Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0

Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing
Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
March 31, 2008
Americas Headquarters
Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
USA
http://www.cisco.com
Tel: 408 526-4000
800 553-NETS (6387)
Fax: 408 527-0883
Text Part Number: OL-12912-01
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
THE SPECIFICATIONS AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE PRODUCTS IN THIS MANUAL ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. ALL
STATEMENTS, INFORMATION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN THIS MANUAL ARE BELIEVED TO BE ACCURATE BUT ARE PRESENTED WITHOUT
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. USERS MUST TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR APPLICATION OF ANY PRODUCTS.
THE SOFTWARE LICENSE AND LIMITED WARRANTY FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PRODUCT ARE SET FORTH IN THE INFORMATION PACKET THAT
SHIPPED WITH THE PRODUCT AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN BY THIS REFERENCE. IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO LOCATE THE SOFTWARE LICENSE
OR LIMITED WARRANTY, CONTACT YOUR CISCO REPRESENTATIVE FOR A COPY.
The Cisco implementation of TCP header compression is an adaptation of a program developed by the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) as part of UCB’s public
domain version of the UNIX operating system. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1981, Regents of the University of California.
NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER WARRANTY HEREIN, ALL DOCUMENT FILES AND SOFTWARE OF THESE SUPPLIERS ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” WITH
ALL FAULTS. CISCO AND THE ABOVE-NAMED SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, THOSE OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF
DEALING, USAGE, OR TRADE PRACTICE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING,
WITHOUT LIMITATION, LOST PROFITS OR LOSS OR DAMAGE TO DATA ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS MANUAL, EVEN IF CISCO
OR ITS SUPPLIERS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
CCDE, CCENT, Cisco Eos, Cisco StadiumVision, the Cisco logo, DCE, and Welcome to the Human Network are trademarks; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and
Learn is a service mark; and Access Registrar, Aironet, AsyncOS, Bringing the Meeting To You, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, Cisco,
the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Collaboration Without
Limitation, Enterprise/Solver, EtherChannel, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Event Center, Fast Step, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, GigaDrive, HomeLink, Internet Quotient,
IOS, iPhone, iQ Expertise, the iQ logo, iQ Net Readiness Scorecard, iQuick Study, IronPort, the IronPort logo, LightStream, Linksys, MediaTone, MeetingPlace, MGX,
Networkers, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, PCNow, PIX, PowerPanels, ProConnect, ScriptShare, SenderBase, SMARTnet, Spectrum Expert, StackWise, The
Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient, TransPath, WebEx, and the WebEx logo are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United
States and certain other countries.
All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship
between Cisco and any other company. (0803R)
Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses. Any examples, command display output, and figures included in the
document are shown for illustrative purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses in illustrative content is unintentional and coincidental.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
©2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CONTENTS
Preface
i
Audience
i
Organization
i
Document Conventions
ii
Related Documentation
iii
Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request
CHAPTER
1
Overview
iv
1-1
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing 1-1
Routing Fundamentals 1-2
Packet Switching 1-2
Routing Metrics 1-3
Path Length 1-4
Reliability 1-4
Routing Delay 1-4
Bandwidth 1-4
Load 1-4
Communication Cost 1-4
Router IDs 1-5
Autonomous Systems 1-5
Convergence 1-6
Load Balancing and Equal Cost Multipath 1-6
Route Redistribution 1-6
Administrative Distance 1-6
Stub Routing 1-7
Routing Algorithms 1-8
Static Routes and Dynamic Routing Protocols
Interior and Exterior Gateway Protocols 1-8
Distance Vector Protocols 1-8
Link State Protocols 1-9
Layer 3 Virtualization
1-8
1-9
Cisco NX-OS Fowarding Architecture
Unicast RIB 1-10
Adjacency Manager 1-11
1-10
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Unicast Forwarding Distribution Module 1-11
Unicast FIB 1-12
Displaying Routing and Forwarding Information
Hardware Forwarding 1-13
Software Forwarding 1-13
Summary of Layer 3 Unicast Routing Features
IPv4 and IPv6 1-14
IP Services 1-14
OSPF 1-14
EIGRP 1-14
IS-IS 1-14
BGP 1-15
RIP 1-15
Static Routing 1-15
Layer 3 Virtualization 1-15
Route Policy Manager 1-15
Policy-Based Routing 1-15
First-Hop Redundancy Protocols 1-16
Object Tracking 1-16
Related Topics
1-12
1-13
1-16
IP
CHAPTER
2
Configuring IPv4
2-1
Information About IPv4 2-1
Multiple IPv4 Addresses 2-2
Address Resolution Protocol 2-2
ARP Caching 2-3
Static and Dynamic Entries in the ARP Cache
Devices that do not use ARP 2-3
Inverse ARP 2-4
Reverse ARP 2-4
Proxy ARP 2-5
Local Proxy ARP 2-5
ICMP 2-5
Virtualization Support 2-6
Licensing Requirements for IPv4
Prerequisites for IPv4
2-3
2-6
2-6
Guidelines and Limitations
2-6
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring IPv4 2-6
Configuring IPv4 Addressing 2-7
Configuring Multiple IP Addresses 2-8
Configuring a Static ARP Entry 2-9
Configuring Proxy ARP 2-10
Configuring Local Proxy ARP 2-11
Verifying the IPv4 Configuration
IPv4 Example Configuration
Default Settings
2-12
2-12
2-12
Additional References 2-12
Related Documents 2-13
Standards 2-13
2-13
CHAPTER
3
Configuring IPv6
3-1
Information About IPv6 3-1
IPv6 Address Formats 3-2
IPv6 Unicast Addresses 3-3
Aggregatable Global Addresses 3-3
Link-Local Addresses 3-5
IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses 3-5
Unique Local Addresses 3-6
Site-Local Address 3-7
IPv6 Anycast Addresses 3-7
IPv6 Multicast Addresses 3-7
IPv4 Packet Header 3-9
Simplified IPv6 Packet Header 3-9
DNS for IPv6 3-12
Path MTU Discovery for IPv6 3-12
Cisco Discovery Protocol IPv6 Address Support
ICMP for IPv6 3-12
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 3-13
IPv6 Neighbor Solicitation Message 3-13
IPv6 Router Advertisement Message 3-15
IPv6 Neighbor Redirect Message 3-16
Virtualization Support 3-17
Licensing Requirements for IPv6
Prerequisites for IPv6
3-12
3-18
3-18
Guidelines and Limitations for IPv6
3-18
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring IPv6 3-18
Configuring IPv6 Addressing 3-19
Configuring IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 3-20
Optional IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 3-22
Verifying the IPv6 Configuration
IPv6 Example Configuration
Default Settings
3-23
3-23
3-23
Additional References 3-23
Related Documents 3-24
Standards 3-24
CHAPTER
4
Configuring DNS
4-1
Information About DNS Clients 4-1
DNS Client Overview 4-1
Name Servers 4-2
DNS Operation 4-2
High Availability 4-2
Virtualization Support 4-2
Licensing Requirements for DNS Clients
Prerequisites for DNS Clients
4-2
4-3
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
4-3
Configuring DNS Clients 4-3
Configuring the DNS Client 4-3
Configuring Virtualization 4-5
Verifying the DNS Client Configuration
DNS Client Example Configuration
Default Settings
4-7
4-7
4-7
Additional References 4-8
Related Documents 4-8
Standards 4-8
Routing
CHAPTER
5
Configuring OSPFv2
5-1
Information About OSPFv2
Hello Packet 5-2
Neighbors 5-2
Adjacency 5-3
5-1
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
4
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Designated Routers 5-3
Areas 5-4
Link-State Advertisements 5-5
LSA Types 5-5
Link Cost 5-6
Flooding and LSA Group Pacing 5-6
Link-State Database 5-7
Opaque LSAs 5-7
OSPFv2 and the Unicast RIB 5-7
Authentication 5-7
Simple Password Authentication 5-8
MD5 Authentication 5-8
Advanced Features 5-8
Stub Area 5-8
Not-So-Stubby Area 5-9
Virtual Links 5-9
Route Redistribution 5-10
Route Summarization 5-10
High Availability and Graceful Restart 5-11
OSPFv2 Stub Router Advertisements 5-12
Multiple OSPFv2 Instances 5-12
SPF Optimization 5-12
Virtualization Support 5-12
Licensing Requirements for OSPFv2
Prerequisites for OSPFv2
5-12
5-13
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
5-13
Configuring Basic OSPFv2 5-13
Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature 5-13
Creating an OSPFv2 Instance 5-14
Configuring Optional Parameters on an OSPFv2 Instance
Configuring Networks in OSPFv2 5-16
Configuring Authentication for an Area 5-19
Configuring Authentication for an Interface 5-20
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2 5-22
Configuring Filter Lists for Border Routers
Configuring Stub Areas 5-24
Configuring a Totally Stubby Area 5-26
Configuring NSSA 5-26
Configuring Virtual Links 5-28
5-16
5-23
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Redistribution 5-30
Configuring Route Summarization 5-32
Configuring Stub Route Advertisements 5-33
Modifying the Default Timers 5-34
Configuring Graceful Restart 5-37
Restarting an OSPFv2 Instance 5-38
Configuring OSPFv2 with Virtualization 5-39
Verifying the OSPFv2 Configuration
Displaying OSPFv2 Statistics
OSPFv2 Example Configuration
Default Settings
5-41
5-42
5-42
5-42
Additional References 5-43
Related Documents 5-43
MIBs 5-43
CHAPTER
6
Configuring OSPFv3
6-1
Information About OSPFv3 6-1
Comparison of OSPFv3 and OSPFv2 6-2
Hello Packet 6-2
Neighbors 6-3
Adjacency 6-3
Designated Routers 6-4
Areas 6-5
Link-State Advertisement 6-5
LSA Types 6-6
Link Cost 6-6
Flooding and LSA Group Pacing 6-6
Link-State Database 6-7
OSPFv3 and the IPv6 Unicast RIB 6-7
Authentication 6-8
Address Family Support 6-8
Advanced Features 6-8
Stub Area 6-8
Not-So-Stubby Area 6-9
Virtual Links 6-9
Route Redistribution 6-10
Route Summarization 6-10
High Availability and Graceful Restart
Multiple OSPFv3 Instances 6-11
6-11
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SPF Optimization 6-12
Virtualization Support 6-12
Licensing Requirements for OSPFv3
Prerequisites for OSPFv3
6-12
6-12
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
6-13
Configuring Basic OSPFv3 6-13
Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature 6-13
Creating an OSPFv3 Instance 6-14
Configuring Networks in OSPFv3 6-16
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3 6-19
Configuring Filter Lists for Border Routers 6-19
Configuring Stub Areas 6-21
Configuring a Totally Stubby Area 6-22
Configuring NSSA 6-22
Configuring Virtual Links 6-24
Configuring Redistribution 6-26
Configuring Route Summarization 6-28
Modifying the Default Timers 6-30
Configuring Graceful Restart 6-32
Restarting an OSPFv3 Instance 6-34
Configuring OSPFv3 with Virtualization 6-34
Verifying OSPFv3 Configuration
Displaying OSPFv3 Statistics
OSPFv3 Example Configuration
Related Topics
Default Settings
6-36
6-37
6-37
6-37
6-38
Additional References 6-38
Related Documents 6-39
MIBs 6-39
CHAPTER
7
Configuring EIGRP
7-1
Information About EIGRP 7-1
EIGRP Components 7-2
Reliable Transport Protocol 7-2
Neighbor Discovery and Recovery
Diffusing Update Algorithm 7-2
EIGRP Route Updates 7-3
Internal Route Metrics 7-3
7-2
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
External Route Metrics 7-4
EIGRP and the Unicast RIB 7-4
Advanced EIGRP 7-4
Authentication 7-4
Stub Routers 7-5
Route Summarization 7-5
Route Redistribution 7-5
Load Balancing 7-6
Split Horizon 7-6
Virtualization Support 7-6
Graceful Restart and High Availability
Licensing Requirements for EIGRP
Prerequisites for EIGRP
7-6
7-7
7-7
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
7-8
Configuring Basic EIGRP 7-8
Enabling the EIGRP Feature 7-8
Creating an EIGRP Instance 7-9
Restarting an EIGRP Instance 7-11
Disabling an EIGRP Instance 7-12
Disabling EIGRP on an Interface 7-12
Configuring Advanced EIGRP 7-12
Configuring Authentication in EIGRP 7-12
Configuring EIGRP Stub Routing 7-14
Configuring a Summary Address for EIGRP 7-15
Redistributing Routes into EIGRP 7-15
Configuring Load Balancing in EIGRP 7-17
Configuring Graceful Restart for EIGRP 7-18
Adjusting the Interval Between Hello Packets and the Hold Time
Disabling Split Horizon 7-20
Tuning EIGRP 7-20
Configuring Virtualization for EIGRP
Verifying EIGRP Configuration
Displaying EIGRP Statistics
Default Settings
7-22
7-23
7-24
EIGRP Example Configuration
Related Topics
7-19
7-24
7-24
7-24
Additional References 7-25
Related Documents 7-25
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CHAPTER
8
Configuring IS-IS
8-1
Information about IS-IS 8-1
IS-IS Overview 8-2
IS-IS Areas 8-2
NET and System ID 8-3
Designated Intermediate System 8-3
IS-IS Authentication 8-3
Mesh Groups 8-4
Overload Bit 8-4
Route Summarization 8-4
Route Redistribution 8-5
Load Balancing 8-5
Virtualization Support 8-5
High Availability and Graceful Restart 8-5
Multiple IS-IS Instances 8-6
Licensing Requirements for IS-IS
Prerequisites for IS-IS
8-6
8-6
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
8-6
Configuring IS-IS 8-6
IS-IS Configuration Modes 8-7
Enabling the IS-IS Feature 8-8
Creating an IS-IS Instance 8-9
Restarting an IS-IS Instance 8-11
Configuring IS-IS on an Interface 8-11
Configuring IS-IS Authentication in an Area 8-13
Configuring IS-IS Authentication on an Interface 8-14
Configuring a Mesh Group 8-15
Configuring a Designated Intermediate System 8-16
Configuring Dynamic Host Exchange 8-16
Setting the Overload Bit 8-16
Configuring a Summary Address 8-17
Configuring Redistribution 8-18
Configuring a Graceful Restart 8-20
Configuring Virtualization 8-21
Tuning IS-IS 8-24
Verifying IS-IS Configuration
Displaying IS-IS Statistics
IS-IS Example Configuration
8-26
8-27
8-27
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Topics
8-28
Default Settings
8-28
Additional References 8-28
Related Documents 8-29
Standards 8-29
CHAPTER
9
Configuring Basic BGP
9-1
Information About Basic BGP 9-1
BGP Autonomous Systems 9-2
Administrative Distance 9-2
BGP Peers 9-2
BGP Router Identifier 9-3
BGP Path Selection 9-3
Comparing Pairs of Paths 9-4
Order of Comparisons 9-5
Best Path Change Suppression 9-5
BGP and the Unicast RIB 9-6
BGP Virtualization 9-6
Licensing Requirements for Basic BGP
Prerequisites for BGP
9-6
9-6
Guidelines and Limitations for BGP
9-7
CLI Configuration Modes 9-7
Global Configuration Mode 9-7
Address Family Configuration Mode 9-8
Neighbor Configuration Mode 9-8
Neighbor Address Family Configuration Mode
9-8
Configuring Basic BGP 9-9
Enabling the BGP Feature 9-9
Creating a BGP Instance 9-10
Restarting a BGP Instance 9-12
Configuring BGP Peers 9-12
Verifying Basic BGP Configuration
Displaying BGP Statistics
9-15
Basic BGP Example Configuration
Related Topics
9-15
9-16
Where to Go Next
Default Settings
9-14
9-16
9-16
Additional References
9-16
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Documents 9-17
MIBs 9-17
Technical Assistance 9-17
CHAPTER
10
Configuring Advanced BGP
10-1
Information About Advanced BGP 10-1
Peer Templates 10-2
Authentication 10-2
Route Policies and Resetting BGP Sessions 10-3
eBGP 10-3
iBGP 10-3
AS Confederations 10-4
Router Reflector 10-5
Capabilities Negotiation 10-6
Route Dampening 10-6
Load Sharing and Multipath 10-6
Route Aggregation 10-7
Route Redistribution 10-7
Tuning BGP 10-7
BGP Timers 10-8
Tuning the Best-Path Algorithm 10-8
Multiprotocol BGP 10-8
Graceful Restart and High Availability 10-8
ISSU 10-9
Virtualization Support 10-9
Licensing Requirements for Advanced BGP
Prerequisites for BGP
10-9
10-10
Guidelines and Limitations for BGP
10-10
Configuring Advanced BGP 10-10
Configuring BGP Session Templates 10-11
Configuring BGP Peer-Policy Templates 10-13
Configuring BGP Peer Templates 10-16
Configuring Prefix Peering 10-18
Configuring BGP Authentication 10-19
Resetting a BGP Session 10-19
Modifying the Next-Hop Address 10-20
Disabling Capabilities Negotiation 10-20
Configuring eBGP 10-21
Disabling eBGP Single-Hop Checking 10-21
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring eBGP Multihop 10-21
Disabling a Fast External Failover 10-22
Configuring AS Confederations 10-22
Configuring Router Reflector 10-22
Configuring Route Dampening 10-24
Configuring Load Sharing and ECMP 10-25
Configuring Maximum Prefixes 10-25
Configuring Dynamic Capability 10-26
Configuring Aggregate Addresses 10-26
Configuring Route Redistribution 10-26
Tuning BGP 10-28
Configuring a Graceful Restart 10-31
Configuring Virtualization 10-32
Verifying Advanced BGP Configuration
Displaying BGP Statistics
Related Topics
10-34
10-35
10-35
Default Settings
10-36
Additional References 10-36
Related Documents 10-36
MIBs 10-36
CHAPTER
11
Configuring RIP
11-1
Information About RIP 11-1
RIP Overview 11-2
RIPv2 Authentication 11-2
Split Horizon 11-2
Route Filtering 11-3
Route Summarization 11-3
Route Redistribution 11-3
Load Balancing 11-4
High Availability 11-4
Virtualization Support 11-4
Licensing Requirements for RIP
Prerequisites for RIP
11-4
11-4
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
11-4
Configuring RIP 11-5
Enabling the RIP Feature 11-5
Creating a RIP Instance 11-6
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
12
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Restarting a RIP Instance 11-8
Configuring RIP on an Interface 11-8
Configuring RIP Authentication 11-9
Configuring a Passive Interface 11-10
Configuring Split Horizon with Poison Reverse
Configuring Route Summarization 11-11
Configuring Route Redistribution 11-11
Configuring Virtualization 11-13
Tuning RIP 11-15
Verifying RIP Configuration
Displaying RIP Statistics
RIP Example Configuration
Related Topics
11-17
11-17
11-18
11-18
Where to Go Next
Default Settings
11-11
11-18
11-18
Additional References 11-18
Related Documents 11-19
Standards 11-19
CHAPTER
12
Configuring Static Routing
12-1
Information About Static Routing 12-1
Administrative Distance 12-2
Directly Connected Static Routes 12-2
Fully Specified Static Routes 12-2
Floating Static Routes 12-2
Remote Next Hops for Static Routes 12-3
Virtualization Support 12-3
Licensing Requirements for Static Routing
Prerequisites for Static Routing
Guidelines and Limitations
12-3
12-3
12-3
Configuring Static Routing 12-3
Configuring a Static Route 12-4
Configuring Virtualization 12-5
Verifying Static Routing Configuration
12-6
Static Routing Example Configuration
12-6
Default Settings
12-7
Additional References 12-7
Related Documents 12-7
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
13
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CHAPTER
13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
13-1
Layer 3 Virtualization 13-1
Overview of Layer 3 Virtualization 13-1
VRF and Routing 13-2
VRF-Aware Services 13-3
Reachability 13-4
Filtering 13-4
Combining Reachability and Filtering
Licensing Requirements for VRFs
Prerequisites for VRF
13-5
13-5
13-5
Guidelines and Limitations
13-5
Configuring VRFs 13-6
Creating a VRF 13-6
Assigning VRF Membership to an Interface 13-7
Configuring VRF Parameters for a Routing Protocol
Configuring a VRF-Aware Service 13-10
Setting the VRF Scope 13-11
Verifying VRF Configuration
13-12
VRF Example Configuration
13-12
Related Topics
Default Settings
13-8
13-12
13-13
Additional References 13-13
Related Documents 13-13
Standards 13-13
CHAPTER
14
14-1
Configuring Route Policy Manager
14-1
Information About Route Policy Manager 14-1
Prefix Lists 14-2
Route Maps 14-2
Match Criteria 14-2
Set Changes 14-3
Access Lists 14-3
AS-path Lists for BGP 14-3
Community Lists for BGP 14-3
Route Redistribution and Route Maps 14-4
Policy-Based Routing 14-4
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
14
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Licensing Requirements for Route Policy Manager
Prerequisites for Route Policy Manager
Guidelines and Limitations
14-4
14-4
14-4
Configuring Route Policy Manager 14-5
Configuring IP Prefix Lists 14-5
Configuring AS-path Lists 14-7
Configuring Community Lists 14-7
Configuring Route Maps 14-9
Verifying Route Policy Manager Configuration
14-13
Route Policy Manager Example Configuration
14-13
Related Topics
Default Settings
14-13
14-13
Additional References 14-14
Related Documents 14-14
Standards 14-14
CHAPTER
15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
15-1
Information About Policy Based Routing 15-1
Policy Route Maps 15-2
Set Criteria for Policy-Based Routing 15-2
Licensing Requirements for Policy-Based Routing
Prerequisites for Policy-Based Routing
Guidelines and Limitations
15-3
15-3
15-3
Configuring Policy-Based Routing 15-3
Enabling the Policy-based Routing Feature
Configuring a Route Policy 15-4
15-4
Verifying Policy-Based Routing Configuration
15-7
Policy Based-Routing Example Configuration
15-7
Related Topics
Default Settings
15-7
15-7
Additional References 15-8
Related Documents 15-8
Standards 15-8
First-Hop Redundancy Protocols
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
15
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CHAPTER
16
Configuring GLBP
16-1
Information About GLBP 16-1
GLBP Overview 16-2
GLBP Active Virtual Gateway 16-2
GLBP Virtual MAC Address Assignment 16-2
GLBP Virtual Gateway Redundancy 16-2
GLBP Virtual Forwarder Redundancy 16-3
GLBP Authentication 16-4
GLBP Load Balancing and Tracking 16-4
High Availability 16-5
Virtualization Support 16-5
Licensing Requirements for GLBP
Prerequisites for GLBP
16-6
16-6
Guidelines and Limitations
16-6
Configuring GLBP 16-7
Enabling the GLBP Feature 16-7
Configuring GLBP Authentication 16-8
Configuring GLBP Load Balancing 16-9
Configuring GLBP Weighting and Tracking
Customizing GLBP 16-12
Enabling a GLBP Group 16-13
Verifying GLBP Configuration
16-15
GLBP Example Configuration
16-15
Default Settings
16-10
16-16
Additional References 16-16
Related Documents 16-17
Standards 16-17
CHAPTER
17
Configuring HSRP
17-1
Information About HSRP 17-1
HSRP Overview 17-2
HSRP Versions 17-3
HSRP Authentication 17-3
HSRP Addressing 17-4
HSRP Messages 17-4
HSRP Load Sharing 17-4
Object Tracking and HSRP 17-5
High Availability 17-5
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Virtualization Support
17-6
Licensing Requirements for HSRP
Prerequisites for HSRP
17-6
17-6
Guidelines and Limitations
17-6
Configuring HSRP 17-7
Enabling the HSRP Feature 17-7
Configuring an HSRP Group 17-7
Configuring the HSRP Version 17-9
Configuring the HSRP Virtual MAC Address
Authenticating HSRP 17-10
Configuring HSRP Object Tracking 17-12
Customizing HSRP 17-14
Verifying HSRP Configuration
17-15
HSRP Example Configuration
17-16
Default Settings
17-9
17-16
Additional References 17-17
Related Documents 17-17
Standards 17-17
CHAPTER
18
Configuring VRRP
18-1
Information About VRRP 18-1
VRRP Operation 18-2
VRRP Benefits 18-3
Multiple VRRP Groups 18-3
VRRP Router Priority and Preemption
VRRP Advertisements 18-5
VRRP Authentication 18-5
VRRP Tracking 18-5
High Availability 18-5
Virtualization Support 18-5
Licensing Requirements for VRRP
Guidelines and Limitations
18-4
18-6
18-6
Configuring VRRP 18-6
Enabling the VRRP Feature 18-6
Configuring VRRP Groups 18-7
Configuring VRRP Priority 18-8
Configuring VRRP Authentication 18-10
Configuring Time Intervals for Advertisement Packets
18-12
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Disabling Preemption 18-14
Configuring VRRP Interface State Tracking
Verifying the VRRP Configuration
Displaying VRRP Statistics
18-18
18-19
VRRP Example Configuration
Default Settings
18-16
18-19
18-20
Additional References 18-21
Related Documents 18-21
CHAPTER
19
Configuring Object Tracking
19-1
Information About Object Tracking 19-1
Object Tracking Overview 19-1
High Availability 19-2
Virtualization Support 19-2
Licensing Requirements for Object Tracking
Prerequisites for Object Tracking
Guidelines and Limitations
19-2
19-3
19-3
Configuring Object Tracking 19-3
Configuring Object Tracking for an Interface 19-3
Configuring Object Tracking for Route Reachability 19-4
Configuring Object Tracking for a nonDefault VRF 19-5
Verifying Object Tracking Configuration
19-7
Object Tracking Example Configuration
19-7
Related Topics
Default Settings
19-7
19-7
Additional References 19-7
Related Documents 19-8
Standards 19-8
APPENDIX
A
IETF RFCs supported by Cisco NX-OS Unicast Features, Release 4.x
BGP RFCs A-1
First-Hop Redundancy ProtocolsRFCs A-2
IP Services RFCs A-2
IPv6 RFCs A-2
IS-IS RFCs A-3
OSPF RFCs A-3
RIP RFCs A-3
A-1
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18
OL-12912-01
Contents
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
GLOSSARY
APPENDIX
2
Configuration Limits for Cisco NX-OS Layer 3 Unicast Features, Release 4.x
2-1
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
19
Contents
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
20
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Preface
This document describes the configuration details for Cisco NX-OS unicast routing.
Audience
To use this guide, you must be familiar with IP and routing technology.
Organization
This document is organized into the following chapters:
Title
Description
Chapter 1, “Overview”
Presents an overview of unicast routing and brief
descriptions of each feature.
Chapter 2, “Configuring IPv4”
Describes how to configure and manage IPv4, including
ARP and ICMP.
Chapter 3, “Configuring IPv6”
Describes how to configure and manage IPv6, including
Neighbor Discovery Protocol and ICMPv6.
Chapter 4, “Configuring DNS”
Describes how to configure DHCP and DNS clients.
Chapter 5, “Configuring OSPFv2”
Describes how to configure the OSPFv2 routing protocol
for IPv4 networks.
Chapter 6, “Configuring OSPFv3”
Describes how to configure the OSPFv3 routing protocol
for IPv6 networks.
Chapter 7, “Configuring EIGRP”
Describes how to configure the Cisco EIGRP routing
protocol for IPv4 networks.
Chapter 8, “Configuring IS-IS”
Describes how to configure the IS-IS routing protocol for
IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
Chapter 9, “Configuring Basic BGP”
Describes how to configure basic features for the BGP
routing protocol for IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
Chapter 10, “Configuring Advanced BGP” Describes how to configure advanced features for the
BGP routing protocol for IPv4 and IPv6 networks,
including route redistribution and route aggregation.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
i
Preface
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Title
Description
Chapter 11, “Configuring RIP”
Describes how to configure the RIP and RIPng routing
protocols for IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
Chapter 12, “Configuring Static Routing”
Describes how to configure static routing for IPv4 and
IPv6 networks.
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3
Virtualization”
Describes how to configure layer 3 virtualization.
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy
Manager”
Describes how to configure the Route Policy Manager,
including IP prefix lists and route-maps for filtering and
redistribution.
Chapter 15, “Configuring Policy-Based
Routing”
Describes how to configure route maps for policy based
routing.
Chapter 17, “Configuring HSRP”
Describes how to configure the Hot Standby Routing
Protocol.
Chapter 16, “Configuring GLBP”
Describes how to configure GLBP.
Chapter 19, “Configuring Object
Tracking”
Describes how to configure object tracking.
Chapter 18, “Configuring VRRP”
Describes how to configure the Virtual Router
Redundancy Protocol.
Appendix A, “IETF RFCs supported by
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Features, Release
4.x”
Lists IETF RFCs supported by Cisco NX-OS.
Document Conventions
Command descriptions use these conventions:
Convention
Description
boldface font
Commands and keywords are in boldface.
italic font
Arguments for which you supply values are in italics.
[ ]
Elements in square brackets are optional.
[x|y|z]
Optional alternative keywords are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical
bars.
string
A nonquoted set of characters. Do not use quotation marks around the string or
the string will include the quotation marks.
Screen examples use these conventions:
screen font
Terminal sessions and information that the switch displays are in screen font.
boldface screen
font
Information that you must enter is in boldface screen font.
italic screen font
Arguments for which you supply values are in italic screen font.
< >
Nonprinting characters, such as passwords, are in angle brackets.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
ii
OL-12912-01
Preface
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
[ ]
Default responses to system prompts are in square brackets.
!, #
An exclamation point (!) or a pound sign (#) at the beginning of a line of code
indicates a comment line.
This document uses the following conventions:
Note
Caution
Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to material not covered in the
manual.
Means reader be careful. In this situation, you might do something that could result in equipment
damage or loss of data.
Related Documentation
The documentation set for Cisco NX-OS includes the following documents:
Release Notes
Cisco NX-OS Release Notes, Release 4.0
NX-OS Configuration Guides
Cisco NX-OS Getting Started with Virtual Device Contexts, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Fundamentals Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Interfaces Configuration Guide, Release 4. 0
Cisco NX-OS Layer 2 Switching Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Quality of Service Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Multicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Software Upgrade Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS High Availability and Redundancy Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS XML Management Interface User Guide, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS System Messages Reference
Cisco NX-OS MIB Quick Reference
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
iii
Preface
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
NX-OS Command References
Cisco NX-OS Command Reference Master Index, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Fundamentals Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Interfaces Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Layer 2 Switching Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Quality of Service Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Multicast Routing Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Security Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS High Availability and Redundancy Command Reference, Release 4.0
Cisco NX-OS System Management Command Reference, Release 4.0
Other Software Document
Cisco NX-OS Troubleshooting Guide, Release 4.0
Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request
For information on obtaining documentation, submitting a service request, and gathering additional
information, see the monthly What’s New in Cisco Product Documentation, which also lists all new and
revised Cisco technical documentation, at:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/general/whatsnew/whatsnew.html
Subscribe to the What’s New in Cisco Product Documentation as a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed
and set content to be delivered directly to your desktop using a reader application. The RSS feeds are a free
service and Cisco currently supports RSS version 2.0.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
iv
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
1
Overview
This chapter introduces the underlying concepts for Layer 3 unicast routing protocols in Cisco NX-OS.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing, page 1-1
•
Routing Algorithms, page 1-8
•
Layer 3 Virtualization, page 1-9
•
Cisco NX-OS Fowarding Architecture, page 1-10
•
Summary of Layer 3 Unicast Routing Features, page 1-13
•
Related Topics, page 1-16
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing
Layer 3 unicast routing involves two basic activities: determining optimal routing paths and packet
switching. You can use routing algorithms to calculate the optimal path from the router to a destination.
This calculation depends on the algorithm selected, route metrics, and other considerations such as load
balancing and alternate path discovery.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Routing Fundamentals, page 1-2
•
Packet Switching, page 1-2
•
Routing Metrics, page 1-3
•
Router IDs, page 1-5
•
Autonomous Systems, page 1-5
•
Convergence, page 1-6
•
Load Balancing and Equal Cost Multipath, page 1-6
•
Route Redistribution, page 1-6
•
Administrative Distance, page 1-6
•
Stub Routing, page 1-7
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1-1
Chapter 1
Overview
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Routing Fundamentals
Routing protocols use a metric to evaluate the best path to the destination. A metric is a standard of
measurement, such as a path bandwidth, that routing algorithms use to determine the optimal path to a
destination. To aid path determination, routing algorithms initialize and maintain routing tables, that
contain route information such as the IP destination address and the address of the next router or next
hop. Destination and next-hop associations tell a router that an IP destination can be reached optimally
by sending the packet to a particular router that represents the next hop on the way to the final
destination. When a router receives an incoming packet, it checks the destination address and attempts
to associate this address with the next hop. See the “Unicast RIB” section on page 1-10 for more
information about the route table.
Routing tables can contain other information, such as the data about the desirability of a path. Routers
compare metrics to determine optimal routes, and these metrics differ depending on the design of the
routing algorithm used. See the “Routing Metrics” section on page 1-3.
Routers communicate with one another and maintain their routing tables by transmitting a variety of
messages. The routing update message is one such message that consists of all or a portion of a routing
table. By analyzing routing updates from all other routers, a router can build a detailed picture of the
network topology. A link-state advertisement, another example of a message sent between routers,
informs other routers of the link state of the sending router. You can also use link information to enable
routers to determine optimal routes to network destinations. For more information, see the “Routing
Algorithms” section on page 1-8.
Packet Switching
In packet switching,a host determines that it must send a packet to another host. Having acquired a router
address by some means, the source host sends a packet addressed specifically to the router physical
(Media Access Control [MAC]-layer) address but with the IP (network layer) address of the destination
host.
The router examines the destination IP address and tries to find the IP address in the routing table. If the
router does not know how to forward the packet, it typically drops the packet. If the router knows how
to forward the packet, it changes the destination MAC address to the MAC address of the next hop router
and transmits the packet.
The next hop might be the ultimate destination host or another router that executes the same switching
decision process. As the packet moves through the internetwork, its physical address changes, but its
protocol address remains constant (see Figure 1-1).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
1-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 1
Overview
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 1-1
Packet Header Updates Through a Network
Source host
PC
Packet
To: Destination host
Router 1
(Protocol address)
(Physical address)
Packet
Router 1
To: Destination host
Router 2
(Protocol address)
(Physical address)
Router 2
To: Destination host (Protocol address)
Router 3
(Physical address)
Router 3
Packet
To: Destination host (Protocol address)
Destination host (Physical address)
Packet
182978
Destination host
PC
Routing Metrics
Routing algorithms use many different metrics to determine the best route. Sophisticated routing
algorithms can base route selection on multiple metrics.
This section includes the following metrics:
•
Path Length, page 1-4
•
Reliability, page 1-4
•
Routing Delay, page 1-4
•
Bandwidth, page 1-4
•
Load, page 1-4
•
Communication Cost, page 1-4
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1-3
Chapter 1
Overview
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Path Length
The path length is the most common routing metric. Some routing protocols allow you to assign arbitrary
costs to each network link. In this case, the path length is the sum of the costs associated with each link
traversed. Other routing protocols define hop count, a metric that specifies the number of passes through
internetworking products, such as routers, that a packet must take from a source to a destination.
Reliability
The reliability, in the context of routing algorithms, is the dependability (in terms of the bit-error rate)
of each network link. Some network links might go down more often than others. After a network fails,
certain network links might be repaired more easily or more quickly than other links. The reliability
factors that you can take into account when assigning the reliability rating are arbitrary numeric values
that you usually assign to network links.
Routing Delay
The routing delay is the length of time required to move a packet from a source to a destination through
the internetwork. The delay depends on many factors, including the bandwidth of intermediate network
links, the port queues at each router along the way, the network congestion on all intermediate network
links, and the physical distance that the packet needs to travel. Becauset the routing delay is a
combination of several important variables, it is a common and useful metric.
Bandwidth
The bandwidth is the available traffic capacity of a link. For example, a 10-Gigabit Ethernet link would
be preferable to a 1-Gigabit Ethernet link. Although the bandwidth is the maximum attainable
throughput on a link, routes through links with greater bandwidth do not necessarily provide better
routes than routes through slower links. For example, if a faster link is busier, the actual time required
to send a packet to the destination could be greater.
Load
The load is the degree to which a network resource, such as a router, is busy. You can calculate the load
in a variety of ways, including CPU utilization and packets processed per second. Monitoring these
parameters on a continual basis can be resourceintensive.
Communication Cost
The communication cost is a measure of the operating cost to route over a link. The communication cost
is another important metric, especially if you do not care about performance as much as operating
expenditures. For example, the line delay for a private line might be longer than a public line, but you
can send packets over your private line rather than through the public lines that cost money for usage
time.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
1-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 1
Overview
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Router IDs
Each routing process has an associated router ID. You can configure the router ID to any interface in the
system. If you do not configure the router ID, Cisco NX-OS selects the router ID based on the following
criteria:
•
Cisco NX-OS prefers loopback0 over any other interface. If loopback0 does not exist, then Cisco
NX-OS prefers the first loopback interface over any other interface type.
•
If you have not configured no loopback interfaces, Cisco NX-OS uses the first interface in the
configuration file as the router ID. If you configure any loopback interface after Cisco NX-OS
selects the router ID, the loopback interface becomes the router ID. If the loopback interface is not
loopback0 and you configure loopback0 later with an IP address, the router ID changes to the IP
address of loopback0.
•
If the interface that the router ID is based on changes, that new IP address becomes the router ID. If
any other interface changes its IP address, there is no router ID change.
Autonomous Systems
An autonomous system (AS) is a network controlled by a single technical administration entity.
Autonomous systems divide global external networks into individual routing domains, where local
routing policies are applied. This organization simplifies routing domain administration and simplifies
consistent policy configuration.
Each autonomous system can support multiple interior routing protocols that dynamically exchange
routing information through route redistribution. The Regional Internet Registries assign a unique
number to each public autonomous system that directly connects to the Internet. This unique number
identifies both the routing process and the autonomous system. Table 1-1 lists the autonomous system
number (AS number) ranges.
Table 1-1
Autonomous System Numbers
16-bit Numbers
32-bit Numbers
Purpose
1 to 64511
0.1 to 0.64511
Public AS (assigned by RIR)1
64512 to 65534
0.64512 to 0.65534
Private AS (assigned by local administrator)
65535
0.65535
Reserved
N/A
1.0 to 65535.65535
Public AS (assigned by RIR)
1. RIR=Regional Internet Registries
Private autonomous system numbers are used for internal routing domains but must be translated by the
router for traffic that is routed out to the Internet. You should not configure routing protocols to advertise
private autonomous system numbers to external networks. By default, Cisco NX-OS does not remove
private autonomous system numbers from routing updates.
Note
The autonomous system number assignment for public and private networks is governed by the Internet
Assigned Number Authority (IANA). For information about autonomous system numbers, including the
reserved number assignment, or to apply to register an autonomous system number, refer to the following
URL:
http://www.iana.org/
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1-5
Chapter 1
Overview
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Convergence
A key aspect to measure for any routing algorithm is how much time a router takes to react to network
topology changes. When a part of the network changes for any reason, such as a link failure, the routing
information in different routers might not match. Some routers will have updated information about the
changed topology, other routers will still have the old information. The convergence is the amount of
time before all routers in the network have updated, matching routing information. The convergence time
varies depending on the routing algorithm. Fast convergence minimizes the chance of lost packets caused
by inaccurate routing information.
Load Balancing and Equal Cost Multipath
Routing protocols can use load balancing or equal cost multipath (ECMP) to share traffic across multiple
paths.When a router learns multiple routes to a specific network, it installs the route with the lowest
administrative distance in the routing table. If the router receives and installs multiple paths with the
same administrative distance and cost to a destination, load balancing can occur. Load balancing
distributes the traffic across all the paths, sharing the load. The number of paths used is limited by the
number of entries that the routing protocol puts in the routing table. Cisco NX-OS supports up to 16
paths to a destination.
The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) also supports unequal cost load-balancing.
For more information, see Chapter 7, “Configuring EIGRP.”
Route Redistribution
If you have multiple routing protocols configured in your network, you can configure these protocols to
share routing information by configuring route redistribution in each protocol. For example, you can
configure Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) to advertise routes learned from the Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP). You can also redistribute static routes into any dynamic routing protocol. The router that is
redistributing routes from another protocol sets a fixed route metric for those redistributed routes. This
avoids the problem of incompatible route metrics between the different routing protocols. For example,
routes redistributed from EIGRP into OSPF are assigned a fixed link cost metric that OSPF understands.
Route redistribution also uses an administrative distance (see the “Administrative Distance” section on
page 1-6) to distinguish between routes learned from two different routing protocols. The preferred
routing protocol is given a lower administrative distance so that its routes are picked over routes from
another protocol with a higher administrative distance assigned.
Administrative Distance
An administrative distance is a rating of the trustworthiness of a routing information source. The higher
the value, the lower the trust rating. Typically, a route can be learned through more than one protocol.
Administrative distance is used to discriminate between routes learned from more than one protocol. The
route with the lowest administrative distance is installed in the IP routing table.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
1-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 1
Overview
Information About Layer 3 Unicast Routing
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Stub Routing
You can use stub routing in a hub-and-spoke network topology, where one or more end (stub) networks
are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the
hub). The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. The only route for IP traffic
to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. This type of configuration is commonly
used in WAN topologies in which the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. The distribution
router can be connected to many more remote routers. Often, the distribution router is connected to 100
or more remote routers. In a hub-and-spoke topology, the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic
to a distribution router, so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table.
Generally, the distribution router sends only a default route to the remote router.
Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. The stub router responds to all
queries for summaries, connected routes, redistributed static routes, external routes, and internal routes
with the message “inaccessible.” A router that is configured as a stub sends a special peer information
packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router.
Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status does not query the stub router for any
routes, and a router that has a stub peer does not query that peer. The stub router depends on the
distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers.
Figure 1-2 shows a simple hub-and-spoke configuration.
Figure 1-2
Simple Hub-and-Spoke Network
Distribution
router
(hub)
Remote
router
(spoke)
192.0.2.0/24
Coporate
network
182979
Internet
Stub routing does not prevent routes from being advertised to the remote router. Figure 1-2 shows that
the remote router can access the corporate network and the Internet through the distribution router only.
A full route table on the remote router, in this example, serves no functional purpose because the path to
the corporate network and the Internet would always be through the distribution router. A larger route
table would reduce only the amount of memory required by the remote router. The bandwidth and
memory used can be lessened by summarizing and filtering routes in the distribution router. In this
network topology, the remote router does not need to receive routes that have been learned from other
networks because the remote router must send all nonlocal traffic, regardless of its destination, to the
distribution router. To configure a true stub network, you should configure the distribution router to send
only a default route to the remote router.
OSPF supports stub areas and EIGRP supports stub routers.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1-7
Chapter 1
Overview
Routing Algorithms
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Routing Algorithms
Routing algorithms determine how a router gathers and reports reachability information, how it deals
with topology changes, and how it determines the optimal route to a destination. Various types of routing
algorithms exist, and each algorithm has a different impact on network and router resources. Routing
algorithms use a variety of metrics that affect calculation of optimal routes. You can classify routing
algorithms by type, such as static or dynamic, and interior or exterior.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Static Routes and Dynamic Routing Protocols, page 1-8
•
Interior and Exterior Gateway Protocols, page 1-8
•
Distance Vector Protocols, page 1-8
•
Link State Protocols, page 1-9
Static Routes and Dynamic Routing Protocols
Static routes are route table entries that you manually configure. These static routes do not change unless
you reconfigure them. Static routes are simple to design and work well in environments where network
traffic is relatively predictable and where network design is relatively simple.
Because static routing systems cannot react to network changes, you should not uses them for today’s
large, constantly changing networks. Most routing protocols today use dynamic routing algorithms,
which adjust to changing network circumstances by analyzing incoming routing update messages. If the
message indicates that a network change has occurred, the routing software recalculates routes and sends
out new routing update messages. These messages permeate the network, triggering routers to rerun their
algorithms and change their routing tables accordingly.
You can supplement dynamic routing algorithms with static routes where appropriate. For example, you
should configure each subnetwork with a static route to the IP default gateway or router of last resort (a
router to which all unroutable packets are sent).
Interior and Exterior Gateway Protocols
You can separate networks into unique routing domains or autonomous systems. An autonomous system
is a portion of an internetwork under common administrative authority that is regulated by a particular
set of administrative guidelines. Routing protocols that route between autonomous systems are called
exterior gateway protocols or interdomain protocols. BGP is an example of an exterior gateway protocol.
Routing protocols used within an autonomous system are called interior gateway protocols or
intradomain protocols. EIGRP and OSPF are examples of interior gateway protocols.
Distance Vector Protocols
Distance vector protocols use distance vector algorithms (also known as Bellman-Ford algorithms) that
call for each router to send all or some portion of its routing table to its neighbors. Distance vector
algorithms define routes by distance (for example, the number of hops to the destination) and direction
(for example, the next-hop router). These routes are then broadcast to the directly connected neighbor
routers. Each router uses these updates to verify and update the routing tables.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
1-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 1
Overview
Layer 3 Virtualization
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
To prevent routing loops, most distance vector algorithms use split horizon with poison reverse which
means that the routes learned from an interface are set as unreachable and advertised back along the
interface that they were learned on during the next periodic update. This prevents the router from seeing
its own route updates coming back.
Distance vector algorithms send updates at fixed intervals but can also send updates in response to
changes in route metric values. These triggered updates can speed up the route convergence time. The
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance vector protocol.
Link State Protocols
The link-state protocols, also known as shortest path first (SPF), share information with neighboring
routers. Each router builds a link-state advertisement (LSA), which contains information about each link
and directly connected neighbor router.
Each LSA has a sequence number. When a router receives and LSA and updates its link-state database,
the LSA is flooded to all adjacent neighbors. If a router receives two LSAs with the same sequence
number (from the same router), the router does not flood the last LSA received to its neighbors to prevent
an LSA update loop. Because the router floods the LSAs immediately after they receive them,
convergence time for link-state protocols is minimized.
Discovering neighbors and establishing adjacency is an important part of a link state protocol. Neighbors
are discovered using special Hello packets that also serve as keepalive notifications to each neighbor
router. Adjacency is the establishment of a common set of operating parameters for the link-state
protocol between neighbor routers.
The LSAs received by a router are added to its link-state database. Each entry consists of the following
parameters:
•
Router ID (for the router that originated the LSA)
•
Neighbor ID
•
Link cost
•
Sequence number of the LSA
•
Age of the LSA entry
The router runs the SPF algorithm on the link-state database, building the shortest path tree for that
router. This SPF tree is used to populate the routing table.
In link-state algorithms, each router builds a picture of the entire network in its routing tables. The
link-state algorithms send small updates everywhere, while distance vector algorithms send larger
updates only to neighboring routers.
Because they converge more quickly, link-state algorithms are somewhat less prone to routing loops than
distance vector algorithms. However, link-state algorithms require more CPU power and memory than
distance vector algorithms. Link-state algorithms can be more expensive to implement and support.
Link-state protocols are generally more scalable than distance vector protocols.
OSPF is an example of a link-state protocol.
Layer 3 Virtualization
Cisco NX-OS introduces the virtual device context (VDC), which provides separate management
domains per VDC and software fault isolation. Each VDC supports multiple Virtual Routing and
Forwarding Instances (VRFs) and multiple routing information bases (RIBs) to support multiple address
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1-9
Chapter 1
Overview
Cisco NX-OS Fowarding Architecture
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
domains. Each VRF is associated with a routing information base (RIB) and this information is collected
by the Forwarding Information Base(FIB). Figure 1-3 shows the relationship between VDC, VRF, and
the Cisco NX-OS system.
Figure 1-3
Layer 3 Virtualization Example
Cisco NX-OS System
Routing
Protocol VRF
VDC n
Routing
Protocol VRF
RIBs
RIB table
VRF n
VRF 1
RIBs
RIB table
Routing Protocol
RIB table
Forwarding Information Bases
RIB table
182980
VDC 1
A VRF represents a layer 3 addressing domain. Each layer 3 interface (logical or physical) belongs to
one VRF. A VRF belongs to one VDC. Each VDC can support multiple VRFs. For more information,
see Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
See to the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide, Release 4.0 for details on VDCs.
Cisco NX-OS Fowarding Architecture
The Cisco NX-OS forwarding architecture is responsible for processing all routing updates and
populating the forwarding information to all modules in the chassis.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Unicast RIB, page 1-10
•
Adjacency Manager, page 1-11
•
Unicast Forwarding Distribution Module, page 1-11
•
Unicast FIB, page 1-12
•
Hardware Forwarding, page 1-13
•
Software Forwarding, page 1-13
Unicast RIB
The Cisco NX-OS forwarding architecture consists of multiple components, as shown in Figure 1-4.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
1-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 1
Overview
Cisco NX-OS Fowarding Architecture
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 1-4
Cisco NX-OS Forwarding Architecture
ISIS
BGP
OSPF
ARP
Supervisor components
URIB
Adjacenty Manager (AM)
Supervisor and
module components
Unicast Forwarding Information Base (UFIB)
182981
Unicast FIB Distribution Module (uFDM)
The unicast RIB exists on the active supervisor. It maintains the routing table with directly connected
routes, static routes, and routes learned from dynamic unicast routing protocols. The unicast RIB also
collects adjacency information from sources such as the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). The
unicast RIB determines the best next-hop for a given route and populates the unicast forwarding
information bases (FIB) on the supervisors and modules by using the services of unicast FIB distribution
module (FDM).
Each dynamic routing protocol must update the unicast RIB for any route that has timed out. The unicast
RIB then deletes that route and recalculates the best next-hop for that route (if an alternate path is
available).
Adjacency Manager
The adjacency manager exists on the active supervisor and maintains adjacency information for different
protocols including ARP, Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP), and static configuration. The most basic
adjacency information is the layer 3 to layer 2 address mapping discovered by these protocols. Outgoing
layer 2 packets use the adjacency information to complete the layer 2 header.
The adjacency manager can trigger ARP requests to find a particular layer 3 to layer 2 mapping. The new
mapping becomes available when the corresponding ARP reply is received and processed. For IPv6, the
adjacency manager finds the layer 3 to layer 2 mapping information from NDP. See Chapter 3,
“Configuring IPv6.”
Unicast Forwarding Distribution Module
The unicast forwarding distribution module exists on the active supervisor and distributes the forwarding
path information from the unicast RIB and other sources. The unicast RIB generates forwarding
information which the unicast FIB programs into the hardware forwarding tables on the standby
supervisor and the modules. The unicast forwarding distribution module also downloads the FIB
information to newly inserted modules.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1-11
Chapter 1
Overview
Cisco NX-OS Fowarding Architecture
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The unicast forwarding distribution module gathers adjacency information, rewrite information, and
other platform-dependent information when updating routes in the unicast FIB. The adjacency and
rewrite information consists of interface, next-hop, and Layer 3 to Layer 2 mapping information. The
interface and next-hop information is received in route updates from the unicast RIB. The Layer 3 to
Layer 2 mapping is received from the adjacency manager.
Unicast FIB
The unicast FIB exists on supervisors and switching modules and builds the information used for the
hardware forwarding engine. The unicast FIB receives route updates from the unicast forwarding
distribution module and sends the information along to be programmed in the hardware forwarding
engine. The unicast FIB controls the addition, deletion, and modification of routes, paths, and
adjacencies.
The unicast FIBs are maintained on a per-VRF and per-address-family basis, that is, one for IPv4 and
one for IPv6 for each configured VRF. Based on route update messages, the unicast FIB maintains a
per-VRF prefix and next-hop adjacency information database. The next-hop adjacency data structure
contains the next-hop IP address and the Layer 2 rewrite information. Multiple prefixes could share a
next-hop adjacency information structure.
Displaying Routing and Forwarding Information
You can use the CLI to view the routing and forwarding tables.
This example displays the show routing command output:
switch# show routing
IP Route Table for Context "default"
'*' denotes best ucast next-hop
'[x/y]' denotes [preference/metric]
'**' denotes best mcast next-hop
0.0.0.0/0, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops
*via 10.1.1.1, mgmt0, [1/0], 5d21h, static
0.0.0.0/32, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops
*via Null0, [220/0], 1w6d, local, discard
10.1.0.0/22, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops, attached
*via 10.1.1.55, mgmt0, [0/0], 5d21h, direct
10.1.0.0/32, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops, attached
*via 10.1.0.0, Null0, [0/0], 5d21h, local
10.1.1.1/32, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops, attached
*via 10.1.1.1, mgmt0, [2/0], 5d16h, am
10.1.1.55/32, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops, attached
*via 10.1.1.55, mgmt0, [0/0], 5d21h, local
10.1.1.253/32, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops, attached
*via 10.1.1.253, mgmt0, [2/0], 5d20h, am
10.1.3.255/32, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops, attached
*via 10.1.3.255, mgmt0, [0/0], 5d21h, local
255.255.255.255/32, 1 ucast next-hops, 0 mcast next-hops
*via Eth Inband Port, [0/0], 1w6d, local
This example shows the adjacency information from the show ip adjacency CLI command:
switch# show ip adjacency
IP Adjacency Table for context default
Total number of entries: 2
Address
Age
MAC Address
Pref Source
Interface
Best
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
1-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 1
Overview
Summary of Layer 3 Unicast Routing Features
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
10.1.1.1
10.1.1.253
switch
02:20:54
00:06:27
00e0.b06a.71eb
0014.5e0b.81d1
50
50
arp
arp
mgmt0
mgmt0
Yes
Yes
You can also use the show ip fib command to display details on the unicast FIB.
Hardware Forwarding
Cisco NX-OS supports distributed packet forwarding. The ingress port takes relevant information from
the packet header and passes the information to the local switching engine. The local switching engine
does the Layer 3 lookup and uses this information to rewrite the packet header. The ingress module
forwards the packet to the egress port. If the egress port is on a different module, the packet is forwarded
using the switch fabric to the egress module. The egress module does not participate in the Layer 3
forwarding decision.
The forwarding tables are identical on the supervisor and all the modules.
You also use the show platform fib or show platform forwarding commands to display details on
hardware forwarding.
Software Forwarding
The software forwarding path in Cisco NX-OS is used mainly to handle features that are not supported
in hardware or to handle errors encountered during hardware processing. Typically, packets with IP
options or packets that need fragmentation are passed to the CPU on the active supervisor. All packets
that should be switched in software or terminated go to the supervisor. The supervisor uses the
information provided by the unicast RIB and the adjacency manager to make the forwarding decisions.
The module is not involved in the software forwarding path.
Software forwarding is controlled by control plane policies and rate limiters. (see theCisco NX-OS
Security Configuration Guide, Release 4.0).
Summary of Layer 3 Unicast Routing Features
This section provides a brief introduction to the Layer 3 unicast features and protocols supported in
Cisco NX-OS.
This section includes the following topics:
•
IPv4 and IPv6, page 1-14
•
IP Services, page 1-14
•
OSPF, page 1-14
•
EIGRP, page 1-14
•
IS-IS, page 1-14
•
BGP, page 1-15
•
RIP, page 1-15
•
Static Routing, page 1-15
•
Layer 3 Virtualization, page 1-15
•
Route Policy Manager, page 1-15
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1-13
Chapter 1
Overview
Summary of Layer 3 Unicast Routing Features
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Policy-Based Routing, page 1-15
•
First-Hop Redundancy Protocols, page 1-16
•
Object Tracking, page 1-16
IPv4 and IPv6
Layer 3 uses either the IPv4 or IPv6 protocol. IPv6 is a new IP protocol designed to replace IPv4, the
Internet protocol that is predominantly deployed and used throughout the world. IPv6 increases the
number of network address bits from 32 bits (in IPv4) to 128 bits. For more information, see Chapter 2,
“Configuring IPv4” or Chapter 3, “Configuring IPv6.”
IP Services
IP Services includes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS
Client) clients. For more information, see Chapter 4, “Configuring DNS.”
OSPF
The OSPF protocol is a link-state routing protocol used to exchange network reachability information
within an autonomous system. Each OSPF router advertises information about its active links to its
neighbor routers. Link information consists of the link type, the link metric, and the neighbor router
connected to the link. The advertisements that contain this link information are called link-state
advertisements. For more information, see Chapter 5, “Configuring OSPFv2.”
EIGRP
The EIGRP protocol is a unicast routing protocol that has the characteristics of both distance vector and
link-state routing protocols. It is an improved version of IGRP, which is a Cisco proprietary routing
protocol. EIGRP relies on its neighbors to provide the routes, typical to a distance vector routing
protocol. It constructs the network topology from the routes advertised by its neighbors, similar to a
link-state protocol, and uses this information to select loop-free paths to destinations. For more
information, see Chapter 7, “Configuring EIGRP.”
IS-IS
The Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocol is an intradomain Open System
Interconnection (OSI) dynamic routing protocol specified in International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) 10589. The IS-IS routing protocol is a link-state protocol. Features of IS-IS are
as follows:
•
Hierarchical routing
•
Classless behavior
•
Rapid flooding of new information
•
Fast Convergence
•
Very scalable
For more information, see the Chapter 8, “Configuring IS-IS.”
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
1-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 1
Overview
Summary of Layer 3 Unicast Routing Features
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BGP
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an inter-autonomous system routing protocol. A BGP router
advertises network reachability information to other BGP routers using Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) as its reliable transport mechanism. The network reachability information includes the destination
network prefix, a list of autonomous systems that needs to be traversed to reach the destination, and the
next-hop router. Reachability information contains additional path attributes such as preference to a
route, origin of the route, community and others. For more information, see Chapter 9, “Configuring
Basic BGP” and Chapter 10, “Configuring Advanced BGP.”
RIP
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector protocol that uses a hop count as its metric.
RIP is widely used for routing traffic in the global Internet and is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP),
which means that it performs routing within a single autonomous system. For more information, see
Chapter 11, “Configuring RIP.”
Static Routing
Static routing allows you to enter a fixed route to a destination. This feature is useful for small networks
where the topology is simple. Static routing is also used with other routing protocols to control default
routes and route distribution. For more information, see Chapter 12, “Configuring Static Routing.”
Layer 3 Virtualization
Virtualization allos you to share physical resources across separate management domains. Cisco NX-OS
supports Virtual Device Contexts (VDCs) which allow you to create separate virtual systems within a
Cisco NX-OS system. Each VDC is isolated from the others, which means that a problem in one VDC
does not affect any other VDCs. VDCs are also secure from the other. You can assign separate network
operators to each VDC and these network operators cannot control or view the configuration of a
different VDC.
Cisco NX-OS also supports Layer 3 virtualization with VPN Routing and Forwarding (VRF). A VRF
provides a separate address domain for configuring layer 3 routing protocols. For more information, see
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Route Policy Manager
The Route Policy Manager provides a route filtering capability in Cisco NX-OS. It uses route maps to
filter routes distributed across various routing protocols and between different entities within a given
routing protocol. Filtering is based on specific match criteria, which is similar to packet filtering by
access control lists. For more information, see Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager.”
Policy-Based Routing
Policy-based routing uses the Route Policy Manager to create policy route filters. These policy route
filters can forward a packet to a specified next hop based on the source of the packet or other fields in
the packet header. Policy routes can be linked to extended IP access lists so that routing might be based
on such things as protocol types and port numbers. For more information, see Chapter 15, “Configuring
Policy-Based Routing.”
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
1-15
Chapter 1
Overview
Related Topics
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
First-Hop Redundancy Protocols
First-hop redundancy protocols allow you to provide redundant connections to your hosts. In the event
that an active first-hop router fails, the FHRP automatically selects a standby router to take over. You do
not need to update the hosts with new IP addresses since the address is virtual and shared between each
router in the FHRP group. For more informatin on the Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP), ssee
Chapter 16, “Configuring GLBP”.
Object Tracking
Object tracking allows you to track specific objects on the network, such as the interface line protocol
state, IP routing, and route reachability, and take action when the tracked object’s state changes. This
feature allows you to increase the availability of the network and shorten recovery time if an object state
goes down. For more information, see Chapter 19, “Configuring Object Tracking”.
Related Topics
The following Cisco documents are related to the Layer 3 features:
•
Cisco NX-OS Multicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
•
Cisco NX-OS High Availability and Redundancy Guide, Release 4.0
•
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
•
Exploring Autonomous System Numbers:
http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac123/ac147/archived_issues/ipj_9-1/autonomous_system_numb
ers.html
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
1-16
OL-12912-01
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
PA R T
IP
1
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
2
Configuring IPv4
This chapter describes how to configure Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), which includes addressing,
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), on the device.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About IPv4, page 2-1
•
Licensing Requirements for IPv4, page 2-6
•
Prerequisites for IPv4, page 2-6
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 2-6
•
Configuring IPv4, page 2-3
•
Verifying the IPv4 Configuration, page 2-12
•
IPv4 Example Configuration, page 2-12
•
Default Settings, page 2-12
•
Additional References, page 2-12
Information About IPv4
You can configure IP on the device to assign IP addresses to network interfaces. When you assign IP
addresses, you enable the interfaces and allow communication with the hosts on those interfaces.
You can configure an IP address as primary or secondary on a device. An interface can have one primary
IP address and multiple secondary addresses. All networking devices on an interface should share the
same primary IP address because the packets that are generated by the device always use the primary
IPv4 address. Each IPv4 packet is based on the information from a source or destination IP address. See
the “Multiple IPv4 Addresses” section on page 2-2.
You can use a subnet to mask the IP addresses. A mask is used to determine what subnet an IP address
belongs to. An IP address contains the network address and the host address. A mask identifies the bits
that denote the network number in an IP address. When you use the mask to subnet a network, the mask
is then referred to as a subnet mask. Subnet masks are 32-bit values that allow the recipient of IP packets
to distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address from the host ID portion of the IP address.
The IP feature in the Cisco NX-OS system is responsible for handling IPv4 packets that terminate in the
supervisor module, as well as forwarding of IPv4 packets, which includes IPv4 unicast/multicast route
lookup, reverse path forwarding (RPF) checks, and software access control list/policy based routing
(ACL/PBR) forwarding. The IP feature also manages the network interface IP address configuration,
duplicate address checks, static routes, and packet send/receive interface for IP clients.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
2-1
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Information About IPv4
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
This section includes the following topics:
•
Multiple IPv4 Addresses, page 2-2
•
Address Resolution Protocol, page 2-2
•
ARP Caching, page 2-3
•
Static and Dynamic Entries in the ARP Cache, page 2-3
•
Devices that do not use ARP, page 2-3
•
Inverse ARP, page 2-4
•
Reverse ARP, page 2-4
•
Proxy ARP, page 2-5
•
Local Proxy ARP, page 2-5
•
ICMP, page 2-5
•
Virtualization Support, page 2-6
Multiple IPv4 Addresses
The Cisco NX-OS system supports multiple IP addresses per interface. You can specify an unlimited
number of secondary addresses for a variety of situations. The most common are as follows:
Note
•
When there are not enough host IP addresses for a particular network interface. For example, if your
subnetting allows up to 254 hosts per logical subnet, but on one physical subnet you must have 300
host addresses, then you can use secondary IP addresses on the routers or access servers to allow
you to have two logical subnets using one physical subnet.
•
Two subnets of a single network might otherwise be separated by another network. You can create
a single network from subnets that are physically separated by another network by using a secondary
address. In these instances, the first network is extended, or layered on top of the second network.
A subnet cannot appear on more than one active interface of the router at a time.
If any device on a network segment uses a secondary IPv4 address, all other devices on that same
network interface must also use a secondary address from the same network or subnet. The inconsistent
use of secondary addresses on a network segment can quickly cause routing loops.
Address Resolution Protocol
Networking devices and Layer 3 switches use Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to map IP (network
layer) addresses to (Media Access Control [MAC]-layer) addresses to enable IP packets to be sent across
networks. Before a device sends a packet to another device, it looks in its own ARP cache to see if there
is a MAC address and corresponding IP address for the destination device. If there is no entry, the source
device sends a broadcast message to every device on the network.
Each device compares the IP address to its own. Only the device with the matching IP address replies to
the device that sends the data with a packet that contains the MAC address for the device. The source
device adds the destination device MAC address to its ARP table for future reference, creates a data-link
header and trailer that encapsulates the packet, and proceeds to transfer the data. Figure 2-1 shows the
ARP broadcast and response process.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Information About IPv4
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 2-1
ARP Process
Barney
135075
Fred
I need the address of 10.1.1.2.
I heard that broadcast. The message is for me.
Here is my MAC address: 4523.7985.7734.
When the destination device lies on a remote network which is beyond another device, the process is the
same except that the device that sends the data sends an ARP request for the MAC address of the default
gateway. After the address is resolved and the default gateway receives the packet, the default gateway
broadcasts the destination IP address over the networks connected to it. The device on the destination
device network uses ARP to obtain the MAC address of the destination device and delivers the packet.
ARP is enabled by default.
ARP Caching
ARP caching minimizes broadcasts and limits wasteful use of network resources. The mapping of IP
addresses to MAC addresses occurs at each hop (device) on the network for every packet sent over an
internetwork, which may affect network performance.
ARP caching stores network addresses and the associated data-link addresses in memory for a period of
time, which minimizes the use of valuable network resources to broadcast for the same address each time
a packet is sent. You must maintain the cache entries since the cache entries are set to expire periodically
because the information might become outdated. Every device on a network updates its tables as
addresses are broadcast.
Static and Dynamic Entries in the ARP Cache
You must manually configure the IP addresses, subnet masks, gateways, and corresponding MAC
addresses for each interface of each device when using static routes. Static routing enables more control
but requires more work to maintain the route table. You must update the table each time you add or
change routes.
Dynamic routing uses protocols that enable the devices in a network to exchange routing table
information with each other. Dynamic routing is more efficient than static routing because the route table
is automatically updated unless you add a time limit to the cache. The default time limit is 25 minutes
but you can modify the time limit if the network has many routes that are added and deleted from the
cache.
Devices that do not use ARP
When a network is divided into two segments, a bridge joins the segments and filters traffic to each
segment based on MAC addresses. The bridge builds its own address table, which uses MAC addresses
only, as opposed to a device, which has an ARP cache that contains both IP addresses and the
corresponding MAC addresses.
Passive hubs are central-connection devices that physically connect other devices in a network. They
send messages out on all their ports to the devices and operate at Layer 1, but do not maintain an address
table.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
2-3
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Information About IPv4
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Layer 2 switches determine which port is connected to a device to which the message is addressed and
send only to that port, unlike a hub, which sends the message out all its ports. However, Layer 3 switches
are devices that build an ARP cache (table).
Inverse ARP
Inverse ARP, which is enabled by default in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, builds an
ATM map entry and is necessary to send unicast packets to a server (or relay agent) on the other end of
a connection. Inverse ARP is only supported for the aal5snap encapsulation type.
You can acquire an IP address using other encapsulation types for multiple interfaces because broadcast
packets are used. However, unicast packets to the other end will fail because there is no ATM map entry
and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) renewals and releases also fail.
Reverse ARP
Reverse ARP (RARP) as defined by RFC 903 works the same way as ARP, except that the RARP request
packet requests an IP address instead of a MAC address. RARP often is used by diskless workstations
because this type of device has no way to store IP addresses to use when they boot. The only address that
is known is the MAC address because it is burned into the hardware.
Use of RARP requires an RARP server on the same network segment as the router interface. Figure 2-2
illustrates how RARP works.
Reverse ARP
Device A
I am device A and sending
a broadcast that uses my
hardware address.
Can somone on the network
tell me what my IP address is?
RARP server
Okay, your hardware address
is 2222.8048.1644.1234 and
your IP address is 10.0.0.2
135218
Figure 2-2
There are several limitations of RARP. Because of these limitations, most businesses use DHCP to assign
IP addresses dynamically. DHCP is cost effective and requires less maintenance than RARP. The
following are the most important limitations:
•
Since RARP uses hardware addresses, if the internetwork is large with many physical networks, a
RARP server must be on every segment with an additional server for redundancy. Maintaining two
servers for every segment is costly.
•
Each server must be configured with a table of static mappings between the hardware addresses and
IP addresses. Maintenance of the IP addresses is difficult.
•
RARP only provides IP addresses of the hosts and not subnet masks or default gateways.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Information About IPv4
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Proxy ARP
Proxy ARP enables a device that is physically located on one network appear to be logically part of a
different physical network connected to the same device or firewall. Proxy ARP allows you to hide a
device with a public IP address on a private network behind a router, and still have the device appear to
be on the public network in front of the router. By hiding its identity, the router accepts responsibility
for routing packets to the real destination. Proxy ARP can help devices on a subnet reach remote subnets
without configuring routing or a default gateway.
When devices are not in the same data link layer network but in the same IP network, they try to transmit
data to each other as if they are on the local network. However, the router that separates the devices does
not send a broadcast message because routers do not pass hardware-layer broadcasts and the addresses
cannot be resolved.
When you enable Proxy ARP on the device and it receives an ARP request, it identifies the request as a
request for a system that is not on the local LAN. The device responds as if it is the remote destination
for which the broadcast is addressed, with an ARP response that associates the device’s MAC address
with the remote destination's IP address. The local device believes that it is directly connected to the
destination, while in reality its packets are being forwarded from the local subnetwork toward the
destination subnetwork by their local device. By default, Proxy ARP is disabled.
Local Proxy ARP
You can use local Proxy ARP to enable a device to respond to ARP requests for IP addresses within a
subnet where normally no routing is required. When you enable local Proxy ARP, ARP responds to all
ARP requests for IP addresses within the subnet and forwards all traffic between hosts in the subnet. Use
this feature only on subnets where hosts are intentionally prevented from communicating directly by the
configuration on the device to which they are connected.
ICMP
You can use ICMP to provide message packets that report errors and other information that is relevant
to IP processing. ICMP generates error messages, such as ICMP destination unreachable messages,
ICMP Echo Requests (which send a packet on a round trip between two hosts) and Echo Reply messages.
ICMP also provides many diagnostic functions and can send and redirect error packets to the host. By
default, ICMP is enabled.
Some of the ICMP message types are as follows:
Note
•
Network error messages
•
Network congestion messages
•
Troubleshooting information
•
Timeout announcements
ICMP redirects are disabled on interfaces where the local proxy ARP feature is enabled.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
2-5
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Licensing Requirements for IPv4
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Virtualization Support
IPv4 supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device
contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDC and VRF. For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device
Context Configuration Guide and see Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for IPv4
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
IP requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS
system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing
scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for IPv4
IPv4 has the following prerequisites:
•
Can only be configured on Layer 3 interfaces.
Guidelines and Limitations
IPv4 has the following guidelines and limitations and restrictions:
•
You can configure a secondary IP address only after you configure the primary IP address.
Configuring IPv4
This section includes the following topics:
Note
•
Configuring IPv4 Addressing, page 2-7
•
Configuring Multiple IP Addresses, page 2-8
•
Configuring a Static ARP Entry, page 2-9
•
Configuring Proxy ARP, page 2-10
•
Configuring Local Proxy ARP, page 2-11
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Configuring IPv4
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring IPv4 Addressing
You can assign a primary IP address for a network interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface ethernet number
3.
ip address ip-address/length
4.
show ip interface
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface ethernet number
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Specifies a primary or secondary IPv4 address for an
interface.
ip address ip-address/length
[secondary]
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip address 192.2.1.1
255.0.0.0
•
The network mask can be a four-part dotted
decimal address. For example, 255.0.0.0 indicates
that each bit equal to 1 means the corresponding
address bit belongs to the network address.
•
The network mask can be indicated as a slash (/)
and a number - a prefix length. The prefix length
is a decimal value that indicates how many of the
high-order contiguous bits of the address
comprise the prefix (the network portion of the
address). A slash must precede the decimal value
and there is no space between the IP address and
the slash.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
2-7
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Configuring IPv4
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
show ip interface
(Optional) Displays interfaces configured for IPv4.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip interface
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
This example shows how to assign an IPv4 address:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)# ip address 192.2.1.1 255.0.0.0
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Multiple IP Addresses
You can only add secondary IP addresses after you configure primary IP addresses.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface ethernet number
3.
ip address ip-address/length
4.
show ip interface
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface ethernet number
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Configuring IPv4
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 3
Command
Purpose
ip address ip-address/length
[secondary]
Specifies the configured address as a secondary IPv4
address.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip address 192.2.1.1
255.0.0.0 secondary
Step 4
(Optional) Displays interfaces configured for IPv4.
show ip interface
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip interface
Step 5
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
Configuring a Static ARP Entry
You can configure a static ARP entry on the device to map IP addresses to MAC hardware addresses.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface ethernet number
3.
ip arp ipaddr mac_addr
4.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Command
Purpose
Step 1
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Step 2
interface ethernet number
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Associates an IP address with a MAC address as a
static entry.
ip arp ipaddr mac_addr
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip arp 192.2.1.1
0019.076c.1a78
Step 4
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
2-9
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Configuring IPv4
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
This example shows how to configure a static ARP entry:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)# ip arp 92.2.1.1 0019.076c.1a78
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Proxy ARP
You can configure Proxy ARP on the device to determine the media addresses of hosts on other networks
or subnets.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface ethernet number
3.
ip proxy-arp
4.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Command
Purpose
Step 1
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Step 2
interface ethernet number
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ip proxy-arp
Enables Proxy ARP on the interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip proxy-arp
Step 4
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
This example shows how to configure Proxy ARP:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)# ip proxy-arp
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Configuring IPv4
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Local Proxy ARP
You can configure Local Proxy ARP on the device.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface ethernet number
3.
ip local-proxy-arp
4.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Command
Purpose
Step 1
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Step 2
interface ethernet number
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Enables Local Proxy ARP on the interface.
ip local-proxy-arp
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip local-proxy-arp
Step 4
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
This example shows how to configure Local Proxy ARP:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)# ip local-proxy-arp
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
2-11
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Verifying the IPv4 Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Verifying the IPv4 Configuration
To verify configuration information, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ip adjacency
Displays the adjacency table.
show ip arp
Displays the ARP table.
show ip interface
Displays IP related interface information.
show ip arp statistics
Displays the ARP statistics.
IPv4 Example Configuration
Make the configuration example consistent with example commands in the Detailed Steps table.
This example shows how to configure IPv4:
config t
command keyword argument
Default Settings
Table 2-1 lists the default settings for IP parameters.
Table 2-1
Default IP Parameters
Parameters
Default
proxy ARP
disabled
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing IP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 2-13
•
Standards, page 2-13
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
IP CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Reference, Release 4.0
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
2-13
Chapter 2
Configuring IPv4
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2-14
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
3
Configuring IPv6
This chapter describes how to configure Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), which includes addressing,
Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND), and Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6), on the
device.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About IPv6, page 3-1
•
Licensing Requirements for IPv6, page 3-18
•
Prerequisites for IPv6, page 3-18
•
Guidelines and Limitations for IPv6, page 3-18
•
Configuring IPv6, page 3-18
•
Verifying the IPv6 Configuration, page 3-23
•
IPv6 Example Configuration, page 3-23
•
Default Settings, page 3-23
•
Additional References, page 3-23
Information About IPv6
IPv6, which is designed to replace IPv4, increases the number of network address bits from 32 bits (in
IPv4) to 128 bits. IPv6 is based on IPv4 but it includes a much larger address space and other
improvements such as a simplified main header and extension headers.
The larger IPv6 address space allows networks to scale and provide global reachability. The simplified
IPv6 packet header format handles packets more efficiently. The flexibility of the IPv6 address space
reduces the need for private addresses and the use of Network Address Translation (NAT), which
translates private (not globally unique) addresses into a limited number of public addresses. IPv6 enables
new application protocols that do not require special processing by border routers at the edge of
networks.
IPv6 functionality, such as prefix aggregation, simplified network renumbering, and IPv6 site
multihoming capabilities, enable more efficient routing. IPv6 supports Routing Information Protocol
(RIP), Integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
for IPv6, and multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
This section includes the following topics:
•
IPv6 Address Formats, page 3-2
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-1
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
IPv6 Unicast Addresses, page 3-3
•
IPv6 Anycast Addresses, page 3-7
•
IPv6 Multicast Addresses, page 3-7
•
IPv4 Packet Header, page 3-9
•
Simplified IPv6 Packet Header, page 3-9
•
DNS for IPv6, page 3-12
•
Path MTU Discovery for IPv6, page 3-12
•
Cisco Discovery Protocol IPv6 Address Support, page 3-12
•
ICMP for IPv6, page 3-12
•
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, page 3-13
•
IPv6 Neighbor Solicitation Message, page 3-13
•
IPv6 Router Advertisement Message, page 3-15
•
IPv6 Neighbor Redirect Message, page 3-16
•
Virtualization Support, page 3-17
IPv6 Address Formats
An IPv6 address has 128 bits or 16 bytes. The address is divided into eight, 16-bit hexadecimal blocks
separated by colons (:) in the format: x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x. Two examples of IPv6 addresses are as follows:
2001:0DB8:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210
2001:0DB8:0:0:8:800:200C:417A
IPv6 addresses contain consecutive zeros within the address. You can use two colons (::) at the
beginning, middle, or end of an IPv6 address to replace the consecutive zeros. Table 3-1 shows a list of
compressed IPv6 address formats.
Note
You can use two colons (::) only once in an IPv6 address to replace the longest string of consecutive
zeros within the address.
You can use a double colon as part of the IPv6 address when consecutive 16-bit values are denoted as
zero. You can configure multiple IPv6 addresses per interface but only one link-local address.
The hexadecimal letters in IPv6 addresses are not case sensitive.
Table 3-1
Compressed IPv6 Address Formats
IPv6 Address Type
Preferred Format
Compressed Format
Unicast
2001:0:0:0:0DB8:800:200C:417A
2001::0DB8:800:200C:417A
Multicast
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101
FF01::101
Loopback
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
::1
Unspecified
0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
::
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
A node may use the loopback address listed in Table 3-1 to send an IPv6 packet to itself. The loopback
address in IPv6 is the same as the loopback address in IPv4. For more information, see Chapter 1,
“Overview.”
Note
You cannot assign the IPv6 loopback address to a physical interface. A packet that contains the IPv6
loopback address as its source or destination address must remain within the node that created the packet.
IPv6 routers do not forward packets that have the IPv6 loopback address as their source or destination
address.
Note
You cannot assign an IPv6 unspecified address to an interface. You should not use the unspecified IPv6
addresses as destination addresses in IPv6 packets or the IPv6 routing header.
The IPv6-prefix is in the form documented in RFC 2373 where the IPv6 address is specified in
hexadecimal using 16-bit values between colons. The prefix length is a decimal value that indicates how
many of the high-order contiguous bits of the address comprise the prefix (the network portion of the
address). For example, 2001:0DB8:8086:6502::/32 is a valid IPv6 prefix.
IPv6 Unicast Addresses
An IPv6 unicast address is an identifier for a single interface, on a single node. A packet that is sent to
a unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address. This section includes the
following topics:
•
Aggregatable Global Addresses, page 3-3
•
Link-Local Addresses, page 3-5
•
IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses, page 3-5
•
Unique Local Addresses, page 3-6
•
Site-Local Address, page 3-7
Aggregatable Global Addresses
An aggregatable global address is an IPv6 address from the aggregatable global unicast prefix. The
structure of aggregatable global unicast addresses enables strict aggregation of routing prefixes that
limits the number of routing table entries in the global routing table. Aggregatable global addresses are
used on links that are aggregated upward through organizations, and eventually to the Internet service
providers (ISPs).
Aggregatable global IPv6 addresses are defined by a global routing prefix, a subnet ID, and an interface
ID. Except for addresses that start with binary 000, all global unicast addresses have a 64-bit interface
ID. The IPv6 global unicast address allocation uses the range of addresses that start with binary value
001 (2000::/3). Figure 3-1 shows the structure of an aggregatable global address.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-3
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
3
Aggregatable Global Address Format
Provider
Site
Host
45 bits
16 bits
64 bits
Global Routing Prefix
SLA
Interface ID
88119
Figure 3-1
001
Addresses with a prefix of 2000::/3 (001) through E000::/3 (111) are required to have 64-bit interface
identifiers in the extended universal identifier (EUI)-64 format. The Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority (IANA) allocates the IPv6 address space in the range of 2000::/16 to regional registries.
The aggregatable global address consists of a 48-bit global routing prefix and a 16-bit subnet ID or
Site-Level Aggregator (SLA). In the IPv6 aggregatable global unicast address format document (RFC
2374), the global routing prefix included two other hierarchically structured fields called Top-Level
Aggregator (TLA) and Next-Level Aggregator (NLA). The IETF decided to remove the TLS and NLA
fields from the RFCs because these fields are policy based. Some existing IPv6 networks deployed
before the change might still use networks that are on the older architecture.
A subnet ID, which is a 16-bit subnet field, can be used by individual organizations to create a local
addressing hierarchy and to identify subnets. A subnet ID is similar to a subnet in IPv4, except that an
organization with an IPv6 subnet ID can support up to 65,535 individual subnets.
An interface ID identifies interfaces on a link. The interface ID is unique to the link. In many cases, an
interface ID is the same as or based on the link-layer address of an interface. Interface IDs used in
aggregatable global unicast and other IPv6 address types are 64 bits long and are in the modified EUI-64
format.
Interface IDs are in the modified EUI-64 format in one of the following ways:
•
For all IEEE 802 interface types (for example, Ethernet, and Fiber Distributed Data interfaces), the
first three octets (24 bits) are the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) of the 48-bit link-layer
address (MAC address) of the interface, the fourth and fifth octets (16 bits) are a fixed hexadecimal
value of FFFE, and the last three octets (24 bits) are the last three octets of the MAC address. The
Universal/Local (U/L) bit, which is the seventh bit of the first octet, has a value of 0 or 1. Zero
indicates a locally administered identifier; 1 indicates a globally unique IPv6 interface identifier.
•
For all other interface types (for example, serial, loopback, ATM, Frame Relay, and tunnel interface
types—except tunnel interfaces used with IPv6 overlay tunnels), the interface ID is similar to the
interface ID for IEEE 802 interface types; however, the first MAC address from the pool of MAC
addresses in the router is used as the identifier (because the interface does not have a MAC address).
•
For tunnel interface types that are used with IPv6 overlay tunnels, the interface ID is the IPv4
address assigned to the tunnel interface with all zeros in the high-order 32 bits of the identifier.
Note
For interfaces that use the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), where the interfaces at both ends of the
connection might have the same MAC address, the interface identifiers at both ends of the
connection are negotiated (picked randomly and, if necessary, reconstructed) until both
identifiers are unique. The first MAC address in the router is used as the identifier for interfaces
using PPP.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
If no IEEE 802 interface types are in the router, link-local IPv6 addresses are generated on the interfaces
in the router in the following sequence:
1.
The router is queried for MAC addresses (from the pool of MAC addresses in the router).
2.
If no MAC addresses are available in the router, the serial number of the router is used to form the
link-local addresses.
3.
If the serial number of the router cannot be used to form the link-local addresses, the router uses a
Message Digest 5 (MD5) hash to determine the MAC address of the router from the hostname of the
router.
Link-Local Addresses
A link-local address is an IPv6 unicast address that can be automatically configured on any interface
using the link-local prefix FE80::/10 (1111 1110 10) and the interface identifier in the modified EUI-64
format. Link-local addresses are used in the neighbor discovery protocol and the stateless
autoconfiguration process. Nodes on a local link can use link-local addresses to communicate; the nodes
do not need globally unique addresses to communicate. Figure 3-2 shows the structure of a link-local
address.
IPv6 routers cannot forward packets that have link-local source or destination addresses to other links.
Figure 3-2
Link-Local Address Format
128 bits
0
Interface ID
FE80::/10
10 bits
52669
1111 1110 10
IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Addresses
An IPv4-compatible IPv6 address is an IPv6 unicast address that has zeros in the high-order 96 bits of
the address and an IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits of the address. The format of an IPv4-compatible
IPv6 address is 0:0:0:0:0:0:A.B.C.D or ::A.B.C.D. The entire 128-bit IPv4-compatible IPv6 address is
used as the IPv6 address of a node and the IPv4 address embedded in the low-order 32 bits is used as the
IPv4 address of the node. IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses are assigned to nodes that support both the
IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks and are used in automatic tunnels. Figure 3-3 shows the structure of an
IPv4-compatible IPv6 address and a few acceptable formats for the address.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-5
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 3-3
IPv4-Compatible IPv6 Address Format
96 bits
32 bits
0
IPv4 address
52727
::192.168.30.1
= ::C0A8:1E01
Unique Local Addresses
A unique local address is an IPv6 unicast address that is globally unique and is intended for local
communications. It is not expected to be routable on the global Internet and is routable inside of a limited
area, such as a site and it may be routed between a limited set of sites. Applications may treat unique
local addresses like global scoped addresses.
A unique local address has the following characteristics:
•
It has a globally unique prefix (it has a high probability of uniqueness).
•
It has a well-known prefix to allow for easy filtering at site boundaries.
•
It allows sites to be combined or privately interconnected without creating any address conflicts or
requiring renumbering of interfaces that use these prefixes.
•
It is ISP-independent and can be used for communications inside of a site without having any
permanent or intermittent Internet connectivity.
•
If it is accidentally leaked outside of a site via routing or Domain Name Server (DNS), there is no
conflict with any other addresses.
Figure 3-4 shows the structure of a unique local address.
Figure 3-4
Unique Local Address Structure
/7
FC00
/48
Global ID 41 bits
/64
Interface ID
Local IPv6
Subnet prefix
Link prefix
• Prefix — FC00::/7 prefix to identify local IPv6 unicast addresses.
• Subnet ID — 16-bit subnet ID is an identifier of a subnet within the site.
• Interface ID — 64-bit IID
232389
• Global ID — 41-bit global identifier used to create a globally unique prefix.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Site-Local Address
Because RFC 3879 deprecates the use of site-local addresses, you should follow the recommendations
of unique local addressing (ULA) in RFC 4193 when you configure private IPv6 addresses.
IPv6 Anycast Addresses
An anycast address is an address that is assigned to a set of interfaces that belong to different nodes. A
packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to the closest interface—as defined by the routing protocols
in use—identified by the anycast address. Anycast addresses are syntactically indistinguishable from
unicast addresses because anycast addresses are allocated from the unicast address space. Assigning a
unicast address to more than one interface turns a unicast address into an anycast address. You must
configure the nodes to which the anycast address to recognize that the address is an anycast address.
Note
Anycast addresses can be used only by a router, not a host. Anycast addresses cannot be used as the
source address of an IPv6 packet.
Figure 3-5 shows the format of the subnet router anycast address; the address has a prefix concatenated
by a series of zeros (the interface ID). The subnet router anycast address can be used to reach a router
on the link that is identified by the prefix in the subnet router anycast address.
Figure 3-5
Subnet Router Anycast Address Format
Prefix
0000000000000...000
52670
128 bits
IPv6 Multicast Addresses
An IPv6 multicast address is an IPv6 address that has a prefix of FF00::/8 (1111 1111). An IPv6
multicast address is an identifier for a set of interfaces that belong to different nodes. A packet sent to a
multicast address is delivered to all interfaces identified by the multicast address. The second octet
following the prefix defines the lifetime and scope of the multicast address. A permanent multicast
address has a lifetime parameter equal to 0; a temporary multicast address has a lifetime parameter equal
to 1. A multicast address that has the scope of a node, link, site, or organization, or a global scope, has
a scope parameter of 1, 2, 5, 8, or E, respectively. For example, a multicast address with the prefix
FF02::/16 is a permanent multicast address with a link scope. Figure 3-6 shows the format of the IPv6
multicast address.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-7
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 3-6
IPv6 Multicast Address Format
128 bits
0
F
F
8 bits
4 bits
4 bits
Lifetime =
Lifetime Scope
0 if permanent
1 if temporary
1 = node
2 = link
Scope = 5 = site
8 = organization
E = global
8 bits
52671
1111 1111
Interface ID
IPv6 nodes (hosts and routers) are required to join (where received packets are destined for) the
following multicast groups:
•
All-nodes multicast group FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 (the scope is link-local)
•
Solicited-node multicast group FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00:0000/104 for each of its assigned unicast and
anycast addresses
IPv6 routers must also join the all-routers multicast group FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 (the scope is link-local).
The solicited-node multicast address is a multicast group that corresponds to an IPv6 unicast or anycast
address. IPv6 nodes must join the associated solicited-node multicast group for every unicast and
anycast address to which it is assigned. The IPv6 solicited-node multicast address has the prefix
FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00:0000/104 concatenated with the 24 low-order bits of a corresponding IPv6 unicast
or anycast address (see Figure 3-7). For example, the solicited-node multicast address that corresponds
to the IPv6 address 2037::01:800:200E:8C6C is FF02::1:FF0E:8C6C. Solicited-node addresses are used
in neighbor solicitation messages.
Figure 3-7
IPv6 Solicited-Node Multicast Address Format
IPv6 unicast or anycast address
Prefix
Interface ID
24 bits
Solicited-node multicast address
FF02
0
1
FF
Lower 24
52672
128 bits
Note
IPv6 has no broadcast addresses. IPv6 multicast addresses are used instead of broadcast addresses.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
IPv4 Packet Header
The basic IPv4 packet header has 12 fields with a total size of 20 octets (160 bits) (see Figure 3-8). The
12 fields may be followed by an Options field, which is followed by a data portion that is usually the
transport-layer packet. The variable length of the Options field adds to the total size of the IPv4 packet
header. The shaded fields of the IPv4 packet header are not included in the IPv6 packet header.
Figure 3-8
Version
IPv4 Packet Header Format
Hd Len
Type of Service
Total Length
Identification
Time to Live
Flags
Protocol
Fragment Offset
Header Checksum
Source Address
20
octets
Destination Address
Padding
Variable
length
Data Portion
32 bits
51457
Options
Simplified IPv6 Packet Header
The basic IPv6 packet header has 8 fields with a total size of 40 octets (320 bits) (see Figure 3-9).
Fragmentation is handled by the source of a packet and checksums at the data link layer and transport
layer are used. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) checksum checks the integrity of the inner packet
and the basic IPv6 packet header and Options field are aligned to 64 bits, which can facilitate the
processing of IPv6 packets.
Table 3-2 lists the fields in the basic IPv6 packet header.
Table 3-2
Basic IPv6 Packet Header Fields
Field
Description
Version
Similar to the Version field in the IPv4 packet header, except that the
field lists number 6 for IPv6 instead of number 4 for IPv4.
Traffic Class
Similar to the Type of Service field in the IPv4 packet header. The
Traffic Class field tags packets with a traffic class that is used in
differentiated services.
Flow Label
New field in the IPv6 packet header. The Flow Label field tags
packets with a specific flow that differentiates the packets at the
network layer.
Payload Length
Similar to the Total Length field in the IPv4 packet header. The
Payload Length field indicates the total length of the data portion of
the packet.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-9
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Table 3-2
Basic IPv6 Packet Header Fields (continued)
Field
Description
Next Header
Similar to the Protocol field in the IPv4 packet header. The value of
the Next Header field determines the type of information following
the basic IPv6 header. The type of information following the basic
IPv6 header can be a transport-layer packet, for example, a TCP or
UDP packet, or an Extension Header, as shown in Figure 3-9.
Hop Limit
Similar to the Time to Live field in the IPv4 packet header. The value
of the Hop Limit field specifies the maximum number of routers that
an IPv6 packet can pass through before the packet is considered
invalid. Each router decrements the value by one. Because no
checksum is in the IPv6 header, the router can decrement the value
without needing to recalculate the checksum, which saves processing
resources.
Source Address
Similar to the Source Address field in the IPv4 packet header, except
that the field contains a 128-bit source address for IPv6 instead of a
32-bit source address for IPv4.
Destination Address
Similar to the Destination Address field in the IPv4 packet header,
except that the field contains a 128-bit destination address for IPv6
instead of a 32-bit destination address for IPv4.
Figure 3-9
Version
IPv6 Packet Header Format
Traffic Class
Flow Label
Payload Length
Next Header
Hop Limit
Source Address
40
octets
Destination Address
Next Header
Extension Header information
Variable
length
32 bits
51458
Data Portion
Optional extension headers and the data portion of the packet are after the eight fields of the basic IPv6
packet header. If present, each extension header is aligned to 64 bits. There is no fixed number of
extension headers in an IPv6 packet. Each extension header is identified by the Next Header field of the
previous header. Typically, the final extension header has a Next Header field of a transport-layer
protocol, such as TCP or UDP. Figure 3-10 shows the IPv6 extension header format.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 3-10
IPv6 Extension Header Format
IPv6 basic header
(40 octets)
IPv6
packet
Any number of
extension headers
Data (for example,
TCP or UDP)
Ext Header Length
Extension Header Data
51459
Next Header
Table 3-3 lists the extension header types and their Next Header field values.
Table 3-3
IPv6 Extension Header Types
Header Type
Next Header
Value
Hop-by-hop options header
0
Header that is processed by all hops in the path of a
packet. When present, the hop-by-hop options header
always follows immediately after the basic IPv6
packet header.
Destination options header
6
Header that can follow any hop-by-hop options
header. The header is processed at the final destination
and at each visited address specified by a routing
header. Alternatively, the destination options header
can follow any Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
header. The destination options header is processed
only at the final destination.
Routing header
43
Header that is used for source routing.
Fragment header
44
Header that is used when a source fragments a packet
that is larger than the Maximum Transmission Unit
(MTU) for the path between itself and a destination.
The Fragment header is used in each fragmented
packet.
Upper-layer headers
6 (TCP)
Headers that are used inside a packet to transport the
data. The two main transport protocols are TCP and
UDP.
17 (UDP)
Description
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-11
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DNS for IPv6
IPv6 supports DNS record types that are supported in the DNS name-to-address and address-to-name
lookup processes. The DNS record types support IPv6 addresses.
Note
IPv6 also supports the reverse mapping of IPv6 addresses to DNS names.
Table 3-4
IPv6 DNS Record Types
Record Type
Description
Format
AAAA
Maps a hostname to an IPv6 address.
(Equivalent to an A record in IPv4.)
www.abc.test AAAA 3FFE:YYYY:C18:1::2
PTR
Maps an IPv6 address to a hostname.
(Equivalent to a PTR record in Ipv4.)
2.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.1.0.0.0.8.1.c.0
.y.y.y.y.e.f.f.3.ip6.int PTR www.abc.test
Path MTU Discovery for IPv6
As in IPv4, you can use path MTU discovery in IPv6 to allow a host to dynamically discover and adjust
to differences in the MTU size of every link along a data path. In IPv6, however, fragmentation is
handled by the source of a packet when the path MTU of one link along a given data path is not large
enough to accommodate the size of the packets. Having IPv6 hosts handle packet fragmentation saves
IPv6 router processing resources and helps IPv6 networks run more efficiently.
Note
In IPv6, the minimum link MTU is 1280 octets. We recommend that you use an MTU value of 1500
octets for IPv6 links.
Cisco Discovery Protocol IPv6 Address Support
You can use the Cisco Discovery Protocol IPv6 address support for neighbor information feature to
transfer IPv6 addressing information between two Cisco devices. Cisco Discovery Protocol support for
IPv6 addresses provides IPv6 information to network management products and troubleshooting tools.
ICMP for IPv6
You can use ICMP in IPv6 to provide information about the health of the network. ICMPv6, the version
that works with IPv6, reports errors if packets cannot be processed correctly and sends informational
messages about the status of the network. For example, if a router cannot forward a packet because it is
too large to be sent out on another network, the router sends out an ICMPv6 message to the originating
host. Additionally, ICMP packets in IPv6 are used in IPv6 neighbor discovery and path MTU discovery.
The path MTU discovery process ensures that a packet is sent using the largest possible size that is
supported on a specific route.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
A value of 58 in the Next Header field of the basic IPv6 packet header identifies an IPv6 ICMP packet.
The ICMP packet follows all the extension headers and is the last piece of information in the IPv6
packet.Within the IPv6 ICMP packets, the ICMPv6 Type and ICMPv6 Code fields identify IPv6 ICMP
packet specifics, such as the ICMP message type. The value in the Checksum field is computed by the
sender and checked by the receiver from the fields in the IPv6 ICMP packet and the IPv6 pseudo header.
Note
The IPv6 header does not have a checksum. But a checksum is important on the transport layer to
determine mis-delivery of packets. All checksum calculations that include the IP address in the
calculation must be modified for IPv6 to accommodate the new 128-bit address. A checksum is
generated using a pseudo header.
The ICMPv6 Data field contains error or diagnostic information that relates to IP packet processing.
Figure 3-11 shows the IPv6 ICMP packet header format.
Figure 3-11
IPv6 ICMP Packet Header Format
Next header = 58
ICMPv6 packet
IPv6 basic header
ICMPv6 packet
ICMPv6 Type
ICMPv6 Code
Checksum
52728
ICMPv6 Data
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
You can use the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) to determine whether a neighboring router is
reachable. IPv6 nodes use neighbor discovery to determine the addresses of nodes on the same network
(local link), to find neighboring routers that can forward their packets, to verify whether neighboring
routers are reachable or not, and to detect changes to link-layer addresses. NDP uses ICMP messages to
detect whether packets are sent to neighboring routers that are unreachable.
IPv6 Neighbor Solicitation Message
A node sends a Neighbor solicitation message, which has a value of 135 in the Type field of the ICMP
packet header, on the local link when it wants to determine the link-layer address of another node on the
same local link (see Figure 3-12). The source address is the IPv6 address of the node that sends the
neighbor solicitation message. The destination address is the solicited-node multicast address that
corresponds to the IPv6 address of the destination node. The neighbor solicitation message also includes
the link-layer address of the source node.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-13
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 3-12
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery—Neighbor Solicitation Message
ICMPv6 Type = 135
Src = A
Dst = solicited-node multicast of B
Data = link-layer address of A
Query = what is your link address?
A and B can now exchange
packets on this link
52673
ICMPv6 Type = 136
Src = B
Dst = A
Data = link-layer address of B
After receiving the neighbor solicitation message, the destination node replies by sending a neighbor
advertisement message, which has a value of 136 in the Type field of the ICMP packet header, on the
local link. The source address is the IPv6 address of the node (the IPv6 address of the node interface that
sends the neighbor advertisement message). The destination address is the IPv6 address of the node that
sent the neighbor solicitation message. The data portion includes the link-layer address of the node that
sends the neighbor advertisement message.
After the source node receives the neighbor advertisement, the source node and destination node can
communicate.
Neighbor solicitation messages can verify the reachability of a neighbor after a node identifies the
link-layer address of a neighbor. When a node wants to verify the reachability of a neighbor, it uses the
destination address in a neighbor solicitation message as the unicast address of the neighbor.
Neighbor advertisement messages are also sent when there is a change in the link-layer address of a node
on a local link. When there is a change, the destination address for the neighbor advertisement is the
all-nodes multicast address.
Neighbor unreachability detection identifies the failure of a neighbor or the failure of the forward path
to the neighbor, and is used for all paths between hosts and neighboring nodes (hosts or routers).
Neighbor unreachability detection is performed for neighbors to which only unicast packets are being
sent and is not performed for neighbors to which multicast packets are being sent.
A neighbor is considered reachable when a positive acknowledgment is returned from the neighbor
(indicating that packets previously sent to the neighbor have been received and processed). A positive
acknowledgment—from an upper-layer protocol (such as TCP)—indicates that a connection is making
forward progress (reaching its destination). If packets are reaching the peer, they are also reaching the
next-hop neighbor of the source. Forward progress is also a confirmation that the next-hop neighbor is
reachable.
For destinations that are not on the local link, forward progress implies that the first-hop router is
reachable. When acknowledgments from an upper-layer protocol are not available, a node probes the
neighbor using unicast neighbor solicitation messages to verify that the forward path is still working.
The return of a solicited neighbor advertisement message from the neighbor is a positive
acknowledgment that the forward path is still working (neighbor advertisement messages that have the
solicited flag set to a value of 1 are sent only in response to a neighbor solicitation message). Unsolicited
messages confirm only the one-way path from the source to the destination node; solicited neighbor
advertisement messages indicate that a path is working in both directions.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
A neighbor advertisement message that has the solicited flag set to a value of 0 is not considered as a
positive acknowledgment that the forward path is still working.
Neighbor solicitation messages are also used in the stateless auto-configuration process to verify the
uniqueness of unicast IPv6 addresses before the addresses are assigned to an interface. Duplicate address
detection is performed first on a new, link-local IPv6 address before the address is assigned to an
interface (the new address remains in a tentative state while duplicate address detection is performed).
A node sends a neighbor solicitation message with an unspecified source address and a tentative
link-local address in the body of the message. If another node is already using that address, the node
returns a neighbor advertisement message that contains the tentative link-local address. If another node
is simultaneously verifying the uniqueness of the same address, that node also returns a neighbor
solicitation message. If no neighbor advertisement messages are received in response to the neighbor
solicitation message and no neighbor solicitation messages are received from other nodes that are
attempting to verify the same tentative address, the node that sent the original neighbor solicitation
message considers the tentative link-local address to be unique and assigns the address to the interface.
IPv6 Router Advertisement Message
Router advertisement (RA) messages, which have a value of 134 in the Type field of the ICMP packet
header, are periodically sent out to each configured interface of an IPv6 router. For stateless
auto-configuration to work properly, the advertised prefix length in RA messages must always be 64 bits.
The RA messages are sent to the all-nodes multicast address (see Figure 3-13).
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery—RA Message
Router
advertisement
Router
advertisement
Router advertisement packet definitions:
ICMPv6 Type = 134
Src = router link-local address
Dst = all-nodes multicast address
Data = options, prefix, lifetime, autoconfig flag
52674
Figure 3-13
RA messages typically include the following information:
•
One or more onlink IPv6 prefixes that nodes on the local link can use to automatically configure
their IPv6 addresses
•
Life-time information for each prefix included in the advertisement
•
Sets of flags that indicate the type of auto-configuration (stateless or stateful) that can be completed
•
Default router information (whether the router sending the advertisement should be used as a default
router and, if so, the amount of time in seconds that the router should be used as a default router)
•
Additional information for hosts, such as the hop limit and MTU that a host should use in packets
that it originates
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-15
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
RAs are also sent in response to router solicitation messages. Router solicitation messages, which have
a value of 133 in the Type field of the ICMP packet header, are sent by hosts at system startup so that
the host can immediately auto-configure without needing to wait for the next scheduled RA message.
The source address is usually the unspecified IPv6 address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0). If the host has a configured
unicast address, the unicast address of the interface that sends the router solicitation message is used as
the source address in the message. The destination address is the all-routers multicast address with a
scope of the link. When an RA is sent in response to a router solicitation, the destination address in the
RA message is the unicast address of the source of the router solicitation message.
You can configure the following RA message parameters:
•
The time interval between periodic RA messages
•
The router life-time value, which indicates the usefulness of a router as the default router (for use
by all nodes on a given link)
•
The network prefixes in use on a given link
•
The time interval between neighbor solicitation message retransmissions (on a given link)
•
The amount of time that a node considers a neighbor reachable (for use by all nodes on a given link)
The configured parameters are specific to an interface. The sending of RA messages (with default
values) is automatically enabled on Ethernet interfaces. For other interface types, you must enter the no
ipv6 nd suppress-ra command to send RA messages. You can disable the RA message feature on
individual interfaces by entering the ipv6 nd suppress-ra command.
IPv6 Neighbor Redirect Message
Routers send neighbor redirect messages to inform hosts of better first-hop nodes on the path to a
destination (see Figure 3-14). A value of 137 in the Type field of the ICMP packet header identifies an
IPv6 neighbor redirect message.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Information About IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 3-14
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery—Neighbor Redirect Message
Host H
Router B
Router A
IPv6 packet
Neighbor redirect packet definitions:
ICMPv6 Type = 137
Src = link-local address of Router A
Dst = link-local address of Host H
Data = target address (link-local
address of Router B), options
(header of redirected packet)
60981
Note: If the target is a host, the target
address is equal to the destination
address of the redirect packet and
the options include the link-layer
address of the target host (if known).
Subsequent IPv6 packets
Note
A router must be able to determine the link-local address for each of its neighboring routers in order to
ensure that the target address (the final destination) in a redirect message identifies the neighbor router
by its link-local address. For static routing, you should specify the address of the next-hop router using
the link-local address of the router. For dynamic routing, you must configure all IPv6 routing protocols
to exchange the link-local addresses of neighboring routers.
After forwarding a packet, a router sends a redirect message to the source of the packet under the
following circumstances:
•
The destination address of the packet is not a multicast address.
•
The packet was not addressed to the router.
•
The packet is about to be sent out the interface on which it was received.
•
The router determines that a better first-hop node for the packet resides on the same link as the
source of the packet.
•
The source address of the packet is a global IPv6 address of a neighbor on the same link or a
link-local address.
Virtualization Support
IPv6 supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device
contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDC and VRF. For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device
Context Configuration Guide and see Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-17
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Licensing Requirements for IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Licensing Requirements for IPv6
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
IPv6 requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS
system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing
scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for IPv6
IPv6 has the following prerequisites:
•
You must be familiar with IPv6 basics such as IPv6 addressing, IPv6 header information, ICMPv6,
and IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND) Protocol.
•
Ensure that you follow the memory/processing guidelines when you make a device a dual-stack
device (IPv4/IPv6).
Guidelines and Limitations for IPv6
IPv6 has the following guidelines and limitations and restrictions:
•
IPv6 packets are transparent to Layer 2 LAN switches because the switches do not examine Layer
3 packet information before forwarding IPv6 frames. IPv6 hosts can be directly attached to Layer 2
LAN switches.
•
You can configure multiple IPv6 global addresses within the same prefix on an interface. However,
multiple IPv6 link-local addresses on an interface are not supported.
•
Because RFC 3879 deprecates the use of site-local addresses, you should configure private IPv6
addresses according to the recommendations of unique local addressing (ULA) in RFC 4193.
Configuring IPv6
This section includes the following topics:
Note
•
Configuring IPv6 Addressing, page 3-19
•
Configuring IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, page 3-20
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-18
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Configuring IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring IPv6 Addressing
You must configure an IPv6 address on an interface for the interface to forward IPv6 traffic. When you
configure a global IPv6 address on an interface, it automatically configures a link-local address and
activates IPv6 for that interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface ethernet number
3.
ipv6 address ipv6-address mask [secondary]
or
ipv6 address ipv6-address use-link-local-only
4.
show ipv6 interface
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface ethernet number
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/3
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ipv6 address ipv6-address mask
[secondary}
or
ipv6 address ipv6-address
use-link-local-only
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 address
2001:0DB8::1/10
or
switch(config-if)# ipv6 address
use-link-local-only
Specifies an IPv6 address assigned to the interface and
enables IPv6 processing on the interface.
Specifying the ipv6 address command configures
global IPv6 addresses with an interface identifier (ID)
in the low-order 64 bits of the IPv6 address. Only the
64-bit network prefix for the address needs to be
specified; the last 64 bits are automatically computed
from the interface ID.
Specifying the ipv6 address link-local command
configures a link-local address on the interface that is
used instead of the link-local address that is
automatically configured when IPv6 is enabled on the
interface.
Enables IPv6 processing on an interface without
configuring an IPv6 address.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-19
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Configuring IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
show ipv6 interface
(Optional) Displays interfaces configured for IPv6.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ipv6 interface
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
This example shows how to configure an IPv6 address:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 3/1
switch(config-if)# ipv6 address ?
A:B::C:D/LEN IPv6 prefix format: xxxx:xxxx/ml, xxxx:xxxx::/ml,
xxxx::xx/128
use-link-local-only Enable IPv6 on interface using only a single link-local
address
switch(config-if)# ipv6 address dc3:dc3::/64 eui64
This example shows how to display an IPv6 interface:
switch(config-if)# show ipv6 interface ethernet 3/1
Ethernet3/1, Interface status: protocol-down/link-down/admin-down, iod: 36
IPv6 address: 0dc3:0dc3:0000:0000:0218:baff:fed8:239d
IPv6 subnet: 0dc3:0dc3:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000/64
IPv6 link-local address: fe80::0218:baff:fed8:239d (default)
IPv6 multicast routing: disabled
IPv6 multicast groups locally joined:
ff02::0001:ffd8:239d ff02::0002 ff02::0001 ff02::0001:ffd8:239d
IPv6 multicast (S,G) entries joined: none
IPv6 MTU: 1500 (using link MTU)
IPv6 RP inbound packet-filtering policy: none
IPv6 RP outbound packet-filtering policy: none
IPv6 inbound packet-filtering policy: none
IPv6 outbound packet-filtering policy: none
IPv6 interface statistics last reset: never
IPv6 interface RP-traffic statistics: (forwarded/originated/consumed)
Unicast packets: 0/0/0
Unicast bytes: 0/0/0
Multicast packets: 0/0/0
Multicast bytes: 0/0/0
Configuring IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
You can configure IPv6 neighbor discovery on the router. The neighbor discovery protocol enables IPv6
nodes and routers to determine the link-layer address of a neighbor on the same link, find neighboring
routers, and keep track of neighbors.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command). You must first enable IPv6
on the interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-20
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Configuring IPv6
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface ethernet number
3.
ipv6 nd
4.
show ipv6 nd interface
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface ethernet number
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/31
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Enables IPv6 neighbor discovery on the interface.
ipv6 nd
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 nd
Step 4
(Optional) Displays interfaces configured for IPv6
neighbor discovery.
show ipv6 nd interface
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ipv6 nd
interface
Step 5
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
This example shows how to configure IPv6 neighbor discovery reachable time:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 3/1
switch(config-if)# ipv6 nd reachable-time 10
This example shows how to display an IPv6 neighbor discovery interface:
switch(config-if)# show ipv6 nd interface ethernet 3/1
ICMPv6 ND Interfaces for VRF "default"
Ethernet3/1, Interface status: protocol-down/link-down/admin-down
IPv6 address: 0dc3:0dc3:0000:0000:0218:baff:fed8:239d
ICMPv6 active timers:
Last Neighbor-Solicitation sent: never
Last Neighbor-Advertisement sent: never
Last Router-Advertisement sent:never
Next Router-Advertisement sent in: 0.000000
Router-Advertisement parameters:
Periodic interval: 200 to 600 seconds
Send "Managed Address Configuration" flag: false
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-21
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Configuring IPv6
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Send "Other Stateful Configuration" flag: false
Send "Current Hop Limit" field: 64
Send "MTU" option value: 1500
Send "Router Lifetime" field: 1800 secs
Send "Reachable Time" field: 10 ms
Send "Retrans Timer" field: 0 ms
Neighbor-Solicitation parameters:
NS retransmit interval: 1000 ms
ICMPv6 error message parameters:
Send redirects: false
Send unreachables: false
Optional IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
You can use the following optional IPv6 Neighbor Discovery commands:
Command
Purpose
ipv6 nd hop-limit
Configures the maximum number of hops used in router
advertisements and all IPv6 packets that are originated by
the router.
ipv6 nd managed-config-flag
Sets the managed address configuration flag in IPv6 router
advertisements.
ipv6 nd mtu
Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size of IPv6
packets sent on an interface.
ipv6 nd ns-interval
Configures the interval between IPv6 neighbor solicitation
retransmissions on an interface.
ipv6 nd other-config-flag
Configures the other stateful configuration flag in IPv6
router advertisements.
ipv6 nd ra-interval
Configures the interval between IPv6 router advertisement
(RA) transmissions on an interface.
ipv6 nd ra-lifetime
Configures the router lifetime value in IPv6 router
advertisements on an interface.
ipv6 nd reachable-time
Configures the amount of time that a remote IPv6 node is
considered reachable after some reachability confirmation
event has occurred.
ipv6 nd redirects
Enables ICMPv6 redirect messages to be sent.
ipv6 nd retrans-timer
Configures the advertised time between neighbor
solicitation messages in router advertisements.
ipv6 nd suppress-ra
Suppresses IPv6 router advertisement transmissions on a
LAN interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-22
OL-12912-01
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Verifying the IPv6 Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Verifying the IPv6 Configuration
To verify configuration information, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ipv6 interface
Displays IPv6 related interface information.
show ipv6 adjacency
Displays the adjacency table.
show ipv6 icmp
Displays ICMPv6 information.
show ipv6 nd
Displays IPv6 neighbor discovery interface information.
show ipv6 neighbor
Displays IPv6 neighbor entry.
IPv6 Example Configuration
This example shows how to configure IPv6:
config t
nterface ethernet 3/1
ipv6 address dc3:dc3::/64 eui64
ipv6 nd reachable-time 10
Default Settings
Table 3-5 lists the default settings for IPv6 parameters.
Table 3-5
Default IPv6 Parameters
Parameters
Default
ND reachable time
0 milliseconds
neighbor solicitation retransmit interval
1000 milliseconds
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing IPv6, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 3-24
•
Standards, page 3-24
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
3-23
Chapter 3
Configuring IPv6
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
IPv6 CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Reference, Release 4.0
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
3-24
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
4
Configuring DNS
This chapter describes how to configure the Domain Name Server (DNS) client.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About DNS Clients, page 4-1
•
Licensing Requirements for DNS Clients, page 4-2
•
Prerequisites for DNS Clients, page 4-3
•
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations, page 4-3
•
Configuring DNS Clients, page 4-3
•
Verifying the DNS Client Configuration, page 4-7
•
DNS Client Example Configuration, page 4-7
•
DNS Client Example Configuration, page 4-7
•
Default Settings, page 4-7
•
Additional References, page 4-8
Information About DNS Clients
This section includes the following topics:
•
DNS Client Overview, page 4-1
•
High Availability, page 4-2
•
Virtualization Support, page 4-2
DNS Client Overview
If your network devices require connectivity with devices in networks for which you do not control name
assignment, you can assign device names that uniquely identify your devices within the entire
internetwork using the domain name server (DNS). DNS uses a hierarchical scheme for establishing host
names for network nodes. This allows local control of the segments of the network through a
client-server scheme. The DNS system can locate a network device by translating the host name of the
device into its associated IP address.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
4-1
Chapter 4
Configuring DNS
Licensing Requirements for DNS Clients
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
On the Internet, a domain is a portion of the naming hierarchy tree that refers to general groupings of
networks based on organization type or geography. Domain names are pieced together with periods (.)
as the delimiting characters. For example, Cisco is a commercial organization that the Internet identifies
by a com domain, so its domain name is cisco.com. A specific host name in this domain, the File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) system, for example, is identified as ftp.cisco.com.
Name Servers
Name servers keep track of domain names and know the parts of the domain tree for which they have
complete information. A name server may also store information about other parts of the domain tree.
To map domain names to IP addresses in Cisco NX-OS, you must first identify the host names, then
specify a name server, and enable the DNS service.
Cisco NX-OS allows you to statically map IP addresses to domain names. You can also configure Cisco
NX-OS to use one or more domain name servers to find an IP address for a host name.
DNS Operation
A name server handles client-issued queries to the DNS server for locally defined hosts within a
particular zone as follows:
•
An authoritative name server responds to DNS user queries for a domain name that is under its zone
of authority by using the permanent and cached entries in its own host table. If the query is for a
domain name that is under its zone of authority but for which it does not have any configuration
information, the authoritative name server simply replies that no such information exists.
•
A name server that is not configured as the authoritative name server responds to DNS user queries
by using information that it has cached from previously received query responses. If no router is
configured as the authoritative name server for a zone, queries to the DNS server for locally defined
hosts will receive nonauthoritative responses.
Name servers answer DNS queries (forward incoming DNS queries or resolve internally generated DNS
queries) according to the forwarding and lookup parameters configured for the specific domain.
High Availability
Cisco NX-OS supports stateless restarts for the DNS client. After a reboot or supervisor switchover,
Cisco NX-OS applies the running configuration.
Virtualization Support
Cisco NX-OS supports multiple instances of the DNS clients that run on the same system. You can
configure a DNS client in each VDC.You can optionally have a different DNS client configuration in
each VRF within a VDC. By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF
unless you specifically configure another VDC and VRF. See the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context
Configuration Guide and Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for DNS Clients
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
4-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 4
Configuring DNS
Prerequisites for DNS Clients
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
DNS requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS
system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing
scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for DNS Clients
The DNS client has the following prerequisites:
•
You must have a DNS name server on your network.
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see to the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
You configure the DNS client in a specific VRF. If you do not specify a VRF, Cisco NX-OS uses the
default VRF.
Configuring DNS Clients
This section describes how to configure DNS clients and includes the following topics:
Note
•
Configuring the DNS Client, page 4-3
•
Configuring Virtualization, page 4-5
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Configuring the DNS Client
You can configure the DNS client to use a DNS server on your network.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have a domain name server on your network.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
ip host name address1 [address2 ... address6]
3.
ip domain-name name [all-vrfs use-vrf vrf-name]
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
4-3
Chapter 4
Configuring DNS
Configuring DNS Clients
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
4.
ip domain-list name [all-vrfs use-vrf vrf-name]
5.
ip name-server server-address1 [server-address2 ... server-address6] [all-vrfs use-vrf vrf-name]
6.
ip domain lookup
7.
show hosts
8.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
ip host name address1 [address2 ...
address6]
Example:
switch(config)# ip host cisco-rtp
192.0.2.1
Step 3
ip domain-name name [all-vrfs use-vrf
vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config)# ip domain-name
myserver.com
Defines up to six static host name-to-address mappings
in the host name cache. The address can be either an
IPv4 address or an IPv6 address.
(Optional) Defines the default domain name server that
Cisco NX-OS uses to complete unqualified host
names. You can optionally define this domain name
server across all VRFs on the device and specify a VRF
that overrides the VRF that you configured this domain
name under.
Cisco NX-OS appends the default domain name to any
host name that does not contain a complete domain
name before starting a domain-name lookup.
Step 4
ip domain-list name [all-vrfs use-vrf
vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config)# ip domain-list
mycompany.com
(Optional) Defines additional domain name servers
that Cisco NX-OS can use to complete unqualified
host names.You can optionally define this domain list
across all VRFs on the device and specify a VRF that
overrides the VRF that you configured this domain list
under.
Cisco NX-OS uses each entry in the domain list to
append the that domain name to any host name that
does not contain a complete domain name before
starting a domain-name lookup. Cisco NX-OS
continues this for each entry in the domain list until it
finds a match.
Step 5
ip name-server address1 [address2 ...
address6] [all-vrfs use-vrf vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config)# ip name-server
192.0.2.22
(Optional) Defines up to six name servers. The address
can be either an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address.
You can optionally define this name server across all
VRFs on the device and specify a VRF that overrides
the VRF that you configured this name server under.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
4-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 4
Configuring DNS
Configuring DNS Clients
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command
Purpose
ip domain-lookup
(Optional) Enables DNS-based address translation.
Enabled by default.
Example:
switch(config)# ip domain-lookup
Step 7
(Optional) Displays information about DNS.
show hosts
Example:
switch(config)# show hosts
Step 8
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to configure a default domain name and enable DNS lookup:
switch# config t
switch(config)# ip domain-name cisco.com 192.0.2.1 all-vrfs use-vrf management
switch(config)# ip domain-lookup
switch(config# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Virtualization
You can configure a DNS client within a VRF. If you do not enter vrf configuration mode, your DNS
client configuration applies to the default VRF.
You can optionally configure a DNS client to use a specified VRF other than the VRF under which you
configured the DNS client . For example, you can configure a DNS client in the Red VRF but use the
Blue VRF to communicate with the DNS server.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have a domain name server on your network.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
9.
config t
10. vrf context vrf-name
11. ip domain-name name [all-vrfs use-vrf vrf-name]
12. ip domain-list name [all-vrfs use-vrf vrf-name]
13. ip name-server server-address1 [server-address2 ... server-address6] [all-vrfs use-vrf vrf-name]
14. ip domain lookup
15. show hosts
16. copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
4-5
Chapter 4
Configuring DNS
Configuring DNS Clients
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 1
vrf context vrf-name
Creates a VRF and enters VRF configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context Red
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 2
ip domain-name name [all-vrfs use-vrf
vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# ip domain-name
myserver.com
(Optional) Defines the default domain name server that
Cisco NX-OS uses to complete unqualified host
names. You can optionally define this domain name
across all VRFs on the device and specify a VRF that
overrides the VRF that you configured this domain
name under.
Cisco NX-OS appends the default domain name to any
host name that does not contain a complete domain
name before starting a domain-name lookup.
Step 3
ip domain-list name [all-vrfs use-vrf
vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# ip domain-list
mycompany.com
(Optional) Defines additional domain name servers
that Cisco NX-OS can use to complete unqualified
host names. You can optionally define this domain list
across all VRFs on the device and specify a VRF that
overrides the VRF that you configured this domain list
under.
Cisco NX-OS uses each entry in the domain list to
append the that domain name to any host name that
does not contain a complete domain name before
starting a domain-name lookup. Cisco NX-OS
continues this for each entry in the domain list until it
finds a match.
Step 4
ip name-server address1 [address2 ...
address6] [all-vrfs use-vrf vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# ip name-server
192.0.2.22
Step 5
ip domain-lookup
(Optional) Defines up to six name servers. The address
can be either an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address.
You can optionally define this name server across all
VRFs on the device and specify a VRF that overrides
the VRF that you configured this name server under.
(Optional) Enables DNS-based address translation for
this VRF. Enabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# ip domain-lookup
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
4-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 4
Configuring DNS
Verifying the DNS Client Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command
Purpose
show hosts
(Optional) Displays information about DNS.
Example:
switch(config)-vrf# show hosts
Step 7
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to configure a default domain name and enable DNS lookup within
a VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf
switch(config-vrf)#
switch(config-vrf)#
switch(config-vrf)#
context Red
ip domain-name cisco.com 192.0.2.1 all-vrfs use-vrf management
ip domain-lookup
copy running-config startup-config
Verifying the DNS Client Configuration
To verify the DNS client configuration, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show hosts
Displays information about DNS.
DNS Client Example Configuration
This example establishes a domain list with several alternate domain names:
ip domain list csi.com
ip domain list telecomprog.edu
ip domain list merit.edu
This example configures the host name-to-address mapping process and specifies IP DNS-based
translation, The example also configures the addresses of the name servers and the default domain name.
ip domain lookup
ip name-server 192.168.1.111 192.168.1.2
ip domain name cisco.com
Default Settings
Table 4-1 lists the default settings for DNS Client parameters.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
4-7
Chapter 4
Configuring DNS
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Table 4-1
Default DNS Client Parameters
Parameters
Default
DNS client
Enabled
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing DNS Client, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 4-8
•
Standards, page 4-8
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
DNS Client CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs and VRFs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
4-8
OL-12912-01
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
PA R T
Routing
2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
5
Configuring OSPFv2
This chapter describes how to configure Open Shortest Path First version 2 (OSPFv2) for IPv4 networks.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About OSPFv2, page 5-1
•
Licensing Requirements for OSPFv2, page 5-12
•
Prerequisites for OSPFv2, page 5-13
•
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations, page 5-13
•
Configuring Basic OSPFv2, page 5-13
•
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2, page 5-22
•
Verifying the OSPFv2 Configuration, page 5-41
•
Displaying OSPFv2 Statistics, page 5-42
•
OSPFv2 Example Configuration, page 5-42
•
Default Settings, page 5-42
•
Additional References, page 5-43
Information About OSPFv2
OSPFv2 is an IETF link-state protocol (see the “Link State Protocols” section on page 1-9) for IPv4
networks. An OSPFv2 router sends a special message, called a hello packet, out each OSPF-enabled
interface to discover other OSPFv2 neighbor routers. Once a neighbor is discovered, the two routers
compare information in the Hello packet to determine if the routers have compatible configurations. The
neighbor routers attempt to establish adjacency, which means that the routers synchronize their
link-state databases to ensure that they have identical OSPFv2 routing information. Adjacent routers
share link-state advertisements (LSAs) that include information about the operational state of each link,
the cost of the link, and any other neighbor information. The routers then flood these received LSAs out
every OSPF-enabled interface so that all OSPFv2 routers eventually have identical link-state databases.
When all OSPFv2 routers have identical link-state databases, the network is converged (see the
“Convergence” section on page 1-6). Each router then uses Dijkstra’s Shortest Path First (SPF)
algorithm to build its route table.
You can divide OSPFv2 networks into areas. Routers send most LSAs only within one area, which
reduces the CPU and memory requirements for an OSPF-enabled router.
OSPFv2 supports IPv4, while OSPFv3 supports IPv6. For more information, see Chapter 6,
“Configuring OSPFv3.”
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-1
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
This section includes the following topics:
•
Hello Packet, page 5-2
•
Neighbors, page 5-2
•
Adjacency, page 5-3
•
Designated Routers, page 5-3
•
Areas, page 5-4
•
Link-State Advertisements, page 5-5
•
OSPFv2 and the Unicast RIB, page 5-7
•
Authentication, page 5-7
•
Advanced Features, page 5-8
Hello Packet
OSPFv2 routers periodically send Hello packets on every OSPF-enabled interface. The hello interval
determines how frequently the router sends these Hello packets and is configured per interface. OSPFv2
uses Hello packets for the following tasks:
•
Neighbor discovery
•
Keepalives
•
Bidirectional communications
•
Designated router election (see the “Designated Routers” section on page 5-3)
The Hello packet contains information about the originating OSPFv2 interface and router, including the
assigned OSPFv2 cost of the link, the hello interval, and optional capabilities of the originating router.
An OSPFv2 interface that receives these Hello packets determines if the settings are compatible with the
receiving interface settings. Compatible interfaces are considered neighbors and are added to the
neighbor table (see the “Neighbors” section on page 5-2).
Hello packets also include a list of router IDs for the routers that the originating interface has
communicated with. If the receiving interface sees its own router ID in this list, then bidirectional
communication has been established between the two interfaces.
OSPFv2 uses Hello packets as a keepalive message to determine if a neighbor is still communicating. If
a router does not receive a Hello packet by the configured dead interval (usually a multiple of the hello
interval), then the neighbor is removed from the local neighbor table.
Neighbors
An OSPFv2 interface must have a compatible configuration with a remote interface before the two can
be considered neighbors. The two OSPFv2 interfaces must match the following criteria:
•
Hello interval
•
Dead interval
•
Area ID (see the “Areas” section on page 5-4)
•
Authentication
•
Optional capabilities
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
If there is a match, the following information is entered into the neighbor table:
•
Neighbor ID—The router ID of the neighbor.
•
Priority—Priority of the neighbor. The priority is used for designated router election (see the
“Designated Routers” section on page 5-3).
•
State—Indication of whether the neighbor has just been heard from, is in the process of setting up
bidirectional communications, is sharing the link-state information, or has achieved full adjacency.
•
Dead time—Indication of the time since the last Hello packet was received from this neighbor.
•
IP Address—The IP address of the neighbor.
•
Designated Router—Indication of whether the neighbor has been declared as the designated router
or as the backup designated router (see the “Designated Routers” section on page 5-3).
•
Local interface—The local interface that received the Hello packet for this neighbor.
Adjacency
Not all neighbors establish adjacency. Depending on the network type and designated router
establishment, some neighbors become fully adjacent and share LSAs with all their neighbors, while
other neighbors do not. For more information, see the “Designated Routers” section on page 5-3.
Adjacency is established using Database Description packets, Link State Request packets, and Link
State Update packets in OSPF. The Database Description packet includes just the LSA headers from the
link-state database of the neighbor (see the “Link-State Database” section on page 5-7). The local router
compares these headers with its own link-state database and determines which LSAs are new or updated.
The local router sends a Link State Request packet for each LSA that it needs new or updated information
on. The neighbor responds with a Link State Update packet. This exchange continues until both routers
have the same link-state information.
Designated Routers
Networks with multiple routers present a unique situation for OSPF. If every router floods the network
with LSAs, the same link-state information will be sent from multiple sources. Depending on the type
of network, OSPFv2 might use a single router, the designated router (DR), to control the LSA floods and
represent the network to the rest of the OSPFv2 area (see the “Areas” section on page 5-4). If the DR
fails, OSPFv2 selects a backup designated router (BDR). If the DR fails, OSPFv2 uses the BDR.
Network types are as follows:
•
Point-to-point—A network that exists only between two routers. All neighbors on a point-to-point
network establish adjacency and there is no DR.
•
Broadcast—A network with multiple routers that can communicate over a shared medium that
allows broadcast traffic, such as Ethernet. OSPFv2 routers establish a DR and BDR that controls
LSA flooding on the network. OSPFv2 uses the well-known IPv4 multicast addresses 224.0.0.5 and
a MAC address of 0100.5300.0005 to communicate with neighbors.
The DR and BDR are selected based on the information in the Hello packet. When an interface sends a
Hello packet, it sets the priority field and the DR and BDR field if it knows who the DR and BDR are.
The routers follow an election procedure based on which routers declare themselves in the DR and BDR
fields and the priority field in the Hello packet. As a final tie breaker, OSPFv2 chooses the highest router
IDs as the DR and BDR.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-3
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
All other routers establish adjacency with the DR and the BDR and use the IPv4 multicast address
224.0.0.6 to send LSA updates to the DR and BDR. Figure 5-1 shows this adjacency relationship
between all routers and the DR.
DRs are based on a router interface. A router might be the DR for one network and not for another
network on a different interface.
DR in Multi-Access Network
Router A
Router B
Router D
or DR
Router C
Router E
= Multi-access network
= Logical connectivity to Designated Router for OSPF
182982
Figure 5-1
Areas
You can limit the CPU and memory requirements that OSPFv2 puts on the routers by dividing an
OSPFv2 network into areas. An area is a logical division of routers and links within an OSPFv2 domain
that creates separate subdomains. LSA flooding is contained within an area, and the link-state database
is limited to links within the area. You can assign an area ID to the interfaces within the defined area.
The Area ID is a 32-bit value that can be expressed as a number or in dotted decimal notation, such as
10.2.3.1.
If you define more than one area in an OSPFv2 network, you must also define the backbone area, which
has the reserved area ID of 0. If you have more than one area, then one or more routers become area
border routers (ABRs). An ABR connects to both the backbone area and at least one other defined area
(see Figure 5-2).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 5-2
OSPFv2 Areas
ABR1
Area 3
Area 0
ABR2
182983
Area 5
The ABR has a separate link-state database for each area to which it connects. The ABR sends Network
Summary (type 3) LSAs (see the “Route Summarization” section on page 5-10) from one connected area
to the backbone area. The backbone area sends summarized information about one area to another area.
In Figure 5-2, Area 0 sends summarized information about Area 5 to Area 3.
OSPFv2 defines one other router type: the autonomous system boundary router (ASBR). This router
connects an OSPFv2 area to another autonomous system. An autonomous system is a network controlled
by a single technical administration entity. OSPFv2 can redistribute its routing information into another
autonomous system or receive redistributed routes from another autonomous system. For more
information, see “Advanced Features” section on page 5-8.)
Link-State Advertisements
OSPFv2 uses link-state advertisements (LSAs) to build its routing table.
This section includes the following topics:
•
LSA Types, page 5-5
•
Link Cost, page 5-6
•
Flooding and LSA Group Pacing, page 5-6
•
Link-State Database, page 5-7
•
Opaque LSAs, page 5-7
LSA Types
Table 5-1 shows the LSA types supported by Cisco NX-OS.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-5
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Table 5-1
LSA Types
Type
Name
Description
1
Router LSA
LSA sent by every router. This LSA includes the state and the cost of all
links and a list of all OSPFv2 neighbors on the link. Router LSAs trigger an
SPF recalculation. Router LSAs are flooded to local OSPFv2 area.
2
Network LSA
LSA sent by the DR. This LSA lists all routers in the multi-access network.
Network LSAs trigger an SPF recalculation. See the “Designated Routers”
section on page 5-3.
3
Network
Summary LSA
LSA sent by the area border router to an external area for each destination
in the local area. This LSA includes the link cost from the area border router
to the local destination. See the “Areas” section on page 5-4.
4
ASBR Summary LSA sent by the area border router to an external area. This LSA advertises
LSA
the link cost to the ASBR only. See the “Areas” section on page 5-4.
5
AS External
LSA
LSA generated by the ASBR. This LSA includes the link cost to an external
autonomous system destination. AS External LSAs are flooded throughout
the autonomous system. See the “Areas” section on page 5-4.
7
NSSA External
LSA
LSA generated by the ASBR within a not-so-stubby area (NSSA). This LSA
includes the link cost to an external autonomous system destination. NSSA
External LSAs are looded only within the local NSSA. See the “Areas”
section on page 5-4.
9–11
Opaque LSAs
LSA used to extend OSPF. See the “Opaque LSAs” section on page 5-7.
Link Cost
Each OSPFv2 interface is assigned a link cost. The cost is an arbitrary number. By default, Cisco NX-OS
assigns a cost that is the configured reference bandwidth divided by the interface bandwidth. By default,
the reference bandwidth is 40 Gb/s. The link cost is carried in the LSA updates for each link.
Flooding and LSA Group Pacing
When an OSPFv2 router receives an LSA, it forwards that LSA out every OSPF-enabled interface,
flooding the OSPFv2 area with this information. This LSA flooding guarantees that all routers in the
network have identical routing information. LSA flooding depends on the OSPFv2 area configuration
(see the “Areas” section on page 5-4). The LSAs are flooded based on the link-state refresh time (every
30 minutes by default). Each LSA has its own link-state refresh time.
You can control the flooding rate of LSA updates in your network by using the LSA group pacing
feature. LSA group pacing can reduce high CPU or buffer utilization. This feature groups LSAs with
similar link-state refresh times to allow OSPFv2 to pack multiple LSAs into an OSPFv2 Update
message.
By default, LSAs with link-state refresh times within four minutes of each other are grouped together.
You should lower this value for large link-state databases or raise it for smaller databases to optimize the
OSPFv2 load on your network.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Link-State Database
Each router maintains a link-state database for the OSPFv2 network. This database contains all the
collected LSAs, and includes information on all the routes through the network. OSPFv2 uses this
information to calculate the bast path to each destination and populates the routing table with these best
paths.
LSAs are removed from the link-state database if no LSA update has been received within a set interval,
called the MaxAge. Routers flood a repeat of the LSA every 30 minutes to prevent accurate link-state
information from being aged out. Cisco NX-OS supports the LSA grouping feature to prevent all LSAs
from refreshing at the same time. For more information, see the “Flooding and LSA Group Pacing”
section on page 5-6.
Opaque LSAs
Opaque LSAs allow you to extend OSPF functionality. Opaque LSAs consist of a standard LSA header
followed by application-specific information. This information might be used by OSPFv2 or by other
applications. OSPFv2 uses Opaque LSAs to support OSPFv2 Graceful Restart capability (see the “High
Availability and Graceful Restart” section on page 5-11). Three Opaque LSA types are defined as
follows:
•
LSA type 9—Flooded to the local network.
•
LSA type 10—Flooded to the local area.
•
LSA type 11—Flooded to the local autonomous system.
OSPFv2 and the Unicast RIB
OSPFv2 runs the Dijkstra shortest path first algorithm on the link-state database. This algorithm selects
the best path to each destination based on the sum of all the link costs for each link in the path. The
resultant shortest path for each destination is then put in the OSPFv2 route table. When the OSPFv2
network is converged, this route table feeds into the unicast RIB. OSPFv2 communicates with the unicast
RIB to do the following:
•
Add or remove routes
•
Handle route redistribution from other protocols
•
Provide convergence updates to remove stale OSPFv2 routes and for stub router advertisements (see
the “OSPFv2 Stub Router Advertisements” section on page 5-12)
OSPFv2 also runs a modified Dijkstra algorithm for fast recalculation for summary and external (type
3, 4, 5, and 7) LSA changes.
Authentication
You can configure authentication on OSPFv2 messages to prevent unauthorized or invalid routing
updates in your network. Cisco NX-OS supports two authentication methods:
•
Simple password authentication
•
MD5 authentication digest
You can configure the OSPFv2 authentication for an OSPFv2 area or per interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-7
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Simple Password Authentication
Simple password authentication uses a simple clear-text password that is sent as part of the OSPFv2
message. The receiving OSPFv2 router must be configured with the same clear-text password to accept
the OSPFv2 message as a valid route update. Because the password is in clear text, anyone who can
watch traffic on the network can learn the password.
MD5 Authentication
You should use MD5 authentication to authenticate OSPFv2 messages. You configure a password that is
shared at the local router and all remote OSPFv2 neighbors. For each OSPFv2 message, Cisco NX-OS
creates an MD5 one-way message digest based on the message itself and the encrypted password. The
interface sends this digest with the OSPFv2 message. The receiving OSPFv2 neighbor validates the
digest using the same encrypted password. If the message has not changed, the digest calculation is
identical and the OSPFv2 message is considered valid.
MD5 authentication includes a sequence number with each OSPFv2 message to ensure that no message
is replayed in the network.
Advanced Features
Cisco NX-OS supports a number of advanced OSPFv2 features that enhance the usability and scalability
of OSPFv2 in the network. This section includes the following topics:
•
Stub Area, page 5-8
•
Not-So-Stubby Area, page 5-9
•
Virtual Links, page 5-9
•
Route Redistribution, page 5-10
•
Route Summarization, page 5-10
•
High Availability and Graceful Restart, page 5-11
•
OSPFv2 Stub Router Advertisements, page 5-12
•
Multiple OSPFv2 Instances, page 5-12
•
SPF Optimization, page 5-12
•
Virtualization Support, page 5-12
Stub Area
You can limit the amount of external routing information that floods an area by making it a stub area. A
stub area is an area that does not allow AS External (type 5) LSAs (see the “Link-State Advertisements”
section on page 5-5). These LSAs are usually flooded throughout the local autonomous system to
propagate external route information. Stub areas have the following requirements:
•
All routers in the stub area are stub routers. See the “Stub Routing” section on page 1-7.
•
No ASBR routers exist in the stub area.
•
You cannot configure virtual links in the stub area.
Figure 5-3 shows an example of an OSPFv2 autonomous system where all routers in Area 10 have to go
through the ABR to reach external autonomous systems. Area 10 can be configured as a stub area.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 5-3
Stub Area
ABR
Backbone
Area 10
182984
Stub area
ASBR
Stub areas use a default route for all traffic that needs to go through the backbone area to the external
autonomous system. The default route is 0.0.0.0 for IPv4.
Not-So-Stubby Area
A Not-so-Stubby Area (NSSA) is similar to a stub area, except that an NSSA allows you to import
autonomous system external routes within an NSSA using redistribution. The NSSA ASBR redistributes
these routes and generates NSSA External (type 7) LSAs that it floods throughout the NSSA. You can
optionally configure the ABR that connects the NSSA to other areas to translate this NSSA External LSA
to AS External (type 5) LSAs. The ABR then floods these AS External LSAs throughout the OSPFv2
autonomous system. Summarization and filtering are supported during the translation. See the
“Link-State Advertisements” section on page 5-5 for details on NSSA External LSAs.
You can, for example, use NSSA to simplify administration if you are connecting a central site using
OSPFv2 to a remote site that is using a different routing protocol. Before NSSA, the connection between
the corporate site border router and a remote router could not be run as an OSPFv2 stub area because
routes for the remote site could not be redistributed into a stub area. With NSSA, you can extend OSPFv2
to cover the remote connection by defining the area between the corporate router and remote router as
an NSSA (see the “Configuring NSSA” section on page 5-26).
The backbone Area 0 cannot be an NSSA.
Virtual Links
Virtual links allow you to connect an OSPFv2 area ABR to a backbone area ABR when a direct physical
connection is not available. Figure 5-4 shows a virtual link that connects Area 3 to the backbone area
through Area 5.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-9
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 5-4
Virtual Links
Area 0
ABR2
Area 3
182985
Area 5
ABR1
You can also use virtual links to temporarily recover from a partitioned area, which occurs when a link
within the area fails, isolating part of the area from reaching the designated ABR to the backbone area.
Route Redistribution
OSPFv2 can learn routes from other routing protocols by using route redistribution. See the “Route
Redistribution” section on page 1-6. You configure OSPFv2 to assign a link cost for these redistributed
routes or a default link cost for all redistributed routes.
Route redistribution uses route maps to control which external routes are redistributed. See Chapter 14,
“Configuring Route Policy Manager,” for details on configuring route maps. You can use route maps to
modify parameters in the AS External (type 5) and NSSA External (type 7) LSAs before these external
routes are advertised in the local OSPFv2 autonomous system.
Route Summarization
Because OSPFv2 shares all learned routes with every OSPF-enabled router, you might want to use route
summarization to reduce the number of unique routes that are flooded to every OSPF-enabled router.
Route summarization simplifies route tables by replacing more-specific addresses with an address that
represents all the specific addresses. For example, you can replace 10.1.1.0/24, 10.1.2.0/24, and
10.1.3.0/24 with one summary address, 10.1.0.0/16.
Typically, you would summarize at the boundaries of area border routers (ABRs). Although you could
configure summarization between any two areas, it is better to summarize in the direction of the
backbone so that the backbone receives all the aggregate addresses and injects them, already
summarized, into other areas. The two types of summarization are as follows:
•
Inter-area route summarization
•
External route summarization
You configure inter-area route summarization on ABRs, summarizing routes between areas in the
autonomous system. To take advantage of summarization, you should assign network numbers in areas
in a contiguous way to be able to lump these addresses into one range.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Information About OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
External route summarization is specific to external routes that are injected into OSPFv2 using route
redistribution. You should make sure that external ranges that are being summarized are contiguous.
Summarizating overlapping ranges from two different routers could cause packets to be sent to the wrong
destination. Configure external route summarization on ASBRs that are redistributing routes into OSPF.
When you configure a summary address, Cisco NX-OS automatically configures a discard route for the
summary address to prevent routing black holes and route loops.
High Availability and Graceful Restart
Cisco NX-OS supports high-availability. If a Cisco NX-OS system experiences a cold reboot, the
network stops forwarding traffic to the system and removes the system from the network topology. In
this scenario, OSPFv2 experiences a stateless restart, and removes all neighbor adjacencies on the local
system. Cisco NX-OS applies the startup configuration and OSPFv2 rediscovers the neighbors and
establishes the adjacencies again.
A platform with two supervisors that run Cisco NX-OS can experience a stateful supervisor switchover.
Before the switchover happens, OSPFv2 initiates a graceful restart by announcing that OSPFv2 will be
unavailable for some time. During a switchover, the network continues to forward traffic and keeps the
system in the network topology.
After a switchover, Cisco NX-OS applies the running configuration, and OSPFv2 informs the neighbors
that it is operational again. The neighbors help to reestablish adjacencies.
OSPFv2 automatically restarts if the process experiences problems. After the restart, OSPFv2 initiates
a graceful restart so that the platform is not taken out of the network topology. If you manually restart
OSPF, it performs a graceful restart, which is similar to a stateful switchover. The running configuration
is applied in both cases.
A graceful restart, or nonstop forwarding (NSF), allows OSPFv2 to remain in the data forwarding path
through a process restart. When OSPFv2 needs to restart, it first sends a link-local opaque (type 9) LSA,
called a grace LSA (see the “Opaque LSAs” section on page 5-7). This restarting OSPFv2 platform is
called NSF capable.
The grace LSA includes a grace period, which is a specified time that the neighbor OSPFv2 interfaces
hold onto the LSAs from the restarting OSPFv2 interface. (Typically, OSPFv2 tears down the adjacency
and discards all LSAs from a down or restarting OSPFv2 interface.) The participating neighbors, which
are called NSF helpers, keep all LSAs that originate from the restarting OSPFv2 interface as if the
interface were still adjacent.
When the restarting OSPFv2 interface is operational again, it rediscovers its neighbors, establishes
adjacency, and starts sending its LSA updates again. At this point, the NSF helpers recognize that
graceful restart has finished.
Note
If the restarting OSPFv2 interface does not come back up before the end of the grace period, or if the
network experiences a topology change, the OSPFv2 neighbors tear down adjacency with the restarting
OSPFv2 and treat it as a normal OSPFv2 restart.
Note
You must enable graceful restart to support in-service software upgrades (ISSU) for OSPFv2. If you
disable graceful restart, Cisco NX-OS issues a warning that ISSU cannot be supported with this
configuration.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-11
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Licensing Requirements for OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
OSPFv2 Stub Router Advertisements
You can configure an OSPFv2 interface to act as a stub router using the OSPFv2 Stub Router
Advertisements feature. Use this feature when you want to limit the OSPFv2 traffic through this router,
such as when you want to introduce a new router to the network in a controlled manner or limit the load
on a router that is already overloaded. You might also want to use this feature for various administrative
or traffic engineering reasons.
OSPFv2 stub router advertisements do not remove the OSPFv2 router from the network topology, but
they do prevent other OSPFv2 routers from using this router to route traffic to other parts of the network.
Only the traffic that is destined for this router or directly connected to this router is sent.
OSPFv2 stub router advertisements mark all stub links (directly connected to the local router) to the cost
of the local OSPFv2 interface. All remote links are marked with the maximum cost (0xFFFF).
Multiple OSPFv2 Instances
Cisco NX-OS supports multiple instances of the OSPFv2 protocol that run on the same node. You cannot
configure multiple instances over the same interface. By default, every instance uses the same system
router ID. You must manually configure the router ID for each instance if the instances are in the same
OSPFv2 autonomous system.
SPF Optimization
Cisco NX-OS optimizes the SPF algorithm in the following ways:
•
Partial SPF for Network (type 2) LSAs, Network Summary (type 3) LSAs, and AS External (type
5) LSAs—When there is a change on any of these LSAs, Cisco NX-OS performs a faster partial
calculation rather than running the whole SPF calculation.
•
SPF timers—You can configure different timers for controlling SPF calculations. These timers
include exponential backoff for subsequent SPF calculations. The exponential backoff limits the
CPU load of multiple SPF calculations.
Virtualization Support
OSPFv2 supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device
contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDC and VRF. You can have up to four instances of OSPFv2 in a VDC.
For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide and see
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for OSPFv2
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
OSPFv2 requires an Enterprise Services license. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing scheme
and how to obtain and apply licenses, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Prerequisites for OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Prerequisites for OSPFv2
OSPFv2 has the following prerequisites:
•
You must be familiar with routing fundamentals to configure OSPF.
•
You are logged on to the switch.
•
You have configured at least one interface for IPv4 that is capable of communicating with a remote
OSPFv2 neighbor.
•
You have installed the Enterprise Services license.
•
You have completed the OSPFv2 network strategy and planning for your network. For example, you
must decide whether multiple areas are required.
•
You have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on page 5-13).
•
You have installed the Advanced Services license and entered the desired VDC (see to the Cisco
NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide) if youare configuring VDCs.
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
OSPFv2 has the following configuration guidelines and limitations:
•
Note
You can have up to four instances of OSPFv2 in a VDC.
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
Configure OSPFv2 after you have designed your OSPFv2 network.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature, page 5-13
•
Creating an OSPFv2 Instance, page 5-14
•
Configuring Optional Parameters on an OSPFv2 Instance, page 5-16
•
Configuring Optional Parameters on an OSPFv2 Instance, page 5-16
•
Configuring Networks in OSPFv2, page 5-16
•
Configuring Authentication for an Area, page 5-19
Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature
You must enable the OSPFv2 feature before you can configure OSPFv2.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-13
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
feature ospf
3.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
feature ospf
Enables the OSPFv2 feature.
Example:
switch(config)# feature ospf
Step 3
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no feature ospf command to disable the OSPFv2 feature and remove all associated
configuration.
Command
Purpose
no feature ospf
Disables the OSPFv2 feature and removes all
associated configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature ospf
Creating an OSPFv2 Instance
The first step in configuring OSPFv2 is to create an OSPFv2 instance. You assign a unique instance tag
for this OSPFv2 instance. The instance tag can be any string.
For more information about OSPFv2 instance parameters, see the “Configuring Advanced OSPFv2”
section on page 5-22.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Use the show ip ospf instance-tag command to verify that the instance tag is not in use.
OSPFv2 must be able to obtain a router identifier (for example, a configured loopback address) or you
must configure the router ID option.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
router-id ip-address
4.
show ip ospf instance-tag
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv2 router ID. This IP
address identifies this OSPFv2 instance and must exist
on a configured interface in the system.
router-id ip-address
Example:
switch(config-router)# router-id
209.0.2.1
Step 4
(Optional) Displays OSPF information.
show ip ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config-router)# show ip ospf 201
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no router ospf command to remove the OSPFv2 instance and all associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no router ospf instance-tag
Deletes the OSPF instance and the associated
configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no router ospf 201
Note
This command does not remove OSPF configuration in interface mode. You must manually remove any
OSPFv2 commands configured in interface mode.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-15
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Optional Parameters on an OSPFv2 Instance
You can configure optional parameters for OSPF.
For more information about OSPFv2 instance parameters, see the “Configuring Advanced OSPFv2”
section on page 5-22.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
OSPFv2 must be able to obtain a router identifier (for example, a configured loopback address) or you
must configure the router ID option.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
DETAILED STEPS
You can configure the following optional parameters for OSPFv2 in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
distance number
Configures the administrative distance for this
OSPFv2 instance. The range is from 1 to 255. The
default is 110.
Example:
switch(config-router)# distance 25
log-adjacency-changes [detail]
Example:
switch(config-router)#
log-adjacency-changes
maximum-paths path-number
Example:
switch(config-router)# maximum-paths 4
Generates a system message whenever a neighbor
changes state.
Configures the maximum number of equal OSPFv2
paths to a destination in the route table. This
command is used for load balancing. The range is
from 1 to 16. The default is 8.
The following example shows how to create an OSPFv2 instance:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Networks in OSPFv2
You can configure a network to OSPFv2 by associating it through the interface that the router uses to
connect to that network (see the “Neighbors” section on page 5-2). You can add all networks to the
default backbone area (Area 0), or you can create new areas using any decimal number or an IP address.
Note
All areas must connect to the backbone area either directly or through a virtual link.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
OSPF is not enabled on an interface until you configure a valid IP address for that interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
ip address ip-prefix/length
4.
ip router ospf instance-tag area area-id [secondaries none]
5.
show ip ospf instance-tag interface interface-type slot/port
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Assigns an IP address and subnet mask to this
interface.
ip address ip-prefix/length
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip address
209.0.2.1/16
Step 4
ip router ospf instance-tag area area-id
[secondaries none]
Adds the interface to the OSPFv2 instance and area.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router ospf 201
area 0
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-17
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 5
Command
Purpose
show ip ospf instance-tag interface
interface-type slot/port
(Optional) Displays OSPF information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip ospf 201
interface ethernet 1/2
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
You can configure the following optional parameters for OSPFv2 in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
ip ospf cost number
Configures the OSPFv2 cost metric for this
interface. The default is to calculate cost metric,
based on reference bandwidth and interface
bandwidth. The range is from 1 to 65535.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf cost 25
ip ospf dead-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf dead-interval
50
ip ospf hello-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf hello-interval
25
ip ospf mtu-ignore
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf mtu-ignore
ip ospf passive-interface
Configures the OSPFv2 dead interval, in seconds.
The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is four
times the hello interval, in seconds.
Configures the OSPFv2 hello interval, in seconds.
The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is 10
seconds.
Configures OSPFv2 to ignore any IP MTU
mismatch with a neighbor. The default is to not
establish adjacency if the neighbor MTU does not
match the local interface MTU.
Suppresses routing updates on the interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
passive-interface
ip ospf priority number
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf priority 25
ip ospf shutdown
Configures the OSPFv2 priority, used to determine
the DR for an area. The range is from 0 to 255. The
default is 1. See the “Designated Routers” section
on page 5-3.
Shuts down the OSPFv2 instance on this interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf shutdown
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-18
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to add a network area 10 in OSPFv2 instance 201:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip address 209.0.2.1/16
switch(config-if)# ip router ospf 201 area 10
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Use the show ip ospf interface command to verify the interface configuration. Use the show ip ospf
neighbor command to see the neighbors for this interface.
Configuring Authentication for an Area
You can configure authentication for all networks in an area or for individual interfaces in the area.
Interface authentication configuration overrides area authentication.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that all neighbors on an interface share the same authentication configuration, including the
shared authentication key.
Create the key-chain for this authentication configuration. See the Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration
Guide.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
area area-id authentication [message-digest]
4.
interface interface-type slot/port
5.
ip ospf authentication-key [0 | 3] key
or
ip ospf message-digest-key key-id md5 [0 | 3] key
6.
show ip ospf instance-tag interface interface-type slot/port
7.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-19
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
area area-id authentication
[message-digest]
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Configures the authentication mode for an area.
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10
authentication
Step 4
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# interface
ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 5
ip ospf authentication-key [0 | 3] key
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
authentication-key 0 mypass
ip ospf message-digest-key key-id md5 [0
| 3] key
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
message-digest-key 21 md5 0 mypass
Step 6
show ip ospf instance-tag interface
interface-type slot/port
(Optional) Configures simple password authentication
for this interface. Use this command if the
authentication is not set to key-chain or
message-digest. 0 configures the password in clear
text. 3 configures the password as 3DES encrypted.
(Optional) Configures message digest authentication
for this interface. Use this command if the
authentication is set to message-digest. The key-id
range is from 1 to 255. The MD5 option 0 configures
the password in clear text and 3 configures the pass key
as 3DES encrypted.
(Optional) Displays OSPF information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip ospf 201
interface ethernet 1/2
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Configuring Authentication for an Interface
You can configure authentication for individual interfaces in the area. Interface authentication
configuration overrides area authentication.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-20
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Basic OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that all neighbors on an interface share the same authentication configuration, including the
shared authentication key.
Create the key-chain for this authentication configuration. See the Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration
Guide.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
ip ospf authentication [key-chain key-id | message-digest | null]
4.
ip ospf authentication-key [0 | 3] key
or
ip ospf message-digest-key key-id md5 [0 | 3] key
5.
show ip ospf instance-tag interface interface-type slot/port
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ip ospf authentication [key-chain
key-name | message-digest | null]
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
authentication message-digest
Configures interface authentication mode for OSPFv2.
Overrides area-based authentication for this interface.
All neighbors must share this authentication type.
See the Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide,
Release 4.0 for details on key chains.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-21
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
ip ospf authentication-key [0 | 3 | 7]
key
(Optional) Configures simple password authentication
for this interface. Use this command if the
authentication is not set to key-chain or
message-digest.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
authentication-key 0 mypass
The options are as follows:
•
0—configures the password in clear text.
•
3—configures the pass key as 3DES encrypted.
7—configures the key as Cisco type 7 encrypted.
Step 5
ip ospf message-digest-key key-id md5 [0
| 3 | 7] key
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
message-digest-key 21 md5 0 mypass
Step 6
show ip ospf instance-tag interface
interface-type slot/port
(Optional) Configures message digest authentication
for this interface. Use this command if the
authentication is set to message-digest.The key-id
range is from 1 to 255. The MD5 options are as
follows:
•
0—configures the password in clear text.
•
3—configures the pass key as 3DES encrypted.
•
7—configures the key as Cisco type 7 encrypted.
(Optional) Displays OSPF information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show router ospf 201
interface ethernet 1/2
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to set an interface for simple, unencrypted passwords and set the
password for Ethernet interface 1/2:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# exit
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip router ospf 201 area 10
switch(config-if)# ip ospf authentication
switch(config-if)# ip ospf authentication-key 0 mypass
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Configure OSPFv2 after you have designed your OSPFv2 network.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Configuring Filter Lists for Border Routers, page 5-23
•
Configuring Stub Areas, page 5-24
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-22
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Configuring a Totally Stubby Area, page 5-26
•
Configuring NSSA, page 5-26
•
Configuring Virtual Links, page 5-28
•
Configuring Redistribution, page 5-30
•
Configuring Route Summarization, page 5-32
•
Configuring Stub Route Advertisements, page 5-33
•
Modifying the Default Timers, page 5-34
•
Configuring Graceful Restart, page 5-37
•
Restarting an OSPFv2 Instance, page 5-38
•
Configuring Graceful Restart, page 5-37
Configuring Filter Lists for Border Routers
You can separate your OSPFv2 domain into a series of areas that contain related networks. All areas must
connect to the backbone area through an area border router (ABR). OSPFv2 domains can connect to
external domains as well, through an autonomous system border router (ASBR). See the “Areas” section
on page 5-4.
ABRs have the following optional configuration parameters:
•
Area range—Configures route summarization between areas. See the “Configuring Route
Summarization” section on page 5-32.
•
Filter list—Filters the Network Summary (type 3) LSAs on an ABR that are allowed in from an
external area.
ASBRs also support filter lists.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Create the route map that the filter list uses to filter IP prefixes in incoming or outgoing Network
Summary (type 3) LSAs. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager.”
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
area area-id filter-list route-map map-name {in | out}
4.
show ip ospf policy statistics
5.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-23
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
area area-id filter-list route-map
map-name {in | out}
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Filters incoming or outgoing Network Summary (type
3) LSAs on an ABR.
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10
filter-list route-map FilterLSAs in
Step 4
show ip ospf policy statistics area id
filter-list {in | out}
(Optional) Displays OSPF policy information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip ospf policy
statistics area 10 filter-list in
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to configure a filter list in Area 10:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 filter-list route-map FilterLSAs in
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Stub Areas
You can configure a stub area for part of an OSPFv2 domain where external traffic is not necessary. Stub
areas block AS External (type 5) LSAs, limiting unnecessary routing to and from selected networks. See
the “Stub Area” section on page 5-8. You can optionally block all summary routes from going into the
stub area.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that there are no virtual links or ASBRs in the proposed stub area.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-24
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
area area-id stub
4.
area area-id default-cost cost
5.
show ip ospf instance-tag
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
area area-id stub
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Creates this area as a stub area.
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10 stub
Step 4
area area-id default-cost cost
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10
default-cost 25
Step 5
show ip ospf instance-tag
(Optional) Sets the cost metric for the default summary
route sent into this stub area. The range is from 0 to
16777215. The default is 1.
(Optional) Displays OSPF information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip ospf 201
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create a stub area:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 stub
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-25
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring a Totally Stubby Area
You can create a totally stubby area and prevent all summary route updates from going into the stub area.
To create a totally stubby area , use the following command in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
area area-id stub no-summary
Creates this area as a totally stubby area.
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 20 stub
no-summary
Configuring NSSA
You can configure an NSSA for part of an OSPFv2 domain where limited external traffic is required. See
the “Not-So-Stubby Area” section on page 5-9. You can optionally translate this external traffic to an AS
External (type 5) LSA and flood the OSPFv2 domain with this routing information. An NSSA can be
configured with the following optional parameters:
•
No redistribution—Redistributed routes bypass the NSSA and are redistributed to other areas in the
OSPFv2 autonomous system. Use this option when the NSSA ASBR is also an ABR.
•
Default information originate—Generates an NSSA External (type 7) LSA for a default route to the
external autonomous system. Use this option on an NSSA ASBR if the ASBR contains the default
route in the routing table. This option can be used on an NSSA ABR whether or not the ABR
contains the default route in the routing table.
•
Route map—Filters the external routes so that only those routes that you want are flooded
throughout the NSSA and other areas.
•
Translate—Translates NSSA External LSAs to AS External LSAs for areas outside the NSSA. Use
this command on an NSSA ABR to flood the redistributed routes throughout the OSPFv2
autonomous system. You can optionally suppress the forwarding address in these AS External LSAs.
If you choose this option, the forwarding address is set to 0.0.0.0.
•
No summary—Blocks all summary routes from flooding the NSSA. Use this option on the NSSA
ABR.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that there are no virtual links in the proposed NSSA and that it is not the backbone area.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
area area-id nssa [no-redistribution] [default-information-originate [route-map map-name]]
[no-summary] [translate type7 {always | never} [suppress-fa]]
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-26
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
4.
area area-id default-cost cost
5.
show ip ospf instance-tag
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
area area-id nssa [no-redistribution]
[default-information-originate]
[route-map map-name]] [no-summary]
[translate type7 {always | never}
[suppress-fa]]
Creates this area as an NSSA.
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa
Step 4
area area-id default-cost cost
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10
default-cost 25
Step 5
show ip ospf instance-tag
(Optional) Sets the cost metric for the default summary
route sent into this NSSA.
(Optional) Displays OSPF information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip ospf 201
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that blocks all summary route updates:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa no-summary
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that generates a default route:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa default-info-originate
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-27
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that filters external routes and blocks all summary
route updates:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa route-map ExternalFilter no-summary
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that always translates NSSA External (type 5)
LSAs to AS External (type 7) LSAs:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa translate type 7 always
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Virtual Links
A virtual link connects an isolated area to the backbone area through an intermediate area. See the
“Virtual Links” section on page 5-9. You can configure the following optional parameters for a virtual
link:
Note
•
Authentication—Sets a simple password or MD5 message digest authentication and associated keys.
•
Dead interval—Sets the time that a neighbor waits for a Hello packet before declaring the local
router as dead and tearing down adjacencies.
•
Hello interval—Sets the time between successive Hello packets.
•
Retransmit interval—Sets the estimated time between successive LSAs.
•
Transmit delay—Sets the estimated time to transmit an LSA to a neighbor.
You must configure the virtual link on both routers involved before the link becomes active.
You cannot add a virtual link to a stub area.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
area area-id virtual-link router-id
4.
show ip ospf virtual-link [brief]
5.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-28
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Creates one end of a virtual link to a remote router.
You must create the virtual link on that remote router
to complete the link.
area area-id virtual-link router-id
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10
virtual-link 10.1.2.3
switch(config-router-vlink)#
Step 4
(Optional) Displays OSPF virtual link information.
show ip ospf virtual-link [brief]
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)# show ip ospf
virtual-link
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)# copy
running-config startup-config
You can configure the following optional commands in virtual link configuration mode:
Command or Action
Purpose
authentication [key-chain key-id |
message-digest | null]
(Optional) Overrides area-based authentication for this
virtual link.
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
authentication message-digest
authentication-key [0 | 3] key
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
authentication-key 0 mypass
dead-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
dead-interval 50
hello-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
hello-interval 25
(Optional) Configures a simple password for this virtual
link. Use this command if the authentication is not set to
key-chain or message-digest. 0 configures the password
in clear text. 3 configures the password as 3DES
encrypted.
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv2 dead interval, in
seconds. The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is four
times the hello interval, in seconds.
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv2 hello interval, in
seconds. The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is 10
seconds.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-29
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command or Action
Purpose
message-digest-key key-id md5 [0 | 3]
key
(Optional) Configures message digest authentication for
this virtual link. Use this command if the authentication
is set to message-digest. 0 configures the password in
cleartext. 3 configures the pass key as 3DES encrypted.
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
message-digest-key 21 md5 0 mypass
retransmit-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
retransmit-interval 50
transmit-delay seconds
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
transmit-delay 2
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv2 retransmit interval, in
seconds. The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is 5.
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv2 transmit-delay, in
seconds. The range is from 1 to 450. The default is 1.
The following example shows how to create a simple virtual link between two ABRs.
The configuration for ABR 1 (router ID 27.0.0.55) is as follows:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 virtual-link 10.1.2.3
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
The configuration for ABR 2 (Router ID 10.1.2.3) is as follows:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 101
switch(config-router)# area 10 virtual-link 27.0.0.55
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Redistribution
You can redistribute routes learned from other routing protocols into an OSPFv2 autonomous system
through the ASBR.
You can configure the following optional parameters for route redistribution in OSPF:
•
Default information originate—Generates an AS External (type 5) LSA for a default route to the
external autonomous system.
•
Default metric—Sets all redistributed routes to the same cost metric.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Create the necessary route maps used for redistribution.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-30
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
redistribute {bgp id | direct | eigrp id | isis id | ospf id | rip id | static} route-map map-name
4.
default-information originate [always] [route-map map-name]
5.
default-metric cost
6.
exit
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
redistribute {bgp id | direct | eigrp id
| isis id | ospf id | rip id | static}
route-map map-name
Redistributes the selected protocol into OSPF through
the configured route map.
Example:
switch(config-router)# redistribute bgp
route-map FilterExternalBGP
Step 4
default-information originate [always]
[route-map map-name]
Example:
switch(config-router)#
default-information-originate route-map
DefaultRouteFilter
Step 5
Creates a default route into this OSPF domain. always
== always generate the default. Conditinally (if the
default route is in the rib) route-map - generate default
if route map returns true. (add to redistribut concept)
Sets the cost metric for the redistributed routes.
default-metric cost
Example:
switch(config-router)# default-metric 25
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to redistribute the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) into OSPF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# redistribute bgp route-map FilterExternalBGP
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-31
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Route Summarization
You can configure route summarization for inter-area routes by configuring an address range that is
summarized. You can also configure route summarization for external, redistributed routes by
configuring a summary address for those routes on an ASBR. See the “Route Summarization” section
on page 5-10.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
area area-id range ip-prefix/length [no-advertise]
or
4.
summary-address ip-prefix/length [no-advertise | tag tag-id]
5.
show ip ospf summary-address
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
area area-id range ip-prefix/length
[no-advertise]
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10 range
10.3.0.0/16
Step 4
summary-address ip-prefix/length
[no-advertise | tag tag]
Example:
switch(config-router)# summary-address
10.5.0.0/16 tag 2
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Creates a summary address on an ABR for a range of
addresses and optionally does note advertise this
summary address in a Network Summary (type 3)
LSA.
Creates a summary address on an ASBR for a range of
addresses and optionally assigns a tag for this
summary address that can be used for redistribution
with route maps.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-32
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 5
Command
Purpose
show ip ospf summary-address
(Optional) Displays information about OSPF summary
addresses.
Example:
switch(config-router)# show ip ospf
summary-address
Step 6
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create summary addresses between areas on an ABR:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 range 10.3.0.0/16
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create summary addresses on an ASBR;
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# summary-address 10.5.0.0/16
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Stub Route Advertisements
Use Stub Route Advertisements when you want to limit the OSPFv2 traffic through this router for a short
time. See the “OSPFv2 Stub Router Advertisements” section on page 5-12.
Stub route advertisements can be configured with the following optional parameters:
•
On startup—Sends stub route advertisements for the specified announce time.
•
Wait for BGP—Sends stub router advertisements until BGP converges.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
Note
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
max-metric router-lsa [on-startup [announce-time] [wait-for bgp tag]]
4.
copy running-config startup-config
You should not save the running configuration of a router when it is configured for a graceful shutdown
because the router will continue to advertise a maximum metric after it is reloaded.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-33
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Step 3
max-metric router-lsa [on-startup
[announce-time] [wait-for bgp tag]]
Example:
switch(config-router)# max-metric
router-lsa
Configures OSPFv2 stub route advertisements.
on-start-up - advertise when it fisrt comes up or system
start time. wait for that instance of bgp to come up. add
to concepts
Step 4
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to enable the Stub Router Advertisements feature on startup for the
default 600 seconds:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# max-metric router-lsa on-startup
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Modifying the Default Timers
OSPFv2 includes a number of timers that control the behavior of protocol messages and shortest path
first (SPF) calculations. OSPFv2 includes the following optional timer parameters:
•
LSA arrival time—Sets the minimum interval allowed between LSAs arriving from a neighbor.
LSAs that arrive faster than this time are dropped.
•
Pacing LSAs—Set the interval at which LSAs are collected into a group and refreshed,
checksummed, or aged. This timer controls how frequently LSA updates occur and optimizes how
many are sent in an LSA update message (see the “Flooding and LSA Group Pacing” section on
page 5-6).
•
Throttle LSAs—Set rate limits for generating LSAs. This timer controls how frequently an LSA is
generated if no topology change occurs.
•
Throttle SPF calculation—Controls how frequently the SPF calculation is run.
At the interface level, you can also control the following timers:
•
Retransmit interval—Sets the estimated time between successive LSAs.
•
Transmit delay—Sets the estimated time to transmit an LSA to a neighbor.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-34
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
See the “Configuring Networks in OSPFv2” section on page 5-16 for information about the hello
interval and dead timer.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
timers lsa-arrival msec
4.
timers lsa-group-pacing seconds
5.
timers throttle lsa {network hold-interval | router hold-interval}
6.
timers throttle spf delay-time hold-time
7.
interface type slot/port
8.
ip ospf hello-interval seconds
9.
ip ospf dead-interval seconds
10. ip ospf retransmit-interval seconds
11. ip ospf transmit-delay seconds
12. show ip ospf
13. copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
timers lsa-arrival msec
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers
lsa-arrival 2000
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Sets the LSA arrival time in milliseconds. The range is
from 10 to 600000. The default is 1000 milliseconds.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-35
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
timers lsa-group-pacing seconds
Sets the interval in seconds for grouping LSAs. The
range is from 1 to 1800. The default is 240 seconds.
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers
lsa-group-pacing 2000
Step 5
timers throttle lsa {network
delay-interval | router hold-interval}
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers throttle
lsa network 3000
Step 6
Step 7
Sets the rate limit in milliseconds for generating LSAs.
The range is from 10 to 600000. The default is 5000
milliseconds.
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers throttle
spf 3000 2000 4000
Sets the SPF best path schedule initial delay time and
the minimum hold time in seconds between SPF best
path calculations. The range is from 1 to 600000. The
default is no delay time and 5000 millisecond hold
time.
interface type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
timers throttle spf delay-time hold-time
max-wait
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 8
ip ospf hello-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
retransmit-interval 30
Step 9
ip ospf dead-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
retransmit-interval 30
Step 10
ip ospf retransmit-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
retransmit-interval 30
Step 11
ip ospf transmit-delay seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip ospf
transmit-delay 600
switch(config-if)#
Step 12
show ip ospf
Sets the hello interval this interface. The range is from
1 to 65535. The default is 10.
Sets the dead interval for this interface. The range is
from 1 to 65535.
Sets the estimated time in seconds between LSAs
transmitted from this interface. The range is from 1 to
65535. The default is 5.
Sets the estimated time in seconds to transmit an LSA
to a neighbor. The range is from 1 to 450. The default
is 1.
(Optional) Displays information about OSPF.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip ospf
Step 13
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-36
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to control LSA flooding with the lsa-group-pacing option:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# timers lsa-group-pacing 300
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Graceful Restart
Graceful restart is enabled by default. You can configure the following optional parameters for graceful
restart in an OSPFv2 instance:
•
Grace period—Configures how long neighbors should wait after a graceful restart has started before
tearing down adjacencies.
•
Helper mode disabled—Disables helper mode on the local OSPFv2 instance. OSPFv2 will not
participate in the graceful restart of a neighbor.
•
Planned graceful restart only—Configures OSPFv2 to support graceful restart only in the event of a
planned restart.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that all neighbors are configured for graceful restart with matching optional parameters set.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospf instance-tag
3.
graceful-restart
4.
graceful-restart grace-period seconds
5.
graceful-restart helper-disable
6.
graceful-restart planned-only
7.
show ip ospf instance-tag
8.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-37
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
graceful-restart
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
Step 4
graceful-restart grace-period seconds
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
grace-period 120
Step 5
graceful-restart helper-disable
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Enables a graceful restart. A graceful restart is enabled
by default.
(Optional) Sets the grace period, in seconds. The range
is from 5 to 1800. The default is 60 seconds.
(Optional) Disables helper mode. Enabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
helper-disable
Step 6
graceful-restart planned-only
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
planned-only
Step 7
show ip ospf instance-tag
(Optional) Configures a graceful restart for planned
restarts only.
(Optional) Displays OSPF information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip ospf 201
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to enable a graceful restart if it has been disabled and set the grace
period to 120 seconds:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
ospf 201
graceful-restart
graceful-restart grace-period 120
copy running-config startup-config
Restarting an OSPFv2 Instance
You can restart an OSPv2 instance. This clears all neighbors for the instance.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-38
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
To restart an OSPFv2 instance and remove all associated neighbors, use the following command:
Command
Purpose
restart ospf instance-tag
Restarts the OSPFv2 instance and removes all
neighbors.
Example:
switch(config)# restart ospf 201
Configuring OSPFv2 with Virtualization
You can configure multiple OSPFv2 instances in each VDC. You can also create multiple VRFs within
each VDC and use the same or multiple OSPFv2 instances in each VRF. You assign an OSPFv2 interface
to a VRF.
Note
Configure all other parameters for an interface after you configure the VRF for an interface. Configuring
a VRF for an interface deletes all the configuration for that interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Create the VDCs.
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv2 Feature” section on
page 5-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
vrf context vrf_name
3.
exit
4.
router ospf instance-tag
5.
vrf vrf-name
6.
<optional parameters configured>
7.
interface interface-type slot/port
8.
vrf member vrf-name
9.
ip-address ip-prefix/length
10. router ospf instance-tag area area-id
11. copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-39
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring Advanced OSPFv2
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
vrf context vrf-name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 3
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 4
vrf vrf-name
Creates a new VRF and enters VRF configuration
mode.
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Enters VRF configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# vrf
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)#
Step 5
maximum-paths paths
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf)# maximum-paths
4
Step 6
interface interface-type slot/port
(Optional) Configures the maximum number of equal
OSPFv2 paths to a destination in the route table for this
VRF. Used for load balancing.
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf)# interface
ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 7
vrf member vrf-name
Adds this interface to a VRF.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrf member
RemoteOfficeVRF
Step 8
ip address ip-prefix/length
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip address
209.0.2.1/16
Step 9
ip router ospf instance-tag area area-id
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router ospf 201
area 0
Step 10
copy running-config startup-config
Configures an IP address for this interface. You must
do this step after you assign this interface to a VRF.
Assigns this interface to the OSPFv2 instance and area
configured.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-40
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Verifying the OSPFv2 Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to create a VRF and add an interface to the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context NewVRF
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# vrf member NewVRF
switch(config-if)# ip address 209.0.2.1/16
switch(config-if)# ip router ospf 201 area 0
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Verifying the OSPFv2 Configuration
To verify the OSPFv2 configuration, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ip ospf
Displays the OSPFv2 configuration.
show ip ospf border-routers [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the OSPFv2 border router configuration.
show ip ospf database [vrf {vrf-name
| all | default | management}]
Displays the OSPFv2 link-state database summary.
show ip ospf interface number [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the OSPFv2 interface configuration.
show ip ospf lsa-content-changed-list
interface-type number [vrf {vrf-name
| all | default | management}]
Displays the OSPFv2 LSAs that have changed.
show ip ospf neighbors [neighbor-id]
[detail] [interface-type number] [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}] [summary]
Displays the list of OSPFv2 neighbors.
show ip ospf request-list neighbor-id
[interface-type number] [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the list of OSPFv2 link-state requests.
show ip ospf retransmission-list
neighbor-id [interface-type number]
[vrf {vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the list of OSPFv2 link-state retransmissions.
show ip ospf route [ospf-route]
[summary] [vrf {vrf-name | all |
default | management}]
Displays the internal OSPFv2 routes.
show ip ospf summary-address [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays information about the OSPFv2 summary
addresses.
show ip ospf virtual-links [brief]
[vrf {vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays information about OSPFv2 virtual links.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-41
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Displaying OSPFv2 Statistics
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
show ip ospf vrf {vrf-name | all |
default | management}
Displays information about VRF-based OSPFv2
configuration.
show running-configuration ospf
Displays the current running OSPFv2 configuration.
Displaying OSPFv2 Statistics
To display OSPFv2 statistics, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ip ospf memory
Displays the OSPFv2 memory usage statistics.
show ip ospf policy statistics area
area-id filter-list {in | out} [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the OSPFv2 route policy statistics for an area.
show ip ospf policy statistics
redistribute {bgp id| direct | eigrp
id | isis id | ospf id | rip id |
static} vrf {vrf-name | all | default
| management}]
Displays the OSPFv2 route policy statistics.
show ip ospf statistics [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the OSPFv2 event counters.
show ip ospf traffic [interface-type
number] [vrf {vrf-name | all |
default | management}]
Displays the OSPFv2 packet counters.
OSPFv2 Example Configuration
The following example shows how to configure OSPFv2:
feature ospf
router ospf 201
router-id 290.0.2.1
interface ethernet 1/2
ip router ospf 201 area 10
ip ospf authentication
ip ospf authentication-key 0 mypass
Default Settings
Table 5-2 lists the default settings for OSPFv2 parameters.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-42
OL-12912-01
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Table 5-2
Default OSPFv2 Parameters
Parameters
Default
Hello interval
10 seconds
Dead interval
40 seconds
Graceful restart grace period
60 seconds
Graceful restart notify period
15 seconds
OSPFv2 feature
Disabled
Stub router advertisement announce time
600 seconds
Reference bandwidth for link cost calculation
40 Gb/s
LSA minimal arrival time
1000 milliseconds
LSA group pacing
240 seconds
SPF calculation initial delay time
0 milliseconds
SPF calculation hold time
5000 milliseconds
SPF calculation initial delay time
0 milliseconds
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing OSPF, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 5-43
•
MIBs, page 5-43
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
OSPFv2 CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Line Reference
VDCs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
OSPFv3 for IPv6 networks
Chapter 6, “Configuring OSPFv3”
Route maps
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager”
MIBs
MIBs
MIBs Link
•
OSPF-MIB
To locate and download MIBs, go to the following URL:
•
OSPF-TRAP-MIB
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
5-43
Chapter 5
Configuring OSPFv2
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
5-44
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
6
Configuring OSPFv3
This chapter describes how to configure Open Shortest Path First version 3(OSPFv3) for IPv6 networks.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About OSPFv3, page 6-1
•
Licensing Requirements for OSPFv3, page 6-12
•
Prerequisites for OSPFv3, page 6-12
•
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations, page 6-13
•
Configuring Basic OSPFv3, page 6-13
•
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3, page 6-19
•
Verifying OSPFv3 Configuration, page 6-36
•
Displaying OSPFv3 Statistics, page 6-37
•
OSPFv3 Example Configuration, page 6-37
•
Related Topics, page 6-37
•
Default Settings, page 6-38
•
Additional References, page 6-38
Information About OSPFv3
OSPFv3 is an IETF link-state protocol (see “Overview” section on page 1-1). An OSPFv3 router sends
a special message, called a hello packet, out each OSPF-enabled interface to discover other OSPFv3
neighbor routers. Once a neighbor is discovered, the two routers compare information in the Hello packet
to determine if the routers have compatible configurations. The neighbor routers attempt to establish
adjacency, which means that the routers synchronize their link-state databases to ensure that they have
identical OSPFv3 routing information. Adjacent routers share link-state advertisements (LSAs) that
include information about the operational state of each link, the cost of the link, and any other neighbor
information. The routers then flood these received LSAs out every OSPF-enabled interface so that all
OSPFv3 routers eventually have identical link-state databases. When all OSPFv3 routers have identical
link-state databases, the network is converged (see the “Convergence” section on page 1-6). Each router
then uses Dijkstra’s Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm to build its route table.
You can divide OSPFv3 networks into areas. Routers send most LSAs only within one area, which
reduces the CPU and memory requirements for an OSPF-enabled router.
OSPFv3 supports IPv6. For information about OSPF for IPv4, see Chapter 5, “Configuring OSPFv2”.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-1
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
This section includes the following topics:
•
Comparison of OSPFv3 and OSPFv2, page 6-2
•
Hello Packet, page 6-2
•
Neighbors, page 6-3
•
Adjacency, page 6-3
•
Designated Routers, page 6-4
•
Areas, page 6-5
•
Link-State Advertisement, page 6-5
•
OSPFv3 and the IPv6 Unicast RIB, page 6-7
•
Authentication, page 6-8
•
Address Family Support, page 6-8
•
Advanced Features, page 6-8
Comparison of OSPFv3 and OSPFv2
Much of the OSPFv3 protocol is the same as in OSPFv2. OSPFv3 is described in RFC 2740.
The key differences between the OSPFv3 and OSPFv2 protocols are as follows:
•
OSPFv3 expands on OSPFv2 to provide support for IPv6 routing prefixes and the larger size of IPv6
addresses.
•
LSAs in OSPFv3 are expressed as prefix and prefix length instead of address and mask.
•
The router ID and area ID are 32-bit numbers with no relationship to IPv6 addresses.
•
OSPFv3 uses link-local IPv6 addresses for neighbor discovery and other features.
•
OSPFv3 uses IPv6 for authentication.
•
OSPFv3 redefines LSA types.
Hello Packet
OSPFv3 routers periodically send Hello packets on every OSPF-enabled interface. The hello interval
determines how frequently the router sends these Hello packets and is configured per interface. OSPFv3
uses Hello packets for the following tasks:
•
Neighbor discovery
•
Keepalives
•
Bidirectional communications
•
Designated router election (see the “Designated Routers” section on page 6-4)
The Hello packet contains information about the originating OSPFv3 interface and router, including the
assigned OSPFv3 cost of the link, the hello interval, and optional capabilities of the originating router.
An OSPFv3 interface that receives these Hello packets determines if the settings are compatible with the
receiving interface settings.Compatible interfaces are considered neighbors and are added to the
neighbor table (see the “Neighbors” section on page 6-3).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Hello packets also include a list of router IDs for the routers that the originating interface has
communicated with. If the receiving interface sees its own router ID in this list, then bidirectional
communication has been established between the two interfaces.
OSPFv3 uses Hello packets as a keepalive message to determine if a neighbor is still communicating. If
a router does not receive a Hello packet by the configured dead interval (usually a multiple of the hello
interval), then the neighbor is removed from the local neighbor table.
Neighbors
An OSPFv3 interface must have a compatible configuration with a remote interface before the two can
be considered neighbors. The two OSPFv3 interfaces must match the following criteria:
•
Hello interval
•
Dead interval
•
Area ID (see the “Areas” section on page 6-5)
•
Authentication
•
Optional capabilities
If there is a match, the information is entered into the neighbor table:
•
Neighbor ID—The router ID of the neighbor router.
•
Priority—Priority of the neighbor router. The priority is used for designated router election (see the
“Designated Routers” section on page 6-4).
•
State—Indication of whether the neighbor has just been heard from, is in the process of setting up
bidirectional communications, is sharing the link-state information, or has achieved full adjacency.
•
Dead time—Indication of how long since the last Hello packet was received from this neighbor.
•
Link-local IPv6 Address—The link-local IPv6 address of the neighbor.
•
Designated Router—Indication of whether the neighbor has been declared the designated router or
backup designated router (see the “Designated Routers” section on page 6-4).
•
Local interface—The local interface that received the Hello packet for this neighbor.
When the first Hello packet is received from a new neighbor, the neighbor is entered into the neighbor
table in the init state. Once bidirectional communication is established, the neighbor state becomes
2-way. ExStart and exchange states come next, as the two interfaces exchange their link-state database.
Once this is all complete, the neighbor moves into the full state, signifying full adjacency. If the neighbor
fails to send any Hello packets in the dead interval, then the neighbor is moved to the down state and is
no longer considered adjacent.
Adjacency
Not all neighbors establish adjacency. Depending on the network type and designated router
establishment, some neighbors become fully adjacent and share LSAs with all their neighbors, while
other neighbors do not. For more information, see the “Designated Routers” section on page 6-4.
Adjacency is established using Database Description packets, Link State Request packets, and Link
State Update packets in OSPFv3. The Database Description packet includes just the LSA headers from
the link-state database of the neighbor (see the “Link-State Database” section on page 6-7). The local
router compares these headers with its own link-state database and determines which LSAs are new or
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-3
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
updated. The local router sends a Link State Request packet for each LSA that it needs new or updated
information on. The neighbor responds with a Link State Update packet. This exchange continues until
both routers have the same link-state information.
Designated Routers
Networks with multiple routers present a unique situation for OSPFv3. If every router floods the network
with LSAs, the same link-state information will be sent from multiple sources. Depending on the type
of network, OSPFv3 might use a single router, the designated router (DR), to control the LSA floods and
represent the network to the rest of the OSPFv3 area (see the “Areas” section on page 6-5). If the DR
fails, OSPFv3 selects a backup designated router (BDR). If the DR fails, OSPFv3 uses the BDR.
Network types are as follows:
•
Point-to-point—A network that exists only between two routers. All neighbors on a point-to-point
network establish adjacency and there is no DR.
•
Broadcast—A network with multiple routers that can communicate over a shared medium that
allows broadcast traffic, such as Ethernet. OSPFv3 routers establish a DR and BDR that controls
LSA flooding on the network. OSPFv3 uses the well-known IPv6 multicast addresses, FF02::5, and
a MAC address of 0100.5300.0005 to communicate with neighbors.
The DR and BDR are selected based on the information in the Hello packet. When an interface sends a
Hello packet, it sets the priority field and the DR and BDR field if it knows who the DR and BDR are.
The routers follow an election procedure based on which routers declare themselves in the DR and BDR
fields and the priority field in the Hello packet. As a final tie breaker, OSPFv3 chooses the highest router
IDs as the DR and BDR.
All other routers establish adjacency with the DR and the BDR and use the IPv6 multicast address
FF02::6 to send LSA updates to the DR and BDR. Figure 6-1 shows this adjacency relationship between
all routers and the DR.
DRs are based on a router interface. A router might be the DR for one network and not for another
network on a different interface.
DR in Multi-Access Network
Router A
Router B
Router D
or DR
Router C
Router E
= Multi-access network
= Logical connectivity to Designated Router for OSPF
182982
Figure 6-1
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Areas
You can limit the CPU and memory requirements that OSPFv3 puts on the routers by dividing an
OSPFv3 network into areas. An area is a logical division of routers and links within an OSPFv3 domain
that creates separate subdomains. LSA flooding is contained within an area, and the link-state database
is limited to links within the area. You can assign an area ID to the interfaces within the defined area.
The Area ID is a 32-bit value that can be expressed as a number or in dotted decimal notation, such as
10.2.3.1.
If you define more than one area in an OSPFv3 network, you must also define the backbone area, which
has the reserved area ID of 0. If you have more than one area, then one or more routers become area
border routers (ABRs). An ABR connects to both the backbone area and at least one other defined area
(see Figure 6-2).
Figure 6-2
OSPFv3 Areas
ABR1
Area 3
Area 0
ABR2
182983
Area 5
The ABR has a separate link-state database for each area which it connects to. The ABR sends Inter-Area
Prefix(type 3) LSAs (see the “Route Summarization” section on page 6-10) from one connected area to
the backbone area. The backbone area sends summarized information about one area to another area. In
Figure 6-2, Area 0 sends summarized information about Area 5 to Area 3.
OSPFv3 defines one other router type: the autonomous system boundary router (ASBR). This router
connects an OSPFv3 area to another autonomous system. An autonomous system is a network controlled
by a single technical administration entity. OSPFv3 can redistribute its routing information into another
autonomous system or receive redistributed routes from another autonomous system. For more
information, see “Advanced Features” section on page 6-8.
Link-State Advertisement
OSPFv3 uses link-state advertisements (LSAs) to build its routing table.
This section includes the following topics:
•
LSA Types, page 6-6
•
Link Cost, page 6-6
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-5
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Flooding and LSA Group Pacing, page 6-6
•
Link-State Database, page 6-7
LSA Types
Table 6-1 shows the LSA types supported by Cisco NX-OS.
Table 6-1
LSA Types
Type
Name
Description
1
Router LSA
LSA sent by every router. This LSA includes state and cost of all links.
Does not include prefix information. Router LSAs trigger an SPF
recalculation. Router LSAs are flooded to the local OSPFv3 area.
2
Network LSA
LSA sent by the DR. Lists all routers in the multi-access network. This LSA
does not include prefix information. Network LSAs trigger an SPF
recalculation. See the “Designated Routers” section on page 6-4.
3
Inter-Area
Prefix LSA
LSA sent by the area border router to an external area for each destination
in local area. This LSA includes the link cost from area the border router to
the local destination. See the “Areas” section on page 6-5.
4
Inter-Area
Router LSA
LSA sent by the area border router to an external area. This LSA advertises
the link cost to the ASBR only. See the “Areas” section on page 6-5.
5
AS External
LSA
LSA generated by the ASBR. This LSA includes the link cost to an external
autonomous system destination. AS External LSAs are flooded throughout
the autonomous system. See the “Areas” section on page 6-5.
7
Type-7 LSA
LSA generated by the ASBR within an NSSA. This LSA includes the link
cost to an external autonomous system destination. Type-7 LSAs are
flooded only within the local NSSA. See the “Areas” section on page 6-5.
8
Link LSA
LSA sent by every router, using a link-local flooding scope (see the
“Flooding and LSA Group Pacing” section on page 6-6. This LSA includes
the link-local address and IPv6 prefixes for this link.
9
Intra-Area
Prefix LSA
LSA sent by every router. This LSA includes any prefix or link state
changes. Intra-Area Prefix LSAs are flooded to the local OSPFv3 area. This
LSA does not trigger an SPF recalculation.
11
Grace LSAs
LSA sent by a restarting router, using a link-local flooding scope. This LSA
is used for a graceful restart of OSPFv3. See the “High Availability and
Graceful Restart” section on page 6-11.
Link Cost
Each OSPFv3 interface is assigned a link cost. The cost is an arbitrary number. By default, Cisco NX-OS
assigns a cost that is the configured reference bandwidth divided by the interface bandwidth. By default,
the reference bandwidth is 40 Gb/s. The link cost is carried in the LSA updates for each link.
Flooding and LSA Group Pacing
OSPFv3 floods LSA updates to different sections of the network, depending on the LSA type. OSPFv3
uses the following flooding scopes:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Link-local—LSA is flooded only on the local link, and no further. Used for Link LSAs and Grace
LSAs.
•
Area-local—LSA is flooded throughout a single OSPF area only. Used for Router LSAs, Network
LSAs, Inter-Area-Prefix LSAs, Inter-Area-Router LSAs, and Intra-Area-Prefix LSAs.
•
AS scope—LSA is flooded throughout the routing domain. Used for AS External LSAs.
LSA flooding guarantees that all routers in the network have identical routing information. LSA flooding
depends on the OSPFv3 area configuration (see the “Areas” section on page 6-5). The LSAs are flooded
based on the link-state refresh time (every 30 minutes by default). Each LSA has its own link-state
refresh time.
You can control the flooding rate of LSA updates in your network by using the LSA group pacing
feature. LSA group pacing can reduce high CPU or buffer utilization. This feature groups LSAs with
similar link-state refresh times to allow OSPFv3 to pack multiple LSAs into an OSPFv3 Update
message.
By default, LSAs with link-state refresh times within four minutes of each other are grouped together.
You should lower this value for large link-state databases or raise it for smaller databases to optimize the
OSPFv3 load on your network.
Link-State Database
Each router maintains a link-state database for the OSPFv3 network. This database contains all the
collected LSAs, and includes information on all the routes through the network. OSPFv3 uses this
information to calculate the bast path to each destination and populates the routing table with these best
paths.
LSAs are removed from the link-state database if no LSA update has been received within a set interval,
called the MaxAge. Routers flood a repeat of the LSA every 30 minutes to prevent accurate link-state
information from being aged out. Cisco NX-OS supports the LSA grouping feature to prevent all LSAs
from refreshing at the same time. For more information, see the “Flooding and LSA Group Pacing”
section on page 6-6.
OSPFv3 and the IPv6 Unicast RIB
OSPFv3 runs the Dijkstra shortest path first algorithm on the link-state database. This algorithm selects
the best path to each destination based on the sum of all the link costs for each link in the path. The
resultant shortest path for each destination is then put in the OSPFv3 route table. When the OSPFv3
network is converged, this route table feeds into the IPv6 unicast RIB. OSPFv3 communicates with the
IPv6 unicast RIB to do the following:
•
Add or remove routes
•
Handle route redistribution from other protocols
•
Provide convergence updates to remove stale OSPFv3 routes and for stub router advertisements (see
the “Multiple OSPFv3 Instances” section on page 6-11)
OSPFv3 also runs a modified Dijkstra algorithm for fast recalculation for Inter-Area Prefix, Inter-Area
Router, AS-External, Type-7, and Intra-Area Prefix (type 3, 4, 5, 7, 8) LSA changes.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-7
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Authentication
OSPFv3 relies on the IPv6 Authentication Header and the IPv6 Encapsulating Security Payload to ensure
integrity, authentication, and confidentiality of OSPFv3 packets. (see Chapter 3, “Configuring IPv6”).
Address Family Support
Cisco NX-OS supports multiple address families, such as unicast IPv6 and multicast IPv6. OSPFv3
features that are specific to an address family are as follows:
•
Default routes
•
Route summarization
•
Route redistribution
•
Filter lists for border routers
•
SPF optimization
Use the address-family ipv6 unicast command to enter the IPv6 unicast address family configuration
mode when configuring these features.
Advanced Features
Cisco NX-OS supports a number of advanced OSPFv3 features that enhance the usability and scalability
of OSPFv3 in the network.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Stub Area, page 6-8
•
Not-So-Stubby Area, page 6-9
•
Virtual Links, page 6-9
•
Route Redistribution, page 6-10
•
Route redistribution uses route maps to control which external routes are redistributed. See
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager,” for details on configuring route maps. You can
use route maps to modify parameters in the AS External (type 5) and Type-7 LSAs before these
external routes are advertised in the local OSPFv3 autonomous system., page 6-10
•
Route Summarization, page 6-10
•
High Availability and Graceful Restart, page 6-11
•
Multiple OSPFv3 Instances, page 6-11
•
SPF Optimization, page 6-12
•
Virtualization Support, page 6-12
Stub Area
You can limit the amount of external routing information that floods an area by making it a stub area. A
stub area is an area that does not allow AS External (type 5) LSAs (see the “Link-State Advertisement”
section on page 6-5). These LSAs are usually flooded throughout the local autonomous system to
propagate external route information. Stub areas have the following requirements:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
All routers in the stub area are stub routers. See the “Stub Routing” section on page 1-7.
•
No ASBR routers exist in the stub area.
•
You cannot configure virtual links in the stub area.
Figure 6-3 shows an example an OSPFv3 autonomous system where all routers in Area 10 have to go
through the ABR to reach external autonomous systems. Area 10 can be configured as a stub area.
Figure 6-3
Stub Area
ABR
Backbone
Area 10
182984
Stub area
ASBR
Stub areas use a default route for all traffic that needs to go through the backbone area to the external
autonomous system. The default route is an Inter-Area-Prefix LSA with prefix length set to 0 for IPv6.
Not-So-Stubby Area
A Not-So-Stubby Area (NSSA) is similar to the stub area, except that an NSSA allows you to import
autonomous system external routes within an NSSA using redistribution. The NSSA ASBR redistributes
these routes and generates Type-7 LSAs that it floods throughout the NSSA. You can optionally
configure the ABR that connects the NSSA to other areas to translate this Type-7 LSA to AS External
(type 5) LSAs. The ABR then floods these AS External LSAs throughout the OSPFv3 autonomous
system. Summarization and filtering are supported during the translation. See the “Link-State
Advertisement” section on page 6-5 for details on Type-7 LSAs.
You can, for example, use NSSA to simplify administration if you are connecting a central site using
OSPFv3 to a remote site that is using a different routing protocol. Before NSSA, the connection between
the corporate site border router and a remote router could not be run as an OSPFv3 stub area because
routes for the remote site could not be redistributed into a stub area. You needed to maintain two routing
protocols. With NSSA, you can extend OSPFv3 to cover the remote connection by defining the area
between the corporate router and remote router as an NSSA (see the “Configuring NSSA” section on
page 6-22).
The backbone Area 0 cannot be an NSSA.
Virtual Links
Virtual links allow you to connect an OSPFv3 area ABR to a backbone area ABR when a direct physical
connection is not available. Figure 6-4 shows a virtual link that connects Area 3 to the backbone area
through Area 5.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-9
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 6-4
Virtual Links
Area 0
ABR2
Area 3
182985
Area 5
ABR1
You can also use virtual links to temporarily recover from a partitioned area, which occurs when a link
within the area fails, isolating part of the area from reaching the designated ABR to the backbone area.
Route Redistribution
OSPFv3 can learn routes from other routing protocols by using route redistribution. See the “Route
Redistribution” section on page 1-6. You configure OSPFv3 to assign a link cost for these redistributed
routes or a default link cost for all redistributed routes.
Route redistribution uses route maps to control which external routes are redistributed. See Chapter 14,
“Configuring Route Policy Manager,” for details on configuring route maps. You can use route maps to
modify parameters in the AS External (type 5) and Type-7 LSAs before these external routes are
advertised in the local OSPFv3 autonomous system.
Route Summarization
Because OSPFv3 shares all learned routes with every OSPF-enabled router, you might want to use route
summarization to reduce the number of unique routes that are flooded to every OSPF-enabled router.
Route summarization simplifies route tables by replacing more-specific addresses with an address that
represents all the specific addresses. For example, you can replace 2010:11:22:0:1000::1 and
2010:11:22:0:2000:679:1 with one summary address, 2010:11:22::/32.
Typically, you would summarize at the boundaries of area border routers (ABRs). Although you could
configure summarization between any two areas, it is better to summarize in the direction of the
backbone so that the backbone receives all the aggregate addresses and injects them, already
summarized, into other areas. The two types of summarization are as follows:
•
Inter-area route summarization
•
External route summarization
You configure inter-area route summarization on ABRs, summarizing routes between areas in the
autonomous system. To take advantage of summarization, you should assign network numbers in areas
in a contiguous way to be able to lump these addresses into one range.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Information About OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
External route summarization is specific to external routes that are injected into OSPFv3 using route
redistribution. You should make sure that external ranges that are being summarized are contiguous.
Summarizing overlapping ranges from two different routers could cause packets to be sent to the wrong
destination. Configure external route summarization on ASBRs that are redistributing routes into OSPF
When you configure a summary address, Cisco NX-OS automatically configures a discard route for the
summary address to prevent routing black holes and route loops.
High Availability and Graceful Restart
Cisco NX-OS supports high-availability. If a Cisco NX-OS system experiences a cold reboot, the
network stops forwarding traffic to the system and removes the system from the network topology. In
this scenario, OSPFv3 experiences a stateless restart, and removes all neighbor adjacencies on the local
system. Cisco NX-OS applies the startup configuration and OSPFv3 rediscovers the neighbors and
establishes the adjacencies again.
OSPFv3 automatically restarts if the process experiences problems. After the restart, OSPFv3 initiates
a graceful restart so that the platform is not taken out of the network topology. If you manually restart
OSPF, it performs a graceful restart, which is similar to a stateful switchover. The running configuration
is applied in both cases.
A graceful restart, or nonstop forwarding (NSF), allows OSPFv3 to remain in the data forwarding path
through a process restart. When OSPFv3 needs to restart, it first sends a link-local Grace (type 11) LSA.
This restarting OSPFv3 platform is called NSF capable.
The Grace LSA includes a grace period, which is a specified time that the neighbor OSPFv3 interfaces
hold onto the LSAs from the restarting OSPFv3 interface. (Typically, OSPFv3 tears down the adjacency
and discards all LSAs from a down or restarting OSPFv3 interface.) The participating neighbors, which
are called NSF helpers, keep all LSAs that originate from the restarting OSPFv3 interface as if the
interface were still adjacent.
When the restarting OSPFv3 interface is operational again, it rediscovers its neighbors, establishes
adjacency, and starts sending its LSA updates again. At this point, the NSF helpers recognize that
graceful restart has finished.
Note
If the restarting OSPFv3 interface does not come back up before the end of the grace period, or if the
network experiences a topology change, the OSPFv3 neighbors tear down adjacency with the restarting
OSPFv3 and treat it as a normal OSPFv3 restart.
Note
You must enable graceful restart to support in-service software upgrades (ISSU) for OSPFv3. If you
disable graceful restart, Cisco NX-OS issues a warning that ISSU cannot be supported with this
configuration.
Multiple OSPFv3 Instances
Cisco NX-OS supports multiple instances of the OSPFv3 protocol. By default, every instance uses the
same system router ID. You must manually configure the router ID for each instance if the instances are
in the same OSPFv3 autonomous system.
The OSPFv3 header includes an instance ID field to identify that OSPFv3 packet for a particular OSPFv3
instance. You can assign the OSPFv3 instance. The interface drops all OSPFv3 packets that do not have
a matching OSPFv3 instance ID in the packet header.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-11
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Licensing Requirements for OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS allows only one OSPFv3 instance on an interface.
SPF Optimization
Cisco NX-OS optimizes the SPF algorithm in the following ways:
•
Partial SPF for Network (type 2) LSAs, Inter-Area Prefix (type 3) LSAs, and AS External (type 5)
LSAs—When there is a change on any of these LSAs, Cisco NX-OS performs a faster partial
calculation rather than running the whole SPF calculation.
•
SPF timers—You can configure different timers for controlling SPF calculations. These timers
include exponential backoff for subsequent SPF calculations. The exponential backoff limits the
CPU load of multiple SPF calculations.
Virtualization Support
OSPFv3 supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device
contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDCand VRF. For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device
Context Configuration Guide and see Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for OSPFv3
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
OSPFv3 requires an Enterprise Services license. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing scheme
and how to obtain and apply licenses, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for OSPFv3
OSPFv3 has the following prerequisites:
•
You must be familiar with routing fundamentals to configure OSPFv3.
•
You must be logged on to the switch.
•
You have configured at least one interface for IPv6 that is capable of communicating with a remote
OSPFv3 neighbor.
•
You have installed the Enterprise Services license.
•
You have completed the OSPFv3 network strategy and planning for your network. For example, you
must decide whether multiple areas are required.
•
You have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on page 6-13).
•
You have installed the Advanced Services license and entered the desired VDC (see to the Cisco
NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide) if youare configuring VDCs.
•
You are familiar with IPv6 addressing and basic configuration. See Chapter 3, “Configuring IPv6”
for information on IPv6 routing and addressing.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
OSPFv3 has the following configuration guidelines and limitations:
•
Note
You can have up to four instances of OSPFv3 in a VDC.
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Configuring Basic OSPFv3
Configure OSPFv3 after you have designed your OSPFv3 network.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature, page 6-13
•
Creating an OSPFv3 Instance, page 6-14
•
Configuring Networks in OSPFv3, page 6-16
Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature
You must enable the OSPFv3 feature before you can configure OSPFv3.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
feature ospfv3
3.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-13
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Basic OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 2
Command
Purpose
feature ospfv3
Enables the OSPFv3 feature.
Example:
switch(config)# feature ospfv3
Step 3
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no feature ospfv3 command to disable the OSPFv3 feature and remove all associated
configuration.
Command
Purpose
no feature ospfv3
Disables the OSPFv3 feature and removes all
associated configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature ospfv3
Creating an OSPFv3 Instance
The first step in configuring OSPFv3 is to create an instance or OSPFv3 instance. You assign a unique
instance tag for this OSPFv3 instance. The instance tag can be any string. For each OSPFv3 instance,
you can also configure the following optional parameters:
•
Router ID—Configures the router ID for this OSPFv3 instance. If you do not use this parameter, the
router ID selection algorithm is used. See the “Router IDs” section on page 1-5.
•
Administrative distance—Rates the trustworthiness of a routing information source. See the
“Administrative Distance” section on page 1-6.
•
Log adjacency changes—Creates a system message whenever an OSPFv3 neighbor changes its
state.
•
Maximum paths—Sets the maximum number of equal paths that OSPFv3 installs in the route table
for a particular destination. Use this parameter for load balancing between multiple paths.
•
Reference bandwidth—Controls the calculated OSPFv3 cost metric for a network. The calculated
cost is the reference bandwidth divided by the interface bandwidth. You can override the calculated
cost by assigning a link cost when a network is added to the OSPFv3 instance. See the “Configuring
Networks in OSPFv3” section on page 6-16.
For more information about OSPFv3 instance parameters, see the“Configuring Advanced OSPFv3”
section on page 6-19.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPFv3 feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that the OSPFv3 instance tag that you plan on using is not already in use on this router.
Use the show ospfv3 instance-tag command to verify that the instance tag is not in use.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Basic OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
OSPFv3 must be able to obtain a router identifier (for example, a configured loopback address) or you
must configure the router ID option.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
router-id ip-address
4.
show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Step 4
Example:
switch(config-router)# router-id
209.0.2.1
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv3 router ID. This ID
uses the dotted decimal notation and identifies this
OSPFv3 instance and must exist on a configured
interface in the system.
show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag
(Optional) Displays OSPFv3 information.
router-id id
Example:
switch(config-router)# show ipv6 ospfv3
201
Step 5
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no router ospfv3 command to remove the OSPFv3 instance and all associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no router ospfv3 instance-tag
Deletes the OSPFv3 instance and all associated
configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no router ospfv3 201
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-15
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Basic OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
This command does not remove OSPF configuration in interface mode. You must manyally remove any
OSPFv3 commands configured in interface mode.
You can configure the following optional parameters for OSPFv3 in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
log-adjacency-changes [detail]
Generates a system message whenever a neighbor
changes state.
Example:
switch(config-router)#
log-adjacency-changes
Use the address-family ipv6 unicast command to configure the following optional parameters for
OSPFv3 in address family configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
distance number
Configures the administrative distance for this
OSPFv3 instance. The range is from 1 to 255. The
default is 110.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# distance 25
maximum-paths paths
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# maximum-paths 4
Configures the maximum number of equal OSPFv3
paths to a destination in the route table. The range
is from 1 to 16. The default is 8. Used for load
balancing.
The following example shows how to create an OSPFv3 instance:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Networks in OSPFv3
You can configure a network to OSPFv3 by associating it through the interface that the router uses to
connect to that network(see the “Neighbors” section on page 6-3). You can add all networks to the
default backbone area (Area 0), or you can create new areas using any decimal number or an IP address.
Note
All areas must connect to the backbone area either directly or through a virtual link.
Note
OSPFv3 is not enabled on an interface until you configure a valid IPv6 address for that interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPFv3 feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Basic OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
ipv6 address ipv6-prefix/length
4.
ipv6 router ospfv3 instance-tag area area-id [secondaries none]
5.
show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag interface interface-type slot/port
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Assigns an IPv6 address to this interface.
ipv6 address ipv6-prefix/length
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 address
2001:0DB8::1/48
Step 4
ipv6 router ospfv3 instance-tag area
area-id [secondaries none]
Adds the interface to the OSPFv3 instance and area.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 router ospfv3
201 area 0
Step 5
show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag interface
interface-type slot/port
(Optional) Displays OSPFv3 information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ipv6 ospfv3 201
interface ethernet 1/2
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
You can configure the following optional parameters for OSPFv3 in interface configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-17
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Basic OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
ospfv3 cost number
Configures the OSPFv3 cost metric for this
interface. The default is to calculate cost metric,
based on reference bandwidth and interface
bandwidth. The range is from 1 to 65535.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 cost 25
ospfv3 dead-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 dead-interval 50
ospfv3 hello-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 hello-interval
25
ospfv3 instance instance
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 instance 25
Configures the OSPFv3 dead interval, in seconds.
The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is four
times the hello interval, in seconds.
Configures the OSPFv3 hello interval, in seconds.
The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is 10
seconds.
Configures the OSPFv3 instance ID. The range is
from 0 to 255. The default is 0. The instance ID is
link-local in scope.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 mtu-ignore
Configures OSPFv3 to ignore any IP maximum
transmission unit (MTU) mismatch with a
neighbor. The default is to not establish adjacency
if the neighbor MTU does not match the local
interface MTU.
ospfv3 network {broadcast | point-point}
Sets the OSPFv3 network type.
ospfv3 mtu-ignore
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 network
broadcast
ospfv3 passive-interface
Suppresses routing updates on the interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3
passive-interface
ospfv3 priority number
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 priority 25
ospfv3 shutdown
Configures the OSPFv3 priority, used to determine
the DR for an area. The range is from 0 to 255. The
default is 1. See the “Designated Routers” section
on page 6-4.
Shuts downthe OSPFv3 instance on this interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 shutdown
The following example shows how to add a network area 10 in OSPFv3 instance 201:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0DB8::1/48
switch(config-if)# ipv6 ospfv3 201 area 10
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-18
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Configure OSPFv3 after you have designed your OSPFv3 network.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Configuring Filter Lists for Border Routers, page 6-19
•
Configuring Stub Areas, page 6-21
•
Configuring a Totally Stubby Area, page 6-22
•
Configuring NSSA, page 6-22
•
Configuring Virtual Links, page 6-24
•
Configuring Redistribution, page 6-26
•
Configuring Route Summarization, page 6-28
•
Modifying the Default Timers, page 6-30
•
Configuring Graceful Restart, page 6-32
•
Restarting an OSPFv3 Instance, page 6-34
•
Configuring OSPFv3 with Virtualization, page 6-34
Configuring Filter Lists for Border Routers
You can separate your OSPFv3 domain into a series of areas that contain related networks. All areas must
connect to the backbone area through an area border router (ABR). OSPFv3 domains can connect to
external domains as well, through an autonomous system border router (ASBR). See the “Areas” section
on page 6-5.
ABRs have the following optional configuration parameters:
•
Area range—Configures route summarization between areas. See the “Configuring Route
Summarization” section on page 6-28.
•
Filter list—Filters the Inter-Area Prefix (type 3) LSAs on an ABR that are allowed in from an
external area.
ASBRs also support filter lists.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Create the route map that the filter list uses to filter ip prefixes in incoming or outgoing Inter-Area Prefix
(type 3) LSAs. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager.”
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPFv3 feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
address-family ipv6 unicast
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-19
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
4.
area area-id filter-list route-map map-name {in | out}
5.
show ipv6 ospfv3 policy statistics area id filter-list {in | out}
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
address-family ipv6 unicast
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv6 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 4
area area-id filter-list route-map
map-name {in | out}
Filters incoming or outgoing Inter-Area Prefix (type 3)
LSAs on an ABR.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# area 10
filter-list route-map FilterLSAs in
Step 5
show ipv6 ospfv3 policy statistics area
id filter-list {in | out}
(Optional) Displays OSPFv3 policy information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ipv6 ospfv3
policy statistics area 10 filter-list in
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to enable graceful restart if it has been disabled:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv6 unicast
switch(config-router-af)# area 10 filter-list route-map FilterLSAs in
switch(config-router-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-20
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Stub Areas
You can configure a stub area for part of an OSPFv3 domain where external traffic is not necessary. Stub
areas block AS External (type 5) LSAs, limiting unnecessary routing to and from selected networks. See
the “Stub Area” section on page 6-8. You can optionally block all summary routes from going into the
stub area.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that there are no virtual links or ASBRs in the proposed stub area.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
area area-id stub
4.
address-family ipv6 unicast
5.
area area-id default-cost cost
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Creates this area as a stub area.
area area-id stub
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10 stub
Step 4
(Optional) Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode.
address-family ipv6 unicast
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv6 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-21
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 5
Command
Purpose
area area-id default-cost cost
(Optional) Sets the cost metric for the default summary
route sent into this stub area. The range is from 0 to
16777215.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# area 10
default-cost 25
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create a stub area that blocks all summary route updates:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 stub no-summary
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring a Totally Stubby Area
You can create a totally stubby area and prevent all summary route updates from going into the stub area.
To create a totally stubby area , use the following command in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
area area-id stub no-summary
Creates this area as a totally stubby area.
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 20 stub
no-summary
Configuring NSSA
You can configure an NSSA for part of an OSPFv3 domain where limited external traffic is required. See
the “Not-So-Stubby Area” section on page 6-9. You can optionally translate this external traffic to an AS
External (type 5) LSA and flood the OSPFv3 domain with this routing information. An NSSA can be
configured with the following optional parameters:
•
No redistribution—Redistributed routes bypass the NSSA and are redistributed to other areas in the
OSPFv3 autonomous system. Use this option when the NSSA ASBR is also an ABR.
•
Default information originate—Generates a Type-7 LSA for a default route to the external
autonomous system. Use this option on an NSSA ASBR if the ASBR contains the default route in
the routing table. This option can be used on an NSSA ABR whether or not the ABR contains the
default route in the routing table.
•
Route map—Filters the external routes so that only those routes you want are flooded throughout
the NSSA and other areas.
•
Translate—Translates Type-7 LSAs to AS External (type 5) LSAs for areas outside the NSSA. Use
this command on an NSSA ABR to flood the redistributed routes throughout the OSPFv3
autonomous system. You can optionally suppress the forwarding address in these AS External LSAs.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-22
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
No summary—Blocks all summary routes from flooding the NSSA. Use this option on the NSSA
ABR.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that there are no virtual links in the proposed NSSA and that it is not the backbone area.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
area area-id nssa [no-redistribution] [default-information-originate [route-map map-name]]
[no-summary] [translate type7 {always | never} [suppress-fa]]
4.
address-family ipv6 unicast
5.
area area-id default-cost cost
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
area area-id nssa [no-redistribution]
[default-information-originate]
[route-map map-name]] [no-summary]
[translate type7 {always | never}
[suppress-fa]]
Creates this area as an NSSA.
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa
Step 4
(Optional) Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode.
address-family ipv6 unicast
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv6 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-23
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 5
Command
Purpose
area area-id default-cost cost
(Optional) Sets the cost metric for the default summary
route sent into this NSSA. The range is from 0 to
16777215.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# area 10
default-cost 25
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that blocks all summary route updates:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa no-summary
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that generates a default route;
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa default-info-originate
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that filters external routes and blocks all summary
route updates:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa route-map ExternalFilter no-summary
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that always translates Type-7 LSAs to AS External
(type 5) LSAs:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa translate type 7 always
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create an NSSA that blocks all summary route updates:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 nssa no-summary
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Virtual Links
A virtual link connects an isolated area to the backbone area through an intermediate area. See the
“Virtual Links” section on page 6-9. You can configure the following optional parameters for a virtual
link:
•
Authentication—Sets simple password or MD5 message digest authentication and associated keys.
•
Dead interval—Sets the time that a neighbor waits for a Hello packet before declaring the local
router as dead and tearing down adjacencies.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-24
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
•
Hello interval—Sets the time between successive Hello packets.
•
Retransmit interval—Sets the estimated time between successive LSAs.
•
Transmit delay—Sets the estimated time to transmit an LSA to a neighbor.
You must configure the virtual link on both routers involved before the link becomes active.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
area area-id virtual-link router-id
4.
show ipv6 ospfv3 virtual-link [brief]
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Creates one end of a virtual link to a remote router.
You must create the virtual link on that remote router
to complete the link.
area area-id virtual-link router-id
Example:
switch(config-router)# area 10
virtual-link 2001:0DB8::1
switch(config-router-vlink)#
Step 4
show ipv6 ospfv3 virtual-link [brief]
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ipv6 ospfv3
virtual-link
Step 5
(Optional) Displays OSPFv3 virtual link
information.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy running-config
startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-25
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
You can configure the following optional commands in virtual link configuration mode:
Command or Action
Purpose
dead-interval seconds
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv3 dead interval, in
seconds. The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is four
times the hello interval, in seconds.
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
dead-interval 50
hello-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
hello-interval 25
retransmit-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
retransmit-interval 50
transmit-delay seconds
Example:
switch(config-router-vlink)#
transmit-delay 2
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv3 hello interval, in
seconds. The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is 10
seconds.
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv3 retransmit interval, in
seconds. The range is from 1 to 65535. The default is 5.
(Optional) Configures the OSPFv3 transmit-delay, in
seconds. The range is from 1 to 450. The default is 1.
The following example shows how to create a simple virtual link between two ABRs:
Configuration for ABR 1 (router ID 2001:0DB8::1) is as follows:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# area 10 virtual-link 2001:0DB8::10
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuration for ABR 2 (router ID 2001:0DB8::10) is as follows:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 101
switch(config-router)# area 10 virtual-link 2001:0DB8::1
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Redistribution
You can redistribute routes learned from other routing protocols into an OSPFv3 autonomous system
through the ASBR.
You can configure the following optional parameters for route redistribution in OSPF:
•
Default information originate—Generates an AS External (type 5) LSA for a default route to the
external autonomous system.
•
Default metric—Sets all redistributed routes to the same cost metric.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Create the necessary route maps used for redistribution.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-26
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
address-family ipv6 unicast
4.
redistribute {bgp id | direct | isis id | rip id | static} route-map map-name
5.
default-information originate [always] [route-map map-name]
6.
default-metric cost
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode.
address-family ipv6 unicast
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv6 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 4
redistribute {bgp id | direct | isis id
| rip id | static} route-map map-name
Redistributes the selected protocol into OSPFv3,
through the configured route map.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# redistribute
bgp route-map FilterExternalBGP
Step 5
default-information originate [always]
[route-map map-name]
Creates a default route into this OSPFv3 domain.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)#
default-information-originate route-map
DefaultRouteFilter
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-27
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command
Purpose
default-metric cost
Sets the cost metric for the redistributed routes. The
range is from 1 to 16777214.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# default-metric
25
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to redistribute the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) into OSPFv3:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
ospfv3 201
address-family ipv6 unicast
redistribute bgp route-map FilterExternalBGP
copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Route Summarization
You can configure route summarization for inter-area routes by configuring an address range that is
summarized. You can also configure route summarization for external, redistributed routes by
configuring a summary address for those routes on an ASBR. See the “Route Summarization” section
on page 6-10.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
address-family ipv6 unicast
4.
area area-id range ipv6-prefix/length [no-advertise]
or
5.
summary-address ipv6-prefix/length [no-advertise] [tag tag]
6.
show ipv6 ospfv3 summary-address
7.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-28
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode.
address-family ipv6 unicast
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv6 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 4
area area-id range ipv6-prefix/length
[no-advertise]
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# area 10 range
2001:0DB8::/48 advertise
Creates a summary address on an ABR for a range of
addresses . Optionally advertises this summary address
in a Inter-Area Prefix (type 3) LSA.
Step 5
summary-address ipv6-prefix/length
[no-advertise][tag tag]
Example:
switch(config-router-af)#
summary-address 2001:0DB8::/48 tag 2
Creates a summary address on an ASBR for a range of
addresses and optionally assigns a tag for this
summary address that can be used for redistribution
with route maps.
Step 6
show ipv6 ospfv3 summary-address
(Optional) Displays information about OSPFv3
summary addresses.
Example:
switch(config-router)# show ipv6 ospfv3
summary-address
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create summary addresses between areas on an ABR:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
ospfv3 201
address-family ipv6 unicast
area 10 range 2001:0DB8::/48
copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to create summary addresses on an ASBR:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
ospf 201
address-family ipv6 unicast
summary-address 2001:0DB8::/48
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-29
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Modifying the Default Timers
OSPFv3 includes a number of timers that control the behavior of protocol messages and shortest path
first (SPF) calculations. OSPFv3 includes the following optional timer parameters:
•
LSA arrival time—Sets the minimum interval allowed between LSAs arriving from a neighbor.
LSAs that arrive faster than this time are dropped.
•
Pacing LSAs—Set the interval at which LSAs are collected into a group and refreshed,
checksummed, or aged. This timer controls how frequently LSA updates occur and optimizes how
many are sent in an LSA update message (see the “Flooding and LSA Group Pacing” section on
page 6-6).
•
Throttle LSAs—Set rate limits for generating LSAs. This timer controls how frequently an LSA is
generated if no topology change occurs.
•
Throttle SPF calculation—Controls how frequently the SPF calculation is run.
At the interface level, you can also control the following timers:
•
Retransmit interval—Sets the estimated time between successive LSAs.
•
Transmit delay—Sets the estimated time to transmit an LSA to a neighbor.
See the “Configuring Networks in OSPFv3” section on page 6-16 for information on the hello interval
and dead timer.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
timers lsa-arrival msec
4.
timers lsa-group-pacing seconds
5.
timers throttle lsa intra-area-prefix hold-interval
6.
timers throttle lsa link hold-interval
7.
timers throttle lsa network hold-interval
8.
timers throttle lsa router hold-interval
9.
address-family ipv6 unicast
10. timers throttle spf delay-time hold-time
11. interface type slot/port
12. ospfv3 retransmit-interval seconds
13. ospfv3 transmit-delay seconds
14. copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-30
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Sets the LSA arrival time in milliseconds. The range is
from 10 to 600000. The default is 1000 milliseconds.
timers lsa-arrival msec
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers
lsa-arrival 2000
Step 4
Sets the interval in seconds for grouping LSAs. The
range is from 1 to 1800. The default is 240 seconds.
timers lsa-group-pacing seconds
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers
lsa-group-pacing 2000
Step 5
timers throttle lsa intra-area-prefix
hold-interval}
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers throttle
lsa intra-area-prefix 3000
Step 6
timers throttle lsa link hold-interval}
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers throttle
lsa intra-area-prefix 3000
Step 7
timers throttle lsa network
delay-interval
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers throttle
lsa network 3000
Step 8
timers throttle lsa router
hold-interval}
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers throttle
lsa network 3000
Step 9
Sets the rate limit in milliseconds for generating
intra-area prefix LSAs. The range is from 10 to
600000. The default is 5000 milliseconds.
Sets the rate limit in milliseconds for generating link
LSAs. The range is from 10 to 600000. The default is
5000 milliseconds.
Sets the rate limit in milliseconds for generating LSAs.
The range is from 10 to 600000. The default is 5000
milliseconds.
Sets the rate limit in milliseconds for generating LSAs.
The range is from 10 to 600000. The default is 5000
milliseconds.
Enters IPv6 unicast address family mode.
address-family ipv6 unicast
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv6 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-31
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 10
Command
Purpose
timers throttle spf delay-time hold-time
Sets the SPF best path schedule initial delay time and
the minimum hold time in seconds between SPF best
path calculations. The range is from 1 to 600000. The
default is no delay time and 5000 millisecond hold
time.
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers throttle
spf 3000 2000
Step 11
interface type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 12
ospfv3 retransmit-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3
retransmit-interval 30
Step 13
ospfv3 transmit-delay seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# ospfv3 transmit-delay
600
switch(config-if)#
Step 14
copy running-config startup-config
Sets the estimated time in seconds between LSAs
transmitted from this interface. The range is from 1 to
65535. The default is 5.
Sets the estimated time in seconds to transmit an LSA
to a neighbor. The range is from 1 to 450. The default
is 1.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to control LSA flooding with the lsa-group-pacing option:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# timers lsa-group-pacing 300
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Graceful Restart
Graceful restart is enabled by default. You can configure the following optional parameters for graceful
restart in an OSPFv3 instance:
•
Grace period—Configures how long neighbors should wait after a graceful restart has started before
tearing down adjacencies.
•
Helper mode disabled—Disables helper mode on the local OSPFv3 instance. OSPFv3 will not
participate in the graceful restart of a neighbor.
•
Planned graceful restart only—Configures OSPFv3 to support graceful restart only in the event of a
planned restart.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPFv3 feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that all neighbors are configured for graceful restart with matching optional parameters set.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-32
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
3.
graceful-restart
4.
graceful-restart grace-period seconds
5.
graceful-restart helper-disable
6.
graceful-restart planned-only
7.
show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag
8.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
graceful-restart
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
Step 4
graceful-restart grace-period seconds
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
grace-period 120
Step 5
Enables graceful restart. A graceful restart is enabled
by default.
Sets the grace period, in seconds. The range is from 5
to 1800. The default is 60 seconds.
Disables helper mode. Enabled by default.
graceful-restart helper-disable
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
helper-disable
Step 6
Configures graceful restart for planned restarts only.
graceful-restart planned-only
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
planned-only
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-33
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 7
Command
Purpose
show ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag
(Optional) Displays OSPFv3 information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ipv6 ospfv3 201
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to enable graceful restart if it has been disabled, and set the grace
period to 120 seconds:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
ospfv3 201
graceful-restart
graceful-restart grace-period 120
copy running-config startup-config
Restarting an OSPFv3 Instance
You can restart an OSPv3 instance. This clears all neighbors for the instance.
To restart an OSPFv3 instance and remove all associated neighbors, use the following command:
Command
Purpose
restart ospfv3 instance-tag
Restarts the OSPFv3 instance and removes all
neighbors.
Example:
switch(config)# restart ospfv3 201
Configuring OSPFv3 with Virtualization
You can configure multiple OSPFv3 instances in each VDC. You can also create multiple VRFs within
each VDC and use the same or multiple OSPFv3 instances in each VRF. You assign an OSPFv3 interface
to a VRF.
Note
Configure all other parameters for an interface after you configure the VRF for an interface. Configuring
a VRF for an interface deletes all the configuration for that interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Create the VDCs.
Ensure that you have enabled the OSPF feature (see the “Enabling the OSPFv3 Feature” section on
page 6-13).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-34
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
vrf context vrf_name
3.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
4.
vrf vrf-name
5.
<optional parameters configured>
6.
interface type slot/port
7.
vrf member vrf-name
8.
ipv6 address ipv6-prefix/length
9.
ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag area area-id
10. copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new VRF and enters VRF configuration
mode.
vrf context vrf-name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 3
Creates a new OSPFv3 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospfv3 instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 4
Enters VRF configuration mode.
vrf vrf-name
Example:
switch(config-router)# vrf
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)#
Step 5
maximum-paths paths
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf)# maximum-paths
4
Step 6
(Optional) Configures the maximum number of equal
OSPFv3 paths to a destination in the route table for this
VRF. Used for load balancing.
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-35
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Verifying OSPFv3 Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 7
Command
Purpose
vrf member vrf-name
Adds this interface to a VRF.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrf member
RemoteOfficeVRF
Step 8
ipv6 address ipv6-prefix/length
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 address
2001:0DB8::1/48
Step 9
ipv6 ospfv3 instance-tag area area-id
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 ospfv3 201 area
0
Step 10
copy running-config startup-config
Configures an IP address for this interface. You must
do this step after you assign this interface to a VRF.
Assigns this interface to the OSPFv3 instance and area
configured.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create a VRF and add an interface to the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context NewVRF
switch(config-vrf)# exit
switch(config)# router ospfv3 201
switch(config-router)# exit
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# vrf member NewVRF
switch(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:0DB8::1/48
switch(config-if)# ipv6 ospfv3 201 area 0
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Verifying OSPFv3 Configuration
To verify OSPFv3 configuration, use one of the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ipv6 ospfv3
Displays the OSPFv3 configuration.
show ipv6 ospfv3 border-routers
Displays the internal OSPF routing table entries
to an ABR and ASBR.
show ipv6 ospfv3 database
Displays lists of information related to the
OSPFv3 database for a specific router.
show ipv6 ospfv3 interface type number [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default | management}]
Displays the OSPFv3 interface configuration.
show ipv6 ospfv3 neighbors
Displays the neighbor information. Use the clear
ospfv3 neighbors command to remove adjacency
with all neighbors.
show ipv6 ospfv3 request-list
Displays a list of LSAs requested by a router.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-36
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Displaying OSPFv3 Statistics
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
show ipv6 ospfv3 retransmission-list
Displays a list of LSAs waiting to be
retransmitted.
show ipv6 ospfv3 summary-address
Displays a list of all summary address
redistribution information configured under an
OSPFv3 instance.
show running-configuration ospfv3
Displays the current runing OSPFv3
configuration.
Displaying OSPFv3 Statistics
To display OSPFv3 statistics, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ipv6 ospfv3 memory
Displays the OSPFv3 memory usage statistics.
show ipv6 ospfv3 policy statistics
area area-id filter-list {in | out}
[vrf {vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the OSPFv3 route policy statistics for an area.
show ipv6 ospfv3 policy statistics
redistribute {bgp id| direct | isis
id | rip id | static} vrf {vrf-name |
all | default | management}]
Displays the OSPFv3 route policy statistics.
show ipv6 ospfv3 statistics [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the OSPFv3 event counters.
show ipv6 ospfv3 traffic
[interface-type number] [vrf
{vrf-name | all | default |
management}]
Displays the OSPFv3 packet counters.
OSPFv3 Example Configuration
The following example shows how to configure OSPFv3:
feature ospfv3
router ospfv3 201
router-id 290.0.2.1
interface ethernet 1/2
ipv6 address 2001:0DB8::1/48
ipv6 ospfv3 201 area 10
Related Topics
The following topics can give more information on OSPF:
•
Chapter 5, “Configuring OSPFv2”
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-37
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Default Settings
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager”
Default Settings
Table 6-2 lists the default settings for OSPFv3 parameters.
Table 6-2
Default OSPFv3 Parameters
Parameters
Default
Hello interval
10 seconds
Dead interval
40 seconds
Graceful restart grace period
60 seconds
Graceful restart notify period
15 seconds
OSPFv3 feature
Disabled
Stub router advertisement announce time
600 seconds
Reference bandwidth for link cost calculation
40 Gb/s
LSA minimal arrival time
1000 milliseconds
LSA group pacing
240 seconds
SPF calculation initial delay time
0 milliseconds
SPF calculation hold time
5000 milliseconds
SPF calculation initial delay time
0 milliseconds
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing OSPF, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 6-39
•
MIBs, page 6-39
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-38
OL-12912-01
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
OSPFv3 CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
MIBs
MIBs
MIBs Link
•
OSPF-MIB
To locate and download MIBs, go to the following URL:
•
OSPF-TRAP-MIB
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
6-39
Chapter 6
Configuring OSPFv3
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
6-40
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
7
Configuring EIGRP
This chapter describes how to configure the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP).
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About EIGRP, page 7-1
•
Licensing Requirements for EIGRP, page 7-7
•
Prerequisites for EIGRP, page 7-7
•
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations, page 7-8
•
Configuring Basic EIGRP, page 7-8
•
Configuring Advanced EIGRP, page 7-12
•
Configuring Advanced EIGRP, page 7-12
•
Displaying EIGRP Statistics, page 7-24
•
EIGRP Example Configuration, page 7-24
•
Default Settings, page 7-24
•
Additional References, page 7-25
Information About EIGRP
EIGRP combines the benefits of distance vector protocols with the featurs of of link-state protocols.
EIGRP sends out periodic Hello messages for neighbor discovery. Once EIGRP learns a new neighbor,
it sends a one-time update of all the local EIGRP routes and route metrics. The receiving EIGRP router
calculates the route distance based on the received metrics and the locally assigned cost of the link to
that neighbor. After this initial full route table update, EIGRP sends incremental updates to only those
neighbors affected by the route change. This process speeds convergence and minimizes the bandwidth
used by EIGRP.
This section includes the following topics:
•
EIGRP Components, page 7-2
•
EIGRP Route Updates, page 7-3
•
Advanced EIGRP, page 7-4
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-1
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Information About EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
EIGRP Components
EIGRP has the following basic components:
•
Reliable Transport Protocol, page 7-2
•
Neighbor Discovery and Recovery, page 7-2
•
Diffusing Update Algorithm, page 7-2
Reliable Transport Protocol
The Reliable Transport Protocol guarantees ordered delivery of EIGRP packets to all neighbors. (See
the “Neighbor Discovery and Recovery” section on page 7-2.) The Reliable Transport Protocol supports
an intermixed transmission of multicast and unicast packets. The reliable transport can send multicast
packets quickly when unacknowledged packets are pending. This provision helps to ensure that the
convergence time remains low for various speed links. See the “Configuring Advanced EIGRP” section
on page 7-12 for details about modifying the default timers that control the multicast and unicast packet
transmissions.
The Reliable Transport Protocol includes the following message types:
•
Hello—Used for neighbor discovery and recovery. By default, EIGRP sends a periodic multicast
Hello message on the local network at the configured hello interval. By default, the hello interval is
5 seconds.
•
Acknowledgement—Verifie reliable reception of Updates, Queries, and Replies.
•
Updates—Send to affected neighbors when routing information changes. Updates include the route
destination, address mask, and route metrics such as delay and bandwidth. The update information
is stored in the EIGRP topology table.
•
Queries and Replies—Sent as necessary as part of the Diffusing Update Algorithm used by EIGRP.
Neighbor Discovery and Recovery
EIGRP uses the Hello messages from the Reliable Transport Protocol to discover neighboring EIGRP
routers on directly attached networks. EIGRP adds neighbors to the neighbor table. The information in
the neighbor table includes the neighbor address, the interface it was learned on, and the hold time, which
indicates how long EIGRP should wait before declaring a neighbor unreachable. By default, the hold
time is three times the hello interval or 15 seconds.
EIGRP sends a series of Update messages to new neighbors to share the local EIGRP routing
information. This route information is stored in the EIGRP topology table. After this initial transmission
of the full EIGRP route information, EIGRP sends Update messages only when a routing change occurs.
These Update messages contain only the new or changed information and are sent only to the neighbors
affected by the change. See the “EIGRP Route Updates” section on page 7-3’.
EIGRP also uses the Hello messages as a keepalive to its neighbors. As long as Hello messages are
received, Cisco DC-OS can determine that a neighbor is alive and functioning.
Diffusing Update Algorithm
The Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) calculates the routing information based on the destination
networks in the topology table. The topology table includes the following information:
•
IP address/mask—The network address and network mask for this destination.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Information About EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Successors—The IP address and local interface connection for all feasible successors or neighbors
that advertise a shorter distance to the destination than the current feasible distance.
•
Feasibility distance (FD)—The lowest calculated distance to the destination. The feasibility distance
is the sum of the advertised distance from a neighbor plus the cost of the link to that neighbor.
DUAL uses the distance metric to select efficient, loop-free paths. DUAL selects routes to insert into the
unicast Routing Information Base (RIB) based on feasible successors. When a topology change occurs,
DUAL looks for feasible successors in the topology table. If there are feasible successors, DUAL selects
the feasible successor with the lowest feasible distance and inserts that into the unicast RIB, avoiding
unnecessary recomputation.
When there are no feasible successors but there are neighbors advertising the destination, DUAL
transitions from the passive state to the active state and triggers a recomputation to determine a new
successor or next-hop router to the destination. The amount of time required to recompute the route
affects the convergence time. EIGRP sends Query messages to all neighbors, searching for feasible
successors. Neighbors that have a feasible successor send a Reply message with that information.
Neighbors that do not have feasible successors trigger a DUAL recomputation.
EIGRP Route Updates
When a topology change occurs, EIGRP sends an Update message with only the changed routing
information to affected neighbors. This Update message includes the distance information to the new or
updated network destination.
The distance information in EIGRP is represented as a composite of available route metrics, including
bandwidth, delay, load utilization, and link reliability. Each metric has an associated weight that
determines if the metric is included in the distance calculation. You can configure these metric weights.
You can fine-tune link characteristics to achieve optimal paths, but we recommend that you use the
default settings for most configurable metrics.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Internal Route Metrics, page 7-3
•
External Route Metrics, page 7-4
•
EIGRP and the Unicast RIB, page 7-4
Internal Route Metrics
Internal routes are routes that occur between neighbors within the same EIGRP autonomous system.
These routes have the following metrics:
•
Next hop—The IP address of the next-hop router.
•
Delay—The sum of the delays configured on the interfaces that make up the route to the destination
network. Configured in tens of microseconds.
•
Bandwidth—The calculation from the lowest configured bandwidth on an interface that is part of
the route to the destination.
Note
•
We recommend that you use the default bandwidth value. This bandwidth parameter is also used
by EIGRP.
MTU—The smallest maximum transmission unit value along the route to the destination.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-3
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Information About EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Hop count—The number of hops or routers that the route passes through to the destination. This
metric is not directly used in the DUAL computation.
•
Reliability—An indication of the reliability of the links to the destination.
•
Load—An indication of how much traffic is on the links to the destination.
By default, EIGRP uses the bandwidth and delay metrics to calculate the distance to the destination. You
can modify the metric weights to include the other metrics in the calculation.
External Route Metrics
External routes are routes that occur between neighbors in different EIGRP autonomous systems. These
routes have the following metrics:
•
Next hop—The IP address of the next-hop router.
•
Router ID—The router ID of the router that redistributed this route into EIGRP.
•
AS Number—The autonomous system number of the destination.
•
Protocol ID—A code that represents the routing protocol that learned the destination route.
•
Tag—An arbitrary tag that can be used for route maps.
•
Metric—The route metric for this route from the external routing protocol.
EIGRP and the Unicast RIB
EIGRP adds all learned routes to the EIGRP topology table and the unicast RIB. When a topology
change occurs, EIGRP uses these routes to search for a feasible successor. EIGRP also listens for
notifications from the unicast RIB for changes in any routes redistributed to EIGRP from another routing
protocol.
Advanced EIGRP
You can use the advanced features of EIGRP to optimize your EIGRP configuration.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Authentication, page 7-4
•
Stub Routers, page 7-5
•
Route Summarization, page 7-5
•
Route Redistribution, page 7-5
•
Load Balancing, page 7-6
•
Split Horizon, page 7-6
•
Virtualization Support, page 7-6
•
Graceful Restart and High Availability, page 7-6
Authentication
You can configure authentication on EIGRP messages to prevent unauthorized or invalid routing updates
in your network. Cisco NX-OS supports MD5 authentication digest.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Information About EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
You can configure the EIGRP authentication per interface using key-chain management for the
authentication keys. Key-chain management allows you to control changes to the authentication keys
used by MD5 authentication digest. See the Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide for more details
about creating key-chains.
For MD5 authentication, you configure a password that is shared at the local router and all remote
EIGRP neighbors. When an EIGRP message is created, Cisco NX-OS creates an MD5 one-way message
digest based on the message itself and the encrypted password and sends this digest along with the
EIGRP message. The receiving EIGRP neighbor validates the digest using the same encrypted password.
If the message has not changed, the calculation is identical and the EIGRP message is considered valid.
MD5 authentication also includes a sequence number with each EIGRP message that is used to ensure
that no message is replayed in the network.
Stub Routers
You can use the EIGRP stub routing feature to improve network stability, reduce resource usage, and
simplify stub router configuration. Stub routers connect to the EIGRP network through a remote router.
See the “Stub Routing” section on page 1-7.
When using EIGRP stub routing, you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP
and configure only the remote router as a stub. EIGRP stub routing does not automatically enable
summarization on the distribution router. In most cases, you need to configure summarization on the
distribution routers.
Without EIGRP stub routing, even after the routes that are sent from the distribution router to the remote
router have been filtered or summarized, a problem might occur. For example, if a route is lost
somewhere in the corporate network, EIGRP could send a query to the distribution router. The
distribution router could then send a query to the remote router even if routes are summarized. If a
problem communicating over the WAN link between the distribution router and the remote router occurs,
EIGRP could get stuck in active condition and cause instability elsewhere in the network. EIGRP stub
routing allows you to prevent queries to the remote router.
Route Summarization
You can configure a summary aggregate address for a specified interface. Route summarization
simplifies route tables by replacing a number of more-specific addresses with an address that represents
all the specific addresses. For example, you can replace 10.1.1.0/24, 10.1.2.0/24, and 10.1.3.0/24 with
one summary address, 10.1.0.0/16.
If more specific routes are in the routing table, EIGRP advertises the summary address from the interface
with a metric equal to the minimum metric of the more specific routes.
Note
Cisco NX-OS does not support automatic route summarization.
Route Redistribution
You can use EIGRP to redistribute static routes, routes learned by other EIGRP autonomous systems, or
routes from other protocols. You configure route policy with the redistribution to control which routes
are passed into EIGRP. A route policy allows you to filter routes based on attributes such as the
destination, origination protocol, route type, route tag, and so on. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Route
Policy Manager.”
You also configure the default metric that is used for all imported routes into EIGRP.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-5
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Information About EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Load Balancing
You can use load balancing to allow a router to distribute traffic over all the router network ports that are
the same distance from the destination address. Load balancing increases the utilization of network
segments which increases effective network bandwidth.
Cisco NX-OS supports the Equal Cost Multiple Paths (ECMP) feature with up to 16 equal-cost paths in
the EIGRP route table and the unicast RIB. You can configure EIGRP to load balance traffic across some
or all of those paths.
Split Horizon
You can use split horizon to ensure that EIGRP never advertises a route out of the interface where it was
learned.
Split horizon is a method that controls the sending of EIGRP update and query packets. When you enable
split horizon on an interface, Cisco NX-OS does not send update and query packets for destinations that
were learned from this interface. Controlling update and query packets in this manner reduces the
possibility of routing loops.
Split horizon with poison reverse configures EIGRP to advertise a learned route as unreachable back
through that the interface that EIGRP learned the route from.
EIGRP uses split horizon or or split horizon with poison reverse in the following scenarios:
•
Exchanging topology tables for the first time between two routers in startup mode.
•
Advertising a topology table change.
•
Sending a Query message.
By default, the split horizon feature is enabled on all interfaces.
Virtualization Support
Cisco NX-OS supports multiple instances of the EIGRP protocol that runs on the same system. EIGRP
supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device contexts
(VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDC and VRF. See the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context
Configuration Guide and Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
By default, every instance uses the same system router ID. You must manually configure the router ID
for each instance if the instances are in the same EIGRP autonomous system.
Graceful Restart and High Availability
Cisco NX-OS supports nonstop forwarding and graceful restart for EIGRP.
You can use nonstop forwarding for EIGRP to forward data packets along known routes in the FIB while
the EIGRP routing protocol information is being restored following a failover. With NSF, peer
networking devices do not experience routing flaps. During failover, data traffic is forwarded through
intelligent modules while the standby supervisor becomes active.
If a Cisco NX-OS system experiences a cold reboot, network does not forward traffic to the system and
removes the system from the network topology. In this scenario, EIGRP experiences a stateless restart,
and all neighbors are removed. Cisco NX-OS applies the startup configuration, and EIGRP rediscovers
the neighbors and shares the full EIGRP routing information again.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Licensing Requirements for EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
A dual supervisor platform that runs Cisco NX-OS can experience a stateful supervisor switchover.
Before the switchover occurs, EIGRP uses a graceful restart to announce that EIGRP will be unavailable
for some time. During a switchover, EIGRP uses nonstop forwarding to continue forwarding traffic
based on the information in the FIB, and the system is not taken out of the network topology.
The graceful restart-capable router uses Hello messages to notify its neighbors that an graceful restart
operation has started. When an graceful restart-aware router receives a notification from a graceful
restart-capable neighbor that a graceful restart operation is in progress, both routers immediately
exchange their topology tables. The graceful restart-aware router then performs the following actions to
assist the restarting router:
•
The router expires the EIGRP Hello hold timer to reduce the time interval set for Hello messages.
This allows the graceful restart-aware router to reply to the restarting router more quickly and
reduces the amount of time required for the restarting router to rediscover neighbors and rebuild the
topology table.
•
The router starts the route-hold timer. This timer sets the period of time that the graceful
restart-aware router will hold known routes for the restarting neighbor. The default time period is
240 seconds.
•
The router notes in the peer list that the neighbor is restarting, maintains adjacency, and holds known
routes for the restarting neighbor until the neighbor signals that it is ready for the graceful
restart-aware router to send its topology table or the route-hold timer expires. If the route-hold timer
expires on the graceful restart-aware router, the graceful restart-aware router discards held routes
and treats the restarting router as a new router joining the network and reestablishing adjacency.
After the switchover, Cisco NX-OS applies the running configuration, and EIGRP informs the neighbors
that it is operational again.
Note
You must enable graceful restart to support in-service software upgrades (ISSU) for EIGRP. If you
disable graceful restart, Cisco NX-OS issues a warning that ISSU cannot be supported with this
configuration.
Licensing Requirements for EIGRP
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
EIGRP requires an Enterprise Services license. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing scheme
and how to obtain and apply licenses, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for EIGRP
EIGRP has the following prerequisites:
•
You must enable the EIGRP feature (see the “Enabling the EIGRP Feature” section on page 7-8).
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see to the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-7
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
EIGRP has the following configuration guidelines and limitations:
Note
•
A metric configuration (either through the default-metric configuration option or through a route
policy) is required for redistribution from any other protocol, connected routes, or static routes (see
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager”).
•
For graceful restart, an NSF-aware router must be up and completely converged with the network
before it can assist an NSF-capable router in a graceful restart operation.
•
For graceful restart, neighboring devices participating in the graceful restart must be NSF-aware or
NSF-capable.
•
Cisco NX-OS EIGRP is compatible with EIGRP in Cisco IOS.
•
Do not change the metric weights without a good reason. If you change the metric weights, you must
apply the change to all EIGRP routers in the same autonomous system.
•
Consider using stubs for larger networks.
•
Avoid redistribution between different EIGRP autonomous systems because the EIGRP vector
metric will not be preserved.
•
The no ip next-hop-self command does not guarantee reachability of next hop.
•
The ip passive-interface eigrp command suppresses neighbor formation.
•
Cisco NX-OS does not support IGRP or connecting IGRP and EIGRP clouds.
•
Autosummarization is not enabled by default.
•
Cisco NX-OS supports only IP.
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Configuring Basic EIGRP
This section contains the following topics:
•
Enabling the EIGRP Feature, page 7-8
•
Creating an EIGRP Instance, page 7-9
•
Restarting an EIGRP Instance, page 7-11
•
Disabling an EIGRP Instance, page 7-12
•
Disabling EIGRP on an Interface, page 7-12
Enabling the EIGRP Feature
You must enable the EIGRP feature before you can configure EIGRP.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Basic EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
feature eigrp
3.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
feature eigrp
Enables the EIGRP feature.
Example:
switch(config)# feature eigrp
Step 3
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no feature eigrp command to disable the EIGRP feature and remove all associated
configuration.
Command
Purpose
no feature eigrp
Disables the EIGRP feature and removes all
associated configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature eigrp
Creating an EIGRP Instance
You can create an EIGRP instance and associate an interface with that instance. You assign a unique
autonomous system number for this EIGRP process (see the “Autonomous Systems” section on
page 1-5). Routes are not advertised or accepted from eternal autonomous systems unless you enable
route redistribution.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the EIGRP feature (see the “Enabling the EIGRP Feature” section on
page 7-8).
EIGRP must be able to obtain a router ID (for example, a configured loopback address) or you must
configure the router ID option.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-9
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Basic EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router eigrp as-number
3.
<configure optional parameters>
4.
interface interface-type slot/port
5.
ip router eigrp as-number
6.
show ip eigrp interfaces
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router eigrp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
eigrp router-id ip-address
Example:
switch(config-router)# eigrp router-id
192.0.2.1
router-id ip-address
Example:
switch(config-router)# router-id
192.0.2.1
Step 4
eigrp log-neighbor-changes
Example:
switch(config-router)# eigrp
log-neighbor-changes
Step 5
eigrp log-neighbor-warnings [seconds]
Example:
switch(config-router)# eigrp
log-neighbor-warnings
Step 6
interface interface-type slot/port
Creates a new EIGRP process with the configured
autonomous system number.
(Optional) Configures the EIGRP router ID. This IP
address identifies this EIGRP instance and must exist
on a configured interface in the system.
(Optional) Configures the EIGRP router ID. This
command is identical to the eigrp router-id command.
(Optional). Generates a system message whenever a
neighbor changes state. This command is enabled by
default.
(Optional) Generates a system message whenever a
neighbor warning occurs. You can configure the time
between warning messages, from 1 to 65535, in
seconds. The default is 10 seconds. This command is
nabled by default.
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# interface
ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Basic EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 7
Command
Purpose
ip router eigrp as-number
Associates this interface with the configured EIGRP
process.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router eigrp 201
Step 8
show ip eigrp interfaces
Displays information about EIGRP interfaces.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip eigrp
interfaces
Step 9
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no router eigrp command to remove the EIGRP process and the associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no router eigrp as-number
Deletes the EIGRP process and all associated
configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no router eigrp 201
Note
You must also remove any EIGRP commands configured in interface mode.
The following example shows how to create an EIGRP process and configure an interface for EIGRP:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip router eigrp 201
switch(config-if)# no shutdown
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
For more information about other EIGRP parameters, see the “Configuring Advanced EIGRP” section
on page 7-12.
Restarting an EIGRP Instance
You can restart an EIGRP instance. This clears all neighbors for the instance.
To restart an EIGRP instance and remove all associated neighbors, use the following command:
Command
Purpose
restart eigrp instance-tag
Restarts the EIGRP instance and removes all
neighbors.
Example:
switch(config)# restart eigrp 201
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-11
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Disabling an EIGRP Instance
To disable an EIGRP instnace, use the following command in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
switch(config-router)# shutdown
Disables this instance of EIGRP
Example:
switch(config-router)# shutdown
Disabling EIGRP on an Interface
To disable EIGRP on an interface, use the following command in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
switch(config-if)# ip eigrp as-numver
shutdown
Disables EIGRP on this interface.
Example:
switch(config-router)# ip eigrp 201
shutdown
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
This section includes the following topics:
•
Configuring Authentication in EIGRP, page 7-12
•
Configuring EIGRP Stub Routing, page 7-14
•
Configuring a Summary Address for EIGRP, page 7-15
•
Redistributing Routes into EIGRP, page 7-15
•
Configuring Load Balancing in EIGRP, page 7-17
•
Configuring Graceful Restart for EIGRP, page 7-18
•
Adjusting the Interval Between Hello Packets and the Hold Time, page 7-19
•
Disabling Split Horizon, page 7-20
•
Tuning EIGRP, page 7-20
•
Configuring Virtualization for EIGRP, page 7-22
Configuring Authentication in EIGRP
You can configure authentication between neighbors for EIGRP. See the “Authentication” section on
page 7-4.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the EIGRP feature (see the “Enabling the EIGRP Feature” section on
page 7-8).
Ensure that all neighbors for an EIGRP process share the same authentication configuration, including
the shared authentication key.
Create the key-chain for this authentication configuration. See the Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration
Guide.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router eigrp as-number
3.
interface interface-type slot/port
4.
ip router eigrp as-number
5.
ip authentication key-chain eigrp as-number key-chain
6.
ip authentication mode eigrp as-number md5
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new EIGRP process with the configured
autonomous system number.
router eigrp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 4
ip router eigrp as-number
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router eigrp 201
Step 5
Associates this interface with the configured EIGRP
process.
Associates a key-chain with this EIGRP process for
this interface.
ip authentication key-chain eigrp
as-number key-chain
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip authentication
key-chain eigrp 201 routeKeys
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-13
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command
Purpose
ip authentication mode eigrp as-number
md5
Configures MD5 message digest authentication mode
for this interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip authentication
mode eigrp 201 md5
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to configure MD5 message digest authentication for EIGRP over
Ethernet interface 1/2:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)# exit
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip router eigrp 201
switch(config-if)# ip authentication key-chain eigrp 201 routeKeys
switch(config-if)# ip authentication mode eigrp 201 md5
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring EIGRP Stub Routing
To configure a router for EIGRP stub routing, use the following command in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
switch(config-router)# eigrp stub
[leak-map map-name | receive-only |
redistributed [direct]]
Configures a remote router as an EIGRP stub router.
Example:
switch(config-router)# eigrp stub
redistributed
The following example shows how to configure a stub router to advertise directly connected and
redistributed routes:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)# eigrp stub direct redistributed
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Use the show ip eigrp neighbor detail command to verify that a router has been configured as a stub
router. The last line of the output shows the stub status of the remote or spoke router. The following
example shows that output from the show ip eigrp neighbor detail command:
Router# show ip eigrp neighbor detail
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 201
H
Address
Interface
0
Hold Uptime
SRTT
(sec)
(ms)
10.1.1.2
Se3/1
11 00:00:59
1
Version 12.1/1.2, Retrans: 2, Retries: 0
RTO
Q Seq Type
Cnt Num
4500 0 7
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Stub Peer Advertising ( CONNECTED SUMMARY ) Routes
Configuring a Summary Address for EIGRP
You can configure a summary aggregate address for a specified interface. If any more specific routes are
in the routing table, EIGRP will advertise the summary address out the interface with a metric equal to
the minimum of all more specific routes. See the “Route Summarization” section on page 7-5.
To configure a summary aggregate address, use the following command in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
switch(config-if)# ip summary-address
eigrp as-number ip-prefix/length [distance
| leak-map map-name]
Configures a summary aggregate address as either
an IP address and network mask, or an IP
prefix/length. You can optionally configure the
administrative distance for this aggregate address.
The default administrative distance is 5 for
aggregate addresses.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip summary-address
eigrp 201 209.0.2.0/8
The following example causes EIGRP to summarize network 209.0.2.0 out Ethernet 1/2 only:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp 201 209.0.2.0 255.255.255.0
Redistributing Routes into EIGRP
You can redistribute routes in EIGRP from other routing protocols.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the EIGRP feature (see the “Enabling the EIGRP Feature” section on
page 7-8).
You must configure the metric (either through the default-metric configuration option or through a route
policy) for routes redistributed from any other protocol.
You must create a route map to control the types of routes that are redistributed into EIGRP. See
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager.”
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router eigrp as-number
3.
redistribute {{bgp | eigrp | isis | ospf | rip} as-number | direct | static} route-map name
4.
default-metric bandwidth delay reliability loading mtu
5.
show ip eigrp policy statistics redistribute
6.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-15
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router eigrp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
redistribute {{bgp | eigrp | isis | ospf |
rip} as-number | direct | static} route-map
name
Creates a new EIGRP process with the
configured autonomous system number.
Injects routes from one routing domain into
EIGRP.
Example:
switch(config-router)# redistribute bgp 100
route-map BGPFilter
Step 4
default-metric bandwidth delay reliability
loading mtu
Example:
switch(config-router)# default-metric 500000
30 200 1 1500
Step 5
show ip eigrp policy statistics redistribute
Example:
switch(config-router)# show ip eigrp policy
statistics redistribute bgp
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
Sets the metrics assigned to routes learned
through route redistribution. The default
values are as follows:
•
bandwidth—100000 Kb/s
•
delay—100 (10 microsecond units)
•
reliability—255
•
loading—1
•
MTU—1500
Displays information about EIGRP policy
statistics.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to redistribute BGP into EIGRP:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
eigrp 201
redistribute bgp 100 route-map BGPFilter
default-metric 500000 30 200 1 1500
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Load Balancing in EIGRP
You can configure load balancing in EIGRP. You can configure the number of Equal Cost Multiple Path
(ECMP) routes using the maximum paths option. See the “Configuring Load Balancing in EIGRP”
section on page 7-17.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the EIGRP feature (see the “Enabling the EIGRP Feature” section on
page 7-8).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router eigrp as-number
3.
maximum-paths num-paths
4.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new EIGRP process with the
configured autonomous system number.
router eigrp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Step 4
Example:
switch(config-router)# maximum-paths 5
Sets the number of equal cost paths EIGRP
will accept in the route table. The range is
from 1 to 16. The default is 16.
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
maximum-paths num-paths
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to configure equal cost load balancing for EIGRP with a maximum
of 6 equal cost path:.
switch# config t
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)# maximum-paths 6
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-17
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Graceful Restart for EIGRP
You can configure graceful restart or nonstop forwarding for EIGRP. See the “Graceful Restart and High
Availability” section on page 7-6.
Note
You must enable NSF and graceful restart for this feature.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the EIGRP feature (see the “Enabling the EIGRP Feature” section on
page 7-8).
An NSF-aware router must be up and completely converged with the network before it can assist an
NSF-capable router in a graceful restart operation.
Neighboring devices participating in the graceful restart must be NSF-aware or NSF-capable.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router eigrp as-number
3.
nsf
4.
eigrp graceful-restart
5.
timers nsf converge seconds
6.
timers nsf route-hold seconds
7.
timers nsf signal seconds
8.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router eigrp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
nsf
Example:
switch(config-router)# nsf
Creates a new EIGRP process with the
configured autonomous system number.
Enables nonstop forwarding. This feature is
enabled by default.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-18
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
eigrp graceful-restart
Enables graceful restart. This feature is
enabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
Step 5
timers nsf converge seconds
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers nsf converge 100
Step 6
timers nsf route-hold seconds
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers nsf route-hold
200
Step 7
Step 8
Sets the time limit for convergence after a
switchover. The range is from 60 to 180
seconds. The default is 120.
Sets the hold time for routes learned from the
graceful restart-aware peer. The range is from
20 to 300 seconds. The default is 240.
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers nsf signal 15
Sets the time limit for signaling a graceful
restart. Range is 10 to 30 seconds. Default is
20.
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
timers nsf signal seconds
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to configure graceful restart using the default timer values:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
eigrp 201
nsf
graceful-restart
copy running-config startup-config
Adjusting the Interval Between Hello Packets and the Hold Time
You can adjust the interval between Hello messages and the hold time.
By default, Hello messages are sent every 5 seconds. The hold time is advertised in Hello messages and
indicates to neighbors the length of time that they should consider the sender valid. The default hold time
is three times the hello interval, or 15 seconds.
To change the interval between hello packets, use the following command in interface configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
switch(config-if)# ip hello-interval
eigrp as-number seconds
Configures the hello interval for an EIGRP routing
process. The range is from 1 to 65535 seconds. The
default is 5.
On very congested and large networks, the default hold time might not be sufficient time for all routers
to receive hello packets from their neighbors. In this case, you might want to increase the hold time.
To change the hold time, use the following command in interface configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-19
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
switch(config-if)# ip hold-time eigrp
autonomous-system-number seconds
Configures the hold time for an EIGRP routing process.
The range is from 1 to 65535.
Use the show ip eigrp interface detail command to verify timer configuration.
Disabling Split Horizon
You can use split horizon to block route information from being advertised by a router out of any
interface from which that information originated. Split horizon usually optimizes communications
among multiple routing devices, particularly when links are broken.
By default, split horizon is enabled on all interfaces.
To disable split horizon, use the following command in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
switch(config-if)# no ip split-horizon eigrp
as-number
Disables split horizon.
Tuning EIGRP
You can configure optional parameters to tune EIGRP for your network.
You can configure the following optional parameters in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
default-information originate [always |
route-map map-name]
Originates or accepts the default route with prefix
0.0.0.0/0. When a route-map is supplied, the
default route is originated only when the route-map
yields a true condition.
Example:
switch(config-router)# default-information
originate always
distance internal external
Example:
switch(config-router)# distance 25 100
metric max-hops hop-count
Example:
switch(config-router)# metric max-hops 70
Configures the administrative distance for this
EIGRP process. Range is 1to 255. The internal
value sets the distance for routes learned from
within the same autonomous system (the default
value is 90). The external value sets the distance for
routes learned from an external autonomous system
(the default value is 170).
Set maximum allowed hops for an advertised route.
Routes over this maximum are advertised as
unreachable. The range is from 1 to 255. The
default is 100.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-20
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Advanced EIGRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
metric weights tos k1 k2 k3 k4 k5
Adjusts the EIGRP metric or K value. EIGRP uses
the following formula to determine the total metric
to the network:
Example:
switch(config-router)# metric weights 0 1
3 0 1 0
metric = [k1*bandwidth + (k2*bandwidth)/(256 –
load) + k3*delay] * [k5/(reliability + k4)]
Default values and ranges are as follows:
timers active-time {time-limit | disabled}
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers active-time
200.
•
TOS—0. The range is from 0 to 8.
•
k1—1. The range is froms 0 to 255.
•
k2—0. The range is from 0 to 255.
•
k3—1. The range is from 0 to 255.
•
k4—0. The range is froms 0 to 255.
•
k5—0. The range is from 0 to 255.
Sets the time the router waits in minutes (after
sending a query) before declaring the route to be
stuck in the active (SIA) state. The range is from 1
to 65535. The default is 3.
You can configure the following optional parameters in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
ip bandwidth eigrp as-number bandwidth
Configures the bandwidth metric for EIGRP on an
interface, The range is from 1 to 10000000 Kb/s.
ip bandwidth-percent eigrp as-number
percent
Configures the percentage of bandwidth that
EIGRP might use on an interface, The default is 50
percent.
no ip delay eigrp as-number delay
Configures the delay metric for EIGRP on an
interface, The range is from 1 to 16777215 (in tens
of microseconds).
ip distribute-list eigrp as-number
{prefix-list name| route-map name} {in |
out}
Configures the route filtering policy for EIGRP on
this interface.
no ip next-hop-self eigrp as-number
Configures EIGRP to use the received next-hop
address rather than the address for this interface.
The default is to use the IP address of this interface
for the next-hop address.
ip offset-list eigrp as-number
{prefix-list name| route-map name} {in |
out} offset
Adds an offset to incoming and outgoing metrics to
routes learned by EIGRP.
ip passive-interface eigrp as-number
Suppresses routing updates on an EIGRP interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-21
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Configuring Virtualization for EIGRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Virtualization for EIGRP
You can configure multiple EIGRP processes in each VDC. You can also create multiple VRFs within
each VDC and use the same or multiple EIGRP processes in each VRF. You assign an interface to a VRF
Note
Configure all other parameters for an interface after you configure the VRF for an interface. Configuring
a VRF for an interface deletes all other configuration for that interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the EIGRP feature (see the “Enabling the EIGRP Feature” section on
page 7-8).
Create the VDCs and VRFs.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
vrf context vrf-name
3.
router eigrp as-number
4.
interface ethernet slot/port
5.
vrf member vrf-id
6.
ip-address ip-prefix/length
7.
ip router eigrp as-number
8.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
vrf context vrf-name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 3
router eigrp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)#
Creates a new VRF and enters VRF configuration
mode.
Creates a new EIGRP process with the configured
autonomous system number.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-22
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Verifying EIGRP Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
interface ethernet slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 5
Adds this interface to a VRF.
vrf member vrf-name
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrf member
RemoteOfficeVRF
Step 6
Adds this interface to the EIGRP process.
ip router eigrp as-number
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router eigrp 201
Step 7
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create a VRF and add an interface to the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context NewVRF
switch(config-vrf)# router eigrp 201
switch(config-router)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip router eigrp 201
switch(config-if)# vrf NewVRF
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Verifying EIGRP Configuration
To verify the EIGRP configuration, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ip eigrp as-number
Displays information about the EIGRP configuration.
show ip eigrp [as-number] interfaces
[type number] [detail]
Displays information about the EIGRP configuration on
an interface.
show ip eigrp as-number neighbors
[type number] [detail]
Displays information about the EIGRP neighbors.
show ip eigrp [as-number] route
[ip-prefix/length] [active]
[all-links] [detail-links] [pending]
[summary] [zero-successors] [vrf
vrf-name]
Displays information about the EIGRP routes.
show ip eigrp [as-number] topology
[ip-prefix/length] [active]
[all-links] [detail-links] [pending]
[summary] [zero-successors] [vrf
vrf-name]
Displays information about the EIGRP topology.
show running-configuration eigrp
Displays the current runing EIGRP configuration.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-23
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Displaying EIGRP Statistics
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Use the show ip eigrp neighbors command to verify the EIGRP neighbor configuration.
Displaying EIGRP Statistics
To display EIGRP statistics, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ip eigrp [as-number] accounting
[vrf vrf-name]
Displays accounting statistics for EIGRP.
show ip eigrp [as-number] policy
statistics redistribute
Displays redistribution statistics for EIGRP.
show ip eigrp [as-number] traffic
[vrf vrf-name]
Displays traffic statistics for EIGRP.
EIGRP Example Configuration
The following example shows how to configure EIGRP:
feature eigrp
interface ethernet 1/2
ip address 209.0.2.55/24
ip router eigrp 201
no shutdown
router eigrp 201
router-id 209.0.2.1
Related Topics
See the Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager” for more information on route maps.
Default Settings
Table 7-1 lists the default settings for IP parameters.
Table 7-1
Default IP Parameters
Parameters
Administrative distance
Bandwidth percent
Default
•
Internal routes—90
•
External routes—170
50 percent
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-24
OL-12912-01
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Table 7-1
Default IP Parameters (continued)
Parameters
Default
Default metric for redistributed routes
•
bandwidth—100000 Kb/s
•
delay—100 (10 microsecond units)
•
reliability—255
•
loading—1
•
MTU—1500
EIGRP feature
Disabled
Hello interval
5 seconds
Hold time
15 seconds
Maximum equal cost paths
16
Metric weights
10100
Next-hop address advertised
IP address of local interface
NSF convergence time
120
NSF route-hold time
240
NSF signal time
20
Redistribution
Disabled
Split horizon
Enabled
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing EIGRP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 7-25
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
EIGRP CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs and VRFs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/1.html
Introduction to EIGRP Tech Note
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies
_q_and_a_item09186a008012dac4.shtml
EIGRP Frequently Asked Questions
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
7-25
Chapter 7
Configuring EIGRP
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
7-26
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
8
Configuring IS-IS
This chapter describes how to configure Integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS).
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information about IS-IS, page 8-1
•
Licensing Requirements for IS-IS, page 8-6
•
Prerequisites for IS-IS, page 8-6
•
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations, page 8-6
•
Configuring IS-IS, page 8-6
•
Verifying IS-IS Configuration, page 8-26
•
Displaying IS-IS Statistics, page 8-27
•
IS-IS Example Configuration, page 8-27
•
Related Topics, page 8-28
•
Default Settings, page 8-28
•
Default Settings, page 8-28
•
Additional References, page 8-28
Information about IS-IS
IS-IS is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) based on Standardization (ISO)/International Engineering
Consortium (IEC) 10589. Cisco NX-OS supports Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and IPv6.IS-IS is a
dynamic link-state routing protocol that can detect changes in the network topology and calculate
loop-free routes to other nodes in the network. Each router maintains a link-state database that describes
the state of the network and sends packets on every configured link to discover neighbors. IS-IS floods
the link-state information across the network to each neighbor. The router also sends advertisements and
updates on the link-state database through all the existing neighbors.
This section includes the following topics:
•
IS-IS Overview, page 8-2
•
IS-IS Authentication, page 8-3
•
Mesh Groups, page 8-4
•
Overload Bit, page 8-4
•
Route Summarization, page 8-4
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-1
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Information about IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Route Redistribution, page 8-5
•
Load Balancing, page 8-5
•
Virtualization Support, page 8-5
•
High Availability and Graceful Restart, page 8-5
•
Multiple IS-IS Instances, page 8-6
IS-IS Overview
IS-IS sends a hello packet out every configured interface to discover IS-IS neighbor routers. The hello
packet contains information, such as the authentication, area, and supported protocols, which the
receiving interface uses to determine compatibility with the originating interface. Compatible interfaces
form adjacencies, which update routing information in the link-state database through link-state update
messages (LSPs). By default, the router sends a periodic LSP refresh every 10 minutes and the LSPs
remain in the link-state database for 20 minutes (the LSP lifetime). If the router does not receive an LSP
refresh before the end of the LSP lifetime, the router deletes the LSP from the database.
The LSP interval must be less than the LSP lifetime or the LSPs time out before they are refreshed.
IS-IS Areas
You can design IS-IS networks as a single area that includes all routers in the network or as multiple
areas that connect into a backbone or Level 2 area. Routers in a nonbackbone area are Level 1 routers
which establish adjacencies within a local area (intra-area routing). Level 2 area routers establish
adjacencies to other Level 2 routers and perform routing between Level 1 areas (inter-area routing). A
router can have both Level 1 and Level 2 areas configured. These Level 1/Level 2 routers act as area
border routers which route information from the local area to the Level 2 backbone area (see Figure 8-1).
Within a Level 1 area, routers know how to reach all other routers in that area. Between areas, routers
know how to reach the area border router to get to the Level 2 area. The Level 2 routers know how to
reach other area border routers and other Level 2 routers. Level 1/Level 2 routers straddle the boundary
between two areas, routing traffic to and from the Level 2 backbone area.
Each IS-IS instance in Cisco NX-OS supports either a single Level 1 or Level 2 area, or one of each. By
default, all IS-IS instances automatically support Level 1 and Level 2 routing.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Information about IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 8-1
IS-IS Network Divided into Areas
L1-2 IS
L1 IS
L1 IS
L2 IS
L1 IS
L1 IS
L1-2 IS
L2 IS
L1 IS
L1-2 IS
185054
L1 link
L2 link
L1-2 link
An autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) advertises external destinations throughout the IS-IS
autonomous system. External routes are the routes redistributed into IS-IS from any other protocol.
NET and System ID
Each IS-IS instance has an associated network entity title (NET). The NET is comprised of the IS-IS
system ID, which uniquely identifies this IS-IS instance in the area and the area ID. For example, if the
NET is 47.0004.004d.0001.0001.0c11.1111.00, then the system ID is 0000.0c11.1111.00 and the area is
ID 47.0004.004d.0001.
Designated Intermediate System
IS-IS uses a designated intermediate system (DIS) in broadcast networks to prevent each router from
forming unnecessary links with every other router on the broadcast network. IS-IS routers send LSPs to
the DIS, which manages all the link-state information for the broadcast network. You can configure the
IS-IS priority which IS-IS uses to select the DIS in an area.
Note
No DIS is required on a point-to-point network.
IS-IS Authentication
You can configure authentication to control adjacencies and the exchange of LSPs. Routers that want to
become neighbors must exchange the same password for their configured level of authentication. IS-IS
blocks a router that does not have the correct password. You can configure IS-IS authentication globally
or for an individual interface for Level 1, Level 2, or both Level 1/Level 2 routing.
IS-IS supports the following authentication methods:
•
Clear text—All packets exchanged carry a cleartext 128-bit password.
•
MD5 digest—All packets exchanged carry a message digest that is based on a 128-bit key.
To provide protection against passive attacks, IS-IS never sends the MD5 secret key as cleartext through
the network In addition, IS-IS includes a sequence number in each packet to protect against replay
attacks.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-3
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Information about IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
You can use also keychains for hello and LSP authentication. See Cisco Cisco NX-OS Security
Configuration Guide for information on keychain management.
Mesh Groups
A mesh group is a set of interfaces in which all routers reachable over the interfaces have at least one
link to every other router. Many links can fail without isolating one or more routers from the network.
In normal flooding, an interface receives a new LSP and floods the LSP out over all other interfaces on
the router. With mesh groups, when an interface that is part of a mesh group receives a new LSP, the
interface does not flood the new LSP over the other interfaces that are part of that mesh group.
Note
You may want to limit LSPs in certain mesh network topologies to improve network scalability. Limiting
LSP floods may also reduce the reliability of the network (in case of failures). For this reason, we
recommend that you use mesh groups only if specifically required, and then only after careful network
design.
You can also configure mesh groups in block mode for parallel links between routers. In this mode, all
LSPs are blocked on that interface in a mesh group after the routers initially exchange their link-state
information.
Overload Bit
IS-IS uses the overload bit to tell other routers not to use the local router to forward traffic but to continue
routing traffic destined for that local router.
You may want to use the overload bit in these situations:
•
The router is in a critical condition.
•
Graceful introduction and removal of the router to/from the network.
•
Other (administrative or traffic engineering) reasons. For example, to wait for BGP convergence.
Route Summarization
You can configure a summary aggregate address. Route summarization simplifies route tables by
replacing a number of more-specific addresses with an address that represents all the specific addresses.
For example, you can replace 10.1.1.0/24, 10.1.2.0/24, and 10.1.3.0/24 with one summary address,
10.1.0.0/16.
If more specific routes are in the routing table, IS-IS advertises the summary address with a metric equal
to the minimum metric of the more specific routes.
Note
Cisco NX-OS does not support automatic route summarization.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Information about IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Route Redistribution
You can use IS-IS to redistribute static routes, routes learned by other IS-IS autonomous systems, or
routes from other protocols. You configure redistribution by useing a route policy to control which routes
are passed into IS-IS. A route policy allows you to filter routes based on attributes such as the
destination, origination protocol, route type, route tag, and so on. For more information, see Chapter 14,
“Configuring Route Policy Manager.”
Whenever you redistribute routes into an IS-IS routing domain, Cisco NX-OS does not, by default,
redistribute the default route into the IS-IS routing domain. You can generate a default route into IS-IS,
which can be controlled by a route policy.
You also configure the default metric that is used for all imported routes into IS-IS.
Load Balancing
You can use load balancing to allow a router to distribute traffic over all the router network ports that are
the same distance from the destination address. Load balancing increases the utilization of network
segments and increases effective network bandwidth.
Cisco NX-OS supports the Equal Cost Multiple Paths (ECMP) feature with up to 16 equal-cost paths in
the IS-IS route table and the unicast RIB. You can configure IS-IS to load balance traffic across some or
all of those paths.
Virtualization Support
Cisco NX-OS supports multiple instances of the IS-IS protocol that runs on the same system. IS-IS
supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device contexts
(VDCs). You can configure up to four IS-IS instances in a VDC.
By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you specifically
configure another VDC and VRF. See the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide and
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
High Availability and Graceful Restart
If a Cisco NX-OS system experiences a cold reboot, the network does not forward traffic to the system
and removes the system from the network topology. In this scenario, IS-IS experiences a stateless restart,
and Cisco NX-OS removes all neighbors. Cisco NX-OS applies the startup configuration, and IS-IS
rediscovers the neighbors and shares the full IS-IS routing information again.
Cisco NX-OS supports high-availability. If a Cisco NX-OS system experiences a cold reboot, the
network stops forwarding traffic to the system and removes the system from the network topology. In
this scenario, IS-IS experiences a stateless restart, and removes all neighbors on the local system. Cisco
NX-OS applies the startup configuration and IS-IS rediscovers the neighbors and and shares the full
IS-IS routing information again..
A platform with two supervisors that run Cisco NX-OS can experience a stateful supervisor switchover.
Before the switchover happens, IS-IS initiates a graceful restart by announcing that IS-IS will be
unavailable for some time. During a switchover, the network continues to forward traffic and keeps the
system in the network topology.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-5
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Licensing Requirements for IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
After a switchover, Cisco NX-OS applies the running configuration, and IS-IS informs the neighbors that
it is operational again.
IS-IS automatically restarts if the process experiences problems. After the restart, IS-IS initiates a
graceful restart so that the platform is not taken out of the network topology. If you manually restart
IS-IS, it performs a graceful restart, which is similar to a stateful switchover. The running configuration
is applied in both cases.
Note
You must enable graceful restart to support in-service software upgrades (ISSU) for IS-IS. If you disable
graceful restart, Cisco NX-OS issues a warning that ISSU cannot be supported with this configuration.
Multiple IS-IS Instances
Cisco NX-OS supports a maximum of four instances of the IS-IS protocol that run on the same node.
You cannot configure multiple instances over the same interface. Every instance uses the same system
router ID.
Licensing Requirements for IS-IS
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
IS-IS requires an Enterprise Services license. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing scheme
and how to obtain and apply licenses, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for IS-IS
IS-IS has the following prerequisites:
•
You must enable the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on page 8-8).
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
IS-IS has the following configuration guidelines and limitations:
•
You can configure a maximum of four IS-IS instances per VDC.
Configuring IS-IS
To confiure IS-IS, follow these steps:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 1
Enable the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on page 8-8).
Step 2
Create an IS-IS instance (see the “Creating an IS-IS Instance” section on page 8-9).
Step 3
Add an interface to the IS-IS instance (see the “Configuring IS-IS on an Interface” section on page 8-11).
Step 4
Configure optional features, such as authentication, mesh groups, and dynamic host exchange.
This section contains the following topics:
Note
•
IS-IS Configuration Modes, page 8-7
•
Enabling the IS-IS Feature, page 8-8
•
Creating an IS-IS Instance, page 8-9
•
Configuring IS-IS on an Interface, page 8-11
•
Configuring IS-IS Authentication in an Area, page 8-13
•
Configuring IS-IS Authentication on an Interface, page 8-14
•
Configuring a Mesh Group, page 8-15
•
Configuring a Designated Intermediate System, page 8-16
•
Configuring Dynamic Host Exchange, page 8-16
•
Setting the Overload Bit, page 8-16
•
Configuring a Summary Address, page 8-17
•
Configuring Redistribution, page 8-18
•
Configuring Virtualization, page 8-21
•
Tuning IS-IS, page 8-24
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
IS-IS Configuration Modes
The following sections show how to enter each of the configuration modes. From a mode, you can enter
the ? command to display the commands available in that mode.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Router Configuration Mode, page 8-7
•
Router Address Family Configuration Mode, page 8-8
Router Configuration Mode
The following example shows how to enter router configuration mode:
switch#: conf t
switch(config)# router isis isp
switch(config-router)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-7
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Router Address Family Configuration Mode
The following example shows how to enter router address family configuration mode:
switch(config)# router isis isp
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv6 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Enabling the IS-IS Feature
You must enable the IS-IS feature before you can configure IS-IS.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
feature isis
3.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
feature isis
Enables the IS-IS feature.
Example:
switch(config)# feature isis
Step 3
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no feature isis command to disable the IS-IS feature and remove all associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no feature isis
Disables the IS-IS feature and removes all
associated configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature isis
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Creating an IS-IS Instance
You can create an IS-IS instance and configure the area level for that instance.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on
page 8-8).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router is-is instance-tag
3.
net network-entity-title
4.
is-type {level-1 | level-2 | level-1-2}
5.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] process
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router isis instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Creates a new IS-IS instance with the configured
instance tag.
Configures the NET for this IS-IS instance.
net network-entity-title
Example:
switch(config-router)# net
47.0004.004d.0001.0001.0c11.1111.00
Step 4
is-type {level-1 | level-2 | level-1-2}
Example:
switch(config-router)# is-type level-2
Step 5
show isis [vrf vrf-name] process
Example:
switch(config)# show isis process
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Configures the area level for this IS-IS
instance. The default is level-1-2.
(Optional) Displays a summary of IS-IS information
for all IS-IS instances.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-9
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Use the no router isis command to remove the IS-IS instance and the associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no router isis instance-tag
Deletes the IS-IS instance and all associated
configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no router isis Enterprise
Note
You must also remove any IS-IS commands configured in interface mode to completely remove all
configuration for the IS-IS instance..
You can configure the following optional parameters for IS-IS:
Command
Purpose
distance value
Sets the administrative distance for IS-IS. The
range is from 1 to 255. The default is 115. See the
“Administrative Distance” section on page 1-6.
Example:
switch(config-router)# distance 30
Sends a system message whenever an IS-IS
neighbor changes state.
log-adjacency-changes
Example:
switch(config-router)#
log-adjacency-changes
lsp-mtu size
Example:
switch(config-router)# lsp-mtu 600
Sets the MTU for LSPs in this IS-IS instance. The
range is from 128 to 4352 bytes. The default is
1492.
maximum-paths number
Example:
switch(config-router)# maximum-paths 6
Configures the maximum number of equal-cost
paths that IS-IS maintains in the route table. The
range is from 1 to 16. The default is 4.
reference-bandwidth bandwidth-value {Mbps
| Gbps}
Sets the default reference bandwidth used for
calculating the IS-IS cost metric. The range is from
1 to 4000 Gbps. The default is 40 Gbps.
Example:
switch(config-router)# reference-bandwidth
100 Gbps
The following example shows how to create an IS-IS instance in a level 2 area:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
isis Enterprise
net 47.0004.004d.0001.0001.0c11.1111.00
is-type level 2
copy running-config startup-config
To clear neighbor statistics and remove adjacencies, use the following command in router configuration
mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
clear isis [instance-tag] adjacency [* |
system-id | interface]
Example:
switch(config-if)# clear isis adjacency *
Clears neighbor statistics and removed adjacencies
for this IS-IS instance.
Restarting an IS-IS Instance
You can restart an IS-IS instance. This clears all neighbors for the instance.
To restart an IS-IS instance and remove all associated neighbors, use the following command:
Command
Purpose
restart isis instance-tag
Restarts the IS-IS instance and removes all
neighbors.
Example:
switch(config)# restart isis Enterprise
Configuring IS-IS on an Interface
You can add an interface to an IS-IS instance.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on
page 8-8).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
ip router isis instance-tag
or
ipv6 router isis instance-tag
4.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag] interface [interface-type slot/port]
5.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-11
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ip router isis instance-tag
Associates this IPv4 interface with an IS-IS instance.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router isis
Enterprise
ipv6 router isis instance-tag
Associates this IPv6 interface with an IS-IS instance.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 router isis
Enterprise
Step 4
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag]
interface [interface-type slot/port]
(Optional) Displays IS-IS information for an interface.
Example:
switch(config)# show isis Enterprise
ethernet 1/2
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
You can configure the following optional parameters for IS-IS in interface mode:
Command
Purpose
isis circuit-type {level-1 | level-2 |
level-1-2}
Sets the type of adjacency that this interface
participates in. Use this command only for routers
that participate in both Level 1 and Level 2 areas.
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis circuit-type
level-2
isis metric value {level-1 | level-2}
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis metric 30
isis passive {level-1 | level-2 |
level-1-2}
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis passive level-2
Sets the IS-IS metric for this interface. The range is
from 1 to 16777214. The default is 10.
Prevents the interface from forming adjacencies but
still advertises the prefix associated with the
interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to add Ethernet 1/2 interface to an IS-IS instance:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip router isis Enterprise
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring IS-IS Authentication in an Area
You can configure IS-IS to authenticate LSPs in an area.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on
page 8-8).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router isis instance-tag
3.
authentication-type {cleartext | md5} {level-1 | level-2}
4.
authentication-key keychain key {level-1 | level-2}
5.
authentication-check {level-1 | level-2}
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router isis instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
authentication-type {cleartext | md5}
{level-1 | level-2}
Example:
switch(config-router)#
authentication-type cleartext level-2
Creates a new IS-IS instance with the configured
instance tag.
Sets the authentication method used for a Level 1 or
Level 2 area as cleartext or as an MD5 authentication
digest.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-13
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
authentication-key keychain key {level-1
| level-2}
Configures the authentication key used for an IS-IS
area-level authentication.
Example:
switch(config-router)#
authentication-key ISISKey level-2
Step 5
authentication-check {level-1 | level-2}
Example:
switch(config-router)#
authentication-check level-2
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Enables checking the authentication
parameters in a received packet.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to configure cleartext authentication on an IS-IS instance:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
switch(config-router)#
isis Enterprise
authentication-type cleartext level-2
authentication-key keychain ISISKey level-2
copy running-config startup-config
Configuring IS-IS Authentication on an Interface
You can configure IS-IS to authenticate Hello packets on an interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on
page 8-8).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
isis authentication-type {cleartext | md5} [level-1 | level-2]
4.
isis authentication-key keychain key [level-1 | level-2]
5.
isis authentication-check [level-1 | level-2]
6.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
isis authentication-type {cleartext |
md5} [level-1 | level-2]
Sets the authentication type for IS-IS on this interface
as cleartext or as an MD5 authentication digest.
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis
authentication-type cleartext level-2
Step 4
isis authentication-key keychain key
[level-1 | level-2]
Configures the authentication key used for IS-IS on
this interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis
authentication-key ISISKey level-2
Step 5
isis authentication-check {level-1 |
level-2}
Optional) Enables checking the authentication
parameters in a received packet.
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis
authentication-check
Step 6
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to configure cleartext authentication on an IS-IS instance:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# isis authentication-type cleartext level-2
switch(config-if)# isis authentication-key keychain ISISKey
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring a Mesh Group
You can add an interface to a mesh group to limit the amount of LSP flooding for interfaces in that mesh
group. You can optionally block all LSP flooding on an interface in a mesh group.
To add an interface to a mesh group, use the following command in interface configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-15
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
isis mesh-group {blocked | mesh-id}
Adds this interface to a mesh group. The range is
from 1 to 4294967295.
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis mesh-group 1
Configuring a Designated Intermediate System
You can configure a router to become the designated intermediate system (DIS) for a multiaccess
network by setting the interface priority.
To configure the DIS, use the following command in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
isis priority number
Sets the priority for DIS selection. Range is from 0
to 127. The default is 64.
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis priority 100
Configuring Dynamic Host Exchange
You can configure IS-IS to map between the system ID and the hostname for a router using dynamic host
exchange.
To configure dynamic host exchange, use the following command in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
hostname dynamic
Enables dynamic host exchange.
Example:
switch(config-router)# hostname dynamic
Setting the Overload Bit
You can configure the router to signal other routers not to use this router as an intermediate hop in their
shortest path first (SPF) calculations. You can optionally configure the overload bit temporarily on
startup, until BGP converges.
In addition to setting the overload bit, you might also want to suppress certain types of IP prefix
advertisements from LSPs for Level 1 or Level 2 traffic.
To set the overload bit, use the following command in router configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
set-overload-bit {always | on-startup
{seconds | wait-for bgp as-number}}
[suppress [interlevel | external]]
Sets the overload bit for IS-IS. The seconds range
is from 5 to 86400.
Example:
switch(config-router)# set-overload-bit
on-startup 30
Configuring a Summary Address
You can create aggregate addresses that are represented in the routing table by a summary address. One
summary address can include multiple groups of addresses for a given level. Cisco NX-OS advertises
the smallest metric of all the more-specific routes.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on
page 8-8).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router isis instance-tag
3.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast | multicast}
4.
summary-address {ip-prefix/mask-len | ipv6-prefix/mask-len} {level-1 | level-2 | level-1-2}
5.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] ip summary-address ip-prefix [longer-prefixes]
6.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] ipv6 summary-address ipv6-prefix [longer-prefixes]
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router isis instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Creates a new IS-IS instance with the configured
instance tag.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-17
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 3
Command
Purpose
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast |
multicast}
Enters address family configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 4
summary-address {ip-prefix/mask-len |
ipv6-prefix/mask-len} {level-1 | level-2
| level-1-2}
Configures a summary address for an ISIS area for
IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)#
summary-address 192.0.2.0/24 level-2
Step 5
show isis [vrf vrf-name] ip
summary-address ip-prefix
[longer-prefixes]]
(Optional) Displays IS-IS IPv4 summary address
information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show isis ip
summary-address
Step 6
show isis [vrf vrf-name] ipv6
summary-address ipv6-prefix
[longer-prefixes]]
(Optional) Displays IS-IS IPv6 summary address
information.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show isis ipv6
summary-address
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config--if)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to configure an IPv4 unicast summary address for IS-IS:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)# summary-address 192.0.2.0/24 level-2
switch(config-router-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Redistribution
You can configure IS-IS to accept routing information from another routing protocol and redistribute that
information through the IS-IS network. You can optionally assign a default route for redistributed routes.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on
page 8-8).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-18
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router isis instance-tag
3.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast | multicast}
4.
redistribute {bgp as | direct | eigrp as | isis id | ospf id | ospfv3 id | rip id | static } route-map
map-name
5.
default-information originate [always] [route-map map-name]
6.
distribute {level-1 | level-2} into {level-1 | level-2} {route-map route-map | all}
7.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6} route {ip-prefix | ip6-prefix}[detail | longer-prefixes
[summary | detail]]
8.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router isis instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast |
multicast}
Creates a new IS-IS instance with the configured
instance tag.
Enters address family configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 4
redistribute {bgp as | direct | eigrp as
| isis id | ospf id | ospfv3 id | rip id
| static | direct} route-map map-name
Redistributes routes from other protocols into IS-IS.
See the “Configuring Route Maps” section on
page 14-9 for more information about route maps.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# redistribute
eigrp 201 route-map ISISmap
Step 5
default-information originate [always]
[route-map map-name]
(Optional) Generates a default route into IS-IS.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)#
default-information originate always
Step 6
distribute {level-1 | level-2} into
{level-1 | level-2} {route-map route-map
| all}
(Optional) Redistributes routes from one IS-IS level to
the other IS-IS level.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# distribute
level-1 into level-2 all
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-19
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 7
Command
Purpose
show isis [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
route {ip-prefix ip6-prefix}[detail |
longer-prefixes [summary | detail]]
(Optional) Shows the routes IS-IS.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# show isis ip
route
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to redistribute EIGRP into IS-IS:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)# redistribute eigrp 201 route-map ISISmap
switch(config-router-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring a Graceful Restart
You can configure a graceful restart for IS-IS.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on
page 8-8).
Create the VDCs and VRFs.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router isis instance-tag
3.
graceful-restart
4.
graceful-restart t3 manual time
5.
show running-config isis
6.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-20
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new IS-IS process with the configured name.
router isis instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
graceful-restart
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
Step 4
graceful-restart t3 manual time
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
t3 manual 300
Step 5
show running-config isis
Enables a graceful restart and the graceful restart
helper functionality. Enabled by default.
Configures the graceful restart T3 timer. The range
isfrom 30 to 65535 seconds. The default is 60.
(Optional) Displays the IS-IS configuration.
Example:
switch(config-router)# show
running-config isis
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to enable a graceful restart:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Virtualization
You can configure multiple IS-IS instances in each VDC. You can also create multiple VRFs within each
VDC and use the same or multiple IS-IS instances in each VRF. You assign an IS-IS interface to a VRF.
You must configure a NET for the configured VRF.
Note
Configure all other parameters for an interface after you configure the VRF for an interface. Configuring
a VRF for an interface deletes all the configuration for that interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-21
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the IS-IS feature (see the “Enabling the IS-IS Feature” section on
page 8-8).
Create the VDCs.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
vrf context vrf_name
3.
exit
4.
router isis instance-tag
5.
vrf vrf_name
6.
net network-entity-title
7.
configure optional parameters
8.
interface type slot/port
9.
vrf member vrf-name
10. ip address ip-prefix/length
11. ip router isis instance-tag
or
ipv6 router isis instance-tag
12. show isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag] interface [interface-type slot/port]
13. copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
vrf context vrf-name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 3
router isis instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Creates a new VRF and enters VRF configuration
mode.
Creates a new IS-IS instance with the configured
instance tag.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-22
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
vrf vrf-name
(Optional) Enters VRF configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# vrf
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)#
Step 5
Configures the NET for this IS-IS instance.
net network-entity-title
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf)# net
47.0004.004d.0001.0001.0c11.1111.00
Step 6
Exits router VRF configuration mode.
exit
Example:
switch(config-router)# exit
switch(config-router)#
Step 7
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast |
multicast}
(Optional) Enters address family configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 8
redistribute {bgp as | direct | eigrp as
| isis id | ospf id | ospfv3 id | rip id
| static | direct} route-map map-name
(Optional) Redistributes routes from other protocols
into IS-IS. See the “Configuring Route Maps” section
on page 14-9 for more information about route maps.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# redistribute
eigrp 201 route-map ISISmap
Step 9
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface ethernet slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 10
vrf member vrf-name
Adds this interface to a VRF.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrf member
RemoteOfficeVRF
Step 11
ip address ip-prefix/length
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip address
209.0.2.1/16
Step 12
ip router isis instance-tag
Configures an IP address for this interface. You must
do this step after you assign this interface to a VRF.
Associates this IPv4 interface with an IS-IS instance.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router isis
Enterprise
ipv6 router isis instance-tag
Associates this IPv6 interface with an IS-IS instance.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 router isis
Enterprise
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-23
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 13
Command
Purpose
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag]
interface [interface-type slot/port]
(Optional) Displays IS-IS information for an interface.
in a VRF.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show isis Enterprise
ethernet 1/2
Step 14
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create a VRF and add an interface to the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context NewVRF
switch(config-vrf)# exit
switch(config)# router isis Enterprise
switch(config-router)# vrf NewVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)# net 47.0004.004d.0001.0001.0c11.1111.00
switch(config-router-vrf)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# vrf membmer NewVRF
switch(config-if)# ip address 209.0.2.1/16
switch(config-if)# ip router isis Enterprise
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Tuning IS-IS
You can tune IS-IS to match your network requirements.
You can use the following optional commands in router configuration mode to tune IS-IS:
Command
Purpose
lsp-gen-interval [level-1 | level-2]
lsp-max-wait [lsp-initial-wait
lsp-second-wait]
Configures the IS-IS throttle for LSP generation.
The optional parameters are as follows:
•
lsp-max-wait—The maximum wait between
the trigger and LSP generation. The range is
from 500 to 65535 milliseconds.
•
lsp-initial-wait—The initial wait between the
trigger and LSP generation. The range is from
50 to 65535 milliseconds.
•
lsp-second-wait—The second wait used for
LSP throttle during backoff. The range is from
50 to 65535 milliseconds.
Example:
switch(config-router)# lsp-gen-interval
level-1 500 500 500
max-lsp-lifetime lifetime
Example:
switch(config-router)# max-lsp-lifetime
500
Sets the maximum LSP lifetime in seconds. The
range is from 1 to 65535. The default is 1200.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-24
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Configuring IS-IS
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
spf-interval [level-1 | level-2]
spf-max-wait [spf-initial-wait
spf-second-wait]
Configures the interval between LSA arrivals. The
optional parameters are as follows:
•
lsp-max-wait—The maximum wait between
the trigger and SPF computation. The range is
from 500 to 65535 milliseconds.
•
lsp-initial-wait—The initial wait between the
trigger and SPF computation. The range is
from 50 to 65535 milliseconds.
•
lsp-second-wait—The second wait used for
SPF computation during backoff. The range is
from 50 to 65535 milliseconds.
Example:
switch(config-router)# spf-interval
level-2 500 500 500
Shuts down this IS-IS instance without removing
the configuration.
shutdown
Example:
switch(config-router)# shutdown
wide-metric-only
Example:
switch(config-router)# wide-metric-only
Configures the IS-IS instance to advertise a wide
metric.
You can use the following optional command in router address configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
adjacency-check
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# adjacency-check
Performs and ajacency check to verify that an IS-IS
instance forms an adjacency only with a remote
IS-IS entity that supports the same address family.
Enabled by default.
You can use the following optional commands in interface configuration mode to tune IS-IS:
Command
Purpose
isis hello-interval seconds [level-1 |
level-2]
Sets the hello interval in seconds for IS-IS. The
range is from 1 to 65535. The default is 10.
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis hello-interval 20
isis hello-multiplier num [level-1 |
level-2]
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis hello-multiplier
20
Specifies the number of IS-IS hello packets that a
neighbor must miss before the router tears down an
adjacency. The range is from 3 to 1000. The default
is 3.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-25
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Verifying IS-IS Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
isis hello-padding
Pads the Hello packet to the full MTU. The default
is enabled.
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis hello-padding
isis lsp-interval milliseconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# isis lsp-interval 20
Sets the interval in milliseconds between LSPs sent
on this interface during flooding. The range is from
10 to 65535. The default is 33.
Verifying IS-IS Configuration
To verify the IS-IS configuration , use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show isis [vrf vrf-name] adjacency
[interface] [detail | summary]
Displays the IS-IS adjacencies. Use the clear isis
adjacency command to clear these statistics.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] database [level-1
| level-2] [detail | summary] [LSP ID] {[ip
prefix ip-prefix] | [ipv6 prefix
ipv6-prefix] | [router-id router-id] |
[adjacency node-id]}
Displays the IS-IS LSP database.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] hostname
Displays the dynamic host exchange information.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag]
interface [interface]
Displays the IS-IS interface information.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] mesh-group
Displays the mesh group information.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] process
Displays the IS-IS information.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [ipv6] route
[ip-prefix | ipv6-prefix] [detail |
longer-prefixes [summary | detail]]
Displays the IS-IS route table.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] spf-log [detail]
Displays the IS-IS SPF calculation statistics.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [ipv6]
summary-address [ip-prefix | ipv6-prefix
[longer-prefixes]]
Displays IS-IS the summary address information.
show running-configuration isis
Displays the current running IS-IS configuration.
For detailed information about the fields in the output from these commands, see the Cisco NX-OS
Command Reference.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-26
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Displaying IS-IS Statistics
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Displaying IS-IS Statistics
To display IS-IS statistics, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag]
adjacency [interface] [system-ID]
Displays the IS-IS adjacency statistics.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag]
statistics [interface]
Displays the IS-IS interface statistics.
show isis [vrf vrf-name] [ip | ipv4]
route-map statistics redistribute {bgp id |
direct | eigrp id | isis id | ospf id | rip
id | static}
Displays the IS-IS redistribution statistics
show isis [vrf vrf-name] route-map
statistics distribute {level-1 | level-2}
into {level-1 | level-2}}
Displays IS-IS distribution statistics for routes
distributed between levels.
To clear IS-IS configuration statistics, perform one of the following tasks:
Command
Purpose
clear isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag]
adjacency [interface] [system-ID]
Clears the IS-IS adjacency statistics.
clear isis [vrf vrf-name] [instance-tag]
statistics [interface]
Clears the IS-IS interface statistics.
clear isis [vrf vrf-name] [ip | ipv4]
route-map statistics redistribute {bgp id |
direct | eigrp id | isis id | ospf id | rip
id | static}
Clears the IS-IS redistribution statistics
clear isis [vrf vrf-name] route-map
statistics distribute {level-1 | level-2}
into {level-1 | level-2}}
Clears IS-IS distribution statistics for routes
distributed between levels.
IS-IS Example Configuration
[Make the configuration example consistent with example commands in the Detailed Steps table.]
The following example shows how to configure IS-IS:
router isis Enterprise
is-type level-1
net 49.0001.0000.0000.0003.00
graceful-restart
interface Loopback0
passive
address-family ipv4 unicast
interface POS0/3/0/1
hello-password text encrypted 05080F1C2243
address-family ipv4 unicast
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-27
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Related Topics
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Topics
See the Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager” for more information on route maps.
Default Settings
Table 8-1 lists the default settings for IS-IS parameters.
Table 8-1
Default IS-IS Parameters
Parameters
Default
Administrative distance
115
Area level
level-1-2
DIS priority
64
Graceful restart
enabled
Hello multiplier
3
Hello padding
enabled
Hello time
10 seconds
IS-IS feature
disabled
LSP interval
33
LSP MTU
1492
Maximum LSP lifetime
1200 seconds
Maximum paths
4
Metric
10
Reference bandwidth
40 Gbps
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing IS-IS, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 8-29
•
Standards, page 8-29
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-28
OL-12912-01
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
IS-IS CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs and VRFs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
8-29
Chapter 8
Configuring IS-IS
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
8-30
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
9
Configuring Basic BGP
This chapter describes how to configure Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) on a Cisco NX-OS device.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About Basic BGP, page 9-1
•
Licensing Requirements for Basic BGP, page 9-6
•
Prerequisites for BGP, page 9-6
•
Guidelines and Limitations for BGP, page 9-7
•
CLI Configuration Modes, page 9-7
•
Configuring Basic BGP, page 9-9
•
Verifying Basic BGP Configuration, page 9-14
•
Displaying BGP Statistics, page 9-15
•
Basic BGP Example Configuration, page 9-15
•
Related Topics, page 9-16
•
Where to Go Next, page 9-16
•
Default Settings, page 9-16
•
Additional References, page 9-16
Information About Basic BGP
Cisco NX-OS supports BGP version 4, which includes multiprotocol extensions that allow BGP to carry
routing information for IP multicast routes and multiple Layer 3 protocol address families. BGP uses
TCP as a reliable transport protocol to create TCP sessions with other BGP-enabled devices.
BGP uses a path-vector routing algorithm to exchange routing information between BGP-enabled
networking devices or BGP speakers. Based on this information, each BGP speaker determines a path
to reach a particular destination while detecting and avoiding paths with routing loops. The routing
information includes the actual route prefix for a destination, the path of autonomous systems to the
destination, and additional path attributes.
BGP selects a single path, by default, as the best path to a destination host or network. Each path carries
well-known mandatory, well-known discretionary, and optional transitive attributes that are used in BGP
best-path analysis. You can influence BGP path selection by altering some of these attributes, by
configuring BGP policies. See the “Route Policies and Resetting BGP Sessions” section on page 10-3
for more information.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-1
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Information About Basic BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BGP also supports load balancing or equal-cost multipath (ECMP). See the “Load Sharing and
Multipath” section on page 10-6 for more information.
To deploy and configure basic BGP in your network, you should understand the following concepts:
•
BGP Autonomous Systems, page 9-2
•
Administrative Distance, page 9-2
•
BGP Peers, page 9-2
•
BGP Router Identifier, page 9-3
•
BGP Path Selection, page 9-3
•
BGP and the Unicast RIB, page 9-6
•
BGP Virtualization, page 9-6
BGP Autonomous Systems
An autonomous system (AS) is a network controlled by a single technical administration entity. See the
“Autonomous Systems” section on page 1-5. An autonomous system forms a routing domain with one
or more interior gateway protocols (IGPs) and a consistent set of routing policies. BGP supports 16-bit
and 32-bit autonomous system numbers.
Separate BGP autonomous systems dynamically exchange routing information through external BGP
(eBGP) peering sessions. BGP speakers within the same autonomous system can exchange routing
information through internal BGP (iBGP) peering sessions.
Administrative Distance
An administrative distance is a rating of the trustworthiness of a routing information source. See the
“Administrative Distance” section on page 1-6.
By default, BGP uses the administrative distances shown in Table 9-1.
Table 9-1
Note
BGP Default Administrative Distances
Distance
Default Value
Function
External
20
Applied to routes learned from eBGP.
Internal
200
Applied to routes learned from iBGP.
Local
200
Applied to routes originated by the router.
Administrative distance does not influence the BGP path selection algorithm, but it does influence
whether BGP-learned routes are installed in the IP routing table.
BGP Peers
A BGP speaker does not discover another BGP speaker automatically. You must configure the
relationships between BGP speakers. A BGP peer is a BGP speaker that has an active TCP connection
to another BGP speaker.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Information About Basic BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BGP uses TCP port 179 to create a TCP session with a peer. When a TCP connection is established
between peers, each BGP peer initially exchanges all of its routes—the complete BGP routing
table—with the other peer. After this initial exchange, the BGP peers send only incremental updates
when a topology change occurs in the network or when a routing policy change occurs. In the periods of
inactivity between these updates, peers exchange special messages called keepalives. The hold time is
the maximum time limit that can elapse between receiving consecutive BGP update or keepalive
messages.
BGP Router Identifier
To establish BGP sessions between peers, BGP must have a router ID. The router ID is sent to BGP peers
in the OPEN message when a BGP session is established. The BGP router ID is a 32-bit value that is
often represented by an IPv4 address. You can configure the router ID. By default, Cisco NX-OS sets
the router ID to the IPv4 address of a loopback interface on the router. If no loopback interface is
configured on the router, then the software chooses the highest IPv4 address configured to a physical
interface on the router to represent the BGP router ID. The BGP router ID must be unique to the BGP
peers in a network.
If BGP does not have a router ID, it cannot establish any peering sessions with BGP peers.
BGP Path Selection
BGP might receive advertisements for the same route from multiple sources. BGP selects only one path
as the best path. When the path is selected, BGP puts the selected path in the IP routing table and
propagates the path to its peers.
The best-path algorithm runs each time that a path is added or withdrawn for a given network. The
best-path algorithm also runs if you change the BGP configuration. BGP selects the best path from the
set of valid paths available for a given network.
Cisco NX-OS implements the BGP best-path algorithm in three parts:
Note
•
Part 1—Compares two paths to determine which is better (see “Comparing Pairs of Paths” section
on page 9-4).
•
Part 2—Iterates over all paths and determines in which order to compare the paths to select the
overall best path (see “Order of Comparisons” section on page 9-5).
•
Part 3—Determines whether the old and new best paths differ enough that the new best path should
be used (see “Best Path Change Suppression” section on page 9-5).
The order of comparison determined in Part 2 is important. Consider the case where you have three
paths, A, B, and C. When Cisco NX-OS compares A and B, it chooses A. When Cisco NX-OS compares
B and C, it chooses B. But when Cisco NX-OS compares A and C, it might not choose A. This is because
some BGP metrics apply only among paths from the same neighboring autonomous system and not
among all paths.
The path selection uses the the BGP AS-path attribute. The AS-path attribute includes the list of
autonomous system numbers (AS numbers) traversed in the advertised path. If you subdivide your BGP
autonomous system to be a collection or confederation of autonomous systems, the AS-path contains
confederation segments that list these locally defined autonomous systems.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-3
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Information About Basic BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Comparing Pairs of Paths
The following describes the basic steps that Cisco NX-OS uses to compare two paths and determine the
better path:
1.
Choose a valid path for comparison. (For example, a path that has an unreachable next-hop is not
valid.)
2.
Choose the path with the highest weight.
3.
Choose the path with the highest local preference.
4.
If one of the paths is locally originated, choose that path.
5.
Choose the path with the shorter AS-path.
Note
When calculating the length of the AS-path, Cisco NX-OS ignores confederation segments, and
counts AS sets as 1. See the “AS Confederations” section on page 10-4 for more information.
6.
Choose the path with the lower origin. Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) is considered lower than
EGP.
7.
Choose the path with the lower multi exit discriminator (MED).
You can configure a number of options that affect whether or not this step is performed. In general,
Cisco NX-OS compares the MED if both paths were received from peers in the same autonomous
system; otherwise, Cisco NX-OS skips the MED comparison.
You can configure Cisco NX-OS to always perform the best-path algorithm MED comparison,
regardless of the peer autonomous system in the paths. See the “Tuning the Best-Path Algorithm”
section on page 10-8 for more information. Otherwise, the MED comparison depends on the
AS-path attributes of the two paths being compared, as follows:
a. If a path has no AS-path or the AS-path starts with an AS_SET, then the path is internal, and
compare the MED to other internal paths.
b. If the AS-path starts with an AS_SEQUENCE, then the peer autonomous system is the first AS
number in the sequence, and compare the MED to other paths that have the same peer
autonomous system.
c. If the AS_Path contains only confederation segments or starts with confederation segments
followed by an AS_SET, the path is internal and compare the MED to other internal paths.
d. If the AS-path starts with confederation segments followed by an AS_SEQUENCE, then the
peer autonomous system is the first AS number in the AS_SEQUENCE, and compare the MED
to other paths that have the same peer autonomous system.
Note
If Cisco NX-OS receives no MED attribute with the path, then Cisco NX-OS considers the
MED to be 0 unless you configure the best-path algorithm to set a missing MED to the
highest possible value. See the “Tuning the Best-Path Algorithm” section on page 10-8 for
more information.
e. If the nondeterministic MED comparison feature is enabled, the best path algorithm uses the
IOS style of MED comparison. See the “Tuning the Best-Path Algorithm” section on page 10-8
for more information.
8.
If one path is from an internal peer and the other path is from an external peer, choose the path from
the external peer.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Information About Basic BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
9.
If the paths have different IGP metrics to their next-hop addresses, choose the path with the lower
IGP metric.
10. Use the path that was selected by the best-path algorithm the last time that it was run.
If all path parameters in Step 1 through Step 9 are the same, then you can configure the best path
algorithm to compare the router IDs. See the “Tuning the Best-Path Algorithm” section on page 10-8 for
more information. If the path includes an originator attribute, then Cisco NX-OS uses that attribute as
the router ID to compare to; otherwise, Cisco NX-OS uses the router ID of the peer that sent the path. If
the paths have different router IDs, Cisco NX-OS chooses the path with the lower router ID.
Note
When using the originator as the router ID, it is possible that two paths have the same router ID. It is
also possible to have two BGP sessions with the same peer router, and therefore you can receive two
paths with the same router ID.
11. Select the path with the shorter cluster length is selected. If a path was not received with a cluster
list attribute, the cluster length is 0.
12. Choose the path received from the peer with the lower IP address. Locally generated paths (for
example, redistributed paths) have a peer IP address of 0.
Note
Paths that are equal after step 9 can be used for multipath if you configure multipath. See the “Load
Sharing and Multipath” section on page 10-6 for more information.
Order of Comparisons
The second part of the BGP best-path algorithm implementation determines the order in which the paths
should be compared. Cisco NX-OS determines the order of comparison as follows:
1.
Partition the paths into groups such that within each group the MED can be compared among all
paths. The same rules as in the “Comparing Pairs of Paths” section on page 9-4 are used to determine
whether MED can be compared between any two paths. Normally, this comparison results in one
group for each neighbor autonomous system. If the bgp bestpath med always command is
configured, then there is just one group containing all the paths.
2.
Determine the best path in each group by iterating through all paths in the group and keeping track
of the best one seen so far. Compare each path with the temporary best path found so far, and if it is
better, it becomes the new temporary best path and is compared with the next path in the group.
3.
Form a set of paths containing the best path selected from each group in Step 2. Select the overall
best path from this set of paths by iterating through them as in Step 2.
Best Path Change Suppression
The next part of the implementation is to determine whether to use the new best path. The router can
continue to use the existing best path if the new one is identical to the point at which the best-path
selection algorithm becomes arbitrary (if the router ID is the same). Continuing to use the existing best
path can avoid route changes in the network.
To turn off the suppression, configure the best path algorithm to compare the router IDs. See the “Tuning
the Best-Path Algorithm” section on page 10-8 for more information. If you configure this feature, the
new best path is always preferred to the existing one.
Otherwise, the best-path change cannot be suppressed if any of the following conditions occur:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-5
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Licensing Requirements for Basic BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
The existing best path is no longer valid.
•
Either the existing or new best paths were received from internal (or confederation) peers or were
locally generated (for example, by redistribution).
•
The paths were received from the same peer (the paths have the same router ID).
•
The paths have different weights, local preferences, origins, or IGP metrics to their next-hop
addresses.
•
The paths have different MEDs.
BGP and the Unicast RIB
BGP communicates with the unicast routing information base (unicast RIB) to store IPv4 routes in the
unicast routing table. After selecting the best path, if BGP determines that the best path change needs to
be reflected in the routing table, it sends a route update to the unicast RIB.
BGP receives route notifications regarding changes to its routes in the unicast RIB. It also receives route
notifications about other protocol routes to support redistribution.
BGP also receives notifications from the unicast RIB regarding next-hop changes. BGP uses these
notifications to keep track of the reachability and IGP metric to the next-hop addresses.
Whenever the next-hop reachability or IGP metrics in the unicast RIB change, BGP triggers a best-path
recalculation for affected routes.
BGP communicates with the IPv6 unicast RIB to perform these operations for IPv6 routes.
BGP Virtualization
BGP supports supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual
device contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF
unless you specifically configure another VDC and VRF. See to the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context
Configuration Guide and see Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for Basic BGP
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
BGP requires an Enterprise Services license. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing scheme
and how to obtain and apply licenses, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for BGP
BGP has the following prerequisites:
•
You must enable the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
•
You should have a valid router ID configured on the system.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Guidelines and Limitations for BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
You must have an AS number, either assigned by a Regional Internet Registry (RIR) or locally
administered.
•
You must configure at least one IGP that is capable of recursive next-hop resolution.
•
You must configure an address family under a neighbor for the BGP session establishment.
Guidelines and Limitations for BGP
Use the following guidelines and limitations to configure BGP:
•
Configure a router ID for BGP to avoid automatic router ID changes and session flaps.
•
Use the maximum-prefix configuration option per peer to restrict the number of routes received and
system resources used.
•
Configure the update-source to establish a session with BGP/EBGP multihop sessions.
•
Specify a BGP policy if you configure redistribution.
•
Define the BGP router ID within a VRF.
•
If you decrease the keepalive and hold timer values, you might experience BGP session flaps.
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see to the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
•
If you configure VRFs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VRF (see
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization”).
CLI Configuration Modes
The following sections show how to enter each of the CLI configuration modes for BGP. From a mode,
you can enter the ? command to display the commands available in that mode.
Global Configuration Mode
Use global configuration mode to create a BGP process and configure advanced features such as AS
confederation and route dampening See the Chapter 10, “Configuring Advanced BGP.” The following
example shows how to enter router configuration mode:
switch# configuration
switch(config)# router bgp 5
switch(config-router)#
BGP supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF). Configure BGP within the appropriate VRF if you
are using VRFs in your network. See the “Configuring Virtualization” section on page 10-32 for more
information.
The following example shows how to enter VRF configuration mode:
switch(config)# router bgp 7
switch(config-router)# vrf context vrf_A
switch(config-router-vrf)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-7
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
CLI Configuration Modes
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Address Family Configuration Mode
You can optionally configure the address families that BGP supports. Use the address-family command
in router configuration mode to configure features for an address family. Use the address-family
command in neighbor configuration mode to configure the specific address family for the neighbor.
You must configure the address families if you are using route redistribution, address aggregation, load
balancing and other advanced features. The following example shows how to enter address family
configuration mode from the router configuration mode:
switch(config)# router bgp 5
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
The following example shows how to enter VRF address family configuration mode if you are using
VRFs:
switch(config)# router bgp 7
switch(config-router)# vrf context vrf_A
switch(config-router-vrf)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-vrf-af)#
Neighbor Configuration Mode
Cisco NX-OS provides the neighbor configuration mode to configure BGP peers. Use neighbor
configuration mode to configure all parameters for peer. The following example shows how to enter
neighbor configuration mode:
switch(config)# router bgp 5
switch(config-router)# neighbor 192.0.2.1
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
The following example shows how to enter VRF neighbor configuration mode:
switch(config)# router bgp 7
switch(config-router)# vrf context vrf_A
switch(config-router-vrf)# neighbor 192.0.2.1
switch(config-router-vrf-neighbor)#
Neighbor Address Family Configuration Mode
An address family configuration submode inside the neighbor configuration submode is available for
entering address family-specific neighbor configuration and enabling the address family for the
neighbor. Use this mode for advanced features such as limiting the number of prefixes allowed for this
neighbor and removing private AS numbers for EBGP. The following example shows how to enter
neighbor address family configuration mode:
switch(config)# router bgp 5
switch(config-router# neighbor 192.0.2.1
switch(config-router-neighbor)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
The following example shows how to enter VRF neighbor address family configuration mode:
switch(config)# router bgp 7
switch(config-router)# vrf context vrf_A
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Configuring Basic BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
switch(config-router-vrf)# neighbor 209.165.201.1
switch(config-router-vrf-neighbor)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-vrf-neighbor-af)#
Configuring Basic BGP
To configure a basic BGP, you need to enable BGP and configure a BGP peer. Configuring a basic BGP
network consists of a few required tasks and many optional tasks. You must configure a BGP routing
process and BGP peers.
This section includes the following topics:
Note
•
Enabling the BGP Feature, page 9-9
•
Creating a BGP Instance, page 9-10
•
Restarting a BGP Instance, page 9-12
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Enabling the BGP Feature
You must enable the BGP feature before you can configure BGP.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
feature bgp
3.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-9
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Configuring Basic BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 2
Command
Purpose
feature bgp
Enables the BGP feature.
Example:
switch(config)# feature bgp
Step 3
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no feature bgp command to disable the BGP feature and remove all associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no feature bgp
Disables the BGP feature and removes all
associated configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature bgp
Creating a BGP Instance
You can create a BGP instance and assign a router ID to the BGP instance. See the “BGP Router
Identifier” section on page 9-3. Cisco NX-OS supports 2-byte or 4-byte autonomous system numbers
(AS numbers).
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
BGP must be able to obtain a router ID (for example, a configured loopback address).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router bgp autonomous-system-number
3.
router-id ip-address
4.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast | multicast}
5.
network ip-prefix [route-map map-name]
6.
show bgp all
7.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Configuring Basic BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router bgp autonomous-system-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 40000
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
(Optional) Configures the BGP router ID. This IP
address identifies this BGP speaker. This command
triggers an automatic notification and sesion reset for
the BGP neighbor sessions.
router-id ip-address
Example:
switch(config-router)# router-id
192.0.2.255
Step 4
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6}{unicast |
multicast}
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 5
network ip-prefix [route-map map-name]
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# network
192.0.2.0
Step 6
(Optional) Enters global address family configuration
mode for the IPv4 address family. This command
triggers an automatic notification and session reset for
all BGP neighbors.
(Optional) Specifies a network as local to this
autonomous system and adds it to the BGP routing
table.
For exterior protocols, the network command controls
which networks are advertised. Interior protocols use
the network command to determine where to send
updates.
show bgp all
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# show bgp all
Step 7
Enables BGP and assigns the autonomous system
number to the local BGP speaker. The autonomous
system number can be a 16-bit integer or a 32-bit
integer in the form of <higher 16-bit decimal
number>.<lower 16-bit decimal number>.
(Optional) Displays information about all BGP address
families.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# copy
running-config startup-config
Use the no router bgp command to remove the BGP process and the associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no router bgp autonomous-system-number
Deletes the BGP process and the associated
configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no router bgp 201
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-11
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Configuring Basic BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to enable BGP with the IPv4 unicast address family and manually
add one network to advertise:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router bgp 40000
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)# network 192.0.2.0
switch(config-router-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Restarting a BGP Instance
You can restart a BGP instance. This clears all peer sessions for the instance.
To restart a BGP instance and remove all associated peers, use the following command:
Command
Purpose
restart bgp instance-tag
Restarts the BGP instance and resets or
re-establishes all peering sessions.
Example:
switch(config)# restart bgp 201
Configuring BGP Peers
You can configure a BGP peer within a BGP process. Each BGP peer has an associated keepalive timer
and hold timers. You can set these timers either globally or for each BGP peer. A peer configuration
overrides a global configuration.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router bgp autonomous-system-number
3.
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
4.
description text
5.
timers keepalive-time hold-time
6.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast | multicast}
7.
show bgp {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast | multicast} neighbors
8.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Configuring Basic BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router bgp autonomous-system-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 40000
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
Example:
switch(config-router)# neighbor
209.165.201.1 remote-as 45000
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
Step 4
Configures the IP address and AS number for a remote
BGP peer.
(Optional) Adds a description for the neighbor. The
description is an alphanumeric string up to 80
characters long.
description text
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
description Peer Router B
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
Step 5
Enables BGP and assigns the autonomous system
number to the local BGP speaker.
timers keepalive-time hold-time
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# timers
30 90
Step 6
shutdown
Step 7
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6}{unicast |
multicast}
(Optional) Adds the keepalive and hold time BGP
timer values for the neighbor. The range is from 0 to
3600 seconds. The default is 60 seconds for the
keep-alive time and 180 seconds for the hold time.
(Optional). Administratively shuts down this BGP
neighbor. This command triggers an automatic
Example:
notification and sesion reset for the BGP neighbor
switch(config-router-neighbor)# shutdown
sessions.
Enters neighbor address family configuration mode for
the unicast IPv4 address family.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
Step 8
(Optional) Displays information about BGP peers.
show bgp {ipv4 | ipv6}{unicast |
multicast} neighbors
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# show
bgp ipv4 unicast neighbors
Step 9
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af) copy
running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-13
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Verifying Basic BGP Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to configure a BGP peer:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router bgp 40000
switch(config-router)# neighbor 192.0.2.1 remote-as 45000
switch(config-router-neighbor)# description Peer Router B
switch(config-router-neighbor)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Verifying Basic BGP Configuration
To verify the BGP configuration, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] all [summary]
Displays the BGP information for all address
families.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] convergence
Displays the BGP information for all address
families.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] community {regexp |
[community] [no-advertise] [no-export]
[no-export-subconfed]}
Displays the BGP routes that match a BGP
community.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] community-list list-name
Displays the BGP routes that match a BGP
community list.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] {damp-params | dampened-paths}
Displays the information for BGP route
dampening. Use the clear bgp dampening
command to clear the route flap dampening
information.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] history-paths
Displays the BGP route history paths.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] filter-list list-name
Displays the information for BGP filter list.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] neighbors [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix]
Displays the information for BGP peers. Use the
clear bgp neighbors command to clear these
neighbors.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] {nexthop | nexthop-database}
Displays the information for the BGP route
next-hop.
show bgp paths
Displays the BGP path information.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] policy name
Displays the BGP policy information. Use the
clear bgp policy command to clear the policy
information.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Displaying BGP Statistics
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] prefix-list list-name
Displays the BGP routes that match the prefix list.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] received-paths
Displays the BGP paths stored for soft
reconfiguration.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] regexp expression
Displays the BGP routes that match the AS_path
regular expression.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] route-map map-name
Displays the BGP routes that match the route
map.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] peer-policy name
Displays the information about BGP peer
policies.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] peer-session name
Displays the information about BGP peer
sessions.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] peer-template name
Displays the information about BGP peer
templates. Use the clear bgp peer-template
command to clear all neighbors in a peer template.
show running-configuration bgp
Displays the current running BGP configuration.
Displaying BGP Statistics
To display BGP statistics, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] flap-statistics
Displays the BGP route flap statistics. Use the clear bgp
flap-statistics command to clear these statistics.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] neighbors [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix]
Displays the statistics for BGP peers. Use the clear bgp
neighbors command to clear these statistics.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] sessions
Displays the BGP sessions for all peers. Use the clear
bgp sessions command to clear these statistics.
Basic BGP Example Configuration
The following example shows a basic BGP configuration:
feature bgp
router bgp 40000
address-family ipv4 multicast
network 192.0.2.0/24
network 209.165.201.0/27
address-family ipv4 unicast
network 192.0.2.0/24
network 209.165.201.0/27
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-15
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Related Topics
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
address-family ipv6 multicast
network 2001::0DB8::/64
network 2001::0DB8:0:1::/64
address-family ipv6 unicast
network 2001:0DB8::/64
network 2001:0DB8:0:1::/64
neighbor 2001:ODB8:0:1::55 remote-as 30
address-family ipv6 multicast
address-family ipv6 unicast
neighbor 209.165.201.1 remote-as 45000
address-family ipv4 multicast
address-family ipv4 unicast
Related Topics
The following topics relate to BGP:
•
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager.”
Where to Go Next
See the Chapter 10, “Configuring Advanced BGP” for details on the following features:
•
Peer templates
•
Route redistribution
•
Route maps
Default Settings
Table 9-2 lists the default settings for BGP parameters.
Table 9-2
Default BGP Parameters
Parameters
Default
BGP feature
disabled
keep alive interval
60 seconds
hold timer
180 seconds
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing BGP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 9-17
•
MIBs, page 9-17
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
BGP CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs and VRFs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
MIBs
MIBs
MIBs Link
BGP4-MIB
To locate and download MIBs, go to the following URL:
CISCO-BGP4-MIB
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml
Technical Assistance
Descriptions
Link
Technical Assistance Center (TAC) home page,
containing 30,000 pages of searchable technical
content, including links to products, technologies,
solutions, technical tips, and tools. Registered
Cisco.com users can log in from this page to access
even more content.
http://www.cisco.com/public/support/tac/home.shtml
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
9-17
Chapter 9
Configuring Basic BGP
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
9-18
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
10
Configuring Advanced BGP
This chapter describes how to configure advanced features of the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About Advanced BGP, page 10-1
•
Licensing Requirements for Advanced BGP, page 10-9
•
Prerequisites for BGP, page 10-10
•
Guidelines and Limitations for BGP, page 10-10
•
Configuring Advanced BGP, page 10-10
•
Verifying Advanced BGP Configuration, page 10-34
•
Displaying BGP Statistics, page 10-35
•
Related Topics, page 10-35
•
Default Settings, page 10-36
•
Default Settings, page 10-36
•
Additional References, page 10-36
Information About Advanced BGP
BGP is an interdomain routing protocol that provides loop-free routing between organizations or
autonomous systems. Cisco NX-OS supports BGP version 4. BGP version 4 includes multiprotocol
extensions that allow BGP to carry routing information for IP multicast routes and multiple Layer 3
protocol address families. BGP uses TCP as a reliable transport protocol to create TCP sessions with
other BGP-enabled devices called BGP peers. When connecting to an external organization, the router
creates external BGP (eBGP) peering sessions. BGP peers within the same organization exchange
routing information through internal BGP (iBGP) peering sessions.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Peer Templates, page 10-2
•
Authentication, page 10-2
•
Route Policies and Resetting BGP Sessions, page 10-3
•
eBGP, page 10-3
•
iBGP, page 10-3
•
Capabilities Negotiation, page 10-6
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-1
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Information About Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
AS Confederations, page 10-4
•
Router Reflector, page 10-5
•
Route Dampening, page 10-6
•
Load Sharing and Multipath, page 10-6
•
Route Aggregation, page 10-7
•
Route Redistribution, page 10-7
•
Tuning BGP, page 10-7
•
Multiprotocol BGP, page 10-8
•
Graceful Restart and High Availability, page 10-8
•
Peer Templates, page 10-2
Peer Templates
BGP peer templates allow you to create blocks of common configuration that you can reuse across
similar BGP peers. Each block allows you to define a set of attributes that a peer then inherits. You can
choose to override some of the inherited attributes as well, making it a very flexible scheme for
simplifying the repetitive nature of BGP configurations.
Cisco NX-OS implements three types of peer templates:
•
The peer-session template defines BGP peer session attributes, such as the transport details, remote
autonomous system number of the peer, and session timers. A peer-session template can also inherit
attributes from another peer-session template (with locally defined attributes that override the
attributes from an inherited peer-session).
•
A peer-policy template defines the address-family dependent policy aspects for a peer including the
inbound and outbound policy, filter-lists, and prefix-lists. A peer-policy template can inherit from a
set of peer-policy templates. Cisco NX-OS evaluates these peer-policy templates in the order
specified by the preference value in the inherit configuration. The lowest number is preferred over
higher numbers.
•
The peer template can inherit the peer-session and peer-policy templates to allow for simplified peer
definitions. It is not mandatory to use a peer template but it can simplify the BGP configuration by
providing reusable blocks of configuration.
Authentication
You can configure authentication for a BGP neighbor session. This authentication method adds an MD5
authentication digest to each TCP segment sent to the neighbor to protect BGP against unauthorized
messages and TCP security attacks.
Note
The MD5 password must be identical between BGP peers.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Information About Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Route Policies and Resetting BGP Sessions
You can associate a route policy to a BGP peer. Route policies use route maps to control or modify the
routes that BGP recognizes. You can configure a route policy for inbound or outbound route updates.
The route policies can match on different criteria, such as a prefix or AS_path attribute, and selectively
accept or deny the routes. Route policies can also modify the path attributes. See Chapter 15,
“Configuring Policy-Based Routing” for more information on route polices.
When you change a route policy applied to a BGP peer, you must reset the BGP sessions for that peer.
Cisco NX-OS supports the following three mechanisms to reset BGP peering sessions:
Note
•
Hard reset—A hard reset tears down the specified peering sessions, including the TCP connection,
and deletes routes coming from the specified peer. This option interrupts packet flow through the
BGP network. Hard reset is disabled by default.
•
Soft reconfiguration inbound—A soft reconfiguration inbound triggers routing updates for the
specified peer without resetting the session. You can use this option if you change an inbound route
policy. Soft reconfiguration inbound saves a copy of all routes received from the peer before
processing the routes through the inbound route policy. If you change the inbound route policy,
Cisco NX-OS passes these stored routes through the modified inbound route policy to update the
route table without tearing down existing peering sessions. Soft reconfiguration inbound can use
significant memory resources to store the unfiltered BGP routes. Soft reconfiguration inbound is
disabled by default.
•
Route Refresh—A route refresh updates the inbound routing tables dynamically by sending route
refresh requests to supporting peers when you change an inbound route policy. The remote BGP peer
responds with a new copy of its routes that the local BGP speaker processes with the modified route
policy. Cisco NX-OS automatically sends an outbound route refresh of prefixes to the peer.
•
BGP peers advertise the route refresh capability as part of the BGP capability negotiation when
establishing the BGP peer session. Route refresh is the preferred option and enabled by default.
BGP also uses route maps for route redistribution, route aggregation, route dampening, and other
features. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager,” for more information on route maps.
eBGP
External BGP (eBGP) allows you to connect BGP peers from different autonomous systems to exchange
routing updates. Connecting to external networks enables traffic from your network to be forwarded to
other networks and across the Internet.
You should use loopback interfaces for establishing eBGP peering sessions because loopback interfaces
are less susceptible to interface flapping. An interface flap occurs when the interface is administratively
brought up or down because of a failure or maintenance issue. See the “Configuring eBGP” section on
page 10-21 for information on multihop, fast external failover and support for the General Time-To-Live
Security Mechanism.
iBGP
Internal BGP (iBGP) allows you to connect BGP peers within the same autonomous system. You can use
iBGP for multihomed BGP networks (networks that have more than one connection to the same external
autonomous system).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-3
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Information About Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 10-1 shows an iBGP network within a larger BGP network.
iBGP Network
AS20
AS10
Z
A
eBGP
C
iBGP
iBGP
iBGP
B
iBGP
iBGP
D
185055
Figure 10-1
iBGP networks are fully meshed. Each iBGP peer has a direct connection to all other iBGP peers to
prevent network loops.
Note
You should configure a separate interior gateway protocol in the iBGP network.
This section includes the following topics:
•
AS Confederations, page 10-4
•
Router Reflector, page 10-5
AS Confederations
A fully meshed iBGP network becomes complex as the number of iBGP peers grows. You can reduce
the iBGP mesh is by dividing the autonomous system into multiple subautonomous systems and
grouping them into a single confederation. A confederation is a group of iBGP peers that use the same
autonomous system number to communicate to external networks. Each subautonomous system is fully
meshed within itself and has a few connections to other subautonomous systems in the same
confederation.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Information About Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 10-2 shows the BGP network from Figure 10-1, split into two subautonomous systems and one
confederation.
AS Confederation
AS20
AS10
Z
AS1 A
eBGP
AS2 C
Confederation
peers
iBGP
iBGP
B
185056
Figure 10-2
D
In this example, AS10 is split into two subautonomous systems, AS1 and AS2. Each subautonomous
system is fully meshed, but there is only one link between the subautonomous systems. By using AS
confederations, you can reduce the number of links compared to the fully meshed autonomous system
in Figure 10-1.
Router Reflector
You can alternately reduce the iBGP mesh by using a router reflector configuration. router reflectors pass
learned routes to neighbors s o that all iBGP peers do not need to be fully meshed.
Figure 10-1 shows a simple iBGP configuration with four meshed iBGP speakers (router A, B, C, and
D). Without router reflectors, when router A receives a route from an external neighbor, it advertises the
route to all three iBGP neighbors.
When you configure an iBGP peer to be a route reflector it becomes responsible for passing iBGP
learned routes to a set of iBGP neighbors.
In Figure 10-3, router B is the router reflector. When the router reflector receives routes advertised from
router A, it advertises (reflects) the routes to router C and D. Router A no longer has to advertise to both
router C and D.
Figure 10-3
router reflector
AS20
AS10
Z
A
C
eBGP
B
D
185057
iBGP
iBGP
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-5
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Information About Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The router reflector and its client peers form a cluster. You do not have to configure all iBGP peers to
act as client peers of the router reflector. You must configure any nonclient peer as fully meshed to
guarantee that complete BGP updates reach all peers.
Capabilities Negotiation
A BGP speaker can learn about a BGP extensions supported by a peer by using the capabilities
negotiation feature. Capabilities negotiation allows BGP to use only the set of features supported by both
BGP peers on a link.
If a BGP peer does not support capabilities negotiation, Cisco NX-OS will attempt a new session to the
peer without capabilities negotiation if you have configured the address family as IPv4. Any other
multiprotocol configuration (such as IPv6) requires capability negotiation.
Route Dampening
Route dampening is a BGP feature that minimizes the propagation of flapping routes across an
internetwork. A route flaps when it alternates between the available and unavailable states in rapid
succession.
For example, consider a network with three BGP autonomous systems: AS1, AS2, and AS3. Suppose
that a route in AS1 flaps (it becomes unavailable). Without route dampening, AS1 sends a withdraw
message to AS2. AS2 propagates the withdrawal message to AS3. When the flapping route reappears,
AS1 sends an advertisement message to AS2, which sends the advertisement to AS3. If the route
repeatedly becomes unavailable, and then available, AS1 sends many withdrawal and advertisement
messages that propagate through the other autonomous systems.
Route dampening can minimize flapping. Suppose that the route flaps. AS2 (in which route dampening
is enabled) assigns the route a penalty of 1000. AS2 continues to advertise the status of the route to
neighbors. Each time that the route flaps, AS2 adds to the penalty value. When the route flaps so often
that the penalty exceeds a configurable suppression limit, AS2 stops advertising the route, regardless of
how many times that it flaps. The route is now dampened.
The penalty placed on the route decays until the reuse limit is reached. At that time, AS2 advertises the
route again. When the reuse limit is at 50 percent, AS2 removes the dampening information for the route.
Note
The router does not apply a penalty to a resetting BGP peer when route dampening is enabled, even
though the peer reset withdraws the route.
Load Sharing and Multipath
BGP can install multiple equal-cost eBGP or iBGP paths into the routing table to reach the same
destination prefix. Traffic to the destination prefix is then shared across all the installed paths.
The BGP best-path algorithm considers the paths as equal-cost paths if the following attributes are
identical:
•
Weight
•
Local preference
•
AS_path
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Information About Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Origin code
•
Multi-exit discriminator (MED)
•
IGP cost to the BGP next hop
BGP selects only one of these multiple paths as the best-path and advertises the path to the BGP peers.
Note
Paths received from different AS confederations are considered as equal-cost paths if the external
AS_path values and the other attributes are identical.
Note
When you configure a router reflector for iBGP multipath, and the router reflector advertises the selected
best-path to its peers, the next hop for the path is not modified.
Route Aggregation
You can configure a aggregate addresses. Route aggregation simplifies route tables by replacing a
number of more specific addresses with an address that represents all the specific addresses. For
example, you can replace these three more specific addresses, 10.1.1.0/24, 10.1.2.0/24, and 10.1.3.0/24
with one aggregate address, 10.1.0.0/16.
Aggregate prefixes are present in the BGP route table so that fewer routs are advertised.
Note
Cisco NX-OS does not support automatic route aggregation.
Route aggregation can lead to forwarding loops. To avoid this problem, when BGP generates an
advertisement for an aggregate address, it automatically installs a summary discard route for that
aggregate address in the local routing table. BGP sets the administrative distance of the summary discard
to 220 and sets the route type to discard. BGP does not use discard routes for next-hop resolution.
Route Redistribution
You can configure BGP to redistribute static routes or routes from other protocols. You configure a route
policy with the redistribution to control which routes are passed into BGP. A route policy allows you to
filter routes based on attributes such as the destination, origination protocol, route type, route tag, and
so on. See Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager,” for more information.
Tuning BGP
You can modify the default behavior of BGP through BGP timers and by adjusting the best-path
algorithm.
This section includes the following topics:
•
BGP Timers, page 10-8
•
Tuning the Best-Path Algorithm, page 10-8
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-7
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Information About Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BGP Timers
BGP uses different types of timers for neighbor session and global protocol events. Each established
session has a minimum of two timers for sending periodic keepalive messages and for timing out
sessions when peer keepalives do not arrive within the expected time. In addition, there are other timers
for handling specific features. Typically, you configure these timers in seconds. The timers include a
random adjustment so that the same timers on different BGP peers trigger at different times.
Tuning the Best-Path Algorithm
You can modify the default behavior of the best-path algorithm through optional configuration
parameters, including changing how the algorithm handles the MED attribute and the router ID.
Multiprotocol BGP
BGP on Cisco NX-OS supports multiple address families. Multiprotocol BGP (MBGP) carries a
different sets of routes depending on the address family. For example, BGP can carry one set of routes
for IPv4 unicast routing, one set of routes for IPv4 multicast routing, and one set of routes for IPv6
multicast routes.
Use the router address-family and neighbor address-family configuration modes to support
multiprotocol BGP configurations.
A multiprotocol BGP network is backward compatible but BGP peers that do not support multiprotocol
extensions cannot forward routing information, such as address family identifier information, that the
multiprotocol extensions carry.
See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS Multicast Configuration Guide for multicast configuration examples using
MBGP.
Graceful Restart and High Availability
Cisco NX-OS supports nonstop forwarding and graceful restart for BGP.
You can use nonstop forwarding for BGP to forward data packets along known routes in the Forward
Information Base (FIB) while the BGP routing protocol information is being restored following a
failover. With NSF, BGP peers do not experience routing flaps. During a failover, the data traffic is
forwarded through intelligent modules while the standby supervisor becomes active.
If a Cisco NX-OS router experiences a cold reboot, the network does not forward traffic to the router and
removes the router from the network topology. In this scenario, BGP experiences a non-graceful restart
and removes all routes. When Cisco NX-OS applies the startup configuration, BGP reestablishes peering
sessions and relearns the routes.
A Cisco NX-OS router that has dual supervisors can experience a stateful supervisor switchover. Before
the switchover occurs, BGP announces that a graceful restart is starting and that BGP will be unavailable
for some time. During the switchover, BGP uses nonstop forwarding to forward traffic based on the
information in the FIB, and the system is not taken out of the network topology. The router that is
restarted marks these routes from its peers as stale.
When a router detects that a graceful restart operation is in progress, both routers exchange their
topology tables. When the router has route updates from all BGP peers, it removes all the stale routes
and runs the best-path algorithm on the updated routes.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Licensing Requirements for Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
After the switchover, Cisco NX-OS applies the running configuration, and BGP informs the neighbors
that it is operational again.
ISSU
You must enable graceful restart to support in-service software upgrades (ISSU) for BGP.
BGP uses a peer hold timer to tear down sessions for peers that have become inactive and stopped
responding. As part of the ISSU process, BGP control packets might not be received or transmitted
during the switchover and peers may notice loss of keepalive messages. However, as long as the hold
time is greater than the switchover time, the peers should not tear down sessions with the local router.
Once switchover occurs, the peers receive TCP connection resets from the new active TCP on the local
router. If you enabled graceful restart, the peers treat the resets as an indication that the router restarted
and initiate the graceful-restart helper procedures.
Cisco NX-OS cannot guarantee ISSU if you configure the hold time less than the system switchover time
(approximately 15 seconds).
BGP supports ISSU in the following ways:
•
If you disable graceful restart, Cisco NX-OS issues a warning that ISSU cannot be supported with
this configuration.
•
If you configure the hold time to be less than the system switchover time, Cisco NX-OS issues a
similar warning. If the peer negotiates a shorter hold time, Cisco NX-OS logs a message.
•
When Cisco NX-OS executes the BGP ISSU-related callback routine prior to switchover, BGP
checks both the graceful restart status and the hold time for all active peers. Cisco NX-OS issues
appropriate warnings and ends the ISSU process if graceful restart is disabled or the hold times for
the active peers is less than the system switchover time. and leave it to the discretion of the user to
force a switchover.
•
You can force a switchover if ISSU is not supported, but forwarding is not preserved during this
forced switchover.
Virtualization Support
Cisco NX-OS supports multiple instances of the BGP protocol that run on the same system. BGP
supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs) which exist within virtual device contexts
(VDCs). You can configure one BGP instance in a VDC, but you can have multiple VDCs on the system.
By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you specifically
configure another VDC and VRF. See the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide and
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for Advanced BGP
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
BGP requires an Enterprise Services license. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing scheme
and how to obtain and apply licenses, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-9
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Prerequisites for BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Prerequisites for BGP
BGP has the following prerequisites:
•
You must enable the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
•
You should have a valid router ID configured on the system.
•
You must have an AS number, either assigned by a Regional Internet Registry (RIR) or locally
administered.
•
You must have reachability (such as IGP, static route or direct connection) to the peer that you are
trying to make a neighbor relationship with.
•
You must explicitly configure an address family under a neighbor for the BGP session
establishment.
Guidelines and Limitations for BGP
BGP has the following guidelines and limitations:
•
Configure a router ID for BGP to avoid automatic router ID changes and session flaps.
•
Use the maximum-prefix configuration option per peer to restrict the number of routes received and
system resources used.
•
Configure the update-source to establish a session with eBGP multihop sessions.
•
Specify a BGP route map if you configure redistribution.
•
Configure the BGP router ID within a VRF.
•
If you decrease the keepalive and hold timer values, the network might experience session flaps.
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see to the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Configuring Advanced BGP
This section describes how to configure advanced BGP and includes the following topics:
•
Configuring BGP Session Templates, page 10-11
•
Configuring BGP Peer-Policy Templates, page 10-13
•
Configuring BGP Peer Templates, page 10-16
•
Configuring Prefix Peering, page 10-18
•
Configuring BGP Authentication, page 10-19
•
Resetting a BGP Session, page 10-19
•
Configuring AS Confederations, page 10-22
•
Disabling Capabilities Negotiation, page 10-20
•
Configuring eBGP, page 10-21
•
Configuring AS Confederations, page 10-22
•
Configuring Router Reflector, page 10-22
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
•
Configuring Route Dampening, page 10-24
•
Configuring Load Sharing and ECMP, page 10-25
•
Configuring Maximum Prefixes, page 10-25
•
Configuring Dynamic Capability, page 10-26
•
Configuring Aggregate Addresses, page 10-26
•
Configuring Route Redistribution, page 10-26
•
Tuning BGP, page 10-28
•
Configuring a Graceful Restart, page 10-31
•
Configuring Virtualization, page 10-32
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Configuring BGP Session Templates
You can use BGP session templates to simplify BGP configuration for multiple BGP peers with similar
configuration needs. BGP templates allow you to reuse common configuration blocks. You configure
BGP templates first, and then apply these templates to BGP peers.
With BGP session templates, you can configure session attributes such as inheritance, passwords, timers,
and security.
A peer-session template can inherit from one other peer-session template. You can configure the second
template to inherit from a third template, the first template also inherits this third template. This indirect
inheritance can continue for up to seven peer-session templates.
Any attributes configured for the neighbor take priority over any attributes inherited by that neighbor
from a BGP template.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Note
When editing a template, you can use the no form of a command at either the peer or template level to
explicitly override a setting in a template. You must use the default form of the command to reset that
attribute to the default state.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router bgp autonomous-system-number
3.
template peer-session template-name
4.
Add appropriate attributes to the session template.
5.
exit
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-11
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
6.
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
7.
inherit peer-session template-name
8.
Add appropriate neighbor attributes.
9.
show bgp peer-session template-name
10. copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router bgp autonomous-system-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 45000
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
template peer-session template-name
Enables BGP and assigns the autonomous system
number to the local BGP speaker.
Enters peer-session template configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# template
peer-session BaseSession
switch(config-router-stmp)#
Step 4
password number password
Example:
switch(config-router-stmp)# password 0
test
Step 5
timers keepalive hold
Example:
switch(config-router-stmp)# timers 30 90
Step 6
exit
(Optional) Adds the clear text password test to the
neighbor. The password is stored and displayed in type
3 encrypted form (3DES).
(Optional) Adds the BGP keepalive and holdtimer
values to the peer-session template.
The default keepalive interval is 60. The default hold
time is 180.
Exits peer-session template configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router-stmp)# exit
switch(config-router)#
Step 7
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
Example:
switch(config-router)# neighbor
192.168.1.2 remote-as 40000
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
Step 8
inherit peer-session template-name
Places the router in the neighbor configuration mode
for BGP routing and configures the neighbor IP
address.
Applies a peer-session template to the peer.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# inherit
peer-session BaseSession
switch(config-router-neighbor)
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 9
Command
Purpose
description text
(Optional) Adds a description for the neighbor.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
description Peer Router A
switch(config-router-neighbor)
Step 10
(Optional) Displays the peer-policy template.
show bgp peer-session template-name
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# show bgp
peer-session BaseSession
Step 11
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# copy
running-config startup-config
Use the show bgp neighbor command to see the template applied. See the Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing
Command Reference, Release 4.0 for details on all commands available in the template.
The following example shows how to configure a BGP peer-session template and apply it to a BGP peer:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router bgp 45000
switch(config-router)# template peer-session BaseSession
switch(config-router-stmp)# timers 30 90
switch(config-router-stmp)# exit
switch(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 40000
switch(config-router-neighbor)# inherit peer-session BaseSession
switch(config-router-neighbor)# description Peer Router A
switch(config-router-neighbor)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring BGP Peer-Policy Templates
You can configure a peer-policy template to define attributes for a particular address family. You assign
a preference to each peer-policy template and these templates are inherited in the order specified, for up
to five peer-policy templates in a neighbor address family.
Cisco NX-OS evaluates multiple peer policies for an address family using the preference value. The
lowest preference value is evaluated first. Any attributes configured for the neighbor take priority over
any attributes inherited by that neighbor from a BGP template.
Peer-policy templates can configure address family-specific attributes such as AS-path filter lists, prefix
lists, route reflection, and soft reconfiguration.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-13
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
When editing a template, you can use the no form of a command at either the peer or template level to
explicitly override a setting in a template. You must use the default form of the command to reset that
attribute to the default state.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router bgp autonomous-system-number
3.
template peer-policy template-name
4.
Add appropriate attributes to the policy template.
5.
exit
6.
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
7.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {multicast | unicast}
8.
inherit peer-policy template-name preference
9.
show bgp peer-policy template-name
10. copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router bgp autonomous-system-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 45000
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
template peer-policy template-name
Enables BGP and assigns the autonomous system
number to the local BGP speaker.
Creates a peer-policy template.
Example:
switch(config-router)# template
peer-policy BasePolicy
switch(config-router-ptmp)#
Step 4
advertise-active-only
(Optional) Advertises only active routes to the peer.
Example:
switch(config-router-ptmp)#
advertise-active-only
Step 5
maximum-prefix number
Example:
switch(config-router-ptmp)#
maximum-prefix 20
(Optional) Sets the maximum number of prefixes
allowed from this peer.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command
Purpose
exit
Exits peer-policy template configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router-ptmp)# exit
switch(config-router)#
Step 7
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
Example:
switch(config-router)# neighbor
192.168.1.2 remote-as 40000
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
Step 8
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6}{multicast |
unicast}
Places the router in neighbor configuration mode for
BGP routing and configures the neighbor IP address.
Enters global address family configuration mode for
the IPv4 address family.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
Step 9
Applies a peer-policy template to the peer address
family configuration and assigns the preference value
for this peer policy.
inherit peer-policy template-name
preference
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
inherit peer-policy BasePolicy 1
Step 10
(Optional) Displays the peer-policy template.
show bgp peer-policy template-name
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# show
bgp peer-policy BasePolicy
Step 11
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# copy
running-config startup-config
Use the show bgp neighbor command to see the template applied. See the Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing
Command Reference, Release 4.0 for details on all commands available in the template.
The following example shows how to configure a BGP peer-session template and apply it to a BGP peer:
The following example shows how to configure a BGP peer-policy template and apply it to a BGP peer:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router bgp 40000
switch(config-router)# template peer-session BasePolicy
switch(config-router-ptmp)# maximum-prefix 20
switch(config-router-ptmp)# exit
switch(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.1 remote-as 45000
switch(config-router-neighbor)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# inherit peer-policy BasePolicy
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-15
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring BGP Peer Templates
You can configure BGP peer templates to combine session and policy attributes in one reusable
configuration block. Peer templates can also inherit peer-session or peer-policy templates. Any attributes
configured for the neighbor take priority over any attributes inherited by that neighbor from a BGP
template. You configure only one peer template for a neighbor, but that peer template can inherit
peer-session and peer-policy templates.
Peer templates support session and address family attributes, such as eBGP multihop time-to-live,
maximum prefix, next-hop self, and timers.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Note
When editing a template, you can use the no form of a command at either the peer or template level to
explicitly override a setting in a template. You must use the default form of the command to reset that
attribute to the default state.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router bgp autonomous-system-number
3.
template peer template-name
4.
Add appropriate attributes to the peer template.
5.
exit
6.
neighbor ip-address
7.
inherit peer template-name
8.
Add appropriate neighbor attributes.
9.
show bgp peer-template template-name
10. copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router bgp autonomous-system-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 45000
Enters BGP mode and assigns the autonomous system
number to the local BGP speaker.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 3
Command
Purpose
template peer template-name
Enters peer template configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# template peer
BasePeer
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
Step 4
inherit peer-session template-name
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# inherit
peer-session BaseSession
Step 5
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6}{multicast |
unicast}
(Optional) Inherits a peer-session template in the peer
template.
(Optional) Configures the global address family
configuration mode for the IPv4 address family.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
Step 6
(Optional) Applies a peer-policy template to the
neighbor address family configuration and assigns the
preference value for this peer policy.
inherit peer-policy template-name
preference
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
inherit peer-policy BasePolicy 1
Step 7
exit
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# exit
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
Step 8
Step 9
Exits BGP neighbor address family configuration
mode.
timers keepalive hold
(Optional) Adds the BGP timer values to the peer.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# timers
45 100
These values override the timer values in the
peer-session template, BaseSession.
exit
Exits BGP peer template configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# exit
switch(config-router)#
Step 10
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
Example:
switch(config-router)# neighbor
192.168.1.2 remote-as 40000
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
Step 11
Places the router in neighbor configuration mode for
BGP routing and configures the neighbor IP address.
Inherits the peer template.
inherit peer template-name
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# inherit
peer BasePeer
Step 12
timers keepalive hold
(Optional) Adds the BGP timer values to this neighbor.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# timers
60 120
These values override the timer values in the peer
template and the peer-session template.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-17
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 13
Command
Purpose
show bgp peer-template template-name
(Optional) Displays the peer template.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# show
bgp peer-template BasePeer
Step 14
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# copy
running-config startup-config
Use the show bgp neighbor command to see the template applied. See the Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing
Command Reference, Release 4.0 for details on all commands available in the template.
The following example shows how to configure a BGP peer-session template and apply it to a BGP peer:
The following example shows how to configure a BGP peer-policy template and apply it to a BGP peer:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router bgp 45000
switch(config-router)# template peer BasePeer
switch(config-router-neighbor)# inherit peer-session BaseSession
switch(config-router-neighbor)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# inherit peer-policy BasePolicy 1
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# exit
switch(config-router-neighbor)# exit
switch(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 40000
switch(config-router-neighbor)# inherit peer BasePeer
switch(config-router-neighbor)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Prefix Peering
BGP supports the definition of a set of peers using a prefix for both IPv4 and IPv6. This simplifies the
configuration even further than using templates because you do not need to add each neighbor to the
configuration.
When defining a prefix peering, you must specify the remote AS number along with the prefix. BGP
accepts any peer connecting from that prefix and autonomous system as long as the prefix peering does
not exceed the configured maximum peers allowed.
When a BGP peer that is part of a prefix peering disconnects, Cisco NX-OS holds its peer structures for
defined prefix peer time-out value. This helps network stability by allowing an established peer to reset
and reconnect without danger of being blocked because other peers have consumed all slots for that
prefix peering. The default setting for prefix-peer-time-out is 30 seconds.
To configure BGP prefix peering time-out value, use the following command in router configuration
mode:
Command
timers prefix-peer-timeout value
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# timers
prefix-peer-timeout 120
Purpose
•
Configures the time-out value for prefix
peering. The range is from 0 to 1200 seconds.
The default value is 30.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-18
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
To configure the maximum number of peers, use the following commands in neighbor configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
maximum-peers value
Configures the maximum number of peers for this
prefix peering. The range is from 1 to 1000.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# timers
prefix-peer-timeout 120
This example shows how to configure a prefix peering that accepts up to 10 peers.
switch(config)# router bgp 1
switch(config-router)# timers prefix-peer-timeout 120
switch(config-router)# neighbor 10.100.200.0/24 remote-as 1
switch(config-router-neighbor)# maximum-peers 10
switch(config-router-neighbor)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
Use the show ip bgp neighbor command to show the details of the configuration for that prefix peering
along with a list of the currently accepted instances and the counts of active, maximum concurrent and
total accepted peers.
Configuring BGP Authentication
You can configure BGP to authenticate route updates from peers using MD5 digests.
To configure BGP to use MD5 authentication, use the following command in neighbor configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
password [0 | 3 | 7] string
Configures an MD5 password for BGP neighbor
sessions.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# password
BGPpassword
Resetting a BGP Session
If you modify a route policy for BGP, you must reset the associated BGP peer sessions. If the BGP peers
do not support route refresh, you can configure a soft reconfiguration for inbound policy changes. Cisco
NX-OS automatically attempts a soft reset for the session.
To configure soft reconfiguration inbound, use the following command in neighbor address-family
configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-19
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
soft-reconfiguration inbound
Enables soft reconfiguration to store the inbound
BGP route updates. This command triggers an
automatic soft clear or refresh of BGP neighbor
sessions.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
soft-reconfiguration inbound
To reset a BGP neighbor session, use the following command in any mode:
Command
Purpose
clear bgp {ip | ipv6} {unicast |
multicast} ip-address soft {in | out}
Resets the BGP session without tearing down the
TCP session.
Example:
switch# clear bgp ip unicast 192.0.2.1
soft in
Modifying the Next-Hop Address
You can modify the next-hop address used in a route advertisement in the following ways:
•
Disable next-hop calculation and use the local BGP speaker address as the next-hop address.
•
Set the next-hop address as a third-party address. Use this in situations where the original next-hop
address is on the same subnet as the peer that the route is being sent to. This saves an extra hop
during forwarding.
You can modify the next-hop address by configuring the following parameters in neighbor
address-family configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
next-hop-self
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
next-hop-self
Uses the local BGP speaker address as the next-hop
address in route updates. This command triggers an
automatic soft clear or refresh of BGP neighbor
sessions.
next-hop-third-party
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
next-hop-third-party
Sets the next-hop address as a third-party address.
Use this command for single-hop EBGP peers that
do not have next-hop-self configured
Disabling Capabilities Negotiation
You can disable capabilities negotiations to interoperate with older BGP peers that do not support
capabilities negotiation.
To disable capabilities negotiation, use the following command in neighbor configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-20
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
dont-capability-negotiate
Disables capabilities negotiation. You must
manually reset the BGP sessions after configuring
this command.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
dont-capability-negotiate
Configuring eBGP
This section includes the following topics:
•
Disabling eBGP Single-Hop Checking, page 10-21
•
Configuring eBGP Multihop, page 10-21
•
Disabling a Fast External Failover, page 10-22
•
Configuring AS Confederations, page 10-22
Disabling eBGP Single-Hop Checking
You can configure eBGP to disable checking whether a single-hop eBGP peer is directly connected to
the local router. Use this option for configuring a single-hop loopback eBGP session between directly
connected switches.
To disable checking whether a single-hop eBGP peer is directly connected, use the following command
in neighbor configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
disable-connected-check
Disables checking whether a single-hop eBGP peer
is directly connected. You must manually reset the
BGP sessions after configuring this command.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
soft-reconfiguration inbound
Configuring eBGP Multihop
You can configure the eBGP time-to-live (TTL) value to support eBGP multihop. In some situations, an
eBGP peer is not directly connected to another eBGP peer and requires multiple hops to reach the remote
eBGP peer. You can configure the eBGP TTL value for a neighbor session to allow these multihop
sessions.
To configure eBGP multihop, use the following command in neighbor configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
ebgp-multihop ttl-value
Configures the eBGP TTL value for eBGP
multihop. The range is from 2 to 255. You must
manually reset the BGP sessions after configuring
this command.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
ebgp-multihop 5
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-21
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Disabling a Fast External Failover
Typically, when a BGP router loses connectivity to a directly connected eBGP peer, BGP triggers a fast
external failover by resetting the eBGP session to the peer. You can disable this fast external failover to
limit the instability caused by link flaps.
To disable fast external failover, use the following command in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
no fast-external-failover
Disables a fast external failover for eBGP peers.
Enabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-router)# no
fast-external-failover
Configuring AS Confederations
To configure an AS confederation, you must specify a confederation identifier. To the outside world, the
group of autonomous systems within the AS confederation look like a single autonomous system with
the confederation identifier as the autonomous system number.
To configure a BGP confederation identifier, use the following command in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
confederation identifier as-number
Configures a confederation identifier for an AS
confederation. This command triggers an
automatic notification and session reset for the
BGP neighbor sessions.
Example:
switch(config-router)# confederation
identifier 4000
To configure the autonomous systems that belong to the AS confederation, use the following command
in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
bgp confederation peers as-number
[as-number2...]
Specifies a list of autonomous systems that belong
to the confederation. This command triggers an
automatic notification and session reset for the
BGP neighbor sessions.
Example:
switch(config-router)# bgp confederation
peers 5 33 44
Configuring Router Reflector
You can configure iBGP peers as router reflector clients to the local BGP speaker, which acts as the
router reflector. Together, a router reflector and its clients form a cluster. A cluster of clients usually has
a single router reflector. In such instances, the cluster is identified by the router ID of the router reflector.
To increase redundancy and avoid a single point of failure in the network, you can configure a cluster
with more than one router reflector. You must configure all router reflectors in the cluster with the same
4-byte cluster ID so that a router reflector can recognize updates from router reflectors in the same
cluster.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-22
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router bgp as-number
3.
cluster-id cluster-id
4.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast | multicast}
5.
client-to-client reflection
6.
exit
7.
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
8.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast | multicast}
9.
route-reflector-client
10. show bgp {ip | ipv6} {unicast | multicast} as-number
11. copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters BGP mode and assigns the autonomous system
number to the local BGP speaker.
router bgp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 45000
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Configures the local router as one of the router reflectors
that serve the cluster. You specify a cluster ID to identify
the cluster. This command triggers an automatic soft
clear or refresh of BGP neighbor sessions.
cluster-id cluster-id
Example:
switch(config-router)# cluster-id
192.0.2.1
Step 4
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast
| multicast}
Enters router address family configuration mode for the
specified address family.
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 5
client-to-client reflection
Example:
switch(config-router-af)#
client-to-client reflection
(Optional) Configures client-to-client route reflection.
This feature is enabled by default. This command triggers
an automatic soft clear or refresh of BGP neighbor
sessions.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-23
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command or Action
Purpose
exit
Exits router address configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# exit
switch(config-router)#
Step 7
neighbor ip-address remote-as
as-number
Configures the IP address and AS number for a remote
BGP peer.
Example:
switch(config-router)# neighbor
192.0.2.10 remote-as 40000
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
Step 8
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6}{unicast |
multicast}
Enters neighbor address family configuration mode for
the unicast IPv4 address family.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
Step 9
route-reflector-client
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
route-reflector-client
Step 10
show bgp {ip | ipv6} {unicast |
multicast} neighbors
Configures the switch as a BGP router reflector and
configures the neighbor as its client. This command
triggers an automatic notification and session reset for
the BGP neighbor sessions.
(Optional) Displays the BGP peers.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
show bgp ip unicast neighbors
Step 11
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to configure the router as a router reflector and add one neighbor as
a client:
switch(config)# router bgp 45000
switch(config-router)# neighbor 192.0.2.10 remote-as 40000
switch(config-router-neighbor)# address-family ip unicast
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# route-reflector-client
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Route Dampening
You can configure route dampening to minimize route flaps propagating through your iBGP network.
To configure route dampening, use the following command in address-family or VRF address family
configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-24
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
dampening [{half-life reuse-limit
suppress-limit max-suppress-time |
route-map map-name}]
Disables capabilities negotiation. The parameter
values are as follows:
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# dampening
route-map bgpDamp
•
half-life—The range is from 1 to 45.
•
reuse-limit—The range is from 1 to 20000.
•
suppress-limit—The range is from 1 to 20000.
•
max-suppress-time—The range is from 1 to
255.
Configuring Load Sharing and ECMP
You can configure the maximum number of paths that BGP adds to the route table for equal-cost
multipath load balancing.
To configure the maximum number of paths, use the following command in router address-family
configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
maximum-paths [ibgp] maxpaths
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# maximum-paths 12
Configures the maximum number of equal-cost
paths for load sharing. The range is from 1 to 16.
Configuring Maximum Prefixes
You can configure the maximum number of prefixes that BGP can receive from a BGP peer. If the
number of prefixes exceeds this value, you can optionally configure BGP to generate a warning message
or tear down the BGP session to the peer.
To configure the maximum allowed prefixes for a BGP peer, use the following command in neighbor
address-family configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
maximum-prefix maximum [threshold]
[restart time | warming-only]
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
maximum-paths 12
Configures the maximum number of prefixes from
a peer. The parameter ranges are as follows:
•
maximum—The range is from 1 to 300000.
•
Threshold—The range is from 1 to 100
percent. The default is 75 percent.
•
time—The range is from 1 to 65535 minutes.
This command triggers an automatic notification
and session reset for the BGP neighbor sessions if
the prefix limit is exceeded.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-25
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring Dynamic Capability
You can configure dynamic capability for a BGP peer.
To configure dynamic capability, use the following command in neighbor configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
dynamic-capability
Enables dynamic capability. This command
triggers an automatic notification and session reset
for the BGP neighbor sessions.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
dynamic-capability
Disabled by default.
Configuring Aggregate Addresses
You can configure aggregate address entries in the BGP route table.
To configure an aggregate address, use the following command in router address-family configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
aggregate-address ip-prefix/length
[as-set] [summary-only] [advertise-map
map-name] [attribute-map map-name]
[suppress-map map-name]
Creates an aggregate address. The path advertised
for this route is an autonomous system set that
consists of all elements contained in all paths that
are being summarized:
Example:
switch(config-router-af)#
aggregate-address 192.0.2.0/8 as-set
•
The as-set keyword generates autonomous
system set path information and community
information from contributing paths.
•
The summary-only keyword filters all more
specific routes from updates.
•
The advertise-map keyword and argument
specify the route map used to select attribute
information from selected routes.
•
The attribute-map keyword and argument
specify the route map used to select attribute
information from the aggregate.
•
The suppress-map keyword and argument
conditionally filters more specific routes.
Configuring Route Redistribution
You can configure BGP to accept routing information from another routing protocol and redistribute that
information through the BGP network. Optionally, you can assign a default route for redistributed routes.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-26
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router bgp as-number
3.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast | multicast}
4.
redistribute {direct | eigrp as | isis id | ospf id | ospfv3 id | rip id | static route-map map-name
5.
default-metric value
6.
exit
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters BGP mode and assigns the autonomous system
number to the local BGP speaker.
router bgp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 45000
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} {unicast |
multicast}
Enters address family configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 4
redistribute {direct | eigrp as | isis
id | ospf id | ospfv3 id | rip id |
static | direct} route-map map-name
Redistributes routes from other protocols into BGP.
See the “Configuring Route Maps” section on
page 14-9 for more information about route maps.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# redistribute
eigrp 201 route-map Eigrpmap
Step 5
(Optional) Generates a default route into BGP.
default-metric value
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# default-metric
33
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# copy
running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-27
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to redistribute EIGRP into BGP:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router bgpEnterprise
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)# redistribute eigrp 201 route-map Eigrpmap
switch(config-router-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Tuning BGP
You can tune BGP characteristics through a series of optional parameters.
To tune BGB, use the following optional commands in router configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
bestpath [always-compare-med |
compare-routerid | med {missing-as-worst |
non-deterministic}]
Modifies the bestpath algorithm. The optional
parameters are as follows:
Example:
switch(config-router)# bestpath
always-compare-med
enforce-first-as
Example:
switch(config-router)# enforce-first-as
log-neighbor-changes
Example:
switch(config-router)#
log-neighbor-changes
•
always-compare-med—Compares MED on
paths from different autonomous systems.
•
compare-routerid—Compares the router IDs
for identical eBGP paths.
•
med missing-as-worst—Treats a missing
MED as the highest MED.
•
med non-deterministic—Does not always
pick the best MED path from among the paths
from the same autonomous system.
Enforces the neighbor autonomous system to be the
first AS number listed in the AS_path attribute for
eBGP.
Generates a system message when a neighbor
changes state.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-28
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
router-id id
Manually configures the router ID for this BGP
speaker.
Example:
switch(config-router)# router-id
209.165.20.1
timers [bestpath-delay delay | bgp
keepalive holdtime | prefix-peer-timeout
timeout]
Example:
switch(config-router)# timers bgp 90 270
Sets the BGP timer values. The optional parameters
are as follows:
•
delay—Initial best-path timeout value after a
restart. The range is from 0 to 3600 seconds.
The default value is 300.
•
keepalive—BGP session keepalive time. The
range is from 0 to 3600 seconds. The default
value is 60.
•
holdtime—BGP session hold time.The range is
from 0 to 3600 seconds. The default value is
180.
•
timeout—Prefix peer timeout value. The range
is from 0 to 1200 seconds. The default value is
30.
You must manually reset the BGP sessions after
configuring this command.
To tune BGP, use the following optional command in router address-family configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
distance ebgp-distance ibgp distance
local-distance
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# distance 20 100
200
Sets the administrative distance for BGP. The range
is from 1 to 255. The defaults are as follows:
•
eBGP distance—20.
•
iBGP distance—200.
•
local distance—220. Local-distance is the
administrative distance used for aggregate
discard routes when they are installed in the
RIB.
To tune BGP, use the following optional commands in neighbor configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-29
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
description string
Sets a descriptive string for this BGP peer. The
string can be up to 80 alphanumeric characters.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
description main site
transport connection-mode passive
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)# transport
connection-mode passive
remove-private-as
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
remove-private-as
update-source interface-type number
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor)#
update-source ethernet 2/1
Allows a passive connection setup only. This BGP
speaker does not initiate a TCP connection to a
BGP peer. You must manually reset the BGP
sessions after configuring this command.
Removes private AS numbers from outbound route
updates to an eBGP peer. This command triggers an
automatic soft clear or refresh of BGP neighbor
sessions.
Configures the BGP speaker to use the source IP
address of the configured interface for BGP
sessions to the peer. This command triggers an
automatic notification and session reset for the
BGP neighbor sessions.
To tune BGP, use the following optional commands in neighbor address-family configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
suppress-inactive
Advertises the best (active) routes only to the BGP
peer. This command triggers an automatic soft
clear or refresh of BGP neighbor sessions.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
suppress-inactive
default-originate [route-map map-name]
Generates a default route to the BGP peer.
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
default-originate
filter-list list-name {in | out}
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
filter-list BGPFilter in
prefix-list list-name {in | out}
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
prefix-list PrefixFilter in
send-community
Example:
switch(config-router-neighbor-af)#
send-community
Applies an AS_path filter list to this BGP peer for
inbound or outbound route updates. This command
triggers an automatic soft clear or refresh of BGP
neighbor sessions.
Applies a prefix list to this BGP peer for inbound
or outbound route updates. This command triggers
an automatic soft clear or refresh of BGP neighbor
sessions.
Sends the community attribute to this BGP peer.
This command triggers an automatic soft clear or
refresh of BGP neighbor sessions.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-30
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring a Graceful Restart
You can configure a graceful restart and enable the graceful restart helper feature for BGP.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
Create the VDCs and VRFs.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router bgp as-number
3.
graceful-restart
4.
graceful-restart [restart-time time | stalepath-time time]
5.
graceful-restart-helper
6.
show running-config bgp
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new BGP process with the configured
autonomous system number.
router bgp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
graceful-restart
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
Enables a graceful restart and the graceful restart
helper functionality. Enabled by default.
This command triggers an automatic notification and
session reset for the BGP neighbor sessions.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-31
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 4
Command
Purpose
graceful-restart [restart-time time |
stalepath-time time]
Configures the graceful restart timers.
The optional parameters are as follows:
Example:
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
restart-time 300
•
restart-time—Maximum time for a restart sent to
the BGP peer. The range is from 1 to 3600
seconds. The default is 120.
•
stalepath-time—Maximum time that BGP will
keep the stale routes from the restarting BGP peer.
The range is from 1 to 3600 seconds. The default
is 300.
This command triggers an automatic notification and
session reset for the BGP neighbor sessions.
Step 5
Step 6
Example:
switch(config-router)#
graceful-restart-helper
Enables the graceful restart helper functionality. Use
this command if you have disabled graceful restart but
you still want to enable graceful restart helper
functionality. This command triggers an automatic
notification and session reset for the BGP neighbor
sessions.
show running-config bgp
(Optional) Displays the BGP configuration.
graceful-restart-helper
Example:
switch(config-router)# show
running-config bgp
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-router)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to enable a graceful restart:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router bgp 201
switch(config-router)# graceful-restart
switch(config-router)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Virtualization
You can configure one BGP process in each VDC. You can create multiple VRFs within each VDC and
use the same BGP process in each VRF.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the BGP feature (see the “Enabling the BGP Feature” section on page 9-9).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-32
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Configuring Advanced BGP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
2.
vrf context vrf-name
3.
exit
4.
router bgp as-number
5.
vrf vrf-name
6.
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new VRF and enters VRF configuration
mode.
vrf context vrf-name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 3
Exits VRF configuration mode.
exit
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# exit
switch(config)#
Step 4
Creates a new BGP process with the configured
autonomous system number.
router bgp as-number
Example:
switch(config)# router bgp 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 5
Enters the router VRF configuration mode and
associates this BGP instance with a VRF.
vrf vrf-name
Example:
switch(config-router)# vrf
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)#
Step 6
neighbor ip-address remote-as as-number
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf)# neighbor
209.165.201.1 remote-as 45000
switch(config-router--vrf-neighbor)#
Step 7
Configures the IP address and AS number for a remote
BGP peer.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf-neighbor)# copy
running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-33
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Verifying Advanced BGP Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to create a VRF and configure the router ID in the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context NewVRF
switch(config-vrf)# exit
switch(config)# router bgp 201
switch(config-router)# vrf NewVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)# neighbor 209.165.201.1 remote-as 45000
switch(config-router-vrf-neighbor)# copy running-config startup-config
Verifying Advanced BGP Configuration
To verify the BGP configuration, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] all [summary]
Displays the BGP information for all address
families.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] convergence
Displays the BGP information for all address
families.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] community {regexp |
[community] [no-advertise] [no-export]
[no-export-subconfed]}
Displays the BGP routes that match a BGP
community.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] community-list list-name
Displays the BGP routes that match a BGP
community list.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] {damp-params | dampened-paths}
Displays the information for BGP route
dampening. Use the clear bgp dampening
command to clear the route flap dampening
information.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] history-paths
Displays the BGP route history paths.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] filter-list list-name
Displays the information for BGP filter list.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] neighbors [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix]
Displays the information for BGP peers. Use the
clear bgp neighbors command to clear these
neighbors.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] {nexthop | nexthop-database}
Displays the information for the BGP route
next-hop.
show bgp paths
Displays the BGP path information.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] policy name
Displays the BGP policy information. Use the
clear bgp policy command to clear the policy
information.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-34
OL-12912-01
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Displaying BGP Statistics
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] prefix-list list-name
Displays the BGP routes that match the prefix list.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] received-paths
Displays the BGP paths stored for soft
reconfiguration.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] regexp expression
Displays the BGP routes that match the AS_path
regular expression.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] route-map map-name
Displays the BGP routes that match the route
map.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] peer-policy name
Displays the information about BGP peer
policies.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] peer-session name
Displays the information about BGP peer
sessions.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] peer-template name
Displays the information about BGP peer
templates. Use the clear bgp peer-template
command to clear all neighbors in a peer template.
show running-configuration bgp
Displays the current running BGP configuration.
Displaying BGP Statistics
To display BGP statistics, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] flap-statistics
Displays the BGP route flap statistics. Use the clear bgp
flap-statistics command to clear these statistics.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] {ip | ipv6}
{unicast | multicast} [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix] neighbors [ip-address |
ipv6-prefix]
Displays the statistics for BGP peers. Use the clear bgp
neighbors command to clear these statistics.
show bgp [vrf vrf-name] sessions
Displays the BGP sessions for all peers. Use the clear
bgp sessions command to clear these statistics.
Related Topics
The following topics can give more information on BGP:
•
Chapter 9, “Configuring Basic BGP”
•
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager”
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
10-35
Chapter 10
Configuring Advanced BGP
Default Settings
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Default Settings
Table 10-1 lists the default settings for BGP parameters.
Table 10-1
Default BGP Parameters
Parameters
Default
BGP feature
disabled
keep alive interval
60 seconds
hold timer
180 seconds
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing BGP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 10-36
•
MIBs, page 10-36
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
BGP CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs and VRFs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
MIBs
MIBs
MIBs Link
BGP4-MIB
To locate and download MIBs, go to the following URL:
CISCO-BGP4-MIB
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
10-36
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
11
Configuring RIP
This chapter describes how to configure the Routing Information Protocol (RIP).
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About RIP, page 11-1
•
Licensing Requirements for RIP, page 11-4
•
Prerequisites for RIP, page 11-4
•
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations, page 11-4
•
Configuring RIP, page 11-5
•
Verifying RIP Configuration, page 11-17
•
Displaying RIP Statistics, page 11-17
•
RIP Example Configuration, page 11-18
•
Related Topics, page 11-18
•
Where to Go Next, page 11-18
•
Default Settings, page 11-18
•
Additional References, page 11-18
Information About RIP
This section includes the following topics:
•
RIP Overview, page 11-2
•
RIPv2 Authentication, page 11-2
•
Split Horizon, page 11-2
•
Route Filtering, page 11-3
•
Route Summarization, page 11-3
•
Route Redistribution, page 11-3
•
Load Balancing, page 11-4
•
High Availability, page 11-4
•
Virtualization Support, page 11-4
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-1
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Information About RIP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
RIP Overview
RIP uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) data packets to exchange routing information in small
internetworks. RIPv2 supports IPv4 and RIPng supports IPv6. RIP next generation (RIPng) uses IPv6
authentication while RIPv2 uses an optional authentication feature supported by the RIPv2 protocol (see
the “RIPv2 Authentication” section on page 11-2).
Note
Unless otherwise noted, RIP refers to both RIPv2 and RIPng in this chapter.
RIP uses the following two message types:
•
Request—Sent to a multicast address to request route updates from other RIP-enabled routers.
•
Response—Sent every 30 seconds by default (see the “Verifying RIP Configuration” section on
page 11-17). The router also sends response messages after it receives a Request message. The
response message contains the entire RIP route table. RIP sends multiple response packets for a
request if the RIP routing table cannot fit in one response packet.
RIP uses a hop count for the routing metric. The hop count is the number of routers that a packet can
traverse before reaching its destination. A directly connected network has a metric of 1; an unreachable
network has a metric of 16. This small range of metrics makes RIP an unsuitable routing protocol for
large networks.
RIPv2 Authentication
You can configure authentication on RIP messages to prevent unauthorized or invalid routing updates in
your network. Cisco NX-OS supports a simple password or an MD5 authentication digest.
You can configure the RIP authentication per interface by using key-chain management for the
authentication keys. Key-chain management allows you to control changes to the authentication keys
used by an MD5 authentication digest or simple text password authentication. See the Cisco NX-OS
Security Configuration Guide for more details about creating key-chains.
To use an MD5 authentication digest, you configure a password that is shared at the local router and all
remote RIP neighbors. Cisco NX-OS creates an MD5 one-way message digest based on the message
itself and the encrypted password and sends this digest with the RIP message (Request or Response).
The receiving RIP neighbor validates the digest by using the same encrypted password. If the message
has not changed, the calculation is identical and the RIP message is considered valid.
An MD5 authentication digest also includes a sequence number with each RIP message to ensure that
no message is replayed in the network.
Split Horizon
You can use split horizon to ensure that RIP never advertises a route out of the interface where it was
learned.
Split horizon is a method that controls the sending of RIP update and query packets. When you enable
split horizon on an interface, Cisco NX-OS does not send update packets for destinations that were
learned from this interface. Controlling update packets in this manner reduces the possibility of routing
loops.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Information About RIP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
You can use split horizon with poison revers to configure an inteface to advertise routes learnd by RIP
as unreachable over the interface that learned the routes. Figure 11-1 shows a sample RIP network with
split horizon with poison reverse enabled.
Figure 11-1
RIP with Split Horizon Poison Reverse
route x
route x
route x
185058
route x unreachable
route x unreachable
Router A
Router A
Router C
router C learns about route X and advertises that route to router B. router B in turn advertises routeX to
router A, but sends a route X unreachable update back to router C.
By default, split horizon is enabled on all interfaces.
Route Filtering
You can configure a route policy on a RIP-enabled interface to filter the RIP updates. Cisco NX-OS
updates the route table with only those routes that the route policy allows.
Route Summarization
You can configure multiple summary aggregate addresses for a specified interface. Route summarization
simplifies route tables by replacing a number of more-specific addresses with an address that represents
all the specific addresses. For example, you can replace 10.1.1.0/24, 10.1.2.0/24, and 10.1.3.0/24 with
one summary address, 10.1.0.0/16.
If more specific routes are in the routing table, RIP advertises the summary address from the interface
with a metric equal to the maximum metric of the more specific routes.
Note
Cisco NX-OS does not support automatic route summarization.
Route Redistribution
You can use RIP to redistribute static routes or routes from other protocols. You configure redistribution
use a route policy to control which routes are passed into RIP. A route policy allows you to filter routes
based on attributes such as the destination, origination protocol, route type, route tag, and so on. For
more information, see Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager.”
Whenever you redistribute routes into a RIP routing domain, Cisco NX-OS does not, by default,
redistribute the default route into the RIP routing domain. You can generate a default route into RIP,
which can be controlled by a route policy.
You also configure the default metric that is used for all imported routes into RIP.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-3
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Licensing Requirements for RIP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Load Balancing
You can use load balancing to allow a router to distribute traffic over all the router network ports that are
the same distance from the destination address. Load balancing increases the utilization of network
segments and increases effective network bandwidth.
Cisco NX-OS supports the Equal Cost Multiple Paths (ECMP) feature with up to 16 equal-cost paths in
the RIP route table and the unicast RIB. You can configure RIP to load balance traffic across some or all
of those paths.
High Availability
Cisco NX-OS supports stateless restarts for RIP. After a reboot or supervisor switchover, Cisco NX-OS
applies the running configuration and RIP immediately sends request packets to repopulate its routing
table.
Virtualization Support
Cisco NX-OS supports multiple instances of the RIP protocol that runs on the same system. RIP supports
Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device contexts (VDCs).
You can configure up to four RIP instances on a VDC. By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default
VDC and default VRF unless you specifically configure another VDC and VRF. See the Cisco NX-OS
Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide and Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for RIP
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
RIP requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS
system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing
scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for RIP
RIP has the following prerequisites:
•
You must enable the RIP feature (see the “Enabling the RIP Feature” section on page 11-5).
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see to the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Configuration Guidelines and Limitations
RIP has the following configuration guidelines and limitations:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Cisco NX-OS does not support RIPv1. If Cisco NX-OS receives a RIPv1 packet, it logs a message
and drops the packet.
•
Cisco NX-OS does not establish adjacencies with RIPv1 routers.
Configuring RIP
This section includes the following topics:
Note
•
Enabling the RIP Feature, page 11-5
•
Creating a RIP Instance, page 11-6
•
Configuring RIP on an Interface, page 11-8
•
Configuring a Passive Interface, page 11-10
•
Configuring Route Summarization, page 11-11
•
Configuring Route Summarization, page 11-11
•
Configuring Route Redistribution, page 11-11
•
Configuring Virtualization, page 11-13
•
Tuning RIP, page 11-15
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Enabling the RIP Feature
You must enable the RIP feature before you can configure RIP.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
feature rip
3.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-5
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
feature rip
Enables the RIP feature.
Example:
switch(config)# feature rip
Step 3
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no feature rip command to disable the RIP feature and remove all associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no feature rip
Disables the RIP feature and removes all associated
configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature rip
Creating a RIP Instance
You can create a RIP instance and configure the address family for that instance.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the RIP feature (see the “Enabling the RIP Feature” section on page 11-5).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router rip instance-tag
3.
address-family {ip | ipv6} unicast
4.
show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance instance-tag] [vrf vrf-name]
5.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router rip instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router RIP Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Creates a new RIP instance with the configured
instance-tag.
Step 3
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} unicast
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Configures the address family for this RIP instance and
enters address-family configuration mode.
Step 4
show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance
instance-tag] [vrf vrf-name]
(Optional) Displays a summary of RIP information for
all RIP instances.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# show ip rip
Step 5
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# copy
running-config startup-config
Use the no router rip command to remove the RIP instance and the associated configuration.
Command
Purpose
no router rip instance-tag
Deletes the RIP instance and all associated
configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no router rip Enterprise
Note
You must also remove any RIP commands configured in interface mode.
You can configure the following optional parameters for RIP in address-family configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
distance value
Sets the administrative distance for RIP. The range
is from 1 to 255. The default is 120. See the
“Administrative Distance” section on page 1-6.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# distance 30
maximum-paths number
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# maximum-paths 6
Configures the maximum number of equal-cost
paths that RIP maintains in the route table. The
range is from 1 to 16. The default is 16.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-7
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to create a RIP instance for IPv4 and set the number of equal-cost
paths for load balancing:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router rip Enterprise
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)# max-paths 10
switch(config-router-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Restarting a RIP Instance
You can restart a RIP instance. This clears all neighbors for the instance.
To restart an RIP instance and remove all associated neighbors, use the following command:
Command
Purpose
restart rip instance-tag
Restarts the RIP instance and removes all
neighbors.
Example:
switch(config)# restart rip Enterprise
Configuring RIP on an Interface
You can add an interface to a RIP instance.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the RIP feature (see the “Enabling the RIP Feature” section on page 11-5).
Enter the correct VDC if necessary before configuring RIP.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
{ip | ipv6} router rip instance-tag
4.
show{ip | ipv6} rip [instance instance-tag] interface [interface-type slot/port] [vrf vrf-name]
[detail]
5.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Associates this interface with a RIP instance.
{ip | ipv6} router rip instance-tag
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router rip
Enterprise
Step 4
show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance
instance-tag] interface [interface-type
slot/port] [vrf vrf-name] [detail]
(Optional) Displays RIP information for an interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip rip
Enterprise tethernet 1/2
Step 5
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to add Ethernet 1/2 interface to a RIP instance:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip router rip Enterprise
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring RIP Authentication
You can configure authentication for RIP packets on an interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the RIP feature (see the “Enabling the RIP Feature” section on page 11-5).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Configure a key chain if necessary before enabling authentication. See the Cisco NX-OS Security
Configuration Guide for details on implementing key chains.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-9
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
ip rip authentication mode{text | md5}
4.
ip rip authentication keychain key
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ip rip authentication mode {text | md5}
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip rip authentication
mode md5
Step 4
ip rip authentication keychain key
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip rip authentication
keychain RIPKey
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
Sets the authentication type for RIP on this interface as
cleartext or MD5 authentication digest.
Configures the authentication key used for RIP on this
interface.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create a key chain and configure MD5 authentication on a RIP
interface:
switch# config t
switch(config)# key chain RIPKey
switch(config)# key-string myrip
switch(config)# accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Jan 01 2000 infinite
switch(config)# send-lifetime 00:00:00 Jan 01 2000 infinite
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip rip authentication mode md5
switch(config-if)# ip rip authentication keychain RIPKey
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring a Passive Interface
You can configure a RIP interface to receive routes but not send route updates by setting the interface to
passive mode.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
To configure a RIP interface in passive mode, use the following command in interface configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
{ip | ipv6} rip passive-interface
Sets the interface into passive mode.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip rip
passive-interface
Configuring Split Horizon with Poison Reverse
You can configure an interface to advertise routes learned by RIP as unreachable over the interface that
learned the routes by enabling poison reverse.
To configure split horizon with poison revierse on an interface, use the following command in interface
configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
{ip | ipv6} rip poison-reverse
Enables split horizon with poison reverse. Split
horizon with poison reverse is disabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip rip poison-reverse
Configuring Route Summarization
You can create aggregate addresses that are represented in the routing table by a summary address. Cisco
NX-OS advertises thesummary address metric that is the smallest metric of all the more-specific routes.
To configure a summary address on an interface, use the following command in interface configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
{ip | ipv6} rip summary-address
{ip-prefix/mask-len |
ipv6-prefix/mask-len}
Configures a summary address for RIP for IPv4 or
IPv6 addresses.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router rip
summary-address 192.0.2.0/24
Configuring Route Redistribution
You can configure RIP to accept routing information from another routing protocol and redistribute that
information through the RIP network. Redistributed routes can optionally be assigned a default route.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the RIP feature (see the “Enabling the RIP Feature” section on page 11-5).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-11
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Enter the correct VDC if necessary before configuring RIP.
Configure a route map before configuring redistribution. See the“Configuring Route Maps” section on
page 14-9 for details on configuring route maps.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router rip instance-tag
3.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} unicast
4.
redistribute {bgp as | direct | eigrp as | isis tag | rip tag | {ospf tag | ospfv3 tag } | static}
route-map map-name
5.
default-information originate [always] [route-map map-name]
6.
default-metric value
7.
show{ip | ipv6} rip route [{ip-prefix | ip6-prefix}[longer-prefixes | shorter-prefixes ]] [vrf
vrf-name] [summary]
8.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
router rip instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router rip Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} unicast
Creates a new RIP instance with the configured
instance-tag.
Enters address family configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router)# address-family
ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)#
Step 4
redistribute {bgp as | direct | eigrp as
|isis tag | rip tag | {ospf tag | ospfv3
tag} static} route-map map-name
Redistributes routes from other protocols into RIP. See
the “Configuring Route Maps” section on page 14-9
for more information about route maps.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# redistribute
eigrp 201 route-map RIPmap
Step 5
default-information originate [always]
[route-map map-name]
(Optional) Generates a default route into RIP,
optionally controlled by a route map.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)#
default-information originate always
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command
Purpose
default-metric value
(Optional) Sets the default metric for all redistributed
routes. The range is from 1 to 15. The default is 1.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# distribute
level-1 into level-2 all
Step 7
show {ip | ipv6} rip route [{ip-prefix |
ip6-prefix} [longer-prefixes |
shorter-prefixes] [vrf
vrf-name][summary]
(Optional) Shows the routes in RIP.
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# show ip rip
route
Step 8
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to redistribute EIGRP into RIP:
switch# config t
switch(config)# router rip Enterprise
switch(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-af)# redistribute eigrp 201 route-map RIPmap
switch(config-router-af)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Virtualization
You can configure multiple RIP instances in each VDC. You can also create multiple VRFs within each
VDC and use the same or multiple RIP instances in each VRF. You assign a RIP interface to a VRF.
Note
Configure all other parameters for an interface after you configure the VRF for an interface. Configuring
a VRF for an interface deletes all the configuration for that interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the RIP feature (see the “Enabling the RIP Feature” section on page 11-5).
Create the VDCs.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
vrf context vrf_name
3.
exit
4.
router rip instance-tag
5.
vrf vrf-name
6.
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} unicast
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-13
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
7.
configure optional parameters
8.
interface ethernet slot/port
9.
vrf member vrf-name
10. ip-address ip-prefix/length
11. {ip | ipv6} router rip instance-tag
12. show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance instance-tag] interface [interface-type slot/port] [vrf vrf-name]
13. copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
vrf vrf-name
Creates a new VRF.
Example:
switch(config)# vrf RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 3
exit
Exits VRF configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# exit
switch(config)#
Step 4
router rip instance-tag
Example:
switch(config)# router rip Enterprise
switch(config-router)#
Step 5
vrf context vrf-name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 6
address-family {ipv4 | ipv6} unicast
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf)#
address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-vrf-af)#
Step 7
redistribute {bgp as | direct | eigrp as
| isis tag | rip tag | {ospf tag |
ospfv3 tag} static} route-map map-name
Creates a new RIP instance with the configured
instance tag.
Creates a new VRF and enters VRF configuration
mode.
(Optional) Configures the VRF address family for this
RIP instance.
(Optional) Redistributes routes from other protocols
into RIP. See the “Configuring Route Maps” section on
page 14-9 for more information about route maps.
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf-af)#
redistribute eigrp 201 route-map RIPmap
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 8
Command
Purpose
interface ethernet slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf-af)# interface
ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 9
Adds this interface to a VRF.
vrf member vrf-name
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrf member
RemoteOfficeVRF
Step 10
Configures an IP address for this interface. You must
do this step after you assign this interface to a VRF.
ip address ip-prefix/length
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip address
209.0.2.1/16
Step 11
Associates this interface with a RIP instance.
{ip | ipv6) router rip instance-tag
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router rip
Enterprise
Step 12
show {ip | ipv6) rip [instance
instance-tag] interface [interface-type
slot/port] [vrf vrf-name]
(Optional) Displays RIP information for an interface.
in a VRF.
Example:
switch(config-if)# show ip rip
Enterprise ethernet 1/2
Step 13
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create a VRF and add an interface to the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)# exit
switch(config)# router rip Enterprise
switch(config-router)# vrf RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)# address-family ipv4 unicast
switch(config-router-vrf-af)# redistribute eigrp 201 route-map RIPmap
switch(config-router-vrf-af)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# vrf member RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-if)# ip address 209.0.2.1/16
switch(config-if)# ip router rip Enterprise
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Tuning RIP
You can tune RIP to match your network requirements. RIP uses several timers that determine the
frequency of routing updates, the length of time before a route becomes invalid, and other parameters.
You can adjust these timers to tune routing protocol performance to better suit your internetwork needs.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-15
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Configuring RIP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
You must configure the same values for the RIP timers on all RIP-enabled routers in your network.
You can use the following optional commands in address-family configuration mode to tune RIP:
Command
Purpose
timers basic update timeout holddown
garbage-collection
Example:
switch(config-router-af)# timers basic 40
120 120 100
Sets the RIP timers in seconds. The parameters are
as follows:
•
update—The range is from 5 to any positive
integer. The default is 30.
•
timeout—The time that Cisco NX-OS waits
before declaring a routeas invalid. If Cisco
NX-OS does not receive route update
information for this route before the timeout
interval ends, Cisco NX-OS declares the route
as invalid. The range isfrom 1 to any positive
integer. The default is 180.
•
holddown—The time during which Cisco
NX-OS ignores better route information for an
invalid route. The range is from 0 to any
positive integer. The default is 180.
•
garbage-collection—The time from when
Cisco NX-OS marks a route as invalid until
Cisco NX-OS removes the route from the
routing table. The range is frome 1 to any
positive integer. The default is 120.
You can use the following optional commands in interface configuration mode to tune RIP:
Command
Purpose
{ip | ipv6} rip metric-offset value
Adds a value to the metric for every router received
on this interface. The range is from 1 to 15. The
default is 1.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip rip metric-offset 10
{ip | ipv6} rip route-filter {prefix-list
list-name | route-map map-name| [in | out]
Specifies a route map to filter incoming or outgoing
RIP updates.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip rip route-filter
route-map InputMap in
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Verifying RIP Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Verifying RIP Configuration
To verify RIP configuration, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show {ip | ipv6} rip instance
[instance-tag] [vrf vrf-name]
Displays the status for an instance of RIP.
show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance
instance-tag] interface slot/port detail
[vrf vrf-name]
Displays the RIP status for an inteface.
show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance
instance-tag] neighbor [interface-type
number] [vrf vrf-name]
Displays the RIP neighbor table.
show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance
instance-tag] route [{ip-prefix/lengh |
ipv6-prefix/length} [longer-prefixes |
shorter--prefixes]][summary] [vrf vrf-name]
Displays the RIP route table.
show running-configuration rip
Displays the current running RIP configuration.
Displaying RIP Statistics
To display RIP statistics, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance
instance-tag] policy statistics
redistribute {bgp as | direct | eigrp
as | isis tag | rip tag | {ospf tag |
ospfv3 tag} static} [vrf vrf-name]
Displays the RIP policy status.
show {ip | ipv6} rip [instance
instance-tag] statistics
interface-type number] [vrf vrf-name]
Displays the RIP statistics.
Use the clear {ip | ipv6} rip policy command to clear policy statistics.
Use the clear {ip | ipv6} rip statistics command to clear RIP statistics.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-17
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
RIP Example Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
RIP Example Configuration
The following example creates the Enterprise RIP instance in a VRF and adds Ethernet interface 1/2 to
this RIP instance. The example also configures authentication for Ethernet interface 1/2 and redistributes
EIGRP into this RIP domain.
vrf context NewVRF
!
feature rip
router rip Enterprise
vrf NewVRF
address-family ip unicast
redistribute eigrp 201 route-map RIPmap
max-paths 10
!
interface ethernet 1/2
vrf NewVRF
ip address 209.0.2.1/16
ip router rip Enterprise
ip rip authentication mode md5
ip rip authentication keychain RIPKey
Related Topics
See Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager” for more information on route maps.
Where to Go Next
<Description of next configuration task.>
Default Settings
Table 11-1 lists the default settings for RIP parameters.
Table 11-1
Default RIP Parameters
Parameters
Default
Maximum paths for load balancing
16
RIP feature
Disabled
Split horizon
Enabled
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing RIP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 11-19
•
Standards, page 11-19
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-18
OL-12912-01
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
RIP CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs and VRFs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
11-19
Chapter 11
Configuring RIP
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
11-20
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
12
Configuring Static Routing
This chapter describes how to configure static routing on the router.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About Static Routing, page 12-1
•
Licensing Requirements for Static Routing, page 12-3
•
Prerequisites for Static Routing, page 12-3
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 12-3
•
Configuring Static Routing, page 12-3
•
Verifying Static Routing Configuration, page 12-6
•
Static Routing Example Configuration, page 12-6
•
Default Settings, page 12-7
•
Additional References, page 12-7
Information About Static Routing
Routers forward packets using either route information from route table entries that you manually
configure or the route information that is calculated using dynamic routing algorithms.
Static routes, which define explicit paths between two routers, cannot be automatically updated; you
must manually reconfigure static routes when network changes occur. Static routes use less bandwidth
than dynamic routes. No CPU cycles are used to calculate and analyze routing updates.
You can supplement dynamic routes with static routes where appropriate. You can redistribute static
routes into dynamic routing algorithms but you cannot redistribute routing information calculated by
dynamic routing algorithms into the static routing table.
You should use static routes in environments where network traffic is predictable and where the network
design is simple. You should not use static routes in large, constantly changing networks because static
routes cannot react to network changes. Most networks use dynamic routes to communicate between
routers but may have one or two static routes configured for special cases. Static routes are also useful
for specifying a gateway of last resort (a default router to which all unroutable packets are sent).
This section includes the following topics:
•
Administrative Distance, page 12-2
•
Directly Connected Static Routes, page 12-2
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
12-1
Chapter 12
Configuring Static Routing
Information About Static Routing
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Fully Specified Static Routes, page 12-2
•
Floating Static Routes, page 12-2
•
Remote Next Hops for Static Routes, page 12-3
Administrative Distance
An administrative distance is the metric used by routers to choose the best path when there are two or
more routes to the same destination from two different routing protocols. An administrative distance
guides the selection of one routing protocol (or static route) over another, when more than one protocol
adds the same route to the unicast routing table. Each routing protocol is prioritized in order of most to
least reliable using an administrative distance value.
Static routes have a default administrative distance of 1. A router prefers a static route to a dynamic route
because the router considers a route with a low number to be the shortest. If you want a dynamic route
to override a static route, you can specify an administrative distance for the static route. For example, if
you have two dynamic routes with an administrative distance of 120, you would specify an
administrative distance that is greater than 120 for the static route if you want the dynamic route to
override the static route.
Directly Connected Static Routes
You need to specify only the output interface (the interface on which all packets are sent to the
destination network) in a directly connected static route. The router assumes the destination is directly
attached to the output interface and the packet destination is used as the next hop address. The next-hop
can be an interface, only for point-to-point interfaces. For broadcast interfaces, the next-hop must be an
IPv4/IPv6 address.
Fully Specified Static Routes
You must specify either the output interface (the interface on which all packets are sent to the destination
network) or the next hop address in a fully specified static route. You can use a fully specified static route
when the output interface is a multi-access interface and you need to identify the next-hop address. The
next-hop address must be directly attached to the specified output interface.
Floating Static Routes
A floating static route is a static route that the router uses to back up a dynamic route. You must configure
a floating static route with a higher administrative distance than the dynamic route that it backs up. In
this instance, the router prefers a dynamic route to a floating static route. You can use a floating static
route as a replacement if the dynamic route is lost.
Note
By default, a router prefers a static route to a dynamic route because a static route has a smaller
administrative distance than a dynamic route.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
12-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 12
Configuring Static Routing
Licensing Requirements for Static Routing
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Remote Next Hops for Static Routes
You can specify the next-hop address of a neighboring router which is not directly connected to the
router for static routes with remote (non-directly attached) next-hops. If a static route has remote
next-hops during data-forwarding, the next-hops are recursively used in the unicast routing table to
identify the corresponding directly attached next-hop(s) that have reachability to the remote next-hops.
Virtualization Support
Static routes support Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device
contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDC and VRF. For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device
Context Configuration Guideand see Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for Static Routing
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
Static routing requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco
NX-OS system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS
licensing scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for Static Routing
Static routing has the following prerequisites:
•
If the next-hop address for a static route is unreachable, the static route will not be added to the
unicast routing table.
Guidelines and Limitations
Static routing has the following guidelines and limitations:
•
You can specify an interface as the next-hop address for a static route only for point-to-point
interfaces such as GRE tunnels.
Configuring Static Routing
This section includes the following topics:
•
Configuring a Static Route, page 12-4
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
12-3
Chapter 12
Configuring Static Routing
Configuring Static Routing
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Configuring a Static Route
You can configure a static route on the router.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
ip route {ip-prefix | ip-addr ip-mask} {next-hop | nh-prefix | interface} [tag tag-value [pref]
or
3.
ipv6 route ip6-prefix{ {next-hop | nh-prefix} | interface | {link-local interface}} [pref]
4.
show {ip | ipv6} static-route
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
ip route {ip-prefix | ip-addr ip-mask}
{next-hop | nh-prefix | interface} [tag
tag-value [pref]
Example:
switch(config)# ip route 192.0.2.0/8
ethernet 1/2
ipv6 route {ip6-prefix{ {next-hop |
nh-prefix} | interface |{link-local
interface}} [pref]
Example:
switch(config)# ipv6 route
2001:0DB8::/48 ethernet 1/2
Configures a static route and the interface for this
static route. You can optionally configure the next-hop
address. The preference value sets the administrative
distance. The range is from 1 to 255. The default is 1.
Configures a static route and the interface for this
static route. You can optionally configure the next-hop
address. The preference value sets the administrative
distance. The range is from 1 to 255. The default is 1.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
12-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 12
Configuring Static Routing
Configuring Static Routing
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 3
Command
Purpose
show {ip | ipv6} static-route
(Optional) Displays information about static routes.
Example:
switch(config)# show ip static-route
Step 4
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
This example shows how to configure a static route:
switch# config t
switch(config)# ip route 192.0.2.0/8 192.0.2.10
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Use the no {ip | ipv6} static-route command to remove the static route.
Configuring Virtualization
You can configure a static route in a VRF.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
vrf context vrf-name
3.
ip route {ip-prefix | ip-addr ip-mask} {next-hop | nh-prefix | interface} [tag tag-value [pref]
or
4.
ipv6 route ip6-prefix{ {next-hop | nh-prefix} | interface | {link-local interface}} [pref]
5.
show {ip | ipv6} static-route vrf vrf-name
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 1
Creates a VRF and enters VRF configuration mode.
vrf context vrf-name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context StaticVrf
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
12-5
Chapter 12
Configuring Static Routing
Verifying Static Routing Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 2
Command
Purpose
ip route {ip-prefix | ip-addr ip-mask}
{next-hop | nh-prefix | interface} [tag
tag-value [pref]
Configures a static route and the interface for this
static route. You can optionally configure the next-hop
address. The preference value sets the administrative
distance. The range is from 1 to 255. The default is 1.
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# ip route 192.0.2.0/8
ethernet 1/2
ipv6 route {ip6-prefix{ {next-hop |
nh-prefix} | interface |{link-local
interface}} [pref]
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# ipv6 route
2001:0DB8::/48 ethernet 1/2
Step 3
show {ip | ipv6} static-route vrf
vrf-name
Configures a static route and the interface for this
static route. You can optionally configure the next-hop
address. The preference value sets the administrative
distance. The range is from 1 to 255. The default is 1.
(Optional) Displays information on static routes.
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# show ip static-route
Step 4
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# copy running-config
startup-config
This example shows how to configure a static route:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context StaticVrf
switch(config-vrf)# ip route 192.0.2.0/8 192.0.2.10
switch(config-vrf)# copy running-config startup-config
Verifying Static Routing Configuration
To view configuration information, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show ip static-route
Displays the configured static routes.
show ipv6 static-route vrf vrf-name
Displays static route information per-VRF.
show ipv6 static-route
Displays the configured static routes.
Static Routing Example Configuration
This example shows how to configure static routing:
config t
ip route 192.0.2.0/8 192.0.2.10
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
12-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 12
Configuring Static Routing
Default Settings
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Default Settings
Table 12-1 lists the default settings for static routing parameters.
Table 12-1
Default Static Routing Parameters
Parameters
Default
administrative distance
1
RIP feature
disabled
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing static routing, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 12-7
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
Static Routing CLI
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Line Reference
VDCs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
12-7
Chapter 12
Configuring Static Routing
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
12-8
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
This chapter describes how to configure Layer 3 virtualization.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Layer 3 Virtualization, page 13-1
•
Licensing Requirements for VRFs, page 13-5
•
Prerequisites for VRF, page 13-5
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 13-5
•
Configuring VRFs, page 13-6
•
Verifying VRF Configuration, page 13-12
•
VRF Example Configuration, page 13-12
•
Related Topics, page 13-12
•
Default Settings, page 13-13
•
Default Settings, page 13-13
•
Additional References, page 13-13
Layer 3 Virtualization
This section contains the following topics:
•
Overview of Layer 3 Virtualization, page 13-1
•
VRF and Routing, page 13-2
•
VRF-Aware Services, page 13-3
Overview of Layer 3 Virtualization
Cisco NX-OS supports a hierarchy of virtualization that can divide the physical system resources into multiple virtual device contexts (VDCs). Each VDC acts as a standalone device with both Layer 2 and Layer 3
services available. You can configure up to 15 VDCs, including the default VDC. See the Cisco NX-OS Virtualization Configuration Guide for more information on VDCs.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
13-1
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Layer 3 Virtualization
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS further virtualizes each VDC to support virtual routing and forwarding instances (VRFs). You
can configure multiple VRFs in a VDC. Each VRF contains a separate address space with unicast and
multicast route tables for IPv4 and IPv6 and makes routing decisions independent of any other VRF.
Figure 13-1 shows multiple independent VRFs in two different VDCs.
Figure 13-1
Multiple VRFs in VDCs
Physical Router
VDC 2
VDC n
routing protocol
routing protocol
VRF A
VRF A
VRF B
RIB-table
RIB-table
routing protocol
VRF B
RIBs
RIBs
RIB-table
RIB-table
Protocol stock
Protocol stock
FIBs
kernel
186415
Infrastructures
A VRF name is local to a VDC, so you can configure two VRFs with the same name if the VRFs exist
in different VDCs. In Figure 13-1, VRF A in VDC 2 is independent of VRF B and VRF A in VDC n.
Each router has a default VRF and a management VRF. All Layer 3 interfaces and routing protocols exist
in the default VRF until you assign them to another VRF. The mgmt0 interface exists in the management
VRF and is accessible from any VDC. Each VDC has a unique IP address for the mgmt0 interface (see
the Cisco NX-OS Fundamentals Configuration Guide, Release 4.0 ).
VRF and Routing
All unicast and multicast routing protocols support VRFs. When you configure a routing protocol in a
VRF, you set routing parameters for the VRF that are independent of routing parameters in another VRF
for the same routing protocol instance.
You can assign interfaces and route protocols to a VRF to create virtual Layer 3 networks. An interface
exists in only one VRF. Figure 13-2 shows one physical network split into two virtual networks with two
VRFs. Routers Z, A, and B exist in VRF Red and form one address domain. These routers share route
updates that do not include router C because router C is configured in a different VRF.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
13-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Layer 3 Virtualization
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 13-2
VRFs in a Network
Router B
Router A
Ethernet 2/1
VRF Red
Ethernet 1/1
VRF Red
Ethernet 2/2
VRF Blue
Router C
186416
Router Z
By default, Cisco NX-OS uses the VRF of the incoming interface to select which routing table to use for
a route lookup. You can configure a route policy to modify this behavior and set the VRF that Cisco
NX-OS uses for incoming packets. See Chapter 15, “Configuring Policy-Based Routing” for more
information.
VRF-Aware Services
A VRF-aware service can select a particular VRF to reach a remote server or to filter information based
on the selected VRF.
VRF-aware services include the following:
•
AAA—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide for more information.
•
Call Home—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide for more
information.
•
DNS—See Chapter 4, “Configuring DNS” for more information.
•
GLBP—See Chapter 16, “Configuring GLBP” for more information.
•
HSRP—See Chapter 17, “Configuring HSRP” for more information.
•
HTTP—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS Getting Started Configuration Guide for more information.
•
Licensing—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS Licensing Configuration Guide for more information.
•
Netflow—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS Network Management Configuration Guide for more
information.
•
NTP—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide for more information.
•
RADIUS—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide for more information.
•
Ping and Traceroute —See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide for
more information.
•
SSH—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide for more information.
•
SNMP—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide for more
information.
•
Syslog—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide for more
information.
•
TACACS+—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide for more information.
•
TFTP—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS Getting Started Configuration Guide for more information.
•
VRRP—See Chapter 18, “Configuring VRRP” for more information.
•
XML—See the Cisco Cisco NX-OS XML Configuration Guide for more information.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
13-3
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Layer 3 Virtualization
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
See the appropriate configuration guide for each service for more information on configuring VRF
support in that service.
This section contains the following topics:
•
Reachability, page 13-4
•
Filtering, page 13-4
•
Combining Reachability and Filtering, page 13-5
Reachability
Reachability indicates which VRF contains the routing information necessary to get to the server
providing the service. For example, you can configure an SNMP server that is reachable on the
management VRF. When you configure that server address on the router, you also configure which VRF
that Cisco NX-OS must use to reach the server.
Figure 13-3 shows an SNMP server that is reachable over the management VRF. You configure router A
to use the management VRF for SNMP server host 192.0.2.1.
Figure 13-3
Service VRF Reachability
SNMP Server
192.0.2.1
Router A
mgmt0
186417
VRF management
Filtering
Filtering allows you to limit the type of information that goes to a VRF-aware service based on the VRF.
For example, you can configure a syslog server to support a particular VRF. Figure 13-4 shows two
syslog servers with each server supporting one VRF. syslog server A is configured in VRF Red, so Cisco
NX-OS sends only system messages generated in VRF Red to syslog server A.
Figure 13-4
Service VRF Filtering
Syslog Server A
Ethernet 2/1
VRF Red
Router A
VRF Blue
Syslog Server B
186418
Ethernet 2/2
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
13-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Licensing Requirements for VRFs
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Combining Reachability and Filtering
You can combine reachability and filtering for VRF-aware services. You configure the VRF that Cisco
NX-OS uses to connect to that service as well as the VRF that the service supports. If you configure a
service in the default VRF, you can optionally configure the service to support all VRFs.
Figure 13-5 shows an SNMP server that is reachable on the management VRF. You can configure the
SNMP server to support only the SNMP notifications from VRF Red, for example.
Figure 13-5
Service VRF Reachability Filtering
Router B
Router A
mgmt0
VRF management
Ethernet 2/1
VRF Red
Ethernet 2/2
VRF Blue
Router C
186419
SNMP Server
192.0.2.1
Licensing Requirements for VRFs
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
VRFs require no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS
system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing
scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for VRF
VRFs have the following prerequisites:
•
You must install the Advanced Services license to use VDCs besides the default VDC.
Guidelines and Limitations
VRFs have the following guidelines and limitations:
•
When you make an interface a member of an existing VRF, Cisco NX-OS removes all layer 3
configuration. You should configure all layer 3 parameters after adding an interface to a VRF.
•
You should add the mgmt0 interface to the management VRF and configure the mgmt0 IP address
and other parameters after you add it to the management VRF.
•
If you configure an interface for a VRF before the VRF exists, the interface is operationally down
until you create the VRF.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
13-5
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Configuring VRFs
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Cisco NX-OS creates the default and management VRFs by default. You should make the mgmt0
interface a member of the management VRF.
Configuring VRFs
This section contains the following topics:
Note
•
Creating a VRF, page 13-6
•
Assigning VRF Membership to an Interface, page 13-7
•
Configuring VRF Parameters for a Routing Protocol, page 13-8
•
Configuring a VRF-Aware Service, page 13-10
•
Setting the VRF Scope, page 13-11
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Creating a VRF
You can create a VRF in a VDC.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
vrf context vrf-name
3.
configure optional parameters
4.
show vrf [vrf-name]
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
vrf context name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf definition
Enterprise
switch(config-vrf)#
Creates a new VRF and enters VRF configuration
mode.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
13-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Configuring VRFs
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 3
Command
Purpose
ip route ip-prefix interface-type
number
(Optional) Configures a static route.
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# ip route 192.0.2.0/8
ethernet 1/2
Step 4
(Optional) Displays VRF information.
show vrf [vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# show vrf Enterprise
Step 5
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no vrf context command to delete the VRF and the associated configuration:
Command
Purpose
no vrf context name
Deletes the VRF and all associated configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no vrf context Enterprise
Any commands available in global configuration mode are also available in VRF configuration mode.
The following example shows how to create a VRF and add a static route to the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context Enterprise
switch(config-vrf)# ip route 192.0.2.0/8 ethernet 1/2
switch(config-vrf)# exit
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Assigning VRF Membership to an Interface
You can make an interface a member of a VRF.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Assign the IP address for an interface after you have configured the interface for a VRF.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
vrf member vrf-name
4.
ip-address ip-prefix/length
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
13-7
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Configuring VRFs
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
5.
show vrf vrf-name interface interface-type number
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
vrf member vrf-name
Adds this interface to a VRF.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrf member
RemoteOfficeVRF
Step 4
ip address ip-prefix/length
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip address
209.0.2.1/16
Step 5
show vrf vrf-name interface
interface-type number
Configures an IP address for this interface. You must
do this step after you assign this interface to a VRF.
(Optional) Displays VRF information.
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# show vrf Enterprise
interface ethernet 1/2
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to add an interface to the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# vrf member RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-if)# ip address 209.0.2.1/16
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring VRF Parameters for a Routing Protocol
You can associate a routing protocol with one or more VRFs. See the appropriate chapter for information
on how to configure VRFs for the routing protocol. This section uses OSPFv2 as an example protocol
for the detailed configuration steps.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
13-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Configuring VRFs
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
router protocol tag
3.
vrf vrf-name
4.
configure optional parameters for the protocol in the VRF.
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a new OSPFv2 instance with the configured
instance tag.
router ospf instance-tag
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)#
Step 3
Enters VRF configuration mode.
vrf vrf-name
Example:
switch(config-router)# vrf
RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)#
Step 4
maximum-paths paths
Example:
switch(config-router-vrf)# maximum-paths
4
Step 5
(Optional) Configures the maximum number of equal
OSPFv2 paths to a destination in the route table for this
VRF. Used for load balancing.
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 6
vrf member vrf-name
Adds this interface to a VRF.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrf member
RemoteOfficeVRF
Step 7
ip address ip-prefix/length
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip address
209.0.2.1/16
Configures an IP address for this interface. You must
do this step after you assign this interface to a VRF.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
13-9
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Configuring VRFs
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 8
Command
Purpose
ip router ospf instance-tag area area-id
Assigns this interface to the OSPFv2 instance and area
configured.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip router ospf 201
area 0
Step 9
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create a VRF and add an interface to the VRF:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf context RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-vrf)# exit
switch(config)# router ospf 201
switch(config-router)# vrf RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-router-vrf)# maximum-paths 4
switch(config-router-vrf)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# vrf member RemoteOfficeVRF
switch(config-if)# ip address 209.0.2.1/16
switch(config-if)# ip router ospf 201 area 0
switch(config-if)# exit
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring a VRF-Aware Service
You can configure a VRF-aware service for reachability and filtering. See the “VRF-Aware Services”
section on page 13-3 for links to the appropriate chapter or configuration guide for information on how
to configure the service for VRFs. This section uses SNMP and IP domain lists as example services for
the detailed configuration steps.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
service parameters [filter_vrf vrf-name] [use-vrf vrf-name]
3.
vrf context [vrf-name]
4.
service parameters [all-vrfs][use-vrf vrf-name]
5.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
13-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Configuring VRFs
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
snmp-server host ip-address [filter-vrf
vrf-name] [use-vrf vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config)# snmp-server host
192.0.2.1 use-vrf Red
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 3
Configures a global SNMP server and configures the
VRF that Cisco NX-OS uses to reach the service Use
the filter-vrf keyword to filter information from the
selected VRF to this server.
Creates a new VRF.
vrf context vrf-name
Example:
switch(config)# vrf context Blue
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 4
ip domail-list domain-name
[all-vrfs][use-vrf vrf-name]
Example:
switch(config-vrf)# ip domain-list List
all-vrfs use-vrf Blue
switch(config-vrf)#
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
Configures the domain list in the VRF and optionally
configures the VRF that Cisco NX-OS uses to reach
the domain name listed..
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to send SNMP information for all VRFs to SNMP host 192.0.2.1,
reachable on VRF Red:
switch# config t
switch(config)# snmp-server host 192.0.2.1 for-all-vrfs use-vrf Red
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to Filter SNMP information for VRF Blue to SNMP host 192.0.2.12,
reachable on VRF Red:
switch# config t
switch(config)# vrf definition Blue
switch(config-vrf)# snmp-server host 192.0.2.12 use-vrf Red
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Setting the VRF Scope
You can set the VRF scope for all EXEC commands (for example, show commands). This automatically
restricts the scope of the output of EXEC commands to the configured VRF. You can override this scope
by using the VRF keywords available for some EXEC commands.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
13-11
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Verifying VRF Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
To set the VRF scope, use the following command in EXEC mode:
Command
Purpose
routing-context vrf vrf-name
Sets the routing context for all EXEC commands.
Default routing context is the default VRF.
Example:
switch# routing-context vrf red
switch%red#
To return to the default VRF scope, use the following command in EXEC mode:
Command
Purpose
routing-context vrf default
Sets the default routing context.
Example:
switch%red# routing-context vrf default
switch#
Verifying VRF Configuration
To display VRF configuration information, use one of the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show vrf [vrf-name]
Displays the information for all or one VRF.
show vrf [vrf-name] detail
Displays detailed information for all or one VRF.
show vrf [vrf-name] [interface
interface-type slot/port]
Displays the VRF status for an interface.
VRF Example Configuration
The following example shows how to configure VRF Red, add an SNMP server to that VRF, and add an
instance of OSPF to VRF Red:
config t
vrf context Red
snmp-server host 192.0.2.12 use-vrf Red
router ospf 201
interface ethernet 1/2
vrf member Red
ip address 209.0.2.1/16
ip router ospf 201 area 0
Related Topics
The following topics can give more information on VRFs:
•
Cisco NX-OS Getting Started Configuration Guide
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
13-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Default Settings
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide
Default Settings
Table 13-1 lists the default settings for VRF parameters.
Table 13-1
Default VRF Parameters
Parameters
Default
Configured VRFs
default, management
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing VRFs, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 13-13
•
Standards, page 13-13
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
VRF CLI
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Line Reference
VDCs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
13-13
Chapter 13
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
13-14
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
This chapter describes how to configure the Route Policy Manager.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About Route Policy Manager, page 14-1
•
Licensing Requirements for Route Policy Manager, page 14-4
•
Prerequisites for Route Policy Manager, page 14-4
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 14-4
•
Configuring Route Policy Manager, page 14-5
•
Verifying Route Policy Manager Configuration, page 14-13
•
Route Policy Manager Example Configuration, page 14-13
•
Related Topics, page 14-13
•
Default Settings, page 14-13
Information About Route Policy Manager
Route Policy Manager supports route maps and IP prefix lists. These features are used for route
redistribution and policy-based routing. A prefix list contains one or more IPv4 or IPv6 network prefixes
and the associated prefix length values. You can use a prefix list by itself in features such as BGP
templates, route filtering, or redistribution of routes that are exchanged between routing domains.
Route maps can apply to both routes and IP packets. Route filtering and redistribution pass a route
through a route map while policy based routing passes IP packets through a route map.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Prefix Lists, page 14-2
•
Route Maps, page 14-2
•
Route Redistribution and Route Maps, page 14-4
•
Policy-Based Routing, page 14-4
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
14-1
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Information About Route Policy Manager
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Prefix Lists
You can use prefix lists to permit or deny an address or range of addresses. Filtering by prefix list
involves matching the prefixes of routes or packets with the prefixes listed in the prefix list. An implicit
deny is assumed if a given prefix does not match any entries in a prefix list.
You can configure multiple entries in a prefix list and permit or deny the prefixes that match the entry.
Each entry has an associated sequence number that you can configure. If you do not configure a sequence
number, Cisco NX-OS assigns a sequence number automatically. Cisco NX-OS evaluates prefix lists
starting with the lowest sequence number. Cisco NX-OS processes the first successful match for a given
prefix. Once a match occurs, Cisco NX-OS processes the permit or deny statement and does not evaluate
the rest of the prefix list.
Note
An empty prefix list permits all routes.
Route Maps
You can use route maps for route redistribution or policy-based routing. Route map entries consist of a
list of match and set criteria. The match criteria specify match conditions for incoming routes or packets
and the set criteria specify the action taken if the match criteria are met.
You can configure multiple entries in the same route map. These entries contain the same route map
name and are differentiated by a sequence number.
You create a route map with one or more route map entries arranged by the sequence number under a
unique route map name. The route map entry has the following parameters:
•
Sequence number
•
Permission—permit or deny
•
Match criteria
•
Set changes
By default, a route map processes routes or IP packets in a linear fashion, that is, starting from the lowest
sequence number. You can configure the route map to process in a different order using the continue
statement, which allows you to determine which route map entry to process next.
Match Criteria
You can use a variety of criteria to match a route or IP packet in a route map. Some criteria, such as BGP
community lists, are applicable only to a specific routing protocol, while other criteria, such as the IP
source or the destination address, can be used for any route or IP packet.
When Cisco NX-OS processes a route or packet through a route map, it compares the route or packet to
each of the match statements configured. If the route or packet matches the configured criteria, Cisco
NX-OS processes it based on the permit or deny configuration for that match entry in the route map, and
any set criteria configured.
The match categories and parameters are as follows:
•
IP access lists—(For policy-based routing only). Match based on source or destination IP address,
protocol, or QoS parameters .
•
BGP parameters—Match based on AS-path or community attributes.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
14-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Information About Route Policy Manager
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Prefix lists—Match based on an address or range of addresses.
•
Multicast parameters—Match based on rendezvous point, groups, or sources.
•
Other parameters—Match based on IP next-hop address or packet length.
Set Changes
Once a route or packet matches an entry in a route map, the route or packet can be changed based on one
or more configured set statements.
The set changes are as follows:
•
BGP parameters—Change the AS-path, tag, community, dampening, local preference, origin, or
weight attributes.
•
Metrics—Change the route-metric, the route-tag, or the route-type.
•
Policy-based routing only—Change the interface or the default next-hop address.
•
Other parameters—Change the forwarding address or the IP next-hop address.
Access Lists
IP access lists can match the packet to a number of IP packet fields such as the following:
•
Source or destination IPv4 or IPv6 address
•
Protocol
•
Precedence
•
ToS
You can use ACLs in a route map for policy-based routing only. See the Cisco NX-OS Security
Configuration Guide, Release 4.0 for more information on ACLs.
AS-path Lists for BGP
You can configure an AS-path list to filter inbound or outbound BGP route updates. If the route update
contains an AS-path attribute that matches an entry in the AS-path list, the router processes the route
based on the permit or deny condition configured. You can configure AS-path lists within a route map.
You can configure multiple AS-path entries in an AS-path list by using the same AS-path list name. The
router processes the first entry that matches.
Community Lists for BGP
You can filter BGP route updates based on the BGP community attribute by using community lists in a
route map. A community list contains one or more community attributes. If you configure more than one
community attribute in the same community list entry, then the BGP route must match all community
attributes listed to be considered a match.
You can also configure multiple community attributes as individual entries in the community list by
using the same community list name. In this case, the router processes the first community attribute that
matches the BGP route, using the permit or deny configuration for that entry.
You can configure community attributes in the community list in one of the following formats:
•
Named community attribute, such as internet or no-export
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
14-3
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Licensing Requirements for Route Policy Manager
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
A 4-byte value that represents the autonomous system (AS) number and a user-defined network
number
•
A regular expression
See the Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Reference, Release 4.0 for more information on regular
expressions.
Route Redistribution and Route Maps
You can use route maps to control the redistribution of routes between routing domains. Route maps
match on the attributes of the routes to redistribute only those routes that pass the match criteria. The
route map can also modify the route attributes during this redistribution using the set changes.
The router matches redistributed routes against each route map entry.If there are multiple match
statements, the route must pass all of the match criteria. If a route passes the match criteria defined in a
route map entry, the actions defined in the entry are executed. If the route does not match the criteria,
the router compares the route against subsequent route map entries. Route processing continues until a
match is made or the route is processed by all entries in the route map with no match. If the router
processes the route against all entries in a route map with no match, the router does accept the route
(inbound route maps) or forward the route (outbound route maps).
Policy-Based Routing
You can use policy-based routing to forward a packet to a specified next-hop address based on the source
of the packet or other fields in the packet header. See Chapter 15, “Configuring Policy-Based Routing.”
Licensing Requirements for Route Policy Manager
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
Route Policy Manager requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with
the Cisco NX-OS system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of
the NX-OS licensing scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for Route Policy Manager
Route Policy Manager has the following prerequisites:
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see to the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Guidelines and Limitations
Route Policy Manager has the following guidelines and limitations:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
14-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Configuring Route Policy Manager
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
An empty route map denies all the routes.
•
An empty prefix lists permits all the routes.
•
Without any match statement in a route-map entry, the permission(permit or deny) of the route-map
entry decides the result for all the routes or packets.
•
If referred policies (for example, prefix lists) within a match statement of a route-map entry return
either a no-match or a deny-match, Cisco NX-OS fails the match statement and processes the next
route-map entry.
•
When you change a route map, Cisco NX-OS hold all the changes until you exit from the rout- map
configuration submode. Cisco NX-OS then sends all the changes to the protocol clients to take
affect.
•
Since you can use a route map before you define it, verify that all your route map exist when you
finish a configuration change.
•
You can view route-map usage for redistribution and filtering. Each individual routing protocol
provides a way to display these statistics.
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Route Policy Manager configuration includes the following topics:
Note
•
Configuring IP Prefix Lists, page 14-5
•
Configuring AS-path Lists, page 14-7
•
Configuring Community Lists, page 14-7
•
Configuring Route Maps, page 14-9
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Configuring IP Prefix Lists
IP prefix lists match the IP packet or route against a list of prefixes and prefix lengths. Create an IP prefix
list for IPv4 and create an IPv6 prefix list for IPv6.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
{ip | ipv6} prefix-list name description string
3.
ip prefix-list name [seq number] [{permit | deny} prefix {[eq prefix-length] | [ge prefix-length] [le
prefix-length]}]
or
ipv6 prefix-list name [seq number] [{permit | deny} prefix {[eq prefix-length] | [ge prefix-length]
[le prefix-length]}]
4.
show {ip | ipv6} prefix-list name
5.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
14-5
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
{ip | ipv6} prefix-list name description
string
(Optional) Adds an information string about the prefix
list.
Example:
switch(config)# ip prefix-list
AllowPrefix description allows
engineering server
Step 3
ip prefix-list name [seq number]
[{permit | deny} prefix {[eq
prefix-length] | [ge prefix-length] [le
prefix-length]}]
Example:
switch(config)# ip prefix-list
AllowPrefix 10 permit 192.0.2.0 eq 24
ipv6 prefix-list name [seq number]
[{permit | deny} prefix {[eq
prefix-length] | [ge prefix-length] [le
prefix-length]}]
Example:
switch(config)#ipv6 prefix-list
AllowIPv6Prefix 10 permit 2001:0DB8:: le
32
Step 4
show {ip | ipv6} prefix-list name
Creates an IPv4 prefix list or adds a prefix to an
existing prefix list. The prefix length is matched as
follows:
•
eq—Match exact prefix length.
•
ge—Match a prefix length that is equal to or
greater than the configured prefix length.
•
le—Match a prefix length that is equal to or less
than the configured prefix length.
Creates an IPv6 prefix list or adds a prefix to an
existing prefix list. The prefix length is configured as:
•
eq—Match exact prefix length.
•
ge—Match a prefix length that is equal to or
greater than the configured prefix length.
•
le—Match a prefix length that is equal to or less
than the configured prefix length.
(Optional) Displays information about prefix lists.
Example:
switch(config)# show ip prefix-list
AllowPrefix
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create an IPv4 prefix list with two entries:
switch# config t
switch(config)# ip prefix-list AllowPrefix 10 permit 192.0.2.0 eq 24
switch(config)# ip prefix-list AllowPrefix 20 permit 209.165.201.0 eq 27
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
14-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Configuring Route Policy Manager
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring AS-path Lists
You can specify an AS-path list filter on both inbound and outbound BGP routes. Each filter is an access
list based on regular expressions. If the regular expression matches the representation of the AS-path
attribute of the route as an ASCII string, then the permit or deny condition applies.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
ip as-path access-list name {deny | permit} expression
3.
show {ip | ipv6} as-path list name
4.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a BGP AS-path list using a regular expression.
ip as-path access-list name {deny |
permit} expression
Example:
switch(config)# ip as-path access-list
Allow40 permit 40
Step 3
show {ip | ipv6} as-path-access-list
name
(Optional) Displays information about as-path access
lists.
Example:
switch(config)# show ip
as-path-access-list Allow40
Step 4
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to create an AS-path list with two entries:
switch# config t
switch(config)# ip as-path access-list AllowAS permit 40
switch(config)# ip as-path access-list AllowAS permit 40000
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Community Lists
You can use community lists to filter BGP routes based on the community attribute. The community
number consists of a 4-byte value in the aa:nn format. The first two bytes represent the autonomous
system number, and the trailing two bytes represent a user-defined network number.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
14-7
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
When you configure multiple values in the same community list statement, all community values must
match to satisfy the community list filter. When you configure multiple values in separate community
list statements, the first list that matches a condition is processed.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
ip community-list standard list-name [community-list] [internet] [local-AS] [no-advertise]
[no-export]
or
ip community-list expanded list-name {deny | permit} expresion
3.
show ip community-list name
4.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
ip community-list standard list-name
{deny | permit} [community-list]
[internet] [local-AS] [no-advertise]
[no-export]
Example:
switch(config)# ip community-list
standard BGPCommunity permit
no-advertise 40000:20
ip community-list expanded list-name
{deny | permit} line
Creates a standard BGP community list. The
community-list can be one or more of the following:
•
internet
•
local-AS
•
no-advertise
•
no-export
•
one or more communities in the aa:nn format.
Creates an expanded BGP community list using a
regular expression.
Example:
switch(config)# ip community-list
expanded BGPComplex deny
50000:[0-9][0-9]_
Step 3
show ip community-list name
(Optional) Displays information about prefix lists.
Example:
switch(config)# show ip community-list
BGPCommunity
Step 4
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch# copy running-config
startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
14-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Configuring Route Policy Manager
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
The following example shows how to create a community list with two entries:
switch# config t
switch(config)# ip community-list standard BGPCommunity permit no-advertise 40000:20
switch(config)# ip community-list standard BGPCommunity permit local-AS no-export
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Route Maps
You can use route maps for route redistribution or route filtering. Route maps can contain multiple match
criteria and multiple set criteria.
Configuring a route map for BGP triggers an automatic soft clear or referesh of BGP neighbor sessions.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
route-map map-name [permit | deny] [seq]
3.
Add optional match or set parameters in route-map configuration mode
4.
exit
5.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
route-map map-name [permit | deny] [seq]
Example:
switch(config)# route-map Testmap permit
10
switch(config-route-map)#
Step 3
description string
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# description A
test route map
Step 4
continue seq
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# continue 10
Creates a route map or enters route-map configuration
mode for an existing route map. Use seq to order the
entries in a route map.
(Optional) Adds a description for the route-map
sequence.
(Optional) Determines what sequence statement to
process next in the route map. Used only for filtering
and redistribution.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
14-9
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 5
Command
Purpose
exit
(Optional) Exits route-map configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# exit
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
You can configure the following optional match parameters for route maps in route-map configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
match as-path name [name...]
Matches against one or more AS-path lists. Create
the AS-path list with the ip as-path access-list
command.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match as-path
Allow40
match community name
[name...][exact-match]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match community
BGPCommunity
match ip address prefix-list name
[name...]
Matches against one or more community lists.
Create the AS-path list with the ip community-list
command.
Matches against one or more IPv4 prefix lists. Use
the ip prefix-list command to create the prefix list.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip address
prefix-list AllowPrefix
match ipv6 address prefix-list name
[name...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip address
prefix-list AllowIPv6Prefix
match ip multicast [source ipsource]
[[group ipgroup] [rp iprp]]
Matches against one or more IPv6 prefix lists. Use
the ipv6 prefix-list command to create the prefix
list.
Matches an IPv4 multicast packet based on
multicast source, group, or rendezvous point.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip
multicast rp 192.0.2.1
match ipv6 multicast [source ipsource]
[[group ipgroup] [rp iprp]]
Matches an IPv6 multicast packet based on
multicast source, group, or rendezvous point.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip
multicast source 2001:0DB8::1
match ip next-hop prefix-list name
[name...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip
next-hop prefix-list AllowPrefix
Matches the IPv4 next-hop address of a route to one
or more IP prefix lists. Use the ip prefix-list
command to create the prefix list.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
14-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Configuring Route Policy Manager
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
match ipv6 next-hop prefix-list name
[name...]
Matches the IPv6 next-hop address of a route to one
or more IP prefix lists. Use the ipv6 prefix-list
command to create the prefix list.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip
next-hop prefix-list AllowIPv6Prefix
match ip route-source prefix-list name
[name...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip
route-source prefix-list AllowPrefix
match ipv6 route-source prefix-list name
[name...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip
route-source prefix-list AllowIPv6Prefix
match route-type route-type
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match route-type
level 1 level 2
match tag tagid [tagid...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match tag 2
Matches the IPv4 route source address of a route to
one or more IP prefix lists. Use the ip prefix-list
command to create the prefix list.
Matches the IPv6 route-source address of a route to
one or more IP prefix lists. Use the ipv6 prefix-list
command to create the prefix list.
Matches against a type of route. The route-type can
be one or more of the following:
•
external
•
internal
•
level-1
•
level-2
•
local
•
nssa-external
•
type-1
•
type-2
Matches a route against one or more tags for
filtering or redistribution.
You can configure the following optional set parameters for route maps in route-map configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
set as-path {tag | prepend {last-as number
| as-1 [as-2...]}}
Modifies an AS-path attribute for a BGP route. You
can prepend the configured number of last AS
numbers or a string of particular AS-path values
(as-1 as-2...as-n).
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set as-path
prepend 10 100 110
set comm-list name delete
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set comm-list
BGPCommunity delete
Removes communities from the community
attribute of an inbound or outbound BGP route
update. Use the ip community-list command to
create the community list.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
14-11
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
set community {none |{additive | local-AS
| no-advertise | no-export | community-1
[community-2...]}
Sets the community attribute for a BGP route
update.
Note
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set community
local-AS
set dampening halflife reuse suppress
duration
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set dampening 30
1500 10000 120
set forwarding-address
When you use both the set community and
set comm-list delete commands in the
same sequence of a route map attribute, the
deletion operation is performed before the
set operation.
Sets the BGP route dampening parameters.
•
halflife—The range is from 1 to 45 minutes.
The default is 15.
•
reuse—The range is from is 1 to 20000
seconds. The default is 750.
•
suppress—The range is from is 1 to 20000. The
default is 2000.
•
duration—The range is from is 1 to 255
minutes. The default is 60.
Sets the forwarding address for OSPF.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set
forwarding-address
set level {backbone | level-1 | level-1-2
| level-2}
Example:
switch(config-route-map)#
set local-preference value
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set
local-preference 4000
set metric metric0 [metric1 metric2
metric3 metric4]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)#
Sets what area to import routes to for IS-IS. The
options for IS-IS are level-1, level-1-2, or level-2.
Default is level-1.
Sets the BGP local preference value. The range is
from 0 to 4294967295.
Sets the route metric values. Metrics are as follows:
•
metric0—Bandwidth in Kb/s
•
metric1—Delay in 10-microsecond units
•
metric2—Reliability. The range is from 0 to
255 (100% reliable).
•
metric3—Loading. The range is from 1 to 200
(100% loaded).
•
metric4—MTU of the path.
set metric-type {external | internal |
type-1 | type-2}
Sets the metric type for the destination routing
protocol. The options are as follows:
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set metric-type
internal.
external—IS-IS external metric
internal—Use IGP metric as the MED for BGP
type-1—OSPF external type 1 metric
type-2—OSPF external type 2 metric
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
14-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Verifying Route Policy Manager Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
set origin {egp as-number | igp |
incomplete}
Sets the BGP origin attribute. The EGP as-number
range is from 0 to 65535.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)#
set tag name
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set tag 33
Sets the tag value for the destination routing
protocol. The name parameter is an unsigned
integer.
Sets the weight for the BGP route. The range is
from 0 to 65535.
set weight count
Example:
switch(config-route-map)#
The set metric-type internal command affects only on an outgoing policy and only for an eBGP
neighbor. If you configure both metric and metric-type internal commands in the same BGP peer
outgoing policy, then Cisco NX-OS ignores the metric-type internal command.
Verifying Route Policy Manager Configuration
Use the show route-map command to verify the Route Policy Manager configuration.
Route Policy Manager Example Configuration
The following example shows how to use an address family to configure BGP so that any unicast and
multicast routes from neighbor 209.0.2.1 are accepted if they match access list 1:
router bgp 40000
address-family ipv4 unicast
network 192.0.2.0/24
network 209.165.201.0/27 route-map filterBGP
route-map filterBGP
match ip next-hop prefix-list AllowPrefix
ip prefix-list AllowPrefix 10 permit 192.0.2.0 eq 24
ip prefix-list AllowPrefix 20 permit 209.165.201.0 eq 27
Related Topics
The following topics can give more information on Route Policy Manager:
•
Chapter 9, “Configuring Basic BGP”
•
Chapter 15, “Configuring Policy-Based Routing”
Default Settings
Table 14-1 lists the default settings for Route Policy Manager.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
14-13
Chapter 14
Configuring Route Policy Manager
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Table 14-1
Default Route Policy Manager Parameters
Parameters
Default
Route Policy Manager
Enabled
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing IP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 14-14
•
Standards, page 14-14
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
Route Policy Manager CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs and VRFs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
14-14
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
This chapter describes how to configure policy based routing.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About Policy Based Routing, page 15-1
•
Licensing Requirements for Policy-Based Routing, page 15-3
•
Prerequisites for Policy-Based Routing, page 15-3
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 15-3
•
Configuring Policy-Based Routing, page 15-3
•
Verifying Policy-Based Routing Configuration, page 15-7
•
Policy Based-Routing Example Configuration, page 15-7
•
Related Topics, page 15-7
•
Default Settings, page 15-7
Information About Policy Based Routing
Policy-based routing allows you to configure a defined policy for traffic flows, lessening reliance on
routes derived from routing protocols. All packets received on an interface with policy-based routing
enabled are passed through enhanced packet filters or route maps. The route maps dictate the policy,
determining where to forward packets.
Route maps are composed of match and set statements that you can mark as permit or deny. You an
interpret the statements as follows:
•
If the packets match any route map statements, then all the set statements are applied. One of these
actions involves choosing the next hop.
•
If a statement is marked as deny, the packets that meet the match criteria are sent back through the
normal forwarding channels and destination-based routing is performed.
•
If the statement is marked as permit and the packets do not match any route map statements, the
packets are sent back through the normal forwarding channels and destination-based routing is
performed.
See the “Route Maps” section on page 14-2.
Policy-based routing includes the following features:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
15-1
Chapter 15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Information About Policy Based Routing
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Source-based routing—Routes traffic originating from different sets of users through different
connections across the policy routers.
•
Quality of Service (QoS)—Differentiates traffic by setting the precedence or type of service (ToS)
values in the IP packet headers at the periphery of the network and leveraging queuing mechanisms
to prioritize traffic in the core or backbone of the network (see the Cisco NX-OS Quality of Service
Configuration Guide, Release 4.0).
•
Load sharing—Distributes traffic among multiple paths based on the traffic characteristics.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Policy Route Maps, page 15-2
•
Set Criteria for Policy-Based Routing, page 15-2
Policy Route Maps
Each entry in a route map contains a combination of match and set statements. The match statements
define the criteria for whether appropriate packets meet the particular policy (that is, the conditions to
be met). The set clauses explain how the packets should be routed once they have met the match criteria.
You can mark the route map statements as permit or deny. If the statement is marked as a deny, the
packets that meet the match criteria are sent back through the normal forwarding channels
(destination-based routing is performed). If the statement is marked as permit and the packets meet the
match criteria, all the set clauses are applied. If the statement is marked as permit and the packets do not
meet the match criteria, then those packets are also forwarded through the normal routing channel.
Note
Policy routing is specified on the interface that receives the packets, not on the interface from which the
packets are sent.
Set Criteria for Policy-Based Routing
The set criteria in a route map is evaluated in the order listed in the route map. Set criteria specific to
route maps used for policy-based routing are as follows:
1.
List of interfaces through which the packets can be routed—If more than one interface is specified,
then the first interface that is found to be up will be used for forwarding the packets.
2.
List of specified IP addresses—The IP address can specify the adjacent next-hop router in the path
toward the destination to which the packets should be forwarded. The first IP address associated
with a currently up connected interface is used to route the packets.
3.
List of default interfaces—If there is no explicit route available to the destination address of the
packet being considered for policy routing, then the route map routes it to the first up interface in
the list of specified default interfaces.
4.
List of default next-hop IP addresses—Route to the interface or the next-hop address specified by
this set statement only if there is no explicit route for the destination address of the packet in the
routing table.
If the packets do not meet any of the defined match criteria, then those packets are routed through the
normal destination-based routing process.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
15-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Licensing Requirements for Policy-Based Routing
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Licensing Requirements for Policy-Based Routing
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
Policy-based routing requires an Enterprise Services license. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS
licensing scheme and how to obtain and apply licenses, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for Policy-Based Routing
Policy-Based Routing has the following prerequisites:
•
Install the correct license.
•
You must enable the policy-based routing feature (see the “Enabling the Policy-based Routing
Feature” section on page 15-4).
•
Assign an IP address on the interface and bring the interface up before you apply a route map on the
interface for policy-based routing.
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see to the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Guidelines and Limitations
Policy-based routing has the following guidelines and limitations:
•
A policy-based routing route map can have only one route-map entry (with match and sets) in it.
•
A policy-based routing route-map cannot have more than one match and one set command in a
route-map entry.
•
A match command cannot refer to more than one ACL in a route map used for policy-based routing .
•
The same route map can be shared among different interfaces for policy-based routing as long as the
interfaces belong to the same VRF.
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
This section contains the following topics:
Note
•
Enabling the Policy-based Routing Feature, page 15-4
•
Configuring a Route Policy, page 15-4
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
15-3
Chapter 15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Enabling the Policy-based Routing Feature
You must enable the policy-based routing feature before you can configure a route policy.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
feature pbr
3.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
feature pbr
Enables the policy-based routing feature.
Example:
switch(config)# feature pbr
Step 3
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config)# copy running-config
startup-config
Use the no feature pbr command to disable the policy-based routing feature and remove all associated
configuration.
Command
Purpose
no feature pbr
Disables the policy-based routing feature and
removes all associated configuration.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature pbr
Configuring a Route Policy
You can use route maps in policy-based routing to assign routing policies to the inbound interface. See
“Configuring Route Maps” section on page 14-9.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
15-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
2.
interface type slot/port
3.
ip policy route-map map-name
or
4.
ipv6 policy route-map map-nam
5.
exit
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ip policy route-map map-name
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip policy route-map
Testmap
ipv6 policy route-map map-name
Example:
switch(config-if)# ipv6 policy route-map
TestIPv6map
Step 4
exit
Assigns a route map for IPv4 policy-based routing to
the interface.
Assigns a route map for IPv6 policy-based routing to
the interface.
(Optional) Exits route-map configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# exit
Step 5
exit
(Optional) Exits route-map configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# exit
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch# copy running-config
startup-config
The following example shows how to add a route map to an interface:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip policy route-map Testmap
switch(config)# exit
switch(config)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
15-5
Chapter 15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
You can configure the following optional match parameters for route maps in route-map configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
match ip address access-list-name name
[name...]
Match an IPv4 address against one or more IP
access control lists (ACLs). This command is used
for policy-based routing and ignored by route
filtering or redistribution.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ip address
access-list-name ACL1
match ipv6 address access-list-name name
[name...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match ipv6
address access-list-name ACLv6
match length min max
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# match length 64
1500
Match an IPv6 address against one or more IPv6
ACLs. This command is used for policy-based
routing and ignored by route filtering or
redistribution.
Match against the length of the packet. This
ocmmand is used for policy-based routing.
You can configure the following optional set parameters for route maps in route-map configuration
mode:
Command
Purpose
set interface ifname-1 [ifname-2...]
Sets the output packet interface for policy-based
routing. If ifname-1 is not operational, the system
uses one of the optional interfaces configured, such
as ifname-2.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set interface
ethernet 1/2
set default interface ifname-1
[ifname-2...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set default
interface ethernet 2/2
set ip next-hop address1 [address2...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set ip next-hop
209.0.2.1
set ip default next-hop address1
[address2...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set ip default
next-hop 209.0.2.2
set ipv6 next-hop address1 [address2...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set ipv6
next-hop 2001:0DB8::1
Sets the output packet interface for policy-based
routing when there is no explicit route to a
destination. If ifname-1 is not operational, the
system uses one of the optional interfaces
configured, such as ifname-2.
Sets the IPv4 next-hop address for policy-based
routing. This command uses the first valid next-hop
address if multiple addresses are configured.
Sets the IPv4 next-hop address for policy-based
routing when there is no explicit route to a
destination. This command uses the first valid
next-hop address if multiple addresses are
configured.
Sets the IPv6 next-hop address for policy-based
routing. This command uses the first valid next-hop
address if multiple addresses are configured.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
15-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Verifying Policy-Based Routing Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
set ipv6 default next-hop address1
[address2...]
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set ipv6 default
next-hop 2001:0DB8::2
Sets the IPv6 next-hop address for policy-based
routing when there is no explicit route to a
destination. This command uses the first valid
next-hop address if multiple addresses are
configured.
set vrf vrf-name
Sets the VRF for next-hop resolution.
Example:
switch(config-route-map)# set vrf MainVRF
Cisco NX-OS routes the packet as soon as it finds a next hop and an interface.
Verifying Policy-Based Routing Configuration
Use the show ip policy command to verify policy-based routing.
Use the route-map map-name pbr-statistics to enable policy statistics. Use the show route-map
map-name pbr-statistics to view policy statistics. Use the clear route-map map-name pbr-statistics to
clear these policy statistics
Policy Based-Routing Example Configuration
Theis example shows how to configure a simple route policy on an interface.
feature pbr
access-list 1 permit ip 209.0.2.1
!
interface ethernet 1/2
ip policy route-map equal-access
route-map equal-access permit 10
match ip address 1
set ip default next-hop 209.0.2.10
Related Topics
The following topics can give more information on Policy Based Routing:
•
Chapter 14, “Configuring Route Policy Manager”
Default Settings
Table 15-1 lists the default settings for Policy-base routing parameters.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
15-7
Chapter 15
Configuring Policy-Based Routing
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Table 15-1
Default Policy-based Routing Parameters
Parameters
Default
Policy-based routing
disabled
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing IP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 15-8
•
Standards, page 15-8
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
Policy-based routing CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Command Line Reference
VDCs and VRFs
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Contexts Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
15-8
OL-12912-01
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
PA R T
3
First-Hop Redundancy Protocols
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
16
Configuring GLBP
This chapter describes how to configure the Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP).
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About GLBP, page 16-1
•
Licensing Requirements for GLBP, page 16-6
•
Prerequisites for GLBP, page 16-6
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 16-6
•
Configuring GLBP, page 16-7
•
Verifying GLBP Configuration, page 16-15
•
GLBP Example Configuration, page 16-15
•
Default Settings, page 16-16
•
Additional References, page 16-16
Information About GLBP
GLBP provides path redundancy for IP by sharing protocol and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses
between redundant gateways. Additionally, GLBP allows a group of Layer 3 routers to share the load of
the default gateway on a LAN. A GLBP router can automatically assume the forwarding function of
another router in the group if the other router fails.
This section includes the following topics:
•
GLBP Overview, page 16-2
•
GLBP Active Virtual Gateway, page 16-2
•
GLBP Virtual MAC Address Assignment, page 16-2
•
GLBP Virtual Gateway Redundancy, page 16-2
•
GLBP Virtual Forwarder Redundancy, page 16-3
•
GLBP Authentication, page 16-4
•
GLBP Load Balancing and Tracking, page 16-4
•
High Availability, page 16-5
•
Virtualization Support, page 16-5
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-1
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Information About GLBP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
GLBP Overview
GLBP provides automatic gateway backup for IP hosts configured with a single default gateway on an
IEEE 802.3 LAN. Multiple routers on the LAN combine to offer a single virtual first-hop IP gateway
while sharing the IP packet forwarding load. Other routers on the LAN may act as redundant GLBP
gateways that become active if any of the existing forwarding gateways fail.
GLBP performs a similar function to the Hot Standby Redundancy Protocol (HSRP) and the Virtual
Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP). HSRP and VRRP allow multiple routers to participate in a virtual
group configured with a virtual IP address. These protocols elect one member as the active router to
forward packets to the virtual IP address for the group. The other routers in the group are redundant until
the active router fails.
GLBP performs an additional load balancing function that the other protocols do not provide. GLBP load
balances over multiple routers (gateways) using a single virtual IP address and multiple virtual MAC
addresses. GLBP shares the forwarding load among all routers in a GLBP group instead of allowing a
single router to handle the whole load while the other routers remain idle. You configure each host with
the same virtual IP address, and all routers in the virtual group participate in forwarding packets. GLBP
members communicate between each other using periodic hello messages.
GLBP Active Virtual Gateway
GLBP prioritizes gateways to elect an active virtual gateway (AVG). If multiple gateways have the same
priority, the gateway with the highest real IP address becomes the AVG. The AVG assigns a virtual MAC
address to each member of the GLBP group. Each member is the active virtual forwarder (AVF) for its
assigned virtual MAC address, forwarding packets sent to its assigned virtual MAC address.
The AVG also answers Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) requests for the virtual IP address. Load
sharing is achieved when the AVG replies to the ARP requests with different virtual MAC addresses.
GLBP Virtual MAC Address Assignment
The AVG assigns the virtual MAC addresses to each member of the group. The group members request
a virtual MAC address after they discover the AVG through hello messages. The AVG assigns the next
MAC address based on the load-balancing algorithm selected (see the “GLBP Load Balancing and
Tracking” section on page 16-4). A gateway that is assigned with a virtual MAC address by the AVG is
the primary virtual forwarder. The other members of the GLBP group that learn the virtual MAC
addresses from hello messages are secondary virtual forwarders.
GLBP Virtual Gateway Redundancy
GLBP provides virtual gateway redundancy. A member in a group can be in the active, standby, or listen
state. GLBP uses a priority algorithm to elect one gateway as the AVG and elect another gateway as the
standby virtual gateway. The remaining gateways go into the listen state. You can configure the GLBP
priority on each gateway. If the GLBP priority is identical on multiple gateways, GLBP uses the gateway
with the highest IP address as the AVG.
If an AVG fails, the standby virtual gateway assumes responsibility for the virtual IP address. GLBP
elects a new standby virtual gateway from the gateways in the listen state.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Information About GLBP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
GLBP Virtual Forwarder Redundancy
GLBP provides virtual forwarder redundancy. Virtual forwarder redundancy is similar to virtual gateway
redundancy with an active virtual forwarder (AVF). If the AVF fails, a secondary virtual forwarder in the
listen state assumes responsibility for the virtual MAC address. This secondary virtual forwarder is also
a primary virtual forwarder for a different virtual MAC address. GLBP migrates hosts away from the old
virtual MAC address of the failed AVF, using the following two timers.
•
Redirect timer—Specifies the interval during which the AVG continues to redirect hosts to the old
virtual MAC address. When the redirect time expires, the AVG stops using the old virtual MAC
address in ARP replies, although the secondary virtual forwarder continues to forward packets that
were sent to the old virtual MAC address.
•
Secondary hold timer—Specifies the interval during which the virtual MAC address is valid. When
the secondary hold time expires, GLBP removes the virtual MAC address from all gateways in the
GLBP group and load balances the traffic over the remaining AVFs. The expired virtual MAC
address becomes eligible for reassignment by the AVG.
GLBP uses hello messages to communicate the current state of the timers.
In Figure 16-1, router A is the AVG for a GLBP group and is responsible for the virtual IP address
192.0.2.1. Router A is also an AVF for the virtual MAC address 0007.b400.0101. Router B is a member
of the same GLBP group and is designated as the AVF for the virtual MAC address 0007.b400.0102.
Client 1 has a default gateway IP address of 192.0.2.1, the virtual IP address, and a gateway MAC
address of 0007.b400.0101 that points to router A. Client 2 shares the same default gateway IP address
but receives the gateway MAC address 0007.b400.0102 because router B is sharing the traffic load with
router A.
Figure 16-1
GLBP Topology
WAN Link1
Router A
AVG 1
AVF 1.1
Virtual IP address 192.0.2.1
Virtual MAC 0007.b400.0101
WAN Link2
Router B
AVF 1.2
Virtual MAC 0007.b400.0102
AVG = active virtual gateway
Default gateway:
Gateway MAC:
Client 1
Virtual IP address 192.0.2.1
Virtual MAC 0007.b400.0101
Client 2
Virtual IP address 192.0.2.1
Virtual MAC 0007.b400.0102
185062
AVF = active virtual forwarder
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-3
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Information About GLBP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
If router A becomes unavailable, client 1 does not lose access to the WAN because router B assumes
responsibility for forwarding packets sent to the virtual MAC address of router A and for responding to
packets sent to its own virtual MAC address. Router B also assumes the role of the AVG for the entire
GLBP group. Communication for the GLBP members continues despite the failure of a router in the
GLBP group.
GLBP Authentication
GLBP has three authentication types:
•
MD5 authentication
•
Plain text authentication
•
No authentication
MD5 authentication provides greater security than plain text authentication. MD5 authentication allows
each GLBP group member to use a secret key to generate a keyed MD5 hash that is part of the outgoing
packet. At the receiving end, a keyed hash of an incoming packet is generated. If the hash within the
incoming packet does not match the generated hash, the packet is ignored. The key for the MD5 hash
can either be given directly in the configuration using a key string or supplied indirectly through a key
chain.
You can also choose to use a simple password in plain text to authenticate GLBP packets, or choose no
authentication for GLBP.
GLBP rejects packets in any of the following cases:
•
The authentication schemes differ on the router and in the incoming packet.
•
MD5 digests differ on the router and in the incoming packet.
•
Text authentication strings differ on the router and in the incoming packet.
GLBP Load Balancing and Tracking
You can configure the following load-balancing methods for GLBP:
•
Round-robin—GLBP cycles through the virtual MAC addresses sent in ARP replies, load balancing
the traffic across all the AVFs.
•
Weighted—AVG uses the advertised weight for an AVF to decide the load directed to the AVF. A
higher weight means that the AVG directs more traffic to the AVF.
•
Host dependent—GLBP uses the MAC address of the host to determine which virtual MAC address
to direct the host to use. This algorithm guarantees that a host gets the same virtual MAC address if
the number of virtual forwarders does not change.
The default for IPv4 networks is round-robin. You can disable all load balancing for GLBP on an
interface. If you do not configure load balancing, the AVG handles all traffic for the hosts while the other
GLBP group members are in standby or listen mode.
You can configure GLBP to track an interface or routes and enable the secondary virtual forwarder to
take over if a tracked link goes down. GLBP tracking uses weighted load-balancing to determine whether
a GLBP group member acts as an AVF. You must configure the initial weighting values and optional
thresholds to enable or disable this group member as an AVF. You can also configure the interface to
track and the value that will reduce the interface’s weighting if the interface goes down. When the GLBP
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Information About GLBP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
group weighting drops below the lower threshold, the member is no longer an AVF and a secondary
virtual forwarder takes over. When the weighting rises above the upper threshold, the member can
resume its role as an AVF.
Figure 4-2 shows an example of GLBP tracking and weighting.
Figure 16-2
GLBP Object Tracking and Weighting
IP Network
Ethernet 3/1
AVG
Router 2
GLBP group 1
Ethernet 1/2:
Tracks: e 3/1, decrement 30
weight: 120, lower 85, upper 110
AVF for vMAC1
load balance: weighted
vMAC1
Host 1
Router 3
GLBP group 1
Ethernet 2/2:
Preempt
weight: 100 (default)
secondary VF for vMAC1
load balance: weighted
AVF for vMAC2
load balance: weighted
vMAC2
Host 2
185060
Router 1
GLBP group 1
In Figure 4-2, the Ethernet 1/2 interface on router 1 is the gateway for host 1 (the AVF for virtual MAC
address, vMAC1), while Ethernet 2/2 on router 2 acts as a secondary virtual forwarder for Host 1.
Ethernet 1/2 tracks Ethernet 3/1, which is the network connection for router 1. If Ethernet 3/1 goes down,
the weighting for Ethernet 1/2 drops to 90. Ethernet 2/2 on router 2 preempts Ethernet 1/2 and takes over
as AVF because it has the default weighting of 100 and is configured to preempt the AVF.
See the “Configuring GLBP Weighting and Tracking” section on page 16-10 for details about
configuring weighting and tracking.
High Availability
GLBP supports stateful restarts and stateful switchover. A stateful restart occurs when the GLBP process
fails and is restarted. Stateful switchover occurs when the active supervisor switches to the standby
supervisor. Cisco NX-OS applies the run-time configuration after the switchover.
Virtualization Support
GLBP supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device
contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDC and VRF.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-5
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Licensing Requirements for GLBP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
If you change the VRF membership of an interface, Cisco NX-OS removes all layer 3 configuration,
including GLBP.
For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide and see
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for GLBP
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
GLBP requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS
system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing
scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for GLBP
GLBP has the following prerequisites:
•
Globally enable the GLBP feature (see the “Enabling the GLBP Feature” section on page 16-7).
•
You can only configure GLBP on Layer 3 interfaces (see the Cisco NX-OS Interface Configuration
Guide).
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Guidelines and Limitations
GLBP has the following guidelines and limitations:
•
You should configure all customization options for GLBP on all GLBP member gateways before
enabling a GLBP group by configuring a virtual IP address.
•
GLBP supports a minimum hello time of 250 ms, and a minimum hold time of 1020 ms.
•
You must configure an IP address for the interface that you configure GLBP on and enable that
interface before GLBP becomes active.
•
The GLBP virtual IP address must be in the same subnet as the interface IP address.
•
We recommend that you do not configure more than one first-hop redundancy protocol on the same
interface.
•
Cisco NX-OS removes all layer 3 configuration on an interface when you change the VDC, interface
VRF membership, port channel membership, or when you change the port mode to layer 2.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Configuring GLBP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring GLBP
This section includes the following topics:
Note
•
Enabling the GLBP Feature, page 16-7
•
Configuring GLBP Authentication, page 16-8
•
Configuring GLBP Load Balancing, page 16-9
•
Configuring GLBP Weighting and Tracking, page 16-10
•
Customizing GLBP, page 16-12
•
Enabling a GLBP Group, page 16-13
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Enabling the GLBP Feature
You must enable the GLBP feature before you can configure and enable any GLBP groups.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
DETAILED STEPS
To enable the GLBP feature, use the following command in global configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
feature glbp
Enables GLBP.
Example:
switch(config)# feature glbp
To disable the GLBP feature in a VDC, use the following command in global configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
no feature glbp
Disables the GLBP feature in a VDC.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature glbp
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-7
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Configuring GLBP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Configuring GLBP Authentication
You can configure GLBP to authenticate the protocol using cleartext or an MD5 digest. MD5
authentication uses a key chain (see the Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide).
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Enable the GLBP feature (see the “Enabling the GLBP Feature” section on page 16-7).
Note
You must configure the same authentication and keys on all members of the GLBP group.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
ip ip-address/length
4.
glbp group-number
5.
authentication text string
or
authentication md5 {key-chain key-chain | key-string {text | encrypted text}
6.
ip [ip-address [secondary]]
7.
show glbp [group group-number]
8.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ip ip-address/length
Configures the IPv4 address for the interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip 192.0.2.1/8
Step 4
glbp group-number
Example:
switch(config-if)# glbp 1
switch(config-if-glbp)#
Creates a GLBP group and enters GLBP configuration
mode. The range is from 0 to 1024.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Configuring GLBP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 5
Command
Purpose
authentication text string
Configures cleartext authentication for GLBP on this
interface.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# authentication
text mypassword
authentication md5 {key-chain key-chain
| key-string {text | encrypted text}
Configures MD5 authentication for GLBP on this
interface.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# authentication
md5 key-chain glbp-keys
Step 6
ip [ip-address [secondary]]
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# ip 192.0.2.10
Step 7
show glbp [group group-number]
Enables GLBP on an interface and identifies the
primary IP address of the virtual gateway.
After you identify a primary IP address, you can use
the glbp group ip command again with the secondary
keyword to indicate additional IP addresses supported
by this group. If you only use the ip keyword, GLBP
learns the virtual IP address from the neighbors.
(Optional) Displays GLBP information.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# show glbp 1
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to configure MD5 authentication for GLBP on Ethernet 1/2 after
creating the key chain:
switch# config t
switch(config)# key chain glbp-keys
switch(config-keychain)# key 0
switch(config-keychain-key)# key-string 7 zqdest
switch(config-keychain-key) accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Jun 01 2008 23:59:59 Sep 12 2008
switch(config-keychain-key) send-lifetime 00:00:00 Jun 01 2008 23:59:59 Aug 12 2008
switch(config-keychain-key) key 1
switch(config-keychain-key) key-string 7 uaeqdyito
switch(config-keychain-key) accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Aug 12 2008 23:59:59 Dec 12 2008
switch(config-keychain-key) send-lifetime 00:00:00 Sep 12 2008 23:59:59 Nov 12 2008
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# glbp 1
switch(config-if-glbp)# authenticate md5 key-chain glbp-keys
switch(config-if-glbp)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring GLBP Load Balancing
You can configure GLBP to use load balancing based on round-robin, weighted, or host-dependent
methods (see the “GLBP Load Balancing and Tracking” section on page 16-4).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-9
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Configuring GLBP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
To configure GLBP load balancing, use the following command in GLBP configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
load-balancing [host-dependent |
round-robin | weighted]
Sets the GLBP load-balancing method. The default
is round-robin.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# load-balancing
weighted
Configuring GLBP Weighting and Tracking
You can configure GLBP weighting values and object tracking to work with the GLBP weighted
load-balancing method.
You can optionally configure the interface to preempt an AVFif the interface was originally assigned
with the virtual MAC address or if this interface has a higher weight than the AVF.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Enable the GLBP feature (see the “Enabling the GLBP Feature” section on page 16-7).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
track object-id interface interface-type number {ip routing | line-protocol}
3.
track object-id ip route ip-prefix/length reachability
4.
interface interface-type slot/port
5.
ip ip-address/length
6.
glbp group-number
7.
weighting maximum [lower lower] [upper upper]
8.
weighting track object-number [decrement value]
9.
forwarder preempt [delay minimum seconds]
10. ip [ip-address [secondary]]
11. show glbp interface-type number
12. copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Configuring GLBP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
track object-id interface
interface-type number {ip routing |
line-protocol}
Example:
switch(config)# track 1 interface
ethernet 2/2 line-protocol
switch(config-track#
track object-id ip route
ip-prefix/length reachability
Configures the interface that this GLBP interface tracks.
Changes in the state of the interface affect the priority of
this GLBP interface as follows:
•
You configure the interface and corresponding object
number that you use with the track command in GLBP
configuration mode.
•
The line-protocol keyword tracks whether the interface
is up. The ip keyword also checks that IP routing is
enabled on the interface and an IP address is
configured.
Creates a tracked object for a route nd enters tracking
configuration mode. The object-id range is from 1 to 500.
Example:
switch(config)# track 2 ip route
192.0.2.0/8 reachability
switch(config-track#
Step 3
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet
1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 4
ip ip-address/length
Configures the IPv4 address for the interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip 192.0.2.1/8
Step 5
glbp group-number
Example:
switch(config-if)# glbp 1
switch(config-if-glbp)#
Step 6
weighting maximum [lower lower]
[upper upper]
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# weighting
110 lower 95 upper 105
Step 7
weighting track object-number
[decrement value]
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# weighting
track 2 decrement 20
Creates a GLBP group and enters GLBP configuration
mode.
Specifies the initial weighting value and the upper and
lower thresholds for a GLBP gateway. The maximum range
is from 1 to 254. The default weighting value is 100. The
lower range is from 1 to 253. The upper range is from 1 to
254.
Specifies an object to be tracked that affects the weighting
of a GLBP gateway. The value argument specifies a
reduction in the weighting of a GLBP gateway when a
tracked object fails. The range is from 1 to 255.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-11
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Configuring GLBP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 8
Command or Action
Purpose
forwarder preempt [delay minimum
seconds]
(Optional) Configures the router to take over as AVF for a
GLBP group if the current AVF for a GLBP group falls
below its low weighting threshold. The range is from 0 to
3600 seconds.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# forwarder
preempt delay minimum 60
Step 9
ip [ip-address [secondary]]
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# ip
192.0.2.10
Step 10
show glbp interface-type number
This command is enabled by default with a delay of
30 seconds.
Enables GLBP on an interface and identifies the primary IP
address of the virtual gateway.
After you identify a primary IP address, you can use the
glbp group ip command again with the secondary keyword
to indicate additional IP addresses supported by this group.
If you only use the ip keyword, GLBP learns the virtual IP
address from the neighbors.
(Optional) Displays GLBP information for an interface.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# show glbp
ethernet 1/2
Step 11
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to configure GLBP weighting and tracking on Ethernet 1/2:
switch# config t
switch(config)# track 2 interface ethernet 2/2 ip routing
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# glbp 1
switch(config-if-glbp)# weighting 110 lower 95 upper 105
switch(config-if-glbp)# weighting track 2 decrement 20
switch(config-if-glbp)# copy running-config startup-config
Customizing GLBP
Customizing the behavior of GLBP is optional. Be aware that as soon as you enable a GLBP group by
configuring a virtual IP address, that group is operational. If you enable a GLBP group before you
customize GLBP, the router could take over control of the group and become the AVG before you finish
customizing the feature. If you plan to customize GLBP, you should do so before enabling GLBP.
To customize GLBP, use the following commands in GLBP configuration mode:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Configuring GLBP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command or Action
Purpose
timers [msec] hellotime [msec]
holdtime
Configures the following hello and hold times for this
GLBP member:
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# timers 5 18
•
hellotime—The interval between successive hello
packets sent by the AVG in a GLBP group. The range
is from 1 to 60 seconds or from 250 to 60000
milliseconds. The default value is 3 seconds.
•
holdtime—The interval before the virtual gateway
and virtual forwarder information in the hello packet
is considered invalid. The range is from 2 to 180
seconds or from 1020 to 180000 milliseconds. The
default is 10 seconds.
The optional msec keyword specifies that the argument is
expressed in milliseconds, instead of the default seconds.
Configures the following timers:
timers redirect redirect timeout
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# timers
redirect 600 7200
priority level
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# priority 254
preempt [delay minimum seconds]
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# preempt delay
minimum 60
•
redirect—The time interval in seconds during which
the AVG continues to redirect clients to an AVF. The
range is from 0 to 3600 seconds. The default is 600
seconds.
•
timeout—The interval in seconds before a secondary
virtual forwarder becomes invalid. The range is from
610 to 64800 seconds. The default is 14,440 seconds.
Sets the priority level used to select the AVG in a GLBP
group. The range is from 1 to 255. The default is 100.
Configures the router to take over as AVG for a GLBP
group if it has a higher priority than the current AVG. This
command is disabled by default.
Use the optional delay minimum keywords and the
seconds argument to specify a minimum delay interval in
seconds before preemption of the AVG takes place. The
ranges is from 0 to 3600 seconds. The minimum delay
default is 30 seconds.
Enabling a GLBP Group
You can configure the virtual IP address on an interface to enable the GLBP group. You must configure
each gateway in the GLBP group with the same group number. The GLBP member can learn all other
required parameters from another GLBP member.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Enable the GLBP feature (see the “Enabling the GLBP Feature” section on page 16-7).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-13
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Configuring GLBP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
ip ip-address/length
4.
glbp group-number
5.
ip [ip-address [secondary]]
6.
show glbp [brief]
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet
1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ip ip-address/length
Configures the IPv4 address for the interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip 192.0.2.1/8
Step 4
glbp group-number
Example:
switch(config-if)# glbp 1
switch(config-if-glbp)#
Step 5
ip [ip-address [secondary]]
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# ip 192.0.2.10
Creates a GLBP group and enters GLBP configuration
mode.
Enables GLBP on an interface and identifies the virtual
IP address. The virtual IP should be in the same subnet as
the interface IP address.
After you identify a virtual IP address, you can use the
glbp group ip command again with the secondary
keyword to indicate additional IP addresses supported by
this group. If you only use the ip keyword, GLBP learns
the virtual IP address from the neighbors.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Verifying GLBP Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command or Action
Purpose
show glbp [group group-number]
[brief]
(Optional) Displays a brief summary of GLBP
information.
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# show glbp
brief
Step 7
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if-glbp)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to enable GLBP on Ethernet 1/2:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# glbp 1
switch(config-if-glbp)# ip 192.0.2.10
Verifying GLBP Configuration
To display GLBP configuration information, perform one of the following tasks:
Command
Purpose
show glbp [group group-number]
Displays the GLBP status for all or one group.
show glbp [group group-number] capability
Displays the GLBP capability for all or one group.
show glbp [interface interface-type
slot/port]
Displays the GLBP status for an interface.
show glbp [group group-number] [interface
interface-type slot/port] [active]
[disabled] [init] [listen] [standby]
Displays the GLBP status for a group or interface
for virtual forwarders in the selected state.
show glbp [group group-number] [interface
interface-type slot/port] [active]
[disabled] [init] [listen] [standby] brief
Displays a brief summary of the GLBP status for
a group or interface for virtual forwarders in the
selected state.
GLBP Example Configuration
The following example enables GLBP on an interface, with MD5 authentication, interface tracking, and
weighted load balancing:
key chain glbp-keys
key 0
key-string 7 zqdest
accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Jun 01 2008 23:59:59 Sep 12 2008
send-lifetime 00:00:00 Jun 01 2008 23:59:59 Aug 12 2008
key 1
key-string 7 uaeqdyito
accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Aug 12 2008 23:59:59 Dec 12 2008
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-15
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Default Settings
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
send-lifetime 00:00:00 Sep 12 2008 23:59:59 Nov 12 2008
feature glbp
track 2 interface ethernet 2/2 ip
interface ethernet 1/2
ip address 192.0.2.2/8
glbp 1
authentication md5 key-chain glbp-keys
weighting 110 lower 95 upper 105
weighting track 2 decrement 20
ip 192.0.2.10
no shutdown
Default Settings
Table 16-1 lists the default settings for GLBP parameters.
Table 16-1
Default GLBP Parameters
Parameters
Default
Authentication
no authentication
Forwarder preemption delay
30 seconds
Forwarder timeout
14400 seconds
Hello timer
3 seconds
Hold timer
10 seconds
GLBP feature
disable
Load balancing
round robin
Preemption
disabled
Priority
100
Redirect timer
600 seconds
Weighting
100
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing GLBP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 16-17
•
Standards, page 16-17
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
Configuring the Hot Standby Redundancy protocol
Chapter 16, “Configuring HSRP”
Configuring the Virtual Router Redundancy protocol
Chapter 18, “Configuring VRRP”
GLBP CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Reference
Configuring high availability
Cisco NX-OS HA Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
16-17
Chapter 16
Configuring GLBP
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
16-18
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
17
Configuring HSRP
This chapter describes how to configure the Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP).
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About HSRP, page 17-1
•
Licensing Requirements for HSRP, page 17-6
•
Prerequisites for HSRP, page 17-6
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 17-6
•
Configuring HSRP, page 17-7
•
Verifying HSRP Configuration, page 17-15
•
HSRP Example Configuration, page 17-16
•
Default Settings, page 17-16
•
Additional References, page 17-17
Information About HSRP
HSRP is a first-hop redundancy protocol (FHRP) that allows a transparent failover of the first-hop IP
router. HSRP provides first-hop routing redundancy for IP hosts on Ethernet networks configured with
a default gateway IP address. You use HSRP in a group of routers for selecting an active gateway and a
standby gateway. In a group of gateways, the active gateway is the gateway that routes packets; the
standby gateway is the gateway that takes over when the active gateway fails or when preset conditions
are met.
Many host implementations do not support any dynamic router discovery mechanisms but can be
configured with a default router. Running a dynamic router discovery mechanism on every host is not
feasible for a number of reasons, including administrative overhead, processing overhead, and security
issues. HSRP provides failover services to these hosts.
This section includes the following topics:
•
HSRP Overview, page 17-2
•
HSRP Versions, page 17-3
•
HSRP Authentication, page 17-3
•
HSRP Addressing, page 17-4
•
HSRP Messages, page 17-4
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-1
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Information About HSRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
HSRP Load Sharing, page 17-4
•
Object Tracking and HSRP, page 17-5
HSRP Overview
When you use HSRP, you configure the HSRP virtual IP address as the host’s default gateway (instead
of the IP address of the actual gateway). The virtual IP address is an IP address that is shared among a
group of gateways that run HSRP.
When you configure HSRP on a network segment, you provide a virtual MAC address and a virtual IP
address for the HSRP group. You configure the same virtual addresses on each HSRP-enabled interface
in the group. You also configure a unique IP address and MAC address on each interface that act as the
real addresses. HSRP selects one of these interfaces to be the active router. The active router receives
and routes packets destined for the virtual MAC address of the group.
HSRP detects when the designated active router fails. At that point, a selected standby router assumes
control of the virtual MAC and IP addresses of the HSRP group. HSRP also selects a new standby router
at that time.
HSRP uses a priority mechanism to determine which HSRP-configured interface becomes the default
active router. To configure an interface as the active router, you assign it with a priority that is higher
than the priority of all the other HSRP-configured interfaces in the group. The default priority is 100, so
if you configure just one interface with a higher priority, that interface becomes the default active router.
Interfaces that run HSRP send and receive multicast User Datagram Protocol (UDP)-based hello
messages to detect a failure and to designate active and standby routers. When the active router fails to
send a hello message within a configurable period of time, the standby router with the highest priority
becomes the active router. The transition of packet forwarding functions between the active and standby
router is completely transparent to all hosts on the network.
You can configure multiple HSRP groups on an interface.
Figure 17-1 shows a network configured for HSRP. By sharing a virtual MAC address and a virtual IP
address, two or more interfaces can act as a single virtual router. The virtual router does not physically
exist but represents the common default gateway for interfaces that are configured to provide backup to
each other. You do not need to configure the hosts on the LAN with the IP address of the active router.
Instead, you configure them with the IP address (virtual IP address) of the virtual router as their default
gateway. If the active router fails to send a hello message within the configurable period of time, the
standby router takes over, responds to the virtual addresses, and becomes the active router, assuming the
active router duties. From the host perspective, the virtual router remains the same.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Information About HSRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 17-1
HSRP Topology With Two Enabled Routers
Internet or
ISP backbone
Active
router
192.0.2.1
Virtual
router
192.0.2.2
192.0.2.3
Standby
router
Host A
Host B
Host C
Host D
185061
LAN
HSRP Versions
Cisco NX-OS supports HSRP version 1 by default. You can configure an interface to use HSRP version
2.
HSRP version 2 has the following enhancements to to HSRP version 1:
•
Adds support for millisecond timers.
•
Expands the group number range. HSRP version 1 supports group numbers from 0 to 255. HSPR
version 2 supports group numbers from 0 to 4095.
•
Uses the new IP multicast address 224.0.0.102 to send hello packets instead of the multicast address
of 224.0.0.2, which is used by HSRP version 1.
•
Uses MAC address range from 0000.0C9F.F000 to 0000.0C9F.FFFF. HSRP version 1 uses the MAC
address range 0000.0C07.AC00 to 0000.0C07.ACFF.
•
Adds support for MD5 digest authentication.
When you change the HSRP version, Cisco NX-OS reinitializes the group because it now has a new
virtual MAC address.
HSRP version 2 has a different packet format than HSRP version 1. The packet format uses a
type-length-value (TLV) format. HSRP version 2 packets received by an HSRP version 1 router are
ignored.
HSRP Authentication
HSRP message digest 5 (MD5) algorithm authentication protects against HSRP-spoofing software and
uses the industry-standard MD5 algorithm for improved reliability and security.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-3
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Information About HSRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
HSRP Addressing
HSRP routers communicate between each other by exchanging HSRP hello packets. These packets are
sent to the destination IP multicast address 224.0.0.2 (reserved multicast address used to communicate
to all routers) on UDP port 1985. The active router sources hello packets from its configured IP address
and the HSRP virtual MAC address while the standby router sources hellos from its configured IP
address and the interface MAC address, which may or may not be the Burned-In MAC address (BIA).
Because hosts are configured with their default gateway as the HSRP virtual IP address, hosts must
communicate with the MAC address associated with the HSRP virtual IP address. This MAC address is
a virtual MAC address, 0000.0C07.ACxy, where xy is the HSRP group number in hexadecimal based on
the respective interface. For example, HSRP group one will use the HSRP virtual MAC address of
0000.0C07.AC01. Hosts on the adjoining LAN segment use the normal Address Resolution Protocol
(ARP) process to resolve the associated MAC addresses.
HSRP version 2 uses the new IP multicast address 224.0.0.102 to send hello packets instead of the
multicast address of 224.0.0.2, which is used by version 1. HSRP version 2 permits an expanded group
number range of 0 to 4095 and uses a new MAC address range of 0000.0C9F.F000 to 0000.0C9F.FFFF.
HSRP Messages
Routers that are configured with HSRP exchange the following three types of multicast messages:
•
Hello—The hello message conveys to other HSRP routers the HSRP priority and state information
of the router.
•
Coup—When a standby router wants to assume the function of the active router, it sends a coup
message.
•
Resign—A router that is the active router sends this message when it is about to shut down or when
a router that has a higher priority sends a hello or coup message.
HSRP Load Sharing
HSRP allows you to configure an interface in multiple groups.You can configure two overlapping HSRP
groups to load share traffic from the connected hosts while providing the default gateway redundancy
expected from HSRP. Figure 17-2 shows an example of a load-sharing HSRP configuration.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Information About HSRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 17-2
HSRP Load Sharing
User Group A
Default Gateway = 192.0.2.1
Active
Router A
Standby
Standby
Router B
Active
User Group B
Default Gateway = 192.0.2.2
Group B = 192.0.2.2
185059
Group A = 192.0.2.1
Figure 17-2 shows two routers A and B and two HSRP groups. Router A is the active router for group
A, but the standby router for group B. Similarly, router B is the active router for group B and the standby
router for group A. If both routers remain active, HSRP load balances the traffic from the hosts across
both routers. If either router fails, the remaining router continues to process traffic for both hosts.
Object Tracking and HSRP
You can use object tracking to modify the priority of an HSRP interface based on the operational state
of another interface. Object tracking allows you to router to a standby router if the interface to the main
network fails.
Two objects that you can track are the line protocol state of an interface or the reachability of an IP route.
If the specified object goes down, Cisco DC-OS reduces the HSRP priority by the configured amount.
For more information, see the “Configuring HSRP Object Tracking” section on page 17-12.
High Availability
HSRP supports stateful restart. A stateful restart occurs on a supervisor switchover. Cisco NX-OS
applies the runtime configuration after the switchover.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-5
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Licensing Requirements for HSRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Virtualization Support
HSRP supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device
contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDC and VRF.
If you change the VRF membership of an interface, Cisco NX-OS removes all layer 3 configuration,
including HSRP.
For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide and see
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for HSRP
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
HSRP requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS
system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing
scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Prerequisites for HSRP
HSRP has the following prerequisites:
•
You must globally enable HSRP before you can configure and enable any HSRP groups.
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see to the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Guidelines and Limitations
HSRP has the following guidelines and limitations:
•
The minimum Hello timer value is 250 milliseconds.
•
The minimum Hold timer value is 750 milliseconds.
•
You must configure an IP address for the interface that you configure HSRP on and enable that
interface before HSRP becomes active.
•
The virtual IP address must be in the same subnet as the interface IP address.
•
We recommend that you do not configure more than one first-hop redundancy protocol on the same
interface.
•
HSRP version 2 does not interoperate with HSRP version 1. An interface cannot operate both
version 1 and version 2 because both versions are mutually exclusive. However, the different
versions can be run on different physical interfaces of the same router.
•
You cannot change from version 2 to version 1 if you have configured groups above the group
number range allowed for version 1 (0 to 255).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Configuring HSRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Cisco NX-OS removes all layer 3 configuration on an interface when you change the interface VRF
membership, port channel membership, or when you change the port mode to layer 2.
Configuring HSRP
This section includes the following topics:
Note
•
Enabling the HSRP Feature, page 17-7
•
Configuring an HSRP Group, page 17-7
•
Configuring the HSRP Version, page 17-9
•
Configuring the HSRP Virtual MAC Address, page 17-9
•
Authenticating HSRP, page 17-10
•
Configuring HSRP Object Tracking, page 17-12
•
Customizing HSRP, page 17-14
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Enabling the HSRP Feature
You must globally enable the HSRP feature before you can configure and enable any HSRP groups.
To enable the HSRP feature in a VDC, use the following command in global configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
feature hsrp
Enables HSRP.
Example:
switch(config)# feature hsrp
To disable the HSRP feature in a VDC, use the following command in global configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
no feature hsrp
Disables HSRP for all groups in a VDC.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature hsrp
Configuring an HSRP Group
You can configure an HSRP group on an interface and configure the virtual IP address and virtual MAC
address for the HSRP group.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-7
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Configuring HSRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the HSRP feature (see the “Enabling the HSRP Feature” section on
page 17-7).
Cisco NX-OS enables an HSRP group once you configure the virtual IP address on any member interface
in the group. You should configure HSRP attributes such as authentication, timers, and priority before
you enable HSRP.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface type number
3.
ip ip-address/length
4.
hsrp group-number
5.
ip [ip-address [secondary]]
6.
exit
7.
no shutdown
8.
show hsrp [group group-number]
9.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface type number
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
ip ip-address/length
Configures the IPv4 address of the interface.
Example:
switch(config-if)# ip 192.0.2.2/8
Step 4
hsrp group-number
Example:
switch(config-if)# hsrp 2
switch(config-if-hsrp)#
Step 5
ip [ip-address [secondary]]
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# ip 192.0.2.1
Creates a HSRP group and enters HSRP configuration
mode. The range is from 0 to 4095. The default value
is 0.
Configures the virtual IP address for the HSRP group
and enables the group. This address should be in the
same subnet as the IPv4 address of the interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Configuring HSRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 6
Command
Purpose
exit
Exits HSRP configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# exit
Step 7
Enables the interface
no shutdown
Example:
switch(config-if)# no shutdown
Step 8
(Optional) Displays HSRP information.
show hsrp [group group-number]
Example:
switch(config-if)# show hsrp group 2
Step 9
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if)# copy running-config
startup-config
Note
You should use the no shutdown command to enable the interface after you finish the configuration.
The following example shows how to configure an HSRP group on Ethernet 1/2:
switch# config t
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# ip 192.0.2.2/8
switch(config-if)# hsrp 2
switch(config-if-hsrp)# ip 192.0.2.1
switch(config-if-hsrp)# exit
switch(config-if)# no shutdown
switch(config-if)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring the HSRP Version
You can configure the HSRP version. If you change the version for existing groups, Cisco NX-OS
reinitializes HSRP for those groups because the virtual MAC address changes. The HSRP version
applies to all groups on the interface.
To configure the HSRP version, use the following command in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
hsrp version {1 | 2}
Configures the HSRP version. Version 1 by
default.
Example:
switch(config-if)# hsrp version 2
Configuring the HSRP Virtual MAC Address
You can override the default virtual MAC address that HSRP derives from the configured group number.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-9
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Configuring HSRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
To manually configure the virtual MAC address for an HSRP group, use the following command in
HSRP configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
mac-address string
Configures the virtual MAC address for an HSRP
group. The string uses the standard MAC address
format (xxxx.xxxx.xxxx).
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# mac-address
5000.1000.1060
To configure HSRP to use the burned-in MAC address of the interface for the virtual MAC address, use
the following command in interface configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
hsrp use-bia [scope interface]
Configures HSRP to use the burned-in MAC
address of the interface for the HSRP virtual MAC
address. You can optionally configure HSRP to use
the burned-in MAC address for all groups on this
interface by using the scope interface keywords.
Example:
switch(config-if)# hsrp use-bia
Authenticating HSRP
You can configure HSRP to authenticate the protocol using cleartext or MD5 digest authentication. MD5
authentication uses a key chain (see the Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide).
Note
HSRP version 1 supports text authentication only.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the HSRP feature (see the “Enabling the HSRP Feature” section on
page 17-7).
You must configure the same authentication and keys on all members of the HSRP group.
Ensure that you have created the key chain if you are using MD5 authentication.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
hsrp group-number
4.
authentication text string
or
authentication md5 {key-chain key-chain | key-string {0 | 7} text [timeout seconds]}
5.
show hsrp [group group-number]
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Configuring HSRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
6.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Creates a HSRP group and enters HSRP configuration
mode.
hsrp group-number
Example:
switch(config-if)# hsrp 2
switch(config-if-hsrp)#
Step 4
authentication text string
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# authentication
text mypassword
authentication md5 {key-chain key-chain
| key-string {0 | 7} text [timeout
seconds]}
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# authentication
md5 key-chain hsrp-keys
Step 5
Configures cleartext authentication for HSRP on this
interface.
Configures MD5 authentication for HSRP on this
interface. You can use a key chain or key string. If you
use a key string, you can optionally set the timeout for
when HSRP will only accept a new key. The range is
from 0 to 32767 seconds.
(Optional) Displays HSRP information.
show hsrp [group group-number]
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# show hsrp group
2
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to configure MD5 authentication for HSRP on Ethernet 1/2 after
creating the key chain:
switch# config t
switch(config)# key chain hsrp-keys
switch(config-keychain)# key 0
switch(config-keychain-key)# key-string 7 zqdest
switch(config-keychain-key) accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Jun 01 2008 23:59:59 Sep 12 2008
switch(config-keychain-key) send-lifetime 00:00:00 Jun 01 2008 23:59:59 Aug 12 2008
switch(config-keychain-key) key 1
switch(config-keychain-key) key-string 7 uaeqdyito
switch(config-keychain-key) accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Aug 12 2008 23:59:59 Dec 12 2008
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-11
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Configuring HSRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
switch(config-keychain-key) send-lifetime 00:00:00 Sep 12 2008 23:59:59 Nov 12 2008
switch(config-keychain-key)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# hsrp 2
switch(config-if-hsrp)# authenticate md5 key-chain hsrp-keys
switch(config-if-hsrp)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring HSRP Object Tracking
You can configure an HSRP group to adjust its priority based on the availability of other interfaces or
routes. The priority of a device can change dynamically if it has been configured for object tracking and
the object that is being tracked goes down. The tracking process periodically polls the tracked objects
and notes any value change. The value change triggers HSRP to recalculate the priority. The HSRP
interface with the higher priority becomes the active router if you configure the HSRP interface for
preemption. For more information on object tracking, see the “Configuring HSRP Object Tracking”
section on page 17-12.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the HSRP feature (see the “Enabling the HSRP Feature” section on
page 17-7).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
track object-id interface interface-type number {ip routing | line-protocol}
3.
track object-id ip route ip-prefix/length reachability
4.
interface interface-type slot/port
5.
hsrp group-number
6.
priority [value]
7.
track object-number [decrement value]
8.
preempt [delay minimum seconds] [reload seconds] [sync seconds]
9.
show hsrp interface interface-type number
10. copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Configuring HSRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Configures the interface that this HSRP interface tracks.
Changes in the state of the interface affect the priority of
this HSRP interface as follows:
track object-id interface
interface-type number {ip routing |
line-protocol}
Example:
switch(config)# track 1 interface
ethernet 2/2 line-protocol
switch(config-track#
•
You configure the interface and corresponding object
number that you use with the track command in HSRP
configuration mode.
•
The line-protocol keyword tracks whether the interface
is up. The ip keyword also checks that IP routing is
enabled on the interface and an IP address is
configured.
Creates a tracked object for a route nd enters tracking
configuration mode. The object-id range is from 1 to 500.
track object-id ip route
ip-prefix/length reachability
Example:
switch(config)# track 2 ip route
192.0.2.0/8 reachability
switch(config-track#
Step 3
Enters interface configuration mode.
interface interface-type slot/port
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet
1/2
switch(config-if)#
Step 4
Creates an HSRP group and enters HSRP configuration
mode.
hsrp group-number
Example:
switch(config-if)# hsrp 2
switch(config-if-hsrp)#
Step 5
priority [value]
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# priority 254
Step 6
Step 7
Sets the priority level used to select the active router in an
HSRP group. The range is from 0 to 255. The default is 100.
track object-number [decrement
value]
Specifies an object to be tracked that affects the weighting
of an HSRP interface.
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# track 1
decrement 20
The value argument specifies a reduction in the priority of
an HSRP interface when a tracked object fails. The range is
from 1 to 255. The default is 10.
preempt [delay [minimum seconds]
[reload seconds] [sync seconds]]
Configures the router to take over as the active router for an
HSRP group if it has a higher priority than the current active
router. This command is disabled by default. The range is
from 0 to 3600 seconds.
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# preempt
delay minimum 60
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-13
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Configuring HSRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Step 8
Command or Action
Purpose
show hsrp interface interface-type
number
(Optional) Displays HSRP information for an interface.
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# show hsrp
interface ethernet 1/2
Step 9
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# copy
running-config startup-config
The following example shows how to configure HSRP object tracking on Ethernet 1/2:
switch# config t
switch(config)# track 1 interface ethernet 2/2 line-protocol
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/2
switch(config-if)# hsrp 2
switch(config-if-hsrp)# track 1 decrement 20
switch(config-if-hsrp)# copy running-config startup-config
Customizing HSRP
You can optionally customize the behavior of HSRP. Be aware that as soon as you enable an HSRP group
by configuring a virtual IP address, that group is now operational. If you first enable a HSRP group
before customizing HSRP, the router could take over control of the group and become the AVG before
you finish customizing the feature.If you plan to customize HSRP, you should do so before you enable
the HSRP group.
To customize HSRP, use the following commands in HSRP configuration mode:
Command or Action
Purpose
name string
Specifies the IP redundancy name for an HSRP group.
The string is from 1 to 255 characters. The default string
has the following format:
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# name HSRP-1
hsrp-<interface-short-name>-<group-id>. For example,
hsrp-Eth2/1-1.
priority [level]
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# priority 254
Sets the priority level used to select the active router in an
HSRP group. The range is from 0 to 255. The default is
100.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Verifying HSRP Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command or Action
Purpose
preempt [delay [minimum seconds]
[reload seconds] [sync seconds]]
Configures the router to take over as an active router for
a HSRP group if it has a higher priority than the current
active router. This command is disabled by default. The
range is from 0 to 3600 seconds.
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# preempt delay
minimum 60
Configures the hello and hold time for this HSRP member
as follows.
timers [msec] hellotime [msec]
holdtime
Example:
switch(config-if-hsrp)# timers 5 18
•
hellotime—The interval between successive hello
packets sent. The range is from 1 to 254 seconds.
•
holdtime—The interval before the information in the
hello packet is considered invalid. The range is from
3 to 255.
The optional msec keyword specifies that the argument is
expressed in milliseconds, instead of the default seconds.
To customize HSRP, use the following commands in interface configuration mode:
Command or Action
Purpose
hsrp delay minimum seconds
Specifies the minimum amount of time that HSRP waits
after a group is enabled before participating in the group.
The range is from 0 to 10000 seconds. The default is 0.
Example:
switch(config-if)# hsrp delay minimum
30
hsrp delay reload seconds
Example:
switch(config-if)# hsrp delay reload
30
Specifies the minimum amount of time that HSRP waits
after reload before participating in the group. The range
is from 0 to 10000 seconds. The default is 0.
Verifying HSRP Configuration
To verify HSRP configuration information, use one of the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show hsrp [group group-number]
Displays the HSRP status for all or one group.
show hsrp delay [interface interface-type
slot/port]
Displays the HSRP delay value for all or one
interface.
show hsrp [interface interface-type
slot/port]
Displays the HSRP status for an interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-15
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
HSRP Example Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
show hsrp [group group-number] [interface
interface-type slot/port] [active] [all]
[init] [learn] [listen] [speak] [standby]
Displays the HSRP status for a group or interface
for virtual forwarders in the active, init, learn,
listen, or standby state. Use the all keyword to see
all states, including disabled.
show hsrp [group group-number] [interface
interface-type slot/port] active] [all]
[init] [learn] [listen] [speak] [standby]
brief
Displays a brief summary of the HSRP status for
a group or interface for virtual forwarders in the
active, init, learn, listen, or standby state. Use the
all keyword to see all states, including disabled.
HSRP Example Configuration
The following example enables HSRP on an interface with MD5 authentication and interface tracking:
key chain hsrp-keys
key 0
key-string 7 zqdest
accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Jun 01 2008 23:59:59 Sep 12 2008
send-lifetime 00:00:00 Jun 01 2008 23:59:59 Aug 12 2008
key 1
key-string 7 uaeqdyito
accept-lifetime 00:00:00 Aug 12 2008 23:59:59 Dec 12 2008
send-lifetime 00:00:00 Sep 12 2008 23:59:59 Nov 12 2008
feature hsrp
track 2 interface ethernet 2/2 ip
interface ethernet 1/2
ip address 192.0.2.2/8
hsrp 1
authenticate md5 key-chain hsrp-keys
priority 90
track 2 decrement 20
ip-address 192.0.2.10
no shutdown
Default Settings
Table 17-1 lists the default settings for HSRP parameters.
Table 17-1
Default HSRP Parameters
Parameters
Default
HSRP
Disabled
Authentication
Enabled as text for version 1, with cisco as the
password.
HSRP version
Version 1
Preemption
disabled
Priority
100
virtual MAC address
Derived from HSRP group number
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing IP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 17-17
•
Standards, page 17-17
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
Configuring the Gateway Load Balancing protocol
Chapter 16, “Configuring GLBP”
Configuring the Virtual Router Redundancy protocol
Chapter 18, “Configuring VRRP”
HSRP CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Reference
Configuring high availability
Cisco NX-OS HA Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
17-17
Chapter 17
Configuring HSRP
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
17-18
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
18
Configuring VRRP
This chapter describes how to configure the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) on a device
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About VRRP, page 18-1
•
Licensing Requirements for VRRP, page 18-6
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 18-6
•
Configuring VRRP, page 18-6
•
Verifying the VRRP Configuration, page 18-18
•
Displaying VRRP Statistics, page 18-19
•
VRRP Example Configuration, page 18-19
•
Default Settings, page 18-20
•
Additional References, page 18-21
Information About VRRP
VRRP allows for transparent failover at the first-hop IP router, by configuring a group of routers to share
a virtual IP address. VRRP selects a master router in that group to handle all packets for the virtual IP
address. The remaining routers are in standby and take over in the event that the master router fails.
This section includes the following topics:
•
VRRP Operation, page 18-2
•
VRRP Benefits, page 18-3
•
Multiple VRRP Groups, page 18-3
•
VRRP Router Priority and Preemption, page 18-4
•
VRRP Advertisements, page 18-5
•
VRRP Authentication, page 18-5
•
VRRP Tracking, page 18-5
•
High Availability, page 18-5
•
Virtualization Support, page 18-5
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-1
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Information About VRRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
VRRP Operation
A LAN client can determine which router should be the first hop to a particular remote destination by
using a dynamic process or static configuration. Examples of dynamic router discovery are as follows:
•
Proxy ARP—The client uses Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to get the destination it wants to
reach, and a router will respond to the ARP request with its own MAC address.
•
Routing protocol—The client listens to dynamic routing protocol updates (for example, from
Routing Information Protocol [RIP]) and forms its own routing table.
•
ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) client—The client runs an Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) router discovery client.
The disadvantage to dynamic discovery protocols is that they incur some configuration and processing
overhead on the LAN client. Also, in the event of a router failure, the process of switching to another
router can be slow.
An alternative to dynamic discovery protocols is to statically configure a default router on the client.
Although, this approach simplifies client configuration and processing, it creates a single point of
failure. If the default gateway fails, the LAN client is limited to communicating only on the local IP
network segment and is cut off from the rest of the network.
VRRP can solve the static configuration problem by enabling a group of routers (a VRRP group) to share
a single virtual IP address. You can then configure the LAN clients with the virtual IP address as their
default gateway.
Figure 18-1 shows a basic VLAN topology. In this example, Routers A, B, and C form a VRRP group.
The IP address of the group is the same address that was configured for the Ethernet interface of Router
A (10.0.0.1).
Basic VRRP Topology
Router A
Virtual router
master
10.0.0.1
Client 1
Router B
Virtual router
backup
10.0.0.2
Client 2
Router C
Virtual router
backup
Virtual
router group
IP address = 10.0.0.1
10.0.0.3
Client 3
56623
Figure 18-1
Because the virtual IP address uses the IP address of the physical Ethernet interface of Router A, Router
A is the master (also known as the IP address owner). As the master, Router A owns the virtual IP
address of the VRRP group r and forwards packets sent to this IP address. Clients 1 through 3 are
configured with the default gateway IP address of 10.0.0.1.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Information About VRRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Routers B and C function as backups. If the master fails, the backup router with the highest priority
becomes the master and takes over the virtual IP address to provide uninterrupted service for the LAN
hosts. When router A recovers, it becomes the r master again. For more information, see the “VRRP
Router Priority and Preemption” section.
VRRP Benefits
The benefits of VRRP are as follows:
•
Redundancy–Enables you to configure multiple routers as the default gateway router, which reduces
the possibility of a single point of failure in a network.
•
Load Sharing–Allows traffic to and from LAN clients to be shared by multiple routers. The traffic
load is shared more equitably among available routers.
•
Multiple VRRP groups–Supports up to 255 VRRP groups on a router physical interface if the
platform supports multiple MAC addresses. Multiple VRRP groups enable you to implement
redundancy and load sharing in your LAN topology.
•
Multiple IP Addresses–Allows you to manage multiple IP addresses, including secondary IP
addresses. If you have multiple subnets configured on an Ethernet interface, you can configure
VRRP on each subnet.
•
Preemption–Enables you to preempt a backup router that has taken over for a failing master with a
higher priority backup router that has become available.
•
Advertisement Protocol–Uses a dedicated Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) standard
multicast address (224.0.0.18) for VRRP advertisements. This addressing scheme minimizes the
number of routers that must service the multicasts and allows test equipment to accurately identify
VRRP packets on a segment. IANA has assigned the IP protocol number 112 to VRRP.
•
VRRP Tracking–Ensures that the best VRRP router is the master for the group by altering VRRP
priorities based on interface states.
Multiple VRRP Groups
You can configure up to 255 VRRP groups on a physical interface. The actual number of VRRP groups
that a router interface can support depends on the following factors:
•
Router processing capability
•
Router memory capability
In a topology where multiple VRRP groups are configured on a router interface, the interface can act as
a master for one VRRP group and as a backup for one or more other VRRP groups.
Figure 18-2 shows a LAN topology in which VRRP is configured so that Routers A and B share the
traffic to and from clients 1 through 4. Routers A and B act as backups to each other if either router fails.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-3
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Information About VRRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Figure 18-2
Load Sharing and Redundancy VRRP Topology
Router A
Router B
Master for virtual router 1
Backup for virtual router 1
Backup for virtual router 2
Master for virtual router 2
10.0.0.2
129284
10.0.0.1
Client 1
Default gateway =
10.0.0.1
Client 2
Default gateway =
10.0.0.1
Client 3
Default gateway =
10.0.0.2
Client 4
Default gateway =
10.0.0.2
In this topology contains two virtual IP addresses for two VRRP groups that overlap. For VRRP group
1, Router A is the owner of IP address 10.0.0.1 and is the master. Router B is the backup to router A.
Clients 1 and 2 are configured with the default gateway IP address of 10.0.0.1.
For VRRP group 2, Router B is the owner of IP address 10.0.0.2 and is the master. Router A is the backup
to router B. Clients 3 and 4 are configured with the default gateway IP address of 10.0.0.2.
VRRP Router Priority and Preemption
An important aspect of the VRRP redundancy scheme is the VRRP router priority because the priority
determines the role that each VRRP router plays and what happens if the master router fails.
If a VRRP router owns the virtual IP address and the IP address of the physical interface, this router
functions as the master. The priority of the master is 255.
Priority also determines if a VRRP router functions as a backup router and the order of ascendancy to
becoming a master if the master fails.
For example, if router A, the master in a LAN topology, fails, VRRP must determine if backups B or C
should take over. If you configure router B with priority 101 and router C with the default priority of
100, VRRP selects router B to become the master because it has the higher priority. If you configure
routers B and C with the default priority of 100, VRRP selects the backup with the higher IP address to
become the master.
VRRP uses preemption to determine what happens after a VRRP backup router becomes the master.
With preemption enabled by default, VRRP will switch to a backup if that backup comes online with a
priority higher than the new master. For example, if Router A is the master and fails, VRRP selects
Router B (next in order of priority). If Router C comes online with a higher priority than Router B, VRRP
selects Router C as the new master, even though Router B has not failed.
If you disable preemption, VRRP will only switch if the original master recovers or the new master fails.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Information About VRRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
VRRP Advertisements
The VRRP master sends VRRP advertisements to other VRRP routers in the same group. The
advertisements communicate the priority and state of the master. Cisco NX-OS encapsulates the VRRP
advertisements in IP packets and sends them to the IP multicast address assigned to the VRRP group.
Cisco NX-OS sends the advertisements once every second by default, but you can configure a different
advertisement interval.
VRRP Authentication
VRRP supports the following authentication mechanisms:
•
No authentication
•
Plain text authentication
VRRP rejects packets in any of the following cases:
•
The authentication schemes differ on the router and in the incoming packet.
•
Text authentication strings differ on the router and in the incoming packet.
VRRP Tracking
VRRP uses the native tracking method to track interface states. You can track the state of an interface
and use that state to determine the priority of the VRRP router in a VRRP group. If the tracked interface
goes down, VRRP updates the priority based on what you configure the new priority to be for the tracked
interface state. When the tracked interface comes up, VRRP restores the original priority for the virtual
router group.
For example, you may want to lower the priority of a VRRP group member if its uplink to the network
goes down so another group member can take over as master for the VRRP group.
High Availability
VRRP supports stateful restart. A stateful restart occurs on a supervisor switchover. Cisco NX-OS
applies the runtime configuration after the switchover.
Virtualization Support
VRRP supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding instances (VRFs). VRFs exist within virtual device
contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF unless you
specifically configure another VDC and VRF.
If you change the VRF membership of an interface, Cisco NX-OS removes all layer 3 configuration,
including VRRP.
For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide and see
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-5
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Licensing Requirements for VRRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Licensing Requirements for VRRP
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
VRRP requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco NX-OS
system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS licensing
scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Guidelines and Limitations
VRRP has the following guidelines and limitations:
•
You cannot configure VRRP on the management interface.
•
When VRRP is enabled, you should replicate the VRRP configuration across devices in your
network.
•
We recommend that you do not configure more than one first-hop redundancy protocol on the same
interface.
•
You must configure an IP address for the interface that you configure VRRP on and enable that
interface before VRRP becomes active.
•
Cisco NX-OS removes all layer 3 configuration on an interface when you change the interface VRF
membership, port channel membership, or when you change the port mode to layer 2.
Configuring VRRP
This section includes the following topics:
Note
•
Enabling the VRRP Feature, page 18-6
•
Configuring VRRP Groups, page 18-7
•
Configuring VRRP Priority, page 18-8
•
Configuring VRRP Authentication, page 18-10
•
Configuring Time Intervals for Advertisement Packets, page 18-12
•
Disabling Preemption, page 18-14
•
Configuring VRRP Interface State Tracking, page 18-16
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Enabling the VRRP Feature
You must globally enable the VRRP feature before you can configure and enable any VRRP groups.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
To enable the VRRP feature, use the following command in global configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
feature vrrp
Enables VRRP.
Example:
switch(config)# feature vrrp
To disable the VRRP feature in a VDC, use the following command in global configuration mode:
Command
Purpose
no feature vrrp
Disables the VRRP feature in a VDC.
Example:
switch(config)# no feature vrrp
Configuring VRRP Groups
You can create a VRRP group, assign the virtual IP address, and enable the group.
You can configure one virtual IPv4 address for a VRRP group. By default, the master VRRP router drops
the packets addressed directly to the virtual IP address because the VRRP master is only intended as a
next-hop router to forward packets. Some applications require that Cisco NX-OS accept packets
addressed to the virtual router IP. Use the secondary option to the virtual IP address to accept these
packets when the local router is the VRRP master.
Once you have configured the VRRP group, you must explicitly enable the group before it becomes
active.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
Ensure that you configure an IP address on the interface (see the “Configuring IPv4 Addressing” section
on page 2-7.
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
vrrp number
4.
address ip-address [secondary]
5.
no shutdown
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-7
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
6.
show vrrp
7.
copy running-config startup-config
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)#
switch(config-if)# interface ethernet 2/1
Step 3
vrrp number
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrrp 250
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 4
address ip-address [secondary]
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# address 192.0.2.8
Creates a virtual router group. The range
is from 1 to 255.
Configures the virtual IPv4 address for
the specified VRRP group. This address
should be in the same subnet as the IPv4
address of the interface.
Use the secondary option only if
applications require that VRRP routers
accept the packets sent to the virtual
router's IP address and deliver to
applications.
Step 5
no shutdown
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# no shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 6
show vrrp
Enables the VRRP group. Disabled by
default.
(Optional) Displays VRRP information.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# show vrrp
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# copy running-config
startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration
change.
Configuring VRRP Priority
The valid priority range for a virtual router is from 1 to 254 (1 is the lowest priority and 254 is the
highest). The default priority value for backups is 100. For devices whose interface IP address is the
same as the primary virtual IP address (the master), the default value is 255.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-8
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
If you have enabled the VRRP group, you must disable it first, before making configuration changes.
Enable the VRRP group after you complete your configuration changes.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the VRRP feature (see the “Configuring VRRP” section on page 18-6).
Ensure that you have configured an IP address on the interface (see the “Configuring IPv4 Addressing”
section on page 2-7.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
vrrp number
4.
shutdown
5.
priority value
6.
no shutdown
7.
show vrrp
8.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-9
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/1
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
vrrp number
Creates a virtual router group.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrrp 250
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 4
shutdown
Disables the VRRP group. Disabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 5
Step 6
priority value
Configures the priority for the selected VRRP.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# priority 2
The range is from 1 to 254. The default is 100 for
backups and 255 for a master that has an
interface IP address equal to the virtual IP
address.
no shutdown
Enables the VRRP group. Disabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# no shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 7
show vrrp
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# show vrrp
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Displays a summary of VRRP
information.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# copy running-config
startup-config
Configuring VRRP Authentication
You can configure simple text authentication for a VRRP group.
Note
If you have enabled the VRRP group, you must disable it first, before making configuration changes.
Enable the VRRP group after you complete your configuration changes.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that the authentication configuration is identical for all VRRP devices in the network.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-10
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Ensure that you have enabled the VRRP feature (see the “Configuring VRRP” section on page 18-6).
Ensure that you have configured an IP address on the interface (see the “Configuring IPv4 Addressing”
section on page 2-7.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
vrrp number
4.
shutdown
5.
authentication text password
6.
no shutdown
7.
show vrrp
8.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-11
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/1
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
Creates a virtual router group.
vrrp number
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrrp 250
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 4
Disables the VRRP group. Disabled by default.
shutdown
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 5
authentication
text password
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# authentication md5
prd555oln47espn0 spi 0x0
Step 6
no shutdown
Assigns the simple text authentication option and
specifies the keyname password. The keyname
range is from 1 to 255 characters. We recommend
that you use at least 16 characters. The text
password is up to eight alphanumeric characters.
Enables the VRRP group. Disabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# no shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 7
show vrrp
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# show vrrp
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Displays a summary of VRRP
information.
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# copy
running-config startup-config
Configuring Time Intervals for Advertisement Packets
You can configure the time intervals for advertisement packets.
Note
If you have enabled the VRRP group, you must disable it first, before making configuration changes.
Enable the VRRP group after you complete your configuration changes.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the VRRP feature (see the “Configuring VRRP” section on page 18-6).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-12
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Ensure that you have configured an IP address on the interface (see the “Configuring IPv4 Addressing”
section on page 2-7.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
vrrp number
4.
shutdown
5.
advertisement-interval seconds
6.
no shutdown
7.
show vrrp
8.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-13
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/1
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
vrrp number
Creates a virtual router group.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrrp 250
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 4
shutdown
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 5
advertisement-interval seconds
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# advertisement-interval 15
Step 6
no shutdown
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# no shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 7
show vrrp
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# show vrrp
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# copy running-config
startup-config
Disables the VRRP group. Disabled by
default.
Sets the interval time in seconds between
sending advertisement frames. The range
is from 1 to 255. The default is 1 second.
Enables the VRRP group. Disabled by
default.
(Optional) Displays a summary of VRRP
information.
(Optional) Saves this configuration
change.
Disabling Preemption
You can disable preemption for a VRRP group member. If you disable preemption, a higher-priority back
up router will not take over for a lower-priority master router. Preemption is enabled by default.
Note
If you have enabled the VRRP group, you must disable it first, before making configuration changes.
Enable the VRRP group after you complete your configuration changes.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the VRRP feature (see the “Configuring VRRP” section on page 18-6).
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-14
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Ensure that you have configured an IP address on the interface (see the “Configuring IPv4 Addressing”
section on page 2-7.
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
vrrp number
4.
shutdown
5.
no preempt
6.
no shutdown
7.
show vrrp
8.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-15
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet
2/1
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
vrrp number
Creates a virtual router group.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrrp 250
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 4
no shutdown
Enables the VRRP group. Disabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# no
shutdown
Step 5
no preempt
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# no preempt
Step 6
no shutdown
Disables the preempt option and allows the master to remain
when a higher-priority backup appears.
Enables the VRRP group. Disabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# no
shutdown
Step 7
show vrrp
(Optional) Displays a summary of VRRP information.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# show vrrp
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# copy
running-config startup-config
Configuring VRRP Interface State Tracking
Interface state tracking changes the priority of the virtual router based on the state of another interface
in the device. When the tracked interface goes down, Cisco NX-OS assigns the tracking priority value
to the virtual router. When the tracked interface comes up, Cisco NX-OS restores the configured priority
to the virtual router (see the“Configuring VRRP Priority” section on page 18-8).
Note
For interface state tracking to function, you must enable preemption on the interface.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-16
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Configuring VRRP
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Note
If you have enabled the VRRP group, you must disable it first, before making configuration changes.
Enable the VRRP group after you complete your configuration changes.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you have enabled the VRRP feature (see the “Configuring VRRP” section on page 18-6).
Ensure that you have configured an IP address on the interface (see the “Configuring IPv4 Addressing”
section on page 2-7.
Ensure that you have enabled the virtual router (see the “Configuring VRRP Groups” section on
page 18-7).
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
interface interface-type slot/port
3.
vrrp number
4.
shutdown
5.
track interface type number priority value
6.
no shutdown
7.
show vrrp
8.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-17
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Verifying the VRRP Configuration
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
interface interface-type slot/port
Enters interface configuration mode.
Example:
switch(config)# interface ethernet 2/1
switch(config-if)#
Step 3
vrrp number
Creates a virtual router group.
Example:
switch(config-if)# vrrp 250
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 4
shutdown
Disables the VRRP group. Disabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 5
track interface type number priority
value
Enables interface priority tracking for a VRRP group.
The priority range is from 1 to 254.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# track interface
ethernet 2/10 priority 254
Step 6
no shutdown
Enables the VRRP group. Disabled by default.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# no shutdown
switch(config-if-vrrp)#
Step 7
show vrrp
(Optional) Displays a summary of VRRP information.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# show vrrp
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-if-vrrp)# copy
running-config startup-config
Verifying the VRRP Configuration
To verify VRRP configuration information, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show vrrp
Displays the VRRP status for all groups.
show vrrp vr group-number
Displays the VRRP status for a VRRP group.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-18
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Displaying VRRP Statistics
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Command
Purpose
show vrrp vr number interface
interface-type port configuration
Displays the virtual router configuration for an
interface.
show vrrp vr number interface
interface-type port status
Displays the virtual router status for an interface.
Displaying VRRP Statistics
To display VRRP statistics, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show vrrp vr number interface
interface-type port statistics
Displays the virtual router information.
show vrrp statistics
Displays the VRRP statistics.
Use the clear vrrp statistics command to clear all the VRRP statistics for all interfaces in the device.
Use the clear vrrp vr command to clear the IPv4 VRRP statistics for a specified interface.
Use the clear vrrp ipv4 command to clear all the statistics for the specified IPv4 virtual router.
VRRP Example Configuration
In this example, Router A and Router B each belong to three VRRP groups. In the configuration, each
group has the following properties:
•
Group 1:
– Virtual IP address is 10.1.0.10.
– Router A will become the master for this group with priority 120.
– Advertising interval is 3 seconds.
– Preemption is enabled.
•
Group 5:
– Router B will become the master for this group with priority 200.
– Advertising interval is 30 seconds.
– Preemption is enabled.
•
Group 100:
– Router A will become the master for this group first because it has a higher IP address
(10.1.0.2).
– Advertising interval is the default 1 second.
– Preemption is disabled.
Router A
interface ethernet 1/0
ip address 10.1.0.2/16
no shutdown
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-19
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Default Settings
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
vrrp 1
priority 120
authentication text cisco
advertisement-interval 3
address 10.1.0.10
no shutdown
vrrp 5
priority 100
advertisement-interval 30
address 10.1.0.50
no shutdown
vrrp 100
no preempt
address 10.1.0.100
no shutdown
Router B
interface ethernet 1/0
ip address 10.2.0.1/2
no shutdown
vrrp 1
priority 100
authentication text cisco
advertisement-interval 3
address 10.2.0.10
no shutdown
vrrp 5
priority 200
advertisement-interval 30
address 10.2.0.50
no shutdown
vrrp 100
no preempt
address 10.2.0.100
no shutdown
Default Settings
Table 18-1 lists the default settings for VRRP parameters.
Table 18-1
Default VRRP Parameters
Parameters
Default
advertisement interval
1 seconds
authentication
no authentication
preemption
enabled
priority
100
VRRP feature
disabled
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-20
OL-12912-01
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Additional References
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing VRRP, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 18-21
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
Configuring the gateway load balancing protocol
Chapter 16, “Configuring GLBP”
Configuring the hot standby routing protocol
Chapter 17, “Configuring HSRP”
VRRP CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Reference
Configuring high availability
Cisco NX-OS HA Configuration Guide
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
18-21
Chapter 18
Configuring VRRP
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
18-22
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
CH A P T E R
19
Configuring Object Tracking
This chapter describes how to configure object tracking on Cisco NX-OS devices.
This chapter includes the following sections:
•
Information About Object Tracking, page 19-1
•
Licensing Requirements for Object Tracking, page 19-2
•
Prerequisites for Object Tracking, page 19-3
•
Guidelines and Limitations, page 19-3
•
Configuring Object Tracking, page 19-3
•
Verifying Object Tracking Configuration, page 19-7
•
Object Tracking Example Configuration, page 19-7
•
Related Topics, page 19-7
•
Default Settings, page 19-7
•
Additional References, page 19-7
Information About Object Tracking
Object tracking allows you to track specific objects on the network, such as the interface line protocol
state, IP routing, and route reachability, and take action when the tracked object’s state changes. This
feature allows you to increase the availability of the network and shorten recovery time if an object state
goes down.
This section includes the following topics:
•
Object Tracking Overview, page 19-1
•
High Availability, page 19-2
•
Virtualization Support, page 19-2
Object Tracking Overview
The object tracking feature allows you to create a tracked object that multiple clients can use to modify
the client behavior when a tracked object changes. Several clients register their interest with the tracking
process, track the same object, and each take different actions when the object state changes.
Clients include the following features:
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
19-1
Chapter 19
Configuring Object Tracking
Licensing Requirements for Object Tracking
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Hot Standby Redundancy Protocol (HSRP)
•
Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)
•
Embedded Event Manager (EEM)
The object tracking monitors the status of the tracked objects and communicates any changes made to
interested clients. Each tracked object is identified by a unique number that clients can use to configure
the action to take when a tracked object changes state.
Cisco NX-OS tracks the following object types:
•
Interface line protocol state—Tracks whether the line protocol state is up or down.
•
Interface IP routing state—Tracks whether the interface has an IP address and IP routing is enabled
and active.
•
IP route reachability—Tracks whether the route exists and is reachable from the local device.
For example, you can configure HSRP to track the line protocol of the interface that connects one of the
redundant routers to the rest of the network. If that link protocol goes down, you can modify the priority
of the affected HSRP router and cause a switchover to a backup router that has better network
connectivity
High Availability
Object tracking supports high availability through stateful restarts. A stateful restart occurs when the
object tracking process crashes. Object tracking also supports stateful switchover on a dual supervisor
system. Cisco NX-OS applies the runtime configuration after the switchover.
You can also use object tracking to modify the behavior of a client to improve overall network
availability.
Virtualization Support
Object tracking supports Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) instances. VRFs exist within virtual
device contexts (VDCs). By default, Cisco NX-OS places you in the default VDC and default VRF
unless you specifically configure another VDC and VRF. By default, Cisco NX-OS tracks the route
reachability state of objects in the default VRF. If you want to track objects in another VRF, you must
configure the object to be a member of that VRF (see “Configuring Object Tracking for a nonDefault
VRF” section on page 19-5).
For more information, see the Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide and see
Chapter 13, “Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization.”
Licensing Requirements for Object Tracking
The following table shows the licensing requirements for this feature:
Product
License Requirement
NX-OS
Object tracking requires no license. Any feature not included in a license package is bundled with the Cisco
NX-OS system images and is provided at no extra charge to you. For a complete explanation of the NX-OS
licensing scheme, see the Cisco NX-OS Licensing Guide.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
19-2
OL-12912-01
Chapter 19
Configuring Object Tracking
Prerequisites for Object Tracking
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Prerequisites for Object Tracking
Object tracking has the following prerequisites:
•
If you configure VDCs, install the Advanced Services license and enter the desired VDC (see the
Cisco NX-OS Virtual Device Context Configuration Guide).
Guidelines and Limitations
Object tracking has the following guidelines and limitations:
•
Supports up to 500 tracked objects per VDC.
•
Supports IPv4 addresses only.
•
Supports Ethernet, subinterfaces, port channels, loopback interfaces, and VLAN interfaces.
•
Supports one tracked object per HSRP group or GLBP group.
Configuring Object Tracking
This section includes the following topics:
Note
•
Configuring Object Tracking for an Interface, page 19-3
•
Configuring Object Tracking for Route Reachability, page 19-4
•
Configuring Object Tracking for a nonDefault VRF, page 19-5
If you are familiar with the Cisco IOS CLI, be aware that the Cisco NX-OS commands for this feature
might differ from the Cisco IOS commands that you would use.
Configuring Object Tracking for an Interface
You can configure Cisco NX-OS to track the line protocol or IP routing state of an interface.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
track object-id interface interface-type number {ip routing | line-protocol}
3.
show track [object-id]
4.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
19-3
Chapter 19
Configuring Object Tracking
Configuring Object Tracking
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
track object-id interface interface-type
number {ip routing | line-protocol}
Example:
switch(config)# track 1 interface
ethernet 1/2 line-protocol
switch(config-track#
Step 3
show track [object-id]
Creates a tracked object for an interface and enters
tracking configuration mode. The object-id range is
from 1 to 500.
(Optional) Displays object tracking information.
Example:
switch(config-track)# show track 1
Step 4
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-track)# copy
running-config startup-config
This example shows how to configure object tracking for the line protocol state on Ethernet 1/2:
switch# config t
switch(config)# track 1 interface ethernet 1/2 line-protocol
switch(config-track)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Object Tracking for Route Reachability
You can configure Cisco NX-OS to track the existence and reachability of an IP route.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
track object-id ip route ip-prefix/length reachability
3.
show track [object-id]
4.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
19-4
OL-12912-01
Chapter 19
Configuring Object Tracking
Configuring Object Tracking
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
Creates a tracked object for a route and enters tracking
configuration mode. The object-id range is from 1 to
500.
track object-id ip route
ip-prefix/length reachability
Example:
switch(config)# track 2 ip route
192.0.2.0/8 reachability
switch(config-track)#
Step 3
(Optional) Displays object tracking information.
show track [object-id]
Example:
switch(config-track)# show track 1
Step 4
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
copy running-config startup-config
Example:
switch(config-track)# copy
running-config startup-config
This example shows how to configure object tracking for a route in the default VRF.
switch# config t
switch(config)# track 2 ip route 192.0.2.0/8 reachability
switch(config-track)# copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Object Tracking for a nonDefault VRF
You can configure Cisco NX-OS to track an object in a specific VRF.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
Ensure that you are in the correct VDC (or use the switchto vdc command).
SUMMARY STEPS
1.
config t
2.
track object-id ip route ip-prefix/length reachability
3.
vrf member vrf-name
4.
show track [object-id]
5.
copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
19-5
Chapter 19
Configuring Object Tracking
Configuring Object Tracking
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
DETAILED STEPS
Step 1
Command
Purpose
config t
Enters configuration mode.
Example:
switch# config t
switch(config)#
Step 2
track object-id ip route
ip-prefix/length reachability
Example:
switch(config)# track 3 ip route
209.165.201.0/8 reachability
switch(config-track)#
Step 3
vrf member vrf-name
Example:
switch(config-track)# vrf member Red
Step 4
show track [object-id]
Creates a tracked object for a route and enters tracking
configuration mode. The object-id range is from 1 to
500.
Configures the VRF to use for tracking the configured
object.
(Optional) Displays object tracking information.
Example:
switch(config-track)# show track 3
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Saves this configuration change.
Example:
switch(config-track)# copy
running-config startup-config
This example shows how to configure object tracking for a route and use VRF Red to look up
reachability information for this object:
switch# config t
switch(config)# track 2 ip route 209.165.201.0/8 reachability
switch(config-track)# vrf member Red
switch(config-track)# copy running-config startup-config
This example shows how to modify tracked object 2 to use VRF Blue instead of VRF RED to look up
reachability information for this object:
switch# config t
switch(config)# track 2
switch(config-track)# vrf member Blue
switch(config-track)# copy running-config startup-config
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
19-6
OL-12912-01
Chapter 19
Configuring Object Tracking
Verifying Object Tracking Configuration
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Verifying Object Tracking Configuration
To verify object tracking configuration information, use the following commands:
Command
Purpose
show track [object-id] [brief]
Displays the object tracking information for one
or more objects.
show track [object-id] interface [brief]
Displays the interface-based object tracking
information.
show track [object-id] ip route [brief]
Displays the IP route-based object tracking
information.
Object Tracking Example Configuration
This example shows how to configure object tracking for route reachability and use VRF Red to look up
reachability information for this route:
switch# config t
switch(config)# track 2 ip route 209.165.201.0/8 reachability
switch(config-track)# vrf member Red
switch(config-track)# copy running-config startup-config
Related Topics
See the following topics for information related to object tracking:
•
Configuring GLBP, page 16-1
•
Configuring HSRP, page 17-1
•
Configuring Layer 3 Virtualization, page 13-1
Default Settings
Table 19-1 lists the default settings for object tracking parameters.
Table 19-1
Default Object Tracking Parameters
Parameters
Default
Tracked Object VRF
member of default VRF
Additional References
For additional information related to implementing object tracking, see the following sections:
•
Related Documents, page 19-8
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
19-7
Chapter 19
Configuring Object Tracking
Additional References
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
•
Standards, page 19-8
Related Documents
Related Topic
Document Title
Object Tracking CLI commands
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Command Reference
Configuring the Embedded Event Manager
Cisco NX-OS System Management Configuration Guide
Standards
Standards
Title
No new or modified standards are supported by this
—
feature, and support for existing standards has not been
modified by this feature.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
19-8
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
A P P E N D I X
A
IETF RFCs supported by Cisco NX-OS Unicast
Features, Release 4.x
This appendix lists the IETF RFCs supported in Cisco NX-OS Release 4.x.
BGP RFCs
RFCs
Title
RFC 1997
BGP Communities Attribute
RFC 2385
Protection of BGP Sessions via the TCP MD5 Signature Option
RFC 2439
BGP Route Flap Damping
RFC 2519
A Framework for Inter-Domain Route Aggregation
RFC 2545
Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol Extensions for IPv6 Inter-Domain
Routing
RFC 2858
Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4
RFC 3065
Autonomous System Confederations for BGP
RFC 3392
Capabilities Advertisement with BGP-4
RFC 4271
A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)
RFC 4273
Definitions of Managed Objects for BGP-4
RFC 4456
BGP Route Reflection: An Alternative to Full Mesh Internal BGP
(IBGP)
RFC 4486
Subcodes for BGP Cease Notification Message
RFC 4724
Graceful Restart Mechanism for BGP
RFC 4893
BGP Support for Four-octet AS Number Space
draft-ietf-idr-avoid-transition-05.txt
Avoid BGP Best Path Transitions from One External to Another
draft-ietf-idr-bgp4-mib-15.txt
BGP4-MIB
draft-kato-bgp-ipv6-link-local-00.txt
BGP4+ Peering Using IPv6 Link-local Address
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
A-1
Appendix A
IETF RFCs supported by Cisco NX-OS Unicast Features, Release 4.x
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
First-Hop Redundancy ProtocolsRFCs
RFCs
Title
RFC 2281
Hot Standby Redundancy Protocol
RFC 3768
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
IP Services RFCs
RFCs
Title
RFC 786
UDP
RFC 791
IP
RFC 792
ICMP
RFC 793
TCP
RFC 826
ARP
RFC 1027
Proxy ARP
RFC 1591
DNS Client
RFC 1812
IPv4 routers
IPv6 RFCs
RFCs
Title
RFC 1981
Path MTU Discovery for IP version 6
RFC 2373
IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture
RFC 2374
An Aggregatable Global Unicast Address Format
RFC 2460
Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification
RFC 2461
Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)
RFC 2462
IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
RFC 2463
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification
RFC 2464
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks
RFC 2467
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over FDDI Networks
RFC 2472
IP Version 6 over PPP
RFC 2492
IPv6 over ATM Networks
RFC 2590
Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Frame Relay Networks
Specification
RFC 3152
Delegation of IP6.ARPA
RFC 3162
RADIUS and IPv6
RFC 3513
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing Architecture
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
A-2
OL-12912-01
Appendix A
IETF RFCs supported by Cisco NX-OS Unicast Features, Release 4.x
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
RFCs
Title
RFC 3596
DNS Extensions to Support IP version 6
RFC 4193
Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses
IS-IS RFCs
RFCs
Title
RFC 1142
OSI 10589 Intermediate system to intermediate system intra-domain
routing exchange protocol
RFC 1195
Use of OSI IS-IS for routng in TCP/IP and dual environment
RFC 2763
Dynamic Hostname Exchange Mechanism for IS-IS
RFC 2966
Domain-wide Prefix Distribution with Two-Level IS-IS
RFC 2972
IS-IS Mesh Groups
RFC 3273
Three-Way Handshake for IS-IS Point-to-Point Adjacencies
RFC 3277
IS-IS Transient Blackhole Avoidance
RFC 3567
IS-IS Cryptographic Authentication
RFC 3847
Restart Signaling for IS-IS
draft-ietf-isis-igp-p2p-over-lan-06.txt
Internet Draft Point-to-point operation over LAN in link-state
routing protocols
OSPF RFCs
RFCs
Title
RFC 2328
OSPF Version 2
RFC 2740
OSPF for IPv6
RFC 3623
Graceful OSPF Restart
RFC 3101
The OSPF Not-So-Stubby Area (NSSA) Option
RFC 2370
The OSPF Opaque LSA Option
RFC 3137
OSPF Stub Router Advertisement
draft-ietf-ospf-ospfv3-graceful-restart-04.txt
OSPFv3 Graceful Restart
RIP RFCs
RFCs
Title
RFC 2453
RIP Version 2
RFC 2080
RIPng for IPv6
RFC 2082
RIP-2 MD5 Authentication
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
A-3
Appendix A
IETF RFCs supported by Cisco NX-OS Unicast Features, Release 4.x
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
A-4
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
GLOSSARY
A
ABR
See area border router.
address family
A specific type of network addressing supported by a routing protocol. Examples include IPv4 unicast
and IPv4 multicast.
adjacency
Two OSPF routers that have compatible configurations and have synchronized their link-state
databases.
administrative
distance
A rating of the trustworthiness of a routing information source. In general, the higher the value, the
lower the trust rating.
area
A logical division of routers and links within an OSPF domain that creates separate subdomains. LSA
flooding is contained within an area.
area border router
A router that connects one OSPF area to another OSPF area.
ARP
Address resolution protocol. ARP discovers the MAC address for a known IPv4 address.
AS
See autonomous system.
ASBR
See autonomous system border router.
attributes
Properties of a route that are sent in BGP UPDATE messages. These attributes include the path to the
advertised destination as well as configurable options that modify the best path selection process.
autonomous
system
A network controlled by a single technical administration entity.
autonomous
system border
router
A router that connecta an OSPF autonomous system to an external autonomous system.
AVF
Active virtual forwarder. A gateway within a GLBP group elected to forward traffic for a specified
virtual MAC address.
AVG
Active virtual gateway. One virtual gateway within a GLBP group is elected as the active virtual
gateway and is responsible for the operation of the protocol.
v
B
backup designated
router
See BDR.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
GL-1
Glossary
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
bandwidth
The available traffic capacity of a link.
BDR
Backup designated router. An elected router in a multi-access OSPF network that acts as the backup if
the designated router fails. All neighbors form adjacencies with the backup designated router (BDR)
as well as the designated router.
BGP
Border Gateway Protocol. BGP is an interdomain or exterior gateway protocol.
BGP peer
A remote BGP speaker that is an established neighbor of the local BGP speaker.
BGP speaker
BGP-enabled router.
C
communication cost Measure of the operating cost to route over a link.
converged
The point at which all routers in a network have identical routing information.
convergence
See converged.
D
dead interval
The time within which an OSPF router must receive a Hello packet from an OSPF neighbor. The dead
interval is usually a multiple of the hello interval. If no Hello packet is received, the neighbor adjacency
is removed.
default gateway
A router to which all unroutable packets are sent. Also called the router of last resort.
delay
The length of time required to move a packet from the source to the destination through the
internetwork.
designated router
See DR.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Control Protocol.
Diffusing Update
Algorithm
See DUAL.
distance vector
Defines routes by distance (for example, the number of hops to the destination) and direction (for
example, the next-hop router) and then broadcasts to the directly connected neighbor routers.
DNS client
Domain Name System client. Communicates with DNS server to translate a host name to an IP address.
DR
Designated router. An elected router in a multi-access OSPF network that sends LSAs on behalf of all
its adjacent neighbors. All neighbors establish adjacency with only the designated router and the
backup designated router.
DUAL
Diffusing Update Algorithm. EIGRP algorithm used to select optimal routes to a destination.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
GL-2
OL-12912-01
Glossary
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
E
eBGP
External Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Operates between external systems.
EIGRP
Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol. A Cisco routing protocol that uses the Diffusing Update
Algorithm to provide fast convergence and minimized bandwidth utilization.
F
feasible distance
The lowest calculated distance to a network destination in EIGRP. The feasibility distance is the sum
of the advertised distance from a neighbor plus the cost of the link to that neighbor.
feasible successor
Neighbors in EIGRP that advertise a shorter distance to the destination than the current feasibility
distance.
FIB
Fowarding Information Base. The forwarding table on each module that is used to make the Layer 3
forwarding decisions per packet.
G
gateway
A switch or router that forwards layer 3 traffic from a LAN to the rest of the network.
GLBP
Gateway Load Balancing Protocol. A Cisco proprietary protocol that provides high availability features
to end hosts.
graceful restart
A feature that allows a router to remain in the data forwarding path while a routing protocol reboots.
h
H
hello interval
The configurable time between each Hello packet sent by an OSPF or EIGRP router.
hello packet
A special message used by OSPF or IS-IS to discover neighbors. Also acts as a keep alive messages
between established neighbors.
high availability
The ability of a system or component to limit or avoid network disruption when a component fails.
hold time
In BGP - Maximum time limit allowed in BGP between UPDATE or KEEPALIVE messages. If this
time is exceeded, the TCP connection between the BGP peers is closed.
In EIGRP, the maximum time allowed between EIGRP Hello messages. If this time is exceeded, the
neighbor is declared unreachable.
hop count
The number of routers that can be traversed in a route. Used by RIP.
HSRP
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
GL-3
Glossary
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
I
Internal Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Operates within an autonomous system.
iBGP
ICMP
IETF RFCs
Internet Engineering Task Force Request for Comments.
IGP
Interior gateway protocol. Used between routers within the same autonomous system.
instance
An independent, configurable entity, typically a protocol.
IP tunnels
IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4.
IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6.
IS-IS
Intermediate System to Intermediate System. An ISO interior gateway protocol.
K
keepalive
A special message sent between routing peers to verify and maintain communications between the pair.
key-chain
management
A method of controling authentication keys. See the Cisco NX-OS Security Configuration Guide.
L
link cost
An abitrary number configured on an OSPF interface which is in shortest path first calculations.
link-state
Shares information about a link, link cost to neighboring routers.
link-state
advertisement
See LSA.
LSA
Link-state advertisement. An OSPF message to share information on the operational state of a link, link
cost, and other OSPF neighbor information.
link-state database
OSPF database of all LSAs received. OSPF uses this database to calculate the best path to each
destination in the network.
link-state refresh
The time that OSPF floods the network with LSAs to ensure all OSPF routers have the same
information.
load
The degree to which a network resource, such as a router, is busy.
load balancing
The distribution of network traffic across multiple paths to a given destination.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
GL-4
OL-12912-01
Glossary
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
M
message digest
A one-way hash applied to a message using a shared password and appended to the message to
authenticate the message and ensure the message has not been altered in transit.
metric
A standard of measurement, such as the path bandwidth, that is used by routing algorithms to determine
the optimal path to a destination.
MD5 authentication A cryptographic construction that is calculated based on an authentication key and the original message
digest
and sent along with the message to the destination. Allows the destination to determine the authenticity
of the sender and guarantees that the message has not been tampered with during transmission.
MTU
Maximum transmission unit. The largest packet size that a network link will transmit without
fragmentation.
N
NDP
Neighbor Discovery Protocol. The procotol used by IPv6 to find the MAC address associated with an
IPv6 address.
network layer
reachability
information
BGP network layer reachability information (NRLI). Contains the a list of network IP addresses and
network masks for networks that are reachable from the advertising BGP peer.
next hop
The next router that a packet is sent to on its way to the destination address.
NSSA
Not-So-Stubby-Area. Limits AS external LSAs in an OSPF area.
O
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First. An IETF link-state protocol. OSPFv2 supports IPv4 and OSPFv3 supports
IPv6.
P
path length
Sum of all link costs or the hop count that a packet experiences when routed from the source to the
destination.
policy-based
routing
The method of using route maps to alter the route selected for a packet.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
GL-5
Glossary
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
R
redistribution
One routing protocol accepts route information from another routing protocol and advertises it in the
local autonomous system.
Reliable Transport
Protocol
Responsible for guaranteed, ordered delivery of EIGRP packets to all neighbors.
reliability
The dependability (usually described in terms of the bit-error rate) of each network link.
RIB
Routing Information Base. Maintains the routing table with directly connected routes, static routes, and
routes learned from dynamic unicast routing protocols.
Route Polciy
Manager
The process that controls route maps and policy-based routing.
routing information See RIB.
base
route map
A construct used to map a route or packet based on match criteria and optionally alter the route or
packet based on set criteria. Used in route redistribution and policy-based routing.
route
summarization
A process that replaces a series of related, specific routes in a route table with a more generic route.
router ID
A unique identifier used by routing protocols. If not manually configured, the routing protocol selects
the highest IP address configured on the system.
S
SPF algorithm
Shortest Path First algorithm. Dijkstra’s algorithm used by OSPF to determine the shortest route
through a network to a particular destination.
split horizon
Routes learned from an interface are not advertised back along the interface they were learned on,
preventing the router from seeing its own route updates.
split horizon with
poison reverse
Routes learned from an interface are set as unreachable and advertised back along the interface they
were learned on, preventing the router from seeing its own route updates.
static route
A manually configured route.
stub area
An OSPF area that does not allow AS External (type 5) LSAs.
stub router
A router that has no direct connection to the main network and which routes to that network using a
known remote router.
SVI
Switched Virtual Interface. .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
GL-6
OL-12912-01
Glossary
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
U
U6FIB
Unicast IPv6 forwarding information base.
UFIB
Unicast IPv4 forwarding information base.
U6RIB
Unicast IPv6 routing information base. The unicast routing table that gathers information from all
routing protocols and updates the forwarding information base for each module.
URIB
Unicast IPv4 routinginformation base. The unicast routing table that gathers information from all
routing protocols and updates the forwarding information base for each module.
V
VDC
Virtual Device Context. Used to split a physical system into secure, independent, logical systems.
virtualization
A method of making a physical entity act as multiple, independent logical entities.
VRF
Virtual Routing and Forwarding. A method used to create separate, independent Layer 3 entities within
a system.
VRRP
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol.
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
GL-7
Glossary
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
GL-8
OL-12912-01
S e n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
A P P E N D I X
2
Configuration Limits for Cisco NX-OS Layer 3
Unicast Features, Release 4.x
The features supported by Cisco DC-OS have maximum configuration limits. For some of the features,
we have verified configurations that support limits less that the maximum. Table 2-1 lists the Cisco
verified limits and maximum limits for switches running Cisco DC-OS Release 4.x.
Table 2-1
Feature
BGP
Cisco NX-OS Release 4.x Configuration Limits
Verified Limit
Maximum Limit
300 peers
150,000 prefixes per peer
20 million paths total
GLBP
1024 GLBP groups.
HSRP
2048 HSRP groups.
20 HSRP groups per interface.
OSPF
200 interfaces
1000 routers
300 adjacencies
200,000 LSAs
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
OL-12912-01
2-1
Appendix 2
Configuration Limits for Cisco NX-OS Layer 3 Unicast Features, Release 4.x
Se n d d o c u m e n t c o m m e n t s t o n ex u s 7 k - d o c f e e d b a ck @ c i s c o . c o m .
Cisco NX-OS Unicast Routing Configuration Guide, Release 4.0
2-2
OL-12912-01
Download PDF
Similar pages