R&S® ZVA
Vector Network Analyzers
Quick Start Guide
(;]:èÌ)
Quick Start Guide
Test & Measurement
1145.1090.62 ─ 10
This quick start guide describes the following vector network analyzer types:
●
R&S® ZVA8, order no. 1145.1110.08/10 (2 or 4 test ports)
●
R&S® ZVA24, order no. 1145.1110.24/26 (2 or 4 test ports)
●
R&S® ZVA40, order no. 1145.1110.40/42/43/45 (2.92 mm, 2 or 4 test ports and 2.4 mm, 2 or 4 test ports)
●
R&S® ZVA50, order no. 1145.1110.50/52 (2 or 4 test ports)
●
R&S® ZVA67, order no. 1305.7002.02/04 (2 or 4 test ports)
●
R&S® ZVA80, order no. 1312.6750.02/03/04. An additional quick start guide 1312.6808.62 is available
for these instruments.
●
R&S® ZVA110, order no. 1312.7004.03/04. An additional quick start guide 1314.4502.62 is available for
these instruments.
© 2010 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Muehldorfstr. 15, 81671 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: info@rohde-schwarz.com
Internet: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com
Printed in Germany – Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this guide: R&S® ZVAxx is abbreviated as R&S ZVAxx, R&S® ZVA-xxx as R&S ZVAxxx
R&S® ZVA
Contents
Contents
1 Preparing the Analyzer for Use.............................................................7
1.1
Front Panel Tour...........................................................................................................7
1.1.1
Display............................................................................................................................8
1.1.2
Setup Keys......................................................................................................................9
1.1.3
Navigation Keys............................................................................................................10
1.1.4
Data Entry Keys............................................................................................................11
1.1.5
Rotary Knob..................................................................................................................12
1.1.6
Standby Key..................................................................................................................12
1.1.7
Front Panel Connectors................................................................................................12
1.1.8
Additional Hardware Options........................................................................................14
1.2
Rear Panel Tour...........................................................................................................15
1.3
Putting the Analyzer into Operation..........................................................................16
1.3.1
Unpacking and Checking the Analyzer.........................................................................17
1.3.2
Setting up the Analyzer.................................................................................................18
1.3.3
Bench Top Operation....................................................................................................18
1.3.4
Operation in a 19" Rack................................................................................................19
1.3.5
EMI Suppression...........................................................................................................19
1.3.6
Connecting the Analyzer to the AC Supply...................................................................20
1.3.7
Power on and off...........................................................................................................20
1.3.8
Standby and Ready State.............................................................................................21
1.3.9
Replacing Fuses...........................................................................................................21
1.4
Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down.................................................................21
1.5
Connecting External Accessories.............................................................................22
1.5.1
Connecting a Mouse.....................................................................................................23
1.5.2
Connecting a Keyboard.................................................................................................23
1.5.3
Connecting a Printer.....................................................................................................23
1.5.4
Connecting a Monitor....................................................................................................24
1.5.5
Connecting a LAN Cable...............................................................................................24
1.5.6
Test Setups with two LAN Connections........................................................................25
1.6
Remote Operation in a LAN.......................................................................................26
1.6.1
Assigning an IP Address...............................................................................................26
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
3
R&S® ZVA
Contents
1.6.2
Remote Desktop Connection........................................................................................28
1.7
Windows XP.................................................................................................................28
1.8
Firmware Update.........................................................................................................29
2 Getting Started.....................................................................................30
2.1
Performing a Reflection Measurement.....................................................................30
2.1.1
Instrument Setup for Reflection Measurements............................................................31
2.1.2
Parameter and Sweep Range Selection.......................................................................32
2.1.3
Instrument Calibration ..................................................................................................33
2.1.4
Evaluation of Data ........................................................................................................35
2.1.5
Saving and Printing Data .............................................................................................36
2.2
Performing a Transmission Measurement...............................................................37
2.3
Basic Tasks.................................................................................................................37
2.3.1
Control via Front Panel Keys........................................................................................37
2.3.2
Data Entry.....................................................................................................................39
2.3.3
Scaling Diagrams..........................................................................................................41
3 System Overview.................................................................................45
3.1
Basic Concepts...........................................................................................................45
3.1.1
Global Resources..........................................................................................................45
3.1.2
Setups...........................................................................................................................46
3.1.3
Traces, Channels and Diagram Areas..........................................................................46
3.1.4
Data Flow......................................................................................................................48
3.2
Screen Elements.........................................................................................................50
3.2.1
Navigation Tools of the Screen.....................................................................................50
3.2.2
Display Elements in the Diagram Area.........................................................................54
3.2.3
Dialogs..........................................................................................................................62
3.2.4
Display Formats and Diagram Types............................................................................65
3.3
Measured Quantities...................................................................................................74
3.3.1
S-Parameters................................................................................................................74
3.3.2
Impedance Parameters.................................................................................................76
3.4
Calibration...................................................................................................................85
3.4.1
Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits...................................................................86
3.4.2
Calibration Types..........................................................................................................87
3.4.3
Automatic Calibration....................................................................................................88
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
4
R&S® ZVA
Contents
3.4.4
Power Calibration..........................................................................................................90
3.4.5
Offset Parameters.........................................................................................................90
3.5
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions...................................................................................90
3.5.1
Time Domain (R&S ZVAB-K2)......................................................................................91
3.5.2
Arbitrary Generator and Receiver Frequencies (R&S ZVA-K4)....................................92
3.5.3
Scalar Mixer and Harmonics (R&S ZVA-K4).................................................................92
3.5.4
Mixer Phase Measurement (R&S ZVA-K5)...................................................................92
3.5.5
True Differential Mode (R&S ZVA-K6)..........................................................................93
3.5.6
Measurements on Pulsed Signals (R&S ZVA-K7)........................................................93
3.5.7
Converter Control (R&S ZVA-K8).................................................................................93
3.5.8
Mixer Delay w/o LO Access (R&S ZVA-K9)..................................................................94
3.5.9
Long Distance Mixer Delay (R&S ZVA-K10).................................................................94
3.5.10
Internal Pulse Generators (R&S ZVA-K27)...................................................................94
3.5.11
Noise Figure Measurement (R&S ZVAB-K30)..............................................................94
Glossary................................................................................................96
Index....................................................................................................102
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
5
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
1 Preparing the Analyzer for Use
This chapter gives an overview of the front panel controls and connectors of the network
analyzer and gives all information that is necessary to put the instrument into operation
and connect external devices. Notes on reinstallation of the analyzer software appear at
the end of the chapter.
Safety considerations
Please make sure to observe the instructions of the following sections so that you cannot
endanger people or cause damage to the instrument. This is of particular importance
when you use the instrument for the first time. Also observe the general safety instructions
at the beginning of this manual.
Chapter 2 of this manual provides an introduction to the operation of the analyzer by
means of typical configuration and measurement examples; for a description of the operating concept and an overview of the instrument’s capabilities refer to chapter 3, "System
Overview", on page 45. For all reference information concerning manual and remote
control of the instrument refer to your analyzer's help system or its printed/printable version. A more detailed description of the hardware connectors and interfaces is also part
of the help system.
1.1 Front Panel Tour
The front panel of the network analyzer consists of the VGA display with the softkey area
(left side), the hardkey area (right side) and the test port area below. Brief explanations
on the controls and connectors, the hardkey area and the rear panel can be found on the
next pages.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
7
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
Fig. 1-1: R&S ZVA front view
1.1.1 Display
The analyzer is equipped with a color display providing all control elements for the measurements and the diagram areas for the results.
●
Refer to chapter 3.2.1, "Navigation Tools of the Screen", on page 50 to learn how
to use menus, keys and softkeys.
●
Refer to chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the Diagram Area", on page 54 to
obtain information about the results in the diagram area.
●
Refer to section "Display Menu" in the help system and learn how to customize the
screen.
●
Refer to the data sheet for the technical specifications of the display.
Screen saver
The screen saver function of the operating system switches off the display if the analyzer
receives no command for more than 8 minutes. It is switched on again if any front panel
key is pressed. To change the screen saver properties press the Windows key in the
SUPPORT keypad and click "Control Panel – Display – Screen Saver".
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
8
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
Short screen flicker
On instruments equipped with an FMR7 front module controller, you may observe a short
screen flicker when accessing the Windows desktop. The flicker does not occur while the
network analyzer is running; it does not impair the functionality of the instrument.
1.1.2 Setup Keys
The keys in the TRACE, CHANNEL, DISPLAY, SYSTEM and SUPPORT keypads call
up groups of related measurement settings. Each key corresponds to a drop-down menu
or menu command of the graphical user interface.
The TRACE keys give access to all trace settings and the functions to select, modify and
store different traces. In addition the menu provides the marker, search and limit check
functions.
●
MEAS selects the quantity to be measured and displayed.
●
FORMAT defines how the measured data is presented in the graphical display.
●
SCALE defines how the current trace is presented in the diagram selected in the
Format submenu.
●
TRACE SELECT provides functions to handle traces and diagram areas, and assign
traces to channels.
●
LINES defines limits for measured values and activates the limit check.
●
TRACE FUNCT(ions) store traces to the memory and perform mathematical operations on traces.
●
MARKER positions markers on a trace, configures their properties and selects the
format of the numerical readout.
●
SEARCH uses markers to locate specific points on the trace.
●
MARKER FUNCT(ions) define the sweep range, scale the diagram and introduce an
electrical length offset using the active marker.
The CHANNEL keys give access to all channel settings and the functions to activate,
modify and store different channels.
●
START CENTER or STOP SPAN define the sweep range, depending on the sweep
type.
●
POWER BW AVG defines the power of the internal signal source, sets the step
attenuators and the IF bandwidths, and configures the sweep average.
●
SWEEP defines the scope of measurement, including the sweep type, the trigger
conditions and the periodicity of the measurement.
●
MODE opens the Port Configuration dialog to define the properties of the physical
and logical (balanced) test ports.
●
CHAN SELECT provides functions to handle and activate channels.
●
CAL provides all functions that are necessary to perform a system error correction
(calibration).
●
OFFSET provides a selection of length offset parameters to shift the measurement
plane.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
9
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
The DISPLAY keys give access to all display settings and to the functions to activate,
modify and arrange different diagram areas.
●
AREA SELECT provides functions to create and delete diagram areas and select an
area as the active area.
●
DISPLAY CONFIG provides functions to arrange traces to diagram areas, arrange
the diagram areas in the active window and configure the screen and the diagram
areas.
The SYSTEM keys give access to the functions to return to a defined instrument state
and select general system settings.
●
PRESET performs a general factory preset or user preset.
●
SYSTEM CONFIG selects general system settings which do not only apply to a particular setup.
A second group of keys (uncolored) provides standard Windows™ functions to save,
recall or print setups and call up the measurement wizard.
●
SAVE saves an opened setup to a specific file.
●
RECALL recalls an existing setup from a file.
●
PRINT prints a setup.
The SUPPORT keys give access to the functions to reverse operations, retrieve information on the instrument and obtain assistance.
●
UNDO reverses the previous operation.
●
INFO calls up a table providing information about the current setup.
●
HELP calls up the on-line help system.
A second group of keys (uncolored) is used to navigate within the graphical user interface:
●
MENU sets the cursor to the first item (File) in the menu bar of the active application
(network analyzer or help system) if no dialog is open. In the network analyzer (NWA)
application, menus are equivalent to softkeys and provide fast access to all instrument functions. The menus in the help system are required for accessing all help
functions by means of the front panel keys. In NWA dialogs, the MENU key opens
the control menu to move or close the dialog.
●
The Windows key opens the startup menu of Windows XP Embedded from where it
is possible to perform system configurations and call up additional software utilities.
1.1.3 Navigation Keys
The keys in the NAVIGATION keypad are used to navigate within the NWA screen and
the help system, to access and control active elements.
The "Left Field" (= Tab) or "Right Field" (= Shift Tab) keys switch between several active
elements in dialogs and panes, e.g. in order to access:
●
All control elements (e.g. buttons, numerical or text input fields, radio buttons, checkmarks, combo boxes etc.) in a dialog
●
All links in a Help topic
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
10
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
The "Cursor Up" and "Cursor Down" keys are used to:
●
Scroll up and down in lists, e.g. among menu items, in a list of keywords, in the Help
table of contents, or in the Help topic text
●
Increase and decrease numeric input values
"Cursor Up" (Down) become inactive as soon as the beginning of the list is reached.
"Cursor Up" (Down) is equivalent to a rotation of the rotary knob to the right (left).
The "Cursor Left" and "Cursor Right" keys are used to:
●
Move the cursor to the left or right within input fields
●
Compress or expand menus or the Help table of contents
●
Move the highlighted item in the menu bar of the active application
OK ENTER is used to:
●
Activate the selected active control element, e.g. a button in a dialog or a link in the
Help
●
Confirm selections and entries made and close dialogs
OK ENTER is equivalent to pressing the rotary knob or the OK ENTER key in the DATA
ENTRY keypad.
The "Checkmark" (= Space) key switches a checkmark control in a dialog on or off.
The CANCEL ESC key is used to:
●
Close dialogs without activating the entries made (equivalent to the "Close" button)
●
Close the Help
CANCEL ESC is equivalent to the CANCEL ESC key in the DATA ENTRY keypad.
1.1.4 Data Entry Keys
The keys in the DATA ENTRY keypad are used to enter numbers, units, and characters.
The data entry keys are only enabled while the cursor is placed on a data input field in a
dialog or in the Help navigation pane.
The keys 0 to 9 enter the corresponding numbers.
The function of the "." and "–" keys depends on the data type of the active input field:
●
In numeric input fields, the keys enter the decimal point and change the sign of the
entered numeric value. Multiple decimal points are not allowed; pressing "–" for a
second time cancels the effect of the first entry.
●
In character input fields, the keys enter a dot and a hyphen, respectively. Both entries
can be repeated as often as desired.
The function of the four unit keys depends on the data type of the active input field; see
chapter 2.3.2, "Data Entry", on page 39.
●
In numeric input fields (e.g. in the numeric entry bar), the G/n, M/μ, k/m or x1 keys
multiply the entered value with factors of 10(-)9, 10(-)6, 10(-)3 or 1 and add the appropriate physical unit. x1 is equivalent to OK ENTER. It confirms the previous entry and
deactivates the input field (closes the numeric entry bar).
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
11
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
●
In character input fields, the G/n, M/μ, k/m keys enter the letters G, M, K, respectively.
x1 is equivalent to OK ENTER. It confirms the previous entry and deactivates the
input field (closes the numeric entry bar).
The ESC CANCEL and OK ENTER keys are equivalent to the corresponding keys in the
NAVIGATION keypad.
BACK deletes the last character before the cursor position or the selected character
sequence. If an entire numeric value is selected, BACK moves the cursor in front of the
first digit.
1.1.5 Rotary Knob
The rotary knob increases and decreases numerical values, scrolls within lists, activates
controls and confirms entries. Turning or pressing the rotary knob is equivalent to the
action of the "Cursor Up" and "Cursor Down" keys or the ENTER key in the NAVIGATION
keypad.
STEP SIZE opens an input box to select the steps (in units of the current physical parameter) between two consecutive values if the rotary knob is turned to increase or decrease
numeric values. See chapter 3.2.3.3, "Step Size", on page 64.
1.1.6 Standby Key
The standby toggle switch is located in the bottom left corner of the front panel.
The key serves two main purposes:
●
Toggle between standby and ready state.
●
Shut down the instrument.
1.1.7 Front Panel Connectors
The test ports and various additional connectors are located on the front panel of the
analyzer.
1.1.7.1
Test Ports
N-connectors (or smaller ruggedized connectors for microwave analyzer types), numbered 1, 2 ... The test ports serve as outputs for the RF stimulus signal and as inputs for
the measured RF signals from the DUT (response signals).
●
With a single test port, it is possible to generate a stimulus signal and measure the
response signal in reflection.
●
With 2, 3 or 4 test ports, it is possible to perform full two-port, 3-port or 4-port measurements; see chapter 3.3.1, "S-Parameters", on page 74. Note that pairs of test
ports (1and 2, 3 and 4) are supplied by a common generator (exception: R&S ZVA67).
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
12
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
●
Each test port may be complemented by three pairs of additional connectors used to
test high power devices and extend the dynamic range, see chapter 1.1.7.4, "Direct
Generator and Receiver Access", on page 14.
Maximum input levels
The maximum input levels at all test ports according to the front panel labeling or the data
sheet must not be exceeded.
In addition, the maximum input voltages of the other input connectors at the front and
rear panel must not be exceeded.
The three LEDs above each test port indicate the connector state:
●
The amber LED is on while the connector is used as a source port.
●
The green LED is on while the connector is used as a bidirectional (source and
receive) port.
●
The blue LED is on while the connector is used as a receive port.
It is recommended to use a torque wrench when screwing RF cables on the test port
connectors. Standard IEEE 287 specifies a torque of (1.5 ± 0.2) Nm for N connectors,
(0.9 ± 0.1) Nm for the microwave connector types.
1.1.7.2
USB Connector
Double Universal Serial Bus connector of type A (master USB), used to connect e.g a
keyboard, mouse or other pointing devices, the Calibration Unit (accessory R&S ZV-Z5x),
a printer or an external storage device (USB stick, CD-ROM drive etc.).
To control external devices (e.g. power meters, generators) via USB connector, a VISA
installation on the network analyzer is required. Use the USB-to-IEC/IEEE Adapter
(option R&S ZVAB-B44) to control devices equipped with a GPIB interface.
The length of passive connecting USB cables should not exceed 1 m. The maximum
current per USB port is 500 mA. See also chapter 1.3.5, "EMI Suppression",
on page 19.
1.1.7.3
Ground Connector
Connector providing the ground of the analyzer's supply voltage.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
13
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Front Panel Tour
Electrostatic discharge
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) may cause damage to the electronic components of the
DUT and the analyzer. Use the wrist strap and cord supplied with the instrument to connect yourself to the GND connector.
1.1.7.4
Direct Generator and Receiver Access
Option R&S ZVA<n>-B16, Direct Generator/Receiver Access, provides 3 pairs of SMA
connectors (or smaller connectors, for microwave analyzers) for each test port. <n> corresponds to the network analyzer type. For detailed ordering information refer to the
product brochure. See also section "Converter Control" in the help system of your network
analyzer.
The connectors give direct access to various RF input and output signals. They can be
used to insert external components (e.g. external signal separating devices, power amplifiers, a ZVAX extension unit etc.) into the signal path in order to develop custom measurements, e.g. to test high power devices and extend the dynamic range. If no external
components are connected, each OUT/IN loop should be closed using a jumper.
●
The SOURCE OUT signal comes from the internal RF signal source. The SOURCE
IN signal goes to the test port. A power amplifier can be inserted between SOURCE
OUT and SOURCE IN in order to boost the test port power.
●
The REF OUT signal comes from the coupler and provides the reference signal. The
REF IN signal goes to the receiver input for the reference signal.
●
The MEAS OUT signal comes from the coupler and provides the received (measured)
signal. The MEAS IN signal goes to the receiver input for the measured signal.
Input signals
The maximum RF input levels at all SMA inputs according to the front panel labeling or
the data sheet must not be exceeded.
In addition, it is important that the signal fed in at the SMA inputs contains no DC offset,
as this may impair the measurements and even cause damage to the instrument.
1.1.8 Additional Hardware Options
The following hardware options can be mounted on the right of the NAVIGATION and
SUPPORT keypads:
●
Option R&S ZVA-B18, Removable Hard Disk, replaces the internal hard disk by a
removable compact flash card. The compact flash card can be inserted at the front
panel of the instrument. To ensure failure-free operation, avoid placing external
cables close to the compact flash card.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
14
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Rear Panel Tour
●
Option R&S ZVA-B8, Converter Control, provides output connectors to control the
output power of a frequency converter with external attenuators, R&S ZVA-ZxxxE.
This option is available for R&S ZVA network analyzers with an upper frequency limit
of 20 GHz or higher (R&S ZVA 24, R&S ZVA40 ...). For information on measurements
with external attenuators, refer to the network analyzer's help system and to the Quick
Start Guide R&S ZVA-ZxxxE, stock no. 1307.7197.62.
Contact your R&S service representative, if you wish to obtain and install one of the
additional hardware options.
1.2 Rear Panel Tour
This section gives an overview of the rear panel controls and connectors of the network
analyzer.
Fig. 1-2: R&S ZVA rear view
The rear connectors are described in detail in the annex "Hardware Interfaces" in the help
system.
●
The PORT BIAS panel contains inputs for an external DC voltage (bias) to be applied
to the test ports. A separate input is provided for each test port. Each PORT BIAS
input is protected by an exchangeable fuse.
●
IEC Bus is the GPIB bus connector (according to standard IEEE 488 / IEC 625).
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
15
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Putting the Analyzer into Operation
●
AUX is an auxiliary connector, to be wired as needed. AUX is not fitted on standard
instruments.
●
LAN 1 and LAN 2 are two equivalent connectors to connect the analyzer to a Local
Area Network.
●
USB is a double Universal Serial Bus connector of type A (master USB), used to
connect a keyboard, mouse or other pointing device.
●
DC MEAS comprises two inputs for DC measurements, specified for different voltage
ranges.
●
10 MHz REF serves as an input or output for the 10 MHz reference clock signal.
●
MONITOR is a sub-Min-D connector used to connect an external VGA monitor.
●
CASCADE is a 8-pin RJ-45 connector used as output and input connectors for pulse
generator signals. The CASCADE connector is located between the MONITOR and
the USER CONTROL connectors.
●
USER CONTROL is a D-sub connector used as an input and output for low-voltage
(3.3 V) TTL control signals.
●
EXT. TRIGGER is an input for a low-voltage (3.3 V) TTL external trigger signal.
Input levels, EMC
The maximum input levels and voltages of the input connectors at the front and rear panel
must not be exceeded.
The EXT TRIGGER input connector and pin 2 of the USER CONTROL connector must
never be used simultaneously as inputs for external trigger signals.
Use double shielded cables at the BNC rear panel connectors (10 MHz REF, PORT BIAS,
EXT. TRIGGER) and match signals with 50 Ω in order to comply with EMC directives!
1.3 Putting the Analyzer into Operation
This section describes the basic steps to be taken when setting up the analyzer for the
first time.
Shock hazard
Do not open the instrument casing. As a rule, normal operation of the instrument does
not require opening the casing. Observe the general safety instructions and regulations
at the beginning of the manual.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
16
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Putting the Analyzer into Operation
Risk of instrument damage
Before switching on the instrument, make sure that the following conditions are met:
●
Instrument casing is closed and all fasteners are tightened.
●
All fan openings are unobstructed and the airflow perforations are unimpeded. The
minimum distance from the wall is 10 cm.
●
The instrument is dry and shows no sign of condensation.
●
The instrument is operated in the horizontal position on an even surface.
●
The ambient temperature does not exceed the range specified in the data sheet.
●
Signal levels at the input connectors are all within the specified ranges.
●
Signal outputs are correctly connected and are not overloaded.
Failure to meet these conditions may cause damage to the instrument or other devices
in the test setup.
1.3.1 Unpacking and Checking the Analyzer
To remove the instrument from its packaging and check the equipment for completeness
proceed as follows:
1. Pull off the polyethylene protection pads from the instrument's rear feet and then
carefully remove the pads from the instrument handles at the front.
2. Pull off the corrugated cardboard cover that protects the rear of the instrument.
3. Carefully unthread the corrugated cardboard cover at the front that protects the
instrument handles and remove it.
4. Check the equipment for completeness using the delivery note and the accessory
lists for the various items.
5. Check the instrument for any damage. If there is damage, immediately contact the
carrier who delivered the instrument.
Retain the original packing material. If the instrument needs to be transported or shipped
at a later date, you can use the material to prevent control elements and connectors from
being damaged.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
17
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Putting the Analyzer into Operation
1.3.2 Setting up the Analyzer
The network analyzer is designed for use under laboratory conditions, either on a bench
top or in a rack. The general ambient conditions required at the operating site are as
follows:
●
The ambient temperature must be in the ranges specified for operation and for compliance with specifications (see data sheet).
●
All fan openings including the rear panel perforations must be unobstructed. The
distance to the wall should be at least 10 cm.
Electrostatic discharge
To avoid damage of electronic components of the DUT and the analyzer, the operating
site must be protected against electrostatic discharge (ESD). ESD is most likely to occur
when you connect or disconnect a DUT or test fixture to the analyzer's test ports.
To prevent ESD damage use the wrist strap and grounding cord supplied with the instrument and connect yourself to the GND connector at the front panel.
1.3.3 Bench Top Operation
If the analyzer is operated on a bench top, the surface should be flat. The instrument can
be used in horizontal position, standing on its feet, or with the support feet on the bottom
extended.
Danger of injury
The feet may fold in if they are not folded out completely or if the instrument is shifted.
The feet may break if they are overloaded. Fold the feet completely in or completely out
to ensure stability of the instrument and personal safety. To avoid injuries, never shift the
instrument when its feet are folded out.
The overall load (the instrument's own weight plus that of the instruments stacked on top
of it) on the folded-out feet must not exceed 500 N.
Place the instrument on a stable surface. Secure the instruments stacked on top of it
against slipping (e.g. by locking their feet on the top front frame). When the instrument is
standing on its folded-out feet, do not work under the instrument and do not put anything
under it, otherwise injuries or material damage could occur.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
18
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Putting the Analyzer into Operation
The instrument can be used in each of the positions shown here.
1.3.4 Operation in a 19" Rack
Using the adapter R&S ZZA-611 (order number 1096.3302.00) the instrument can be
mounted in 19" racks according to the mounting instructions supplied with the rack
adapter.
Avoid overheating
●
Allow for sufficient air supply in the rack.
●
Make sure that there is sufficient space between the ventilation holes and the rack
casing.
1.3.5 EMI Suppression
To suppress generated Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), operate the instrument only
while it is closed, with all shielding covers fitted. Note the EMC classification in the data
sheet.
Use appropriate shielded cables to ensure successful control of electromagnetic radiation
during operation, especially for the following connector types:
●
BNC rear panel connectors (10 MHz REF, EXT. TRIGGER): Use double shielded
cables and terminate open cable ends with 50 Ω.
●
USER CONTROL: Use only well shielded cables or disconnect the input pins of the
USER CONTROL connector in order to avoid spurious input signals which may cause
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
19
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Putting the Analyzer into Operation
undesirable events. This is of particular importance for the external trigger input (pin
no. 2) if the EXT TRIGGER input is used.
●
USB: Use double-shielded USB cables and ensure that external USB devices comply
with EMC regulations.
●
GPIB (IEEE/IEC 625): Use a shielded GPIB cable.
●
LAN: Use CAT6 or CAT7 cables.
●
Test ports: For instruments with 3.5 mm and smaller connector types (2.92 mm, 2.4
mm ...), use double-shielded measurement cables.
The use of external accessories for the network analyzers may introduce additional connector, cable, and cable length requirements. Refer to the relevant documentation.
1.3.6 Connecting the Analyzer to the AC Supply
The network analyzer is automatically adapted to the AC supply voltage supplied. The
supply voltage must be in the range 100 V to 240 V; 50 Hz to 60 Hz. The mains connector
is located at the bottom left corner of the rear panel.
► Connect the network analyzer to the AC power source using the AC power cable
delivered with the instrument.
The maximum power consumption of the analyzer is 450 W. The typical power consumption is listed in the "Specifications".
The network analyzer is protected by two fuses as specified on the label on the power
supply. The fuses are located on an AC Fuse Board (order no. 1145.3906.02) which must
be replaced to change the fuses. Replacing the AC Fuse Board requires opening the
instrument and is described in the service manual.
1.3.7 Power on and off
The mains connector is located at the bottom left corner of the rear panel.
► To turn the power on or off, press the AC power switch to position I (On) or 0 (Off).
After power-on, the analyzer is in standby or ready state, (see chapter 1.3.8, "Standby
and Ready State", on page 21) depending on the state of the STANDBY toggle switch
at the front panel when the instrument was switched off for the last time.
The AC power switch can be permanently on. Switching off is required only if the instrument must be completely removed from the AC power supply.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
20
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down
1.3.8 Standby and Ready State
The STANDBY toggle switch is located in the bottom left corner of the front panel.
► After switching on the AC power (see chapter 1.3.7, "Power on and off",
on page 20) press the STANDBY key briefly to switch the analyzer from the standby
to ready state or vice versa.
●
In standby state, the right, amber LED is on. The standby power only supplies the
power switch circuits and the optional oven quartz (OCXO, 10 MHz reference oscillator, option R&S ZVAB-B4, order no. 1164.1757.02). In this state it is safe to switch
off the AC power and disconnect the instrument from the power supply.
●
In ready state, the left, green LED is on. The analyzer is ready for operation. All
modules are power-supplied and the analyzer initiates its startup procedure.
Shock hazard
The instrument is still power-supplied while it is in standby mode.
1.3.9 Replacing Fuses
The DC inputs PORT BIAS at the rear panel are each protected by a fuse IEC 127 - F
250 L (250 mA quick acting).
► To replace the fuses open the fuse holder by slightly turning the lid counterclockwise.
Replacement fuses are provided with the instrument.
1.4 Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down
To start the analyzer, proceed as follows:
1. Make sure that the instrument is connected to the AC power supply and the power
switch on the rear panel is in position I (On).
2. If necessary, press the STANDBY toggle switch on the front panel to switch the
instrument to ready state (the green LED is on).
In ready state, the analyzer automatically performs a system check, boots the Windows® XP operating system and then starts the network analyzer (NWA) application. If
the last analyzer session was terminated regularly, the NWA application uses the last
setup with all instrument settings.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
21
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Connecting External Accessories
To shut down the analyzer, proceed as follows:
1. Press the STANDBY key to save the current setup, close the NWA application, shut
down Windows® XP and set the instrument to standby state. Of course you can also
perform this procedure step by step like in any Windows session.
2. If desired, set the AC power switch to position 0 (Off).
Risk of data loss
It is strongly recommended to switch the analyzer to standby state before disconnecting
it from the AC supply. If you set the power switch to 0 while the NWA application is still
running, you will lose the current settings. Moreover, loss of program data can not be
excluded if the application is terminated improperly.
Minimizing the NWA application
With a minimized NWA application, you can access your analyzer's Windows® desktop
or run other applications. To start the NWA application with a minimized window on a
continuing basis, right-click the NWA shortcut icon on the desktop and open the "Properties" dialog. In the "Shortcut" tab, select "Run: Minimized".
After a software update the NWA application is started with a maximized window again.
Moreover, if a second NWA application is started after a first, minimized application, this
will cause the first application to come to the foreground.
1.5 Connecting External Accessories
The equivalent USB ports on the front and rear panel of the analyzer can be used to
connect a variety of accessories:
●
A mouse simplifies operation of the instrument using the controls and dialogs of the
Graphical User Interface (GUI).
●
A keyboard simplifies the entry of data.
●
A printer generates hard copies of the screen contents.
In addition the analyzer provides interfaces for monitor connection and network integration:
●
An external monitor shows the magnified Graphical User Interface (GUI) with all diagram areas and controls.
●
A LAN connection can be established in order to access the hard disk or control the
analyzer from an external PC.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
22
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Connecting External Accessories
1.5.1 Connecting a Mouse
A USB mouse can be connected to one of the Universal Serial Bus connectors on the
front panel or on the rear panel (double USB connectors). The mouse is detected automatically when it is connected. It is safe to connect or disconnect the mouse during the
measurement.
Mouse configuration
Use the "Start – Control Panel – Mouse" menu of Windows® XP to configure the mouse
properties. To access Windows® XP, press the Windows key on the external keyboard
or on the front panel.
Operating the analyzer does not require a mouse. You can access all essential functions
using the keys on the front panel.
1.5.2 Connecting a Keyboard
A keyboard can be connected to one of the Universal Serial Bus connectors on the front
panel or on the rear panel (double USB connectors). The keyboard is detected automatically when it is connected. The default input language is English – US. It is safe to connect
or disconnect the external keyboard during the measurement.
Keyboard configuration
Use the "Start – Control Panel – Keyboard" or "Regional and Language Options" dialog
of Windows® XP to configure the keyboard properties. To access Windows® XP, press
the Windows key on the external keyboard or on the front panel.
Operating the analyzer does not require a keyboard. You can access all essential functions using the keys on the front panel. In combination with a mouse, the front panel keys
provide access to all instrument functions.
1.5.3 Connecting a Printer
A printer can be connected to one of the Universal Serial Bus connectors on the front
panel or on the rear panel (double USB connectors).
It is safe to connect or disconnect the printer during the measurement. When printing a
copy ("File – Print"), the analyzer checks whether a printer is connected and turned on
and whether the appropriate printer driver is installed. If required, printer driver installation
is initiated using Windows® XP's "Add Printer Wizard". The wizard is self-explanatory. A
printer driver needs to be installed only once, even though the printer may be temporarily
removed from the analyzer.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
23
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Connecting External Accessories
Printer driver installation
A great variety of printer drivers is available on the analyzer. To obtain the complete list,
access Windows® XP (press the Windows key) and open the "Add Printer Wizard" in the
"Start – Control Panel – Printer and Faxes" menu.
You can load updated and improved driver versions or new drivers from an installation
disk, USB memory stick or another external storage medium. Alternatively, if the analyzer
is integrated in a network, you can install driver data stored in a network directory. In
either case, use the "Add Printer Wizard" to complete the installation.
Printer configuration
Use the "Page Setup" dialog or the "Start – Control Panel – Printers and Faxes" menu
of Windows® XP to configure the printer properties. To access Windows® XP, press the
Windows key on the external keyboard or on the front panel.
1.5.4 Connecting a Monitor
A standard VGA monitor or LCD display can be connected to the 15-pole Sub-Min-D
MONITOR connector on the rear panel of the analyzer.
Safety aspects
The monitor must be connected while the instrument is switched off (or in standby mode).
Otherwise correct operation can not be guaranteed.
The monitor displays the magnified analyzer screen with all diagram areas, measurement
results and control elements. No extra configuration is required. With an additional mouse
or keyboard connected to the analyzer, you can control the measurement from the external monitor. If desired, click "Display – Config/View – Hardkey Bar" to add the "Hardkey
Bar" (front panel key bar) to the analyzer screen.
It is possible to increase the resolution of the external VGA monitor; see section "Increasing the Monitor Resolution" in the "Annexes" of your analyzer's help system.
1.5.5 Connecting a LAN Cable
A LAN cable can be connected to one of the LAN connectors on the rear panel of the
analyzer. To establish a LAN connection proceed as follows:
1. Refer to section Assigning an IP Address and learn how to avoid connection errors.
2. Connect a CAT6 or CAT7 RJ-45 (LAN, Ethernet) cable to one of the LAN ports.
The LAN ports of the analyzer are auto-crossover Ethernet ports. You can connect them
to a network that is equipped with Ethernet hardware (hub, switch, router), but you can
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
24
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Connecting External Accessories
also set up a direct connection to a computer or another test instrument. For both connection types, you can use either crossover or standard straight-through Ethernet cables.
The IP address information is displayed in the "Info – Setup Info" dialog.
1.5.6 Test Setups with two LAN Connections
The two LAN connectors on the rear panel of the analyzer are equivalent. With one LAN
connector used to establish a connection to a home/company network, the other one can
be used to connect an additional instrument, e.g. an additional analyzer or signal generator.
Defining the network topology: Router vs. network client
With two LAN connections, it is possible to use the analyzer in two alternative ways:
●
As a client participating in two independent networks, one comprising the home network including the analyzer, the second consisting of the additional test instrument
plus the analyzer.
●
As a data router between the additional test instrument and the home network. This
configuration means that the analyzer and the additional test instrument are integrated into a single network.
The network topology is defined in Windows XP's "Control Panel – Network Connections
– Local Area Connection Status – Local Area Connection Properties – Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) Properties – Advanced TCP/IP Settings" dialog. Both instruments must have
independent IP addresses; see chapter 1.6.1, "Assigning an IP Address", on page 26.
Contact your LAN administrator for details.
Avoid parallel connections
Never use both LAN connectors to connect the analyzer in parallel to the same network
as this will result in connection errors.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
25
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Remote Operation in a LAN
1.6 Remote Operation in a LAN
A LAN connection is used to integrate the analyzer into a home/company network. This
offers several applications, e.g.:
●
Transfer data between a controller and the analyzer, e.g. in order run a remote control
program.
●
Control the measurement from a remote computer using the Remote Desktop application.
●
Use external network devices (e.g. printers).
Virus protection
An efficient virus protection is a prerequisite for secure operation in the network. Never
connect your analyzer to an unprotected network because this may cause damage to the
instrument software.
To establish the connection proceed as follows:
1. Press the Windows button and open Windows XP's control panel.
2. Select System and open the Remote tab in the System Properties dialog. Enable
Allow users to connect remotely to this computer.
3. Assign an IP address to the analyzer following the directions below and connect the
analyzer to the network as described in Connecting a LAN Cable.
4. Create a Remote Desktop Connection using the analyzer's IP address.
Password protection
The analyzer uses a user name and password as credentials for remote access. In the
factory configuration, "instrument" is preset for both the user name and the password. To
protect the analyzer from unauthorized access, it is recommended to change the factory
setting.
LXI compliance
The analyzer complies with LXI class C. LXI gives you direct access to the LAN settings
described in the following sections; see "LXI Configuration" in your analyzer's help system.
1.6.1 Assigning an IP Address
Depending on the network capacities, the TCP/IP address information for the analyzer
can be obtained in different ways.
●
If the network supports dynamic TCP/IP configuration using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), all address information can be assigned automatically.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
26
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Remote Operation in a LAN
●
If the network does not support DHCP, or if the analyzer is set to use alternate TCP/
IP configuration, the addresses must be set manually.
By default, the analyzer is configured to use dynamic TCP/IP configuration and obtain all
address information automatically. This means that it is safe to establish a physical connection to the LAN without any previous analyzer configuration.
Manual TCP/IP configuration
If your network does not support DHCP, or if you choose to disable dynamic TCP/IP
configuration, you must assign valid address information before connecting the analyzer
to the LAN. Contact your network administrator to obtain a valid IP address, because
connection errors can affect the entire network.
To disable dynamic TCP/IP configuration and enter the TCP/IP address information
manually proceed as follows:
●
Obtain the IP address and subnet mask for the analyzer and the IP address for the
local default gateway from your network administrator. If needed, also obtain the
name of your DNS domain and the IP addresses of the DNS and WINS servers on
your network. If you use both LAN connectors, you need two different sets of address
information.
●
Press the Windows key to access Windows® XP.
●
Open the "Control Panel – Network Connections – Local Area Connection Status –
Local Area Connection Properties – Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties" dialog and
enter the address information, e.g.:
For more information refer to the Windows® XP Help.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
27
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Windows XP
1.6.2 Remote Desktop Connection
Remote Desktop is a Windows® application which can be used to access and control the
analyzer from a remote computer through a LAN connection. While the measurement is
running, the analyzer screen contents are displayed on the remote computer, and
Remote Desktop provides access to all of the applications, files, and network resources
of the analyzer.
To set up a Remote Desktop connection,
1. Connect the analyzer to a LAN and determine its IP address; see chapter 1.6,
"Remote Operation in a LAN", on page 26.
2. Set up your remote computer (integrated in the LAN) to use Remote Desktop and
create the Remote Desktop connection to the analyzer.
For detailed information about Remote Desktop and the connection refer to the Windows® XP Help.
1.7 Windows XP
The analyzer is equipped with a Windows® XP operating system which has been configured according to the instrument's features and needs. Changes in the system configuration can be necessary in order to:
●
Establish a LAN connection
●
Customize the properties of the external accessories connected to the analyzer
●
Call up additional software tools
Modifications of the operating system
The operating system is adapted to the network analyzer. To avoid impairment of instrument functions, only change the settings described in this manual. Existing software must
be modified only with update software released by Rohde & Schwarz. Likewise, only
programs authorized by Rohde & Schwarz for use on the instrument must be executed.
The "Start" menu of the operating system is accessed by pressing the Windows key in
the SUPPORT keypad. All necessary settings can be accessed from the "Start" menu,
in particular from the Control Panel.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
28
R&S® ZVA
Preparing the Analyzer for Use
Firmware Update
1.8 Firmware Update
Upgrade versions of the analyzer firmware are supplied as single setup files *.msi. To
perform a firmware update,
1. Copy the setup file to any storage medium accessible from the analyzer. This may
be the internal hard disk, an external storage medium (USB memory stick, CD-ROM
with external drive) or a network connection (LAN, GPIB bus).
2. Double-click the setup file (or use the front panel keys to select and start the setup
file; see chapter 2.3.2.1, "Using Front Panel Keys", on page 39) and follow the
instructions of the setup wizard.
Setup files can be stored and installed again. The default drive name of the internal hard
disk is C:. External storage devices are automatically mapped to the next free drive, i.e.
D:, E: etc.
Factory calibration
A firmware update does not affect the factory calibration.
External accessories
The Calibration Unit (accessory R&S ZV-Z5x) and the Extension Unit (accessory R&S
ZVAXxx) must be disconnected during a firmware update.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
29
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Performing a Reflection Measurement
2 Getting Started
The following chapter presents a sample session with a R&S ZVA network analyzer using
an external monitor and the Graphical User Interface and explains how to solve basic
tasks that you will frequently encounter when working with the instrument.
Safety considerations
Before starting any measurement on your network analyzer, please note the instructions
given in Preparing the Analyzer for Use.
In the System Overview chapter below you will find detailed information on customizing
the instrument and the display according to your personal preferences. For a systematic
explanation of all menus, functions and parameters and background information refer to
the "GUI Reference" chapter in the help system.
Use the "S-Parameter Wizard" in the "System" menu to perform a standard S-parameter
measurement in a straightforward way. The wizard provides a series of dialogs where
you can select the test setup, screen configuration and measurement parameters, configure the essential channel settings and perform a guided calibration.
Measurement stages in the wizard
The different dialogs of the S-parameter wizard correspond to the typical stages of any
measurement:
1. Select the test setup
2. Select the measurement parameters and the diagram areas
3. Define the sweep range
4. Adjust the receiver and source settings (measurement bandwidth, source power)
5. Perform a calibration
In the following we assume that you are familiar with standard Windows dialogs and
mouse operation. Refer to chapter 2.3.1, "Control via Front Panel Keys", on page 37
and chapter 2.3.2, "Data Entry", on page 39 to learn how to access instrument functions
and control dialogs without a mouse and keyboard.
2.1 Performing a Reflection Measurement
In a reflection measurement, the analyzer transmits a stimulus signal to the input port of
the device under test (DUT) and measures the reflected wave. A number of trace formats
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
30
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Performing a Reflection Measurement
allow you to express and display the results. depending on what you want to learn from
the data. Only one analyzer test port is required for reflection measurements.
In the following example, the analyzer is set up for a reflection measurement, a frequency
sweep range and measurement parameter is selected, the instrument is calibrated and
the result is evaluated using various formats.
2.1.1 Instrument Setup for Reflection Measurements
In order to prepare a reflection measurement, you have to connect your DUT (which for
simplicity we assume to have an appropriate connector, e.g. a male N 50 Ω connector)
to one of the (equivalent) analyzer test ports. Besides, it is recommended to preset the
instrument in order to set it to a definite, known state.
1. Proceed as described in chapter 1.4, "Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down",
on page 21 to switch on the instrument and start the NWA application.
2. Connect the input port of your DUT to test port 1 of the network analyzer.
3. Press the PRESET key in the SYSTEM keypad to perform a factory preset of the
analyzer.
The analyzer is now set to its default state. The default measured quantity is the transmission S-parameter S21. This quantity is zero in the current test setup, so the trace
shows the noise level.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
31
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Performing a Reflection Measurement
Press the TRACE SELECT key in the TRACE keypad and use the softkeys in the "Trace
Select" menu if you wish to create a new trace or a new diagram area.
2.1.2 Parameter and Sweep Range Selection
After preset the display shows a diagram with a dB Mag scale. The sweep range (scale
of the horizontal axis) is equal to the maximum frequency range of the analyzer, and the
S-parameter S12 is selected as a measurement parameter.
To obtain information about the reflection characteristics of your DUT you have to select
an appropriate measurement parameter and specify the sweep range.
1. In the CHANNEL keypad, press START CENTER and enter the lowest frequency
you want to measure in the "Start Frequency" numeric entry bar (e.g. 5 GHz).
Note: If you use the DATA ENTRY keys at the front panel for data entry, simply type
5 and terminate the entry with the G/n key. Refer to section "Data Entry" to learn more
about entering numeric values and characters.
2. Press STOP SPAN and enter the highest frequency you want to measure in the "Stop
Frequency" numeric entry bar (e.g. 5.5 GHz).
3. In the TRACE keypad, press MEAS and select the forward reflection coefficient S11
as a measurement parameter.
4. n the TRACE keypad, press SCALE and activate the "Autoscale" function. The analyzer adjusts the scale of the diagram to fit in the entire S11 trace, leaving an appropriate display margin.
Tip: Refer to chapter 2.3.3, "Scaling Diagrams", on page 41 to learn more about
the different methods and tools for diagram scaling.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
32
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Performing a Reflection Measurement
2.1.3 Instrument Calibration
The analyzer provides a wide range of sophisticated calibration methods for all types of
measurements. Which calibration method is selected depends on the expected system
errors, the accuracy requirements of the measurement, on the test setup and on the types
of calibration standards available.
n the following we assume that the calibration kit R&S ZV-Z21 contains an appropriate
male short standard with known physical properties. With a single short standard, it is
possible to perform a normalization, compensating for a frequency-dependent attenuation and phase shift in the signal path.
Due to the analyzer's calibration wizard, calibration is a straightforward, menu-guided
process.
1. Unscrew the DUT and connect the male short standard from calibration kit R&S ZVZ21.
2. In the CHANNEL keypad, press CAL to open the calibration menu.
3. Activate "Start Cal – One Port P1 – Normalization (Short)" to open the calibration
wizard for the selected calibration type.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
33
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Performing a Reflection Measurement
4. In the first dialog of the wizard, select the calibration kit (here: "ZV-Z21") and the test
port connector (here: N 50 Ω (f), corresponding to a male calibration standard), and
click "Next".
The next dialog of the calibration wizard shows that only a single calibration standard
needs to be measured.
5. Click the box "Short (m)..." to initiate the measurement of the connected short standard.
The analyzer performs a calibration sweep and displays a message box with a progress bar. After completing the sweep the analyzer generates a short sound and a
green checkmark appears in the checkbox.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
34
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Performing a Reflection Measurement
6. Click "Apply" to close the wizard, calculate and store the system error correction data
and apply them to the current measurement.
7. Remove the short standard and connect the DUT again.
2.1.4 Evaluation of Data
The analyzer provides various tools to optimize the display and analyze the measurement
data. For instance, you can use markers determine the maximum of the reflection coefficient, and change the display format to obtain information about the phase shift of the
reflected wave and the impedance of your DUT.
1. In the TRACE keypad, press MARKER. This places "Marker 1" to its default position
(center of the sweep range).
A marker symbol (triangle) appears on the trace. The stimulus value (frequency) and
response value (magnitude of the reflection coefficient converted to a dB value) at
the marker position is displayed in the marker info field in the upper right corner of
the diagram.
2. Press MARKER FUNCT and activate "Min Search".
The marker jumps to the absolute minimum of the curve in the entire sweep range.
The marker info field shows the coordinates of the new marker position.
3. In the TRACE keypad, press FORMAT and select the "Phase" of the reflection coefficient to be displayed.
The phase is shown in a Cartesian diagram with a default vertical scale of 225 deg
to +225 deg. The marker info field shows the frequency and phase at the marker
position.
4. Still in the FORMAT menu, select "Smith".
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
35
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Performing a Reflection Measurement
The Smith chart shows lines of constant real and imaginary part of the impedance in
the reflection coefficient plane.
Tip: Refer to section chapter 3.2.4, "Display Formats and Diagram Types",
on page 65 to learn more about the diagram properties.
2.1.5 Saving and Printing Data
The analyzer provides standard functions for saving measurement settings and for printing the results. You can use these functions as if you were working on a standard PC.
Moreover you can export your trace data to an ASCII file and reuse it in a later session
or in an external application.
Data transfer is made easier if external accessories are connected to the analyzer or if
the instrument is integrated into a LAN. Refer to Connecting External Accessories and
chapter 1.6, "Remote Operation in a LAN", on page 26 to obtain information about the
necessary steps.
1. Press TRACE FUNCT and activate "Import/Export – Data Export".
2. In the "Export Data" dialog opened, select a file location, format and name and activate "Save".
The active trace data is written to an ASCII file.
3. Press PRINT in the SYSTEM keypad and select "Print Now" to create a hardcopy of
your diagram.
4. Select "Print to File..." or "Print to Clipboard" to copy the diagram to a file or an external
application.
5. Press SAVE in the SYSTEM keypad.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
36
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Performing a Transmission Measurement
6. In the "Save As" dialog opened, select a file location, format and name and activate
"Save".
The active setup is stored to a file and can be reused in a later session.
Proceed as described in chapter 1.4, "Starting the Analyzer and Shutting Down",
on page 21 to shut down your analyzer.
2.2 Performing a Transmission Measurement
A transmission measurement involves the same steps as a reflection measurement. Note
the following differences:
●
The test setup for transmission measurements involves two or more DUT and analyzer ports. For a two-port transmission measurement, you can connect the input of
your DUT to port 1 of the analyzer, the output to port 2. After a preset, the analyzer
will measure the forward transmission S-parameter S21.
●
The analyzer provides special calibration types for transmission measurements. Use
the calibration wizard and select an appropriate type. A TOSM calibration will correct
the system errors for all transmission and reflection S-parameters.
●
The S-parameter wizard ("System – Measurement Wizard – S-parameter" wizard)
will guide you through the essential steps of a standard transmission measurement.
2.3 Basic Tasks
The following sections describe how to solve basic tasks that you will frequently encounter when working with the instrument. In particular you can learn how to access instrument
functions and control dialogs without a mouse and keyboard.
2.3.1 Control via Front Panel Keys
Although a mouse and external keyboard simplify the operation of the instrument, you
can access all essential functions using the keys on the front panel. The following examples are intended to make you familiar with front panel key operation.
To access a particular menu command ...
1. Press the MENU key in the SUPPORT keypad to access the menu bar and open the
"File" menu.
2. Use the keys in the NAVIGATION keypad or the rotary knob to navigate between and
within the menus.
●
Use the "Cursor Left" and "Cursor Right" keys to change between the different
menus in the menu bar. When the first option in a pull-down menu is a submenu,
the submenu will be opened first before proceeding to the next option in the menu
bar.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
37
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Basic Tasks
●
Use the "Cursor Up" and "Cursor Down" keys and the rotary knob (if rotated) to
scroll up and down in a menu.
●
OK ENTER and the rotary knob (if pressed) expand a submenu, open a dialog,
or initiate an action, depending on the selected command type.
CANCEL ESC compresses the current submenu and moves the cursor one menu
level up or closes the active dialog, depending on the selected softkey type.
●
3. As soon as you reach the desired menu command (which must not be one opening
a submenu) press OK ENTER or press the rotary knob to initiate an action or open
a dialog.
After command execution or after closing the dialog, the menu bar is deactivated and
the cursor returns to the diagram/softkey area.
To make a selection in a dialog...
1. Press a softkey with three dots to open a dialog.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
38
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Basic Tasks
2. Use the keys in the NAVIGATION keypad and the rotary knob to access the controls
in the dialog.
●
3. ●
Press "Left Field" or "Right Field" to switch between the control elements in a
dialog.
Press the cursor keys or turn the rotary knob to switch between several entries
in a list of alternative or independent settings.
4. Use the DATA ENTRY keys or the rotary knob to enter characters and numbers. For
more details refer to section "Data Entry" below.
5. Press OK ENTER, CANCEL ESC or press the rotary knob to close the active dialog.
2.3.2 Data Entry
The analyzer provides dialogs with various types of input fields where you can enter
numeric values and character data. Data entry with a mouse and an external keyboard
is a standard procedure known from other Windows applications. However, there are
various alternative ways to enter data.
2.3.2.1
Using Front Panel Keys
If no mouse and no external keyboard is connected to the analyzer, you can use the keys
in the DATA ENTRY keypad to enter numbers, units, and characters.
To enter a numeric value
1. Place the cursor into a numeric data input field in a dialog or in the numeric entry bar.
2. Press the DATA ENTRY keys.
●
●
●
Use 0 to 9 to enter the corresponding numbers.
Use . and - to enter a decimal point or change the sign of the value.
Use . G/n, M/μ, k/m, or x1 to multiply the entered value with factors of 10(-)9,
10(-)6, 10(-)3 or 1 and add the appropriate physical unit.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
39
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Basic Tasks
To enter a character string
1. Place the cursor into a character data input field in a dialog.
2. Press the DATA ENTRY keys as if you were writing a short message on your mobile
phone.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Press 0 to 9 once to enter the corresponding numbers.
Press the keys repeatedly to select one of the other characters assigned to the
key.
Wait 2 seconds to confirm an entry.
Use . or to enter a dot or a hyphen.
Use the sign key to change from upper case to lower case and vice versa.
Use G/n, M/μ, or k/m to enter the letters G, M or K (case-insensitive).
Use the BACK key to correct wrong entries, deleting the character to the left of
the current cursor position.
Press OK ENTER to complete an entry.
Press ESC CANCEL to close the popup dialog, discarding the entries made.
3. To enter letters other than G, M or K, you can also use one of the following methods:
●
●
●
2.3.2.2
Turn the rotary knob until the desired letter appears in the character input field.
If the active input field has a symbol, then use the analyzer's on-screen keyboard.
Otherwise, use a mouse and Windows XP's on-screen keyboard.
Using the Analyzer's On-Screen Keyboard
The on-screen keyboard allows you to enter characters, in particular letters, without an
external keyboard. It is available for all character input fields which have a symbol.
Operation with front panel keys
1. Place the cursor into a character data input field in a dialog or in the numeric entry
bar.
2. Press OK or the
key in the NAVIGATION keypad to open the on-screen keyboard.
3. Use the cursor keys in the NAVIGATION keypad or turn the rotary knob to move the
cursor to a character.
4. Press OK ENTER or the rotary knob to select the character for the input string.
5. After completing the input string use the
key to move to the OK button.
6. Press OK ENTER or the rotary knob to apply your selection and close the keyboard.
Operation with a mouse
1. Click the
symbol to open the on-screen keyboard.
2. Click a sequence of characters and OK to apply your selection and close the keyboard.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
40
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Basic Tasks
2.3.2.3
Using Windows® XP's On-Screen Keyboard
Windows® XP's on-screen keyboard allows you to enter characters, in particular letters,
even if an input field cannot call up the analyzer's own on-screen keyboard. Examples of
such fields are the input fields in the "Index" and "Search" tabs of the Help system. A
mouse is required for using Windows® XP's on-screen keyboard.
To call up the on-screen keyboard,
1. Press the Windows key in the SUPPORT keypad to access Windows® XP and open
the start menu.
2. Select the "On-Screen Keyboard" from the start menu or double click the
"OSK.exe" icon on the desktop.
The "System – External Tools" submenu contains a shortcut to Windows® XP's on-screen
keyboard. Simply click "Mouse Keyboard.lnk" to open the keyboard.
2.3.3 Scaling Diagrams
The analyzer provides several alternative tools for setting the sweep range and customizing the diagrams. Pick the method that is most convenient for you.
2.3.3.1
Setting the Sweep Range
The sweep range for all channels is displayed in the channel list across the bottom of the
diagram area:
To change the sweep range, use one of the following methods:
●
Press the START CENTER or STOP SPAN keys in the CHANNEL keypad.
●
Right-click the start or stop value in the channel list and select "Start", "Stop", "Center", "Span" from the context menu.
●
Select "Start", "Stop", "Center", "Span" from the "Channel Stimulus" menu.
●
Use the marker functions (MARKER FUNCT key).
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
41
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Basic Tasks
2.3.3.2
Reference Value and Position
The analyzer provides three parameters for changing the scale of the vertical (response)
axis:
●
Changing the "Reference Value" or "Reference Position" shifts the trace in vertical
direction and adjusts the labels of the vertical axis. "Reference Value" also works for
radial diagrams.
●
Changing the "Scale/Div." modifies the value of the vertical or radial diagram divisions
and thus the entire range of response values displayed.
The "Scale/Div." and the "Reference Value" is indicated in the scale section of the trace
list.
To change one of the parameters use one of the following methods:
2.3.3.3
●
Press the SCALE key in the TRACE keypad.
●
Right-click the scale section in the trace list and select the parameters from the context menu.
●
Select the parameters from the "Trace Scale" menu.
●
Use the marker functions (MARKER FUNCT key).
Autoscale
The "Autoscale" function adjusts the scale divisions and the reference value so that the
entire trace fits into the diagram area. To access "Autoscale", use one of the following
methods:
2.3.3.4
●
Press the SCALE key in the TRACE keypad.
●
Right-click the scale section in the trace list and select "Autoscale" from the context
menu.
●
Select "Autoscale" from the "Trace – Scale" menu.
Circular Diagrams
The radial scale of a circular ("Polar", "Smith" or "Inverted Smith") diagram can be
changed with a single linear parameter, the "Reference Value". The reference value
defines the radius of the outer circumference.
●
Increasing the "Reference Value" scales down the polar diagram.
●
Decreasing the "Reference Value" magnifies the polar diagram.
The "Reference Value" is indicated in the scale section of the trace list.
To change the "Reference Value" use one of the following methods:
●
Press the SCALE key in the TRACE keypad
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
42
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Basic Tasks
●
Right-click the scale section in the trace list and select the parameter from the context
menu.
●
Select the parameter from the "Trace – Scale" menu.
●
Use the marker functions.
The "Autoscale" function also works for polar diagrams.
2.3.3.5
Using Marker Functions
Marker functions are a convenient tool for scaling (in particular: magnifying) diagrams
without entering explicit numeric values. You simply place a marker to a trace point and
use the marker values to change the sweep range or move the trace relative to the vertical
axis. A mouse makes it easier to activate (click) or move (drag and drop) markers.
To set the sweep range use one of the following methods:
Define "Start" and "Stop" values
1. Create two normal markers, e.g. the markers Mkr 1 and Mkr 2, and place them to the
desired start and stop values of the sweep range.
2. Activate "M 1" and click "Trace – Marker Funct. – Start = Marker".
3. Activate "M 2" and click "Trace – Marker Funct. – Stop = Marker".
Use a definite "Span"
1. Create a marker and set it to delta mode.
The analyzer automatically creates a reference marker in addition to the delta marker.
2. Place the reference marker to the desired start value of the sweep range.
3. Set the value of the delta marker equal to the desired (positive or negative) span.
4. Activate the delta marker and click "Trace – Marker Funct. – Span = Marker".
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
43
R&S® ZVA
Getting Started
Basic Tasks
To move the trace relative to the vertical axis proceed as follows:
1. Create a normal marker, e.g. the marker "M 1", and place it to a particular trace point.
E.g. you can use the marker "Search" functions to locate a maximum or minimum on
the trace.
2. Click "Trace – Marker Funct. – Max = Marker" to move the trace towards the upper
diagram edge, leaving the values of the vertical divisions ("Scale Div.") and the overall
vertical scale unchanged. Analogously, click "Min = Marker" to move the trace
towards the lower diagram edge, or click "Ref Value = Marker" to move the trace
towards the "Reference Value".
2.3.3.6
Enlarging the Diagram Area
The analyzer provides different tools for customizing the contents and size of the diagram
areas:
●
"Maximize" allows you to enlarge the active diagram area to occupy the whole window. A double-click on any point in the diagram area is equivalent to the "Maximize" function.
●
The "Title", the "Softkey Labels", the "Status Bar" and the "Hardkey Bar" are optional
display elements which you can hide in order to gain space for the diagram.
●
Use the context menu of the diagram area, the keys in the DISPLAY keypad bar or
the "Display" menu to access the scaling functions above.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
44
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Basic Concepts
3 System Overview
The following chapter provides an overview of the analyzer's capabilities and their use.
This includes a description of the basic concepts that the analyzer uses to organize,
process and display measurement data, of the screen contents, possible measured
quantities, calibration methods and typical test setups.
For a systematic explanation of all menus, functions and parameters and background
information refer to the reference description on the graphical user interface (GUI Reference) in your analyzer's help system.
3.1 Basic Concepts
The analyzer provides a variety of functions to perform a particular measurement and to
customize and optimize the evaluation of results. To ensure that the instrument resources
are easily accessible and that user-defined configurations can be conveniently implemented, stored and reused the instrument uses a hierarchy of structures:
●
Global resources can be used for all measurements, irrespective of the current measurement session or setup.
●
A setup comprises a set of diagram areas with all displayed information that can be
stored to a setup file.
●
The diagram areas show traces which are assigned to channels. See chapter 3.1.3,
"Traces, Channels and Diagram Areas", on page 46.
3.1.1 Global Resources
The analyzer provides global settings that are mostly hardware-related and can be used
for all measurements, irrespective of the current measurement session or setup. The
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
45
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Basic Concepts
settings are stored in independent files and do not enter into any of the setup files. The
following settings correspond to global resources:
●
Calibration kits
●
Connector types
●
Cal pool data including system error correction and power correction data
●
Color schemes
The data related to global resources are not affected by a "Preset" of the analyzer. However, it is possible to delete or reset global resource data using the "Resets" tab in the
"System Config" dialog.
3.1.2 Setups
A setup comprises a set of diagram areas with all displayed information that can be stored
to a NWA setup file (*.zvx) and reused. Each setup is displayed in an independent window. The setup file contains the following information:
●
General settings related to the setup
●
The trace settings for all traces in the diagram areas
●
The channel settings for all channels associated to the traces
●
The display settings for each diagram area
The "File" menu is used to organize setups.
In the "System – External Tools" submenu, you can find demo setups *.vbs for various
measurement scenarios. You can modify the demo setups and store them to a *.zvx
file for later use. Moreover the "S-Parameter Wizard" provides predefined, optimized
setup s for many measurements.
3.1.3 Traces, Channels and Diagram Areas
The analyzer arranges, displays or stores the measured data in traces which are
assigned to channels and displayed in diagram areas. To understand the menu structure
of the instrument and quickly find the appropriate settings, it is important to understand
the exact meaning of the three terms.
●
A trace is a set of data points that can be displayed together in a diagram area. The
trace settings specify the mathematical operations used in order to obtain traces from
the measured or stored data and to display them.
●
A channel contains hardware-related settings to specify how the network analyzer
collects data.
●
A diagram area is a rectangular portion of the screen used to display traces. Diagram
areas belonging to the same setup are arranged in a common window. The settings
for diagram areas are described in chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the Diagram
Area", on page 54.
A diagram area can contain a practically unlimited number of traces, assigned to different
channels. Diagram areas and channels are completely independent from each other.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
46
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Basic Concepts
3.1.3.1
Trace Settings
The trace settings specify the mathematical operations used in order to obtain traces from
the measured or stored data. They can be divided into several main groups:
●
Selection of the measured quantity (S-parameters, wave quantities, ratios, impedances,...)
●
Conversion into the appropriate display format and selection of the diagram type
●
Scaling of the diagram and selection of the traces associated to the same channel
●
Readout and search of particular values on the trace by means of markers
●
Limit check
The "Trace" menu provides all trace settings. They complement the definitions of the
"Channel" menu. Each trace is assigned to a channel. The channel settings apply to all
traces assigned to the channel.
If a trace is selected in order to apply the trace settings, it becomes the active trace. In
manual control there is always exactly one active trace, irrespective of the number of
channels and traces defined. The active channel contains the active trace. In remote
control, each channel contains an active trace; refer to the relevant sections in your analyzer's help system.
3.1.3.2
Channel Settings
A channel contains hardware-related settings to specify how the network analyzer collects data. The channel settings can be divided into three main groups:
●
Control of the measurement process ("Sweep", "Trigger", "Average")
●
Description of the test setup ("Power" of the internal source, IF filter "Bandwidth" and
"Step Attenuators", "Port Configuration")
●
Correction data ("Calibration", "Offset")
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
47
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Basic Concepts
The "Channel" menu provides all channel settings.
After changing the channel settings or selecting another measured quantity, the analyzer
needs some time to initialize the new sweep. This preparation period increases with the
number of points and the number of partial measurements involved. It is visualized by a
"Preparing Sweep" symbol in the status bar: All analyzer settings can still be changed
during sweep initialization. If necessary, the analyzer terminates the current initialization
and starts a new preparation period. During the first sweep after a change of the channel
settings, an additional red asterisk symbol appears in the status bar:
All analyzer settings can still be changed during sweep initialization. If necessary, the
analyzer terminates the current initialization and starts a new preparation period. During
the first sweep after a change of the channel settings, an additional red asterisk symbol
appears in the status bar:
3.1.4 Data Flow
The analyzer processes the raw measurement data in a sequence of stages in order to
obtain the displayed trace. The following diagram gives an overview.
The diagram consists of an upper and a lower part, corresponding to the data processing
stages for the entire channel and for the individual traces. All stages in the diagram are
configurable. Note that the channel data flow for S-parameters (and quantities derived
from S-parameters such as impedances, admittances, stability factors etc.) differs from
the channel data flow for wave quantities (and derived quantities such as ratios, PAE
etc.).
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
48
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Basic Concepts
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
49
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
3.2 Screen Elements
This section describes the operating concept of the network analyzer, including the alternative navigation tools for mouse and hardkey operation, the trace settings, markers and
diagram areas. For a description of the different quantities measured by the analyzer
refer to chapter 3.3, "Measured Quantities", on page 74.
3.2.1 Navigation Tools of the Screen
The main window of the analyzer provides all control elements for the measurements and
contains the diagram areas for the results. There are several alternative ways to access
an instrument function:
●
Using the menus and submenus of the menu bar (provides all settings)
●
Using the softkeys of the softkey bar (alternative to the previous method)
●
Using the hardkey bar (preselection of the most important menus)
For further reference:
●
Refer to chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the Diagram Area", on page 54 to
obtain information about the results in the diagram area.
●
Refer to section "Display Menu" in the reference chapter of your analyzer's Help system and learn how to customize the screen.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
50
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
3.2.1.1
Menu Bar
All analyzer functions are arranged in drop-down menus. The menu bar is located across
the top of the diagram area:
Menus can be controlled in different ways:
●
With a mouse, like the menus in any Windows application. A left mouse click expands
a menu or submenu. If a menu command has no submenu assigned, a left mouse
click opens a dialog or directly activates the menu command.
●
Using the front panel keys.
●
With a combination of the previous methods, using the hardkey bar (front panel key
bar, activated via Display – Config./View).
The active menu is the menu containing the last executed command. If the softkey bar
or hardkey bar is displayed ("Display – Config./View – Softkey Labels: On"), then the
active menu is indicated on top of the softkey/hardkey bar.
When you select a command in a new menu the softkey bar is updated to reflect the new
active menu with all commands. You can continue operation using the softkeys.
Overview of menu functions
3.2.1.2
●
The "Control"
●
The "File" menu provides standard Windows® functions to create, save, recall or print
setups, to copy the current screen and to shut down the application.
●
The "Trace" menu provides all trace settings and the functions to create, select,
modify and store different traces. In addition the menu provides the marker, search
and limit check functions.
●
The "Channel" menu provides all channel settings and the functions to create, select,
modify and store different channels.
●
The "Display" menu provides all display settings and the functions to create, select,
modify and arrange different diagram areas.
●
The "System" menu provides functions to reverse operations, return to a defined
instrument state, retrieve information on the instrument and access service functions.
Besides, it configures the remote control operation, starts the "Measurement Wizard" and provides print options.
●
The "Window" menu provides standard Windows™ functions to arrange different
windows on the screen.
●
The "Info" menu provides information and selftest options for service purposes and
troubleshooting.
●
The "Help" menu provides assistance with the network analyzer and its operation.
menu provide standard Windows functions to control windows.
Menu Structure
All menus show an analogous structure.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
51
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
3.2.1.3
●
A menu command with a right arrow expands a submenu with further related settings.
Example: "Measure" expands a submenu to select the quantity to be measured and
displayed.
●
A menu command with three dots appended calls up a dialog providing several related settings.
Example: "More S-Parameters..." opens a dialog to select S-parameters for multiport
measurements or mixed mode S-parameters.
●
A menu command with no arrow or dots directly initiates an action.
Example: "S21" selects the forward transmission coefficient S21 as measured quantity.
●
A dot preceding the menu command indicates the current selection in a list of alternative settings.
Example: In the figure above, S21 is selected as measured quantity.
Softkey Bar
The softkey bar displays the commands of the active menu so that they can be activated
by hitting the associated keys on the front panel.
It consists of three elements:
●
Heading
The heading shows the two lowest level menu commands in the current branch of
the menu tree. The lowest-level command appears on a shaded background.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
52
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
●
Function softkeys
Up to 8 softkeys, each corresponding to a command of the active menu. The function
of the softkeys and their labels are strictly equivalent to the corresponding menu
commands.
– A large dot in the lower right corner indicates the current selection in a list of
alternative settings.
●
–
Three dots indicate that the softkey calls up a dialog providing several related
settings.
–
A right arrow indicates a submenu with further related settings.
–
A softkey with no arrow or dots directly initiates an action.
Navigation softkey (optional)
Softkey no. 8 or softkeys no. 7 and no. 8 are reserved for navigation:
– More ½ and More 2/2 toggle between two groups of softkeys which belong to the
same menu. The softkeys are provided whenever the active menu contains more
than 7 commands.
–
Menu Up activates the higher-level menu and is provided in all menus except the
top-level one listing the main menus in the menu bar.
The softkey bar is automatically updated when the active menu is changed.
You can hide the softkey bar and gain screen space for the diagram areas if you use a
mouse to control the analyzer (see "Display – Config./View"). All settings are accessible
from the menus listed in the menu bar across the top of the screen.
Moreover, you don't have to display the softkey bar permanently in order to make use of
its functionality. Hitting any of the keys associated to the softkey bar will make it visible
for a period of time sufficient to select the next instrument function.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
53
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
3.2.1.4
Hardkey Bar
The hardkey bar (front panel key bar, "Display – Config./View") represents the most
commonly used front panel keys of the analyzer. Clicking a key symbol executes the
action of the corresponding key.
The hardkey bar corresponds to the TRACE, CHANNEL, DISPLAY and SYSTEM keypads:
The hardkey bar provides access to the basic groups of settings with a single mouse
click. It is particularly useful if the analyzer is controlled from an external monitor or
Remote Desktop. Alternatively the settings are accessible from the menus of the menu
bar or from the softkey bar.
The hardkey bar is hidden by default to gain screen space for the diagram areas.
3.2.1.5
Status Bar
The status bar (Display – Config./View) shows the statistics for the sweep average (if
sweep average is on), the progress of the sweep, the LXI status, and the control mode
of the analyzer (LOCAL or REMOTE). A green LXI status symbol indicates that a LAN
connection has been established; a red symbol indicates that no LAN cable is connected.
During sweep initialization, the progress bar for the sweep is replaced by a
symbol. During the first sweep after a change of the channel settings, an additional red
asterisk symbol appears:
You can hide the status bar and gain screen space for the diagram areas.
3.2.2 Display Elements in the Diagram Area
The central part of the screen is occupied by one or several diagram areas.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
54
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
A "diagram area" is a rectangular portion of the screen used to display traces. Diagram
areas are arranged in windows; they are independent of trace and channel settings. A
diagram area can contain a practically unlimited number of traces, assigned to different
channels (overlay mode).
Diagram areas are controlled and configured by means of the functions in the "Display"
menu and the following additional settings:
●
The settings in the "Window" menu arrange several windows containing one or more
diagram areas within the entire screen. Each window corresponds to a setup. Only
one setup can be active at a time, and only the traces of the active setup are updated
by the current measurements.
●
Various settings to assign traces to diagram areas are provided in the "Trace –
Traces" submenu.
Diagram areas may contain:
●
Measurement results, in particular the traces and marker values
●
An indication of the basic channel and trace settings
●
Context menus providing settings related to the current screen
●
Error messages
The examples in this section have been taken from Cartesian diagrams. All other diagram
types provide the same display elements.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
55
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
3.2.2.1
Title
Across the top of the diagram area, an optional title describes the contents of the area.
Different areas within a setup are distinguished by area numbers in the upper right corner.
Use the context menu or the functions in the "Display" menu to display, hide or change
the title and to add and customize diagram areas.
3.2.2.2
Traces
A trace is a set of data points displayed together in the diagram area. The individual data
points are connected so that each trace forms a continuous line.
The trace can be complemented by the following display elements, plotted with the same
color:
●
Reference value (for all traces): The reference value is indicated with a triangle at the
right edge of the diagram and a dashed, horizontal line. The value and position of the
triangle can be changed in order to modify the diagram scale and shift the trace vertically.
●
Measured quantity (for the active trace): The measured quantity is indicated in the
left upper corner of the diagram.
A trace can be either a data trace, a memory trace, or a mathematical trace; see "Trace
Types", on page 57.
A right mouse click on any point of the diagram area (except the marker info field and the
measured quantity info) opens a context menu:
The settings correspond to the most common commands in the "Display – Area Select"
and "Display – Config View" menus.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
56
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
Trace Types
The analyzer uses traces to display the current measurement result in a diagram area
but is also capable of storing traces to the memory, recalling stored traces, and defining
mathematical relations between different traces. There are three basic trace types:
●
Data traces show the current measurement data and are continuously updated as
the measurement goes on. Data traces are dynamic traces.
●
Memory traces are generated by storing the data trace to the memory. They represent
the state of the data trace at the moment when it was stored. Memory traces are static
traces which can be stored to a file and recalled.
●
Mathematical traces are calculated according to a mathematical relation between
constants and the data or memory traces of the active setup. A mathematical trace
that is based on the active data trace is dynamic.
It is possible to generate an unlimited number of memory traces from a data trace and
display them together. Markers and marker functions are available for all trace types.
The trace type of each trace in a diagram area is indicated in the trace list. You can also
make each trace "Invisible" without deleting it.
Trace List and Trace Settings
The main properties of all traces assigned to the diagram area are displayed in the trace
list in the upper left corner.
Each line in the trace list describes a single trace. The active trace is highlighted. The
lines are divided into several sections with the following contents (from left to right):
●
The trace name appears in the first section. The default names for new traces are
Trc<n> where <n> is a current number. A "Mem..." preceding the trace name indicates a memory trace. Right-click the section and call the "Trace Manager" from the
context menu to change the trace name.
●
The measured quantity (e.g. an S-parameter or a ratio) appears on a colored background. The measured quantity of the active trace is also displayed in the diagram
area below the trace list.
●
The format section shows how the measured data is presented in the graphical display ("Trace – Format").
●
The next sections show the value of the vertical or radial diagram divisions ("Scale
Div.") and the reference value ("Ref").
●
The channel section shows the channel that each trace is assigned to. It is omitted
if the all traces in the diagram area are assigned to the same channel.
●
The type section indicates "Invisible" if a trace is hidden and "Math" if the trace is a
mathematical trace. "GAT" indicates that a time gate is active for the trace. Rightclick the trace name and click "Show Data" or "Show Mem" from the context menu
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
57
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
to display and hide data and memory traces. Use the "Trace Funct(ions)" to define
mathematical traces.
Right-click any of the sections in the trace list (except the type section) to open a context
menu and access the most common tasks related to the section.
A right mouse click on the trace name, the measured quantity, and the format and scale
section of the trace list opens the following context menus, respectively:
The settings correspond to the most common commands in the "Trace – Trace Select",
"Trace – Trace Funct", "Trace – Meas", "Trace – Format" and "Trace – Scale" menus.
A red label "Cal Off !" appears behind the trace list if the system error correction no longer
applies to one or more traces.
3.2.2.3
Markers
Markers are tools for selecting points on the trace and for numerical readout of measured
data. The analyzer provides three different basic marker types.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
58
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
●
A (normal) marker ("Mkr 1, Mkr 2, ...") determines the coordinates of a measurement
point on the trace. Up to 10 different normal markers can be assigned to a trace.
●
A reference marker ("Ref") defines the reference value for all delta markers.
●
A delta marker ("Δ") indicates the coordinates relative to the reference marker.
●
The stimulus value of a discrete marker always coincides with a sweep point so that
the marker does not show interpolated measurement values.
The markers 1 to 4 are also used for bandfilter search mode. The examples below show
a bandpass search and a bandstop search, respectively.
●
"Mkr 1" indicates the maximum (minimum) of the peak.
●
"Mkr 2" and "Mkr 3" indicate the lower and upper band edge where the trace value
has decreased (increased) by a definite "Level" value.
●
"Mkr 4" indicates the center of the peak, calculated as the arithmetic mean value of
the LBE and UBE positions.
Marker Info Field
The coordinates of all markers defined in a diagram area are displayed in the info field,
which by default is located in the upper right corner.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
59
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
The list contains the following information:
●
"Mkr 1, Mkr 2, ..." denote the marker numbers. Markers are displayed with the same
color as the associated trace.
●
The marker coordinates are expressed in one of the marker formats selected via
"Marker – Format". The formats of the markers assigned to a trace are independent
of each other and of the trace format settings.
●
The active marker has a dot placed in front of the marker line.
●
A "Δ" sign placed in front of the marker line indicates that the marker is in delta mode.
Customizing the marker info field
To change the position, appearance or contents of the marker info field use one of the
following methods:
●
Double-click the info field to open the "Mkr Properties" dialog with extended settings
for all markers of the active trace. Select the options in the "Show Info" panel to
customize the information in the info field ("Active Trace Only", "Stimulus Info Off").
●
Right-click the info field to open a context menu providing frequently used marker
settings.
●
To change the position of the marker info field, select "Movable Marker" Info from the
context menu. Drag-and-drop the info field to any position in the active diagram area.
●
To change the format of the active marker, select "Mkr Format".
●
To express the coordinates of the active marker relative to the reference marker,
activate the Delta Mode.
For more information: Show Info Table
In addition to the marker info field, the analyzer provides an info table with extended
marker information.
The table is hidden by default. To display the table double-click the marker info field to
open the "Marker Properties" dialog.
A right mouse click on the marker info field opens a context menu:
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
60
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
"Movable Marker Info" allows the marker info field to be placed to any position in the
diagram area. The remaining settings correspond to the most common commands in the
"Trace – Marker" and "Trace – Search" menus.
3.2.2.4
Channel Settings
The main properties of all channels assigned to the traces in the diagram area are displayed in the channel list below the diagram.
Each line in the channel list describes a single channel. The channel of the active trace
is highlighted. The lines are divided into several sections with the following contents (from
left to right):
Each line in the channel list describes a single channel. The channel of the active trace
is highlighted. The lines are divided into several sections with the following contents (from
left to right):
●
The "channel name" appears in the first section. The default names for new channels
are Ch<n> where <n> is a current number. Right-click the section and call the
"Channel Manager" from the context menu to change the channel name.
●
The measurement mode identifier section (optional) indicates a special test mode
of the channel, e.g. the measurement of a 2nd harmonic ("H2"), a 3rd harmonic
("H3"), or the mixer mode ("Mix").
●
Start indicates the lowest value of the sweep variable (e.g. the lowest frequency
measured), corresponding to the left edge of the Cartesian diagram.
●
The color legend shows the display color of all traces assigned to the channel. The
colors are different, so the number of colors is equal to the numbers of traces
assigned to the channel.
●
The value behind the color legend shows the constant stimulus value, which is
either the power of the internal signal source (for frequency sweeps and time sweeps)
or the CW frequency (for power sweeps).
●
Stop indicates the highest value of the sweep variable (e.g. the highest frequency
measured), corresponding to the right edge of the Cartesian diagram.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
61
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
Right-click any of the sections in the trace list (except the color legend) to open a context
menu and access the most common tasks related to the section.
A right mouse click on the channel name, the sweep range, and the additional parameter
section of the channel list opens the following context menus, respectively:
The settings correspond to the most common commands in the "Channel – Channel
Select", "Channel – Stimulus" and "Channel – Power Bandwidth Average" menus.
3.2.2.5
Context Menus
To provide access to the most common tasks and speed up the operation, the analyzer
offers context menus (right-click menus) for the following display elements:
●
Diagram area
●
Marker info field
●
Trace list (separate context menus for trace name section, measured quantity section, format section, scale section, and channel section)
●
Channel list (separate context menus for channel name section, sweep range section, additional parameter section)
Working with context menus requires a mouse. Click inside the display element that you
want to work with using the right mouse button.
Except from some particular screen configurations, anything you can do from a context
menu you can also do from the menu bar or using front panel keys and softkeys. Use
whatever method is most convenient for you.
3.2.3 Dialogs
Dialogs provide groups of related settings and allow to make selections and enter data
in an organized way. All softkeys with three dots behind their labeling (as in "Marker
Properties...") call up a dialog. The dialogs of the analyzer have an analogous structure
and a number of common control elements.
The "Dialog Transparency" function in the "System Config" menu varies the transparency
of all dialogs. With an appropriate setting, you can control the dialogs and at the same
time view the underlying traces and display elements.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
62
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
We assume that you are familiar with standard Windows dialogs and mouse operation.
Refer to chapter 2.3.1, "Control via Front Panel Keys", on page 37 to learn how to control
dialogs without a mouse and keyboard.
3.2.3.1
Immediate vs. Confirmed Settings
In some dialogs, the settings take effect immediately so that the effect on the measurement is observable while the dialog is still open. This is especially convenient when a
numeric value is incremented or decremented, e.g. via the rotary knob.
In most dialogs, however, it is possible to cancel an erroneous input before it takes effect.
The settings in such dialogs must be confirmed explicitly.
The two types of dialogs are easy to distinguish:
●
Dialogs with immediate settings provide a "Close" button but no "OK" button. Example: "Step Size" dialog.
●
Dialogs with confirmed settings provide both an "OK" button and a "Cancel" button.
Example: On-screen keyboard.
You can also cancel an immediate setting using "System – Undo"!.
3.2.3.2
On-Screen Keyboard
A keyboard
keyboard.
symbol next to a character input field opens the analyzer's on-screen
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
63
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
The on-screen keyboard contains two sets of characters plus the following additional
controls:
●
"Shift" changes between the two character sets containing lower case letters/numbers and upper case letters/special characters, respectively.
●
"<= BS" deletes the current string in the alphanumeric input field.
●
"OK" applies the current selection and closes the keyboard. The current string is
written into the input field of the calling dialog. See also chapter 3.2.3.1, "Immediate
vs. Confirmed Settings", on page 63.
●
"Cancel" discards the current selection and closes the keyboard. The input field of
the calling dialog is left unchanged.
The on-screen keyboard allows you to enter characters, in particular letters, without an
external keyboard. To enter numbers and units, you can also use the DATA ENTRY keys
on the front panel of the instrument.
3.2.3.3
Step Size
A step
symbol next to a numeric input field opens the "Step Size" dialog to define an
increment for data variation using the "Cursor Up/Down" buttons in the dialogs or the
rotary knob.
The input value for the step size takes effect immediately; see chapter 3.2.3.1, "Immediate vs. Confirmed Settings", on page 63. "Auto" activates the default step size for the
current input parameter.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
64
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
3.2.3.4
Paste Marker List
A pull-down list symbol next to a numeric input field opens a list of all current stimulus
and response marker values of the active trace. Any of the marker values can be selected
as a numeric entry. If the physical unit of the selected marker value is inconsistent (mismatch of stimulus and response values) then the numeric value is used without the unit.
The response values in the paste marker list are not updated as the analyzer continues
measuring, so they may differ from the values in the marker info field.
To open the paste marker list you can also click on the input field and use the space bar
of your keyboard or the checkmark key in the NAVIGATION keypad at the front panel of
the analyzer.
3.2.3.5
Numeric Entry Bar
Single numeric values can be entered using the input field of the numeric entry bar. The
numeric entry bar appears just below the menu bar as soon as a function implying a single
numeric entry is activated. In contrast to dialogs, it does not hide any of the display elements in the diagram area.
The numeric entry bar contains the name of the calling function, a numeric input field
including the "Cursor Up/Down" buttons for data variation and a step symbol , and a
"Close" button. Besides it is closed automatically as soon as an active display element
in the diagram area is clicked or a new menu command is activated.
3.2.4 Display Formats and Diagram Types
A display format defines how the set of (complex) measurement points is converted and
displayed in a diagram. The display formats in the "Trace – Format" menu use the following basic diagram types:
●
Cartesian (rectangular) diagrams are used for all display formats involving a conversion of the measurement data into a real (scalar) quantity, i.e. for "dB Mag",
"Phase", "Delay", "SWR", "Lin Mag", "Real", "Imag" and "Unwrapped Phase".
●
Polar diagrams are used for the display format "Polar" and show a complex quantity
as a vector in a single trace.
●
Smith charts are used for the display format "Smith". They show a complex quantity
like polar diagrams but with grid lines of constant real and imaginary part of the impedance.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
65
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
●
Inverted Smith charts are used for the display format "Inverted Smith". They show a
complex quantity like polar diagrams but with grid lines of constant real and imaginary
part of the admittance.
The analyzer allows arbitrary combinations of display formats and measured quantities
("Trace – Measure"). Nevertheless, in order to extract useful information from the data,
it is important to select a display format which is appropriate to the analysis of a particular
measured quantity; see chapter 3.2.4.6, "Measured Quantities and Display Formats",
on page 73.
3.2.4.1
Cartesian Diagrams
Cartesian diagrams are rectangular diagrams used to display a scalar quantity as a function of the stimulus variable (frequency / power / time).
●
The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis (x-axis), scaled linearly (sweep
types "Lin Frequency", "Power", "Time", "CW Mode") or logarithmically (sweep type
"Log Frequency").
●
The measured data (response values) appears on the vertical axis (y-axis). The scale
of the y-axis is linear with equidistant grid lines although the y-axis values may be
obtained from the measured data by non-linear conversions.
The following examples show the same trace in Cartesian diagrams with linear and logarithmic x-axis scaling.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
66
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
3.2.4.2
Conversion of Complex into Real Quantities
The results in the "Trace – Measure" menu can be divided into two groups:
●
"S-Parameters", "Ratios", "Wave Quantities", "Impedances", "Admittances", "ZParameters", and "Y-Parameters" are complex.
●
"Stability Factors" and "DC Input" values (voltages, PAE) are real.
The following table shows how the response values in the different Cartesian diagrams
are calculated from the complex measurement values z = x + jy (where x, y, z are functions
of the sweep variable). The formulas also hold for real results, which are treated as complex values with zero imaginary part (y = 0).
Trace Format
Description
Formula
dB Mag
Magnitude of z in dB
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 )
dB Mag(z) = 20 * log|z| dB
Lin Mag
Magnitude of z, unconverted
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 )
Phase
Phase of z
φ (z) = arctan (y/x)
Real
Real part of z
Re(z) = x
Imag
Imaginary part of z
Im(z) = y
SWR
(Voltage) Standing Wave Ratio
SWR = (1 + |z|) / (1 – |z|)
Delay
Group delay, neg. derivative of the
phase response
– d φ (z) / dΩ (Ω = 2π * f)
An extended range of formats and conversion formulas is available for markers. To convert any point on a trace, create a marker and select the appropriate marker format.
Marker and trace formats can be selected independently.
3.2.4.3
Polar Diagrams
Polar diagrams show the measured data (response values) in the complex plane with a
horizontal real axis and a vertical imaginary axis. The grid lines correspond to points of
equal magnitude and phase.
●
The magnitude of the response values corresponds to their distance from the center.
Values with the same magnitude are located on circles.
●
The phase of the response values is given by the angle from the positive horizontal
axis. Values with the same phase are on straight lines originating at the center.
The following example shows a polar diagram with a marker used to display a pair of
stimulus and response values.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
67
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
Example: Reflection coefficients in polar diagrams
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient (S11, S22 etc.), then the center
of the polar diagram corresponds to a perfect load Z0 at the input test port of the DUT (no
reflection, matched input), whereas the outer circumference (|Sii| = 1) represents a totally
reflected signal.
Examples for definite magnitudes and phase angles:
3.2.4.4
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Z = infinity, I = 0) is one,
its phase is zero.
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Z = 0, U = 0) is one, its
phase is –180 deg.
Smith Chart
The Smith chart is a circular diagram that maps the complex reflection coefficients Sii to
normalized impedance values. In contrast to the polar diagram, the scaling of the diagram
is not linear. The grid lines correspond to points of constant resistance and reactance.
●
Points with the same resistance are located on circles.
●
Points with the same reactance produce arcs.
The following example shows a Smith chart with a marker used to display the stimulus
value, the complex impedance Z = R + j X and the equivalent inductance L.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
68
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
A comparison of the Smith chart, the inverted Smith chart and the polar diagram reveals
many similarities between the two representations. In fact the shape of a trace does not
change at all if the display format is switched from "Polar" to "Smith" or "Inverted
Smith" – the analyzer simply replaces the underlying grid and the default marker format.
Smith chart construction
In a Smith chart, the impedance plane is reshaped so that the area with positive resistance is mapped into a unit circle.
The basic properties of the Smith chart follow from this construction:
●
The central horizontal axis corresponds to zero reactance (real impedance). The
center of the diagram represents Z/Z0 = 1 which is the reference impedance of the
system (zero reflection). At the left and right intersection points between the horizontal
axis and the outer circle, the impedance is zero (short) and infinity (open).
●
The outer circle corresponds to zero resistance (purely imaginary impedance). Points
outside the outer circle indicate an active component.
●
The upper and lower half of the diagram correspond to positive (inductive) and negative (capacitive) reactive components of the impedance, respectively.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
69
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
Example: Reflection coefficients in the Smith chart
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient Γ (e.g. S11, S22), then the unit
Smith chart can be used to read the normalized impedance of the DUT. The coordinates
in the normalized impedance plane and in the reflection coefficient plane are related as
follows (see also: definition of matched-circuit (converted) impedances):
Z / Z0 = (1 + Γ) / (1 – Γ)
From this equation it is easy to relate the real and imaginary components of the complex
resistance to the real and imaginary parts of Γ:
1  Re( ) 2  Im() 2
,
R  Re( Z / Z 0 ) 
1  Re()2  Im() 2
X  Im( Z / Z 0 ) 
2  Im( )
1  Re()2  Im() 2
According to the two equations above, the graphical representation in a Smith chart has
the following properties:
●
Real reflection coefficients are mapped to real impedances (resistances).
●
The center of the Γ plane (Γ = 0) is mapped to the reference impedance Z0, whereas
the circle with |Γ| = 1 is mapped to the imaginary axis of the Z plane.
●
The circles for the points of equal resistance are centered on the real axis and intersect at Z = infinity. The arcs for the points of equal reactance also belong to circles
intersecting at Z = infinity (open circuit point (1, 0)), centered on a straight vertical
line.
Examples for special points in the Smith chart:
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Z = infinity, I = 0) is one,
its phase is zero.
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Z = 0, U = 0) is one, its
phase is –180 deg.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
70
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
3.2.4.5
Inverted Smith Chart
The inverted Smith chart is a circular diagram that maps the complex reflection coefficients S"ii" to normalized admittance values. In contrast to the polar diagram, the scaling
of the diagram is not linear. The grid lines correspond to points of constant conductance
and susceptance.
●
Points with the same conductance are located on circles.
●
Points with the same susceptance produce arcs.
The following example shows an inverted Smith chart with a marker used to display the
stimulus value, the complex admittance Y = G + j B and the equivalent inductance L.
A comparison of the inverted Smith chart with the Smith chart and the polar diagram
reveals many similarities between the different representations. In fact the shape of a
trace does not change at all if the display format is switched from "Polar" to "Inverted
Smith" or "Smith" – the analyzer simply replaces the underlying grid and the default
marker format.
Inverted Smith chart construction
The inverted Smith chart is point-symmetric to the Smith chart:
The basic properties of the inverted Smith chart follow from this construction:
●
The central horizontal axis corresponds to zero susceptance (real admittance). The
center of the diagram represents Y/Y0 = 1, where Y0 is the reference admittance of
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
71
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
the system (zero reflection). At the left and right intersection points between the horizontal axis and the outer circle, the admittance is infinity (short) and zero (open).
●
The outer circle corresponds to zero conductance (purely imaginary admittance).
Points outside the outer circle indicate an active component.
●
The upper and lower half of the diagram correspond to negative (inductive) and positive (capacitive) susceptive components of the admittance, respectively.
Example: Reflection coefficients in the inverted Smith chart
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient G (e.g. S11, S22), then the unit
inverted Smith chart can be used to read the normalized admittance of the DUT. The
coordinates in the normalized admittance plane and in the reflection coefficient plane are
related as follows (see also: definition of matched-circuit (converted) admittances):
Y / Y0 = (1 - Γ) / (1 + Γ)
From this equation it is easy to relate the real and imaginary components of the complex
admittance to the real and imaginary parts of Γ:
G  Re(Y / Y0 ) 
1  Re( ) 2  Im( ) 2
1  Re( )2  Im( ) 2
B  Im(Y / Y0 ) 
 2  Im()
,
1  Re()2  Im() 2
According to the two equations above, the graphical representation in an inverted Smith
chart has the following properties:
●
Real reflection coefficients are mapped to real admittances (conductances).
●
The center of the Γ plane (Γ = 0) is mapped to the reference admittance Y0, whereas
the circle with |Γ| = 1 is mapped to the imaginary axis of the Y plane.
●
The circles for the points of equal conductance are centered on the real axis and
intersect at Y = infinity. The arcs for the points of equal susceptance also belong to
circles intersecting at Y = infinity (short circuit point (–1, 0)), centered on a straight
vertical line.
Examples for special points in the inverted Smith chart:
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Y = infinity, U = 0) is one,
its phase is –180 deg.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
72
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Screen Elements
●
3.2.4.6
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Y = 0, I = 0) is one, its
phase is zero.
Measured Quantities and Display Formats
The analyzer allows any combination of a display format and a measured quantity. The
following rules can help to avoid inappropriate formats and find the format that is ideally
suited to the measurement task.
●
All formats are suitable for the analysis of reflection coefficients Sii. The formats
"SWR", "Smith" and "Inverted Smith" lose their original meaning (standing wave ratio,
normalized impedance or admittance) if they are used for transmission S-parameters,
ratios and other quantities.
●
The complex "Impedances", "Admittances", "Z-parameters", and "Y-parameters" are
generally displayed in one of the Cartesian diagrams with linear vertical axis scale or
in a polar diagram.
●
The real "Stability Factors", "DC Inputs", and the "PAE" is generally displayed in a
linear Cartesian diagram ("Lin Mag" or "Real"). In complex formats, real numbers
represent complex numbers with zero imaginary part.
The following table gives an overview of recommended display formats.
Complex dimensionless quantities:
S-parameters and ratios
Complex quantities with dimensions: Real quantities:
Wave quantities, Z-parameters, Yparameters, impedances, admittances
Stability Factors, DC Input
½, PAE
Lin Mag
ON
ON (default for Z-parameters, Y-parameters, impedances, admittances)
ON (default)
dB Mag
ON (default)
ON (default for wave quantities)
–
Phase
ON
ON
–
Real
ON
ON
ON
Imag
ON
ON
–
Unwrapped Phase
ON
ON
–
Smith
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
Polar
ON
–
–
Inverted Smith
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
SWR
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
Delay
ON (transmission coefficients Sij)
–
–
The default formats are activated automatically when the measured quantity is changed.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
73
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
3.3 Measured Quantities
This section gives an overview of the measurement results of the network analyzer and
the meaning of the different measured quantities. All quantities can be selected in the
"Trace – Meas" submenu.
The definitions in this and the following sections apply to general n-port DUTs. An analyzer with a smaller number of test ports provides a subset of the n-port quantities.
3.3.1 S-Parameters
S-parameters are the basic measured quantities of a network analyzer. They describe
how the DUT modifies a signal that is transmitted or reflected in forward or reverse direction. For a 2-port measurement the signal flow is as follows.
The figure above is sufficient for the definition of S-parameters but does not necessarily
show the complete signal flow. In fact, if the source and load ports are not ideally matched,
part of the transmitted waves are reflected off the receiver ports so that an additional a2
contribution occurs in forward measurements, an a1 contribution occurs in reverse measurements. The 7-term calibration types Txx take these additional contributions into
account.
The scattering matrix links the incident waves a1, a2 to the outgoing waves b1, b2 according to the following linear equation:
b1  S11
b   S
 2   21
S12   a1 

S22  a 2 
The equation shows that the S-parameters are expressed as S<out>< in>, where <out> and
<in> denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT.
Meaning of 2-port S-parameters
The four 2-port S-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
S11 is the input reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities b1/
a1, measured at PORT 1 (forward measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
74
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
●
S21 is the forward transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities
b2/a1 (forward measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S12 is the reverse transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities
b1 (reverse measurement with matched input, b1,rev in the figure above and a1 = 0) to
a 2.
●
S22 is the output reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities b2
(reverse measurement with matched input, b2,rev in the figure above and a1 = 0) to
a2, measured at PORT 2.
Meaning of squared amplitudes
The squared amplitudes of the incident and outgoing waves and of the matrix elements
have a simple meaning:
Table 3-1: Squared S-parameters
3.3.1.1
|a1|2
Available incident power at the input of a two-port (= the power provided by a generator with a source impedance equal to the reference
impedance Z0)
|a2|2
Available incident power at the output
|b1|2
Reflected power at the input of a two-port
|b2|2
Reflected power at the output
10*log|S11|2 (= 20*log|S11|)
Reflection loss at the input
10*log|S22|2
Reflection loss at the output
10*log|S21|2
Insertion loss at the input
10*log|S12|2
Insertion loss at the output
Multiport S-Parameters
The multiport S-parameters extend the standard 2-port S-parameters to a larger number
of incoming and outgoing waves. For a 4-port DUT,
b1 S11
  
b2   S21
b  S
 3   31
b4  S41
S
S
S
S
12
22
32
42
S
S
S
S
13
23
33
43
S
S
S
S
  a1
  
24  a2 

 a 
34
  3
44 
 a4 
14
where again aI (I = 1 to 4) denote the incident, bI (I = 1 to 4) denote the outgoing waves,
and the S-parameters are expressed as S<out>< in>.
The indices of the S-parameters described so far number the output and input ports of a
DUT; the parameters are referred to as single-ended S-parameters. The S-parameter
description can also be used to differentiate between different propagation modes of the
waves at the output and input ports. This results in the so-called mixed mode S-parameters. The analyzer measures either single-ended or mixed mode S-parameters.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
75
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
3.3.2 Impedance Parameters
An impedance is the complex ratio between a voltage and a current. The analyzer provides two independent sets of impedance parameters:
3.3.2.1
●
Converted impedances (each impedance parameter is obtained from a single Sparameter)
●
Z-parameters (complete description of the n-port DUT)
Converted Impedances
The converted impedance parameters describe the input impedances of a DUT with fully
matched outputs. In the figures below the indices I and j number the analyzer/DUT ports,
Z0i is the reference impedance at the DUT port I.
The analyzer converts a single measured S-parameter to determine the corresponding
converted impedance. As a result, converted Z-parameters cannot completely describe
general n-port DUTs:
●
A reflection parameter Zii completely describes a one-port DUT. For n-port DUTs
(n>1) the reflection parameters Zii describe the input impedances at ports I (I = 1 to
n) under the condition that each of the other ports is terminated with its reference
impedance (matched-circuit parameters).
●
A two-port transmission parameter Zij (i ≠ j) can describe a pure serial impedance
between the two ports.
Relation with S-parameters
The converted impedances Zii are calculated from the reflection S-parameters Sii according to:
Z ii  Z 0i
1  S ii
1  S ii
The transmission parameters are calculated according to:
Z ij  2 
Z 0i  Z 0 j
S ij
 Z 0i  Z 0 j , i  j ,
The converted admittances are defined as the inverse of the impedances.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
76
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
Examples:
●
Z11 is the input impedance of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at its output with the
reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit impedance measured in a forward reflection measurement).
●
The extension of the impedances to more ports and mixed mode measurements is
analogous to S-parameters. Zdd44 is the differential mode input impedance at port 4
of a DUT that is terminated at its other ports with the reference impedance Z0.
You can also read the converted impedances in a reflection coefficient measurement
from the Smith chart.
3.3.2.2
Z-Parameters
The Z-parameters describe the impedances of a DUT with open output ports (I = 0). The
analyzer provides the full set of Z-parameters including the transfer impedances (i.e. the
complete nxn Z-matrix for an n port DUT).
This means that Z-parameters can be used as an alternative to S-parameters (or Yparameters) in order to completely characterize a linear n-port network.
3.3.2.3
2-Port Z-Parameters
In analogy to S-parameters, Z-parameters are expressed as Z<out>< in>, where <out> and
<in> denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT.
The Z-parameters for a two-port are based on a circuit model that can be expressed with
two linear equations:
V1  Z11 I1  Z12 I 2
V2  Z 21 I1  Z 22 I 2
Meaning of Z-parameters
The four 2-port open-circuit Z-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
Z11 is the input impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V1 to the current I1,
measured at port 1 (forward measurement with open output, I2 = 0).
●
Z21 is the forward transfer impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V2 to the
current I1 (forward measurement with open output, I2 = 0).
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
77
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
●
Z12 is the reverse transfer impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V1 to the
current I2 (reverse measurement with open input, I1 = 0).
●
Z22 is the output impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V2 to the current I2,
measured at port 2 (reverse measurement with open input, I1 = 0).
Z-parameters can be easily extended to describe circuits with more than two ports or
several modes of propagation.
3.3.2.4
Admittance Parameters
An admittance is the complex ratio between a current and a voltage. The analyzer provides two independent sets of admittance parameters:
3.3.2.5
●
Converted admittances (each admittance parameter is obtained from a single Sparameter)
●
Y-parameters (complete description of the n-port DUT)
Converted Admittances
The converted admittance parameters describe the input admittances of a DUT with fully
matched outputs. The converted admittances are the inverse of the converted impedances.
The analyzer converts a single measured S-parameter to determine the corresponding
converted admittance. As a result, converted Y-parameters cannot completely describe
general n-port DUTs:
●
A reflection parameter Yii completely describes a one-port DUT. For n-port DUTs
(n>1) the reflection parameters Yii describe the input admittances at ports I (I = 1 to
n) under the condition that each of the other ports is terminated with its reference
impedance (matched-circuit parameters).
●
A two-port transmission parameter Yij (I ≠ j) can describe a pure serial impedance
between the two ports.
Relation with S-parameters
The converted admittances Yii are calculated from the reflection S-parameters Sii according to:
Yii 
1 1  Sii
 1 / Z ii
Z 0i 1  Sii
The transmission parameters are calculated according to:
Yij 
Sij
2  Z 0i  Z 0 j  Sij  Z 0i  Z 0 j 
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
 1 / Z ij , i  j ,
i, j  1, ..., 99
78
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
Examples:
●
Y11 is the input admittance of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at its output with the
reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit admittance measured in a forward reflection measurement).
●
The extension of the admittances to more ports and mixed mode measurements is
analogous to S-parameters. Ydd44 is the differential mode input admittance at port 4
of a DUT that is terminated at its other ports with the reference impedance Z0.
You can also read the converted admittances in a reflection coefficient measurement
from the inverted Smith chart.
3.3.2.6
Y-Parameters
The Y-parameters describe the admittances of a DUT with output ports terminated in a
short circuit (V = 0). The analyzer provides the full set of Y-parameters including the
transfer admittances (i.e. the complete n x n Y-matrix for an n port DUT).
This means that Y-parameters can be used as an alternative to S-parameters (or Zparameters) in order to completely characterize a linear n-port network.
3.3.2.7
2-Port Y-Parameters
In analogy to S-parameters, Y-parameters are expressed as Y<out>< in>, where <out> and
<in> denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT. In analogy to Z-parameters,
the Y-parameters for a two-port are based on a circuit model that can be expressed with
two linear equations:
I1  Y11V1  Y12V2
I 2  Y21V1  Y22V2
Meaning of Y-parameters
The four 2-port Y-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
Y11 is the input admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I1 to the voltage V1,
measured at port 1 (forward measurement with output terminated in a short circuit,
V2 = 0).
●
Y21 is the forward transfer admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I2 to the
voltage V1 (forward measurement with output terminated in a short circuit, V2 = 0).
●
Y12 is the reverse transfer admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I1 to the
voltage V2 (reverse measurement with input terminated in a short circuit, V1 = 0).
●
Y22 is the output admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I2 to the voltage V2,
measured at port 2 (reverse measurement with input terminated in a short circuit,
V1 = 0).
Y-parameters can be easily extended to describe circuits with more than two ports or
several modes of propagation.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
79
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
3.3.2.8
Wave Quantities and Ratios
The elements of the S-, Z- and Y-matrices represent fixed ratios of complex wave amplitudes. As long as the assumption of linearity holds, the S-, Z- and Y-parameters are
independent of the source power.
The network analyzer provides two additional sets of measurement parameters which
have a unambiguous meaning even if the DUT is measured outside its linear range:
●
"Wave Quantities" provide the power of any of the transmitted or received waves.
●
"Ratios" provide the complex ratio of any combination of transmitted or received wave
quantities.
In contrast to S-, Z- and Y-parameters, wave quantities and ratios are not system-error
corrected. A power calibration can be applied to wave quantities and ratios.
With option R&S ZVA-K6, "True Differential Mode", the analyzer can also determine balanced wave quantities and ratios.
3.3.2.9
Wave Quantities
A wave quantity measurement provides the power of any of the transmitted or received
waves. The power can be displayed in voltage units (e.g. "V" or "dBmV") or equivalent
power units (e.g. "W" or "dBm").
Examples for using wave quantities
The wave quantities provide the power at the different receive ports of the analyzer. This
is different from an S-parameter measurement, where the absolute power of a linear
device is cancelled. Wave quantities are therefore suitable for the following measurement
tasks:
●
Analysis of non-linearities of the DUT.
●
Use of the analyzer as a selective power meter.
To increase the accuracy or correct a possible attenuation in the input signal path, it
is recommended to perform a power calibration.
The notation for wave quantities includes the direction and the test port number. Additionally, the source port must be specified. The letter a indicates a transmitted wave, b a
received wave.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
80
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
Examples:
3.3.2.10
●
a1 Src Port 1 is the outgoing wave at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter measurement, this wave is fed to the input port (port 1) of the DUT (forward measurement).
●
b1 Src Port 1 is the incoming wave at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter measurement, this is the reflected wave at port 1 of the DUT (forward measurement).
Ratios
A ratio measurement provides the complex ratio of any combination of transmitted or
received wave amplitudes. Ratios complement the S-parameter measurements, where
only ratios of the form bI/aj (ratio of the incoming wave to the outgoing wave at the test
ports I and j of the DUT) are considered.
Examples for using ratios
A measurement of ratios is particularly suitable for the following test scenarios:
●
The test setup or some of its components (e.g. active components or non-reciprocal
devices) do not allow a system error correction so that a complete S-parameter measurement is not possible.
●
The test setup contains frequency-converting components so that the transmitted and
the received waves are at different frequencies.
●
A ratio of two arbitrary waves that is not an element of the S-matrix (e.g. a ratio of the
form aI/aj) is needed.
The notation for ratios includes the two waves with their directions and test port numbers.
Additionally, the source port must be specified. In analogy to wave quantities, the letter
a indicates an outgoing wave, b an incoming wave.
Examples:
●
b2/a1 Src Port 1 is the ratio of the outgoing wave b2 at port 2 and the incident wave
a1 at port 1; this corresponds to the S-parameter S21 (forward transmission coefficient).
●
b1/a1 Src Port 1 is the ratio of the wave quantities b1 and a1, measured at PORT 1;
this corresponds to the S-parameter S11 (input reflection coefficient).
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
81
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
3.3.2.11
Unbalance-Balance Conversion
Unbalance-balance conversion is the simulation of one or more unbalance-balance
transformers (baluns) integrated in the measurement circuit in order to convert the DUT
ports from an unbalanced state into a balanced state and virtually separate the differential
and common mode signals. The analyzer measures the unbalanced state but converts
the results and calculates mixed mode parameters, e.g. mixed mode S-parameters. No
physical transformer is needed.
With option R&S ZVA-K6, True Differential Mode, the analyzer can generate balanced
waves at arbitrary reference planes in the test setup and determine balanced results such
as S-parameters, wave quantities and ratios. The true differential mode also provides two
additional sweep types, the "amplitude imbalance" and "phase imbalance" sweeps. What
is said below is valid for both the simulated balanced mode and the true differential mode.
To perform balanced measurements, a pair of physical analyzer ports is combined to
form a logical port. The balanced port of the DUT is directly connected to the analyzer
ports
Unbalance-balance conversion avoids the disadvantages of real transformers:
3.3.2.12
●
There is no need to fabricate test fixtures with integrated baluns for each type of DUT.
●
The measurement is not impaired by the non-ideal characteristics of the balun (e.g.
error tolerances, limited frequency range).
●
Calibration can be performed at the DUT's ports. If necessary (e.g. to compensate
for the effect of a test fixture), it is possible to shift the calibration plane using length
offset parameters.
●
Differential and common mode parameters can be evaluated with a single test setup.
Balanced Port Configurations
Defining a logical ports requires two physical analyzer ports. The ports of an analyzer are
equivalent and can be freely combined. Moreover, it is possible to assign arbitrary, independent reference impedance values to each unbalanced port and to the differential and
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
82
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
common mode of each logical port. The following types of balanced devices can be
measured with 2-port, 3-port and 4-port analyzers:
2-port analyzers: Reflection measurements on 1 balanced port
Balanced port:
Bal.
port
Log.
NWA
port
DUT
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
3-port analyzers: Reflection and transmission measurements on 1 balanced port
Balanced port:
Balanced port:
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Log.
NWA
port
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
Bal.
port
Bal.
port
Log.
NWA
port
DUT
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
4-port analyzers: Reflection and transmission measurements on 1 or 2 balanced ports
Single-ended
(unbalanced) ports
Zref1 = Zconnector1
Balanced port:
Single
ended
ports
Zref2 = Zconnector2
Bal.
port
Log.
NWA
port
DUT
Balanced port:
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
Balanced port:
Log.
NWA
port
Bal.
port
Bal.
port
DUT
Log.
NWA
port
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
A balanced port configuration is defined by simply selecting the pairs of physical ports
that are combined to form balanced ports and defining the two reference impedances for
the differential and common mode at each balanced port. All this is done in a single dialog;
refer to the help system for details and measurement examples. The most commonly
used balanced port configurations and impedances are predefined and can be selected
in the "Measurement Wizard".
Depending on the test setup, the analyzer provides different types of mixed mode parameters; refer to the following sections for details.
3.3.2.13
Mixed Mode Parameters
Mixed mode parameters are an extension of normal mode parameters (e.g. S-parameters, impedances and admittances) for balanced measurements. The analyzer can measure mixed mode parameters as soon as a balanced port configuration is selected.
Mixed mode parameters are used to distinguish the following three port modes:
●
s: Single-ended (for unbalanced ports)
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
83
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Measured Quantities
●
d: Differential mode (for balanced ports)
●
c: Common mode (for balanced ports)
The notation of a general S-parameter is S<mout><min><out><in>, where <mout> and <min>
denote the output and input port modes, <out> and <in> denote the output and input port
numbers.
Meaning of 2-port mixed mode S-parameters
The mixed mode 2-port S-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
S<mout><min>11 is the mixed mode input reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the
wave quantities b1 (mode mout) to a1 (mode min), measured at PORT 1 (forward
measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S<mout><min>21 is the mixed mode forward transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio
of the wave quantities b2 (mode mout) to a1 (mode min) (forward measurement with
matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S<mout><min>12 is the mixed mode reverse transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio
of the wave quantities b1 (mode mout) (reverse measurement with matched input,
b1' in the figure above and a1 = 0) to a2 (mode min).
●
S<mout><min>22 is the mixed mode output reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of
the wave quantities b2 (mode mout) (reverse measurement with matched input, b2'
in the figure above and a1 = 0) to a2 (mode min), measured at PORT 2.
If <mout> is different from <min>, the S-parameters are called mode conversion factors.
3.3.2.14
Mixed Mode Parameters for Different Test Setups
Which types of mixed mode parameter are available depends on the measured device
and the port configuration of the analyzer. The following examples of mixed more parameters can all be obtained with a 4-port analyzer.
1. DUT with only single-ended ports: No balanced port definition necessary, the analyzer provides single-ended multiport parameters.
2. DUT with one balanced port: Only reflection and mode conversion measurements
with differential and common mode parameters.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
84
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Calibration
3. 3. DUT with one balanced and one single-ended port.
4. 4. DUT with two balanced ports or one balanced and two single-ended ports. Both
device types are fully characterized by 4x4 mixed mode S-matrices.
3.4 Calibration
Calibration or "system error correction" is the process of eliminating systematic, reproducible errors from the measurement results. The process involves the following stages:
1. A set of calibration standards is selected and measured over the required sweep
range. For many calibration types the magnitude and phase response of each calibration standard (i.e. its S-parameters if no system errors occur) must be known
within the entire sweep range. In some calibration procedures (TRL, TNA, TRM), part
of the characteristics of the standards can be auto-determined due to implicit redundancy (self-calibration).
2. The analyzer compares the measurement data of the standards with their known,
ideal response. The difference is used to calculate the system errors using a particular
error model (calibration type) and derive a set of system error correction data.
3. The system error correction data is used to correct the measurement results of a DUT
that is measured instead of the standards.
Calibration is always channel-specific because it depends on the hardware settings, in
particular on the sweep range. The means that a system error correction data set is stored
with the calibrated channel.
The analyzer provides a wide range of sophisticated calibration methods for all types of
measurements. Which calibration method is selected depends on the expected system
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
85
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Calibration
errors, the accuracy requirements of the measurement, on the test setup and on the types
of calibration standards available.
Due to the analyzer's calibration wizard, calibration is a straightforward, menu-guided
process. Moreover, it is possible to perform the entire calibration process automatically
using a Calibration Unit (accessories R&S ZV-Z5x).
The system error correction data determined in a calibration procedure are stored on the
analyzer. You can read these correction data using the remote control command
[SENSe<Ch>:]CORRection:CDATa. You can also replace the correction data of the
analyzer by your own correction data sets.
A red label "Cal Off !" appears behind the trace list if the system error correction no longer
applies to one or more traces:
This may happen for one of the following reasons:
●
The sweep range is outside the calibrated frequency range.
●
The channel calibration is not sufficient for the measured quantity (e.g. a one-port
calibration has been performed, but the measured quantity is a transmission parameter).
●
The system error correction has been switched off deliberately ("Correction Off").
●
The analyzer provides other labels to indicate the status of the current calibration;
refer to the Help system for details.
3.4.1 Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits
A calibration kit is a set of physical calibration standards for a particular connector type.
The magnitude and phase response of the calibration standards (i.e. their S-parameters)
must be known or predictable within a given frequency range.
The standards are grouped into several types (Open, Through, Match,...) corresponding
to the different input quantities for the analyzer's error models. The standard type also
determines the equivalent circuit model used to describe its properties. The circuit model
depends on several parameters that are stored in the cal kit file associated with the calibration kit.
As an alternative to using circuit models, it is possible to describe the standards by means
of S-parameter tables stored in a file.
The analyzer provides a large number of predefined cal kits but can also import cal kit
files and create new kits:
●
A selection of predefined kits is available for all connector types. The parameters of
these kits are displayed in the "Add/Modify Standards" dialog, however, it is not possible to change or delete the kits.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
86
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Calibration
●
Imported and user-defined kits can be changed in the "Calibration Kits" dialog and
its various sub-dialogs.
Calibration kits and connector types are global resources; the parameters are stored
independently and are available irrespective of the current setup.
3.4.2 Calibration Types
The analyzer provides a wide range of calibration types for one, two or more ports. The
calibration types differ in the number and types of standards used, the error terms, i.e.
the type of systematic errors corrected and the general accuracy. The following table
gives an overview.
Table 3-2: Overview of calibration types
Calibration Type
Standards
Parameters
Error Terms
General Accuracy
Application
Reflection Normalization
Open or Short
S11
Reflection tracking
Low to medium
Reflection measurements on any port.
Transmission Normalization
Through
Transmission tracking
Medium
Transmission measurements in any
direction and
between any combination of ports.
Full One-Port
Open, Short,
Match1)
S11
Reflection tracking,
High
(or S22, ...)
Source match
Reflection measurements on any port.
Medium to high
Unidirectional transmission measurements in any direction and between
any combination of
ports.
High
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2, 3, or 4 ports;
classical 12-term
error correction
model.
High, implicit verification
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2, 3, or 4 ports.
(or S22, ...)
S12, S21
(or S13,...)
Directivity,
One-Path Two-Port
Open, Short,
Match1) (at source
port),
S11, S21
Reflection tracking,
(or S22,...)
Source match,
Directivity,
Through2)
TOSM (2-port, 3port or 4-port) or
UOSM
Open, Short,
Match1) (at each
port),
Transmission tracking
All
Source match,
Directivity,
Through2) (between
all combinations of 2
ports)
TOM (2-port, 3-port
or 4-port)
Open, Match (at
both ports),
Reflection tracking,
Load match,
Transmission tracking,
All
Through
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
87
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Calibration
Calibration Type
Standards
Parameters
Error Terms
General Accuracy
Application
TRM (2-port, 3-port
or 4-port)
Reflect (equal at
both ports), Match,
All
Reflection tracking,
High
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2, 3, or 4 ports,
especially in test fixtures.
Source match,
Through
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
TRL (2-port, 3-port
or 4-port)
TNA (2-port, 3-port
or 4-port)
Reflect (at both
ports),
All
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Through, Line1,
Line2/3 (optional),
combination with
TRM (optional)
Directivity,
Through, AttenuaAll
tion, Symmetric network
Reflection tracking,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
Source match,
Directivity,
High, high directivity Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2, 3, or 4 ports,
especially for planar
circuits. Limited
bandwidth.
High, lowest
requirements on
standards
Load match,
Transmission tracking
Reflection and
transmission measurements on DUTs
with 2, 3, or 4 ports,
especially for planar
circuits.
1) Or any other 3 known one-port standards. To be used in a guided calibration, the known
standards must be declared to be open, short, and match irrespective of their properties.
2) Or any other known two-port standard. See remark above.
The calibration type must be selected in accordance with the test setup. Select the calibration type for which you can obtain or design the most accurate standards and for which
you can measure the required parameters with best accuracy.
3.4.3 Automatic Calibration
A Calibration Unit is an integrated solution for automatic system error correction of vector
network analyzers. For analyzers of the R&S ZVAB family, Rohde & Schwarz provides
different types of calibration units:
The 2- and 4-port calibration units R&S ZV-Z51, R&S ZV-Z52, R&S ZV-Z53, R&S ZVZ54, and R&S ZVA-Z55 are especially suited for R&S ZVB and R&S ZVA vector network
analyzers.
Calibration unit
Recommended for
Frequency range
Connector type
No. of ports
Order no.
R&S ZV-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8, R&S ZVA8
300 kHz to 8 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
4
1164.0515.30
R&S ZV-Z51
R&S ZVB4, R&S
ZVB8, R&S ZVA8
300 kHz to 8 GHz
type N (f)
4
1164.0515.70
R&S ZV-Z52
R&S ZVB14, R&S
10 MHz to 24 GHz
ZVB20, R&S ZVA24
3.5 mm (f)
4
1164.0521.30
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
88
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Calibration
Calibration unit
Recommended for
R&S ZV-Z53
Frequency range
Connector type
No. of ports
Order no.
R&S ZVB14, R&S
300 kHz to 24 GHz
ZVB20, R&S ZVA24
3.5 mm (f)
2
1164.0473.32
R&S ZV-Z53
R&S ZVB14
300 kHz to 18 GHz
type N (f)
2
1164.0473.72
R&S ZV-Z54
R&S ZVA40
10 MHz to 40 GHz
2.92 mm (f)
2
1164.0467.92
R&S ZV-Z55
R&S ZVA50
10 MHz to 50 GHz
2.4 mm (f)
2
1164.0480.42
The 8- and 6-port calibration units R&S ZV-Z58 and R&S ZV-Z59 are especially suited
for R&S ZVT vector network analyzers.
Calibration unit
Recommended for
Frequency range
Connector type
No. of ports
Order no.
R&S ZV-Z58
R&S ZVT8
300 kHz to 8 GHz
type N
8
1164.0638.78
R&S ZV-Z58
R&S ZVT8
300 kHz to 8 GHz
3.5 mm
8
1164.0638.78
R&S ZV-Z59
R&S ZVT20
10 MHz to 20 GHz
3.5 mm
6
1164.0450.36
The units contain calibration standards that are electronically switched when a calibration
is performed. The calibration kit data for the internal standards are also stored in the
calibration unit, so that the analyzer can calculate the error terms and apply the calibration
without any further input.
Advantages of automatic calibration
Automatic calibration is generally faster and more secure than manual calibration,
because:
●
Advantages of automatic calibration
●
Automatic calibration is generally faster and more secure than manual calibration,
because:
●
There is no need to connect several standards manually. The number of connections
to be performed quickly increases with the number of ports; see TOSM Calibration.
●
Invalid calibrations due to operator errors (e.g. wrong standards or improper connections) are almost excluded.
●
No need to handle calibration kit data.
●
The internal standards don't wear out because they are switched electronically.
Automatic calibration is less flexible than manual calibration:
●
Some calibration types (TOM, TRM, TRL, TNA) are not available.
●
Automatic calibration cannot be performed for segmented frequency sweeps.
Please observe the safety instructions in the "Technical Information" provided with the
calibration unit to avoid any damage to the unit and the network analyzer. Safety-related
aspects of the connection and operation of the units are also reported in the sections
below.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
89
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
3.4.4 Power Calibration
The purpose of a power calibration is to ensure accurate source power levels and power
readings at a particular position (reference plane) in the test setup. Power calibration is
essentially different from the system error correction described in the previous sections.
For best accuracy, a power calibration should be performed in addition to a system error
correction.
In general, a power calibration involves two stages:
1. Source power calibration: An external power meter is connected to the reference
plane. The analyzer modifies its source power until the power meter reading corresponds to the desired source power value.
2. Receiver power calibration: The analyzer uses the calibrated source signal to
adjust the power reading at the receiver port.
The analyzer provides power calibration wizards for various measurement modes.
3.4.5 Offset Parameters
Offset parameters complement the system error correction and power calibration, compensating for the known length and loss of a (non-dispersive and perfectly matched)
transmission line between the calibrated reference plane and the DUT. The analyzer can
also auto-determine length and loss parameters, assuming that the actual values should
minimize the group delay and loss across the sweep range.
3.5 Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
The network analyzer can be upgraded with a number of hardware and software options,
providing enhanced flexibility and an extended measurement functionality. The available
options are listed in the "Info – Option Info" dialog. The R&S ZVA options listed below
are described in detail in the reference chapters of the help system. For a complete list
of options, accessories, and extras refer to the product brochure of your analyzer.
Table 3-3: R&S ZVA options
Option
Option Name
Functionality
RS& ZVAB-K2
Time Domain
Transformation of the trace to time domain in order to analyze
responses, transformation back to the frequency domain
R&S ZVA-K4
Arbitrary gen. and rec. frequencies, Measurements at arbitrary (not necessarily equal) generator and
includes scalar Mixer and Harmon- receiver frequencies; scalar measurements on external RF mixics measurements
ers, harmonic distortion measurements, intermodulation distortion measurements
R&S ZVA-K5
Mixer Phase Measurement (Vector
Mixer Measurement)
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
Measurement of the parameters of an external mixer including
phase, e.g. the complex conversion loss or reflection coefficients.
90
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
Option
Option Name
Functionality
R&S ZVA-K6
True Differential Mode
Generation of true differential and common mode stimuli at arbitrary reference planes in the test setup and measurement of the
mixed-mode S-parameters, wave quantities and ratios. Alternatively: Defined coherence mode, provides several source signals
with defined phase and amplitude relation
R&S ZVA-K7
Measurements on Pulsed Signals
Pulsed measurements in analogy to a time sweep (i.e. at constant
receiver frequency), but with a much higher sampling rate of 12.5/
ns.
R&S ZVA-K8
Converter Control
Measurements at frequencies beyond the analyzer's operating
range
R&S ZVA-K9
Mixer Delay w/o LO Access
Measurement of the absolute or relative group delay of a mixer.
R&S ZVA-K10
Long Distance Mixer Delay
Mixer delay measurement with two different network analyzers,
one providing the source ports, the other the receive port.
R&S ZVA-K27
Internal Pulse Generators
Provides two pulsed control signals to control pulsed measurements.
R&S ZVAB-K30
Noise Figure Measurement
Provides the noise figure of a DUT which operates in its linear
range.
R&S ZVA<frequency>-B16
Direct Generator/Receiver Access
Give direct access to various RF input and output signals, e.g. to
insert external components into the signal path or develop custom
measurements; see Front Panel Jumpers.
R&S ZVA<frequency>Bxxx
Receiver Step Attenuators
Control the received power, e.g. to avoid damage to the analyzer;
see Step Attenuators
R&S ZVB8-B21/22/23
Generator Step Attenuators
Control the source power, e.g. to protect sensitive DUTs from
excess input levels; see Step Attenuators
The following sections provide a short introduction to the software options.
3.5.1 Time Domain (R&S ZVAB-K2)
The network analyzer measures and displays complex S-parameters and other quantities
as a function of the frequency. The measurement results can be filtered and mathematically transformed in order to obtain the time domain representation, which often gives a
clearer insight into the characteristics of the DUT.
Time domain transforms can be calculated in band pass or low pass mode. For the latter
the analyzer offers the impulse and step response as two alternative transformation
types. A wide selection of windows can be used to optimize the time domain response
and suppress sidelobes due to the finite sweep range. Moreover, it is possible to eliminate
unwanted responses by means of a time gate and transform the gated result back into
the frequency domain.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
91
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
3.5.2 Arbitrary Generator and Receiver Frequencies (R&S ZVA-K4)
Measurements at arbitrary (not necessarily equal) generator and receiver frequencies
provide a wealth of applications, e.g. intermodulation measurements vs. frequency and
power, hot S-parameter measurements.
For intermodulation distortion measurements, the analyzer provides a measurement and
calibration wizard. Intermodulation products and intercept points of order 3, 5, 7, 9 can
be measured at the input and at the output of the DUT.
The frequency conversion option also includes mixer and harmonics measurements.
3.5.3 Scalar Mixer and Harmonics (R&S ZVA-K4)
RF mixers convert an RF signal at one frequency into a signal at another frequency. The
frequency that is to be shifted is applied at the RF input and the frequency shifting signal
(from a local oscillator, LO) is applied to the RF mixer's LO port, resulting in an output
signal at the mixer's Intermediate Frequency (IF) port.
For a given RF signal, an ideal mixer would produce only two IF outputs: one at the
frequency sum of the RF and LO (IF = RF + LO), and another at the frequency difference
between the RF and LO (IF = |RF – LO|). Filtering can be used to select one of these IF
outputs and reject the unwanted one.
In the scalar mixer mode the analyzer provides the following functionality:
●
Configuration of the RF and LO signals and measurement of the generated IF signal.
●
Power calibration of the signal sources and of the IF receiver.
●
The mixer mode can be used also to test important performance parameters of RF
mixers such as frequency ranges, conversion loss, compression, and isolation.
Harmonics are signals at an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. The fundamental is the first harmonic, the nth harmonic is n times the frequency of the fundamental.
The production of harmonic frequencies by an electronic system when a signal is applied
at the input is known as harmonic distortion.
The purpose of the harmonics measurement is to measure the harmonic distortion of a
DUT. To this end the source remains at the fundamental frequency whereas the receiver
is set to n times the fundamental frequency. Two different types of results are provided:
●
In the direct measurement, the nth harmonic of the stimulus signal is measured.
●
In the relative measurement, the nth harmonic of the stimulus signal is divided by
1st harmonic (fundamental) received from the DUT. The result corresponds to the
nth harmonic distortion factor.
3.5.4 Mixer Phase Measurement (R&S ZVA-K5)
Measurement of the parameters of an external mixer including phase, e.g. the complex
conversion loss or reflection coefficients. In contrast to scalar mixer measurements (with
option R&S ZVA-K4), mixer phase (or vector mixer) measurements provide magnitude
and phase information, including group delay, about the mixer under test (MUT). To
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
92
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
assess the phase information, the IF signal at the mixer output is converted back to the
original RF frequency using a second MEAS mixer. A third REF mixer ensures that the
reference wave is converted back to the RF frequency.
3.5.5 True Differential Mode (R&S ZVA-K6)
Differential transmission lines and circuits are widely used, because their characteristics
give them a lower susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. Linear balanced devices
can be tested with sufficient accuracy using the virtual differential mode, where the vector
network analyzer generates unbalanced stimulus signals and uses a mathematical transformation to convert unbalanced wave quantities into balanced S-parameters. A different
behavior is expected for nonlinear balanced devices, where the transmission characteristics of the DUT may depend on how closely the stimulus signal matches real operating
conditions.
In "True Differential Mode", the vector network analyzer generates true differential and
common mode stimuli at arbitrary reference planes in the test setup and determines
mixed-mode S-parameters, wave quantities and ratios. The true differential mode also
provides two additional sweep types, the amplitude imbalance and phase imbalance
sweeps.
As an alternative to true differential mode, the Defined Coherence Mode provides several
source signals with defined phase and amplitude relation.
3.5.6 Measurements on Pulsed Signals (R&S ZVA-K7)
Measurements on pulsed RF signals are required in many areas of RF and microwave
technology. Pulsed signals are used in mobile phone applications and radar systems,
and amplifiers are typically designed for pulsed rather than continuous wave (CW) conditions.
The analyzer performs pulsed measurements in analogy to a time sweep (i.e. at constant
receiver frequency), but with a much higher sampling rate of 12.5/ns. The raw I/Q amplitudes are written into a ring buffer and processed at the end of each sweep. The buffer
size allows for a maximum recording time (sweep time) of 3 ms. Due to the high sampling
rate and the large IF bandwidths available, it is possible to obtain profiles for pulse widths
from approx. 200 ns to the maximum recording time. Of course it is also possible to
measure a sequence of pulses up to the maximum recording time.
3.5.7 Converter Control (R&S ZVA-K8)
Measurements at frequencies beyond the analyzer's operating range (mm-wave measurements) are achieved by combining a frequency-converting measurement with an
external test set (frequency converter). The frequency converters use frequency multipliers to transform the RF source signal from one of the network analyzer ports into a
high-frequency stimulus signal. A dual directional coupler separates the reference and
measurement channels from the waveguide test port. A second signal (Local Oscillator,
LO) is used for down-conversion of the reference and measurement channels. The LO
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
93
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
signal can be provided either by a second analyzer port or by an external generator. The
down-converted signals are fed to the REF IN and MEAS IN input connectors of the
analyzer port providing the RF source signal.
Option R&S ZVA-K8 also comprises option ZVA-K4, Frequency Conversion.
3.5.8 Mixer Delay w/o LO Access (R&S ZVA-K9)
Measurement of the absolute or relative group delay of a mixer. The mixer delay measurement is an extension of the scalar mixer measurement: The network analyzer generates a two-tone RF signal as a mixer input signal and measures the converted IF signal
at the mixer output. The mixer delay is derived from the relative phases of the two-tone
signals at the mixer input and the mixer output.
Compared to conventional measurement methods, the mixer delay measurement offers
several additional advantages.
●
No external mixers are needed.
●
A network analyzer with standard functionality is sufficient, see description of test
setups below.
●
Easy calibration using a calibration mixer.
3.5.9 Long Distance Mixer Delay (R&S ZVA-K10)
The mixer delay measurement can be performed with two different R&S ZVA or R&S ZVT
network analyzers, one providing the source ports, the other the receive port. The two
instruments can communicate with each other via LAN using LXI event messages. This
can be advantageous e.g. for measurements on DUTs with large dimensions where the
connection to a single instrument would require very long RF cables.
3.5.10 Internal Pulse Generators (R&S ZVA-K27)
Provides two independent control signals at the CASCADE output connector on the rear
panel of the network analyzer. The signals can be used to control an R&S ZVAXxx
Extension Unit equipped with a pulse modulator option.
3.5.11 Noise Figure Measurement (R&S ZVAB-K30)
Provides the noise figure of a DUT which operates in its linear range. The noise figure of
a device is the ratio of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to the input SNR, provided
that a thermal noise signal is fed to the input. It is a measure of the degradation of the
SNR caused by the device.
The method of measurement offers several advantages:
●
No additional noise source is required.
●
The result can be obtained in a single sweep.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
94
R&S® ZVA
System Overview
Optional R&S ZVA Extensions
●
The test setup is as simple as for a basic transmission measurement: The DUT must
be connected only once. Moreover, it is possible to perform S-parameter measurements in parallel to the noise figure measurement.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
95
R&S® ZVA
Glossary
Glossary
A
Active channel: Channel belonging to the active trace. The active channel is highlighted
in the channel list below the diagram. The active channel is not relevant in remote control
where each channel can contain an active trace.
Active marker: Marker that can be changed using the settings of the Marker menu (Delta
Mode, Ref. Mkr -> Mkr, Mkr Format). The active marker is also used for the Marker
Functions. It appears in the diagram with an enlarged marker symbol and font size and
with a dot placed in front of the marker line in the info field.
Active menu: The menu containing the last executed command. If the softkey bar is
displayed (Display - Config./View - Softkey Labels on), then the active menu is indicated
on top of the softkey bar.
Active trace (manual control): Trace that is selected to apply the settings in the Trace
menu. The active trace is highlighted in the trace list of the active diagram area. It can be
different from the active trace in remote control.
Active trace (remote control): One trace of each channel that has been selected as the
active trace (CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SELect <trace name>). Many commands (e.g. TRACE...) act on the active trace. It can be different from the active trace
in manual control.
C
Calibration: The process of removing systematic errors from the measurement (system
error correction). See also TOSM, TOM, TRM, TRL, TNA.
Calibration kit: Set of physical calibration standards for a particular connector family.
Calibration standard: Physical device that has a known or predictable magnitude and
phase response within a given frequency range. Calibration standards are grouped into
several types (open, through, match,...) corresponding to the different input quantities for
the analyzer's error models.
Calibration unit: Integrated solution for automatic calibration of 1 to 4 ports (accessory
ZV-Zxx). The unit contains calibration standards that are electronically switched when a
calibration is performed.
Cal pool: The cal pool is a collection of correction data sets (cal groups) that the analyzer
stores in a common directory. Cal groups in the pool can beapplied to different channels
and setups.
Channel: A channel contains hardware-related settings to specify how the network analyzer collects data. Each channel is stored in an independent data set. The channel set-
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
96
R&S® ZVA
Glossary
tings complement the definitions of the Trace menu; they apply to all traces assigned to
the channel.
Compression point: The x-dB compression point of an S-parameter or ratio is the stimulus signal level where the magnitude of the measured quantity has dropped by x dB
compared to its value at small stimulus signal levels (small-signal value).
Confirmation dialog box: Standard dialog box that pops up to display an error message
or a warning. The current action can be either continued (OK) or cancelled (Cancel) on
closing the dialog box.
Crosstalk: The occurrence of a signal at the receive port of the analyzer which did not
travel through the test setup and the DUT but leaks through other internal paths. Crosstalk
causes an isolation error in the measurement which can be corrected by means of a
calibration.
CW frequency: Continuous Wave frequency; fixed stimulus frequency used in Power,
CW Time and CW Mode sweeps.
D
Data trace: Trace filled with measurement data and updated after each sweep (dynamic
trace).
Diagram area: Rectangular portion of the screen used to display traces. Diagram areas
are arranged in windows; they are independent of trace and channel settings.
Directivity error: Measurement error caused by a coupler or bridge in the analyzer's
source port causing part of the generated signal to leak through the forward path into the
receive path instead of being transmitted towards the DUT. The directivity error can be
corrected by means of a full one port calibration or one of the two-port calibration methods
(except normalization).
Discrete marker: The stimulus value of a discrete marker always coincides with a sweep
point so that the marker does not show interpolated measurement values.
E
Excursion: Difference between the response values at a local maximum (minimum) of
the trace and at the two closest local minima (maxima) to the left and to the right.
F
Forward: A measurement on a two-port DUT is said to be in forward direction if the source
signal (stimulus) is applied to port 1 of the DUT.
H
Harmonic: Integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. The fundamental is the first
harmonic, the nth harmonic is n times the frequency of the fundamental.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
97
R&S® ZVA
Glossary
Harmonic distortion: The production of harmonic frequencies (harmonics) by an electronic system when a signal is applied at the input.
Harmonic grid: A set of equidistant frequency points fi (i = 1...n) with spacing Delta(f)
and the additional condition that f1 = Delta(f). A harmonic grid is required for low pass
time domain transforms.
I
Intercept point: Fictitious lower-tone DUT input/output level where the intermodulation
suppression (-->) for a given intermodulation product reaches 0 dB
Intermodulation measurement: Measurement where the DUT is supplied with two RF
signals of equal power but different frequencies termed the upper and lower tone. The
analyzer measures the frequency-converting behavior of the DUT (--> intermodulation
product).
Intermodulation product: Special type of emissions of a nonlinear DUT that is supplied
with a two-tone RF signal (--> intermodulation measurement). The intermodulation products occur at frequencies which correspond to sums and differences of the upper and
lower tone frequencies and their integer multiples.
Intermodulation suppression: The ratio of the power of an --> intermoulation product
to the power of the lower tone fundamental wave.
Isolation error: Measurement error caused by a crosstalk between the source and
receive port of the analyzer.
L
Limit check: Comparison of the measurement results with the limit lines and display of
a pass/fail indication. An acoustic warning can be generated in addition if a limit is exceeded.
Limit line: A limit line is a set of data to specify the allowed range for some or all points
of a trace. Typically, limit lines are used to check whether a DUT conforms to the rated
specifications (conformance testing).
Load match error: Measurement error caused by a mismatch of the analyzer's receive
(load) port causing part of the signal transmitted through the DUT to be reflected off the
receive port so that it is not measured there. The load match error can be corrected by
means of a two-port calibration (except normalization).
M
Marker: Tool for selecting points on the trace and for numerical readout of measured
data. A marker is displayed with a symbol (a triangle, a crossbar or a line) on the trace;
its coordinates are shown in the marker info field.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
98
R&S® ZVA
Glossary
Mathematical trace: Trace that is calculated according to a mathematical expression,
e.g. the one defined in the Define Math dialog. The expression is a mathematical relation
between constants and the data or memory traces of the active setup.
Measurement point: Result of the measurement at a specified stimulus value (frequency/power/time).
Measurement result: Set of all measurement points acquired in a measurement (e.g. a
sweep). The measurement result is displayed in a diagram area and forms a trace.
Memory trace: Trace that is associated to a data trace and stored in the memory. Data
traces and the associated memory traces share the same channel and scale settings.
Alternatively, memory traces can be imported from a file.
Mixer: Device that converts an RF signal at one frequency into a signal at another frequency. The frequency that is to be shifted is applied at the RF input and the frequency
shifting signal (from a local oscillator, LO) is applied to the RF mixer's LO port, resulting
in an output signal at the mixer's Intermediate Frequency (IF) port.
P
Partial measurement: Measurement at a specified stimulus value maintaining definite
hardware settings. Depending on the measurement type, several partial measurements
may be needed to obtain a measurement point. A full n-port S-parameter measurement
requires n partial measurements with n different drive ports.
Peak: Local maximum or local minimum (dip) on the trace. In the Trace - Search menu,
it is possible to define a minimum excursion that both types of peaks must have to be
considered valid.
Power calibration: Correction method that eliminates frequency response errors in the
signal path and in the receiver and ensures accurate power levels and readings; see
source power calibration and receiver power calibration.
R
Receiver power calibration: Correction method that the power readings at a specified
input port of the analyzer agree with the source power level calibrated at an arbitrary
reference plane. Typically, the reference plane is at the input of the receiver so that the
calibration eliminates frequency response errors in the calibrated receiver.
Reflection tracking error: Frequency-dependent variation of the ratio of the reflected
wave to the reference wave at a test port when an ideal reflection coefficient (= 1) is
measured. The reflection tracking error can be corrected by means of a reflection normalization or one of the more sophisticated calibration methods.
Reverse: A measurement on a two-port DUT is said to be in reverse direction if the source
signal (stimulus) is applied to port 2 of the DUT.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
99
R&S® ZVA
Glossary
S
Setup: A setup comprises a set of diagram areas with all displayed information that can
be stored to a NWA setup file (*.nwa). Each setup is displayed in an independent window.
Source match error: Measurement error caused by a mismatch of the analyzer's source
port causing part of the signal reflected off the DUT to be reflected again off the source
port so that it is not measured there. The source match error can be corrected by means
of a full one-port calibration or a two-port calibration (except normalization).
Source power calibration: Correction method that ensures accurate power levels of the
generated wave at an arbitrary reference plane in the measurement path. The source
power calibration eliminates frequency response errors in the signal path between the
source and the reference plane.
Stimulus value: Value of the sweep variable (frequency/power/time/point number)
where a measurement is taken. Also termed sweep point.
Sweep: Series of consecutive measurements taken at a specified sequence of stimulus
values = series of consecutive measurement points.
Sweep point: Value of the sweep variable (stimulus value: frequency/power/time) where
a measurement is taken.
Sweep range: Continuous range of the sweep variable (frequency/power/time) containing the sweep points where the analyzer takes measurements. In a Segmented Frequency sweep the sweep range can be composed of several parameter ranges or single
points.
Sweep segment: Continuous frequency range or single frequency point where the analyzer measures at specified instrument settings (generator power, IF bandwidth etc.). In
the Segmented Frequency sweep type the entire sweep range can be composed of several sweep segments.
T
TNA: A calibration type using a through, a symmetric network and an attenuation standard. The properties of the network and the attenuation don't have to be known exactly.
Like TRL and TRM, TNA is especially useful for DUTs in planar line technology.
TOM: A calibration type using three fully known standards (through, open, match), recommended for 2-port measurements on coaxial systems.
Topology: Assignment of the physical ports of the NWA to the logical ports used for the
measurement of mixed mode S-parameters (balance-unbalance conversion).
TOSM: A calibration type using four known standards (through, open, short, match), also
called SOLT or 12-term error correction model. TOSM calibration is available for 2, 3 and
4-port measurements.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
100
R&S® ZVA
Glossary
Trace: A trace is a set of data points that can be displayed together on the screen. The
trace settings specify the mathematical operations used to obtain traces from the collected data. They complement the definitions of the Channel menu. Each trace is assigned
to a channel. The channel settings apply to all traces assigned to the channel.
Trace point: Point on the screen which is an element of the displayed trace. The trace
points for ratios and wave quantities can be derived from the entire set of measurement
points using different detector settings.
Transmission tracking error: Frequency-dependent variation of the ratio of the transmitted wave to the reference wave at a test port when an ideal transmission coefficient
(= 1) is measured. The transmission tracking error can be corrected by means of a transmission normalization or one of the more sophisticated calibration methods.
TRL: A calibration type using a through and a line standard plus a possibly unknown
reflect standard. The calibration range is limited. Like TNA and TRM, TRL is especially
useful for DUTs in planar line technology.
TRM: A calibration type using a through and a match standard plus a possibly unknown
reflect standard. Like TRL and TNA, TRM is especially useful for DUTs in planar line
technology.
W
Window: Rectangular portion of the screen showing all diagram areas of a particular
setup. Windows are limited by a blue frame with several icons. The analyzer uses standard windows provided by the operating system.
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
101
R&S® ZVA
Index
Index
Symbols
F
10 MHz REF ..................................................................... 15
Factory calibration ............................................................ 29
Firmware update .............................................................. 29
Front panel ......................................................................... 7
Front panel keys ............................................................... 37
Fuses ............................................................................... 21
A
Accessories (connect) ......................................................
AC Supply ........................................................................
Admittance .......................................................................
Arbitrary generator and receiver frequencies (R&S
ZVA-K4) ...........................................................................
Automatic calibration ........................................................
Autoscale .........................................................................
AUX ..................................................................................
22
20
78
92
88
42
15
B
Balanced port ...................................................................
Basic instrument concepts ...............................................
Basic tasks .......................................................................
Bench Top Operation .......................................................
Calibration ........................................................................ 85
Calibration kit ................................................................... 86
Calibration standard ......................................................... 86
Calibration types .............................................................. 87
Calibration unit ................................................................. 88
Cartesian diagram ............................................................ 66
CASCADE ........................................................................ 15
Channel ............................................................................ 46
CHANNEL .......................................................................... 9
Channel settings .............................................................. 61
Circular diagrams ............................................................. 42
Common mode ........................................................... 82, 83
Context menu ................................................................... 62
Converter Control ............................................................. 14
Converter control (R&S ZVA-K8) ..................................... 93
D
Data entry ......................................................................... 39
DATA ENTRY .................................................................. 11
Data flow .......................................................................... 48
DC MEAS ......................................................................... 15
Diagram area ............................................................. 44, 46
Dialog ............................................................................... 62
Differential mode ........................................................ 82, 83
Direct generator and receiver access .............................. 14
Display ............................................................................... 8
DISPLAY .......................................................................... 10
Display elements .............................................................. 54
Display formats ................................................................ 65
E
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
Getting Started ................................................................. 30
Global resource ................................................................ 45
Ground connector ............................................................ 13
H
Hardkey bar ...................................................................... 54
82
45
37
18
C
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) ..........................................
EMI Suppression ..............................................................
Evaluation of data ............................................................
EXT TRIGGER .................................................................
G
13
19
35
15
I
IEC Bus ............................................................................ 15
Impedance ....................................................................... 76
Instrument calibration ....................................................... 33
Instrument Setup ........................................................ 18, 31
Internal pulse generators (R&S ZVA-K27) ....................... 94
Inverted Smith chart ......................................................... 71
IP address setting ............................................................ 26
K
Keyboard .......................................................................... 23
L
LAN 1, LAN 2 ...................................................................
LAN connection ................................................................
double ........................................................................
Long distance mixer delay (R&S ZVA-K10) .....................
15
24
25
94
M
Make a Selection in a Dialog ............................................ 38
Marker .............................................................................. 58
Marker functions ............................................................... 43
Marker info field ................................................................ 59
MEAS OUT ...................................................................... 14
Measured quantities ......................................................... 74
Measurements on pulsed signals (R&S ZVA-K7) ............ 93
Menu bar .......................................................................... 51
Menus .............................................................................. 51
Minimize application ......................................................... 22
Mixed mode parameters .................................................. 83
Mixer delay w/o LO access (R&S ZVA-K9) ...................... 94
Mixer phase measurement (R&S ZVA-K5) ...................... 92
Mode conversion factor .................................................... 83
Monitor ....................................................................... 15, 24
Mounting in a 19" Rack .................................................... 19
Mouse .............................................................................. 23
N
NAVIGATION ................................................................... 10
Navigation tools ................................................................ 50
Noise figure measurement (R&S ZVAB-K30) .................. 94
102
R&S® ZVA
Index
Numeric entry bar ............................................................. 65
O
Offset parameters ............................................................
On-screen keyboard .........................................................
Windows XP ..............................................................
Options (overview) ...........................................................
90
40
41
90
Standby key .....................................................................
Startup and shutdown ......................................................
Status bar .........................................................................
Step size ..........................................................................
SUPPORT ........................................................................
Sweep range selection .....................................................
Sweep range setting ........................................................
SYSTEM ..........................................................................
12
21
54
64
10
32
41
10
P
T
Password ......................................................................... 26
Paste marker list .............................................................. 65
Polar diagram ................................................................... 67
PORT BIAS ...................................................................... 15
Power calibration .............................................................. 90
Power on and off .............................................................. 20
Preparing for use ................................................................ 7
Printer ............................................................................... 23
Printing data ..................................................................... 36
Putting into Operation ...................................................... 16
Test port ........................................................................... 12
Time domain (R&S ZVAB-K2) .......................................... 91
Title bar ............................................................................ 56
Trace .......................................................................... 46, 56
TRACE ............................................................................... 9
Trace list ........................................................................... 57
Transmission measurement ............................................. 37
True differential mode (R&S ZVAB-K6) ........................... 93
R
Unbalance-balance conversion ........................................
Unpacking ........................................................................
USB connectors ...............................................................
USER CONTROL .............................................................
R&S ZV-Zxx .....................................................................
R&S ZVA-B18 ..................................................................
R&S ZVA-B8 ....................................................................
R&S ZVA-K10 ..................................................................
R&S ZVA-K27 ..................................................................
R&S ZVA-K4 ....................................................................
R&S ZVA-K5 ....................................................................
R&S ZVA-K6 ....................................................................
R&S ZVA-K7 ....................................................................
R&S ZVA-K8 ....................................................................
R&S ZVA-K9 ....................................................................
R&S ZVA/B/C<n>-B16 .....................................................
R&S ZVAB-K2 ..................................................................
R&S ZVAB-K30 ................................................................
Ratio .................................................................................
Rear panel ........................................................................
Receiver power calibration ...............................................
Reference position ...........................................................
Reference value ...............................................................
Reflection measurement ..................................................
REF OUT .........................................................................
Remote desktop ...............................................................
Removable Hard Disk ......................................................
Rotary knob ......................................................................
88
14
14
94
94
92
92
93
93
93
94
14
91
94
81
15
90
42
42
30
14
28
14
12
U
82
17
13
15
V
Virtual differential mode ................................................... 82
Virus protection ................................................................ 26
W
Wave quantity .................................................................. 80
Windows XP ..................................................................... 28
Wizard .............................................................................. 30
Y
Y-parameter ..................................................................... 79
Z
Z-parameter ..................................................................... 77
S
S-parameter ..................................................................... 74
multiport ..................................................................... 75
S-parameter wizard .......................................................... 30
Saving data ...................................................................... 36
Scalar mixer and harmonics (R&S ZVA-K4) .................... 92
Scaling diagrams .............................................................. 41
Screen elements .............................................................. 50
Screen saver ...................................................................... 8
Setup ................................................................................ 46
Setup keys ......................................................................... 9
Single-ended mode .................................................... 82, 83
Smith chart ....................................................................... 68
Softkey bar ....................................................................... 52
SOURCE OUT ................................................................. 14
Source power calibration .................................................. 90
Standby and ready state .................................................. 21
Quick Start Guide 1145.1090.62 ─ 10
103
Download PDF
Similar pages