Ethernet Spread Spectrum Radio, A53325-01

INSTALLATION & OPERATION
A53325-01 and A53325-04 ETHERNET SPREAD SPECTRUM RADIO
(Point-to-Point, Point-to-Multi-Point, MESH Tree, and
Linear Network)
DECEMBER 2005, REVISED MAY 2014
DOCUMENT NO. COM-00-05-05
VERSION C.1
Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation
9568 Archibald Ave., Suite 100,
Rancho Cucamonga, California 91730
1-800-793-SAFE
Copyright © 2014 Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation
All rights reserved
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
PROPRIETARY INFORMATION
Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation (Siemens) has a proprietary interest in the information
contained herein and, in some instances, has patent rights in the systems and components
described. It is requested that you distribute this information only to those responsible people
within your organization who have an official interest.
This document, or the information disclosed herein, shall not be reproduced or transferred to
other documents or used or disclosed for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as
specifically authorized in writing by Siemens.
TRANSLATIONS
The manuals and product information of Siemens are intended to be produced and read in
English. Any translation of the manuals and product information are unofficial and can be
imprecise and inaccurate in whole or in part. Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation does not
warrant the accuracy, reliability, or timeliness of any information contained in any translation of
manual or product information from its original official released version in English and shall not be
liable for any losses caused by such reliance on the accuracy, reliability, or timeliness of such
information. Any person or entity who relies on translated information does so at his/her own risk.
WARRANTY INFORMATION
Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation warranty policy is as stated in the current Terms and
Conditions of Sale document. Warranty adjustments will not be allowed for products or
components which have been subjected to abuse, alteration, improper handling or installation, or
which have not been operated in accordance with Seller's instructions. Alteration or removal of
any serial number or identification mark voids the warranty.
SALES AND SERVICE LOCATIONS
Technical assistance and sales information on Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation
products may be obtained at the following locations:
Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation
2400 NELSON MILLER PARKWAY
LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY 40223
TELEPHONE:
(502) 618-8800
FAX:
(502) 618-8810
SALES & SERVICE:
(800) 626-2710
WEB SITE:
http://www.rail-automation.com/
Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation
939 S. MAIN STREET
MARION, KENTUCKY 42064
TELEPHONE:
(270) 918-7800
CUSTOMER SERVICE:
(800) 626-2710
TECHNICAL SUPPORT:
(800) 793-7233
FAX:
(270) 918-7830
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Version No.: C.1
December 2005, Revised May 2014
FCC RULES COMPLIANCE
The equipment covered in this manual has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not
occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television
reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to
correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
•
•
•
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Modifications not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the user's authority to operate the equipment under
FCC rules.
RF EXPOSURE WARNING
All antenna installation and servicing is to be performed by qualified technical personnel
only. When servicing or working at distances closer than 7 feet (2 meters), ensure the
transmitter has been disabled. Depending upon the application and the gain of the
antenna, the total composite power could exceed 100 watts EIRP. The antenna location
should be such that only qualified technical personnel can access it, and under normal
operating conditions no other person can come in contact or approach within 7 feet (2
meters) of the antenna.
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December 2005, Revised May 2014
DOCUMENT HISTORY
Version
A
B
Release
Date
Details of Change
Initial release
December
2005
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Document No.: COM-00-05-05
Version No.: C.1
Updated Proprietary Information on page ii.
Added non-vital product warning on page 1-1.
Added information throughout document for Point-to-Multi-Point
operation.
Added DHCP information to Glossary, Paragraphs 6.4, and 8.5.1 that
DHCP protocol only works in conjunction with Safetran’s Wayside
Access Gateway (WAG).
Corrected Table 1-2 A53325 Included Components.
Added DC Power Inserter caution note on page 1-5 that input voltage
must not exceed the power specification of the radio or damage to
the radio could result.
Added notes on pages 1-5 and 1-7 that Power Inserter is required
when cable lengths exceed 100 feet.
Added cautions to paragraph 1.6 and Specifications page B-1 that
reversed polarity of the input power to the radio will damage the
radio.
Inserted new Table 1-9 for Available Radio Accessories.
Corrected software versions in Table 2-1, and on page 7-1.
Updated Tables 4-1 and 10-1 Antenna Types to include Omni Mount,
Yagi, and Yagi mount.
Added paragraph 4.2 for Safetran Antenna Kit general information.
Added step in paragraphs 5.1 and 6.1 Bench Checkout to perform
directory command and select software prior to the load
factory command.
Corrected steps in paragraph 7.2 for installing new firmware through
Ethernet port for LNW with non-compatible firmware.
Corrected DHCP command in paragraph 8.5.1 IP-Configuration. (For
LNW mode only) Was: dhcp-client=off or on.
Is: ip
dhcp=yes or no.
Updated Appendix A Table A-2 Major Configuration Parameters,
Table A-3 Internet Protocol (IP) Management Commands, and Table
A-4 Installation and Link Monitoring Commands.
Added Point-to-Multi-Point Quick Setup Example to Appendix E.
Added steps to Appendix E for Point-to-Point and Linear Network
Quick Setup Examples to perform directory, set-defaultprogram and reboot commands prior to the load factory
command.
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December 2005, Revised May 2014
B.1
May 2007
•
Section 8 , paragraphs 8.4.5 & 8.4.6 – deleted speed command, as it
is not available in LNW mode.
C
April 2010
•
•
Rewrite of all sections to reflect the new firmware changes.
Incorporated Mesh Tree topology.
C.1
May 2014
•
Rebrand for Siemens
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NOTES, CAUTIONS, AND WARNINGS
Throughout this manual, notes, cautions, and warnings are frequently used to direct the reader’s
attention to specific information. Use of the three terms is defined as follows:
WARNING
INDICATES
A
POTENTIALLY
HAZARDOUS
SITUATION WHICH, IF NOT AVOIDED, COULD
RESULT IN DEATH OR SERIOUS INJURY. WARNINGS
ALWAYS TAKE PRECEDENCE OVER NOTES,
CAUTIONS, AND ALL OTHER INFORMATION.
CAUTION
REFERS TO PROPER PROCEDURES OR PRACTICES
WHICH IF NOT STRICTLY OBSERVED, COULD
RESULT IN A POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS SITUATION
AND/OR POSSIBLE DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT.
CAUTIONS TAKE PRECEDENCE OVER NOTES AND
ALL OTHER INFORMATION, EXCEPT WARNINGS.
NOTE
Generally used to highlight certain information relating to
the topic under discussion.
If there are any questions, contact Siemens Industry Inc., Rail Automation Application
Engineering.
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ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD) PRECAUTIONS
Static electricity can damage electronic circuitry, particularly low voltage components such as the
integrated circuits commonly used throughout the electronics industry. Therefore, procedures
have been adopted industry-wide which make it possible to avoid the sometimes invisible
damage caused by electrostatic discharge (ESD) during the handling, shipping, and storage of
electronic modules and components. Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation has instituted these
practices at its manufacturing facility and encourages its customers to adopt them as well to
lessen the likelihood of equipment damage in the field due to ESD. Some of the basic protective
practices include the following:
•
Ground yourself before touching card cages, assemblies, modules, or components.
•
Remove power from card cages and assemblies before removing or installing modules.
•
Remove circuit boards (modules) from card cages by the ejector lever only. If an ejector lever is
not provided, grasp the edge of the circuit board but avoid touching circuit traces or components.
•
Handle circuit boards by the edges only.
•
Never physically touch circuit board or connector contact fingers or allow these fingers to come in
contact with an insulator (e.g., plastic, rubber, etc.).
•
When not in use, place circuit boards in approved static-shielding bags, contact fingers first.
Remove circuit boards from static-shielding bags by grasping the ejector lever or the edge of the
board only. Each bag should include a caution label on the outside indicating static-sensitive
contents.
•
Cover workbench surfaces used for repair of electronic equipment with static dissipative
workbench matting.
•
Use integrated circuit extractor/inserter tools designed to remove and install electrostaticsensitive integrated circuit devices such as PROM’s (OK Industries, Inc., Model EX-2 Extractor
and Model MOS-40 Inserter (or equivalent) are highly recommended).
•
Utilize only anti-static cushioning material in equipment shipping and storage containers.
For information concerning ESD material applications, please contact the Technical Support Staff
at 1-800-793-7233. ESD Awareness Classes and additional ESD product information are also
available through the Technical Support Staff.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
Title
Page
TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................... IX
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................ XIII
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................. XIV
GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................................... XV
1.0
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION ................................................................................... 1-1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS .................................................... 2-1
2.1
3.0
RADIO OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................. 1-1
ORDERING INFORMATION ................................................................................................... 1-3
1.2.1 Hardware Information............................................................................................. 1-3
1.2.2 Firmware Information ............................................................................................. 1-4
INCLUDED RADIO COMPONENTS ...................................................................................... 1-4
POLE MOUNTING BRACKET INSTALLATION ................................................................... 1-5
WALL MOUNT BRACKET (OPTIONAL)............................................................................... 1-7
RADIO CONNECTORS ............................................................................................................ 1-8
1.6.1 VHLC Serial Cable .................................................................................................. 1-10
POWER INSERTER UNIT ...................................................................................................... 1-10
OUTDOOR INTERCONNECT POWER / DATA CABLE (J1) ........................................... 1-12
RADIO ACCESSORIES .......................................................................................................... 1-14
1.9.1 Pre-configured Power / Data Cables ................................................................ 1-14
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES ....................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1.1 Point to point ............................................................................................................ 2-2
2.1.2 Point to Multipoint .................................................................................................. 2-3
2.1.3 Tree Topology ........................................................................................................... 2-4
2.1.4 Linear Network ......................................................................................................... 2-7
2.1.5 Roaming ...................................................................................................................... 2-7
2.1.6 Time Division Duplex............................................................................................... 2-9
2.1.7 Radio Co-location and Interference ................................................................. 2-10
2.1.8 SPAN Network Synchronization ........................................................................ 2-13
2.1.9 Heartbeat Suppression ......................................................................................... 2-15
2.1.10 Ethernet Bridging................................................................................................... 2-15
2.1.11 Self-learning Bridging ........................................................................................... 2-15
2.1.12 Packet Priorities ..................................................................................................... 2-16
ANTENNA INSTALLATION AND ALIGNMENT ..................................................... 3-1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
ANTENNA INSTALLATION .................................................................................................... 3-1
SIEMENS RAIL AUTOMATION ANTENNA KITS ................................................................ 3-2
ANTENNA ALIGNMENT ......................................................................................................... 3-3
SPECTRUM ANALYSIS AND CHANNEL SELECTION ........................................................3-4
OUTPUT POWER LIMITS (FCC) ............................................................................................ 3-5
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3.6
3.7
4.0
INSTALLATION AND SETUP .............................................................................. 4-1
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.0
BENCH CHECKOUT (USING RADIO ETHERNET CONNECTION) ..................................4-1
BENCH CHECKOUT (USING RADIO AUXILIARY PORTS) ...............................................4-3
FIELD INSTALLATION ............................................................................................................. 4-4
4.3.1 Configuration............................................................................................................. 4-4
4.3.2 Spectrum Analysis and channel selection ..........................................................4-5
4.3.3 Output Power Limits (FCC) .................................................................................... 4-6
4.3.4 Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) Limitations .........................................4-6
UPGRADING FIRMWARE ................................................................................... 5-1
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.0
OUTPUT POWER LIMITS (CE) ............................................................................................... 3-5
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (MPE) LIMITATIONS ...........................................3-6
DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................................... 5-1
INSTALLING NEW FIRMWARE THROUGH THE ETHERNET PORT ................................5-2
INSTALLING NEW FIRMWARE USING TELNET ................................................................. 5-5
INSTALLING NEW FIRMWARE USING THE RS-232 SERIAL PORT ................................5-6
FEATURE UPGRADES .............................................................................................................. 5-8
COMMANDS ....................................................................................................6-1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
CONFIGURATION TECHNIQUES .......................................................................................... 6-1
COMMAND SYNTAX .............................................................................................................. 6-2
CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT COMMANDS ............................................................6-4
6.3.1 Change-Password...................................................................................................... 6-5
6.3.2 Display-Configuration .............................................................................................. 6-5
6.3.3 Load-Configuration .................................................................................................. 6-5
6.3.4 Lock.............................................................................................................................. 6-6
6.3.5 Save-Configuration................................................................................................... 6-6
6.3.6 Unlock ......................................................................................................................... 6-6
MAJOR CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS ........................................................................... 6-6
6.4.1 Distance-Max ............................................................................................................. 6-7
6.4.2 Ethernet ...................................................................................................................... 6-7
6.4.3 Node ............................................................................................................................ 6-8
6.4.4 RF-1 RF-2 Setup ........................................................................................................ 6-9
6.4.5 Single-Node-Reboot ............................................................................................. 6-11
6.4.6 Time-Division-Duplex ........................................................................................... 6-11
INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) MANAGEMENT COMMANDS ......................................... 6-12
6.5.1 IP-Configuration..................................................................................................... 6-12
6.5.2 Ping ........................................................................................................................... 6-13
6.5.3 SNMP ........................................................................................................................ 6-13
6.5.4 UDP-Configuration ................................................................................................ 6-14
INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) MANAGEMENT COMMANDS ......................................... 6-15
6.6.1 Antenna-Alignment-Aid ....................................................................................... 6-15
6.6.2 Monitor-Flow .......................................................................................................... 6-16
6.6.3 Monitor-Link ........................................................................................................... 6-16
6.6.4 Monitor-Roaming .................................................................................................. 6-16
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6.7
6.8
6.9
7.0
6.6.5 Show-Table.............................................................................................................. 6-17
6.6.6 Status Table............................................................................................................. 6-17
6.6.7 Ethernet-Stations Table........................................................................................ 6-17
6.6.8 Links Table............................................................................................................... 6-18
6.6.9 Tree Table ............................................................................................................... 6-18
6.6.10 Radios Table............................................................................................................ 6-19
6.6.11 Econsole Table ....................................................................................................... 6-19
6.6.12 Spectrum-Analysis ................................................................................................. 6-19
6.6.13 Time-Analysis .......................................................................................................... 6-20
FILE UTILITIES ........................................................................................................................ 6-20
6.7.1 Console-Speed-Bps ............................................................................................... 6-20
6.7.2 Copy-File .................................................................................................................. 6-21
6.7.3 Delete-File ............................................................................................................... 6-21
6.7.4 Directory .................................................................................................................. 6-21
6.7.5 Download-File ........................................................................................................ 6-22
6.7.6 Run-File .................................................................................................................... 6-22
6.7.7 Set-Default-Program ............................................................................................. 6-23
EVENT LOGGING COMMANDS ........................................................................................ 6-23
6.8.1 Clear-Log ................................................................................................................. 6-23
6.8.2 Display-Log .............................................................................................................. 6-23
6.8.3 Max-Event ................................................................................................................ 6-24
MISCELLANEOUS COMMANDS ........................................................................................ 6-24
6.9.1 Date........................................................................................................................... 6-24
6.9.2 Help [Command-Name] ..................................................................................... 6-25
6.9.3 History ...................................................................................................................... 6-25
6.9.4 License ...................................................................................................................... 6-26
6.9.5 Logout ...................................................................................................................... 6-26
6.9.6 Reboot...................................................................................................................... 6-26
6.9.7 Time .......................................................................................................................... 6-26
6.9.8 Version ..................................................................................................................... 6-26
NETWORK MANAGEMENT ................................................................................ 7-1
7.1
7.2
7.3
TELNET ....................................................................................................................................... 7-1
7.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 7-1
7.1.2 Starting a Telnet Session ........................................................................................ 7-1
7.1.3 Telnet Security .......................................................................................................... 7-2
SNMP ......................................................................................................................................... 7-3
7.2.1 Command Line Interface Versus SNMP ..............................................................7-3
7.2.2 SNMP Description .................................................................................................... 7-3
7.2.3 Security Considerations in SNMP ......................................................................... 7-4
7.2.4 Examples of Network Management Systems ....................................................7-4
7.2.5 A53325 Management Information Base (MIB) .................................................7-5
UDP COMMAND AND DATA INTERFACE ......................................................................... 7-6
7.3.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................................... 7-6
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7.3.2
8.0
UDP Command Packet formats ............................................................................ 7-6
RF LINK DESIGN ............................................................................................... 8-1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
ANTENNA SELECTION ........................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1.1 Antenna Types........................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1.2 Antenna Mounting ................................................................................................... 8-2
8.1.3 Directionality ............................................................................................................. 8-2
8.1.4 Gain .............................................................................................................................. 8-3
8.1.5 Polarization ................................................................................................................ 8-3
8.1.6 Antenna Orientation ................................................................................................ 8-4
RF PATH ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................. 8-4
8.2.1 Line-of-sight Requirements .................................................................................... 8-5
8.2.2 Earth Curvature ......................................................................................................... 8-6
8.2.3 Fresnel Zone .............................................................................................................. 8-6
8.2.4 Atmospheric Refraction .......................................................................................... 8-8
8.2.5 Clearing Obstructions .............................................................................................. 8-8
RF LINK BUDGET CALCULATIONS ...................................................................................... 8-9
8.3.1 Transmit Power ...................................................................................................... 8-10
8.3.2 Cable Losses ............................................................................................................ 8-10
8.3.3 Antenna Gain .......................................................................................................... 8-10
8.3.4 Distance and Free Space Loss ............................................................................ 8-11
8.3.5 Receive Signal Strength........................................................................................ 8-11
8.3.6 Receive Sensitivity ................................................................................................. 8-11
8.3.7 Fade Margin ............................................................................................................ 8-12
8.3.8 Cable Loss (Attenuation) ..................................................................................... 8-12
8.3.9 Connector Loss ...................................................................................................... 8-13
ANTENNA GROUNDING AND PROTECTION ................................................................ 8-13
APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY...................................................................... A-1
APPENDIX B – SPECIFICATIONS................................................................................ B-1
APPENDIX C – CHANNEL FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT ................................................. C-1
APPENDIX D – ETHERNET CONSOLE PROGRAM ........................................................ D-1
APPENDIX E – CABLE DIAGRAMS .............................................................................. E-1
APPENDIX F - QUICK SETUP...................................................................................... F-1
APPENDIX G - THEORY OF OPERATION LINEAR NETWORKS...................................... G-1
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 53325 ESSR Pole and Wall Mount Installations ...................................................................... 1-2
Figure 1-3 Pole Mounting Bracket Installation ........................................................................................... 1-5
Figure 1-4 Pole Mounting ................................................................................................................................. 1-6
Figure 1-5 Wall Mounting................................................................................................................................. 1-7
Figure 1-7 VHLC Cable ................................................................................................................................... 1-10
Figure 1-8. CAT 5 Outdoor Interconnect Power/Data Cable Diagram ................................................ 1-13
Figure 2-1 Point to Point Topology................................................................................................................ 2-2
Figure 2-2 Point-to-Multipoint Topology ..................................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-3 Tree Topology Network................................................................................................................ 2-4
Figure 2-4 PTC Application .............................................................................................................................. 2-6
Figure 2-5 Linear Network ............................................................................................................................... 2-7
Figure 2-6 Roaming Vehicles Attaching To Any Of Three Access Points .............................................2-8
Figure 2-7 360 Degree Coverage with Sector Antennas........................................................................ 2-11
Figure 2-8 Co-located Radio Interference................................................................................................. 2-12
Figure 2-9 Multiple Topology Network ..................................................................................................... 2-14
Figure 8-2. Fresnel Zone Calculator ................................................................................................................ 8-6
Figure 8-3. Fresnel Zone Definition................................................................................................................. 8-7
Figure 8-4 - RF Link Budget Calculator............................................................................................................ 8-9
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 A53325 Included Components ...................................................................................................... 1-4
Table 1-3. A53325 Connectors ......................................................................................................................... 1-9
Table 1-4. J2 Pin Assignments - 3-Pin Auxiliary Port Connector ..............................................................1-9
Table 1-5 VHLC Serial Cables ....................................................................................................................... 1-10
Table 1-6. Power Inserter Description (AC or DC Input) ........................................................................ 1-11
Table 1-7. “To LAN” Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments.................................................................... 1-12
Table 1-8. “To Radio” Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments ................................................................. 1-12
Table 1-10. A53325 Radio Accessories ........................................................................................................ 1-14
Table 1-11. Pre-configured CAT-5 Power / Data Cables for A53325 Radio....................................... 1-14
Table 1-12 Pre-configured CAT-5 Power/Data Tilt-Over Tower and House Cables ....................... 1-15
Table 2-1 Topologies ......................................................................................................................................... 2-1
Table 3-2 Maximum Output Power (dBm)................................................................................................... 3-5
Table 3-3 Minimum Distance Calculation to ............................................................................................... 3-6
Table 5-1. Common Configuration Parameters............................................................................................. 4-5
Table 5-2. Maximum Output Power (dBm) ................................................................................................... 4-6
Table 5-3. Minimum Distance Calculation to Avoid Antenna Radiation Hazard .................................4-6
Table 6-1 RF Configurations ......................................................................................................................... 6-10
Table 6-2. Zone Codes and Offsets .............................................................................................................. 6-25
Table 8-1. UDP Command / Reply Packet Format ...................................................................................... 7-7
Table 8-2. Reply Code Field ................................................................................................................................ 7-7
Table 8-2. Antenna Heights (Meters) To Clear The Earth And 60% Of The Fresnel Zone .................8-7
Table 8-3. Antenna Heights (Feet) To Clear The Earth And 60% Of The Fresnel Zone......................8-7
Table 8-4. RF Speed/Receiver Sensitivity .................................................................................................... 8-11
Table 9-3. Attenuation Loss per Cable Type .............................................................................................. 8-13
Table 9-6. Lightning Arresters / Surge Protectors .................................................................................... 8-14
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GLOSSARY
ATCS:
Advanced Train Control System - A set of standards compiled by the AAR
for controlling all aspects of train operation.
DHCP:
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol – An Internet protocol for
automating the configuration of computers that use TCP/IP. DHCP can be
used to automatically assign IP addresses, to deliver TCP/IP stack
configuration parameters such as the subnet mask and default router, and
to provide other configuration information. Note: DHCP on this radio
only works in conjunction with Safetran’s Wayside Access Gateway
(WAG).
Echelon®:
The company that created the LonTalk™ LAN used by Siemens Rail
Automation. Term often used to refer to the twisted pair network.
Ethernet:
An IEEE 802.3 standard for contention networks. Ethernet uses a bus or star
topology and relies on the form of access known as Carrier Sense Multiple
Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) to regulate communication line
traffic. Data is transmitted in variable-length frames containing delivery and
control information and up to 1500 bytes of data. The Ethernet standard
provides for baseband transmission at 10 or 100 megabits per second.
IETF
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large open international
community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers
concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth
operation of the Internet.
IP:
See TCP/IP.
LAN:
Local Area Network – A collection of devices, usually PCs or workstations,
that are interconnected for the purpose of sharing data, typically on an
Ethernet communications platform.
LNW:
Linear Network topology.
PtP / PmP:
Point to Point / Point to Multi-Point topology.
PTC:
Positive Train Control - A system of monitoring and controlling train
movements to provide increased safety
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SNMP:
Simple Network Management Protocol – A simple, transaction-based
(command/response) protocol, which allows a variety of third-party
software products to query network devices and collect data. SNMP is a
specification for the interaction between the SNMP agent embedded in a
network device, and the SNMP manager software running on another
machine in the network. SNMP data travels in IP packets, using the UDP
port 161 for the agent. To use SNMP, the device must have an IP address.
SSR:
Spread Spectrum Radio – A Spread Spectrum radio operates in the
“Industrial Scientific and Medical” (ISM) band from 2.400GHz to 2.4835
GHz. It is designed to provide a robust link under adverse conditions, often
encountered in this unlicensed band.
TCP/IP:
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol - The Internet protocol
used to connect a world-wide internetwork of universities, research
laboratories, military installations, organizations, and corporations. The
TCP/IP includes standards for how computers communicate and
conventions for connecting network and routing traffic.
TDD:
Radios setup in Point to Point or Point to Multi-Point configuration operate
in Time Division Duplex (TDD) mode using a configurable size time slot.
Telnet:
A protocol that enables an Internet user to log on to and enter commands
on a remote computer or device linked to the Internet, as if the user were
using a text-based terminal directly attached to that computer or device.
Telnet is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Also, a client program that
implements the Telnet protocol.
UDP:
User Datagram Protocol - A transport protocol used primarily for the
transmission of network management information. Not as reliable as TCP.
WAG:
Wayside Access Gateway – Safetran assembly A53457 converts Echelon
messages to Ethernet messages allowing Safetran equipment to use
Ethernet Spread Spectrum radios for communications. WAG assembly
A53457 also converts Echelon received messages to RS232 messages
allowing the system to use modems for communication between Safetran
equipment.
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SECTION 1
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
1.0
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
1.1
Radio Overview
The A53325 2.4 GHz Ethernet Spread Spectrum Radio is a license free radio that can be used to
bridge Ethernet LAN’s (Local Area Networks) across distances ranging from a few hundred feet to
30 miles (48 Km) and beyond. It can be deployed in point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and a
generic mesh/tree configuration, where any node can be used as an access point to nodes further
downstream. Mobile applications can be configured to enable nodes to autonomously roam
between multiple access points, keeping mobile nodes connected to the network at all times. In a
standalone configuration the radio provides an Ethernet interface to the user.
WARNING
THE A53325 ESSR IS A NON-VITAL PRODUCT.
CAUTION MUST BE TAKEN WHEN INTERFACING
THE A53325 ESSR TO ANY VITAL SIGNAL OR
CROSSING EQUIPMENT AS THE A53325 ESSR CAN
NOT BE USED TO PERFORM, EITHER DIRECTLY OR
INDIRECTLY, ANY VITAL FUNCTIONS. ENSURE THE
A53325 ESSR IS INSTALLED PER MANUFACTURER’S
INSTRUCTIONS,
AND/OR
ALL
EQUIPMENT
INTERCONNECTIONS ARE IN COMPLIANCE WITH
RAILROAD PROCEDURES AND SPECIFICATIONS.
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PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Indoor Wall Mount
Outdoor Pole Mount
Figure 1-1 53325 ESSR Pole and Wall Mount Installations
The A53325 is a Spread Spectrum radio operating in the “Industrial Scientific and Medical” (ISM)
band from 2.400GHz to 2.4835 GHz. It is designed to provide a robust link under adverse
conditions, often encountered in this unlicensed band. This includes the following features:
1. All the electronics are housed in an environmentally sealed enclosure rated for outdoor
installation. You can mount the unit in close proximity to the antenna, which increases
system performance by avoiding RF cable losses or expensive rigid coax cables. The radio
receives power over the CAT5 Ethernet cable.
2. The radio RF bandwidth is much narrower than other unlicensed devices in the 2.4 GHz
band. This has several advantages, namely (i) the radio sensitivity is greatly improved
allowing longer ranges, (ii) there are a much larger number of non-overlapping channels to
choose from, and (iii) it is much easier to find an unused gap in a crowded spectrum.
3. For long range links in a crowded spectrum the most desirable receive frequencies at each
end of the link are often different. In the A53325 transmit and receive frequencies can be
selected independently of each other.
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PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
4. The radio incorporates spectrum analysis and timing analysis tools, which allow the operator
to quickly perform a survey of the RF environment without the need for spectrum analyzers.
5. Unique antenna alignment aid provides audio feedback proportional to the RSSI, freeing the
installer’s hands to adjust and tighten the antenna without having to hold or look at other
instrumentation. (Requires auxiliary port audio adapter cable P/N: Z706-00259-0000).
The radio implements a transparent bridge algorithm, where each unit automatically learns the
addresses of all stations in the network and forwards over RF only the traffic that needs to be
delivered to the remote units. This reduces the RF throughput required by the radio. If the radio
is used standalone, an indoor “power inserter” unit combines the power and Ethernet data into a
single CAT5 cable connected to the radio. Radio power can also be provided via connection to
Safetran’s A53457 Wayside Access Gateway (WAG) unit for installation requiring DC isolation or
media conversion.
The A53325 can be configured over a local serial interface using HyperTerminal, or over the
Ethernet using the “Ethernet console” program (Econ) provided on CD. Once a unit is configured
with an IP address you can also configure and monitor the unit using Telnet or SNMP. The radio
firmware, in non-volatile memory, can also be updated remotely.
1.2
1.2.1
Ordering Information
Hardware Information
The following is the ordering information for the A53325 Ethernet Spread Spectrum Radio.
9000-53325-0X
1
0 - 28 VDC FCC Certified
4
0 - 28 VDC CE Certified
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1.2.2
Firmware Information
The following is the Firmware included with the 2.4 GHz ESSR Radio. Firmware is subject to change
pending upgrades.
9VA21-A01X - RF Test Mode
9VA03-A01X - Mesh Tree
9V879-A01X - Linear Network
9V867-A01X - Point-to-Point
9V881-A01X - Point-to-Multi-Point
1.3
Included Radio Components
Table 1-1 shows the components that are typically shipped with each A53325 radio.
Table 1-1 A53325 Included Components
DESCRIPTION
P/N
Radio unit (outdoor type).
A53325 -01 / -04
Mounting Bracket Kit for securing the A53325 unit to an outdoor mast.
CD with this Operator’s Manual, Econsole installer program, firmware
files, and RF Link Budget Calculator.
Z916-00056-0000
9V880-A01
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1.4
Pole Mounting Bracket Installation
The radio is shipped with mounting hardware designed to easily mount the unit onto a pole
outdoors. You can secure the radio to poles of up to 2.5 inches (6.3 cm) in diameter.
Before taking the radio into the field, assemble the mounting hardware as follows:
1. Using the two screws provided, secure the flat aluminum plate into the recessed channel on
the back of the unit.
2. Thread the L shape bolt into the hole of the V shape bracket. The non-threaded segment of
the bolt should be outside of the V bracket.
Figure 1-2 Pole Mounting Bracket Installation
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In order to secure the radio outdoors place the radio against a pole with the RF connectors facing
up (see Figure 1-3) the back of the radio enclosure has four guiding feet that prevent it from
sliding from side to side.
1. Place the V bracket around the pole, sliding its two grooves up into the aluminum plate on
the back of the radio.
2. Once the grooves reach the stops, manually tighten the L shaped bolt so that it “bites” into
the pole.
Pole
Mounting
Bracket
POLE MOUNT
Figure 1-3 Pole Mounting
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1.5
Wall Mount Bracket (Optional)
An optional Wall Mount Bracket is available for indoor installation of the A53325 ESSR. To install
the wall bracket follow the procedure below:
1. Mark hole locations using the bracket as a template.
2. Mount the screws into the wall allowing enough gap to slide on the bracket.
3. Slide the bracket on to the screws and secure.
4. Mount the A53325 ESSR on to the bracket with the RF connectors facing up.
Figure 1-4 Wall Mounting
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1.6
Radio Connectors
Figure 1-5 shows the A53325 construction. The radio is housed in a rectangular enclosure with
two N-female connectors at the top for connection to RF antennas, and two special purpose
connectors at the bottom for DC power, serial interface, Ethernet data and control.
The function of each connector is described in Table 1-2.
Antenna A
Antenna B
Mounting Bracket
J1
J2
J2
J1
FRONT
SIDE
REAR
Figure 1-5 A53325 Construction and Connector Locations
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Table 1-2 A53325 Connectors
CONNECTOR
TYPE
A
N-Female
B
N-Female
J1
Lumberg
8-pin male
J2
Lumberg
3-pin male
FUNCTION
2.4 GHz RF connector to antenna A. (Pointing at “Left”
neighbor in a Linear Network).
2.4 GHz RF connector to antenna B. (Pointing at “Right”
neighbor in a Linear Network).
10/100 Base-T data interface and DC power input (8
pin). Must be connected to a “Power Inserter Unit” or
Safetran Wayside Access Gateway (WAG) unit with a
CAT 5 cable.
Auxiliary port (3 pin) used as an antenna alignment aid
and for RS-232 console port.
An eight conductor CAT 5 cable must be connected between the A53325 radio and a Power
Inserter or WAG Unit. The wiring for this cable is shown in Figure 1-7 and APPENDIX E.
Table 1-3 shows the pin assignment of J2, the three-pin auxiliary port connector. The unit is
shipped with a cover on this connector. The connector can be used during installation as a
console port and also as an audio antenna alignment aid. Two cables are available to convert from
this non-standard 3-pin connector to either a DB-9 connector (for RS-232 console) or to a
standard audio jack (for connection to a headphone). See Table 1-9 for Siemens Rail Automation
part numbers and APPENDIX E for cable diagrams.
Table 1-3 J2 Pin Assignments - 3-Pin Auxiliary Port Connector
PIN
SIGNAL NAME
ABBR.
DIRECTION
1
Receive Data
RD
Radio Output
2
Transmit Data
TD
Radio Input
3
Ground
GND
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1.6.1
VHLC Serial Cable
This is an optional serial DB-25 to DB-25 cable used with the Wayside Access Gateway. Table 1-4
lists the order numbers for the VHLC serial cables.
Table 1-4 VHLC Serial Cables
DESCRIPTION
P/N
5 foot DB-25 - DB-25 VHLC serial cable
9000-47715-0001
10 foot DB-25 - DB-25 VHLC serial cable
9000-47715-0002
15 foot DB-25 - DB-25 VHLC serial cable
9000-47715-0003
20 foot DB-25 - DB-25 VHLC serial cable
9000-47715-0004
25 foot DB-25 - DB-25 VHLC serial cable
9000-47715-0005
30 foot DB-25 - DB-25 VHLC serial cable
9000-47715-0006
Figure 1-6 shows the schematic diagram for the VHLC serial cable.
Figure 1-6 VHLC Cable
1.7
Power Inserter Unit
The Power Inserter Unit is available in two models: one for AC input, and one for DC input. The
AC model includes a 24 VDC regulated power supply for connection to an AC outlet, whereas the
DC model is strictly a DC power pass-through.
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CAUTION
ENSURE THE INPUT VOLTAGE APPLIED TO THE
DC POWER INSERTER DOES NOT EXCEED THE
POWER INPUT SPECIFICATIONS OF THE A53325
RADIO, AS DAMAGE TO THE RADIO COULD
RESULT.
NOTE
A Power Inserter is not required in applications
where a WAG is supplying power to the radio,
unless the cable length exceeds 100 feet.
Each Power Inserter has two RJ45 connectors and a bi-color LED. The two RJ-45 connectors are
labeled “To LAN” and “To radio”. See following tables for details.
Table 1-5 Power Inserter Description (AC or DC Input)
CONNECTOR / LED
TYPE
To LAN
RJ-45
To Radio
RJ-45
LED
Amber/
Green
FUNCTION
10/100 Base-T to be connected to the Local Area Network.
Use a straight through cable to connect to a hub and a
crossover cable to connect directly to a computer. See Table
1-6 for pin assignments.
Carries the DC power and Ethernet signals to the A53325.
See Table 1-7 for pin assignments.
Amber: Indicates that the power inserter unit has power
input, but no power is being drawn by the A53325 radio.
Green: Indicates the A53325 radio is drawing power.
WARNING
THE POWER INSERTER CONNECTOR LABELED “TO
RADIO” INCLUDES DC VOLTAGE ON TWO OF THE
PINS. IT MUST NOT BE CONNECTED TO A LAN AS
THIS VOLTAGE MAY DAMAGE SOME LAN CARDS.
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Table 1-6 “To LAN” Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments
PIN
SIGNAL NAME
ABBR.
DIRECTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Ethernet Tx
Ethernet Tx
Ethernet Rx
(not connected)
(not connected)
Ethernet Rx
(not connected)
(not connected)
Tx (+)
Tx (-)
Rx (+)
Radio to Ethernet
Radio to Ethernet
Ethernet to Radio
Rx (-)
Ethernet to radio
Table 1-7 “To Radio” Ethernet Connector Pin Assignments
1.8
PIN
SIGNAL NAME
ABBR.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Ethernet Tx
Ethernet Tx
Ethernet Rx
VDC
VDC
Ethernet Rx
ground
ground
Tx (+)
Tx (-)
Rx (+)
DCV (+)
DCV(+)
Rx (-)
GND(-)
GND(-)
DIRECTION
Radio to Ethernet
Radio to Ethernet
Ethernet to Radio
Power Inserter to Radio
Power Inserter to Radio
Ethernet to Radio
Power Inserter to Radio
Power Inserter to Radio
Outdoor Interconnect Power / Data Cable (J1)
The interconnect cable between the Power Inserter or Wayside Access Gateway (WAG), and
A53325-J1 carries the following signals:
•
•
DC voltage to supply power to the A53325.
10/100 Base-T Ethernet data.
CAUTION
REVERSED POLARITY OF THE INPUT POWER TO THE
RADIO WILL DAMAGE THE RADIO.
Both of these signals are carried in a single CAT 5 cable. The system is designed to allow cable
lengths up to 100 meters (300 feet).
NOTE
For applications using a WAG, a Power Inserter is
required when the cable length exceeds 100 feet.
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Table 1-8 lists some of the available hardware components to build this cable.
RADIO_ETH_TX+
1
RADIO_ETH_TX-
2
7
RADIO_ETH_RX+
3
2
VDC
4
RJ 45 MALE
1
3
VDC
5
5
RADIO_ETH_RX-
6
4
GND
7
8
GND
8
Lumberg
(to Radio)
(J1)
6
Figure 1-7 CAT 5 Outdoor Interconnect Power/Data Cable Diagram
Table 1-8 lists a few part numbers and sources of appropriate CAT 5 cable components for this
application. See APPENDIX E for connector diagrams and assembly instructions.
Table 1-8 Indoor/Outdoor CAT 5 Cable Components
PART NUMBER
MANUFACTURER
7919A
Belden
18-241-31(gray)
18-241-11 (beige)
5EXH04P24-BK-RCMS-PV
2137113 (ivory)
2137114 (gray)
DESCRIPTION
Shielded outdoor rated cable
Superior Essex
Unshielded outdoor rated cable
CommScope
Unshielded outdoor rated cable
General Cable
Unshielded outdoor rated cable
BC1002
Belden
Unshielded outdoor rated cable
0321-03
Lumberg
3-pin weatherproof connector, female, unshielded
0322-03
Lumberg
3-pin weatherproof connector, female, shielded
0321-08
Lumberg
8-pin weatherproof connector, female, unshielded
0322-08
Lumberg
8-pin weatherproof connector, female, shielded
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1.9
Radio Accessories
Table 1-9 shows the accessories available for the A53325 radio and their Siemens Rail Automation
part numbers.
Table 1-9 A53325 Radio Accessories
DESCRIPTION
P/N
AC Power Inserter Module. (110 VAC input to 24 VDC output)
Z932-00184-0000
DC Power Inserter Module. (24 VDC battery passthrough)
Z932-00186-0000
Auxiliary port 3-pin Console Cable for RS-232 connection.
Z706-00235-0000
Auxiliary port 3-pin Audio Adapter Cable with audio jack. (Used for
antenna alignment aid)
Z706-00259-0000
CAT 5 Power / Data Cable for connection between A53325 radio and a
Power Inserter Module or Safetran Wayside Access Gateway (WAG).
See Table 1-10
or Table 1-12
Lightning Arrester / Surge Protector – NF to NM 2.4 GHz
Z803-00131-0000
Lightning Arrester / Surge Protector – NF to NF 2.4 GHz
Z803-00132-0000
1.9.1
Pre-configured Power / Data Cables
For ease of installation, several pre-configured power/data CAT-5 cables of various lengths are
available from Siemens Rail Automation. These cables provide the proper wiring with a standard
RJ-45 male connector on one end, and a Lumberg 8-pin female connector on the other. Table
1-10 shows a list of available cables and their corresponding Siemens Rail Automation part
numbers.
Table 1-10 Pre-configured CAT-5 Power / Data Cables for A53325 Radio
DESCRIPTION
P/N
20 inch weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00253-0000
5 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00236-0000
10 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00247-0000
20 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00254-0000
30 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00255-0000
50 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00237-0000
100 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00238-0000
* 200 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00248-0000
* 300 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data cable
Z706-00249-0000
* Power Inserter required
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Table 1-11 shows a list of available tilt-over tower and house cables and their corresponding
Siemens Rail Automation part numbers.
Table 1-11 Pre-configured CAT-5 Power/Data Tilt-Over Tower and House Cables
DESCRIPTION
P/N
20 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data tower cable
Z706-00283-0020
30 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data tower cable
Z706-00283-0030
50 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data tower cable
Z706-00283-0050
75 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data tower cable
Z706-00283-0075
100 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data tower cable
Z706-00283-0100
*200 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data tower cable
Z706-00283-0200
*300 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data tower cable
Z706-00283-0300
50 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data house cable
Z706-00284-0050
75 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data house cable
Z706-00284-0075
100 foot weatherproof CAT-5 power/data house cable
Z706-00284-0100
* Power Inserter required
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THEORY OF OPERATION – PTP AND PMP
SECTION 2
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS
2.0
NETWORK TOPOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS
2.1
Network Topologies
The A53325 2.4 GHz Ethernet Spread Spectrum Radio can be deployed in a variety of topologies
from a simple point-to-point link to complex networks with multiple hops, redundant nodes, and
mobile nodes. In all applications the A53325 will act as bridges connecting the LANs from all sites
together. From any LAN the A53325 will be able to access stations at all other sites, even when
they are several hops away. The radios will perform all the packet switching, sending packets in
the appropriate direction so that they reach their destination with the minimum number of hops.
The following table lists the various topologies that are possible and gives a brief description for
each. Subsequent sections explain these topologies in more detail.
Table 2-1 Topologies
Topology
Description
Point-to-point
Single link between two points. For fixed sites use directional
antennas to reach distances exceeding 30 miles (48 km).
Point-to-Multipoint
Central site with a single hub radio with links with up to 32 remote
sites.
The hub radio autonomously allocates bandwidth “ondemand” to each remote radio. You can co-locate multiple hub
radios to increase total capacity or maximum number of remotes.
Tree topology
One root node with direct links to up to 32 remotes (like in point-tomultipoint). Any of the remotes can be promoted to a branch. A
branch node operates as an access point for up to 32 additional
remote nodes downstream (which can themselves be promoted to
branch nodes). Radios come with two antenna ports, to deploy a
branch node with one directional antenna pointing at the parent, and
a second omni antenna to serve as an access point.
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Table 2-1 Topologies (Continued)
Topology
Description
Linear Network
Used for long networks with multiple stations along a railway,
pipeline or roadside. Each node has at most two neighbors. Use the
radio dual antenna port to deploy each radio with two directional
antennas pointing at each neighbor.
Roaming
Used with mobile nodes that move around an area with multiple
fixed access points. The mobile radios change the access point
automatically to keep you connected to the fixed network.
2.1.1
Point to point
In a point-to-point topology, when the two sites are fixed we recommend using directional
antennas at both ends, pointing at each other. This increases the signal strength in the desired
direction and shields the radios against unwanted interference from other sources. When you use
directional antennas make sure you install both antennas with the same polarization (vertical or
horizontal). Most often interfering sources are vertically polarized so you may want to install your
link with horizontal polarization to get some additional isolation against those interference
sources.
The point-to-point topology operates like a point-to-multipoint network where the hub has a
single remote. You still need to configure one of the two radios to be the hub but configure it
with the max number of children set to one. This optimizes the radio performance for point-topoint operation. See the node command in section 6.
Coax
Coax
AC Power
LAN
AC Power
CAT5
CAT5
LAN
Figure 2-1 Point to Point Topology
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2.1.2
Point to Multipoint
In a Point to Multipoint topology one radio is designated as the hub and all other radios are
designated as remotes. You can have up to 32 remote nodes. You typically deploy the hub radio
with an omni-directional or sectorial antenna so that it can cover all the remotes. If the remote
sites are fixed deploy them with directional antennas pointing at the hub. If the remotes are
mobile, use omni-directional antennas everywhere.
Remote radios connect to the network automatically without need to change the configuration of
the hub radio. All you need is to point an antenna at the hub and ensure that the following
parameters are configured correctly:
1. The RF receive channel of the remote must match the transmit channel of the hub (see rf-1setup).
2. The network-id parameter of the remote must match the network-id of the hub (see node
command).
3. The max-children parameter at the hub must be large enough to give access to all the
planned remotes (see node command).
Remote-3
Remote-4
Remote-5
Remote-2
HUB
Remote-1
Remote-6
.
Remote-7
Figure 2-2 Point-to-Multipoint Topology
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2.1.3
Tree Topology
In a Tree Topology There are three node types: one root node and multiple branch and leaf
nodes (use the node command to configure the node type).
The root node performs a similar function to the hub in a point-to-multipoint topology and can
have up to 32 direct links to remote sites. The radios at the remote sites can be configured as
either leaf or branch nodes. A leaf node is similar to the remote in a point-multipoint topology.
But a branch node, besides having a link to a parent (root or another branch), also operates as an
access point for up to 32 additional remote nodes (children). Each of those nodes can again be
configured as either a leaf or a branch. There is no limit to the number of levels in the tree.
Root
Branch
Leaf
Branch
Leaf
Leaf
Branch
Leaf
Leaf
Leaf
Leaf
Figure 2-3 Tree Topology Network
A branch node has two independent RF configurations, one for the link with the parent, the other
for the links with its children. Typically you set the link with the parent to use antenna A, and the
link with the children to use antenna B. This allows you to deploy a directional antenna pointing
at the parent node, while using an omni-directional or sectorial antenna for the links with the
multiple children. This is not mandatory as it is possible to configure a branch radio to use a
single antenna.
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With a large network with many branch nodes it is necessary to pay special attention to the
channel assignments. One simple approach is to allocate non-overlapping channels to each “cell”
(a cell consists of a parent with all of its direct children). At the parent set both transmit and
receive channels to the channel that are assigned to that cell. At the children set them to receive
from the parent in that same channel (see commands rf-1-setup and rf-2-setup). Once enough
distance separates cells it is permissible to start re-using overlapping channels.
The tree topology has the following features:
•
There is no limit in the number of levels on the tree.
•
Automatic association of new remote radios: just configure a new remote to receive on the
transmit channel of the desired parent, and it will automatically associate to the network (use
the “network-id” of the node command to prevent unauthorized radios from attaching).
•
Self-learning bridging algorithm: the radios automatically learn the addresses of the
equipment attached on any of the LANs and route the packets using the minimal number of
hops to reach their destination.
•
Self-healing network: If a parent node goes down a branch continues to operate and pass
data between its children. Once the parent recovers the branch automatically reattaches to
the rest of the network.
2.1.3.1
Dual antenna root mode
There is the option of running the root with two antennas. This may be useful if the remotes are
grouped geographically such that the use two directional or sectorial antennas will cover each
group. To run in this mode set the node type to root-2 and use rf-1-setup and rf-2-setup to
configure the RF parameters for each antenna.
2.1.3.2
Network throughput
A branch radio allocates half of the time to communicate with its parent and the other half with
its children. A root radio does not have a parent, so it divides its children into two groups
communicating with one group during the first half cycle, and with the second group during the
second half. Each of these two groups gets half of the total network capacity. Therefore in the
tree topology the maximum throughput available at one specific node in the tree is half of the
total network capacity. This is irrespective of the level in the tree, i.e., there is no further drop in
throughput as you go down the various levels.
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2.1.3.3
Tree Topology PTC Application
Figure 2-4 displays a PTC application using A53325 ESSRs in a Tree Topology to enable multiple
wayside sites to utilize a single 220 MHz PTC Radio location.
Branch
Branch
Branch
Root
Figure 2-4 PTC Application
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2.1.4
Linear Network
A Linear Network topology is ideal for providing communications in systems that naturally require
stations deployed along a line. Some of the applications are:
•
Railway wayside communications
•
Pipeline communications
•
Highway roadside communications
•
Long links that requires multiple repeaters between the end points
Omni
1
2
LAN
4
3
LAN
LAN
LAN
Figure 2-5 Linear Network
It is easy to implement a Linear Network as a subset of the Tree topology: configure the leftmost
radio as a root and all the radios in the network as a branch. Install each radio with two
directional antennas pointing at their two neighbors. For further details refer to Appendix E.
2.1.5
Roaming
With the roaming option, a remote or leaf radio can be configured with up to six different receive
channels (see command rf-1-setup). With this capability you can deploy multiple access points
in a region where a group of mobile radios will move around. Mobile radios attach to the
network through any of the access points and automatically switch to a new one whenever the
need arises.
This capability is ideal for communications between a control center and vehicles, where the
vehicles must move beyond the range of a single hub radio.
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All the access points are typically connected, through a backbone network, back to a central site.
This backbone network can be wired or wireless. You can use the tree topology and have each
branch and root serve both as access points and backbone nodes to bring the traffic back to the
central site (see figure).
F2
Branch
F1
F3
ROOT
Branch
.
Figure 2-6 Roaming Vehicles Attaching To Any Of Three Access Points
The overall system supports the following features:
1. Mobile nodes automatically attach to the strongest access point.
2. As a mobile unit moves and the link to its parent fades, the mobile radio changes
autonomously to attach to a stronger parent.
3. Connectivity to a central site, through a backbone network, is maintained when a mobile
changes parent. Packet routing is switched over autonomously throughout the network so
that packets are correctly routed immediately after the mobile radio changes the access point.
4. Using the Tree topology you can use the fixed nodes in the tree (root and branches) to
provide the backbone network. Those same radios can also be the access points to the
mobile leaf nodes. This approach depicted in Figure 2-6.
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2.1.6
Time Division Duplex
The A53325 2.4 GHz Ethernet Spread Spectrum Radio operates in Time Division Duplex (TDD),
mode meaning that the radio switches between transmit and receive over RF. In a point-tomultipoint topology this cycle consists of one phase used for outbound transmissions (from
parent to children) and a separate phase for inbound transmissions (from the children to the
parent). In the tree topology the cycle includes four phases: a branch node first communicates
with its children (transmit and then receive) and then with its parent (receive and then transmit).
2.1.6.1
Fixed and Variable Cycle Split
The radio provides two parameters that let you configure the TDD operation to best suit your
application. You can select the total cycle period between 20 and 40 ms and you can control the
cycle split to favor either outbound or inbound traffic. You only need to set these two
parameters at the hub or root node: all the children will pick up these TDD values from their
parents.
A cycle period of 20 ms (default) results in lower latencies throughout the network. However
there will be more transitions between transmit and receive resulting in somewhat lower
throughput capacity for the network. A cycle period of 40 ms has the opposite effect.
For small networks a cycle period of 20 ms is usually preferred. If you have a network with many
nodes that are simultaneously active the 40 ms cycle will give you better performance.
The cycle split controls the percentage of time allocated for outbound traffic (from parent to
children) versus inbound traffic (from children to parent). The default is an automatic mode
where the parent radio allocates the split of each cycle dynamically based on the amount of
traffic queued up in each direction. In a tree network each parent decides this split independent
of the other parents, based on the local traffic conditions. In most deployment this setting gives
you the best performance.
You can also specify a fixed cycle split. You have the choice of 9 different values in 10% nominal
increments from 10/90 (outbound/inbound) all the way to 90/10. You need to use the fixed TDD
split when you co-locate multiple radios and want to avoid self-generated interference. Refer to
section 2.1.8 for details about synchronizing co-located radios. The fixed split may also be
appropriate in applications where the data traffic is constant and with pre-determined
throughput.
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2.1.6.2
On Demand Bandwidth Allocation
The complete TDD cycle is divided into slots of approximately 1 ms each. In automatic cycle split
mode, the parent radio examines the total traffic queued up for outbound and inbound, and
selects an appropriate cycle split. With fixed cycle split this step is omitted.
For the outbound traffic, the parent radio allocates the bandwidth on demand to each remote. If
there is no traffic to a specific remote, the parent does not transmit any packets to that remote.
When the parent has packets to multiple children, it distributes the available bandwidth evenly so
that all children get equal throughput.
The parent starts every outbound transmission with a broadcast packet that includes the current
cycle split as well as the slot allocation for the inbound phase. All children decode this packet and
only transmit if they have been assigned one or more slots during the inbound phase.
When the children radios transmit they include a bandwidth request parameter informing the
parent of how much inbound traffic they have queued up. The parent allocates slots to the
children based on this information. On a given cycle, each child may be allocated zero, one, or
several contiguous slots to transmit. If the aggregate requested bandwidth exceeds the network
throughput the parent divides the available bandwidth fairly among the active children.
Once in a while the parent allocates a single slot to children that have remained idle to check if
they now have inbound traffic. This check only takes a single inbound slot and this slot is
allocated dynamically depending on current traffic load, available slots, and traffic history.
2.1.7
Radio Co-location and Interference
Installation of radios in close proximity may cause interference if not properly installed. Antenna
location and type and operating frequencies are factors that must be considered when setting up
a network.
2.1.7.1
Radio Co-location
As a network grows it often becomes necessary to deploy multiple radios at the same site. The
reasons to co-locate radios include the following:
1. In a Tree network you want to achieve 360-degree coverage around a central site, but would
like to use sector antennas rather than one omni. Sector antennas have higher gain than the
omni and provide shielding from interfering signals originating at different sectors. In this
situation deployment of a central site with six root radios for example, each one feeding a
sector antenna covering 60-degree sectors.
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Figure 2-7 360 Degree Coverage with Sector Antennas
2. The number of leaf radios serviced by a single branch has grown to a point where the shared
bandwidth is no longer adequate. You may then add a second branch radio operating on a
different channel and split the leaf radios between two or more branch radios.
3. It is desired to deploy two root radios to provide redundancy at the central site.
4. It is desired to deploy a repeater site with two “back to back” radios.
The problem is that when you co-locate two or more radios they can become the source of selfinterference, even if they are set to non-overlapping channels. The reason for this is explained in
the following section.
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2.1.7.2
Co-located Radio Self-interference
The self-interference situation is illustrated in Figure 2-8, that shows radio A transmitting on
channel f1 while a co-located radio is trying to receive on channel f2. Because the antennas are in
close proximity antenna B will pick up a significant portion of the signal transmitted by radio A.
Figure 2-8 also shows a block diagram of the radio front end circuitry. It includes an RF filter to
reject out-of-band signals, followed by a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a second RF filter, Mixer and
finally the Intermediate Frequency (IF) filter. Channel selection occurs at the Intermediate
Frequency (IF), where the narrow band IF filter blocks out the other channels. This means that if
the interferer (radio A) is in close proximity, and is transmitting while radio B is trying to receive, it
may saturate the LNA or the Mixer of radio B. This results in radio B making errors even when it
is set to a different channel than radio A.
f1
Radio
A
(undesired coupling)
f2
Radio
B
RF
Filter
LNA
RF
Filter
IF
IF
Filter
Local
Osc.
f1
f2
IF
freq
freq
Figure 2-8 Co-located Radio Interference
The traditional approaches to reduce this self-interference include:
•
Separate the antennas of the two radios further apart.
•
Use different antenna polarization.
•
Lower the transmit power of the interfering radio.
These approaches are limited and, at most, may allow you to co-locate three of four radios. The
Afar SPAN technology implements a synchronization scheme that completely eliminates this selfinterference allowing you to co-locate a much larger number of radios. This is explained in the
following sections.
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2.1.8
SPAN Network Synchronization
The A53325 Wireless Ethernet Bridge can be operated in a fixed TDD mode, where the complete
cycle is divided into fixed length outbound and inbound phases. You can specify this cycle split to
be 50/50 or asymmetric.
When you co-locate multiple devices you must choose a fixed split and it must be the same for all
the co-located radios. The radios will then synchronize their cycle periods so that all co-located
radios transmit at the same time and then receive at the same time. This avoids the situation
depicted in Figure 2-8 altogether. With a synchronized site you can then deploy upwards of 24
radios at the same location.
The key to the synchronized SPAN network is the generation and distribution of the
synchronization information or heartbeat. At any site where there is more than one co-located
radio, the various radios detect each other, and automatically negotiate which should become the
source of the heartbeat. If that device later is turned off or fails, another device will take its place
without user intervention.
Figure 2-6 shows an example of a mixed network with multiple topologies. When the whole
network is synchronized each radio runs its TDD in one of two timings, A or B, as shown in the
figure. All radios at a single site run on the same cycle.
The following are guidelines you need to follow to achieve a successful synchronization in a
complex network:
1. At any site with multiple radios ensure that all radios are connected to the same LAN. The
LAN connection between radios must be FULL DUPLEX. Use the “>ether” command to
check that the radio Ethernet port is in full duplex (see also section 2.1.10 for
synchronizing a site where the radios are paired with NetCrossing Gateways).
2. You need to use a fixed TDD cycle split throughput the network. If you are co-locating
multiple hubs or roots in a point-to-multipoint or tree configurations, choose any split
appropriate for the traffic in your network. You must use the same value in all co-located
radios.
3. When you co-locate all hubs or all roots, you may use a cycle period of either 20 or 40 ms,
but it must be the same in all co-located devices. You can mix hub and root radios at the
same site, but in that case you must set the hubs cycle periods to 20 ms and the roots to
40 ms.
4. You can also co-locate a remote (or a leaf or branch) with other radios. However children
nodes have their cycles synchronized to their parents. So at one given site there can only
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be one child node, which will become the source of the heartbeat. The other radios at
that site must be hubs or roots. In this situation choose an even cycle split of 50/50.
5. Make sure that all radios have the tdd sync-mode set to auto (default).
If you follow these guidelines the radios will spread the synchronization across the network and
completely avoid self-interference. Use the “>show” command to find which radio is the source
for the heartbeat at that site and also whether there are any conflicts in the configuration.
B
B
B
A
B
A
B
A
A
LAN
B
B
A
A
A
B
A
B
(A)
Tx
Rx
Tx
Rx
Tx
(B)
Rx
Tx
Rx
Tx
Rx
Time
Figure 2-9 Multiple Topology Network
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2.1.9
Heartbeat Suppression
There are situations when the multicast of heartbeat packets may not be necessary, and would put
an unnecessary burden on the Ethernet. The radios detect these situations automatically and
suppress the multicast of the heartbeat packets when there is no co-located device to receive
them.
You may need to co-locate radios and do not wish them to try and synchronize to each other.
For example, if the connection between LAN ports of the radios goes through bridges that insert
variable delays on the Ethernet packets, the synchronization protocol may not work properly. In
these cases you can turn off the radio participating in the synchronization protocol by setting the
tdd sync-mode to off. This is also the appropriate setting if multiple co-located radios get
synchronization over RF and therefore cannot accept a heartbeat over the Ethernet.. In these
cases you need to avoid self-interference with the more traditional methods of increasing the
separation between antennas, and/or reducing transmit power
2.1.10
Ethernet Bridging
The A53325 2.4 GHz Ethernet Spread Spectrum Radio uses self-learning and packet priority
methods to direct messages over the network. The following further describes these methods.
2.1.11
Self-learning Bridging
The radio operates the Ethernet port in a self-learning bridge mode. It configures the port in
promiscuous mode, i.e., it examines all the Ethernet packets that are flowing in the local LAN.
Since these Ethernet packets contain a source and destination address, the radio quickly learns
the addresses of all the local stations connected to the LAN (all the source addresses of packets
flowing in the LAN are local).
As a radio receives packets over RF it also learns the addresses of stations that can be reached
across that RF link. For a hub radio in a PmP topology, the radio keeps track of which addresses
are associated with each remote.
With this information on hand, each radio examines the destination address of every Ethernet
packet in the local LAN and makes one of the following decisions:
1. If the destination address is for a local station, discard the packet.
2. If the destination address is associated with a remote radio, queue that packet to be
forwarded to that remote radio. Note that for a PmP topology, the hub radio keeps multiple
output queues, one per remote radio.
3. If the station address is unknown or is a broadcast send the packet to all the remote radios.
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Each device has capacity to store 500 entries in its Ethernet table. Entries are erased after a
certain amount of time to allow for stations to be moved between LANs and not show up in two
distinct LANs. You can control this time-out with the “ethernet” command. If the table ever gets
full, entries that have been least used are erased to make room for new entries.
You can examine the table of ethernet addresses and their respective nodes with the command:
>show ethernet
2.1.12
Packet Priorities
As packets arrive into a radio from any port, the bridging algorithm determines if the packets
need to be transmitted over RF. If so the radio queues the packets into one of several priority
queues. Starting with the highest priority the packets are classified as follows:
•
Vital packets: These are UDP packets with a specific destination UDP port number. This port
number is part of the field programmable radio configuration (see command >udp).
•
NetCrossing Gateways Serial packets: These are SNAP encapsulated packets containing
synchronous serial data generated by the Afar NetCrossing Gateway devices.
•
High-Priority: These includes network management packets for “ECON” command sessions,
and also IP packets with a value in the “Type-Of-Service” indicating high priority. The radio
interprets the IP TOS field per the IETF differentiated services (DS) definition as shown below:
0
1
2
3
4
Codepoint
5
6
7
Unused
When the codepoint field has the value xxx000, the three most significant bits are interpreted
as precedence bits. The radio gives high priority to packets with a precedence field of 6 or 7.
In hexadecimal notation this translates into TOS values of E0 and C0.
•
Low-priority: All other packets
When the time to transmit over RF arrives, the software always takes packets from the higher
priority queues first.
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ANTENNA INSTALLATION AND ALIGNMENT
SECTION 3
ANTENNA INSTALLATION AND ALIGNMENT
3.0
ANTENNA INSTALLATION AND ALIGNMENT
3.1
Antenna Installation
NOTE
The antennas for the A53325 must be professionally
installed on permanent structures for outdoor
operations. The installer is responsible for ensuring
that the limits imposed by the applicable regulatory
agency (Federal Communications Commission, FCC,
or CE) with regard to Maximum Effective Isotropic
Radiated Power (EIRP) and Maximum Permissible
Exposure (MPE) are not violated. These limits are
described in the following sections.
The A53325 is typically attached to a pole (with the clamp provided) with the antenna connectors
facing up. For optimum performance the radio must be mounted in close proximity to the
antenna with a cable run typically under 7 feet (≈2 meters). For the A53325, three antenna types
are available, as listed in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1 Antenna Types
ANTENNA TYPE
Omni directional
Omni Mount
GAIN
12 dBi
P/N
Z913-00025-0000
Z912-00070-0000
Grid Parabolic
17 dBi
Z913-00037-0000
Grid Parabolic
24 dBi
Z913-00023-0000
Yagi
Yagi Mount
15 dBi
Z913-00038-0000
Z912-00084-0000
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ANTENNA INSTALLATION AND ALIGNMENT
For the linear network it is recommended the use of the 24 dBi gain antennas. Antennas at the
end of each link must be mounted such that they have the same polarization, and directional
antennas must be carefully oriented towards each other. The choice of polarization (horizontal vs.
vertical) is, in many cases, arbitrary. However, many potentially interfering signals are polarized
vertically and an excellent means of reducing their effect is to mount the system antennas for
horizontal polarization.
Of those antennas listed above, the Parabolic and Yagi antennas can be mounted for horizontal or
vertical polarization, while the Omni directional antenna can only be mounted for vertical
polarization.
Proper grounding of the antenna is important for lightning protection as well as to prevent
electrical noise interference from other sources. The antenna should be mounted to a mast or
tower that is well grounded to Earth. Use threaded connectors to mate to the antenna lead
connectors and check that all connectors are clean and tight. Use weatherproof connectors in all
outdoor couplings. We recommend using Scotch® 2228 Rubber Mastic Tape from 3M (or
equivalent) to further weatherproof outdoor connections.
In locations where it is warranted, install lightning protectors at the N type connectors leading to
the antennas. You may also want to install a surge arrester/lightning protection on the Ethernet
cable where it connects to the equipment rack. The lightning protectors should be properly
grounded. Carefully follow the installation instructions provided by the manufacturer of the
lightning protection device used.
3.2
Siemens Rail Automation Antenna Kits
Siemens Rail Automation offers a wide variety of antenna kits to fit your needs. Each kit contains
all the hardware required to install the selected antenna type on a tilt-tower, wood pole, or in a
bungalow. Contact Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail Automation Customer Service for details.
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3.3
Antenna Alignment
When mounting the high gain antenna (24 dBi), the proper antenna alignment is extremely
important since the beam-width of the antenna is very narrow. Once you perform a rough
alignment and the link is in operation, you can use the “monitor-link” and “antenna-alignmentaid” commands. Type:
> monitor-link
in order to update, every half second, the link statistics including the RSSI level (this will be
in association with two neighbors if in LNW mode). The antennas can then be aligned so
that the respective RSSI is maximized. In the PmP topology, the hub antenna is typically an
omni and does not need to be carefully aligned. But if you need to align a hub radio
antenna for maximum signal from a particular remote, use the command:
> monitor-link node=N
where N identifies the remote per the table displayed with the show command.
NOTE
Since in many applications the antenna is on a tower
where it is not practical to have a terminal nearby, the
A53325 has an additional “antenna alignment aid”
available on the outdoor unit. This feature uses the
three pin “Auxiliary port” connector to output an audio
signal with a pitch proportional to the receive signal
strength. A special cable adapter is available that
converts the three-pin connector into a standard female
audio jack. This cable may be used to connect the threepin connector to a pair of standard headphones while
aligning the antenna. For more information on this cable
and adapter contact Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail
Automation and refer to part number Z706-00259-0000.
To enable the audible antenna alignment aid – at a terminal session issue the command:
> aaa audio
or
> aaa mode=a-antenna | b-antenna (for LNW mode)
(aaa is an abbreviation for “antenna-alignment-aid”)
then align the antenna until you hear the highest audio pitch. Once the antenna is aligned
type the command:
> aaa off
to turn off the audio signal and revert the auxiliary port connector to console mode.
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3.4
Spectrum Analysis and channel selection
Radio operation in unlicensed bands has the potential of suffering from interference from other
equipment operating in the same band. The use of directive antennas greatly reduces the
potential for interference. In addition, the A53325 includes several features, described below, to
identify and overcome sources of interference.
The A53325 can be commanded to perform a spectrum analysis of the ISM band and report the
results in either a graphical or tabular form. The command:
> spectrum-analysis
input=a-antenna dwell=xx
instructs the radio to scan the entire band, dwelling on each channel for a programmable amount
of time, and record the highest signal level in that channel. This feature can be used to perform a
site survey and identify a selection of available “quiet” channels.
Note that even though the A53325 channels are spaced 2 MHz apart, the receiver RF bandwidth is
approximately 5 MHz. Therefore the RSSI value reported for each channel represents the total
energy in a 5 MHz band centered around that channel. For this reason, a narrow band transmitter
will show up in the spectrum analysis report as a lobe with 5 MHz bandwidth. Conversely, you do
not need to find a quiet 5 MHz wide region in the spectrum analysis report to select a quiet
channel, i.e., any single channel sample that shows a low “noise” level, is a good candidate to
select as an operating channel.
Once a potential operating channel has been identified using the spectrum analysis tool, a “timing
analysis” may also be used to confirm that the selected channel is indeed clear. The command:
> time-analysis channel=xx
input=a-antenna dwell=xx
Instructs the radio to dwell on the specified channel for the specified amount of time. After
taking several samples the radio displays the signal level detected in that channel over time.
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3.5
Output Power Limits (FCC)
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations limit the maximum Effective Isotropic
Radiated Power (EIRP) for spread spectrum systems operating in the 2.4 GHz band. Close to the
band edges, the output power must be limited to avoid spilling over into the FCC protected band
from 2.4835 GHz to 2.500 GHz. Table 3-2 takes these considerations into account and shows the
maximum allowed output power for the various antennas:
Table 3-2 Maximum Output Power (dBm)
CHANNEL
FREQUENCY
(MHz)
3 to 19
20
21 to 33
34
35
36
37
3.6
2440.0
2468.0
2470.0
2472.0
2474.0
ANTENNA GAIN
9 dBi
18 dBi
24 dBi
23
21
23
23
23
23
22
23
23
23
23
22
21
19
23
21
23
22
21
20
10
Output Power Limits (CE)
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) regulations impose a limit of 20 dBm
as the maximum Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) for direct sequence spread spectrum
systems operating in the 2.4 GHz band. In addition, the maximum spectral power density is
limited to 10 dBm per MHz maximum EIRP. Of these two limits the power density is the most
restrictive for this radio. The installer must reduce the output power of the A53325 so that the
EIRP of the radio does not exceed 10 dBm. The antenna gain, cable and connector losses must be
taken into account when computing the maximum output power.
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3.7
Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) Limitations
The installer must mount all transmit antennas so as to comply with the limits for human
exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields per paragraph 1.1307 of the FCC Regulations. The FCC
requirements incorporate limits for Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) in terms of electric field
strength, magnetic field strength, and power density.
Antenna installations must be engineered so that MPE is limited to 1 mW/cm2 , the more stringent
limit for "uncontrolled environments". Table 3-3 specifies the minimum distance that must be
maintained between the antenna and any areas where persons may have access, including rooftop
walkways, sidewalks, as well as through windows and other RF-transparent areas behind which
persons may be located.
Table 3-3 Minimum Distance Calculation to
Avoid Antenna Radiation Hazard (exposure of 1 mW/cm2)
Antenna Gain (dBi):
5
15
Max. Output Power
27 dBm
19 dBm
MPE safe distance (inches)
7.9*
7*
* NOTE
For fixed location transmitters, the minimum safe
separation distance is 7 feet (≈2m), even if
calculations indicate a lower MPE distance.
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INSTALLATION AND SETUP – PTP AND PMP
SECTION 4
INSTALLATION AND SETUP
4.0
INSTALLATION AND SETUP
It is recommended that an initial check be performed on the bench before a field installation.
For this bench checkout you need two A53325 units. Radio 1 will be configured as the hub and
radio 2 will be configured as a remote. The first approach described below uses the “Ethernet
Console Program” to emulate the terminal across an Ethernet connection. The second approach
uses two terminals connected to the auxiliary port of the radios.
4.1
Bench Checkout (using radio Ethernet connection)
In order to use the Ethernet connection you need the “Ethernet Console Program” (Econsole)
provided on the CD. See Appendix D for installation instructions for Econsole. Once Econsole is
installed, perform the following steps.
1. Connect the PC Ethernet port to the “To LAN” connector of the Power Inserter Unit of radio
2. Use an Ethernet crossover cable if connecting the PC directly to the Power Inserter Unit,
or use a straight cable if connecting through a hub.
2. Connect each Power Inserter Unit to the respective A53325 using a CAT 5 cable as defined in
Section 1.
3. Antenna A of radio 1 needs to have RF connectivity to Antenna A of radio 2. You may
establish this connection using actual 2.4 GHz antennas. Alternatively you may connect the
two antenna ports using coaxial cables through an RF attenuator.
CAUTION
YOU MUST ALWAYS USE AN RF ATTENUATOR OF 30
DB OR HIGHER WHEN CONNECTING TWO ANTENNA
PORTS BY CABLE; OTHERWISE YOU MAY DAMAGE
THE UNIT RF RECEIVER.
4. Connect the two Power Inserter Units to a power outlet of the appropriate voltage.
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5. On the PC open a DOS window and invoke the Econsole program by typing:
> econ
If only one radio is connected to the LAN, ECON will establish a connection with that
radio. If more than one radio is in the same LAN, ECON provides a list of all radios found
(see Appendix D for more detailed instructions on the use of Econsole). Once a
connection to the radio is established, the radio outputs a prompt with the following
format:
rmt-nnnnn #>
where nnnnn are the last five digits of the radio serial number. The first three letters may
read hub or rmt. If the radio had previously been configured the prompt will be the
radio name.
6. Set radio 2 to its factory default configuration by typing the commands:
> load factory
> save-configuration
7. Move the Ethernet cable from the radio 2 power inserter to the power inserter connected to
radio 1. At the DOS window invoke once again the Econsole program. Configure radio 1 by
typing the commands:
> load factory
> node type=hub
> save-configuration
8. Once radio 1 is configured as the hub it will establish a RF communication with radio 2. To
verify this connection type:
> show
Check that the radio status shows “MASTER IN SYNC”, and that the number of remotes is 1.
You may also type >show radios to see various statistics of the link with radio 2.
9. Once the link is established, Econsole can be used to configure the local or the remote radio.
In order to switch the Econsole connection, logout of the current connection and re-invoke
Econsole:
> logout
> econ
Econsole will list the two radios and give a choice to connect to either. The Commands
section describes the command language used to further modify the radio’s operating
parameters.
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4.2
Bench Checkout (using radio auxiliary ports)
1. Connect each A53325 Console Port to a terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation
program. Configure the terminal settings as follows:
Baud rate: 9600
Word length: 8 bits
Parity: none
Stop bits: 1
2. Connect each Power Inserter Unit to the respective A53325 using a CAT 5 cable as defined in
section 1.
3. Connect each radio Antenna A port (N type connector) to an appropriate 2.4 GHz band
antenna using an RF coaxial cable. You may establish this connection using actual 2.4 GHz
antennas. Alternatively you may connect the two antenna ports using coaxial cables
through an RF attenuator.
CAUTION
ALWAYS USE AN RF ATTENUATOR OF 30 DB OR
HIGHER WHEN CONNECTING TWO ANTENNA PORTS
BY CABLE; OTHERWISE YOU MAY DAMAGE THE
UNIT RF RECEIVER.
4. Connect the two Power Inserter Units to a power outlet of the appropriate voltage.
5. The radios output a banner identifying the software and hardware versions and serial
number, followed by the command prompt with the following format:
rmt-nnnnn #>
where nnnnn are the last five digits of the radio serial number. The first three letters may read
hub or rmt. If the radio had previously been configured the prompt will be the radio name.
6. Set radio 2 to its factory default configuration by typing the command:
> load factory
> save-configuration
7. Configure radio 1 by typing the commands:
> load factory
> node type=hub
> save-configuration
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8. Once radio 1 is configured as the hub it will establish a RF communication with radio 2. To
verify this connection type:
> show
Check that the radio status shows “MASTER IN SYNC”, and that the number of remotes is 1.
You may also type >show radios to see various statistics of the link with radio 2.
9. The terminal connected to each radio can be used to further modify the radio’s operating
parameters. The Commands Section describes the command language used to perform those
functions.
4.3
4.3.1
Field Installation
Configuration
The A53325 units are shipped pre-configured with a factory default configuration. If the unit
configuration has been altered, you can always reload it with the command:
> load factory
In order to deploy an RF network between two or more radios you need choose one radio to be
the “hub” and configure it with the command:
> node type=hub
All other radios may be left configured with the factory configuration. As you turn them on with
antennas pointing at the hub they will automatically join the network. Use the >show command
to see the status of the radio, or the >show radios command at the hub for a complete list of all
the radios in the network.
In most installations you may want to change several other parameters. The table below shows
the most common ones and the associated commands to change them. Refer to the Commands
section for a complete description of each command.
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Table 4-1. Common Configuration Parameters
Parameter
RF channel
RF
transmit
power
Network
ID
Description
Command
You may need to change the RF channels if there is interference
on the default channel (20). You can configure the RF transmit
channel independently from the RF receive channel. Refer to
section 4.3.2 for the procedure for choosing new channels.
The factory default is 18 dBm. You can configure this parameter in
1 dB increments from 0 to 23 dBm. Take care not to exceed the
maximum power limits as described in sections 4.3.3 or 4.3.4.
The default value is 0. Change this value in all radios to a unique
number to avoid unauthorized radios from joining the network
rf-receive
rf-transmit
rf-transmit
node
4.3.2
Spectrum Analysis and channel selection
Radio operation in unlicensed bands has the potential of suffering from interference from other
equipment operating in the same band. The use of directive antennas greatly reduces the
potential for interference. In addition, the A53325 includes several features, described below, to
identify and overcome sources of interference.
The A53325 can be commanded to perform a spectrum analysis of the ISM band and report the
results in either a graphical or tabular form. The command:
>spectrum-analysis input=a-antenna dwell=xx
instructs the radio to scan the entire band, dwelling on each channel for a programmable amount
of time, and record the highest signal level in that channel. This feature can be used to perform a
site survey and identify the best receive channel.
Note that even though the A53325 channels are spaced 2 MHz apart, the receiver RF bandwidth is
approximately 5 MHz. Therefore the RSSI value reported for each channel represents the total
energy in a 5 MHz band centered around that channel. For this reason, a narrow band transmitter
will show up in the spectrum analysis report as a lobe with 5 MHz bandwidth. Conversely, you do
not need to find a quiet 5 MHz wide region in the spectrum analysis report to select a quiet
channel, i.e., any single channel sample that shows a low “noise” level, is a good candidate to
select as a receive channel.
Once a potential receive channel has been identified using the spectrum analysis tool, a “timing
analysis” may also be used to confirm that the selected channel is indeed clear. The command:
>time-analysis channel=xx input=a-antenna dwell=xx
instructs the radio to dwell on the specified channel for the specified amount of time. After
taking several samples the radio displays the signal level detected in that channel over time.
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4.3.3
Output Power Limits (FCC)
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations limit the maximum Effective Isotropic
Radiated Power (EIRP) for spread spectrum systems operating in the 2.4 GHz band. The table
below takes these considerations into account and shows the maximum allowed output power for
the various antennas
Table 4-2. Maximum Output Power (dBm)
Frequency
4.3.4
Antenna Gain
(MHz)
5 dBi
15 dBi
1200 - 1284
27 dBm
19 dBm
Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) Limitations
The installer must mount all transmit antennas so as to comply with the limits for human
exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields per paragraph 1.1307 of the FCC Regulations . The FCC
requirements incorporate limits for Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) in terms of electric field
strength, magnetic field strength, and power density.
Antenna installations must be engineered so that MPE is limited to 1 mW/cm2 , the more stringent
limit for "uncontrolled environments". The table below specifies the minimum distance that must
be maintained between the antenna and any areas where persons may have access, including
rooftop walkways, sidewalks, as well as through windows and other RF-transparent areas behind
which persons may be located.
Table 4-3. Minimum Distance Calculation to Avoid Antenna Radiation Hazard
(Exposure of 1 mW/cm2)
Antenna Gain (dBi):
5
15
Max. Output Power
27 dBm
19 dBm
MPE safe distance (inches)
7.9*
7.9*
* NOTE
For fixed location transmitters, the minimum safe separation distance is 7 feet (≈2m), even if
calculations indicate a lower MPE distance.
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UPGRADING FIRMWARE
SECTION 5
UPGRADING FIRMWARE
5.0
UPGRADING FIRMWARE
5.1
Description
The operational firmware for the A53325 is stored in Flash PROM and can be easily updated. The
Flash PROM can hold multiple versions and types of firmware simultaneously.
Table 5-1 lists some of the “File Utility” commands used to download and manage the various files
stored in Flash PROM. A more detailed explanation for each command can be found in the
Commands section.
Table 5-1. File Utility Command Summary
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Lists all files stored in Flash PROM.
directory
delete-file filename
download-file path\filename
set-default-program filename
run-file filename
Deletes the specified file from the directory.
Downloads the specified file from the PC
path\filename into the Flash PROM.
Sets the indicated filename as the default program to
run after power up.
Loads the indicated program into RAM and executes it.
The firmware files (for point-to-multipoint) are named:
pmp0x_xx.bze
(binary zipped file for downloads through the Ethernet port)
pmp0x_xx.dw (ascii file for download through the serial port, or via Telnet)
The firmware files (for linear network) are named:
lnw0x_xx.bze
(binary zipped file for downloads through the Ethernet port)
lnw0x_xx.dw (ascii file for download through the serial port, or via Telnet)
where 0x_xx is the firmware version number. Instructions are included for transferring the files to
a PC.
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A new file can be downloaded into the radios in one of three ways:
1. Using the Econsole program running on a PC connected to the same physical LAN as one of
the radios. This is the fastest method and allows you to download to multiple radios from
the same PC.
2. Using a Telnet session from anywhere on the Internet. This requires the radio to have been
pre-configured with an IP address.
3. Using a terminal emulator program (e.g. HyperTerminal) running on a PC connected through
the serial port to the radio’s RS-232 auxiliary port. This method only allows you to download
to that specific radio.
The next three sections explain in detail how to download a new file using each method.
5.2
Installing New Firmware Through The Ethernet Port
This procedure assumes that the new firmware needs to be installed in all radios of a working
network. The upgrade is performed from a single PC connected via Ethernet to one of the radios
(PtP/ PmP), or one of the nodes anywhere in the linear network (LNW). Note that new firmware
does not need to be compatible with the firmware currently running on the radios. You can still
download new (incompatible) firmware and restart the network from a single location. After
downloading new firmware into a radio, the radio will continue to run the old firmware
from its RAM memory until the radio is rebooted to activate the new firmware.
1. If you have not done so, install the utility program “Econ” on the PC. This utility program is
distributed on a CD with the radio. Please refer to Appendix D for instructions on how to
install this utility.
2. Ensure the file with the new firmware (file pmp0x_xx.bze) is available on the PC.
3. Start the Econsole utility by typing “econ” from a DOS window command line. Econ will
send a “discovery” message and display all the radios that it can see. Verify that all radios in
the network are listed. Then select one of the radios in the list that you wish to upgrade.
4. Issue the command:
> directory
to view a list of files stored in Flash PROM as well as the available free space. Verify that
the free space in flash PROM is larger than the size of the pmp0x_xx.bze file on the PC.
If there is not enough space in Flash PROM delete one of the program files to make up
space (use the command delete filename).
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5. If the radio configuration has been password protected, you must first unlock the protection
with the command:
> unlock enable-configuration=password
(When the configuration is unlocked, the radio prompt displays the characters “#>”. In
locked mode the prompt does not include the “#” character).
6. Issue the command:
> download path\pmp0x_xx.bze
where path\ is the directory on the PC where the pmp0x_xx.bze file is stored. The path\
extension is not required if the file is in the same directory as the Econ program. As the
download proceeds Econ displays a line showing the current percentage complete.
7. Once the download is complete, issue the command:
> set-default-program pmp0x_xx
in order to make the new file the default program to run after a reset.
8. Issue the command:
> single-node-reboot-timeout=60
in order to speed up the network recovery after rebooting the hub radio in the step below
(this step is not necessary if the new firmware is known to be compatible with the old
firmware, but it does not hurt in either case).
9. Press the “F4” key to log-off the session with the current radio. Econ displays the list of all
radios from the initial discovery phase. Select another radio in the network and repeat steps
4 through 8 above for each of the radios in the list.
For configurations with NON-COMPATIBLE FIRMWARE skip to Step 14
10. Once all radios in the network have been loaded with the new firmware, log onto the hub
radio (using Econsole) and issue the command:
> reboot
to cause the hub/master radio to restart using the new firmware.
If the new firmware running on the hub radio is not compatible with the old version
running on a remote radio, the links to the remote will not be reestablished. In this case,
after 60 seconds, the remote radio will “time out”, reboot, load, and activate the new
firmware. The remote will then reestablish the links with the updated hub radio.
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If the new firmware on the hub radio is compatible with the old version running on a
remote radio, the links to the remote will be reestablished in a short time (with the hub
radio running the new version, and the remote radio continuing to run the old version from
its RAM). In this case it will be necessary to selectively reboot each remote radio running the
old (compatible) version, in order to activate the new version.
Proceed as follows.
11. Wait at least sixty seconds from the moment you entered the reboot command to the hub
radio to allow any remote radios running incompatible firmware a chance to reboot and
initialize the new version, then press <CR>. Econsole automatically attempts to reconnect to
the same radio. Once a new session with the hub radio is reopened issue the command:
> version
and check that the radio is indeed executing the new version.
12. Press the “F4” key to log-off the session with the hub radio. “Econ” displays the list of all
radios from the initial discovery phase. Select a different radio from the list and issue the
command:
> version
and check if this radio is running the new or old firmware version. If the radio is running
the new version log-off and repeat this step with the next radio. If the radio is not
running the new firmware version, perform the next step.
13. If the radio is running the old firmware version issue the command:
> reboot
Wait at least ten seconds for the radio to perform its start up code and re-establish the
link. Then press <CR>. Econsole automatically attempts to reconnect to the same radio
again. Once a new session with that radio is reopened issue the command:
> version
and check that this radio is now executing the new version. Repeat steps 12 and 13 until
all radios are running the new firmware version.
This completes the process for radios with compatible firmware.
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14. For configurations with non-compatible firmware, do not reboot the local radio first. If
you do, you will lose all the links to the rest of the network radios. Log on to the radio
furthest away from the local radio and issue the reboot command. Then log on to the next
furthest radio and issue the reboot command. Continue with each radio working toward the
local radio, but DO NOT INCLUDE the local radio. Skip the local radio and start the reboot
process again with the furthest radio at the opposite end of the network. After all other
radios have been rebooted, reboot the local radio. After the local radio reboots, the entire
network should be reestablished. Select each radio in turn and issue the version command
to verify the correct software is running on each radio.
5.3
Installing New Firmware Using Telnet
Telnet is a protocol that allows you to conduct a remote radio command session from a local
host. The radio must have been pre-configured with an IP address and be reachable, over the
network, from the local host. Refer to the Network Management section for details on how to
configure a radio IP address and initiate a Telnet session. The Telnet terminal emulation must
have the capability of sending an ASCII file to the remote machine. The following description
assumes you are using HyperTerminal as the local Telnet terminal emulation.
1. Verify that the new software is available on the local machine. The download software for
upgrade via Telnet must have a “.dwn” extension, e.g., pmp03_2.dwn.
2. Initiate a Telnet session with the radio as described in the Network Management section.
3. If the radio configuration has been password protected, you must first unlock the protection
with the command:
> unlock enable-configuration=password
(When the configuration is unlocked, the radio prompt displays the characters “#>”. In
locked mode the prompt does not include the “#” character).
4. Issue the command:
> directory
to view a list of files stored in Flash PROM as well as the available free space. Verify that
there is enough free space in flash PROM for the new file. The space required will be the
size of the pmp0x_xx.dwn file divided by 2.5. If there is not enough space in Flash PROM
delete one of the program files to make up space (use the command > delete
filename).
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5. Start the download process by typing:
> download-file destination=pmp0x_xx method=inline
where 0x_xx file is new version of software being installed.
6. The radio will return with the following:
“Send the file ... if incomplete, end with a line with just a
period”
When you get this prompt, go to “Transfer-Send Text file…” in HyperTerminal
and select the file to be installed. The file must have a “.dwn” extension.
7. After the file is successfully installed, issue the command:
> directory
to ensure that the file has been loaded into memory.
8. Issue the command:
> set-default-program pmp0x_xx
where 0x_xx file is new version of software being installed.
9. Issue the command:
> reboot
to restart the radio with the new software. Close the Telnet session, wait a few seconds
and open a new session with the same radio.
10. Issue the command:
> version
to ensure the radio is running the latest version.
5.4
Installing New Firmware Using The RS-232 Serial Port
On occasion, it may be necessary to install new firmware using the RS-232 port. This is generally a
less desirable method as the download time is much longer and you can only update the radio
that is directly connected to the PC, i.e., remote updates are not possible.
The serial upgrade uses a PC with a terminal emulator. Any emulator can be used however it
must have the facility to download a text file on demand. In the example below, the emulator
used is Windows HyperTerminal.
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1. Connect the A53325 Auxiliary Port (3-pin circular connector) to a terminal, or a PC running a
terminal emulation program using the special adapter cable (Siemens Rail Automation P/N:
Z706-00235-0000) supplied with the radio. Configure the terminal settings as follows:
Baud rate: 9600
Word length: 8 bits
Parity: none
Stop bits: 1
2. Verify that the new software is available on the PC. The download software for the serial
upgrade must have a “.dwn” extension, e.g., pmp03_25.dwn.
3. To have the shortest download time possible, set the radio to use the highest RS-232 speed
allowable on the PC. In this example, a download speed of 57600 baud will be used. Set the
console speed of the radio to 57600 baud by issuing the command:
> console-speed-bps 57600
4. Change the baud rate of the PC to match the radio. Remember that with HyperTerminal,
you must disconnect the session and re-connect before the changes will take effect. Verify
the PC communicates with the radio again.
5. If the radio configuration has been password protected, you must first unlock the protection
with the command:
> unlock enable-configuration=password
(when the configuration is unlocked, the radio prompt ends with the characters “#>”. In
locked mode the prompt does not include the “#” character).
6. Issue the command:
> directory
to view a list of files stored in Flash PROM as well as the available free space. Verify that
there is enough free space in flash PROM for the new file. The space required will be the
size of the pmp0x_xx.dwn file divided by 2.5. If there is not enough space in Flash
PROM, delete one of the program files to make up space (use the command > delete
filename).
7. Start the download process by typing:
> download-file destination= pmp0x_xx method=inline
where 0x_xx file is new version of software being installed.
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8. The radio will return with the following:
“Send the file ... if incomplete, end with a line with just a
period”
When you get this prompt, go to “Transfer-Send Text file…” in HyperTerminal
and select the file to be installed. The file must have a “.dwn” extension.
9. After the file is successfully installed issue the command:
> directory
to ensure that the file has been loaded into memory.
10. Issue the command:
> set-default-program pmp0x_xx
where 0x_xx file is new version of software being installed.
11. Issue the command:
> reboot
to restart the radio with the new software. Remember to change the PC HyperTerminal
settings back to 9600 baud and disconnect/re-connect the session.
12. Issue the command:
> version
to ensure the radio is running the latest version.
5.5
Feature upgrades
The A53325 has the ability to turn ON or OFF optional features and capabilities. This is done via
the use of the “license” command. This command requires a “key” that is specific to a particular
radio serial number and capability. To obtain a feature key, you must supply the specific model
number, the serial number, and the feature desired. Please contact Siemens Industry, Inc., Rail
Automation for a list of optional features available for your radio.
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COMMANDS
SECTION 6
COMMANDS
6.0
COMMANDS
6.1
Configuration Techniques
There are four ways to configure the radio:
Serial Console: One configuration uses the auxiliary port at the bottom of the unit and consists
of an asynchronous RS-232 link used for issuing configuration commands and monitoring the local
radio status and performance (a DB-9 adapter cable is available from Siemens Rail Automation P/N: Z706-00235-0000). This port defaults to operate with the following parameters at power up:
Baud rate: 9600
Word length: 8 bits
Parity: none
Stop bits: 1
This console port allows configuring and monitoring only the local radio, i.e. you cannot monitor
and configure any of the remote radios reachable through RF.
Econsole/Ethernet: A second configuration method uses the Ethernet connection to the radio to
perform the configuration. This approach has the advantage that any radio reachable across the
Ethernet, or the RF link, can be configured from a single PC. Additionally the Ethernet connection
is more readily available indoors than the console port.
In order to use the Ethernet connection to configure the radios the “Ethernet Console Program”
(Econsole) needs to be installed on a PC. This PC must be connected to the LAN where one or
more A53350 radios are connected. From this PC it is then possible to configure not only the
radios directly connected to the LAN, but also any other radios reachable through one or more RF
hops. Refer to Appendix D for instructions on the installation of Econsole.
Telnet: The third configuration method is using Telnet from a remote location.
explained in more detail in the Network Management section.
Telnet is
UDP/IP Interface: This is intended to allow a host computer to issue all the same text commands
available through the other interfaces. Refer to the udp-configuration command (paragraph
6.5.4) for details.
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COMMANDS
After power-up the radio performs several diagnostic and calibration tests. At the end of these
tests it outputs a command prompt. The default command prompts are:
rmt-nnnnn #>
where nnnnn is the last five digits of the radio serial number. If a node “name” has been
assigned to the node, the prompt may be the node name.
The “help” command provides a list of all the commands available. For more detailed help on a
specific command, type “help command-name”.
The radio keeps a history of several of the previously issued commands. Those commands can be
viewed by pressing the up-arrow and down-arrow keys on the keyboard. Any of those previously
issued commands can then be edited and reentered by pressing the <Enter> key.
6.2
Command Syntax
The command interpreter in the A53325 is designed to accommodate both a novice as well as an
expert operator. All commands and parameters have descriptive names so that they are easily
remembered and their meaning is clear. In order to be descriptive however, those commands are
sometimes long. As the operator becomes familiar with the command language, typing the
complete words could become cumbersome. The A53325 command interpreter recognizes any
abbreviations to commands and parameter names, as long as they are unambiguous. If an
ambiguous command is entered, the radio will output all possible choices.
Commands have the following generic form:
command parameter=value parameter=value
Following is a brief list of syntax rules:
•
Words (for commands, parameters, or values) can be abbreviated to a point where they are
unambiguous.
•
Some commands or parameters consist of compound words separated by a hyphen. With
compound words, the hyphen is optional. Additionally each word in a compound word can
be abbreviated separately. For example, the following are all valid abbreviations for the
command “save-configuration”: “save”, “savec”, “s-c”, “sc”.
•
The parameter and value lists are context sensitive, i.e., in order to solve ambiguities the
command interpreter only considers parameters valid for current command, or values valid
for the current parameter.
•
The arguments “parameter=value” must be entered with no blank spaces on either side of the
‘=’ sign. Those arguments (parameter/value pairs) can be listed in any order.
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COMMANDS
•
Even though parameters can be listed in any order, there is a “natural” order known by the
command interpreter. This allows the user to specify parameter values without having to type
the parameter names. For example the command:
> spectrum-analysis input=a-antenna display=table
can be entered as (using abbreviation rules as well): > spa a t
•
Using the preceding rule, for commands that have a single argument, the “parameter name”
part of the argument is always optional, i.e., you can enter:
> command value
For example the command:
> save-configuration destination=main
can be shortened to any of the following:
> save-configuration main
> save main
> save
•
Not all parameters associated with a command need to be specified. Depending on the
command, when a parameter is omitted it either assumes a default value or keeps the last
value assigned to that parameter.
•
For all parameters that accept a numeric value the number can be entered in decimal,
hexadecimal, or octal notation. To enter a number in hexadecimal notation precede it with a
0x or 0X. To enter a number in octal notation precede it with a 0 (zero). All other numeric
values are interpreted as decimal. Example:
> rf-receive ch=0x1a
(hexadecimal)
> rf-receive ch=014
(octal)
The following sections describe the various commands grouped according to their functionality. A
summary list of all commands is contained in Appendix A.
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COMMANDS
6.3
Configuration Management Commands
A radio configuration consists of a set of programmable parameters that define the radio
operation with regard to a variety of operating modes. There are five different configurations
identified as current, main, alternate, factory and basic.
The main and alternate configurations are both stored in non-volatile memory. They can be
loaded into the current configuration with the load command. On power up the radio loads the
main configuration from non-volatile memory into the current configuration.
The current configuration is the set of parameters currently being used and can be modified by
the operator through several commands. This configuration is volatile. If the current
configuration has been modified it should be saved using the save command. Otherwise the
modifications will be lost if power is removed.
The factory configuration cannot be modified by the operator and is used to return the radio to
the factory default condition. It is useful as a starting point to create a customized configuration.
The basic configuration is similar to the factory configuration with the exception that a few
parameters are left unchanged when you issue the load basic command. The parameters left
unchanged are the RF and the IP configuration. This is useful when you are logged on to a
remote unit and need to start from a known configuration. If you were to issue the load factory
command you might lose contact with the remote unit if, for example, it changes the antenna of
the remote radio.
The access to change the radio configuration can be password protected. This password is set by
the user with the change-password command. Once a password is set, issue the lock command
to prevent any unauthorized changes to the configuration. Once locked, the configuration can
only be modified by issuing the unlock command with the correct password.
When the configuration is unlocked, the radio prompt ends with the characters “#>” to remind
the user that the configuration is unlocked. In locked mode the prompt does not include the “#”
character. Once a password is set, the radio will automatically lock the configuration after 10
minutes without any commands being issued.
The configuration management commands are listed in the following paragraphs:
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6.3.1
Change-Password
enable-configuration=”ASCII string”
This command allows the user to set or change a password used to “lock” and “unlock” access to
the commands that change the radio configuration. The A53325 is shipped with no password
which allows access to all commands. Once a password is set and the configuration is locked, the
password is needed to unlock the access to those commands. After changing the password you
should also issue the “save-configuration” command to save the new password in nonvolatile memory.
Example:
> change-password enable-configuration=bh7g8
NOTE
The A53325 is shipped without a password. If the
“change-password” command is issued, be sure
you do not forget the password. Once locked,
without the password, the radio must be returned to
the factory to be unlocked.
6.3.2
Display-Configuration
source=current or main or alternate or basic or factory
Displays all the parameter values for the specified configuration.
defaults to “current”.
If the source is not specified it
Examples:
> display-configuration factory
> discon
6.3.3
Load-Configuration
source=main or alternate or basic or factory
Loads the specified configuration into the current set of parameters controlling the radio
operation. If no source is specified it defaults to the “main” configuration.
Examples:
> load-configuration source=factory
> load
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6.3.4
Lock
This command locks the access to all the commands that can alter the radio configuration. Once
locked you must use the “unlock” command to regain access to those commands. Note that a
password must be set prior to the “lock” command being issued (the radios are shipped with no
password), otherwise the lock command has no effect. If a password is set, the radio
automatically “locks” the configuration at the end of 10 minutes with no command activity.
6.3.5
Save-Configuration
destination=main or alternate
Saves the current set of radio operating parameters into one of the two non-volatile
configurations. If the destination is not specified it defaults to “main”.
Examples:
> save-configuration destination=alternate
> save
6.3.6
Unlock
debug-mode=”ASCII string”
enable-configuration=”ASCII string”
This command unlocks the access to various commands. The enable-configuration password
(set with the change-password command) unlocks the various commands listed in this manual
that alter the radio configuration. The debug-mode is a factory mode used for troubleshooting
by customer support.
Example:
> unlock enable-configuration=bh7g8
6.4
Major Configuration Parameters
These commands change several operating parameters of the radio that are part of the radio
configuration. When entering commands with multiple parameters, if a parameter is not included,
that parameter keeps its current value.
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6.4.1
Distance-Max
maximum=10..255 (km),
10..158 (miles)
units=km or miles
Sets the limit for the maximum distance of any RF link in this network. You only need to set this
maximum distance at the hub node. All other nodes will automatically configure the maximum
distance to that of the parent node.
In general you should leave the maximum distance set to the default value of 50 km (30 miles).
But if you are deploying a network where one or more links exceed this distance you must change
this parameter to a value that is equal to or greater than the maximum link distance.
Increasing the maximum distance results in a slight decrease of the network capacity.
Examples:
> distance 100 km
> distance units=miles
6.4.2
Ethernet
speed=auto-10 or 10hdx or 10fdx or 100hdx or 100fdx or auto
Sets the Ethernet port speed to a combination of 10 or 100 Mbps, half or full duplex, or auto
negotiate.
In installations requiring a very long outdoor CAT5 cable, operation at 100 Mbps may become
unreliable. For this reason the auto-10 setting forces the speed to 10 Mbps but negotiates the
half or full duplex. The auto setting negotiates both the speed and duplex to the fastest
configuration supported by the other devices on the Ethernet.
timeout-sec=5..10000
Sets the time the radio will retain, in its internal table, Ethernet addresses obtained from the
network.
multi-cast-timeout-sec=5..10000
Sets the time the radio will retain, in its internal table, Ethernet multi-cast addresses obtained
from the network. This can not be set to a value below the station-timeout.
Example:
> ethernet speed=10fdx timeout=100
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6.4.3
Node
type=hub or remote or root-1 or root-2 or branch or leaf
For point-to-point network configure one of the two radios as hub and the other as the remote.
At the hub also set the max-children parameter to 1, which optimizes the network for point-topoint.
For a point-to-multipoint network configure the central radio as the hub and all other radios as
remote. In a fixed installation you would typically deploy the remote radios with directional
antennas pointing at the hub radio.
In a tree network configure the central radio as the root. Use root-1 if a single antenna is used at
the root. Use root-2 for a root with two antennas on ports A and B.
In a tree network all other nodes must be configured as either branch or leaf. A branch node will
attempt to connect to a parent (which can be the root or another branch) using the rf-1
configuration. It will also be acting as a parent and serve as an access point using rf-2
configuration.
A leaf node will attach to the parent (root or branch) using the rf-1 configuration.
Configuring a node to be a branch or a root the radio may indicate that it is not authorized to
operate in that mode. Contact Siemens Rail Automation Customer Service for help.
max-children=1..32
In the cluster-hub network, configure all hubs with node type set to hub and all other radios set
to remote. When you have multiple hub radios the cluster will automatically select one as the
master-hub. Use the >show radios command at any of the hubs to find which one is the current
master (index zero in the cluster hub table).
max-remotes=1..29
At the hub, root or branch nodes this value specifies the maximum number of children that will
be allowed to join the network through this access point. Once the radio has the maximum
children specified it stops allocating a slot for new nodes to join the network. This improves the
inbound throughput slightly, especially if the number of children is small. It also prevents an
unauthorized radio to join the network. In a point-to-point link make sure this parameter is set to
1.
name=”ASCII string”
Gives the node a meaningful name for further reference. This name will be used as the command
prompt. It is also used to identify the node in a variety of commands and displays. The name field
can be up to 23 characters with no spaces. If spaces are desired, you may include the whole name
in quotation marks.
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COMMANDS
network-id=0..65,535
For a link to get established, the network-id value of the radios involved must match. Setting
unique network ids on each network prevents a radio from connecting to the wrong hub or peer
if it happens to be within RF range, and on the same channel.
The value of the network-id is only displayed if the configuration is unlocked.
location=”ASCII string”
Optional parameter to define the location of the node. This field is displayed in the “Displayconfiguration” output and also reported through SNMP. This field is used for information only.
The location string can be up to 25 characters with no spaces. If spaces are desired, you may
include the whole string in quotation marks.
contact=”ASCII string”
Optional parameter to define the contact for maintenance purposes. This field is displayed in the
“Display-configuration” output and also reported through SNMP. This field is used for
information only. The contact string can be up to 25 characters with no spaces. If spaces are
desired, you may include the whole string in quotation marks.
Example:
> node name=bank
6.4.4
location=”wall street”
contact=964-5848
RF-1 RF-2 Setup
antenna=a, b
receive-channel=nn,nn,nn……
transmit-channel=nn
power-dbm=nn
speed-mbps=nn
There are two RF configurations, 1 and 2, which take the same parameters. All node types use RF
configuration1. Node types root-2 or branch also use the RF configuration 2 for links with their
children. The table below shows how the radios use the two RF configurations depending on the
node type. Once the node type is set issue the ">display-configuration" command to display this
information.
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Table 6-1 RF Configurations
Topology
Point-toMultipoint
Tree
Node type
rf-1
rf-2
hub
Link with children
Not used
remote
Link with parent
Not used
root-1
Link with children
Not used
root-2
Link with children
Link with children
branch
Link with parent
Link with children
leaf
Link with parent
Not used
Antenna: In most topologies use antenna A for the RF configuration 1, and antenna B
for the RF configuration 2. This is not mandatory, there are situations when you may
want to override this default.
Receive-channel: For the link with the parent this value must match the transmit
channel of the desired parent. If you have the roaming option enabled you can specify
up to six receive channels for the rf-1 configuration (separate values with commas but
no spaces). These channels should match the transmit channels of separate access
points in the area (hub, root or branch). The radio will then attach to the parent with
the strongest signal and change parent automatically when the signal becomes too
weak.
Transmit-channel: This is only applicable at the parent nodes for the links with their
children. At the child nodes, the transmit channel is configured automatically when the
node attaches to the parent (it will be set to match the receive channel of the parent).
Power-dbm: This is the transmit power fed into the antenna. The default value is 18
dBm which is adequate in most situations. If you do not have enough link margin or
there is interference in your channel you may want to increase the power up to the
maximum value supported by your model. If your links are very short and you have
plenty of signal you can reduce the transmit power in order to re-use the same channel
in other links in the area.
Speed-mbps: This is only applicable at the parent nodes for the links with their
children. At the child nodes the speed is set automatically to match that of the parent.
The default value is always the highest speed supported by your specific model. The
lower speeds may be appropriate for very long links where the receive signal strength
is too weak and you need a little more link margin. We suggest that in those cases you
first increase the transmit power and only then start reducing the speed.
Example:
> rf1 ant=a rec=15 tra=15 po=23 sp=0.5
> rf1 rec=6,13,18,24
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COMMANDS
6.4.5
Single-Node-Reboot
> timeout-sec=15..20000
After power up, radios attempts to get an RF link up with one or more radios. If a radio fails to
get a link up (or drops all existing links), it will perform a complete reset after the timeout
specified in this command.
This feature is useful if issuing a command to a distant radio (over an existing RF link) and the link
drops as a consequence of the command. If that radio now has no other links up it waits for the
"single-node-reboot” and then performs a reset. As a result, the radio reverts to the saved
configuration, allowing it to reestablish the original link.
Example:
> snr 60
6.4.6
Time-Division-Duplex
> sync-mode=off or auto
This parameter selects whether this radio participates in the negotiation of the heartbeat
synchronization to select a single source for the heartbeat. The default auto mode is
recommended for most applications.
The off mode may be useful in situations where there is a variable and significant delay in the
local Ethernet connecting the several co-located radios. In that case the radios may not be able to
establish synchronization and you may get better results turning off the heartbeat protocol.
> cycle-period-ms=
20 or 40
A cycle period of 20 ms (default) results in lower latencies throughout the network. However
there will be more transitions between transmit and receive resulting in somewhat lower
throughput capacity for the network. A cycle period of 40 ms has the opposite effect.
For small networks a cycle period of 20 ms is usually preferred. If you have a network with many
nodes that are simultaneously active the 40 ms cycle will give you better performance.
The cycle period only needs to be set at the hub radios. All the remotes will pick up the cycle
period from the hubs.
> split-outbound-percent=auto or 10 or 20 or 30 or 40 or 50 or 60
or
70 or 80 or 90
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COMMANDS
This parameter is relevant at the hub nodes only. It specifies the percentage of the total cycle
period dedicated to RF transmissions. The remaining time is dedicated to receiving from the
remotes. You do not need to specify this parameter at the remotes; as they join the network
they will set their cycles to the complement of this value.
In auto mode the master hub radio dynamically assigns a split based on the current traffic load in
each direction. This split may be different from cycle to cycle. This is the recommended setting.
Example:
> tdd sync=off cycle=40 split=70
6.5
Internet Protocol (IP) Management Commands
The IP Management commands configure the radio IP protocol parameters which allow the radio
to be monitored and configured through Telnet and SNMP. Refer to the “Network Management”
section for a more detailed explanation on those two applications.
6.5.1
IP-Configuration
address=<ip address>
netmask=<string>
gateway=<ip address>
dhcp-client=yes or no
This command configures the radio IP address, netmask and gateway. The IP configuration is
optional and the radios are shipped with these parameters left blank. Once the IP configuration
has been initialized, the radios will reply to “ping” packets. The IP configuration is also required in
order to use the “ping”, “snmp” and “Telnet” features.
Alternatively you can enable the dhcp-client function. In that case the radio will attempt to
configure its IP address parameters from a DHPC server in the network.
Since the two radios in a link are bridged together they are in the same “internet network”.
Example:
> ipconfig add=207.154.90.81 netmask=255.255.255.0 gateway=207.154.90.2
Note: To clear these values, enter all zeros.
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6.5.2
Ping
destination=<string>
count=0..500
size-bytes=32..1400
This command causes the radio to “ping” the destination address and display the results. The
“ping” packet consists of an ICMP packet with a length specified by the “size-bytes” parameter.
The destination is any valid IP address. When the destination host receives the packet it generates
a reply of the same size. Upon receiving the reply the radio displays the round trip delay. This
process is repeated until the number of replies reaches the value specified by the “count”
parameter (default to 4). A count of zero leaves ping running indefinitely until stopped by the
user.
Example:
> ping
207.154.90.81
count=10
size=100
6.5.3
SNMP
The radio runs an SNMP agent which allows up to four IP addresses to be specified as valid SNMP
managers. This command configures those IP addresses and the type of access allowed. You can
issue the command up to four times to specify each separate IP address manager. The radios are
shipped with all entries blank. While no entries are specified, the unit accepts SNMP “get”
requests from any IP address within the “public” community. Once one or more entries are
specified, the radio only responds to requests from the specific IP addresses listed. This list of
authorized managers is also used for validating Telnet requests.
Refer to the “Network Management” section for an overview of Network Management using
SNMP and Telnet.
manager=<ip address>
Specifies one valid IP address where the SNMP manager or Telnet session will run.
community=<string>
Any string of up to 9 characters. For SNMP requests the “community” field in the request packet
from this IP address must match this parameter. For a Telnet session the username entered when
initiating the session from this IP address must match this string. If this parameter is not specified
it defaults to “public”. Note that you must always enter the “manager” IP address in the same
command line that sets the “community” value.
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COMMANDS
access=g or gs or gst or gt
SNMP access type authorized for this IP manager. Specify as any combination of three letters: g
(get), s (set) and t (trap). If this parameter is not specified it defaults to “get”. Note that you must
always enter the “manager” IP address in the same command line that sets the “access” value.
authentication-traps=0 or 1
Specifies whether an “authentication trap” should be generated if a SNMP request is received that
cannot be honored (due to invalid IP address, community or access fields). When enabled, all IP
managers that have “trap” access will receive this trap.
delete=1..4
Allows deleting one entry in the SNMP table. The number 1..4 refers to the entry number as listed
in the “display configuration” report.
Example:
> snmp manager=207.154.90.81 com=support access=gst
6.5.4
UDP-Configuration
console=on or off
vital-port-1=1..0xFFFF
vital-port-2=1..0xFFFF
command-port=1..0xFFFF
max-response-bytes=500..1466
socket-mode=1 or 2
peer-address=<ip address>
peer-command-port=1..0xFFFF
The console parameter turns on or off the radio UDP interface. The factory default is off. You
may turn it on for either of the following purposes:
1. To send and receive “vital packets” which the radio classifies as the highest priority.
2. Send radio configuration text commands encapsulated in UDP/IP packets. This is useful when
you want to configure the radio from a program running on an external computer
The vital-port-1 and vital-port-2 specify two different UDP port numbers. The radio examines
the “source” and “destination” ports of any UDP encapsulated packets that the radio receives and
queues for transmission over RF. If any of those two values match the vital-port-1 or vital-port-2,
the packet is classified as “vital priority” and is transmitted ahead of all other packets.
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All the remaining parameters are used for the purposes of issuing radio commands using UDP
encapsulated packets. The formats of these UDP packets and radio replies are described in detail
in section 7.3.2.
The command-port parameter is the UDP port number used by the radio to receive commands.
The max-response-bytes parameter allows extending the length of the UDP packets generated by
the radio beyond the default 500.
The socket-mode=1 (default) is intended for applications where the controlling program allocates
a single socket for packets in both directions, while socket-mode=2 is used when the program
must create separate sockets for sending to the radio and receiving from the radio.
In both modes the radio listens for UDP packets addressed to the specified command-port
number. In socket-mode 1, if you do not specify a peer-address and a peer-command-port the
radio accepts packets from any IP address and port and sends the responses to the same IP
address and port from which the command was received. If you specify a peer-address and/or a
peer-command-port the incoming packets must match these parameters, otherwise the packets
will be ignored.
In socket-mode 2, the radio sends the UDP command replies to the IP address specified by the
peer-address parameter and sets the destination UDP port to the value specified by the peercommand-port parameter. Additionally the IP address on incoming packets must match the
peer-address parameter.
6.6
Internet Protocol (IP) Management Commands
These commands are useful as installation aids and also for monitoring link statistics after the link
is established.
6.6.1
Antenna-Alignment-Aid
mode=off or a-antenna or b-antenna
With the mode other than off, the radio outputs, through the auxiliary port, an audio signal with a
pitch proportional to the Receive Signal Strength (RSS) level of packets received on the specified
antenna. A special cable adapter is provided (Siemens Rail Automation P/N: Z706-00254-0000)
that converts the three-pin auxiliary port connector into a standard female audio jack. Use this
cable to connect the auxiliary port to a pair of standard headphones while aligning the antenna.
While the antenna alignment is on, the RS-232 console output is not available. When the antenna
alignment output is set to off the auxiliary port output reverts to RS-232 console.
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COMMANDS
The antenna alignment output setting can also be saved as part of the radio configuration. This is
useful to take a pre-configured radio to an installation site with no need to turn the antenna
alignment ON (through a terminal) after power up.
Examples:
> aaa a-antenna
> aaa off
6.6.2
Monitor-Flow
At the master-hub this command shows the current data flow to and from each remote and
updates this information once per second. At a remote unit this command shows the data flow
statistics to the hub. Press the [space bar] to terminate the command.
6.6.3
Monitor-Link
node=1, 4…N
clear=0 or 1
This command continuously displays link statistics including the RSSI at both ends of the link, link
distance, percent of packets lost, and the elapsed time since this link has been up. You must
specify a valid node number from the list displayed by the show links command (if this radio is
involved in only one link you do not need to enter the node number). Press the [space bar] to
terminate the command.
The “clear=1” parameter clears the percent of dropped packets statistic. You can also clear that
statistic by pressing the “zero” key while the command is running.
Example:
> monitor-link node=4 clear=1
6.6.4
Monitor-Roaming
If a radio is configured to roam between multiple hubs, this command shows which hubs are
currently within range, and the Receive Signal Strength (RSSI) from each hub. The report also
identifies the current hub that this radio is attached to. This information is refreshed once per
second. Press the [space bar] to terminate the command.
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6.6.5
Show-Table
table=status or radios or ethernet or econsole or ip-stack
format=counts or times
This command displays various tables in different formats as described below:
6.6.6
Status Table
This contains miscellaneous information including system start and run times, unit temperature,
input DC voltage, and RF link status. The “format” parameter is not applicable for this table.
6.6.7
Ethernet-Stations Table
This table can be displayed in two formats, “counts” (default) and “times”.
> show ethernet (counts)
--Discard--
#
-0
1
23
4
5
6
7
8
MAC address
----------------ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
00-0d-94-00-3a-9d
01-0d-94-00-00-01
00-a0-cc-66-70-8e
00-a0-cc-d7-06-76
00-a0-cc-d6-fd-50
00-a0-cc-d7-0b-0d
00-a0-cc-d7-0b-14
00-0d-94-00-42-69
>show
#
-0
1
23
4
5
6
7
8
IP address
Radio
-------------- ----Local
me
me
207.154.90.161
4
207.154.90.173 Hub
6
207.154.90.204
5
Hub
4
--Forward--
--Discard-from
to
--------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
--Forward-from
to
--------0
919
388
361
0
0
197246
99568
99578
197133
122
148
180
0
118
0
1
0
ethernet times
MAC address
----------------ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
00-0d-94-00-3a-9d
01-0d-94-00-00-01
00-a0-cc-66-70-8e
00-a0-cc-d7-06-76
00-a0-cc-d6-fd-50
00-a0-cc-d7-0b-0d
00-a0-cc-d7-0b-14
00-0d-94-00-42-69
IP address
Radio MC
Time added
-------------- ----- ------------Local
11-Jan 22:57:57
me X 11-Jan 22:57:57
me
11-Jan 22:57:57
207.154.90.161
4
11-Jan 23:30:48
207.154.90.173 Hub
11-Jan 23:32:32
6
12-Jan 00:28:22
207.154.90.204
5
11-Jan 23:30:56
Hub
11-Jan 23:31:14
4
12-Jan 00:29:06
Idle VLAN
----- ---N/A
N/A
5490.86
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
20.23
N/A
14.96
N/A
21.64
N/A
Both formats list all the Ethernet stations attached to either this radio or other radios that have a
direct link to this one. The tables list the MAC (Ethernet) address of the station, and, if known,
the IP address.
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The first row in the table tracks broadcast traffic while the second entry is always the address of
the radio itself. The Radio column shows the radio where that station is physically attached. It
may have a number 3 through N which identify one of the children radios as shown in the show
links table. Or it may say: “Local” to indicate stations connected to the local Ethernet, “me” to
identify this radio, “Hub” for the parent radio, and “Bcast” for addresses that are in an unknown
segment (this radio broadcasts packets to these addresses through all ports).
The “counts” format shows the cumulative number of Ethernet packets that have been seen with
that MAC addresses in the source (“from”) or the destination (“to”) fields. The radios operate the
Ethernet port in promiscuous mode and therefore look at all the packets in the Local Area
Network. The radios discard the packets that are known to be local, but forward all other packets
to remote radios. These are accounted separately in the report.
The “times” format indicates whether that entry is for a “multicast” (MC) address, shows the time
when the station was added to the table, and how long since that address has been seen. When
the “idle” time exceeds the time specified by the “ethernet” command, that entry is deleted from
the table.
6.6.8
Links Table
This table displays various statistics for all the RF links with adjacent radios. For a leaf or remote
radio there is only one entry which is the link to the parent. For a parent radio there may be
multiple entries. The entry with an ID of 1 is always the link to the parent. The table shows the
link distance in either miles of km. You can use the “distance” command to change the units.
If this radio is enabled for roaming and is set to receive in more than one channel, then this
report also includes the “Roaming Table”. This table includes a line for each receive channel, the
Hub Serial Number of a hub transmitting in that channel, the RSSI and the time elapsed (in
seconds) since that RSSI was measured.
ROAMING TABLE:
Rx
chan
---12
25
current chan -> 32
37
DIRECT LINKS:
# Ant Name
Ser.N
-- - --------- ----1 A bra-15005 15005
6.6.9
Hub
Ser.N
------16322
16300
15005
Rmt
RSSI
----61
km
----0
RSSI
----73
-65
-53
Time
elapsed
------1.0
0.4
0.0
Rmt My
TxPwr RSSI
----- ---18
-53
% Dropped
Now Ever
--- ---0
0.0
Uptime
--------000:58:40
Tree Table
In response to this command the radio broadcasts a discovery packet to obtain information from
all the radios in the network including radios that may be several hops away. It then displays
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COMMANDS
various statistics for all the links. The first column indicates in an indented fashion the “level” of
each radio in the tree, which corresponds to the number of hops away from the root (or hub).
For each radio that is a parent the report displays the entries of all its children before moving to
another node at the same level. You can find the parent of any node by going up the table to the
first entry with one level lower.
COMPLETE TREE NETWORK:
Level Type #
Name
IP address
------ ---- -- --------- --------------0
RT1 0 rt1-16322 207.154.90.108
1
bra 4 bra-16300 207.154.90.161
2
lf
4 rmt-16323
* 1
bra 6 bra-15005 207.154.90.163
2
lf
4 lf-17001
6.6.10
/----- Parent Link -----\
km RSSI %
Uptime
----- ---- -- --------0
0
0
0
-71
-71
-76
-53
0
0
0
0
000:56:33
001:05:25
000:58:20
000:56:33
Radios Table
This command displays both the links table and the tree table described above.
6.6.11
Econsole Table
The unit broadcasts an e-console discovery packet on both its ports: Ethernet and RF, and then
reports all the replies. These include both gateways and radios that can be reached on either port.
6.6.12
Spectrum-Analysis
input=a-antenna or b-antenna
display=graph or table
dwell-time-ms=1..1000
This command switches the receiver to the specified antenna (defaults to A) and then performs a
scan of all the channels from 2.400 to 2.500 MHz, dwelling on each channel for the specified
amount of time (defaults to 20 milliseconds). While on each channel it measures the RSSI for that
channel and stores its peak value. It then displays the data collected in a graphical or table
formats (defaults to “graph”).
Note that even though the A53325 channels are spaced 2 MHz apart, the receiver RF bandwidth is
approximately 5 MHz. Therefore the RSSI value reported for each channel represents the total
energy in a 5 MHz band centered around that channel. For this reason, a narrow band transmitter
will show up in the spectrum analysis report as a lobe with 5 MHz bandwidth. Conversely, you do
not need to find a quiet 5 MHz wide region in the spectrum analysis report to select a quiet
channel, i.e., any single channel sample that shows a low “noise” level, is a good candidate to
select as a receive channel.
Examples:
> spectrum-analysis input=b-antenna
> spa dwell=500
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6.6.13
Time-Analysis
channel=0..50
input=a-antenna or b-antenna
display=graph or table
dwell-time-ms=1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500
This command switches the receiver to the specified antenna (defaults to A) and then measures
the RSSI for a single channel over a period of time. Each “sample” consists of the maximum RSSI
measured during the dwell time specified (defaults to 20 milliseconds). After collecting 60
samples the RSSI values are displayed graphically or numerically (defaults to “graph”).
Examples:
> time-analysis input=b-antenna
> tia in=a dis=t dwell=500
6.7
File Utilities
The A53350 maintains a file system that allows multiple programs to be stored in either nonvolatile flash PROM or volatile RAM. New programs can be downloaded into the A53350 memory
through the auxiliary port, through the Ethernet port, or to a remote radio across the RF link.
One of the programs in flash PROM is designated as the default program to run after reboot. On
power up that program is copied from PROM into RAM and the code runs out of RAM.
Both sections of memory (non-volatile flash PROM and volatile RAM) are segregated into two
“directories”. The non-volatile flash PROM is called “flash” signifying the flash PROM and the
volatile RAM is called “tmp” signifying the temporary status of the program. Use the “directory”
command to view the programs loaded and whether they are in non-volatile or volatile memory.
Any program can be invoked with the command “run” without making it the default file. This is
useful when upgrading the software over an RF link as a way to ensure that the new code is
working correctly before making it the default.
6.7.1
Console-Speed-Bps
baud-rate-bps=9600 or 19200 or 38400 or 57600 or 115200
Sets the Auxiliary port of the radio to the specified baud rate. This setting is not saved in the
radio configuration, the auxiliary port always reverts to 9600 baud on power up.
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This command is useful to speed up the download process over the auxiliary port. Before issuing
the download command, use this command to change the radio console speed to the highest
baud rate supported by the PC. Then change the terminal settings to match the radio speed.
Issue the download command described below and initiate the transfer at the terminal.
Example:
> console-speed-bps baud-rate-bps=115200
6.7.2
Copy-File
source=filename
destination=filename
Copies the input-file into the output-file. If the memory location is not defined (flash or tmp), the
command assumes the flash directory.
Example:
> copy-file tmp\pmp01_22
6.7.3
pmp01_22
Delete-File
filename=filename
Deletes the specified file from RAM or Flash PROM. If the memory location is not defined (flash or
tmp), the command assumes the flash directory.
Example:
> delete pmp01_22
6.7.4
Directory
format=short or full
Lists all the files currently stored in flash PROM and RAM, their size, the sectors occupied and the
MD5 checksum (full version). It also indicates which of the files is the default program. Files
stored in flash PROM have the flash\ prefix. Files stored in RAM have the tmp\ prefix.
Example:
> dir
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6.7.5
Download-File
source=path\filename
destination=filename
method=inline or binary
Downloads a program file from a PC to the Radio.
To download a file through the Ethernet port or across RF links you need to be running the
Econsole program on a PC attached to a radio through the Ethernet port. In this case the
program file must be in binary zipped format (with extension .bz). The path\ in the source
parameter is the PC directory where the file resides. The program file is transferred to the radio
and is stored in memory under the name specified by the destination parameter. If the
destination parameter is omitted, the file will be stored in Flash PROM with the same name as the
source. Note that the “.bz” extension is required in the command. The download “method” must
be “binary” (which is the default).
Example:
> download C:\load\pmp03_12.bz
Downloads the file pmp03_12.bz from the PC directory C:\load, into the unit file
flash\pmp03_12.
If the download is executed from a terminal connected to the Auxiliary port, the file is in ASCII
format and has the extension .dwn. The download method must be “inline”. The source
parameter is not needed since, after issuing the command, you must initiate the transfer of the
file from the terminal.
Example:
> download destination=pmp03_12 method=inline
After issuing the command initiate the file transfer using the terminal facilities.
6.7.6
Run-File
filename=filename
Executes the specified file. The file is first copied into RAM and then the program is executed out
of RAM. If the radio is rebooted or power cycled, the radio reverts back to the program defined
as the default program. If the memory location is not defined (flash or tmp), the command
assumes the flash directory.
Example:
> run pmp03_04
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6.7.7
Set-Default-Program
filename=filename
Sets the specified file as the default program to be loaded upon reboot or power cycle. Since the
default program must reside in flash memory, the “flash\” prefix is assumed and is not required
for the command.
Example:
> sdp pmp03_04
6.8
Event Logging Commands
The A53350 keeps track of various significant events in an “event log”. This event log holds up to
500 events. The first 100 entries in the log are filled sequentially after power up and are not
overwritten. The remaining 400 entries consist of the last 400 events recorded. All events are
time-tagged with system time.
Events are classified in different categories from level 0 (catastrophic error) to 7 (information).
6.8.1
Clear-Log
region= all-events or reboot-reasons
This command clears the contents of the system event log from the specified “region”. After a
code upgrade it is recommended to clear the reboot reasons since the pointer in non-volatile
memory pointing to the reason message may no longer be valid.
6.8.2
Display-Log
region=end or tail or beginning or all-events or reboot-reasons
length=1..500
id=0..200
min-level=0..7
max-level=0..7
This command outputs to the terminal the specified region of the event log. The length
parameter specifies the number of events to output (defaults to 10). The remaining parameters
provide filters to leave out specific events. If the id parameter is specified, only the event
identified by that id will be displayed. The min-level and max-level settings allow the user to
display only the events with the specified category range.
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When the region is specified as tail, the command displays the last 10 events followed by a blank
line, then waits for more events and displays them as they occur. You can press the space bar to
exit this mode.
The reboot-reasons region of the event log consists of the last four events that caused the
gateway to reboot. These events are stored in non-volatile memory. The time tag in these events
is the time the gateway was up since it was rebooted, not the time of day.
Examples:
> display-log region=all
> display-log region=all length=300 min-level=2 max-level=6
6.8.3
Max-Event
Sets the event severity level that should be saved or displayed. These two parameters are saved as
part of the configuration
save=0..7
Only events of the specified level or below will be saved in the event log.
print=0..7
Events of the specified level or below will be output to the console port as they occur.
Example:
> max-event print=6
6.9
6.9.1
Miscellaneous Commands
Date
The A53350 will set the internal radio date and time automatically by decoding Network Time
Protocol (NTP) packets in the Ethernet LAN. The “zone” parameter specified with the “date” or
“time” command will then be used to display the date/time in local time. The “zone” value is
saved as part of the radio configuration.
If NTP packets are not available, the user can initialize the radio date and time with either the
“date” or “time” commands. The parameters for both commands are identical, but the parameter
order is different. The date command can be entered as:
> date 16-may-2000
10:32:06
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date=day-month-year
Sets the date used by the radio. The day / month / year parameter may be separated by any valid
separator (‘-‘ ‘/’ etc.)
time=hh:mm:ss
Sets the radio time in hours, minutes and seconds. Use colons to separate the three fields.
zone=zone-code or offset
Sets the time zone to be used by the radio to translate the NTP time to local time. It can be
specified by an offset from GMT (-0800 or +0200 for example), or as a “zone-code”. The valid
“zone-codes” and the respective offsets are shown in .
Table 6-2. Zone Codes and Offsets
6.9.2
ZONE
ZONE CODE
OFFSET
Pacific Standard Time
PST
-0800
Pacific Daylight Time
PDT
-0700
Mountain Standard Time
MST
-0700
Mountain Daylight Time
MDT
-0600
Central Standard Time
CST
-0600
Central Daylight Time
CDT
-0500
Eastern Standard Time
EST
-0500
Eastern Daylight Time
EDT
-0400
Greenwich Mean Time
GMT
0000
Help [Command-Name]
If no command is specified, displays the complete list of commands. If a command is specified it
displays the valid parameter and corresponding values for that specific command.
Example:
> help monitor-link
6.9.3
History
Displays the previous commands entered.
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6.9.4
License
key=”ASCII string”
The “license” command is used to turn ON or OFF a set of optional features or capabilities. The
key is a 35-character string combination of ASCII letters, numbers, and hyphens. The key must be
input with the syntax as shown in the example below, including hyphens, for the radio to accept it.
The characters can be input as upper or lower case.
After entering the key you must reboot the radio for the feature, enabled by the key, to take
effect. Each key is unique for a particular radio serial number and capability, i.e. a key generated
to turn ON a capability on one serial number will not work on another radio.
Example:
> license key=02EL1-ZGZ42-G0000-00C54-81WAJ-C9BEK
6.9.5
Logout
Closes the current Econsole session.
6.9.6
Reboot
Resets the radio, causing the software to perform a complete startup sequence. This is equivalent
to power cycling the radio off and on.
NOTE
Any unsaved configuration parameters will be lost.
The Routing Table will also be cleared.
6.9.7
Time
time=hh:mm:ss
date=day-month-year
zone=zone-code or offset
This command is identical to the “date” command explained above, except for the order of the
parameters. It allows the time and date to be entered as:
> time 10:32:06
6.9.8
16-may-2000
Version
Displays the radio model and software version.
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NETWORK MANAGEMENT
SECTION 7
NETWORK MANAGEMENT
7.0
NETWORK MANAGEMENT
The radios operate as part of a network environment with many devices. Whether operated by an
Internet Service Provider (ISP) or the Information Technology (IT) department of a business, there
is often a need to supervise and manage the network from a central Network Operations Center
(NOC). This chapter describes the features of the A53325 that are useful for this purpose.
7.1
7.1.1
Telnet
General
Telnet, which stands for Telecommunications Network, is a protocol that allows an operator to
connect to a remote machine giving it commands interactively. Once a Telnet session is in
progress, the local machine becomes transparent to the user, it simply simulates a terminal as if
there was a direct connection to the remote machine. Commands typed by the user are
transmitted to the remote machine and the responses from the remote machine are displayed in
the Telnet simulated terminal.
7.1.2
Starting a Telnet Session
In order to start a Telnet session with a radio you first need to configure the radio with a unique
valid IP address. This is done with the ip-configuration command described in the Commands
section. This initial configuration must be done using either the RS-232 console port or the ECON
program.
Once the radio has an IP address, you must start the Telnet application at the local machine and
establish a connection with the IP address of the radio. If the local machine is a PC running
Windows, you can start Telnet through HyperTerminal as follows:
1. Start the HyperTerminal application (in a typical Windows installation HyperTerminal can be
found from the Start button under Programs/Accessories/Communications…)
2. From the File menu choose New Connection.
3. In the Name field enter any name you wish and press the OK button. This will open the
“Connect To” window.
4. In the last field, titled “Connect using:”, select TCP/IP (Winsock). The fields above will
change to Host Address: and Port Number:.
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5. In the Host Address field, type the IP address of the radio, then press the OK button.
6. TCP will now attempt to connect to the specified device. If successful, the radio will request
a login name with the prompt login:
7. Type public followed by the Enter key
The radio will now display its prompt command and you may type any commands as described in
the Commands section.
If, after entering the public login name, the terminal displays the message “Login Failed”,
this may be due to the radio being configured to be managed from only some specific IP
addresses. This is explained in the following section.
7.1.3
Telnet Security
The remote management capability through Telnet opens the possibility for an unauthorized user
to login to any radio accessible through the Internet. The radio configuration can be password
protected with the use of the lock and unlock commands. If further security is desired you can
specify up to four source IP addresses that are authorized to initiate Telnet sessions with the radio.
When configured in this way, the radio will reject Telnet requests from all IP addresses that are
not in the authorized list.
The authorized source IP addresses for Telnet are the same addresses that are authorized to
perform SNMP management. They are entered using the snmp command described in the
Commands section and can be viewed with the display-configuration command. When this list
is empty, you can initiate a Telnet session from any IP address with the login name public.
When this list is not empty, Telnet sessions can only be initiated from the listed hosts.
Additionally, for each host, the login name must match the string listed for the community field.
If you wish to use this security feature you need to know the IP address of the local machine. On
a PC running Windows, one way to find its IP address is to open a DOS window and issue the
command:
> ipconfig
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7.2
SNMP
7.2.1
Command Line Interface Versus SNMP
Configuration settings on the A53325 are displayed and modified using a command line interface,
it can be accessed using the RS-232 console port, the Econsole program, or via a Telnet session.
In a Network Operation Center (NOC) environment, there is a need for an automated monitoring
system to collect on an ongoing basis information from devices in the network for three purposes:
1. To build an inventory of all the devices of the network.
2. To keep track of all devices on the network and raise alarms when any device becomes
unreachable (device failed, link down, etc).
3. To maintain statistics on traffic levels in order to implement usage-based charging, or to
determine where congestion exists in the network, so that the network can be expanded to
accommodate growth.
Command line interfaces are not very suitable for these purposes, and the A53325 supports the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to assist in these tasks. SNMP is a simple,
transaction-based (command/response) protocol, which allows a variety of third-party software
products to query network devices and collect data for these purposes.
For a generic introduction to the SNMP protocol, we recommend the book "The Simple Book An Introduction to Internet Management" by Marshall T Rose (P T R Prentice-Hall, 1994).
7.2.2
SNMP Description
The SNMP protocol is described in the following documents:
Network
Management
Protocol
(SNMP)
-
ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-
•
RFC1157 - Simple
notes/rfc1157.txt
•
RFC1155 - Structure and identification of management information for TCP/IP-based internets
- ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1155.txt
•
RFC1213 - Management Information Base for Network Management of
internets: MIB-II - ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1213.txt
TCP/IP-based
SNMP is a specification for the interaction (protocol) between the SNMP agent embedded in a
network device, and the SNMP manager software running on another machine in the network.
The data provided by the SNMP agent in a network device is described by a document called the
MIB (Management Information Base). MIB-II describes the basic information provided by all
devices, and additional documents describe optional extensions for components that may not
exist in most devices.
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Devices may also provide non-standard MIB groups. In order for a network management system
to make use of these extended features, the MIB description must be obtained from the device
manufacturer and loaded into the management station.
SNMP data travels in IP packets, using the UDP port 161 for the agent, so in order to use SNMP,
the device must have an IP address.
7.2.3
Security Considerations in SNMP
SNMP was designed before the Internet grew commercial, and the original design was not secure.
Later versions intended to provide security, but grew cumbersome and complex. As a result, most
devices provide secure operation in a non-standard way.
The original SNMP design as embedded in the protocol, assigns network devices to named
communities. Any transactions exchanged between the agent and the manager include the name
of the community to which they both belong. The agent has a list of which access rights (set, get,
trap) it will grant for each community of which it is a member.
In the A53325, this has been re-interpreted: The radio has a list of up to 4 management stations
from which it will accept requests, and for each one - identified by its IP address - it is indicated
what access rights it is granted, and which community string it must use. Requests from all other
sources are ignored. Refer to the snmp command in the Commands section for details on how to
configure the radio for management using SNMP..
If no management stations are listed, get-requests with the community public will be accepted
and responded to from any IP address.
7.2.4
Examples of Network Management Systems
Some of the most common network management systems are listed below. All of them provide
many similar features, including network status displays showing key devices on a map, where the
devices change color if they have alarms, and with provisions for activating a remote paging
device if there is a problem.
WhatsUp Gold (Ipswitch Inc)
http://www.ipswitch.com/
USD 800 (approx)
SNMPc (Castle Rock Computing, Inc)
http://www.castlerock.com/
USD 900 to USD 2700 (approx, depending on options)
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OpenView (Hewlett-Packard)
http://www.openview.hp.com/
USD 3,000 to USD 10,000
The OpenView product line has been revamped; HP is now positioning it not as a turnkey software
product, but as a custom adapted application to be bought through a value-added
implementation partner.
Multi-Router Traffic Graphing
http://www.mrtg.org/
A free, open-source software, capacity planning tool.
7.2.5
A53325 Management Information Base (MIB)
The A53325 implements only the core MIB-II. A management station will see three interfaces in
the interfaces group:
1 - Bridge
2 - Ethernet
3 - Radio
The first of these represents the attachment of the SNMP agent to the bridged network. Only IP
traffic seen by the embedded host is counted.
The Ethernet device (ifIndex=2) represents the traffic passing through the radio's Ethernet port.
This is what should be tracked by MRTG.
The third device represents the wireless transceiver. It will appear as down if the radio does not
have a working link to its peer. This is useful for confirming the loss of a link. The traffic counts
show all packets to and from the radio, including handshaking between the two radios.
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7.3
7.3.1
UDP Command and Data Interface
Purpose
The A53325 firmware includes an optional command/data interface based on the UDP/IP
protocol. This interface can be used for two purposes:
1. As a command interface allowing radio text commands and replies to be encapsulated in
UDP/IP packets. This is useful when you want to configure the radio from a program running
on an external computer
2. To send and receive vital packets which the radio classifies as the highest priority.
With the UDP Command Interface a host computer can issue all the same text commands
available through the other interfaces and described in the radio Operator’s Manual. The
command text, in ASCII, must be encapsulated in an UDP/IP packet addressed to the radio. The
radio replies to every command with text also encapsulated in an UDP/IP packet. This reply
packet can be addressed to a pre-configured IP address or to the device that generated the
command. See the udp-configuration command in section 4 for the options to configure this udp
interface.
7.3.2
UDP Command Packet formats
Table 7-1 below shows the structure of the UDP command and reply packets. The host computer
always initiates the command, and the radios reply to every command. The command sequence
number field, in the reply, “echoes” the contents of the sequence number field in the command.
If the socket-mode is set to 2, the radio issues an “unsolicited reply” message on power up to the
configured peer-address. This can be used to alert a host that the radio just rebooted. The
command sequence number in this power up unsolicited reply is always zero.
The command and reply text is in ASCII. Refer to the Commands section for a complete list of all
valid commands. Prior to using the UDP interface you must initialize the radio IP and the UDP
configuration (using commands ip-configuration and udp-configuration) through either the RS232 console or the Ethernet Econsole ports.
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Table 7-1. UDP Command / Reply Packet Format
Bytes
Host to Radio (Command)
Radio to Host (reply)
0-5
Dest MAC address
Dest MAC address
6-11
Src MAC address
Src MAC address
12-13
0x0800
0x0800
14-33
IP header
IP header
34-35
Src port (any)
Src port: radio UDP cmd port
36-37
Dest port: radio UDP cmd port
Dest port: UDP peer cmd port
38-39
Length of UDP payload (6-500)
Length of UDP payload (6-500)
40-41
Checksum
Checksum
42-45
Command Sequence number
Command Sequence number
46-47
Pad (all zeroes)
Reply code
48-
Command text
Reply text
Ethernet
Encapsulation
UDP/IP
encapsulation
RFC-768 (UDP)
RFC-760 (IP).
Payload
The values of the “reply code” field are shown in the following table.
Table 7-2. Reply Code Field
Code
Mnemonic
Description
0
CMD_SUCCESS
Command executed successfully
1
CMD_RESTART
Unsolicited reply at startup.
A start command must be given.
2
CMD_TRUNCATED
Response text overflow (truncated if over
the value specified by max-response-bytes)
3
CMD_NOT_FOUND
Unknown Command
4
CMD_AMBIGUOUS
Ambiguous abbreviation
5
CMD_BAD_ARG_NAME
Illegal or ambiguous argument name
6
CMD_BAD_ARG_VALUE
Argument value out of range
7
CMD_ARG_MISSING
Required argument missing
8
CMD_FAILED
Command failed
9
CMD_DISABLED
A start command must be given
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ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS, SITE SELECTION & PATH ANALYSIS
SECTION 8
RF LINK DESIGN
8.0
RF LINK DESIGN
8.1
Antenna Selection
The A53350 radio comes equipped with two antenna ports to connect to external antennas. It is
very important to select the correct antennas based on the application. This section provides an
overview of the major antenna parameters to help you select the correct antenna.
8.1.1
Antenna Types
There are a vast number of antenna types designed for various general and special purposes, but
despite the huge variety, all designs essentially address two concerns, directionality and gain.
These selection criteria are discussed in the following paragraphs, along with a third criterion,
polarization.
For the A53325, the antenna types listed in will fulfill most installation requirements.
Table 8-1. Antenna Types Available From Siemens Rail Automation
ANTENNA TYPE
Omnidirectional
Omni Mount
GAIN
12 dBi
P/N
Z913-00025-0000
Z912-00070-0000
Grid Parabolic
17 dBi
Z913-00037-0000
Grid Parabolic
24 dBi
Z913-00023-0000
Yagi
Yagi Mount
15 dBi
Z913-00038-0000
Z912-00084-0000
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ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS, SITE SELECTION & PATH ANALYSIS
8.1.2
Antenna Mounting
Because A53325 radios communicate with each other by means of radio waves, all aspects of
antenna installation affect their performance significantly, Consideration must be given to the
following aspects:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Antenna type used.
Clear line-of-sight path between antennas.
Antenna orientation.
Antenna placement.
Antenna-to-antenna distance between radios.
Distance between the radio and its antenna (antenna cable length).
Therefore antenna installation is a vital part of system installation. Improper installation may
greatly reduce system performance, possibly rendering the system inoperable.
8.1.3
Directionality
An antenna may be designed to receive and transmit in all directions. Such antennas are
omnidirectional. The sensitivity and power of an omnidirectional antenna are unfocused; that is,
they are spread through a wide volume of space, so the advantage of being able to communicate
in all directions is traded off for limited sensitivity and power.
If it is determined that all signals of interest are coming from a definable direction, the
omnidirectional antenna can be replaced by a directional or sectoral antenna, which increases
sensitivity and power by focusing the beam in the desired direction.
In practice, even omnidirectional antennas take advantage of directionality by focusing their
sensitivity and power in the horizontal plane. Rather than waste performance by sending signals
into space or into the ground, the omnidirectional antenna redirects its power and sensitivity from
these directions, increasing performance in the horizontal plane.
In Point-to-Point applications, where the direction of communication is known and fixed, a highly
focused directional antenna can be used to provide maximum sensitivity and power. In addition,
because of its decreased sensitivity in all directions but the desired one, the directional antenna
improves performance by rejecting signals not coming from the desired direction. This provides
an effective increase in signal-to-noise performance.
A sector antenna has a wider “spread” than a directional (generally between 60 to 120 degrees)
which makes it a cross between an omnidirectional and a directional. This is useful in a point to
multipoint configuration where multiple sites are grouped in the same general area. The installer
can then make use of the higher sensitivity and power but also take advantage of the wider beam
pattern and improved front to back ratio.
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8.1.4
Gain
“Gain” specifies the receive and transmit performance of any antenna compared to a theoretical
“isotropic” antenna or “spherical radiator”. The objective of a directional antenna design is to
achieve gain, improving sensitivity and effective radiating power to increase range or data rate.
Gain is measured and stated in decibels, abbreviated dB. The decibel is a unit used to indicate the
relative difference in power between two signals. For example, a signal 3 dB greater than another
signal has twice as much power. The decibel is a logarithmic unit so each doubling of decibels
represents a fourfold increase in power. Since 3 dB represents a doubling of power, 6 dB
represents a fourfold power increase, 12 dB represents a 16-fold increase, etc. For antenna
performance, the unit used is dBi, “i” standing for “isotropic”.
One type of directional antenna is called a “semi parabolic”. This antenna has a gain of 24 dBi,
representing power and sensitivity levels 256 times greater than those of a isotropic antenna.
Collinear antennas are available for omnidirectional coverage from fixed locations. The collinear
design achieves gain by increased focus in comparison with the dipole design. The standard
collinear antenna used with the A53325 provides 12 dBi gain representing more than an eight-fold
power and sensitivity increase.
8.1.5
Polarization
Another important concept for antenna performance is polarization. An antenna radiates radio
waves that vibrate in a specific plane, normally horizontal or vertical. Polarization refers to the
restriction of wave vibration to a single plane.
NOTE
Do not confuse polarization with directionality. The
plane of wave vibration has nothing to do with the
direction of wave propagation. For example, an
antenna that focuses its energy in the horizontal
plane may be vertically or horizontally polarized.
Designs such as the semi parabolic offer a choice of polarization. Mounting a semi parabolic
antenna with the radiating element horizontal provides horizontal polarization, while mounting
the antenna with the radiating elements vertical provides vertical polarization.
In setting up the A53325 system, either vertical or horizontal polarization can be used, as long as
polarization is the same at both ends of each link. For any given pair of line-of-sight antennas, it
is essential that they both have the same polarization. Differences in polarization among antennas
– called “cross-polarization” – can reduce signal considerably.
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8.1.6
Antenna Orientation
Directional antennas must be carefully oriented towards each other. Orientation of directional
antennas is critical because their sensitivity is greatly reduced outside a fairly narrow angle.
Performance of the system can be seriously degraded by misaligned directional antennas. The
A53350 has a built in feature that allows you to use an audio signal to assist in aligning the
antenna. Refer to the Antenna Installation and Alignment section for details.
8.2
RF Path Analysis
At the high operating frequencies of the A53325 system, radio waves travel in a nearly straight
line-of-sight path. This is in contrast to the lower-frequency radio waves used for AM
broadcasting. These waves bounce between the ionosphere and the earth’s surface to travel long
distances and operate over and around obstructions. Higher-frequency radio waves do not
behave in this manner and are greatly weakened by substantial obstructions or the absence of a
direct path. Simply put, all antennas communicating with each other must be able to physically
“see” each other.
For this reason, a proper antenna site must meet the following criteria:
1. For optimum performance at maximum range, there must be a clear line-of-sight path
among all antennas that communicate directly with each other. At shorter ranges, some
degree of obstruction may be tolerated, but performance in the presence of obstruction is
difficult to predict.
2. Elevating one or more of the antennas in the system increases maximum line-of-sight range,
called the radio horizon. If antennas are located at a greater range than the ground-level
radio horizon, a means must be available for elevating the antennas.
3. All antennas must be properly oriented, and a directional antenna must be carefully aimed at
its target antenna to ensure communication at maximum range.
4. All antenna cables attenuate (reduce) signal strength in proportion to their length. Since
various cable types offer different attenuation levels, maximum length depends on cable
type. Since the A53325 is designed for outdoor installation, it can be installed in close
proximity to the antenna, reducing or eliminating cable losses.
Each of these criteria is discussed at greater length in the following paragraphs.
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8.2.1
Line-of-sight Requirements
At the high operating frequencies of the A53325 (2.4 GHz), radio waves travel in a nearly straightline path. These frequencies are greatly weakened by substantial obstructions or the absence of a
direct path. Simply put, all antennas communicating with each other must be able to physically
“see” each other.
For shorter ranges, a degree of obstruction may be acceptable. For example, at less than
maximum ranges the radio has some ability to “penetrate” trees and other foliage. On the other
hand, geographical features (hills) and large buildings are likely to interfere with communications,
and antennas must be elevated to see each other above such objects.
For links covering very long distances (exceeding 5 miles or 8 km) you also need to take into
account the following factors:
•
The curvature of the earth.
•
Fresnel Zone clearance.
•
Atmospheric refraction.
Figure 8-1 illustrates these concepts with an exaggerated representation of a long link. The
following sections describe these effects. You can use the “Fresnel Zone Calculator”, shown in
Figure 8-2, to make all the computations for the RF path analysis and determine if you have
adequate antenna height for your links. The calculator runs on a PC and is available on CD.
Fresnel Zone
h2
h1
sea level
Earth
Figure 8-1 Earth Curvature, Fresnel Zone And Antenna Heights
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Figure 8-2. Fresnel Zone Calculator
8.2.2
Earth Curvature
With long links the earth curvature can prevent the two antennas from seeing each other. This is
illustrated in Table 8-2 and Table 8-3, which show the minimum antenna heights required, at both
ends of the link, to simply clear the earth surface at various distances. As the distance grows the
effect worsens requiring you to have access to high elevation points to deploy such links. The
values in the table used a typical atmospheric refraction factor of 4/3 (see below).
8.2.3
Fresnel Zone
The Fresnel zone is a long ellipsoid that stretches between the two antennas. The first Fresnel
zone is such that the difference between the direct path (AB) and an indirect path that touches a
single point on the border of the Fresnel zone (ACB) is half the wavelength (see Figure 8-3).
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C
A
B
ACB - AB = λ / 2
Figure 8-3. Fresnel Zone Definition
If a significant portion of the Fresnel Zone is obstructed the receive-signal-strength at the
receiving antenna can be significantly attenuated. A rule of thumb is that you need at least 60% of
the first Fresnel Zone clear of any obstructions in order for the radio wave propagation to behave
as if it is in “free space”.
Even though at 2.4 GHz half of the wavelength is only 2.36 inches (6 cm), at long distances the
radius of this ellipsoid can be quite large. This is illustrated in Table 8-2 and Table 8-3, which
show the radius of this (60%) ellipsoid at the mid-point for various distances.
Table 8-2. Antenna Heights (Meters) To Clear The Earth And 60% Of The Fresnel Zone
Distance (km):
Antenna height to
clear earth (meters):
60% Fresnel Zone
radius at mid-point
(meters):
Total antenna height
required (meters):
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0.4
1.5
6
13
24
37
53
72
7.5
10
15
18
21
23
26
28
7.9
12
21
31
45
60
79
100
Table 8-3. Antenna Heights (Feet) To Clear The Earth And 60% Of The Fresnel Zone
Distance (miles)
Antenna height to
clear earth (ft)
60% Fresnel Zone
radius at mid-point (ft)
Total antenna height
required (ft)
5
10
20
30
40
50
3
12
50
113
200
313
31
44
62
76
87
98
34
56
112
189
287
412
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8.2.4
Atmospheric Refraction
Under normal atmospheric conditions radio waves do not propagate in a straight line, they
actually bend slightly downward. This is due to "refraction" in the atmosphere that affects radio
waves propagating horizontally. To take this downward bending into account, we perform all the
RF path calculations using a larger value for the earth radius, such that we can then consider the
radio waves as propagating in a straight line.
In the Fresnel Zone calculator you can change the earth radius multiplying factor (the "k factor")
to take into account different atmospheric conditions. Under normal conditions the "k factor" is
4/3. However unusual weather conditions can cause significant changes to the refraction profile.
For a high reliability link you may want to use a lower value for the k factor.
8.2.5
Clearing Obstructions
The calculator allows you to quickly determine whether you have enough clearance above a
particular obstruction in the RF path, or alternatively, how high you need to elevate your antennas
to clear the obstruction.
For each potential obstruction in the path you need to know its distance from one of your end
points and the height of the obstruction. Drawing the path in “Google Earth” is a quick way of
identifying buildings or structures that lay in the direct path and finding their distance from the
end points. You may need to use a topographic map, draw the line between the end points, and
create an accurate terrain profile. If there are buildings or trees in the path you need to
determine or estimate their height and add it to the terrain elevation at those points.
For each of these potential obstruction points, enter its distance from site 1 in the bottom left
input “spinner” of the calculator. On the right hand side the calculator displays the vertical
separation between the bottom of the Fresnel Zone and the Earth sea level (“Clearance between
Earth and FZ“). This value needs to be larger than the height of your obstruction. If it is not use
the antenna height spinners to increase the height of one or both antennas until that clearance
exceeds the height of your obstruction.
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8.3
RF Link Budget Calculations
If you have radio-line-of-sight for your link (as explained in the previous section), then it is easy to
compute the receive-signal-strength at the receiving radio and from there determine if you have
an adequate “fade margin”.
You can use the “RF Link Budget Calculator”, shown in Figure 8-4, to make all the required
computations and evaluate the trade-off between antenna gains, cable losses etc. The calculator
runs on a PC and is available on CD.
Figure 8-4 - RF Link Budget Calculator
Even though your link is bi-directional, in the calculator Site 1 is viewed as the transmitter and Site
2 as the receiver. If you configure both radios with the same transmit power the results for both
directions are identical. If you configure the transmit power of the two radios to different values
you should compute the link budget in each direction separately.
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The RF link budget calculations are made a lot easier by using “deciBel” units (dB). The deciBel is
a logarithmic scale that compares a parameter value against a specific reference. The advantage
of working in dB is that you can simply add all the parameters that boost your signal and subtract
the ones that attenuate it.
The following paragraphs follow an RF signal from the transmit radio to the receive radio,
explaining the various parameters and how they apply to the A53325 radio
8.3.1
Transmit Power
The RF signal starts at the output of the radio at Site 1 with a specific transmit power. In the
A53325 you can configure that power from 0 to 23 dBm (the “m” in the dBm unit indicates that
this power is measured relative to 1 milliwatt).
8.3.2
Cable Losses
The radio is connected to the antenna through an RF coaxial cable. As the signal propagates
through this cable it is attenuated. The total attenuation (loss) depends on the frequency, cable
type, cable length and number of connectors. You can use the “Cable Loss Calculator” (at the
bottom of the RF Link Budget calculator), which includes the characteristics for several RF cable
types. If your cable is not listed you can also enter its “loss per 100 ft” (or loss per meter) at 2.4
GHz and the calculator computes the total loss. Note that each connector along the way
introduces additional attenuation, typically around 0.25 dB per connection.
The A53325 is housed in a watertight enclosure so that you can mount it in very close proximity
to the antenna. That way you can keep the RF coaxial cable very short and therefore reduce
these losses.
8.3.3
Antenna Gain
The transmit signal is radiated through the antenna at Site 1. The antenna focuses the radiated
energy in a specific direction or plane, boosting your signal strength in that specific direction.
That boost is measured by the “antenna gain” in dBi (the “i” in the dBi unit indicates that the
antenna gain is measured in relation to an isotropic radiating element).
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8.3.4
Distance and Free Space Loss
Once the signal is in the air it propagates towards the receiver but suffers attenuation as it
radiates away from the transmitter. If there are no obstructions the total attenuation is called the
Free-Space-Loss (FSL). This loss is a function of the frequency, f, and the distance, d. It can be
computed, in dB, from the following expressions:
FSL = 32.4 + 20 log f + 20 log d (with f in MHz and d in km)
or
FSL = 36.6 + 20 log f + 20 log d (with f in MHz and d in miles)
The calculator computes this loss for you and displays it in the output panel. An easy rule to
remember is that the free space loss increases by 6 dB every time you double the distance.
8.3.5
Receive Signal Strength
The signal is much weakened when it reaches the receiving antenna. That antenna will give it a
boost, measured by the antenna gain in dBi. The signal is then attenuated as it propagates down
the RF coaxial cable that connects that antenna to the radio. The Receive Signal Strength (RSS)
parameter refers to the strength of the signal that finally arrives at the RF connector of the
receiving radio at site 2. With all the gains and losses measured in dB, this receive signal strength
is computed with the following expression:
RSS = TxPower – CableLoss1 + AntGain1 – FSL + AntGain2 – CableLoss2
The RF Link Budget calculator always computes and displays this value in the output panel.
8.3.6
Receive Sensitivity
The radio Receiver Sensitivity is the receive-signal-strength at the input of the radio at which point
its "Bit Error Rate (BER)" is at a specified value. Most manufacturers, including Siemens Rail
Automation, use a BER of 1x10-6 (1 bit error in one million bits) to specify the radio receiver
sensitivity. However make sure you check the specifications when comparing the sensitivity in
radios from different manufacturers.
You can configure the A53325 radio to operate at four different RF speeds. Lower speeds give
you a better receiver sensitivity. Use the appropriate value from the table below:
Table 8-4. RF Speed/Receiver Sensitivity
RF Speed (Mbps):
2.75
1.375
0.500
0.250
Receiver Sensitivity (dBm):
-90
-93
-95
-98
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8.3.7
Fade Margin
The Fade Margin is the difference between the Received Signal Strength and the radio Receiver
Sensitivity. When you deploy a link you want to have a Receive Signal Strength that is sufficiently
above the radio Receiver Sensitivity in order to survive signal fading due to a variety of factors.
These factors might include slight misalignment of the antennas, losses due to fog and rain, etc.
As a rule of thumb you should try to get at least 15 dB of fade margin in your links.
With the calculator you can select whether to compute the Distance, the Fade Margin or the
Transmit Power. All these parameters are inter-related as described above. When you select one
parameter to compute, its value in the input panel is disabled.
All the input values are controlled with “spinners”. As you change any input the calculator
instantly updates the output values. By seeing the results immediately you can quickly evaluate
trade-offs between different parameters.
8.3.8
Cable Loss (Attenuation)
The A53325 is housed in a watertight enclosure so that it may be mounted in very close proximity
to the antenna. Using short cables to connect the radio to the antenna reduces signal losses.
Table 8-5 shows loss per 100 feet (30 meters) at 2.4 GHz for typical antenna cable types.
Table 8-5. Loss at 2.4 GHz for Standard Coaxial Cable Types
CABLE TYPE
LOSS PER 100 FT. (30 M)
RG-8 A/U
14.4 dB
Belden 9913
8.0 dB
LMR 195
19 dB
LMR 400
6.7 dB
To determine total cable loss for your installation, perform the following calculation:
For US units, multiply length in feet by the loss figure and divide by 100.
For metric units, multiply length in meters by the loss figure and divide by 30.
For example, for a 75-foot length of Belden 9913, the loss is:
75 x 8.0
= 6.0 dB
100
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8.3.9
Connector Loss
Loss is introduced with each pair of cable connectors. Attenuation losses of some standard cable
types are shown in Table 8-6.
Table 8-6. Attenuation Loss per Cable Type
CONNECTOR TYPE
LOSS PER CONNECTOR
N-Type
0.25 dB
SMA-Type
0.25 dB
The loss of each pair of connectors on all cables must be included to determine the total signal
loss (attenuation) between the radio and the antenna.
8.4
Antenna Grounding and Protection
WARNING
AS AN ELEVATED METAL OBJECT WITH A WIRE
CONNECTION BELOW, AN ANTENNA IS AN
EXCELLENT LIGHTNING ATTRACTOR, AND AN
EFFECTIVE GROUND MUST BE PROVIDED TO
DEFLECT LIGHTNING STRIKES TO GROUND. AN
ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGE OF EFFECTIVE SYSTEM
GROUNDING IS THE MINIMIZING OF ELECTRICAL
NOISE
AND
INTERFERENCE,
WHICH
CAN
SIGNIFICANTLY DEGRADE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE.
Grounding involves providing a good, very low resistance connection from the antenna and radio
to earth ground to provide a better path for lightning and electrical noise than that through the
equipment. The following points should be taken into account in setting up system grounding:
•
The antenna should be mounted on a mast or tower that is well grounded to earth.
•
All antenna lead connectors should be correctly installed to provide a good, solid
connection to the cable shield.
•
Threaded couplings mating antenna lead connectors should be clean and tight; bayonet
type connectors should not be used.
•
Weatherproof connectors must be used for outdoor connections to prevent corrosion,
which will interfere with grounding.
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•
All power and antenna grounds should be made common at a single point such as an
equipment rack, cabinet enclosure chassis, or antenna tower. This single-point ground
should have a solid ground connection to earth.
•
If the unit is installed indoors, a surge arrester or lightning protector should be installed at
the point where the antenna cable enters the building or cabinet. The lightning protector
should be properly grounded at the single-point chassis ground. Carefully follow the
installation instructions provided by the manufacturer of the protection device.
Appropriate lightning protectors are available from Siemens Rail Automation as shown in
Table 8-7 below.
Table 8-7. Lightning Arresters / Surge Protectors
ARRESTER TYPE
P/N
NF to NM 2.4 GHz
NF to NF 2.4 GHz
Z803-00131-0000
Z803-00132-0000
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APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY
APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY
This appendix lists all commands organized in the respective functional groups. Parameters that
are part of the radio configuration are identified by having an entry under the “Factory
Configuration” heading. When entering a command, if a parameter that is part of the radio
configuration is omitted, the value for that parameter is not modified.
For commands that are not part of the radio configuration, if a parameter is omitted, the value
for that parameter defaults to the value indicated in bold.
Table A-1. Configuration Management Commands
COMMAND
PARAMETERS
VALUES
change-password
enable-configuration
<string>
source
current
main
alternate
basic
factory
source
main
alternate
basic
factory
save-configuration
destination
main
alternate
unlock
enable-configuration
<string>
display-configuration
load-configuration
lock
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APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY
Table A-2. Major Configuration Parameters
COMMAND
PARAMETERS
VALUES
FACTORY
CONFIGURATION
distance-max
maximum
10..160
80
units
km or miles
km
speed
auto-10, 10hdx, 10fdx,
100hdx, 100fdx, auto,
off
auto
timeout-sec
5..10000
30
multi-cast-timeout-sec
5..10000
30
type
hub, remote
remote
max-remotes
1..29
29
redundancy
1..4
2
name
(23 character string)
rmt-nnnnn
network-id
0..65535
0
location
(25 character string)
contact
(25 character string)
antenna
a, b
rf-1:a, rf-2:b
receive channel
min…max
rf-1:12 rf-2:25
transmit channel
min…max
rf-1:12 rf-2:25
speed-mbps
[speeds]
max
power-dBm
0…max_power
18
antenna
a, b
rf-1:a, rf-2:b
receive channel
min…max
rf-1:12 rf-2:25
transmit channel
min…max
rf-1:12 rf-2:25
speed-mbps
[speeds]
max
power-dBm
0…max_power
18
timeout-sec
15..20000
900
sync-mode
off, auto
auto
cycle-period-ms
20, 40
40
transmit-percent
auto, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50,
60, 70, 80, 90
auto
ethernet
node
rf-1-setup
rf-2-setup
single-node-reboot
time-division-duplex
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APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY
Table A-3. Internet Protocol (IP) Management Commands
COMMAND
ip-configuration
ping
snmp
udp-configuration
FACTORY
CONFIGURATION
PARAMETERS
VALUES
address
ip address
netmask
ip address
gateway
ip address
dhcp-client
0, 1
destination
ip address
count
0..500 (def 4)
size-bytes
32..1400
manager
ip address
community
ASCII string (9 max)
access
g, gs, gt, gst
authentication-traps
0, 1
delete
1..4
console
on, off
off
vital-port-1t
1..0xFFFF
0
vital-port-2t
1..0xFFFF
0
command-port
1..0xFFFF
422
max-response-bytes
500..1466
512
socket-mode
1, 2
1
peer-address
ip address
peer-command-port
1..0xFFFF
off
0
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APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY
Table A-4. Installation and Link Monitoring Commands
COMMAND
antenna-alignment-aid
FACTORY
CONFIGURATION
PARAMETERS
VALUES
mode
off
a-antenna
off
b-antenna
monitor-flow
monitor-link
node
1, 4, 5, 6...
clear
0, 1
header
0, 1
line-feed
0, 1
table
status
radios
links
ethernet
econsole
ip-stack
format
count
times
input
a-antenna
b-antenna
display
graph
table
dwell-time-ms
1…1000 (def: 20)
channel
0..50
input
a-antenna
b-antenna
display
graph
table
dwell-time-ms
1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50,
100, 200, 500
show-tables
spectrum-analysis
time-analysis
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APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY
Table A-5. File Utilities
COMMAND
PARAMETERS
VALUES
console-speed-bps
baud-rate-bps
9600, 19200, 38400
57600, 115200
source
filename
destination
filename
delete-file
filename
filename
directory
format
short
full
source
path\filename
destination
path\filename
method
binary
inline
run-file
filename
filename
set-default-program
filename
filename
copy-file
download-file
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APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY
Table A-6. Event Logging Commands
FACTORY
CONFIGURATION
COMMAND
PARAMETERS
VALUES
clear-log
region
all-events
reboot-reasons
region
end
tail
beginning
all-events
reboot-reasons
length
1..500 (def 10)
id
0…200
min-level
0…7 (def: 0)
max-level
0…7 (def: 7)
save
0..7
5
print
0..7
3
display-log
max-event
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APPENDIX A – COMMAND SUMMARY
Table A-7. Miscellaneous Commands
COMMAND
date
help
PARAMETERS
VALUES
date
dd-mmm-yyyy
time
hh:mm:ss
zone
offset or code
FACTORY
CONFIGURATION
GMT
command
history
license
key
<35 character
string>
time
hh:mm:ss
date
dd-mmm-yyyy
zone
offset or code
logout
reboot
time
GMT
version
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APPENDIX B – SPECIFICATIONS
APPENDIX B – SPECIFICATIONS
Table B-1. Unit Specifications
RF SPECIFICATIONS
RF Frequency Band
2400 MHz to 2483 MHz
RF Signal Bandwidth (-20 dBc)
4.6 MHz
RF Channels
11 (non-overlapping)
Transmitter Output Power
0 to 27 dBm
Modulation Type
direct sequence spread spectrum
Receiver Sensitivity (10-6 BER)
and Data Rates
Maximum Receive Signal
Modulation Type
-99 dBm (@ 250 kbps)
-95 dBm (@ 500 kbps)
-93 dBm (@ 1375 kbps)
-90 dBm (@ 2750 kbps)
-30 dBm (to stay in receiver linear region)
+20 dBm (to avoid damage)
Direct sequence spread spectrum
ETHERNET PORT
Speed
10/100 BaseT, full, half duplex (auto-negotiate)
Connector
8 pin circular (Lumberg 0321-08)
NETWORKED OPERATION
Network Topologies
Point-to-point, Point-to-multipoint, Mesh Tree, Linear Network, Roaming
Management
Telnet, SNMP (MIB2), or Econsole reach any node over wireless
Security
Optional 3-DES or AES encryption, 32 bit network ID/Password
CONSOLE/DIAGNOSTIC PORT
Interface
RS-232/V24, asynchronous 9600 to 115 kbaud
Connector
3 pin circular (Lumberg 0321-03)
POWER REQUIREMENTS
Input Voltage (Outdoor Unit)
+9.5 to +58 Volts DC
Input Voltage (AC)
110 VAC or 220 VAC (with external power supply)
Power Consumption
less than 5 Watts
Transient Max. Peak Power
1500 W (with 10/1000 us waveform)
Transient Max. Peak Current
35A (with 10/1000 us waveform as defined by R.E.A.)
ENVIRONMENT
Temperature
-40 to +70 Degrees C
Max. Humidity
95% non-condensing
MECHANICAL
Dimensions
4.72" wide x 8.66” high x 2.20” deep
(120mm W x 220 H x 56 D)
Weight
3.4 lbs. (1.5 Kg).
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APPENDIX C – CHANNEL FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT
APPENDIX C – CHANNEL FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENT
The center frequency of each channel can be determined by the following expression:
Freq(MHz) = 2400 + 2 x Channel_number
Table C-1 shows the frequencies for all channels that fall in the ISM band. Table C-2 shows the
suggested channel allocation.
Table C-1. Channel Frequencies in the ISM Band
Freq
Freq
Freq
Freq
Chan
(GHz)
Chan
(GHz)
Chan
(GHz)
Chan
(GHz)
1
2.402
11
2.422
21
2.442
31
2.462
2
2.404
12
2.424
22
2.444
32
2.464
3
2.406
13
2.426
23
2.446
33
2.466
4
2.408
14
2.428
24
2.448
34
2.468
5
2.410
15
2.430
25
2.450
35
2.470
6
2.412
16
2.432
26
2.452
36
2.472
7
2.414
17
2.434
27
2.454
37
2.474
8
2.416
18
2.436
28
2.456
38
2.476
9
2.418
19
2.438
29
2.458
39
2.478
10
2.420
20
2.440
30
2.460
40
2.480
Table C-2. Suggested Channel Allocation
NUMBER OF
NON-OVERLAPPING
CHANNELS
SUGGESTED CHANNEL ALLOCATION
FREQUENCY
SEPARATION
(MHZ)
12
3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36
6.0
9
4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36
8.0
7
5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35
10.0
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APPENDIX D – ETHERNET CONSOLE PROGRAM
APPENDIX D – ETHERNET CONSOLE PROGRAM
Short description
The Ethernet console program was developed in order to accommodate the remote configuration
of a radio, i.e. the configuration in cases where the physical access to the radio is not feasible, or
it is cumbersome. The software consists of two parts: the client and the server. The client runs on
the administrator's PC, while the server runs on the radio.
The communication is done via a TCP-like protocol. There is an acknowledgment for every packet
that is sent, as well as a retransmission mechanism when a packet gets lost.
Each radio allows multiple sessions, i.e. more than one client can be connected concurrently to
the same server (radio). Nevertheless, for performance reasons, it is not recommended to have
more concurrent sessions than they are really needed, and definitely not more than the maximum
number which currently is 4.
System requirements
•
MS Windows™ versions: Win95, Win98, Windows ME, WinNT, Win2000, WinXP
•
NetBIOS installed
•
WinPCap installed
Note: With regard to the Windows NT platform, the code has been tested with versions 4.0, and
later.
Installation for Windows
In order to install the WinPCap library, if not already installed, just click on WinPCap.exe. Support
and updates for this library can be found at http://netgroup-serv.polito.it/winpcap/. It is strongly
suggested to uninstall older versions of the library and reboot the machine before installing the
new one.
NetBIOS is a software component that comes by default with all Windows systems, so you don't
have to install it. To start Econsole, simply open an MS-DOS window and type econ. For available
command line arguments, please read the following "Input arguments" section.
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APPENDIX D – ETHERNET CONSOLE PROGRAM
Included files
•
•
•
•
win_readme.doc
econ.exe - The EConsole client
WinPCap - The Windows installer for the WinPCap library
input_script.txt - A sample input script file, that contains a list of radio commands.
Input arguments
You can provide the following arguments in the command line, even though none of them is
required.
Input file
There are two sources for the input commands: the keyboard, or a text file. The second option is
useful when you are running the same set of commands periodically, so you want to avoid
retyping them every time you want to execute them. If there is an input file in the command line,
then the keyboard will be deactivated and only the function keys will be available. If the specified
file cannot be found, the application will be terminated.
Example:
C: > econ -i input.txt
Sample input file:
help
# this is a comment - note that the character # must appear as the
fist character
time
date
# the following is a local command specifying a delay in seconds
. delay 10
time
. delay 1.5
version
logout
As you probably noticed from the above file, all the lines are interpreted as radio command,
unless:
a) They start with the character “#” which implies a comment.
b) They start with the character “.” which implies a local command. Currently there is only
one local command, namely the delay <time in secs>
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NOTE
All the input scripts should end with the logout
command. Since all the commands are terminated
with the new line character, there must be one
command per line and after the final logout
command you must have an extra blank line.
Output file
When you want to capture the output of a session into a text file, you can pass the filename as an
argument. If the file does not exist it will be created, otherwise it will be overwritten.
Example:
> econ -o output.txt
Radio MAC address
If you are interested in a specific radio, you can pass its MAC address and let the client ignore any
response from other radios. That's very handy when you are always getting connected to the same
radio and you want to avoid the manual selection of a preferred one. Very useful also in case you
are using scripts for fully automated procedures.
Example:
> econ -r 00:78:24:22:BA:4F
Radio Serial Number
The same functionality as above (see Radio MAC address) can be achieved by providing the radio
serial number, instead of the radio physical address. Note that you should not include the initial
UC characters of the serial number (i.e. type 11078 instead of UC11078)
Example:
> econ -r 11787
Local Physical Address
Even though econsole identifies the PC local physical address automatically, there are some cases
in which the user wants to specify the local address on his/her own. These cases usually arise
when there are multiple NIC cards with the same names under WinNT operating system. In such
case, the econ might pick up the wrong MAC address, and therefore the user should supply
manually the physical address as a command line argument.
Example:
> econ -m 00:78:24:22:BA:4F
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APPENDIX D – ETHERNET CONSOLE PROGRAM
Inverse Screen Colors
You can change the default settings (white texture on black background) by providing the -b
option, which will change the settings to black characters on white background.
Example:
> econ -b
Change the console window size
Currently you can specify two values, either 25 or 50. These values indicate the number of lines of
the MS-DOS window.
Example:
> econ -l 50
Help
Function keys, including F1, are activated after you get connected to a radio. If you want to get
help from the command line, you can use the -h argument.
Example:
> econ -h
Syntax:
econ <argument list>
argument list = argument list | argument | {}
argument = -o outputfile | -i inputfile | -r MAC address
Examples:
Let's say you want to read a list of commands from the text file called in.txt, and capture the
output to a text file called out.txt. You are also interested only in a specific radio with MAC
address equal to 00:78:24:22:BA:4F. In that case, you will start the EConsole with the following
arguments (the arguments order is irrelevent):
> econ -i in.txt -o out.txt -r 00:78:24:22:BA:4F
or...
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If you are reading from the keyboard, and you are simply interested in capturing the output of the
session, use the following syntax:
> econ -o out.txt
Since no input file was specified, it is assumed that the keyboard will be used for input, and ALL
radios will participate in the discovery process.
Function Keys
Currently there are 6 different function keys.
F1 -
Online help - gives a short description of the other function keys and the input arguments.
F2 -
Active/deactivate diagnostic messages. Initially diagnostic messages are not shown,
therefore if you want to see them you should press F2. Diagnostic messages include
warnings, and retransmission info in order to get an idea of the connection's
speed/integrity. Error messages are always shown.
F3 -
Terminates the current session and closes the application.
F4 -
Close the session with the current radio and display the results of the initial discovery
phase to allow the user to connect to a new radio.
F5 -
Reverse/Restore screen settings. Initially the screen displays white letters on black
background, but you can reverse it to black letters on a white background.
F6 -
Increases the console window buffer. This introduces a side bar which enables the user to
scroll up and down. Available in Windows NT Only.
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APPENDIX D – ETHERNET CONSOLE PROGRAM
Troubleshooting & Updates
Common problems
1. Failed to open adapter.
This usually happens when you haven't installed properly the WinPCap library, or you have
and older version of it. You should also make sure that your Ethernet adapters are working
properly.
2. Cannot find radio(s) even though they are running properly.
Make sure that:
•
•
•
The Ethernet cables are OK
You are getting connected to the right network segment (i.e. try all Ethernet adapters)
You are using the right MAC address. The system tries to identify the adapter physical
address through some NetBIOS calls in the Win9X case, or some NDIS queries in the
WinNT/Win2000 case. If NetBIOS is not installed, the econ will probably use the wrong
local host MAC address. Also, if there is more than one Ethernet adapter installed with
the same name, this might cause a problem in the WinNT case.
Resolution: Use the command line argument to specify the correct physical local address. You can
see all the local physical address by executing the ipconfig -all command.
Example:
> econ -m 00:78:24:22:BA:4F
3. Find a radio but not getting connected.
Check if the maximum number of sessions has been reached. The maximum number of sessions
on the server side is limited to four, therefore you should NOT connect to the same radio
multiple times if not absolutely necessary. When the number of sessions reaches the limit the
radio will ignore any new discovery messages.
Another reason might be a unreliable RF link causing a high packet loss. Since during the
discovery phase there isn't any retransmission mechanism, it is quite possible that you managed to
"see" the radio, but you weren't able to connect to it, because the connection request packet was
lost. In such case, try to connect again.
4. High drop rate - screen freezes momentarily - connection times out.
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APPENDIX D – ETHERNET CONSOLE PROGRAM
There are two possible causes:
a) The link between the client (PC) and the server (radio) is very weak. If the packet drop
rate is more than 20%, then the connection is problematic.
b) There are multiple sessions opened on the same server. With many concurrent
sessions the server response may be noticeably slower. Always close the session
gracefully by executing the logout radio command, and not by closing the MS-DOS
console. If the logout command is not issued the session at the server will remain
open for an additional 15 minutes. Use the list long command to find out the number
of open sessions.
If a client is inactive for 30 minutes, and attempts are made to type a new command, the client
may receive an “Unable to transfer packet” message, or a "Session timeout - application will be
closed" message.
An open session times-out after 15 minutes of inactivity on the server side, or 30 minutes on the
client side.
Acknowledgments
The WinPCap library was obtained from “Politecnico di Torino” and the code is distributed in
binary form as part of the Econsole. The following copyright notice applies to that library.
/*
* Copyright (c) 1999, 2000
* Politecnico di Torino. All rights reserved.
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that: (1) source code distributions
* retain the above copyright notice and this paragraph in its entirety, (2)
* distributions including binary code include the above copyright notice and
* this paragraph in its entirety in the documentation or other materials
* provided with the distribution, and (3) all advertising materials mentioning
* features or use of this software display the following acknowledgement:
* “This product includes software developed by the Politecnico
* di Torino, and its contributors.” Neither the name of
* the University nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse
* or promote products derived from this software without specific prior
* written permission.
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS” AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
* WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
* MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
*/
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APPENDIX E – CABLE DIAGRAMS
APPENDIX E – CABLE DIAGRAMS
This Appendix contains the following diagrams:
Figure E-1 shows the assembly drawing for the Power/Data cable (CAT5) used to connect the
Radio to a Power Inserter Unit.
Figure E-2 shows the assembly drawing for a Console cable for connection to a standard
computer terminal used for radio configuration and monitoring.
Figure E-3 shows the assembly drawing for a 3-pin Audio Adapter cable for connection to the
radio auxiliary port, and used with a pair of standard headphones as an antenna alignment aid.
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Figure E-1. CAT 5 Ethernet & Power Cable
APPENDIX E – CABLE DIAGRAMS
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Figure E-2. 3-Pin Console Cable
APPENDIX E – CABLE DIAGRAMS
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Figure E-3. 3-Pin Audio Adapter Cable
APPENDIX E – CABLE DIAGRAMS
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APPENDIX E – QUICK SETUP
APPENDIX F - QUICK SETUP
This Appendix contains the following quick setup examples:
Figure F-1 shows an A53325 wireless radio Point to Point quick setup example.
Figure F-2 shows an A53325 wireless radio Point to Multi-Point quick setup example.
Figure F-3 shows an A53325 wireless radio Linear Network quick setup example.
Figure F-4 shows an A53325 wireless radio Tree Network quick setup Example.
Figure F-5 shows an A53325 wireless radio Tree Network and Roaming quick setup Example
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A53325 Wireless Point to Point Bridge
Quick Setup Example
Coax
Coax
AC Power
LAN
AC Power
CAT5
CAT5
LAN
Minimal Configuration
>load factory
>load factory
>node hub
>save
>node max-children=1
>save
Changing RF Channels
(optional)
>rf1 rec=18 tr=18
>rf1rec=18
Changing Tx Power (optional)
>rf1 power=23
>rf1 power=23
Checking Link Operation
>show radios
>monitor-link
>show radios
>monitor-link
Figure F-1 PmP Bridge Quick Setup Example
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A53325 Wireless Point to Multi-Point Bridge
Quick Setup Example
Remote-3
Remote-4
Remote-5
Remote-2
HUB
Remote-1
Remote-6
.
Minimal Configuration
>load factory
>load factory
>node hub
>save
>save
Changing RF Channels (optional)
>rf1 rec=18 tr=18
>rf1 rec=18
Changing Tx Power (optional)
>rf1 power=23
>rf1 power=23
Verifying Network Operation
>show radios
Figure F-2 PmP Bridge Quick Setup Example
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APPENDIX E – QUICK SETUP
A53325 Wireless Linear Network
Quick Setup Example (firmware version 6.xx)
Channel 6
Channel 12
Channel 18
Omni
LAN
Middle
(2 Antennas)
Leftmost
LAN
LAN
LAN
Middle
(single antenna)
Rightmost
>load factory
>node type=root-1
>node max-children=1
>rf1 ant=b tr=6 rec=6
>load factory
>node type=branch
>node max-children=1
>rf1 ant=a rec=6
>rf-2 ant=b tr=12
rec=12
>load factory
>node type=branch
>node max-children=1
>rf1 ant=a rec=12
>rf-2 ant=a tr=18
rec=18
>load factory
>node type=leaf
>save
>save
>save
>save
>rf1 ant=a rec=18
Figure F-3 Linear Network Quick Setup Example
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Wireless Tree Network
Quick Setup Example (firmware version 6.xx)
ESSR
Antennas
1
Channel 12
ESSR
A
B
1 – root
Omni
not used
2 – leaf
Directional
(point to 1)
not used
3 – branch
Directional
(point to 1)
Omni
4 – leaf
Directional
(point to 3)
not used
5 – leaf
Directional
(point to 3)
not used
ESSR
2
3
Channel 25
ESSR
ESSR
4
5
Minimum Configuration
1
2
3
4 and 5
>load factory
>load factory
>load factory
>load factory
>node type=root-1
>node type=leaf
>node type=branch
>node type=leaf
>rf1 tr=12 rec=12 (1)
>rf1 rec=12
>rf1 rec=12
>rf1 rec=25
(1)
(1)
>rf2 tr=25 rec=25 (1)
>save
>save
>save
>save
Note 1: Channel 12 and 25 are the defaults for rf1 and rf2 configurations. These
commands are not necessary if you plan to use those defaults.
At any node use command “>show tree” to view the complete network and key
statistics for each link
Figure F-4 Wireless Tree Network Quick Setup Example
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PulsAR-24027 Wireless Tree Network and Roaming
Quick Setup Example (firmware version 6.xx)
Antennas
ESSR
A
B
Omni
not used
2 – branch
Directional
(point to 1)
Omni
3 – branch
Directional
(point to 1)
Omni
4 – branch
Directional
(point to 3)
Omni
5 – branch
Directional
(point to 3)
Omni
Omni
not used
4
5
6
1
1 – root
Ch 12
ESSR
ESSR
2
3
Ch 6
Ch 25
ESSR
ESSR
6
(mobile)
ESSR
4
Ch 18
5
6 - leaf
Ch 32
MINIMUM CONFIGURATION
1
2
3
>load factory
>load factory
>load factory
>load factory
>load factory
>load factory
>node
type=root-1
>node
type=branch
>node
type=branch
>node
type=branch
>node
type=branch
>node
type=leaf
>rf1 tr=12
>rf1 rec=12(1)
>rf1 rec=12 (1)
>rf1 rec=25
>rf1 rec=25
>rf1 rec=6,12,
rec=12(1)
18,25,32
>rf2 tr=6
rec=6
>save
>save
>rf2 tr=25
>rf2 tr=18
rec=25 (1)
rec=18
>save
>save
>rf2 tr=32
rec=32
>save
>save
Note 1: Channel 12 and 25 are the defaults for rf1 and rf2 configurations. These commands are not necessary
if you plan to use those defaults.
At any node, use the command “>show tree” to view the complete network and key statistics for each link.
At the mobile use the command “>monitor-roam” to see the signal strengths and verify the roaming operation
as the signal strengths vary.
Figure F-5 Wireless Tree Network and Roaming Quick Setup Example
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APPENDIX G – THEORY OF OPERATION LINEAR NETWORKS
APPENDIX G - THEORY OF OPERATION LINEAR NETWORKS
This Appendix contains the following quick contents:
CONTENTS
G1 Overview
G2 Operation
G2.1 Cycle Timing
G2.2 RF Channel Plan
G2.3 Data Throughput
G2.4 Latency
G2.5 Bridging Algorithm
G2.6 Priority Queues
FIGURES
Figure G1 Linear Network Topology
Figure G2 Expanded Network Topology Example
TABLES
Table G1 Time Slotted Operation Of A Synchronized Linear Network
Table G2 Frequency Allocation
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APPENDIX G – THEORY OF OPERATION LINEAR NETWORKS
G1 Overview
shows the general topology of a Wireless Linear Network. RF frequency assignments are such
that each node in the network has at most two neighbors with which it can communicate directly.
These neighbors are referred to as the left and right neighbors. Following are some
characteristics of the Linear Network:
1
2
3
4
5
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
Figure G1 Linear Network Topology
1. Each node consists of a single radio with two RF ports. Typically a node is deployed with two
directional antennas pointing at each of the node’s neighbors.
2. Each node has an Ethernet port for connection to a LAN, or directly to the user equipment.
When a device is added to the Ethernet Table of a node radio, that information is broadcast
to the left and right neighbors.
3. A packet can enter the linear network at any node, through the Ethernet port. If the packet
is addressed to a station at a remote LAN, the radio transmits the packet to its right or left
neighbor as necessary. The packet may then go through multiple hops in one direction until
it exits the linear network at its destination.
4. When a packet goes through multiple hops, the packet does not show up at the local LANs of
the intermediate nodes.
5. The network supports broadcast packets, which are transmitted, left and right, until they
show up at every local LAN.
6. The behavior described in the above paragraphs is self-learned. No user configuration is
required.
7. In the Linear Network all radios are peers, there is no master radio providing synchronization,
and therefore no single point failure.
8. If a node fails, the two segments of the original linear network continue to operate as two
separate linear networks.
Once the failed node is reactivated, the two networks
automatically merge into one.
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9. The radios sort all messages to be transmitted over the air into four priority levels and always
transmit the higher priority messages ahead of lower priority.
10. The basic Linear Network topology can be expanded and combined with other A53325
topologies, including Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multi-Point. shows an example of these
combinations.
PmP
Ethernet
Ethernet
Figure G2 Expanded Network Topology Example
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G2 Operation
G2.1 Cycle Timing
The radios have two RF ports. The RF front end of the radio can be switched, under software
control, to either of the two antennas. The radios are half duplex, i.e. they can either transmit or
receive. Therefore, at any given time, a radio can be doing one of four actions, as described
below.
Each of the four actions occurs in fixed time slots. All radios execute the same four phase cycle,
consisting of the following phases in order:
1. Transmit to the Left (TL)
2. Transmit to the Right (TR)
3. Receive from the Right (RR)
4. Receive from the Left (RL)
The total cycle time is 20 ms, with each phase lasting approximately 5 ms.
Once synchronized, adjacent radios have their respective cycles offset by exactly two slots.
shows how a synchronized network operates over time.
Table G1 Time Slotted Operation Of A Synchronized Linear Network
1
2
3
TL
RR  f1  TL
4
5
RR  f2  TL
6
7
RR  f1  TL
TR  f1  RL
TR  f2  RL
TR  f1  RL
TR  f2 
RR  f1  TL
RR  f2  TL
RR  f1  TL
RR  f2 
RL
TR  f1  RL
TR  f2  RL
TR  f1  RL
TL
RR  f1  TL
RR  f2  TL
RR  f1  TL
TR  f1  RL
TR  f2  RL
TR  f1  RL
TR  f2 
RR  f1  TL
RR  f2  TL
RR  f1  TL
RR  f2 
RL
TR  f1  RL
TR  f2  RL
TR  f1  RL
TL
RR  f1  TL
RR  f2  TL
RR  f1  TL
TR  f1  RL
TR  f2  RL
TR  f1  RL
TR  f2 
(time)
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G2.2 RF Channel Plan
The radio configuration is field programmable with respect to the various frequencies, used to
communicate with the left and right neighbors. A complete linear network can be deployed
using only two non-overlapping frequencies as shown in . This frequency plan assumes that the
signal level at a radio five hops away will always be significantly below the signal from a
neighboring radio (example: node 6 in slot 1 is exposed to the signal from node 5 but also from
node 1 on the same frequency).
A different frequency plan, using more non-overlapping frequencies, can be used when the
assumption above is invalid. The A53325 has 12 non-overlapping channels. below shows a
different approach using more non-overlapping channels:
Table G2 Frequency Allocation
Node:
Channel:
1
2
5
3
6 15
4
5
16
6
25
7
26
8
35
9
36
10
5
11
6
15
The use of overlapping channel in adjacent links is not a problem since in the Linear Network only
every other link is active at one given time. However you should avoid using the exact same
channel in adjacent links. This prevents the possibility of the wrong link getting established
inadvertently (for example, if you had used channel 5 between nodes 2 and 3 above, a link could
get established between nodes 1 and 3 if node 2 was powered down).
In this approach the first time we repeat a channel is after 8 hops. If this was a problem you
could use channels 7,8 instead of 5,6 between nodes 9, 10 and 11.
G2.3 Data Throughput
The throughput across a single hop in the linear network is about half of what you would get in a
Point-to-Point link. The reason is that each node divides its time, half to communicate with a left
neighbor and the other half with the right neighbor. With the RF speed set to the maximum value
of 2.75 Mbps (half duplex), the effective throughput between any two nodes is about 550 Kbps
full duplex. Note that you could have communications between nodes 1 and 2 and, at the same
time, between 2 and 5 (for example) without affecting each other, i.e., both could be running at
~550 Kbps simultaneously. In this example node 2 would be offering a total throughput of 2.2
Mbps (550 Kbps full duplex in each direction).
The end nodes of a linear network (furthest to the left and furthest to the right) are always
looking for new neighbors to expand the linear network. In order to make sure that a new
neighbor is always found, irrespective of cycle offset, the end nodes of a network "steal" one
cycle every 20 to look for a new neighbor. This approach degrades the throughput capacity of
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the end nodes by about 5%. You can avoid this degradation by configuring a known end nodes as
a left node and/or a right node (see the command >node type=xxx).
G2.4 Latency
When a packet enters a node in the linear network it will take anywhere between 0 and 20
milliseconds for it to be forwarded in the correct direction (see Table G1). After the first
transmission the message performs one hop every 10 ms. Therefore to cross N hops, the average
and maximum delay experienced by a packet will be:
Average delay across N hops = 10 x N
Maximum delay across N hops = 10 x (N+1)
This assumes that the linear network is not congested. If the packet encounters a congested area
it may be delayed further according to the packet priority.
G2.5 Bridging Algorithm
From a packet switching point of view, the radios operate as a three port switch, switching packets
at layer 2 of the OSI model. They implement a self-learning bridge algorithm that allows them to
switch the packets appropriately with no user configuration. This is briefly described below.
The radios operate the Ethernet port in “promiscuous” mode, thereby accepting every packet
traveling in the local LAN. All Ethernet packets contain a source and destination address that
identifies the physical addresses of the sending and receiving device. A radio collects all the
source addresses into its “Ethernet address table”, and tags those addresses as local (i.e. these
devices are reachable through the Ethernet port).
The radios perform a similar algorithm when they receive a data packet over RF (left or right). In
this case, the radio examines the Ethernet source address of the packet (the complete Ethernet
packet is encapsulated in an RF frame). It enters that address into its address table tagged as
being on the radio left or right side as appropriate.
The address table also includes a time tag of when the address entry was last updated. Once in a
while the radios scan the address table and delete any entries that have not been updated for a
specified timeout. This allows the network to adapt to situations where a device is moved from
one LAN to another. The station timeout is configurable from as low as 5 seconds to as high as 24
hours. Large timeouts are appropriate if some devices generate packets very sporadically but
need to receive them frequently.
With this mechanism, each radio in the linear network builds an address table that contains the
addresses of most stations across the entire linear network, and whether they are local or can be
reached through the right or left RF ports. With this table on hand, when a radio receives an
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APPENDIX G – THEORY OF OPERATION LINEAR NETWORKS
Ethernet packet, on any port, it checks if the destination address is in the table, and if so,
transmits the packet on the port indicated in the table (but if the packet arrived at the port that is
supposed to go out on, the radio discards the packet instead).
If the destination address is not in its address table, or is the broadcast address, the radio
transmits the packet on the other two ports.
With this self-learning algorithm, when the linear network is first powered up, there is a large
amount of broadcast traffic since the address tables are empty. However this broadcast traffic
causes all the tables to be populated and it will soon subside.
G2.6 Priority Queues
As packets arrive into a radio from any port, the bridging algorithm determines if the packets
need to be transmitted over RF. If so the radio queues the packets into one of several priority
queues. Starting with the highest priority. Packets are classified as follows:
•
Vital packets: These are UDP packets with a specific destination UDP port number. This port
number is part of the field programmable radio configuration (see command udp).
•
High-Priority: These include network management packets for “ECON” command sessions,
and also IP packets with a value in the “Type-Of-Service” indicating high priority. The radio
interprets the IP TOS field per the IETF differentiated services (DS) definition as shown below:
0
1
2
3
Codepoint
4
5
6
7
Unused
When the codepoint field has the value xxx000, the three most significant bits are interpreted as
precedence bits. The radio gives high priority to packets with a precedence field of 6 or 7.
•
Low-priority: All other packets.
When the time to transmit over RF arrives, the software always takes packets from the higher
priority queues first.
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