303--1
Manual Table of Contents
GROUP
Powertrain
SECTION TITLE
3
PAGE
Engine System — General Information ................................................................................... 303-00-1
Engine — 4.2L ......................................................................................................................... 303-01A-1
Engine — 4.6L and 5.4L ......................................................................................................... 303-01B-1
Engine Cooling........................................................................................................................... 303-03-1
Fuel Charging and Controls — 4.2L ..................................................................................... 303-04A-1
Fuel Charging and Controls — 4.6L ..................................................................................... 303-04B-1
Fuel Charging and Controls — 5.4L (2V) ............................................................................. 303-04C-1
Fuel Charging and Controls — Natural Gas Vehicle .......................................................... 303-04D-1
Accessory Drive ......................................................................................................................... 303-05-1
Starting System.......................................................................................................................... 303-06-1
Engine Ignition — 4.2L ........................................................................................................... 303-07A-1
Engine Ignition — 4.6L ........................................................................................................... 303-07B-1
Engine Ignition — 5.4L ........................................................................................................... 303-07C-1
Engine Emission Control .......................................................................................................... 303-08-1
Intake Air Distribution and Filtering ........................................................................................ 303-12-1
Evaporative Emissions.............................................................................................................. 303-13-1
Electronic Engine Controls....................................................................................................... 303-14-1
Automatic Transmission — 4R100........................................................................................ 307-01A-1
Automatic Transmission — 4R70W ...................................................................................... 307-01B-1
Transaxle/Transmission Cooling.............................................................................................. 307-02-1
Automatic Transaxle/Transmission External Controls .......................................................... 307-05-1
Manual Transaxle/Transmission and Clutch — General Information .................................. 308-00-1
Clutch .......................................................................................................................................... 308-01-1
Clutch Controls .......................................................................................................................... 308-02-1
Manual Transaxle/Transmission............................................................................................... 308-03-1
Transfer Case — General Information.................................................................................. 308-07A-1
Transfer Case .......................................................................................................................... 308-07B-1
Exhaust System — General Information ................................................................................. 309-00-1
Fuel System — General Information — Gasoline and Diesel............................................ 310-00A-1
Fuel System — General Information — Natural Gas .......................................................... 310-00B-1
Fuel Tank and Lines—Gasoline and Diesel......................................................................... 310-01A-1
Fuel Tank and Lines — Natural Gas..................................................................................... 310-01B-1
Acceleration Control.................................................................................................................. 310-02-1
Vehicle Speed Control............................................................................................................... 310-03-1
SECTION 303-00 Engine System — General Information
VEHICLE APPLICATION: F-150/F-250
303-00-2
CONTENTS
Engine System — General Information
303-00-2
PAGE
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Engine ...................................................................................................................................303-00-4
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Engine ...................................................................................................................................303-00-4
Component Tests ..............................................................................................................303-00-8
Compression Test—Compression Gauge Check .............................................................303-00-9
Cylinder Leakage Detection ............................................................................................303-00-10
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption ................................................................................303-00-14
Inspection and Verification ................................................................................................303-00-5
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test .........................................................................................303-00-12
Oil Consumption Test......................................................................................................303-00-11
Symptom Chart..................................................................................................................303-00-5
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Off—Valve Cover Removed...........................................303-00-15
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Running ..........................................................................303-00-15
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Bearing —Inspection...........................................................................................................303-00-52
Camshaft —End Play, OHC Engines .................................................................................303-00-23
Camshaft —Lobe Lift ..........................................................................................................303-00-24
Camshaft —Lobe Surface ..................................................................................................303-00-24
Camshaft —Push Rod Engines..........................................................................................303-00-22
Camshaft —Runout.............................................................................................................303-00-24
Camshaft Journal —Clearance, Plastigage Method ..........................................................303-00-21
Camshaft Journal —Clearance, Push Rod Engines, Micrometer
Method.............................................................................................................................303-00-21
Camshaft Journal —Diameter.............................................................................................303-00-20
Connecting Rod —Bearing Journal Clearance ..................................................................303-00-36
Connecting Rod —Bend .....................................................................................................303-00-35
Connecting Rod —Bushing Diameter.................................................................................303-00-35
Connecting Rod —Cleaning ...............................................................................................303-00-34
Connecting Rod —Large End Bore....................................................................................303-00-34
Connecting Rod —Piston Pin Side Clearance ...................................................................303-00-36
Connecting Rod —Twist .....................................................................................................303-00-35
Crankshaft —Connecting Rod Journal Taper, Out of Round ............................................303-00-28
Crankshaft —End Play .......................................................................................................303-00-27
Crankshaft —Runout...........................................................................................................303-00-27
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal —Clearance ..................................................................303-00-26
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal —Diameter....................................................................303-00-25
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal —Taper .........................................................................303-00-25
Cylinder Block —Core Plug Replacement..........................................................................303-00-47
Cylinder Block —Distortion .................................................................................................303-00-46
Cylinder Bore —Cleaning ...................................................................................................303-00-46
Cylinder Bore —Honing ......................................................................................................303-00-44
Cylinder Bore —Out-of-Round............................................................................................303-00-29
Cylinder Bore —Taper ........................................................................................................303-00-28
Cylinder Head —Distortion .................................................................................................303-00-44
Exhaust Manifold —Inspection ...........................................................................................303-00-51
Flywheel —Inspection .........................................................................................................303-00-43
Piston —Diameter ...............................................................................................................303-00-31
303-00-3
CONTENTS
Engine System — General Information
303-00-3
PAGE
Piston —Inspection .............................................................................................................303-00-29
Piston —Pin Diameter.........................................................................................................303-00-34
Piston —Pin to Bore Diameter ...........................................................................................303-00-30
Piston —Ring End Gap ......................................................................................................303-00-32
Piston —Ring-to-Groove Clearance ...................................................................................303-00-33
Piston —Selection...............................................................................................................303-00-31
Piston —to Cylinder Bore Clearance..................................................................................303-00-31
Push Rods —Cleaning .......................................................................................................303-00-19
Push Rods —Inspection .....................................................................................................303-00-19
Rocker Arms —Cleaning ....................................................................................................303-00-18
Rocker Arms —Inspection ..................................................................................................303-00-19
Roller Follower —Inspection ...............................................................................................303-00-37
Spark Plug —Thread Repair ..............................................................................................303-00-48
Sprockets ............................................................................................................................303-00-18
Valve —Guide Inner Diameter............................................................................................303-00-40
Valve —Guide Reaming .....................................................................................................303-00-40
Valve —Inspection ..............................................................................................................303-00-40
Valve —Seat Inspection .....................................................................................................303-00-42
Valve —Seat Runout ..........................................................................................................303-00-43
Valve —Seat Width.............................................................................................................303-00-43
Valve —Spring Free Length ...............................................................................................303-00-41
Valve —Spring Installed Length .........................................................................................303-00-41
Valve —Spring Squareness................................................................................................303-00-41
Valve —Spring Strength .....................................................................................................303-00-42
Valve —Stem Diameter ......................................................................................................303-00-38
Valve —Stem to Valve Guide Clearance ...........................................................................303-00-39
Valve Tappet —Inspection..................................................................................................303-00-37
Valve Tappet —Leakdown Test, Hydraulic ........................................................................303-00-38
SPECIFICATIONS..................................................................................................................303-00-52
303-00-4
Engine System — General Information
303-00-4
DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
Engine
• an exhaust emission control system. For additional
information, refer to Section 303-08.
Note: This section contains information, steps and
procedures that may not be specific to your engine.
• an evaporative emission control system. For
additional information, refer to Section 303-13.
This section covers general procedures and
diagnosis and testing of the engine system, except
for exhaust emission control devices, which are
covered in the Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 1.
The engine, fuel system, ignition system, emissions
system and exhaust system all affect exhaust
emission levels and must be maintained according
to the maintenance schedule. Refer to the Owner’s
Guide.
The engines incorporate the following features:
Correct engine identification is required to order
parts; refer to the appropriate engine section.
• a closed positive crankcase ventilation (PCV)
system. For additional information, refer to
Section 303-08.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Engine
Special Service Tool(s)
For complete vehicle and engine identification
codes, refer to Section 100-01.
Special Service Tool(s)
Engine Cylinder Leak
Detection/Air Pressurization Kit
014-00708 or equivalent
Commercially Available
Leakdown Tester
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
303-088 (T73L-6600-A)
Compression Tester
134-R0212 or equivalent
12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic
Inspection Kit
164-R0756 or equivalent (Leak
Detector)
Cup Shaped Adapter
303-007 (TOOL-6565-AB) or
equivalent
Vacuum/Pressure Tester
164-R0253 or equivalent
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
1
Can be purchased as a seperate item.
303-00-5
Engine System — General Information
303-00-5
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Inspection and Verification
1.
Verify the customer concern by operating the
engine to duplicate the condition.
2.
3.
If the inspection reveals obvious concerns that
can be readily identified, repair as required.
4.
If the concerns remain after the inspection,
determine the symptoms and go to the symptom
chart.
Visually inspect for obvious signs of
mechanical damage. Refer to the following
chart.
Visual Inspection Chart
Mechanical
•
•
•
•
•
Engine coolant leaks
Engine oil leaks
Fuel leaks
Damaged or severely worn parts
Loose mounting bolts, studs and nuts
Symptom Chart
SYMPTOM CHART
Condition
• Difficult Starting
•
Possible Source
Damaged ignition system.
•
Damaged fuel system.
•
Damaged starting system.
•
Damaged charger
system/battery.
• Burnt valve.
• Worn piston.
2
Can be purchased as a seperate item.
•
•
Worn piston rings.
Worn cylinder.
•
Damaged head gasket.
Action
• Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 2.
• Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 2.
• REFER to the appropriate
starter section in Group 303.
REFER to the Powertrain
Control/Emissions Diagnosis
Manual 2.
• REFER to Section 414-00.
•
•
REPLACE valve.
REPLACE piston and piston
head.
• REPLACE piston ring.
• REPAIR or REPLACE
cylinder block.
• REPLACE head gasket.
303-00-6
Engine System — General Information
303-00-6
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
SYMPTOM CHART (Continued)
Condition
Poor Idling
•
•
Malfunctioning or damaged
ignition system.
•
•
Malfunctioning or damaged
fuel system.
•
•
Damaged valve tappet or lash
adjuster.
Damaged valve tappet guide
or lash adjuster.
Improper valve-to-valve seat
contact.
Damaged head gasket.
Malfunctioning or damaged
fuel system.
•
•
Abnormal Combustion
•
•
3
Can be purchased as a seperate item.
•
•
•
Malfunctioning or damaged
ignition system.
•
•
Damaged valve tappet or lash
adjuster.
Damaged valve tappet guide
or valve tappet.
Burnt or sticking valve.
Weak or broken valve spring.
Carbon accumulation in
combustion chamber.
Leaking oil.
Malfunctioning PCV system.
•
•
•
•
Excessive Oil Consumption
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Possible Source
Vacuum leaks.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Worn valve stem seal.
• Worn valve stem or valve
guide.
• Sticking piston rings.
•
•
•
Worn piston ring groove.
•
•
Worn piston or cylinder.
•
•
Action
Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 3.
Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 3.
Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 3.
REPLACE valve tappet or
lash adjuster.
REPLACE valve tappet guide
or valve tappet.
REPAIR or REPLACE valve
or valve seat.
REPLACE head gasket.
Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 3.
Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 3.
REPLACE valve tappet or
lash adjuster.
REPLACE valve tappet guide
or valve tappet.
REPAIR or REPLACE valve.
REPLACE valve spring.
ELIMINATE carbon buildup.
REPAIR oil leakage.
REPAIR or REPLACE the
necessary components.
REPLACE valve stem seal.
REPLACE valve stem and
valve guide.
REPAIR or REPLACE piston
rings.
REPLACE piston and piston
pin.
REPAIR or REPLACE piston
or cylinder block.
303-00-7
Engine System — General Information
303-00-7
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
SYMPTOM CHART (Continued)
Condition
Engine Noise
•
Possible Source
• Leaking exhaust system.
• Improper drive belt tension.
• Malfunctioning generator
bearing.
•
Malfunctioning water pump
bearing.
• Malfunctioning or damaged
cooling system.
• Malfunctioning or damaged
fuel system.
•
REFER to Section 303-03.
•
Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 4.
ADJUST or REPLACE
timing chain/belt.
REPLACE timing chain
tensioner.
ADJUST clearance or
REPLACE crankshaft main
bearing (6333).
REPLACE crankshaft main
bearing.
REPLACE thrust bearing or
crankshaft (6303).
REPLACE connecting rod
bearing or connecting rod
(6200).
REPLACE connecting rod
bearing.
REPLACE connecting rod
bushing.
REPAIR or REPLACE
cylinder block (6010).
REPLACE piston or piston
pin.
REPLACE piston rings.
REPLACE connecting rod.
REPLACE valve tappet or
lash adjuster.
ADJUST clearance or
REPLACE valve tappet guide
or valve tappet.
REPLACE valve spring.
REPAIR clearance or
REPLACE valve guide
(6510) and stem.
•
•
Seized or heat damaged
crankshaft main bearing.
• Excessive crankshaft end
play.
• Excessive connecting rod
bearing clearance.
•
•
Heat damaged connecting rod
bearing (6211).
• Damaged connecting rod
bushing (6207).
• Worn cylinder.
•
•
Worn piston (6108) or piston
pin (6135).
Damaged piston rings.
Bent connecting rod.
Malfunctioning valve tappet
(6500) or lash adjuster.
Excessive valve tappet or lash
adjuster clearance.
•
Broken valve spring (6513).
Excessive valve guide
clearance.
•
•
•
•
•
Can be purchased as a seperate item.
•
Loose timing chain/belt
(6268).
• Damaged timing chain
tensioner (6L266).
• Excessive main bearing
clearance.
•
•
•
4
Action
REPAIR exhaust leakage.
REFER to Section 303-05.
Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 414 for the
procedure.
• REFER to Section 303-03.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
303-00-8
Engine System — General Information
303-00-8
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
SYMPTOM CHART (Continued)
Condition
Insufficient Power
•
•
•
Possible Source
Malfunctioning or damaged
ignition system.
Malfunctioning or damaged
fuel system.
•
Damaged or plugged exhaust
system.
• Incorrect tire size.
• Dragging brakes.
• Slipping transmission.
•
Malfunctioning valve tappet
or lash adjuster.
• Damaged valve tappet guide
or valve tappet.
• Compression leakage at valve
seat.
•
•
•
•
•
Seized valve stem.
Weak or broken valve spring.
Worn or damaged cam.
Damaged head gasket (6051).
Cracked or distorted cylinder
head.
• Damaged, worn or sticking
piston ring(s).
• Worn or damaged piston.
Component Tests
Use the 12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic Inspection
Kit to perform the following procedure for oil leak
diagnosis.
1.
Clean the engine with a suitable solvent to
remove all traces of oil.
5
Can be purchased as a seperate item.
• REPAIR or REPLACE piston
ring(s).
• REPLACE piston and piston
pin.
Add Oil Dye 164-R3705 meeting Ford
specification ESE-M99C103-B1 or equivalent.
Use a minimum 14.8 ml (0.5 ounce) to a
maximum 29.6 ml (1 ounce) of fluorescent
additive to all engines. If the oil is not
premixed, fluorescent additive must first be
added to crankcase.
3.
Run the engine for 15 minutes. Stop the engine
and inspect all seal and gasket areas for leaks
using the 12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic
Inspection Kit. A clear bright yellow or orange
area will identify the leak. For extremely small
leaks, several hours may be required for the
leak to appear.
Note: When diagnosing engine oil leaks, the source
and location of the leak must be positively
identified prior to service.
Engine Oil Leaks—Fluorescent Oil Additive
Method
• REFER to Section 204-04.
• REFER to Section 206-00.
• Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 307 for the
procedure.
• REPLACE valve tappet or
lash adjuster.
• REPLACE valve tappet guide
or valve tappet.
• REPAIR or REPLACE valve,
valve seat or cylinder head
(6049).
• REPLACE valve stem.
• REPLACE valve spring.
• REPLACE camshaft.
• REPLACE head gasket.
• REPLACE cylinder head.
2.
Engine Oil Leaks
Prior to performing this procedure, clean the
cylinder block, cylinder heads, valve covers, oil pan
and flywheel with a suitable solvent to remove all
traces of oil.
Action
Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 5.
• Refer to the appropriate
section in Group 303 for the
procedure. REFER to the
Powertrain Control/Emissions
Diagnosis Manual 5.
• INSPECT exhaust system.
•
303-00-9
Engine System — General Information
303-00-9
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Leakage Points—Underhood
Oil leaks at crimped seams in sheet metal parts and
cracks in cast or stamped parts can be detected
when using the dye method.
Examine the following areas for oil leakage:
• valve cover gaskets
Compression Test—Compression Gauge
Check
• intake manifold gaskets
• cylinder head gaskets
1.
Make sure the oil in the crankcase is of the
correct viscosity and at the proper level and that
the battery (10655) is properly charged. Operate
the vehicle until the engine is at normal
operating temperature. Turn the ignition switch
to the OFF position, then remove all the spark
plugs (12405).
• oil pressure sensor
2.
Set the throttle plates in the wide-open position.
Leakage Points—Under Engine—With
Vehicle on Hoist
3.
Install a compression gauge such as the
Compression Tester in the No. 1 cylinder.
4.
Install an auxiliary starter switch in the starting
circuit. With the ignition switch in the OFF
position, and using the auxiliary starter switch,
crank the engine a minimum of five
compression strokes and record the highest
reading. Note the approximate number of
compression strokes required to obtain the
highest reading.
5.
Repeat the test on each cylinder, cranking the
engine approximately the same number of
compression strokes.
• oil bypass filter
• oil filter adapter
• engine front cover
• oil filter adapter and filter body
• oil level indicator tube connection
• oil pan gaskets (6710)
• oil pan sealer
• oil pan rear seal (6723)
• engine front cover gasket
• crankshaft front seal (6700)
• crankshaft rear oil seal (6701)
• crankshaft main bearing cap side bolts
• oil filter adapter and filter body
• oil cooler, if equipped
Leakage Points—With Transmission and
Flywheel Removed
• crankshaft rear oil seal
• rear main bearing cap parting line
Compression Test—Test Results
The indicated compression pressures are considered
within specification if the lowest reading cylinder is
within 75 percent of the highest reading. Refer to
the Compression Pressure Limit Chart.
• rear main bearing cap and seals
• flywheel mounting bolt holes (with flywheel
(6375) installed)
• camshaft rear bearing covers (6266) or pipe plugs
at the end of oil passages
Compression Pressure Limit Chart
Maximum
Pressure
Minimum
Pressure
Maximum
Pressure
Minimum
Pressure
Maximum
Pressure
Minimum
Pressure
Maximum
Pressure
Minimum
Pressure
924 kPa
(134 psi)
938 kPa
(136 psi)
952 kPa
(138 psi)
696 kPa
(101 psi)
703 kPa
(102 psi)
717 kPa
(104 psi)
1131 kPa
(164 psi)
1145 kPa
(166 psi)
1158 kPa
(168 psi)
848 kPa
(123 psi)
855 kPa
(124 psi)
869 kPa
(126 psi)
1338 kPa
(194 psi)
1351 kPa
(196 psi)
1365 kPa
(198 psi)
1000 kPa
(146 psi)
1014 kPa
(147 psi)
1020 kPa
(148 psi)
1544 kPa
(224 psi)
1558 kPa
(226 psi)
1572 kPa
(228 psi)
1158 kPa
(168 psi)
1165 kPa
(169 psi)
1179 kPa
(171 psi)
303-00-10
Engine System — General Information
303-00-10
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
Compression Pressure Limit Chart
Maximum
Pressure
965 kPa
(140 psi)
979 kPa
(142 psi)
933 kPa
(144 psi)
1007 kPa
(146 psi)
1020 kPa
(148 psi)
1034 kPa
(150 psi)
1048 kPa
(152 psi)
1062 kPa
(154 psi)
1076 kPa
(156 psi)
1089 kPa
(158 psi)
1103 kPa
(160 psi)
1110 kPa
(161 psi)
Minimum
Pressure
724 kPa
(106 psi)
738 kPa
(107 psi)
745 kPa
(109 psi)
758 kPa
(110 psi)
765 kPa
(111 psi)
779 kPa
(113 psi)
786 kPa
(114 psi)
793 kPa
(115 psi)
807 kPa
(117 psi)
814 kPa
(118 psi)
827 kPa
(120 psi)
834 kPa
(121 psi)
Maximum
Pressure
1172 kPa
(170 psi)
1186 kPa
(172 psi)
1200 kPa
(174 psi)
1214 kPa
(176 psi)
1227 kPa
(178 psi)
1241 kPa
(180 psi)
1255 kPa
(182 psi)
1269 kPa
(184 psi)
1282 kPa
(186 psi)
1296 kPa
(188 psi)
1310 kPa
(190 psi)
1324 kPa
(192 psi)
Minimum
Pressure
876 kPa
(127 psi)
889 kPa
(129 psi)
903 kPa
(131 psi)
910 kPa
(132 psi)
917 kPa
(133 psi)
931 kPa
(135 psi)
936 kPa
(136 psi)
952 kPa
(138 psi)
965 kPa
(140 psi)
972 kPa
(141 psi)
979 kPa
(142 psi)
993 kPa
(144 psi)
If one or more cylinders reads low, squirt
approximately one tablespoon of Super Premium
SAE 5W30 Motor Oil, XO-5W30-QSP meeting
Ford specification WSS-M2C153-G on top of the
pistons in the low-reading cylinders. Repeat the
compression pressure check on these cylinders.
Compression Test—Interpreting
Compression Readings
1.
If compression improves considerably, piston
rings are faulty.
2.
If compression does not improve, valves are
sticking or seating improperly.
3.
If two adjacent cylinders indicate low
compression pressures and squirting oil on each
piston does not increase compression, the head
gasket may be leaking between cylinders.
Engine oil or coolant in cylinders could result
from this condition.
Use the Compression Pressure Limit Chart
when checking cylinder compression so that the
lowest reading is within 75 percent of the
highest reading.
Maximum
Pressure
1379 kPa
(200 psi)
1303 kPa
(202 psi)
1407 kPa
(204 psi)
1420 kPa
(206 psi)
1434 kPa
(208 psi)
1448 kPa
(210 psi)
1462 kPa
(212 psi)
1476 kPa
(214 psi)
1489 kPa
(216 psi)
1503 kPa
(218 psi)
1517 kPa
(220 psi)
1631 kPa
(222 psi)
Minimum
Pressure
1034 kPa
(150 psi)
1041 kPa
(151 psi)
1055 kPa
(153 psi)
1062 kPa
(154 psi)
1075 kPa
(156 psi)
1083 kPa
(157 psi)
1089 kPa
(158 psi)
1103 kPa
(160 psi)
1117 kPa
(162 psi)
1124 kPa
(163 psi)
1138 kPa
(165 psi)
1145 kPa
(166 psi)
Maximum
Pressure
1586 kPa
(230 psi)
1600 kPa
(232 psi)
1055 kPa
(153 psi)
1627 kPa
(154 psi)
1641 kPa
(238 psi)
1655 kPa
(240 psi)
1669 kPa
(242 psi)
1682 kPa
(244 psi)
1696 kPa
(246 psi)
1710 kPa
(248 psi)
1724 kPa
(250 psi)
—
Minimum
Pressure
1186 kPa
(172 psi)
1200 kPa
(174 psi)
1207 kPa
(175 psi)
1220 kPa
(177 psi)
1227 kPa
(178 psi)
1241 kPa
(180 psi)
1248 kPa
(181 psi)
1262 kPa
(183 psi)
1269 kPa
(184 psi)
1202 kPa
(186 psi)
1289 kPa
(187 psi)
—
Cylinder Leakage Detection
When a cylinder produces a low reading, use of the
Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air Pressurization
Kit will be helpful in pinpointing the exact cause.
The leakage detector is inserted in the spark plug
hole, the piston is brought up to dead center on the
compression stroke, and compressed air is admitted.
Once the combustion chamber is pressurized, a
special gauge included in the kit will read the
percentage of leakage. Leakage exceeding 20
percent is excessive.
303-00-11
Engine System — General Information
303-00-11
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
While the air pressure is retained in the cylinder,
listen for the hiss of escaping air. A leak at the
intake valve (6507) will be heard in the throttle
body (9E926). A leak at the exhaust valve (6505)
can be heard at the tail pipe. Leakage past the
piston rings will be audible at the positive crankcase
ventilation (PCV) connection. If air is passing
through a blown head gasket to an adjacent
cylinder, the noise will be evident at the spark plug
hole of the cylinder into which the air is leaking.
Cracks in the cylinder block or gasket leakage into
the cooling system may be detected by a stream of
bubbles in the radiator (8005).
Oil Consumption Test
5.
Verify the spark plugs are not oil saturated. If
the spark plugs are oil saturated and
compression is good it can be assumed the
valve seals or valve guides are at fault.
6.
Perform an oil consumption test:
a.
Drain the engine oil, remove the oil bypass
filter (6714) and refill with one liter (quart)
less than the recommended amount.
b.
Run the engine for three minutes (10
minutes if cold), and allow the oil to drain
back for at least five minutes with the
vehicle on a level surface.
c.
Remove oil level dipstick and wipe clean.
(Do not wipe with anything contaminated
with silicone compounds.) Reinstall the oil
level dipstick, being sure to seat it firmly
in the oil level indicator tube (6754).
Remove the oil level dipstick and draw a
mark on the back (unmarked) surface at the
indicated oil level. This level should be
about the same as the MIN or ADD mark
on the face of the oil level dipstick.
d.
Add one liter (quart) of oil. Restart the
engine and allow to idle for at least two
minutes. Shut off the engine and allow the
oil to drain back for at least five minutes.
Mark the oil level dipstick, using the
procedure above.
e.
Record the vehicle mileage.
f.
Instruct the customer to drive the vehicle
as usual and perform the following:
The following diagnostic procedure is used to
determine the source of excessive internal oil
consumption.
1.
Note: Oil use is normally greater during the
first 16,100 km (10,000 miles) of service. As
mileage increases, oil use generally decreases.
Vehicles in normal service should get at least
1,450 km per liter (900 miles per quart) after
16,100 km (10,000 miles) of service. High
speed driving, towing, high ambient temperature
and other factors may result in greater oil use.
Define excessive oil consumption, such as the
number of miles driven per liter (quart) of oil
used. Also determine customer’s driving habits,
such as sustained high speed operation, towing,
extended idle and other considerations.
2.
Verify that the engine has no external oil leak
as described under Engine Oil Leaks in the
Diagnosis and Testing portion of this section.
3.
Verify that the engine has the correct oil level
dipstick (6750).
4.
Verify that the engine is not being run in an
overfilled condition. Check the oil level at least
five minutes after a hot shutdown with the
vehicle parked on a level surface. In no case
should the level be above MAX or the letter F
in FULL. If significantly overfilled, perform
steps 6a through 6d.
•Check the oil level regularly at intervals
of 160 to 240 km (100-150 miles).
•Return to the service point when the oil
level drops below the lower (MIN or
ADD) mark on the oil level dipstick.
•Add only full liters (quarts) of the same
oil in an emergency. Note the mileage at
which the oil is added.
303-00-12
Engine System — General Information
303-00-12
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
g.
Check the oil level under the same
conditions and at the same location as in
Steps 5c and 5d.
•Measure the distance from the oil level to
the UPPER mark on the oil level dipstick
and record.
•Measure the distance between the two
scribe marks and record.
•Divide the first measurement by the
second.
•Divide the distance driven during the oil
test by the result. This quantity is the
approximate oil consumption rate in
kilometers per liter or in miles per quart.
h.
If the oil consumption rate is unacceptable,
go to Step 7.
7.
Check the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV)
system. Make sure the system is not plugged.
8.
Check for plugged oil drain-back holes in the
cylinder heads and cylinder block.
9.
If the condition still exists after performing the
above steps, go to Step 10.
10. Perform a cylinder compression test or perform
a cylinder leak detection test with Engine
Cylinder Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit.
This can help determine the source of oil
consumption such as valves, piston rings or
other areas.
11. Note: After determining if worn parts should be
replaced, make sure correct replacement parts
are used.
Check valve guides for excessive guide
clearance. REPLACE all valve stem seals
(6571) after verifying valve guide clearance.
12. Worn or damaged internal engine components
can cause excessive oil consumption. Small
deposits of oil on the tips of spark plugs can be
a clue to internal oil consumption. If internal oil
consumption still persists, proceed as follows:
a.
Remove the engine from the vehicle and
place it on an engine work stand. Remove
the intake manifolds (9424), cylinder heads,
oil pan (6675) and oil pump (6600).
b.
Check piston ring clearance, ring gap and
ring orientation. Repair as required.
c.
Check for excessive bearing clearance.
Repair as required.
13. Repeat the oil consumption test (Step 6) to
confirm the oil consumption concern has been
resolved.
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test
Bring the engine to normal operating temperature.
Connect the Vacuum/Pressure Tester to the intake
manifold. Run the engine at the specified idle speed.
The vacuum gauge should read between 51-74 kPa
(15-22 in-Hg) depending upon the engine condition
and the altitude at which the test is performed.
Subtract 4.0193 kPa (1 in-Hg) from the specified
reading for every 304.8 m (1,000 feet) of elevation
above sea level.
The reading should be steady. If necessary, adjust
the gauge damper control (where used) if the needle
is fluttering rapidly. Adjust the damper until the
needle moves easily without excessive flutter.
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test—Interpreting
Vacuum Gauge Readings
A careful study of the vacuum gauge reading while
the engine is idling will help pinpoint trouble areas.
Always conduct other appropriate tests before
arriving at a final diagnostic decision. Vacuum
gauge readings, although helpful, must be
interpreted carefully.
Most vacuum gauges have a normal band indicated
on the gauge face.
303-00-13
Engine System — General Information
303-00-13
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
The following are potential gauge readings. Some
are normal; others should be investigated further.
5.
STICKING VALVES: When the needle (dotted)
remains steady at a normal vacuum but
occasionally flicks (sharp, fast movement) down
and back about 13 kPa (4 in-Hg), one or more
valves may be sticking.
6.
BURNED OR WARPED VALVES: A regular,
evenly-spaced, downscale flicking of the needle
indicates one or more burned or warped valves.
Insufficient hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic
lash adjuster (HLA) clearance will also cause
this reaction.
7.
POOR VALVE SEATING: A small but regular
downscale flicking can mean one or more
valves are not seating.
8.
WORN VALVE GUIDES: When the needle
oscillates over about a 13 kPa (4 in-Hg) range
at idle speed, the valve guides could be worn.
As engine speed increases, the needle will
become steady if guides are responsible.
9.
WEAK VALVE SPRINGS: When the needle
oscillation becomes more violent as engine rpm
is increased, weak valve springs are indicated.
The reading at idle could be relatively steady.
10. LATE VALVE TIMING: A steady but low
reading could be caused by late valve timing.
1.
NORMAL READING: Needle between 51-74
kPa (15-22 in-Hg) and holding steady.
2.
NORMAL READING DURING RAPID
ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION:
When the engine is rapidly accelerated (dotted
needle), the needle will drop to a low reading
(not to zero). When the throttle is suddenly
released, the needle will snap back up to a
higher than normal figure.
3.
NORMAL FOR HIGH-LIFT CAMSHAFT
WITH LARGE OVERLAP: The needle will
register as low as 51 kPa (15 in-Hg) but will be
relatively steady. Some oscillation is normal.
4.
WORN RINGS OR DILUTED OIL: When the
engine is accelerated (dotted needle), the needle
drops to 0 kPa (0 in-Hg). Upon deceleration,
the needle runs slightly above 74 kPa (22
in-Hg).
11. IGNITION TIMING RETARDING: Retarded
ignition timing will produce a steady but
somewhat low reading.
12. INSUFFICIENT SPARK PLUG GAP: When
spark plugs are gapped too close, a regular,
small pulsation of the needle can occur.
13. INTAKE LEAK: A low, steady reading can be
caused by an intake manifold or throttle body
gasket leak.
14. BLOWN HEAD GASKET: A regular drop of
fair magnitude can be caused by a blown head
gasket or warped cylinder head-to-cylinder
block surface.
303-00-14
Engine System — General Information
303-00-14
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
15. RESTRICTED EXHAUST SYSTEM: When the
engine is first started and is idled, the reading
may be normal, but as the engine rpm is
increased, the back pressure caused by a
clogged muffler (5230), kinked tail pipe or
other concerns will cause the needle to slowly
drop to 0 kPa (0 in-Hg). The needle then may
slowly rise. Excessive exhaust clogging will
cause the needle to drop to a low point even if
the engine is only idling.
16. When vacuum leaks are indicated, search out
and correct the cause. Excess air leaking into
the system will upset the fuel mixture and cause
concerns such as rough idle, missing on
acceleration or burned valves. If the leak exists
in an accessory unit such as the power brake
booster (2005), the unit will not function
correctly. Always fix vacuum leaks.
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption
The amount of oil an engine uses will vary with the
way the vehicle is driven in addition to normal
engine-to-engine variation. This is especially true
during the first 16,100 km (10,000 miles) when a
new engine is being broken in or until certain
internal engine components become conditioned.
Vehicles used in heavy-duty operation may use
more oil. The following are examples of heavy-duty
operation:
• trailer towing applications
• severe loading applications
• sustained high speed operation
Engines need oil to lubricate the following internal
components:
The following is a partial list of conditions that can
affect oil consumption rates:
• engine duty cycle
• operator driving habits
• ambient temperature
• quality and viscosity of the oil
Operation under varying conditions can frequently
be misleading. A vehicle that has been run for
several thousand miles on short trips or in
below-freezing ambient temperatures may have
consumed a ‘‘normal’’ amount of oil. However,
when checking the engine oil level, it may measure
up to the FULL or MAX on the oil level dipstick
due to dilution (condensation and fuel) in the engine
crankcase. The vehicle might then be driven at high
speeds on the highway where the condensation and
fuel boil off. The next time the engine oil is
checked, it may appear that a liter (quart) of oil was
used in about 160 km (100 miles). This perceived
160 km (100 miles) per liter (quart) oil consumption
rate causes customer concern even though the actual
overall oil consumption rate is about 2400 km (1500
miles) per liter (quart).
Make sure the selected engine oil meets the current
recommended API performance category with SAE
viscosity grade as shown in the vehicle Owner’s
Guide. It is also important that the engine oil is
changed at the intervals specified. Refer to the
Vehicle Owner’s Guide.
Oil Pressure Test
1.
Disconnect and remove the oil pressure sensor
(9278) from the engine.
2.
Connect the Engine Oil Pressure Gauge to the
oil pressure sender oil galley port.
3.
Run the engine until normal operating
temperature is reached.
4.
Run the engine at the specified rpm and record
the gauge reading.
5.
The oil pressure should be within specifications;
refer to the specification chart in the appropriate
engine section.
• cylinder block cylinder walls
• pistons and piston, pin and rings (6102)
• intake and exhaust valve stems
• intake and exhaust valve guides
• all internal engine components
When the pistons move downward, a thin film of
oil is left on the cylinder walls. As the vehicle is
operated, some oil is also drawn into the
combustion chambers past the intake and exhaust
valve stem seals and burned.
303-00-15
Engine System — General Information
303-00-15
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
6.
If the pressure is not within specification, check
the following possible sources:
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Off, Valves
and Cylinder Head
•
insufficient oil
• Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
•
oil leakage
• Check for worn or damaged valve tips.
•
worn or damaged oil pump
• Check for missing or damaged guide-mounted
valve stem seal.
•
oil pump screen cover and tube (6622)
•
excessive main bearing clearance
• Check collapsed valve tappet gap.
•
excessive connecting rod bearing clearance
• Check installed valve spring height.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Off—Valve
Cover Removed
Check for damaged or severely worn parts and
correct assembly. Make sure correct parts are used
with the static engine analysis as follows.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Off, Rocker
Arm
• Check for loose mounting bolts, studs and nuts.
• Check for plugged oil feed in the rocker arms
(6564) or cylinder head.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Off, Camshaft
Roller Followers and Hydraulic Lash
Adjusters, Overhead Camshaft
• Check for loose mounting bolts on camshaft
carriers.
• Check for plugged oil feed in the camshaft roller
followers, lash adjusters or cylinder heads.
• Check for missing or worn valve spring seats.
• Check for plugged oil metering orifice in cylinder
head oil reservoir (if equipped).
Static checks (engine off) are to be made on the
engine prior to the dynamic procedure.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Running
• Start the engine and, while idling, check for
proper operation of all parts. Check the following:
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Running,
Positive Rotator and Valve Spring Retainer
Keys
• Check for proper operation of positive rotator.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Running,
Valves and Cylinder Head
• Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
• Check for missing or damaged valve stem seals or
guide mounted valve stem seals.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Off,
Camshaft—Engines
• Check for a plugged oil metering orifice in the
cylinder head oil reservoir (4.6L engine only).
• Check for broken or damaged parts.
If insufficient oiling is suspected, check oil passages
for blockage, then accelerate the engine to 1200
rpm with the transmission in NEUTRAL and the
engine at normal operating temperature. Oil should
spurt from the rocker arm oil holes such that valve
tips and camshaft roller followers are well oiled.
With the valve covers (6582) off, some oil splash
may overshoot camshaft roller followers.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Off, Push
Rods
• Check for bent push rods (6565) and restricted oil
passage.
Valve Train Analysis—Valve Springs
• Check for broken or damaged parts.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Off, Valve
Spring Retainer and Valve Spring Retainer
Keys
• Check for proper seating of the valve spring
retainer key (6518) on the valve stem and in
valve spring retainer (6514).
• Check for proper seating on the valve stem.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Running,
Camshaft Lobe Lift—OHC Engines
Check the lift of each camshaft lobe in consecutive
order and make a note of the readings.
1.
Remove the valve covers.
2.
Remove the spark plugs.
303-00-16
Engine System — General Information
303-00-16
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
3.
Install the Dial Indicator with Bracketry so the
rounded tip of indicator is on top of the
camshaft lobe and on the same plane as the
valve tappet.
4.
Rotate the crankshaft using a breaker bar and
socket attached to the crankshaft pulley retainer
bolt. Rotate the crankshaft until the base circle
of the camshaft lobe is reached.
5.
Zero the dial indicator. Continue to rotate the
crankshaft until the (A) high-lift point of the
camshaft lobe is in the fully-raised position
(highest indicator reading).
6.
To check the accuracy of the original indicator
reading, continue to rotate crankshaft until the
(B) base circle is reached. The indicator reading
should be zero. If zero reading is not obtained,
repeat Steps 1 through 6.
7.
Note: If the lift on any lobe is below specified
service limits, the camshaft roller followers
operating on that camshaft (6250) must be
replaced.
Typical Engine With Push Rods
3.
Make sure valve tappet is seated against
camshaft (6250). Install (A) Dial Indicator with
Bracketry so the ball socket adapter of the
indicator is on top of the valve tappet or (B)
Cup Shaped Adapter is on top of push rod and
in same plane as valve tappet push rod
movement.
4.
Remove spark plugs.
5.
Connect an auxiliary starter switch in the
starting circuit. Crank engine with ignition
switch in OFF position.Bump crankshaft over
until valve tappet is on base circle of camshaft
lobe. At this point, valve tappet will be in its
lowest position. If checking during engine
assembly, turn crankshaft using a socket or
ratchet.
6.
Zero the dial indicator. Continue to rotate
crankshaft slowly until valve tappet is in
fully-raised position (highest indicator reading).
7.
Note: If lift on any lobe is below specified
service limits, camshaft and valve tappet must
be replaced.
Remove the Dial Indicator with Bracketry.
8.
Install the spark plugs.
9.
Install the valve covers.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Running,
Camshaft Lobe Lift—Push Rod Engine
Check the lift of each lobe in consecutive order and
make a note of the readings.
1.
Remove valve covers.
2.
Remove rocker arm seat bolts, rocker arm seat
(6A528) and rocker arms.
Compare total lift recorded on dial indicator
with specifications.
8.
To check the accuracy of the original dial
indicator reading, continue to rotate the
crankshaft until indicator reads zero.
9.
Remove the dial indicator, adapter and auxiliary
starter switch.
303-00-17
Engine System — General Information
303-00-17
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING (Continued)
10.
CAUTION: After installing rocker
arms, do not rotate crankshaft until valve
tappets have had sufficient time to bleed
down. To do otherwise may cause serious
valve damage. Manually bleeding-down valve
tappets will reduce waiting time.
Install rocker arm seats, rocker arms and rocker
arm seat bolts.
11. Install valve covers.
12. Install spark plugs.
Valve Train Analysis—Engine Running,
Valve Tappet
Valve tappet noise can be caused by any of the
following:
• excessive collapsed valve tappet gap
• sticking valve tappet plunger
• valve tappet check valve not functioning properly
• air in lubrication system
• leakdown rate too rapid
• excessive valve guide wear
Excessive collapsed valve tappet gap can be caused
by loose rocker arm seat bolts/nuts, incorrect initial
adjustment or wear of valve tappet face, or worn
roller valve tappets, push rod (6565), rocker arm
(6564), rocker arm seat or valve tip. With valve
tappet collapsed, check gap between the valve tip
and the rocker arm to determine if any other valve
train parts are damaged, worn or out of adjustment.
A sticking valve tappet plunger can be caused by
contaminants or varnish inside the valve tappet.
A valve tappet check valve that is not functioning
can be caused by an obstruction such as dirt or
chips that prevent it from closing when the camshaft
lobe is lifting the valve tappet. It may also be
caused by a broken check valve spring.
Air bubbles in the lubrication system will prevent
the valve tappet from supporting the valve spring
load. This can be caused by too high or too low an
oil level in the oil pan or by air being drawn into
the system through a hole, crack or leaking gasket
on the oil pump screen cover and tube.
If the leakdown time is below the specified time for
used valve tappets, noisy operation can result. If no
other cause for noisy valve tappets can be found,
the leakdown rate should be checked and any valve
tappets outside the specification should be replaced.
Assembled valve tappets can be tested with
Hydraulic Tappet Leakdown Tester to check the
leakdown rate. The leakdown rate specification is
the time in seconds for the plunger to move a
specified distance while under a 22.7 kg (50 lb)
load. Test the valve tappets as outlined in this
section.
303-00-18
Engine System — General Information
303-00-18
GENERAL PROCEDURES
Sprockets
1.
WARNING: To avoid the possibility of
personal injury or damage to the vehicle, do
not operate the engine with the hood open
until the fan blade has been examined for
possible cracks and separation.
Note: Specifications show the expected
minimum or maximum condition.
Note: If a component fails to meet the
specifications, it is necessary to replace or
refinish. If the component can be refinished,
wear limits are provided as an aid to making a
decision. Any component that fails to meet
specifications and cannot be refinished must be
replaced.
2.
Inspect the (A) timing chain/belt and the (B)
sprockets.
•
Replace as necessary.
Rocker Arms —Cleaning
1.
Clean all parts thoroughly. Make sure all oil
passages are open.
2.
Make sure oil passage in the push rod/valve
tappet end of the rocker arm (6564) is open.
303-00-19
Engine System — General Information
303-00-19
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Rocker Arms —Inspection
CAUTION: Do not attempt to true surfaces
by grinding. Check the rocker arm pad, side
rails and seat for excessive wear, cracks, nicks or
burrs. Check the rocker arm seat bolt for
stripped or broken threads. Replace components
as required or possible damage may occur.
1.
Inspect the push rod rocker arm bore for nicks,
scratches, scores or scuffs. Replace as
necessary.
2.
Inspect the pad at the valve end of the rocker
arm for indications of scuffing or abnormal
wear. If the pad is grooved, replace the rocker
arm.
1.
Clean the push rods (6565) in a suitable
solvent. Blow out the oil passage in the push
rods with compressed air.
1.
Check the ends of the push rods for nicks,
grooves, roughness or excessive wear. Replace
as necessary.
2.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to
straighten push rods.
Push Rods —Cleaning
Push Rods —Inspection
The push rods can be checked for straightness
while they are installed in the engine by
rotating them with the valve closed.
303-00-20
Engine System — General Information
303-00-20
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
3.
They also can be checked with a Dial Indicator
with Bracketry.
4.
If the push rod is bent beyond specifications,
replace it.
1.
Measure each camshaft journal diameter in two
directions.
Camshaft Journal —Diameter
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
303-00-21
Engine System — General Information
303-00-21
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Camshaft Journal —Clearance, Push Rod Engines, Micrometer Method
1.
Note: The camshaft journals must meet
specifications before checking camshaft journal
clearance.
Measure each camshaft bearing (6261) in two
directions.
•
Subtract the camshaft journal diameter from
the camshaft bearing diameter.
Camshaft Journal —Clearance, Plastigage Method
Special Service Tool(s)
Plastigage
303-D031 (D81L-6002-B) or
equivalent
Note: The camshaft journals must meet
specifications before checking camshaft journal
clearance.
1.
Remove the camshaft bearing cap and lay
plastigage across the surface. Refer to the
appropriate section in Group 303 for the
procedure.
303-00-22
Engine System — General Information
303-00-22
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
2.
Note: Do not turn the camshaft while doing this
procedure.
Position the camshaft bearing cap and install
the bolts. Refer to the appropriate engine
section.
3.
Use Plastigage to verify the camshaft journal
clearance.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary. Refer to the appropriate section
in Group 303 for the procedure.
Camshaft —Push Rod Engines
Special Service Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
1.
Remove the valve tappets. Refer to the
appropriate section in Group 303 for the
procedure.
2.
Use a Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft end play.
3.
Position the camshaft to the rear of the cylinder
block.
4.
Zero the indicator.
303-00-23
Engine System — General Information
303-00-23
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
5.
Move the camshaft to the front of the cylinder
block. Note and record the camshaft end play.
•
If camshaft end play exceeds specifications,
replace the camshaft thrust plate (6269).
Camshaft —End Play, OHC Engines
Special Service Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
1.
Remove the roller followers. Refer to the
appropriate section in Group 303 for the
procedure.
2.
Use a Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft end play.
3.
Position the camshaft to the rear of the cylinder
head.
4.
Zero the indicator.
5.
Move the camshaft to the front of the cylinder
head. Note and record the camshaft end play.
•
If camshaft end play exceeds specifications,
replace the camshaft thrust bearing washers.
303-00-24
Engine System — General Information
303-00-24
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Camshaft —Lobe Surface
1.
Inspect camshaft lobes for pitting or damage in
the active area. Minor pitting is acceptable
outside the active area.
•
If excessive pitting or damage is present,
replace as necessary.
Camshaft —Lobe Lift
Special Service Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
1.
Camshaft —Runout
Special Service Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
Use a Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft intake/exhaust lobe lift.
•
Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest
indicator reading from the highest indicator
reading to figure the camshaft lobe lift.
•
Refer to base engine section for
specification.
303-00-25
Engine System — General Information
303-00-25
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
1.
Note: Camshaft journals must be within
specifications before checking runout.
Use a Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
the camshaft runout.
•
Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest
indicator reading from the highest indicator
reading.
•
Refer to the specification chart in the
appropriate engine section.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal —Diameter
1.
Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing
journal diameters in at least two directions.
•
Refer to the specification chart in the
appropriate engine section.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal —Taper
1.
Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing
journal diameters in at least two directions at
each end of the main bearing journal.
•
Refer to the specification chart in the
appropriate engine section.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
303-00-26
Engine System — General Information
303-00-26
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal —Clearance
Special Service Tool(s)
Plastigage
303-D031 (D81L-6002-B) or
equivalent
Note: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be
within specifications before checking journal
clearance.
1.
Remove the crankshaft main bearing caps and
crankshaft main bearing.
2.
Lay a piece of Plastigage across the face of
each crankshaft main bearing surface.
3.
Note: Do not turn the crankshaft while doing
this procedure.
Install and remove the crankshaft main bearing
cap.
4.
Verify the crankshaft journal clearance.
•
Refer to the specification chart in the
appropriate engine section.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
303-00-27
Engine System — General Information
303-00-27
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Crankshaft —End Play
Special Service Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
1.
Measure the crankshaft end play. Use a Dial
Indicator with Bracketry to measure crankshaft
end play.
2.
Position the crankshaft to the rear of the
cylinder block.
3.
Zero the indicator.
4.
Move the crankshaft to the front of the cylinder
block. Note and record the crankshaft end play.
•
Crankshaft —Runout
Special Service Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
If crankshaft end play exceeds
specifications, replace the crankshaft thrust
washer (6334) or crankshaft thrust main
bearing (6337).
303-00-28
Engine System — General Information
303-00-28
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
1.
Note: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be
within specifications before checking runout.
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to
measure the crankshaft runout.
•
Refer to the Specification chart in the
appropriate engine section. Rotate the
crankshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial
indicator reading to figure the crankshaft
runout. If it is out of specification, replace
as necessary.
Crankshaft —Connecting Rod Journal Taper, Out of Round
1.
Measure the crankshaft connecting rod journal
diameters in two directions perpendicular to one
another at each end of the connecting rod
journal. The difference in the measurements
from one end to the other is the taper. Verify
measurement is within the wear limit.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
Cylinder Bore —Taper
1.
Measure the cylinder bore at the top and
bottom. Verify the cylinder bore is within the
wear limit. The difference indicates the cylinder
bore taper. Bore the cylinder to the next
oversize.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
303-00-29
Engine System — General Information
303-00-29
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Cylinder Bore —Out-of-Round
1.
Measure the cylinder bore in two directions.
The difference is the out-of-round. Verify the
out-of-round is within the wear limit and bore
the cylinder to the next oversize limit.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification Chart.
Piston —Inspection
Special Service Tool(s)
Piston Ring Groove Cleaner
303-D033 (D81L-6002-D) or
equivalent
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning
solution or a wire brush to clean the pistons or
damage can occur.
1.
Clean and inspect the (A) ring lands, (B) skirts,
(C) pin bosses, and the (D) tops of the pistons.
If wear marks, scores or glazing is found on the
piston skirt, check for a bent or twisted
connecting rod.
303-00-30
Engine System — General Information
303-00-30
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
2.
Use the Piston Ring Groove Cleaner to clean
the piston ring grooves.
•
Make sure the oil ring holes are clean.
Piston —Pin to Bore Diameter
1.
WARNING: Cover the end of the pin
bore with a hand or shop rag when removing
the retainer ring, since it has a tendency to
spring out. Wear eye protection.
Note: Piston and piston pins are a matched set
and should not be interchanged.
Measure the piston pin bore diameter in two
directions on each side. Verify the diameter is
within specification.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
303-00-31
Engine System — General Information
303-00-31
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Piston —Diameter
1.
Measure the piston dome and skirt diameter 90
degrees from the piston pin at the points
indicated; refer to the Specification Chart in the
appropriate engine section.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as
necessary.
Piston —to Cylinder Bore Clearance
1.
Subtract the piston diameter from the cylinder
bore diameter to find the piston-to-cylinder bore
clearance.
Piston —Selection
Note: The cylinder bore must be within the
specifications for taper and out-of-round before
fitting a piston.
1.
Select a piston size based on the cylinder bore.
303-00-32
Engine System — General Information
303-00-32
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
2.
Note: For precision fit, new pistons are divided
into three categories within each size range
based on their relative position within the
range. A paint spot on the new pistons indicates
the position within the size range.
Choose the piston with the proper paint color.
•
Refer to base engine section for piston
grading.
Piston —Ring End Gap
Special Service Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
303-D027 (D81L-4201-A) or
equivalent
CAUTION: Use care when fitting piston
rings to avoid possible damage to the piston ring
or the cylinder bore.
CAUTION: Piston rings should not be
transferred from one piston to another.
Note: Cylinder bore must be within specification for
taper and out-of-round.
1.
Use a piston without rings to push a piston ring
in a cylinder to the bottom of ring travel.
303-00-33
Engine System — General Information
303-00-33
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
2.
Use a feeler gauge to measure the top piston
ring end gap and the second piston ring end
gap.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
Piston —Ring-to-Groove Clearance
Special Service Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
303-D027 (D81L-4201-A) or
equivalent
1.
Inspect for a step in the grooves.
2.
Measure the piston ring-to-groove clearance.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
303-00-34
Engine System — General Information
303-00-34
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Piston —Pin Diameter
1.
Measure the piston pin diameter in two
directions at the points shown. Verify the
diameter is within specification.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
Connecting Rod —Cleaning
1.
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic
cleaning solution or damage to connecting
rods can occur.
2.
Note: If the connecting rod large end is
mechanically split or cracked to produce a
unique parting face, a locking joint is produced.
Parts are not interchangeable.
Mark and separate the parts and clean with
solvent. Clean the oil passages.
Connecting Rod —Large End Bore
1.
Measure the bore in two directions. The
difference is the connecting rod bore
out-of-round. Verify the out-of-round is within
specification.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
303-00-35
Engine System — General Information
303-00-35
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Connecting Rod —Bushing Diameter
1.
Measure the inner diameter of the connecting
rod bushing, if equipped. Verify the diameter is
within specification.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
Connecting Rod —Bend
1.
Measure the connecting rod bend on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the bend
measurement is within specification.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
Connecting Rod —Twist
1.
Measure the connecting rod twist on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the measurement is
within specification.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
303-00-36
Engine System — General Information
303-00-36
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Connecting Rod —Piston Pin Side Clearance
1.
Measure the clearance between the connecting
rod and the piston. Verify the measurement is
within specification.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
Connecting Rod —Bearing Journal Clearance
Special Service Tool(s)
Plastigage
303-D031 (D81L-6002-B) or
equivalent
Note: The crankshaft connecting rod journals must
be within specifications to check the connecting rod
bearing journal clearance.
1.
Remove the connecting rod bearing cap.
2.
Position a piece of Plastigage across the bearing
surface.
3.
Note: Do not turn the crankshaft during this
step.
Install and tighten to specifications, then
remove the connecting rod bearing cap.
303-00-37
Engine System — General Information
303-00-37
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
4.
Measure the Plastigage to get the connecting
rod bearing journal clearance. The Plastigage
should be smooth and flat. A changing width
indicates a tapered or damaged connecting rod
or connecting rod bearing.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
Roller Follower —Inspection
1.
Inspect the roller for flat spots or scoring. If
any damage is found, inspect the camshaft
lobes and valve tappet for damage.
1.
Inspect the hydraulic valve tappet and roller for
damage. If any damage is found, inspect the
camshaft lobes and valves for damage.
Valve Tappet —Inspection
303-00-38
Engine System — General Information
303-00-38
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve Tappet —Leakdown Test, Hydraulic
1.
Note: The leakdown test will not be accurate if
it is done with engine oil in the hydraulic valve
tappet. Use testing fluid. New hydraulic valve
tappets are already filled with testing fluid.
Compress the hydraulic valve tappet to remove
the engine oil if necessary.
2.
Place the (A) hydraulic valve tappet in a (B)
commercially available hydraulic tappet
leakdown tester. Position the (C) steel ball
provided in the plunger cap. Add testing fluid
to cover the hydraulic valve tappet and
compress hydraulic tappet leakdown tester until
the hydraulic valve tappet is filled with testing
fluid.
3.
Adjust the length of the (A) ram so the (B)
pointer is just below the (C) Start Timing mark
when the ram contacts the hydraulic valve
tappet. Start timing as the pointer passes the (C)
Start Timing mark and end timing as the
pointer reaches the (D) center mark. Refer to
the appropriate engine section in Group 303 for
specifications on time parameters.
1.
Measure the diameter of each intake and
exhaust valve stem at the points shown. Verify
the diameter is within specification.
Valve —Stem Diameter
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
303-00-39
Engine System — General Information
303-00-39
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve —Stem to Valve Guide Clearance
Special Service Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
100-002 (TOOL-4201-C) or
equivalent
Valve Stem Clearance Tool
303-004 (TOOL-6505-E) or
equivalent
Note: Valve stem diameter must be within
specifications before checking valve stem to valve
guide clearance.
1.
Note: If necessary, use a magnetic base.
Install a Valve Stem Clearance Tool on the
valve stem and install a Dial Indicator with
Bracketry. Lower the valve until the Valve
Stem Clearance Tool contacts the upper surface
of the valve guide.
2.
Move the Valve Stem Clearance Tool toward
the indicator and zero the indicator. Move the
Valve Stem Clearance Tool away from the
indicator and note the reading. The reading will
be DOUBLE the valve stem-to-valve guide
clearance. Valves with oversize stems will need
to be installed if out of specification.
303-00-40
Engine System — General Information
303-00-40
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve —Inspection
1.
Inspect the following valve areas:
1
the end of the stem for grooves or scoring
2
the valve face and the edge for pits, grooves
or scores
3
the valve head for signs of burning, erosion,
warpage and cracking.
4
the valve head thickness for wear
Valve —Guide Inner Diameter
1.
Measure the inner diameter of the valve guides
in two directions where indicated.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
2.
If the valve guide is not within specifications,
ream the valve guide and install a valve with an
oversize stem or remove the valve guide and
install a new valve guide.
1.
Use a hand-reaming kit to ream the valve
guide.
Valve —Guide Reaming
303-00-41
Engine System — General Information
303-00-41
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
2.
Reface the valve seat.
3.
Clean the sharp edges left by reaming.
1.
Measure the installed length of each valve
spring.
Valve —Spring Installed Length
•
Refer to the specification chart in the
appropriate engine section.
Valve —Spring Free Length
1.
Measure the free length of each valve spring.
•
Refer to the Specification chart in the
appropriate engine section.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
Valve —Spring Squareness
1.
Measure the out-of-square on each valve spring.
•
Turn the valve spring and observe the space
between the top of the valve spring and the
square. Replace the valve spring if out of
square.
303-00-42
Engine System — General Information
303-00-42
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve —Spring Strength
Special Service Tool(s)
Valve/Clutch Spring Tester
303-006 (TOOL-6513-DD) or
equivalent
1.
Use a Valve/Clutch Spring Tester to check the
valve spring for proper strength at the specified
valve spring length.
•
Refer to the appropriate engine section
Specification chart.
•
If out of specification, replace as necessary.
Valve —Seat Inspection
Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements
CAUTION: After grinding valves or valve
seats, check valve clearance.
1.
2.
Check the valve head and seat.
•
Check valve angles.
•
Check margin width.
•
Refer to the Specification chart in the
appropriate engine section.
•
Be sure margin width is within specification.
Inspect for abnormalities on the valve face and
seat.
303-00-43
Engine System — General Information
303-00-43
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Valve —Seat Width
1.
Measure the valve seat width. If necessary,
grind the valve seat to specification.
•
Measure the intake valve seat width.
•
Measure the exhaust valve seat width.
•
Recheck the valve spring installed length
after the seats have been ground, and shim
the valve springs as necessary to achieve the
correct installed spring length.
•
Refer to the Specification chart in the
appropriate engine section.
Valve —Seat Runout
1.
Use the Valve Seat Runout Gauge to check
valve seat runout.
Flywheel —Inspection
Refer to the appropriate section in Group 303 for
the procedure.
303-00-44
Engine System — General Information
303-00-44
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Cylinder Head —Distortion
Special Service Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
303-D027 (D81L-4201-A) or
equivalent
Straightedge
303-D039 (D83L-4201-A) or
equivalent
1.
Cylinder Bore —Honing
Special Service Tool(s)
Engine Cylinder Honing Set
303-S084 (T73L-6011-A) or
equivalent
Use a straightedge and a feeler gauge to inspect
the cylinder head for flatness. If the cylinder
head is distorted, resurface the cylinder head
within specification.
303-00-45
Engine System — General Information
303-00-45
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
1.
Install and tighten all main bearing caps to
specification; refer to the base engine section.
2.
Note: To correct taper or out-of-round, bore the
cylinder block.
Note: Honing should be done when fitting new
piston rings and to remove glazed surface
finish.
Hone with the Engine Cylinder Hone Set, at a
speed of 300-500 rpm and a hone grit of
180-220 to provide the desired cylinder bore
surface finish of 18-38AA.
•
Refer to the base engine section for base
stroke per minutes specification.
303-00-46
Engine System — General Information
303-00-46
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Cylinder Bore —Cleaning
1.
CAUTION: If these procedures are not
followed, rusting of the cylinder bores may
occur.
Clean the cylinder bores with soap or detergent
and water.
2.
Thoroughly rinse with clean water and wipe dry
with a clean, lint-free cloth.
3.
Use a clean, lint-free cloth and lubricate the
cylinder bores.
•
Use Super Premium SAE 5W30
XO-5W30-QSP or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-G.
Cylinder Block —Distortion
Special Service Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
303-D027 (D81L-4201-A) or
equivalent
Straightedge
303-D039 (D83L-4201-A) or
equivalent
1.
Use a straightedge and a feeler gauge to inspect
the cylinder block for flatness. If the cylinder
block is distorted, resurface the cylinder block
within specification.
303-00-47
Engine System — General Information
303-00-47
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Cylinder Block —Core Plug Replacement
Special Service Tool(s)
Impact Slide Hammer
100-001 (T50T-100-A)
1.
Use a slide hammer or tools suitable to remove
the cylinder block core plug.
2.
Inspect the cylinder block plug bore for any
damage that would interfere with the proper
sealing of the plug. If the cylinder block plug
bore is damaged, bore for the next oversize
plug.
3.
Note: Oversize plugs are identified by the OS
stamped in the flat located on the cup side of
the plug.
Coat the cylinder block core plug and bore
lightly with Threadlock 262 E2FZ-19554-B or
equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSK-M2G351-A6 and install the cylinder
block core plug.
303-00-48
Engine System — General Information
303-00-48
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Cup-Type
1.
CAUTION: Use care during this
procedure so as not to disturb or distort the
cup sealing surface.
CAUTION: When installed, the flanged
edge must be below the chamfered edge of
the bore to effectively seal the bore.
Use a tooling suitable to seat the cup type
cylinder block core plug.
Expansion-Type
1.
CAUTION: Do not contact the crown
when installing an expansion type cylinder
block core plug. This could expand the plug
before seating and result in leakage.
Use tooling suitable to seat the expansion type
cylinder block core plug.
Spark Plug —Thread Repair
Special Service Tool(s)
Tapersert Installation Kit
107-R0921 or equivalent
Feeler Gauge
303-D027 (D81L-4201-A) or
equivalent
303-00-49
Engine System — General Information
303-00-49
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
CAUTION: The cylinder head must be
removed from the engine before installing a
tapersert. If this procedure is done with the
cylinder head on the engine, the cylinder walls
can be damaged by metal chips produced by the
thread cutting process.
CAUTION: Do not use power or air-driven
tools for installing taperserts.
Note: This repair is permanent and will have no
effect on cylinder head or spark plug life.
1.
Clean the spark plug seat and threads.
2.
Start the tap into the spark plug hole, being
careful to keep it properly aligned. As the tap
begins to cut new threads, apply aluminum
cutting oil.
3.
Continue cutting the threads and applying oil
until the stop ring bottoms against the spark
plug seat.
4.
Remove the tap and metal chips.
303-00-50
Engine System — General Information
303-00-50
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
5.
Coat the threads of the mandrel with cutting oil.
6.
Thread the tapersert onto the mandrel until one
thread of the mandrel extends beyond the
tapersert.
7.
Note: A properly installed tapersert will be
either flush with or 1.0 mm (0.039 inch) below
the spark plug gasket seat.
Tighten the tapersert into the spark plug hole.
8.
Turn the mandrel body approximately one-half
turn counterclockwise and remove.
303-00-51
Engine System — General Information
303-00-51
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
9.
Use the Feeler Gauge and a suitable
straightedge to check for cylinder head flatness.
•
Refer to the appropriate section in Group
303 for the procedure.
Exhaust Manifold —Inspection
Special Service Tool(s)
Straightedge
303-D039 (D83L-4201-A) or
equivalent
1.
Place a Straightedge across the exhaust
manifold flanges and check for warping with a
feeler gauge.
303-00-52
Engine System — General Information
303-00-52
GENERAL PROCEDURES (Continued)
Bearing —Inspection
1.
SPECIFICATIONS
General Specifications
Item
Epoxy sealer
Threadlock 262
E2FZ-19554-B
Lubricants
Super Premium
SAE 5W30
XO-5W30-QSP
Diesel engine oil
Gasoline engine oil dye
164-R3705
Specification
M3D35-A (E)
WSK-M2G351-A6
WSS-M2153-G
Consult owner’s manual
ESE-M99C103-B1
Inspect bearings for the following defects.
Possible causes are shown:
•
cratering—fatigue failure (A)
•
spot glazing—improper seating (B)
•
scratching—dirty (C)
•
base exposed—poor lubrication (D)
•
both edges worn—journal damaged (E)
•
one edge worn—journal tapered or bearing
not seated (F)
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