make
another transmission when it goes out of alarm.
X-Link can control its digital output based on alarm conditions. See the Output
section for details.
Most sensor readings cause alarms at the time the measurement is scheduled. If
a temperature sensor is set up for alarms with a Measurement Interval of 15
minutes, the station will read the sensor every 15 minutes and decide whether
to go into alarms.
Some sensors, including the tipping bucket and sensors setup as digital counter
and level, can cause instant alarms. When the tipping bucket tips, X-Link is
immediately notified. If the tip causes an alarm condition, the station goes into
alarms right away, even if it was not time to make a measurement.
Each measurement may be set up with up to three different alarms. This way, it
is possible to get an alarm when the stage reaches 3 feet, another alarm when it
reaches 4 feet, and a third alarm when it reaches 6 feet.
If more than three alarms are needed for one sensor, set up two measurements
to read the same sensor, but give them different alarm conditions.
Sutron Corporation
6.1.1.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 65
Alarm Settings
6.1.1.1.
Alarm 1, Alarm 2, and Alarm 3
Each of these settings can have one of the following values
 Off
 Hi
 Low
 ROC
These settings are used to determine what kind of computation is made when
checking a sensor for alarms. Read on for a complete explanation.
6.1.1.2.
Threshold 1, Threshold 2, and Threshold 3
The threshold is a value that is compared to the sensor reading in order to
determine whether to go into or out of alarms.
6.1.1.3.
Deadband
The Deadband, along with the Threshold value is used to compute whether the
measurement will go out of alarms.
6.1.1.4.
Alarm Tx Mode
Alarm Tx Mode determines whether transmissions are made when the station
goes (into alarm) or (when it goes into and out of alarm).

If the Alarm Tx Mode is Tx In, the station will only make a transmission when
it goes into alarm.
 If the Alarm Tx Mode is Tx In And Out, the station will make a transmission
when it goes into alarm and it will make another transmission when it goes
out of alarm.
ROC alarms setup for Since Last Tx do not generate out of alarm events or
transmissions.
6.1.1.5.

Alarm Logging
If Alarm Logging is set to Every Measurement, the system logs on the
Measurement Interval.
 If Alarm Logging is set to Use Logging Interval, the system logs on the Logging
Interval.
This setting is only relevant if the customer setup the Measurement Interval to
be more frequent than the Logging Interval. In that case, the system can be
configured to log more frequently when it is in alarm.
Here is an example of a system setup to log more frequently while in alarms. The
system is set up to read the temperature sensor every two minutes and check
for alarms. If the temperature exceeds 20 degrees, the system will go into alarm.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 66
The system will log once every two minutes when in alarm, and once an hour
when not in alarm.
Measurement Interval = 00:02:00
Logging Interval = 01:00:00
Alarm Logging = Every Measurement
Alarm 1 = Hi
Threshold = 20
6.1.1.6.
Alarm ROC Interval
This setting affects ROC (Rate of Change) alarms. When set to Since Last Meas
the system will compare two consecutive scheduled readings when deciding
whether to trigger alarms.
When it is set to Since Last Tx, the system will compare the current sensor
reading with the last transmitted reading. If there is no past transmission, the
first reading made after boot up is used.
6.1.2.
Alarm Computation Details
This section contains details on how X-Link decides whether to go into alarms.
The section is broken down by the user chosen Alarm Type setting:
6.1.2.1.
Hi Alarm
When the Alarm Type is set to Hi, if the sensor reading is greater than or equal to
Alarm Threshold, the station goes into alarm.
That station will go out of alarm when the sensor reading goes below Alarm
Threshold minus Alarm Deadband.
6.1.2.2.
Low Alarm
When the Alarm Type is set to Low, if the sensor reading is less than or equal to
Alarm Threshold, the station goes into alarm.
That station will go out of alarm when the sensor reading goes above Alarm
Threshold plus Alarm Deadband.
6.1.2.3.
ROC Alarm
ROC stands for Rate Of Change. ROC alarms compare the current measurement
reading with a past reading. If Alarm ROC Interval is Since Last Meas, the past
reading is the last scheduled reading made according to Measurement Time and
Measurement Interval.
If Alarm ROC Interval is Since Last Tx, the past reading is the one that was
included in the last alarm transmission. If there is no past transmission, the first
reading made after boot up is used.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 67
If the absolute difference between the two readings (absolute of current reading
minus past reading) is greater or equal to the Alarm Threshold, the station goes
into alarm.
The same station goes out of alarm if the absolute difference between the two
readings (absolute of current reading minus past reading) is less than the Alarm
Threshold minus Alarm Deadband.
Exception: ROC alarms setup for Since Last Tx do not generate out of alarm
events or transmissions.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 68
7. Setup
Once it is powered on, how X-Link operates is controlled by its setup. The user
has the option of changing any part of the setup. The setup is stored in nonvolatile memory and will not be affected when the unit loses power.
The LinkComm application is the easiest and fastest way to program your
station. You can also change the setup by sending messages to X-Link. As an
alternative to LinkComm, you can use any terminal program to access all of XLink’s features.
Setup can be changed while X-Link is collecting data. However, if the station is in
the middle of making a measurement when the relevant setup is changed,
unexpected effects may occur. Even if unexpected effects occur, the next
measurement will be made correctly.
Changes to setup will not affect previously logged data.
Every time setup is changed, it is noted in the log with the entry setup changed.
Details of the setup change are not logged.
If a password protection is enabled, changes to setup cannot be made until the
password is entered.
The setup is broken into three sections:



7.1.
measurement setup
telemetry setup
other setup
Measurement Setup
How a measurement behaves is governed by its setup. Each of the 16
measurements has its own setup. Changing the setup of one measurement will
not affect other measurements (except for Meta measurements).
Use LinkComm’s measurement tab for an easy way to change the setup. When
using the command line, M1, M2, M3... M16 are used to designate the 16
measurements. The number is referred to as the measurement index. Type M1
to see the setup of Measurement 1 Type M1 WIZARD to set up the
measurement.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 69
Names and descriptions of each measurement setup field are described in the
following sections.
7.1.1.1.
Active
Will X-Link make this measurement? If a measurement is not active, it will not be
measured or logged. Making a measurement active is the first step in setup. If a
measurement is made inactive, that setup for that measurement is not lost.
7.1.1.2.
Label
User set name given to measurement, up to 7 bytes. This is used to identify and
differentiate measurements. This value will be placed in the log each time a
measurement is made, so that changing a label will not affect previously logged
data. Example labels: AT, Stage, Baro, Precip, Batt.
7.1.1.3.
Right Digits
The number of digits shown after the decimal place is referred to as the right
digits. To make the measurement read 10.12 rather than 10.12345, set the right
digits to 2. Note that X-Link will round to the requested number of digits before
logging the data.
7.1.1.4.
Measurement Interval
Measurement interval is simply the time between scheduled measurements.
See Measurement Time.
7.1.1.5.
Measurement Time
Measurement interval and time dictate when the measurement will be made.
The interval controls how often the measurement is made, and the time controls
when the measurement is started.


Example 1 (The measurement is logged every 10 minutes at 0 seconds past
the minute): time 00:00:00 interval 00:10:00
o 00:10:00 data measured and logged
o 00:20:00 data measured and logged
o 00:30:00 data measured and logged
o and every 10 minutes afterwards…
Example 2 (The measurement is taken and logged every 5 minutes at 30
seconds past the minute): time 00:00:30 interval 00:05:00
o 00:00:30 data measured and logged
o 00:05:30 data measured and logged
o 00:10:30 data measured and logged
o Averaging Settings
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 70
Please note that if the setup is changed while X-Link is running, it may take up
to twice the measurement interval before X-Link switches to the new schedule.
To avoid the wait, reboot or toggle Recording.
7.1.1.6.
Averaging Time, Sampling Interval, Subsamples, and Results
X-Link can collect multiple samples and average them in order to produce a
measurement result. Averaging is useful for measuring changing conditions, such
as wind and water level. For example, correctly measuring the level of choppy
water requires that wave action be cancelled. That can be accomplished by
averaging over several minutes.
Setting the Averaging Time to 0 means that only one sample is to be collected
(no averaging). This is the default setup. If Averaging Time is zero, Sampling
Interval and Subsamples will not be shown in the setup.
When averaging, X-Link takes several samples and averages them into a final
result. Each sample may also be composed of several subsamples.



Averaging Time determines how long to collect samples for.
Sampling Interval dictates how often to collect each sample.
Subsamples tell how many sensor readings to include in each sample. Do not
use Subsamples unless you need two levels of averaging.
The simplest averaging requires only the use of Averaging Time.
Example: Average temperature over an hour
If you want to know the average temperature for an hour, you would set up the
Averaging Time to one hour. Sampling Interval or Subsamples would not need to
be changed. X-Link will collect sensor data all throughout the hour as fast as
possible.
However, if the power consumption for measuring the sensor continuously for
an hour were unacceptable, you would use the Sampling Interval.
To take one sample every minute, the Sampling Interval should be set to one
minute. That way, X-Link will take 60 samples every hour, with approximately a
one-minute break between each sample.
If the sensor being used was noisy and needed filtering, X-Link could take several
Subsamples and average them into each sample.
In the setup for temperature above, if the number of Subsamples were set to
five, X-Link would take five readings at the start of every minute and average
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 71
them. That result would be used as a sample. Once an hour, 60 samples would
be averaged into a final result.
Data collection starts at Measurement Time + Measurement Interval – Averaging
Time + Sampling Interval, and the last sample is taken at Measurement Time +
Measurement Interval.
In the example below, temperature is measured every 15 minutes and averaged
for an hour:





Measurement Time 00:00:00
Measurement Interval 01:00:00
Averaging Time 01:00:00
Sampling Interval 900 (900 seconds is 15 minutes)
Data Collection
o 00:15:00 first sample collected
o 00:30:00 next sample collected
o 00:45:00 next sample collected
o 01:00:00 last sample collected
o 01:00:00 all four samples are averaged and the result is logged with the
01:00:00 timestamp
The Results field will be shown only if averaging is enabled. If it is enabled, you
can select average, minimum, or maximum to be the logged result value.
If average is selected, the average of all collected samples will be the result of
the measurement. Alternatively, you can choose to use the minimum or the
maximum as the result.
If Details is enabled (see below), X-Link can log and display the average,
minimum and maximum sample collected. Individual samples are not recorded.
Minimum and maximum Subsamples are not recorded.
Enabling Details does NOT result in the average, minimum and maximum being
transmitted! Use Results setting to control which one result to transmit.
The subtle distinction between the Results and Details settings.
If Details is enabled, average, minimum, and maximum values are logged.
However, if Results is set to average, only the average will be transmitted.
If you want to transmit both the minimum and the maximum results, you need
to set up two identical measurements except for the Results field: one
measurement would choose minimum and the other maximum. If you just
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 72
wanted to log both the minimum and the maximum, it would be sufficient to set
Details to enabled.
7.1.2.
Logging Settings
7.1.2.1.
Logging Interval
Logging Interval dictates how often to log sensor data.
Change the Logging Interval to measure sensors more frequently than to log
them. This is useful for alarm setups, in which you want to check the water level
once a minute in order to detect fast rising water, but one only wants to log the
water level data once an hour. For this scenario, the Measurement Interval
would be one minute, and the Logging Interval would be one hour.
For alarm conditions, it is possible to set Alarm Logging to Every Reading. That
would result in the water level in the example above being logged once a minute
when the system was in alarm, and logging once only once an hour when not in
alarm.
If Logging Interval is set to zero, X-Link will log every measurement. It is the
same as having the Logging Interval equal to the Measurement Interval.
LinkComm provides a Log All checkbox: when checked X-Link will measure and
log at the Measurement Interval.
Having a Logging Interval that is shorter than the Measurement Interval is a bad
setup.
Only logged readings may be transmitted.
It is not possible to entirely disable logging of measurement results. However,
one can set the logging interval as slow as once a day.
7.1.2.2.
Log Error Value
When X-Link cannot get valid data from a sensor (more specifically, when a
sensor failure error occurs), X-Link will change the sensor reading to match the
user-set Log Error Value, which defaults to -99999. Such atypical numbers are
used to attract the user’s attention when viewing the log.
7.1.2.3.
Details
Details can be enabled or disabled. If they are disabled (which is the default), the
final result is the only data logged after a measurement completes. If Details are
enabled, several readings are logged along with the final result:

Minimum (the lowest sample collected)
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 73
 Maximum (the highest sample collected)
 Number of samples collected
Details can only be enabled if averaging (see page 70) is taking place; otherwise,
the number of samples would be 1, and the minimum and maximum would be
equal to the final result. Details are useful for diagnostics and for capturing the
minimum and maximum values.
7.1.3.
Processing Settings
7.1.3.1.
Slope
See Offset below.
7.1.3.2.
Offset
Every measurement is computed by taking the sensor reading, multiplying it by
slope and adding offset to it.
Measurement result = (sensor output)*slope + offset
Slope defaults to 1.0 and offset defaults to 0.0, meaning they will not affect
measurement result by default.
Traditionally, when using an analog sensor, slope and offset are required to
convert the voltage output by the sensor into desired units. The required slope
and offset are provided by the sensor manufacturer.
X-Link supports more complex equation processing (see Equations below).
Slope and offset are applied after equations.
The reading before slope and offset are applied is referred to as the raw reading.
For example, if an analog sensor were to provide a voltage of 2 volts, and the
user had set up the Slope as 5 and Offset as 1, the final reading would be 11 (2*5
+ 1). The raw reading would be 2. If Details is enabled, the raw reading is
displayed on the command line by typing MEAS or LAST.
X-Link offers easy ways to change the current reading of the measurement by
modifying just the offset or both the slope and offset via the calibration
functions.
7.1.3.3.
Use Equation
See Equation below for examples.
7.1.3.4.
Equation
Data collected from sensors to be processed by an equation. If the reading
provided by the sensor needs more than just an offset and a slope applied,
equations provide that functionality.
Equations are supported only by the first eight measurements. Equations may
only be entered using the command line interface or via LinkComm.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 74
The field Use Equations can be set to enabled or to disabled. It determines
whether equation processing is to be applied to the raw data. The field Equation
can be set to an ASCII string no longer than 128 bytes (per measurement). That
field contains the equation to be applied.
If both Equations and Slope and Offset are used, Slope and Offset are applied
after the equation is processed.
For example, to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, type into command line:
M1 EQUATION = (X-32.0)*5/9
In the example above, X refers to the sensor reading.
Equation processing can take a while to complete (up to several seconds). If
you are using a lengthy equation, X-Link may not be able to complete a
measurement every second, or even every two seconds (see Bad Schedule in
the Error section).
7.1.3.5.
Equation Syntax
The equation is expressed in terms of X which will be applied to incoming sensor
data. You may also reference each measurement by its label or by the M1, M2...
designator. The expression is not case sensitive.
The following functions are available:
SIN, COS, TAN, ARCTAN, e.g. COS(90) = 0
SQRT is square root, e.g. SQRT(9) = 3
To raise a number to a power, use ^. For example X^2 is x squared. 2^X is 2 to
the power of X.
EXP, if EXP(x) = y, then LN(y) = x, e.g. EXP(1) = 2.718282
LN, natural log, e.g. LN(2.718282) = 1
LOG, 10 based log, e.g. LOG(10) = 1
INT returns the integral portion of a real number
INT(11.456) = 11.000 INT(-1.345) = -1.000
FRACT returns the fractional portion of a real number.
FRACT(11.456) = 0.456 FRACT(-1.345) = -0.345
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 75
ABS returns the absolute value of a real number.
ABS(11.456) = 11.456 ABS(-1.345) = 1.345
POLY is used to compute up to a 5th level polynomial equation:
POLY(x, A, B, C, D, E, F) equates to A + Bx + Cx^2 + Dx^3 + Ex^4 + Fx^5
STEINHART(x, A, B, C) is used for Steinhart-Hart equations,
where x is the resistance and result is the temperature in Celsius
A, B and C are thermistor specific constants
Steinhart result is computed like so:
1/(A + B*ln(x) +C*(ln(x)^3)) - 273.15
VREF = Internal value of VREF (about 2.5Volts)
X/VREF*355 (for wind direction scaling)
Comparison can be performed using <, >, <=, >=, !=, and =. The result of a
comparison is 1 for true or 0 for false.
The following bitwise Boolean operators are supported: AND, OR, XOR, SHL, and
SHR. The last two are shift-left and shift-right. For instance (X SHL 4) would shift
X left by 4 bits. AND & OR can also be used in logical expressions. For instance
(X>100) OR (X<50)
would result in 1 if X is above 100 or below 50; otherwise it would result in 0.
The NOT operator is logical not bitwise. This means that NOT 0 is 1 and NOT 1 is
0. Also, the NOT of any non-zero number is 0.
E.g. (X AND 128) != 0results in a 1 if bit 7 in X is set or 0 if bit 7 is clear. The bit
mask 128 is 2^7. This assumes bit 0 is the least significant bit. In general, the bit
mask for any bit N is 2^N.
PULSE12(A,B) is used to turn on the X-Link digital output (DOUT) for a short
duration. A is a conditional that must be true in order for the unit to turn on
DOUT. B is the duration to turn on DOUT for in milliseconds, with a 10 second
maximum.
PULSE12(X>10.5, 500) will turn on DOUT for 500 milliseconds if the reading is
greater than 10.5.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 76
PULSE12(CONDUC=1, 100) If measurement CONDUC is equal to 1, then DOUT
will activate for 100 ms. If it is not, nothing will happen.
PULSE12(1, 500) Always pulses the DOUT line for 500ms
PULSE12 will compute to 1 if DOUT was turned on; it will compute to 0
otherwise.
MINDAY will resolve to the number of minutes into the day.
Equations can also contain references to other sensors: e.g.
(X + AirTemp)/2
would add X to the AirTemp value and divide by 2. You may also use the M1,
M2.. designators instead of measurement labels: e.g. (X+M4)/2 would add X to
the result of measurement four and divide it all by two.
Use Prev1, Prev2, Prev3.. to access the previously made reading by
measurement 1, measurement 2, measurement 3...
Use DeltaT1, DeltaT2, Delta T3.. to access the amount of time in seconds
between the most recent and the previous measurements.
 12:00:00 Measurement M1 has made a reading of 1.0
 At this point, we do not have enough data to compute Prev1 or DeltaT1
 12:05:00 Measurement M1 has made a reading of 2.0
 At this point, M1 = 2.0, Prev1 = 1.0, DeltaT1 = 300
 12:15:00 Measurement M1 has made a reading of 3.0
 At this point, M1 = 3.0, Prev1 = 2.0, DeltaT1 = 300
Please see the Rate of Change section on page 116 for more on Prev and DeltaT.
Comments can be contained within braces { }
{convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit} X*9/5+32
Other examples:
SIN(X)+COS(X)+X^3+LOG(X)
(X>1000)*1000 + (X<=1000)*X {would limit the value so that it could never be
greater than 1000}
STEINHART(10000*X/(2.5-X),0.001127098,0.000234445,0.0000000865403)
{temperature sensor}
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 77
If both Equations and Slope and Offset are used, Slope and Offset are applied
after the equation is processed.
7.1.3.6.
Referencing other measurements
If you are setting up an equation that references another measurement, set the
measurement type to meta, and make sure the measurement time and interval
are the same as the referenced measurement.
For example, if you wanted to trigger a sampler via the digital output when a
conductivity sensor reading exceeded 80, do the following:
1. Setup measurement M1 to collect data from the conductivity sensor.
2. Setup measurement M2 as a Meta measurement, with the Meta Index
set to 1 in order to reference M1. This ensures that M2 will wait for M1
to complete before producing a result. Make sure the schedule for M1
and M2 is the same.
3. Setup the equation of M2 to PULSE12(M1>80, 2000). That will cause XLink to pulse DOUT for 2 seconds whenever the conductivity sensor
exceeds 80.
Sutron Corporation
7.1.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 78
Input Settings
7.1.4.1.
Measurement Type
The Measurement Type setting will determine what kind of measurement is
made. Each of the different types will unlock other settings. For example,
choosing Analog as the Measurement Type will unlock the Analog Type setting.
The available Measurement Type options are















Precip Accumulation
Precip Rate
SDI-12
Analog
Battery Voltage
Wind
Digital
Meta
Manual Entry
Internal Temp
Accubar Pressure
Accubar Temperature
Seametrics Flow
Seametrics Rate
Modbus
Below are listed all the Measurement Types available.
7.1.4.2.
Precip Accumulation and Precip Rate
Connection: Tipping bucket type sensor connected to terminals #8 and #9
X-Link can be set up with a tipping bucket in order to measure rainfall.
Precipitation accumulation is used to tally the total amount of precipitation since
the station has powered up. Count must be set to zero by the user when the
station is installed. Counts persist between power-ups.
Precipitation rate, unlike precipitation accumulation, measures the precipitation
that has occurred since the last measurement. So, if the measurement interval is
15 minutes, this measurement will report the rainfall in the last 15 minutes only.
Multiple measurements can be set up with the same input. For example, if you
wanted to know the daily rainfall and the rainfall during the last hour, set up two
measurements: one a Precip Rate with an interval of one hour, and another as
Precip Rate with an interval of one day.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 79
Usually, a slope is applied to convert the counts from the tipping bucket into
inches of rain. For example, setting the Slope to 0.01 means that 100 counts
from the tipping bucket equal to one inch of rain.
Precip readings are debounced for 3ms.
7.1.4.3.
SDI-12
Connection: terminals #12 GND, #13 SDI-12 PWR and #14 SDI-12 Data
SDI-12 is a standardized three wire digital interface. Many manufacturers
provide SDI-12 sensors that measure different environmental effects. SDI-12
sensors provide digital data which improves their reliability and accuracy in
terms of logger sensor communications.
For more details on SDI-12, refer to the More About SDI-12 section.
Setting up an SDI-12 sensor requires the use of these unique setup fields:
7.1.4.4.
SDI-12 Address
Multiple sensors can be connected to the same SDI-12 bus. However, each
sensor needs a unique address. The address is a single ASCII character. Most
sensors default with the address 0. If you are connecting several sensors,
connect them one at a time. As each sensor is connected, issue the 0Ax!
command, changing the sensor’s address from 0 to x, where x is a unique
number or letter of your choice.
7.1.4.5.
SDI-12 Command
When the measurement type is set to SDI-12, data is obtained by sending a
command to the SDI-12 sensor. The sensor will reply with the measured data.
The command is set by the user through the SDI-12 Address and SDI-12
Command fields. For example, if the address is set to 0 and the command is set
to M!, 0M! will be sent to the sensor.
7.1.4.6.
SDI-12 Param
Some sensors will respond with multiple data values. The SDI-12 Param
designates which of these data values the user is interested in.
The common setup for SDI-12 sensors is to specify the SDI-12 Address as 0, SDI12 Command as M! and the SDI-12 Param as 1. This commands SDI-12 device at
address 0 to make a measurement and to take the first value returned. Newer
SDI-12 devices support the following additional commands:
MC
C
Measure and include CRC in reply
Measure concurrent
Sutron Corporation
CC
R
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 80
Measure concurrent and include CRC in reply
Read real-time
Some SDI-12 devices can return more than one sensor reading, such as a water
quality probe that returns dissolved oxygen, conductivity, temperature etc.
Some of these devices will return more than one reading when issued a single
measurement command and others require that multiple measurement
commands be given.
In the case of the devices that return more than one reading to a single measure
command, the SDI-12 Param specifies which of the sensor readings returned by
the SDI-12 device to use. Setting the parameter to 1 tells X-Link to use the first
value returned from the device; setting parameter to 3 tells X-Link to use the
third value returned from the device.
If more than one parameter needs to be measured, a different measurement
needs to be set up for each parameter. These measurements should have
identical setups, except for the SDI-12 Param setting. Be sure to keep the
measurement time and interval the same for these measurements. If you vary
the time and interval, X-Link will end up taking multiple sensor measurements
even though one would have sufficed (thus slowing down the system and using
more power).
In the case of devices which require multiple commands to be issued (e.g. 0M1!
retrieves pressure, 0M2! retrieves temperature) multiple measurements need to
be set up. It does not matter if these measurements are scheduled for the same
time, as X-Link will have to issue multiple commands to the sensors.
When multiple measurements of type SDI-12 are scheduled to go at the same
time, X-Link orders the measurement commands so that concurrent
measurements are commanded first. Non-concurrent measurements occur while
waiting for concurrent results. Also, X-Link is able to recognize when two
different measurement schedules rely on data from a single measurement
command (e.g., measurement 1 commands 0M! and expects parameter 1 while
measurement 2 commands the same and expects parameter 2, both scheduled
at the same time). In such cases, X-Link outputs the measurement command
only once.
7.1.4.7.
SDI-12 Over RS-485
Some sensors such as the Sutron CF Bubbler support SDI-12 over RS-485. This
type of connection uses the hardware RS-485 lines to talk the SDI-12 protocol. It
is used to allow longer cable lengths than would be possible with the SDI-12
hardware lines. Enable this setting if the sensor is connected via RS-485. Do not
forget to provide power to the sensor!
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 81
7.1.4.8.
Warmup
If this number is not zero, then the Switched Power line (terminal #10) and VREF
(terminal #19) will be turned on for warmup seconds prior to talking to the SDI12 sensor. The line will be kept on until the measurement completes.
You may use Switched Power instead of SDI-12 Power to supply power to the
SDI-12 sensor as long as the sensor does not require to be powered on all the
time. Some sensors (such as the Sutron SDR) need to be powered on all the
time and will not work correctly if powered from the Switched Power line.
If you power the sensor via Switched Power, you must setup the Warmup to at
least one second!
Why use Switched Power instead of SDI-12 Power? To reduce power
consumption of the SDI-12 sensor. SDI-12 Power is turned on all the time, while
Switched Power is only turned on during the measurement if Warmup is not
zero.
Please note that using LinkComm's Send SDI-12 Command window will NOT turn
on Switched Power. However, doing a Live/Forced measurement will.
7.1.4.9.
Analog
Analog measurements involve reading a voltage or current provided by a sensor.
Analog sensors come with instructions that provide information on how to
translate the output voltage into desired units. Translating the analog sensor
output into environmental units can be done via slope and offset for simple
sensors, and via equations for non-linear sensors.
7.1.4.10.
Analog Type
This setting directs the input channel to which the sensor should be connected
and the type of analog measurement to make. These options are available





7.1.4.11.
0-5V A
0-5V B
Diff C
Diff D
4-20 mA
0-5V A and 0-5V B
Connection A: 0-5V A Terminal #25 and AGND Terminal #26
Connection B: 0-5V B Terminal #23 and AGND Terminal #24
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 82
Inputs 0-5V A and 0-5B are designed to be general purpose 0-5 Volt DC input.
While sometimes referred to as a single ended input, it is designed to measure
voltage with respect to analog ground. These inputs have a high impedance (>2
Meg Ohms) and will not load down or draw significant current. The input range is
0V to 5V. Negative voltages with respect to AGND may NOT be measured on
these inputs.
To connect a sensor:




7.1.4.12.
The voltage output by the sensor should be connected to either A or B.
The analog ground from the sensor needs to be connected to AGND.
The sensor will likely require power – connect that to VREF if 2.5V is
appropriate or to +SW POWER which is 12V (or whatever power X-Link is
supplied with). Make sure to set up the warmup (the amount of time to
power the sensor before reading its output) as required by the sensor.
If the sensor has a power ground, connect that to AGND.
Diff C, Diff D
Connection: Diff C (Terminal #21 and #22)
Connection: Diff D (Terminal #17 and #18)
Optional connection to VREF (#19) and AGND (#16 and #20) as needed
Measurements Diff C and Diff D are designed to operate with a special type of
analog output found on many sensors that use a bridge configuration or any
sensor that outputs a very small voltage. This input type has a + and - input that
connects to the sensor output.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 83
Typically, a bridge sensor will be powered on VREF (sometimes referred to as
excitation), have a signal + and signal –, and provide a wire for the analog
ground. NOTE: If after wiring the sensor, it displays a negative reading, you may
reverse the + and - leads coming from the sensor.
Reading Negative Output Voltages on Differential Inputs:
In limited cases, sensors with negative outputs may be used on the differential
inputs with the following limitations:
1) The negative line from the sensor must not connect to the digital ground of
the sensor with the sensor making a ground connection to the ground
(including antenna ground) of the X-Link logger. (i.e. the sensor outputs
must be able to be floated with respect the grounding of the sensor itself)
2) The negative voltage (or positive voltage) must remain within the range of
the differential input range selected.
3) The common mode input range of the differential inputs must not be
exceeded.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 84
While the differential inputs are capable of reading negative voltages, it is
important to keep the voltages with respect to ground within in the common
mode input range of 0.5 to 3.7 volts. In the case of a bridge sensor, by using the
vref and agnd to establish the voltage on the network, you are assured of having
a positive voltage with respect to agnd. In the case of the bridge, you simply
need to remain within the voltage range selected (see 6.1.4.12 below) and
simultaneously remaining in the common mode range of the inputs or 0.5 volts
to 3.7 volts.
The diagram below shows how to make such a connection:
The common mode voltage for differential sensors is 0.5V to 3.7V. If the sensor
is floating, it should be tied to VREF and not to AGND in order to maintain this
common mode voltage. Sensors that are not powered by X-Link are generally
floating (such as a pyranometer).
7.1.4.13.
Input Range
This setting is relevant only to analog differential measurements. Remember
that the system must read a voltage that falls into the common mode range
mentioned in the above note. Voltages that are negative with respect to the
AGND terminal may not be measured. The following options are available:
 -39 to +39mV
 -312 to +312mV
 -2.5 to +2.5V
Choose the option that is close to and greater than the input range of the sensor
that is being connected.
For example, if a sensor provides a reading from 0 to 100mV, choose the 312mV
option. If you were to choose the 39mV option, when the sensor provided a
reading greater than 39mV, the unit would indicate a sensor failure.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 85
7.1.4.14.
4-20 mA
Connection: 4-20ma IN (Terminal #15 and #16)
This input is designed to function with sensors that have a 4 to 20ma current
loop interface. This type of interface is superior to voltage outputs when the
cables to the sensors must travel a long distance or when the equipment is
located in electrically noisy environments. X-Link will measure the current
flowing when connected to the 4-20ma Input. Typical 4-20ma sensors will give a
4 to 20ma current for a 0 and 100% FS. Readings that are greater than 21mA will
be considered a fault. The current required for the sensor is provided by the 2
wire loop and does not typically require additional connections.
NOTE: X-Link does not provide a dedicated power supply for 4-20ma sensors.
The sensor shall have its own supply or run off the 12 volt supply of X-Link.
While the internal 4-20 measurement is made using an accurate 100 ohm resistor,
the overall loop resistance is 200 ohms due to an additional 100 Ohms series
protection resistor. This means that a sensor at a full 20 ma current output,
approximately 4 volts should be allotted for overhead voltage. This is typically
not an issue when an external voltage source is provided to operate the sensor that
may be in the 18 to 24 volt range. However, if a 12.5 volt battery is used to
source the voltage for the sensor in the current loop, then only 8.5 volts will be
supplied to the sensor at max sensor current output. Therefore if a full 12 volts is
necessary for the sensor, an external loop supply will be necessary or alternately
the sensor may be wired to a single ended voltage input with the use of an
external 100 Ohm accurate and stable resistor also attached to the voltage input
port.
7.1.4.15.
Warmup
Analog sensors are powered by X-Link via one of several outputs:


VREF (reference voltage) which provides 2.5V, terminal #19
Switched Power which provides whatever voltage is powering X-Link,
presumably 12V, terminal #10
Normally, these outputs are off. Prior to making an analog measurement, X-Link
will turn on these outputs. After that, X-Link waits Warmup amount of time
(which is expressed in seconds) before measuring the output of the sensors. This
Warmup time gives the sensors a chance to power up and prepare their outputs.
If Warmup is set to zero, X-Link will not wait at all prior to measuring. The value
Warmup should be set to depends on the analog sensor being measured.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 86
Warmup is also used for Digital, SDI-12, and Modbus type sensors. If a such a
sensor (or a wind sensor that uses digital or SDI-12 inputs) is set up with a
warmup, then VREF and Switched Power will both be turned on. If warmup is
set to zero, those output lines will not be turned on. This is different for Analog
measurements which turn on the lines regardless whether warmup is zero.
7.1.4.16.
Battery
This type measures the voltage of the battery connection to X-Link. This
measurement is a useful diagnostic for tracking the performance of the battery
and any solar panel or other charging equipment.
7.1.4.17.
Wind
X-Link supports a variety of wind sensors, including RM Young and Gill Ultrasonic
sensors. Any sensor that provides an analog, frequency, or SDI-12 output can be
handled by X-Link. RS-232 sensors are not supported.
Wind sensors, sometimes referred to as anemometers, provide two readings:
wind speed and wind direction (sometimes referred to as azimuth). Wind speed
is expressed in units of velocity (mph, kph, etc), while wind direction is expressed
in degrees (0 to 360).
7.1.4.18.
Wind Type
Each wind measurement can be one of the following





Wind Direction Analog
Wind Direction SDI-12
Wind Speed Frequency
Wind Speed Analog
Wind Speed SDI-12
Wind is unlike all the other measurements in that it is a combination of two
measurements: one setup for wind direction and the other setup for wind speed.
In order to correctly set up a wind sensor, two measurements must be set up.
One measurement must be wind speed, and the other wind direction. Set up the
measurements in order, for example, make measurement one a wind speed
sensor and measurement two a wind direction sensor.
Both the wind speed and the wind direction measurements must have the
following fields set up exactly the same:




Measurement Time
Measurement Interval
Averaging Time
Sampling Interval
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 87
If the fields are not set up exactly the same way, X-Link will show an error, Bad
Wind Setup.
Additional settings will appear based on the Wind Type chosen. Analog types will
allow the selection of analog input and warmup time. SDI-12 types will allow SDI12 command and parameters to be chosen.
7.1.4.19.
Wind Averaging
This setting can be set to Scalar or Vector.

Scalar Speed:
o Mean Speed Scalar – This is the scalar wind speed, not taking direction
into account. The scalar average of 10mph for an hour and 20mph for an
hour is 15mph, regardless of changing direction.
 Scalar Direction:
o Mean Direction Unit – This is the wind direction (in degrees) not
weighted for wind speed. Here, the average of 10mph at 0 with 20mph
at 90 is 45.
 Vector Speed:
o Mean Magnitude Wind – This is the vector average of the wind speed
which takes direction into account. Here, the average of 10mph at 0 for
1 hour and 20mph at 180 for 1 hour is negative 5mph.
 Vector Direction:
o Mean Direction Wind – This is the wind direction (in degrees) weighted
for wind speed. Here, the average of 10mph at 0 with 100mph at 90 is
84.
The raw reading (the reading before slope, offset, and equation processing are
applied) is not available for wind measurements.
7.1.4.20.
Digital
Use the setting Digital Type to tell X-Link what kind of sensor is connected.
7.1.4.21.
Digital Type
X-Link supports the following digital types:




Level 1&2 (terminal 7&8)
Counter 1&2 (terminal 7&8)
Frequency 1&2 (terminal 7&8)
Period 1&2 (terminal 7&8)
Frequency and Period share the same input (terminal 12). Additionally, the RM
Young sensor type requires the use of this input too. Only one of these should be
set up at a time.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 88
Frequency will have X-Link sample the input for 750ms. It will provide a result
that is the average frequency of the input during that time span. If no signals are
noticed on the input during the time, the measurement is considered bad.
10kHz is the maximum input frequency that X-Link supports.
When Period is the chosen type, X-Link will watch the input line for up to 10
seconds. X-Link stops watching as soon as one wave period is noticed on the
input. If the input signal does not transition during this time, the measurement is
considered bad.
Digital measurements also use the Warmup setting. If Warmup is not zero, then
switched power and VREF will be turned on during a Digital measurement. See
the section on analog measurement types for details on Warmup.
Counter type readings may be optionally debounced for 3ms using the debounce
setting. The 3ms debouncing eliminates false counts from tipping buckets and
other devices with noisy switches.
Counter type readings may also be limited by a rollover value. With rollover set
to 0, the counter will increase until it reaches 4,294,967,296 (2^32). With
rollover set to a non-zero value, the counter will be reset to 0 when it exceeds
the rollover value. For example, if rollover is set to 9999, the counter will be set
to 0 on the next count.
Omega will allow the setup of multiple measurements on the same digital input.
For example, it is possible to setup both a tipping bucket rate and a tipping
bucket accumulation on the same input.
That being said, some setups that share digital inputs will yield unpredictable
results.
o Setting up any number of tipping bucket and counters on DIn2 with
debouncing will work well.
o Setting up a tipping bucket and counters without debouncing on DIn2 will
not work correctly as far as debouncing is concerned.
o Setting up a level measurement will work in combination with any other
measurement.
o Setting up multiple frequency and period measurements on the same
input will work as long as the measurements do not overlap.
o For frequency and period readings on the same input, one measurement
must finish before a second one starts for the readings to be correct.
o For frequency and period readings, omega will not hold up one
measurement until another completes.
o Overlapped frequency and period measurements are not consider a
meaningful setup.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 89
o Setting up a frequency or period measurement on the same input as a
tipping bucket or counter will not work correctly.

If you want to measure both frequency and count from an input you will
need to either jumper it to both digital inputs and setup one measurement
for the counter (e.g. counter 1) and the other for a frequency (e.g. frequency
2) or set up the measurements as explained in Section 8.10.8.10
7.1.4.22.
Meta
Meta measurements use the result of another measurement as their basis.
Usually, a Meta measurement is used to average results of another
measurement.
7.1.4.23.
Meta Index
This setting tells X-Link what other measurement this Meta measurement refers
to.
Why use meta measurements? If you had set up an hourly averaged
temperature measurement, a Meta measurement could be set up to be the daily
average of all those hourly readings.












Measurement M1 (used for Hourly Temperature)
Measurement Type: Analog
Analog Type: 0-5VA
Measurement Interval: 1 hour
Averaging Time: 1 hour
Sampling Interval: 1 second
Measurement M2 (used for Daily Temperature)
Measurement Type: Meta
Meta Index: 1 (meaning it refers to measurement M1)
Measurement Interval: 24 hours
Averaging Time: 24 hours
Sampling Interval: 1 hour
When scheduling meta measurements, take care that they occur at the same
time or after the measurement they reference. If the meta and the reference are
scheduled for the same time, X-Link will try to delay the meta measurement until
the reference completes.
7.1.4.24.
Manual Entry
Manual entry measurement types allow the user to enter a reading manually.
That value becomes the reading of the measurement. X-Link will store the user
entered value in the Offset field.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 90
To enter a manual entry reading, use LinkComm's Calibrate button.
7.1.4.25.
Internal Temperature
Internal Temperature measurements use a temperature sensor installed inside
X-Link. Every X-Link comes with a built in temperature sensor. The reading
provided is in degrees Celsius. To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit set the
slope to 1.8 and the offset to 32.
7.1.4.26.
Accubar Pressure And Temperature
Sutron provides Accubar Barometric Pressure and Temperature sensors which
can be connected to X-Link via an internal connector.
By default, the sensors produce an atmospheric pressure reading in millibars and
a temperature reading in degrees Celsius. To convert them to other units, please
use the Slope and Offset settings. Multiply millibars by 0.02952998 to get inches
of Mercury at 0C (inHg). Multiply millibars by 0.01450377 to convert to PSI.
Each Accubar reading takes a bit longer than one second to complete. If two
Accubar measurements coincide, a single sensor reading is made and the result
shared between all the measurements.
7.1.4.27.
Seametrics Flow and Rate
Certain Seametrics flow meters may be connected to X-Link. Please see the
Seametrics section on page 113 for all details.
7.1.4.28.
Modbus
X-Link is capable of operating as a Modbus master. It can collect data from
sensors wired over RS-485 using the Modbus protocol. When setup to collect
data from Modbus sensors, X-Link will periodically issue a master read register
message on the data bus. Sensors on the bus act as slaves: they will reply to the
message, providing ‘register values’ which translate to sensor readings.
Multiple Modbus sensors may be connected to the RS-485 bus. However, each
sensor must be programmed with a unique Device ID. If the sensors do not have
unique IDs, they will cause collisions on the data bus, resulting in failures to
collect sensor data. X-Link is NOT capable of changing Device IDs. Please refer
to the sensor’s documentation for information on how to change their IDs.
Modbus measurements were added with version 1.63. Please note that X-Link
does NOT have the ability to write Modbus registers.
Please note that X-Link is also capable of being a Modbus slave. X-Link cannot be
both a master and a slave on the RS-485 bus. In order to collect data from
Modbus sensors, the Modbus RS-485 Enable setting must be DISABLED. Please
see page 178.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 91
In order for X-Link to collect data from Modbus sensors, the following global
Modbus settings are relevant. The settings can be found on see LinkComm’s
Other Setup page.




Modbus Rs485 Enable must be disabled. Otherwise, X-Link becomes a
Modbus slave.
Modbus Protocol must match the protocol that is used by the sensors.
Modbus Baud Rate must match the rate that is used by the sensors.
Modbus Parity must match the parity that is used by the sensors.
Each Modbus measurement has the following settings:








Modbus Device Id indicates what sensor to collect data from. This setting
should come into play only if there are multiple sensors on the bus.
Modbus Reg Type needs to correspond to the type of register that
contains the desired sensor data. Options include Coil, Discrete, Holding,
and Input. Please check the sensor’s documentation for details on
registers.
Modbus Reg Number tells X-Link which of the sensor’s registers to access.
These values are unique to the sensor that is connected. Most sensors
provide multiple registers which may be read.
Modbus Value tells X-Link how much data to collect and how to interpret
it. Short means collect data from one register and interpret them as a 16
bit signed integer. Ushort implies a 16 bit unsigned integer. Int and Uint
indicate 32 bit signed and unsigned values respectively; X-Link will read 2
registers for them. Float is a 32 bit IEEE32 floating point value. Double is
a 64 bit IEEE64 floating point value.
Modbus MSW is a setting added in version 1.68. For certain Modbus
Value (Int, Uint, Float, Double), determines which register is used to
contain the most significant word (MSW) of the tag’s value. When set to
“Low”, the lower register of the register pair is used to contain the MSW.
Modbus Timeout Secs is the amount of time that X-Link will wait for a
reply from the sensor.
Modbus Retries indicates how many time X-Link will retry to issue the
command to a sensor in case of failures. Please note that some sensors
require at least one retry to work at all. For those sensors, the initial
command only wakes the sensor up after which the sensor replies to the
retry.
Warmup Secs: if this value is not zero, X-Link will switch on VREF and
Switched Power for so many seconds prior to issuing Modbus requests. If
warmup is set to zero, those output lines will not be turned on.
Sutron Corporation
7.1.5.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 92
Alarm Settings
See the Alarms section for complete details on alarm settings. (page 64)
7.1.6.
Transmission Data Content Settings
7.1.6.1.
Tx Data Content
Tx Data Content tells X-Link which readings to include in the transmission. Each
measurement has the Tx Data Content setting.
The options are All, Individual, Last, and Exclude.



By selecting All, all the measurements that are logged are also set to be
transmitted. Only readings made since the last transmission are included.
This setting is dependent on the Log Interval setting.
Last means to transmit only the last logged value.
By selecting Exclude, no readings of this measurement are transmitted.
See Tx Data Time and Interval below for the Individual setting.
7.1.6.2.
Tx Data Time And Interval
If Individual is selected for Tx Data Content, the fields Tx Data Time and Tx Data
Interval will appear, allowing the choice of what data to include in the
transmission.
This options should only be used to measure and log data more frequently than
to include it in transmissions. For example, if one wanted to measure and log
data once a minute, one would set the Measurement and Logging Intervals to
one minute. Since it may be expensive to transmit all that data, one can choose
to transmit only every 10th reading by setting the Tx Data Interval to 00:10:00.
The example below uses Measurement and Logging Intervals of 15 minutes. Tx
Data Content is set to Individual.
Timeline:
 11:00 measure and log data
 11:15 measure and log data
 11:30 measure and log data
 11:45 measure and log data
 11:50 transmission
Setup options:


The user could set up to transmit all four of those values.
o Tx Data Content = All
The user could set up to transmit the data from 11:15 and 11:45.
Sutron Corporation



X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 93
o TX Data Time = 00:15:00, Tx Data Interval = 00:30:00.
The user could set up to transmit only the data from 11:45.
o Tx Data Time=00:45:00, Tx Data Interval = 01:00:00.
The user could set up to transmit only the data from 11:00.
o Tx Data Time=00:00:00, Tx Data Interval= 01:00:00
Limitation: The user could NOT set up to transmit the data from 11:30 and
11:45
Tx Data Interval must be a multiple of the Logging Interval. Setting Logging
Interval to 15 minutes and Tx Data Interval to 20 minutes is not a good idea.
7.1.7.
Measurement Setup Defaults
To change the setup of a single measurement to its defaults, type M1 SETUP
DEFAULT on the command line to reset measurement one. This will affect only
one measurement.
7.1.8.
Measurement Calibration
X-Link offers an easy way to change the current reading of any measurement.
Press the Calibrate button on the Measurements tab in LinkComm and enter the
desired reading.
Via command line, type M1=10.5 to set the reading of measurement one to 10.5
This calibration procedure has the effect of modifying the measurement’s Offset.
When a sensor is calibrated, X-Link will log the readings before and after the
calibration along with a calibration event:
>M1 = 12
Measurement M1 STAGE set to 12.000
04/18/2012,13:19:49,STAGE,8.119
04/18/2012,13:19:49,Calibration,1
04/18/2012,13:19:49,STAGE,12.000
Sutron Corporation
7.1.9.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 94
Measurement Two-Point Calibration
Changing the slope and offset of a measurement can be accomplished by using
the automated two point calibration. You will need to be able to affect the
sensor so that it can provide two different readings.
On the command line, type M1 CAL. This procedure requires that the sensor be
placed so that it provides one known value, then placed again to provide a
different known value. This procedure will affect both Slope and Offset of a
measurement.
7.1.10.
Multiple Measurements Using the Same Sensor
You can set up multiple measurements with the same input. For example, to log
the daily rainfall and the rainfall during the last hour, set up two measurements:
one a precipitation rate with an interval of one hour, and another as
precipitation rate with an interval of one day.
To log the daily temperature and the hourly temperature, only one physical
temperature sensor is needed. Set up two measurements with the same setup;
change the Measurement Interval and the Averaging Time and use a different
Label for each. One would happen once a day (Measurement Interval 24 hours,
Averaging Time 24 hours), and the other once an hour (Measurement Interval 1
hour, Averaging Time 1 hour). It would be a good idea to set up the sampling
Interval to one minute for both sensors in order to save power (See page 70).
7.2.
7.2.1.
Telemetry Setup
Common Telemetry Setup
Regardless of the type of communication device installed in the X-Link, the
following telemetry settings are relevant.
Names and descriptions of each telemetry setup field are below. The
abbreviation Tx refers to transmission.
7.2.1.1.
Tx Enable
Enables scheduled (sometimes called self-timed) transmissions. If this setting is
enabled, X-Link will periodically deliver sensor data to the designated
destination. If disabled, X-Link will not initiate any scheduled transmissions.
If Tx Enable is disabled but Listening is on, X-Link will be able to receive
messages; GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink will be able to receive incoming
connections too.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 95
Setting up your GPRSLink with Tx Enable disabled and Listening enabled is a valid
setup in which software like Sutron WIN may periodically get data from the
station.
7.2.1.2.
Tx Time and Tx Interval
These variable controls when and how frequently scheduled transmissions are to
be made. Tx Enable must be on for these settings to be relevant.
The interval controls how often transmissions are made, and the time controls
when the transmission process is started.

Example: Time 00:00:00 interval 00:10:00
00:10:00 transmission process starts
00:20:00 transmission process starts
00:30:00 transmission process starts
and every ten minutes afterwards…

Example: Time 00:00:30 interval 00:05:00
00:00:30 transmission process starts
00:05:30 transmission process starts
00:10:30 transmission process starts
and every five minutes afterwards…
The transmission is not instantaneous. At the designated time, the
transmission process will start. That process includes formatting the data
content, powering on the modem, waiting for the modem to acquire a good
signal, etc.
Make sure to have the transmission scheduled a short while after the
measurements are completed. If the measurements happen at the 15 minute
mark, set the transmission time to 16 minutes to ensure the measurements are
completed before the transmission process starts.
For IRIDIUMLink and other X-Links set up to transmit messages, in order to
receive the freshest data, the Tx Interval should be set such that only one
transmission is sent at one time. Ideally, each message will be full. See the
section Optimizing Data Usage for more details.
7.2.1.3.
Tx Format
The format controls what the data in the transmission looks like. Options are



Pseudobinary B
Pseudobinary C
Pseudobinary D
Sutron Corporation




X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 96
CSV
SHEF
SHEFFIX
DGA
All formats will place all the required values for one measurement before
proceeding to the next. More recent readings go first.
The pseudobinary formats are fully described in Data Transmission Formats.
Pseudobinary is a relatively compressed ASCII data format that allows three
bytes for every sensor reading. Here is an example:
B1@@Gt@Gs@Sx@Sr@@i@@iI
The CSV format is an extremely verbose human readable format only suitable for
diagnostics. It's full name is Sutron Standard CSV and it is the same format that
X-Link's downloaded logs are in. Here is an example of the format:
09/14/2009,12:30:00,TEMP,28.5
09/14/2009,12:00:00,TEMP,29.0
09/14/2009,12:00:00,BATTV,13.53
09/14/2009,12:00:00,ANA,-7.5
SHEF and SHEFFIX formats are described in details in the Data Transmission
Formats section. The SHEF formats are ASCII and legible. They include the
measurement label, measurement interval, and age of the most recent reading
along with the sensor data. The example below illustrates the SHEF format:
:HG 0 #15 10.20 10.15 :PC 0 #15 50 49 :TA 0 #15 -22.1
-22.0 :VB 0 12.2
The DGA format is described in the example below:
SELFTIMED ON UNIT: DGATEST DATE: 02/28/2017 TIME:
15:15:00 PRECI 2.96 G OK TAIRE 8.53 G OK BATER 11.31
G OK
Here is a description of that example:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
SELFTIMED ON UNIT: Constant text for every transmission
DGATEST This is the user set station name
DATE: 02/28/2017 Transmission date in MM/DD/YYYY format
TIME: 15:15:00 Transmission time in HH:MM:SS
PRECI 2.96 Measurement name and value.
G Quality indicator, G for good, B for bad
OK is a delimiter. It is followed by two spaces.
Any additional measurements are appended on to the end using the format <meas
name, value, G OK >
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 97
MIS format is a verbose ASCII format that uses tags. Each measurement gets its
own section in MIS.
The header includes the station name and the measurement label. The body
includes a timestamp and a value for each sensor reading.
The example below illustrates the MIS format for one measurement. If more
than one measurement were being transmitted, each measurement would have
a section like the one below.
o
o
o
o
o
<STATION>000DOLPHIN</STATION><SENSOR>00PR</SENSOR><DATEFORMAT>YYYY/M
M/DD</DATEFORMAT>
2017/05/24;111500;82.03
2017/05/24;110000;82.04
2017/05/24;104500;83.11
2017/05/24;103000;83.14
In that example
o STATION and SENSOR and DATEFORMAT are tags that are always
present.
o 000DOLPHIN is based on the Station Name which was set to DOLPHIN.
The 000 are padding to fill out to 10 bytes. If the Station Name were
longer than 10 bytes, only the first 10 would be in the STATION tag.
o 00PR is based on the measurement Label, which was set to PR. 00 is
padding to fill out to 4 bytes. Up to 4 bytes of the Label can fit into the
SENSOR tag.
o YYYY/MM/DD is the user set Date Format setting.
o 111500 is the timestamp in HHMMSS format which is 11:15:00
o 82.03 is the sensor reading. If data is missing, --- is transmitted.
7.2.1.4.
Date Format
This setting is only used for the MIS Tx Format. It defaults to YYYY/MM/DD. It
may be used to change the format of the date in MIS transmissions.
7.2.1.5.
Tx Alarm Data
Tx Alarm Data helps set up the data content for alarm transmissions. The options
are Single Meas and All Meas.
If Alarm Data is set to All Meas, then alarm transmission data content will
contain the last reading from each active measurement.
When Alarm Data is set to Single Meas, the alarm transmission will only have the
reading that caused the alarm.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 98
7.2.1.6.
Retransmit
If enabled, Retransmit will cause X-Link to retry all missed transmissions at a
future date. Please see the Retransmissions section for details (page 50).
7.2.1.7.
Max Tx Time
The Max Tx Time setting dictates how long X-Link will continue to attempt to
make a transmission. The default value is 10 minutes. The goal of this setting is
to reduce power consumption when there is a transmission problem, such as no
network for cellular stations or no satellite view for Iridium stations.
This setting was introduced in version 1.57. Prior to that, X-Link would retry
from either 50% or 80% of the Tx Interval, depending on the X-Link model.
7.2.2.
Cell Phone Settings
The following settings are used to set up GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink.
7.2.2.1.
Tx Mode
If Tx Mode is set to Internet, X-Link will use the modem to get an internet
connection. Once the connection is established, X-Link will connect to the Main
Server in order to deliver data. Failing that, it will try the Backup Server. If more
than one server is setup, X-Link will try each of the setup servers.
If Tx Mode is set to SMS, X-Link will send transmission data via SMS (messages)
to up to three telephone numbers, as specified by SMS Tx Phone.
If Tx Mode is set to Internet Fallback SMS, and X-Link will first try to connect to
the Main Server. If that fails, it will try the Backup Server. If it cannot establish an
internet connection or if it cannot reach both servers, X-Link will deliver the
sensor data via SMS (text messages). The SMS will be sent to up to three
telephone numbers, as specified by SMS Tx Phone.
7.2.2.2.
Tx Protocol
This setting applies only when the Tx Mode is set to Internet. It was introduced
in version 1.71.
The choices are Hyrdomet Cloud (default) and None.
If your station is delivering to Hydromet Cloud, please choose Hydromet Cloud as
the protocol. If not, please choose None.
Please refer to the Hydromet Cloud Protocol section for details.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 99
7.2.2.3.
Internet Settings
X-Link delivers data to servers. With version 1.63, up to three servers may be
setup for data delivery. Each server is identified via several settings: Main
Server, Backup Server, Server Port, and Server Password.
Version 1.70 added the ability to deliver data to FTP servers. Relevant settings
are Main Server, Backup Server, Server Port, Server Username, Server Password,
and FTP Path.
7.2.2.4.
Main Server
When it is time to make a scheduled transmission, if Tx Mode is set to Internet or
Internet Fallback SMS, X-Link will connect to the destination specified by Main
Server. The server may be expressed as a name (such as www.sutronwin.com) or
an IP address (such as 10.0.0.1).
See the section called TCP/IP Session for details on the connection. (page 160)
7.2.2.5.
Backup Server
If X-Link is unable to connect to the Main Server, but it does have an internet
connection, it will try to deliver data to the Backup Server.
7.2.2.6.
Server Port
What TCP/IP port to connect to on the Main and Backup Servers. Also applicable
to FTP. Note that FTP traditionally uses port 21.
7.2.2.7.
Server Username
This setting is relevant to FTP only.
7.2.2.8.
Server Password
If the Main and Backup Servers are protected by a password (sometimes called a
shared secret), it must be entered in this field. If it is not, X-Link will not be able
to deliver sensor data.
FTP servers require a password too.
7.2.2.9.
FTP Path
This setting may be used to deliver FTP data to a specific path on the server.
Please note that X-Link CANNOT create directories. The path must exist on the
FTP server before X-Link can deliver files to it. An example of a path:
“Rain_station/A2/B12”.
When it delivers data to an FTP server, X-Link creates a new file with each
delivery. The file name will be made up of the Station Name and the time of the
transmission:

StationID_YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
Sutron Corporation



X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 100
Station ID is the first 10 characters from the Station Name setting
The rest of the filename is based on the date and time of the transmission.
The file extension is based on the Tx Format setting: “shf”, “pbn”, “csv”,
“mis”, “dga”
7.2.2.10.
SMS Tx Phone A
See Below.
7.2.2.11.
SMS Tx Phone B
See Below.
7.2.2.12.
SMS Tx Phone C
When it is time to make a scheduled transmission, if Tx Mode is set to SMS, XLink will send data to the phone number(s) set up in SMS Tx Phone.
Additionally, if Tx Mode is Internet Fallback SMS, and X-Link fails to get an
internet connection or it fails to connect to the Main and Backup Servers, X-Link
can send transmission data to phone numbers in SMS Tx Phone.
If you want data delivered to just one phone, enter it into SMS Tx Phone A, and
leave SMS Tx Phone B and C blank. To deliver to a second phone number, enter
the number in SMS Tx Phone B. Use SMS Tx Phone C to deliver data to a total of
three different numbers.
7.2.2.13.
SMS Notify
SMS (text messages) will be sent when certain events such as station power on
occur to numbers listed in SMS Notify Phone.
7.2.2.14.
SMS Notify Phone A
See Below.
7.2.2.15.
SMS Notify Phone B
If not blank, event notification SMS will be sent to these numbers. These fields
are relevant only if SMS Notify is enabled. To have notifications sent to only one
phone, enter the phone number into SMS Notify Phone A, and leave SMS Notify
Phone B blank. To deliver to a total of two phone numbers, enter a second
number in SMS Notify Phone B.
7.2.2.16.
Listening
Controls whether GPRSLink will keep the modem on all the time. The benefit of
turning Listening enabled is that GPRSLink will be able to quickly respond to
incoming connections and/or SMS messages. The drawback is higher power
consumption. If Listening is disabled, GPRSLink will check for messages when it
makes a transmission.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 101
7.2.2.17.
SMS Listening Only
When SMS Listening Only is enabled, GPRSLink will NOT keep a TCP/IP port open.
Instead, it will only be listening for incoming SMS messages. Select this option if
you do NOT want the station to connect to the internet.
If SMS Listening Only is disabled, GPRSLink will always be connected to the
internet. It will keep a TCP/IP listening socket open on the Listen Port. Programs
like LinkComm, HyperTerminal, Sutron WIN, can get in touch with X-Link
immediately in order to download data, change setup, or perform any other
activity.
7.2.2.18.
Listen Port
What TCP/IP port to listen on for incoming connections. This setting is only
relevant if Listening is enabled and SMS Listening Only disabled.
7.2.2.19.
APN name
This is the service provider's APN (Access Point Name). It Is required for station
to use the internet. If this field is not set up, GPRSLink will report the error, No
Data Service.
7.2.2.20.
Modem username
See Below.
7.2.2.21.
Modem password
Some providers require that a user name and password be provided in order to
connect to the internet.
7.2.2.22.
SIM PIN
Some SIM cards are locked with a PIN. This setting holds the value to give to the
SIM when turning the modem on. A locked SIM will not work without a PIN and
GPRSLink will report Bad PIN.
7.2.2.23.
Init String
This is a set of AT commands that can be sent to modem on boot up. Separate
multiple commands with ;
7.2.3.
Iridium Settings
7.2.3.1.
Listening
If Listening is enabled, IRIDIUMLink keeps the communication device powered
on all the time. This will allow the immediate reception of any messages sent to
IRIDIUMLink. However, it will also increase the power usage. If disabled,
messages get checked every time a scheduled transmission is made.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 102
7.2.3.1.
Local Time Offset
The Iridium satellite system provides IRIDIUMLink with the correct time. That
time is UTC. The Local Time Offset may be used to change the station's clock to a
different time zone.
The time may be initially set using the Set Clock button on the diagnostic tab to
ensure it is close to the time desired, otherwise, the time will be UTC until it
does the clock sync at the next transmission.
7.3.
Other Setup
These fields relate to general station setup.
7.3.1.1.
Station Name
User set identifier for the station.
7.3.1.2.
Recording
Recording is the act of collecting and logging sensor data. If recording is off, XLink is idle and will not make any automatic measurements. If recording is on, XLink is active and collecting sensor data according to its setup.
LinkComm provides a button to start recording, or stop recording. To change
recording via command line, type RECORDING = ON or RECORDING = OFF.
7.3.1.3.
Log Daily Values
X-Link can log diagnostic information at 23:59:59 each day. That information
consists of battery voltage and telemetry accounting, such as the number of
transmissions made and the number of bytes transmitted. To prevent this data
from being logged, disable the Log Daily Values setting located on the Other
Setup tab of LinkComm.
7.3.1.4.
Auto Output
When X-Link has Auto Output mode enabled (via front panel, Station
Setup>Other Settings>Auto Output, command line AUTO OUTPUT), it will
automatically send data out on the USB port. Using LinkComm's Terminal
window, type EXIT to leave command line mode and to capture the auto output.
X-Link will output data of every active measurement when it is measured
according to the user set Measurement Interval and Time. For example, if you set
up a battery voltage reading to be made once every minute, auto-output will
place fresh battery data on the port once a minute. If multiple measurements
are active, they will all be output every time new data is available for any
measurement.
The data output is ASCII. This is an example of the output for two
measurements:
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 103
46.3,
46.3,
46.4,
46.4,
33.2
33.0
32.1
30.0
7.3.1.5.
Output1
X-Link features a digital output labeled DOUT. X-Link can automatically activate
the output. See the Output section for details (page 127.)
7.3.1.6.
Modbus
All Modbus settings are described in the Modbus section (page 177).
7.3.1.7.
Setup Defaults
Selecting this option restores the unit’s factory defaults. This is a complete
erasing of the setup. All measurement and telemetry setup will be lost. The
status will also be cleared. This option does not erase the log.
Reset the station to defaults using LinkComm's Setup Default button on the
Diagnostic tab or via command line by typing SETUP DEFAULT.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 104
8. Measurement Setup Examples
8.1.
RM Young Wind Speed and Direction
This section describes how to connect the sensor and how to set up X-Link in
order to measure wind speed and direction. The sensor used is an RM Young
05103-11 which has a four-blade propeller for speed and a vane for direction.
The sensor provides a square wave signal for wind speed and uses a
potentiometer for wind direction.
This device provides wind speed via a frequency output and direction via an
analog output. To wire it up, connect like so:
RM Young Output
AZ SIG
WS SIG
REF
+V SUPPLY
AX EXC
X-Link input
Analog 0-5V (either A or B)
WS/DIG IN1
AGND
+SW POWER
VREF
No external pullup or pull down is required for the azimuth (az sig) connection to
the input. The Model 05103-11 already has an INTERNAL 1 MOhm pull down
installed. However, if some other sensor is used that has a dead band in the
azimuth potentiometer, install a 1 MOhm resistor to AGND.
This X-Link setup will measure wind data from the RM Young:
Wind Speed Setup
M1 Active
Label
Meas Type
Wind Type
Warmup
Averaging Time
Sampling Interval
Slope
Value
On
WNDSPD
Wind
Wind Speed Freq
1 sec
00:00:10
1.0 sec
Depends on desired units – see below
Wind Speed Units
m/s
knots
mph
kph (km/h)
Wind Direction Setup
M2 Active
Label
Slope
0.098
0.1904
0.2194
0.3528
Value
On
WNDDIR
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 105
Wind Direction Setup
Meas Type
Wind Type
Analog Type
Warmup
Averaging Time
Sampling Interval
Use Equation
Equation
Value
Wind
Wind Dir Analog
0-5V A
0 sec
00:00:10
1.0 sec
On
X/VREF*355 {converts to degrees}
Some settings have been excluded from the table above. Settings such as
Measurement Interval and Time are left to the user to decide. Also Wind
Averaging can be set to Vector or Scalar depending on the user’s needs.
8.2.
Thermistor
This section describes how to physically connect the thermistor and how to
configure the setup in X-Link.
The sensor used in this example is a PS103J2 thermistor. This sensor is a 10k ohm
type and has two leads, so completion resistor (0.1% or better) must be added.
This completion resistor will help X-Link calculate the resistance of the
thermistor by measuring the voltage generated by two resistances (a known and
unknown).
Since our thermistor is a 10k Ohm type, we will use a 10kohm completion
resistor. The equation
10000*X / (VREF-X)
Where the 10000 is our completion resistor in ohms
and X is the voltage reading.
will give us the resistance of the thermistor, which can then be placed into the
Steinhart-Hart equation to calculate temperature. In X-Link, the Steinhart
equation already converts the retuned value from Kelvin to Celsius.
To wire it up, connect like so (The lead numbers are not marked with numbers;
this is just a reference.)
Completion Resistor
Lead 1
Lead 2
Thermistor
Lead 1
Lead 2
Thermistor Setup
Active
X-Link Connections
Vref
Analog 0-5V (A or B, same as thermistor).
Analog 0-5V (either A or B)
AGND
Value
On
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 106
Label
Meas Type
Analog Type
Warmup
Averaging Time
Sampling Interval
Slope
Offset
Use Equation
Equation (This is entered
all on one line in the
setup)
TEMP
Analog
0-5V A (or B)
0 sec
00:00:00
0.0 sec
1 for Celsius
1.8 for Fahrenheit
0 for Celsius
+32 for Fahrenheit
On
STEINHART(10000*X/(VREF-X)
,0.00146732513897221
,0.00023841146463031
,0.00000010078969927)
Notice that measurement interval and averaging are not addressed in this setup,
which will depend on the application requirements.
8.3.
Pressure Transducer (Analog Bridge Sensor)
Pressure transducers using a strain gauge. Analog 4 wire bridge is a common
choice for water-level applications. These transducers are designed to be driven
by an excitation voltage, VREF for this example, and the output of the bridge is a
differential reading that will have a full-scale output that is a percentage of the
excitation voltage, VREF. The sensor will have a rated pressure, and a typical full
scale output for a particular excitation voltage. This example will be for a 10 PSI
transducer that has an output of 100 mV with an excitation of 10V. Since VREF is
2.5V (1/4 of the data sheet excitation of 10V), the Full Scale, or FS, output of the
sensor will be 25 mV (1/4 of the data sheet output of 100mV). Since the
differential input range is 39.0625 mV, then the 25mV FS of the sensor is always
within range.
The nature of the bridge sensor automatically places the differential reading in
the allowable common mode range of the differential input, and in this case,
about 1.25V.
Connect the sensor as follows:
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 107
4
AGND
Pressure Transducer Pin
Description
Negative Supply
5
VREF
Positive Supply
RED
6
DIFF ‘C’ (+)
Positive Output
YELLOW
7
DIFF ‘C’ (- )
Negative Output
BLUE
Terminal Block
Description
COLOR
WHITE
Connect the shield wire on the pressure transducer to the earth ground on the
side of the X-Link. The wire color column refers to a Druck PDCR 1830 series
Sensor.
The setup to have the X-Link measure STAGE from the sensor in units of feet is as
follows:
Stage Setup
Active
Label
Meas Type
Analog Type
Input Range
Warmup
Averaging Time
Slope
Value
On
Stage
Analog
Diff C
-39 to +39mV
1 sec
00:00:00
922.92
The slope is calculated as follows:
(10 PSI / 25 mV) * (1000 mV / 1 V) * (2.3073 feet /
PSI) = 922.92 feet / V
Sutron Corporation
8.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 108
Thermocouple Sensor
The thermocouple sensor is a common sensor for temperature readings. This
application note will show operation using the Type K thermocouple.
This sensor outputs a voltage that represents the difference in temperature from
the terminal block to the junction of the wires. Since the voltage is small,
typically uV per degrees Celsius, we will use the differential input to be able to
select a smaller scale on the A/D input, in our example we will select +- 39mV.
Note that the differential inputs need to be wired around mid scale of 2.5V. Vref
may be used to connect to (-) differential input to accomplish this.
Connect the sensor as follows: (See section 6.1.4.11 for more details)
Terminal Block
4
X-Link Description
Thermocouple
Description
6
AGND (not used)
VREF, wire to DIFF ‘C’
(-)
DIFF ‘C’ (+)
Positive Output
7
DIFF ‘C’ (- )
Negative Output
5
This X-Link setup will measure the temperature difference from the sensor in
units of Celsius.
Stage Setup
Active
Label
Meas Type
Analog Type
Input Range
Warmup
Averaging Time
Slope
Value
On
TDIFF
Analog
Diff C
-39 to +39mV
1 sec
00:00:00
24716
This example uses a linear approximation for the type K thermocouple. Over the
delta T range of -8 to +64 degrees C, the error in this approximation is less than
0.3 degrees C. The linear approximation (slope) was calculated from two points:
in this case 0 degrees (0 mV) and 50 degrees (2.023 mV).
Slope = (50 degrees / 2.023 mV) * (1000 mV / V) =
24716 degrees per volt
The resultant temperature is relative to the temperature of the terminal strip to
which the thermocouple is connected. If the terminal strip is at 20C and the
thermocouple is at 30C, X-Link will read the difference (10C) in the
thermocouple.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 109
To have an absolute temperature reading, you must measure the temperature of
the terminal strip and then add to it the thermocouple temperature.
K-Type Equations:
Linear delta T range of ± 20°C. Approximation error is ±0.20°C.
Temp (°C) = 25.346 * X*1000 – 0.1114 + Terminal_temp
Linear delta T range of ± 40°C. Approximation error is ±0.83°C.
Temp (°C) = 25.419 * X*1000 – 0.3847 + Terminal_temp
3rd order Poly delta T range of ± 20°C. Approximation error is ±0.01°C
Temp (°C) = Poly((X*1000), (Terminal_temp -0.0107), 25.263, -0.4443, 0.2053)
3rd order Poly delta T range of ± 40°C. Approximation error is ±0.03°C
Temp (°C) = Poly((X*1000), (Terminal_temp -0.0115), 25.326, -0.4305, 0.0861)
T-Type Equations:
Linear delta T range of ± 20°C. Approximation error is ±0.30°C.
Temp (°C) = 25.892 * X*1000 – 0.151 + Terminal_temp
Linear delta T range of ± 40°C. Approximation error is ±1.20°C.
Temp (°C) = 25.851 * X*1000 – 0.612 + Terminal_temp
3rd order Poly delta T range of ± 20°C. Approximation error is ±0.01°C
Temp (°C) = Poly((X*1000), (Terminal_temp + 0.0051), 25.881, -0.688, 0.0277)
3rd order Poly delta T range of ± 40°C. Approximation error is ±0.03°C
Temp (°C) = Poly((X*1000), (Terminal_temp + 0.0234), 25.868, -0.755, 0.0616)
8.5.
Tipping Bucket
This section describes how to physically connect the sensor and how to configure
the setup in X-Link.
The sensor used in this example is a standard switch closure tipping bucket. This
sensor closes a switch for each tip of the bucket and has two leads, polarity
doesn’t matter.
To wire it up, connect like so (The lead numbers are not marked with numbers;
this is just a reference.)
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 110
Tipping Bucket
Lead 1
Lead 2
X-Link Connections
TB/DIG IN 2 Terminal #8
GND Terminal #9
Tipping Bucket Setup
(Total Rain)
Active
Label
Meas Type
Meas Interval
Averaging Time
Slope
Value
On
RAIN
Precip Accumulation
00:15:00
00:00:00
.01 (for a 10th inch tipping bucket)
Offset
Use Equation
0
Off
This configuration provides the accumulated rain at this station, with a 15minute interval. If daily, hourly, etc. rain is needed, the setup would look like this
(wiring is the same).
Tipping Bucket Setup (Rain for
period of time)
Active
Label
Meas Type
Meas Interval
Averaging Time
Slope
Value
On
DAYRAIN
Precip Rate
24:00:00 (will give daily rain)
00:00:00
.01 (for a tenth inch tipping bucket)
Offset
Use Equation
0
Off
You can gather the total rain and a daily, hourly, etc. rain reading. Just set up
two sensors both reading the Precip Accumulation and Precip Rate.
8.6.
Solar Radiation Sensor
This section describes how to connect a solar radiation sensor and how to set up
X-Link in order to measure solar radiation sensors. The sensor used is an SP Lite
with an analog output and sensitivity expressed as 79.4uV /Wm².
This device provides radiation via an analog output. To wire it up, connect like
so:
(See section 6.1.4.11 for more details)
Solar Radiation
output
X-Link input
Wire VREF to Diff C +
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 111
+ SIG
- SIG
Diff C +
Diff C -
This X-Link setup will measure solar radiation, in units of Watts per m², from the
sensor that has a sensitivity of 79.4uV / Wm² (.0000794 V/ Wm²).
Since the X-Link multiplies the voltage by the scale factor, we want to know how
many Wm² one volt equals. Also, we have tied the + side to the Vref to keep the
input within the range of the analog circuit, so we also need to apply a negative
slope (a positive change from the sensor will look like it is going negative to the
X-Link).
1 Volt / (0.0000794V / Wm²) * -1= -12594.46 Wm²
Therefore, for an instantaneous reading of solar irradiance, not an integrated
reading, where you want the reading in Watts per square meter and not kiloWatts per square meter, then you have a large slope. For kW/m-2 the slope
would be 12.59446
Solar Radiation
Setup
Active
Label
Meas Type
Analog Type
Input Range
Warmup
Averaging Time
Slope
8.7.
Value
On
SOLRAD
Analog
Diff C
-312 to +312mV
3 sec
00:00:00
-12594.46
SDI-12 Multi-Parameter Sensor
This section describes how to connect the sensor and how to set up X-Link to
measure several parameters from a single SDI-12 sensor.
The SDI-12 sensors use three wires for connection: one for data, one for power +
and one for power -. To wire it up, connect as follows:
SDI-12 Sensor
Data
Power +
Power -
X-Link input
Terminal Block 3
Terminal Block 4
Terminal Block 5
This X-Link setup measures several parameters from a single SDI-12 sensor. Note
how the address, command, measurement time and interval are all the same.
(This is what tells X-Link to only issue the measurement command once, then get
the three parameters from the one measurement):
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 112
Wind speed Setup
M1 Active
Label
Meas Type
SDI-12 Address
SDI-12 Command
SDI-12 Param
Meas Interval
Meas Time
Averaging Time
M2 Active
Label
Meas Type
SDI-12 Address
SDI-12 Command
SDI-12 Param
Meas Interval
Meas Time
Averaging Time
M3 Active
Label
Meas Type
SDI-12 Address
SDI-12 Command
SDI-12 Param
Meas Interval
Meas Time
Averaging Time
8.8.
Value
On
SDI0P1
SDI-12
0
M!
1
00:15:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
On
SDI0P2
SDI-12
0
M!
2
00:15:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
On
SDI0P3
SDI-12
0
M!
3
00:15:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
ISCO Sampler triggering based on Stage
This section describes how to connect the sensor and how to set up X-Link to
trigger an ISCO sampler based on a user set level. In this example, the sensor is
an SDI-12 water level device.
The SDI-12 sensors use three wires for connection: one for data, one for power +
and one for power -. To wire it up, connect as follows:
SDI-12 Sensor
Data
Power +
Power -
X-Link input
Terminal Block 3
Terminal Block 4
Terminal Block 5
The ISCO sampler uses two wires for connection: one for trigger and one for
ground. To wire it up, connect as follows:
ISCO Sample
Trigger
Ground
X-Link input
Terminal Block 11
Terminal Block 9
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 113
This X-Link setup measures the STAGE parameter from a single SDI-12 sensor in
Measurement 1 and then uses that value to determine when to trigger the ISCO
sampler. Note: In this setup, the M2 equation determines if the STAGE is greater
than 7.75, then it will pulse the DOUT for 1000mS (1 second).
STAGE Sensor and
Trigger Setup
M1 Active
M1 Label
M1 Right Digits
M1 Meas Interval
M1 Meas Time
M1 Meas Type
M1 SDI-12 Address
M1 SDI-12 Command
M1 SDI-12 Param
M1 Slope
M1 Offset
M1 Use Equation
M2 Active
M2 Label
M2 Right Digits
M2 Meas Interval
M2 Meas Time
M2 Meas Type
M2 Meta Index
M2 Slope
M2 Offset
M2 Use Equation
M2 Equation
8.9.
Value
On
STAGE
2
0:15:00
0:00:00
SDI-12
0
M!
1
1
0
Off
On
TRG
0
0:15:00
0:00:00
Meta
1
1
0
On
PULSE12(STAGE>7.75,1000)
Seametrics Flow Meter
X-Link is able to collect water flow and rate data from a variety of Seametrics
flow meters.
To setup X-Link to measure data from a Seametrics flow meter, set the
Measurement Type to Seametrics Flow or Seametrics Rate.
Do NOT set the Measurement Interval shorter than 10 seconds.
Sutron Corporation
8.9.1.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 114
Hardware Interface
The Seametrics flow meter connects to X-Link's RS-485 interface.
External signal conditioning is required to connect a Seametrics flow meter to
X-Link . Refer to diagram below to wire a Seametrics meter to an X-Link.
Seametrics Pulse Wiring
8.9.2.
Seametrics Serial Wiring
Seametrics and SDI-12 sensors
Unlike most other sensors, X-Link is not able to ask Seametrics for data. Instead,
X-Link must wait and listen for the Seametrics flow meter to output data.
Seametrics flow meters will automatically output data. The data is output every
1.5 seconds when there is flow, and at a much slower rate when there is no flow.
When there is no flow, Seametrics will output data at a user-settable interval
called Logging Interval. Changing that setting requires interfacing directly to the
Seametrics unit; X-Link cannot change that setting.
X-Link's Timeout setting dictates how long, in seconds, X-Link should listen for
data from the Seametrics sensor. If no data is captured during this time, X-Link
will flag the measurement with an error.
X-Link Timeout setting should match the Seametrics' Logging Interval setting.
X-Link defaults Timeout to the longest value possible (980 seconds) to ensure it
will capture data from the Seametrics.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 115
The only reason to change X-Link's Timeout setting is if there are SDI-12
sensors connected.
The RS-485 bus used to connect to Seametrics is shared with the SDI-12 bus. As
long as X-Link is listening for data from the Seametrics flow meter, it cannot
collect data from any SDI-12 sensors.
X-Link will log data captured from the Seametrics flow meter at the user set
Measurement Interval. If the Seametrics flow meter does not produce any data
during a Measurement Interval, X-Link will use the last data it received from the
Seametrics flow meter. This situation can happen if X-Link's Measurement
Interval is shorter than Seametrics' Logging Interval and there is no flow.
To have X-Link collect data from a Seametrics flow meter and an SDI-12 sensor,
there are several options:

If data from both sensors can be collected less frequently than every 980
seconds (which is a bit more than 16 minutes), no additional considerations
are needed.

If more frequent data collection is needed, please follow these steps:
o Change the Seametrics Logging Interval to be a bit shorter than your
required data collection interval. X-Link cannot help you change this
setting - a Seametrics program will have to be used.
o When setting up X-Link for the Seametrics measurement, change
Timeout and Measurement Interval settings to match the Seametrics
Logging Interval.
o Setup X-Link's SDI-12 measurement normally. Just make sure the
Measurement Interval of the SDI-12 measurement is longer than the
Timeout of the Seametrics measurement.
The example below shows a valid X-Link setup that will measure both Seametrics
and an SDI-12 sensor every five minutes. For the setup to work, the Seametrics
Logging Interval setting must be set to four minutes.
M1 Meas Type
M1 Meas Interval
M1 Timeout
M2 Meas Type
M2 Meas Interval
Seametrics Flow
00:05:00
250
SDI-12
00:05:00
M1 Timeout is 250 seconds, which is 4 minutes and 10 seconds. The number is
based on the Seametrics Logging Interval (4 minutes). A comfortable padding of
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 116
10 seconds was added to ensure that a reading was not missed due to minor
timing issue. As long as the SDI-12 sensor takes less than 50 seconds to
complete, there should be no issues getting data from both sensors.
8.9.3.
Seametrics Result Sharing
If two measurements are setup, one as a Seametrics Flow and the other as a
Seametrics Rate, as long as the Measurement Time and Measurement Interval of
the two are the same, the same reading from the Seametrics flow meter will be
used to complete both measurements.
8.10.
Computing Rate of Change
With software version 1.48, several new commands were added to the equation
processor: Prev and DeltaT.
Those commands allow the computation of changes in a sensor reading. For
example, it is possible to compute how many digital counts have ocurred
between two readings. The example below shows how to do exactly that:
Wind speed Setup
M1 Active
M1 Meas Interval
M1 Meas Type
M1 Digital Type
M1 Use Equation
M2 Active
M2 Meas Interval
M2 Meas Type
M2 Meta Index
M2 Slope
M2 Offset
M2 Use Equation
M2 Equation
Value
On
00:00:10
Digital
Counter 1
Off
On
00:00:10
Meta
1
1.000000
0.000000
On
(M1 - Prev1)/DeltaT1
Or use the following if the rollover setting is not
zero:
((M1-Prev1)<0)*(M1-Prev1+rollover+1) + ((M1Prev1)>=0)*(M1-Prev1)
Where rollover is the value of the rollover setting.
In the example above, M1 has been setup to simply count the incoming digital
pulses. M2 has been setup as Meta of M1 in order to correctly sync the two
measurements, such that M2 waits for M1 to complete.
The equation setup for M2 computes the difference in the current and the
previous readings from measurement M1 (expressed as M1 - Prev1), and divides
it by DeltaT1 which is the amount of time in seconds between the two readings.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 117
For this setup, DeltaT1 is always 10. Note that the equation becomes quite
complicated if it needs to account for a rollover value.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 118
9. Logging
X-Link automatically logs some of the sensor data that it collects. Data is logged
on a secure flash chip with a capacity of approximately 240,000 entries. A log
entry looks like this:
04/02/2012,09:25:00,STAGE,20.50




Data is logged according to the Logging Interval (see the Setup section,
beginning page 68)
Data will not be lost if power is removed. Once the log is full, the oldest data
will be overwritten.
Only logged data may be transmitted.
X-Link logs events such as power up, log download, and setup change.
Each log entry consists of:




date and time (with a one-second resolution)
name (e.g. STAGE)
measurement reading (optional)
measurement quality (optional)
The format of logged data is the Sutron Standard CSV format, which was
introduced in the 2009. It is a format common to current Sutron products.
The general format specification for Sutron Standard CSV format is:
mm/dd/yyyy,hh:mm:ss,label,data[,units,qual][,label,da
ta[,units,qual]]
Here are four examples of log entries:




01/19/2010,09:21:49,Reset Powerup,1
01/19/2010,09:30:00,Stage,1.25,feet
01/19/2010,09:45:00,Stage,1.27,feet
01/19/2010,09:50:27,Setup Change
To help preserve data integrity and reliability, there is no way to erase data from
the log.
9.1.1.
Downloading the Log
Logged data can be downloaded using LinkComm or via a terminal program using
the LOG command.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 119
The downloaded data is in Sutron Standard CSV format and can be easily
displayed using Sutron’s GRAPHER program (downloadable from
www.sutron.com) or common spreadsheet/word processing programs.
You can download the whole log or only parts of it. You may specify the start
date and optionally the end date for the downloaded data. You may also ask for
data from the last X days.
There are options to download only data from a specific measurement. Events
can be excluded form the log download.
X-Link remembers the last log download and will allow downloads since last
download. This means that the only parts of the log downloaded are those that
have not been previously downloaded.
9.2.
Log Events
Occasionally, X-Link will log events. Events are used to help troubleshoot the
data.
The following actions will cause the X-Link to log an event:








Setup change (when any setting is changed)
Log download (when the log is downloaded)
Reset (log contains reset type and count)
Errors (such as low battery and sensor failure)
Before cal and after cal (logged when the user sets the sensor level to record
the value before and after the calibration)
Log in events (if password is enabled), including failure to log in.
Telemetry events (transmission made, message received, etc.)
Alarm events
The setting Log Daily Values determines whether certain log events are logged
every day before midnight.
Here is a list of some of the log events and their descriptions:
Sutron Corporation
Event
Tx Good
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition :
Time logged:
Tx Fail
Value logged:
Condition:
Tx Missing
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Trying
Backup
Messages
Received
Client
Connect
Modem
Bytes Tx
Total
Modem
Bytes Rx
Total
Modem
Bytes Tx
Today
Modem
Bytes Rx
Today
Time
Before
Change
Time After
Change
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
.
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 120
Description
A transmission is successfully completed.
The time the transmission processes started, which may be
minutes before it completed, depending on signal strength.
The total number of good transmissions made.
A transmission fails.
The time the transmission processes started. The reason why
the transmission failed is logged too: No modem detected,
communication error with modem, no signal, cannot register,
server not found.
The total number of bad transmissions made.
Logged by a backup system when the modem fails to complete
the transmission in time allocated. This indicates a problem
with either the software of the communication to the modem.
X-Link could not connect to the main server and there is a
backup server setup.
The number of messages received by X-Link today.
Midnight
A remote connection is established with a listening X-Link.
The number of bytes transmitted during the lifetime of the
station (or at least since they were last cleared.)
Once a day at midnight
The number of bytes received during the lifetime of the station
(or at least since they were last cleared).
Once a day at midnight.
The number of bytes transmitted during the day.
Once a day at midnight
The number of bytes received during the day.
Once a day at midnight
Logged before the clock is changed
Logged after the clock is changed along with the number of
seconds that the clock was adjusted by. A negative number of
seconds implies the clock was set back.
Sutron Corporation
Event
Condition:
Reset
Powerup
Reset
Upgrade
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Reset Soft
Reset
Log
Download
Setup
Change
Hardware
Fail
Login
Valid
Login Fail
Password
Changed
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Alarm In
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Alarm Out
Calibration
SDI-12
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
Time logged:
Value logged:
Condition:
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 121
Description
Logged when X-Link is powered on. Logged with the
cumulative total number of power on resets. If that number is
100, it means it is the 100th time the unit was powered on.
Similar to Reset Powerup, but logged after a software upgrade.
Similar to Reset Powerup, but logged when the REBOOT
command is issued and when the system intentionally resets
itself.
A system failure results in a system reset.
Logged when the log is downloaded.
Logged when any part of the setup is changed. Details of the
setup change are not logged.
Logged along with a code to indicate a potential problem with
the hardware.
Logged to indicate that the user logged into a password
protected station.
Condition: The wrong password was entered.
The user changed the password.
The system went into alarm. The index of the measurement
that caused the alarm event is logged. The measurement
reading that caused the alarm will be logged separately.
The system went out of alarms. The measurement reading that
caused the alarm is also logged.
When a sensor is calibrated, X-Link will log the readings before
and after the calibration along with a calibration event.
The number logged with the calibration is the index of the
measurement index that was calibrated.
An SDI-12 reading has failed.
Sutron Corporation
Event
Failure
Time logged:
Value logged:
9.2.1.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 122
Description
Logged only the first time the sensor fails and it gets logged
only once a day.
The value logged is the index of the measurement that failed.
Logged Time
Measurements are not instant. Once initiated, a measurement takes the userdefined averaging time, plus some overhead, to complete.
For measurements without averaging, the timestamp of the logged
measurement is the time the measurement was started. The same is true for
transmissions. The timestamp of the transmission is the time when the
transmission process was started, not when it was completed.
This means that if a SDI-12 sensor takes 1 minute to provide a result, and the
measurement is setup to go every 15 minutes, the measurement will start at
00:15:00 and complete at 00:16:00. The logged data will have the timestamp of
00:15:00.
X-Link handles averaged readings in such a way that the last sample is collected
at Meas Time + Meas Interval. Please see the averaging section on page 70 for
details.
Sutron Corporation
10.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 123
Password
Please note that major changes were made to X-Link password handling with
version 1.72. Password protection was updated to a three tier password system.
While the new system provides backwards functionality for logging into stations,
enabling password protection has changed. The instructions below are for
versions 1.72 and newer.
X-Link provides means of protection against unwanted access. Password
protection is at the heart of the security.
Whether accessing X-Link with a USB cable, via the Wi-Fi hotspot, over Iridium
SBD messages, over cell TCP/IP, or over cell SMS messages, password protection
guards access to X-Link. In order to access X-Link, the correct password must be
provided.
For remote access over Cell, additional protection is provided over TCP/IP via the
use a VPN. To access X-Link, one first connect to the appropriate VPN.
For Iridium access, additional protection is provided by the Iridium system itself,
which blocks access from unauthorized sources. Anyone who seeks to send
messages to X-Link must be on a white list provided to Iridium.
Each SMS message sent to X-Link needs to include the password if X-Link is to
process it. The same holds true for Iridium SBD messages.
10.1.
Steps to Take to Protect your Station
Please take the following steps in order to ensure the integrity of your X-Link
station.


10.2.
Physical access to X-Link must be restricted.
Passwords should be setup and enabled.
Password Protection
Password protection can be configured to prevent unauthorized access. To
setup password protection, please use LinkComm’s Change Password menu.
X-Link provides three tiers of access through a combination of the following
settings:

Password Protection
Sutron Corporation



X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 124
Setup Password
Maintenance Password
Read Password
10.2.1.
Password Protection Setting
A setting called Password Protection needs to be set in order to secure a station.
Password Protection may be set to one of the following:




DISABLED
 In this scenario, full access is allowed without a password. This is the
default.
SETUP
 In this scenario, the system’s setup is write-protected. Maintenance
and read access are allowed without a password.
 Without providing the correct password:
 The Station setup cannot be changed. Transmissions may not be
started.
 Status may be cleared, measurements may be calibrated and
forced, failsafe may be reset, unit may be rebooted, clock may
be set.
MAINTENANCE
 System write and maintenance operations are restricted. Read access
is allowed without a password.
 Without a password, setup can be read, but not written; status can be
checked, but not cleared.
FULL
 System is fully protected.
 No access at all is allowed without a password, except for the
following commands: EXIT, HELLO, PASSWORD PROTECTION, VER.
Password Protection must be enabled when connected locally to the station. It
may not be enabled nor disabled when connected remotely.


If a station is deployed with password protection disabled, the only way
to enable protection is locally. Remote access cannot be used to enable
protection. Why? To prevent hackers from locking out an unprotected
station.
If a station is deployed with protection enabled, allowed actions depend
on the Remote Password Change setting:
 If it is On, password protection may not be completely disabled
remotely. The Password Protection setting may be modified to be
Setup, Maintenance, or Full, but it may not be Disabled.
 If It is Off, Password Protection may not be modified at all remotely.
Sutron Corporation
10.2.2.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 125
Passwords
X-Link has three different passwords. The access level granted depends on the
password provided.



Read password
 Read access is the most restricted access level. A customer with read
access may not make any changes to the system. Read access allows
one to view measurement readings, view status, view setup,
download the log, and the like.
Maintenance password
 Entering the maintenance password provides everything that read
access does, plus the ability to calibrate sensors, clear status, reboot
unit, and other station maintenance related functions.
Setup password
 Entering the setup password grants complete access to the station.
The default passwords are SUTRON1 for read access, SUTRON2 for maintenance
access, and SUTRON3 for full access. Please change ALL THREE passwords when
securing your system.
Blank passwords are NOT allowed. All ASCII bytes are allowed except comma,
equals, and white space. Passwords may be up to 11 bytes long.
10.2.2.1.
Remote Password Change
A setting called Remote Password Change controls whether or not the three
passwords may be changed via remote access. The setting’s default is On,
meaning remote password changes are allowed. It also controls whether or not
the Password Protection setting may be modified remotely (see previous
section).
10.2.3.
Working with a Password Protected Station
If LinkComm is used to connect to a password protected station, LinkComm will
automatically prompt for a password.
When sending a message to a password protected station, the first line of the
message must have the login command LOGIN=XXX, where XXX is the password.
10.2.4.
Logging Out
Logging out is accomplished by one of the following:

Disconnect with LinkComm
Sutron Corporation




X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 126
Type EXIT in the command line
Disconnect the USB cable
Power down the unit
Connection time out
Sutron Corporation
11.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 127
Output
X-Link features a digital output. X-Link's digital output line is on terminal #11 and
is labeled DOUT.
The digital output may be activated via several means.

Manually via command line. A command may be sent using
LinkComm by directly connecting to X-Link via USB, sending
GPRSLink an SMS, sending an email to an IRIDIUMLink, or via any
other means of connecting to X-Link.

Alarms: any sensor going into alarm may trigger the digital output.

Equations: any measurement setup with the PULSE12 equation
expression may pulse the digital output for a specified amount of
time. Please see the Equations Syntax section on page 74 for
details.
X-Link can automatically activate the output based on alarms. The setting
Output1 Control dictates whether alarm activity triggers the output.
The setting Output1 Control can be set to:



Manual: X-Link will do nothing with the digital output when it goes into and
out of alarms.
Alarm In: X-Link turns on digital output when any measurement goes into
alarm. X-Link does nothing with the output when it goes out of alarm.
Alarm In And Out: X-Link turns on digital output when any measurement
goes into alarm and it turns off digital output when any measurement goes
out of alarm.
Output 1 can be controlled manually. You can send a message or connect via
LinkComm in order to control the output.
LinkComm has the Output1 Control setting on the Other Setup dialog. Pressing
the Control button on the same tab will bring up the Output Control window
which can be used to see the current state and to control DOUT.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 128
Command line access to output 1:



OUTPUT1 tells whether the output is currently on. X-Link's possible replies:
o Output1 is NOT active
o Output1 is ACTIVE
OUTPUT1 ON turns on the output
OUTPUT1 OFF turns off the output
If the digital output is turned off via command line while the system is in alarm,
the system will not turn it back on until it goes out of alarm and later back into
alarm.
A measurement setup for a ROC Alarm and an Alarm ROC Interval set to Since
Last Tx does not have a going out of alarm state. Those alarms will never turn
off the digital output.
11.1.
Output Hardware
The digital output is an open collector type output. This provides direct interface
to many products. The open collector output may easily sink 100ma (rated at
>400ma) on a continuous basis.
It is expected that a pull-up resistor will be connected to the SDI-12 12V supply
or alternately to the battery input. The value of the pull-up may be determined
by the impedance of the connected load. A10 kOhm resistor may be used as a
default.
Sutron Corporation

X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 129
With a pull-up resistor connected
o When the output is turned on, the output syncs current from all attached
devices.
o When the output is turned off, the output is pulled up to the supplying
voltage.
Sutron Corporation
12.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 130
Time Keeping
To keep time, X-Link uses an RTC (real time clock) backed by an internal battery.
The RTC keeps ticking even if the main battery to the X-Link is removed. The RTC
will, at worst case, drift ±2 minutes per month (0 to +50C). The lifetime of the
RTC battery is about five years.
Each X-Link has its time set when it leaves the factory.
X-Link time can be viewed and set via LinkComm and via command line.
12.1.
Iridium
IRIDIUMLink unit automatically synchronizes its time to the Iridium system after
every transmission. Prior to version 1.48, the sync would happen only once a day.
Use the Local Time Offset to convert the time from UTC to a local time zone. The
change will take effect after the next good transmission.
12.1.1.
Time Change
When its clock is changed, X-Link logs the time before the change and the time
after the change to its log. If the clock is changed by more than 15 minutes, XLink resets itself to ensure correct future operations.
Here is logged data following a significant time change:
01/24/2012,09:10:26,Time Before Change
01/24/2012,08:52:00,Time After Change,-1106
01/24/2012,08:52:02,Reset Soft,1
That logged data means that a time change happened when the clock read
09:10:26. The new time was 08:52:00, with the clock being turned back 1106
seconds. Since the clock change was significant, the system reset itself after the
change.
12.1.2.
Iridium Epoch Change
All IRIDIUMLink units must be upgraded to version 1.48 by May 11 2014. If they
are not upgraded, their clocks will become incorrect, due to the Iridium epoch
change. Is it sufficient to upgrade the unit to 1.48 or newer to avert the issue no other changes are needed.
Sutron Corporation
12.2.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 131
SDI Clock Synchronization
Certain Sutron SDI-12 sensors (such as the SDR, RLR, and the CF Bubbler) support
a command to set the time of the sensor via SDI-12. X-Link takes advantage of
that feature, and periodically sets the clock of the sensors using an SDI-12
command, ensuring that all devices share a common time.
When recording is enabled and every 24 hours thereafter, X-Link performs a
time sync with all the Sutron devices that support the XDT! command. Every
time sync is started by sending an I! command to every SDI-12 device that X-Link
has been set up to measure. If the device replies favorably to the I! command, an
XDT! command is issued to the device. X-Link then decides whether to sync that
device’s clock based on time validity, the presence of a GPS (either on X-Link or
on one of the attached devices), and the time difference between X-Link and the
device.
The XDT set time command takes the format aXDTYYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS!
a is address
XDT is the command to set the date and time
YYYY is the year
MM is the month (01 to 12)
DD is the day of the month (01 to 31)
HH is the hour (military time 0 to 23)
MM is the minutes
SS is the seconds
Example set date time command: 0XDT2008/06/26 13:15:00!
Sutron Corporation
13.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 132
Errors
During operation, X-Link may notice system errors. If it does, it will blink the red
LED on the front panel.
To see the error details, check the status with LinkComm. Via command line,
type STATUS to see any potential errors.
13.1.
Clearing Errors
Some errors can only be cleared by fixing the condition that is causing them. For
example ‘Time Not Set’ can only be fixed by setting the time.
Most errors can be cleared with LinkComm's Clear Status button on the main
tab. On the command line, type STATUS 0 to clear the errors.
13.2.
Measurement Errors
Measurement errors occur as the system collects sensor data. When data from
the sensor contains an error, that error is logged along with the sensor reading.
The system notes this error until the system is rebooted or until the error is
cleared. Even if the error were to occur only once, it remains in the system until
cleared or rebooted.
13.2.1.
Sensor Failure
This error indicates a problem with a sensor or a setup. This error is recorded for
SDI-12 sensors when the SDI-12 sensor does not reply to the measure and to the
data commands. It is also recorded for analog measurements when the analog to
digital converter indicates a problem reading the input which could be to the
input voltage being out of range or not being connected (X-Link cannot always be
able to tell if an analog sensor is present).
When the sensor failure error occurs, X-Link changes the sensor reading to
match the user set Log Error Value, which defaults to -99999. Such outlandish
numbers are used to attract the user’s attention when viewing the log.
13.2.2.
Meas Interval Too Short
If this error is present, then the measurement schedule is inappropriate.
This error means that X-Link missed a scheduled measurement. This gets logged
when the system realizes that more than one measurement interval has passed
between two subsequent measurements. One of the following likely took place:
Sutron Corporation


X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 133
The system missed a scheduled measurement (likely due to measurement
taking longer than Meas Interval to complete – e.g. system was told to
measure every 5 seconds even though the sensor takes 10 seconds to finish a
reading
Equations are enabled and the Meas Interval is short (once a second or once
every two seconds). X-Link can take several seconds to compute a lengthy
equation and cannot complete a measurement as quickly.
13.2.3.
Sampling Too Short
This happens when the sensor response time is longer than the sampling
interval. SDI-12 readings are a good example: if a sensor requires 10 seconds to
produce a reading, and the sampling interval is 10 seconds, this error gets set.
13.2.4.
Averaging Too Short
The averaging interval is either shorter than the sampling interval or than the
sensor reply time.
Prior to version 1.46, the error "Bad Schedule" was used to mean either "Meas
Interval Too Short", "Sampling Too Short", or "Averaging Too Short".
13.2.5.
Bad Setup
This error is recorded to indicate one of the following:




The equation processor reported an error (could be a divide by 0 or syntax
error)
A meta measurement referenced an inappropriate measurement
The SDI-12 Command was set to an invalid value
The SDI-12 sensor did not provide enough data values in the result (check
SDI-12 Param)
13.2.6.
Bad Wind Setup
X-Link requires that two measurements to be set up for wind: a speed and a
direction and that the two measurements have an identical schedule. See
section on wind setup.
13.3.
System Errors
13.3.1.
Recording Off
If recording is turned off, X-Link is not collecting data. That is why this condition
is considered an error. This error persists until recording is turned on.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 134
13.3.2.
Time Not Set
This error is noted when X-Link does not have valid time. This error can only be
fixed by setting the time, which can be done via LinkComm's Diagnostics tab, via
the TIME command, or via the SDI-12 XDT command.
X-Link has an RTC (real time clock) backed by an internal battery. The clock is set
at the factory. The RTC keeps ticking even if the main battery is removed. This
means that X-Link should not forget the correct time when it loses power. The
battery lifetime is more than five years. When the system is powered, the
battery will never be consumed.
13.3.3.
Battery Low
X-Link considers any battery voltage below 10.5V to be an error in an effort to
indicate that the battery needs to be changed. The only way to fix this error is to
provide a supply of more than 10.5V.
13.3.4.
Hardware Failure
This error is recorded if any hardware issues were noted since boot up. The
errors will also be placed in the log. Every hardware error has a code logged with
it. A hardware error usually indicates a serious problem with the unit. Contact
Sutron customer support at 703 406 2800 for help with hardware errors.
13.3.5.
Transmission Failures
A variety of issues can cause problems with transmissions:




13.3.6.






Two or more consecutive transmissions failing cause an error.
If more than 25 percent of total transmissions fail, an error is flagged.
If no measurements are set up to be included in the transmission data, the
system flags an error.
If an X-Link with a cell modem says that "No Ack From Sever" is why the
transmission failed, it is because the server has not been updated to
acknowledge the data delivery. X-Link version 1.69 needs the server to issue
a 0x0D after receiving the data.
Modem Errors
Not present: this flag is set when X-Link cannot detect or talk to the modem.
Comm Error: X-Link is having a hard time communicating with the modem. XLink will retry.
No SIM: The SIM card is not present.
BAD PIN: The SIM card has been locked with a PIN. Enter the correct PIN into
the SIM PIN field.
No Network: The modem cannot get a good signal.
Cannot Register: The modem has been denied registration by the cell
network.
Sutron Corporation
14.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 135
Command Line Interface
The best way to set up and talk to X-Link is by using LinkComm software.
Connect X-Link to a PC via a USB cable, install any required drivers, and run
LinkComm.
SMS messages may be sent to X-Link from a cell phone, and Iridium messages
may be sent via email. LinkComm cannot send messages to X-Link.
X-Link uses a command line interface. You can use a terminal program instead of
LinkComm to talk to X-Link. All of X-Link's features are available over command
line. In fact, LinkComm uses the command line interface to talk to X-Link. When
messages are sent to X-Link via SMS or Iridium, they use the same format as
regular command line communications.
14.1.
Why Use Command Line?
LinkComm provides an easy user friendly way to interact with X-Link. You should
never have to use X-Link's command line interface. However, some people
prefer command-line interactions. Also, if you want to send an SMS to a
GPRSLink to check the station status, you would need to find out what the
command for checking status is.
14.2.
About the Command Line Interface
The command line interface provides a way to interact with X-Link. Any terminal
program can be used to connect to X-Link. You can connect via the USB port,
send a message via SMS (or Iridium), or attach to the TCP/IP address of GPRSLink
that has Listening enabled.
By default the interface operates at 115200 Baud, no parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop
bit. X-Link supports hardware handshaking; its use is recommended. Allow at
least a half-second between opening the communications port and starting
communication.
To start command line mode, send carriage return or line feed (or both). If using
a terminal program, press ENTER. X-Link will respond with a prompt >
Once in command line mode, type HELP to get a list of supported commands.
Also try HELP SETUP.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 136
While it is not recommended, changing the baud rate can be done by typing
BAUD RATE. The default baud rate is 115200.
With the terminal program, if the emulation is set for VT100, pressing the up
arrow brings back the last typed command.
14.3.
Sending Messages
Messages can be sent to the station remotely. Messages are treated like
command line input with a few differences. Some commands cannot be
executed via a message. Other commands may have a differently formatted
output (in order to reduce message size).
GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink can receive SMS (text messages).
IRIDIUMLink can have messages sent to via emails that get routed through the
Iridium system. (See 148.)
The last message received since boot up can be viewed via the front panel, under
the diagnostics menu.
When X-Link receives a message, it handles the input just as if it were on the
commands. For example, issuing the command M1 ACTIVE = OFF would turn off
measurement one. Normally, X-Link executes the command and provides no
feedback.
If X-Link needs to reply to the message it received, the command in the
message must be preceded with an exclamation point. For example, sending a
message with the data
M1 MEAS
will not cause X-Link to send a reply message. Sending
! M1 MEAS
will cause X-Link to send a reply. Sending
STATUS
will do nothing. To get the status, precede the command with a !
!STATUS
Several commands can be sent in the same message. Separate the command
with a new line or with a semicolon:
!M1 MEAS; !STATUS;
A password-protected X-Link requires that the first line of the message be the
LOGIN command. Here is a message telling X-Link to turn off the digital output 1
and return the status:
LOGIN=XXX; OUTPUT1 OFF; !STATUS
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 137
Prior to version 1.46, X-Link would not allow the customer to remotely turn off
Recording or Tx Enable.
14.4.
Status
To check the status, type STATUS (or just S).
>STATUS
X-Link: X-Link ver 1.04
Station Name
= SUTRON DEV1
System In Alarm
Measurement M1 STAGE reading
10.16
2012/03/30 12:10:15
Into Alarm
Recording = On
4 Meas Active
GPRS Modem: Off.
Tx Enable = On, Tx Mode = Internet Only, Listening =
On
Tx today: good 2, bad 0
Last Scheduled Tx, Completed, Success, 2012/03/30
12:00:10
Last Alarm Tx, Completed, Success, 2012/03/30
11:56:20
Next Scheduled Tx, Future, 2012/03/30 16:00:10
Next Alarm Tx, In progress, 2012/03/30 12:10:15
System Time 2012/03/30 12:10:19
Recording since
Booted at
2012/03/30 12:10:10
2012/03/30 11:55:33
Battery 14.0V
14.5.
Setup
To view the whole measurement setup, type SETUP. To view just the setup of
measurement one, type M1. Likewise, M2 shows the setup of the second
measurement. Only pertinent data is shown. If a measurement is not active, it
will not show its setup fields. If a measurement is of type analog, it will not show
its SDI-12 setup fields.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 138
The command SETUP NONDEFAULTS only shows the fields that have been
changed from defaults.
An easy way of setting up your station is to type WIZARD or just W. A setup
wizard will guide you through the most commonly used settings of the station
and of each measurement. The setup wizard may be used to configure one
specific measurement: typing M1 WIZARD or M1 W will set up measurement
one.
Every setup field can be changed by typing setup = value where setup is the
name of the field and value is the new value. By just typing the name of the field,
the current value and the range of the field are shown.
For example, typing STATION NAME shows the current station name. Typing
STATION NAME = SUTRON changes the station name.
>STATION NAME
Setup NOT changed
Station Name = DEMO, max length 23
To change setup try STATION NAME = SUTRON.
>STATION NAME = SUTRON DEV 1
Setup changed
Station Name = SUTRON DEV 1, max length 23
Changing measurement setup fields requires that the measurement be named.
For example, to change the Measurement Type it is not enough to type MEAS
TYPE. You need to provide the number of the measurement in question: M1
MEAS TYPE shows the Measurement Type of the first measurement. M2 MEAS
TYPE works for the second measurement.
>M1 MEAS TYPE
Setup NOT changed
Meas Type = SDI-12, Range (0=Precip Accumulation,
1=Precip Rate, 2=SDI-12, 3=Analog, 4=Battery, 5=Wind,
6=Digital, 7=Meta, 8=Manual Entry, 9=Internal Temp,
10=Accubar Pressure, 11=Accubar Temp)
To change setup try Station Name = Sutron
In the example above, the user typed M1 MEAS TYPE, which will show the
measurement type field of the first measurement. The example shows the type
as being Internal Temp. After the current type is shown, the range shows all the
options for the measurement type. To set up the measurement as SDI-12, the
user may type either M1 MEAS TYPE = SDI-12 or M1 MEAS TYPE = 2.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 139
Setting the whole setup to defaults can be accomplished by typing SETUP
DEFAULTS. Setting just measurement one to defaults can be done via M1 SETUP
DEFAULTS.
14.6.
Measurements
To view the setup and the last reading made measurement one, type M1. Use
M2 for measurement two, etc.
To view all the last measured readings, type LAST. It will show a reading for every
active sensor. Typing LAST does not initiate new measurement.
To initiate a new measurement for each active sensor, type MEAS. X-Link will
measure each sensor one at a time and display results as it goes along.
If you are interested in only one specific measurement try M1 LAST and M1
MEAS. Those will show the last measured value and initiate a new measurement,
respectively. To get more details on the measurement readings from LAST and
MEAS, type M1 DETAILS = ON.
Instead of using M1, M2, etc., you may also the measurement’s Label. For
example, if you have named measurement one as BARO, typing BARO will show
the setup of the measurement an typing BARO MEAS will make a new
measurement and show the results.
To change the current reading of a sensor, type M1 = 12.5. This will change the
Measurement Offset such that the said measurement reads the user entered
value. For example, if my water level sensor, once set up, read 3.50, and I knew
the water level was at 1.50, I would type M1 = 1.50. The next it was measured,
M1 would read 1.50 (assuming the level does not change). The Measurement
Offset would have changed from 0 to -2.00.
A two-level calibration procedure is also available. It requires that the sensor be
able to product two readings and results in changes to both measurement Slope
and Offset. Issue M1 CAL to start the two-level calibration.
>M1 CAL
Position sensor
Enter sensor reading :20.5
Calculating...
Raw sensor: 10.1500
Position sensor
Enter sensor reading :23.1
Calculating...
Raw sensor: 13.8140
Measurement M1 STAGE
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 140
Slope = 0.709607
Offset = 13.297492
14.7.
Recording
By default, X-Link is not running. That means that it is neither making
measurements nor recording data.
To start X-Link, click the Start button in LinkComm, or type RECORDING = ON.
14.8.
Downloading the Log
X-Link will save the measured data in its flash memory each time a measurement
is made. This data is then available to download to via the RS232 port. The
command LOG command will start a Y-Modem transfer of the log to the
connected device.



It is possible to do a plain text download without Y-Modem by using the NY
option.
One can exclude the header with the NH option.
It is possible to download sensor data only omitting events with the NE
option.
>LOG HELP
DOWNLOAD or LOG will transfer the log from the
unit
LOG ALL gets whole log, just LOG gets since
last download,
LOG X gets X last days (LOG 3 gets last 3 days
worth of data)
LOG timeStart gets data since provided date
LOG timeStart timeEnd gets data between
provided dates
time can be YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS or YYYY/MM/DD
or HH:MM:SS
e.g. LOG 12:00:00 13:00:00
e.g. LOG 2006/01/20 12:00:00 2006/01/21
12:00:00
append M1 to include only data from measurement
one
e.g. LOG 3 M1 M2
append NH to omit log header, NE to omit events
NY to not use YModem
Sutron Corporation
14.9.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 141
Examples
Following is the captured communication of a user setting up measurement one
for a battery voltage measurement, making a measurement, and turning
recording on.
>M1 ACTIVE = 1
Setup changed
Active = On, Range (0=Off, 1=On)
>M1
Measurement M1 STAGE
Active
= On
Label
= STAGE
Right Digits
= 3
Meas Interval
= 00:00:05
Meas Time
= 00:00:00
Averaging Time
= 00:00:00
Logging Interval
= 00:00:00
Log Error Value
= -99999.00
Meas Type
= SDI-12
SDI-12 Address
= 0
SDI-12 Command
= M!
SDI-12 Param
= 1
Slope
= 1.001000
Offset
= 0.001000
Use Equation
= Off
Alarm 1 Type
= High
Alarm 1 Threshold
= 10.000000
Alarm 2 Type
= Off
Alarm 3 Type
= Off
Alarm Tx Mode
= Tx In Only
Alarm Deadband
= 0.000000
Alarm Logging
= Every Reading
Tx Data Content
= Last
Measurement M1 STAGE reading
10.161
2012/03/30 12:08:05
In Alarm
>M1 RIGHT DIGITS = 2
Setup changed
Right Digits = 2 , Range (0, 7)
>M1 MEAS
Calculating...
Measurement M1 STAGE reading
10.16
2012/03/30 12:08:27
In Alarm
>RECORDING = 0
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 142
Setup changed
Recording = Off, Range (0=Off, 1=On)
14.10.
Machine-to-Machine Communication
All commands may be preceded with an !. If they are, there is no echo, and a
concise reply meant for machine-to-machine interaction is returned.
Commands would be preceded by an ! if they were sent by an Xpert or some
such computer. For example, instead of typing SETUP, you may type !SETUP.
When command are preceded with an !, no help text is given, no range is shown
for measurement, no confirmation of commands is shown, and no key stroke is
expected between scrolling pages.
14.11.
Auto Output
When X-Link has auto output mode enabled, it will automatically send data out
on the USB port. (For more details, see page 102.)
14.12.
Command Reference
Documentation Legend:

0 If a 0 follows a listed command, it means that the command can optionally
be followed by the character 0. E.g. DIAG will show the system diagnostic
status. DIAG 0 will first show current status and then clear the status.
All commands may be preceded with an !. If they are, a concise reply meant for
machine to machine interaction is returned. Commands would be preceded by
an ! if they were sent by an Xpert or some such computer.
E.g. MEAS will show
M1 BARO
6.41
2007/12/12 14:55:22
!MEAS will show
6.41, 2007/12/12 14:55:22
Every setup variable can be viewed by typing its name.
E.g. STATION NAME will show the current name.
Every setup variable can be changed by typing its name = new value.
E.g. STATION NAME = STURON will set the current name to SUTRON.
For a list of all the setup names, see the Setup section.
Sutron Corporation
14.12.1.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 143
List of Commands
Command
AIM
BATTERY
DIAG 0
DOWNLOAD
EXIT
FACTORY DEFAULTS
HELP
HI
LAST
LOG
LOGIN
M1
M2
..
M16
MEAS
OUTPUT1
Description
This command is used to help with antenna placement.
Once issued, X-Link will keep the modem on and output the
signal strength every few seconds. The output will continue
until the user presses a key, disconnects, or after 30
minutes.
Shows the current battery reading.
Shows system diagnostics, including system resets. If
followed by 0, it will clear system resets.
See LOG
Quits command line.
This command sets the setup to defaults, clears status
(which includes system errors and transmission counts),
zeroes reset counts, and clears asserts.
Brings up the help (lists commands).
Also try HELP SETUP and HELP LOG
System replies with Hello and blinks green LED.
Shows the last measured reading of every active
measurement. This command does not make a new
measurement, only shows the last results of the last
measurement. If preceded by the measurement designator
(E.g. M1 LEAS), it shows only one sensor.
This command is used to download the log. Try LOG
HELP. See Downloading the Log section above for more
details.
To log into a password protected station, type LOGIN=XXX
where XXX is the password. Optionally, type
LOGIN=USERNAME,XXX and USERNAME will be
ignored. See PASSWORD commands below.
Type M1 to see the setup of the first measurement. Type
M2 to see the setup of the second measurement. Type M1
SETUP DEFAULTS to change to defaults only the setup of
measurement one. Type M1 LAST to see the last
measured value, and type M1 MEAS to make a new
reading.
Additionally, you may say M1 = 15.0 to calibrate the sensor.
That ends up changing the offset. There is also a two=point
calibration that changes the slope and the offset. Two point
calibration is started by typing M1 CAL
Use this to make a measurement on all or some sensors.
After receiving this command, X-Link will measure every
active sensor and display the results. If preceded by the
measurement designator (for example, M1 MEAS), it
measures only one sensor.
This command controls X-Link's digital output.
OUTPUT1 tells whether the output is currently on.
OUTPUT1 ON turns on the output.
OUTPUT1 OFF turns off the output
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 144
Command
PASSWORD
PROTECTION
PASSWORD READ = X
PASSWORD MAINT = X
PASSWORD SETUP = X
RESETS 0
SDI
Description
Used to enable password protection on a station. May be
set to Disabled, Setup, Maintenance, or Full.
Setup the passwords BEFORE enabling password
protection.
Access to writing the three passwords for the system,
where X is the new password.
Shows system diagnostics, including system resets. If
followed by 0, it will clear system diagnostic status.
Use this command to gain access to the SDI-12 bus. You
may put any command on the SDI-12 bus and see any
reply. SDI xxx puts xxx on the SDI-12 bus. E.g. type SDI
0M! to send the 0M! command.
Additionally, type SDI FIND to seek sensors. X-Link will
issue I! commands to all SDI-12 addresses in hopes of
locating sensors.
SETUP
If provided without any other parameters, it lists all setup
details. That includes each setup variable and its current
value.
Can be followed by a setup variable name and a new value
for that variable.
E.g. STATION NAME = SUTRON
If SETUP DEFAULT is issued, it will reset the entire setup
to defaults.
STATUS 0
Shows system status including time, boot time, battery
readings, last measurements, current internal sensor
readings, and any hardware errors that may exist. If
followed by 0, it clears the hardware errors.
Shows details transmission status.
Returns current internal temperature.
Shows the current system date and time. If followed by a
new time, it changes the system time. E.g. TIME =
2008/12/12 changes the date. TIME = 10:15:30 changes
the time.
STATUS TX
TEMP
TIME
Sutron Corporation
Command
TXBUF
TXFORM
TXLISTEN
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 145
Description
This command shows the data content of the transmission
buffer. Normally, the transmission buffer will contain data
from the last transmission. The transmission buffer can hold
more data than can fit into a single transmission, meaning
that the modem may need to send multiple transmissions to
transmit all the data in the buffer.
The data in the buffer will be in whatever format the user
has selected (via the Tx Data Format setting).
In addition to the transmission buffer content, the command
will tell how much data (in bytes) is in the buffer and when
the buffer was filled.
Issuing the command TXFORM (see below) will have the
X-Link fill the transmission buffer with data which can be
helpful to ensure that the station is set up properly.
Issuing this command will have X-Link fill the transmission
buffer with data. This command will cause X-Link to
overwrite whatever data was in the transmission buffer.
This command can help properly set up the station. Once
the measurements have been set up for transmission, issue
the TXFORM command to see what the transmission will
look like. Even though X-Link may not have collected the
data it would during normal operation, this command can
help determine the size and contents of the transmission.
If recording is on, the unit may not be able to access the
transmission buffers immediately. This can happen if
another transmission has filled the buffer with data that
needs to be transmitted first. Once the other transmission
completes, the command will be executed.
This command can be followed with optional parameters
that will dictate what data gets transmitted. The parameters
are the same as foe the command TXNOW which is
described below.
Issuing this command will cause X-Link to temporarily act
as if Listening were enabled. When listening, the modem
and the Wi-Fi hotspot will turn on. Without any additional
parameters, X-Link will listen for one hour. If TXLISTEN
HH:MM:SS where HH:MM:SS is a time, X-Link will listen for
the specified duration.
Issuing TXLISTEN 0 will cause X-Link to turn listening OFF.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 146
Command
TXNOW
Description
Issue this command to have X-Link make a transmission as
soon as possible. This command is useful for getting
logged data from the unit.
If connected to the unit directly or remotely (as opposed to
sending the command in a message), you may issue the
TXBUF command immediately afterward to see what the
data content will look like (only useful for diagnostics).
If command line is active (not a message), you will need to
disconnect before the unit will be able to make a
transmission.
If issued without additional parameters, X-Link will make a
transmission that is similar to a scheduled transmission.
Otherwise, provide parameters that will specify what data to
include in the transmission:
TXNOW timeStart timeEnd includes data between the
dates
time can be YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS or
YYYY/MM/DD or HH:MM:SS
e.g. TXNOW 12:00:00 13:00:00
e.g. TXNOW 2006/01/20 12:00:00 2006/01/21
12:00:00
append M1 to include only data from measurement
one
e.g. TXNOW M1 M2 12:00:00 13:00:00
UPG +
Initiates a system software upgrade. It needs to be followed
by the Y-Modem transfer of an .upg file specific to the
product. Both the main application and the bootloader are
upgraded this way (but each needs its own .upg file). Check
www.sutron.com for software upgrades.
VER +Shows the current software version, including build
date and time and the bootloader version.
Guides the user through station set up. Typing M1 WIZARD
will do the setup just for measurement one.
WIZARD
14.13.
Upgrading Firmware
The software running in X-Link can be upgraded using the command line.
LinkComm provides a much easier way to upgrade your station. See the
LinkComm section for those details. (page 20.)
Upgrades may only be done when directly connected to the USB port on X-Link.
Upgrade files for X-Link can be downloaded from www.sutron.com. X-Link
upgrade files will have names such as v1_05mainXLINK1298.upg and
v1_01bootOMEGA1298.upg.
14.13.1.
Upgrading Using Command Line
1. Connect the USB cable from X-Link to the PC.
2. Power on X-Link.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 147
3. Make sure serial drivers are installed (see the USB Connector section).
4. Run a terminal program such as HyperTerminal on the PC.
5. Select the correct communications port (e.g. COM1).
6. Set the Comm properties to:
o Baud Rate: 115200
o Bits: 8
o Parity: None
o Stop Bits: 1
7. Open the port
8. Hit the ‘enter’ key and X-Link should show a prompt:
9. If X-Link will shows a prompt, type ‘UPGRADE or ‘UPG’. X-Link will say Send
.upg file via YModem.
10. If X-Link does not show a prompt, reset power to the unit and immediately
press the ESC key repeatedly until X-Link sends a C.
11. An upper case C will repeat every 2 seconds or so over the serial port. Select
‘Send File and choose ‘Y-Modem’ and then select the upgrade file name
previously stored on the computer.
12. Once the download is completed, the system will reboot.
13. Type the command VER to check the version of firmware in X-Link after the
upgrade.
Sutron Corporation
15.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 148
Collecting Data
This section helps you get set up to collect the data from your stations.
15.1.
Understand Your Selected Communications
Method
15.1.1.
IRIDIUM
Iridium is network of more than 66 orbiting satellites that provide voice and data
communications anywhere in the world. The coverage is continuous and
complete – at any moment there is an Iridium satellite in view able to relay your
data to its intended destination. IRIDIUMLink uses an Iridium service called Short
Burst Data (SBD). SBD is designed to efficiently send messages of up to 340
characters each. If more characters are needed, multiple messages are sent.
Iridium SBD messages are
passed from satellite to
satellite until they are received
at the ground station in
Tempe, AZ. From there, the
messages are delivered to up
to five destinations via the
internet. Iridium can also
deliver messages directly to
other Iridium modems.
However, this does double the
cost, as you pay for both the
transmitted message and
received message.
Iridium is very cost effective when sending small amounts of data a few times a
day. Those costs quickly escalate as you pay $1.50 for every 1024 bytes of data.
However, even $50 to $100/month in communications cost is quite a bargain
when you consider the value of the data provided by the station or the costs of
driving to a remote station to do something that might be done remotely.
Sutron provides the Iridium service in a bundled plan that includes 12Kbytes of
data for a low monthly fee. Every additional 1024 bytes cost $1.50.
(Note that the prices are subject to change and the above prices are for
illustrative purposes only)
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 149
The delivery of data via the internet is via e-mail and/or direct IP. Sutron uses
Direct IP in its SutronWin and Tempest products. The protocol delivers the
messages within 5 seconds of their reception by the gateway. Sutron only uses
the e-mail delivery of messages in tests. Sutron’s AutoPoll cannot receive Iridium
messages.
To keep communications costs low, Sutron offers several formats for its
messages. The formats differ primarily in the amount of overhead data that is
provided in the message.
15.1.2.
GPRS
GPRS stands for General Packet Radio Service. This service is provided by GSM
(Global System for Mobile Communications) cellular communication systems to
support data communications. GPRS is the most widely supported cellular
technology. International service is offered in 130 countries. A few areas
support CDMA in place of GPRS, a competing standard. For this reason, Sutron
offers both GPRS and CDMA models of X-Link.
Warning: cellular coverage is not available in all areas. Be sure to try out a
normal cell phone at every location you plan to use to make sure the area is
covered. Beware of coverage maps as they may not properly reflect your
ability to communicate at a specific location.
GPRS services are charged based on the amount of data that is sent. The data
includes overheads to make open connections, route messages, acknowledge
messages etc.
The GPRS modem requires a SIM card to
identify and authenticate the modem on the
network. The network characteristics of the
modem including its IP address and
accessibility are all set by the SIM card that is
used and the Access Point Name (APN)
associated with it. These network
characteristics include the IP address that determines how the station can be
accessed via the Internet.
When you use a Sutron-provided SIM, your station will be assigned a static,
private IP address. This type of IP address allows two-way access to the station (if
you’ve turned Listening ON) while protecting the station by giving it an address
that is only accessible via VPN (Virtual Private Network). When you get a SIM
card from anywhere else, it may or may not support GPRS, and you will probably
be limited to communicating with the station only when it communicates with
you.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 150
Sutron’s GPRS service is supported by T-Mobile and AT&T and their roaming
partners in the United States. The TGPRS plan is the standard one to use in the
US. This plan uses T-Mobile infrastructure. The WGPRS plan expands the
footprint by supporting AT&T and roaming partners. International customers
should use the WIGPRS plans. These plans are partitioned by zones depending
on the country and carrier that will be used. (See International Zones).
GPRSLink-1 and HSPALink-1 use the same modem and will be identified
internally as “HSPA” for both types. This modem will operate on HSPA where
available and fallback to GPRS in regions that support GPRS but not HSPA. Note
that this functionality is completely transparent to the end user and does not
require any extra input from the user
15.1.3.
CDMA
CDMA is a service offered in the United States and several other countries.
CDMA competes with GPRS for cell phone services. The most common CDMA
providers in the United States are Sprint and Verizon. These companies have
developed extensive networks to support mobile communications. Some
locations may have better coverage with CDMA vs. GPRS, and that is why it is
important to consider when planning your communications system.
The modem for CDMA is different from the one for GPRS communications. Be
sure to determine and confirm coverage and provider (Sprint or Verizon) before
deciding which model to order.
CDMA modems do not have a removable SIM card. Instead, they have internal
identification information that defines the modem on the network. Modems
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 151
ordered by Sutron will receive a static, private IP address for easy two-way
access to the station. (see the section above for more information on
static/private IP addresses).
15.2.
Decide where You Want the Data to Be
Transmitted
Most users will find it convenient to transmit data to SutronWin. SutronWin is a
complete data reception/management/presentation system available to you via
the internet. SutronWin can receive both Iridium and cell data. SutronWin offers
map displays, charts, graphs, and reports of data. The advantage of using
SutronWin is that you don’t need to set up, manage, or maintain your own
reception station.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 152
If you are going to use your own station, plan on the following:

Run Sutron’s AutoPoll (GPRS/CDMA) or Tempest software
(GPRS/CDMA/IRIDIUM). Consult Sutron if you have your own SW/system and
you’d like to receive directly the messages from the field stations.

Make sure you have a fixed IP for your master station and configure your firewall
to allow in the messages from the station.
15.3.
Estimate Communications Costs
Download Sutron’s communications calculator
(www.sutron.com\downloads\XLinkCalculator) to estimate communication costs
and pick a plan. The calculator asks you to enter #sensors, measurement
interval, and transmit Interval. It computes the total bytes per month for a
station. Some examples help to show the relative costs of the communications:
15.3.1.
Example 1: Measuring One Value an Hour and Transmitting it
Every Hour
Wireless Cost Calculator
(Fill in all yellow boxes)
Unit Name =
Omega
# of Sensors =
1
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 153
Measurement Interval =
01:00:00
Transmit Interval =
01:00:00
GPRS
Bytes/Msg
Wyless
B/Msg
Wyless
B/Month
TGPRS.1MB
Sheffix
33
364
256 KB
$10.00
Pseudobinary B
21
352
248 KB
$10.00
Pseudobinary C
29
365
257 KB
$10.00
Bytes/Msg
Bytes per
Month
Sheffix
20
14 KB
$29.13
Pseudobinary B
8
6 KB
$25.00
Pseudobinary C
16
11 KB
$25.00
IRIDIUM
15.3.2.
ISBD.12KB
Example 2: Measuring One Value Every 15 Minutes and
Transmitting it Hourly
Wireless Cost Calculator
(Fill in all yellow boxes)
Unit Name =
Omega
# of Sensors =
1
Measurement Interval =
00:15:00
Transmit Interval =
01:00:00
GPRS
Bytes/Msg
Wyless
B/Msg
Wyless
B/Month
TGPRS.1MB
Sheffix
57
388
273 KB
$10.00
Pseudobinary B
30
361
254 KB
$10.00
Pseudobinary C
38
374
263 KB
$10.00
Bytes/Msg
Bytes per
Month
Sheffix
44
31 KB
$62.88
Pseudobinary B
17
12 KB
$25.00
Pseudobinary C
25
18 KB
$36.16
IRIDIUM
ISBD.12KB
Sutron Corporation
15.3.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 154
Example 3: Measuring One Value Every 15 Minutes and
Transmitting it Every 15 Minutes
Wireless Cost Calculator
(Fill in all yellow boxes)
Unit Name =
Omega
# of Sensors =
1
Measurement Interval =
00:15:00
Transmit Interval =
00:15:00
GPRS
Bytes/Msg
Wyless
B/Msg
Wyless
B/Month
TGPRS.1MB
Sheffix
33
364
1,024 KB
$10.00
Pseudobinary B
21
352
991 KB
$10.00
Pseudobinary C
29
365
1,027 KB
$10.01
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 155
Bytes/Msg
Bytes per
Month
Sheffix
20
56 KB
$113.50
Pseudobinary B
8
23 KB
$46.00
Pseudobinary C
16
45 KB
$91.00
IRIDIUM
15.3.4.
ISBD.12KB
Example 4: Measuring 10 Values Every 15 Minutes and
Transmitting them Every 15 Minutes
Wireless Cost Calculator
(Fill in all yellow boxes)
Unit Name =
Omega
# of Sensors =
10
Measurement Interval =
00:15:00
Transmit Interval =
00:15:00
GPRS
Bytes/Msg
Wyless
B/Msg
Wyless
B/Month
TGPRS.1MB
Sheffix
204
535
1,505 KB
$11.88
Pseudobinary B
48
379
1,067 KB
$10.17
Pseudobinary C
128
464
1,305 KB
$11.10
Bytes/Msg
Bytes per
Month
Sheffix
191
537 KB
$1,075.38
Pseudobinary B
35
98 KB
$197.88
Pseudobinary C
115
323 KB
$647.88
IRIDIUM
15.4.
ISBD.12KB
Sign the Agreement
Sutron has a standard agreement you must sign before Sutron will activate a
modem. In the agreement, you agree to pay for overage charges and you
acknowledge that service is not guaranteed. Contact Sutron for a copy of the
current service agreement.
Sutron Corporation
15.5.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 156
Place the Order
Service is prepaid. You can prepay for several months in advance. This will
eliminate monthly payments. Sutron will provide a monthly invoice to show
usage and account balances.

If you are using Iridium communications, you’ll need to order the following
from Sutron:
o ISBD.SACT
one-time activation fee
o ISBD.12K.1
monthly fee including 12K bytes
o ISBD.XB1024 fee for each K byte over 12.

If you are using GPRS/Cell communications, you can choose plans based on
your preference for carrier. Sutron offers service from the following
providers :
o TMOBILE – domestic service
o TMOBILE/AT&T roaming partners – domestic service
o WYLESS – international partners
o Verizon – CDMA – domestic service
o Sprint – CDMA – domestic service
You’ll need to order activation, a monthly plan with 1MB, 5MB, 20MB or 1GB
included and pay for overages. Be aware that SMS is not available with all
providers and is optional on some plans.
If you have your own SIM card (not from Sutron) be aware that most SIM cards
give the modem a private, dynamic IP address. You cannot initiate
communications with a modem that has a dynamic IP– it must initiate
communications to you. A station using this type of SIM will operate make
scheduled transmissions but the listening will not work.
If you are using AutoPoll or Tempest (not SutronWin), you need to order VPN
IPSEC or VPN PPTP. These give your system access to the private cellular
network.
15.6.
Ordering Information
15.6.1.
Iridium
Contact Sutron for Iridium in China and India.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 157
ISBD.ACT
ISBD.OK.1
ISBD.12KB.PLAN
ISBD.1KB.ADDL
ISBD.MC
One-time Iridium modem activation fee
Minimum monthly fee with no data plan
Minimum monthly fee with 12KB data
included (every 1KB after the initial 12KB is
charged at the ISBD.1KB.ADDL rate).
Charge for 1024 bytes SBD over allotted
Amount
Mailbox checks
15.6.2.
GPRS USA
15.6.2.1.
T-MOBILE GPRS - USA
TGPRS.ACT
TGPRS.1MB. PLAN
TGPRS.1MB.ADDL
TGPRS.5MB.PLAN
TGPRS.1GB.PLAN
TGPRS.100SMS.PLAN
TGPRS.SMS
15.6.2.2.
Activation - one time charge
Monthly plan - per month – 1MB
included
Overage charge per MB
Monthly plan - per month – 5MB
included
Monthly Plan - per month – 1GB
included
Monthly Plan - Per Month – 100 SMS
included
Each
WYLESS GPRS (Covers T-Mobile, AT&T and roaming partners) USA
WGPRS.ACT
Activation - one time charge
WGPRS.1MB PLAN
Monthly plan - per month – 1MB included
WGPRS.1MB.ADDL
Overage charge per MB
SMS IS NOT AVAILABLE WITH WYLESS
GPRS
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 158
15.6.3.
CDMA USA
15.6.3.1.
VERIZON CDMA - USA
VCDMA.ACT
Activation - one time charge
VCDMA.1MB.PLAN
Monthly plan - per month – 1MB included
VCDMA.20MB.PLAN
VCDMA.1MB.ADDL
Monthly plan - per month – 20MB
included
Overage charge per MB
VCDMA.SMS
Each
15.6.3.2.
SPRINT CDMA - USA
SCDMA.ACT
Activation - one time charge
SCDMA.1MB.PLAN
Monthly plan - per month – 1MB included
SCDMA.20MB.PLAN
SCDMA.1MB.ADDL
Monthly plan - per month – 20MB
included
Overage charge per MB
SCDMA.SMS
Each
15.6.4.
GPRS International
Contact Sutron about operation in Canada.
15.6.4.1.
WYLESS INTERNATIONAL GPRS -- INTERNATIONAL
WIGPRS.ACT
Activation - one time charge
WIGPRS.1MBZ1 PLAN
WIGPRS.1MBZ1.ADDL
Monthly plan - per month – Zone 1 –
1MB included
Monthly plan - per month – Zone 2 –
1MB included
Monthly plan - per month – Zone 3 –
1MB included
Overage charge per MB – Zone 1
WIGPRS.1MBZ2.ADDL
Overage charge per MB – Zone 2
WIGPRS.1MBZ3.ADDL
Overage charge per MB – Zone 3
WIGPRS.1MBZ2.PLAN
WIGPRS.1MBZ3.PLAN
SMS is not available with Wyless International GPRS.
15.6.4.2.
International Zones
Sutron Corporation
15.6.5.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 159
VPN
VPN connection - only needed if customer is not using SutronWin and/or
wants to initiate connection to field station
WVPN.IPSEC
One time charge
WVPN.PPTP
One time charge
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 160
16.
Data Formats
16.1.
TCP/IP Session
GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink use scheduled transmissions periodically
connect to a server and deliver sensor data. See the Cell Phone Telemetry and
Cell Phone Settings sections for more details, beginning on page 98.
X-Link software version 1.63 added features that allow delivering data to up to
three servers. X-Link delivers data to each of the three servers sequentially.
Relevant settings include Main Server, Backup Server, Server Port, and Server
Password.
With version 1.71, the Tx Protocol setting was added.
When Tx Protocol is set to Hydromet Cloud, X-Link will engage in handshaking
with the server. X-Link will provide the server with information about the
transmission that includes the station name, password, reason for the
transmission, and error checking information. The server will acknowledge the
transmission.
If the server does not acknowledge the transmission, X-Link will retry the
transmission until it succeeds or until it times out.
Prior to version 1.71, X-Link did not offer the choice of protocols. It always used
an older version of the Hydromet Cloud protocol which did not require an
acknowledgement from the server.
When set to None, X-Link will not engage in handshaking with the server.
If you are using a custom server, you will want to set Tx Protocol to None. Either
that, or have the custom server acknowledge the transmission.
16.1.1.
Hydromet Cloud Protocol
When GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink connect to a server, some information
is sent to the server before the sensor data is delivered. This information is
meant to help the server decide what to do with the sensor data that is en route.
The information includes details such as the sensor name and whether the
transmission is a result of an alarm event.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 161
After the sensor data is delivered to the server, the server may log into X-Link
and issue commands to check status, change setup, download more data, or any
other command line activity.
16.1.2.
Course of Events for Hydromet Cloud Protocol
1. X-Link connects to main or backup server.
2. X-Link sends Session Type Code<cr> (see below.)
3. X-Link sends Station Name<cr>.
4. X-Link sends Report Type Code<cr> to indicate purpose of connection (see
below.)
5. X-Link sends transmission data (if any) in whatever format the user chose,
such as SHEF or pseudobinary.
6. X-Link sends ETX (0x03) to mark end of data.
7. X-Link sends a 3 byte pseudobinary encoded CRC16 of previous data and the
server password (sometimes called Shared Secret.)
8. X-Link waits for the server to either acknowledge or to initiate a command
line session. The server has 60 seconds to do either one.
a. If the server does neither, X-Link will retry the transmission until it
succeeds or until it times out.
9. To acknowledge, the server needs to send a single byte: <cr>
a. Please note that prior to X-Link version 1.71, this step was not required.
b. Once the server sends the byte, X-Link will disconnect.
10. To initiate a command line session, the server sends user login command
!LOGIN=username,password<cr> and waits for X-Link reply (ETX.)
a. If user login matches, X-Link enters command-line session.
b. Server issues pending commands, and X-Link processes and responds
accordingly.
c. When command processing is complete, the server disconnects.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 162
16.1.2.1.
Session Type Code
Session type defines the processing that occurs on connection. Currently, there
is only one session type, 0. This type is defined by the Course of Events above,
and details that follow.
16.1.2.2.
Report Type Code
Report Type code describes the purpose of the transmission:






"0" = self-timed
"1" = self-timed retransmission
"2" = entering alarm
"4" = exiting alarm
"6" = no data, command session only
"8" = forced tx (test tx initiated by user)
16.1.3.
Course of Events When Protocol is Set to None
1. X-Link connects to main or backup server.
2. X-Link sends transmission data (if any) in whatever format the user chose,
such as SHEF or pseudobinary.
3. X-Link will wait for 15 seconds for the server to communicate before
disconnecting. Please see the Hydromet Cloud Protocol section above for
details on that communication.
16.2.
Iridium Telemetry Header
Every IRIDIUMLink transmission uses the header described below.
The header starts with a single byte in the ASCII printable range to make it easy
to interpret the content. Most transmissions will just have one header byte.
The header byte identifies the packet type in terms of the content of the packet,
e.g., self-timed, self-timed extended, entering alarm, entering alarm extended,
etc.
Iridium modem buffers are limited in size. "Extended" types mean multiple
packets are required to transmit the entire message. Extended packets have
information in the header that allows them to be stitched together easily. The
extended packet types include a comma-delimited sub-header to describe the
subset of data being sent. The first sub-header differs from all subsequent subheaders, in that it includes the total size of the data being sent.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 163
The telemetry header may contain the station name if the setting Tx Station
Name is enabled. Please read below for more details.
16.2.1.
Packet Structure
Packets are composed of
o packet-type
o sub-header
o data
The packet-type is a single byte:
Hex Value
0x30
0x31
0x32
0x33
0x34
0x35
0x36
0x37
0x38
0x39
...
0x7D
0x7E
0xFF
ASCII
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
}
~
Description
Self-timed
Self-timed extended
Entering alarm
Entering alarm extended
Exiting alarm
Exiting alarm extended
Command response
Command response extended
Forced transmission
Forced transmission extended
Reserved for future use
User defined
Look to next byte for meaning
Binary data, reserved for future use
The sub-header has the following comma delimited fields:
o ,id,start-byte,total-bytes,station-name:
packet-type
id
total-bytes
start-byte
station-name
Numeric ASCII character defining packet type. See type
definitions in table, below
Numeric ASCII text defining the message id. Starts at 0. Rolls
over after 99.
Numeric ASCII text defining the total number of data bytes to
be sent (data only, does not include overhead bytes)
Numeric ASCII text defining which byte of total-bytes is the
start byte of the current packet. Starts at 0.
Optional ASCII field that has station name. Formatted as
,N=STATION NAME
16.2.2.
Iridium Header Examples
The following examples illustrate how to use the new header.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 164
16.2.2.1.
Example 1
Message requiring one packet (i.e., non-extended), formatted pseudobinary B
interleaved, containing 6 values (42, 69, alternating).
Self-timed
Entering Alarm
Exiting Alarm
0B1@AAhAktAAhAktAAhAkt
2B2@AAhAktAAhAktAAhAkt
4B3@AAhAktAAhAktAAhAkt
16.2.2.2.
Example 2
The same data in SHEF format:
Self-timed
Entering Alarm
Exiting Alarm
0:HG 0 #1 42.00 42.00 42.00 :EM 0 #1 69.00 69.00 69.00
2:HG 0 #1 42.00 42.00 42.00 :EM 0 #1 69.00 69.00 69.00
4:HG 0 #1 42.00 42.00 42.00 :EM 0 #1 69.00 69.00 69.00
16.2.2.3.
Example 3
An extended command response where the total size of the command response
is 512 bytes (note: total size is of the response itself, and does not include the
overhead of the telemetry headers used to convey it). The example uses a
message id of 0:
Packet 1
Packet 2
7,0,0,512:bytes 0 thru 319
7,0,320:bytes 320 thru 511
16.2.3.
Tx Station Name
There is an option to include the station name in the Iridium Header. The setting
is called Tx Station Name and it defaults to disabled. That setting is accessible
only via the terminal (LinkComm->Tools Menu->Terminal). To enable it, type
Tx Station Name = On
o After all the headers, system will append ,N=Station Name:
o If the station name were Two Creeks, it would be ,N=Two Creeks:
STANDARD
WITH STATION NAME
0B1@AAhAktAAhAktAAhAkt
0,N=Two
Creeks:B1@AAhAktAAhAktAAhAkt
4,N=Two Creeks::HG 0 #1 42.00 42.00
42.00 :EM 0 #1 69.00 69.00 69.00
7,0,0,512,N=Two Creeks:bytes 0 thru 319
7,0,320:bytes 320 thru 511
4:HG 0 #1 42.00 42.00 42.00 :EM 0 #1 69.00
69.00 69.00
7,0,0,512:bytes 0 thru 319
7,0,320:bytes 320 thru 511
For extended packets, only the first message carries the station name. The name
field comes after all the other headers
Sutron Corporation
16.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 165
Pseudobinary B Data Format
This format is based on GOES pseudobinary format. It is used when the user
selects Pseudobinary B as the choice for Tx Format. The format uses ASCII
characters. Three bytes are used for each data value. To correctly decode the
measurement, you need to know how many readings of each measurement are
included in the transmission. There is no metadata that would describe which
measurement is which.
BLOCK IDENTIFIER
BLOCK-IDENTIFIER is always sent as B to indicate the start of a binary
data group.
GROUP ID
GROUP-ID is sent as B1 to indicate a scheduled transmission. Other
transmissions, including alarms, send 2.
OFFSET
Each record is prefixed with an <OFFSET>, which is a 1 byte binary
encoded number indicating the number of minutes ago the most recent
data was recorded. .
MEASUREMENT
DATA
Measurement data collected: This data contains only those
measurements set up to be included in the transmission (see Tx Data
Content). The data values are 3 byte binary encoded signed numbers
allowing a range of: -131072 to +131071. The actual 6-bit binary
encoded format is described later. The value transmitted will be value *
10^RightDigits. The string /// will be sent if the data was never
measured or was erased.
All the required values for one sensor (most recent first) before
proceeding to the next measurement. This format is similar to that used
by the Sutron Satlink but different from the 8210.
BATTERY VOLTAGE
This is the battery voltage measured prior to making the transmission.
The range of the number will be -32 to +31 and can be converted to
volts by multiplying by 0.234 and adding 10.6 allowing a range of 3.1 to
18.1 volts.
16.3.1.
Pseudobinary B Example
Here is a transmission with three active measurements; each one is set to
include two readings.
B1@@Gt@Gs@Sx@Sr@@i@@iI
|||| | | | | | |
|||| | | | | | |
|||| | | | | | |
|||| | | | | | +-----------|||| | | | | +--------------|||| | | | +-----------------|||| | | +--------------------|||| | +-----------------------|||| +---------------------------
Battery Voltage
Temp #2
Temp #1
Precip #2
Precip #1
Stage #2
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 166
|||+-----------------------------||+------------------------------|+-------------------------------+---------------------------------
16.4.
Stage
Delta
Group
Block
#1
Time
ID
ID
Pseudobinary C Data Format
This format is based on the pseudobinary B format. It uses slightly more
bandwidth than the B format, but it is self-descriptive. It is used when the user
selects Pseudobinary C as the choice for Tx Format.
Name
Block identifier
1
Bytes
Group id
1
Measurement
Delimiter
Measurement
Index
1
Day
2
Time
2
Interval
2
Measurement
Data
3 for each
sensor reading
Additional
Measurements
Variable
1
Description
BLOCK-IDENTIFIER is always sent as C to indicate that
this is the pseudobinary C format.
GROUP-ID can be 1 to indicate a scheduled transmission,
2 meaning an alarm transmission, 3 indicating a forced
transmission, and 4 indicating a retransmission.
This byte is always a + and it is used to denote the start of
measurement data.
This is encoded 6 bit binary encoded (see below) number
which, when translated, tells the measurement index. XLink assigns a measurement index (starting with 1 and
ending with 16) to each user setup sensor.
This 2 byte encoded 6 bit binary encoded (see below)
number represents the Julian day of the year. The day tells
when the most recent (first) sensor reading of this
measurement was made.
This 2 byte encoded 6 bit binary encoded (see below)
number is a number of minutes into the day. It tells when
the most recent (first) sensor reading of this measurement
was made.
This 2 byte encoded 6 bit binary encoded (see below)
number tells the measurement interval in minutes, or the
amount of time between readings of this measurement.
Measurement data collected: This data contains only those
measurements set up to be included in the transmission
(see Tx Data Content). The data values are 3 byte binary
encoded signed numbers allowing a range of: -131072 to
+131071. The actual 6-bit binary encoded format is
described later. The value transmitted will be value *
10^RightDigits. The string /// will be sent if the data was
never measured or was erased.
All the required values for one sensor (most recent first)
before proceeding to the next measurement. This format is
similar to that used by the Sutron Satlink but different from
the 8210.
There will be 3 bytes of encoded data for every sensor
reading. The number of readings depends on the user
setup.
If more than one measurement was set up for transmission,
more data will follow. Each measurement setup will have
data starting with the Measurement Delimiter and ending
with Measurement Data.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 167
Name
Final Delimiter
1
Battery voltage
1
16.4.1.
Bytes
Description
This byte is always . and it is used to denote the end of all
measurement data.
This is the battery voltage measured prior to making the
transmission. The range of the number will be -32 to +31
and can be converted to volts by multiplying by 0.234 and
adding 10.6 allowing a range of 3.1 to 18.1 volts.
Example of Pseudobinary C
To help understand the message below, here is a relevant bit of X-Link's setup:
M1 Right Digits
M1 Meas Interval
M1 Tx Data Content
M2 Right Digits
M2 Meas Interval
M2 Tx Data Content
Tx Time
Tx Interval
2
00:01:00
All Logged
1
00:01:00
Last
00:00:30
00:03:00
C1+ABeHq@A@E|@FG@FM+BBeHq@A@@O.K
Pseudobinary
values
Decoded into
decimal
Completely
decoded
C
1
+
A
Be
1
165
M1
June 14th
Hq
561
09:21AM
@A
@E|
1
380
1 minute
3.80
@FG
@FM
391
397
3.91
3.97
+
B
Be
165
June 14th
Hq
561
09:21AM
@A
@@O
.
K
1
15
1 minute
1.5
11
13.174V
Description
Denotes Pseudobinary C format
Scheduled transmission
Delimiter for next measurement
Measurement M1
M1 day of the year of the most recent
reading. For 2013, it is June 14th.
M1 minutes into the day of the most
recent reading: 9:21AM
M1 measurement interval in minutes.
M1 most recent sensor reading made at
09:21AM
M1 sensor reading made at 09:20AM
M1 oldest sensor reading made at
09:19AM
Delimiter for next measurement
Measurement M2
M2 day of the year of the most recent
reading.
M2 minutes into the day of the most
recent reading.
M2 measurement interval in minutes.
M2 sensor reading
Delimiter for end of measurement data
Battery voltage (11*0.234+10.6)
Sutron Corporation
16.5.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 168
Pseudobinary D Data Format
This is another compact data format. It differes from Pseudobinary B in that it
has a timestamp at the start of the message. The timestamp indicates when the
transmission should have taken place and helps decode when the data was
collected. Pseudobinary D is 4 bytes larger than format B.
The timestamp is similar to the one in Pseudobinary C. Pseudobinary D is
smaller than Pseudobinary C and it lacks detailed timestamps that would allow
one to completely reconstruct the time the data was collected from the message
itself. To correctly use Pseudobinary D, the decoder needs to know the
measurement setup used.
The benefit of using Pseudobinary D is being able to correctly decode data
regardless of when it was sent or received. This allows stations to re-transmit
old data and have it correctly interpreted by the decoder while keeping the
message size at a minimum.
Name
Block identifier
1
Bytes
Group id
1
Day
2
Time
2
Measurement
Data
3 for each
sensor reading
Additional
Measurements
Variable
Description
BLOCK-IDENTIFIER is always sent as D to indicate that
this is the Pseudobinary D format.
GROUP-ID can be 1 to indicate a scheduled transmission,
2 meaning an alarm transmission, 3 indicating a forced
transmission, and 4 indicating a retransmission.
This 2 byte encoded 6 bit binary encoded (see below)
number represents the Julian day of the year. The day tells
when the transmission was originally scheduled to take
place.
This 2 byte encoded 6 bit binary encoded (see below)
number is a number of minutes into the day. It tells when
the transmission was originally scheduled to take place.
Measurement data collected: This data contains only those
measurements set up to be included in the transmission
(see Tx Data Content). The data values are 3 byte binary
encoded signed numbers allowing a range of: -131072 to
+131071. The actual 6-bit binary encoded format is
described later. The value transmitted will be value *
10^RightDigits. The string /// will be sent if the data was
never measured or was erased.
All the required values for one sensor (most recent first)
before proceeding to the next measurement. This format is
similar to that used by the Sutron Satlink but different from
the 8210.
There will be 3 bytes of encoded data for every sensor
reading. The number of readings depends on the user
setup.
If more than one measurement was set up for transmission,
more data will follow. Each measurement setup will have
data starting with the Measurement Delimiter and ending
with Measurement Data.
Sutron Corporation
Name
Battery voltage
16.5.1.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 169
Bytes
1
Description
This is the battery voltage measured prior to making the
transmission. The range of the number will be -32 to +31
and can be converted to volts by multiplying by 0.234 and
adding 10.6 allowing a range of 3.1 to 18.1 volts.
Example of Pseudobinary D
To help understand the message below, here is a relevant bit of X-Link's setup:
M1 Right Digits
M1 Meas Interval
M1 Tx Data Content
M2 Right Digits
M2 Meas Interval
M2 Tx Data Content
Tx Time
Tx Interval
2
00:01:00
All Logged
1
00:05:00
Last
00:00:30
00:05:00
D1D~A8@NI@NH@NG@NF@NE@DGF
Pseudobinary
values
Decoded
into
decimal
Completely
decoded
D
4
D~
318
Nov 14th
A8
120
2:00 AM
@NI
@NH
@NG
@NF
@NE
@DG
F
905
904
903
902
901
263
12
9.05
9.04
9.03
9.02
9.01
26.3
12.00V
16.6.
Description
Denotes Pseudobinary D format
Retransmission
Day of the year of the most recent reading.
For 2014, it is Nov 14th.
Minutes into the day. We can tell that this
transmission should have been made at
02:00 on Nov14th and parse the data
accordingly.
Sensor M1 collected at 02:00
Sensor M1 collected at 01:59
Sensor M1 collected at 01:58
Sensor M1 collected at 01:57
Sensor M1 collected at 01:56
Sensor M2 collected at 02:00
Battery voltage
Six Bit Binary Encoded Format
The 6 bit binary format is used to encode numbers into displayable ASCII
characters. Fractional numbers cannot be represented, so, for instance a battery
voltage of 13.04 volts set up with 2 right digits will be sent as 1304.

A 1 byte encoded number can range from -32 to +31.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 170
 A 2 byte encoded number can range from -2048 to +2047
 A 3 byte encoded number can range from -131072 to +131071
Binary encoded numbers are always sent most significant bytes first. The
number itself is broken down into 6-bit digits, and each digit is placed in one
byte of data. The number 64 (ASCII @) is added to each digit to make it fall
within the range of displayable ASCII characters. The only exception is that 127
(ASCII <DEL>) is sent as 63 (ASCII ?)
16.6.1.
Example 1: Encoding the Number 10 in 1 Byte
Since 10 will fit in 6-bits we only have to add 64 which would yield 74. So the
number 10 would appear as ASCII 74 or the letter J.
16.6.2.
Example 2: Encoding the Number 12345 in 3 Bytes
1. First we have to convert 12345 into binary in 6-bit pieces:
12345 (base 10) = 11 000000 111001 (base 2)
2. Now we can convert each piece back to base 10:
11 000000 111001 (base 2) = 3, 0, 57
3. Finally, we add 64 to each piece and convert to ASCII:
67, 64, 121 = ASCII C@y
16.6.3.
Example 3. Encoding the Number -12345 in 3 Bytes
1. First we have to convert -12345 into two's complement 18-bit binary: -12345
(base 10) = 111100 111111 000111 (base 2)
2. Now we can convert each piece back to base 10: 111100 111111 000111
(base 2) = 60, 63, 7
3. Finally, we add 64 to each piece and convert to ASCII (since the second piece
is 63 we leave it alone):
124, 63, 71 = ASCII |?G
16.6.3.1.
Example 4. Decoding the 3 byte string @SW:
This is just like encoding except we follow the steps backward.
1. First we convert all the characters to ASCII decimal codes:
ASCII @SW = 64, 83, 87
2. Now we subtract 64 from each piece and convert to 6-bit binary:
0, 19, 23 = 000000 010011 010111
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 171
3. Finally, we combine all the bits to form one 18-bit two’s complement number
and convert to base 10:
000000010011010111 = 1239
16.7.
Pseudobinary over SMS
Some bytes that are normally used as a part of Pseudobinary transmissions are
not allowed in SMS. When X-Link sends Pseudobinary data over SMS, those
bytes are replaced according to the following table:
Original Byte ASCII
[
\
]
^
`
{
|
}
~
[
16.8.
Original Byte Hex
5B
5C
5D
5E
60
7B
7C
7D
7E
5B
Replacement Byte ASCII
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
SHEF and SHEFFIX Data Format
SHEF is a format that is commonly used by Sutron's Satlink satellite transmitter.
It is an ASCII format that is easy to read and contains some self-descriptive
information.
The format of the transmission data is:
: <LABEL1> <OFFSET> #<INTERVAL> <DATA1> <DATA1> ...
<DATA1)>
: <LABEL2> <OFFSET> #<INTERVAL> <DATA2> <DATA2> ...
<DATA2>
...
: <LABEL(N)> <OFFSET> #<INTERVAL> <DATA(N)> <DATA(N)>
... <DATA(N)>
LABEL
OFFSET
INTERVAL
This is the Label entered as a part of the setup for each
measurement. The label can be a SHEF two-character
parameter code such as HF for gauge height or PC for
cumulative precipitation or it can be any string you enter. Refer
to http://noaasis.noaa.gov/DCS/htmfiles/schefcodes.html for a
list of SHEF codes commonly used.
This number indicates how long ago the sensor reading was
made. The number is in minutes and it refers to the most recent
data. It is relative to transmission start.
The interval indicates how often the measurement was made. It
corresponds to the setting Meas Interval.
Sutron Corporation
DATA
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 172
This is data collected and logged by X-Link through
measurements. Only logged data may be transmitted. If Tx
Data Content is set to Exclude, no data from that measurement
will be transmitted.
Like the binary formats, the SHEF format groups all the related
data from one measurement. The data is transmitted in ASCII
with sign and decimal point (if needed). If a data value has not
yet been recorded (or has been erased) the letter M for missing
data will be sent. The most recent data is always sent first. The
number of values sent for each measurement is set on a
measurement by measurement basis.
16.8.1.
SHEF Example
Here is a message with three active measurements. Each is set to include two
readings. The random buffer contains the string EXT. This string was given by an
external device through the RS232 port. Notice how much longer this message is
compared to the earlier binary examples.
:HG 3 #15 10.20 10.15 :PC 1 #15 50 49 :TA 0 #15 -22.1 -22.0 :VB 0 12.2
|||| | ||||| |||| | |||
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | +- VB Reading
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | + -- Offset time
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | +------ Label, VB
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | +------------- TA #2
| | | | | | | | | | | | | +------------------- TA #1
| | | | | | | | | | | | +---------------------- Interval
| | | | | | | | | | | +------------------------- Offset time
| | | | | | | | | | +---------------------------- Label, TA
| | | | | | | | | +-------------------------------- PC #2
| | | | | | | | +----------------------------------- PC #1
| | | | | | | +-------------------------------------- Interval
| | | | | | +----------------------------------------- Offset time
| | | | | +-------------------------------------------- Label, PC
| | | | +--------------------------------------------------- HG #2
| | | +--------------------------------------------------------- HG #1
| | +------------------------------------------------------------ Interval
| +--------------------------------------------------------------- Offset time
+------------------------------------------------------------------ Label, HG
In the example above :HG 3 #15 10.20 10.15 means that the sensor labeled HG
read the value 10.20 three minutes prior to the start of the transmission. It read
10.15 18 minutes before the start of the transmission, or 15 minutes before it
read 10.20.
SHEFFIX is a modified version of SHEF where the data is positioned in fixed
spacing so that it will line up better when displayed. Each measurement reading
is given seven bytes. If a reading uses fewer bytes it is padded with spaces.
SHEIFIX transmissions are larger than SHEF transmissions.
Sutron Corporation
16.8.1.1.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 173
SHEFFIX Example
:STAGE 0 #2 20.50 20.50 20.50 20.50 :PRECIP 3 #5 12.00 12.01 :TEMP 3 #5 23.5 23.2 :BV
1 #3 14
16.9.
Sutron Standard CSV
Logs downloaded from X-Link will be in the Sutron Standard CSV format. It is
possible to transmit data in the CSV format. However, CSV messages are too
large for most applications and are generally used to help set up a station.
The format was introduced in 2009 and is common to current Sutron products.
The general format specification for Sutron Standard CSV format is
mm/dd/yyyy,hh:mm:ss,label,data[,units,qual][,label,da
ta[,units,qual]]
16.9.1.
Sutron Standard CSV Example
04/02/2012,09:23:45,STAGE,20.50
04/02/2012,09:23:50,STAGE,20.50
04/02/2012,09:23:53,Setup Change
04/02/2012,09:24:00,BV,14
04/02/2012,09:25:00,PRECIP,34.5
04/02/2012,09:25:00,TEMP,23.5
04/02/2012,09:25:00,STAGE,20.54
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 174
17.
More about SDI-12
17.1.
Overview
SDI-12 is a standard for interfacing data recorders with microprocessor-based
sensors. SDI-12 stands for serial data interface at 1200 baud. SDI-12 is intended
for applications with the following requirements:




Battery powered operation with minimal current drain
Low system cost
Use of a single data recorder with multiple sensors on one cable
Up to 200 feet of cable between the sensor and a data recorder
SDI-12 has the following advantages:


It defines a standard way for a data recorder and sensor to communicate.
Unique and complex self-calibration algorithms can be done in the sensor
itself.
 Sensors can be interchanged without reprogramming the data recorder with
calibration or other information.
 Power is supplied to sensors through the interface.
 The use of a standard serial interface eliminates significant complexity in the
design of the data recorder.
 Low cost, small sensors can be designed with SDI-12 compatibility.
 SDI-12 data recorders interface with a variety of sensors.
 SDI-12 sensors interface with a variety of data recorders.
 Personnel trained in SDI-12 will have skills to work with a variety of SDI-12
data recorders and sensors.
SDI-12 is used in water resource research and management, industry,
government, and agriculture. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey uses over
4000 SDI-12 sensors in its data collection networks. SDI-12 sensors are available
that measure the following:







bridge scour
conductivity
dissolved oxygen
distance
groundwater level
petroleum hydrocarbons in water
pH
Sutron Corporation









X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 175
pressure
redox (ORP)
tank level
temperature
tide and sea state
turbidity
water velocity
weight of snow and ice on a snow pillow
wind speed and direction
Sutron also offers general purpose interfaces for making analog and digital
measurements via SDI-12.
For more information on SDI-12, go to www.sdi-12.org.
17.2.
Wiring Guidelines
SDI enables you to connect up to 10 sensors with as many as many as 9
parameters each. The interface is implemented using three wires: data, ground,
and +12V. The ground conductor of the SDI interface line should be large enough
to keep the voltage drop between the data recorder and the sensor to less than
0.5 volts during the maximum sensor current drain. Failure to observe this
specification will cause bad communications and/or bad data. The maximum
current used on the +12V line should not exceed 2 amps at any time.
Please note that Modbus RS-485 and SDI-12 are mutually exclusive. If Modbus
RS-485 is enabled, X-Link will NOT be able to collect data from SDI-12 sensors.
17.3.
Connector
The connector type is not part of the SDI specification. On X-Link, the
connections are made on the terminal block: #14 (SDI-12 Data), #13 (SDI-12
PWR), and #12 (GND). Multiple sensors can be connected to these connections.
17.4.
Setup of SDI sensors
Each SDI-12 sensor has an address from 0 to 9. This address differentiates one
sensor from another. Most sensors are factory default set to address zero (0).
If/when interfacing more than one sensor to X-Link, each sensor must be
assigned a unique address. This is normally done by setting dipswitches on the
sensor or by software commands. Failure to set unique addresses for each
sensor will result in failure of the communications interface (i.e. no data logged).
Consult the sensor manufacturer’s data for information on your particular
sensor(s).
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 176
When setting up multiple SDI-12 sensors, connect one sensor at a time. Once a
new sensor is connected, you must give it a unique address. To do so, either use
LinkComm or the command line. Type SDI-12 FIND to detect new sensors. Once a
sensor is found, change its address by typing SDI xAy!, where x is the old address,
A is A, and y the new address. For example, SDI 0A1! will change the address
from 0 to 1.
When getting more than one parameter from a single sensor, be sure to set the
measurement schedules the same. When X-Link finds multiple parameters from
a single sensor (same address), it will only issue a measurement of the sensor
once, then read each of the parameters from the one measurement. This is
important to ensure that data from one sensor is gathered at the same time and
for sensors that have multiple parameters that take a long time to process.
17.5.
Useful SDI commands
Resetting the address by software (some sensors) is normally done by sending
the aAb! command. (a A b !, where a is the current address of the sensor you
want to change and b is the address you want to change to, e.g. 0A5! changes
the address of sensor 0 to address 5.)
Another useful SDI-12 command is the aI! (where a is the address of the sensor,
e.g. 3I! for sensor at address 3) command. 4I! will return an identification string
from the sensor at address 4, which includes the SDI version number, vendor's
name, sensor model number, sensor version number, and serial number. This is
a quick way to see if the sensor is responding properly.
A way to verify data collection (manual data collection) is to issue the aM!
command. For example 7M! would collect data from the sensor at address 7.
The sensor will respond with a 5-digit code -- the first digit is the address, the
next 3 digits are the required time for measurement in seconds, and the last digit
is the number of data values returned. Wait for the number of seconds. Then
issue the aD0! (address, D, zero, !) the sensor should respond with one or more
data values. You may issue further aD1! … aDn! till you get all of the data.
If the SDI sensor is version 1.3 (version number can be found out by sending the
?I! command; the version is returned as the second and third characters of the
response), then make sure to use the CRC measurement commands. These
commands work just like normal measurement commands, except that they use
an error checking mechanism that minimizes errors. So, instead of 0M!, use
0MC!. Instead of 0M1!, use 0MC1!. This will ensure reliable SDI communication.
Sutron Corporation
18.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 177
Modbus
Modbus is a communications protocol commonly used in industrial applications.
Please see the Wikipedia entry for more details.
X-Link can be configured as a Modbus slave device. That means that some other
Modbus master can collect data from X-Link.
Alternatively, X-Link can also be configured as a Modbus master. In that case, XLink collects data from Modbus sensors.
Generally, Modbus is used to access sensor readings. If configured as a Modbus
slave, the reading from every sensor measurement that is setup on X-Link can be
accessed via Modbus. If configured as a Modbus master, X-Link accesses data
from connected Modbus slave sensors.
Additionally, in slave mode, extended Modbus commands allow the
downloading of X-Link's log, reading and writing X-Link's setup, accessing status
information, and more.
18.1.
Modbus Hardware Interface
There are two interfaces that support Modbus communication:
o
o
RS-485 supports both Modbus slave and master.
Cell modem (GPRSLink, HSPALink, and CDMALink). Modbus slave only.
Each interface can be setup independently of the other one. Each interface has
its own setup.
Please note that Modbus Slave RS-485 and SDI-12 are mutually exclusive. If XLink is setup as a Modbus slave on RS-485, X-Link will NOT be able to collect
data from SDI-12 sensors.
18.1.1.
Wiring Modbus RS-485
X-Link has a half duplex RS-485 interface. That means that the same lines are
used for sending and recieving data.
Only two lines need to be connected to use RS-485:


RS-485 A
RS-485 B
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 178
When wiring, connect the Modbus master's RS-485 A line to X-Link's RS-485 A
Line. Do the same for RS-485 B.
18.1.1.1.
Troubleshooting Modbus RS-485
If the Modbus master is unable to talk to X-Link, there are two potential causes:


The setup; Please make sure that X-Link's Modbus setup is the same as that
of the master. These settings must match: Protocol, Device ID, Baudrate,
Parity, and the two Delay settings.
Wiring: Try reversing RS-485 A and B.
18.1.2.
Modbus slave over the cell modem
It is possible to access X-Link over the internet using Modbus. Only GPRSLink
and CDMALink can be accessed in this way.
In this scenario, the IP address of the cell modem is used by the Modbus master
to access X-Link. The IP address can be found via LinkComm: it is displayed in the
Telemetry tab's Status view.
When setting up for Modbus over the cell modem, make sure to correctly setup
the following settings in the telemetry tab:


Listening: Make sure to enable Listening so that the modem is on and ready
to accept commands from the Modbus master.
Listen Port: This is the port that the Modbus master will use to access X-Link.
The Listen Port setting in X-Link must match the Modbus master's port
setting.
Sutron provides Autopoll software which is capable of accessing X-Link using the
Modbus protocol over cell. For more information on AutoPoll, please visit
www.sutron.com.
18.2.
Modbus Setup
To setup Modbus operation, please use the Other Setup tab of LinkComm. There
are independent settings for Modbus over Cell and for Modbus over RS-485.

Please note that X-Link may be either a Modbus slave or a Modbus
master on the RS-485 bus. It cannot be both.

If X-Link is setup to collect data from Modbus sensors, X-Link becomes a
Modbus Master on the RS-485 bus. Please see page 90.

If the setting Modbus RS-485 Enable is set, X-Link becomes a Modbus
slave on the RS-485 bus.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 179
18.2.1.1.
Modbus Cell Enable
This setting is disabled by default. It must be turned on for Modbus over cell to
work. Once turned on, X-Link becomes a Modbus slave.
Once Modbus Cell Enable is turned on, LinkComm will no longer be able to
access X-Link over the cell modem.
Once enabled, Modbus Cell Enable can be turned off in a variety of ways:




LinkComm connecting via USB
LinkComm connecting over Wi-Fi
Send a setup file via Modbus
Sending a text message to the station. The text message should say
MODBUS CELL ENABLE = OFF
18.2.1.2.
Modbus Cell Protocol
Within Modbus, there are different protocols:
 RTU
 ASCII
 TCP
RTU is the most basic Modbus protocol and is commonly used for directly wired
systems. It requires a robust connection as it has stringent timing requirements.
The ASCII protocol is most forgiving of timing issues and will produce the best
communication results when communicating over a modem. However, the
ASCII protocol also uses the most bandwidth.
The TCP protocol is traditionally used over Ethernet. It takes advantage of the
error checking and correction built into TCP/IP.
Please see the Wikipedia entry for more details on the protocols.
18.2.1.3.
Modbus Cell Device ID
The Device ID is only relevant for RTU and ASCII protocols. It is used to allow
multiple Modbus slaves to be connected to one Modbus master.
The device ID is the address that is used by the Modbus master to select which
device to communicate with. Each slave on the bus must have a unique device
ID ranging from 1 – 247. Address ‘0’ is reserved as the broadcast address.
When a Modbus master issues a command, it includes the Device ID in the
command. Only the Modbus slave with a matching ID is allowed to answer. If
multiple slaves have the same ID, communication will not work.
Device ID is sometimes referred to as Slave Address, Station Address, or Slave ID.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 180
18.2.1.4.
Modbus RS485 Enable (Modbus Slave)
For X-Link to become a Modbus slave over RS-485, Modbus RS485 Enable must
be turned on.
Please note that Modbus Slave RS-485 and SDI-12/Modbus Sensors are
mutually exclusive. If Modbus RS-485 is enabled, X-Link will NOT be able to
collect data from SDI-12 or Modbus sensors.
18.2.1.5.
Modbus Protocol (Modbus Slave and Master)
This setting affects both Modbus master and Modbus slave. Modbus over RS485 only allows RTU and ASCII protocols. RTU is the default value. This setting is
used for both Modbus slave and Modbus master.
Please see the Modbus Cell Protocol above for details on Modbus protocols.
18.2.1.6.
Modbus RS485 Device ID (Modbus Slave)
Please see the Modbus Cell Device ID description.
18.2.1.7.
Modbus Baud Rate (Modbus Master and Slave)
Default is 9600 baud. Available communication speeds are
 9600
 19200
 28800
 38400
Note: Care must be taken to make sure the selected speed matches that of the
master or there will be communication problems.
This setting affects both Modbus master and Modbus slave.
18.2.1.8.
Modbus Parity (Modbus Master and Slave)
Default is Even. Available choices include Even, Odd and None.
Note: Care must be taken to make sure the selected parity matches that of the
master or there will be communication problems.
This setting affects both Modbus master and Modbus slave.
18.2.1.9.
Modbus Delay before Tx (Modbus Slave)
Default is 100ms. This identifies the number of milliseconds to wait before
starting data transmission. This is useful if the device is connected to a radio
requires keying initialization before data transmission. The possible delay ranges
are 10ms – 2000ms.
This is a Modbus slave setting only. There is no delay when X-Link is a Modbus
master.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 181
18.2.1.10. Modbus Delay after Tx (Modbus Slave)
Default is 10ms. This identifies the number of milliseconds to wait after data
transmission. This is useful if the device is connected to a radio that requires a
hold-off time after data transmission has completed. The possible delay ranges
are 10ms – 2000ms.
This is a Modbus slave setting only. There is no delay when X-Link is a Modbus
master.
18.3.
Modbus Slave Function Codes
The following table identifies the functions that are supported. Each diagnostic
counter is cleared when the device is powered up or reset.
Code
Read Holding Registers
Read Input Register
Write Single Register
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
Write Multiple Registers
Sutron Function Code
Sutron Function Code
Sutron Function Code
Hex
0x03
0x04
0x06
0x08
0x08
0x08
0x08
0x08
0x08
0x08
0x08
0x10
0x41
0x41
0x41
Subcode
Hex
Return Query Data
Clear Counters
Return Bus Message Count
Return Bus Comm Error
Return Bus Exception Count
Return Slave Message Count
Return Slave Broadcast Count
Return Bus Char Overrun Count
0x00
0x0A
0x0B
0x0C
0x0D
0x0E
0x0F
0x12
Get Log
Get File
Send File
GL
GF
SF
18.3.1.
Identifying Registers
There are two types of data that can be accessed using the Modbus protocol.
These include Holding and Input registers.
18.3.1.1.
Holding Registers
Holding registers are reserved for the purpose of setting and getting data such as
the date and time and diagnostic counts if the ability to send the above
Diagnostic (0x08) command is not available. The following table identifies the
holding registers and their locations. Each of these registers is an unsigned 16bit value (if readings registers using an Xpert, set the data type to ushort).
Data
Hour of current time
Minute of current time
Second of current time
Year of current time
Register
1001
1002
1003
1004
Valid Data Values
0 – 23
0 – 59
0 – 59
> 2000
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 182
Reset Unit
1008
Modbus Protocol
1009
Force Measurement *
1010
Bus Message Count
Bus Comm Error
Slave Exception Count
Slave Message Count
Broadcast Message
Count
Char Overrun Count
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1 – 12
1 – 31
1 means running
0 means stopped
Write 1 to reset
0 – RTU
1 – ASCII
0 – force all active
measurements
1-16 force that
measurement only
Read Only
Read Only
Read Only
Read Only
Read Only
1016
Read Only
Month of current date
Day of current month
1005
1006
1007
Recording status
*Note: When forcing a measurement, be sure to wait the proper amount of time
for a measurement to finish before requesting data.
18.3.1.2.
Input Registers
Input registers return the last measured data from the device. Ideally these
values should be requested on a schedule slightly lagging the measurement
schedule on the X-Link. This will ensure data will follow that found in the X-Link
log. If the last measured data is not acceptable, a live reading can be forced by
writing to the Force Measurement (1010) holding register. Care must be taken
to allow enough time to pass for taking a measurement before requesting the
data.
Since the system works with floating point numbers and Modbus only allows for
16-bit registers, a multiple register read can be used to access the entire reading.
The Modbus master device should be configured to treat these reads as a single
floating point number. For example, if accessing Last measured via an Xpert,
read 1 value of type float starting at register 1. If the quality is also desired,
change the number of values to 2 and choose ushort for the second reading
type. The complete list of registers and their locations are below.
Modbus
registers
measurement
M1
M2
M3
M4
M5
M6
M7
Last
Measured
msw
lsw
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
min
msw
101
103
105
107
109
111
113
lsw
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
max
msw
201
203
205
207
209
211
213
lsw
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
number of
samples
msw
301
303
305
307
309
311
313
lsw
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
raw
msw
401
403
405
407
409
411
413
lsw
402
404
406
408
410
412
414
Sutron Corporation
M8
M9
M10
M11
M12
M13
M14
M15
M16
Battery
Voltage
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 183
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
61
62
115
117
119
121
123
125
127
129
131
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
215
217
219
221
223
225
227
229
231
216
218
220
222
224
226
228
230
232
315
317
319
321
323
325
327
329
331
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
415
417
419
421
423
425
427
429
431
M1, M2, .. M16 refer to X-Link measurements.
E.g. to read the last measured sensor value for measurement M10, read registers
19 and 20 and combine the result into a single 32 bit IEEE floating point value.
E.g. to read the number of samples used in the last measurement of M5, read
registers 309 and 310 and combine the result into a single 32 bit IEEE floating
point value.
18.4.
Sutron Function Codes
This section describes the use of the Sutron function code to get files, send files
and, get the log over MODBUS. This only applies when X-Link is a Modbus slave.
The data portion of a packet carrying the Sutron function code (function code 65,
or 0x41) contains a subcode and associated parameters to define the particular
function to perform. The subcode and its parameters are expressed using ASCII
characters. The functions that each sub-code performs are defined to be
stateless, and the burden of the transport is on the master station.
The following text defines the subcode functions, parameters, and responses.
18.4.1.
Get Log Command
The Get Log subcode is used to retrieve log data from the unit. The format of
the command is as follows:
GL,logfilename,datetime,recordID,numbytes
 The logfilename can be used to return log entries of specific types. The
available types are
o data
o events
o all
 The datetime value must be in the following format: MM/DD/YYYY
HH:MM:SS.
416
418
420
422
424
426
428
430
432
Sutron Corporation

X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 184
The numbytes value refers to the number of data bytes from the log entry to
include in the response, not the number of bytes to store in the return
packet. X-Link will never return more than 255 data bytes. Since the master
station or transport medium may be limited in the number of bytes that can
be handled in a single packet, the numbytes value should be sized small
enough to allow for header and CRC information, as well as translation to
ASCII if that is the selected protocol (the ASCII protocol uses two bytes to
represent every data byte). If numbytes is *, up to 255 bytes will be
returned. Regardless of the requested numbytes, only complete log records
are returned. Do not set numbytes to less than 64. Ideally, use * or 255.
The format of the reply is as follows:
GLR,status,recordID,numbytes,data[numbytes,data]
The value of status can be any of the following values:
Value
0
1
2
6
7
Description
Ok.
File not found.
Get beyond file end.
Record not found.
Command format error
The datetime value in the response message is the datetime of the returned
record and, therefore, may be different from the datetime in the GetLog
command statement.
The data to the end of the file can be read by leaving datetime at the desired
starting point and incrementing recordID until the status indicates record not
found. The [numbytes,data] represents an additional record of data if there is
room in the message.
Example:
command:
reply:
GL,data,02/07/2007 15:50:00,80,0
GLR,0,0,38,02/07/2007,15:51:00,VBAT,13.16,Volts,G
37,10/07/2003,15:51:10,A,10.89,5.2,-25.4
command:
GL,data,02/07/2007 15:50:00,80,2
reply:
GLR,0,2,37,02/07/2007,15:54:00,C,10.89,5.2,-25.4,0
The GLR response will contain as many log records as can fit into the response.
The numbytes value in the GLR response does not include the comma preceding
the data, and refers to the number of data bytes from the log that are being
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 185
returned, not the number of packet bytes used to store the response (which
would be twice the data bytes when ASCII protocol is selected).
18.4.2.
Get File Command
The Get File command is very similar to the get log command. While X-Link has
no actual file system, it does provide access to several virtual files.
The format of the Get File command:
GF,filename,startpos,numbytes
Filename may only be one of the following:





curdata.txt
sensors.txt
status.txt
setup.txt
flash disk.txt
startpos indicates the zero based byte position in the file from which to start the
download. When first issuing the GF command, this value should be 0. Once a
reply is recieved from X-Link, this number should increment by the number of
bytes returned by X-Link.
numbytes indicates how many bytes should be returned. * should be used to
have X-Link decide how many bytes to return. 255 is the maximum value
accepted by X-Link. If the value provided is too small, the command may fail. To
be safe, use 128, 255, or, best of all, *.
X-Link will reply to the GF command like so:
GFR,status,totalbytes,start,numbytes,data
status will have one of the following values:
Value
0
1
2
6
7
Description
Ok.
File not found.
Get beyond file end.
Record not found.
Command format error
totalbytes will be set to the byte size of the whole file. It is not the number of
bytes returned in this retry! The master station should issue repeated GetFile
commands until it has received totalbytes amount of data. Retries are the
responsibility of the master station. If totalbytes changes in the reply, the file has
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 186
changed and the get should be restarted. If a reply is missing, the master station
must request the data again.
start should be the same value as startpos in the Get File command.
The numbytes value in the GFR response does not include the comma preceding the
data, and refers to the number of data bytes from the file that are being returned,
not the number of packet bytes used to store the response (which would be twice
the number of data bytes when ASCII protocol is selected).
data is the data payload. It is the file data requested by the Get File command.
There are numbytes bytes of data.
18.4.2.1.
Current data
Request the file "curdata.txt" and X-Link will reply with last measured sensor
data. The reply is is very similar to what is found in LinkComm's Data tab. The
format is
MM/DD/YYYY,HH:MM:SS,Label,Value,Units,Quality
Each line is terminated by a CR/LF. Date and Time are expressed as in
“01/31/2004” and “20:47:52”, respectively. X-Link has no concept of units, so
that field is always blank. Quality is a single character defining the quality of the
data where “G” = Good and “B” = Bad
Below is an example:
06/11/2013,12:42:00,STAGE,0.25,,G
06/11/2013,12:42:00,BATT,13.2,,G
06/11/2013,12:42:00,TEMP,22.2,,G
Note that if no measurements are enabled, GF commands for sensors.txt and
curdata.txt will return errors.
18.4.2.2.
Status information
If the file "status.txt" is asked for, the data returned will be similar to what
LinkComm shows on the Main Status and on Telemetry Status.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 187
X-Link 1.30
Station Name=DEV_ONE
Recording = On
3 Meas Active
WiFi: Initializing
System Time 2013/06/12 11:36:46
Recording since 2013/06/11 12:41:06
Booted at 2013/06/12 11:36:23
Battery 13.2V
Station Name=DEV_ONE
Sent bytes: total 197, today 197
Received bytes: total 0, today 0
Msgs received: total 1, today 1
System Time 2013/06/12 11:36:46
18.4.2.3.
Sensor data
Access recent measurements and setup details by asking for the file
"sensors.txt". The data in the file will describe the measurement setup along
with the most recent radings. The data mimic's Sutron 9210's sensor view. Tab
characters are used to denote column breaks. Each line is terminated by a CR/LF.
STAGE Analog = 0.25; Q = G
BATT Battery = 13.2; Q = G
TEMP Internal Temp = 22.2; Q = G
Note that if no measurements are enabled, GF commands for sensors.txt and
curdata.txt will return errors.
18.4.2.4.
Setup
X-Link's setup may be read by asking for "setup.txt". The data returned will be
exactly the same as that of a saved LinkComm setup file.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 188
!Station Name=XLINK
!Telemetry Modem=Iridium 9602
!Tx Enable=Off
!M1 Active=On
!M1 Label=Sense1
!M1 Right Digits=4
18.4.2.5.
Flash disk
X-Link can also provide data for the file "flash disk.txt". The data returned
mimics the response of a file system to a directory command. For X-Link, it
returns a list of the files it supports via the Modbus GF command along with
their size and date.
setup.txt,2162,06/12/2013 12:07:24
curdata.txt,101,06/12/2013 12:07:24
sensors.txt,88,06/12/2013 12:07:24
status.txt,512,06/12/2013 12:07:24
Due to a limitiation, the size of setup.txt is always 512 bytes.
As X-Link has no real file system, the date of the files will always be set to XLink's current time.
18.4.3.
Send File
The Send File subcode is used to send a file to X-Link. X-Link will only accept one
file: "setup.txt". The procedure is used to change X-Link's setup. The file needs
to contain setup data. The setup data should be the same as in the setup file
saved by LinkComm.
SF,filename,bytepos,numbytes,data
The filename must be setup.txt.
bytepos is the position of the first byte in the data stream. It is zero based. The
first packet with the data should have 0 as the bytepos.
numbytes is the number of data bytes in the payload. For X-Link Modbus over
RS-485, this number must not be greater than 48.
data should contain actual setup data. Example:
STATION NAME = HAPPY CREEK
M1 MEAS INTERVAL = 00:00:30
The format of the reply is as follows:
SFR,status,bytepos,numbytes
The value of status can be any of the following values:
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 189
Value
0
1
3
4
7
Description
Ok.
File not found.
Write Failed.
Gap at end of file
Command format error
Sutron Corporation
19.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 190
Appendix A – Specifications
ELECTRICAL
Input Voltage
8-16VDC
10 V minimum for SDI-12 sensor support
Reverse power protected
CURRENT CONSUMPTION @ 12V
Standby (all sensors unpowered)
0.5mA typical
Active
8mA to 20mA typical
Wi-Fi on
18mA typical
GPRSLink and CDMALink modem listening
6.8mA typical
GPRSLink and CDMALink modem transmitting
~100mA typical
MECHANICAL
Dimensions
Power Connection
SDI-12 Port
USB Port
Red Warning LED
Green Heartbeat LED
Earth GND
3.8” x 5.3” x 1.3” (96.5mm x 134.6mm x 33.0mm)
without optional base plate or enclosure
2 position terminal strip
3 position terminal strip
Mini B Male (5 pin)
Indicates setup or operational error
Indicates unit is operating properly
.2” screw terminal
ENVIRONMENTAL
Temperature
Humidity
-40°C to +60°C
0-95% Non-condensing
KEY FEATURES
Clock
Clock Accuracy
Log Capacity
Internal Solar Panel
Battery Charger
Internal real-time clock w/battery backup.
+/- 9.3 s /month(Max) -40 to +60C. (First Year)
+/- 2.4 min /year (Max) -40 to +60C. (First Year)
+/- 4.5 min / 10 years (Max) -40 to +60C. (10 Years)
240,000 readings, flash memory
Designed for 5 to 20W Solar Panels.
Max 30 Watts.
Sutron Corporation
USB port
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 191
Automatic charge & float modes protect gel cell & lead acid
batteries.
1 Mini-B Male 5 pin USB connector designed to be
connected to USB Type-A Male on Windows PC.
Sutron provides ‘LinkComm’ software for USB port
communications
Not a full function USB port.
SDI-12 INTERFACE
 Supports up to 16 SDI-12 sensors
 SDI V1.3 compliant logger
 Automatically combines requests to the same device
 +12V @ 500mA
MODEM
SMA-F Output Antenna RF Jack
GPRSLink
Quad Band GPRS Modem
HSPALink
Quad Band GSM Modem with 4G speeds
CDMALink
CDMA Modem
IRIDIUMLink
IRIDIUM Modem
SINGLE ENDED ANALOG INPUTS
Number available
2
Input Range
0 to 5V (with respect to ground)
Resolution
0.298 µV
Noise (p/p) @25⁰C
12.0 µV (p/p)
Noise (RMS) @25⁰C
4.24 µV RMS
Accuracy @25⁰C
0.003% (typical) Midscale
0.004% Max
Input Impedance
> 1MegOhm @25⁰C
DIFFERENTIAL ANALOG INPUTS
Number Available
2
Range (SW selectable)
±39mV; Common Mode Voltage Range .3 to 3.9 Volts
±-312mV; Common Mode Voltage Range .3 to 3.9 Volts
± 2.5V ; Common Mode Voltage Range .1 to 4.9 Volt
Resolution
4.657 nV @ ±39mv scale
37.25 nV @ ±312mv scale
298 nV @ ±2.5 scale
Noise (p/p) @25⁰C
1.6 µV (p/p) (±39 mV /±312 mV scale)
Noise (RMS) @25⁰C
0.38µV RMS
Accuracy @25⁰C
0.004% Max @ ±2.5 V scale
Input Impedance
>5 Meg Ohm 312mV FS Differential @25⁰C
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 192
4-20MA ANALOG INPUT
Range
Resolution
Accuracy @25⁰C
Loop Power
Loop Resistance
0 - 22mA
<1nA
0.02%
External
200 Ohm
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT (INTERNAL)
Range
-40°C to +60°C
Accuracy
± 3 deg
DIGITAL INPUT 1,2 - TIPPING BUCKET TYPE
Switch Contact Type
Pulse Width between 30ms & 120ms
Range DC to 120 tips/min. (min)
DIGITAL INPUT 1,2 - FREQUENCY TYPE
Input Range
Minimum Frequency
Maximum Frequency
0-5 V
2.8 Hz
10 kHz
DIGITAL INPUT 1,2 - COUNTER TYPE
Input Range
Maximum Frequency without Debouncing
Maximum Frequency with Debouncing
0-5 V
10 kHz
300Hz
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 193
20. Appendix B – Sutron
Customer Service Policy
Dear Customer:
Thank you for making the important decision to purchase Sutron equipment. All Sutron
equipment is manufactured and tested to the highest quality standards as set by Sutron’s Quality
Assurance Department. Our Customer Service Representatives have years of experience with
equipment, systems, and services. They are electronic technicians with field and applications
experience, not just with a technical background.
Customer Phone Support
Customer Service Representatives routinely handle a wide variety of questions every day. If
questions arise, please feel free to contact me or one of the Customer Service Representatives.
We are available from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm Monday through Friday and will be happy to take your
call.
We can answer most sensor and interface questions on the first call. If we cannot quickly answer
a question on an interface, we will work with you until we find a solution.
Sometimes a problem is application related. Although we pride ourselves on handling 95% of
application related questions over the phone, we maintain constant contact with our Integrated
Systems Division and Engineering Division for additional assistance.
Introductory Training
Training is an important part of the Sutron Customer Service philosophy. The Sutron training
policy is simple---If you buy Sutron equipment, you get Sutron training! Without the proper
training, you cannot take advantage of the benefits and advantages that Sutron equipment
provides. We often supply on-site introductory training at your facility for no charge. You provide
the classroom, students, equipment, and coffee---we'll provide the instructor.
On-Site Visits
Of course not all problems can be fixed over the phone. Sometimes a customer needs an on-site
technician to identify site related problems or troubleshoot a network. Sutron can provide these
services at a reasonable cost. Call for details. If you would like to learn more about Sutron
products email sales@sutron.com
Thanks again for your order,
Paul Delisi
Customer Service Manager
Sutron Corporation
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 194
21. Appendix C – Commercial
Warranty
21.1.
Sutron Manufactured Equipment
THE SUTRON CORPORATION WARRANTS that the equipment manufactured by
its manufacturing division shall conform to applicable specifications and shall
remain free from defects in workmanship and material for a period ending two
years from the date of shipment from Sutron’s plant.
Sutron’s obligation under this Warranty shall be limited to repair at the factory
(22400 Davis Drive, Sterling, VA 20164), or at its option, replacement of
defective product. In no event shall Sutron be responsible for incidental or
consequential damages, whether or not foreseeable or whether or not Sutron
has knowledge of the possibility of such damages. This warranty shall not apply
to products that have been damaged through negligence, accident, misuse, or
acts of nature such as floods, fires, earthquakes, lightning strikes, etc.
Sutron’s liability, whether in contract or in tort, arising out of warranties or
representations, instructions or defects from any cause, shall be limited
exclusively to repair or replacement parts under the aforesaid conditions.
Sutron requires the return of the defective electronic products or parts to the
factory to establish claim under this warranty. The customer shall prepay
transportation charges to the factory. Sutron shall pay transportation for the
return of the repaired equipment to the customer when the validity of the
damage claim has been established. Otherwise, Sutron will prepay shipment and
bill the customer. All shipments shall be accomplished by best-way surface
freight. Sutron shall in no event assume any responsibility for repairs or
alterations made other than by Sutron. Any products repaired or replaced under
this warranty will be warranted for the balance of the warranty period or for a
period of 90 days from the repair shipment date, whichever is greater. Products
repaired at cost will be warranted for 90 days from the date of shipment.
21.2.
Non-Sutron Manufactured Equipment
The above Warranty applies only to products manufactured by Sutron.
Equipment provided, but not manufactured by Sutron, is warranted and will be
repaired to the extent of and according to the current terms and conditions of
the respective equipment manufacturers.
Sutron Corporation
21.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 195
Repair and Return Policy
Sutron maintains a repair department at the factory, 22400 Davis Drive, Sterling,
VA 20164. Turnaround time normally ranges from 10-30 days after Sutron
receives equipment for repair. Call Customer Service at (703) 406-2800 for a
Return Material Authorization (RMA) number. Return the defective equipment
to the factory, transportation charges paid.
Extended Warranty and On-Site Maintenance
Extended warranty and on-site maintenance contracts are available. Price
quotations may be obtained from Sutron customer service representatives.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 196
22.
Appendix D – Installation
22.1.
Physical Mounting
X-Link may be mounted in various configurations ranging from the small direct outdoor
mount enclosure GPRSLink-1(X) or IRIDIUMLink-1(X) to being mounted inside
another enclosure.
1. Standard Enclosure.
2. Wall Panel Mount System.
3. Din Rail Mount System.
Sutron NEVER recommends direct outdoor mounting of the product as it is not a sealed
waterproof enclosure. Sutron also recommends mounting the X-link in an enclosure
under all circumstances as leaving the exposed X-Link to wet and humid gauge houses
risks moisture damage.
Sutron Corporation
22.2.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 197
Power Budget Calculations
The power budget needs to be calculated for the proper selection of the station battery
and solar panel size. Simple stations with hourly sensor measurements and hourly
transmissions frequently get by with a 4 AHr battery and a 2 Watt solar panel.
Here are some key consumption figures at 12.5V:
 X-Link Quiescent Current
= 0.50 mA
 X-Link active
= 4.5 mA
 GPRS Listening Enabled
= 9.6 mA (continuous operation average)
 GPRS SMS transmission
= 15.5 mA (1 Tx average over 140 sec, 3/4 sig str.)
 Transmitting GPRS
= 21 mA (1 Tx average over 140 sec, 3/4 sig str.)
 Transmitting CDMA
= 27 mA (1 Tx average over 170 sec, 2/4 sig str.)
 Transmitting Iridium
= 125 mA (1 Tx average over 15 sec, 5/5 sig str.)
 Iridium Listening Enabled = 29 mA (continuous operating average)
 WiFi On
= 16.2 mA
Transmission averages are measured from exiting quiescent state to entering quiescent
state. A single GPRS transmission takes 140 seconds to complete the task and draws on
average, 21 mA over that time period.
Perform calculations to determine battery size and solar panel size following the guidance
found here:
http://www.sutron.com/customerservice/Conversions_Calcuations/PowerBudget.htm
Example: 2 sensors reading once per hour for 3 seconds at 25ma per sensor.
Transmission once per hour via GPRS. Listening disabled.
Task
Collecting
Transmitting (3/4)
Sensor
Active
Quiescent
Total Avg Current
Total Average
Power @12.5V
Battery Life (4 AHr)
Rated Batt Life
Solar Size (10X)
Current
20 ma
21 ma
50 ma
4.5 ma
0.80 ma
Percent Time
3/3600
140/3600
3/3600
5/3600
1
Full capacity
75% capacity
Average Current
0.017 ma
0.817 ma
0.042 ma
0.006 ma
0.80
1.682 ma
21.0 mW
2,378 Hours/99 days
1,783 Hr/74 days
210 mW (5 Watt
Panel is sufficient)
Sutron Corporation
22.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 198
Cabling Precautions
Many station failures may be connected to poor weatherproofing of cables and
connectors. When installing a station, be sure to:
1. Using proper weatherproofing sealing tape, tape any joints in wiring to any of the
sensors.
2. Using proper weatherproofing sealing tape, tape any RF cable connections that
are external to the enclosure. Any moisture that works its way into a RF coaxial
cable will guarantee a failure in the near future.
3. Proper installation of a station includes using tie downs and carefully and neatly
tie down any loose external cables. If excessive cable is present consider cutting
the cable and resealing the connections for a tidy appearance that is less likely to
have rodents or wind causing damage.
4. Never use RF cables that are too long. Excessive length simply wastes RF power
that causes communications to be far weaker than necessary. Only use the
minimum cable length necessary.
Sutron Corporation
22.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 199
Antenna Mounting Details
Antenna mounting is an important aspect of a station installation. Poor antenna
installation can render a good station intermittent or even useless. Follow these general
guidelines for optimal performance.
1. If the antenna is internal to the enclosure such as the GPRSLink-1E or
IRIDIUMLink-1E, mount the enclosure at the top of a pole or post. The antenna
needs to have unobstructed path to the cell tower or satellite:
a. IRIDIUMLink-1E has the antenna mounted in the top and it is important
that the view of the sky overhead of the box is unobstructed in any way.
This includes not having the box mounted on the side of a tower where the
tower is taller than the top of the box. If the tower is too tall to be able to
mount on the top of the tower, then mount the box and or external antenna
on an extension arm extending at least 3 or 4 feet from the tower.
b. GPRSLink-1E or CDMALink-1E may be sensitive to the direction of the
cell tower. Align the mounting of the enclosure with direct line of sight in
the direction of the cell tower. Do not mount in such a way that the tower
is in between the enclosure/antenna and the cell tower.
2. Cellular systems that are distant from the cell tower may benefit from being
mounted as high as possible from the ground.
3. Antenna Pointing Tool. Use the antenna pointing tool to maximize the signal
strength. This will help to orient the antenna or enclosure. Move the antenna
while the following signal levels are readout on the display.
Sutron Corporation
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 200
23. Appendix E – Approvals and Certifications
23.1.
CE
THIS PRODUCT COMPLIES WITH THE FOLLOWING EUROPEAN COMMUNITY DIRECTIVES
2004/108/EC (until April 19th, 2016)
2014/30/EU (from April 20th, 2016)
1999/5/EC
(until June 12th,2016)
2014/53/EU (from June 13th, 2016)
EMC Directive
Radio Equipment & Telecommunications
Terminal Equipment
Radio Equipment Directive (RED)
2006/95/EC (until April 19th, 2016)
2014/35/EU (from April 20th, 2016)
Low Voltage Directive
2011/65/EU (from July 21st, 2017)
Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS 2)
Declaration of Conformity (P/N: 8800-1210) can be obtained by contacting Sutron.
23.2.
Wi-Fi Module
All XLink product family variants contain a Wi-Fi module.
Contains FCC ID: OA3RN1723
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept
any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can
radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment
off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures: • Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna. • Increase the separation
between the equipment and receiver. • Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit
different from that to which the receiver is connected. • Consult the dealer or an experienced
radio/TV technician for help.
Sutron Corporation
23.3.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 201
IridiumLink
Only XLink products with iridium in the name contain an iridium modem. See table below for regulatory
information on the iridium modem.
Regulatory Approvals
Radio Tests
Identification
CE
FCC
Industry Canada
ETSI EN 301 441 V1.1.1 (2000-05)
FCC CFR47 parts 2(2013), 15B (2013), & 25 (2013)
Industry Canada RSS170 Issue 2, March, 2011
Industry Canada RSS-GEN Issue 3, December, 2010
N/A
Q639603N
4629A-9603N
FCC Warning Statement

This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference, and
2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that
may cause undesired operation.

This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an
uncontrolled environment. End users must follow the specific operating instructions for
satisfying RF exposure compliance. This transmitter must not be co-located or operating
in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter that is not preapproved.

Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
Industry Canada Warning Statement
Under Industry Canada regulations, this radio transmitter may only operate using an antenna of
a type and maximum (or lesser) gain approved for the transmitter by Industry Canada.
To reduce potential radio interference to other users, the antenna type and its gain should be so
chosen that the equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.) is not more than that necessary
for successful communication.
This device complies with Industry Canada license-exempt RSS standard(s). Operation is subject
to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause interference, and (2) this device
must accept any interference, including interference that may cause undesired operation of the
device.
R&TTE Statement
Iridium communications Inc. hereby declares that the 9602N is in compliance with the essential
requirements and other relevant provisions of directive 1999/5/EC.
Sutron Corporation
23.4.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 202
Cellular
Only certain versions of the XLink product line contain cellular modems. See table below for regulatory
information on the modems contained in these units.
Cellular Version
Description
Radio
FCC ID
IC ID
GPRSLINK-1
HSPALINK-1
CDMALINK-1
HSPA modem
Telit HE910
R17HE910
5131A-HE910
CDMA modem
Telit CE910-DUAL
RI7CE910-DUAL
5131A-CE910DUAL
CAN ICES-3 (B) / NMB-3 (B)
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
FCC Warning Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules and Industry Canada license-exempt RSS
standard(s). Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
3.
4.
This device may not cause interference, and
This device must accept any interference, including interference that may
cause undesired operation of the device.
This equipment complies with FCC and IC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled
environment. The antenna should be installed and operated with minimum distance of 20 cm
between the radiator and your body. Antenna gain must be below:
700 MHz 6.93 dBi
1700 MHz 5.00 dBi
This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or
Transmitter that is not preapproved.
FCC Class B digital device notice
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment
off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures:
 Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
 Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
 Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
 Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Sutron Corporation
24.
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 203
Index
A
Accubar · 90
Atmospheric Pressure · 90
Auto Output · 102, 139
Hardware Failure · 131
LED · 129
Recording Off · 130
Sensor Failure · 129
Time Not Set · 131
Events · 119
F
B
Barometer · 90
Battery
Battery Low · 131
Connections · 11
Measurement · 86
C
Calibration
Measurement · 93
Two Point · 94
Command Line · 132
Baud Rate · 132
Commands · 140
Connections
DB9 · 7
Power · 11
RS232 · 7
SDI-12 · 12
Sensor · 13
Tipping Bucket · 12
D
DB9 Connector · 7
Digital Output · 124
DOUT · 124
E
Errors · 129
Bad Schedule · 129
Bad Setup · 130
Bad Wind Setup · 130
Battery Low · 131
Clearing · 129
Formatting
pseudobinary · 162, 163
L
Label
SHEF formatting · 168
Log · 118
Download · 137
Events · 119
Format · 118
Timestamp · 122
M
Measurement
0-5V · 81
4-20mA · 85
Active · 69, 94
Analog · 81
Anemometer · 86
Averaging · 70
Battery Voltage · 86
Bridge · 82, 85
Details · 72
Differential · 82, 85
Digital · 87
Equations · 73
Frquency · 87
Input Range · 84
Inputs F and G · 87
Internal Temp · 90
interval · 168
Interval and Time · 69
Label · 69
Log Error Value · 72
Meta · 89
Period · 87
Sutron Corporation
Precip · 78, 79
Recording · 102
Right Digits · 69
Sampling Interval · 70
SDI-12 · 79
Setup · 68
Slope and Offset · 72, 73
Subsamples · 70
Temperature · 90
Tipping Bucket · 78, 79
Type · 78
Type · 78
Warmup · 81, 85
Wind · 86
Message Check · 61
missing data · 169
Modbus · 174
Modbus Master · 90
Msg Interval · 61
P
Password · 103, 123, 124
Power Connections · 11
pseudobinary format
random transmission · 162, 163
SMS · 168
PULSE12 · 75
R
Raw Reading · 73
Reboot X-Link · 46
Recording · 102
redirector · 24
Reset X-Link · 46
ReTx · 48
Right Digits · 69, 166
RS232 Connector · 7
X-Link Operations & Maintenance Manual, pg. 204
S
SDI-12
Address · 172
Connector · 12
Minimizing Errors · 173
Overview · 171
Sensor Setup · 173
www.sdi-12.org · 172
Seametrics · 113
Sensor Example
Bridge · 106
Pressure Transducer · 106
RM Young · 104
Solar Radiation · 110
Thermistor · 105
Thermocouple · 108
Tipping Bucket · 109
Setup
Wizard · 135
Setup · 134
Software Upgrade · 143
Station Name · 102
Sutron Standard CSV · 118, 170
T
Timeout · 113
Tipping Bucket
connector · 12
Tx · 48
Tx Station Name · 161
V
VREF · 10
W
Wi-Fi · 24
Download PDF
Similar pages