BLACKMER HD COMPRESSORS
Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Instructions
960484
INSTRUCTIONS CB9A-080
Section
Effective
Replaces
901
Jan 2007
9A-021, Oct. 2006
NON-LUBE, RECIPROCATING GAS COMPRESSORS
Discontinued Single-Stage Models
Air-Cooled: HD601B, HD602B, HD603B
Water Cooled: HDL602B, HDL603B, HDL642B, HDL643B
Discontinued Two-Stage Models
Air-Cooled: HD612B, HD613B
Water Cooled: HDL612B, HDL613B
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SAFETY DATA ..........................................................2
GENERAL INFORMATION
Compressor Data .................................................3
Nameplate Data ...................................................3
INSTALLATION
Location and Piping..............................................5
Mounting the Compressor Unit ............................5
Stationary Compressors.......................................5
Compressor Flywheel ..........................................6
V-Belt Drives.........................................................6
PTO Drives ...........................................................6
Suction Valve Unloaders......................................7
Interstage Piping / Cooling ...................................7
Water Cooled Compressors.................................7
Maximizing Compressor Life................................7
Seal (Packing) Arrangements..............................8
Relief Valves.........................................................9
4-Way Valves .....................................................10
Liquid Traps ........................................................10
Temperature and Pressure Switches ................10
Pressure Gauges ...............................................10
OPERATION
Pre-Start up Check List ........................................ 11
Start Up Procedure ............................................... 11
MAINTENANCE
Service Schedule.................................................. 12
Tool List................................................................. 13
Bolt Torque Table ................................................. 13
Crankcase Lubrication.......................................... 14
Setting the Oil Pressure........................................ 14
COMPRESSOR DISASSEMBLY.............................. 15
COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY.................................... 16
VALVE REPLACEMENT........................................... 18
UNLOADER SEAL REPLACEMENT....................... 19
PISTON RING REPLACEMENT............................... 19
SEAL (PACKING) REPLACEMENT ........................ 20
BEARING REPLACEMENT...................................... 21
OIL PUMP REPLACEMENT ..................................... 22
EXTENDED STORAGE............................................. 22
TROUBLESHOOTING............................................... 23
SAFETY DATA
NOTICE
This is a SAFETY ALERT SYMBOL.
When you see this symbol on the product, or in the
manual, look for one of the following signal words and
be alert to the potential for personal injury or property
damage.
Warns of hazards that WILL cause serious personal
injury, death or major property damage.
Warns of hazards that CAN cause serious personal
injury, death or major property damage.
Warns of hazards that CAN cause personal injury, or
property damage.
NOTICE
Indicates special instructions which are very important
and must be followed.
Flammable gas and/or liquid can form
explosive mixtures with air causing
property damage, serious personal injury
or death
Flammable gas can
cause death, serious
personal injury or
property damage
Blackmer compressors MUST only be installed in
systems which have been designed by qualified
engineering personnel. The system MUST conform to
all applicable local and national regulations and safety
standards.
These instructions are intended to assist in the
installation and operation of Blackmer compressors
and MUST be kept with the compressor.
Blackmer compressor service and maintenance shall
be performed by qualified technicians ONLY. Service
and maintenance shall conform to all applicable local
and national regulations and safety standards.
Thoroughly review this manual, all instructions and
hazard warnings, BEFORE performing any work on
the compressor.
Maintain ALL system and compressor operation and
hazard warning decals.
For handling liquefied petroleum gas, NFPA Pamphlet
58 should be consulted.
Hazardous pressure
can cause serious
personal injury or
property damage
Failure to disconnect and lockout
electrical power or engine drive before
attempting maintenance can cause
severe personal injury or death
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
Failure to relieve system pressure prior
to performing compressor service or
maintenance can cause serious
personal injury or property damage.
Failure to disconnect and lockout
electrical power before attempting
maintenance can cause shock, burns or
death
Hazardous voltage.
Can shock, burn or
cause death.
If handling hazardous or toxic fluids,
system must be flushed and
decontaminated, inside and out, prior to
performing service or maintenance
Hazardous or toxic
fluids can cause
serious injury.
Hazardous pressure
can cause serious
personal injury or
property damage
Explosive gas can cause property
damage, personal injury, or death.
Extreme heat can cause personal injury
or property damage
Extreme Heat can
cause personal injury
or property damage
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
CB9A-080
Disconnecting fluid or pressure
containment components during
compressor operation can cause
serious personal injury, death or major
property damage
page 2/24
GENERAL INFORMATION
Table 1 - COMPRESSOR DATA
Air Cooled
HD601B
HD602B
HD603B
Single-Seal Models
Double-Seal Models
Triple-Seal Models
Displacement
@ 350 rpm - CFM (m3/hr)
@ 825 rpm - CFM (m3/hr)
MAWP - psia (Bar)
Max. BHP (kw)
Maximum Discharge Temperature
Single-Stage
Water Cooled
27.2 (46.3)
64.2 (109.0)
350 (24.1)
Two-Stage
Air Cooled Water Cooled
HDL602B
HDL603B
HDL642B
HDL643B
HD612B
HD613B
HDL612B
HDL613B
27.2 (46.3)
64.2 (109.0)
350 (24.1)
13.4 (22.8)
31.7 (53.8)
750 (51.7)
40 (30)
22.9 (38.9)
53.7 (91.2)
415 (2,862)
22.9 (38.9)
53.7 (91.2)
415 (2,862)
350°F (176°C)
Rotation Direction
Bi-Directional
NOTE: Reduce maximum speeds by 9% for continuous duty operation.
The models listed above are vertical, air-cooled or water-cooled reciprocating style compressors with single acting
cylinders. Single, double or triple seal arrangements are available.
The 'B' suffix models listed have a bronze bushing on the wrist pin; the external oil filter is an available option.
ID#:
MODEL: HD
SERIAL NO:
Before proceeding:
1. Note the nameplate data in the space provided above.
2. Obtain the appropriate parts lists for the model in question.
3. These compressors are used on a wide variety of gasses. Before doing any work on the compressor,
be certain of the identification of the gas and the precautions to be followed when around that gas.
Manuals and Parts Lists for Blackmer products may be obtained from
Blackmer's website (www.blackmer.com) or be contacting Blackmer's Customer Service.
NAMEPLATE DATA
A nameplate is attached to the side of
all Blackmer compressors showing the
Model No., I.D. No., and Serial No.
These numbers should be available
when information or parts are needed
for a particular unit.
The basic size and type of the compressor is indicated by "Model No." A suffix letter is used to indicate the version.
Table 2 - Year of Manufacture *
Suffix
N
P
Q
Year
1993
1994
1995
Serial Number: 6 digits and a suffix letter indicating the year of manufacture.
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
* Starting in 2005, the suffix letter is no longer used; the year & month of construction is indicated on the nameplate.
CB9A-080
page 3/24
GENERAL INFORMATION
An 11 character "I.D. No." identifies the construction of the compressor.
Table 3 - ID NUMBER KEY
HD SINGLE-STAGE COMPRESSORS
VALVES
TNT-12 steel
TNT-12 steel w/ Unloaders
Ductile Iron / PEEK
DI/PEEK w/ Unloaders
TNT-12 DI/PEEK
TNT-12 DI/PEEK w/ Unloaders
Stainless Steel
SS w/ Unloaders
O-RINGS
Buna-N
Neoprene
PTFE
FLuorocarbon (FKM)
Ethylene-Propylene
GASKETS
Aluminum
Iron
Copper
PISTON RINGS
Glass & Moly Filled
Poly Filled PTFE
SEAL (PACKING) ORIENTATION
All Lips up
Top Lips Down, Bottom Up
Tube to Stage 1 outlet
Top Lips Down, Bottom Up
Tube to Stage 2 outlet
Top Lips Up, Bottom Down
Up, Down, Up
Down, Down, Up
Down, Up, Down
SEAL MATERIAL
PTFE
CYLINDER & HEAD
Ductile Iron
TNT-12 DI Cylinder
TNT-12 DI Cyl. & Head
PISTON RODS
Chrome Plated Steel
CrO2 Coated Steel
Black Surface Steel
CRANKSHAFT & OIL FILTER
Standard
Extended Crankshaft
Spin-on Oil Filter
Ext. Crank & Oil Filter
OTHER
Notes:
Code
BE
P
B
B
F
M
1
Fields
1&2
BF
PB
PC
PE
PF
SB
SC
Field 3
B
N
T
V
E
Field 4
A
F
C
Field 5
M
A
Field 6
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
Field 7
T
Field 8
A
B
C
Field 9
1
3
4
Field 10
A
B
C
D
A
Field 11
A 'Z' in any field indicates a non-standard option.
No model is available with all shown options.
CB9A-080
page 4/24
T
A
1
A
A
INSTALLATION
NOTICE:
Blackmer compressors must only be installed in
systems designed by qualified engineering
personnel. System design must conform with all
applicable regulations and codes and provide
warning of all system hazards.
NOTICE:
This compressor shall be installed in accordance
with the requirements of NFPA 58 and all
applicable local, state and national regulations.
Hazardous voltage.
Can shock, burn or
cause death.
Install, ground and wire to local and
National Electrical Code requirements.
Install an all-leg disconnect switch
near the unit motor.
Disconnect and lockout electrical
power before installation or service
Extreme Heat can
cause personal injury
or property damage
Discharge piping surface temperatures
may be hot during operation (over
158°F, 70°C). Temperatures should be
monitored and adequate warnings
posted
MOUNTING THE COMPRESSOR UNIT
Stationary Compressors
A solid foundation reduces noise and vibration, and will
improve compressor performance.
On permanent
installations, it is recommended the compressor be
secured by anchor bolts as shown. This arrangement
allows for slight shifting of position to accommodate
alignment with the mounting holes in the base plate.
Electrical supply MUST match motor nameplate
specifications.
Motors equipped with thermal protection
automatically disconnect motor electrical circuit when
overload exists. Motor can start unexpectedly and
without warning.
LOCATION AND PIPING
Compressor life and performance can be significantly
reduced when installed in an improperly designed
system. Before starting layout and installation of the
piping system, consider the following:
1. All piping must be leak free to a pressure of 1.5
times the maximum system pressure.
NOTICE: If the system is to be hydro-statically
tested, the compressor MUST be isolated.
Liquid entering the compressor will cause
damage and void the warranty.
2. A strainer should be installed in the inlet line to
protect the compressor from foreign matter. A #30
mesh screen or finer is recommended. Strainers
must be cleaned every 180 days, or more
frequently if the system requires.
3. Expansion joints, placed within 36" (0.9 m) of the
compressor, will compensate for expansion and
contraction of the pipes. Contact the flexible
connector/hose
manufacturer
for
required
maintenance/care and design assistance in their
use.
4. Piping must be adequately supported to ensure
that no piping loads are placed upon the
compressor.
5. Both suction and discharge piping should slope
down from the compressor.
The compressor
should not be placed at a low point in the piping
system.
CB9A-080
Figure 2 - Anchor Bolt
Set the anchor bolts in concrete for new foundations.
When compressors are to be located on existing
concrete floors, holes should be drilled into the concrete
to hold the anchor bolts.
To keep vibration at a minimum, in addition to a solid
concrete foundation, it is important that the concrete be
located on a stable soil foundation. The base must
have complete contact along its entire length with the
foundation. Visible separations will result in vibrations
which are magnified in the upper part of the unit.
Check compressor mounting bolts and baseplate
anchor bolts regularly.
page 5/24
INSTALLATION
COMPRESSOR FLYWHEEL
V-BELT DRIVES
Blackmer compressors are fitted with flywheels which
MUST be used regardless of the type of drive system
employed.
Most Blackmer compressors are driven via V-belts
which must be properly aligned and tensioned.
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
Failure to disconnect and lockout
electrical power or engine drive before
attempting maintenance can cause
severe personal injury or death
Flywheels must be properly installed and aligned:
1. Ensure that the mating surface between the hub
and flywheel are clean and dry – do not use a
lubricant.
2. Install the hub and key on clean compressor shaft,
flange end first.
3. Tighten the hub setscrew just enough to prevent it
from sliding on the shaft – do not overtighten.
4. Place the flywheel on the hub and loosely thread
the capscrews with lockwashers into the assembly.
Do not use lubricant on the capscrews.
5. Tighten all capscrews evenly and progressively in
rotation to the torque value in Table 4. There must
be a gap between the hub flange and the flywheel
with installation is complete. Do not over-torque.
Do not attempt to close gap between hub flange
and flywheel.
Hub
Capscrew
Torque
Size
Size
ft-lbs. (Nm)
3/8 – 16
30 (40.7)
SF
1/2 - 13
60 (81)
E
9/16 – 12
110 (149)
F
Table 4 – Flywheel Hub Torque Values
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
1. Lay a straight edge along the face of the motor
sheave and compressor flywheel.
2. Adjust either as needed to provide alignment.
3. Tighten the V-belts such that they are taut, but not
overly tight. Moderate thumb pressure should
deflect each belt about 1/4 – 3/8 in. (6 – 10 mm).
Consult your V-belt supplier for specific values.
4. Check the belt tension after 24 - 48 hours run-in.
Recheck periodically; tighten the belts as required.
Caution should be used to avoid overtightening belts,
which can shorten bearing and belt life. Belts should
be inspected periodically for signs of excessive wear
and replaced if necessary.
Operation without guards in place can
cause serious personal injury, major
property damage or death.
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
6. Ensure that the radial and axial runout values at the
rim do not exceed the following values:
Radial O.D. Runout: 0.016 in. (0.4046 mm)
Axial Rim Runout: 0.021 in. (0.5334 mm)
7. Ensure that the compressor flywheel guard is
properly installed before operation. The guard must
not contact moving parts.
Flywheel guard contact with moving
parts may be a source of ignition in
explosive atmospheres causing severe
personal injury or death
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
CB9A-080
Failure to disconnect and lockout
electrical power or engine drive before
attempting maintenance can cause
severe personal injury or death
page 6/24
INSTALLATION
SUCTION VALVE UNLOADERS
MAXIMIZING COMPRESSOR LIFE
Compressors may be fitted with suction valve unloaders
to provide loadless start or capacity control functions.
Blackmer unloaders are basically a piston and a plunger
atop the suction valve. When pressure is applied to the
top of the unloader piston, it and the plunger move
downward, pushing the suction valve off its seat and
unloading the compressor. When the pressure signal is
removed, the unloader spring pushes the piston and
plunger back up and the suction valve will resume
normal operation.
1. In order for the unloaders to function, the unloader
pressure must be at least 30 psi (2.1 Bar) above
suction pressure.
2. Do not operate unloaders for longer than 10
minutes as gas recirculation through the suction
valves will cause overheating.
Excessive gas recirculation using
suction valve unloaders can be a source
of ignition in explosive atmospheres
causing severe personal injury or death
Life of critical compressor components such as piston
rings, valves and packing will vary considerably with
each application, installation, and operating procedures.
Premature failure of wear parts can often be attributed
to one of the following causes:
1. Excessive Temperatures
Primary causes are:
• Operating at pressures other than those originally
specified.
• Handling a different gas than originally specified.
• Clogged strainer or filter elements.
• Line sizes too small, or other flow restrictions.
• Excessive ambient temperature or suction gas
temperature.
• Valve problems. (See Foreign Material.)
• Badly worn piston rings. (See Foreign Material.)
Lower operating temperatures will increase valve
and piston ring life significantly.
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
3. Do not place a restrictive device such as a back
check valve in the suction line near the compressor.
If such a device must be installed, the volume in the
piping between the device and the compressor
must be at least 10 times the cylinder swept
volume.
INTERSTAGE PIPING / COOLING
Generally, an interstage cooler should be used between
the 1st stage discharge and the 2nd stage. Cooling must
be sufficient to prevent excessive temperatures in the
2nd stage; typically 100 – 125°F (38 – 52 C°). If
interstage cooling is sufficient to cause condensation,
the resultant liquid must be removed prior to entering
the 2nd stage (see LIQUID TRAPS).
WATER-COOLED COMPRESSORS
NOTICE:
Do not operate water-cooled units without water
flow!
Cooling water should be clean and at not more than
100 psig (6.90 Bar-g). A flow of 1 gpm (4 lpm) is
normally adequate.
In general, cooler water
temperatures are preferable. However, care must be
taken as condensation may occur inside the
compressor if the water is too cold. Such condensation
can cause corrosion or even destroy the compressor.
NORMAL WATER FLOW PATH (1-Stage units):
→→→ cylinder →→→ head →→→
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
2. Foreign Material
Solid particles in the gas stream will:
• Rapidly wear the piston rings and score the
cylinder wall.
• Destroy the rod packing causing excessive
leakage and score the piston rods.
• Lodge in the valves causing loss of capacity and
broken valve plates and springs.
Liquid in the gas stream will:
• Cause broken valve plates and springs.
• Destroy the compressor if present in sufficient
quantity.
On new installations, it is suggested that the valves
and piston rings be inspected after the first few
hundred hours of operation. This will give an early
indication of any abnormal problems and allow for
corrective action to be taken before a costly failure
results. Although piston ring life will vary from
application to application, wear will be fairly
consistent on subsequent sets of rings.
NORMAL WATER FLOW PATH (2-Stage units):
→→ intercooler →→→ cylinder →→→ head →→
CB9A-080
Extreme temperatures caused by
abnormally high discharge pressure or
valve problems can be a source of
ignition in explosive atmospheres
causing severe personal injury or death.
page 7/24
INSTALLATION
SEAL (PACKING) ARRANGEMENTS
Single, Double and Triple Seal models are available to
provide a wide range of leakage control/containment
options. Before starting work on the compressor, note
the seal orientation indicated by the 6th digit of the
Compressor ID # shown on the compressor's
nameplate.
Also note any tubing connections in the seal area. 1/4"
NPT ports are provided between each pair of seals to
allow proper venting or pressurization of the seal areas
(double and triple seal models only).
For more
information, see CB-037 "Compressor Distance Piece
Options".
Improper seal installation could release
explosive gas to the atmosphere
creating an explosion hazard, possibly
causing severe personal injury or death.
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
Fig. 4 - SEAL ORIENTATION SINGLE SEAL COMPRESSORS
Fig. 5 - TYPICAL SEAL AREA CONSTRUCTION
Table 5 - SEAL ARRANGEMENTS - ALL DOUBLE SEAL COMPRESSORS
Type
Inlet
Pressure
Service
1
2
4
Atmospheric Pressure or above
Vacuum to 25 psia
Under 5 psia
General
Gas
Transfer
Plugged
Upper
Distance
Piece
Connections
Lower
Ref. Notes:
NOTES:
a.
b.
c.
Toxic, Flammable or otherwise Hazardous Gases
General Gas Transfer
3
Special
Purge with Inert gas below
Pressurize
Connect
Tube to:
suction pressure and
or
to:
2nd-Stage
above atmospheric
Purge with an Inert gas
1st-Stage
Discharge
pressure,
above suction pressure
Discharge
or
and above atmospheric
Vent to a safe location
pressure
Install drain valve. Drain accumulated condensate or oil weekly.
a
b
a
c
Standard Configuration - use when no purge gas is available, or when mixing of the purge gas with the
product stream is not desirable.
Use when no external product leakage is desirable.
Note: Mixing of inert pressurization gas and the product stream is likely to occur.
Consult Factory.
CB9A-080
page 8/24
INSTALLATION
Fig. 6.
Seal orientation double seal models
Fig. 7.
Seal orientation triple seal models
RELIEF VALVES
A relief valve of a type, material and pressure rating
suitable to the installation, MUST be installed. The
relief valve shall be installed in the discharge line
between the compressor head and the first block valve.
Hazardous pressure
can cause serious
personal injury or
property damage
Compressor operating against closed
valve can cause system component
failure, personal injury or property
damage.
Since all systems differ in design, care must be taken to
ensure the relief valve is installed to safely vent away
from sources of ignition and personnel. This can be
accomplished by either orientation or a pipe away,
consult the Relief Valve manufacture for assistance.
CB9A-080
Operation of the relief valve can release
explosive gas to the atmosphere
creating an explosion hazard, possibly
causing personal injury or death
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
Should the Relief Valve actuate, the cause MUST be
determined and corrected before continuing operations.
See the 'Troubleshooting' section.
Blackmer offers various relief valves for gas and
application compatibility.
page 9/24
INSTALLATION
4-WAY VALVES
Many liquefied gas compressors are used for both liquid
transfer and vapor recovery operations. An optional 4way valve is used to reverse the direction of flow
through the system when changing from liquid transfer
to vapor recovery. Both lubricated and nonlubricated
models are available. Lubricated models should be
lubricated every 6 months.
TEMPERATURE SWITCHES
Fig 8 –
Typical Liquid Trap
LIQUID TRAPS
Compressors handling gasses containing condensates
or other liquids MUST be protected from entry of the
liquid. Liquid can also enter the compressor from the
discharge piping, particularly if the piping slopes down
toward the compressor. To prevent liquid from entering
the compressor and causing major damage, it is
necessary to carefully consider the system design and
have strict procedures for operation.
NOTICE: Liquid in the compressor cylinder can
cause destruction of the compressor.
A liquid trap may be required at the 2nd stage inlet as
well as at the compressor suction. If used, a 2nd stage
inlet liquid trap would be located after the intercooler.
Blackmer offers a variety of liquid traps. The most
common variations include:
Blackmer offers a variety of liquid traps. The most
common variations include:
1. A non-code vessel fitted with a stainless steel float
which will shut off the intake line to the compressor
in the event of an excessive liquid level. A vacuum
breaking valve is provided on the liquid trap head in
case the trap closes and a vacuum develops
between the compressor and the trap. A manual
drain valve is provided.
2. The above trap is fitted with a port allowing for the
use of an electric float switch which protects the
compressor by stopping the compressor when a
high liquid level is present in the liquid trap. The
electric float switch may be used with or without the
mechanical float described above.
3. For additional protection, a larger ASME code
stamped vessel is available. This liquid trap is
typically fitted with one or two electric float switches
for both a high liquid level shut down and alarm
signal, a relief valve, and a manual drain valve.
Level gauges and automatic drain systems are
available options.
CB9A-080
Excessive discharge temperature is a leading cause of
premature component failure and is often an early
warning sign of impending problems.
Optional temperature switches should be installed with
a thermowell as close to the compressor discharge as
possible. The switch should be set to actuate at a
temperature just above the maximum operating
temperature of the compressor.
ATEX compliant compressors must have a temperature
switch installed.
LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCHES
Loss of crankcase oil pressure is a rare occurrence, but
can result in costly damage. An optional low oil
pressure switch set at about 15 psig (1 bar-g) may be
installed to shut down the compressor in the event of a
lubrication failure. A 10 second delay timer should be
used to lock the low oil pressure switch out during
compressor startup.
PRESSURE SWITCHES
Pressure switches may be installed in the suction or
discharge gas stream as protective devices, for
compressor control, or for other uses varying with each
application and system design.
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
Optional liquid trap level switches,
temperature switches, pressure
switches or other electrical devices
must be properly specified for
applications using explosive gases.
PRESSURE GAUGES
Install pressure gauges in the discharge and inlet lines
to verify actual suction and discharge pressures.
page 10/24
OPERATION
PRE-STARTUP CHECK LIST
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
Failure to disconnect and lockout
electrical power or engine drive before
attempting maintenance can cause
severe personal injury or death
1. After the compressor is installed in the system, a
complete leak test MUST be performed on both the
compressor and the piping.
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
Failure to properly leak test the
compressor installation may result in
leakage of explosive gas to the
atmosphere creating an explosion
hazard, possibly causing severe
personal injury or death.
3. If V-belt driven, check the alignment of the motor
and the compressor sheaves. The faces of the
sheaves must be parallel.
4. Ensure that pressure gauges are installed on both
inlet and discharge of the compressor.
5. Blackmer compressors are shipped from the factory
without oil in the crankcase. Fill with a high quality
non-detergent oil of the proper viscosity. See
"Crankcase Lubrication" in this manual.
6. Check the electrical connections for proper wiring,
grounding, etc.
7. With the power disconnected, remove the
compressor nameplate.
Squirt oil onto each
crosshead while rotating the compressor by hand to
verify smooth operation.
8. Ensure that all guarding is properly installed.
Operation without guards in place can
cause serious personal injury, major
property damage or death.
2. Re-check the system piping and the piping supports
to ensure that no piping loads are being placed on
the compressor.
Extreme Heat can
cause personal injury
or property damage
Discharge piping surface temperatures
may be hot during operation (over 158°f,
70°c). Temperatures should be
monitored and adequate warnings
posted.
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
Flywheel guard contact with moving
parts may be a source of ignition in
explosive atmospheres causing severe
personal injury or death
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
STARTUP PROCEDURE
NOTICE:
Consult the 'troubleshooting' section of this manual if
difficulties during startup are experienced.
1. Start the compressor. Oil pressure should register
25 psig (1.7 bar-g) within 10 seconds.
If proper oil pressure is not present, stop the
compressor and correct the problem.
2.
3.
4.
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
Operation of the compressor with low or
no oil may result in extreme
temperature in the crankcase. This
could be an ignition source in the
presence of explosive gas and could
lead to severe personal injury or death.
5.
Operating the compressor with low oil pressure will
cause severe damage to the unit. See "Setting the
Oil Pressure" in this manual.
CB9A-080
The oil pump on these models will operate in either
direction of crankshaft rotation.
Verify that the suction and discharge pressures are
within the expected ranges.
Operating limits listed in the "Compressor Data"
section must not be exceeded.
Check for leakage from the piping and equipment,
and repair as necessary.
If the seals (packing) have just been replaced or if
the compressor has been out of service for over 6
months, the lower seal MUST be manually
lubricated during the first 60 minutes of operation.
See "Seal (Packing) Replacement" section. New
compressors have had the packing broken in at the
factory.
On newly rebuilt units, the valve hold down screws,
valve cover plate bolts and cylinder head bolts
MUST have their torque checked after 60 minutes
running time. Also re-tighten all hold down bolts,
flywheel bolts, etc. after 60 minutes running time.
See the "Bolt Torque." table.
page 11/24
MAINTENANCE
Flammable gas can
cause death, serious
personal injury or
property damage
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
Hazardous or toxic
fluids can cause
serious injury.
Flammable gas and/or liquid can form
explosive mixtures with air causing
property damage, serious personal injury
or death
Hazardous pressure
can cause serious
personal injury or
property damage
Failure to disconnect and lockout
electrical power or engine drive before
attempting maintenance can cause
severe personal injury or death
Hazardous voltage.
Can shock, burn or
cause death.
If handling hazardous or toxic fluids,
system must be flushed and
decontaminated, inside and out, prior to
performing service or maintenance
Hazardous pressure
can cause serious
personal injury or
property damage
Explosive gas can cause property
damage, personal injury, or death.
Failure to relieve system pressure prior
to performing compressor service or
maintenance can cause serious
personal injury or property damage.
Failure to disconnect and lockout
electrical power before attempting
maintenance can cause shock, burns
or death
Disconnecting fluid or pressure
containment components during
compressor operation can cause
serious personal injury, death or major
property damage
Extreme heat can cause personal
injury or property damage
Extreme Heat can
cause personal injury
or property damage
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
NOTICE:
Blackmer compressor service and maintenance shall be performed by qualified technicians only. Service
and maintenance shall conform to all applicable local and national regulations and safety standards.
SERVICE SCHEDULE
Overall Visual Check
Check Crankcase Oil Pressure
Check Suction Pressure
Check Discharge Pressure
Drain Distance Piece (Double & Triple-Seal Models)
Drain Liquid From Accumulation Points
Clean Compressor Cooling Fins & Heat Exchanger Fins
Check Crankcase Oil Level *
Daily
X
X
X
X
Weekly
Monthly
6 Months
Yearly
X
X
X
X*
Check Mounting and Anchor Bolts
X
Check V-Belt Tension
Change Oil and External Oil Filter *
Check Inlet Filter/Strainer Element
Inspect Valves
Lubricate 4-way Valve (if equipped)
Lubricate Motor Bearings per Manufacturer's Suggestions
Inspect Motor Starter Contact Points
X
X*
X
X
X
X
X
* Change oil every 1,000 hours of operation, or every 6 months which ever occurs first. If the oil becomes dirty or diluted,
change oil and external filter as often as needed to maintain clean oil.
Table 6 - Service Schedule
CB9A-080
page 12/24
MAINTENANCE
Table 7 - TOOL LIST
Description
Used For:
Blackmer Packing Installation Tool ( PN 790538)
Rod-packing protection during installation.
Blackmer Wrench 790535
Valve Hold-down screw
3" Adjustable Spanner with 1/4" pins
(like Blackmer PN 790316)
Piston Nut, Piston,
Packing Box Hold-down Ring
9/16, 5/8 or 3/4" End Wrench
Cylinder and Crosshead Guide
1-1/16" Wrench or Socket
Valve Caps
3/16" Allen Wrench
Oil Pump Cover
7/16", 1/2", 9/16", 3/4", 5/8", 3/4",
7/8" & 1-3/8" Sockets
Various
Internal Snap Ring Pliers
Seal Replacement
Feeler gauges or Depth Micrometer
Piston Clearance
Screwdriver, Flat Blade
Nameplate screws, Packing Installation
Pliers
Rubber Mallet
Arbor Press
Wrist Pin Removal
Bearing Puller
Crankshaft Bearings
Torque Wrench
Various
Hoist (useful)
Cylinder and Crosshead Guide
BOLT TORQUES
Proper bolt torques to use when reassembling the compressor.
Table 8 - BOLT TORQUES FOR BLACKMER COMPRESSORS FT-LBS (Nm)
Sizes
Con.
Rod
Bolt
Bearing
Carrier
600
45
(61)
30
(40.7)
CrankBearing
Cross
case
Cover
Head Cylinder
Inspec.
Plate
Guide
Plate
40
(54)
7
(9.5)
40
(54)
40
(54)
CB9A-080
Head
Piston
&
Nut
Valve
Assy.
Nut
Valve
Valve
Hold
Cover
Down
Plate
Screw
Valve
Cap
Packing
Box
Hold
Down
Ring
40
(54)
60
(81)
10
(13.6)
35
(47.5)
80
(108)
75
(102)
page 13/24
120
(163)
MAINTENANCE
Figure 9 - Compressor Lubrication System
CRANKCASE LUBRICATION
Change the crankcase oil every 1,000 hours or 180
days, whichever is shorter. Under severe dusty or
sandy operating conditions, the oil should be changed
every 500 hours or every 90 days.
Non-detergent motor oils are recommended.
However, detergent oils can be used providing the gas
being handled does not react with the detergent in the
oil. If using a detergent oil, be sure there is not a
compatibility problem.
The following gasses are
known to react with detergents in oil:
Ammonia Monoethylamine
Monomethylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine
The oil used, detergent or non-detergent, should
be of high quality such as API grade SF, SG, SH or
similar.
API grade SA, SB, SC or similar oils should never
be used. Recycled oils should never be used.
Consult factory for special lubricating requirements.
Before changing the oil, bring the compressor up to
normal operating temperature. Remove the crankcase
drain plug and drain the oil into an adequately sized
container. Remove the oil pickup screen and clean in a
suitable solvent. When reinstalling the pickup screen,
inspect the metal gasket and the O-ring for damage,
replacing as necessary. If equipped, replace the
external oil filter. See Figure 9.
Sizes
All 600 Series
7
Liters
6.62
Table 9 - Oil Capacity
Air Temperature
SAE
5W
Below 0°F (-18°C)
10W
0 to 32°F (-18 to 0°C)
20W
32 to 80°F (0 to 27°C)
30W
80°F (27°C) and above
Table 10 - Oil Viscosity
ISO Grade
15
22
46
100
SETTING THE OIL PRESSURE (see Figure 9)
1. The oil pressure should be about 25 psig
(1.73 Barg-).
2. Loosen the locknut.
3. Increase the pressure setting by turning the
adjusting screw inward, CLOCKWISE.
Decrease the pressure setting by turning the
adjusting screw outward, COUNTER-CLOCKWISE.
4. Retighten the locknut.
Refill the crankcase via the dipstick opening. DO NOT
OVERFILL THE CRANKCASE!
The oil pump on these models will operate in either
direction of crankshaft rotation.
CB9A-080
Quarts
page 14/24
COMPRESSOR DISASSEMBLY
Failure to disconnect and lockout
electrical power or engine drive before
attempting maintenance can cause
severe personal injury or death
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
Hazardous pressure
can cause serious
personal injury or
property damage
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
6.
7.
8.
Failure to relieve system pressure prior
to performing compressor service or
maintenance can cause serious
personal injury or property damage.
Venting pressure from the compressor
piping could release explosive gas to
the atmosphere creating an explosion
hazard, possibly causing severe
personal injury or death.
NOTICE:
Before starting work on the compressor, make sure
all pressure is bled off on both the suction and
discharge.
1. Two Stage Models: Remove the flange bolts
connecting the intercooler to the cylinder head.
Disconnect the return tube and fitting.
2. Water-cooled models: Disconnect water tubing.
3. Remove the center head capscrews from the
cylinder head. Remove the outer cylinder head
capscrews.
4. The cylinder head assembly and cylinder head
O-rings can now be removed from the cylinder.
The suction and discharge valve assemblies will
come off with the cylinder head.
For valve
disassembly
instructions
refer
to
"Valve
Replacement."
5. Removal of the piston requires a 3" adjustable
spanner wrench with 1/4" pins (such as Blackmer
PN 790316)
a. Rotate the flywheel by hand to bring a piston
to top dead center of the cylinder.
b. Remove the piston nut by rotating the nut
counterclockwise. (The nylon locking insert in
the piston nut must be replaced during
reassembly.)
c. To remove the piston from the cylinder, rotate
it counterclockwise with the use of the
adjustable spanner wrench. For removal and
replacement of the piston rings, refer to
"Piston Ring Replacement."
CB9A-080
9.
10.
d. Remove the thrust washer and shims. Keep
the shims & piston together.
e. Repeat these steps for the other piston.
Remove the cylinder capscrews.
The cylinder and cylinder O-rings can then be
lifted from the crosshead guide (or distance piece).
Removal of the packing boxes is dependent on the
Model Number of the Compressor.
For
disassembly of the packing boxes, refer to "Seal
(Packing) Replacement".
Single-Seal Models
a. Using an adjustable spanner wrench, remove
the packing box hold-down rings. (Replace
the nylon locking inserts in the hold-down
rings during reassembly.)
b. Remove the packing boxes and packing box
O-rings from the piston rods.
Double-Seal Models
a. Using an adjustable spanner wrench, remove
the packing box hold-down rings. (Replace
the nylon locking inserts in the hold-down
rings during reassembly.)
b. The spacer rings, upper packing box O-rings,
packing boxes and lower packing box O-rings
can then be removed from the piston rods.
Triple-Seal Models
a. Lift the upper packing box assemblies and Orings off the piston rods.
b. Remove the upper distance piece capscrews
and lift the upper distance piece and O-rings
off the crosshead guide.
c. Using an adjustable spanner wrench, remove
the packing box hold-down rings. (Replace
the nylon locking inserts in the hold-down
rings during reassembly.)
d. The spacer rings, upper packing box O-rings,
packing boxes and lower packing box O-rings
can then be removed from the piston rods.
Remove the crosshead guide capscrews, then lift
the crosshead guide and gasket off.
To remove the connecting rod assemblies (with
the crossheads attached) it may be necessary to
drain the oil from the crankcase. NOTE: The
piston rod is permanently attached to the
crosshead to form a single assembly. Do not
attempt disassembly.
a. Remove the crankcase inspection plate.
b. Remove the locknuts from the connecting rod
bolts. This will release the connecting rod cap
(the lower half of the connecting rod) and the
two
halves
of
the
bearing
insert.
NOTE: The connecting rod and the connecting
rod cap are marked with a dot on one side so
that they can be matched properly when
reassembling.
page 15/24
COMPRESSOR DISASSEMBLY
c.
Lift the crosshead assembly and connecting
rod off the crankcase.
NOTE: The connecting rod parts are not
interchangeable and must be reassembled
with the same upper and lower halves. To
avoid confusion, work on one connecting
rod at a time, or mark the individual halves
with corresponding numbers.
11. Remove the opposite connecting rod and
crosshead assembly in the same manner.
12. Rest the crosshead assembly on a bench.
Carefully drive the wrist pin and wrist pin plugs out
of the crosshead and connecting rod using a
suitable pin driver or an arbor press. Removal of
the pin releases the crosshead assembly from the
connecting rod.
13. If necessary, the wrist pin bushings can be
replaced after the crossheads are removed.
Connecting Rods with new brass bushings must
be honed to the proper size after installation.
Inner Dimensions:
1.2511" to 1.2514" (31.778 mm to 31.786 mm).
14. To replace the crankshaft bearings, the crankcase
must be disassembled, and the crankshaft
removed. Refer to "Bearing Replacement" for
disassembly instructions.
COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY
Compressor assembly is generally the opposite of
compressor disassembly. Before reassembling, clean
each part thoroughly. Check all machined surfaces for
burrs or roughness, and file lightly if necessary.
Replace any O-rings or gaskets that are removed or
disturbed during service.
1. CRANKCASE ASSEMBLY
After replacing the crankshaft, bearing carrier, and
bearing cover plate (see "Bearing Replacement"),
the connecting rod and crosshead can be installed.
a. To attach the connecting rod to the crosshead
assembly, first coat the wrist pin, the wrist pin
bore in the crosshead assembly, and the wrist
pin bushing in the connecting rod with grease.
b. Start the wrist pin in the bore of the crosshead
assembly and tap lightly until the pin begins to
project through to the inside of the crosshead
assembly.
c. Slide the connecting rod up inside of the
crosshead assembly and align the bushing with
the wrist pin.
d. Lightly tap the wrist pin through the connecting
rod until it is centered in the crosshead
assembly. NOTE: The wrist pin should be snug
in the crosshead assembly. The connecting
rod should rotate freely on the wrist pin, but
should not be loose.
e. Dip the wrist pin plugs in grease and press
them in place.
f. Place the bearing halves into each half of the
connecting rod, aligning the bearing tangs with
the slots in the connecting rod. Coat the
bearing with grease.
g. Set the top of the connecting rod over the
crankshaft journal. Replace the connecting rod
cap, remembering that the dots on the
connecting rod and cap must be on the same
side.
h. Start the nuts on the connecting rod bolts and
torque per the Bolt Torque Table.
i. Follow this same procedure for the opposite
CB9A-080
2.
3.
4.
5.
connecting rod.
CROSSHEAD GUIDE
a. Place the crosshead guide gasket on top of the
crankcase.
b. Lubricate the inside bore of the crosshead
guide with light oil.
c. Set the crosshead guide over the piston rods
and the crossheads, and slowly lower it against
the crankcase.
Make certain that the
crosshead assemblies are started straight in
the bores of the crosshead guide to prevent
binding when lowering the crosshead guide into
position.
d. Install the crosshead guide capscrews loosely.
Fill the crankcase with oil. See "Lubrication" for
proper amount. Squirt oil into the crankshaft, roller
bearings, crankshaft journals, and crosshead
assemblies so they will have lubrication at start up.
Attach the inspection plate and the inspection plate
gasket to the crankcase.
PACKING BOX ASSEMBLIES
Refer to the section 'SEAL REPLACEMENT' for
packing box assembly. Before installing the packing
boxes into the crosshead guide, inspect the piston
rods for scoring or roughness. Remove any burrs
or sharp edges. Lubricate the piston rods and
packing box O-rings with light oil. The packing
installation tool (Blackmer Part No. 795038) MUST
be used to avoid damaging the packing when
starting it over the rod.
Single-Seal Models
a. Insert the packing box O-ring into the
crosshead guide.
b. Start the packing box assembly, short end
down, over the piston rod and into the counterbored hole of the crosshead guide.
c. Install the packing box retainer ring with new
nylon locking inserts, and tighten securely.
d. Repeat the above steps for the remaining
packing box.
page 16/24
COMPRESSOR ASSEMBLY
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Double-Seal and Triple-Seal Models
a. Insert the lower packing box O-ring into the
crosshead guide.
b. Start the packing box assembly, short end
down, over the piston rod.
c. After the lower set of packing is started over the
piston rod, make sure the oil deflector ring is
properly aligned (with the flat side down) over
the piston rod. Use the hole in the side of the
packing box to center the deflector ring. Once
the deflector ring is over the rod, the packing
box can be fully inserted.
d. Install the upper packing box O-ring on the end
of the packing box.
e. Place packing box spacer ring over the O-ring.
f. Install the packing box retainer ring with new
nylon locking inserts, and tighten.
g. Repeat above steps for the other packing box.
The following applies to Triple-Seal Models only.
h. Install new O-rings in the bottom of the upper
distance piece. A small amount of grease may
be used to hold the O-rings in place during
assembly.
i. Set the upper distance piece over the piston
rods and against the crosshead guide, loosely
install upper distance piece capscrews.
j. Install each upper packing box O-ring over the
piston rods.
k. Install each upper packing box over the piston
rods.
Rotate the crankshaft by hand a few times, then
uniformly tighten the crosshead guide capscrews
(and upper distance piece capscrews on triple-seal
models) per the Bolt Torque Table.
New packing must be broken in. Refer to the end
of "Seal Replacement".
CYLINDER ASSEMBLY
a. Install new O-rings in the bottom of the cylinder.
A small amount of grease may be used to hold
the O-rings in place during assembly.
b. Set the cylinder over the piston rods and
against the crosshead guide.
c. Loosely install the cylinder capscrews.
Rotate the flywheel by hand to ensure the
compressor turns freely.
PISTONS
a. If necessary, replace the piston rings and
expanders (see "Piston Ring Replacement").
b. Rotate the flywheel by hand to bring one piston
rod to top dead center of the cylinder assembly.
c. Set one (1) thrust washer and one (1) shim
down against the shoulder of the piston rod.
d. Squeeze the piston rings inward, with light
pressure, while threading the piston clockwise
onto the rod. Tighten with the 3" adjustable
spanner wrench.
e. Repeat steps a - d for the second piston.
CB9A-080
f.
Rotate the compressor by hand a number of
times to verify that the pistons are centered in
the cylinder bores. The pistons must not touch
the cylinder walls. If necessary, adjust the
cylinder.
g. Tighten the cylinder capscrews per the Bolt
Torque Table in an alternating pattern.
h. The proper number of shims must be installed
under the piston. To check, rotate the flywheel
by hand to bring a piston to the top.
i.
Measure the distance from the top of the
piston to the top of the cylinder.
ii. If necessary, remove the piston and add or
subtract shims accordingly.
iii. Repeat steps i. – ii. for the second piston.
HD601
.020" - .035" (.508 - .889 mm)
HD602 / HDL602 .030" - .045"
HDL642
(.762 - 1.143 mm)
HD612 / HDL612
HD603 / HDL603 .060" - .075"
HDL643
(1.524 - 1.905 mm)
HD613 / HDL613
i.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Replace the nylon locking inserts in the piston
retainer nuts.
j. Thread the piston nuts onto the piston rods and
tighten with the spanner wrench.
CYLINDER HEAD ASSEMBLY
If the valve assemblies have been removed from
the cylinder head, it is easiest to reinstall them
before attaching the cylinder head to the cylinder
assembly.
Refer to "Valve Replacement" for
instructions.
a. Place the cylinder head O-rings in the grooves
located on top of the cylinder.
b. Place cylinder head assembly on the cylinder.
c. Hand tighten the outer capscrews and center
capscrews into the cylinder head.
d. Uniformly torque the cylinder head capscrews
according to the Bolt Torque Table.
Rotate the compressor by hand to verify that it turns
freely. Make sure the pistons are not hitting against
the bottom of the cylinder head assembly.
Two-stage Models: Install the intercooler shroud (if
supplied). Torque the intercooler flange capscrews
to 20 ft-lbs. (27 Nm). Attach the return tube and
fittings to the cylinder and cylinder head.
Water-cooled Models: Reconnect water tubing.
Refer to the "Pre-Startup Check List", and "Startup
Procedure".
After the compressor has been run for a sufficient
enough time to reach operating temperature, allow
to cool and retighten the valve hold down screws.
page 17/24
VALVE REPLACEMENT
When replacing the valves, it is important to install
the suction and discharge valves in the correct
location in the cylinder head.
NOTE: The valves may be removed without
removing the cylinder head from the cylinder. Be
sure to remove and replace the valve gaskets.
Failure to install compressor valves
properly can lead to component failure,
personal injury or property damage.
Single-Stage
Hazardous pressure
can cause serious
personal injury or
property damage
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
Failure to install compressor valves
properly can result in leakage of
explosive gas creating an explosion
hazard, possibly causing severe
personal injury or death.
Failure to install compressor valves
properly can result in extreme
discharge temperatures. This could be
an ignition source in the presence of
explosive gas possibly causing severe
personal injury or death.
Two-Stage
Fig. 10 - Valve Locations
Fig. 11 Typical Head Assembly
(with Suction Valve Unloaders).
CB9A-080
page 18/24
VALVE REPLACEMENT
1. Remove the valve cap (or unloader assembly) and
O-ring from each valve.
2. Remove the valve hold down screw with a
spanner wrench (such as Blackmer PN 790535).
3. Valve Removal and Disassembly
Remove the valve cover plate capscrews then lift
off the cover plate and O-ring.
a. Remove the valve cage (and unloader
plunger).
b. Remove the valve assembly and valve gasket.
c. Inspect the valve for wear or breakage.
f.
Install the hold down screw and tighten
according to the Bolt Torque Table.
g. Install the valve cap (or unloader assembly)
and O-ring. (A little oil or grease on the O-ring
will help hold it in place during installation.)
5. After replacing the valves, rotate the flywheel by
hand to check for interference between the pistons
and the valves.
6. After 60 minutes of running time, remove the valve
cap (or unloader assembly) and retorque the hold
down screw. Replace the valve cap and O-ring.
UNLOADER SEAL REPLACEMENT
1. Remove the unloader cap and O-ring.
2. Remove the unloader body from the cylinder head
(a strap wrench is helpful).
3. Push the unloader piston out the top of the
unloader body.
4. Inspect and replace the seals as needed - note the
seal orientation!
5. Inspect the unloader body bore - it must be clean
and smooth.
6. Reassemble in the reverse order.
PISTON RING REPLACEMENT
Fig. corrected 120410.
Fig. 12 -Typical Valve Assemblies
d. Valve Repair
i. Remove hex nut from valve (after
removing the unloader actuator retaining
ring, the actuator, spring, and post.)
ii. Separate the valve halves and remove
springs and plate.
iii. Inspect and replace worn components.
iv. Reassemble valves as shown in the
drawing and tighten the valve assembly
nut according to the Bolt Torque Table.
v. (Reassemble the unloader post, spring,
actuator and retainer ring.)
4. To reinstall valves:
a. Install a new valve gasket into the cylinder
head (remove any old gaskets).
b. Install the valve assembly in the cylinder head.
Make sure the valve's orientation and location
are correct.
c. Center the valve cage on the valve assembly.
d. Applies only to suction valves with unloaders.
Install the unloader plunger in the cage.
e. Make sure the valve hold down screw is
removed from the cover plate, then install the
valve cover plate with a new O-ring. Tighten
the cover plate capscrews according to the
Bolt Torque Table.
CB9A-080
1. Follow steps 1 through 3 of "Compressor
Disassembly."
2. Remove the piston rings and the piston ring
expanders from the pistons.
3. To replace the piston rings:
a. Place an expander in the top groove of the
piston. Place an expander in the second
groove with the break in this expander 180
degrees from the break of the top expander.
Place the third expander in the bottom groove
with its break in the same position as the top
expander.
b. Place piston rings in all three grooves of the
piston. Make sure the breaks in the piston
rings are directly opposite the breaks in the
corresponding expanders.
4. Reassemble the compressor per steps 10 through
14 of "Compressor Assembly."
page 19/24
SEAL (PACKING) REPLACEMENT
1. Follow the steps in "Compressor Disassembly" to
remove the packing boxes.
2. Remove the upper and lower retainer ring from the
packing box being serviced.
Disassemble the
packing box and discard the old packing sets and
packing springs.
NOTE: Before reassembling the packing boxes,
refer back to "Seal Arrangements". The 6th digit of
the Compressor ID# identifies the packing
orientation.
b. See "Seal Arrangements" (Fig. 6 & 7) for the
proper location and orientation of the packing
components. Install the first retainer ring (start
with the inner ring on two seal packing boxes),
then install the packing rings, spring, washers,
and the second retainer ring. Note: To ease
installation on the second retainer ring, use a
screwdriver handle and press on the last
washer to compress the seal spring slightly.
c. Two seal packing boxes only
Insert the oil deflector ring through the top of
the packing box, flat side down, into the cavity
between the upper and lower packing. NOTE:
The oil deflector ring will be positioned
between the two sets of packing. Install the
second set of packing per step b.
Fig. 14 – Seal Component Orientation
Fig. 13 - Packing Box X-Sections
3. Packing boxes may contain either one or two sets
of packing, depending on the compressor being
serviced. To reassemble a packing box:
a. Clean the packing box in a suitable solvent.
Inspect the bore for wear, roughness, or
corrosion.
CB9A-080
4. Packing Break-in
The lower packing must be manually lubricated
with oil several times during the first 60 minutes of
compressor operation.
This will prevent
overheating of the piston rods and potential
damage to the packing material. If possible,
perform the packing break-in at a lower speed –
400-500 rpm.
To lubricate the packing:
a. Remove the inspection plate from the
crosshead guide.
b. Run the compressor for 5 minutes then stop
the compressor for 5 minutes to allow adequate
cooling of the piston rods.
c. Lubricate the piston rods each time the
compressor is stopped. A small oil can
should be used for lubrication.
page 20/24
SEAL (PACKING) REPLACEMENT
Improper seal installation could release
explosive gas to the atmosphere
creating an explosion hazard, possibly
causing severe personal injury or death.
Hazardous gases
can cause property
damage, personal
injury or death
Do not insert objects or fingers in
inspection cavity. Can cause severe
personal injury
Hazardous
machinery can
cause serious
personal injury.
5. Proceed per the "Compressor Assembly" section.
BEARING REPLACEMENT
NOTICE: When replacing the bearings, the entire
bearing assembly, including the bearing cup and
the bearing cone, must be replaced.
1. Follow the "Compressor Disassembly" section.
2. Remove the Oil Pump per the section "Oil Pump
Replacement."
3. Remove the flywheel.
4. Remove the bearing carrier and gasket from the
outboard end of the crankcase. The outboard
bearing cup will come off with the bearing carrier
and will need to be removed with a bearing removal
tool.
5. Remove the key from the crankshaft and slide the
crankshaft through the outboard end of the
crankcase.
The bearing cones can then be
removed with a bearing puller.
6. Remove the bearing cover plate from the inboard
end of the crankcase. The inboard bearing cup is
pressed into the crankcase and can be removed
with the use of a bearing removal tool.
7. To install the bearings:
Figure 15 - Bearing Locations
a. Grease the outer edges of the bearing cups.
b. Referring to Figure 15 for the proper
orientation, carefully press the inboard bearing
cup into the crankcase until it is flush with the
outer surface of the crankcase.
CB9A-080
c.
Note the proper orientation and carefully press
the outboard bearing cup into the bearing
carrier assembly.
d. Press a bearing cone onto each end of the
crankshaft with the tapered end outward. The
bearing race should rest against the shoulder
on the crankshaft.
e. Lubricate the bearings with grease.
8. Install the crankshaft through the outboard end of
the crankcase.
9. With the oil pump assembly removed, install the
bearing carrier and new gasket. The bolt hole
positions ensure proper orientation. Tighten the
bolts evenly per Table 8 - Bolt Torque."
10. If the bearings have not been replaced, reinstall the
inboard bearing cover plate using the existing shim
set. If the bearings have been replaced, use a
thicker set of shims.
11. Rotate the crankshaft by hand to verify free
movement of the shaft.
a. If the crankshaft has an excessive amount of
end play, too many shims have been used.
Lateral crankshaft movement (end play)
between the bearings should be 0.0015 to
0.0030" (0.038 to 0.076 mm) . If necessary,
remove shims until the end play is within
tolerance.
b. If the crankshaft binds, or will not turn, not
enough shims have been used pushing the
bearing cup too tight against the bearing cone.
Remove the crankshaft from the crankcase and
drive the inboard bearing cup out toward the
inboard side of the crankcase. Reinstall the
crankshaft and the bearing cover plate using
additional shims as required.
12. Install the oil pump per the "Oil Pump Replacement"
section of this manual.
13. Reassemble the compressor according to the
"Compressor Assembly" section.
page 21/24
OIL PUMP REPLACEMENT
Figure 16 – Oil Pump
1. Remove the oil pump cover bolts and oil pump
cover.
2. Remove the oil pump assembly, drive cone and
spring.
3. Clean and inspect parts for wear or damage,
replace as necessary.
4. Place the spring and the drive cone in the end of
the crankshaft.
5. Note the slot in the end of the crankshaft and the
drive tab on the back of the oil pump assembly.
Install the oil pump assembly into the bearing
carrier with the tab and slot aligned.
6. Note the groove around outer edge of the oil pump
assembly and the stop pin in the oil pump cover.
Position the oil pump cover and new gasket with
the pin in the oil pump groove, rotating the oil pump
as needed. The bolt hole positions ensure proper
orientation of the oil pump cover.
7. BY HAND, tighten the oil pump cover bolts while
the pump cover is held flush with the bearing
carrier.
NOTICE: If by hand tightening, the oil pump
cover cannot be drawn flush with the bearing
carrier, the drive tab or the stop pin are
improperly aligned.
DO NOT WRENCH
TIGHTEN OR THE OIL PUMP WILL BE
DAMAGED.
8. Once the oil pump cover is secured by hand, the
bolts may be evenly tightened per Table 8 - "Bolt
Torque."
EXTENDED STORAGE PROCEDURES
If a compressor is not to be put into service for some
time, or if a compressor is to be taken out of service for
an extended period, care must be taken to protect the
compressor. The following steps must be taken for both
bare compressors and those already piped into a
system.
If proper storage procedures are not followed,
damage to the compressor may occur. Complete
compressor disassembly and replacement of rod
packing, bearings and other parts may be required.
1. Keep a written record storage procedures
performed – preferably on the unit itself.
2. Fill the crankcase with rust inhibiting oil. (New
compressors leave the factory without oil.) Squirt
oil on the piston rods and crossheads through the
nameplate opening. Loosen the V-belts to relieve
the load on the bearings. Rotate the compressor by
hand a few times to distribute the oil.
3. Plug all openings and purge the compressor with
an inert gas such as nitrogen or dry air at about 50
psig (3.5 bar-g). This may be done at the factory if
requested. Leave the compressor pressurized to
prevent air or moisture from entering the unit.
Check the unit monthly and add additional purge
gas as needed.
NOTICE: Tag the unit with a warning that it is
pressurized.
CB9A-080
4. If a purge gas is not available, fog oil into the
compressor suction while rotating the unit. Then
plug all openings to keep out moisture, insects, etc.
5. Turn the flywheel by hand a few revolutions
once a month to distribute the oil.
6. Store the unit under a plastic wrap on its wooden
shipping base up off the ground. If the unit was
boxed for export shipment, leave it in its box. An
indoor or covered storage area is preferable.
7. Placing the Compressor back in service.
When the compressor is to be put in service, vent
the remaining purge gas and change the crankcase
oil. Follow the "Pre-Startup Checklist" and "Startup
Procedure" sections in this manual.
Hazardous pressure can
cause property damage,
serious personal injury
or death.
•
Compressor is pressurized with inert gas.
CAREFULLY bleed off gas BEFORE
attempting any service.
Figure 17 – Pressurized Compressor Tag
page 22/24
TROUBLESHOOTING
PROBLEM
STEP PROBABLE CAUSE
WHAT TO CHECK
IF PROBLEM
STILL EXISTS
GO TO STEP ...
1
4-Way Valve Leaking
(when equipped)
Lubricate with a stick lubricant compatible with
material being transferred.
2
2
Worn or Broken Piston Rings
Check condition of rings by restricting discharge
line. If pressure increases slowly, rings are
probably faulty.
3
3
Plugged Strainer
Clean screen as necessary.
4
4
Compressor Valve Faulty
Remove and inspect for broken or worn springs,
discs, or bodies.
5
5
Compressor Drive Slipping
Tighten belts, check for sheared keys, loose keys
or loose flywheel.
6
6
Piping Improperly Designed or
Installed
Use proper pipe sizes.
7
7
Loose Valves
Tighten valve hold-down screws.
8
8
Worn Internal Parts
Inspect through inspection plates and repair as
necessary.
4
9
Oil Pump Relief Valve Not Properly
Set oil pump relief valve.
Set.
10
Oil Pump Not Working
Check the Oil Pump drive tab or stop pin for
damage.
11
11
Low Oil Level
Check and fill as necessary
12
12
Dirty Oil Inlet Strainer
Clean Oil Inlet Strainer
Gas
Leaking
from
Crankcase
Breather
13
Faulty/Worn Packing
Replace Packing.
14
14
Piston Rod Scored
Replace crosshead assemblies and packing.
15
15
Improper Seal Arrangement
See "Seal Arrangements."
---
Relief
Valve
Actuates
16
Valve Closed Downstream of the
Compressor
Open Valve
17
17
Line Blockage Downstream of the
Compressor
Locate Blockage and Correct
---
18
Loose/Broken Mounting or Anchor
Bolts
See “Mounting the Compressor Unit“
19
19
Improper Mounting
Ensure base is supported full length. See
"Mounting the Compressor."
20
20
Improperly Aligned V-belt Sheaves See "V-Belt Drives"
21
21
Improperly Installed Flywheel
See "Compressor Flywheel"
22
22
Nonfunctioning Valves
Replace or repair valves.
---
Low
Transfer
Rate
Knocks or
Other
Noises
No Oil
Pressure
Shake
or Vibration
10
ADDITIONAL NOTES FOR INTERSTAGE PRESSURE:
Interstage pressure is an important indicator of the proper operation or condition of a two-stage compressor.
* Low interstage pressure may indicate problems with the first stage valve or piston rings.
* High interstage pressure may indicate problems with the second stage valves or piston rings.
Low compression ratios can cause high interstage pressures. Two-stage compressors are not normally
recommended for operation below 5 compression ratios.
Consult factory for further information.
CB9A-080
page 23/24
ATEX Declarations
Compressors
Page Number
Form 576
Effective
Oct 2006
Replaces
Section
ES-039
Forms
Blackmer, A Dover Company,
1809 Century Avenue S.W., Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503-1530, United States of America
DECLARATION OF
CONFORMITY
DECLARATION OF
INCORPORATION
As defined by the ATEX directive 94/9/EC
As defined by the Machinery Directive 97/37/EC
Herewith we declare that all Blackmer LB and HD
compressor product lines to which this declaration relates
are in conformity with the provisions of the ATEX
Directive 94/9/EC as of 01 July 2003. This equipment is a
reciprocating compressor for liquefied gas transfer or gas
compression applications. This device is not intended to act
as a safety accessory.
Herewith we declare that all Blackmer LB and HD
compressor product lines to which this declaration relates
are in conformity with the provisions of the Machinery
Directive, 97/37/EC as of 01 July 2003. The above
equipment is a reciprocating compressor designed for
liquefied gas transfer or gas compression applications. This
device is not intended to act as a safety accessory.
Applied Harmonized Standards:
EN1127-1, EN13463-1
This component must not be operated until the machine into
which it is incorporated has been declared in conformity
with the provision of the directive.
Date:
William A Kennedy Jr., P.E.
Vice President - Engineering
Applied Harmonized Standards:
EN1012-1, EN292
October, 2006
Date:
William A Kennedy Jr., P.E.
Vice President - Engineering
October, 2006
ATEX/ Machinery Directive Notifications:
Maximum Surface Temperature: An ATEX compliant temperature switch must be installed if the compressor is
used in an ATEX zone. It is the end users responsibility to ensure the compressor does not exceed the
temperature limits for the relevant ATEX zone. Closed inlet or outlet valves can result in excess compressor
surface temperature conditions.
Intended Use: Blackmer compressors are intended for use in liquefied gas transfer or gas compression
applications. The compressor must be operated in systems, with gasses and at conditions for which it is
specifically designed and sized.
Possible Misuse Warning: The compressor must only be installed in systems designed for its intended use.
Mechanical Ignition Sources: Guards, intended to protect from personal injury from rotating components, must
be fabricated from ATEX compliant materials to prevent a potential ignition source. The compressor and its drive
system must be properly grounded to prevent electrostatic discharge. The compressor has internal parts that rub
together. These parts require proper viscosity lubricant to lubricate the rubbing surfaces. Compressor must be
properly maintained and lubricated, see IOM (Installation, Operation, & Maintenance Instructions) for service
information.
Sound Measurements: Sound Levels for gas compression equipment vary greatly, depending on operating
conditions, piping system design, foundation design, etc. You can expect the following sound levels when
operating a Blackmer compressor at its’ maximum rated speed and discharge pressure. Sound levels are
measured at 1 meter from the compressor and 1.6 meters from the foundation per European Machinery Directive
98/37/EC. Maximum Noise Level: 85 dba
Equipment Marking: All compressor models are classified Group II category 2, Gas and have a temperature limit
of 176 °C. Compressors are marked “Ex II 2 G 176 °C MAX ”
Compressor Models Covered: LB, HD
Corporate Headquarters
1809 Century Avenue, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503 U.S.A.
(616) 241-1611 • Fax: (616) 241-3752 • www.blackmer.com
CB9A-080
page 24/24
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