IT Conference 2015 - IITM Janakpuri Delhi

IITM Journal of Management and IT
SOUVENIR
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information TechnologyCyber Security: A Panoramic View
Volume 6
Issue 1
January-June, 2015
CONTENTS
Research Papers & Articles
Page No.
●
FIRe: Firefox for Computer Society Incident Reporting and Coordination
- Ashutosh Bahuguna
3-11
●
Nine Steps to Indian Security, Confidentiality Privacy & Technology in Cyber Space
- Rajiv Kumar Singh
12-16
●
Security Vulnerabilities in ‘Future of the Web’ - IPv6 Protocol Suite
- Navneet Kaur Popli, Anup Girdhar
17-20
●
A Study to Examine Cyber Forensic: Trends and Patterns in India
- Shruti Verma, Saurbh Mehta
21-25
●
General View on the Aspects of Cryptography
- Amit Kumar, Sonia Kumari
26-32
●
A Scalable Server Architecture for Mobile Presence Services in
Social Network Applications
- A. Radha Krishna, K. Chandra Sekharaiah
33-39
●
“Aadhar” Management System
- Ameer Ulla Siddiqui, Hare Krishna Singh
40-43
●
A Survey on Honeypots Security
- Sonia Kumari, Amit Kumar
44-50
●
Security Features of User’s Online Social Networks
- A. Radha Krishna, K. Chandra Sekharaiah
51-58
●
Cyber Security in India: Problems and Prospects
- Sushma Devi, Mohd. Aarif Rather
59-68
●
An Analysis on Improvement of Website Ranking Using Joomla
- Kirti Nigam, Satyam Saxena, Nargish Gupta
69-72
●
Network Security - Authentication Methods and Firewall
- Minal Dhankar
73-79
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Page No.
2
●
Cyber Security in Biometrics Using Fingerprints
- Priyanka Rattan, Ritika Kapoor
80-85
●
The Online Murder: Death via Hacked Internet Connected Technologies
- Nishtha Girotra, Raghunatha Sethupathy
86-89
●
Future Towards Danger:The Terror of Cyber Attacks
- Kanika Sharma, Tanvi Bhalla
90-94
●
Method for Storing User Password Securely
- Gunjan Jha, Navneet Popli
95-99
●
Security Issues in Bluetooth Technology - A Review
- Menal Dr., Sumeet Gill
100-103
●
Detection of Terrorism Activities Using Face Recognition Technique
- Garima Bhatia, Mansi
104-111
●
Cloud Security: A Concerning Issue
- Apurva Aggarwal, Shalini Sharma
112-115
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Hand Recognition System Design
- Harleen Kaur, Simranjeet Kaur
116-119
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Infrared Thermal Imaging
- Amit Sharma, Nidhi Jindal
120-122
●
Cyber Forensic: Introducing A New Approach to Studying Cyber Forensic
and Various Tools to Prevent Cybercrimes
- B. Vanlasiama, Nitesh Jha
123-128
●
Cybercrime and Information Warfare - The New Arenas for WAR
- Anwesha Pathak, Rohit Sharma
129-134
●
Legislation Vulnerabilities, Threats and Counter Measures in
Wireless Network Security
- Kushagra Dhingra, Ankit Verma
135-139
●
Cyber Ethics in Security Application in The Modern Era of Internet
- Megha Sharma, Sanchit Mittal, Ankit Verma
140-143
●
Comparison of AES and DES
- Shruti Kumari, Gautam Kumar
144-146
●
Social Networking Security Loopholes
- Shelly Taneja, Shalini Rawat
147-151
●
Cloud Computing: Vulnerabilities, Privacy and Legislation
- Amit Kiran, Priyam Lizmay Cherian
152-156
●
The Exigency in Accretion of Cyber Warfare Legislation
- Raman Solanki, Ankit Verma
157-163
●
Cyber Terrorism - An International Phenomena and An Eminent Threat
- Binny Pal Singh, Ankit Verma
164-168
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
FIRe: Firefox for Computer Security Incident
Reporting and Coordination
Ashutosh Bahuguna*
Abstract
Information Security breaches are on the increase and adversaries are regularly coming up with new
tools and techniques to compromise the information infrastructure. Effective incident information sharing
and coordination during incident resolution is crucial for thwarting the cyber attack and protecting the
critical assets of organization and nation. It is observed from the current means and methods employed
by various national Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRT) and Information Sharing and
Analysis Centers (ISAC) that there is need for improvement in the incident reporting and coordination
means & methods, relaying only few available means like unsecured email communication is insufficient
in countering cyber attacks. FIRe (Firefox for Incident Reporting) is developed to provide reporting
organization, a single window solution for incident reporting & coordination activities with CSIRTs (National
& Sectoral) during incident resolution process. FIRe is a customized Firefox browser with extensions
developed to enable the organizations to share the incident information in standardize format with the
national and/or sectoral CSIRTs. FIRe provides the functionalities to communicate & coordinate during
the incident resolution. FIRe also integrated tools for secure communication, sensitive information labeling,
real time interaction with handler & analyst and database of stakeholder point of contacts. Operational
testing of FIRe is planned in upcoming national cyber security exercise 2015 to be conducted by Indian
Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In). Learning’s of exercise and feedback of participating
organizations with respect to FIRe will be used for improving the tool.
Keywords: Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT); Computer Security Incident Response Team
(CSIRT); Incident Reporting; Incident Handling; Incident Coordination; Indicators of
Compromise (IOC)
Introduction
A security incident is defined as an adverse event in an
information system and/or network that pose a threat
to computer or network security. In other words, an
incident is any event that causes, or may cause a breach
of information security in respect of availability,
integrity and confidentiality. Examples of such
incidents could be unauthorized access to information
system, disruption of data, denial of services/
availability, misuse of system resources, malwaresand
others. Large scale cyber incidents may overwhelm
government, public and private sector resources and
services by disrupting functioning of critical
information systems. Complications from disruptions
of the magnitude may threaten lives, economy and
Ashutosh Bahuguna*
Scientist, Department of Electronics & IT,
Ministry of Communication & IT Electronics
Niketan, 6-CGO Complex, New Delhi-110003
national security. Rapid identification, incident
information exchange and coordinated response can
mitigate the damage caused by malicious cyberspace
activity.
A significant cyber incident requires increased national
and/or sectoral coordination. Study of different
incident reporting and coordination means & methods
adopted by CSIRTs worldwide reveals that there is lack
of standardize formats, channels & methods, (to)
report the incidents to CSIRT, (for) incident
information exchange with CSIRTs & stakeholders
and (for) coordination with CSIRT during incident
resolution. It is also observed that there is only few
instances where means for real time coordination for
incident resolution is implemented. It comes finally
to regional coordination bodies or national CSIRT to
enable sectoral CSIRTs and organizations under their
purview for improved incident reporting and
coordination activities.
IITM Journal of Management and IT
FIRe (Firefox for Incident Reporting), an extended
Firefox browser is developed with objective to
standardize and enhance the incident reporting and
coordination activities, it provides features for secure
email communication, web-form based incident
reporting, Instant messaging for coordination during
incident resolution, information sensitivity labeling,
access to centralized point of contact database of
relevant stakeholders and sharing of Indicators of
compromise (IoC). In summary, FIReis a tool to
enable reporting party for better coordination &
communication with national or/and sectoral CSIRTs
during incident resolution process. There is notable
effort by European Union Agency for Network and
Information Security (ENISA) [1] in standardization
of incident reporting across European union. ENISA
also developed a tool Cyber Incident Reporting and
Analysis System (CIRAS) [2][3], as per Article 13a:
guidelines for incident reporting [2][3], for online
incident reporting to replaces the electronics forms
email exchange in incident reporting. FIRe is not only
a incident reporting system but a tool with purpose of
improving coordination & communication in
handling cyber attacks.
This paper discuss need for improvement in incident
reporting & coordination means & methods,
objectives & features of FIRe tool and operational
testing of FIRe in exercise scenarios. Study of
implemented means & mediums by various national
CSIRTs for facilitating coordination &
communications between reporting entities and
national CSIRT are also presented in this paper. The
rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is
about need and challenges of Computer Security
Incidents Reporting. Section 3 discuss current
computer security incident reporting practices and
solutions at various national CERTs/CSIRT. In Section
4 FIRe functionality details are provided. Section 5 is
about operational testing of FIRe in upcoming cyber
security exercise. Finally section 6 concludes the paper
with future roadmap for FIRe.
Computer Security Incidents Reporting
National and sectoral CSIRTs also known as Computer
Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are the national
or sectoral nodal agencies for responding to the cyber
security incidents [4]. National/Sectoral CSIRTs are
using multiple channels for gathering the information
related to the incidents impacting cyberspace under
their purview. By reporting computer security
incidents to CSIRTs, the organizations and users
receive coordination with other entities & technical
assistance in timely resolving of incidents. This also
help national/sectoral CSIRTs to correlate the incidents
thus reported and analyze them; draw inferences;
Figure 1. Cyber Intrusion During February, 2014.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
disseminate up-to-date information and develop
effective security guidelines to prevent occurrence of
the incidents in future. Incident reporting need to be
encouraged and supported by effective means of
reporting & coordination tools and platforms.
CSIRTs are handling incidents reported and also
monitoring the different sources for the incident
information. Figure 1 is the breakup of incident
reported & tracked by CERT-In in month of February,
2014 (Public Report: Monthly_report_CERTIn_Feb_2014) [5]. Most of the incidents in category
Malicious code, Spam, Website Intrusion & Malware
Propagation (WIMP) and defacement are tracked from
various different sources. Study of the “incidents
reported” and “incidents tracked” from other sources
infer that large number of incidents (more than 70%
percentage of incidents) remains unreported because
of various possible reasons to organizations or users
like lack of trust, lack of clarity and standard operating
procedures for sharing information with external
parties, reputation issues and others.
Trust of community on National and sectoral CSIRTs
is vital for incident reporting and information sharing
to CSIRT. Many organizations consider information
sharing to external organizations as damaging to
themselves, trusted CSIRTs (national and sectoral) are
only hope for organizations to have help in incident
resolution without any risk of damage to reporting
party [6]. Organization or user reluctant to share
incident information due to the confidentiality of data,
legal and policy issues [7], reputation of organization,
lack of trust or unwillingness to share data should be
encouraged to share Indicators of Compromise (IoC)
[8] instead of complete event data. Effectiveness of
response actions of national CSIRT, for defending
against cyber attacks, fundamentally depends upon
percentage of incidents reported and tracked by
CSIRT. To reduce the figure of unreported incidents,
CSIRTs community need to focus on encouraging
incident reporting & information exchange by
developing and implementing the effective
solutions for supporting communication &
coordination activities during incident resolution.
Streamlining the incident reporting process by
standardization of incident data and incident reporting
meanswould also improve operational efficiency of the
CSIRT [9].
Figure 2. Incident Reporting and Coordination Solutions
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• January-June, 2015
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Computer Security Incident Reporting
Practices And Solutions
This section presents the main findings of the study
on incident reporting & coordination means
implemented by various national CSIRTs.Figure 2
presents result of the study, results are based on study
of communication & coordination methods of 82
national and regional CSIRT [10]. Web-portals for
incident reporting and incident reporting template (IR
template) are efforts to enable the users to report the
incident with required useful information about the
incident, however these methods are not widely
implemented. Among 82 CSIRTs, 17 CSIRTs are
using social networking sites (SNS) like Twitter,
LinkedIn and Facebook as a channel for interaction,
which is again not a significant figure.
It is noteworthy that today also email and telephone/
fax are the main categories of communication channels
in use followed by web-portals for incident reporting.
There is a need of effective solution for enabling
standardized incident reporting, real time interaction,
information exchange & coordination activities. Real
time communication & coordination enable analystto-analyst level interaction, rapid exchange of ideas &
technical details and enhance trust & willingness for
information sharing with external entities and national
CSIRT, surprisingly only one CSIRT implemented the
real time coordination solution for incident resolution
& Short Message Service (SMS) based incident
reporting. Looking at complex nature of current cyber
security threat landscape, it is require to develop
effective mechanism & means for incident reporting,
communication & coordination activities during
incident resolution and tools for supporting these
activities.
Fire (Firefox For Incident Reporting)
FIRe is a customized Mozilla Firefox [11] browser
which includes extensions for supporting incident
reporting & incident resolution activities. Supporting
server side applications like incident database, Internet
Relay Chat (IRC) server [12], point of contact database
need to be setup at CSIRTs. FIRe is developed with
following 5 main objectives :
a. to explore the options for improvingcommunityto-CSIRT communication & coordination in
cyber security incident resolution.
b. Real Time coordination in incidents as required.
Figure 3.FIRe V 1.0 Screenshot.
Extensions and Functionalities of FIRe
Secure Email- Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
c. Provide platform for real-time Analyst-to-Analyst
coordination.
d. Enable rapid exchange of ideas & technical details.
e. Enhance trust & willingness to share information.
Incident contains confidential details and various
CSIRTs provide Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)[13] public
key for secure email communication (refer to section
3). Mailvelope 0.9.0 [14] is used with FIRe V 1.0 to
provide key generation, key management and
integration facility with email service providers for
secure email communication with CSIRTs and other
entities as required during incident reporting &
resolution phases.
Figure 4. Secure Email Communication-Mailvelope.
Information Sharing-Traffic Light Protocol (TLP)
TLP [15] is used by various international CERTs for
marking confidential information by incident reporter
and ensures controlled disclosure. It make use of four
colors (Red, Amber, Green, and White) to classify
information according to sensitivity, refer figure 4
(Source: US-CERT). FIRe ensures marking of
information as per TLP in incident reporting, IoC
sharing and during real time coordination.
Real Time Coordination-Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Internet Relay Chat(IRC) [12] provides real time group
chat facility. Instant Messaging (IM) and IRC are useful
in incident resolution for analyst-to-analyst
Volume 6, Issue 1
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coordination, informal and fast sharing of ideas &
technical details. FIRe v 1.0 uses Chatzilla 0.9.90.1
[17] as IRC client. In FIRe V 2.0, it is proposed to
include common instant messaging (IM) client that
would support IRC, XMPP/Jabber [18] and IM web
services.
Incident Reporting Portal
This feature enable web-based secure incident
reporting as per incident reporting form of CERT-In
[19] to national/sectoral CSIRTs. This system improves
collection of required incident related information.
Incident reporting portal reduces the time required
for resolving the incident and also improve efficiency
of CSIRT.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 5. Information Sharing Traffic Light Protocol (Source: US-CERT[16]).
Sharing Indicators of Compromise (IoC)
IoC are artifacts that indicate a computer security
incident. IoC typically includes IP addresses, MD5
hashes of files, other attributes of malicious files, URL
of botnets. IoC provides fast threat information
exchange for early intrusion detection and threat data
correlation at CSIRT. Organizations unwilling to share
complete incident information should be encouraged
to share IoC. FIReprovide portal for sharing the IoC
with trusted entities.
Integration of cyber threat management systems like
Collective Intelligence Framework (CIF) client in FIRe
FIRe will provide client interface for accessing threat
management system-Collective Intelligence Framework (CIF). “CIF allows you to combine known
malicious threat information from many sources and use
that information for identification (incident response),
detection (IDS) and mitigation (null route). The most
common types of threat intelligence warehoused in CIF
are IP addresses, domains and urls that are observed to
Figure 6. Internet Relay Chat(IRC) client- Chatzilla.
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Figure 7. Incident Reporting Portal.
be related to malicious activity”(source: Google-codeCIF description)[20]. This functionality will allow
access to threat information shared by community and
collected by cif from various sources on internet, as
configured by CSIRT like malwaredomainlist [21] and
spamhaus [22].
Security advisory, vulnerability and alert notes by feed
reader to the subscribers
During study of means of communication
implemented by CSIRTs (refer section 3), it is observed
that various CSIRTs implemented feeds for sharing
vulnerability report, security alert and advisory. Sage
1.5.2 [23] is implemented with FIRe for RSS and
Atom feed aggregation.
Dashboard for sharing internet weather based on NetFlow
sensors data
FIRe display Internet weather – “current observed
threat level” based on the data collected by the network
sensors and network data analysis systems
implemented by CSIRT at national level or by sectoral
CSIRT for specific sector.
Stakeholders and service provider’s point of contacts (PoC)
Database.
Coordination with various domestic and international
entities is required to resolve the incident.
Organizations usually maintain details of PoC in their
security plan, however the database is limited to few
entities & service providers and may not include PoC
Table 1. FIRe functionality Implementation [Yes(Y), No(N), Not Applicable (NA)].
Functionality/Version
FIRe V1.0
FIRe V2.0
Secure Email
Y
Y
Information Classification -TLP
Y
Y
Real Time Coordination-IRC client
Y
NA
Real Time Coordination-Common IM Client
N
Y
Incident Reporting Portal
Y
Y
Sharing Indicators of Compromise
Y
Y
Cyber Threat Management Systems-Integration
N
Y
Feeds-Security advisories, alerts from CSIRTs to users
N
Y
Point of Contact Database
N
Y
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
of vectors involved in particular incident. FIRe will
provide access to the centralized database of PoCs
maintained by CSIT.
FIRe version 2.0 is planned for development after
evaluation of FIRe 1.0 in upcoming cyber security
exercise, discussed in next section. Table below provides
snapshot of features implemented/proposed to
implement in respective versions of tool.
Fire in Cyber Security Exercise
Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERTIn) is conducting national cyber security exercises
(CSE) on periodic basis targeting various sectors of
the Indian economy. The purpose of exercises is to
provide opportunity to the participating organizations
to test their preparedness in combating cyber attacks
by means of preparation, detection, reporting,
coordination & communication, mitigation and
response actions. Cyber security exercises also provide
opportunity to improve coordination &
communication activities among national CERT,
sectoral CERTs, stakeholders and service providers. It
is proposed to include FIRe in forthcoming exercise
as a one window solution for incident reporting,
Instant Messaging, secure email communication,
sharing artifacts & logs and Point of contacts database
of CERTs/stakeholders/agencies/service providers.
Cyber security exercise will provide platform for FIRe
operational testing. Learning & feedback of exercise
observer team and participating organizations will be
used to improve the FIRe before releasing it for
community use.
Conclusion
Author believe that FIRe will have positive impact in
incident reporting and resolution activities. FIRe will
improve coordination and communication among
organizations, sectoral CSIRTs, service providers and
national CSIRT. Browser plugin based implementation
made it platform independent and easy to setup. It
will improve the operational efficiency of CSIRT by
flourishing culture of standardize coordination &
communication in incident reporting and resolution.
FIRe can be further enhanced with functionality to
collect threat information and incident information
from international partners and vendors. National/
sectoral CSIRT may add the functionality for pushing
vulnerability reports, critical threat alerts, malware
alerts, network flow analysis trends to the sector or
organizations using the FIRe. FIRe evaluation in
upcoming cyber security exercise will definitely lead
us further.
References
1. European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA), http://www.enisa.europa.eu/.
2. European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA): Annual Incident Reports 2012.
Analysis of Article 13a incident reports.
3. ENISA: Article 13a Expert Group portal. https://resilience.enisa.europa.eu/article-13.
4. Moira J. West-Brown, Don Stikvoort, and Kalus-Peter Kossakowski: Handbook for Computer Security Incident
Response Teams(CSIRTs).CMU/SEI-2003-HB-002.
5. CERT-In Monthly Report, http://www.cert-in.org.in/.
6. KimoonJeong, Junhyung Park, Minsoo Kim, BongNam Noh: A Security Coordination Model for an InterOrganizational Information Incidents Response Supporting Forensic Process. IEEE Fourth International
Conference on Networked Computing and Advanced Information Management (2008).
7. Hennin, S., Control System Cyber Incident Reporting Protocol. IEEE, Technologies for Homeland Security
(2008).
8. Indicators of Compromise (IoC), https://www.mandiant.com/blog/tag/openioc/.
9. James R. Antonides, Donald N. Benjamin, Daniel P. Feldpausch, and Jeffrey S. Salem, USCC :Streamlining
the US Army Network Incident Reporting System. Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Systems and Information
Engineering Design Symposium.
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10. CERT/CC:http://www.cert.org/incident-management/national-csirts/national-csirts.cfm.
11. Mozilla Firefox. http://www.mozilla.org/.
12. Internet Relay Chat (IRC). http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1459.html.
13. PGP: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2440.txt.
14. Mailvelope: https://www.mailvelope.com/.
15. Information Sharing Traffic Layer Protocol (ISTLP): https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/cert/support/
incident-management/browsable/incident-handling-process/information-disclosure.
16. United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT). https://www.us-cert.gov/.
17. ChatZilla. https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/chatzilla/.
18. XMPP/Jabber. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3920.txt.
19. Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In). http://www.cert-in.org.in.
20. Collective Intelligence Framework. https://code.google.com/p/collective-intelligence-framework/.
21. malwaredomainlist. http://www.malwaredomainlist.com/.
22. Spamhaus. http://www.spamhaus.org/.
23. Sage 1.5.2. https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/sage/.
Volume 6, Issue 1
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11
Nine Steps to Indian Security, Confidentiality Privacy
& Technology in Cyber Space
Rajeev Kumar Singh*
Abstract
The increasing dependency on cyber space has cropped up concerns associated with understanding
the potency of cyber risks which are to a larger extend unguarded and unsecured as the technology is
volatile. Cyber security is one of the most critical issues the India faces today. The threats are real and
the need is pressing. Despite the best intention of those involved with previous cyber legislative efforts,
aAct 2008 Amendment has introduced various beneficial changes into the IT Act, 2000, yet they are
not enough to tackle the increasingly growing menace. Cyberspace’s dynamic nature must be
acknowledged and addressed by polices that are equally dynamic. There is an urgent need to become
the technological advancement and cyber-security , wherein intelligentsia has to anticipate, prepare,
act, and respond to the cyber risks in all asrata of human life, so as to guarantee effective e-governance,
e-commerce and e-communications, thus, protecting cyber space where netizen’s safety and security is
ensured.
Keywords: Cyber Crime, Cyber Security, Electronic Signature
Introduction
The Indian faces significant cyber security threats
includes denial of service, defacement of websites,
spam, websites compromise and malware propagation,
computer virus and warms, pornography, cybersquatting and phishing.
provides a framework that may provide safeguarding
in cyber space to individuals citizens.
Through dynamic and cost effective solution we can
make cyber space a safer and more productive place
for Indian citizens to pursue the prime minister
dreams.
A Cyber-crime is now a biggerthreat to India Inc than
physical crime. In a recent survey by IBM, a greater
number of companies (44%) listedcyber-crime as a
bigger threat to their profitability than physical crime
(31%). But the available statistics fails to throw actual
light upon the real facets of the menace as many cybercrimes goes unnoticed and unregistered, due to
various reasons including lack of legal awareness, a
partly of the law enforcement agencies etc. But the
facts that cyber- crimes
Failure to take responsible action, however, learns the
Indian vulnerable to verity of threat. Nation-states
such as China, Pakistan, South Korea are more than
willing to steal or destroy Indian digital property to
further their power or prestige. Non state actors such
as Indian Muzzahidin and Hezbollah have also shown
the capability to employ cyber methodologies and
criminal organizations from around the world, and
have acted as hired guns as well as on their own, using
cyber tools as their weapon of choice.
areincreasing in multitude and are becoming
insidiously computer cannot be denied.
In response to the security threats, the Russia, China
Israel and North Korea have set up their own cyber
armies. America has also established a new cyber
command. However, it is unclear what steps have been
taken by the Government of India to establish a
defence service against cyber-attacks.
The cyber security status quo is unstable, especially
when considering the enormous and growing scope
of these threats. To mitigate these threats, this paper
Rajeev Kumar Singh*
Research Scholar
Chankya National Law University
Patna, Bihar
In addition to these issues of security for nations and
corporations, Indian enacted IT Act in the year 2000,
which however failed in effectively tackling cyber-
IITM Journal of Management and IT
crimes as it was more inclined towards facilitating
electronic commerce. However the amendments made
to the original Act through the IT (Amendment) Act
of 2008 has brought some changes into the cyber law
framework of the country. It has brought forth
considerable reformations in the existing law, thereby
making cyber-crime a much more serious offence than
it was perceived earlier important changes brought in
through the amendments.
l
Permitting interception of message form mobile
phones, computers and other communication
devices,
l
Blocking of websites in the interest of National
security.
l
The setting up of a cyber-appellate tribunal.
The amendment has attempted to fill in the gaps
which existed in the earlier 2000 enactment. The
current Indian IT Law covers provisions relating to
cyber frauds and other wrongs committed while using
electronic commerce, breach of confidentiality, leakage
of data, etc., which were left outside the purview of
the earlier enactment. Certain terms left unexplained
order the parent law has new been interpretedand
explained under the new law, thus giving a wider scope
for its application.
Developing challenges that are today’s cyber
environment. Additionally, any legislation must
provide robust protection for privacy and individual
freedoms. There are some key components that need
to be included in truly effective cyber legislation.
1. Essential to set up some more agencies like”
Cyber police station’ specially entrusted with
different tasks associated with combating
cyber-crime: Existing agencies involved with the
task of combating cyber-crimes in India are an
enough. It is essential to set up some more agencies
specifically entrusted with efficient tasks
associated with combating cyber-crimes which
must however work in co-ordination with each
other to achieve the ultimate objective. This can
be done by establishing separate agencies on the
lines of “National infrastructure Protection
Centre” of US. A separate centre to take up
complains of cyber-crimes over the internet must
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
be set up similar to the “Internet Fraud complaint
centre” of US. The department of Justice of US
has also setup a separate specialised unit
“Computer Crime and Intellectual properly
section” to address issues of cyber-crimes. It
evaluates problems of cyber- crimes and makes
law and policies essential to address such
problems. On the other hand, regular police
officers are not technically trained to successfully
investigate cyber-crimes. There is thus on urgent
in all states, through the country. In addition
special acquaintance and training of police officers
of regular police stations should also be ensured.
2. Advocating for private sector efforts to
promote general awareness, education and
training across India:The Indian people not
recognised like American people that there is a
problem with securing the cyber domains. The
American people hear about it regularly on the
news, abstractly, that is there. Here is urgent need
of private entities, nongovernmental
organizations, along with universities and other
research institutes, ought to play a much more
active and prominent role in supporting personal
cyber safety and community –centric program.
Here, must also be viable programs of professional
base –level training that is encouraged for the
general Non- IT workforce. Since, every job now
involves the use of digital dives in some aspects
of work; the general workforce must receive
continuing education. Apart from this, urgent
need of teaching of cyber security as component
in school and colleges.
3. Increase the numbers of IT professionals with
security certification: Information security
certification like the certified information systems
security professions (CISSP) and the certified
information security managers (CISM) may
represent the minimum level of taking training
that a cyber-security professions needs.
4. Develop more IT leaders with cyber security
expertise: the India needs more qualified personal
in this fields, and specifically in to advanced cyber
skill sets, such as code writing, defensive
procedures, deep packet inspection, and big data
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
analysis techniques. A major effort must be made
to find the sort of people who can flourish in this
field, and give them the opportunity to purpose
the high quality education they require.
5. Cyber security beyond the borders: The various
packets of information tracking over the
innumerable remarks in the World Wide Web are
not specified as to where they are tracking or who
is on the other side of the computer screen. Cyber
security is not now, and never will be,issues that
our country can solve alone. The solution will
require a concreted- and ongoing- collaboration
between the Indian a like-minded free nations.
Treaties and global governance do not contain bad
actors, and should thus not be the focus of Indian
or International cyber security efforts. Instead, the
India must work with other friendly nations to
later bad cyber behavior by raising the costs of
such behavior. The first step to effectively
conducting a fruitful strategy is to determine an
Indian domestic policy on cyber security. I would
be foolish to jump into international negotiates
until the India has the kind of national
conversation that sorts out definitional and policy
positions. However, it would be just as foolish to
ignore the need to make international connections
and establish cooperative relationship in this field.
Both should be done as soon as is practical.
6. Need of legal clarification of scope of certain
provisions of IT Act (including section 65, 66A
and 66F): it is essential to regularly update and
amend pertinent legal provisions, so that changes
in technology affecting the effected
implementation of law can be dealt. This call for
consistent legal research and development
activities and periodical review and revision of
law. In addition already existing law and
provisions must be properly defined and
interpreted to deal with cyber- crimes so that no
crimes goes unpunished for the reasons of “
insufficiency in law and legal terms and
provisions. Whenever It law’sprovisions are silent
or fails to address a particular cyber-crime or a
related issues , the existing criminal law including
IPC and other appropriate enactments must be
interpreted to apply and deal with such a crime.
14
Ultimate aim of the law must be to tackle all
tippers of cyber-crimes, whether covered under
the existingspeciallaw, or not, however by
constructing interpreting existing provisions of
law. Absence of punishingprovisions in IT Act
should not be the ground for acquittalof cyber
criminals. This mindexpanded interpretations of
terms like “property” in Indian Panel code and
requiredexpansion of provisions relating to
criminal trespass, mischief, theft, etc. So that it
incarcerates new technical features of crimes. The
criminal procedure code must be amended so as
to facilitate the gathering of evidence and
investigation of cyber cries.
7. Focus on Electronic Signature, Encryption,
Monitoring, decryption and Interception in
view of National Security:
a. An interesting side-effect of the challenge
posed by electronic Signatures is that
the question of whether a seal can function
as a signature becomes relevant. The reason
for this is that many of the electronic signature
technologies require the signatory to use a
numerical key to produce the signature.
The smallest useful key area minimum of
56 bit in length, offering a range
of
numbers
between
approximately
563,000,000,000,000
and
72,000,000,000,000,000 in decimal
notation. These key are too small for adequate
security, however, and 128 bit or large r key
are more desirable. Number of this size is not
easily memorable or easily keyed in without
error, and so the key are normally stored on
some physical device, such as a memory stick
or a smart card.
b. The recent Amendments to the IT Act, 2000,
nearly a decade after the Act came into force;
promise to take electronic commerce to the
next level by making introducing the concept
of technological neutrality. Since electronic
signatures are no longer necessarily based on
asymmetric
cryptology,
technical
advancement can easily be implemented.
These technological advances are most likely
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
to make electronic signature easier and more
secure to use.
c. In the matter of encryption,all over an
interesting question is whether the presence
of encryption renders the underlying
information confidential. As a starting point
it would see that if a person goes to the length
of encrypting information the information
must have a quality about it that is deserving
of protection. However there is no authority
in law that holds that the mere presence of
encryption renders the underlying
information confidential.In the case ofMars
UK Ltd. VsTeknowledge Ltd., which
concerned a coin discriminator mechanism
for the sorting of coins in coin operated
machines, the defendant reserved engineered
the mechanism, a process that required the
decryption of encryption program code. One
was the question before the court was whether
the presence of encryption put the defendant
on notice that the encrypted information was
confidential.
d. In the matter of Interception , Decryption and
monitoring, one of the controversial provisions
that has been engrafted into the I.T Act, 2000
by the amendments through the I.T
(Amendment) Act, 2008, is the substitution
of section 69 that in its new avatar grants
certain authorities also the power of
interception, decryption and monitoring
electronic contents including communications
(e-mail, online chat or mobile phone
communication) “ for investigation of any
offence” under the sun as against the traditional
powers that were highly restricted on few
grounds such as, in the interest of the
sovereignty or integrity of India.
e. The amendment Act does not deal with the
procedure and safeguard for monitoring and
collecting traffic data or information by the
Central Govt. may prescribe the modes or
methods of encryption. As yet no polices or
guidelines have been issued pursuant to the
power set forth in section 84A.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
f.
The IT Act 2008 allows the central
government to intercept computer
communication for investigation of any
offence. Section 26 of the Indian Post office
Act 1898 grants the government the power
to intercept letter or postal articles on the
happening of any public emergency or in the
interest of public safety or tranquility. Section
5 (2) of the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885
empower the government to intercept land
line and mobile phones on the occurrence of
any public emergency , in the in the interest
of public safety , Sovereignty and integrity of
India, security of state, friendly relation with
foreign states, public order, or for preventing
incitement of the commission of an offence.
However the IT amendment Act enlarges of
the poser of the central government to
embrace interception of information
transmitted through any computer resource
for the purpose of investigation of any
offence. The provision is also vague about the
procedure and safeguards that need to be
employed when such interception or
monitoring or decryption is carried out.
g. The standing committee on information
technology , while reviewing the bill ,
observed that ‘public order’ and ‘police ‘ are
state subjects as per schedule VII of the
Constitutions and that the IT Bill should
confer powers of interception on the stat
governments also in tune with the provisions
of section 5(2) of the Indian Telegraph Act,
1885. Therefore interception of information
should be for the perception of certain
cognizable offence in addition to the already
prescribes grounds, instead of the broad
sweeping term of ‘the commission of any
cognizable offence or for investment of any
office’ used in the Act.
h. The Amendment Act does not deal with the
procedure and safeguard for monitoring and
collecting traffic data or information by the
Central Government it further does not
define the procedure and safeguard subject
to with blocking access by public to any
15
IITM Journal of Management and IT
information through any computer resource
may be carried out.
i. Lack of harmonized definition of the cybercrimes and lack of international cooperation
in tacking the menace is the other problems
which require immediate solution.
8. Use of “Adhar”in social networking sites to
prevention of child: There is a social sites
especially porn site creates a page to clarification
of age of person able to view the prono graphic
image etc. But i the case of 90 percent child below
age below than 18 years use pornographic image.
This is the major issues for social networking sites.
Here is a technique to use “Adhar” to cleafication
of actual age by take an Adhar number by user.
9. Hurdles in the path of combating cybercrimes:There is a lack of consensus exists among
jurists regarding the definition, nature, ambit and
types of cyber- crimes and this is in fat one of the
elementaryproblem affecting combating of cybercrimes. An act of cyber- crimes is not accept as a
“ criminal wrong “ by all , further which law has
to deals with the menace is another issues lacing
consensus amongst members of legal fraternity.
According to some jurists, cyber- crimes are new
but traditional crimes committed with the use of
new technology and thus they does not require
any new or separate law as the traditional criminal
itself is sufficient to deal with them, on the other
hand, according to some other jurists, cybercrimes are new forms of crime, having different
nature and impact compared to traditional crimes
and requires new and separate laws enacted
specifically to deal with its investigations and
inquires. Though today we have specific
provisions dealing with cyber- crimes in Indian
It Act, yet many police as well as judicial officers
hesitate to register or otherwise deal with the
cyber- crimes under it and prefer to do so under
IPC, the traditional criminal law of India.
Conclusions
Use of Information Technology in all spheres has
helped e-commerce, Internationalconnectivity and
communication. But if misused, it can affect the
security of nations as well as International community
including the security of individuals. More need to
be done in order to effectively tackle the growing
problem of cyber-crimes. A safe cyber world need a
proactive approach to be adopt jointly by
Government, Industry Individuals and public at large,
which includes adopting and enforcing effective legal
provisions, which can effecting counter all forms of
cyber-crimes.
“Healthy growth of Information Technology requires
a secure environment which can only be ensured by
adequate legal provisions and suitable enforcement
measures.”
References
1. http:www.cert in.org/knowledgebase/annaulreport/annualreport08.pdf.
2. AparnaViswanathan: Cyber Law-Indian and Internatinla perspective, Butterworthswadhwa, LexisNexis,
Nagpur, P. 23.
3. Nikhil Pahwa, ‘Indian’s information Technology (Amendment) Bill passed by LokSabha’, http://
wwww.medianama.com/2008/12/223-indians-inforamtion-technology-amedment-bill-passed -by-lok-sabha.
4. The Centre assesses and investigates important threats and incidents relating to intrusion of critical
infrastructure.
5. In Us, this Centre established by FBI offers a Central repository system to take up complaints, relating to
internet fraud and such information’s to quantity fraud patterns and provide timely statistical data of such
frauds.
6. Surya Senthil and Lakshmidev: Manual of Cyber Laws, Aditya Book company, Chennai, P. 14.
7. Economic and political weekly, “Dithering over cyber law”, Vol 34, No 20 [May 15, 1999) at P 115.
16
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
Security Vulnerabilities in ‘Future of the Web’ IPv6 Protocol Suite
Navneet Kaur Popli*
Dr. Anup Girdhar**
Abstract
The concept of ‘Web’ has been possible because of interconnection of devices and these interconnections
have been possible because of a network layer protocol- IPv4.Internet Protocol Version 4(IPv4)has been
in existence for about 20 years and was responsible for revolutionizing the Internet. Lately, however the
number of devices on the network has increased manifolds. IPv4 has not been able to cope up. It has
been running out of addresses. Thus IPv6 has come into picture with an enormous address space,
solving the address problem for many years in the future. IPv6 has become the future of the web. In fact
with the idea of ‘always connected’ devices, millions of systems are connected to the web at the same
time. Only a protocol like IPv6 can support such a huge number of devices.
But IPv6 comes with its own set of security concerns. These are largely unexplored and therefore most
of the network administrators are still wary of deploying IPv6 over their networks. This paper covers the
vulnerabilities and security threats to IPv6 and their possible solutions.
Keywords: Web security,IPv4, IPv6, Vulnerabilities.
Introduction
IPv6 Address
IPv6 was defined in RFC 2460 in mid 1990’s. It was
designed to be the next generation Internet Protocol
address standard which would supplement and then
finally replace the IPv4 protocol suite used in the
Internet presently [1].
IPv6 Address is a 128 bit address consisting of 8
sections , each 2 bytes in length[4]. Example
IPv6 gives huge scalability because it uses 128 bits for
addressing[2]. This means we have 340
undecillion(3.4X1038) addresses i.e.about 52 Trillion
Trillion addresses per person if the population of the
world is 6.5 billion [3] currently.
FDDA:AB94:64:3610:F:CCFF:0:FFFF
Not only does IPv6 provide a big range of addresses,
it also gives high Quality of Service(QOS), end-toend networking , high degree of mobile connectivity
and many other benefits.
Can be abbreviated as
Navneet Kaur Popli*
Assistant Professor (IT),
MERI, GGSIPU, New Delhi.
Dr. Anup Girdhar**
Research Guide
CEO-Founder, Sedulity Solutions and Technologies
FDDA:AB94:0064:3610:000F:CCFF:0000:FFFF
Is an IPv6 address. It can be abbreviated by dropping
the leading 0’s
Consecutive 0’s can be replaced with a double
semicolon.
FABC:0:0:0:0:AABB:0:FFFF
FAC::AABB:0:FFFF
Transitioning
IPv6 can work with IPv4 so that transitioning becomes
smoother and the already existing IPv4 infrastructure
can be used.
Three strategies are used for this transitioning[4]:
1. Dual Stack
2. Tunneling
3. Header Translation
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Dual stack-For smooth from IPv4 to IPv6, every
system supports both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks,
and according to the type of communication, use the
appropriate stack.
Tunneling- This is a situation where source and
destination support only IPv6 but the underlying
network support IPv4. Then the IPv6 packet is
encapsulated inside the IPv4 packet for transmission.
Header Translation- This is a situation where one host
is IPv6 and the other host is IPv4. So the header format
of IPv6 has to be completely translated to IPv4 to be
understood by the destination.
1. Attacks against IPv6
a. Transitioning Attacks
i. Dual Stack Attacks
ii. Tunneling Attacks
iii. Header Translation Attacks
b. Multicast Attacks
c. Extension Header Attacks
2. Attacks Against ICMPv6
a. Router Advertisement Spoofing
b. Router Advertisement Flooding
c. Neighbor
Solicitation/Advertisment
Spoofing
d. Duplicate Address Detection
IPV6 Attacks
Dual-stack attacks:
IPv6 was considered to be a very secure protocol
because IPSec was mandatory in the original protocol.
The Authentication Header provides data integrity
and data authentication for the whole packet. The
IPv6 Encapsulating Security Payload headerprovides
confidentiality, authentication and data integrity to
theencapsulated payload. The security features in IPv6
canbe used to prevent various network attack methods
including IP spoofing, someDenial of Service attacks
(where IP Spoofing has been employed),
datamodification and sniffing activity. However, issues
with the security features still exist, concerning IKE,
PKIand the strength of the encryption algorithms used
for global interoperability[7].
With the advantage of a smooth 4to6 transition
throughDual Stack mechanism, it has its own security
pitfalls also. For example, if there is a worm that has
infected a host in a network, it will work by searching
other hosts in the same subnet. Then it will spread by
infecting those vulnerable hosts also. If the network is
only IPv4, searching is done using ‘Brute Force Scan’.
This may take time in a large subnet. One may feel
that IPv6 subnets which are huge(264)may be safe from
this attack. However that’s not the case. A worm in
IPv6 uses ICMPv6 multicast ping. This is an echo
request to multicast address, e.g. FF02::1 to discover
on-link nodes. Well known multicast addresses like
these make it easier to find key systems within a
network e.g.FF05::2 is a site-
Today however, IPSec is optional in the current
versions of IPv6. This makes IPv6 all the more
vulnerable to security threats. There are a number of
attacks that will be discussed in the paper[8]:
local all routers address. Hence spreading of a worm
would be faster in a dual stack network than in native
IPv4 network. [5]
Figure 1. Tunneling Attack
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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Tunneling Attacks
For tunneling, each end point of the tunnel must know
its peer IP address before sending a packet to it. If the
end points are pre-configured with IPv4 addresses
then, considering huge sizes of IPv6 networks, it will
become extremely difficult for the network
administrator to manually configure these
addresses.[6]
Thus Automatic Tunnels are introduced. Here, an end
point’s IPv4 address is computationally derived from
the destination’s IPv6 address. All the end points
assume that once a packet arrives at the tunnel, its
destination is also part of the tunnel. For example if
we consider ISATAP (Inter-Site automatic Tunnel
Addressing Protocol) tunnels, every end point has an
IPv6 address of the following format:
<tunnel prefix><constantstring><IPv4 address>
Common to
32 bit
End point
all end points.
Routing Loop Attack can be introduced in these
tunnels. Refer to Figure 1, the attacker exploits the
fact that R2 does not know that R1 does not configure
addresses from Prf2(tunnel prefix of R2) and that R1
does not know that R2 does not configure addresses
from Prf1(tunnel prefix of R1). The IPv4 network
acts as a shared link layer for the two tunnels. Hence,
the packet is repeatedly forwarded by both routers [9].
Header Translation Attack
Header translation is performed by a router which
does a 6to4 or 4to6 translation of the headers. ‘End
to End Authentication’ and ‘Encrypted Security
Payload’ option of IPv6 are not present in IPv4. ‘AH’
shows integrity and ‘ESP’ shows integrity and
confidentiality of the packet. Once these IPSec options
are removed, the packet becomes very insecure and
prone to attacks.
Multicast attacks
IPv6 protocol does not support broadcast
communication but it does support multicast
communication. However there are some special
addresses which can be very dangerous. An ‘All Nodes
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
‘ address is FF02::1, ‘All Router’ address is FF05::2
and ‘All DHCP Server’ address is FF05::5. These
addresses enable an attacker to identify important
resources on a network and attack them.
Extension Header attacks
An IPv6 packet has a simpler header so that routing
can be performed efficiently. The size of the header is
fixed (40 bytes) and the options come as extension
headers after the main header. Thus the router does
not have to check all the extension headers. Although
they need to check the Hop-by-Hop
option.[10]Firewalls that should enforce their security
policy must recognize and parse through all existing
extension headers since the upper-layer protocol
information reside in the last header. An attacker is
able to chain lots of extension headers in order to pass
through firewalls. He can also cause a denial of
service attack, if an intermediary device or a host is
not capable of processing lots of chained extension
headers and might fail.
In addition to the above attacks, the Padn option in
the Hop-by-Hop Extension header can be converted
into a covert channel. Padn option is normally used
for alignment purposes and has a string of 0’s. An
attacker can put malicious data in this option.
Router Advertisement Spoofing
If a rogue router starts sending spoofed router
advertisement messages, all the nodes will update their
routing tables with the new information which they
have no way of verifying. Thus the rogue router now
becomes one of their default routers, if the nodes
communicate to the internet, the rogue router acts as
a ’Man In the Middle’ and can intercept all traffic.
Router Advertisement Flooding
During stateless auto configuration of addresses, new
machines create unique addresses using network prefix
provided by a router. This is done using Router
Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages.
However, an IPv6 device can be part of multiple
networks(no upper limit). Therefore a RA Flooding
attack can be launched by a rogue server which floods
the network by RA Advertisement messages. Normally
a node on the network has no way of authenticating a
server. This causes the CPU to generate countless IPv6
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
addresses. This can cause a system to hang and in fact
this attack can bring down a network within seconds.
Neighbor Solicitation/ Advertisement Spoofing
IPv6 uses ICMP messages for discovery of neighboring
devices on a network. These are multicast ‘Neighbor
Solicitation’ and ‘Neighbor Discovery’ messages. An
attacker can spoof these messages. He can send a fake
binding of IP+MAC address. The IP address is that
of a valid node but MAC address is that of the attacker.
The victim node will update their Neighbor Cache
which binds MAC addresses to IP addresses when they
receive spoofed IP packets, which they cannot
verify.[11] Thus the attacker can intercept all messages
between the nodes by this method. Also a Denial of
Service (DoS) attack can be administered by providing
an invalid link layer address.
Duplicate Address Detection Attack
Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is a technique
during address auto configuration phase in which
during the process of SLAAC, a node creates a unique
IPv6 address on its own . It creates a local address
using its MAC address and the link local address. It
then multicasts this message, called a DAD message,
to the entire network to check for duplicity. If the
address is unique the router responds back with the
network prefix. This prefix along with the MAC
address becomes a unique IPv6 address for a device.
An attacker can launch a Denial of Service attack if
he answers to all DAD messages from a new node
which is in the process of getting an IPv6 address
assigned. The node thinks that this address is a
duplicate one as is used by some other node. Thus it
can never get an IP address and thus cannot become
part of the network until the attacker stops the attack.
Conclusions
IPv6 is no doubt the next generation in networking
and no quick fix in IPv4 can slow down the evolution
of IPv6. With its revolutionizing features and a never
ending address space, IPv6 is welcoming the future
with open arms. However the implementation is
riddled with a number of security challenges which,
if ignored can lead to disastrous consequences. Thus
following the paradigm of ‘Better safe than sorry’,
network administrators must take all the
vulnerabilities in consideration and take adequate steps
to safeguard themselves. A number of white collared
hackers along with many other people from the
industry are exposing new vulnerabilities of IPv6
everyday and are also giving solutions for protection.
We must be fully prepared to embrace IPv6 but with
complete security in place.
References
1. Minoli, D. Kouns, J., Security in an IPv6 Environment,CRCPress,USA,2009.
2. Davies, J.,Understanding IPv6,2nd edition, Microsoft Press, USA, 2011.
3. Hogg, S.,Vyncke, E.,IPv6 Security, Cisco Press, USA, 2009.
4. Foruzan, A. Behrouz,TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Third Edition, TataMcGraw-Hill Company,2012.
5. Mayer Karl, FritscheWolfgang,Security models and dual-stack (IPv6/IPv4) implications, IABG,2010.
6. Gabi Nakibly, Security Vulnerabilities of IPv6 Tunnels, InfoSecInstitute, 2014.
7. PennyHermannSeton, Security Features in IPv6, SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room,2002.
8. Weber Johannes,IPv6 Security-An Overview, Ripe Network Coordination Center, 2013.
9. G.Nakibly, F.Templin,,Routing Loop Attack Using IPv6 Automatic Tunnels: Problem Statement and Proposed
Mitigations,Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF):RFC 6324,August 2011.
10. Naidu.PSantosh, PatchaAmulya,IPv6: Threats Posed By Multicast Packets, Extension Headers and Their Counter
Measures, IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE),Volume 15, Issue 2 (Nov. - Dec. 2013), PP
66-75,www.iosrjournals.org
11. RaghavanArun, Secure Neighbour Discovery, ReportCS625: Advanced Computer Networks.
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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
A Study to Examine Cyber Forensic:
Trends and Patterns in India
Ms. Shruti Verma*
Dr. Saurabh Mehta**
Abstract
Cyber forensics is a technique which is used to examine and analyze the computer system for some
evidence which can be presented in the court of law as a proof to solve a cyber crime case and give the
punishment to the criminal. India being the democratic nation finds difficult to strike a proper balance
between the legal and the judicial system. Police and the law enforcement agencies still believe in the
legacy system and are reluctant to follow the new suit. In this paper an attempt is made to show the
current scenario of the cyber forensics in India, difficulties faced by the police dept and legal dept. This
paper also briefs about the trends and patterns of the Indian cyber forensic.
Keywords: Cyber Crime, Cyber Forensic
Introduction
In India the field of cyber forensics is very new and
fresh. People are not aware about the term cyber
forensics and its use. Gradually the nation is getting
digitized, with fast connecting networks, easy internet
availability and acceptance of the user. Cyber crime
is also nurturing under the umbrella of growing
technology. And this develops the need of cyber
forensics in the system. But unfortunately in India
cyber forensics is not implemented to the optimum
level. Cyber forensics is an art which is required to
detect the hints, clues and evidences from the digital
data about the cyber crime to show the proof in the
court of law and help the judicial system to take
correct and precise decision against the criminal and
help the victim. Cyber forensics can also help in
prevention of criminal activities. Unlike traditional
crimes cyber crimes are very sophisticated and fast,
at the same time it is difficult to find an evidence
about the cyber crime as the digital evidences can be
Ms. Shruti Verma*
Research Scholar at JJT University, Jhunjhunu
Assistant Professor at SPN Doshi Women’s
College affiliated to SNDT Women’s University
Dr. Saurabh Mehta**
Associate Professor and Head of Dept. at
Vidyalankar Institute of Technology affiliated to
Mumbai University
easily destroyed. So the job of cyber forensic is very
crucial, finding out the digital evidence from the
computer system confisticated. Indian legal system
somehow fail to adopt the concept of cyber forensics
and still follow the legacy pattern to solve the cyber
crimes, this does not gives accurate evidences and
projects unjust results in the court of law so the victim
is given no justice and criminal is set free. The process
of forensics is very slow in India because of various
legal and judicial factors this delays the hearing of
the case. There are so many cases still are pending
and criminals are set free to commit few more crimes.
We have adopted the idea and concept cyber space
but we need to change our approach towards cyber
forensics.
Trend in India
In India point of consideration is the legal and judicial
systems and there working which seems to be out
dated, with the advent of cyber crimes there exists a
need to change the current policies and construct a
new techno-legal framework to combat cyber crime
with the use of latest forensic technologies. Crimes
like facebook account hacking, and email spoofing is
very common in India but due to poor law
enforcement and weak legal implications the criminal
is set free to commit another crime. The cyber crime
conviction rate is very less in India, where as the cyber
crimes have increased in India. It can be the fear to get
IITM Journal of Management and IT
into the legal proceedings or the disappointment with
the quality of services provided Indian internet users
do not prefer filing the case with the police, less than
50 % of cyber crime cases are registered with the police
dept. this set the criminal free for another crime.
Cyber attacks in India are done by other countries like
China, Pakistan, US, Nigeria, UAE, Brazil etc. Crimes
like phishing, email frauds, credit/debit card frauds,
identity theft, virus etc. are very common in India.
Home minister Mr. Rajnath Singh has conveyed the
need of having strong cyber law monitoring and
stringent cyber security. This can be achieved only if
there is proper infrastructure available with proper
mindset.
Figure 1. Total No. of Cyber Crime Reported [1]
The trends in this relation are not very good, above
graph gives a clear picture of the drastic rise in cyber
crime in last 4 years. Cyber crimes reported in the
year 2011 are merely 13301 in contrast cyber crime
reported in year 2014 till May is 62189 which might
have touched the figure of 149254 approx. till the year
end. It estimated that by 2015 cyber crime reported
will be around 300000. [1][2]
Figure 2. Sharp growth in Cyber Crime [2]
It is very much evident that increase in cyber crime
will definitely raise the demand of forensics labs and
implementation of cyber forensics in the investigation
process. Forensics will find the evidence from the
digital data at the optimum level and give accurate
results; this will help the court to give proper judgment.
22
Cyber Forensics: A Process
i.
As soon as the crime is reported and is registered
with the police, investigation starts and data is
collected from the place of crime / computer
system and is examined using forensic
techniques.
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
ii. The computer system seized is examined
thoroughly to find out the digital data which can
act as evidence.
i.
iii. Important data which can help as a clue or
evidence can remain hidden in different file
formats like deleted files, hidden files, password
protected files, log files, system files etc.
ii. Extreme weather conditions like too much of heat,
cold, moisture can harm the digital data, hence
avoid prolonged storage of digital data.
iv. After all the information is gathered from the
computer system original form of evidence is
recovered. It must very importantly kept in mind
that never to harm the originally recovered data
while applying forensics.
v.
Create a mirror image of the original evidence
using different mechanism like bit stream etc. and
use this mirror image of the original evidence.
Never tamper the original copy of evidence for
investigation.
vi. Digital evidences are highly volatile and can be
easily misinterpreted so care must be taken be.
vii. Enough supporting data/information must be
gathered before presenting the digital evidence in
front of the court of law.
Packaging, Transportation and Storage [3]
Packaging is the process which is done after the
computer system is seized at the crime spot. This
computer system needs to be packaged properly so
that no information is lost. Following steps must be
taken care of –
i.
Ensure that the electronic device seized is kept
away from the magnetic field, static electricity as
this may harm and erase the data inside the system.
ii. Computer system and the electronic devices seized
during the investigation must be labeled,
documented and numbered properly.
iii. Avoid bending or scratches on the electronic
devices as this may corrupt the data stored.
Care must be taken that the digital evidence are
carried and transported with care over long
distances.
iii. Avoid shocks
transportation.
and
vibrations
during
Data which is collected while investigation is required
to be stored for some period of time till the court
proceedings do not end. And ultimate care must be
taken that this data is not tampered by any means in
due course of time otherwise it may change the
judgment completely.
i.
Try to store the evidence in the secure place where
it cannot be tampered purposely or incidentally.
ii. Storage place must be dry and with accurate
weather conditions like appropriate heat, light,
coolness and moisture.
iii. Batteries have limited life so always keep a note
that prolonged storage can harm the important
evidences like date, time etc. as if the battery gets
weak and then is corrupt the system configuration
may change the date and time settings.
Outlook of Cyber Forensics in India [4][5]–
The status of Cyber forensics in India can be viewed
from three different angles which are equally important
for the growth of the industry.
i.
Parliament –
In India cyber forensics is still a developing field
which is somehow getting less importance by our
government.
As of now there are no rules and regulation drawn
for cyber forensics this makes it difficult to collect
the evidences.
iv. Pack the electronic devices in paper, paper box,
and non static plastic bags.
The parliament are not very much interested in
focusing on the techno-legal issues faced by cyber
security, cyber forensics and cyber law.
Transportation is the process of carrying the digital
evidence from the place of seizure to the place where
something can be done about it (cyber forensic labs).
There are many officials still unaware about the
working of digital technology if these key officials
of the country are reluctant towards the
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
23
IITM Journal of Management and IT
technology then its impact will be seen on
the growth and development rate of the
country.
iii. Police System
As there are no standard procedures set up to
collect the evidence and proceed with forensic.
ii. Judicial system
The police have to face troubles and crisis, also
the infrastructural limitation adds to the cause.
Judicial system are struggling in giving the
judgments because of unstructured cyber law.
India is facing the problem of inadequate research
and development infrastructure. The mindset of
the people needs to be changed. Current status of
Indian forensic labs is –
As the Indian cyber law consists of some loopholes
it becomes difficult for the judiciary system to take
a decision.
Figure 3. Cyber Crime v/s Forensics Lab [6]
From the above graph even if assume that every state is
having at least one cyber forensic lab the ratio of the
cyber crime committed and the forensic lab is very poor.
India needs to develop well equipped cyber forensics
lab in every major police head quarters. The cyber
forensic labs cannot get set up in one strike there has
to be a step by step process which is time consuming.
There is an absolute need of cyber forensic training
institutes in India. There is a need to make policy and
train the Police, Lawyers, Judges as well as common
man. Education system of India should develop young
once with the scientific and research mindset from
the school levels.
India needs to concentrate on the development of the
legal framework and structured procedures to solve
the crime cases and complete the forensics in order to
combat cyber crimes.
ii. India needs to formulate the cyber forensics rules
and regulation and must have a framework to
regulate the policies.
Suggestions and Recommendations
viii. Government should invest in the infrastructural arrangements for the training and lab
equipments.
i.
24
India needs to work in the direction of re framing
and re constructing the cyber law.
iii. Immediate attention should be drawn towards
creating awareness about the cyber forensics
among the professionals and the police.
iv. Police Modernization and well equipped
infrastructure.
v.
Regulations and guidelines for effective
investigations.
vi. Scientific approach towards digital data/
evidence.
vii. Research and development mindset should be
maintained and inculcated among the young
generations.
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
References
1. Cert-in reports over 62000 cyber attacks till May 2014 http://www.livemint.com/Politics/
NNuFBA3F2iX4kxIXqKaX2K/CERTIn-reports-over-62000-cyber-attacks-till-May-2014.html
2. Cyber crimes likely to doubleto 3 lakhsin 2015 http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2015-01-05/
news/57705670_1_cyber-crimes-online-banking-pin-and-account-number
3. Rohas N., “Understanding Computer Forensics”, Asian school of cyber law, 2009
4. International ICT Policies and Strategies http://ictps.blogspot.in/2011/06/cyber-forensics-laws-in-india.html
5. Cyber Forensics and Indian Approach http://ptlb.in/cfrci/?p=15
6. Indian Government Agency Received http://www.medianama.com/2014/12/223-cybercrime-india-2014/
7. Kazi M., Farooque G., Parab G., “Intellectual Property Rights & Cyber Laws”, vipul prakashan, june 2013
8. Cyber Forensic Investigation Solutions in India Are Needed - http://ptlb.in/cfrci/?p=9
9. Cyber Forensics http://www.cyberlawsindia.net/computerforensics1.html
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
25
General View on the Aspects of Cryptography
Amit Kumar*
Sonia Kumari**
Abstract
This paper provides the summary of cryptography & the areas where it is used or applied. Information
Security is the method or the process to secure the information or data from unauthorized access.
Cryptography is one of the methods to protect the data by making the data unreadable from all except
users belongs to the category of sender or receiver. Cryptography is the process of secret writing that is
hides the content of information from all except the sender and the receiver. As the use of technology
increase, the probability of cyber-attack may be increase. So cryptography is kind of process that make
sure about the data authentication, unauthorized access of data, confidentiality of data and integrity of
data.
Keywords: Cryptography, Electronic Signature, Hashes, Virtual Private Network
Introduction
Information security plays a vital role during internet
communication. When the sender send the data via
internet communication channel, there is a probability
of loss of data, stealing of data etc. So to protect the
data, there are no of methods and cryptography is one
of the methods that have a capability to protect the
data. Data Security is absolutely essential when
communication is carried between lacs of people daily
on the internet. There are various cryptography
methods that provide the way for secure e-commerce
and e-payment on the unsecure channel of internet
and protecting passwords. Cryptography is the
necessary for protecting the information or in other
word for secure communication. This paper provides
the types of cryptography and their application.
Cryptography
The word cryptography comes from the Greek words
êñõðôï (hidden or secret) and ãñáöç (writing)[1].The
basic service provided by cryptography is the capability
to send information between sender and receiver in a
way that prevents the information by making it
Amit Kumar*
Scientific Assistant (Adhoc)
IGIPESS, B-Block, Vikaspuri, Delhi
Sonia Kumari**
Assistant Professor (Adhoc)
IGIPESS, B-Block, Vikaspuri, Delhi
unreadable from others except sender and receiver. It
also provides other services, such as
l
Integrity checking—reassuring the recipient of a
message that the message has not been altered since
it was generated by a legitimate source
l
Authentication—verifying someone’s (or
something’s) identity But back to the traditional
use of cryptography.
l
Non-Repudiation—particularly important for
financial or e-commerce applications.
l
Confidentiality—the biggest concern will be to
keep information private.
Original form of message is known as plaintext or
cleartext. The meaningless information is known as
ciphertext. The process for producing ciphertext from
plaintext is known as encryption. The reverse of
encryption is called decryption.
E, D: cipher
k: secret key (e.g. 128 bits)
m, c: plaintext, ciphertext
Figure 1. Process of encryption & decryption
Encryption is the transformation of data into some
unreadable or meaningless form. Its purpose is to
IITM Journal of Management and IT
ensure privacy by keeping the data hidden from all
except sender and receiver. Decryption is the reverse
of encryption. It is the transformation of encrypted
data back into some intelligible and meaningful form.
Encryption and decryption require the use of some
secret information, which is a key. Depending on the
encryption mechanism used, the same key might be
used for both encryption and decryption, while for
other mechanisms, the keys used for encryption and
decryption might be different.In data and
telecommunications, cryptography is necessary when
communicating over any untrusted medium, which
includes about any network, particularly the Internet.
Various Types of Cryptography
Public Key Cryptography
Public-key cryptography has been said to be the most
significant new development in cryptography. Modern
PKC was first described publicly by Stanford
University professor Martin Hellman in 1976 [2]. PKC
is also called asymmetric encryption, uses a pair of keys
for encryption and decryption as shown in figure 2.
Figure 2: PKC Figure
PKC uses two keys, one for encryption and the other
for decryption.
With public key cryptography, keys work in pairs of
matched public and private keys.The major advantage
asymmetric encryption offers over symmetric key
cryptography is that senders and receivers do not have
to communicate keys up front. Provided the private
key is kept secret, confidential communication is
possible using the public keys.Encryption and
decryption are two mathematical functions that are
inverses of each other.
Figure 3: PKC using two keys
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
There is an another thing one can do with public key
technology, which is to generate a digital signature on
a message. A digital signature is a additional number
associated with a message.
Figure 4: PKC using digital signature
Translucent Cryptography
In this scheme the government can decrypt some of
the messages, but not all. Only p fraction of message
can be decrypted and 1-p cannot be decrypted.
Symmetric Key Cryptography
Symmetric key cryptography is also known as Secret
key cryptography. In this method of cryptography,
both the sender and the receiver know the same secret
code, called the key. Messages are encrypted by the
key that are used by sender and decrypted by the
same key that is used by the receiver. Key must be
shared between the sender and receiver as shown in
figure 5.
Figure 5: Symmetric key
SKC uses a single key “key A” both encryption and
decryption.
This method works well if you are communicating
with only a limited number of people, but it becomes
impractical to exchange secret keys with large numbers
of people.
Secret key cryptography schemes are categorized in
either stream ciphers or block ciphers. Stream ciphers
operate on a single bit (byte or computer word) at a
time and implement some form of feedback
mechanism so that the key is constantly changing. A
block cipher is so-called because the scheme encrypts
one block of data at a time using the same key on each
block.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Hashes
Hash functions take data of an arbitrary length (and
possibly a key or password) and generate a fixed-length
hash based on this input. Hash functions used in
cryptography have the property that it is easy to
calculate the hash, but difficult or impossible to regenerate the original input if only the hash value is
known. In addition, hash functions useful for
cryptography have the property that it is difficult to
craft an initial input such that the hash will match a
specific desired value.
MD5 and SHA-1 are common hashing algorithms
used today. These algorithms are considered weak (see
below) and are likely to be replaced after a process
similar to the AES selection. New applications should
consider using SHA-256 instead of these weaker
algorithms [3].
Application of Cryptography
There are number of cryptographic algorithms
available that are used to solve the problem related to
data confidentiality, data integrity, data secrecy and
authentication of data and user. User uses the various
algorithms according to the requirement of the work.
Privacy in Transmission
Current privacy systems for transmission of data use a
private key for transforming the data because it is the
quicker method with overhead and reasonable
assurance.
In case of the number of communicating parties is
small, key distribution is done periodically and
maintenance of key is based on physical security of
the keys.
In case of the number of parties is large, electronic key
distribution is used. Usually, key distribution was done
with a special key-distribution-key (also known as a
master-key) maintained by all parties in secrecy over a
longer period of time than the keys used for a particular
transaction. The “session-key” is generated at random
either by one of the parties or by a trusted third party
and distributed using the master-key.
The problem with master-key systems is that if the
master-key is successfully attacked, the entire system
collapses. Similarly, if any of the parties under a given
28
master-key decides to attack the system, they can forge
all messages throughout the entire system.
With the advent of public-key systems, privacy can be
maintained without a common master-key or a large
number of keys. Instead, if B wants to communicate
with A, Bsends Aa session-key encrypted with A’s
public key. A decrypts the session-key and uses that
over the period of the transaction.
Privacy in Storage
Privacy in storage is basically maintained by a one-key
system where the user provides the key to the computer
at the beginning of a session, and the system then takes
care of encryption and decryption throughout the
course of normal use. For an example, numbers of
hardware devices are available for personal computers
to automatically encrypt all information that stored
on disk. When the computer is turned on, the user
must enter a secret key to the encryption& decryption
the hardware. The information cannot be meaningful
without key, so even if the disk is stolen, the
information on it will not be readable or useable
because it is meaningless without the secret key [5].
But there is also a problem in privacy of storage. If the
user forgets a key, all information that is encrypted
with that key becomes permanently unusable. The
information is encrypted while in storage, not when
in use. If the encryption and decryption are done in
software, or if the key is stored anywhere in the file of
system, the system may be circumvented by an attacker
[6].
Integrity in Transmission
Mainly users of communication systems are not as
much concerned about secrecy as about integrity. In
an electronic funds transfer, the amount sent from one
account to another in public domain. How bank is
managed and maintained about proper transfers can
be made in a proper way. If an active tapper could
introduce a false transfer, funds would be moved any
other account. Cryptographic techniques are widely
used to assure that intentional or accidental
modification of transmitted information does not
cause erroneous actions to take place.
A technique for assuring integrity is to perform a
checksum of the information being transmitted and
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
also transmit the checksum in encrypted form. Once
the information and encrypted checksum are received,
the information is again checksummed and compared
to the transmitted checksum after decryption. If the
checksums agree, there is a high possibility that the
message is unaltered. Unfortunately, this scheme is too
simple to be of practical value as it is easily forged. So
designing strong cryptographic checksums is therefore
important to the assurance of integrity.
Integrity in Storage
The mean of assuring integrity of stored information
has been access control. Access control means locks
and keys, guards, and other mechanisms of a physical
or logical. The spread of computer viruses has changed
this to a significantly, and the use of cryptographic
checksums for assuring the integrity of stored
information is becoming widespread.
Authentication of Identity
Simple passwords have been used for hundreds of years
to prove identity. More complex protocols such as
sequences of secret keys exchanged between sets of end
users.Cryptography is the theory and practice of using
passwords, and modern systems also use strong
cryptographic transforms in conjunction with physical
properties of individuals and shared secrets to provide
highly reliable authentication of identity.
Practice of Using good passwords falls into the field
known as key selection. In essence, a password is a
secret key for any cryptosystem that allows encryption
and decryption of everything that the password allows
access to.
The selection of keys has historically been a cause of
cryptosystem failure. Although we know from
Shannon that H(K) is maximized for a key chosen
with an equal probability of each possible value (i.e.
at random), in practice when people choose keys, they
choose easy password that easy to remember, and
therefore not at random. This is most dramatically
demonstrated in the poor selection that people make
of passwords.
On many systems, passwords are stored in encrypted
form with read access available to all so that programs
wishing to check passwords needn’t be run by
privileged users. A side benefit is that the plaintext
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
passwords don’t appear anywhere in the system, so an
accidental leak of information doesn’t compromise
system wide protection.
For passwords allowing numbers, lower case letters and
special symbols, this goes up considerably. Studies over
the years have consistently indicated that key selection
by those without knowledge of protection is very poor.
In a recent study, 21% of the users on a computer
system had 1 character passwords, with up to 85%
having passwords of 1/2 the maximum allowable
length, and 92% having passwords of 4 characters or
less. These results are quite typical, and dramatically
demonstrate that 92% of all passwords could be
guessed on a typical system in just over an hour.
Credential Systems
A credential is a document that introduces one party
to another by referencing a commonly known trusted
party. For example, when credit is applied for,
references are usually requested. The credit of the
references is checked and they are contacted to
determine the creditworthiness of the applicant. A
driver’s license is a form of credential, as is a passport.
Electronic credentials are designed to allow the
credence of a claim to be verified electronically.
Although no purely electronic credentialing systems
are in widespread use at this time, many such systems
are being integrated into the smart-card systems in
widespread use in Europe. A smart-card is simply a
credit-card shaped computer that performs
cryptographic functions and stores secret information.
Electronic Signatures
Electronic signatures, like their physical counterparts,
are a means of providing a legally binding transaction
between two or more parties. To be as useful as a
physical signature, electronic signatures must be at least
as hard to forge, at least as easy to use, and accepted in
a court of law as binding upon all parties to the
transaction.
Electronic Cash
There are patents under force throughout the world
today to allow electronic information to replace cash
money for financial transactions between individual
accounts. Such a system involves using cryptography
to keep the assets of nations in electronic form. Clearly
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
the ability to forge such a system would allow national
economies to be destroyed in an instant. The pressure
for integrity in such a system is staggering.
Threshold Systems
Threshold systems are systems designed to allow use
only if a minimal number of parties agree to said use.
For example, in a nuclear arms situation, you might
want a system wherein three out of five members of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff agree. Almost threshold
systems are based on encryption with keys which are
distributed in parts. The most common technique for
partitioning a key into parts is to form the key as the
solution to N equations in N unknowns. If N
independent equations are known, the key can be
determined by solving the simultaneous equations. If
less than N equations are known, the key can be any
value since there is still an independent variable in the
equations. Any number can be chosen for N and
equations can be held by separate individuals. The same
general concept can be used to form arbitrary
combinations of key requirements by forming ORs
and ANDs of encryptions using different sets of keys
for different combinations of key holders. The major
difficulties with such a system lie in the key distribution
problem and the large number of keys necessary to
achieve arbitrary key holder combinations [6].
Systems Using Changing Keys
Shannon has shown to us that given enough reuse of a
key, it can eventually be determined. It is common
practice to regularly change keys to limit the exposure
due to successful attack on any given key. A common
misconception is that changing a key much more often
than the average time required for break the
cryptosystem, provides an increased margin of safety.
If we chose the key at random, and that the attacker
can check a given percentage of the keys before a key
change are made, it is only a matter of time before one
of the keys checked by the attacker happens to
correspond to one of the random keys. If the attacker
chooses keys to attack at random without replacement
over the period of key usage, and begins again at the
beginning of each period, it is 50% likely that a
currently valid key will be found by the time required
to try 50% of the total number of keys, regardless of
key changes. Thus if a PC could try all the DES keys
30
in 10 years, it would be 50% likely that a successful
attack could be launched in 5 years of effort. The real
benefit of key changes is that the time over which a
broken key is useful is limited to the time till the next
key change. This is called limiting the exposure from
a stolen key [7].
Hardware to Support Cryptography
Basically in history, cryptography has been carried out
through the use of cryptographic devices. The use of
these devices derives from the difficulty in performing
cryptographic transforms manually, the severe nature
of errors that result from the lack of redundancy in
many cryptographic systems, and the need to make
the breaking of codes computationally difficult.
In WWII, the ENIGMA machine was used by the
Germans to encode messages, and one of the first
computers ever built was the BOMB, which was
designed to break ENIGMA cryptograms. Modern
supercomputers are used primarily by the NSA to
achieve the computational advantage necessary to
break many modern cryptosystems. The CRAY could
be easily used to break most password enciphering
systems, RSA systems with keys of length under about
80 are seriously threatened by the CRAY, and even the
DES can be attacked by using special purpose
computer hardware. Many devices have emerged in
the marketplace for the use of cryptography to encrypt
transmissions, act as cryptographic keys for
authentication of identification, protect so called debit
cards and smart cards, and implementing electronic
cash money systems [8].
Cryptography in Daily Life
Emails
Today, we live in a modern world with the technology.
We send emails for general communication with
friends, business communication within the companies
or with the person whose email address we have.
Normally people send billions of emails daily either
for the business communication or friendly
communication. We deliver the emails through the
internet that is a huge big network consisting of a
thousands of computers, nodes etc. A number of
people like to steal data from others, sometimes it may
be for fun, but the data is the main important thing of
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
any organization. Loss of data is very dangerous for
any organization. The first three countries in the
highest number of internet users list [8]:
1. China
2. USA
3. JAPAN
There is millions of user who use email service on
internet. So the question comes, how do emails get
protected while they are being sent?
We all need secure communication. To secure the email
service that can be possible if the all connections
between routers and routers need to be secured. That
is done by using the technique data encryption. There
are two methods for this security [9].
1. Use PGP (Pretty Good Privacy). It is a method to
secure email, a standard in cryptographically secure
emails. It is used with MIME Security.
2. Sender secure their website self, recipient has a
username and password. Recipient read the data
after logging into the website.
who can download. FTP use usernames and passwords
for the protection but it is vulnerable. FTP is built in
a way which provides ability for users on the same
network as the transfer is being processed to sniff data
including: username, password and files. There is no
built-in security or data encryption. A well-known
solution for this security problem is to use either SFTP
OR FTPS [10].
VPN
VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a virtual computer
network. It used virtual circuits or open connections
to have the network together. It has a special security
system. Authentication is required before connecting
with VPN. If we are a trusted user, have a right to
access to resources.
Secure VPNs are designed to provide privacy for the
users. The essentiality of this consists in cryptographic
tunneling protocols. Secure Virtual private Network
ensures message integrity, confidentiality and sender
authentication.
Usually, ISPs can encrypt the process of
communication between the sender and receiver by
using TLS and SASL protocol. Email server is also
using this kind of protection between each other.
We use cell phone and telephone to communicate each
other. Telephones transmit electric signals over a
communication channel that is telephone network.
But the problem is that it can easily be eavesdropped.
Eavesdroppers require only three things [10] [11] [12]
TLS is used in different circumstances. TLS is used
with POP3 & IMAP services. If HTTP is protected
by TLS, it provides more security then simple HTTP.
a. a pickup device,
b. a transmission channel
c. Listening device.
TLS (Transport Layer Security) and SSL (Secure Layer
Security) are very same. Basically TLS is the successor
of SSL. They are used for messages, emails, browsing
etc. These protocols are used by everyone who use the
internet. TLS plays a very important role on the
internet. HTTP, FTP, SMTP, NNTP are protocols
with TLS protection. TLS uses protocol which is
known as reliable connection (like TCP). TLS is
commonly used with HTTP to create HTTPS.
The pickup device is commonly a microphone or a
video camera. These devices are used to record sound
or to capture video images which later to be converted
to electric signals. Data transmit through a link which
may be a wire or a radio transmission. A listening device
allows monitoring, recording or retransmitting signals.
In case of VPN, TLS is used to tunneling an entire
network. Thereis number of users use FTP (File
Transfer Protocol) for transfer of data between two
nodes. There are no of FTP servers and clients available
on the Internet. These tools ease our work. If we use
the client side, we can manage or organize our
download. If we use the server side, manage the user
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
Mobile phones are used by almost every second man
on the earth. Through mobile phones, we use no of
services like SMS, MMS, EMAIL, INTERNET, and
GAMING AND BLUETOOTH. To protect our self
against eavesdropping, we can use the cell phone
encrypting devices [13].
Conclusion
In this research paper we have analyzed of different
areas where cryptography is used in our daily activities.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
As a normaluser, we can easily find cryptography
everywhere around us. Emails and Internet are used
by more and more people every day. We cannot feel
or imagine our lives without it. And all of these work
and services are secured based on different types of
algorithms of cryptography. The use of technology
is increase in great percentage for daily activities. As
the use of technology increase, the probability of
steal of data over the untrusted communication
channel is also increase. So to prevent the data,
different types of encryption & decryption
techniques are used.
References
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11. http://people.eecs.ku.edu/~saiedian/teaching/Fa10/710/Readings/An-Overview-Cryptography.pdf accessed
on January, 13, 2015 on Internet.
12. Aameer Nadeem, Dr. M.Younus Javed, “A performance comparison of data Encryption Algorithm”, in Global
Telecommunication Workshops, 2004 GlobeCom Workshops 2004, IEEE.
13. Elkamchouchi, H.M; Emarah, A.-A.M; Hagras, E.A.A, “A New Secure Hash Dynamic Structure Algorithm
(SHDSA) for Public Key Digital Signature Schemes”, in the 23rd National Radio Science Conference (NRSC
2006).
32
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
A Scalable Server Architecture for Mobile Presence
Services in Social Network Applications
A. Radha Krishna*
K. Chandra Sekharaiah**
Abstract
The use of Social network is becoming gradually more popular on mobile devices. The important
component of a social network application is a mobile presence service because it maintains each
mobile user’s presence information, such as the current status (online/offline), GPS location and network
address, and also updates the user’s online friends with the information repeatedly. If presence updates
occur frequently, the enormous number of messages distributed by presence servers may lead to a
scalability problem in a large-scale mobile presence service. We propose an efficient and scalable
server architecture, called PresenceCloud, to address the problem, which enables mobile presence
services to support large-scale social network applications. PresenceCloud searches for the presence of
his/her friends and notifies them of his/her arrival when a mobile user joins a network. For efficient
presence searching presenceCloud categorizes presence servers into a quorum-based server-to-server
design .Directed search algorithm and a one-hop caching strategy to achieve small constant search
latency is also controls by it.The performance of PresenceCloud we scrutinize in terms of the search
cost and search satisfaction level. The search cost is characterized as the total number of messages
generated by the presence server when a user arrives; and search approval level is defined as the time
it takes to search for the arriving user’s friend list. The results of simulations demonstrate that
PresenceCloud achieves performance gains in the search cost without compromising search satisfaction.
Keywords: Social networks, mobile presence services, distributed presence servers, cloud computing.
Introduction
Motivation
Mainly the enthusiasm for doing this project is an
interest in undertaking a challenging project in an
interesting area of research (Networking). The prospect
to learn about a new area of computing not covered
in lectures.
Problem Definition
The reason of the ubiquity of the Internet, mobile
devices and cloud computing environments can afford
presence-enabled applications, i.e., social network
applications/services, worldwide. Facebook [1],
Twitter [2], Foursquare [3], Google Latitude [4],
Buddy-Cloud [5] and Mobile Instant Messaging
(MIM) [6], are examples of presence-enabled
A. Radha Krishna*
Vasjrs2004@gmail.com
K. Chandra Sekharaiah**
chandrasekharaiahk@gamil.com
applications that have developed quickly in the last
decade. Social –Networks services are altering the way
in which participants connects to their friendsand
develop the information about the status of
participants including their appearances and activities
to interact with their friends. Social network services
enable participants to share live experiences instantly
across great distances with the social networks like
Facebook,twitteretc by the consumption of wireless
mobile network technologies. Mobile devices will
become more powerful, sensing and media capture
devices in the future and we can expect that the social
networks services will be the next generation of mobile
Internet applications.
Aamobile presence service an important component
of social network services in cloud computing
environments and to maintain an up-to-date list of
presence information of all mobile users is the key
function . The presence information consist of details
about a mobile user’s location, availability, activity,
device capability, and preferences. The service must
IITM Journal of Management and IT
also connect the user’s ID to his/her current presence
information, as well as repossess and subscribe to
changes in the occurrence information of the user’s
friends.
Each mobile user has a friend list, typically called a
buddy list (contact information of other user) in social
network services. The mobile user’s status is broadcast
automatically to each person on the buddy list
whenever he/she transits from one status to the other.
It is expected that the number of mobile presence
service users will increase significantly in the near
future due to the development of social network
applications and mobile network capacity. Thus, a
scalable mobile presence service is considered essential
for future Internet applications.
Distributed paradigms as well as cloud computing
applications have been organized by many Internet
services in the last decade, .So we explore the
relationship between distributed presence servers and
server network topologies on the Internet, and intend
an efficient and scalable server-to-server overlay
architecture called Presence Cloud to develop the
efficiency of mobile presence services for large-scale
social network services.
Distributed presence architectures in large-scale
geographically data centers first we examine the server
architectures of existing presence services, and
introduce the buddy-list search problem . The buddylist search problem is a scalability problem thatoccurs
when a distributed presence service is teeming with
buddy search messages.
Objective of the Paper
In this project, the main objective is to propose a
Presence Cloud is scalable server-to-server architecture
, that can be used as a building block for mobile
presence services. The validation behind the design
of Presence Cloud is to distribute the information of
millions of users among thousands of presence servers
on the Internet. To avoid single point of failure, no
single presence server is supposed to maintain servicewide global information about all users.
Presence Cloud organizes presence servers into a
quorum-based server-to-server architecture to make
34
easy efficient buddy list searching. To accomplish small
constant search latency it also influences the server
overlay and a directed buddy search algorithm; and
employs an active caching strategy that reduces the
number of messages generated by each search for a
list of buddies. Presence Cloud and two other
architectures, a Mesh-based scheme and a Distributed
Hash Table (DHT)-based scheme We analyzed the
presentation complexity .
Through duplications, we also compare the
performance of the three approaches in terms of the
number of messages generated and the search response
time and the buddy notification time. The results
demonstrate that Presence Cloud achieves major
performance gains in terms of reducing the number
of messages without sacrificing search satisfaction thus
can support a large-scale social network service
distributed among thousands of servers on the
Internet.
The role of this paper is threefold.
l
First, the original architecture for mobile presence
services is Presence Cloud.
l
The second role is that we consider the scalability
problems of distributed presence server
architectures, and characterize a new problem
called the buddy-list search problem.
l
Finally we consider the concert complexity of
Presence- Cloud and different designs of
distributed architectures, and evaluate them
empirically to demonstrate the advantages of
Presence Cloud.
Literature Survey
A study of internet instant messaging and chat
protocols
Instant messaging (IM) and network chat
communication have seen an immense rise in
popularity over the last several years. This scrutiny
helps bridge this gap by providing an overview of the
available features, functions, system architectures, and
protocol specifications of the three most popular
network IM protocols: AOL Instant Messenger,
Yahoo! Messenger, and Microsoft Messenger.
The technical characteristics of commercial Internet
IM and chat protocols, due to the closed proprietary
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
nature of these systems. We have presented a taxonomy
of different feature and functions supported by most
common systems, namely, AOL Instant Messenger
(AIM), Yahoo Messenger (YMSG), and MSN
Messenger (MSN). AIM sup- ports the most features
and thus is the most complex network IM protocol.
This may be a result of the fact that AIM has the
largest user base of the three systems.
Perceptive instant messaging traffic characteristics
Due to its quick response time Instant messaging (IM)
has become increasingly popular, its ease of use, and
option of multitasking. It is estimated that there are
several millions of instant messaging users who use
IM for various purposes: simple requests and
responses, scheduling face to face meetings, or just to
check the availability of colleagues and friends and
this leads relatively small traffic volum . All major
instant messaging systems route text messages through
central servers this facilitating firewall traversal and
gives IM companies more control, at the IMservers it
creates a potential bottleneck. This is especially so for
large instant messaging operators with tens of millions
of users and during flash crowd events.
Traces due to privacy concerns is another reason in
getting access to instant messaging. AOL Instant
Messenger (AIM) and MSN/Windows Live
Messenger we analyze the traffic of two popular instant
messaging systems. We found that most instant
messaging traffic is due to presence, hints, or other
extraneous traffic.During the overload the IM server
can protect the instantaneous nature of the
communication by dropping extraneous traffic. We
also found that the social network of IM users does
not follow a power law distribution. It can be
characterized by a Weibull distribution. Our analysis
lean-to light on instant messaging system design and
optimization and provides a scientific basis for instant
messaging workload generation. In the future, we plan
to extend the scope of our study by analyzing traces
from other user population.
A token-bucket based notification traffic control
mechanism for IMS presence service
The service to inform about the specified state of
another user is called as Presence service. The next
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
generation applications Instant messaging, push- totalk and web2.0 are became the key enable for the
Presence service.Heavy signaling load on IP
multimedia subsystem (IMS) network are caused by
the notification traffic of presence service . A Tokenbucket based Notification Traffic Control (TNTC)
mechanism, which is an application layer solution
deployed at the presence server. The aim of TNTC is
Upgrading valid access probability while controlling
the notification traffic. Extensive replications
established that TNTC can effectively control
notification traffic and perform better than the existing
schemes in terms of valid access probability and update
arrival rate.
TNTC which is a token-bucket based notification
traffic control mechanism for IMS presence service.
The different notification traffic control policy
depending on the user class to improve the QoS of
presence service.
Extensible messaging and presence protocol (xmpp):
Instant messaging and presence describes instant
messaging (im), the most common application of
xmpp
First effort in creating an open standard for instant
messaging and presence information is the Extensible
Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). XMPP was
introduced by the Jabber Software Foundation (JSF)
and formalized in the IETF. Numerous extensions
called Jabber Enhancement Proposals (JEP) have
evolved through subsequent work. The XMPP/Jabber
technology has achieved big success, especially since
the IETF approval of the core protocols. . It led to
significant implementations, major deployments and
renewed activity by open-source projects and
commercial software developers.
The XMPP/Jabber still has to face challenge from
competing technologies, such as SIMPLE. More effort
on the gateway development to interoperate with other
IM systems.
Peer-to-peer internet telephony using sip
P2P systems inherently have high scalability,
robustness and fault tolerance because of there is no
centralized server and the network self-organizes itself.
This is achieved at the cost of higher latency for
35
IITM Journal of Management and IT
locating the resources of interest in the P2P overlay
network. Internet telephony can be seen as an
application of P2P architecture where the participants
form a self-organizing and communicate with other
participants.Based on the IP telephony system ,a pure
P2P architecture for the Session Initiation Protocol
(SIP) is proposed.The P2P-SIP architecture supports
basic user registration,call set up ,offline message
delivary, voice/video mail ,multi-party conferencing,
firewalls,Network Address Transalation (NAT)
traversal and security.
The pure P2P architecture for SIP telephony provides
reliability ,scalability and interoperability with existing
SIP infrastructure.The cost5 of increased call setup
latency is the advantage. By using Chord as the
underlying DHT we can propose various design
alternatives.
More simulations may not add any research value to
the existing simulation results if the implementation
is based on the Chord. Large scale application level
multicast conferencing using P2P, distributed
reputation system for peers, and PSTN interworking
related issues such as authentication and accounting
are advanced services need more work. The load on
public super-nodes is reduced by allowing an internal
node inside a firewall and NAT to become a supernode.
Problem statement for sip/simple
The number of contributions between domains
quickly becomes an issue. This document examines
the scaling issue and concludes that additional
optimizations are necessary. The traffic up to the 50%
can reduce by these calculations show that the current
suggested optimizations although effective in some
circumstances and there is still a very high volume
traffic occur in SIP deployments of presence. In order
to make the deployment of SIP presence more effective
additional optimizations are needed.
OpenVoIP: An open peer-to-peer VoIP and IM
system:
This demo presents OpenVoIP, a 500 node open peerto-peer VoIP and IM system running on Planet Lab.
The three key aspects of OpenVoIP’s design are its
ability to use any DHT or unstructured peer-to-peer
36
protocol for directory service, the use of intermediate
peers with unrestricted connectivity to relay signaling
and media traffic between peers behind NAT and
firewalls, and a diagnostic system integrated with
Google maps for graphical monitoring. The demo will
show these aspects of OpenVoIP and provide
approaching on issues and related problems in
building such a system.
A weakly consistent scheme for IMS presence
service
Presence service for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is offered by IP
Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS).In IMS,
the updated presence information is done by the
presence server responsible for notifying an authorized
watcher .If any upadetes occurs the presence server
will generate many notifications and it consists of
weakly schema to reduce the notification traffic and
delayed timer is defined for to control the notification
rate.
Failover and load sharing in SIP telephony
For high service availability and scalability to the
relatively new IP telephony context some of the
exisiting web server redundancy techniques are
applied.
In this various failover and load sharing methods for
registration and call routing server based on the
Session Initiation protocols (SIP) are compared.
The SIP server failover techniques based on the clients,
DNS (Domain Name Service), database replication
and IP address takeover, and the load sharing
techniques using DNS, SIP identifiers, network
address translators and servers with same IP addresses.
We implemented the failover mechanism by using the
SIP proxy and registration server and the open source
MySQL database.
Network co-location of the servers does not required
for the DNS SRV to do redundancy.DNS itself is
replicated and Combining DNS with the identifierbased load sharing can scale to large user base.
More work to do failover and load sharing in the
middle of the call without breaking the session is need
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Call stateful services such as voicemail, conferencing
and PSTN interworking. It is difficult for the
individual server failover to detect and recovery of wide
area path outage. Instead of statically configuring the
redundant servers, it will be useful if the servers can
automatically discover and configure other available
servers on the Internet.
Chord: A scalable peer-to-peer lookup service for
internet
l
Peer -to-peer applications is to efficiently locate
the node is a fundamental problem that deals with
that stores a particular data item. Chord, a
distributed lookup protocol that addresses this
problem.
l
Data location can be easily implemented on top
of Chord by associating a key with each data item,
and storing the key/data item pair at the node to
which the key maps.
l
Chord can answer queries even if the system is
continuously changing and easily adapts the nodes
joining and leaving of the system.
l
Chord is scalable.
l
The Chord protocol solves this challenging
problem in decentralized manner.
l
Only O(log n) messages are needed for updating
the routing information for nodes leaving and
joining.
l
Simplicity, provable correctness, provable
performance and parallel node arrivals and
departures are the attractive features of Chord.
Experimental results confirm that Chord scales well
with the number of nodes, recovers from large
numbers of simultaneous node failures and joins, and
answers most lookups correctly even during recovery.
3: pslist: set of the current PS list of this PS node, n
4: pslist[].connection: the current PS node in pslist
5: pslist[].id: identifier of the correct connection in
pslist
6: node.id: identifier of PS node node
7: Algorithm:
8: r •! Sizeof(pslist)
9: for i = 1 to r do
10: node •! pslist[i].connection
11: if node:id 8= pslist[i].id then
12: /* ask node to refresh n’s PS list entries */
13: findnode •! Find CorrectPSNode(node)
14: if findnode= nil then
15: pslist[i].connection •! RandomNode(node)
16: else
17: pslist[i].connection •! findnode
18: end if
19: else
20: /* send a heartbeat message */
21: bfailed •! SendHeartbeatmsg(node)
22: if bfailed= true then
23: pslist[i].connection •! RandomNode(node)
24: end if
25: end if
26: end for
Algorithm 2.2 Buddy Search Algorithm
For each buddy list searching operation, the directed
buddy search of PresenceCloud retrieves the presence
information _ of the queried buddy list at most
onehop.
Proof: This is a direct consequence of Lemma 2 and
Lemma 3. Before presenting the directed buddy search
algorithm, lets revisit some terminologies which will
be used in the algorithm.
B = {b1; b2; : : : ; bk}: set of identifiers of user’s buddies
B(i): Buddy List Search Message be sent to PS node i
Chord will be a valuable component for peer-to-peer,
large-scale distributed applications, large-scale
distributed computing platforms.
b(i): set of buddies that shared the same grid ID i
Algorithm 2.1PresenceCloud Stabilization
algorithm
1: /* periodically verify PS node n’s pslist*/
2: Definition:
1) A mobile user logins PresenceCloud and decides
the associated PS node, q.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
Sj: set of pslist[]:id of PS node j
Directed Buddy Search Algorithm:
2) The user sends a Buddy List Search Message, B to
the PS node q.
37
IITM Journal of Management and IT
3) When the PS node q receives a B, then retrieves
each bi from B and searches its user list and one-hop
cache to respond to the coming query. And removes
the responded buddies from B.
4) If B = nil, the buddy list search operation is done.
5) Otherwise, if B 8= nil, the PS node q should hash
each remaining identifier in B to obtain a grid ID,
respectively.
6) Then the PS node q aggregates these b(g) to become
a new B(j), for each g “Sj. Here PS node j is the
intersection node of Sq)”Sg. And sends the new B(j)
to PS node j.
Following, we describe an example of directed buddy
search in PresenceCloud. When a PS node 4 receives
a Buddy List Search Message, B = {1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7;
8; 9}, from a mobile user, PS node 4 first searches its
local user list and the buddy cache, and then it responds
these.
Existing System
In this we describe previous researches on presence
services, and survey the presence service of existing
systems. To provide presence services Well known
commercial IM systems influence some form of
centralized clusters. Jennings III et al. presented a
taxonomy of different features and functions
supported by the three most popular IM systems,
AIM, Microsoft MSN and Yahoo! Messenger. The
authors also provided an overview of the system
architectures and observed that the systems use clientserver-based architectures. Skype, a popular voice over
IP application, GI is multi-tiered network architecture.
Since Skype is not an open protocol, it is difficult to
determine how GI technology is used exactly.
Moreover, Xiao et al. analyzed the traffic of MSN and
AIM system. They found that the presence
information is one of most messaging traffic in instant
messaging systems. In, authors shown that the largest
message traffic in existing presence services is buddy
NOTIFY messages.
Proposed System
To remove the centralized server, reduce maintenance
costs, and prevent failures in server-based SIP
deployment the P2PSIP has been proposed.P2PSIP
38
clients are organized in a DHT system to maintain
presence information. The presence service
architectures of Jabber and P2PSIP are distributed,
the buddy-list search problem we defined later also could
affect such distributed systems.
It is noted that few articles in discuss the scalability
issues of the distributed presence server architecture.
Saint Andre analyzes the traffic generated as a result
of presence information between users of interdomains that support the XMPP. Houriet al. Show
that the amount of presence traffic in SIMPLE can
be extremely heavy, and they analyze the effect of a
large presence system on the memory and CPU
loading. Those works in study related problems and
developing an initial set of guidelines for optimizing
inter-domain presence traffic and present a DHTbased presence server architecture.
Recently, presence services are also incorporated into
mobile services. For example, 3GPP has defined the
integration of presence service into its specification
in UMTS. It is based on SIP protocol, and uses
SIMPLE to manage presence information. Recently,
some mobile devices also support mobile presence
services. For example, the Wireless Village consortium
and was united into Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
IMPS in 2005 developed the Instant Messaging and
Presence Services (IMPS). In, Chen et al. proposed a
weakly consistent scheme to reduce the number of
updating messages in mobile presence services of IP
Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). However, it also suffers
scalability problem since it uses a central SIP server to
perform presence update of mobile users. In IMSbased presence service, authors presented the server
scalability and distributed management issues.
Conclusion
In this paper, we have presented PresenceCloud, a
scalableserver architecture that supports mobile
presence servicesin large-scale social network services.
We have shown that enhancesthe performance of
mobile presence services by PresenceCloud
accomplishes low search latency. In addition,we
discussed the scalability problem in server
architecturedesigns, and introduced the buddy-list
search problem,which is a scalability problem in the
distributed serverarchitecture of mobile presence
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
services. Through a simple Mathematical model, we
show that considerably with the userarrival rate and
the number of presence servers bythe total number
ofbuddy search messages increases. The resultsof
simulations demonstrate that PresenceCloud
achievesmajor performance gains in terms of the
search cost andsearch satisfaction. Overall,
PresenceCloud is shown to bea scalable mobile
presence service in large-scale socialnetwork
services.
References
1. Facebook, http://www.facebook.com.
2. Twitter, http://twitter.com.
3. Foursquare http://www.foursquare.com.
4. Google latitude, http://www.google.com/intl/enus/latitude/intro.html.
5. Buddycloud, http://buddycloud.com.
6. Mobile instant messaging, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile instant messaging.
7. R. B. Jennings, E. M. Nahum, D. P. Olshefski, D. Saha, Z.-Y.Shae, and C. Waters, “A study of internet
instant messaging and chat protocols,” IEEE Network, 2006.
8. Gobalindex, http://www.skype.com/intl/en-us/support/user-guides/ p2pexplained/.
9. Z. Xiao, L. Guo, and J. Tracey, “Understanding instant messaging traffic characteristics,” Proc. of IEEE
ICDCS, 2007.
10. C. Chi, R. Hao, D. Wang, and Z.-Z. Cao, “Ims presence server: Traffic analysis and performance modelling,”
Proc. of IEEE ICNP, 2008.
11. Instant messaging and presence protocol ietf working group http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/imppcharter.html.
12. Extensible messaging and presence protocol ietf working group.http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/xmppcharter.html.
13. Sip for instant messaging and presence leveraging extensions ietf working group. http://www.ietf.org/
html.charters/simplecharter.html.
14. P. Saint-Andre., “Extensible messaging and presence protocol (xmpp): Instant messaging and presence describes
instant messaging (im), the most common application of xmpp,” RFC 3921, 2004.
15. B. Campbell, J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, C. Huitema, and D. Gurle, “Session initiation protocol (sip)
extension for instant messaging,” RFC 3428, 2002.
16. Jabber, http://www.jabber.org/.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
39
“Aadhar” Management System
Ameer Ulla Siddiqui*
Mr. Hare Krishna Singh**
Abstract
The AADHAR Management System provides a 12-digit unique number for every Indian individual,
including children and infants. The AADHAR number will be in the formed of 12 digit alphanumeric
number of provide more security. AADHAR Number which would not just help the government track
down individuals, but would make life far easier for citizens as they would not have to submit multiple
documents each time they want to avail a new public, private and government service. This system will
contain personal details like name, sex, address, marital status, photo, identification mark, fingerprint
biometric, iris (uniqueness of human eye patterns) and signature. AADHAR Management System helps
to manage persons needs in his/her life span by using a single UID i.e. the number is used as Driving
license number, Voter ID card number, registration number in any organization, bank account number,
personal or professional details. AADHAAR will provide a universal identity infrastructure which can be
used by any identity-based application (like ration card, passport, etc.)
Keywords: AADHAR, Information security (IS), Unique Identification Numbers, UID, E-Government
Introduction
Unique Identification Management (UIDM):
This system is to provide a unique ID to each and
every citizen of India while providing him/her a birth
certificate. Citizens after attaining age of 18 must
register at the RTO office or Collector office or
Tahsildar office and get a password to access the site.
ID card will be provided to every user after registration.
Later on they can change their password. Once they
enter the site they can pay their electricity bill and
telephone bill, book railway tickets and airline tickets
and pay their taxes. During elections people can poll
online. Government officials can verify details about
a person from the database for issuing vehicle license,
passport, visa, etc.
The UIDM that creates a unique identification
number to a particular citizens of state/country.
Unique Identification Authority of India
(UIDAI):
The UIDAI is the government project and name for
the project is “AADHAAR” means “support”.
Background of the Aadhaar Management
System
In India steps in this direction began with, ‘Kargil
Review Committee Report’ submitted in January
2000. The committee recommended that ID cards be
issued immediately to people in border districts to
prevent infiltration and find out illegal immigrants.
Based on this a Group of Ministers in a report titled
Reforming the National Security System noted “All
Citizens should be given a Multipurpose National
Identity Card (MNIC) and noncitizens should be
issued identity cards of a different color and design”.
Acting upon the report Government of India initiated
a process for the creation of the National Register of
Citizens in 2003.
UIDAI
Ameer Ulla Siddiqui*
Computer Assistant, UGC-HRDC,
Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
Mr. Hare Krishna Singh**
Software Engineer,
HCL Infosystem, New Delhi
UIDAI is expected to provide a link across diverse
identities as a citizen, so that once one has it, the Govt.
needs nothing more from one, because it can find the
links on its own. AADHAAR signifies ‘foundation’
or ‘support’ and communicates the fundamental role
of UID initiative and its impact.
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Applications of UIDAI
AADHAAR assurance of uniqueness and centralized
online identity verification would be the basis of
building multiple services and applications It can substitute all other identified issues,
including illegal migration, in banking and
financial transactions, fraud, health related
matters, in the education sector, welfare sector,
in the election process, monitoring efficient law
and order.
It is easy to count country’s population without
any mistakes and take an action to control
population which gradually increase in excess
amount.
It will provide support in providing proper
identification to the individuals and this UID will
be linked with a person’s Passport Number,
Driving License, PAN card, Bank Accounts, Voter
ID etc. and all this information will be checked
through a database.
Risks in the implementation of UIDAI
Risks that arise from this centralization include
possible errors in the collection of information,
recording of inaccurate data, corruption of data from
anonymous sources, and unauthorized access to or
disclosure of personal information.
The centralized nature of data collection also heightens
the risk of misuse of personal information and
therefore potentially violates privacy rights. The
creation of a centralized database of personal
information, it is imperative that such a programme
not be established without the proper mechanisms to
ensure the security of each individual’s privacy rights.
As we considered for India ,The population of India
is more than 5 million, so Network traffic has to be
controlled but is it very tedious task .also we have to
increase the bandwidth spectrum and connectivity.
UIDM
The UIDM system is to develop Unique-id
management that creates a unique identification
number of particular citizen of the country. As well as
management of perspective data, information of that
citizen. Secondary goal is that we provide his feature
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
in some project, which are trying to help people to
achieve/reduces their stress of normal life. Basically
the UIDM system which is handled by a moderator,
according to recent work the “Aadhaar” management
system which is developed for providing Unique-id.
This system not provides different feature. This system
can be accessed by the citizen, and different people
related to governmental activity, so we try to achieve
simple interface, and user friendly system.
Design and Architecture
We describe the Algorithm, which is used to explain
how the system is going to work, i.e. the process logic
behind it, the flowchart, which represents the pictorial
representation of the process logic and finally the Data
Flow Diagram (Context Level) of the UIDM system.
Algorithm:
Security mechanism in UID project - if there is no
physical Identity card or electronic smart card, then
how will UID system validate its citizens. For
implementing this, two different processes have to
follow, the first one being the recording process and
the second one - the authentication process.
Recording Process:
In the first process, the UIDM builds up a centralized
database consisting of UID, biometric record and
various other details of the person. The UIDM
allocates a unique 12 digit alpha numeric number
(UID) which is randomly generated by the main
computer to every citizen. Then a biometric data
record is made by scanning the 10 fingerprints of a
person. This biometric data is tagged to the person’s
unique 12 digit number (UID). The UID tagged to
the biometric record of a citizen is later used in the
authentication process.
Authentication Process
In the second process, whenever a person has been
identified whether he/she is a genuine one, a fresh
biometric scan is made and then the scanned image is
sent to the centralized server. The server took the fresh
scanned biometric image as an input and compares it
with all the already stored biometric records in the
database. If a relevant match found is found, then the
person is designated to be a genuine citizen.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Advantages
Manage all the details related to the Bank account,
Driving License, Vehicle registration, Voter ID card,
Medical records, education and profession, passport,
PAN card in one database. A single unique number is
used therefore decreasing manual labour and
increasing efficiency as every detail is available on the
single click and reducing the efforts in maintaining
different ID databases. The UID will reduce the
duplication, an attempt to make fake documents.
The purpose of this UID system is to provide one
unique number to all the citizens to increase the
security and verification process by introducing the
Biometric authentication technology, and thus
identifying illegal immigrants and terrorists.
Along with UID various facilities provided in the
system, like paying their electricity bill and telephone
bill, book railway tickets and airline tickets and paying
their taxes. During elections people can poll online.
If a person commits a crime, his/her details will be
added to the crime database. This will be useful for
embassy, employment exchange and CBI officials.
Disadvantages
The disadvantage of this system is that the network
has to be very quick and crash free which is not
possible. As at a time there will be many citizens who
will be working on the system.
Security is the biggest task in this system as each and
every possible security measures will have to be taken.
Biometrics
Electronic scanning and matching technologies are
not 100 percent error-free. Since biometrics is not an
exact science, the problem is not only is the underlying
data flawed, even the biometric technologies have
some error rates. At the time of purchasing biometric
scanning equipments, it is important to include a
clause mentioning the calibration requirements.
While biometric data in digital format are the norm
in the modern day authentication process, choosing
the right type of scanning device is more important.
While fingerprinting is the most straight forward
biometric available in the market. The erosion of
fingerprints of people who are involved in heavy
42
physical labour being affected over a period of time is
one such challenge.
Iris Technology
Overview
While the benefits of using iris biometrics are
important to consider, not much is known about how
iris biometric systems function. Here, the paper
provides an overview of iris biometrics and the
technology that is used.
The iris of the eye is a protected organ, which controls
the diameter of the pupils – the center part of the
eye - and the amount of light entering the eye.
The front, pigmented layer of the iris, contains
random patterns that are visible and highly stable.
These patterns are also highly intricate, and unique
to every individual. The iris, faces very little wear, and
can consequently serve as a secure, always available
passport that an individual can present for verification.
The field of iris biometrics has seen significant research
and investment over the last decade, and at this point,
iris capture has become a mainstream technology with
wide acceptance. In India, over 50 million people have
been enrolled using iris recognition systems in Andhra
Pradesh and Orissa. Feedback on these systems has
been positive both from enrolling agencies and state
government officials. Mexico is also using iris for its
version of Unique ID to deliver public benefits to its
entire population.
De-duplication through iris has been carried out on a
large scale – one implementation that de-duplicated
the entry of immigrants into a country has carried
out five trillion iris comparisons since 2001. In Andhra
Pradesh, the government has carried out 6.26
quintillion matches in two months for its PDS
programs in 2009.
According to one research firm, iris is the fastest
growing segment of biometric market and will have
the largest market share in next ten years. Responding
to the increased demand, the technology has become
rapidly cheaper, with a friendlier user experience.
How do we capture the iris image?
The capture of the iris image is identical to taking a
regular photograph, except that it operates in the
infrared region, nearly invisible to our eye. The camera
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
captures the image of the iris; the image generated is
permanently stored in the database, and is used for
matching while verifying the identity of the resident,
as well as for de-duplication.
Devices used for iris capture
The devices that are used for capturing the iris image
depends on the purpose - whether it is for enrolling a
resident, or for identity authentication. There are two
main types of devices that are commonly used: hand
held and wall mounted.
Wall mounted devices, which are an older version of
the iris device, are usually used for access control
applications. Newer, hand held and mobile device is
used for e-governance applications, and iris
enrollment. The devices presently being tested by the
UIDAI is mobile devices suitable for enrolling people
in rural and remote areas.
Conclusions
AADHAR Management System will be beneficiary
to the citizens as it is a unique number which contains
basic information of every person. After the ID will
be issued there is no need to carry driving license,
voter cards, pan card, etc. for any government or
private work. For example, for opening a new account
one has to show his/her Unique ID only. But to some
extent it is harmful to the general public as all the
data related to them is stored on computers and can
be misused by hackers if the multiple security strategies
will not be adopted. Causal Productions has used its
best efforts to ensure that the templates have the same
appearance.
The role of this system envisions is to issue a unique
identification number (UID) that can be verified and
authenticated in an online, cost-effective manner, and
that is robust enough to eliminate duplicate and fake
identities.
Acknowledgment
Our thanks to Mr. Javed Ahmad, who has contributed
towards the development of this Research Paper on
AADHAR Management System.
References
1. www.uidai.gov.in Background Section as on 14/11/2012.
2. Business Standard (2009, June 25, 2009). Nandan M Nilekani Appointed as Chairperson of UIDAI. Business
Standard. Retrieved January 10, 2011
3. Discussion Paper on Aadhaar based Financial Inclusion, UIDAI.
4. https://eaadhaar.uidai.gov.in/
5. R. Ramkumar, Aadhaar: On a Platform of Myths, The Hindu, 08/07.2011.
6. UIDAI (n.d.). UID and PDS System: Unique Identification Authority of India, Planning Commission,
Government of India.
7. UIDAI (2012). Aadhaar Enabled Service Delivery. Planning Commission, Government of India document.
8. Discussion Paper on Aadhaar based Financial Inclusion, UIDAI.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
43
A Survey on Honeypots Security
Amit Kumar*
Sonia Kumari**
Abstract
With the increasingly use of computer technology and the Internet, information security becomes more
important. The tradition defense mechanism to detect the security risk has been unable to meet the
requirement of the people. The honeynet technology as a protection technology to make up for the
traditional system. This research paper describes a brief review on network security techniques,
Honeynetand HoneypotTechnology. A Honeypot is a process of deception trap. It is structured to lure
an attacker into intending compromise the information systems in an organization. But it is required a
correct deployment, if it is deployed correctly, can serve as an early-warning system and advanced
security surveillance tool. It minimize the risks from attack. It is also analyses the ways in which attacker
try to compromise an information and networks system, providing valuable insight into potential system
loopholes. This paper gives idea how honeypot technology can be used to detect, identify and gather
information for a specific threat& how it can be deployed for the purpose to enhance the level of
security in organization and enterprise.
Keywords: Honeynet, Honeypot, Honeywall, Intrusion Detection
Introduction
Basically, information security is the primarily
defensive process. Administrator of the Network use a
firewall, intrusion detection system (IDS) and number
of information security method to protect their
network from data breaches, intruders etc. The firewall
control the inbound and outbound traffic according
to the policies that has been configured as required
for the particular system. The intrusion detection
system (IDS) deployed between the local area network
and the internet for detecting suspicious packets.
Every technology have some deficiencies of these
systems. In case of firewall [1]:1. It cannot protect the system against an attacks that
bypass it. For example, dial in or dial-out
capability.
2. The firewall does not protect against internal
threaton the network.
Amit Kumar*
Scientific Assistant (Adhoc)
IGIPESS, B-Block, Vikaspuri, Delhi
Sonia Kumari**
Assistant Professor (Adhoc)
IGIPESS, B-Block, Vikaspuri, Delhi
3. The firewall does not protect against the transfer
of virus files and programs.
In case of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) [2]:1. High level of false positive and false negative alerts.
2. Must know signature detection patter [3].
The use of honeypots can overcome the deficiencies
of intrusion detection system (IDS) and Firewall. The
main advantage of honeypots is that they are designed
for the interaction with attackers. This is the way
honeypots collect smaller set of data with very high
value. But there are also some deficiencies like others
technologies. If we install honeypots behind the
firewall and intrusion detection system (IDS), it can
serve as part of defense in-depth system and can be
used to detect attackers. It is called a honeynet.
Honeynet
The concept of the honeynet technology was started
first in 1999 after the published of paper named “To
Build a Honeypot” by Mr. lance Spitzer, founder of
the Honeynet technology. In his paper, Mr. Spitzer
says that instead of developing technology that
emulated systems to be attacked, why we do not install
system behind the firewall that waiting to be
hacked.Honeynet are neither a product nor a software
IITM Journal of Management and IT
solution that it install on the software. Basically
honeynet is a architecture that create a highly
controlled network in which all activity is controlled
and captures in a proposed manner [4][5]. By doing
together with firewall, intrusion detection
system(IDS), and anti-worm software, honeypots form
into a honeynet security defense system that ensure
about the network security as shown in the figure 1.
Basic elements of Honeynet are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
A firewall computer
Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
Log server
Honeypots
Figure 1: Network Security
Honeywall [6] is a key to design of honey net, all the
data that access to the honey net must go through the
honey wall and it separate the honey network and
external network which is control the entire honey net
network hub as shown in figure 2. It has three network
interfaces.
1. External Network interface that connected with
service host.
2. Internal Network interface that connected with
the honeynet.
3. Network Interface connection logging server that
connected with internal network interface.
Honeywall facilitate the remote management and
intrusion prevention system detection rules and
policies for timely updates.
Figure 2: Honeywall Network Hub
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
45
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 3: Honeyball
Basic Requirement for the implementation of
honeynet:1. Data Control is the containment of activity that
mitigates the risk. We always try to ensure that
once an attacker is found within our
honeynetaccidentally or purposefully harm the
other honeynet. This is more challenging scenario
as shown in figure 3.
2. Data Capture is the process of monitoring and
logging of all of the threat’s activities within the
honeynet or system. The challenge is to capture
the data without the threat.
3. Data Analysis is another detection of worthless
if do not have an ability to convert the data. We
must have some ability to analyze the data.
4. Data Collection applies to those organizations
that have multiple honeynets in distributed
environments.
Honeypot
Lance Spitzner, founder of the Honeynet Project said
that a honeypot is a system structured to learn how
“black-hats” enquiring for and utilize weaknesses in
an IT System [7]. It can also be defined as “an
Figure 4: Honeypot
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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
information system resource whose value lies in
unauthorized or illicit use of that resource” [8]. In other
words, it is a lure, put out on a network as bait to
attract the attackers. Honeypots are a virtually
machines that has been designed to imitate real
machines.
A Honeypot works by making fool the attackers into
believing that it is legitimate system, as they attack the
system without knowing that they are being observed
covertly. When an intruder try to attempts to
compromise a honeypot, attack-related information,
like IP address of the intruder, will be captured.
It can be used for the purpose of production or
research. A production honeypot is used for risk
mitigation.
Research Honeypots are the example of real operating
systems and services that intruders can interact with
the system. That’s why it involves higher risk. They
collect huge information regarding the situation of the
types of attacks being execute. It provides the more
improved attack prevention and attack detection
information captured during the process.
Classification of Honeypots
Honeypots are classified into two categories. These
are the following.
1. Low-interaction honeypots: It is used for
production purposes.
2. High-interaction Honeypots: It is used for research
purposes.
Low-Interaction Honeypots
It is work by imitating the certain services and
operating systems and have a limited interaction.
Advantages
The advantages of low-interaction honeypots are that
they are simple and easy to deploy and maintain. In
addition, the limited emulation available or allowed
on low-interaction honeypots reduces the potential
risks brought about using them in the field. However,
with low-interaction honeypots, only limited
information can be obtained, and it is possible that
experienced attackers will easily recognize a honeypot
when they come across one.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
Example:
Facades:
It is a kind of software emulation of a selected services
or application that provides a wrong perception of a
selected host. When a façade is attacked, it collects
the data about the intruder. Some facades provide
partial application-level behavior and some others
simulate the target service.
Facades provide easy installation as it requires minimal
installation effort and devices. It can emulate a large
variety of systems. We know that, it is not a real
systems, it does not have any other real vulnerabilities
themselves. It is used by small to medium sized
organization or by big organization in coordination
with other types of security technology because it
provides only basic information about a potential
threat.
High-Interaction Honeypots
High-Interaction honeypots are complex as compared
with the low-interaction honeypots because it uses a
real operating systems, services and applications. For
example, a SSH server will be built if the objective is
to collect the information about attacks on a particular
SSH server or services.
It is a kind of system policies that provides the real
system for direct interaction to the attackers. There
are not any kind of restriction are imposed on attack
behavior. This model allows administrator to gather
extensive information about the attacker’s method.
Enough protection measures need to be implemented
as required in the system.
Example:
1. Sacrificial Lambs
It is a system intentionally left vulnerable to attack.
The administrator will examine the honeypot to
determine if it has been compromised and if so what
was done to it.
2. Instrumented Systems
It is an off-the-shelf system with an installed operating
system and kernel level modification to provide
information, containment, or control. The OS and
kernel have been modified by engineers of security.
After the modification in operating system and kernel,
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
the running system will leave the in the network as a
real target. This model combines the strengths of both
sacrificial lambs and facades.
I used window 8 system with a DVD-ROM drive. It
was the best as compared others that is available as it
is more secured.
3. Spam Honeypots
Honeypot technology is used for identifying spam and
email harvesting activities. Honeypots have been
installed to study how spammers detect open mail relay
system. Machine run as simulated mail server proxy
server and web server. Spam email is received and
analyzed [9].
I install a program called Snort. This program is an
open source network intrusion prevention and
detection system that is utilizing a rule-drive language.
It is combines the benefits of signature, protocol and
anomaly based inspection methods. Snort is the most
popular and widely deployed intrusion detection and
prevention technology. In fact, it has the standard for
the industry. Snort is a free program that is extremely
powerful. This is part of an intrusion detection system.
Strategies of honeypot deployment
For minimize the risk and maximize the soundness of
the honeypots, it is required the installation should be
carefully planned.
1. Honeypots install with the production server. The
honeypot need to mirror the original information
and services from the production server in order
to lure the intruders. In that model, honeynet
security loosened slightly that increase the
probability of being compromised. The honeynet
capture attack related data. When a successful
attack takes place on the honeypot within the
network, that compromised honeypot machine
may be used to scan for other threat target in the
network. The main drawback of implementing
honeynet within the production system.
2. Paired the servers with a honeypot. It routed the
suspicious traffic destined for the server to the
honeypot. For example, traffic on port number
80 on TCP can be directed to a web server IP
address as normal and other traffic to the web
server will be routed towards the honeypot.
3. Build a Honeynet: It is a collection of honeypots
that imitate and mirror an original network. This
will show to intruders as if different types of
application are available on several platforms. A
honey net provides an early warning system against
the attacks and offers a good way to analyses the
intruder’s intention. The Honeynet Project [10]
is an excellent example of a research honeynet.
Building the Network of Honeypot
Building a honeypot network is not difficult. I build
it at my college computer lab and it has been
successfully intruded number of times.
48
I also found Windows based Honeypot that is
HoneyBot. It works by opening on 1000 UDP and
TCP listening sockets on computer and these sockets
are designed to mimic vulnerable Services. When an
attacker connects to these services they are fooled into
thinking they are attacking a real server. The honeypot
safely captures all communications with the attacker
and logs these results for future analysis.
Examples of Honeypot
1. Deception Toolkit [11]: DTK was the first open
source honeypot. It is a collection of Perl scripts
and c code that emulates a variety of services.
2. LaBrea [12]: It is structures to slow down or stop
attacks. It can run on Windows or UNIX.
3. Honeywall CDROM [13]: It is a bootable CD
with a collection of open source software. It makes
honeynet deployments simple and effective by
automating the process of deploying a honeynet
gateway known as a honeywall. It is used to
capture, control and analyses all inbound and
outbound honeynet activities.
4. Honeyd [14]: This very powerful, low-interaction
honeypot. It is run on both UNIX and windows
platforms. It can monitor the IPs that is unused,
simulate thousands of virtual hosts at the same
time and monitor all UDP and TCP based ports.
5. Honeytrap [15]: It is a low-interaction honeypot
technology that is designed to observe attacks
against network services. It helps administrators
to collect information regarding known or
unknown network-based attacks.
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
6. HoneyC [16]: It is a client honeypot that initiates
connections to aserver. The main objective of that
technology to find malicious servers on a
network.
7. HoneyMole [17]: It is a tool for the deployment
of honeypot farms, or distributed honeypots, and
transport network traffic to a central honeypot
point where data collection and analyses can be
undertaken.
8. Symantec Decoy Server [18]: This a type of
honeypot intrusion detection system that detects
and monitors unauthorized access and system
misuse in real time.
9. Specter [19]: It is a smart honeypot-based
intrusion detection system. It can emulate 14
different operating system and have acceptability
to monitor 14 different network services and
trap.
Result
The result was too good. It was surprising to see how
fast the computer was attacked. I let it run for eight
hours and found port 162 got quite a bit of scanning
while port 67 and 68 were occasionally hit as well.
Port 162 is commonly known as SNMP (simple
network management protocol) trap. It looks every 3
to 5 seconds, ports were being scanned to see if they
were open or closed. This was my first experience using
a honeypot on system.
Conclusion
As the growing IT field, there is a requirement to
strengthen its security. Preventive and Detective
method measures used to improve IT Security. To
improve our Security, we must having a knowledge of
intruders, attackers, hackers, etc. Hackers can hack our
computer. Attackers are constantly scanning our
network looking for vulnerable loopholes and open
ports. But without the knowledge of the enemy, we
cannot defend our network or system. We have to think
like a hacker in order to stop a hacker. Honeypots can
be used simply to confuse and deflect attacks or to
collect evidence. There are many free Windows based
and Linux based honeypot programs available to
individuals and companies.
Honeypots is a technology. Every technology have their
advantages and disadvantages as this is possible in
honeypots like other technologies. It is a useful tool
for deception and apprehend the intruders that ensnare
the information and create alerts when someone is
trying to interact with them. This takes of intruders
provides the valuable information for analyzing their
attacking mode of techniques and methods. Because
honeypot capture and collect data.
There are some disadvantage of that technology. It only
track and capture activity that directly interacts with
them. It cannot detect that attacks against other
systems in the network. This is possible be the most
controversial drawback of honeypots.
References
1. Holostov, V., Neystadt, John,”Automated identification of firewall malware scanner deficiencies, in United
State Patent Application Publication, Published date Sep., 18, 2008.
2. http://cryptome.org/sp800-31.htm accesed on January 8, 2015 in the Internet
3. Renuka Prasad B et al., “Hybrid Framework for Behavioral prediction of Network Attack using Honeypot
and Dynamic Rule Creation with Different context for Dynamic Blacklisting”, RV college of Engineering,
Banglore, Karnataka, IEEE, I.S.B.N : 987-14244-5726-7, pp-471-476.
4. Ryan Talabis, “Honeynets: A Honeynet Definition:, A Student IT Security Awareness Initiative by the
Philippine Honeynet Project.
5. “Know Your Enemey : Honeynets.”, Honeynet Project.
6. Peng Hong et al. “Intrusion Prevention system in the Network of Digital Mine” Chine University of Mineing
Mechanical and Electrical Ebngineering Beijing, Chine IEEE,2010,Vol. 6, pp:296-299.
7. http://rootprompt.org/article.php3?article=210 accessed on jan 25, 2015 on the Internet.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
8. http://www.spitzner.net/honeypots.html accesses on the Internet.
9. http://www.honeyd.org/spam.php accessed on jan 25,2015 on the Internet.
10. http://www.honeynet.org accessed on Jan 26, 2015 on the Internet.
11. http://www.all.net/dtk/index.html accessed on Jan 26, 2015, on the Internet.
12. http://labrea.sourceforge.net/labrea-info.html accessed on Jan 26, 2015 on the Internet.
13. http://www.honeynet.org/tools/cdrom/ accessed on Jan 27, 2015 on the Internet.
14. http://www.honeyd.org accessed on Jan 27, 2015 on the Internet.
15. http://honeytrap.mwcollect.org accessed on Jan 27, 2015 on the Internet.
16. http://www.client-honeynet.org/honeyc.html accessed on Jan 28, 2015 on the Internet.
17. http://www.honeynet.org.pt/index.php accessed on Jan 28, 2015 on the Interenet
18. http://www.symantec.com/business/support/documentation. jsp?language=english&view=manuals&pid=
51899 accessed on Feb 1, 2015 on the Internet
19. http://www.specter.com/default50.htm.
50
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
Security Features of User’s for Online
Social Networks
A. Radha Krishna*
K. Chandra Sekharaiah**
Abstract
In recent years Online social networks (OSNs) have practiced fabulous growth and become a genuine
portal for hundreds of millions of Internet users. These OSNs provides attractive ways for digital social
interactions and information sharing, but also raise a number of security and privacy issues. OSNs
allow users to control access to shared data, they currently do not provide any method to enforce
privacy concerns over data connected with multiple users.To this end, we suggest an progress to enable
the protection of shared data associated with multiple users in OSNs. . We formulate an access control
model to capture these sense of multiparty authorization requirements, along with a multiparty policy
specification scheme and a policy enforcement mechanism. Besides, we present a logical representation
of our access control model that allows us to influence the features of existing logic solvers to perform
various analysis tasks on our model. We also discuss a proof-of-concept prototype of our approach as
part of an application in Facebook and provide usability study and system evaluation of our method.
Keywords: Multiparty Access Control, Multiparty Policy, Online Social Network
Introduction
Motivation
The motivation for writing this paper is primarily an
interest in undertaking a challenging task in an
interesting area of research (Networking). The
opportunity to learn about a new area of computing
not covered in lectures.
Problem Definition
The rising of the technology made the communication
more easier for the people who are far from us by
communicating through the social networks like
Facebook, twitter etc., These social networks are mainly
used for different activities such as education, business,
entertainment etc., But using these social networks
there are some troubles like security, privacy etc.
Several benefits of this paper introduces are cut
detection capability, suppose if a sensor wants to send
data to the source node has been disconnected from
the source node. Without the knowledge of the
A. Radha Krishna*
vasjrs2004@gmail.com
K. Chandra Sekharaiah**
chandrasekharaiahk@gamil.com
network’s disconnected state, it may simply forward
the data to the next node in the routing tree, which
will do the same to its next node, and so on. However,
this message passing merely wastes precious energy of
the nodes; the cut prevents the data from reaching the
destination.
Therefore, on one hand, if a node were able to detect
the occurrence of a cut, it could simply wait for the
network to be repaired and eventually reconnected,
which saves on board energy of multiple nodes and
prolongs their lives. On the other hand, the ability of
the source node to detect the occurrence and location
of a cut will allow it to undertake network repair.
Thus, the ability to detect cuts by both the
disconnected nodes and the source node will lead to
the increase in the operational lifetime of the network
as a whole.
Objective of the Paper
l
Platforms are allowing people to publish their
details about themselves and to connect to other
members of the network through links so now a
days Online Social Networks (OSNs) are
becoming more popular eg: Facebook used by
hundred million active users.
IITM Journal of Management and IT
l
l
l
The subsistence of OSNs that include person
specific information creates both interesting
opportunities and challenges.
On the other hand, simply making a user able to
decide which personal information are accessible
by other members by marking a given item as
public, private, or accessible by their direct
contacts by very basic access control systems of
current OSNs put into service .
In order to provide more flexibility, some online
social networks implement variants of these
settings, but the principle is the same.
Objectives
a. Safety measure policies.
b. Unconstitutional access control
c. To identify their permission provide policy and
privacy for multiple user
d. Discover potential nasty activities using
collaborative control
e. An Online Social Network with User- Defined
Privacy.
Literature Survey
l
l
52
Online Social Networks (OSNs) have seen major
growth and are getting much consideration in
research in recent years. Social Networks have
always been an important part of daily life.
Because of the public nature of many social
networks and the Internet itself, content can easily
be disclosed to a wider audience than the user
intended. Limited experience and awareness of
users, as well as the lack of proper tools and design
of the OSNs, do not help the situation. We feel
that users are entitled to at least the same level of
privacy in OSNs, that they enjoy in real life
interactions. Users should be able to trade some
information for functionality without that
information becoming available beyond the
intended scope. For example, a user of a self-help
OSN like Patients-Like-Me, who suffers from a
given medical condition might not want everyone
to know about this, but at the same time the user
would like to meet people with the same
condition. This is the context of the Kindred
Spirits project, and its aim is to provide users the
ability to meet and interact with other (similar)
people, while preserving their privacy. This project
aims to provide insight into privacy issues and
needs faced by users of OSNs and their origins.
The insights gained help plot a course for future
work. To this end, we look at OSNs as they
currently exist, the associated privacy risks, and
existing research into solutions. The ultimate goal
is to identify open topics in research through
reflection on existing proposals.
Online Social Networks
Let the concept begins with the Online Social
Networks and why it becoming more popular today.
This will help us understand the needs of OSN. Users
environments they navigate, and potential threats are
discussed in further sections.
Definition Of OSNs
Boyd and Ellison’s widely used definition captures the
key elements of any OSN: Definitions
1. An OSN is a web-based service that allows
individuals to:
1. Construct a public or semi-public profile within
the service,
2. Articulate a list of other users with whom they
share a connection,
3. View and traverse their list of connections and
those made by others within the service.
The list of other users with whom a connection is
shared is not limited to connections like friend
(Facebook, MySpace) or relative (Genie), but also
includes connections like follower (Twitter),
professional (Linked In) or subscriber (YouTube).
Types of OSNs
Classification of OSNs based on the openness of the
network, we will look at the purpose or functionality
that an OSN aims to offer to its user base.
l
Connection OSNs: : Connection OSNs focus
more on the connecting users and by providing a
social contact book.
l
Business: These OSNs aim to provide
professionals with useful business contacts,
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
searching for profiles does not always require
signing up. Profiles display a users capabilities and
work field, this is based on the OSN via messages.
This also provide the facility to user to add other
user to their network,so that the professional can
see whether the user is working or not.
l
l
l
Enforcing real-life relationships: These OSNs
are not aimed at finding new friends, but
(re)connecting with existing friends or
acquaintances that are far.
Socializing: Fitting the more traditional view of
social networks. Here users can connect with
current friends and find new ones. All types of
information found in an OSN are also found in
this class; often a lot of this information is public.
In order to keep the users this type of OSNs are
providing the competitive and social games. Some
well known examples of this class are Hypes,
Facebook, Orkut and MySpace.
Content OSNs: Content OSNs focus more on
the content provided or linked to by users.
l
Content Sharing: Sharing of user-generated
content within a selected group, such as friends
or family, or a far wider audience. Content that is
shared is usually multimedia. Uploading content
most often requires users to sign up and log in;
sometimes viewing content also requires logging
in, or knowledge of a hard-to-guess obfuscated
URL.Examples are Picasa and Photo bucket
l
Content recommendation: In some cases users
do not upload (multimedia) content, but focus
more on recommending existing (usually
professional) content. Some Book review sites like
We Read.com, and URL-tagging communities
like Delicious are prime examples where content
is discovered and tagged or rated, but not created
or uploaded.
l
Entertainment: These OSNs are tied to a gaming
community. Entertainment OSNs might make
money by selling games and game add-ons, or
through subscriptions. Examples are Xbox.Live
and Play fire.
Table 1: Data Types Typically Found in Different of OSNs
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Fig. 1 Multiparty Policy Evalution
l
Advice sharing: place for people to share their
experience or expertise in a certain area with
others,and advice can be a focus for some OSNs.
For example mothers-to-be (Baby Center),
medical patients (PatientsLikeMe) or students
(Teach Street) can help one another.
l
Hobbies: Many OSNs focus on audiences that
have similar interests and hobbies. This may
involve advice sharing elements,but the audience
is more homogenous.Examples are Athelings and
Care2. “News” sharing. Blog-related OSNs, or
ones that focus on world news or gossip. Examples
are Buurtlinknl, Twitter, Blogster and
GossipReport.com.
Multiparty Policy Evaluation
Two steps are performed to evaluate an access request
over MPAC policies.
l
54
The first step checks the access request against the
policy specified by each controller and yields a
decision for the controller. The accessor element
in a policy decides whether the policy is applicable
to a request or not.If the user who send the sends
the request belongs to the user set derived from
the accessor of a policy, the policy is applicable
and the evaluation process returns a response with
the decision (either permit or deny) indicated by
the effect element in the policy. Otherwise, the
response yields deny decision if the policy is not
applicable to the request.
l
In the second step, decisions from all controllers
responding to the access request are aggregated to
make a final decision for the access request. Fig. 1
illustrates the evaluation process of MPAC
policies.
Since data controllers may generate different decisions
(permit and deny) for an access request, conflicts may
occur.
A Voting Scheme for Decision Making of
Multiparty Control
Voting scheme to achieve an effective multiparty
conflict resolution for OSNs. A notable feature of the
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
voting mechanism for conflict resolution is that the
decision from each controller is able to have an effect
on the final decision.Our voting scheme contains two
voting mechanisms: decision voting and sensitivity
voting. Majority voting is a popular mechanism for
decision making, Decision voting.
A decision voting value (DV) derived from the policy
evaluation is defined as follows, where Evaluation(p)
returns the decision of a policy p:
DV=
{
It is worth noticing that our conflict resolution
approach has an adaptive feature that reflects the
changes of policies and SLs. If any controller changes
her/his policy or SL for the shared data item, the DVag
and Sc will be recomputed and the final decision may
be changed accordingly.
0 if Evaluation(p)deny
Strategy-based Conflict Resolution with Privacy
Recommendation
1 if Evaluation(p) Permit
In this conflict resolution, the Sc of a data item is
considered as a guideline for the owner of shared data
item in selecting an appropriate strategy for conflict
resolution. We introduce following strategies for the
purpose of resolving multiparty privacy conflicts in
OSNs:
Assume that all controllers are equally important, an
aggregated decision value (DVag)(with a range of 0.00
to1.00) from multiple controllers including the owner
(DVow),the contributor (DVcb), and stakeholders
(DVst) is computed with following equation:
l
where ‘SS’ is the stakeholder set of the shared data
item, and m is the number of controllers of the shared
data item.
and
final decision can be made as follows:
Sensitivity voting. Each controller assigns an SL to
the shared data item to reflect her/his privacy concern.
A sensitivity score (Sc) (in the range from 0.00 to 1.00)
for the data item can be calculated based on following
equation:
Otherwise, the final decision is very likely to allow
access, so that the utility of OSN services cannot be
affected. The final decision is made automatically by
OSN systems with this threshold-based conflict
resolution as follows:
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
and the
l
Fullconsensuspermit: If any controller denies the
access, the final decision is deny. This strategy can
achieve the naive conflict resolution that we
discussed previously. The final decision can be
derived as:
l
Majoritypermit: This strategy permits (denies,
resp.) a request if the number of controllers to
permit (deny, resp.) the request is greater than the
number of controllers to deny (permit, resp.) the
request. The final decision can be made as
Threshold-based Conflict Resolution
A basic idea of our approach for threshold-based
conflict resolution is that the Sc can be utilized as a
threshold for decision making. Intuitively, if the Sc is
higher, the final decision has a high chance to deny
access, taking into account the privacy protection of
high sensitive data.
Owneroverrides: The owner’s decision has the
highest priority. This strategy achieves the owner
control mechanism that most OSNs are currently
utilizing for data sharing. Based on the weighted
decision
voting
scheme,
we
set
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Other majority voting strategies can be easily supported
by our voting scheme, such as strong-majority permit
(this strategy permits a request if over two-third
controllers permit it), super-majority-permit (this
strategy permits a request if over three-fourth
controllers permit it).
Logical Definition of Multiple Controllers and
Transitive Relationships
The basic components and relations in our MPAC
model can be directly defined with corresponding
predicates in ASP. We have defined
as a set of
user-to-datarelations with controller type
Then, the logical definition of multiple controllers is
as follows:
The disseminator of a data item can be represented as:
Our MPAC model supports transitive relationships.
For example, David is a friend of Allice, and Edward
is a friend of David in a social network. Then, we call
Edward is a friends of friends of Allice. The friend
relation between two users Allice and David is
represented in ASP as follows:
It is known that the transitive closure (e.g., reachability)
cannot be expressed in the first order logic [33];
however, it can be easily handled in the stable model
semantics. Then, FOF can be represented as a transitive
closure of friend relation with ASP as follows:
The owner of a data item can be represented as:
The contributor of a data item can be represented as:
The stakeholder of a data item can be represented as:
Example : (Checking Undersharing). Bob has defined
a policy to authorize his friends to see a photo. He
wants to check if any friends cannot see this photo in
current system. The input query
can be specified
as follows:
Fig. 2. Overall Architecture of MController Application
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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
check:-decision(deny),friendof(bob,x),
ow(alice,photoid),user(bob),
user(x),photo(photoid).
:-notcheck.
If an answer set contains check, this means that there
are friends who cannot view the photo. Regarding
Bob’s authorization requirement, this photo is under
shared with his friends.
Implementation and Evaluation
Fig. 3 System Architecture of Decision
Making in Mcontrloller
A system architecture of the decision-making module in
MController. To evaluate an access request, the policies
of each controller of the targeted content are enforced
first to generate a decision for the controller. Then, the
decisions of all controllers are aggregated to yield a final
decision as the response of the request. Multiparty privacy
conflicts are resolved based on the configured conflict
resolution mechanism when aggregating the decisions
of controllers. If the owner of the content chooses
automatic conflict resolution, the aggregated sensitivity
value is utilized as a threshold for decision making.
Otherwise, multiparty privacy conflicts are resolved by
applying the strategy selected by the owner, and the
aggregated Sc is considered as a recommendation for
strategy selection. Regarding the access requests to
disseminated content, the final decision is made by
combining the disseminator’s decision and original
controllers’ decision adopting corresponding
combination strategy discussed previously.
System Usability and Performance Evaluation
Proposed System
Our solution is to support the analysis of multiparty
access control model and mechanism systems. The use
Table-2: Usability Study for Facebook and mcontroller privacy Controls
Volume 6, Issue 1
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57
IITM Journal of Management and IT
of multiparty access control mechanism can greatly
enhance the flexibility for regulating data sharing in
Online social networks (OSNs),it may reduce the
privacy conflicts need to be resolved sophisticatedly.
The following are scenario like content sharing to
understand the risks posted by the lack of collaborative
control in online social networks (OSNs).
Proposed System Advantages:
l
It checks the access request against the policy
specified for every user and yields a decision for
the access.
l
The use of multiparty access control mechanism
can greatly enhance the flexibility for regulating
data sharing in online social networks.
l
Present any mechanism to enforce privacy
concerns over data associated with many users.
l
If a user posts a comment in a friend’s space, he/
she can specify which users can view the comment.
Conclusions
In this paper, in OSNs we have proposed a novel
solution for collaborative management of shared data.
An MPAC model was formulated, along with a
multiparty policy specification scheme and
corresponding policy evaluation mechanism. In
addition, we have introduced an approach for
representing and reasoning about our proposed model.
A proof-of-concept implementation of our solution
called MController has been discussed as well, followed
by the usability study and system evaluation of our
method.
As part we are planning to examine more
comprehensive privacy conflict resolution approach
and analysis services for collaborative management of
shared data in OSNs in future work. Also, we would
search more criteria to estimate the features of our
proposed MPAC model. For example, one of our
recent work has evaluated the effectiveness of the
MPAC conflict resolution approach based on the
tradeoff of privacy risk and sharing loss. In addition,
users may be involved in the arrangements of the
privacy preferences may become time consuming and
tedious tasks and control of a larger number of shared
photos.Therefore, we would study inference-based
techniques for automatically configure privacy
preferences in MPAC. Besides, we plan to thoroughly
integrate the notion of trust and reputation into our
MPAC model and examine a comprehensive solution
to cope with collusion attacks for providing a robust
MPAC service in OSNs.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
FacebookDevelopers,http://developers.facebook.com/, 2013.
FacebookPrivacyPolicy,http://www.facebook.com/policy.php/, 2013.
FacebookStatistics, http://www.facebook.com/press/info. php?statistics, 2013.
Google+PrivacyPolicy,http://http://www.google.com/intl/en/+/policy/, 2013.
The Google+ Project, https://plus.google.com, 2013.
G. Ahn and H. Hu, “Towards Realizing a Formal RBAC Model in Real Systems,” Proc. 12th ACM Symp. Access
Control Models and Technologies, pp. 215-224, 2007.
7. G.Ahn, H.Hu, J. Lee, and Y. Meng, “Representing and Reasoning about Web Access Control Policies,” Proc. IEEE
34th Ann. Computer Software and Applications Conf. (COMPSAC), pp. 137-146, 2010.
8. A. Besmer and H.R. Lipford, “Moving beyond Untagging: Photo Privacy in a Tagged World,” Proc. 28th Int’l Conf.
Human Factors in Computing Systems,pp. 1563-1572, 2010.
9. L. Bilge, T. Strufe, D. Balzarotti, and E. Kirda, “All Your Contacts Are Belong to Us: Automated Identity theft Attacks
on Social Networks,” Proc. 18th Int’l Conf. World Wide Web, pp. 551-560, 2009.
10. B. Carminati and E. Ferrari, “Collaborative Access Control in OnLine Social Networks,” Proc. Seventh Int’l Conf.
Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing (Collaborate-Com), pp. 231-240, 2011.
11. B. Carminati, E. Ferrari, and A. Perego, “Rule-Based Access Control for Social Networks,” Proc. Int’l Conf. On the Move
to Meaningful Internet Systems, pp. 1734-1744, 2006.
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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
Cyber Security in India: Problems and Prospects
Sushma Devi*
Mohd. Aarif Rather**
Abstract
Cyber security has emerged in the backdrop of information, communication and technological revolution
and acts as the corner stone of a connected world. Within the purview of this revolution, the international
community across the globe came in confrontation with the new domain of cyber world where
opportunities, e.g. communication as well as challenges are becoming paramount. Thus, the world is
witnessing different hazards and dangers which have never been experienced in previous periods of
history and India is no exception to this. Also, in contemporary times, the current threats faced by the
global security environment emerge from the technological progress and were not bound by local
origins but extends to include the global networks. Such threats transcend the limits of time and space
boundaries and present a continuous and universal challenge. Thus, the inter-state relations drown into
securing their economic and security threats without imposing severe restriction on cyber world. In
addition, cyber-attacks have the potential to push the states into real acts of aggression and there exists
no balance of power in the cyber world. In this context, the paper tries to explore the areas of cyber
security out of conventional notions of security and situate India at threshold of analysis with taking
different countries responses into consideration. Also, an attempt is made to identify challenges as well
as possible diagnosis.
Keywords: Cyber security, India, information, technology, threats, global security.
Introduction
The concept of security existed from times
immemorial, but has assumed wider dimensions in
contemporary times. In common usage, it is connected
with a series of different aspects of human existence
and with the processes and activities in society and
nature. In International relations, the concept came
into existence after the end of 2nd World War. But, it
was largely assumed to be based on the realistic
paradigm i.e., global politics is always a struggle
between nations to reach power under a condition of
anarchy in which they compete for their respective
national interests. Thus, the security was related to
the protection of states alone in terms of political
stability, territorial integrity and sovereignty. However,
Sushma Devi*
Research Scholar,
Centre for Security Studies, School of International
Studies, Central University of Gujarat
Mohd. Aarif Rather**
Research Scholar,
Centre for Security Studies, School of International
Studies, Central University of Gujarat
after the end of the cold war, the concept of the security
underwent a change from state-centric notion to
individual centred.As such, the individuals became the
referent objects of security. The nature of threats
changed from external aggression to intra-state
conflicts[27]. Such threats range from civil wars to
environmental degradation, from economic
deprivation to human right violation and so on. Apart
from these threats, the global politics witnesses the
age of information, communication and technology
which revolutionised every aspect of human life. It is
within the back-drop of this technological revolution
that the concept of cyber security came into existence
and assumed top priority at global level.
The Network outages, computer viruses, data
conceded by hackers and other incidents in one way
or the other affect our lives that range from
troublesome to life-threatening. The term “Cyber
security” refers to securing information technology and
focussing on protecting computers, programs,
networks and data from unauthorized or unintended
access from change or destruction. As most of the
government and financial institutions, military groups,
corporations, hospitals and other businesses
IITM Journal of Management and IT
entrepreneurs store and process an abundant deal of
confidential information on computers. Such
important data is transmitted across networks to other
computers. However, with the increasing volume and
sophistication of cyber-attacks, the on-going attention
is needed to protect personal information and sensitive
business as well as to safeguard the national security.
On the other hand, Cyber security plays a vital role in
the current development of information technology
and Internet services [41]. Therefore, it becomes
essential for each nation’s security and economic wellbeing to enhance the cyber security and protecting
critical information infrastructures. To make the
Internet safer has become integral to the development
of government policy as well as new services[9].
The concern of cyber security although in the emerging
phase has appeared as an important ingredient in the
conduct of international relations in contemporary
times. It has already started influencing the relations
between states. For instance, in recent years, the
concern over cyber security has become a contentious
issue between U.S - China relations. The U.S has been
alleged China of digital espionage against its business
and strategic interests as well as targeting proprietary
economic data and sensitive national security
information. On the other hand, China also claims
U.S of being accused of website defacements, network
exploitation and service denials attacks. This kind of
situation exacerbates mistrust and raises suspicions in
both the states regarding the others activities and
motives [5].
The cyber-space is evolving as a place where the states
are imitating their actions in the real world diplomacy
as well as their relations between or among them. It
has steadily becoming an arena where states need to
protect their territory. Thus, there existed a vital need
to apply tools and methods to extract the maximum
out of the cyber world in order to serve their national
as well as collective interests.Many countries has
witnessed several cyber security threats mainly from
2010 onwards and India is no exception to it. For
instance, in 2012, some suspected Iranian hackers
hacked around 30,000 computers of the Saudi Arabian
Oil Company namely “Saudi Aramco” and rendering
them useless. The aim of this cyber-attack was to stop
the flow of Saudi oil. Similar kind of attack was also
60
launched against the world’s largest liquefied natural
gas suppliers “RasGas” a joint-stock company owned
by Qatar Petroleum and ExxonMobil which also
suffered from the similar damage[7]. In addition, in
March 2013, North Korea launched a digital
destruction against South Korea by attacking its three
TV stations and three banks. Thus, the present decade
witnessed numerous cyber security attacks mainly
aimed to destruct economic set-up as well as the state’s
national security.
In the Indian context, the issue of cyber security has
received less attention from the policy makers from
time to time. The governments have been unable to
tackle the growing needs for effective and strong cyber
security of India. The reason behind is that India lacks
the offensive and defensive cyber security capabilities
necessary to tackle the cyber security attacks. Also,
India is not boosted with such mechanisms that are
vital to confront with sophisticated malware like
Stuxnet, Flame, Black shades etc. Thus, the cyber
security trends in India seems to be unconvincing at
all [19].
Historical Background of Cyber Security
The history of cyber security can be traced back to
1970’s when the first computer hackers appeared as
they tried to circumvent the system and attempted to
make free phone calls. However, it was only after the
mid 1980’s that the first computer virus called “Brain”
was created and as such the Computer Fraud and
Abuse Act were established in 1986. Also, in 1990’s,
several notable threats came into existence affecting
the modern information security industry. The
Distributed denial of service attacks as well as the bots
that made them possible also came into being.
Moreover, in early decade of 21st century, this
malicious Internet activity assumed the shape of a
major criminal enterprise aimed at monetary gain [30].
Such activities entered into mainstream by primarily
targeting online banking and then moving onto social
networking sites [25]. Now a day, the cyber issues has
assumed a much larger dimension and had a greater
impact on the national security of states.
With the advent of globalisation process, the world
has become more interconnected and the number of
Internet hosts and the personal computer industry has
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
increased. As a result, the large number of people got
access to Internet. The everyday life witnessed more
people coming online, more things connected to
internet, the public sector increasingly leveraging ICTs
vis-à-vis the consequences of cyber-attack raised. Under
such an open and wide platform, the Internet remained
no longer safe [1].The issues of privacy and security
concerns emerged and as such the concept of cyber
security came more into picture. Presently, cyber
security has become a global concern and includes
within its ambit the issues like Cyber warfare, Cybercrime and Cyber terrorism.
Cyber warfare, Cyber terrorism and Cyber-crime
In contemporary times, computers play an important
role in the battlefields in controlling targeting systems,
managing logistics as well as in relaying critical
intelligence information. Also, at both the strategic as
well as tactical levels, the battlefields stand to be
fundamentally altered by the information technologies.
Therefore, the increasing depth and breadth of this
battlefield as well as the improving accuracy and
destructiveness of even conventional weaponries have
heightened the importance of Control, Command,
Communications and Intelligence matters. The
dominance in this particular aspect may now yield the
advantages of consistent war-winning [2].
Cyber warfare
Cyber warfare is comparatively a new type of weaponry
having various effects on the target. It is beyond any
limitations of use and can be useful in achieving most
of the set goals. The history revealed that military
organizations, doctrines and strategies have frequently
undergone profound changes due to the technological
breakthroughs. Also, the information revolution
crosses across borders and thus it generally compels
closed systems to open up. This led a direct impact on
the future of the military as well as of conflict and
warfare more commonly. Thus, cyber warfare revolves
around information and communications matters at
much deeper levels. The cyber war may be applicable
in conventional and non-conventional environments,
low as well as high-intensity conflicts and for offensive
or defensive purposes. In broader sense, cyber war
indicates a transformation in the nature of war [2].
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
Cyber Warfare has become a more powerful instrument
in today’s battlefield and had large impact on the
development of armies as well as weapon technologies
in many countries. In mid-2007, the Israeli cyber
warriors hacked the Syrian anti-aircraft installations
and reprogrammed their computers. The installation
system of Syrian’s computers displayed an empty sky.
By doing so, the Syrian’s allowed Israeli planes to bomb
over a suspected nuclear weapons manufacturing
industry. The first among known cyber-attacks was
launched by the Russia under Deliberate Denial of
Service (DDOS) against “Paperless government” of
Estonia. After this attack, the DDOS emerged as a
common platform of attack for countries like U.S.,
China, Russia, North Korea, Israel and Pakistan [31].
The analysts around the globe are conscious about the
fact that any large-scaled future conflict will comprise
cyber warfare as part of a combined arms effort [6].
Cybercrime
Cybercrime refers to any illegal activity by using
computers as a primary mode of commission.
Cybercriminals use computer technology to access
business trade secrets, personal information or using
the Internet for malicious or exploitive purposes. The
information stolen by the criminal’s affects hundreds
of millions of people in their day today affairs. It has
been estimated that in 2012, 54 million people in
Turkey, 40 million in the US, 20 million in Korea, 20
million in China and more than 16 million in
Germany have been affected by the cybercrimes. The
growth is still alarming and is expected to be more
than 800 million in 2013 at global level. The
cybercrime is thus a biggest problem affecting both
the developed as well as developing world. The
consequences of cybercrime had bad implications on
the trade, innovation, competitiveness and global
economic growth [16]. However, the problem
associated with the Cybercrime is that the perpetrators
no longer require complex techniques or skills.
On the other hand, the intensity and perceptions of
relative risk and threat largely vary between
Governments and private sector enterprises. From the
perspectives of national security, almost two-thirds of
countries view their systems of police statistics
insufficient for recording cybercrime. According to the
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Police-recorded cybercrime rates, the number of crimes
is associated with levels of country’s development visa-vis specialized police capacity rather than underlying
crime rates [36].
In 2000, the first major instance of cybercrime took
place when a mass-mailed computer virus affected
around 45 million computer users worldwide.
However, the cybercrime landscape changed
dramatically and began to attain the politically
motivated objectives. In the last decade, cyber-attacks
have been evolved in utilizing the online weapons
affecting several government entities. The cyber experts
are of the view that the world has witnessed glimpses
of cyber war with unethical cyber hackers stealing
important state information. Quoting US Defense
Secretary Robert Gates, “cyberspace is the new domain
in which war will be fought after land, sea, air and
space” [20].
The present age i.e., digital age has witnessed a norm
of online communication in which the internet users
as well as governments confront with becoming the
targets of cyber-attack. With the advancement in the
techniques of cyber criminals, their focus shifted from
financial information to business espionage as well as
accessing government information. To fight fastspreading cybercrime, governments must collaborate
globally to develop an effective model that will control
the threat internet-based networking, cybercrime and
digital attack incidents have increased around the
world [20].
Cyber terrorism
Cyber terrorism is any deliberate attack against
information of computer systems, programs and data
resulting in violence against non-combatant targets by
secret agents or sub-national groups. The attacks are
generally politically motivated. The cyber-attacks are
designed to cause extreme financial harm or physical
violence. The thrust areas of cyber terrorist targets
include military installations, banking industry, air
traffic control centres, power plants and water systems
etc. The term ‘Cyber terrorism’ is sometimes referred
to as information war or electronic terrorism [28].
The present global era has witnessed more than one
billion online users and 233 countries connected to
62
the Internet. In such an inter-connected world,
terrorism is flourishing through terrorist’s use of
information and communication technologies (ICTs).
Today, nearly all the terrorist organizations either small
or large have their own Web sites. The recent example
of terrorist attacks includes Osama Bin Laden, attack
on America’s army deployment system during Iraq war
and the LTTE. The terrorist organisations cooperate
with organized crime vis-a-vis use technology to spread
propaganda, recruit and train members, raise funds,
communicate and launch attacks. The reason in
making the internet as an attractive medium is the
technological difficulty in dealing with cyber
communications. Also, the governments face several
difficulties in combating with terrorist’s use of ICTs
which include the lack of coordinated procedures and
laws in investigating cybercrimes, ineffective or
inadequate information sharing and complications in
tracing and tracking cyber communications [41].
Therefore, a global attention is needed to address these
areas of cyber security in order to win the battle against
terror.
Cyber Security and International Community
In recent decades, cyber security has emerged as a global
phenomenon and the most critical concerns of the IT
age. It acts as the corner stone of a connected world.
To address this issue, a truly global approach is needed.
Because of its universal networks, cyber terrorists and
criminals do not need their presence anywhere near
the scene of the crime [1]. Therefore, international
response and cooperation is needed to address the
notion of cyber security properly.
Cyber Security under United Nations
United Nations since its inception has taken the
responsibility of maintaining peace, security and
cooperation among the member-states. So far as the
issue of cyber security is concerned, it had established
Information Telecommunication Union (ITU) in
1965 to ensure the safety of all those who venture
online. ITU is the leading agency of United Nations
for information and communication technologies and
a global focal point for the private sectors as well as
governments. The purpose of ITU is to focus on the
growth and development of information and
telecommunication networks as well as to enable global
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access to all the people so that they may easily
participate and avail the benefits from the global
economy and emerging information society [17].
Apart from ITU, the United Nations has expressed
itself on cyber security matters and passed five major
Resolutions in this regard. The first resolution under
A/RES/55/63 was issued on December, 4th 2000
dealing with the criminal misuse of ICT’s. It identifies
that the unrestricted flow of information can promote
social and economic development as well as can be
useful in sustaining democratic governance. Another
resolution issued on 19th Dec, 2001 by the UN under
A/RES/56/121 requested the states to cooperate and
coordinate against misuse of ICTs. Basically, the
primary purpose of the resolution was to set the
national laws and policies to address the crimes related
to computer.
On 20th Dec, 2002, the UN passed a resolution under
A/RES/57/239 emphasising on the establishment of
global culture of cyber security. It urged the need that
the law enforcement as well as separate governments
cannot address cyber security alone but demands global
attention and cooperation. The UNs fourth resolution
(A/RES/58/199) issued on 23rd December 2003 also
deals on the global culture of cyber security but at the
same time focused on the protection of critical
information infrastructures like maritime and air
transport, financial and banking services, food
distribution, water supply and public health [40].
In 2010, the UN appointed three Groups of
Governmental Experts (GGE) to examine the
prevailing and potential threats from the cyber-sphere
as well as to find measures so as to combat them. Also,
in 2011, a resolution under A/RES/66/24 was passed
by the General Assembly emphasis the need of
addressing the assessments and recommendations as
contained in the Report of 2010 [35]. In addition,
the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed
the group of 15 experts on 9th August 2012 to draft a
report on the Developments in the Field of
Information and Telecommunications from the
perspective of International Security. The experts
include the five permanent members of the UN
Security Council as well as India, Japan, Canada,
Belarus, Australia, Egypt, Germany, Argentina, Estonia
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
and Indonesia. The experts emphasis that there is a
need to elaborate confidence-building measures and
to set several rules and principles of responsible
behaviour of States with respect to cyber security [42].
Again in 2013, the UN General Assembly adopted a
resolution under 68/243 in which special attention
was to be laid on the outcome of the 2012/2013 GGE.
Also, the Secretary-General of UN was requested to
establish a new GGE that would report to the General
Assembly in 2015 [35].To sum up, it may be assessed
that the issues of cyber security are quickly making its
way into the agenda of global public policy issues and
thereby demanding proper attention [23].
Canada’s Cyber Security policy
The cyber security strategy was issued by the
government of Canada in October 2010. The basic
purpose of the strategy was to secure the government
systems, to protect vital cyber systems outside the
federal government so as to strengthen resiliency and
facilitating Canadians to be secure online [37]. The
Security Intelligence Service of Canada considers the
cyber threat as one of its five priority areas including
security screening, proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction, terrorism and finally espionage and foreign
interference[37]. The strategy also focused on the need
to have an international engagement between the
allied militaries and Department of National Defence
on cyber defence for an effective implementation of
such practices [12]. The responsibility of handling the
computer and communications networks of the armed
forces have been entrusted with the Canadian Armed
Forces Information Management Group. In addition,
the government of Canada established the Directorate
of Cybernetics in June 2011 to enhance the cyber
warfare capabilities for the armed forces [37]. Thus,
the Canada has taken some positive steps in the
direction of improving the cyber security dimensions.
China’s Cyber Security policy
In early 2011, the government of China’s Information
Office issued a white paper on national defence by
which it directed the military to maintain its security
interests in cyber and electromagnetic space. It focuses
that the fighting capabilities of the armed forces in
circumstances of informationization have been
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
considerably raised. As such, there is a need to raise a
new type of combatting capability so as to win local
wars in conditions of informationization [15]. In the
same year in May 2011, the Chinese Ministry of
National Defence declared that the army had set up
an “Online Blue Army” in order to improve the cyber
security of the military forces [43].
In 2012, the Republic of China issued a set of new
policy guidelines for cyber security. It urged the need
for bringing the efforts to better handle and detect
information emergencies, protect personal information
and to reduce internet crime [44]. The Ministry of
Public Security and the Ministry of Industry and
Information Technology in China have taken the
responsibility for securing the cyber security sector.
Apart from the improvements made by china in the
sector of cyber security, the country had witnessed
several emerging threats in this particular sector. But
at the same time, it has evolved as one of the major
cyber security nations in the world.
United States (US) Cyber Security policy
In 2009, the United States formulated a Cyberspace
Policy Review and also appointed a mid-level Cyber
security Coordinator to the members of the National
Security Council [37]. In 2010, it retained some of
the provisions of Cyberspace Policy Review in its
National Security Strategy [38]. The responsibility of
dealing with the cyber security issues is entrusted with
the Department of Homeland Security, the
Department of Defence and the Bureau of
Investigation. However, the major step taken by US
in the direction of cyber security was initiated in 2012
under an extensive cyber security programme in the
realm of both civilian as well as military aspects. In
the same year, in October, President Obama signed a
Presidential Decision Directive regarding the activities
in cyberspace. The directive makes it clear that the
military will have a greater role to play in defending
against cyber-attack from foreign invasions[23]. Also,
in November, the Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency of UN released a document called
Foundational Cyber warfare asking for research into
the conduct of cyber war. The document stated that
there is a need to investigate into the nature of cyber
warfare and to find out the strategies needed to
64
dominate the cyber battle space [37]. Thus, the US
has taken some vital steps towards strengthening its
cyber security agenda. The progress made by the US
in the cyber security sector becomes clear by the cyberattack “Stuxnet” against an Iranian nuclear facility in
2010 [29].
United Kingdom’s (UK) Cyber Security policy
In contemporary times, the UK has one of the most
advanced national cyber security approaches. In the
year 2011, the UK restructured its Cyber Security
Strategy in which cyber- attack was considered as a
national security threat. The basic objectives of the
strategy include addressing cybercrime, enhancing
information infrastructure resiliency, ensuring a safe
cyberspace for the public and evolving an adequate
cyber security workforce. Apart from this, the strategy
makes it clear that the UK will work bilaterally as well
as through international forums to establish
international norms in the realm of cyber security and
will also work to develop confidence-building measures
in this sector [34]. The UK government has allocated
£650 million through 2015 for implementing the
National Cyber Security Programme [12].
In 2012, the UK announced the establishment of an
academic institute for the purpose of researching cyber
security. The objective behind was to increase resiliency
against the cyber- attack as well as to better equip the
government to defend the country’s national interests
in cyberspace [21]. Also, the UK government intends
to establish a National Crime Agency to investigate
and respond to serious national-level cybercrime as
well as provide training and support to local police
forces to deal with such crimes [34]. In addition, the
Defence Cyber Operations Group will be created
which would be operational by March 2015. The
Group would consist a federation of cyber units across
defence to safeguard the comprehensible integration
of cyber activities across the spectrum of defence
operations [33].
Russian Federation’s Cyber Security policy
The national policy for fighting cybercrime and the
establishment of a national system to prevent and
detect cyber-attack was released by the Russian
Federation’s Security Council in July 2012. The
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Responsibility for implementing the policy was given
to the Federal Security Service. The aim of the policy
is to secure the country’s networks from foreign sources
[4]. Also, the government has drafted a bill to make
an advanced military research agency for dealing with
cyber security. The bill discusses the principles of
information security and different measures to control
for interference in information systems. Thus, the
Russian federation seems to be determinant to protect
national interest’s vis-à-vis recognising the greater role
of information warfare [37].
To sum up, it may be assumed that various nations
particularly the developed ones have taken some serious
steps in combatting with the cyber security issues. At
the same time, they have initiated various policies and
programme to enhance and strengthen their cyber
security sectors.
Indian perspectives of cyber security
The IT sector in India has emerged as one of the most
significant growth catalysts for its economy. Also, this
sector is positively influencing the lives of its people
either through direct or indirect contribution to several
socio-economic parameters like standard of living,
employment, diversity among others etc. In addition,
it has played a vital role in transforming India as a
global player. Further, the Government sector has
facilitated increased adoption of IT sectors in the
country that encourage IT acceptance and National
programmes like Unique Identification Development
Authority of India (UIDAI) and National e-governance
Programmes (NeGP). The adoption of such
programmes has created large scale IT infrastructure
and promoted corporate participation. However,
despite the growth in IT sectors of India, there has
been a tremendous need to secure computing
environment as well as build adequate confidence &
trust in this sector. The presence of such environment
enables a need for the creation of suitable cyber security
eco system in the country [13].
The last couple of decades witnessed India in the niche
of IT. Almost, all the financial institutions as well as
Indian banking industry have incorporated IT to its
full optimization. At the same time, these economic
and financial institutions are confronted with cyberattacks in their daily activities. However, the increasing
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
dependency of these Indian institutions on IT under
cyber threats might lead them to an irreparable collapse
of economic structures. Although, the worrying part
is that there is absence of alternatives to tackle with
these kinds of threats [26].
In India, several organisations within the ambit of
Ministry of Defence have taken the responsibility of
dealing with the concept of cyber security. In the year
2005, the Indian Army formed the Cyber Security
Establishment in order to protect the networks at the
division level as well as to conduct safe cyber security
audits [24]. Also, in the year 2010, the army established
the Cyber Security Laboratory at the Military College
of Telecommunications Engineering in Madhya
Pradesh with a view to provide specialized training to
its officers in security protocols for its signal as well as
data transmission networks [10].
In March 2011, the Indian Ministry of
Communications and Information Technology
released a draft on National Cyber Security Policy. The
policy mainly focused on the security and protection
of critical infrastructure, development efforts as well
as public–private partnerships [13]. In June 2012, a
proposal in line with the draft policy under National
Security Council intends to create the National Critical
Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (under
the National Technical Research Organisation). The
objective behind this was to ensure the security of the
state’s critical infrastructure along with national and
sector-specific Computer Emergency Response Teams
(CERTs) [18]. In the same year in May, the Indian
Ministry of Defence Research and Development
Organization have established an indigenous system
of cyber defence to ensure that network sectors are
safe and secure. The project was reportedly about 50
percent to be complete as of May 2012 [45]. In the
context of cyber security, the Technical Intelligence
Communication Centre and the National Defence
Intelligence Agency are creating a joint team to aware
the government about potential cyber vulnerabilities
[32].
Apart from taking several positive steps, the cyber
security projects and initiatives in India are still very
less in numbers as compared to other developed
nations. Some of the projects proposed by the Indian
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
government have even remained on papers only. In
addition, the Projects like National Critical
Information Infrastructure Protection Centre
(NCIPC) and National Cyber Coordination Centre
(NCCC) of India has eventually failed to materialise
so far. Also, the National Cyber Security Policy of India
framed in 2013 failed to show fruitful results and even
its implementations seems to be weak on numerous
aspects. On the other hand, there is a vital need to
protect the critical infrastructures such as banks,
satellites, automated power grids, thermal power plants
etc from the cyber-attacks in India [32]. The Indian
government claimed that there has been a huge rise in
cyber-attacks against the establishments like the
banking and financial services sector. In the year
2013,there was a 136% increase in cyber-threats and
attacks against government organizations as well as
126% against financial services organizations in India
[3]. Also, the country ranks 7th in the cyber-attacks
and 85th in the net connectivity [8]. In addition, the
India continues to be an attractive target in recent times
for cyber criminals with around 69 percent targeted
attacks being focussed on large enterprises. According
to the report by security software maker ‘Symantec’
India nearly witnesses four out of ten attacks which
are carried on non-traditional service industries like
business, hospitality and personal services [14]. Thus,
there exists a vital need for India to frame a cybercrisis management plan in order to combat with the
cyber threats effectively.
Refrences
1. Andreasson, K.,Cyber Security: Public Sector Threats and Responses, New York: Auerbach Publications,2012.
2. Arquilla, J. and Ronfeldt, D.,”Cyberwar is coming,”Comparative Strategy,vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 141-165, 1993.
3. Athavale, D.,”Cyberattacks on the rise in India,”The Times of India, 10 March, 2014.
4. C.news., “Russia rolls out state cyber security policy,” Russia, 12 July, 2012.
5. IGCC Report,”China and Cybersecurity: China and Cybersecurity: Political, Economic, and Strategic
Dimensions,”Report from Workshops held at the University of California, San Diego, April 2012, pp. 1-34.
6. Clarke, R. A., and Knake, R.,Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It,
USA: Ecco Publications, 2012.
7. Kyrou, D.K.,”Critical Energy Infrastructure: Operators, NATO, and Facing Future Challenges,”Connections,
vol. XII,no. 3, pp. 109-117, 2013.
8. Express News Service, “India 7th in Cyber Attacks, 85th in Net Connectivity,”The new Indian express, 01
July, 2014.
9. Gercke., Understanding Cybercrime: a Guide for Developing Countries, Geneva: ITU publication,2009.
10. Governance Now,”Army sets up cybersecurity lab”,2010, Available: http://www.governancenow.com/news /
regularstory/army-sets-cyber-security-lab.
11. Government of Canada, “Canada’s Cyber Security Strategy”, 2010,Available: http://www.publicsafety.gc.
ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/cbr-scrt-strtgy/cbr-scrt-strtgyeng.pdf.
12. House of Commons Defence Committee, “Defence and Cyber-Security”, London: The Stationery Office
Limited, 2013.
13. Indian Ministry of Communications and Information Technology,”National Cyber security Policy”, draft
v1.0, 26 Mar, 2011.
14. Indo-Asian News Service, “Large films hit by 69 percent of targeted cyber-attacks in India: Symantec”, 26,
April, 2014.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
15. Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, “China’s National Defense in
2010", Information Office of the State Council, The People’s Republic of China, March 2011.
16. Intel Security (2014), Net Losses: Estimating the Global Cost of Cybercrime, Economic impact of cybercrime
II, Center for Strategic and International Studies, USA.
17. International Telecommunication Union, “Agencies of the UN: ITU,” 2014, Available: http://www.un.cv/
agency-itu.php.
18. Joseph, J., “India to add muscle to its cyber arsenal,” TheTimes of India, 11 June, 2012.
19. Kaushik, R.K., “Cyber Security Needs Urgent Attention of Indian Government,”2014, Available:http://
cybersecurityforindia.blogspot.in/2014/09/cyber-security-needs-urgent-attention .html.
20. KPMG International,Cybercrime – a growing challenge for governments, Issues Monitor,vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 121,2011.
21. Meyer, D., “Spies and professors band together for UK cyber security research institute,” ZD Net, 13 September,
2012.
22. Meyer, P,”Cyber Security Takes the Floor at the UN”, Canadian International Council,” 12 November 2013.
23. Nakashima, E., “Obama signs secret directive to help thwart cyber-attacks”, Washington Post, 14 November,
2012.
24. Pandit, R., “Army gearing up for cyber warfare,” Times of India, 7 July, 2005.
25. Pillai, P., “History of Internet Security,” 2012,Available URL: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/history-ofinternet-security.html.
26. Raghav, S.S.,”Cyber Security in India’s Counter Terrorism Strategy”, 2009, Available: http://ids.nic.in/
art_by_offids/Cyber%20security%20in%20india%20by%20Col%20SS%20Raghav.pdf.
27. Rather, M.A. and Jose, K.,”Human Security: Evolution and Conceptualization,”European Academic Research,
vol. II, no. 5,pp. 6766-6797, 2014.
28. Rouse, M.,”Cyber terrorism”, [Online: web] Accessed on 16 August, 2014, Available: http://
searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/cyberterrorism.
29. Sanger, D.E., “Obama order sped up wave of cyberattacks against Iran,” New York Times, 1 June, 2012.
30. SC Magazine, “A brief history of internet security,” 2009, Available: http://www.scmagazine .com/a-briefhistory-of-internet-security/article/149611/.
31. Singh, C.M.,Cyber War and Terrorism, Delhi: Prashant Publishing House, 2009.
32. Singh, H. and Philip J.T., “Spy game: India readies cyber army to hack into hostile nations’ computer
systems,” Economic Times, 6 August, 2010.
33. United Kingdom,”Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The Strategic Defence and Security Review”,
London: The Stationery Office Limited. (2010),
34. United Kingdom, “The UK Cyber security Strategy: Protecting and Promoting the UK in a Digital World,”
Cabinet Office 22, Whitehall London, pp. 1-43, 2011.
35. United Nations, “Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of
international security,”United Nations Publication: New York, pp. 1-56, 2011.
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36. United Nations, “Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime,” United Nations Publication: New York, pp.
1-287, 2013.
37. United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research,”The Cyber Index: International Security Trends and
Realities,”United Nations Publication:New York and Geneva, pp. 1-140, 2013.
38. United States,”National Security Strategy,”2010, Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/
rss_viewer/national_security_strategy.pdf.
39. UNODA, “Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International
Security”, United Nations, New York, 2011.
40. Wamala, F.,”The ITU National Cyber security Strategy Guide,”Telecommunication Standardization Sector
of ITU (ITU-T), Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
41. Westby, J.R., “Countering Terrorism with Cyber Security,” Jurimetrics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 297-313, 2007.
42. Wolter, D., “The UN Takes a Big Step Forward on Cyber security,”Arms Control Association, 13 September,
2013.
43. Xin, Y, “PLA establishes ‘Online Blue Army’ to protect network security,” People’s Daily Online, 26 May,
2011.
44. Xinhua, “China calls for tightened information security measures,” China Daily, 18 July, 2012.
45. Xinhua, “India developing cyber defense program,”2012, Available: http://english.cri.cn/6966/2012/05/04
/2941s697329.htm.
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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
An Analysis on Improvement of Website Ranking
Using Joomla
Kirti Nigam*
Satyam Saxena**
Nargish Gupta***
Abstract
Search engine optimization is a strategically technique to take a web document in top search
results of a search engine and is often about making small modifications to parts of your website.
When viewed individually, these changes might seem like incremental improvements, but when
combined with other optimizations, there could be a noticeable impact on final site’s user
experience and performance in organic search results. Search engine optimization is about putting
your site’s best foot forward when it comes to visibility insearch engines, but developer ultimate
goal is consumers of website are their users (End user uses particular website), and this will not depend
on search engines. This present study focuses on impact of a high search engine ranking on the
amount of visitors from the search engine and what value comes with their views of the visitors
on the various SEO techniques that can be used by webmasters to improve website’s visibility in
search results and improve traffic to the website.
Keywords: Search Engine Optimization, Website SEO(Search Engine Optimization), On Page
Optimization, Off Page Optimization, Website Visibility.
Introduction
Now day’s web in market website ranking plays an
important role. When an user put a query in search
bar of search engine then user wish to find his desire
output in first three or four results maximum he/ she
tries for two or three pages. This psychology of user
indicate that particular developer website must come
under top 30 results otherwise there is no worthwhile
of development. Another issue arises that different user
uses different search engine so developer cannot
develop a website or application by considering one
or two search engine. In other words website and web
application must be independent with search engine
working [1].
Search engine optimization (SEO) is the practice
of altering a website to improve the rankings of
Kirti Nigam*
SRITS Datia, M.P.
Satyam Saxena**
Assistant Professor, SRITS Datia, M.P.
Nargish Gupta***
Assistant Professor, IITM, New Delhi
that website, among popular search engines such
as Google, Bing, and Yahoo. Many visitors discover
new websites and brands on these popular search
engines, placement in the search results for common
searches has become a critical method of advertising
for many businesses.
SEO is a scientific development concept and
methodology, which develops along with the
development of search engine, and promotes the
development of search engines at the same time.
SEO is not a suddenly appeared technology, but
it synchronously developed with search engines.
From the appearance of yahoo, Google and other
search engine that become cause of emergence of new
SEO theory for search innovations [2]. Search engine
technology is in the development and perfection. The
excellent search engine should have four
characteristics: rapid, accurate, easy to use and storage.
Seo Using Joomla
Web crawling produces order of the search result.
Engines performed and as a means to search the data
in search engine result page (SERP), the current
IITM Journal of Management and IT
minutes using the search web search engine results
web page.
Browser Page Title
Each title in Joomla site is named same as the title
user have given to each Menu Item that developer
create. User also has ability to create title tag different
than the Menu item. These titles are store in the server.
When a query is generated then search engine first
search the particular title in server. For example if user
pass any query in between inverted comma (“”) then
google search engine provide only those link where
particular phrase or query is present. Appropriate title
for a webpage and application is helpful for improving
website ranking on server.
Viewing Page Source
Every page and web application is always store in any
server. Search engine fetch the link of particular
document and provide it to user. User can view the
information of page source if you see how your browser
will show the title of the page. This can be done by
right-clicking your mouse on the web page and
selecting the option of View page source.
Meta Descriptions
In Joomla, for improving your SEO,there is a great
strategy of utilizing the Meta keywords and its
Description option.Your choices in favor of description
used globally Yahoo and Google improve your SEO
details.However, it will take sometimes for Joomla site
and individually or developer can search for free
keywords, articles or menu items and begin work with
his own characterized metadata, generally developers use
google based application which provide what user interest
(regarding with word) for particular issue.
Global Metadata Options
On World Wide Web different geographical user
search other words for same query. For developing
metadata for your entire site, log into the
Administration area (the back end) of your site, and
go to the Global Configuration area. Under the Site
tab, locate Metadata Settings.
Site Meta Description
These are the key entry site below will be in the
Meta”description”text omitted from the past 20 often
70
connected individuals, around the word show
Metadata Meta web entry. A recommended
description is of around 20 words. If the metadata
entry is blank, then this entry is omitted from web
pages. Meta descriptions the SERP page more cuples
looking headers, metadata describing the insertion of
keywords to describe the page and application on web.
Meta descriptions tend to be more important than
the keywords.
Site Meta Keywords
The keywords reflect the content of the web page to
move up the search engine rankings. As Search engines
may use these words to refine their indexing of the
site s web pages.The “keywords” metadata entry are
words and phrases (separated by commas) added here
appear in web page headers. This metadata entry is
omitted from web pages if the metadata entry is blank
then this entry is omitted from web pages.
Global Seo Settings
Search URL for the website, configuration easier for
the region’s ranking changes. The use and management
of the SEO person can format setting pages have a
URL settings. The developer offered with significant
impact of options within a few pages to global. Once
a website is established you do not recommended to
alter the SEO Settings [3]. Nearly all of a site s URLs
will also change if you changing any of the first three
items in this area and result in broken links from other
sites and perhaps a temporary drop in search engine
rankings.
Google Analytics
In some circumstances developer find that the end
user would want more control over the”Google
Analytics” code and would prefer to switch it on and
off or insert new tracking code at their own will. Id
parameter that the engine website plug Google
Analytics asynchronously so that sites that we supply
or we end analytics tracking the general rankings since
loading allow the user to their simple Google search
for the term you plug compiled increasing in the new
code allow us to build in this code loading
performance .Forsite analytic template allow embed
prefer to buy enough for a little tracking for Google
to accelerate the load is added to that of the analytical
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Fig. 1: Global SEO Settings
to add some code to plugin. It is well in control of
your well circumstances switch itself. Every Google
search requires little line code for loading page.
Since “Google Now” actively looks at your websites
loading performance to calculateits search engine
rankings, plug-in play an important role for this, these
plugin allows developer to add some enhanced web
property. On the other hand these plugins help to
create a link between two or more sites, so that if
original site is calls in a query then other site which
contains the plugins also reflect their links on search
results [4].
New Advanced Features
Subdomain and Multiple Top Level Domains
There is little new support that has been added to the
plugin. It now supports multiple sub domains and
multiple top level domains,
For example: example.com.au, example.com.
Sample Rate Specifications
A session timeout is used for computation of visiting
users. For the particular needs, if anyone want to
change the definition of a ‘session’, then developer
can pass new number of milliseconds to define a new
value of session. This will impact on visiting reports
of every section, where the number of visits are
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• January-June, 2015
calculated, these visits are used in computing other
values. For example, if you shorten the session
timeout, the number of visits will increase and it
will decrease when developer increase the session
timeout [5].
Site speed sample rate specification
An analysis shows a fix in value of 1% sampling of
site, visitors make up the data pool from which the
site speed metrics are derived by default code present
on search engine, developer want to adjust the
sampling to a larger rate. If a website have relatively
small number of daily visitors, such as 100,000 or
fewer. It will provide increased granularity for page
load time and other Site Speed.
Visitor cookie timeout
The timeout sets the Google Analytics visitor cookie
expire in milliseconds.Using this method, developer
prefer to change the expiration date of the visitor
cookie. Visitors use cookies for maintain session when
user delete the cookie then time out time will change
the “expiration time” to 0. If user set browser timeout
time then it willincrease or decrease expiration time.
Social Media Tracking
If website contains Facebook and other templates
integrated in it. For example functions such as
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
tracking of Facebook ‘like’ and ‘unlike’ as well and
follows the site on Twitter.Tracking differentiate
between “Frontend” Log-in User and Visitor. Extra
code is required to track website member actions
compared to website visitors. Google Webmaster
tools used for domain verification of websites to
distinguish among various geographical servers and
their data.
On-page Optimization Tool
The exact link to our site’s key insight glimpse stop
the use of the information in this modest site of useful
your connection to the meta effect Internet access to
view most of the site and equipment to make
adjustments in how these elements you can structure
your site to reach its maximum potential. Use this
tool to evaluate your internal links, Meta information
and page content.
Conclusion
Despite various search engine optimization techniques,
the most effective solution to a highly visible website
still relies on having good contents. Once a website is
submitted to search engine listing, the search engine
crawler will categorize and index the website based on
keywords in the contents. Therefore, website designers
must be smart about choosing the right keywords for
website content. There are many useful search engine
optimization tools available today. But the challenge
lies in knowing whichtool to use and how to interpret
the data gathered by the tool. SEO can promote web
site’s ranking in the search engine, also will get more
and more attention . Moreover from the perspective
of the development of SEO, though there are SEO
cheating, but the initiative of industry words basically
master in the hands of SEO who uses widely
recognizes optimization technique.
References
1. ComScore Releases June 2012 U.S. Search Engine Rankings.Retrieved 08 27, 2012, from Comscore:http://
www.comscore.com/Pres_Events/Press_Releases/2012/6/com
2. Ferdig R., & Trammell K., Content Delivery in the “Blogosphere”. The Journal Online - Technological
Horizons in Education. Google Internet Users. Retrieved June 14, 2012, from Google Public
3. Jennifer Grappone,GradivaCouzin, “Search Engine Optimization” BeiJing: Tsinghua University Press,
pp.100147,July 2007.
4. Score_Releases_June_2012_U.S._Search Engine Rankings Downes, S. (2004).Educational blogging.
Educause, 39 (5), 14-26.Facebook. (2012, 07 27). Facebook Key Facts. Retrieved 08 27, 2012,
5. http://pbwebdev.com/blog/asynchronous-google-analytics-plugin-for-joomla
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Network Security - Authentication Methods
and Firewall
Minal Dhankar*
Abstract
Nowadays computer security is becoming a major issue because we are moving to a digital world. The
security of data is extreme important in ensuring safe transmission of information over the Internet.
Authentication and firewalls are one of the most basic and commonly used techniques to ensure security
in the network. A firewall is a device that prevents unauthorized access to a network and can be
implemented in hardware or software or a combination of both. This paper presents various authentication
techniques like Knowledge based, Token based, Biometric based and an analysis of Firewall Technology.
Keywords: Firewall Testing, Firewall Technology, Authentication, Biometric, Password, Security Tokens
Introduction
As the world is digitizing people are becoming more
active on the Internet, but along with this awareness
several security threats like viruses, Denial of service
etc. have also increased tremendously. So, the most
important issue in today world is to secure the
network. Security network is important because we
do not want any sensitive or confidential information
to go outside the network. These threats can create
serious damage to an individual’s personal information
and to the resources of a company or an organization.
These threats are present mainly due to the ignorance
of the user and poor technology and design of the
network. These threats are also a result of the network
services which are enabled by default into a computer
and are used by the hackers for information gathering.
The firewalls installed before are not suitable for the
present computer threats and cannot prevent data
against these threats. A firewall is a hardware or
software system that prevents unauthorized access to
or from a network and can be implemented in
hardware and software or both. Firewall filters
incoming and outgoing data packets as they come in
and go outside of the network. The following are basic
features of a secure networkMinal Dhankar*
Asst. Prof., Maharaja Surajmal Institute
(Affiliated to GGSIP University)
New Delhi, India
1) Access: Only authorized users are used to
communicate to and from a particular network..
2) Authentication: This ensures that users in the
network are who they say they are. Actual flow of
information can start only after the user has been
authenticated and allowed to communicate to
other systems in the network.
3) Confidentiality: Data in the network remains
private. This is done to ensure that the
information can be viewed only by authenticated
systems and it can be achieved using various
encryption techniques.
4) Integrity: This ensures that the message has not
been changed during transmission.
Data Security And Authentication
During the process of data communication there is
always a threat of stealing of data by the hackers. So,
to secure sensitive information, authentication is the
key in network security. Authentication is the
technique of ensuring the identity of user or any other
entity involved in the network. Password is the most
commonly used scheme for verifying the identity of a
person. Attacks which can occur during authentication
are given in Table I.
Authentication Methods
Following are the primary authentication techniques
used in the public network these days:
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Table I: Attacks on Network Data
ATTACK
DESCRIPTION
Passive Attack
Monitors unencrypted traffic and looks for sensitive information
Active Attack
The attacker tries to bypass or break into secured systems
Distributed Attack
It introduces code such as Trojan horse to a trusted software
Insider Attack
It involves someone from the inside attacking the network.
Close-in Attack
This involves someone attempting to get physically close to data
Phishing Attack
The hacker creates a fake website that looks like an original website.
Hijack Attack
The hacker takes over a session between you and another person.
Spoof Attack
The hacker modifies the source address of the packets.
A. Password and pin based
Passwords and PINs are most commonly used
authentication methods. These are known as
Knowledge-based methods as users memorize their
passwords. Passwords can be single words, numeric,
phrases, any combination of these or personal
identification number. For stronger protection,
password should be longer. Plain passwords must be
avoided as far as possible. In an authentication system,
a strong password should be a combination of
numbers, letters, special characters and mixed cases.
In order to protect password during data transmission,
the Transport Layer Security (TLS) or Secure Socket
Layer (SSL) features, which can generate an encrypted
channel for data exchange, should also be enabled for
authentication systems. Cases have been reported of
user ID’s and passwords being stolen by fraudsters
through phishing emails, fake websites, Trojan
software and other malicious software. Since such
attacks are focused on the end-user side, raising the
awareness of user is very important so that they can
protect their interests in their daily transactions.
Unusual knowledge-based methods can also be
adopted based on visual images (graphical password).
One example is that a user is presented with a series
of five randomly generated life-like faces and the user
repeatedly picks out the faces from a series of grids
filled with more faces. By picking the correct faces,
the user has effectively typed in his password.
Fig.1 shows working of password based authentication
technique. The user first enters a name and password.
It is required that the Client application binds itself
Fig.1 Server based authentication
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
to the Directory Server with a distinguished Name.
The client uses the name entered by user to retrieve
domain name. Next the client sends these credentials
to the Directory Server. The server then verifies the
password sent by the client by comparing it against
the password stored in database. If it matches, the
server accepts the credentials for authenticating the
user identity. Then the server allows client so
authorized to access the resources.
B. Token Based
This is a physical device that performs authentication
and hence can be termed as object based. Tokens can
be compared with physical keys to houses that are
used as a token but in digital tokens many other factors
are present to provide information safety. In digital
world, security tokens are used. The general concept
behind a token based authentication system is simple.
Allow users to enter their username and password in
order to obtain a token which allows them to fetch a
specific resource-without using their username and
password. Once their token has been obtained, the
user can offer the token-which offers access to a specific
resource for a time period-to the remote site. Tokens
themselves have password so even if they are lost, the
hackers cannot modify the vital information. Bank
cards, smart cards are security token storage devices
with passwords and pass codes. Pass codes are same as
password except that the former are machine generated
and stored. There exist one time security tokens and
smartcards as. Analysis involves finding out the user
expectations or needs regarding new or modified
software. It involves frequent communication with the
system user for requirement findings and specifying
those requirements in the Software Requirement
Specification document.
C. Biometric Based
Biometric authentication is the process of verifying if
a user is whom he is claiming to be, using digitized
biological signatures of the user. Biometric
authentication can be classified into two groups:
physiological and behavioral. In physiological
authentication, faces, finger prints, hands, iris and
retina follow. And in the case of behavioral, voice
prints, signatures and keystrokes are used. This
technique can term as ID based. This technique is
safer as compared to password and token based
techniques. Biometric authentication techniques are
currently in operation in various enterprises. They are
used for passports, visas, personal identification cards,
accessing bank machines, doorway access control, and
general computer desktop access
Working of Firewall in PC
There are various different methods firewalls use to
filter out data, and some are used in combination.
These methods work at dissimilar layers of a network,
which determines how specific the filtering options
can be used. Firewalls can be used in a number of
ways to add protection to your home or business. Large
organization or corporations often have very complex
firewalls in place to secure their networks. On the other
side, firewalls can be configured to avoid employees
from sending certain types of mails or transmitting
confidence data outside of the network. On the
inbound side, firewalls can be programmed to stop
access to certain websites like social networking sites.
Fig. 2 Working of Firewall
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Moreover, firewalls can prevent outside computers
from accessing computers inside the network.
A company might choose to select a single computer
on the network for file sharing and all other computers
could be controlled. There is no limit to the variety of
configurations that are possible when using firewalls.
For residence use, firewalls work much more basically.
The main goal of a standalone firewall is to protect
your personal computer and private network from
various threads. Malware, malicious software, is the
main threat to your home computer. Viruses are the
first type of malware that comes to mind. A virus can
be transmitted to your system through email or over
the Internet and can quickly cause a lot of injure to
your files.
There are two ways a Firewall can prevent this from
occurrence. It can allow all interchange to pass through
except data that meets a preset set of criteria.
Firewall uses the later way to prevent malware from
installing on your computer. This free software
firewall, from a global security solutions provider and
certification power, uses the patent pending “Clean
PC mode” to disallow any application from being
installed on your computer unless it meets one of two
criteria. Those criteria are as follow a) the user gives
authorization for the installation and b) the
application is on a widespread list of standard
applications provided by this firewall. With this
feature, you don’t have to worry about unauthorized
programs installing on your computer without your
awareness.
A. Firewall Technology Overview
A firewall works like a filter between your computer
and the Internet. Firewalls can also do auditing. With
firewall you can decide, data which can be accessed on
your network and which should not. A firewall can
look at a whole packet’s contents. There are various
different types of firewall used to filter out information.
Firewalls can be used in business and at homes too. In
business firewalls can prevent employees from sending
sensitive data outside the organization and can also be
programmed to restrict access to certain websites. For
home use the main goal of firewall is to protect your
computer from malware or malicious software.
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A.1 Packet Filters
The simplest form of firewall is packet filter. On the
Internet, the aim of packet filtering is to allow or block
packets based on source and destination addresses,
ports, or protocols. A packet is sent from source to
destination only if it is certified. A packet filter look
at five things like the source and destination IP
addresses, the source and destination ports, and the
protocol such as UDP, TCP/IP, and so on. As packet
filter deals with individual packets a decision is to be
made for each and every packet, whether that
particular packet can pass or should undergo some
other action. Due to its simplicity and speed, a packet
filter can be enabled on your routers, eliminating the
need of a dedicated firewall. There are some problems
with packet filters:
1. They generally do not have any idea about what
is being sent in the packets.
2. They are not able to successfully handle protocols
that rely on various dynamic conditions.
A.2. Application Gateways
An application gateway is also known as application
proxy or application-level proxy such as an SMTP
proxy that understand the SMTP protocol and it is a
program that runs on a firewall system between two
networks. An application gateway is one step farther
than a packet filter as instead of simply checking the
IP parameters, it actually looks at the application layer
data. When a client program creates a connection to
a destination service, it connects to an application
gateway, or proxy. The client then negotiates with the
proxy server in order to communicate with the
destination service. In effect, the proxy establishes the
connection with the destination behind the firewall
and acts on behalf of the client, hiding and protecting
individual computers on the network behind the
firewall. This creates two connections: one between
the client and the proxy server and one between the
proxy server and the destination. Once connected, the
proxy makes all packet-forwarding decisions. Since
all communication is conducted through the proxy
server, computers behind the firewall are protected
.An application gateway check the data that is being
sent and authenticate that the particular protocol is
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
being used perfectly. Let’s say we were creating an
SMTP application gateway. It would need to keep
track of the state of the link: Has the client sent a
HELO/ELHO request? Has it sent a MAIL FROM
before attempting to send a DATA request? As long
as the protocol is obeyed, the proxy will shuttle the
commands from the client to the server. The
application gateway must understand the protocol and
process both sides of the conversation. As such, it is a
much more CPU exhaustive process than a simple
packet filter. However, this also lends it a larger element
of security. You will not be able to run the earlier
described SSH- over-port-25 trick when an
application gateway is in the way because it will realize
that SMTP is not in use. Furthermore, because an
application gateway understands the protocols in use,
it is able to support difficult protocols such as FTP
that create casual data channels for each file transfer.
As it reads the FTP command channel, it will make
out the data channel declaration and allow the
specified port to traverse the firewall only until the
data transfer is complete. Often there is a protocol
that is not directly understood by your application
gateway but that must be allowed to traverse the
firewall. SSH and HTTPS are two effortless examples.
Because they are encrypted end to end, an application
gateway cannot read the traffic actually being sent. In
these cases, there is usually a way to configure your
firewall to allow the appropriate packets to be sent
without invasion by the firewall. It can be difficult to
put together application gateways into your standard
routing hardware due to the processing overhead [10].
Some newer high-end routers are able to function as
application gateways, but you’ll need plenty of CPU
power for satisfactory presentation.
A.3. Stateful Inspection
In computing, a this firewall is a firewall that keeps
track of the state of network associations (such as TCP
streams, UDP communication) travelling across it.
The firewall is programmed to differentiate legal
packets for different types of connections. Only
packets matching is an active connection will be
allowed by the firewall; others will be rejected it
inspection, also referred to as Dynamic Packet
Filtering, is a security feature. Check Point Software
introduced this inspection in the use of its Firewall 1
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
in 1994, this firewall assessment takes the basic ethics
of packet filtering and adds the concept, so that the
Firewall considers the packets in the context of before
packets. So for example, it records when it sees a packet
in an internal table and in many execution will only
allow TCP packets that match an existing conversation
to be forwarded to the network. This has a number of
advantages over simpler packet filtering: It is possible
to build up firewall rules for protocols which cannot
be correctly controlled by packet filtering. There is a
risk that vulnerabilities in individual protocol decoders
could permit an attacker to gain control over the
firewall. This worry highlights the need to keep firewall
software updated. Some of these firewalls also increase
the possibility that personally hosts can be trick into
solicit outside connections. This option can only be
totally eliminated by auditing the host software. Some
firewalls can be conquered in this way by simply
screening a web page. More complete control of traffic
is possible [6]. Equally, there are some disadvantages
to this assessment solution, in that the execution is
automatically more complex and therefore more likely
to be errors. It also requires a device with more memory
and a more influential CPU for a given traffic weight,
as data has to be stored about each and every load
flow seen over a period of time.
B. Firewall Testing
Firewalls plays important role in network protection
and in many cases build the only line of security
against the unidentified rival, systematic Firewall
testing has been ignored over years. The reason for
this lies in the missing of undependable, helpful and
received testing methodologies. Efficiency testing is
hard to do without particular tools, and even if you
have particular tools, you may not get good results.
Efficiency testing should focus on three areas: (1)
intrusion prevention (2) antimalware (3) application
identification. If you want to block peer-to-peer file
sharing, open a few different Torrent clients and see
what happens. Performance testing has to be
completed by “pass/fail” indicators. For example, when
the firewall starts to reject to open new sessions, the
test should end as you have gone away from the limits.
You should also set other limits, such as greatest latency
time, to define when the firewall is not behaving
sufficiently well. Do the same for applications such
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
as webmail or face book, which both are the most
important candidates for application identification
and control. Don’t try an automatic test tool, as the
results are never as exact as the real application talking
to real servers. This is especially correct of applications
that are ambiguous, such as Bit Torrent and Skype,
which can never be perfectly virtual in a test tool.
Performance testing also usually requires particular
tools, but has become so well- liked that there are open
source alternative. When testing presentation
remember to check your bad test against a null device
a router or patch cable would work. This will tell you
the maximum speed of your analysis bed. From there,
keep in mind noted network tester David Newman’s
Laws of Testing: It must be repeatable, it must be
worrying, and it must be significant. Take the device
you’re testing to its confines, even if you don’t predict
going that far. This will tell you where you will hit a
wall in the upcoming and where you have sufficient
headroom to grow. There are three general approaches
to firewall testing:
1) Penetration testing
2) Testing of the firewall implementation
3) Testing of the firewall rules
The goal of penetration testing is to expose security
flaw of a goal network by running attacks against it.
Penetration testing includes information get-together,
searching the network and attacking the target. The
attacks are performed by running vulnerability testing
tools, Saint that check the firewall for likely breaches
of security to be exploited. If vulnerabilities are
detected, they have to be permanent. Penetration
testing is usually performed by the system
administrators themselves or by a third party (e.g.
hackers, security experts) that try to break into the
computer system. The problem is that we have to be
sure that we can trust the external experts. Penetration
testing is a way to perform firewall testing but it is
not the only one and it is not the way we precede.
Testing of the firewall working focuses on the firewall
software. The examiner checks the firewall working
for bugs. Different firewall commodities support
different firewall
languages. Thus, firewall rules are vendor-exact.
Consider a hardware firewall deploying vendor- exact
firewall rules. The firewall execution testing approach
evaluates if the firewall rules communicate to the
action of the firewall. Firewal execution testing is
primarily performed by the firewall vendors to increase
the consistency of their products. Testing of the firewall
rules confirmed whether the security policy is correctly
executed by a set of firewall rules. A security plan is a
Figure 3: Testing of Firewall
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
document that sets the basic mandatory rules and
morality on information security. Such a document
should be plan in every company. The firewall rules
are future to implement the directives in the security
plan. Considering the test packet driven advance,
firewall testing includes two phases: The identification
of appropriate test cases that examine the behavior of
the firewall and the practical performance of these
tests.
Conclusion
Network security can be maintained by making use
of various authentication techniques. User has to use
authentication technique depending on requirement.
Password based technique is best if you have to
remember a single password. But problems occur
when we have to remember many passwords so we
use those passwords that are easy to remember. Token
based techniques provide added security against
denial of service (DoS) attacks. In comparison to
above two, techniques biometric cannot be easily
stolen so it provides stronger protection. As signals,
biometric can be easily copied by attackers so it
should not be deployed in single factor mode.
Furthermore we can choose a combination of above
technique as discussed above. The firewall also has
its own limitations All the techniques have their pros
and cons. We have to be smart to choose as per our
requirement of safety of networks and information
by considering cost factor.
References
1. Lawrence O”Gorman, “Comparing Passwords, Tokens, and Biometrics for User Authentication”, Vol. 91,
No. 12, Dec. 2003, pp. 2019-2040 ã 2003 IEEE.
2. Hafiz Zahid Ullah Khan, “Comparative Study of Authentication Techniques”, IJVIPNS-IJENS Vol: 10
No. 04.
3. [Online]Available:
http://www. authenticationworld.com/Token-Authentication
4. [Online]Available:
http://www.authenticationworld.com/Authentication-Biometrics.
5. Jae-Jung Kim and Seng-Phil Hong, “A Method of Risk Assessment for Multi-Factor Auhentication”, Journal
of Information Processing Systems, Vol. 7, No.1, March 2011.
6. Qinghua Li, Student Member, IEEE, and Guohong Cao, Fellow, IEEE “Multicast Authentication in the
Smart Grid with One Time Signature”, IEEE TRAN SACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 2, NO. 4,
DECEMBER 2011.
7. [Online]Available:http://www.duosecurity.com.
8. [Online]Available:http://ids.nic.in/technical_letter TNL_JCES_JUL_2013/Advance%20Authenticatio
N%20Technique.pdf.
9. Stamati Gkarafli, Anastasios A. Economides, “Comp Aring the Proof by Knowledge Authentication
Techniques”, International Journal of Computer Science and Security (IJSS), Volume(4): Issue (2).
10. Roger Meyer, “Secure authentication on the internet” As the part of security reading room, SANS institute
2007.
11. Canghong Zhang, based on network security firew All technology,Information technology, Chinese new
Technology new product, 2009.
12. Rui Wang. Haibo Lin, Network security and firewall Technology, Tsinghua university publishing house, In
2000.
13. Kuang chu,network security and firewall technology, Chongqing university publishing house,2005.
14. S. Smith, E. Palmer, and S. Weingart, “Using a high-Performance, programmable secure coprocessor,” in
Proc. International Conference on Financial Crypt ography, Anguilla, British West Indies, 1998.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
79
Cyber Security in Biometrics Using Fingerprints
Priyanka Rattan*
Ritika Kapoor**
Abstract
Nowadays, industries are experiencing technological advancement. With the rise of globalization, it is
essential to have an easier and more effective system. Security is a major concern for organizations
nowadays as security related risks may affect the organization’s information assets badly. One method
of ensuring a secure system is the Biometric System. It is a system that uses information about a person
that identifies a person. Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label
and describe individuals. Biometrics is an automated method of recognizing a person based on a
physiological or behavioral characteristic. Physiological biometrics works by analysing the human body
characteristics such as face recognition, fingerprint, face, retina, and iris and behavioral biometrics is
based on the person’s behavior, e.g. voice recognition. Biometric technologies are becoming the
foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. This
paper covers the use of fingerprints scanning in biometrics. Fingerprint recognition is one of the most
well known biometrics, and it is by far the most used biometric solution for authentication on computerized
systems. Fingerprints vary from person to person (even identical twins have different prints) and don’t
change over time. Finger-scan technology is the most widely deployed biometric technology, with a
number of different vendors offering a wide range of solutions. Thus biometrics is a means to protect
security of data. This paper also covers biometrics recognisation, types of biometrics and application of
biometrics. One primary conclusion is that identification should be considered as a component of
development policy.
Keywords: Biometrics, Fingerprint, Security, biometric identification
Introduction
There are two types of systems that help establish the
identity of a person: verification systems and
identification systems. In a verification system, a person
desired to be identified submits an identity claim to
the system, usually via a magnetic card, login name,
smart card, etc., and the system either rejects or accepts
on the basis of identity of a person (Am I who I claim
I am?). In an identification system, the system
establishes a person’s identity (or fails if the person is
not enrolled in the system database) without the person
having to claim an identity (Who am I?). The topic of
this paper is a verification system based on fingerprints,
and the terms verification, authentication, and
identification are used synonymously.
Priyanka Rattan*
Trinity Institute of Professional Studies
Ritika Kapoor**
Trinity Institute of Professional Studies
Among the most remarkable strengths of fingerprint
recognition, few are the following:
l
Its maturity, providing a high level of recognition
accuracy.
l
The growing market of low-cost small-size
acquisition devices, allowing its use in a broad
range of applications, e.g., electronic commerce,
physical access, PC logon, etc.
l
The use of easy-to-use devices, not requiring
complex user-system interaction.
Accurate automatic personal identification is becoming
more and more important to the operation of our
increasingly electronically interconnected information
society. Traditional automatic personal identification
technologies to verify the identity of a person, which
use”something that you know,” such as a personal
identification number (PIN), or “something that you
have,” such as an identification (ID) card, key, etc.,
are no longer considered reliable enough to satisfy the
IITM Journal of Management and IT
security requirements of electronic transactions. All
of these techniques suffer from a common problem of
inability to differentiate between an authorized person
and an unauthorized who fraudulently acquires the
access privilege of the authorized person.
History of Fingerprints
There are records of fingerprints being taken many
centuries ago, although they weren’t nearly as
sophisticated as they are today. In ancient era people
pressed the tips of their fingertips into clay to record
business transactions. The Chinese used ink-on-paper
finger impressions for business and to help identify
their children. Until the 19th century fingerprints
weren’t used as a method for identifying criminals. A
few years later, Scottish doctor Henry Faulds was
working in Japan when he discovered fingerprints left
by artists on ancient pieces of clay. This finding inspired
him to begin investigating fingerprints. In 1880, Faulds
and Charles Darwin developed fingerprint
classification system. Further Galton collected
measurements on people around the world to
determine how traits were inherited from one
generation to the next. He began collecting fingerprints
and eventually gathered 8,000 different samples to
analyze. In 1892, he published a book called
“Fingerprints,” in which he outlined a fingerprint
classification system — the first in existence. The
system was based on patterns of arches, loops and
whorls. Sir Edward Henry, commissioner of the
Metropolitan Police of London, became interested in
using fingerprints to catch criminals. In 1896, he added
to Galton’s technique, creating his own classification
system based on the direction, flow, pattern and other
characteristics of the friction ridges in fingerprints.
Examiners would turn these characteristics into
equations and classifications that could distinguish one
person’s print from another’s. In 1901, Scotland Yard
established its first Fingerprint Bureau. The following
year, fingerprints were presented as evidence for the
first time in English courts. In 1903, the New York
state prisons adopted the use of fingerprints, followed
later by the FBI.
State of the Art in Fingerprint Recognition
Fingerprint Recognition is the process in which we
find out used whether two sets of fingerprint ridge
detail come from the same finger. This paper presents
a basic introduction to fingerprint recognition systems
and their main parts, including a brief description of
the process and applications of fingerprints. The main
modules of a fingerprint verification system are: a)
fingerprint sensing, in which the fingerprint of an
individual is taken by a fingerprint scanner to produce
a raw digital representation; b) preprocessing, in which
the input fingerprint is enhanced and adapted to
simplify the task of feature extraction; c) feature
extraction, in which the fingerprint is further processed
to generate discriminative properties, also called feature
vectors; and d) matching, in which the feature vector
of the input fingerprint is compared against one or
more existing records. The records of approved users
of the biometric system, also called clients, are usually
stored in a database. Clients can claim an identity and
their fingerprints can be checked against stored
fingerprints.
a) Fingerprint Sensing
The processing of fingerprint images is done by
spreading the finger with ink and pressing it against
a paper card. The paper card is then scanned,
Fig1. Process of Fingerprint Recognition
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Fig 2. Acquisition principles of silicon and optical sensors
resulting in a digital representation. This process is
known as off-line acquisition. Currently, it is possible
to acquire fingerprint images by pressing the finger
against the flat surface of an electronic fingerprint
sensor. This process is known as online acquisition.
There are three families of electronic fingerprint
sensors based on the sensing technology:
I.
Solid-state or silicon sensors (left part of Fig 2):
These contain an array of pixels where each pixel
represents a sensor itself. Users place the finger on
the surface of the silicon, and four techniques are
typically used to convert the ridge/valley
information into an electrical signal: capacitive,
thermal, electric field and piezoelectric. Since
solid-state sensors do not use optical components,
their size is considerably smaller and can be easily
embedded. On the other hand, silicon sensors are
expensive, so the sensing area of solid-state sensors
is typically small.
II. Optical (right part of Fig.2): The finger touches a
glass prism and the prism is illuminated with
diffused light. The light is reflected at the valleys
and absorbed at the ridges. The reflected light is
focused onto a CCD or CMOS sensor. Optical
fingerprint sensors provide good image quality and
large sensing area but they cannot be miniaturized
because as the distance between the prism and the
image sensor is reduced, more optical distortion
is introduced in the acquired image.
III. Ultrasound: Acoustic signals are sent, capturing
the echo signals that are reflected at the fingerprint
82
surface. Acoustic signals are able to cross dirt and
oil that may be present in the finger, thus giving
good quality images. On the other hand,
ultrasound scanners are large and expensive, and
take some seconds to acquire an image.
b) Preprocessing and Feature Extraction
The process of enhancing the image before the
feature extraction is also called pre-processing.A
fingerprint is characterized by a pattern of
interleaved ridges (dark lines) and valleys(bright
lines). Generally, ridges and valleys run in parallel
and sometimes they terminate or they bifurcate.
At a global level, the fingerprint may present
regions with patterns of high curvature, these
regions are also called singularity. This pattern
sometimes exhibits a number of particular shapes
called singularities, which can be classified into
three types: loop, delta and whorl. At the local level,
other important feature called minutia can be
found in the fingerprint patterns. Minutia mean
small details, and this refers to the behavior of the
ridges discontinuities such as termination,
bifurcation and trifurcation or other features such
as pores (small holes inside the ridges), lake (two
closed bifurcations), dot (short ridges), etc. Most
system uses only the termination and bifurcations.
With the objective of matching the fingerprints
we need to extract the fingerprint features such as
minutiae and singularity points. From the
fingerprint we can also extract other global
information such as orientation and frequency of
the ridge regions.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Fig. 3. a) Loop b) Delta c) Whorl
c) Fingerprint Matching
In the matching process, features extracted from
the input fingerprint are compared against those
in the stored database, which represents a single
user (retrieved from the system database based on
the claimed identity). The result of such a
procedure is either a degree of similarity (also
called matching score) or an acceptance/rejection
decision. There are fingerprint matching
techniques that directly compare gray scale images
using correlation-based methods, so that the
fingerprint record matches with the gray scale
image.
Comparison of Biometric Technologies
Currently, there are mainly nine different biometric
techniques that are either widely used Including face,
fingerprint, hand geometry, hand vein, iris, retinal
pattern, signature, voice print, and facial thermograms.
A brief comparison of these nine biometric techniques
Fig. 4: Comparison of Biometric Technologies
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• January-June, 2015
83
IITM Journal of Management and IT
is provided in Fig 4.Although each of these techniques
satisfies the above requirements and has been used in
practical systems or has the potential to become a valid
biometric technique not many of them are acceptable
as indisputable evidence of identity. For example,
despite the fact that extensive studies have been
conducted on automatic face recognition and that a
number of face-recognition systems are available it has
not yet been proven that face can be used reliably to
verify identity and a biometric system that uses only
face can achieve an acceptable identification accuracy.
So far, the only acceptable, automated, and mature
biometric technique is the automatic fingerprint
identification technique, which has been used and
accepted in forensics since the early 1970’s.
Applications of biometrics
Biometrics is a rapidly evolving technology that has
been widely used in forensics, such as criminal
identification, prison security and broad range of
civilian applications. The use of fingerprints as a
biometric is the oldest mode of computer-aided and
personal identification that is most prevalent today.
Following are the various applications of biometrics:1) Banking security, such as electronic fund transfers,
ATM security, cheque cashing, and credit card
transactions
2) Physical access control, such as airport access
control
3) Information system security, such as access to
databases via login privileges
4) Government benefits distribution, such as welfare
disbursement programs
5) Customs and immigration, such as the
Immigration and Naturalization Service Passenger
Accelerated Service System (INSPASS) which
permits faster immigration procedures based on
hand geometry
6) National ID systems, which provide a unique ID
to the citizens and integrate different government
services
7) Voter and driver registration, providing
registration facilities for voters and drivers.
84
Future Scope
The upcoming techniques of user authentication,
which involves the use of passwords and user IDs or
identification cards and PINs (personal identification
numbers), suffer from several limitations. Passwords
and PINs can be acquired by direct covert
observation. When credit and ATM cards are lost or
stolen, an unauthorized user can come up with the
correct personal codes. Despite warning, many people
continue to choose easily guessed PIN’s and
passwords such as birthdays, phone numbers and
social security numbers. Recent cases of identity theft
have heightened the need for methods to prove that
someone is truly who he/she claims to be. Biometric
fingerprint authentication technology may solve
this problem since a person’s biometric data is
connected to its owner, is unique for every individual.
The system can compare scans to records stored
in a central or local database or even on a smart
card.
Conclusion
Biometrics is a means of verifying personal identity
by measuring and analyzing unique physical or
behavioral characteristics like fingerprints or voice
patterns. The conclusion of this paper is that the
manual system should be replaced and there must be
easier, reliable, secure, cash free and tension free
electronic system, i.e. biometric system in which no
one has to take dozens of cards for shopping, traveling,
university or bank. So to consider the disadvantages
of manual system, the fingerprints system is suggested
to be implemented because it is easier, reliable, feasible,
secure and authorized to everyone. There is no worry
that anyone can stole my finger and anybody can use
it. In fingerprint system customer has to place his
fingers on the finger scanner and then scanner will
recognize the account which belongs to that person
and perform the action. Biometric system may be like
fingerprints, IRIS, face recognition and blood reading
or skin reading and it may be installed at any store,
university, library, hostel, bank, office, home door lock,
internet online shopping and many kinds where card
system is installed. So in this paper we conclude that
finger print system is the best biometric for
identification of an individual.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
References
1. N.K. Ratha, J.H. Connell, and R.M. Bolle, “An analysis of minutiae matching strength”, Proc. AVBPA 2001,
Third International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, pp. 223-228,
2001.
2. A.K. Jain, S. Prabhakar, L. Hong, and S. Pankanti, “FingerCode: A filterbank for fingerprint representation
and matching”, Proc. IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 187-193, 1999.
3. L. O’Gorman, “Overview of fingerprint verification technologies”, Elsevier Information Security Technical
Report, vol. 3, no. 1, 1998.
4. L. O’Gorman, “Comparing passwords, tokens, and biometrics for user authentication,” Proceedings of the
IEEE, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 2021– 2040, Dec. 2003.
5. O’ Gorman, L.: Fingerprint Verification, in Biometrics: Personal Identification in Networked Society, The
Kluwer Academic Publishers, International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, Jain, A. K., Bolle
R. and Pankanti, S. eds., Vol. 479, Chapter 2, pp. 43-64 (1999).
6. Uludag, U., Jain, A.: Attacks on biometric systems: a case study in fingerprints. Proc. SPIEEI2004, Security,
Seganography and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI pp. 622–633 (2004)
7. Putte, T., Keuning, J.: Biometrical fingerprint recognition: dont get your fingers burned. Proc.IFIP TC8/
WG8.8, Fourth Working Conf. Smart Card Research and Adv. App. pp. 289–303 (2000)
8. Jiang, X., Yau, W., Ser, W.: Detecting the fingerprint minutiae by adaptive tracing the gray level ridge.
Pattern Recognition 34, 999–1013 (2001)
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
85
The Online Murder: Death via Hacked Internet
Connected Technologies
Nishtha Girotra*
Raghunatha Sethupathy**
Abstract
Recently it was specified in the newspaper article that the first online murder is expected to take place in
the end of 2014, but fortunately there was no such incident. After this news, everyone in this world really
wanted to know about online murder and the events which are associated with it. So this research is an
attempt to study about the online murder and its consequence where the researchers have adopted a
theoretical review of various documents available in the globe. The authors have made use of the
online articles for carrying out this particular research and this is non-quantitative research adopted by
reviewing the existing literature.Online murder is one among the gravest cybercrimes and it is predicted
by the European police office (Europol) that in near future one such murder will soon occur. So the
paper lays its great deal of emphasize on online murder which is classified in this paper as Direct and
Indirect murder. The researchers have also focused on the conversion of the society from Internet of
Things(IoT) to Internet of Everything (IoE.) The paper focuses on the security aspects of online murder
with special emphasize on the Indian Scenario.
Keywords: Online Murder, Internet of Everything, Europol Report
Introduction
The time was called as ‘age of machines’ of late 19th
and 20th century and then came the ‘age of
information’ which was when the period of
computerization began .Now, it is the era of ‘internet
of things’ and within few decades there will be a time
when the internet will be connected to everything and
it will said as the era of ‘internet of everything’. With
the increasing accessibility and connectivity to internet,
heinous crimes are also increasing and the biggest crime
i.e murder, can now be done by a person sitting far
away, by just cracking into the somebody’s system and
that too, just with a press of a button. He can then
stop the functioning of any system or enter some
malicious codes and thereby, taking all control in his
hands, he can endanger the lives of innocent people.
Online murder is one among the gravest cybercrimes
Nishtha Girotra
Student, Campus Law Centre, Delhi University
E-45, Kamla Nagar, New Delhi
Raghunatha Sethupathy
Student, Campus Law Centre, Delhi University
8/61, Vijay Nagar Double Storey, New Delhi
and it is predicted by the European police office
(Europol) that in near future one such murder will
soon occur [1].Cybercrimes are increasing at a rapid
rate and there is an urgent need to check this .If proper
steps are not taken, some easy cheap tools and services
will help nefarious people to execute their plans easily.
The authors have made use of the online articles for
carrying out this particular research and this is nonquantitative research adopted by reviewing the existing
literature.
Internet of Everything
In the virtual world, there is an easy connectivity to
physical items around us but the unfortunate part is
that the hackers can easily step in the working of these
systems and then hack, control, and create and cause
issues, due to low cyber–security. With the help of
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and sensor
network technologies everything from automobiles,
home appliances to medical devices all will be soon
connected. This is easily evident with the increasing
use of wifi and wireless internet connectors. Today,
around nine billion devices are connected to internet,
and the number is increasing at such a fast pace that
IITM Journal of Management and IT
probably by 2020 around twenty billion appliances
will be connected. From exercise machines, electric
toothbrushes, sewing machines, electricity meters,
washing machine and thermostats etc. all are connected
to networks and rest appliances will also be soon in
communication with these.
Death by Internet
Homicide caused through internet can be done in two
ways –
3.1. Indirect murder
3.2. Direct murder
Indirect Murder
Killing through the use of internet has become a
common piece of news since 1990’s. All corners of
the earth are connected today and this connectivity
like any other advancement has also come up with the
frightening crimes. Earlier in early 90’s the crimes were
carried on by publishing advertisements in newspapers
and inviting deceitfully naïve people to submit to the
cruelty of the criminals. The trend changed with the
growth of the use of internet which has become the
fertile ground to cheat people. There have been many
cases of extortion, blackmailing through internet. Also
online dating, chat rooms, online marriage bureau,
and advertisements are the tactics used by the notorious
criminals to commit murders .This is an easy weapon
for them and their enemies are an easy prey of this.
The below given few examples will make it clearer:
1. The planned murder of OfirRahum, Palestine
Liberation Organization, took place after a long
conversation of the criminal with the victim
through ICQ where the victims came for romantic
purposes;he was shot down on coming to
Jerusalem. [2]
2. Michael JhonAderson, a resident of Savage,
Minnesota, whousedCraiglist, was convicted for
calling a lady for babysitting job and then shooting
her [3].
3. In 2009, Christian Goother, who was believed to
be ‘first German internet killer‘, confessed that he
had killed women using chat rooms [4].
4. In 2011, a girl student from IIM, Bangalore has
put herself to death after her boyfriend who was
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• January-June, 2015
an alumnus of IIT,Roorkee posted a hurtful
message about their breakup in his facebook wall
[5].
According to The Dailymail report, around one
Facebook crime occurs in every 40 minutes.
Direct Murder
New kind of murders is predicted to take place in near
future where a person can be killed easily by the use of
networks. This is more easily evident in the case of
medical devices. It is believed that many devices like
the insulin pump, heart pacemakers etc.can be easily
hacked and mishandled resulting in an over dosage or
an explosion. This particular concept of online murder,
is not new but in a report by a medical cyber -security
pioneer, Kevin Fu and his partners, this idea was
brought forward in 2008, where he mentioned that
the medical devices like pacemakers can be hacked [6].
In case of insulin pumps, a security researcher, named
Jay Radcliffe, has shown how by the use of strong
antenna, the device can easily be hacked. This hacking
would have the potential to kill the victim and the
criminal can do this even by being half a mile away
from the site .The connected insulin pump is used to
have controlled frequency and amount of dose for a
better treatment. The data entry is given by an external
blood glucose device and this advanced continuous
glucose monitor uses sensors which can also be hacked
and then misused to the extent of causing death [7].
Baranby Michael DoughlasJack, was a New Zealand
computer security expert who showed that a laptop
which is 50 feet away can easily hack a pacemaker and
create a shock of 830 volt by increasing the jolt of
electricity in the device. He also brought forward the
way how one can onboard firmware can be rewritten
and the device can be corrupted. The servers can now
be diseased with malicious firmware and that would
be capable of infecting pacemakers and ICDs. He said
in his blog that “We are potentially looking at a worm
with the ability to commit mass murder [8].” A highly
controversial issue is the murder of Rolling star and
Buzfeed hero, Michael Hastings, who died in highspeed car driving and it was believed that it was a case
of cyber-attack. The Former US National Coordinator
for Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Counterterrorism Richard Clarke, also said that ‘the car
accident was consistent with cyber-attack and the
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
reason is that, the intelligence agencies actually know
how to catch hold of the control of the power of the
car. Also before the accident, Hastings had informed
other journalist through an email that FBI had an eye
on his activities.
Security
When the two computers were connected for the first
time, the data protection issue arose and security
measures were taken. Then with the advancement and
use of networking, the security was needed to be
strengthened. Today, an era is about to come when
internet will be well connected to everything i.e both
virtual and physical world and we would need to be
little more careful about cyber-attacks which otherwise
would become an easy weapon to commit evils. To
have a safe environment around proper security should
be maintained. Failing to address these issues, things
such as nuclear reactor to cars would be hacked by the
Cyber-Criminals, thereby leading to Mass-Murders as
it appears in Video Games.
Crime as a Service
Europol have mentioned in its meeting about the
increasing cybercrimes services but the question arises
as to what it is all about? This is actually a service
provided by the underground criminals to people who
do not even if have much technical knowledge, can
commit cyber –crimes by just paying money for the
tools and skills. The arrangement of money for a
criminal attack is done by all customers together. By
this way the service providers can earn a lot of money
and the demand of these notorious customers are also
fulfilled, with the small investments and without even
having any expertise in it. This service now seems to
be very attractive, with more and more people entering
into it since profit earned out of this business is more
than that of an amount, which the hacker gets from
hacking and also investments made by the users, is
comparatively smaller. So because of these things, a
hacking is no more a big deal and these underground
service is also a good market, an easier, cheaper and a
simple channel to all crimes.
Indian Scenario
Recently, the Government of India has come out with
the Digital India and Smart City Initiative Project
88
which has many proposals and one of the proposals is
the constitution of National Cyber Security
Coordination Centre where the Government has
proposed to spend around 11,000 Crores by 2015.
So this proposal of the Government of India is an
initiative in combating against large scale cybercrime
including online murder. One of the important step
taken in the Digital India Program of the Government
which focuses at ‘transforming India into digital
empowered society and knowledge economy’ is
expected to provide a development of the IoT industry
ecosystem in the country. Since India is converting
itself from Internet of everything (IoT) to Internet of
Everythings (IoE), the incident of online murder is
not so far from the future.
Conclusion & Suggestion
In an article by Joseph Stienbergh, a columnist of
cybersecurity, he mentions that the appliances we use
today from television, laundry machines, telephone,
medical devices, mobiles, and thermostats and even
hand guns can be hacked. They can spy on us and
collect all our data easily [9].
The following are the suggestions which can be done
on an individual level:
1. One should not open unnecessary links which are
popping from unknown websites and e-mail
attachments received from unknown sources.
2. One should always keep their security software
updated as by doing this, the security can be
increased and viruses can be removed. New Viruses
are discovered every day and based upon which
anti-virus system are enhanced and strengthened.
3. One should avoid keeping the same password for
all accounts as these in some or in the other way
leads to hacking of the accounts.
4. Instead of using public wifi connection, one must
invest in virtual private internet connection and
securing the wifi connection is also an important
task which has to be kept in mind.
On the other hand to control these cyber-attacks,
changes must be made to security and legal systems.
One of the reasons why these wireless devices are facing
problems is that they were not built keeping in mind
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
the security issues. The systems used in the hospitals
are running old windows version which can be easily
hit by virus attacks. The real problem is that these
systems [10] are not even allowed to update their
versions due to regulatory restrictions. By loosening
the restrictions on the equipment and bringing a
change to legal protection issues, some good changes
can be brought. The cyber-criminals are not just
limited to a particular or native country but they are
present everywhere around the globe. According to a
report by the head of European cybercrime Centre,
Paul Gillen has suggested that there should be
collaboration among the nations to stop these
activities. The report also states that these cyber-attacks
can be committed internationally and so the working
of all nations and collectively becomes more important
thing. The medical devices and all physical appliances
connected to the network, should have a tighten
security which needs to be constantly updated and
access to the information of the data, must be
disallowed as these may sometimes leads to Cyberattacks.
References
1. The Times of India Correspondent,”first online murder may happen by the end of the year: experts” Times of
India retrieved on October 6,2014 at, http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/internet/first-onlinemurder-may-happen-by-end-of-year-experts/article6475534.ece.
2. Hersham Tania , “Israel’s ‘First Internet Murder’001,” New York daily news, 19 January2011
3. Michael John Anderson, “Craigslist Killer Michael John Anderson”, New York Daily News, April 21, 2009
4. London Telegraph, “ Internet killer’ admits murdering women he met in online chat rooms”, January 15, 2009
5. NDTV Correspondent, “IIM student commits suicide amid disturbing Facebook messages”, NDTV (2011)
retrieved on 12 January, 2015 at http://www.ndtv.com/article/cities/iim-student-commits-suicide-amiddisturbing-facebook-messages-134966
6. Kevin Fu and partners, “Pacemakers and Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators: Software Radio Attacks and ZeroPower Defenses”, symposium on Security and Privacy.
7. Jerome Radcliff, “Hacking Medical Devices for Fun and Insulin: Breaking the Human SCADA System”,
symposium on Security and Privacy,(2008)
8. Darlene storm, “Pacemaker hacker says worm could possibly ‘commit mass murder”, Security is Sexy, 17 October,
2012
9. Joseph Stienberg, “these devices may be spying on us(even at our own home)”, Forbes, 2013.
10. Website, Department of Electronic and Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and IT, Government
of India retrieved at http://deity.gov.in/content/internet-things on 14, January, 2015
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
89
Future Towards Danger: The Terror of Cyber Attacks
Kanika Sharma*
Tanvi Bhalla**
Abstract
Cyber terrorism is the use of Internet attacks in terrorist activities, including acts of deliberate, largescale disruption of computer networks, by the means of tools such as computer viruses [5]. As nation
and critical infrastructure become more dependent on computer networks for their operations new
vulnerabilities are created.
A hostile group could exploit these vulnerabilities to breach through a poorly secured network and
disrupt or even shut down critical functions. All the data is stored on computers in the form of files and
is vulnerable to be attacked and thus put ours as well as national security at risk because these files may
contain confidential information about our military weapons etc. which if gone into wrong hands may
lead to disastrous situations. The terrorists can change or type commands by hacking into a computer
which can take over or disrupt the critical infrastructure of entire nation.
This paper covers what is cyber terrorism, what are the cyber attacks held, what the risks are and what
preventive measures should be taken to prevent or handle cyber terrorism.
Keywords: Terrorism, SCADA, Denial of service (DoS), Cyber attacks.
Introduction
In today’s world, a nation and critical infrastructure has
become more dependent on computer networks for their
operation. This growing dependency has emerged as a
new threat for security which can lead to Cyber Terrorism.
With the development of cyber technology, the Internet
has become an important channel for terrorists to carry
out their activities. Cyber terrorism is the intentional use
of computers, internet in terrorist activities to cause
destruction and harm for personal objectives. A poorly
secured network can easily be penetrated by the hostile
nation or group which could disrupt or even shut down
critical functions. Many terrorist groups make use of the
internet for intra group communications, recruiting
people, fund-raising, for creating a feeling of terror in
people’s minds. They can also steal credit card numbers
or valuable data to provide financial support for their
operations. There can be devastating situations if the
national agencies or government policies information
could be breached.
Kanika Sharma*
Management Education & Research Institute
Tanvi Bhalla**
Management Education & Research Institute
Disruption via cyber attacks could be caused to a
variety of communication systems including
Internet, mobile phones and cables. However, if the
nation’s security network could be penetrated so
easily so, it means that the private sector
infrastructures are also vulnerable. Telecommunications networks, electricity power grids,
banks could be attacked by cyber terrorists. Such
attacks could cause widespread panic and even
damage to the country’s economy.
Terrorist attacks
(1) The Red team attackThe first such attack was code named ‘Eligible
Receiver’ was carried out by 35NSA computer hackers
known as ‘The Red Team’. They can only use software
and hacking tools that can be easily downloaded from
the Internet. They were authorized to break network
but was not allowed to break any US laws. Their main
target was the Pacific Command in Hawaii and they
were easily able to breach into network and make
minor changes in e-mails, disrupt telephone services
and conduct denial-of-service attack and the best part
was they were able to manage everything without being
identified.
IITM Journal of Management and IT
(2) Sri Lankan embassy attackIn 1998, ethnic Tamil guerrillas attempted to disrupt
the Sri Lankan embassies by sending large number of
e-mail. The Sri Lankan embassy received around 800
e-mails a day for two-week. The messages were “We
are the Internet Black Tigers and we’re doing this to
disrupt your communications”. It was characterized
as the first known attack by the terrorists.
(3) Attack on U.S. financial institutionsIn March 2013, a pattern of cyber attacks has been
reported against U.S. financial institutions by The New
York Times. It was believed to be instigated by Iran as
well as by incidents affecting South Korean financial
institutions.
(4) Attack on media companiesIn August 2013, many media companies like the New
York Times, Twitter and the Huffington Post lost
control of some of their websites. The hackers were
supporting the Syrian government who breached the
Australian Internet company that manages many major
site addresses.
services dependent and Internet connectivity was shut
down for three weeks. The infrastructure of Estonia
including everything from online banking, mobile
phone networks, government services and access to
health care information was disabled for a time. The
state was technology dependent and was in severe
problem.
As a result, for security reasons Estonia joined NATO
in 2004. NATO carefully monitored its member state’s
response to the attack and worried both about
escalation and the possibility of cascading effects
beyond Estonia’s border to other NATO members. In
2008, as a result of the increasing attacks, NATO
opened a new center of excellence on cyber defense to
conduct research and training on cyber warfare in
Tallinn.[5][9]
Types of Cyber Attacks
(5) Virus attackIn September 2003, the ‘Welchia’ virus disabled the
State Department’s consular Lookout and Support
system. This system contained records from the FBI
department, State department and US immigration.[1]
Different types of cyber terrorism attacks1. Incursion-:
The attacks which are carried out with the purpose
of gaining access or penetrating into computer
system or network in order to get or modify
information. The computer systems and network
are very insecure, terrorist take advantage to
modify important information which can cause
damages to the organization or individual.
(6) The attack on Iran nuclear power plantIn July 2010, “the Stuxnet” computer worm was
discovered. It is a windows based worm that spies on
and subverts industrial systems. It includes a high
specialized malware program that targeted Siemens
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
systems.
2. Destruction-:
In this method, the attack is used to intrude into
computer system and networks with purpose of
inflicting severe damage or destroy them. These
attacks are very disastrous to an organization as
this costs them very heavy to get their operations
up and running again.
It damaged the Iran’s nuclear program Siemens
SCADA systems. It specifically targeted the centrifuges
which are used in the production of nuclear material,
making them spin so fast that they get damaged. This
attacked has set back the Iranian nuclear power plant
for about two years. [7]
3. Disinformation-:
This type of attack spreads fake information that
can have severe impact to a particular target. These
attacks create uncontrollable situation throughout
the nation or in the organization.
Case of Estonia
The Baltic state of Estonia was targeted to a massive
denial-of-service attack. The attack consequence was
it completely rendered the country offline and the
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• January-June, 2015
4. Denial of Service-:
The objective of Denial of Service attacks is to
disable or disrupt the network by flooding the
target server with huge number of packets which
ultimately lead the server being unable to handle
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 1. Distribution of cyber hackers
normal service request from legitimate users. This
causes organizations to suffer massive loss.
because it can be inserted anywhere without
permissions.
5. Defacement of websites-:
These attacks focus in defacing the websites of
the victims. The website is changed to include
cyber terrorist message or to re-direct the users to
other websites. [4]
The US was one of the first countries that considered
cyber terrorism to be a big problem in 2006 in terms
of economy and national security.
Preventive measures taken by the world
In May 2011, The Chinese Defense Military
confirmed that it has an online defense unit known as
“Blue Army”. It has 30 elite Internet specialists who
are engaged in cyber defense operations.
On November 2, 2006, the Secretary of the Air Force
announced the creation of the ‘Air Force Cyber
Command’, whose task is to monitor and defend
American interest in cyberspace. But later this plan
was replaced by the creation of ‘Twenty-Fourth Air
Force’ which became active in August 2009 and is a
component of the planned United States Cyber
Command.
Another security method is known as ‘sniffing’. It is
the process of searching social websites, suspected
terrorist web pages and even e-mails to detect terrorist
activities or threats. A sniffer is a software program
which is programmed to search Internet traffic for
specific keywords. A sniffer can be authorized or
unauthorized. An unauthorized sniffer can be a threat
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Cyber Terrorism in India
In March 2013, some Chinese hackers breached the
computers of the Defense Research and Development
organization, which is India’s top most military
organization. It was a classical case of cyber war attack.
Hackers from Algeria also carried out an attack on
websites run by the DRDO, the Prime Minister’s
Office and various other government departments were
attacked by them. A group called ‘Pakistan Cyber
Army’ had also hacked into several Indian websites.
Experts believe that India’s cyber security is not enough
compatible to combat cyber attacks. Experts say that
the country spends a small amount of money on cyber
security. The budget allocation towards cyber security
was Rs.42.2crore ($7.76 million) for 2012-13. In
comparison, the US spends several billion dollars
through the National Security Agency, $658 million
through the Department of Homeland Security and
$93 million through US-CERT in 2013.[4]
Prevention against cyber attacks in India
1. Indian government must collaborate with private
sector to create an organization which is developed
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
mainly to detect and fight against cyber terrorism.
Like, in Malaysia they established an International
Multilateral Partnership against cyber terrorism
(IMPACT), an effort to coax the world’s govt.’s into
collaboration on cyber security. Some of the major
Indian organizations are not a member of IMPACT.
the recovery of passwords or for authentication.
Our idea is that we must provide some 5
uncommon personal questions during account
creation. The user must answer to all the 5
questions. Whenever the user login, during sign
in, a random question out of the 5 question
appears on the screen must be answered by the
user. This ensures that the user is the legitimate
user. For further security, a message would be send
to the user whenever he or she login.
2. Perform required software updates for your
operating system and web browser.
3. Install a firewall on your computer.
4. Change your passwords often on a weekly basis.
So, that it will be difficult for the hackers to hack
the e-mail accounts.
2. To tackle the most common Denial of
Service attack we are proposing following
methodology-
5. Purchase or download any anti-virus software
which will detect any virus that can harm your
data. It also provides browser security.
DoS is the attack which makes a machine or
network resource unavailable to its intended users
so they are unable to serve them. To tackle this,
every organization or a government department
must have a “unique secret code” allotted to them.
Whenever the sender sends the packet it must
attach the secret code with the header of the
outgoing packet. The recipient router must check
the header of the incoming packet for the “unique
secret code”. If the code is present in the header, it
indicates that the packet is send from the legitimate
user then it is accepted otherwise it is discarded.
This prevents Denial of Service attack.
6. Install anti-spyware/adware programs onto your
system.
7. Delete e-mails from unknown users. [6]
Our recommendation
In this paper we will like to propose our ideas for future
implementation.
1. During creation of an e-mail account, generally
the e-mail websites provide only 1 question for
Table 1.
Unique Secret S.A.
D.A.
Data
Code
Where, S.A. is source address and D.A. is destination address
Figure 2. Distribution of Targets
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
3. The improper and violent data and videos
uploaded by the terrorists should not be displayed
by sites like you tube etc. The websites should
first check the data content that the user is going
to upload and if it is violent and can hurt the
sentiments of people then that content should be
removed. Now-a –days terrorist groups are using
social media like face book and twitter to engage
and recruit youth into terrorist activities.
Conclusion and Future Scope
Cyber terrorism is increasing day by day. It is very
difficult to detect and prevent these attacks. We need
to be more attentive and proactive towards cyber
security. Legal Policies against Cyber crime have to be
established and implemented for nation’s security.
More cyber laws firms should be engaged in action
towards cyber crime. More funds should be raised in
this direction to fight against cyber security.
Government and private sector must collaborate with
each other to work together as one hand in this
direction. They must recruit ethical hackers and
professional programmers to combat cyber security.
The idea of “unique secret code “should be applied to
reduce denial of service attack. We are still further
working on this direction so that we can detect and
punish cyber terrorist.
References
1. http://cyberterrorismpaper.blogspot.in/
2. http://www.thehindu.com/scitech/technology/towardscyberdefence/article4974205.ece
3. http://gadgets.ndtv.com/internet/news/india-must-wake-up-to-cyber-terrorism-349274
4. Shamsuddin Abdul Jalil , Countering Cyber Terrorism Effectively: Are We Ready To Rumble?, June 2003,
GIAC Security Essentials Certification (GSEC) Practical Assignment Version 1.4b Option 1
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberterrorism
6. http://www.wikihow.com/Prevent-Hacking
7. By keith Giacobozzi, Cyber terrorism, 27 feb, 2011, http://cyber-terrorismpaper.blogspot.in/
8. http://hackmageddon.com/tag/cyber-crime/
9. http://www.infosecurity magazine.com/magazine-features/cyberterrorism-a-look-into-the-future/
94
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
Method for Storing User Password Securely
Gunjan Jha*
Navneet Popli**
Abstract
Computer users are asked to generate, secret passwords for uses host accounts, email, e-commerce
sites, and various online services. In this paper, I’ll explain the theory for how to store user passwords
securely; we propose technique that uses hashing, salting and Bcrypt to compute secure passwords for
many accounts while needed user to memorize only a single short password. The combination of
security and convenience will, we believe, entice users to adopt our method, we discuss various methods,
compare its strengths and weaknesses to those of related approaches.
Keywords: Password Security, website user authentication, hashing, salting, Bcrypt.
Introduction
Bad Solution: sha1(password)
Logging in with usernames and passwords has become
one of the most ubiquitous and most reviled rituals
of the Internet age. On the web, passwords are used
by publications, blogs, and webmail providers.
We have multiple methods to store password securely
in database. In this paper we will discuss about
different methods in detail. We have methods like
hashing, salting, and Bcrypt. We compare all the
methods and analyze that which one is best in which
scenario.
defis_password_correct(user, password_attempt):
return sha1(password_attempt) == user
["sha1_password"]
A better solution is to store a "one-way hash" of the
password, typically using a function likemd5 () or sha1
():
user account
gunjan@hot
mail.com
jassy@gmail.com
Related Work
Bad Solution : plain text password
It is not secure to store each users “plain text” password
in database:
user account
gunjan@hotmail.com
jassy@gmail.com
...
plain text password
password
password123
...
This is insecure if a hacker gains access to database,
they'll be able to use that password to login as that
user on your database. This is even worse, if that user
uses the same password for all other sites on the
internet, the hacker can login there as well. Users will
be very unhappy.
Gunjan Jha*
GGSIP University (Meri College)
Navneet Popli**
GGSIP University (Meri College)
...
sha1(password)
5baa61e4c9b93f3f0682250
b6cf8331b7ee68fd8
cbfdac6008f9cab4083784c
bd1874f76618d2a97
...
The server does not store the plain text password it
can still authenticate user:
This solution is secure than storing the plain text ,
because in theory it should be impossible to "undo" a
one-way hash function and find an input string that
output the same hash value. Unfortunately, hackers
found ways around this.
One problem is that many hash functions (including
md5 () and sha1 ()) are not so "one-way" after all,
and security expert suggest that these functions not
be used anymore for security application. (Instead,
you should use better hash functions like sha256 ()
which do not have any known vulnerabilities so
far.)
But there's a bigger problem: hackers don't need to
"undo" the hash function at all; they can just keep
guessing input passwords until they find a match, It
IITM Journal of Management and IT
is similar to trying all the combinations of a
combination lock, Here what the code would look
like:database_table = {
"5baa61e4c9b93f3f0682250b6cf83
31b7ee68fd8":"gunjan@hotmail.com",
"cbfdac6008f9cab4083784cbd187
4f76618d2a97":"jassy@gmail.com",
...}
for password
inLIST_OF_COMMONPASSWORDS:
if sha1(password) in databasetable:
print "Yepieee I win! guessed a password!"
were leaked, Over time hacker were able to figure out
the plain text password to most of these hashes.
Summary: storing a simple hash (with no salt) is not
secure - if a hacker gain access to your database, they
will be able to figure out the majority of the passwords
of the users.
Bad Solution : sha1(FIXED_SALT + password)
One attempt to make things more secure is to "salt"
the password before hashing it:
user account
You might think that there are too many possible
passwords for this technique to be possible. But there
are far fewer common passwords than you'd think.
People use passwords that are based on dictionary
words (possibly with a few extra numbers or letters).
And most hash functions like sha1 () can be executed
very quickly -- one computer can literally try billions
of combinations per second. It means most passwords
can be figured out in less than one cpu-hour.
Aside: years ago, computers were not this fast, so the
hacker community created tables that have precomputed a large set of these hashes ahead of time,
Today nobody uses rainbow tables anymore because
computers are fast enough without them.
So the bad news is any user with a simple password
like "password" or "password12345"or any of the
billion most-likely passwords will have their password
guessed, if you have an extremely complicated
password (over 16 random numbers & letters) you
were probably safe.
sha1("salt123456789" +
password)
gunjan@hotmail.com b467b644150eb350bbc1
c8b44b21b08af99268aa
jassy@gmail.com
31aa70fd38fee6f1f8b31
42942ba9613920dfea0
...
...
The salt is suppose to be a long random string of bytes,
If the hacker gains access to these new password hashes
(not the salt), will make it much more difficult for
the hacker to guess the passwords because they would
also require to know the salt, However if the hacker
has broken into server, probably also have access to
your source code as well so they'll learn the salt too,
That is why security designers just assume the worst,
& don't rely on the salt being secret.
But even if the salt is not a secret it still makes it harder
to use those old-school rainbow tablesI mentioned
before Those rainbow tables are built assuming there
is no salt so salted hashes stop them. However since
no one uses rainbow tables anymore adding a fixed
salt does not help much, The hacker can still execute
the same basic for-loop from above:
Also notice that the code above is effectively attacking
all of the passwords at the same time. It doesn't
matter if there are ten users in your database or ten
million, it doesn't take the hacker any longer to guess
a matching password, All matters is that how fast the
hacker can iterate through potential password, (And
in fact, having lots of user actually help the hackers.
because it is more likely that someone in the system
was using the password "password12345".)
for password
inLIST_OF_COMMONPASSWORDS:
if sha1(SALT + password) in databasetable:
print "Yepieee I win! guessed a password!",
password
Summary: adding a fixed salt still is not secure enough.
sha1(password) which LinkedIn used to store its
password, And in 2012 a large set of password hashes
The next step in security is to create a new column in
database and store a different salt for each user, Salt is
96
Bad Solution : sha1(PER_USER_SALT +
password)
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
randomly created when the user account is first
created. (or when user changes their password).
being secure "one-way" hash functions they were also
designed to be slow.
user account
salt sha1(salt + password)
gunjan@hotmail.com 2dc 1a74404cb136dd600
7fcc 41dbf694e5c2ec0e
7d15b42
jassy@gmail.com
afad e33ab75f29a9cf3f70d3
b2f fd14a7f47cd752e
9c550
...
... ...
One example is Bcrypt, bcrypt() takes about hundred
ms to compute which is about 10,000x slower than
sha1(). Hundred ms is fast enough that the user won't
notice when they login but slow enough that it
becomes less feasible to execute against a long list of
likely passwords, instance if hackers want to
compute bcrypt() against a list of a billion likely
passwords it will take about 30,000 cpu-hours about
$1200 and that is for a single password, not
impossible but way more work than most hackers
are willing to do.
Authenticating the user is not much harder than
before:
defis_password_correct(user, password_attempt):
return sha1(user["salt"] + password_attempt) ==
user["password_hash"]
By having a per-user-salt we get one huge benefit, the
hacker cannot attack all of your user's passwords at
the same time Instead his attack code has to try each
user one by one:
for user in users:
PER_USER_SALT = user["salt"]
for password
inLIST_OF_COMMONPASSWORDS:
if sha1(PER_USER_SALT + password) in
databasetable:
print "yepieee I win! guessed a password!", password
So basically if you have 1 million users having a peruser-salt makes it 1 million times harder to figure out the
passwords of all your users. But still is not impossible for
a hacker to do this. Instead of 1 cpu-hour now they need
1 million cpu-hours which can easily be rented from
Amazon for about forty thousand dollar.
The real problem with all the systems we have
discussed so far is that hash functions like sha1 () (even
sha256 ()) can be executed on passwords at a rate of
hundred M+/sec (or even faster by using GPU) Even
though hash functions were designed with security in
mind they were also designed so they would be fast
when executed on longer inputs like entire files. These
hash functions were not designed to be used for
password storage.
Good Solution: bcrypt (password)
Instead there are a set of hash functions that were
specifically designed for passwords. In addition to
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
Basically the trick is, it executes an internal encryption
or hash function many times in a loop, there are other
alternative to Bcrypt such as PBKDF2 uses the same
trick.
Also Bcrypt is configurable with log_rounds
parameters that tells it how many times to execute
that internal hash function, If all of a sudden Intel
comes out with a new computer that is thosand times
faster than the state of the art today, you can
reconfigure your system to use a log_rounds that is
ten more than before (log_rounds is logarithmic)
which will cancel out the 1000x faster computer.
Because bcrypt() is too slow it makes the idea of
rainbow tables attractive again so a per-user-salt is built
into the Bcrypt system, In fact libraries like py-bcrypt
store the salt in the same string as the password hash
so you won't even have to create a separate database
column for the salt.
Let us see the code in action, First let's install it:
wget "http//py-bcrypt.googlecode.com/files/pybcrypt-0.2.tar.gz"
tar -xzf py-bcrypt-0.2.tar.gz
cd py-bcrypt-0.2
python setup.py build
sudo python setup.py install
cd ..
python -c "import bcrypt"# did it work?
Now that it is installed, here is the Python code you'd
run when creating a new user account (or reset their
password):
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
from bcrypt import hashpw, gensalt
hashed = hashpw(plaintext__password, gensalt())
print hashed # save this value to the database for the
user
'$2a$12$8vxYfAWCXe0Hm4gNX
8nzwuqWNukOkcMJ1a9G2tD71ipotEZ9f80Vu'
As you can see it stores both the salt, & the hashed
output in the string, It also stores the log_rounds
parameter that was used to generate the password
which controls how much work that is how slow it is
in computation, If you want the hash to be slower
you pass a larger value to gensalt():
Conclusion
hashed = hashpw(plaintext_password,
gensalt(log_rounds=14))
print hashed
'$2a$13$ZyprE5MRw2Q3WpNOGZW
GbeG7ADUre1Q8QO.uUUtcbqloU0yvzavOm'
Notice that there is now a 14 where there was a 13
before, In any case you store this string in to the
database, & when that same user attempts to log in
you retrieve that same hashed value and do this:
if hashpw(password_attempt, hashed) == hashed:
print "matches"
else:
print "does not match"
You might be wondering why you pass in hashed as
the salt argument to hashpw() The reason this works
is that the hashpw() function is smart and can extract
the salt from that$2a$13$.... string This is great
because it means you never have to store parse or
handle any salt values yourself , the only value you
need to deal with is that single hashed string which
contains everything you need.
Let us dissect that output string a little:
Final Thoughts for choosing a good password If your
user has the password "password" then no amount of
hashing,salting,bcrypt etc is going to protect that user
The hacker will always try simpler passwords first so
if your password is toward the top of the list of likely
passwords the hacker will probably guess it.
The best way to prevent password from being guessed
is to create a password that is as far down the list of
likely passwords as possible, Any password based on a
dictionary word even if it has simple mutations like a
letter/number at the end is going to be on the list of
the first few million password guesses.
Unfortunately difficult-to-guess passwords are also
difficult-to-remember, If that was not an issue I would
suggest picking a password that is a 16 character random
sequence of numbers and letters ,people have suggested
using passphrases instead, like "shally is a police officer",
your system allows long passwords with spaces then this
is definitely better than a password like "shally123". (But
I actually suspect the entropy of most user's pass phrases
will end up being about the same as a password of eight
random alphanumeric characters.)
Acknowledgment
This research paper is made possible through the help
and support from everyone, including teachers, family
and friends.
References
1. OpenSSL: The open source toolkit for SSL/TLS.http://www.openssl.org.
2. Mart´?n Abadi, T. Mark A. Lomas, and RogerNeedham. Strengthening passwords. Technical Report1997 033, 1997.
3. Mihir Bellare, David Pointcheval, and Phillip Rogaway. Authenticated key exchange secure against dictionary
attacks. In EUROCRYPT, pages 139-155,2000.
98
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
4. E. Felten, D. Balfanz, D. Dean, and D. Wallach. Web spoofing: An Internet con game. Proc. 20th National
Information Systems Security Conference, 1997.
5. Eran Gabber, Phillip B. Gibbons, Yossi Matias, and Alain J. Mayer. How to make personalized web browsing
simple, secure, and anonymous. In Financial Cryptography, pages 17-32, 1997.
6. Rosario Gennaro and Yehuda Lindell. A framework for password-based authenticated key exchange. In
EUROCRYPT, pages 524-543, 2003.
7. J. Jeff, Y. Alan, B. Ross, and A. Alasdair. The memorability and security of passwords - some empirical
results, 2000.
8. Ian Jermyn, Alain Mayer, Fabian Monrose, Michael K. Reiter, and Aviel D. Rubin. The design and analysis
of graphical passwords. 1999.
9. Jonathan Katz, Rafail Ostrovsky, and Moti Yung. Efficient password-authenticated key exchange using
human-memorable passwords. In EUROCRYPT '01: Proceedings of the International Conference on the
Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques, pages 475-494. Springer-Verlag, 2001.
10. J. Kelsey, B. Schneier, C. Hall, and D. Wagner. Secure applications of low-entropy keys. Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, 1396:121-134, 1998.
11. David P. Kormann and Aviel D. Rubin. Risks of the Passport single signon protocol. In Proc. 9th international
World Wide Web conference on computer networks, pages 51-58. North-Holland Publishing Co., 2000.
12. U. Manber. A simple scheme to make passwords based on one-way functions much harder to crack, 1996.
13. Robert Morris and Ken Thompson. Password security: A case history. CACM, 22(11):594-597, 1979.
14. Blake Ross, Collin Jackson, Nicholas Miyake, Dan Boneh, and John C. Mitchell. A browser plug-in solution
to the unique password problem, 2005.Technical report, Stanford-SecLab-TR-2005-1.
15. Bruce Schneier et al. Password Safe application.http://www.schneier.com/passsafe.html.
16. Joe Smith. Password Safe cracker utility.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
99
Security Issues in Bluetooth Technology - A Review
Menal Dr.*
Sumeet Gill**
Abstract
Bluetooth is a recently proposed standard for short range, low power wireless communication.Bluetooth
Technology has become a popular way of wireless interconnection for exchanging messages, data and
other information. Security concern is one of the most important problems behind the mass adoption of
this technology. This paper provides a brief overview of security issues and weaknesses faced by the
Bluetooth technology.
Keywords: Bluetooth technology, Bluetooth security, wireless communication
Introduction
Now a days the use of mobile computing networking
increases day by day. People use mobile
communication technology more than any other
technology. Mobile networking is a pervasive
communication platform where users obtain the
desired information in seconds and increase the
efficiency of work. Smartphones have a number of
connectivity features like Bluetooth, wi-fi, RFIDetc.
Currently Bluetooth is one of the most commonly
uses wireless networking technology that quickly share
information with each other at a speed of 1Mbps in
basic mode within a 50 m range. Bluetooth is a short
range, low power wireless communication technology,
mostly integrated into mobiles and other devices.
This technology combines the features of packet
switching and circuit switching thereby supporting
both connectionless and connection-oriented links.
It was developed by Ericsson in 1994.The Bluetooth
standard is managed and maintained by Bluetooth
Special Interest Group. [1] IEEE has also adapted as
the 802.15.1a standard. Bluetooth uses the unlicensed
2.4 GHz ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical)
Menal Dr.*
Department of Computer Science
Maharaja Surajmal Institute
Janakpuri, New Delhi
Sumeet Gill**
Department of Mathematics
Maharashi Dayanand University
Rohtak, Haryana
frequency band. Bluetooth operates on 79 channels
in the 2.4 GHz band with 1MHz carrier spacing. To
make the link robust to interference, it employs a
Frequency Hopping technique, in which the carrier
frequency is changed at every packet transmission.Like
any other wireless technology Bluetooth uses open air
medium for transferring data that makes it involved
with the security issues. There are several
authentication, access control and encryption
algorithm that plays major role in the security of
wireless technology. Some devices have biometric
access control while others have strong password
protected systems. But there is no standard access
control technique that makes data secure over air.
Bluetooth supports both unicast and mlulticast
connections. Bluetooth protocol uses the concept of
master and slave.In a master slave protocol a device
cannot talk as when they desire. They need to wait till
the time the master allows them to talk. The master
and slaves together form a piconet. Up to seven “slave”
devices can be set to communicate with a “master”.
Several of these piconets can be linked together to
form a larger network in an ad hoc manner. The
topology can be thought as a flexible, multiple piconet
structure. This network of piconets is called
scatternet.Figure 1 shows the basic piconet topologies.A
scatternet is formed when a device from one piconet
also acts as a member of another piconet. In this
scheme, a device being master in one piconet can
simultaneously be a slave in the other one. [2]
This paper is organized as follows. Section I describes
the features of Bluetooth technology. Section
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Fig.1 Piconets with master slave operations
IIexplains the Bluetooth architecture and protocols.
In Section III,we discuss the security issues and
challenges involved in Bluetooth technology. Section
IV concludes the paper.
BLUETOOTH ARCHITECTURE AND
PROTOCOLS
clock synchronization, and frequency hopping
control.
The Bluetooth Link Manager Layer: The Link
Manager forms the piconet by inquiring what other
Bluetooth radios are in the area, establishing
connection and maintaining the piconet. The Link
Manager also handles security issues like
authentication and encryption.
Radio: The Radio layer defines the requirements for a
Bluetooth transceiver operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM
band.
Baseband: This layer describes the specification of the
Bluetooth Link Controller (LC) which carries out the
baseband protocols and other low-level link routines.
The Link Manager Protocol (LMP) is used by the Link
Managers (on either side) for link set-up and control.
The Host Controller Interface (HCI) provides a
command interface to the Baseband Link Controller
and Link Manager, and access to hardware status and
control registers.
Fig. 2 Bluetooth Architecture
Personal Networking Hardware and the Protocol
Stack Layers:
The Bluetooth Baseband Layer: The baseband
layer performs functions like Bluetooth packet
assembly, forward error correction (FEC), automatic
repeat request (ARQ), data whitening, Bluetooth
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
Logical Link Control and Adaption Protocol
(L2CAP)
Supports higher level protocol multiplexing, packet
segmentation and reassembly, and the conveying of
quality of service information.L2CAP, which adapts
upper layerprotocols over the baseband, provides data
services to the high layer protocols with group
abstractions. The RFCOMM protocol provides
emulation of serial ports over the L2CAP protocol.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
The protocol is based on the ETSI standard TS 07.10.
The Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) provides a
means for applications to discover which services are
provided by or available through a Bluetooth device.
Device information, services and the characteristics
of the services can be queried using the SDP [2]. Fig
2 shows Bluetooth architecture
Bluetooth Security Issues
Attack to a wireless network is easier because
information is zapping back and forth through the
open air. In a wireless environment where every bit is
on the air, security concerns are high.Security can be
defined by three fundamental elements[4]:
Authentication: This service is used for verifying
the identity of the communicating devices before
being able to connect to the application. Native
user authentication does not provided by the
Bluetooth.
Authorization:This service allows the resources which
are connected to Bluetooth for transmitting the data
after an authorization procedure. Only the trusted
devices allow to do so.
Confidentiality:This service ensures that only the
authorized devices can share the application and then
prevent from all kinds of eavesdropping.
Bluetooth does not address other security services such
as audit, integrity, and non-repudiation.
Bluetooth Security Modes
Cumulatively, the BT versions up to 2.1 define four
modes of security. Each of these versions supports
some of these modes but none of them supports all
four.
Security Mode 1
This mode is non-secure. It has the lowest security
level. Mode 1 is only supported in earlier versions.
Security Mode 2 (Service-level Enforced)
Mode 2 is designed as a service-level enforced securitymode. In this mode communication is initiated after
the establishment of the channel at L2CAP level.
Security Mode 2 is supported by all Bluetooth
devices.
102
Security Mode 3 (Link-level Enforced)
Mode 3 is designed as a link-level enforced securitymode. Here, all security measures take place before
the communication link is fully established. Security
Mode 3 is only supported in earlier devices.
Security Mode 4 (Service-level Enforced)
Similar to security Mode 2, this mode is enforced on
the service level, after the physical link has been
established.
Bluetooth Trust and Service Levels
In addition to the four security modes, two trust levels
and three service security levelsare provided in the
Bluetooth. Two trust levels are trusted and untrusted.
Devices which falls under trusted level have full
permission to access all services provided by the
connected devices while untrusted devices restricted
for limited access.
For achieving authentication, encryption and
authorization the three security levels are allowed to
be defined . Available Service Security Levels depend
on the security mode being used.
Bluetooth Service Security Levels:
Service Level 1
Trusted devices are allowed to connect automatically
to all services after the completion of authentication
and authorization.Untrusted devices need manual
authorization for all services.
Service Level 2
At this level only authentication requires. After the
authentication procedure service is accessed by the device.
Service Level 3
This service is open to all devices i.e. access is granted
automatically with no authentication required.
Trust and service levels allow the definition of policies
to set trust relationships and may also be used to
initiate user-based authentication. Bluetooth
core protocolsusually only provide device
authentication. [3]
Analysis of Security Issues
As technology grows day by day new attacks are also
being developed by the attackers. The weakness of the
basic Bluetooth protocols involves the pairing process,
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Table-1: Key Issues with Bluetooth Security
Security Issues
Initialization key is too weak
PIN key is too short and default is all zero
The master key used for broadcast encryption
is shared among all piconet devices
Weak E0 stream cipher
No user authentication
Encryption key length is negotiable
encryption
End to end security is not performed
Security services are limited
The quality of pseudorandom number
generators are not known
Unit keys are reusable and static for every
pairing
Link keys can be stored improperly
Description
Generate new initialization key scheme
Increase the length of PIN code
Change broadcast scheme
Replace the cipher with new advance technique
Application level security and employ user authentication
Program each device to initiate 128 bit Bluetooth
immediate after manual authentication
End to end security can be provided by use of additional
security controls
Bluetooth does not address audit, integrity, and nonrepudiation; if such services are needed, they should be
provided through additional means.
Bluetooth should use strong PRNGs
based on standards
Device uses same unit keys and link leys. This should be
avoided using strong cryptographic management
Link keys can be modified if they are not securely stored
device address scheme and its wireless nature. Along with
weaknesses, the Bluetooth specifications have several
design issues also like how to decide which node become
master, slave and bridges in a piconet, how many piconets
a node should join and many others.
Table 1 provides an overview of some of the known
security issues or vulnerabilities [5].
Conclusion
This paper was intended as a brief introduction to
Bluetooth technology. It is one of the technologies
that can be used for ad hoc networking and it uses
widely among people due to its key features that
includes robustness, low complexity, low power,
and low cost. Since it is a wireless networking
communication technology, so security is always a
prior issue. This technology is still in research phase
due to the security problems.
Bluetooth is by design a peer to peer network technology
and typically lacks centralized administration and security
enforcement infrastructure. The Bluetooth specification
is very complex and includes support for dozens of data
services. Because of these complexities and outside
interconnection access,high level of security mechanism
should be enforced. Various security issues that raises here
can be reduced at a certain level using upcoming
technologies. The future work would be focused on the
improvement in the security schemes.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The official Bluetooth technology info site,http://www.bluetooth.com.
Talukder A,Ahmed H,Yavagal R R, Mobile Computing, 2nd edition.McGraw-Hill,2013,pp 84-90.
K. Scarfone and J. Padgette. \Guide to bluetooth security,”. Tech. Rep., 2008.
T. C. Yeh, J. R. Peng, S. S. Wang, and J. P. Hsu, \Securing bluetooth communications,” International Journal of
Network Security, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 229-235, 2012.
Padgette J., Scarfone K., Chen L.“Guide to Bluetooth security”NIST Special Publication 800-121,June 2012.
Mandal B., Bhattacharyya D., Kim T., “A Design Approach for Wireless Communication Security in Bluetooth
Network” Vol.8,No.2(2014), pp. 341-352, “International Journal of Security and its Application”
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
103
Detection of Terrorism Activities Using Face
Recognition Technique
Garima Bhatia*
Mansi**
Abstract
With the rapid development in the field of pattern recognition and its uses in different areas (e.g.
signature recognition, facial recognition), arises the importance of the utilization of this technology in
different areas in large organizations. Biometric recognition has the potential to become an irreplaceable
part of many identification systems used for evaluating the performance of those people working within
the organization. This research attempts to provide a system that recognizes terrorist using face recognition
technology to record their presence in over populated areas by matching their faces already stored in a
database according to previous criminal records. For face recognition we will be using technique
known as PCA.
Keywords: Face recognition system, authentication, bio-metric, PCA.
Introduction
Biometric Recognition:
Face recognition is an important branch of biometric
and has been widely used in many applications, such
as human-computer interaction, video monitor system
and door control system and network security [4].
For detection, color based technique was implemented,
which depends on the detection of the human skin
color with all its different variations in the image.
For recognition, PCA technique has been implemented
which a statistical approach that deals with pure
mathematical matrixes not image processing like the
color based technique used for detection. PCA can
also be used for detection.
In general Face recognition system can help in many
ways:
Checking for criminal records. Enhancement of
security by using surveillance cameras.
Searching lost children’s by using the images
received from the cameras fitted at some public places.
Knowing in advance if some VIP or someone known
is entering the hotel. Detection of a criminal at public
place. Pattern recognition [18].
There are three different types of authentication:
something you know, such as passwords, something
you have, such as badges or cards, and finally
something you are, which mainly depends on
biometrics and physical traits. Each of these three
authentication methods has its advantages and
disadvantages, and each is considered appropriate for
certain types of application [8].
Garima Bhatia*
MCA Student, MERI, GGSIPU
Mansi**
MCA Student, MERI, GGSIPU
Among there three types, scientists and researchers
consider biometric recognition systems as high-level
security systems. Biometrics is used in computer
science as a form of access control and identification.
It is also used to identify individuals in groups that
are under surveillance.
Eye: Analyzing the eye is generally thought to present
the highest levels of accuracy and uniqueness .They
can be divided into two different technologies: iris
biometrics and retina biometrics [8].
Iris:
It is the colored tissue representing the ring
surrounding the eye pupil. Each person’s iris has a
unique structure and a complex pattern. In addition,
it is believed that artificially duplicating an iris is
virtually impossible. It is also known that the iris is
from the first body parts decaying after death, therefore
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure: 2 [18]
Figure: 1 [18]
Figure: 3[18]
it is unlikely that a dead iris could be used to by-pass
a biometric system.
Retina:
Retina is the layer of blood vessels which is situated at
the back of eye. Retina used to form a non-identical
pattern and decays quickly after death. Retina
recognition systems are complex but at the same time
regarded as the most secure biometric system.
Face: For a computerized system to mimic the human
ability in recognizing faces, sophisticated and complex
artificial intelligence and machine learning is needed
to be able to compare and match human faces with
different poses, facial hair, glasses, etc. That is why
these systems depend greatly on the extraction and
comparison engines. Different tools maybe used in
these systems such as standard video, or still imaging.
Facial Recognition
Face recognition is considered to be one of the most
successful applications of image analysis and processing;
that is the main reason behind the great attention it has
been given in the past several years [4].
The facial recognition process can be divided into two
main stages: processing before detection where face
detection and alignment take place (localization and
normalization), and afterwards recognition occur
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
through feature extraction and matching steps as
shown in figure above [9].
a. Face Detection:
This process separates the facial area from the rest of
the background image. In the case of video streams,
faces can be tracked using a face tracking component.
b. Face Alignment:
This process focus on finding the best localization and
normalization of the face; where the detection step
roughly estimates the position of the face, this step
outlines the facial components, such as face outline,
eyes, nose, ears and mouth. Afterwards normalization
with respect to geometrical transforms such as size and
pose, in addition to photometrical properties such as
illumination and grey scale take place.
c. Feature Extraction:
After the previous two steps, feature extraction is
performed resulting extracting the in effective
information and essential information that is useful
for distinguishing between faces of different persons.
d. Face Matching:
The extracted features are compared to those stored
in the database, and decisions are made according to
the sufficient confidence in the match score.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Facial Recognition Techniques: That is applied to
frontal face:
A. Eigen faces:
Eigenfaces is the name given to a set of eigenvectors
which are used in the computer problem for vision of
human face recognition.
B. Geometrical Feature Matching:
Geometrical feature matching techniques are based on
set of geometrical features from the picture of a face.
Current automated face feature location algorithms
do not provide a high degree of accuracy and require
considerable computational time.
C. Template Matching:
A simple version of template matching is that a test
image represented as a two-dimensional array of
intensity values is compared using a suitable metric,
such as the Euclidean distance, with a single template
representing the whole face. In general, template-based
approaches compared to feature matching are a more
logical approach.
Limitations and Challenges of Face Recognition
Technologies: As mentioned earlier, face recognition
technology, just as any other biometric technology, has
not yet delivered it promise. In spite of all its potentials,
it is still quite limited in its applied scope. Many
researchers have identified different problems for the
biometric system; they can be categorized as follows: [8]
1. Accuracy: Two biometric samples collected from
the same person are not exactly the same due to the
imperfect imaging conditions. In addition, the face
recognition technology is not robust enough to handle
uncontrolled and unconstrained environments. In
consequence, the results accuracy is not acceptable.
Errors in Accuracy
Errors are mainly caused by the complexity and
difficulties of the recognition process because of the
uncontrollable variables such as lighting, pose,
expression, aging, weight gain or loss, hairstyle and
accessories [1]. Figures shown below (4,5,6) depicts
the errors caused by either pose variation or ageing as
a factor or hiding of images [18].
2. Security: Facial recognition and other biometric
systems are used for many security applications,
claiming that biometrics is a secure way of
authenticating access. But in fact, security of biometrics
(especially face), is very questionable. This is caused
by two main reasons:
a. Biometrics is not a secret: This means that anyone
including the attacker knows exactly the biometric
features of the targeted user.
b. Biometrics is not recoverable: This means that one
cannot change his face in case it became
compromised [18].
Implementation
For detection, Color based technique was
implemented, which depends on the detection of the
human skin color with all its different variations in
the image. The skin area of the image is then segmented
and passed to the recognition process.
Figure:5[18]
Figure:4[8]
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Figure: 6[18]
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
For recognition, PCA technique has been implemented
which a statistical approach that deals with pure
mathematical matrixes not image processing like the
color based technique used for detection. PCA can
also be used for detection [9].
PCA (Principal Component Analysis)
Description: Based on an information theory
approach, PCA used to breakdown face images into a
small set of characteristic features images or modules
called “Eigenfaces” that can be described as the
principal components of the initial training set of
images.
Moreover, it is possible not only to extract the f ace
from eigenfaces given a set of weights, but to the extract
the weights from eigenfaces and the face to be
recognized. These weights act as the amount by which
the face differs from the “typical” face represented by
the eigenfaces.
Therefore, using these weights one can determine two
important things:
1. Check whether the image is a face. In the case the
weights of the image differ too much from the
weights of face images, the image probably not a
face.
In PCA, one can change each original image of the
training set into a corresponding eigenface. Therefore,
one important feature of PCA is that the reformation
of any original image from the training set by
combining the eigenfaces is possible. Eigenfaces are
the unique features of the faces. Therefore one could
say that the original face image can be reconstruct form
eigenfaces if one adds up all the features in the right
proportion. Each eigenface represents only certain
features if the face, which may or may not be present
in the original image. If the feature is present in the
original image to a higher degree, the share of the
corresponding eigenface in the sum of the eigenfaces
should be greater. On the other hand if the particular
feature is not present in the original image, the
corresponding eigenface should contribute a smaller
part to the sum of eigenfaces. Indeed, in order to
reconstruct the original image form the eigenfaces, one
has to build a kind of weighted sum of all the
eigenfaces. That is, the reconstructed original image is
equal to a sum of all eigenfaces, with each eigenface
having a certain weight. This weight specifies, to what
degree the specific features (eigenface) is present in
the original image. If all the eigenfaces extracted from
the original images are used, one can reconstruct the
original images from the eigenfaces exactly. But using
only a part of the eigenfaces is applicable. Hence, the
reconstructed image is an approximation of the original
image [7].
2. Similar faces (images) possess similar features
(eigenfaces) to similar degrees (weights). If weights
form all images available is extracted, the images
could be grouped to clusters. Thus, all images
having similar weights are likely to be similar face.
However, losses due to omitting some of the eigenfaces
can be minimized, which is achieved by selecting only
the most important features (eigenfaces).
Main Algorithm phases: The previous initialization
processes can be summed up into three main phases
[6, 7].
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• January-June, 2015
PCA-based face recognition algorithm: The
approach to PCA-based face recognition involved the
following initialization operations: [7]
Initialization: Acquire an initial set of face images
(the training set). Calculate the eigenfaces from the
training set, keeping only the M images that
correspond to the highest eigenvalues. These M images
define the face space. As new faces are experienced,
the eigenvalues can be updated or recalculated.
Calculate the corresponding distribution in Mdimensional weight space for each known individual,
by projecting their face images onto the face space.
Having initialized the system, the following steps are
used to recognize new faces: Calculate a set of weights
based on the input image and the M eigenfaces by
projecting the input image onto each of the eigenfaces.
Determine if the image is a face at all (whether known
or unknown) by checking to see if the image is
sufficiently close to the face space. If it is a face, classify
the weight pattern as either a known person or as
unknown. The coming sections will elaborate the steps
needed to perform the PCA using eigenfaces on a set
of images in detail [6, 7].
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Three main functional units are involved in these
phases .The characteristics of these phases are described
below:
a miss has occurred and the face image with its
corresponding weight vector for later use. This process
is called learning to recognize.
Face database formation phase: During this phase,
the gathering and the preprocessing of the face images
that are going to be added to the face database are
performed. Face images are stored in a face library (file
system) in the system. Every action such as training
set or eigenface formation is performed on this face
library. In order to start the face recognition process,
the face library has to be filled with face images. Weight
vectors of the face library members are empty until a
training set is chosen and eigenvectors are formed.
Eigenvectors and eigenvalues definitions
Training phase: Images that are going to be in the
training set are chosen from the entire face library. After
choosing the training set, eigenfaces are formed and
stored for later calculations. Eigenfaces are calculated
from the training set, keeping only the M images that
correspond to the highest eigenvalues. These M
eigenfaces define the M-dimensional face space. When
the new faces are acknowledged, the eigenfaces can be
updated or recalculated. The corresponding weight
vector of each face library member has now been
updated. Note: Once a training set has been chosen,
it is not possible to add need members to the face
library with the established method that is presented
in the “face database formation phase” because the
system does not know whether this item already exists
in the face library or not. Therefore, a library search
must be performed.
Recognition and learning phase:
After choosing a training set and constructing the
weight vectors of face library members, now the system
is ready to perform the recognition process. The
recognition process in initialized by choosing the input
image (the image, one seeks to recognize). The weight
vector is constructed with the aid of the eigenfaces
that were already stored during the training phase. After
obtaining the weight
Vector, it is compared with the weight vector of every
face library member with a user defined “threshold”.
If there exists at least one face library member that is
similar to the acquired image within that threshold
then, the face image is classified as known”. Otherwise,
108
An eigenvector of a matrix is a vector such that, if
multiplied with the matrix, the result is always an
integer multiple of that vector. Its direction is not
changed by that transformation. This integer value is
the corresponding eigenvalue of the eigenvector. The
corresponding eigenvalue is the proportion by which
an eigenvector’s magnitude is changed. This
relationship can be described by the equation M * u =
* u, where u is an eigenvector of the matrix M and is
the corresponding eigenvalues. This means, an
eigenvalue of 2 means that the length of the eigenvector
has been doubled. An eigenvalue of 1 means that the
length of the eigenvector stays the same. Eigenvectors
posses following properties:
l
They can be determined only for square matrices.
l
There are n eigenvectors (and corresponding
eigenvalues) in an n * n matrix.
All the eigenvectors are perpendicular, i.e. at right angle
with each other [7].
The Use of Eigenfaces for Recognition:
Overview of the algorithm using eigenfaces: The
algorithm for the facial recognition system using
eigenfaces is basically described in Fig. First, the
original images of the training set are transformed into
a set of eigenfaces E. Afterwards; the weights are
calculated for each image of the training set and stored
in the set W. When observing an unknown image X,
the weights are calculated for that particular image
and stored in the vector
Afterwards, is compared
with the weights of images, of which one knows for
certain that they are faces (the weights of the training
set W). One way to do it would be to regard each
weight vector as a point in space and calculate an
average distance D between the weight vectors from
and the weight vector of the unknown image (the
Euclidean distance described in the appendix B would
be a measure for that). If this average distance exceeds
some threshold value, then the weight vector of the
unknown image lies too far apart from the weights of
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Step 2: The average face of the whole face distribution
is
X = (X1 + X2 + ... + Xn )/n
Step 3:Then the average face is subtracted from each
face,
Xi’ = Xi - X, i = 1, 2, ... , n
Step 4: calculation of eigenvectors
[Y1, Y2, ...,Yn] eigenvectors are calculated from the
new image set [X1', X2', ... Xn’].
These eigenvectors are orthonormal to each other.
Step 5: Starting with a preprocessed image I(x, y),
which is a two dimensional N by N array of intensity
values. This may be considered a vector of dimension.
A database of M images can therefore map to a
collection of points in this high dimensional “face
space” as G1, G2, G3…..GM. With the average face
of the image set defined as
(1)
Each face can be mean normalized and be represented
as deviations from the average face by i=Gi-. The
covariance matrix, defined as the expected value of
can be calculated by the equation
Figure:7[7]
the faces. In this case, the unknown X is considered
not a face. Otherwise (if X is actually a face), its weight
vector is stored for later classification [7].
Problems faced: Calculating the average and weights
of the faces takes so much processing and time when
run for the first time to run the program.
Limitations: Non-uniform backgrounds and lighting
conditions affect the recognition process.
Recommendation:
l
Using black or uniform background used in the
image.
l
Use sufficient light to illuminate the scene
Computation step:
We make use of Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues for face
recognition with PCA [7].
Step 1: we prepare an initial set of face images [X1,
X2, ...,Xn].
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• January-June, 2015
C=
1/m (2)
Set of very large vectors is subject to PCA, which seeks
a set of M ortho-normal vectors, , which best describes
the distribution of the data.
The kth vector, is chosen such that
=1/m pow 2
(3)
Is a maximum, subject to
={ 1 if i=j , 0 if i ! =j }
Given the covariance matrix C, we can now proceed
with determining the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of
C in order to obtain the optimal set of principal
components, a set of eigenfaces that characterize the
variations between face images [7].
C= 1/m = A
Where the matrix A= [Ø1, Ø2, Ø3…ØM]
Following the matrix analysis, the M * M matrix L=A
is constructed, where
=, and the M eigenvectors, of L is computed. These
vectors
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
determine linear combinations of the M training set
face images to form the
eigenfaces.
= , I =1,………….,m
The success of this algorithm is based on the evaluation
of the eigenvalues and the
eigenvectors of the real symmetric matrix L that is
composed from the training set of images. After this
step, the “training” phase of the algorithm is
accomplished.
Classifying Images:
Classifying an image with eigenfaces
A new face image (G) is transformed into its eigenface
e components (projected onto “face space”)
=(G-)
For k=1,…,
The weights form a feature vector,
=[]
The face classes W1 can be calculated by taking the
average of the results of the eigenface representation
over a small number of face images (as few as one) of
each individual. Classification is performed by
comparing the feature vectors of the face library
members with the feature vector of the input face
image. This comparison is based on the Euclidean
distance between the two members to be smaller than
a user defined threshold. If the comparison falls within
the user defined threshold, then face image is classified
as “known”, otherwise it is classified as “unknown”
and can be added to face library with its feature vector
for later use, thus making the system learning to
recognize new face images [7].
Output
The output of our system will consist of the face ID
with the closest match, as well as a value representing
how close this match is (a distance value).
Conclusions and Future work
In order to obtain the presence of terrorist or any
unwanted activity in the over populated areas or the
targeted areas, this project is imposed to identify the
criminals by matching their face with the faces stored
in the database. The database comprise of the criminal
images that is the images of those having any back
record. The database can be updated to add new faces.
It can be done at regular intervals or within particular
timestamp.
This research aims at providing the system to
automatically detect or match the face with the faces
stored in the database. In case a match is found,
immediate action can be taken and the unwanted
attack can be resolved frequently.
In further work, our system can be used in a completely
new dimension of face recognition application,
automated attendance system using face recognition
technique.
The efficiency and the effectiveness of the project can
also be improved by using high quality surveillance
cameras to achieve more clear vision or images. So as
to make the process of identification could be easier
and faster.
References
1. X-Zhang, YGao –Pattern Recognition, 2009- Elsevier
2. M. A. Turk and A. P. Pentland, “Face Recognition Using Eigenfaces,” inProc. IEEE Conference on Computer
Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 586–591. 1991.
3. J. Zhu and Y. L. Yu, “Face Recognition with Eigenfaces,” IEEE International Conference on Industrial
Technology, pp. 434 -438, Dec. 1994
4. Li, S.Z., Jain, A.K. (2004). Handbook of face recognition, New York, USA.
5. Hyconjaan moon, P Jonathan Phillips,” computational and performance aspects of PCA based face recognition
algorithms”, 2001, volume 30, pp 303-321
6. Ni, Mrin, As, Dwi, “Study of implementing automated attendance system using face Recognition technique”,
July 2012
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
7. Seth Jai Prakash, “Face Recognition Using Eigen vectors from PCA “
8. Maytas V, Riha, Z. Biometric Authentication- Security and Usability. Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk
University Brno, Czech Republic
9. Y. Cui, J. S. Jin, S. Luo, M. Park, and S. S. L. Au, “Automated Pattern Recognition and Defect Inspection
System,” in proc. 5th International Conference on Computer Vision and Graphical Image, vol. 59,
pp. 768 – 773, May 1992
10. M. Turk and A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for Recognition,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 3, No. 1,
pp. 71-86. Mar. 1991.
11. “Average Face,” Boston University Computer Help Desk, Oct. 16, 2001.
12. Algorithm for Efficient Attendance Management: Face Recognition based approach, Vol. 9, Issue 4, No 1,
and July 2012www.IJCSI.org
13. Automated Facial Recognition Attendance System Supervised By: Dr.GhassanIssa, January / 2011
14. P. Sinha, B. Balas, Y. Ostrovsky, and R. Russell, “Face Recognition by Humans: Nineteen Results All Computer
Vision Researchers Should Know About,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 94, Issue 11, 2006.
15. R. Cendrillon, “Real Time Face Recognition using Eigenfaces”, undergraduate thesis, Univ. of Queensland,
Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering,1999.
16. L. H. Xuan and S. Nitsuwat, 2007, “Face Recognition In Video, A Combination Of EigenFace And Adaptive
Skin-Color Model”, Proc. International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems 2007,
pp.742-747, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
17. X. Zhang, J. Jiang, Z. Liang, and C. Liu, 2010, “Skin Color Enhancement Based on Favorite Skin Color in
HSV Color Space”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 56.
18. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biometrics
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
111
Cloud Security: A Concerning Issue
Apurva Aggarwal*
Shalini Sharma**
Abstract
Cloud computing is defined as an architecture which provides computing services by the use of internet
on demand and we pay per use on having the access to a pool of shared resources like storage,
servers, applications, services and networks and there is no need to physically possess them. So by this
the time of the organizations and the cost for managing can be saved. The organizations and some of
the industries like education, healthcare and banking are shifting towards the cloud as the services
which are offered by the pay-per-use pattern which are based on the resources such as bandwidth
consumed, amount of data transferred, processing power or the amount of storage space occupied etc
are more efficient . Cloud services are delivered by data centres which are located all over the world.
Cloud computing is a totally internet dependent technology in which the client data is stored and is
maintained in the data centres of the cloud provider like Amazon, Google and Microsoft etc.
Keywords: quantum cryptography.
Introduction
Cloud refers to a network or Internet .Or we can say
in other words as something which is present at remote
location is cloud. Cloud computing provide us a way
to have access over the applications as utilities, over
the Internet. Cloud computing provides the creation,
configuration and customization of applications
online.Cloud computing ease its consumers by giving
them virtual resources by means of internet. The fast
growth in field of “cloud computing” also gives rise to
severe security concerns. Security issues persist for
Open Systems and internet. Cloud computing has not
been widely adopted due to lack of security. Cloud
computing have security issues like data securing,
examining and analysing the usage of cloud by the
cloud computing vendors. Both Cloud service provider
and the cloud service consumer needs to make sure
that the cloud is secure from all the external threats so
that the customer does not face any problem like data
loss or theft of data. A possibility also exist where a
malicious user can access the cloud by impersonating
as a legitimate user, and thus infecting the entire cloud
Apurva Aggarwal*
Management Education & Research Institute
Shalini Sharma**
Management Education & Research Institute
and somehow affecting many customers who are
sharing that infected cloud.[1]
Models
In cloud computing, the working models are
deployment model and service model.
The type of access given to the cloud is defined by
Deployment model. Different types of accesses that a
cloud can have are: Private, Public, Hybrid, and
Community.
Private cloud: Because of its private nature it offers
more security .By the help of private cloud the system
and the services are accessible within an organization.
Community cloud: The system and services are made
to be accessible by the group of organizations.
Public cloud: System and services are made accessible
to the general public. Its less secure as they are open
that is free unrestricted access of the information.
Figure 1: Different Accesses Given to Cloud
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Hybrid cloud: It is a mixture of public and private
cloud. All the critical activities are carried out by using
private cloud and all the non-critical by using public
cloud.
Service model: The cloud computing is based are
called as Service models. It can be categorized into
three service models as:
1) IaaS- Infrastrucure as a Service
2) PaaS-Platform as a Service
3) SaaS-Software as a Service
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is the basic level of
service. IaaS gives grant to fundamental resources like
physical machines, virtual storage, etc.
PaaS-The runtime environment for applications,
development and deployment tools are made available
by PaaS.
SaaS-This model helps to have the Software
applications being used as service to end users.
Popular Services for Cloud Computing are:
l
l
l
iCloud. Apple’s iCloud allows you to store music,
documents, photos, and other files through WiFi. And is accessible from any of your devices. By
signing up for iCloud, you get 5GB of free storage
automatically. For add on storage: $20 per year
for 10GB, $40 per year for 20GB, and $100 per
year for 50GB. All the other Apple apps (calendar,
mail, and more) are combined to work effortlessly
with iCloud.
Google Cloud. It includes sharing data and editing
data of Word, PowerPoint, and Excel. You can have
secured copies of each document which is saved.
This plan can be terminated at any time, price at $5
per user account per month, while the annual plan
is priced at $50 per user account per year.
IBMSmartCloud: it provides many services for
the companies in IT sector, such as applications
developed in the cloud or using the cloud as a
backup for the company data. Use the price
estimation to estimate the cost for your particular
needs – hence you need to therefore select the
software, its size, and times that you want to use,
and any additional requirements that your
company might contain. A 12-month
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
commitment, for example, is at price $1,300 per
month for each unit. [2]
Security Issues Cloud Computing:
The security for cloud and non-cloud are almost
similar. The Cloud Security Alliance’s initial report
contains a different sort of log based on different
security domains and processes which are needed to
be followed in general cloud operations. Some privacy
and security-related issues that are believed to have
long-term implication for cloud computing are:
A. Governance
Governance implies management and drop by the
organization on procedures, standards and policies for
application development and data technology service
attainment, also because the style, execution, testing,
use, and watching of deployed or engaged services.
B. Compliance
Compliance refers to an association’s responsibility to
work in the favor of established laws, provision and
standards. One with all the common compliance
problems facing a company is information location
means storage of data or information [3].
C. Malicious Insiders
This threat is well known to most of the organizations.
Insiders who are malicious they put an impact on the
organization which is considerable. The nasty insiders
are the threat which has access to the data or
information about the organization who are the
members. The application made for cloud consumers
allows the data to be stored on cloud provided by cloud
provider which also has the access to that data too.
D. Account or service Hijacking
The reason for this threat is due to spoofing,
spuriousness and vulnerabilities in the software. In this
way the criminal can get access to critical information
stored on the cloud from where he can take permission
and steal up the data, leading to the compromise on
the availability, probity, and confidentiality to the
services available.
E. Hypervisor vulnerabilities
The Hypervisor is the main software component of
Virtualization. There known security susceptibility for
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
hypervisors and solutions are still limited to an extent
and often proprietary.
F. Insecure APIs
Anonymous access, reusable tokens or password, cleartext attestation or transmission of content, inflexible
access controls or improper authorizations, limited
auditing, and classification capabilities etc security
threats may occur to organizations if the weak set of
interfaces and APIs are used.
Our Recommendation
In this paper we will like to propose our ideas for future
implementation:
The idea of “Quantum cryptography”should be
applied to reduce challenges faced in security of data
in cloud computing. Further research in this method’s
application is still going on in China. We are still
further working on this direction[4].
Some of the goals to provide data securism include
three major points. namely: Availability, secrecy, and
authenticity. Confidentiality of data in the cloud is
obtained through cryptography.
Quantum cryptography can be considered for future
implementation. But unlike, the traditional
cryptology methods as encoding and decoding the
information, Quantum cryptology depends on physics
not on mathematics[5],[6].
Quantum cryptography, a method used for
transmitting a secret key over a distance which is
secured and is based on the laws of physics. Quantum
Key Distribution uses quantum mechanism to ensure
secured communication[7]. It allows two parties to
generate a random shared secret key which is known
only to them and can be used to encrypt and decrypt
Figure 2: example for detection
the information. In quantum computing, a quantum
bit is a unit of quantum information. The state of a
qubit can be 0 and 1 simultaneously[8]. Explanation,
consider a qubit be a single photon and see how it can
be manipulated in the diagram below.
(a) 1st a photon emitted from a light source and passes
through a linear polarizer, horizontally. This
creates a qubit with horizontal polarization.
(b) When the photon which is polarized horizontally
passes through a horizontal/vertical oriented beam
splitter which is also polarised, then it always
retains its horizontal polarization.
(c) Suppose that photon which is horizontally
polarized passes via diagonally oriented polarized
beam splitter:
l
Approximately 50% of the photons could be
found at one of the exiting.
Figure 3: Manipulation of a Qubit
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
l
l
The photon can only be detected at one of
the existing.
The polarization of the photon will change
as per the corresponding diagonal
polarization. Then Polarized photons are
able to communicate digital information
[9].
Conclusion and Future Scope
Modern cryptography algorithms are based on the
fundamental process which includes finding factors
of large integers into their primes, which is said to be
ineradicable. But modern cryptography is susceptible
to both technological progress of computing power
and development in mathematics to quickly reverse
one-way functions such as that of factoring large
integers. So the idea is to introduce quantum physics
into cryptography, which has lead to the evaluation of
quantum cryptography. Quantum cryptography is one
of the emerging topics in the field of IT industry.
Hence quantum cryptography and how this
technology contributes value to a defense-in-depth
strategy related to completely secure key distribution
is still in process.
References
1. Swaroop S. Hulawale, Cloud Security Using Third Party Auditing and Encryption Service , 5 june, 2013
2. http://talkincloud.com/
3. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/implementing-the-cloud-security-principles/implementingthe-cloud-security-principles#audit-information-provision-to-consumers
4. http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/quantum-cryptography
5. https://sw.csiac.org/techs/abstract/520602
6. http://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/everyday-myths/quantum-cryptology.htm
7. https://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~chong/290N-W06/BB84.pdf
8. http://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/vpns/quantum-encryption-means-perfect-security-986
9. http://www.wired.com/2013/06/quantum-cryptography-hack/
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
115
Hand Recognition System Design
Harleen Kaur*
Simranjeet Kaur**
Abstract
In the field of Biometrics, attributes, for example, fingerprints, hand and face distinguishment and voice
check utilized for personality confirmation are increasing higher worthiness rate. One of the biometric
frameworks, hand distinguishment has been viewed as most suitable and adaptable for security
application. Geometric estimations of the human hand have been utilized for personality verification as
a part of a framework. This paper depicts a method for hand biometric peculiarity extraction utilizing
hand form matching. Euclidian separation is gotten from beginning reference point and after that tip
and valley purpose of finger is figured. At that point apply some scientific computation to compute the
hand geometry gimmicks like finger length, width and border.
Keywords: hand geometry, feature extraction, mathematical calculation.
Introduction
In today’s reality biometric systems are picking up
consideration.Physiological or behavioral attributes of
the individual are ruined distinguishment. The
physiological qualities infers utilizing human body
parts for verification and behavioural attributes
suggests activities utilizing body parts like voice, mark
and stride and so on. The accompanying are a few
gimmicks of biometric frameworks:
l
Universality: which implies the trademark ought
to be show in all people.
l
Uniqueness: every individual have novel qualities.
l
Permanence: its imperviousness to maturing.
l
Measurability: that it is so natural to gain picture
or sign from the single person.
l
Performance: how great it is at perceiving and
recognizing people.
l
Acceptability: the populace must be ready to give
the trademark.
In all cases there ought to be a database to store
biometric gimmicks. The framework part is to contrast
an information and all the entrances in the database
Harleen Kaur*
Management Education & Research Institute
Simranjeet Kaur**
Management Education & Research Institute
and check if there is a match, to affirm the personality
of the single person. To think about any sort of
biometric attributes its important to speak to them in
a stable manner.
This is separated into two assignments:
1. Speak to a biometric trademark in reproducible
and stable peculiarity such that oppose data
variability.
2. Analyze such peculiarities so clients can precisely
be recognized.
Proposed system
The scanner is used to take image. The features are
extracted by using image processing techniques and
mathematical calculations.
The palm print biometric system include following
steps:
Acquisition
Using scanner image is captured. The image taken is a
colour image with no deformity providing easy, less-cost,
non contact, effortless and user-friendly acquisition
process. The hand’s position is not fixed in this process.
The image is taken in three different angles (90,180, 180), stored in jpeg format. In case finger is missing the
system is unable to process the image.
Pre-processing
The next step is Palm Print pre-processing. The image
is prepared for feature extraction. At this stage colour
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 2. Acquisition of palm print
Step2: compute plot of the edge theta = tan”1 (gradx/
grady).
Figure 1. System architecture
image is transformed to gray level image then the noise
pixels from the gray image is reduced.
Edge detection
After elimination of noise the picture contains locales
of highly contrasting pixels. It is obliged just edges
are contained in picture to concentrate geometric
gimmicks. Subsequently the areas of white space are
obliged to change over to a picture containing the
limit of the white pixels just. The edge identification
calculation is utilized for this reason. The calculation
changes over all pixels to dark pixels barring the one
at the limit of highly contrasting. The calculation must
guarantee that the thickness of this limit is as low as
could reasonably be expected.
It is troublesome for edge identification calculation
not to miss any edges. It is likewise critical that no
non edges are recognized as edges. These two focuses
characterize the lapse rate. There are likewise two
different qualities that a decent edge discovery
calculation ought to groups. The separation between
the genuine edge and the edge found by the system
ought to be as low as could be expected under the
circumstances. Likewise the strategy ought not give
various reactions to single edges.
Algorithm
Step1: gradx and grady to be dead set, the qualities
returned by the portions.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
Step3: theta approximated to one of these qualities
45, 90, 135 and 0 or 180.
Step4: Traverse along the edge toward the
approximated theta and set any pixel to 0 which is
not along theta.
Figure 3. RGB color to gray color
The estimate in Step 3 is fairly substantial. This is
carried out on the grounds that since a pixel has just 8
encompassing pixel and the edge need to continue to
one of these plot. An area including 45 degrees is
shaped for each of the four plot 0, 45, 90 and 135.
The theta quality lies in one of these locales and
approximated to the edge in whose district it lies.
Feature Extraction
This is the most important module in a biometric
system which extracts the features of hand geometry.
The features of hand print are calculated by using
reference point: a) Tip point of all fingers including
thumb. b) Starting and ending reference point c) hand
centred d) length of major axis e) length of minor axis
f ) Perimeter
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 4. The kernel to calculate the gradient
along X axis
Figure 6. Feature extraction
Experiments and results
Figure 5. The kernel to calculate the gradient
along Y axis
Matching
This is last step. The features extracted in the previous
step are matched with the features of that individual
stored previously in the database. The system produces
a match score based on this comparison. The match
score represents the closeness of the current image with
the one in the database. A highest score represents a
high closeness of the images. Based on experiments a
threshold value is decided which lies in the range of
match score. If the match score is less than the
threshold value the image is rejected. If the match score
is higher than the threshold the image in the database.
The 50 clients are included in trials. From every client
six picture of hand is taken, three from left and three
from right hand. It is utilized for the enrolment
procedure to characterize the clients’ layouts, or
peculiarity vectors. The peculiarities are separated and
therefore match the database.
Conclusion
The Hand geometry has proved to be a reliable
biometric. The proposed system shows how features
are extract using very simple mathematical formulas.
We are attempting to improve the performance of
hand geometry based verification system by reducing
the amount of features and incorporating new features.
Further we can develop a multi model biometric
system to improve the efficiency of the system.
References
1. Saraf Ashish - Design of Hand Geometry Based Recognition System Department of Computer Science &
Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur in Jan 2007.
2. Arun Ross A.K.Jain and S.Pankati. A prototype hand- geometry based veri_cation system. Int’l Conference
on Audio- and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication (AVBPA), pages 166{171, March 1999.
3. A. K. Jain and N. Duta. Deformable matching of hand shapes for veri_cation. International Conference on
Image Processing, pages 857{861, October 1999.
4. L. Wong and P. Shi. Peg-free hand geometry recognition using hierarchical geometry and shape matching.
IAPR Workshop on Machine Vision Applications, pages 281{284, 2002.
5. Mongkon Sakdanupab and Nongluk Covavisaruch, A Fast and Efficient Palmprint Identification.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
6. google refrences
7. Gnanou Florence Sudha, M. Niveditha, K. Srinandhini, and S. Narmadha Hand Based Biometric Recognition
Based on Zernike Moments and Log Gabor Filters, International Journal of Research and Reviews in
Information Sciences (IJRRIS).
8. Kostunica B. Ray, Rachita Misra: Palmprint as a Biometric Identifier,on IJECT Vol. 2.
9. A. Kirthika and S. Arumugam: TEXTURE AND COLOR INTENSIVE BIOMETRIC MULTIMODAL
SECURITY USING HAND GEOMETRY AND PALM PRINT in International Journal of Advances in
Engineering & Technology.
10. Arun Ross on A Prototype Hand Geometry-based Verification System.
11. Sarat C. Dass, Yongfang Zhu, Anil K. Jain: Validating a Biometric Authentication System: Sample Size
Requirements in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE
INTELLIGENCE.
12. Anil K. Jain, Arun Ross, and Sharath Pankanti: Biometrics: A Tool for Information Security on IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY.
13. Karthik Nandakumar, Anil K. Jain and Arun Ross: Fusion in Multibiometric Identification Systems: What
about the Missing Data.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
119
Infrared Thermal Imaging
Amit Sharma*
Nidhi Jindal**
Abstract
Infrared Thermography (IRT) is being used in an ever more broad number of application fields and for
many different purposes; indeed, any process, which is temperature dependent, may benefit from the
use of an infrared device.
All living objects in the world emit infrared energy in the form of heat which is known as its heat
signature.
Infrared thermal imaging is a method to improving visibility of objects by detecting the objects infrared
radiation and creating a new gray scale image based on that information in a dark environment using
the infrared radiations.
Keywords: Infrared radiation, thermography camera, medical, armed forces, breast cancer.
Introduction
Infrared thermal imaging technology is one new
method using night vision technologies. Thermal
imaging works without any ambient light in
environments. In general, a hotter object emits more
radiation. Infrared thermographic camera can operate
as long as 14,000 nm in wavelengths.
A thermal camera is also known as a thermal imager,
infrared camera or thermal imaging camera. It is a heat
sensor that capable of detecting minor differences in
temperature. The Thermal camera can collects the
infrared radiation from a sequence of continuous
action in the scene and creates a new image based on
information about the objects temperature differences.
Because objects are rarely precisely the same
temperature as other objects, a thermal camera can
detect the objects heat i.e., infrared radiation coming
from the object and they will appear as distinct in a
thermal image that creates a new image using infrared
radiation. Those thermal images are also known as
Thermograms.
Normally, these images are grayscale in nature in which
the white objects are hot, black objects are cold and
Amit Sharma*
Management Education and Research Institute
Nidhi Jindal**
Management Education and Research Institute
the depth of gray indicates variations between the two
objects. Some thermal cameras help users identify an
object to add colors to images at different
temperatures.
Advantages
1. It has a capability of finding high temperature
components.
2. It is used to observe the areas which cannot be
accessed by other methods.
3. It is a non-destructive method. It is very useful to
detect the objects in dark places.
4. In real time environment, thermography is capable
of catching freely targets.
5. Large area temperature can be differentiated as it
helps us to show virtual pictures.
6. It is also used in medical field especially in
kinesiotherapy.
Disadvantages
1. It has a capability of detecting surface
temperatures directly.
2. When accurate temperatures are being measured,
they are mostly affected by other surface
reflections and different emissivity.
3. Thermal Imaging does not perform well in rain
falling.
IITM Journal of Management and IT
5.
Figure 1. Thermo Graphic Image of a RingTailed Lemur
In Use
1.
2.
3.
4.
As in infrared cameras, the cameras are using
image sensors which is not able to distinguish
between the different wavelengths of infrared
radiations because of this cameras have only
single color channel. Out of the normal visible
spectrum color has less meaning because of the
complex construction of the different
wavelengths doesn’t map the uniform system of
color vision used by humans.
Monochromatic images sometimes are displayed
in pseudo-color, where the changes in color are
used rather than changes in intensity to display
changes in signal. As humans have much greater
dynamic range in intensity detection. And this
ability of seeing fine intensity differences in
bright areas is limited; this technique is called
density slicing.
According to the temperature measurements
their colors are set. As warmest part of the image
are colored white, intensity temperatures are
colored red and yellows, and the dimmest part
i.e., coolest parts are colored black. A scale
should always be shown to relate the colors of
temperature. The expensive cameras are of more
resolution i.e., of 1280x1024. And thermo
graphic cameras are much more expensive than
their visible spectrum, though low performances
of thermal cameras for smart phones are available
in hundreds of dollars in 2014.
In un-cooled detectors the temperature
differences at the sensor pixel are minute. At the
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
range of 10 of milliseconds the pixel response
time is slow.
Thermography has many other uses too.
Thermal imaging cameras are installed in various
luxurious cars to aid the drivers. It is used by
firefighters to see through smoke to find people
and hotspot of fires. Power line technicians’ uses
thermal imaging to find the overheating joints
and parts, to eliminate the potential hazards.
Cooled infrared cameras can be found at
astronomy research telescopes. And in medical
field thermo graphic imaging is used to monitor
the temperature in human being and warm
blooded animals.
Working of Thermal Imaging
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
First of all it is important to understand the light.
Wavelength is related to the amount of energy
in the light wave. Higher the energy shorter will
be the wavelengths. Of all the visible lights, violet
has the most energy and red has the lowest.
Infrared spectrum is just next to visible light
spectrum.
Infrared light can be divided into 3 categories:
Near-infrared (near-IR) –
It is also known as near-IR and is closest to the
visible light. Its wavelength ranges from 700
billionths to 1,300 billionths, or 0.7 to 1.3
microns of a meter.
Mid-infrared (mid-IR) –
It is also known as mid-IR and its wavelengths
range from 1.3 to 3 microns.
In electronic devices both Mid-IR and near-IR
are used.
Thermal-infrared (thermal-IR) –
It is also known as thermal-IR and it has
wavelengths ranging from 3 microns to over 30
microns which is covering the highest part of
the infrared thermal.
Case Study
Recently this technology of thermal imaging systems
was used in France by French police to arrest 2 brothers
suspected in the Charlie Hebdo massacreas because
of rapidly evolving technology like in airports,
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
hospitals etc. Like GPS, thermal imaging was once
used exclusively by military and law enforcement.
In the early 1990’s, National Guard aircraft relied on
thermal sensors to look for illegal drug activity at the
Davidian Compound Branch in Waco, Tex.
In 2013, the Massachusetts State Police helicopter used
thermal imaging to locate the Boston bombing suspect
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, after a homeowner reported that
the bloodied fugitive was hiding in a boat in his yard.
In June last year, a military surveillance aircraft
equipped with infrared sensors played a key role in
the hunt for Justin Bourque, a refugee who had killed
three police officers in Moncton, New Brunswick. He
found the camera hiding in deep brush late at night.
Thermal imaging cameras are made up of a large array
of unusual Micro-electro-mechanical Systems
(MEMS) devices, as well as specialized optics.
Predictable glass and plastic lenses can’t be used because
they wedge heat. Instead, these cameras require special
lenses manufactured of transparent silicon.
The cameras, which detect changes in human’s body
temperature as small as one-tenth of a degree
Fahrenheit, were originally used in Southeast Asia in
response to outbreaks of SARS and bird flu, and more
newly to alert officials to individuals who might have
contracted Ebola.
Future Scope
Thermal imaging has been successfully used in several
areas. This technology is used by armed forces in
various countries. In future we use thermal imaging
to follow the thoughts through infrared radiation
detector. The future applications of Infrared Radiation
detector systems require:l
The higher pixel sensitivity and further increase
in pixel density.
l
The reduction of cost in IR imaging array systems
due to less cooling sensor technology combined
with integration of detectors and signal processing
functions.
Thermal Imaging is now being emerging in smart
phones as well and it has been launched by iPhone
only. It is the costliest product as it was special product
which supports thermal imaging by FLIR. It has
several disadvantages to like previously device don’t
have a battery with a charger. But this advantage has
prevailed over. Now a better product has been
launched.
Conclusion
As we discussed that infrared thermal imaging can be
widely used in medical, armed forces and many more
areas where this technology is used. In army, this
technology can be used to find the suspected criminals.
In medical, this technology is used to find the good
solutions to different number of diseases or viruses.
For example, today this technology can be used to
measure the fever temperature and it can also be used
in detection breast cancer. Infrared thermal imaging
is a valuable adjunct to mammography and
ultrasound, especially with dense breast parenchyma
in women.
References
1. Ring EF. Quantitative thermal imaging. Clin Phys Phsiol Meas. 1990;11:87–95.
2. Anbar M, Gratt BM, Hong D. Thermology and facial telethermography, Part I: history and technical review,
Dentomaxillo, Fac Radiol. 1998;27:61–7.
3. Vainer BG. FPA-based infrared thermography as applied to the study of cutaneous perspiration and stimulated
vascular response in humans. Phys Med Biol. 2005;50:R63–94.
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermography
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermographic_camera
6. http://www.nytimes.com/
7. http://www.nydailynews.com/
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Cyber Forensic: Introducing A New Approach to
Studying Cyber Forensic and Various Tools to
Prevent Cybercrimes
B. Vanlalsiama*
Nitesh Jha**
Abstract
With the advancement of technology world today Cyber-crimes, ethical hacking and various internetbased-crimes jeopardizes single or groups of internet users around the world. Even the greatest of the
nations suffered being a victim of cyber-crime. However due to lack of digital evidence and methodology
of cyber forensic the alarming crime remained unstoppable and will continue to last. The evolution of
such crimes increases the need of implementing a proper and structural methodology for the study of
cyber forensic to facilitate the inspection of cyber-crime and bring them to court.In this paper we
adopted several phases, methodologies, including policies and educational system and combine into
one effective procedures along with the powerful tool to work coordinately and to accommodate each
phases after the completion of their own task. This paper serves as an enhancement of current tools and
technique for the purpose of finding the accurate layers for specialization, certification, and education
within the cyber forensics domain. It also highlights the importance and need of Cyber forensics tools to
increase its toughness and the ability to combat this persistent threats. This paper focuses on briefing of
Cyber forensics, various phases of cyber forensics, handy tools which will helps in the finding and bring
the intruders in the court of law for judgment.
Keywords: Cyber Crime, Digital Evidence search Kit. Ethical hacking, Resource Centre for Cyber Forensic
Introduction
Cyber forensic play a vital role in solving crimes. the
collection of forensic evidence serve an important key
role that sometimes it is the only way to establish or
exclude any case between suspect and victim or crime
scene, eventually to establish a final verdict. As Internet
technologies associate with us into everyday life, we
come close to realizing new and existing online
opportunities. One such opportunity is in Cyber
forensics, unique process of identifying, preserving,
analyzing and presenting digital evidence in a manner
that is legally accepted which helps in investigation
process. The American Heritage Dictionary defines
B. Vanlalsiama*
MCA: 4th Semester
B-46, Chanakya Place, Janakpuri, New Delhi
Nitesh Jha**
MCA: 4th Semester,
C-39, Sagar Pur, Jankapuri, New Delhi
forensics as “relating to the use of science or technology
in the investigation and establishment of facts or
evidence in a court of law” [1].
According to the National Crimes Record Bureau,
4,231 cyber-crimes were registered under the IT Act
and cyber-crime-related sections of the Indian Penal
Code (IPC) during 2009-11. A total of 1,184 people
were arrested under the IT Act for cyber-crimes, while
446 people were arrested under IPC sections. At least
157 cases were registered for hacking under the IT
Act in 2011, while 65 people were arrested. Although
a very large number of cyber-crimes probably go
unreported, this statistics give us some idea about
prevalence of cyber-crime in the country. This is
making cyber forensics increasingly relevant in today’s
India. The CID’s cybercrime cell recorded a massive
202% jump in cybercrime cases in 2014 compared to
the year before. While the total number of cybercrime
cases recorded in 2014 is 675, the figure stood at 334
in 2013.
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 1. Status of Cyber-crime in India
Taking the picture of India. Majority of the people in
the country are unaware of such crime and keeps to
the duty of police or investigator alone. Its initiative
work in combating cybercrime remain still ineffective.
Due to the unskilled or less knowledge of the
investigator these crimes continue to emerge year after
year. From the current scenario one can draw a
hypothesis as If proper training and awareness
regarding the importance of tackling cyber-crime is
not recommended possibly India will suffer more than
other countries in a coming decade.
Cyber forensics activities commonly include [1]
l
The collection and analysis of computer data
l
The identification and acknowledgement of
suspect data
l
The examination and of suspect data to determine
details such as origin and content
l
The presentation of computer-based information
to courts of law
l
The application of a country’s laws to computer
practice.
The existing methodology consists of the 3 A’s:
l
Acquire the evidence without altering or damaging
the original
124
l
l
Authenticate the image
Analyze the data without modifying it. [2]
Using the Internet, hacker finds an opportunity to hack
or perform illegal action because we all know one person
sitting in a room can hack a person bank account living
in another country. Since the introduction of internetworking, hacker or intruder’s action against theft, hack,
and phishing have increased tremendously. It is essential
that high security is maintained. It is however simply
cannot be compromised. Hacker also begin to spark a
better idea by using anti-forensic tool to commit a crime
to hide away his/her identity. Due to this many
organization were establish such as Resource Centre for
Cyber Forensic (RCCF) in India to combat these kinds
of crimes.
Overview of RCCF
l
l
l
l
l
It offers various Cyber Security auditing services
Consultancy for ISMS Auditing
Cyber Forensic Analysis, Training and Laboratory
Development
Malware Analysis
Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing
of Web Applications and Networks [3]
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Overview of tools available
Tools are mainly used for collecting digital evidence
pertinent to different areas like disk forensics, network
forensics, device forensics, live forensics, enterprise
forensics, photo forensics and virtualized environment
forensics. Some of the various tools presently used are
as under:
Disk Forensics Tool: Suite with Disk imaging (True
Imager), Data recovery and analysis (Cyber Check),
S/W for tracing sender of e-mail, Forensic Data
Carving (F-DaC), Forensic Registry analysis (F-Ran)
and Forensic Thumbnail extraction (F-Tex) tools.
Network Forensics Tool: Suite with Network Session
Analyzer (NeSA), Forensic Log Analyzer and S/W for
tracing sender of e-mail
Mobile Device Forensics Tools: Software solution for
acquisition and analysis of mobile phones, smart
phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and other
mobile devices (Mobile Check), s/w for analyzing Call
Data Records of various service providers (Advik) and
forensic solution for imaging and analyzing SIM cards
(SIMXtractor)
Live Forensics Tool (Win Lift): Software solution for
acquisitions and analysis of volatile data present in
running Windows systems
Portable Forensics Toolkit: TrueTraveller is a portable
forensics toolkit. [4]
A New Approach
As with any other crime scene, suspects leave behind
trace evidence of their actions when using computers
to commit a crime. Gathering evidence from a
computer can be challenging, but valuable, because
every operation that an each person carries out on a
computer leaves behind a record that is usually dated.
Finding and preserving that evidence requires careful
methods as well as technical skill. Information on a
computer system can be changed without a trace, the
scale of data that must be analyzed is vast, and the
variety of data types is enormous. Just as a traditional
forensic investigator must be prepared to analyze any
kind of piece of information or fragment, no matter
the source, a forensic investigator must be able to make
sense of any data that might be found on any device
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
anywhere on the suspect boundary or areas. However,
computer traces can also be misinterpret and, without
the proper approach, files containing valuable evidence
can be lost. Therefore the field of cyber forensics, still
in its infancy, possesses a strong need to educate with
the best training kit to equip the personnel with the
latest knowledge and information.
Policies that enhance cyber forensic
1. Accurate data collection
Every policy adopted must fulfill the enterprise or
organization requirement. Each enterprise’s goal is to
collect accurate and precise information to which the
investigation could be performed and transform into
useful evidence to capture the intruders. Since the
misleading of information may have a huge impact
on the current status of the investigation. One must
keep in mind, presenting accurate data play a key role
in the findings.
2. Education
Despite the changes, cyber-crime investigation in the
state needs improvement. “Majority of the personnel
handling cyber-crimes in the state have not studied
computer science during their graduation or postgraduation. Though they are still doing their best, we
believe that recruitment of B Tech graduates and post
graduates with M.Sc., M.Tech or MCA degrees will
immensely improve investigation standards and result
in effective crime prevention,”
With technology playing a signification role in our
day-to-day affairs, electronic data analysis like
cellphone data analysis has become a part of even the
traditional crime investigation process.
Surveillance and analysis of social media and cellphone
data has become an integral part of prevention and
investigation of terror and communal cases. It is a high
time that cyber forensic education is prioritize with
the same level of other line of education or even higher
than that.
3. Forming forensic team
According to Robert Graham, a response team should
include members from upper management, Human
Resources, the technical staff, and outside members.
The upper management member can ensure that the
decisions made by the forensic team are balanced with
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
the overall goals and best interests of the enterprise
and that the decisions of the team have appropriate
weight. Because of the personnel issues involved, there
should be a member from human resources
department. There should also be a member of the
Information Technology (IT) staff on the forensics
team. Security issues are often handled separately from
normal IT activity. In such a case, the forensics team
should work hand in hand with the IT department
[6546456]
4. Role of investigator
One of the key factor to investigation is the way of
investigating. Approach has been made this paper
actually focus on Reactive and Proactive Investigations.
Intuitively, reactive investigations attempt to solve
crimes that have already occurred; this is the most
frequent type .Proactive investigations attempt to deal
with crime prior to the victimization, rather than after
it has exacted harm on an individual, a corporation,
or society.
5. Cyber forensic and law enforcement
A basic level understanding of computer forensics, at
the very least, is an essential knowledge area for all law
enforcement officers. Investigators need to know when
information on a computer might have a nexus to a
crime, how to write an appropriate warrant to seize
and search a computer, and how to gather and search
cyber evidence. Prosecutors and judges need to better
understand the role of digital evidence — and the
laborious task of a proper and thorough computer
forensics exam. High technology crime task forces have
already been formed in the larger metropolitan areas
where this is a particularly serious problem, but the
problem is actually far more widespread than just the
big cities. Even a patrol officer who is not involved in
computer crimes needs to know what actions to take
when a computer is discovered at a crime or arrest
scene. [5]
Overview of Methodology Used
It has studied that so many methodology for cyber
forensic are currently being carried and applied in law
enforcement. Even though many tools and various
techniques has deployed we came to learnt that so
many cyber-crimes cases remain pending and left
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unsolved. With the existing methodology and
technique in this paper we form a special blended
methodology which abbreviate as VIAR and its phases
are discussed below:
a. Verification.
The first phases in this blended-methodology is to
verify that an incident has taken place. Determine the
breadth and scope of the incident, assess the case. What
is the situation, the nature of the case and its specifics?
This preliminary step is considered paramount
important because will help determining the
characteristics of the incident and defining the best
approach to identify, preserve and collect evidence.
b. Information acquisition.
The next step is followed by taking notes (legal
document) and describing the system you are going
to analyze, where is the system being acquired, Outline
the operating system and its general configuration such
as disk format, amount of RAM and the location of
the evidence. During this step is also important that
you prioritize your evidence collection and engage the
business owners to determine the execution and
business impact of chosen strategies
c. Analysis of information.
After the evidence acquisition you will start doing your
investigation and analysis in your forensics lab. Start by
doing a timeline analysis. This is a crucial step and very
useful because it includes information such as when
files were modified, accessed, changed and created in a
human readable format, known as MAC time evidence.
The data is gathered using a variety of tools and is
extracted from the metadata layer of the file system.
Limited examination covers the data areas that are
specified by legal documents or based on interviews.
This examination process is the least time consuming
and most common type. Partial examination deals with
prominent areas. Key areas like log files, registry, cookies,
e-mail folders and user directories etc., are examined in
this case of partial examination. This partial examination
is based on general search criteria which are developed
by forensic experts.
d. Reporting Results.
The final phase involves reporting the results of the
analysis, which may include describing the actions
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
playing a vital role in cybercrimes. Computer forensics
tools used to find skeletons in digital media. To reduce
the effect of anti- forensics tools the Investigator is
likely to have the tools and knowledge required to
counter the use of anti-forensics techniques [17].
Sometimes collection of digital evidence is
straightforward because intruders post information
about themselves from Facebook, Orkut, Twitter,
Myspace and chat about their illegal activities. A
subpoena, rather than special forensics tools, required
obtain this information; these e-mails or chats from
social networks can be admissible as evidence. [6]
Overview of DESK
Figure 2. Phases of cyber forensic
performed, determining what other actions need to
be performed, and recommending improvements to
policies, guidelines, procedures, tools, and other
aspects of the forensic process. Reporting the results is
a key part of any investigation. Consider writing in a
way that reflects the usage of scientific methods and
facts that you can prove. Adapt the reporting style
depending on the audience and be prepared for the
report to be used as evidence for legal or administrative
purposes. The scientific method used in this phase is
to draw conclusions based on the gathered evidence.
This phase is mainly based on the Cyber laws and
presents the conclusions for corresponding evidence
from the investigation.
The above figure depict phases of cyber forensic. It is
arrange in terms of stack resembling a top down
approach. The top most phase is the first to be executed
followed by acquisition and so on. To enhance cyber
forensic phases unlike the existing phases, in this paper
we make this phases iterative to ensure all the
information gather and document are accurate. This
eliminate the need of re-examination.
Cyber Forensics Tools
The main objective of cyber forensics tools is to extract
digital evidence which can be admissible in court of
law. Electronic evidence (e-evidence, for short) is
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
To achieve all the phases being introduced we adopted
one of the greatest tool called. Digital Evidence Search
Kit (DESK). Desk machine is the computer used by a
law enforcement agent and the subject machine is the
personal computer of the suspect. The two machines
communicate with each other using a serial (RS-232)
The main operations of DESK are provide by two
software components in the DESK system:
l
A text pattern file which contains search keywords,
in Chinese and/or English, to be searched for on
the subject machine, and
l
Hash value databases that contain ‘fingerprints’ of
file systems that enable file integrity verification. [7]
DESK search methods
The first important feature of DESK is the search
function. It is used to search for files on the subject
machine that contain pre-defined search keywords.
Pre-defined search keywords are words that are relevant
to a particular crime case. For instance, in a bank
corruption crime, the pre-defined text patterns may
contain names of different banks. The patterns can
either be in English or in Chinese, or combinations of
both. For Chinese patterns, different encodings of
Chinese, such as Big5, GB (2312) and Unicode
UTF16, are supported.
There are three main kinds of search operations:
Physical search: Physical search performs a search of the
patterns of each physical sector of the subject machine’s
storage system. By using a physical search, cybercrime
evidence purposely stored in unused sectors in the storage
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
system can be discovered. Moreover, it provides a way
for searching files independent of the specific file system.
The disadvantage is that physical search, due to its lack
of knowledge about the file system, can only search data
within individual physical disk sectors
Logical search: Logical search makes use of the
information about the file system. Conceptually, a file
is a continuous sequence of bytes and the file system
takes care of placing portions of the sequence into
different sectors (not necessarily contiguous) while
maintaining the logical contiguity of the contents of a
file. A file can have a size larger than that of a disk
sector. Sometimes a search pattern for a file may be
split across two sectors. In these cases, the pattern
cannot be found by a physical search, but can be found
by a logical search.
Deleted file search: The third kind of search is the
deleted file search. In most file systems, file deletion is
typically accomplished by modifying only a few bytes
of the file system. The contents of a deleted file are
still in the storage system provided that it has not been
overwritten. Therefore, patterns in a deleted file can
still be found until “deleted” disk sectors are
overwritten by other new files. DESK is able to search
the sectors of files that have been deleted but not yet
overwritten. [8]
Conclusion
Computer related crime is growing as fast as the
Internet itself. Today, enterprises focus on
implementing preventative security solutions that
reduce vulnerabilities, with little concern for systematic
recovery or investigation. We propose six categories
of policies that will enable or facilitate after-the- fact
action that can reduce the impact of computer crime
and can deter computer crime from occurring. Some
of the policies that we propose are simple actions that
responsible network managers already engage as a
matter of system reliability or as part of a disaster
recovery procedures. The focus on computer and
network forensics distinguishes these policies from
backup and recovery needs. The procedures for cyber
forensic require systematic application and detailed
documentation, else the information may not be
admissible in court. Further, backup and recovery
procedures routinely ignore temporary information
and other important sources of potential evidence.
Moreover, cyber forensic is much broader than just
providing ready sources of potential evidence. .As people
get more and more comfortable with computers, and
technology advances, society becomes more computer
dependent. In an era where everything from the stock
market to air traffic control is managed by computers,
security becomes a survival issue. In today’s society,
computer crime is a serious problem. Preventive measures
are not enough anymore, we must find a way to catch
and prosecute computer criminals, and computer and
network forensics is the gateway to archive it.
We should not leave everything to computer forensics
experts. If we are going to find a solution to the
computer crime problem, it will be through a
collaborative effort. Everyone from individual users,
to company owners have to get involved. This paper
proposes policies, methodology and tools to enhance
the forensics of computer security by helping experts
in the field do their job faster and more efficiently. It
is up to the companies and users to adopt these policies
according to their needs.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Plethora of Cyber Forensics
www.ijarcsse.com International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering
http://www.cyberforensics.in/Aboutcdac.aspx
http://cdac.in/index.aspx?id=cs_cf_cyber_forensics
http://www.computerforensics.com/law enforce.html
http://www.icbse.com/careers/cyber-forensics
http://www.engpaper.com/a1/computer-forensics research-papers.html
http://articles.forensicfocus.com/2014/11/29/investigation-and-intelligence-framework-iif-an-evidence-extractionmodel-for-investigation/
9. http://articles.forensicfocus.com/
10. http://countuponsecurity.com/2014/08/06/computer-forensics-and-investigation-methodology-8-steps/
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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
Cyber Crime and Information WarfareThe New Arenas for WAR
Anwesha Pathak*
Rohit Sharma**
Abstract
With the advent, advancement and development of the Internet and particularly the World-Wide-Web
has accelerated the perception in mankind for his dependency on information technology. As a
consequence, various problems of national and international law and ethics have emerged which have
increasingly been grabbing the attention of cyber experts, public policy makers and national security
experts, especially those concerned about the future of warfare. A new form of warfare, “Information
warfare”, is defined to occur when one nation seeks to obtain strategic leverage over another by
subverting, disrupting or damaging information systems. Compared to other forms of warfare, information
warfare possesses several distinct features. The distinct features of information warfare and the legal/
ethical ramifications of these features are characterized in order to stimulate a deeper consideration of
this new context.
The authors here will focus on the measures to prevent cyber crime, effects of these crimes on teenagers
and more importantly Legal Issues Concerned with Information warfare & e-Crime.
Keywords: Chipping, Espionage, Information warfare, Offensive Software
Introduction
Military affairs which were previously based on wars
with hardcore weapons such as long-range missiles,
heavy machine guns, tanks, fighter planes etc. which
took place at a large piece of land have now changed
and have taken a very innovative way. Innovative here
means a way through which these wars are now limited
to a small room and a desktop with an internet
connection which is able to devastate the security of
the whole country. In other words, we can say that
Information warfare is the latest innoment in the vast
history of warfare. Information warfare may be defined
as an attack on information systems of military
advantage using tactics of destruction, denial,
exploitation or deception or all. The spread of
information warfare is connected from the rapid
dispersion of information technology.
Flowchart-1, below shows us of how information was
derived from Fischer (1984). It is to be noted that the
Anwesha Pathak*
B.A. LL.B. 3rd Yr., New Law College
Rohit Sharma**
B.A. LL.B. 3rd Yr., New Law College
cycle (flowchart) here has eleven different levels that
shows the processing of data gathering to data entry
to data reception to data processing and storing and
so on. The last 2 stages here are related from data
retrieval and thereafter the usage of this data.
Currently cyber experts all around the world are searching
for tough protection in each stage of the flowchart, but
there is a technical problem often termed as a ‘cyber threat
problem’ that for every solution or for every protection a
new kind of threat can be developed, sooner or later.
The threat of Information warfare will continue to rise
as the costs of beginning are too low and day by day
these costs are cutting down due to which many of the
foreign governments realized the need of a separate
strategic information warfare branch under their military
and other security based organizations. Few of the foreign
nations have already got within them this facility. The
system of information is so critical that one nation attacks
other nation’s information system, instead of attacking
its military. The reason behind this is that the first option
is cheap and cost effective as compared to the second
option. Also it destroys and devastates the internal security
issues of the latter country resulting in huge loss in
economical matters.
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Legal and Ethical Challenges of information
warfare
The following six sections analyze the most significant
legal and ethical questions of information warfare as a
new form of warfare. Many of the questions have been
raised before in previous contexts but the unique
characteristics of information warfare bring urgency
to the search for new relevant answers.
It should be noted that this analysis is also pertinent
to other military situations generally referred to as
Operations Other Than War (OOTW) such as peacekeeping missions, preludes to conflict, alternatives to
conflict, sanctions, and blockades. For example, in an
information warfare analogy to the U.S. blockade of
Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis, there are
information warfare techniques (i.e. jamming and
denial of service attacks) which could be used to block
and thus isolate rogue nations from international
communications without circumventing physical
sovereignty much in the same way the British decided
to sever all transatlantic telegraph cables that linked
Germany to international communications at the
outset of World War I.
The Sections are as follows:
1. What Constitutes an Act of War in the
Information Age?
The nation-state combines the intangible idea of a
people (nation) with the tangible construct of a
political and economic entity (state). A state under
international law possesses sovereignty which means
that the state is the final arbiter of order within its
physical geographical borders. Implicit to this
construct is that a state is able to define and defend its
physical geography. Internally a state uses dominant
force to compel obedience to laws and externally a
state interacts with other states, interaction either in
friendly cooperation or competition or to deter and
defeat threats. At the core view of any nation-state’s
view of war should be a National Information Policy
which clearly delineates national security thresholds
over which another nation-state must not cross. This
National Information Policy must also include options
which consider individuals or other non-state actors
who might try to provoke international conflicts.
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Increasingly the traditional attributes of the nationstate are blurring as a result of information technology.
With INFORMATION WARFARE, the state does
not have a monopoly on dominant force nor can even
the most powerful state reliably deter and defeat
INFORMATION WARFARE attacks. Increasingly
non-state actors are attacking across geographic
boundaries eroding the concept of sovereignty based
on physical geography. With the advent of the
information age, the U.S. has lost the sanctuary that
it has enjoyed for over 200 years. In the past, U.S.
citizens and businesses could be protected by
government control of our air, land, and sea
geographical borders but now an INFORMATION
WARFARE attack may be launched directly through
(or around) these traditional geographical physical
defenses.
War contemplates armed conflict between nationstates. Historically war has been a legal status that can
be specified by declaration and/or occur by way of an
attack accompanied by an intention to make war. The
modern view of war provides a new look at just war
tradition, “jus ad bellum”, (when it is right to resort
to armed force) and “jus in bello”, (what is right to do
when using force). The six requirements of “jus ad
bellum” were developed by Thomas Aquinas in the
13th century:
(1) the resort to force must have a just cause
(2) it must be authorized by a competent authority
(3) it is expected to produce a preponderance of good
over evil
(4) it must have a reasonable chance of success
(5) it must be a last resort
(6) the expected outcome must be peace
There are two requirements for “jus in bello”
(1) the use of force must be discriminate (it must
distinguish the guilty from the innocent)
(2) the use of force must be proportional (it must
distinguish necessary force from gratuitous force)
The application of just war reasoning to future
information warfare conflicts is problematic but there
is a growing voice that there is a place for the use of
force under national authority in response to broader
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national security threats to the values and structures
that define the international order. Looking at one
aspect of the application of just war reasoning to
information warfare, the problem of proportionality It is impossible to respond to every information warfare
action, there are too many. At what threshold in lives
and money should the U.S. consider an information
warfare attack an act of war. How many lives for a
certain information warfare attack or what is the
threshold in monetary terms or physical destruction.
The threat analysis section of the 1997 Defence Science
Board Report indicates that “a significant threat
includes activities engaged on behalf of competitor
states.” This introduces the new concept of lowintensity conflict in the form of economic espionage
between corporations. In the age of multinational
corporations that view geographical boundaries and
political nation-states as historical inconveniences should economic warfare between multinational
corporations involve the military?
Article 51 in the United Nations Charter encourages
settlement of international disputes by peaceful means.
However, nothing in the Charter “impairs the inherent
right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed
attack occurs...” Note that infringement of sovereign
geographical boundaries by itself is not considered an
“armed attack”. Also note that experts do not equate
“use of force” with an “armed attack”. Thus certain
kinds of data manipulation as a result of information
warfare which are consistent with “use of force” would
not constitute an “armed attack” under Article 51.
Article 41 of the United Nations specifically states
measures that are not considered to be an “armed
attack”:”Complete or partial interruption of economic
relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio,
and other means of communications...” information
warfare might still be considered an Act of War,
however, if fatalities are involved. If data manipulation
is such that the primary effects are indistinguishable
from conventional kinetic weapons then information
warfare may be considered an “armed attack”. The
paradigm shift is that weapons are devices designed to
kill, injure, or disable people or to damage and destroy
property and have not traditionally included electronic
warfare devices.
The new information warfare technologies make it
difficult to distinguish between espionage and war. If
espionage is conducted by computer to probe a nation’s
databanks and military control systems when is it an
act of war versus an act of espionage? Does it depend
on whether the intelligence was passively read versus
information actively destroyed and/or manipulated?
Does it depend on whether the intelligence was used
for military advantage or whether the intelligence was
used for political or criminal advantage? Does the
answer depend on whether a state of war exists or not?
2. What are the Legal and Ethical Implications of
the Blurring Distinction between Acts of War from
Acts of Espionage from Acts of Terrorism?
It is very important to be precise in what we identify
as a crime and what we identify as an act of war. An
“armed attack” as stated in Article 51 contemplates a
traditional military attack using conventional weapons
and does not include propaganda, information
gathering, or economic sanctions. Espionage is a
violation of domestic and not international law.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
A different scenario is modifying internal computer
software (via viruses, trojan horse, or logic bomb) or
hardware (chipping) before shipment to cause an
enemy’s computer to behave in a manner other than
they would expect. If during peacetime, gaining entry
to a computer’s internal operating system could be
considered a criminal offense or act of espionage
despite the fact that the action in question took place
before the enemy had acquired ownership of the
computer. Is this prudent preparation for information
warfare or is this a hostile action that could precipitate
a war? If the computer hardware “chip” is commercially
manufactured and altered, what are the legal and ethical
ramifications of a company inserting internal hardware
hooks in cooperation with a national security “request”
from a government? Lastly, is information warfare a
potential step which might lead to an escalated
conventional military conflict which could have been
avoided by other means?
3. Can information warfare be Considered
Nonlethal?
Nonlethal weapons are defined as weapons whose
intent is to nonlethal overwhelming an enemy’s lethal
force by destroying the aggressive capability of his
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weapons and temporarily neutralizing their soldiers.
Nonlethal is most often referred to immediate casualty
counts and not on later collateral effects. In response
to the power of public opinion and instant global
media coverage, the U.S. military has begun to develop
a new kind of weaponry designed to minimize
bloodshed by accomplishing objectives with the
minimum use of lethality. This weaponry includes
sticky foam cannons, sonic cannons, and
electromagnetic weapons which temporarily paralyze
an opponent without killing them.
Is it more ethical to use a sophisticated smart bomb
precisely targeted to kill 10-20 soldiers immediately
or is it more ethical to choose a nonlethal weapon
which has the same tactical effect with no immediate
casualty count but an indirect collateral effect of 100200 civilian deaths?
The function of the target against which the weapon
is used and the existence or lack of a state of war
determines one legal framework for analysis. For
instance, disabling the electronics of a fighter plane or
air defence radar during wartime is the goal of a large
investment in electronic warfare equipment by the U.S.
and is considered fair and ethical. However, disabling
the electronics of a civilian airliner or air traffic control
during either peacetime or wartime violates the
principles of discrimination of combatants and
proportionality of response and is considered unethical
and an illegal act against humanity.
4. Is it Ethical to Set Expectations for a “Bloodless
War” Based on information warfare?
As nonlethal weaponry of all types (especially
information warfare weapons) advance from novelty
to norm, however, many potential pitfalls will need to
be faced. The most important of these is the
expectation that such weapons will ultimately allow
wars to be fought without casualties. Nonlethal
military capabilities are not new although information
warfare weapons are the newest weapons in the
nonlethal arsenal. Military forces have used riot-control
chemical agents, defoliants, rubber bullets, and electric
stun weapons for decades. As U.S. military forces are
involved in missions that require extended direct
contact with civilians (e.g. Somalia, Bosnia), force can
no longer be viewed as either on or off but rather as a
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continuum with nonlethal weapons on one end and
nuclear devices on the other end. In more traditional
conventional warfare, information warfare attacks to
disrupt, deny and destroy C4I capabilities
(Command, Control, Communication, and
Computer Intelligence) are a core part of military
tactics and strategy.
If information warfare weapons can be used to remotely
blind an opponent to incoming aircraft, disrupt
logistics support, and destroy or exploit an adversary’s
communications then many of the problems associated
with the use of ground forces for these missions can
be avoided. It is important to point out that although
nonlethal weapons are not meant to be fatal, they can
still kill if used improperly or against people
particularly sensitive to their effects. Because these
technologies are potentially lethal in these
circumstances, the term “nonlethal” has not been
universally accepted within the U.S. military. For
example, the U.S. Marines Corps uses the term “less
lethal” to imply that there is no guarantee of nonlethality.
Asserting that information warfare will ultimately allow
future wars to be fought without casualties is a
widespread misconception likely to prove
counterproductive and even potentially dangerous.
First, all nonlethal weapons are not equally applicable
to all military missions. Second, overselling of
nonlethal capabilities without providing a context can
lead to operational failures, deaths, and policy failure.
Third, unrealistic expectations about nonlethal weapon
capabilities inhibit their adoption by military forces
who need to build confidence in these weapons.
There is a large asymmetry in global military power
when comparing the U.S. versus other nation-states.
In 1994, the U.S. DoD (Dept. of Defense) budget
exceeded that of Russia, China, Japan, France and
Great Britain combined. This asymmetry makes it
unlikely another nation-state would challenge the U.S.
in a direct high-technology conventional war except
for circumstances which we should not depend upon
(e.g. incredible miscalculations and/or ignorant
dictators which were both present in the Gulf War).
Despite the luxury of a bumbling opponent, the
success of the Gulf War has lead the U.S. citizenry to
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expectations of low casualties in all future conflicts.
These expectations go against two cardinal rules of
military strategy;
(1) you do not plan to refight the last war and
(2) the future battlefields cannot not be dictated by
the United States.
The next battlefield for which the U.S. DoD is
preparing is a global battlefield with weapons of
information warfare “targeting” civilian infrastructure.
Even in this scenario, military and civilian casualties
will be likely from either primary or secondary effects
from information warfare attacks.
5. Is it Legally and Ethically Correct to Respond to
information warfare Tactics with the same Tactics?
If the U.S. is attacked by information warfare weapons,
how should the U.S. Government respond?
By changing perspectives from defence to offense, what
is in the U.S. arsenal to wage information warfare
against an adversary:
A. Offensive Software (viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
B. Sniffing” Or “Wiretapping” Software (enabling
the capture of an adversary’s communications)
C. “Chipping” (malicious software embedded in
systems by the manufacturer)
D. Directed Energy Weapons (designed to destroy
electronics & not humans/buildings)
E. Psychological Operations (sophisticated and
covert propaganda techniques)
A strategy that uses these weapons in various
combinations has the potential to replace conventional
military force. The questions remains: is it legally and
ethically correct for the U.S. to defend its security
interests by resorting to the same information warfare
tactics that are being used against it? Should
information attacks be punished by information
counterattacks? The options include maintaining our
superpower status at all costs; covertly listening to our
adversaries but not actively disrupting operations; or
contracting mercenaries in no way officially affiliated
with the U.S. government to do our dirty work.
Cracking computers to deter and punish computer
cracking erodes any moral basis the U.S. has for
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• January-June, 2015
declaring the evils of information warfare. It is also
harder to predict secondary effects due to the
globalization of systems. Retaliation may produce
effects ranging from nothing to being
counterproductive through destruction of U.S.
interests. A nation-state or non-state actor that sponsors
an attack on the U.S. might lack an NII (National
Information Infrastructure) of their own for the U.S.
to attack in punishment and thus not be intimidated
by a U.S. information warfare deterrence strategy.
The problem is that there are no characterized rules of
engagement for information warfare conflicts which
can take forms of isolated operations, acts of
retribution, or undeclared wars.
The most serious problem for using information
warfare retaliation to counter information warfare
attacks is that adversaries could counter and/or copy
information warfare capabilities. Every breakthrough
in offensive technology eventually inspires a matching
advance in defensive technology so forth thus
escalating an information warfare weapons race. A last
issue related to retaliation is the dilemma faced by the
intermingling of the military and civilian sides of
society. Given the uncertainty of deterrence and
identifying the enemy, which strategy is appropriate
for retaliation; (a) a strategy that attempts to separate
the military from civilians and in so doing has a
diminished impact which potentially prolongs the
duration of the conflict; or (b) a strategy that attempts
to minimize lethality and duration but deliberately
targets civilian systems?
6. Can Protection from information warfare Take
Place in the United States Given Our Democratic
Rights?
How much government control of the U.S. NII is
feasible in a free society?
Most of the information warfare technology is software
which is easy to replicate, hard to restrict, and dualuse by nature (uses for both civilian and military). In
the 1997 Defence Science Board report, it states that
the DoD is “confused” about when a court order is
required to monitor domestic communications. This
raises basic questions about the constitutional and
ethical balance between privacy and national security
in a new information warfare context.
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A “Big Brother” approach that places all of a nation’s
telecommunications under a single government
jurisdiction is improbable given the diffusion and
complexity of technology and the shrinking size of
government. Most systems were built to serve
commercial users who will vehemently object to
unfunded mandates (i.e. taxes) and new requirements
not driven by business demand (e.g. CLIPPER chip
encryption and key escrow accounts). Regardless, it is
critical to the future security of the U.S. that we find a
way to protect our infrastructure from information
warfare attack and have contingency plans for potential
information warfare crises. If the information warfare
attack is detected and the enemy identified but the
U.S. is unable to react promptly due to bureaucratic
inefficiency or indifference from private industry, it
may be too late to react at all.
Current political discussion has floated tax incentives
and direct subsidies to promote industry cooperation.
In a related matter that may provide a precedent, the
government has pledged to provide telephone
companies with at least $500 million to ensure that
FBI officials can access telephone conversations over
digital circuits (as opposed to accessing telephone
conversations over analogue circuits which is
technically much easier).
Conclusion
To be sure, cyberspace is hardly the first or the only
policy domain which lies beyond the control of any
single nation state. International air traffic, the law of
the sea, funds transfers, and such environmental
considerations as ozone depletion and global warming,
among others, have required concerted international
efforts. One would expect that the development of
international arrangements in response to
telecommunications-related crime will occur in a
manner not unlike those which have accompanied
other extraterritorial issues, from drug trafficking, to
nuclear testing to whaling. Whether the realm of
telecommunications will be able to achieve a better
record of success than these other enduring global
issues remains to be seen
References
1. Department of Homeland Security, A Comparison of Cyber Security Standards Developed by the Oil and
Gas Segment. (November 5, 2004) Guttman, M., Swanson, M., National Institute of Standards and
Technology; Technology Administration; U.S. Department of Commerce.,
2. Generally Accepted Principles and Practices for Securing Information Technology Systems (800-14).
(September 1996) National Institute of Standards and Technology; Technology Administration; U.S.
Department of Commerce.,
3. An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook, Special Publication 800-12. Swanson, M.,
National Institute of Standards and Technology; Technology Administration; U.S. Department of Commerce.,
Security Self-Assessment Guide for Information Technology Systems (800-26).
4. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). http://www.nerc.com. Retrieved November 12,
2005.
5. isasecure.org site
6. ISO webpage
7. NERC Standards (see CIP 002-009)
8. NIST webpage
9. Ssrn.com
10. Westlaw.co.in
11. Google.com
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Legislation Vulnerabilities, Threats and
Counter Measures in Wireless Network Security
Kushagra Dhingra*
Ankit Verma**
Abstract
Wireless network deliver us numerous advantages, but it also sprinkle up with new security risks and
modify overall information security threats profile. Although accomplishment of technological results is
the usual reply to wireless security risks and vulnerabilities, wireless security is initially a management
outcome. We comes out with a framework to help to conclude and assess different risks running mate
with the use of wireless technology. We also comes out with enumerated solutions for combat those
threats or risks.
Keywords: Wireless Network, Wireless Security, Wireless Threats, Signal-Hiding
Introduction
A wireless network is any type of computer
network that uses wireless data connections for
connecting network nodes. Wireless networking is a
method through which we can connect Home
(Telecommunication Network) and Enterprise
(Business) networks. With the help of wireless network
installations in these areas, we can avoid the
coastally process of introducing cables into a building,
or as connections between various equipment
locations. Wireless telecommunications networks are
generally implemented and administered using “Radio
Communication”. This implementation takes place at
the physical level (layer) of the ”OSI model” network
structure. Examples of wireless networks include cell
phone networks, Wi-Fi local networks and terrestrial
microwave networks. Wireless networking presents
many advantages to improve productivity because of
increased accessibility to information resources,
Network configuration and reconfiguration is easier,
faster, and less expensive. However, wireless technology
also creates new threats and alters the existing
information security risk profile.[3] For example, as
Kushagra Dhingra*
Student of BCA
IITM, Janakpuri, New Delhi
Ankit Verma**
Assistant Professor
IITM, Janakpuri, New Delhi
wireless network communications takes place “through
the air” using radio frequencies, the risk of interception
is greater than with wired networks. If we not encrypt
the message, or message is encrypted with a weak
algorithm, the attacker can easily attack and read it, it
means we are compromising with our confidentiality.
Although wireless networking is not secure but it alters
the risks associated with various threats to security,
the overall security objectives remain the same as with
wired networks: preserving confidentiality, ensuring
integrity, and maintaining availability of the
information and information systems. The objective
of this paper is to assist in making such decisions by
providing them with a basic understanding of the
nature of the various threats associated with wireless
networking and available countermeasures. To test the
performance of wireless network, we consider some
bases such as their convenience, cost efficiency, and
ease of integration with other networks and network
components. In today’s world majority of computers
sold to consumers with pre-equipped with all necessary
wireless Networks technology. The benefits of wireless
Networks include: Convenience, Mobility,
Productivity, Deployment, Expandability and Cost.
Wireless Network technology, is absolutely same with
the advantages and conveniences described above has
its share of downfalls. For a given networking situation,
wireless Networks may not be desirable for a number
of reasons. Most of these reasons occur because of the
limitations of the technology. The disadvantages of
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 1. Wireless networking components.
using a wireless network are: Security, Range,
Reliability, and Speed. A host of issues for network
managers presented by wireless network. Unauthorized
access points, broadcasted SSIDs (service set identifier),
unknown stations, and spoofed MAC (media access
control) addresses are just a few of the problems
addressed in WLAN (wireless local area network)
troubleshooting. Most network analysis vendors, such
as Network Instruments, Network General, and Fluke,
offer WLAN troubleshooting tools or functionalities
as part of their product line.
Wireless Vulnerabilities
For connecting wireless networks we have to consider
of four basic components: The transmission of data
using radio frequencies; Access points that provide a
connection to the organizational network and/or the
Client devices (laptops, PDAs, etc.); and Users. Each
of these components provides an avenue for attack that
can result in the compromise of one or more of the
three fundamental security objectives of confidentiality,
integrity, and availability.
Wireless Network Attacks
Accidental association. Unauthorized access to
company wireless and wired networks can come from
a number of different methods and intents. One of
these methods is referred to as “accidental association”.
When a user turns on a computer and it latches on to
a wireless access point from a neighboring company’s
overlapping network, the user may not even know that
this has occurred.[3] However, it is a security breach
in that proprietary company information is exposed
and now there could exist a link from one company
to the other. This is especially true if the laptop is also
hooked to a wired network.
Malevolent Association. There are different intents
and methods to access any organization’s wireless or
Figure 2. Malevolent Association
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
wired network which is unauthorized. “Malicious
association” is the one of these methods. For example:if a user switch ones his computer and if there is a
wireless access point nearby and if it’s computer catches
with that wireless access point, even he don’t know
that his system is connected to that wireless network.
However, it is a vulnerable situation for the company,
as their security is broken and their information is in
endangered (one company can make a link to other
and can style information). This vulnerability can also
with the case if there is a wired network example: if
the system is hooked to cables.[2]
Virulent Association. It is also known as “Malicious
association”. This association are when crackers actively
make a connection (through wireless device, a wireless
Connection) to a running network through their
hardware cracking device (like laptop) instead of that’s
network’s AP (Access Point). Hardware devices which
are used here are known as “soft APs”. Cracker develop
these network by running some software which help
to look lawful Access Point that wireless network which
is developed to attack. Once if he/she (cracker) gets
access he/she can thieve the password, he/she can attack
te wired or wireless network. There are some security
authentication such as in level 3 and VPNs, and as we
know wireless network is at layer 2 level. The wireless
802.1 x authentications is a kind of protection but it
is still vulnerable and can be cracked. But attacker’s
idea is not to break VPNs or any other security
measures. Crackers misty take over the client at layer
2 level.
Computer to Computer Network. It is also known
as (“Ad-hoc network “). It acts as a security hazard this
type of networks is defined as peer- to -a peer network
which is work within the wireless computers which
doesn’t have any access point in between. Protection
is less with these types of networks, for providing
security we can use encryption method.
Non-Heritage Network. We can also call it “nontraditional network”. These types of networks such as
Private Network Bluetooth devices. These types of
networks are not safe and can easily crack by crackers
and should be estimated as a security hazard. Some
non-heritage networks such as wireless printers,
barcode reader, copiers should be secured. These type
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• January-June, 2015
of networks can easily be outlook by an IT Personnel
who have slender axis on laptops and AP’s.
Injecting Networks. An attack which is known as
Injecting Network (also known as “Man-in-themiddle” attack) , in this AP(Access Point ) is used by
an attacker that are endangered with the network traffic
which is not fettered, “Spanning Tree” (802.D),
RIP,HSRP & OSPF are especial broadcasting network
traffic. Attackers injects true networking re-framing
the commands that can attack (or affect ) switches ,
intelligent hubs and routers , rebooting or
reprogramming the network is done for the intelligent
networking device.[7]
DOS Attack. This attack is known as denial-of-service
attack. This attack takes place when a cracker (or
attacker) ceaselessly assaulting a targeted access
point(AP) or network with artificial requests, getting
early messages of thriving connections, messages of
failure, and many other commands . This scenario can
affect legitimate (or true) users not able to get
connected with network and even effects network
failure or crash of the network. Abuse of protocols
like EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is the
thing on which attack depends on.
Wireless Transmission Security
Interception, disruption & alternation are three basic
threats which are created by the nature of wireless
communication.
Securing the Confidentiality of Wireless
Transmissions
There are couples of countermeasures which exist for
decreasing the threats of eavesdropping on wireless
transmissions. The first approach involves for
materialize it more hellacious to discover and interrupt
the wireless signals. The second approach involves the
application of encryption to secure the confidentiality
even if the wireless signal is interrupted.[8]
Techniques of Hiding-Signals. Initially attackers need
to identify & discover wireless networks and then
intercept the wireless transmissions. So user can follow
a number of steps to make it more hellacious to
discover their wireless access point. It is totally
dependent upon user that which method the user
should use. If the user needs signal hiding in easiest &
least costly technique he should perform the following
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
ambulate: Turning off the service set identifier (SSID),
provide mystic names to SSIDs, degrade signal strength
to the level where only the user is able to use or locating
wireless access points in the interior of the building,
away from windows & exterior walls. More potent,
but also more costly methods for dominating or
shielding signals include: Using directional antennas
to constrain signal emanations within specific areas of
coverage. Sometimes, TEMPEST is referred as using
of directional emanation of wireless signals.
Encryption. Encrypting all wireless traffic is the best
technique for securing the confidentiality of transmits
data over wireless networks. This is essentially
meaningful for users subject to bylaw.
Head off modifications of Interrupted
Communications:
Interruption & modification of wireless transmission
shows of form of “man-in-the middle” attack. Strong
encryption & strong authentication are the two types
of countermeasure can revelatory decreases the threads
of such attacks for both devices & users.
Risk of DOS Attacks can be reduced with following
Countermeasure:
Denial-of-service also endangers to wireless
communication. For reducing the risk of such
unintentional DOS attacks organization can take
several steps. One of the measure to identify location
where signals from other devices exist by regulating
careful site surveys; while locating wireless access points
the backwash of such surveys should be used. Regular
steady scrutiny of wireless networking activity &
performance can identify knot areas; appropriate of
the outraging devices or measure to signal vigor &
scope within the knot areas.
Wireless Networks Security
WAP Security
Unsecured, deficient construction of WAP can leads
us to compromise with some importance or
confidentiality by permitting accessibility to some
unauthorized one to the network.
Counteragent for Security WAP
We can downgrade the threats of unknown/unwanted
access to wireless networks by the help of follow three
steps:
138
1. Exclude duplicitous access port
2. Protected architecture of authorized access point.
3. Application 802.1 x to authenticate all devices.
Exclude Duplicitous Access Point. The finery way
for reducing the risks/threats of duplicitous access
point is application 802.1x to authenticating all devices
which are connection into a wired network application
802.1x will anticipate any underpowered devices from
hooked to the network.[5]
Protected Architecture of Authorized Access Point.
It should be assure that each and every authorized
WAP’s (wireless access points) are securely configured.
Attackers can easily attack to AP (access point) with
default setting because they are renowned by attackers
so these settings are specifically to be changed.[4]
Assuring Wireless Client Devices
There are couples of major risks to wireless client
devices are:
1. Mislay or steal
2. Compromise
Mislay or stealing of some hardware or storing devices
like laptops or PD’s is a grave matter these hardware
or storage devices can stored information which is
highly confidential. Evenly mislay or stealing of these
hardware devices can lead to reveals the information
parties. Second risk to this is that they can
compromised. This compromising makes information
sensitive to be attacked and access to distinct system
resources (which is unauthorized to access).
Application Encryption
Encryption is the most secured way for transferring
any information on wireless network. Some of the
devices like access points, wireless routes, and base
stations have encryption mechanism in-built in them.
If you don’t have the wireless router it is preferable to
get which does have it. Manufacturers make the
encrypted feature of wireless routers turned off. It is
suggested to turn on it.[1]
Application Anti-Spyware and Anti-Virus Software
and a Firewall
As we give protections to the computers which are
connected with the internet. This same type of protection
system is needed for the computers that are installed and
maintained them up to the date.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Switched Off Identifier Spread
Identifier spread is a mechanism which is used by max
wireless routers. This mechanism is use to transmit
signals to any device in the proximity enunciate it
presence. If any device preliminarily known &
connected to network then there is no need to spread
or broadcast the information. With the use of identifier
spread, attackers can easily attack and expose wireless
network. It is suggested that switches off the identifier
spread mechanism if wireless router permit is.
Alter the Default Identifier for Your Router
Your router likely have a standard identifier, manufactures
provides default ID to all devices of that model. It doesn’t
matter that your router not broadcasting its identifier to
all, attackers can try to access your network as he know
the default ID’s. You should change and uniquely identify
your identifier and don’t forget to provide the same ID
to your computer and your wireless router so they can
interface among them. It is suggested that your password
should be long at least of 10 characters: As longer is you
password, is become most difficult to be break by the
attackers.
Permit Only Specific Devices that Access Your
Wireless network
Each and every device provides its own unique MAC
(Media Access Control) Address for communicating
with a network. A mechanism is included with wireless
router that permits only devices that have specific
MAC address which can access the network. MAC
address can be imitate by the attackers, so do not rely
on this pad only.
When you are Not Using Wireless Network Make
Turn off It
Turn off wireless router can’t be access by the attackers.
If you are timely turn off the wireless router (“when
you are not using it”), then you are decreasing the
vulnerability to be hacked.[2]
Public “HOT SPOTS” are not secured
If you are thinking that wireless public Hot Spots are
secured, then your thinking is wrong, these are not
secured.
Educate & Train Users
Training & educating will help users to be aware about
the securing of wireless networking. To make it
effective, the user training &educating process is
needed to be repeated periodically. The major part of
WLAN policy of security is wireless network
inspecting. For decreasing the baddie hardware,
network needs to inspect on the daily bases.[6] This
method performs scanning & mapping processes for
each & every WLAN nodes and access point of
network. After it, previously mapped network is
compared with this. Wavelan-tool which is usually is
use. Airsnort is a specialized tool used for auditing the
network for asthenic keys.
Conclusion
Wireless networking furnishes many opening the
accrual of productivity in declivity of costs. Collectively
(using wireless network) computer security risk profile
is altered. Totally elimination of risks is impossible
even with wireless networking, but it is possible to
attain a consequent level of collectively securing the
network by embracing systematic approach for
managing risks. In this paper we discussed about the
vulnerabilities & risks hooked up with three wireless
networking technical components such as transmission
medium, AP (Access points) and client, and describe
varied of common methods for decreasing risks. It
evenly suggests to educate and give training to users
about the safety of wireless networking operations.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Graham, E., Steinbart, P.J. (2006) Wireless Security
Cisco. (2004). Dictionary attack on Cisco LEAP vulnerability, Revision 2.1, July 19.
CSI. (2004). CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey.
Hopper, D. I.(2002). Secret Service agents probe wireless networks in Washington.
Kelley, D. (2003). The X factor: 802.1x may be just what you need to stop intruders from accessing your network.
Information Security, 6(8), 60-69.
Kennedy, S. (2004). Best practices for wireless network security. Information Systems Control Journal (3).
Nokia. (2003). Man-in-the-middle attacks in tunneled authentication protocols.
Paladugu, V., Cherukuru, N., & Pandula, S. (2001). Comparison of security protocols for wireless communications.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
139
Cyber Ethics in Security Application
in the Modern Era of Internet
Megha Sharma*
Sanchit Mittal**
Ankit Verma***
Abstract
Societies are becoming more dependent on computer networks and therefore more vulnerable to
cyber-crime and internet terrorism. In this paper we have discussed the different ethics of cyber world. In
layman terms ethics are the “code of conduct” or the protocols which every responsible citizen should
follow while using an internet facility. Here we are mainly concerned with the reasons behind inventing
the internet network, and understanding the positive and negative usage of internet, and analyzing the
behavior of internet users, and how it affects individual’s life and Indian societies in this modern technical
era. Computers raise various problems such as privacy, ownership, theft, illegal use and power. So the
main purpose of this article is to provide a glimpse of cyber world including the cyber ethics, cybercrime and preventive measures to deal with these cyber-crimes.
Keywords: Cyber Crime, Cyber Ethics, Cyber Security.
Introduction
In the society where we live, everyone has to accept
some kind of rules, values, culture and has to deal with
the thinking of people i.e. we need to follow some
code of conduct to survive in that particular place. In
the same way the ethics in cyber world may referred as
the branch of philosophy which deals with values of
human behavior, with respect to the rightness and
wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and
badness of the motives and ends of such actions. In
simple terms Cyber ethics is the philosophical study
of a system of moral principles pertaining to computers
[1]. In today’s era the internet is growing vastly in terms
of its users. Everyone is addicted to the usage of
internet, as most Internet users are convinced with its
general utility and positive benefits. The internet is
Megha Sharma*
Student (BCA) IT
IINTM, Janakpuri, New Delhi
Sanchit Mittal**
Student (BCA) IT
IINTM, Janakpuri, New Delhi
Ankit Verma***
Assistant Professor IT
IINTM, Janakpuri, New Delhi
the medium of connecting people through a large
worldwide network. Internet has proven tremendously
useful in this modern world of technology However,
in consequence of the growing internet usage it is
leading to some bad or illegal activities such as: cyber
stalking, hacking, phishing, cross-site scripting, cyber
extortion, fraud and financial crimes. Therefore
Measures to protect information systems have received
increasing attention as the threat of attacks grows and
the nature of that threat is better understood. Among
these measures are sophisticated technologies for
monitoring computer networks and users, detecting
intrusion, identifying and tracing intruders, and
preserving and analyzing evidence.
Internet - A Blessing or A Curse
Internet is a vast computer network linking between
computer networks globally. The internet involves
educational, governmental, commercial and other
networks, all of which use the same communication
cycle. The world of Internet today has become a parallel
to life and livings. Humans are now able of doing
things which were not imaginable few generations ago
[2]. The Internet has become a way of life for millions
of people and also a way of living because of growing
dependence and reliance of the mankind on the
IITM Journal of Management and IT
machines. Internet has enabled the use of website
communication, email, surfing and a lot of anytime
anywhere IT solutions for the betterment of human
beings. Though, internet offers great advantages to
society. It also presents opportunities for crime using
new and highly sophisticated technology tools.
Regular stories featured in the media on computer
crime include topics covering hacking to viruses, webhackers, to internet paedophiles, sometimes accurately
displaying events, sometimes misconceives the role of
technology in such activities. Increase in cyber-crime
rate has been shown in the news media. The increase
in the incidence of criminal activity poses challenges
for legal systems, as well as for law enforcement to
take active and fast decisions. The internet network
has definitely proved a great blessing to the human
kind. It should be our responsibility to utilize
technology in a positive way to compete with this rapid
world. Every coin has two faces. It’s up to us to receive
well and to leave bad [3].
Cyber Ethics
Cyber ethics is the study of moral, legal, and social
issues including cyber technology. It explores the
impact that cyber technology has for our social, legal,
and moral systems. It also ascertains the social policies
and laws that have been framed in response to issues
generated by the development and use of cyber
technology. Hence, there is a common relationship
[4]. Cyber ethics is a dynamic and complex field of
study which considers the interrelationships among
facts, observations, experiments, policies and values
with regard to constantly changing computer
technology. Data processing today is much faster, more
flexible, and better arranged and portrayed than ever
before in our history. Every technology has introduced
not only new opportunity but also new risk. A
responsible citizen must follow these cyber ethics to
avoid adverse result.
Cyber Crime
Cyber-crime is a term used to broadly describe criminal
activity in which computers or computer networks are
a tool, a technique, or a field of criminal activity and
include everything from electronic cracking to denial
of service attacks. It is also used to comprise traditional
crimes in which computers or networks are used to
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
enable the illicit activity [3]. Internet is certainly the
forest of the information and because of its lack of
control and restrictions, the Internet aid as a potential
threat to society. The various crimes associated with
computers are difficult to evaluate in terms of either
size or frequency, but it sound safe to say that the
number and variety are increasing and the stakes are
growing.
Cyber Crime Variants
There are a large number of cyber-crime variants. A
few varieties are discussed for creating the awareness.
This article is not intended to expose all the variants
hence we have enlightened some of the major issues
subjected to the risk in cyber world.
Hacking. “Hacking” is a crime. It is the way of gaining
unauthorized access to a computer and viewing,
copying, or creating data without the intention of
destroying data or maliciously harming the computer.
In broad terms we can say that hacking is used to
describe many complex activities wherein the end goal
is typically to obtain access to server, databases or stored
files of a computer system [4]. This access may be any
combination or desired or undesired, and lawful or
illicit.
Phishing. Phishing is the attempt to acquire sensitive
information such as login id , passwords, credit card
information and other personal detail to access
someone’s account for some reason by masquerading
as a trustworthy entity in an electronic
communication. Customers are directed to a
fraudulent replica of the original institution’s website
when they click on the links on the email to enter
their information, and so they abide unsuspected that
the fraud has occurred [3]. The swindler then has access
to the customer’s online bank account and to the funds
contained in that account.
Cyber Stalking. Cyber stalking is the use of the
Internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass
users. It may include wrong accusations, defamation,
slander and libel. It also involves monitoring, identity
theft, threats, vandalism, or gathering data that can be
used to threaten or harass. Stalking generally involves
harassing or threatening behavior that an individual
engages in continuously, for example following a
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person, appearing at an individual’s home or in
business organization, making harassing phone calls,
or vandalizing a person’s property. There are a wide
variety of means by which individuals may seek out
and harass individuals even though they may not share
the same geographic borders, and somewhere it
presents a variety of physical, emotional, and
psychological results to the victim.
Cross-site Scripting. Cross-site scripting, or XSS, is
a method of injecting harmful code and links into
another safe website’s code. It is one of the most
commonly used techniques of hacking. As Web
browsers have built-in security to prevent a range of
XSS attacks, hackers can still exploit flaws or
imperfection in the program to convince the browser
that planted code is trusted. Examples of such code
include client-side scripts and HTML code. The
attackers can use an exploited cross-site scripting
vulnerability to bypass access controls [5].
Cyber Extortion. Cyber extortion is a crime involving
an attack or threat of attack against a venture, coupled
with a demand for money to stop the attack. Cyber
extortion can be of many forms. Originally, denial of
service attacks was the most common method. As the
number of enterprises that rely on the Internet for their
business has expanded, therefore opportunities for
cyber extortionists have exploded.
Cyber Security – Protect Yourself
The Internet operates and functions largely on a
collaborative basis. Its smooth functioning depends
heavily on the proper conduct of users. In this
technological era our protection is only in our hands,
we should act as an aware and responsible user of this
technology [5]. Below we list a set of good practices
that make the Internet a better place for all users.
Using webmail wisely
l
Usually the default setting of social networking
website is to allow anyone to see your profile. You
can change your settings to restrict access to only
authorized people.
l
Select only trusted and well-known webmail
service providers.
l
If you use a public computer to check your email.
Read the tips that what security points should one
142
kept in my mind while using a public computer,
If an individual access his/her webmail account
using a shared computer, remember to remove the
data in cache memory, cookies, and other
temporary buffer space that might hold your email
attachments before you leave the machine.
Be a Responsible Internet User
As a responsible Internet user, you should protect your
system and data with adequate security techniques [4].
An Individual must maintain a Good habit in handling
of emails, password management, usage of software,
web surfing and downloading files, will help in
securing your computer from attack.
Be a Law-abiding Internet User
l
Do not perform any activity which is illicit,
fraudulent or prohibited under any applicable
legislation.
l
Do not publish post, distribute, or disseminate
libelous, infringing, obscene, or other illegal
material.
l
Do not transmit, download or upload data,
information, or software in violation of any
applicable legislation. It involves, but is not limited
to, data protected by privacy and copyright laws.
Self-Awareness for Information Security
l
One should take it as his/her responsibility in
keeping own information secure from external
misuse.
l
An individual should keep equipped with the latest
knowledge and must be alert to the news regarding
security threats.
l
If any person is in doubt, then they must consult
advisers or experts.
Handling user accounts carefully
l
Use a password of at least six mixed-case alphabetic
characters, numerals and special characters.
l
Change your password frequently
l
Change your password immediately if you believe
that it has been steal by some other person. Once
done with making change in the password, notify
the system or security administrator for follow up
action.
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Always do remember to Log out from your
account when finished using public pc, such as in
a library.
Handling your personal information
l
Make your account and password secure with the
available security mechanisms.
l
Encrypt/secure the sensitive data when transferring
personal information over public networks such
as the Internet.
l
Always be wary when giving out sensitive personal
or account information over the Internet. Banks
and financial institutions rarely ask for your
personal or account information via email or over
the web.
Be a Good Neighbor in Internet Community
l
Do not perform any activities which may interfere
with other users or restrict or hinder any person
from accessing, using or enjoying the benefits of
Internet.
l
Do not access, use or monitor any data, networks
or system, including an individual’s private
information, without any authority or his/her
permission.
l
Do not attempt to conduct any network/port
scanning or hacking activities on other
computers.
l
l
Do not send or distribute links or source of any
computer virus, malicious codes or harmful
programs.
Conclusion
Internet has been invented for the betterment of
humans. Internet has its own boon and bane. However
it’s our choice to use this invention for betterment of
society or to produce harm to others. The ill activities
taking place through internet are grouped under cybercrimes and are also taken care by some cyber authorities
by stating some policies, protocols, preventive measures
etc. An individual must be aware of cyber ethics i.e,
the protocols followed while using an internet network;
cyber-crimes, crimes taking place in the cyber world
and what are the risks while working on internet; and
what are the possible ways to protect ourselves from
being attacked by these cyber criminals. Strict penalties
must be taken by the law if someone tries to mishandle
the use of internet and to harm others for own benefits
over internet. Cyber authorities should also aware the
people about the threats and what protective measures
could be taken. Government should also take
remarkable steps towards the criminals indulging in
such offences. At a point our protection is in our hands
first so must follow the preventive measures and take
care of some points discussed in this article to protect
yourself from cyber-crimes.
References
1. ACM, 1992, ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, Association of Computing Machinery, USA,
October 1992.
2. Chan, Serena and L. Jean Camp, 2002, Law Enforcement Surveillance in the Network Society.
3. Berinato, Scott; “Debunking the Threat to Water Utilities”, CIO Magazine, CXO Media Inc., March 15,
2002.
4. Stephanou, Tony; “Assessing and Exploiting the Internal Security of an Organization”, The SANS Institute,
March 13, 2001.
5. FX, “Attacking Networked Embedded Systems” CanSecWest Conference, Vancouver, May 2003.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
143
Comparison of AES and DES Algorithm
Shruti Kumari*
Gautam Kumar**
Abstract
Cryptography is used for protection of information security. There are various algorithms like DES, RSA,
HASH, MD5, AES, SHA-1 and HMAC.DES algorithm is developed by IBM. This algorithm used a 56 bit
key to encipher/decipher a 64 bit block of data.In this paper we will compare between DES and RSA
algorithm .In ATM DES algorithm is used in live at some place but AES algorithm should be used
everywhere, we will also show how AES is better in ATM.
Keywords: Cryptosystem,Encipher, Decipher.
Introduction
Encryption is the process of encoding the plaintext
into cipher text and Decryption is the process of
decoding cipher text to plaintext. There are two types
of encryption and decryption technique symmetric key
cryptography and asymmetric key cryptography .In
symmetric key cryptography sender and receiver both
use same key,But in asymmetric key cryptography
sender and receiver both uses different key. Symmetric
key cryptography includes DES, AES, 3DES, IDEA,
Blowfish algorithm etc. ,and asymmetric key
cryptography includes RSA algorithms[1].
of Commerce. AES is found in some other encryption
package. [3]
DES ALGORITHM
Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric key,
developed by IBM This algorithm uses a 56-bit key to
encrypt/decrypt 64-bit data. The algorithm is best for
AES ALGORITHM
AES is created by the National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST).The algorithm has been
developed to replace the Data Encryption Standard
(DES).AES is more secure than DES.AES is six times
faster Than DES [2].The algorithm uses three rounds
-10,12 or 14.The size are 128,192 or 256 bits
according to the number of rounds. Several rounds
made of several stages. This algorithm is used to
encrypt electronic data.AES is adopted by US but now
it is used by whole world. It is a symmetric key
algorithm; same key is used for encryption and
decryption.
On May 26, 2002 AES became effective as a federal
government standard after approved by the Secretary
Shruti Kumari*
MCA (4th) M.E.R.I. (GGSIPU)
Gautam Kumar**
MCA (4th) M.E.R.I. (GGSIPU)
Figure-1.Encryption/Decryption Technique
in DES
IITM Journal of Management and IT
hardware. Key length is too short[4].The key is put
through 19 different and complete procedures to create
a 64-bit ciphertext.DES has two transposition block
and 16 complex blocks called iteration blocks[5].
COMPARISON OF DES AND AES
DES is developed in 1977 and AES is developed in
2000.Key size of DES is 56-bit but key size of AE is
128,192,256 bits. Block size of data in DES is 64-bit
but in AES is 128-bits.Both are symmetric key
algorithm. Speed of encryption/decryption is moderate
in DES but faster in AES.Power consumption is low
in both. DES is not secureenough and AES excellent
secured. Same key is used for encryption and
decryption in both. Simulated speed is faster in
both[6].
How DES Works in ATM
ATM uses secret key ,called the PIN key ,to derive the
PIN from the account number in terms of algorithm
known as DES.The result is natural PIN ,an offset
can be added to it and then final PIN which the
customer enter. The offset has no cryptographic
function, it just used for customer to choose their own
PIN [7].
EXAMPLE:
Account number: 6693082465987012
PIN key:FEFEFEFEFEFEFEFE
Result of DES:B6AE897C54ECD43A
Result decimalized:0665148956702468
Natural PIN:0664
Offset:4646
Customer PIN:5678
Usually DES is use to encrypt the ATM transaction
but most of time need more secure triple DES.There
are many illegal withdrawals take place from
ATM.RossAnderson,a researcher investigated various
cases of illegal withdrawals and exposing errors in bank
security. There have many cases in which criminals
used fake machines, attached keypads or card readers
to real machines, and record customer’s PIN and bank
account details to access the accounts illegally. The
algorithm selected as an Official Information
Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States. There
are four different mode of operation, these four modes
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
are Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode, the Cipher
Block Chaining (CBC) mode, the Cipher Feedback
(CFB) mode and the Output Feedback (OFB)
mode.ECB is used for direct application in DES to
encrypt/decrypt.CBC is modified form of ECB.CFB
uses previous cipher text as an input totheDES to
produce output which combined with plaintext ,OFB
is same as CFB but in OFB previous output of DES is
used as input.
Program for encrypting and decrypting with DES
#include”msp 430xxxx.h”
#include”TI_DES.h”
Intmain(void)
{
Des_ctx dc1;
Unsigned char *cp;
Unsigned char
data[]={0x24,0xc2,0xa0,0xe7,0x5b,0x6a,0xa3,0x50};
Unsigned char key
[8]={0x01,0x15,0x24,0x07,0x17,0x15,0x26,0x18};
Cp=data;
De_key(&dc1,key,ENDE);
DE_En(&dc,cp,1);
DE_De(&dc,cp,1);
Return 0;
}
How AES is used in ATM
ATM using DES has been breached 24 hours.
Advanced encryption standard (AES)is recent and new
encryption algorithm.AES support AES with CBC
(cipher block chaining) mode to IP security .[9]
Program of Encrypting with AES
#include “msp 430xxxx.h”
#include “TI_aes.h”
Intmain(void)
{
Unsignedcharstate[]={0x64,0x72,0x90,0xb2,0x22,
0x72,0xa1,0xb6,0xC5,0x5a,0x49,0x28,0x44,0xa0,
0xC2,0x01};
145
IITM Journal of Management and IT
UnsignedcharKey[]={0x12,0x06,0x01,0x43,0x72,
0x15,0x15,0x91,0x52,0x21,0x31,0x71,0x26,0x38,
0x45,0x81};
Ae_en_de(state,key,0);
Return 0;
}
Program of Decrypting with AES
#include “msp 430xxxx.h”
#include “TI_aes.h”
Int main (void)
Unsignedcharstate[]={0x69,0x45,0x87,0x61,0x56,
0x87,0x23,0x54,0x34,0x21,0x41,0x73,0x91,0x61,
0x95,0x14};
Unsignedcharkey[]={0x00,0x11,0x12,0x13,0x14,
0x15,0x16,0x17,0x18,0x19,0x22,0x21,0x24,0x41,
0x32,0x64};
Ae_en_de(state,key,1);
Return0;
Conclusions
Encryption algorithm is very important in
communication because it provides security.This paper
based on AES and DES cryptographic algorithm
technique, how DES at some place used in ATM and
AES is more secure than DES so at everywhere in ATM
AES algorithm should be used.
Acknowledgement
I would like to thank my faculty, college staff for their
abundance guidance and support. Without their
cooperation & motivation this research paper won’t
be possible.
References
1. www.scholar.google.co.in/21-01-2015/7:00pm
2. www.scholar.google.co.in/21-01-2015/9:00pm
3. www.scholar.google.co.in/22-01-2015/9:00pm
4. www.cryptographyworld.com/des.htm/27-01- 2015/4:00pm
5. www.google.co.in/22-01-2015/8:15pm
6. www.scholar.google.co.in/22-01-2015/9:00pm
7. www.scholar.google.co.in/23-01-2015/10:00pm
8. www.google.co.in/23-01-2015/10:45pm
9. www.google.co.in/22-01-2015/11:00am
146
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
Social Networking Security Loopholes
Shelly Taneja*
Shalini Rawat**
Abstract
In today’s world, usage of social networking is very common through which people feel more comfortable
to get connected to others and stay in touch even miles apart by chatting and sharing moments with
each other, WhatsApp is among one of such platform. WhatsApp is an Instant Messenger which allows
communication between one or more devices through internet without paying a penny for communicating.
Almost all mobile platform namely Android, iPhone, BlackBerry, Windows, Nokia S40, Symbian users
can easily use this application. It allows you to exchange messages, videos, audios, and images.
WhatsApp is an excellent tool to exchange ideas but at the same time proving harmful to its users. As
people are getting more addicted to WhatsApp application they get into the trap of security pitfalls due
to the heavy usage of it. This research paper tells about the concerning security pitfalls of WhatsApp.
Keywords: Social Networking, Instant Messaging, WhatsApp, Facebook
Introduction
Social network plays a vital role in today’s world to
build social connections or relations among people
who have common interests or activities. The concept
of social networking with the growing age of internet
has taken a complete changed shape in the form of
social networking websites, instant messengers, and
voice over internet etc. Among those WhatsApp is one
of fastest growing instant messenger.
WhatsApp is a Cross-platform application through
which user can transfer their messages to one another
or can communicate with each other. WhatsApp
provides various features like text messaging, sharing
audio, video, voice notes, location, group chats and
so on. Location can be known by using the Location
and Map Services provided by the different OS’es.
Despite of these things, privacy is the major issue which
affects the user.
In India 76% of smartphone users use only WhatsApp
as Instant messenger. This messenger has no restrictions
on the length of a message and also you don’t need to
put a SIM card on a phone but you should have a
smartphone or a supported phone with internet
Shelly Taneja*
M.E.R.I, GGSIPU
Shalini Rawat**
M.E.R.I, GGSIPU
connection and available storage space to use this
messenger application.
There are certain advantages of using this application
are:1. It does not cost, not even a penny for sharing texts
and other related things.
2. It takes a less storage space, even smaller than
normal application and games.
3. Convenient to get connected with many friends
at the same time by starting group chat on
WhatsApp.
4. One can broadcast a message to several people at
the same time.
5. Sharing of Voice Notes, audio video files, images
are made possible through WhatsApp.
On March 31, 2013 the Saudi Arabian
Communications and Information Technology
Commission (CITC) issued a statement regarding
possible measures against WhatsApp, user cannot
block contact on whatsapp as well as no feature of
friend request.
In November, Whatsapp comes up with a new feature
known as Read Receipts which alerts senders when
their messages are read by recipients. Within a week,
The public authority for data privacy of the German
state of Schleswig-Holstein has advised against using
IITM Journal of Management and IT
WhatsApp, as the service lacks privacy protection such
as end-to-end client side encryption technology.
other SMSs alternatives like BBM, TELEGRAM,
WeChat.
Recently, WhatsApp has launched a web based
WhatsApp application. It has been released only for
android for now and as a plugin for google chrome
browser.
There are over 400 million users of WhatsApp proving
it as the best SMS replacement technology and
platform. The issues faced by the users in any other
social networking platform is eliminated by WhatsApp
in a very better and easy to use manner.
With some good there’s always a bad side, WhatsApp
is also a no exception. There are some security issues
and pitfalls with WhatsApp instant messenger
application which is proving to be harmful for the
users round the world.
Impact of Social Networking Platform
Social networking platform has become a most
significant part of our society.
It has integrated with our communication medium
and extended our social interactions. People who feel
shy interacting face to face with one other, feels great
while interacting with each other over these platforms.
They without hesitating share their perspectives and
thoughts.
It allows people to communicate easily and
enormously, irrespective of time and distance.
The excitement of using WhatsApp results in sudden
boom of smartphone sale in Asia-Pacific region,
especially in India.
The drastic growth in use of WhatsApp made the Mark
Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook Inc., to acquire it,
with a $19 Billion valuation.
With this move he cemented himself as the global
leader in mobile media by using a very unique
acquisition strategy. Even after the acquisition,
WhatsApp seems to be growing at very good rate all
over the globe. Benefits of WhatsApp are:
l
WhatsApp provides us with sharing messages,
pictures, audios, vedios in just a one go without
charging a single penny.
l
Provides with group message where one can
interact with more than one people at the same
time.
l
It also facilitate users with message broadcasting.
l
Good marketing mode: Now a days many
organisations and individuals like politicians are
using it as a marketing tool for promoting
themselves.
It has following impacts:
l
l
Social Networking has emerged as a voice if
common people throughout the world.
It has created a wide interaction of people with
instant communication between people anywhere
anyplace and anytime.
Whatsapp
WhatsApp is an alternative for SMSs, which are once
very popular among the youth, this application
software is a pun on “what’s up”. It has been developed
targeting mainly the smartphone users with an internet
connection.
It is one of the social networking platform giant which
has very user friendly features and possess the ability
to run on multiple platforms like iPhone, BlackBerry,
Android, Windows Phone and Nokia smartphone.
How it grew up
WhatsApp came up with a broad vision and emerged
as a great deal for the smartphone users besides all
148
Survey on Whatsapp
From Survey, data has been collected from US, Brazil,
China, South Africa, and Indian Smartphone.
As shown in above fig, Survey says that 43 per cent
users use Whatsapp in India and just 35 per cent use
Facebook Messenger used in US.
Security in Whatsapp.
WhatsApp requires a microSD card storage to store
its data on the users’ phone. After WhatsApp
installation, it synchronizes with the phone’s contact
showing users who have a WhatsApp account
associated with their number.
National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 1. Usage of Whatsapp in Different countries. [4]
When a mobile with WhatsApp installed is turned
on, “com.WhatsApp” process receives a signal to start
the “ExternalMediaManage” and “MessageService”
services which runs in the phone’s background till the
phone is turned on.
Exchanges messages are stored in ‘msgstore.db’ i.e,
SQLite database. Researchers found in earlier version
of WhatsApp this was the main security concerns.
When news hits internet, security researchers started
researching with Whatsapp database (msgstore.db) to
Figure 2 Average monthly Whatsapp usage per active user. [4]
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• January-June, 2015
149
IITM Journal of Management and IT
retrieve the conversation even the deleted ones from
the chat option. But Whatsapp reacted soon and came
up with an encryption mechanism to protect its
database.[1]
Whatsapp Flaw can Expose your Messages in a
Minute
Users must be careful while downloading WhatsApp.
User should read an application permissions carefully
before installing it, your messages history could access
by others.
l
There is a trick which provides granting access to
database. Since, WhatsApp have criteria to store their
messages into microSD card, applications can access
all messages if permission is granted.
The Netherlands-based technical consultant says that,
if screenshots contain code and added to Android
games, it is easy to retrieve data from a database.
According to Thijs Alkemade, a computer science and
mathematics student Utrecht University in the
Netherlands, WhatsApp send as well as recieved
messages are encrypted with the same key, means if
hacker can intercepts all messages, he or she can easily
analyze them to cancel out the key and recover the
plain text.[9]
l
Network Issues
l
Issues Related to Whatsapp
General Issues
l
l
l
150
Anyone can contact you over WhatsApp:
WhatsApp uses mobile numbers as the unique ID.
Setting up WhatsApp is a easy task. Once you set
up your WhatsApp account you are automatically
shown into the list of WhatsApp contacts of who
so ever is on WhatsApp and has saved your number
in their mobiles. So it becomes more easier for
anyone to contact you without seeking your
permission which sometimes may results in
bullying or harassing anyone over whatsap.
No much security required: Operating
WhatsApp doesn’t required any password, it
doesn’t provides any password security to secure
it from other users.
No permission for contacting or adding in a
group: Before adding into a group no notification
or request is received, which may lead to become
a part of a unwanted group. Though one can delete
and exit the group but chances of distributing of
your number among unknowns and unwanted
people are same and later those unknowns of the
group may bother you by contacting you over
WhatsApp as anyone can contact anyone over
WhatsApp just by your WhatsApp numbers.
Anyone can view your mobile number and
profile picture: If you are a part of any group
consisting of some of the unknown people
too, then they can view your numbers and can
even see your personal data like profile picture &
status if unknowingly you have set privacy to
public.
Sometimes there may be people who are saved in
your contact lists and to whom you don’t wish to
show your profile pictures in this case there is no
option of customise your privacy settings.
l
Chat backup on their servers: WhatsApp
automatically generates backups every day at 4 AM
and stores them in the WhatsApp folder of your
Android phone. This folder is either located in
your device’s internal memory or external
microSD card. It may restores less recent or most
recent backups only, for this you have to uninstall
and reinstall WhatsApp. They can get to read
chats. If ever their server gets hacked your data
might be stealing and could be misused.
Man in middle attack: The hackers can easily
get to read one’s personal chats and data if they
can get into server through Man in the Middle
attack on server and as encryption and decryption
keys are same as used by Whatsapp they can easily
decrypt the data.
Psychological issues:
l
l
It has decreases the self-esteem among the people
and increases the psychological disorder.
People are getting divorced: Introducing of second
tick, blue tick (when read) results into fights and
raised misunderstandings when people didn’t get
replies.
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Remedies
Intelligent use of WhatsApp may reduce these
psychological or to some extent these network related
issues and the other concerning issues.
Also WhatsApp developers must provide with more
strong security and privacy features which can protect
one’s privacy and personal data and other contents.
Conclusions
The social networking is growing and it is somewhat
good to people in general as it provides with true meaning
of freedom of speech and expression, but in some ways it
is also harmful too. So one should use this platform for
his own good but with a cautious mind that these can
also hamper one’s privacy and can get into the personal
life without the permission of the users.
WhatsApp though on one hand is a good tool to
communicate with everyone around the globe and
provide a best and cheapest way for the messaging,
but at the same time it is also not away from the
drawbacks which one should keep in mind while using.
One must be capable enough to protect its privacy
and personal wellbeing, without that there won’t be
much use of such platform.
So, while using such application one must be cautious
enough to know that what sort of data they are sharing
with the developers and how they will be using it to
intrude in the personal life.
Acknowledgement
I would like to thank Ms Navneet Popli, my family
& friends for their support and guidance while going
through this research.
I would also like to thank my other faculty and college
staff and members who keep me motivated throughout
the research.
References
1. Mr. Shubham sahu “An Analysis of whatsapp Forensics in Android Smartphones”.
2. Pranav Dixit “Backup whatsapp to keep your precious messages forever”.
3. Business Insider India- “Hackers claims this crucial whatsapp flaw can expose your messages in minutes”.
4. “Customer satisfaction towards Whatsapp- a” project report(30-01-2015,Friday,8.55 pm) .
5. Forouzan “Data Communication and Networking”, Fourth Edition..
6. Tanenboum.”Data communication and Communication”, Fifth Edition..
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WhatsApp.
8. https://www.google.co.in/?gws_rd=ssl#q=social+networking+sites.
9. Sebastian schrittwiese, “GuessWho’sTextingYou? EvaluatingtheSecurityofSmartphoneMessagingApplications”.
10. https://www.WhatsApp.com/
11. http://alkarbalaeia.net/top-3-advantages-of-using-WhatsApp-to-send-free-text-messages/
12. Johnson yeboah, “The impacts of whatsapp messenger usage on students performance in tertiary institutions
in Ghana”.
13. Whatsapp web version Released:chrome plugin,android,blackberry, and windows phone.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
151
Cloud Computing: Vulnerabilities, Privacy
and Legislation
Amit Kiran*
Priyam Lizmary Cherian**
Abstract
Cloud computing is an indispensable part of the current business and service industries, its usage
raising many issues. These issues range from those intrinsic to the nature of cloud itself and those
stemming as a result of inability of the legislature to keep up with the dynamic nature of technology. This
paper discusses the nature of conflicts and issues that may arise in providing cloud services .Starting
with the possibility of security threats to cloud computing, the paper discusses the overlap of cloud
services with intellectual property. It further looks at the legal regime for protecting and regulating cloud
related activities. The need for standards and best practices is also reviewed. The paper concludes with
a call for regulatory reforms both at a national and international level.
Keywords: Cloud Computing, Data Breaches, Green grid
Introduction
In its simplest form, cloud computing maybe said to
be the infrastructure provided in the form of computer
resources over a network connection, typically the
internet, which is determined by the needs of the end
user. The National Institute of Standards and
Technology define cloud computing as,‘ a model for
enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network
access to a shared pool of configurable computing
resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications,
and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and
released with minimal management effort or service
provider interaction’[1]. In essence, cloud computing
involves self-service, commonly pooled resources,
broad network access, elasticity of use and a measured
service. Normally, while this service may exist in many
forms, it is most commonly used as Software as a
Service (SaaS), where programs operating on cloud
software are provided to clients, Platform as a Service
Amit Kiran*
5th year, B.A. LL.B.
University Law College, Bangalore
2, 5th Cross, P&T Layout, Horamavu, Bangalore
Priyam Lizmary Cherian**
3rd year, LL.B.
Faculty of Law, University of Delhi
1989, Outram Lines, Kingsway Camp, Delhi
(PaaS), where the client is allowed to develop software
or programs that operate on the cloud services, and
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), where processing,
storage, networks, and other fundamental computing
resources are provided for the use of the client. Cloud
computing might exist as a private cloud, a public
cloud, a hybrid cloud or as a community cloud.
On analysis of cloud computing in its current form, it
is clear that many difficulties exist in its regulation,
control and classification. For example, servers hosting
cloud computing might not operate in the same
country as the client themselves, thereby limiting the
territorial jurisdiction of the country in regulating and
safeguarding such services. Further, while cloud
computing is regulated by the standards set by the
country hosting such services, offences or breaches of
protocol in any other country cannot be contested
without a treaty between the countries or a clause in
the contract between the parties that specifically deals
with the issue of jurisdiction.
Cloud computing is indispensable as most businesses
and service providers as well as all online transactions
primarily rely on cloud based computing services for
any transaction or interface on an as per need basis. In
this light, the problem of security in cloud computing
is pivotal, as any breach would lead to the loss of crores
of rupees (with the value of cloud computing predicted
IITM Journal of Management and IT
to be 5 percent of the total investments in India by
2015[2]), with little or no possible legal recourse.
Security Threats to Cloud Computing
According to the Cloud Security Alliance, the top
threats in cloud computing are as follows[3]
l
Data Breaches- where sensitive and valuable
information is gained by parties who have access
to such software.
l
Data Loss – of valuable data through malicious
processes or physical destruction of such hosting
servers.
l
Account or Service Traffic Hijacking – through
the use of the security clearances or credentials of
actual parties to gain unauthorised access to
information.
l
Insecure interfaces and Application Programming
Interfaces – flaws in the basic interface systems
would lead to various security issues.
l
Denial of Service – by the actions of malicious
third parties so as to delay the delivery of any cloud
service or increasing the cost of such services.
l
Malicious Insiders – where due to improper
configuration of cloud services system
administrators are allowed unauthorised access to
the sensitive data of customers.
l
Abuse of Services – by using cloud services, such
as computational power, to facilitate hacking of
servers or for the distribution of pirated software,
etc.
l
Insufficient Due Diligence – leading to a lack of
internal controls and in the case of breach of
contract, ambiguity in its enforcement.
l
Shared technology vulnerabilities – with the use
of software by customers where any breach in the
software could lead to a breach of the entire cloud
based system.
Intellectual Property and Cloud Computing
In the process of uploading and storing data on the
cloud, there is a possibility of creating new Intellectual
Property. For instance, in the service model of PaaS,
the consumer may create applications using libraries
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• January-June, 2015
and tools supported by the provider[4]. In absence of
any clause to this effect, it would be difficult to
determine who would be the author/owner of the
patentable or copyright work that is created on such a
platform. A clear claim in the contract(for instance
clause 5 of Dropbox business agreementexpressly
provides that Dropbox would not have any intellectual
property in the consumer data)or assignment of
copyright would help in determining the ownership
over the/any newly created work.[5]
Primarily, the work that has already been created and
thereafter placed on the cloud may indicate clear
ownership of the author, i.e. the cloud service user.
While acting as a platform for exchange and storage
of huge amounts of data, the cloud service providers
are constantly running the risk of storing infringing
material. The service providers in such situations are
often protected under the safe harbour provisions. In
cases where the cloud services provider allows recording
and storing of content that may infringe the copyright
of a third party, any liability would depend whether
the country’s statute allows copying for personal use
or grants time-shifting exceptions under its copyright
laws. (an example is Section 111 of Copyright Act,
1968 of Australia which provides that any recordings
made for domestic use and to be viewed or heard at a
later time does not infringe the copyright in the work)
[6]
An IP owner needs to keep a constant check and be
aware of possible loss of confidential data stored on
cloud as a result of data mining. Clearly defining and
demarcating the confidentiality obligations of the
service provider, the customer and other third parties
thereby becomes imperative.
Legislation
In India cloud providers can be held liable for any
illegal data that they might host, however this is limited
to cases where it can be proved that the provider was
aware of the ‘illegal nature of the data’ hosted, and
have not taken any steps to limit or remove such data,
even when they were made aware of such an
infringement. India is currently not a signatory of the
Budapest Convention of Cyber Crime[7]; a pivotal
international treaty which overruled the principal of
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
location as a connecting factor from a legal perspective,
thereby weakening our position on the matter.
Excluding the provisions of the Indian Contract Act,
1872 the only legislation that governs cloud computing
in India is the Information Technology Act, 2000. This
Act contains four provisions that specifically deal with
breach and misuse of data. Section 43 protects the
owner of the computer /computer system/network/
resource from any damage to computers or computer
systems with regard to unauthorized copying,
extraction, database theft, and digital profiling. In case
of cloud services, the owner can be the consumer using
the services of the Cloud Service Providers (CSP’s).
Section 65 protects the cloud service users against the
tampering of computer source documents. Such an
act is punishable by either or with a combination of a
fine up to two lakh rupees and imprisonment up to
three years.
Section 66 of the Act deals with computer hacking
and protects users from intentional alteration/misuse
of data on their computers. The penalty is the same as
that for Section 65. Section 72 imposes a fine of one
lakh rupees and an imprisonment term of up to two
year for any breach of confidentiality or misuse of
private data.
These provisions have been widely interpreted by
Courts to cover most of the cases involving breach of
security or violation of privacy with regard to cloud
based computing. However, the absence of specific
laws governing cloud computing and the lack of a
strong supervisory role of the Telecom Regulatory
Authority of India (TRAI), leaves much to be desired.
While protection is mentioned in the form of penal
liabilities, it is wholly insufficient inasmuch that the
economic loss that caused by such infringement is far
more severe. In this light, the current legislative regime
as it lies is wholly insufficient in dealing with theissues
of regulation, protection and supervision of cloud
based services and the problems that exist or may arise
in its functioning.
Cloud Computing Standards
A plethora of players in the sphere of cloud computing
offer varied services. The different terms and standards
of these services often pose difficulties to service
154
adopters in migrating to other CSP’s , integrating data
and applications over CSP’s or maintaining effective
audit processes across service providers. The lack of a
standard in cloud computing not only poses serious
questions on interoperability but also creates hurdles
at the initial stage of comparing and evaluating the
cloud services.
These incompatibilities in transition are broadly
categorised as[8] –
1. Technical
2. Business
3. Semantic
Technical: This aspect is related to the reliability and
security issues associated with the cloud services. The
security related cases in interoperability may include
user authentication in cloud, data access authorization
policies, and user credential synchronization between
enterprises and the cloud. [9]
Business: This may be associated with unavailability/
want of a standard interface that may provide audit or
assessment of the environment.
Semantic: It refers to portability and interoperability
of CSP’s. Interoperability means the ability to
communicate with entities to share specific
information. Portability on the other hand is the ability
to migrate workload and data from one provider to
another.
One would assume that transfer and interoperability
would be facilitated by setting out one uniform
standard. The present scenario suggests otherwise.
Instead of collectively creating a single definitive
regulation, the top organisations seem to be suggesting
their own set of norms.
There are more than 30 standardisation initiatives from
around 20 organizations. These initiatives range from
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Standards Association’s P2301[10] and P2302
[11]working groups looking at standardisation in
cloud management and interoperability to the
National Institute of Standard and Technology’s Cloud
Computing Standards Roadmap[12]advocating best
practices and standards. Other organisations that have
proposed best practices for use of cloud computing
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
include The Green Grid, The Cloud Security Alliance,
The Distributed Management Task Force, The
European Telecommunications Standards Institute and
The Storage Network Industry Association.
In October 2014, International Organization for
Standardization(ISO) also released new standards for
cloud computing[13]. These set of rules are said to
have seven distinct cloud services categories including
Network as a Service (NaaS) and Data Storage as a
Service (DSaaS) as opposed to the three categories
identified by NIST (as discussed above)[14].
These varied and overlapping standards seem to be
further delaying creation of a uniform practices.
Conclusions
On analysis of the current legislative regime on cloud
computing in India, it is clear that there are lacunae
that need to be addressed in order to strengthen the
security and regulation of Cloud Services in the interest
of protecting sensitive data and the privacy of the users.
Such reforms are a double edged sword as they must
be strict enough to ensure compliance and liberal
enough not to discourage companies from using cloud
services.
There must be a greater involvement of the TRAI in
line with the National Telecom Policy[15] The TRAI
in governing Internet Service Providers (ISP’s), can
ensure the co-operation of the ISP’s in preventing such
breaches in privacy, security or violation of any
intellectual property rights, a necessary action in the
light of voluminous online traffic.
In the absence of clear contractual terms, disputes may
arise over accountability of data and its security.
Though the Information Technology Act can be of
help in cases of any data security breach, ambiguous
terms of contract may lead to complex issues when
the data is being used by the CSP s for their
management and development. Provisions for
notification on any breach, and smooth transfer of
data on termination of services can also be some aspects
that may be considered in the contract of service.
The next big leap in the regime of interoperability of
cloud service is definitely the creation of one
determinate standard of operation and services. The
multiple, overlapping standards proposed are adding
to the numerable drafts. The need of the hour is for
the stakeholders to come together under one umbrella
and adopt one single standard that may be used by
the CSP’s worldwide. An international treaty setting
minimum standards for cloud service could be the way
forward for solving the issues surrounding jurisdiction,
and interoperability.
The Cloud is increasingly changing the way enterprises
are modelling their innovation and development
strategies. With its on demand access, elasticity to meet
varying demands and its dynamic nature, cloud has
redefined the IT and business sectors’ operations. The
increased subscription to CSP’s is a clear indicator of
the sailing future of clouds. To avoid any turbulence,
the Indian legislature needs to fill the lacunae and make
appropriate provisions facilitating trade and
transactions over cloud in order to deal with any
current or novel issues that are bound to arise.
References
1. PeterMell and Timothy Grace, “ The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, Recommendations of the
National Institute of Standards and Technology”, National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S.
Department of Commerce, Special Publication 800-145, p.2
2. ShiplaShanbag, “Emerging from the Shadows,” Dataquest, Vol. XXIX No. 10, May 31, 2011 at 22.
3. “The Notorious Nine: Cloud Computing Threats in 2013”, Cloud Security Alliance, February 2013, p.6
4. Mell& Timothy, supra note [1] at p. 2
5. Dropbox Business Agreement- https://www.dropbox.com/terms#business_agreement [February 12, 2015]
6. Copyright Act, 1968- http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2014C00291 [February 12, 2015]
7. GowriMenon, “Regulatory Issues in Cloud Computing: An Indian Perspective”,Journalof Engineering,
Computers & Applied Sciences (JEC&AS),Volume 2, No.7, July 2013
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
8. RajinderSandhuand InderverChana, “Cloud Computing Standardisation Initiatives: State of Play”,
International Journal of Cloud Computing and Services Science (IJ-CLOSER) Vol.2, No.5, October 2013, pp.
351-362 ISSN: 2089-3337
9. Grace A. Lewis, “The Role of Standards in Cloud Computing Interoperability”, Software Engineering Institute,
Technical Note CMU/SEI-2012-TN-012, October 2012, Carnegie Mellon University
10. Guide for Cloud Portability and Interoperability Profiles-http://ieee-sa.centraldesktop.com/p2301public/
[February 12, 2015]
11. Standard for Intercloud Interoperability and Federation-http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/2302/ [February 12,
2015]
12. NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap -http://www.nist.gov/itl/cloud/upload/NIST_SP-500291_Version-2_2013_June18_FINAL.pdf [February 12, 2015]
13. Standards Catalogue -http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_tc_browse.htm?
commid=601355[February 13, 2015]
14. ISO publishes new cloud computing standards and definitions-http://www.cloudcomputing-news.net/news/
2014/oct/20/iso-publishes-new-cloud-computing-standards-and-definitions/[February 12, 2015]
15. National Telecom Policy,2012-http://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReadData/userfiles/file/NTP%202012.pdf
[31.01.2015]
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National Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology
The Exigency in Accretion of Cyber
Warfare Legislation
Raman Solanki*
Ankit Verma**
Abstract
Recent advances of internet over the two decades of more than two billion users. The expansion resulted
in developing applications for the cyber world, which bolster further expansion and more applications.
To compute to the rise of a cyber-economy, commercial transactions and accentuating in the storing
and sharing of hypersensitive information. Storing of sensitive information on networks eventuated to
cyber espionage against the government and cyber economic warfare against the businesses and the
need of the legislation dealing with newly developed cyber laws came into existence.
Keywords: Cyber Attacks, Web Vandalism, Legislation, laws, Disavowal of service
Introduction
Cyber warfare is delineated as a major interruption to
critical infrastructure, despite it is the least liable-result.
Assaulting an outland via the internet has an intense
chain-reaction also a collateral global damage. Cyber
warfare occurs continuously across cyberspace
connections giving rise to minor disruptions, website
vandalism, heist of national defense information, and
rational property defraudment. We are on the point
of a considerable bend in the attribute of warfare as
military-competition bolsters into the cyber field.
Characteristically, it reconnoiters concerns among
senior-policy builder and leaders of the military in
extensive cyber powers that their non-state and state
adversaries to execute-prompt cyber defilement that
could administer adversity on their rivals to give rise
to catastrophic level of destruction on the cyberspace.
The credible targets of cyber-attacks are the power grid,
financial sector, energy reservoir (gas and oil pipelines)
and communications [1]. The increasing dependence
on information structure in generic and connections
to the Internet in minute, hypercritical infrastructure
is augmenting more liable to cyber-attacks. Leaders
Raman Solanki*
Student (BCA)
IITM, Janakpuri, New Delhi-110058
Ankit Verma**
Assistant Professor
IITM, Janakpuri, New Delhi-110058
around the globe have embodied concerns of the
exigency of cyber “Unforeseen Attacks” are developing.
Cyber Weapons’ possibility to oversee damage to that
of Nuclear weapons is valid. The Legislations ought
to safeguard its populace from these virtual weapons
of mass-destruction of the economy and the
information by enforcing and updating laws [2].
Types of Cyber Attacks
The use of Information-Technology and computers
to complete acts of war on the government and large
scale framework is the true delineation of cyber-attacks.
The assailant of cyber-attacks can be a definite person,
a formulation, or another government. There are many
different forms of cyber-warfare from specializedhacking jobs on an unambiguous server to the
conventionally targeted denial of service attacks. The
definitive in cyber-attack is a blitzkrieg that completely
abstracts the dexterity for all of the members of the
government and the organization to connect to the
internet. The adversaries are so clever even when one
method gets done then they are ready with their other
method to add to the destruction. The most commonly
used methods for Cyber Attacks are Web Vandalism
and Disavowal of Service Attacks.
Web-Vandalism
Web-Vandalism is characterized by website
disfigurement and denial of Service invasion. Website
defacement is the most quotidian contour of web
IITM Journal of Management and IT
Table 1: Webserver
2005
2006
2007
Apache
308
486
319
IIS/6.0
72
181
114
IIS/5.0
100
66
24
Table 2: Operating System
Linux
Windows
2009
276
180
2010
446
258
2011
306
140
vandalism; Website-defacement is an imperative threat
to many internet-facilitated businesses. It hostilely
affects the public image of the Organizations.
Organizations may suffer from loss of important data,
trust of people and business. The following are the
steps on how website defacement works [4].
l
The number one step would be to search for a
username for instance strutting as administrator
and calling an employee; the administrator
information can also be fetched from a Whois
database.
l
Using various executions such as brute-force, the
password can be salvaged.
l
l
As one has the access to the administration access,
the next step will be to annex administrative
privileges.
Ensconcing a backdoor; the defacing of the website
may begin.
How to defend against website defacement?
l
Avoid using the server as a client (e.g., web
browser)
l
Remove buffer overflow vulnerabilities in your
programs.
l
Use a different user(s) other than root for
managing the website contents.
l
Enable access logs.
l
Update.
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Web vandalism is not only present in the United States.
It is also a problem in many other countries particularly
Kyrgyz. The published statistics of registered website
defacements every year is given in the table. The
following tables are subset of those statistics:
How to recover from website Vandalism and avoid
future defacements?
l
Change all user passwords, if the web server
provides user-authentication, and you have
evidence/reasons to think the passwords may have
been compromised. This can require a large user
communication.
l
If backup server has been used, restore the primary
web server component as nominal
Disavowal of Service
The disavowal of service malicious deed is an attempt
to exhaust all of an available contrivance in order to
keep those resources from its contemplated end-users.
The disavowal of service is one of the most banal blitz
upon the internet done by the attackers. Its use is so
outspread because it is comparably accessible to
implement and it is very arduous to defend-against.
Conventionally an assailant-builds an alluvion of ersatz
requests to a service, scorning the results. The server is
bogged-down by huge number of approaching
requests, taking long times to haft both the fraudulent
requests and any licit requests that come in during the
attack. In supreme cases, the server will not be able to
haft the strain of the approaching-connections and will
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crash, enduringly breaking the server until it is
manually renewed. A disavowal of service attack may
subsist of an entreaty which is crafted to coup a specific
vulnerability in the server, inciting it to crash without
coercing a large number of requests. The assailant-sends
request from more than one system making it a
distributed disavowal of service attack (DDoS). A
disavowal-of-service attack is characterized by an
explicit attempt by attackers to prevent legitimate users
of a service from using that service. There are two
general forms of DoS attacks: those that crash services
and those that flood services. A DoS attack can be
perpetrated in a number of ways. Attacks can
fundamentally be classified into five families:
l
Consumption of computational resources, such
as bandwidth, memory, disk space, or processor
time.
l
Disruption of configuration information, such as
routing information.
l
Disruption of state information, such as
unsolicited resetting of TCP sessions.
l
Disruption of physical network components.
l
Obstructing the communication media between
the intended users and the victim so that they can
no longer communicate adequately.
A DoS attack may include execution of malware
intended to:
l
Max out the processor’s usage, preventing any
work from occurring.
l
Trigger errors in the microcode of the machine.
l
Trigger errors in the sequencing of instructions,
so as to force the computer into an unstable state
or lock-up.
l
Exploit errors in the operating system, causing
resource starvation and/or thrashing, i.e. to use
up all available facilities so no real work can be
accomplished or it can crash the system itself
l
Crash the operating system itself.
In most cases DoS attacks involve forging of IP sender
addresses (IP address spoofing) so that the location of
the attacking machines cannot easily be identified and
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• January-June, 2015
to prevent filtering of the packets based on the source
address. Two types of DDoS attack networks have
emerged: the Agent-Handler model and the Internet
Relay Chat (IRC)-based model. The Agent-Handler
model of a DDoS attack consists of clients, handlers,
and agents (see Figure 1). The client is where the
attacker communicates with the rest of the DDoS
attack system. The handlers are software packages
located throughout the Internet that the attacker’s
client uses to communicate with the agents. The agent
software exists in compromised systems that will
eventually carry out the attack. The attacker
communicates with any number of handlers to identify
which agents are up and running, when to schedule
attacks, or when to upgrade agents. The owners and
users of the agent systems typically have no knowledge
that their system has been compromised and will be
taking part in a DDoS attack. Depending on how the
attacker configures the DDoS attack network, agents
can be instructed to communicate with a single handler
or multiple handlers. Usually, attackers will try to place
the handler software on a compromised router or
network server that handles large volumes of traffic.
This makes it harder to identify messages between the
client and handler and between the handler and agents.
In descriptions of DDoS tools, the terms “handler”
and “agents” are sometimes replaced with “master” and
“daemons”, respectively.
The IRC-based DDoS attack architecture is similar
to the Agent-Handler model except that instead of
using a handler program installed on a network server,
an IRC (Internet Relay Chat) communication channel
is used to connect the client to the agents. An IRC
channel provides an attacker with additional benefits
such as the use of “legitimate” IRC ports for sending
commands to the agents [4]. This makes tracking the
DDoS command packets more difficult. Additionally,
IRC servers tend to have large volumes of traffic
making it easier for the attacker to hide his presence.
Another advantage is that the attacker does not need
to maintain a list of the agents, since he can log on to
the IRC server and see a list of all available agents [4].
The agent software installed in the IRC network
usually communicates to the IRC channel and notifies
the attacker when the agent is up and running. In an
IRC-based DDoS attack architecture, the agents are
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 1: DDoS Agent-Handler Attack Model
often referred to as “Zombie Bots” or “Bots”. In both
IRC-based and Agent-Handler DDoS attack models,
we refer to the agents as “secondary victims” or
“zombies”, and the target of the DDoS attack as the
“primary victim”. Well-designed agent software uses
only a small proportion of resources (memory and
bandwidth) so that the users of secondary-victim
systems experience minimal performance impact when
their system participates in a DDoS attack.
The following pie-graph represents the top source
countries for Distributed Denial of Service Attacks
[6].
Cyber Warfare Legislature
Various countries use various legislatures for protecting
or advancing Cyber Warfare. It varies from enrooting,
maturating a stratagem, to be oblivious to certain
attacks. Disparate nations affiliate different approaches
Figure 2: DDoS IRC-Based Attack Model
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Figure 3: Top Sources for Distributed Denial of Service Attacks
to the cyber espionage and sabotage conducted by the
assailants’ government-forces; Myriad nations don’t
have a legislature to hedge their populace from these
cyber-war and attacks by their assailants’ government
forces. Different zones in the world have different laws
to treat and react against/for Cyber-attacks and the
laws are necessary to safeguard people from various
techniques of cyber-attacks.
EMEA
The Middle East, Africa and Europe, the cyber-warfare
attacks have been comparably less than the other two
time zones. Various Countries in this time zone don’t
even have a legislature to guide or bulwark from cyber
warfare or attacks, The United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland, to foster their networks
also ordained cyber war games dubbed ‘Waking Shark
2’ to hedge their financial-organizations followed by
the Wall-street. Britain has also endowed up a cybersecurity and “operations-center” based in Government
Communication Headquarters (GCHQ). The Police
and Justice Act 2006, of the United Kingdom,
amended the Computer Misuse Act 1990 and
specifically outlawed disavowal-of-service attacks and
set a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison Germany;
the German Law gives the right to the German agencies
to cyber scrutiny capability to twenty percent of total
internet traffic [8]. Netherlands has various centers to
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• January-June, 2015
support scrutinizing eye on the other networks ranging
from National Cyber Security enter (NCSC), Joint
IT branch (JIVC), Joint Signet Cyber Unit (JSCU)
and Defensive Cyber Command (DCC), these clutch
of various agencies have been set up by many other
countries of this time zone.[9] The Europe has also
entrenched ENISA (European Union Agency for
Network and Information Security) The governmental
agencies in this time zone have opened up to protect
themselves from these unforeseen- cyber-attacks than
just military [8-9].
APAC
The Asia-Pacific region has been the origin or the most
cyber-attack-bearer than any other time zone because
of its size and new developing economy and rivalries;
this has been the major hotspot for Cyber Attacks also
the inducement of these acts of war. China has been
the most controversial country when referring to the
origin of Cyber Attacks, China is gripped culpable for
a twine of Cyber-attacks on numerous private and
public institutions in countries ranging from France,
Russia, Canada, India and the United States of
America; the Chinese government disclaim any
involvement in these campaigns and they believe that
they are not the hazard but rather the victim of an
rapid increasing number of Cyber-Attacks. The
Chinese government uses-New space based intelligence
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
gathering systems and surveillance systems, infrared
decoys, false target generators and anti-satellite systems.
They have been information zing their military
through increase educations of military person in
Cyber Warfare, developing the information network
for military training and have digital campuses and
libraries for advancement [10]. Under Section 27A and
section 161, the Chinese government is protecting and
also includes imprisonment against unauthorized
access to computer by telecommunication extended
by Article 285,286,287. The Korean Peninsula has also
been the victim and the impel of Cyber Attacks, North
Korea is aggrandizing its workers through military
academics specializing in hacking and other forms of
Cyber-Warfare. During the military dictatorships of
Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan (1961-1987),
anti-government speech was frequently suppressed
with reference to the National Security Act (NSA,
1948) and the Basic Press Law (1980). Although the
Basic Press Law was abolished in 1987, the NSA
remains in effect. The government has used other
“dictatorship-era” laws in order to prosecute critics in
contemporary contexts; [11] India is also-the sufferer
and antecedent of various sponsored Cyber Attacks
and has been late like many other developing nations
around the globe in perceiving the Cyber Attacks, The
government of India has taken various steps in
developing a safe and resilient cyberspace for its
citizens, businesses and government and have a
National Cyber Security Policy 2013 also addressed
by the Information Technology Act, 2000 to safeguard
itself. Many nations in this time zone are not alert and
have no legislature to safeguard its populace and
economy [12].
The Americas
The New world in the western hemisphere of North
and South America has dealt with various and the
oldest forms of Cyber Attacks. The United States of
America has the uttermost organized military for such
cyber-attacks. Cyber warfare is a constituent of the
American military-strategy of spirited Cyber defense
and the use of Cyber-Warfare as a platform to attack.
The United States Department of Defense has formally
recognized cyberspace as a new sphere in warfare and
has set up a new Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM)
to shield America Military Networks and attack other
162
countries systems. In the US, denial-of-service attacks
may be considered a federal crime under the Computer
Fraud and Abuse Act with penalties that include years
of imprisonment and fine. The Computer Crime and
Intellectual Property Section of the US Department
of Justice handles cases of (D)DoS. The Canadian
Armed Forces have also revealed to entrench a new
systems; the executives of Cybernetics, guided by Chief
Administrative Officer, the director General Cyber
(DG Cyber). Within that cabinet the newly stationed
CAF Cyber Task Force charged to design and construct
Cyber Warfare proficiencies for the Canadian Armed
forces. The Sub-continent of America, the South
America has also risen up and understood the severity
of the situation in the Cyber World and has an urge
for all the countries in South America to form a joint
cyber Shield to protect them from their adversaries
and protect the vital data and growing economy
however they have not made any law to protect
themselves [7] [13] [14].
Conclusion and Suggestions
The Cyber World has only given the nations another
more advanced “Field in Warfare” in which the
assailant and rivals are not sending rockets and missiles
to annihilate cities. They are not landing on the
oceanfront for armed warfare. They are attacking with
suave attacks by virtue of Internet borders away. With
very little investments and wearing the cloak of
invisibility/anonymity harming the national interests.
The Cyber Space is confronting in both traditional
and irregular conflicts. It will expanse from an artless
novice to a highly schooled polished hacker, Through
Cyberspace rivals will point academia, industry,
government, military on land, maritime, and space
empire. The exigency in accretion on cyber warfare
legislation is vital and needed to develop by each and
every nation around the planet as the current laws have
failed to prevent the number of the victims from
increasing at an escalating rate. The identification of
source of Cyber-Attacks is nugatory as the assumed
country’s government may deny any involvement in
these acts of war; With the current trends in rise of the
Cyber Warfare; the nation’s may choose to develop an
exceptionally protected networks or choose to go back
to the traditional ways to connect. In many countries,
changes in legislation have resulted in the arrest of
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
computer virus writers. With widespread press
coverage, these arrests have probably deterred many
youths from developing malicious code. The
governmental body has to foresee their own country’s
networks for any allusion of starting the Cyber Attacks,
an intergovernmental organization to promote
international co-operation in cyber space must be
established and developed. The Cyber Space is only
giving another field for antagonistic people to channel
their cynicism which has to be disciplined, counseled
and stopped by a regulatory organization common
around the world. The years of imprisonment and fines
imposed on people breaking the law must increase and
laws common around the world should be come into
existence as laws of some countries may be illegal to
use in another countries.
References
1. ANDREW F. KREPINEVICH, Cyber Warfare, a “Nuclear Option”? Defense policy analyst Center for
Strategic and Budgetary Assessments. 2012.
2. The Whitehouse National Cyber security Communications Integration Center Arlington, Virginia January
13, 2015, 3:10 P.M. EST.
3. WHITE HOUSE CYBERSPACE STRATEGY, Oona A. Hathaway, Rebecca Crootof, Philip Levitz, Haley
Nix, Aileen Nowlan, William Perdue, Julia Spiegel November 16, 2011.
4. Zener Bayudan, Brandon Pitman, John Oleynik, CS4235 at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
5. McAfee, local content white papers hollanderdefacement.
6. Source Country for DDoS Attackwww.foxbusiness.com/technology/2013/04/17/intensity-ddos-attacksexplode-in-firstquarter-average-bandwidth-surges-61/, access on 10th Jan’14.
7. Dancho Danchey’s Blog, Security consultant “trends and fads, tactics and strategies, intersecting with thirdparty research, real time CYBERINT assessments”
8. Cyber Security Strategy for Germany Federal Ministry of the Interior Alt-Moabit 101 D 10559 Berlin,
February 2011.
9. Minister of Security and Justice, Ivo Opstelten, Opening NCSC One Conference 2014, World Forum, the
Hague, 3 June 2014.
10. Gorman, Siobhan (April 8, 2009). “Electricity Grid in U.S. Penetrated By Spies”. The Wall Street Journal.
Retrieved November 2, 2010.
11. Kim, Eun-jung. “S. Korean military to prepare with U.S. for cyber warfare scenarios”. Yonhap News Agency.
Retrieved 6 April 2013.
12. “National Cyber Security Policy of India 2013 (NCSP 2013)”. Centre of Excellence for Cyber Security
Research and Development in India (CECSRDI). Retrieved 14 August 2014.
13. Khang Pham, Cyber Security: Do Your Part, The Maple Leaf, Vol. 15, No. 2, February 2012.
14. Dilanian, Ken. “Cyber-attacks a bigger threat than Al Qaeda, officials say”, Los Angeles Times, 12 March
2013.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
163
Cyber Terrorism - An International Phenomena and
An Eminent Threat
Biny Pal Singh*
Ankit Verma**
Abstract
This paper goes into the conception of terrorism, who the terrorists are and tries to establish a grasp of
why they conduct the activities they do. Understanding the attacker will allow recognize the type of
attack they may plan and the aftereffect they are likely to try and accomplish. It looks at the main
encouragement of Terrorist groups and considers their use of the Internet for various forms of a terrorist
Campaign such as implantation/advertising and recruitment. It will acknowledge the various channels
that have been used and how the Internet has provided a new liberty for terrorists to conduct their
campaigns and how it has been adapted by them for their purposes. It examines the probable threat of
a cyber-attack by terrorist organizations and how they can use the Internet and Cyber Space to their
liberty and attack a target with similar results to a conventional physical attack. The paper will briefly
examine some of the possible defenses against this form of terrorism.
Keywords: Terrorism, Terrorist encouragement, Cyber-attack, Terrorist use of the Internet
Introduction
If 10 security experts who create various forms of
protection against ‘cyber terrorism’ are asked what
‘cyber terrorism’ is, you will get at least nine different
definitions! When those 10 experts are in the field of
computer security, this discrepancy moves from
comedic to rather worth consideration and serious.
When these 10 experts represent varied departments
of the governmental agencies tasked with protecting
the infrastructure, defense and assets of our nation, it
becomes a critical issue. However, given the lack of
scientific groundwork/platform to incorporate various
aspects of computer-related crime into the category
‘cyber terrorism’, this situation should not be
surprising.
Understanding Terrorism
Most people who are asked about terrorism would say
that they know who terrorist are and what terrorism
Biny Pal Singh*
Student (BCA)
IITM, Janak Puri, New Delhi-110058
Ankit Verma**
Assistant Professor
IITM, Janak Puri, New Delhi-110058
is, but surprisingly there has never been internationally
agreed definition. but considering violence or threat
of violence as theme there have been literally hundreds
of definitions that have tried to throw light on this
international phenomena. The only other elements to
appear in more than 50% of definitions are “Political”
and “Fear, terror emphasized” [2]. Terrorism dose differ
from other crimes in its core; it is done with a purpose
in mind and an aftereffect that is expected from its
occurrence. Considering who the terrorist are is most
important. Considering size and ability there are
literary hundreds of terrorist groups, which to some
extent, warrant the label of terrorist. Terrorism has 4
classic encouragements [3].Firstly there are terrorist
with single issue, those who have faith in one particular
cause and are ready to use violence to protect their
message in the faith of ending the issue. Although
commonly small and at less devastating rate, these
groups can use the cyber world to their aid as in cyber
environment they can effectively push forward there
cause and end the issue with very less lethality rate.
The terrorist who use violence to effectively promote
their political ideology are the ideological terrorist.
Religio-political terrorist groups are more dangerous
as there believe is that they are acting for GOD himself
or on a spiritual order and that those not of their belief
IITM Journal of Management and IT
are against GOD [3]. There are extremist groups
spanning all major religions and some minor cults who
have resorted to terrorism. These terrorist have acted
outside their religion and abused it, they misrepresent
their religion in their claims and must not be confused.
Although warfare and violence have been
circumstantially justified in many religions, none, with
the exception of a doomsday cult such as Aum
Shinrikyo, would apply this as indiscriminate targeting
of security forces or civilians outside the legal borders
of warfare. The Groups who evolve there motivation
or have heterogeneous aims can be hybrid terrorist
groups, as with any definition of labeling model. The
Provisional IRA are an example, they were a Nationalist
group as they wanted Northern Ireland to cede from
the United Kingdom to the Irish Republic but were
also an Ideological group as they wanted Ireland to
become a Socialist state. Considering the terrorist
themselves, consideration on their psychology is
important to get to the point where we can understand
how to defeat them. Terrorist don’t have a clear profile,
they come from all aspects of life and have varying
motivation, educational, employment and wealth.
That all not being mentally unstable is the only
common factor among them all as, terrorist
organizations want the ability to think and reliability
to exist among all of its activists. The role of the terrorist
be decided on their intelligence level and also by any
specialist skills such as chemistry or IT. And there must
be a requirement for college level members as well they
have more basic standard of education. It must be
accepted that most of these terrorist groups are
comprised of skilled and exceptionally-intelligent
people who are acting out of genuine belief (selfformed, independent) and not a group of clueless
idiots. Cyber defense plan against terrorism must
consider this; they will study, take time, make plans
and hire experts of the highest caliber to achieve their
aim.
Hacking Techniques – Types of Attacks
According to Galley’s discussions from 1996 there are
three types of attacks against computer systems:
l
l
l
Physical
Syntactic
Semantic.
Conventional weapons are used in a physical attack,
such as bombs or fire. Where as to disrupt or damage
a computer system or network a syntactic attack uses
virus-type software a semantic attack can be taken as a
more subtle approach. It attacks users’ confidence
which is done by causing a computer system to produce
errors and results which are unpredictable. Syntactic
attacks are categorized under the term “malicious
software” or “malware”. The use of viruses, worms,
Figure 1: Growth In DDoS Attacks From 2002 Till 2010.
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
165
IITM Journal of Management and IT
and Trojan horses is done in these types of attacks.
Email is one of the most common vehicles of delivery
for such malware. Denial of service (DOS) and
distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks are also
included in Syntactic attacks. In recent years attacks
such as these have become more widespread. Ping
saturation is one of the most common technique forms
of DOS and DDOS (Vatis, 2001). Ping is an Internet
utility used commonly to verify that a device is
available at a given Internet address. Ping saturation
occurs when ping is used in an attack to overwhelm a
system. The intent in these types of attacks is to disrupt
services on a network or system by flooding it with
requests. Modification of information or dissemination
of incorrect information is involved in Semantic attacks
(Schneider, 2000). Even without the aid of computers,
Modification of information has been perpetrated, but
new opportunities to achieve this have been provided
by computers and networks. Also, mechanisms such
as email, message boards, and websites help in
dissemination of incorrect information to large
numbers of people.
Pure Cyber-Terrorism
Pure terrorism is a category that consists of all those
terrorism activities are carried out totally (entirely/
primarily) in the virtual world and have a drastic
aftereffect. There are some many ways over the internet
where one can meet like-minded individuals in a
(comparatively) safely and share information and on
a secure line which are used by these terrorist
organizations to maintain a contact. No further
prerequisite rather than knowledge is required for a
successful cyber terrorism event. Knowledge is
something that is essentially free to the owner once
acquired, and an asset that can be used over and over
again. Further, such environment could be facilitating
the creation of an entirely new terrorism group. There
won’t be requirement of any head or chief and the
member could organize themselves quickly and easily
through cyber-space that could be a threat to the global
security and the counter terrorism department itself.
This is very different from some examples given above,
where the cyber space could aid the activities terrorists,
but the real resources are still required for execution
of the real plan. The Danger possessed by the cyber
terrorists and the significant barrier of our ability to
protect ourselves is what writer’s means when they toss
around pure cyber-terrorism. There is always one
question that has never been appropriately addressed
in the literature is that what this terrorism might look
like. There is a large amount of confusion at this time
because of the lack of agreement in an international
and intellectual definition for the above question.
Figure 2: The encounter of Cyber-Terrorist activities in U.S.A and china Cyber-Space
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IITM Journal of Management and IT
Increase in Cyber-Terrorist Activities
Figure 2 shows that how the cyber terrorism has
been increasing its activities and has made the world
feel its presence in last 7 years. Till 2007 these activities
had seen an increase of 32% and shows that in
future it can be an international phenomena and
affect every corporate and government of this
world.
Computer Weapon of Cyber Terrorism
Following on from the foundation above, the most
obvious and curtail weapon of this eminent threat of
global cyber terrorism is the ‘computer’. So, the
question arises that are we purposing that we should
restrict the use of a computer on all bases, just as the
access to explosives and radio-active stuff is restricted?
Not quite it, but close. We mean that the Heap of
connected computers needs to be protected. May laws
define how one should protect and ensure the security
of firearms from illegal/Dangerous use like the gun
can fall in wrong hands and can pose danger which is
secured by the mandatory use of trigger lock and the
RDX explosive material is not sold over the shop at
the corner of the street? Computer is certainly not
entirely equivalent to explosives or a gun. Thus, a wide
number of laws are already present in current system
of judiciary that discusses damage done to/by the third
party by the intentional/unintentional misuse of
corporate/personal piece of information/property/data.
The definition of ‘misuse’ in these laws and there
application is unclear till date. However, these laws
and standards need to be more clear which will require
the operators of large network of interconnected
computers take forward appropriate steps to keep these
systems safe.
Conclusion
The Development if the internet was done primarily
as an open architecture which was unregulated. We
are not only witnessing the backlash to the
‘corporatization’ of the network, Where the Equipment
for drastic destruction can be easily be placed in the
hands of backward and mindless people, We must also
deal with the fact that this infrastructure was/is ideally
suited for criminal activities on a wider base. Some of
Volume 6, Issue 1
• January-June, 2015
these activities are being promoted as cyber-terrorism.
The government and the corporate organizations
security is at the risk who are not capable of defending
themselves from this eminent threat. Events can are to
analyzed in terms of their critical factors that may exist
can legitimately be called terrorism. However, if all
these factors don’t exist then it doesn’t means that the
corporations are safe. Unfortunately, the structure of
corporation are built around the premises that people
will do right thing. But as we have seen this is not
necessarily the case. We do not use the term ‘chemical
terrorism’ to define bombing of chemical factories, nor
will we use it to define terrorism carried out with
chemical. Thus, the question arises why the term
cyber-terrorism is used to describe any sort of threat
or criminal activity carried out with or against
computer in general. At the same time, there are some
who insist on treating “Pure Cyber-terrorism” as Cyber
terrorism who are completely missing the true threat
that the addition of acts in the virtual world to the
terrorist playbook possess. Finally, the cyber-terrorism
has to be given attention separately and cannot be
mugged with common terrorism. This artificial
fragmentation of our defense System is an advantage
for the enemy and is to be avoided at all cost. This
brings us to the final Point of this ongoing study:
turning the tables on terrorism. As we have seen,
computer can play an enormous role in terrorism. But
they are also our biggest defense against terrorism its
self if used to our advantage, this begins when we reexamine basic beliefs about cyber-terrorism which
must take place in industries, academia, government
and defense sectors. Analysis of the information must
be shared at each level, collated and redistributed across
the states, local government boundaries, industries,
academia, and in some cases to the citizens as well.
The lack of consideration of cyber-terrorism and the
overall insecurity of the networks of the World Have
allowed a situation to develop which is not best for
the country or the computer user. The computing
resources are to be protected, and the job of these
terrorists is to be made difficult which can be
accomplished by only re-examining the commonly
held believes about the very nature of the computer
system and its counterpart cyber-terrorism.
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References
1. Record, Jeffery: Bounding the Global War on Terrorism, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College,
Leavenworth, 2003.
2. Schmid, Alex and Jongmans, Albert et al: Political Terrorism: A new guide to Action, Authors, Concepts,
Data Bases, Theories and Literature, Transaction Books, New Brunswick, 1988.
3. CSTPV St Andrew’s University Certificate in Terrorism Studies.
4. COE DAT Information Collation Managemant Cell database.
5. Weimann, Gabriel: Terror on the Internet, USIP, Washington DC, 2006.
6. Weimann, Gabriel: WWW.AL-QAEDA: The reliance of Al-Qaeda on the Internet7.
7. COE DAT Cyber Terrorism Couse IV Mar 09.
8. COE DAT Strategic Communications Workshop May 09.
9. Huizing, Harry: Cyber Terrorism Briefing Note, COE DAT, Ankara, 2008.
10. Krone, Troy: Gaps in cyberspace can leave us vulnerable, Platypus Magazine (edition 90, Mar 2006).
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12. Bunker, Robert J: Networks, Terrorism and Global Insurgency, Routledge, Abingdon, 2005.
13. Hennessy, Joh L and others: Information Technology for Counterterrorism, National Academies Press,
Washington DC, 2003.
14. Hoffman, Bruce: Inside Terrorism, Columbia University Press, New York, 2006.
15. Huntington, Samuel: The Clash of Civilizations, Free Press, London, 2002.
16. Laqueur, Walter: The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction, Oxford University
Press, New York, 1999.
17. Sageman, Marc: Understanding Terror Networks, Penn, Philadelphia, 2004.
18. Stern, Jessica: The Ultimate Terrorist, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 1999.
19. Tuman, Joseph S: Communicating Terror, Sage, Thousand Oaks, 2003.
20. Whittaker, David (ed): The Terrorism Reader 3rd Ed, Routledge, London, 2007.
21. Wilkinson, Paul: Terrorism versus Democracy, Routledge, London, 2006.
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