SEMESTER 1 Chapter 5

SEMESTER 2 Chapter 1
Planning and Cabling a Network
V 4.0
1.1.1
What are the common
components between a router
and other computers?
1.1.1.2
What does a router connect?
What does a router do with
each packet it receives?
What are the 2 types of
connections to a router
interface?
What are the two primary
functions of a router?
What address does the router
use to compare to the routing
table?
What two processes are used
by a router to learn about
remote networks and build their
routing tables?
What are the five components
common to all routers?
List the 5 different components
stored in RAM.
What happens to the
information in RAM if the router
looses power?
What are the permanent
storage areas in a router?
What 3 things are stored in
ROM?
1.1.1.3
1.1.2
1.1.2.2
1.1.3
What is stored in flash?
What happens to flash memory
when the power is lost?
What is stored in NVRAM?
What must you do to save
changes you have made to a
router?
What is the most common
method used for configuring a
router?
What is the first thing that
happens as the router boots
up?
135 points
CPU
RAM
ROM
Operating System
Multiple networks
It determines which interface to use and
forwards the packet on towards its destination
LAN Local Area Network
WAN Wide Area Network
Best Path Determination
Forwarding packets toward their destination
Destination IP addresss
Static Routes
Dynamic Routing Protocols
Flash, ROM, CPU, RAM, Power
Operating System, Running Configuration File,
IP Routing Table, ARP Cache, Packet Buffer
All information is lost
ROM, Flash, and NVRAM
The bootstrap instructions
Basic diagnostic software
Scaled-down version of IOS.
Cisco IOS
Nothing
Startup configuration file
Copy the running-config to the startup-config
Command Line interface CLI
The startup config is copied into RAM
1.1.4
1.1.4.2
1.1.5
1.1.5.2
What are the 4 phases of the
bootup process?
1. Performing the POST
2. Loading the bootstrap program
3. Locating and loading the Cisco IOS software
4. Locating and loading the startup configuration
file or entering setup mode
What does POST test?
The router hardware
What is the main function of the Find and load the IOS
bootstrap program?
What are the 2 main places to
Flash and TFTP server
find the IOS?
If a full IOS can not be loaded
Loads a scaled down version of the IOS from
what does the bootstrap loader ROM to RAM
do?
Where is the startup
NVRAM
configuration found?
What are the main items stored interface addresses
in the configuration file?
routing information
passwords
any other configurations saved by the network
administrator
Where is the second place that TFTP server
the router looks for the startup
config if it is not located in
NVRAM?
If the router can not locate a
Setup mode
startup-config, what mode does
it enter?
What key command do you
Ctrl-C
press to exit setup mode if you
accidentally entered it?
What command can be used to Show version
help verify and troubleshoot
some of the basic hardware
and software components of
the router?
What is the last line displayed
Configuration register
in the show version output?
What is the default
0x2102
configuration register setting?
What does that setting tell the
attempt to load a Cisco IOS software image from
router?
flash memory and load the startup configuration
file from NVRAM
What are the two management Console and auxiliary
ports?
What is an interface?
physical connector on the router whose main
purpose is to receive and forward packets
What must be configured for
Each interface must be configured with an IP
each interface?
address and subnet mask of a different network
What are the two major groups LAN interfaces - such as Ethernet and
of router interfaces?
1.1.6
1.1.6.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
What OSI layer does a router
operate at?
What is the router interface that
connects to a LAN called?
What is the process that each
router uses to determine where
to send the packet?
What are the four essential
information elements to include
in the topology diagram?
What are the basic tasks to
perform when configuring a
router?
What is the prompt for the user
mode?
What is the command to enter
the privileged EXEC mode?
What is the prompt for
privileged EXEC mode?
What is the command to enter
the global configuration mode?
What is the command to enter
the hostname of a router?
What happens to the prompt
after you press enter?
What is the command used to
enter the password to enter the
privileged EXEC mode?
List the commands to set the
password for the console port?
List the commands to set the
password for the Telnet lines?
List the commands to enter the
Banner Message of the Day
(motd).
FastEthernet
WAN interfaces - such as serial, ISDN, and
Frame Relay
Layer 3
Default Gateway
decapsulation, searching the routing table, and
then re-encapsulation
Device names
Interfaces used in the design
IP addresses and subnet masks
Default gateway addresses for end devices,
such as PCs
Naming the router
Setting passwords
Configuring interfaces
Configuring a banner
Saving changes on a router
Verifying basic configuration and router
operations
Router>
Enable
Router#
Router#config t
Router(config)#hostname R1
The prompt changes to the hostname
R1(config) enable secret class
R1(config)#line console 0
R1(config-line)#password cisco
R1(config-line)#login
R1(config)#line vty 0 4
R1(config-line)#password cisco
R1(config-line)#login
R1(config)#banner motd #
Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'.
******************************************
WARNING!! Unauthorized Access Prohibited!!
******************************************
#
1.2.2.2
1.2.2.3
1.3.1
1.3.2.1
What should the banner show?
What is the command to enter
the interface configuration
mode?
What is the command to set the
IP address and subnet mask
for an interface?
What is the command to enter
a description for the interface?
What is the command to turn
on an interface?
What is the command to view
the running-configuration file?
What is the command to save
the current config in NVRAM?
What command will display the
routing table?
What command displays all of
the interface configuration
parameters and statistics?
What command displays
abbreviated interface
configuration information,
including IP address and
interface status?
Where is the routing table
stored?
What is a directly connected
network?
What is a remote network?
What would a C in the first
column of a routing table
mean?
What additional information is
included when the destination
is a remote network?
What command reveals the
configured or acquired default
gateway, connected, loopback,
multicast, and broadcast
networks?
How does a PC determine
which network it belongs to?
What command will activate a
router interface?
What routes does a router
know before any static or
dynamic routing is configured?
Warning to unauthorized users
R1(config)#interface Serial0/0
R1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.1
255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)#description Ciruit#VBN32696123 (help desk:1-800-555-1234)
Router(config-if)#no shutdown
R1#show running-config
R1#copy running-config startup-config
R1#show ip route
R1#show interfaces
R1#show ip interface brief
RAM
a network that is directly attached to one of the
router interfaces
a network that is not directly connected to the
router
Directly connected
the routing metric and the administrative
distance
Route print
uses the subnet mask
No shut
Directly connected networks
1.3.3
What denotes a static route in
the routing table?
What are the three items that
must be included in a static
route?
When should static routes be
used?
1.3.4
What are dynamic routing
protocols used for?
What are 2 of the activities that
dynamic routing protocols
perform?
What is network discovery?
What are some dynamic
routing protocols?
1.3.5
1.4.2
What are the three routing
principles?
What is asymmetric routing?
What does a router compare to
select the best path to place in
the routing table?
What is a metric?
What is the best path?
The number of routers that a
packet must travel through
before reaching its destination
is called?
The data capacity of a link,
sometimes referred to as the
speed of the link?
S
Network address and subnet mask of the remote
network
IP address of the next hop router or the exit
interface
Network consists of only a few routers
A network is connected to the Internet through a
single ISP
A large network is configured in a hub-andspoke topology
share information about the reachability and
status of remote networks
Network discovery
Updating and maintaining routing tables
the ability of a routing protocol to share
information about the networks that it knows
about with other routers that are also using the
same routing protocol
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol)
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate
System)
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
1. Every router makes its decision alone, based
on the information it has in its own routing table.
2. The fact that one router has certain
information in its routing table does not mean
that other routers have the same information.
3. Routing information about a path from one
network to another does not provide routing
information about the reverse, or return, path.
A packet can take different routes to and from
Routing metric
the quantitative value used to measure the
distance to a given route
The path with the lowest metric
Hop count
Bandwidth
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.5.2
1.5.2-4
What is it called when two
paths to a destination have
exactly the same metric?
What is equal cost load
balancing?
What are the two functions of
packet forwarding?
What is the process used by a
router to accept a packet on
one interface and forward it out
another interface called?
What are the three major steps
a router performs on a packet?
What happens to the value of
the TTL as a packet moves
through a network?
Which address does not
change as the packet moves
through the network?
Which address changes as the
packet moves through the
network?
How does a PC determine
which network it belongs to?
How does it determine if the
destination is on the same
network?
Where does the PC send the
packet if the destination is not
on its own network?
Where does the PC look for the
default gateway MAC address?
What does the PC do if the
MAC address is not in the ARP
table?
Excellent description of how a
packet travels from one pc to
another. Make certain you
understand the steps. Note any
questions you have about the
process.
Equal cost metric
When a router can use multiple interfaces to
reach a single network address.
Path determination function
Switching function
Switching
1. Decapsulates the Layer 3 packet by removing
the Layer 2 frame header and trailer.
2. Examines the destination IP address of the IP
packet to find the best path in the routing table.
3. Encapsulates Layer 3 packet into a new Layer
2 frame and forwards the frame out the exit
interface.
It is decremented each hop. Goes down
IP address
MAC address
It ands its IP address and subnet mask
After anding the packet it compares the network
address to its own
To the default gateway
In its ARP table
It sends an ARP request
Extra:
D
* What are the primary functions of a route? (Can you list 3?)
- read the section on “Router Paths and Packet Switching”
* You need to know the components of route and its related functions:
- RAM: What is stored in RAM? Can you list the names and its functions?
- ROM: What is stored in ROM? Can you list the names and its functions?
- FLASH: What is stored in FLASH? Can you list the names and its functions?
- NVRAM: What is stored in NVRAM? Can you list the names and its functions?
- POST: What is the purpose of POST?
* What is the “running-config”” file and what is “startup-config”? What is the difference
between these 2 files?
* What is the purpose of “show running-config” command?
* What is the purpose of “show startup-config” command?
* How do you save the running-config file? What command can be used to save
the file?
* You need to know all the situations of router loading sequences and backup loading
sequences (***).
- Default complete (IOS and configuration file) loading sequence
- Default and backup IOS loading sequence
- Default and backup configuration file loading sequence
- What happen when router cannot find the valid IOS file?
- What happen when router cannot find the startup configuration file?
* How many places that you can figure passwords on the router and what are those
interfaces?
- Do you know the commands needed to configure the console password?
- Do you know the commands needed to configure the telnet password?
- Do you know the commands needed to configure all 5 lines of telnet password?
- Do you know the commands needed to configure the unsecure privileged
password?
- Do you know the commands needed to configure the secure privileged
password?
* What is the purpose of “service password-encryption” command?
- What is the router output looks like before executing the command?
- What is the router output looks like after executing the command?
* In relations to the OSI layer model and encapsulation/decapsulation process, what
happen to a packet that travels through a router and designated to another network?
- What happen to the layer 2 information?
- What happen to the layer 3 information?
- Refers to the diagram shown below, what information (field) remain constant
and does not get change during the transmission.
- Refers to the diagram shown below, what information (field) does not remain
constant and does get change all the time during the transmission.
- Refers to the diagram shown below, you need to be able to identify all the
information about: What is your source MAC address? What is your destination
MAC address? What is your source IP address? What is your destination IP
address?
* From the figure shown below:
- Which interface can be used for LAN connection?
- Which interface can be used for WAN connection?
- Which interface must be used for initial router configuration?
- Which interface can be used when there is no network access is available?
- What type of cable need to be used to inter-connect 2 routers together with their
fastethernet ports?
* What is the definition of the term “load balance”?
- What type of routing protocols support load balancing?
* What is the definition of the term “unequal cost load balance”?
- What type of routing protocols support unequal cost load balancing?
* Based on the following “show ip route” output, can you explain the following:
- What is “C” stands for? What do you do to produce this “C” entry?
- Do you have enough information to figure out how many interface do you have
on the router?
- What happen when the router received a packet with the destination IP address
of 198.18.5.100? (drop or forward? If it forward, where does it forward to?)
- What happen when the router received a packet with the destination IP address
of 198.18.9.100? (drop or forward? If it forward, where does it forward to?)
* You have configured the IP addresses on all the router interfaces, but it is still not
working. Why? (see graphic listed below)
* Please list 3 required commands needed to configure the S0 interface of Sydney
router. So, the Sydney router can communicate with Melbourne router.
* Analyze the following network, and choose the appropriate outgoing interface
- What happen when RouterA want to send a packet to network 192.168.3.0/24
- What happen when RouterA want to send a packet to network 192.168.3.0/24
- What happen when RouterB want to send a packet to network 172.16.55.0/24
- What happen when RouterB want to send a packet to network 10.5.27.0/24
- What happen when RouterC want to send a packet to network 172.16.55.0/24
- What happen when RouterC want to send a packet to network 192.168.3.0/24
* Can you figure out what is wrong of the following figure?
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