access control list, 74 access control subsystem, 68

Index
audiogram curvature index, 227
authorization techniques
Kerberos, 91
RADIUS, 91
SSID, 90
Base Transceiver Station, 104
basic cryptography, 71
Basic Rate Access, 25. See also
PRA; telecare
ISDN, 25
PSTN, 25
Bayesian decision support systems.
See also decision support system;
expert system; probabilistic
decision support system
Bayes' formula, 193
MEDICL, 194, 195
optimal decision function, 194
predictive value positive, 193
predictive value negative, 193
sensitivity (SE), 192
specificity (SD), 192
biosignal
archiving considerations, 300
database quality, 299
monitoring and recording, 288
cardiorespiratory
polysomnography, 291
electrocardiography, 289
multi-parameter biosignal
database, 298
recording and monitoring, 293
signal acquisition conditions, 292
signal processing algorithms, 294
access control list, 74
access control subsystem, 68
Common Criteria, 68
Access Point Node, 106
access techniques, 22–40
broadband networks, 22
fibreoptic networks, 26
GSM, 27
Intranet, 26
ISDN network, 25
narrowband networks, 22
outer TCP/IP networks, 22–40
PSTN network, 24
satellite networks, 29
WLAN, 28
xDSL networks, 30
ACL (access control list), 74
action execution subsystem, 190.
See also decision support system;
expert system
ADC. See analog-digital converter
ADSL, 206
Advanced Distributed Learning
(ADL), 307
AGR, 306
AICC, 306
AICC Guidelines and
Recommendations (AGR), 306
analog-digital converter, 299
APN. See Access Point Node
archetype repositories, 163
ARIADNE, 307
asynchronous connectionless, 31
ATM, 33. See also UMTS
335
Bluetooth, 30–32, 97. See also
telecare
data rate, 31
master/slave concept, 31
PAN, 31, 86
BRA. See Basic Rate Access
broadband networks, 22. See also
access techniques; narrowband
networks
BTS. See Base Transceiver Station
cardiorespiratory polysomnography,
291. See also biosignals
Care Process Context, 156. See also
electronic health record
CAS. See Clinical Appointment
System
CBAC. See context-based access
control
CBT, 308. See also telelearning
CDA. See Clinical Document
Architecture
CEN, 165, 211
chronic care, 248–265
conditions, 249–251
disease management programmes,
250
e-health environment, 257
health management plans, 258
home telecare, 254
information technology and, 251–
254
automated telecommunications
system, 251–254
e-health application, 251–254
e-health solutions, 251–254
electronic systems, 251–254
Internet-based solutions, 251–
254
web-based applications, 251–
254
Internet-based applications, 250
symptom monitoring, 255
use of wireless systems, 256
telemonitoring strategies, 259
arterial hypertension, 260
bronchial asthma, 262
congestive heart failure, 259
diabetes, 261
ECG recording transmission,
261
telemonitoring systems, 260
WHO recommendations and, 249
Circuit Switched Data, 103, 104
Enhanced Circuit Switched Data
(ECSD), 28
High Speed Circuit Switched
Data (HSCSD), 27, 28, 104
circuit switched techniques, 104
circuit switched transmission
disadvantages of, 104
client–server architectures, 44
Clinical Appointment System, 221–
223
PDA, 222
clinical care
challenges faced by, 137
East London GPs, 138
Clinical Document Architecture,
209
CME. See Continuing Medical
Education
Coding Scheme, 104
coding systems
ICD-10, 126
ICPM, 126
MeSH, 126
SNOMED, 126
coherence control subsystem, 189.
See also decision support system;
expert system
Common Criteria, 66, 68
access control subsystem, 68
functional categories and, 67
336
data value context, 152
decision support systems, 182–203
artificial intelligence, 185
expert systems, 185, 186–187
knowledge-based system, 185
logical decision support systems,
198–202
probabilistic decision support
systems, 191–192
design systems, 187
DIABCARD, 130
diagnostic systems, 187
Digital Imaging and
Communications in Medicine
(DICOM), 95, 102, 118, 126,
210–211, 275. See also Konsul;
TeleDICOM
FPImage distribution, 57
image processing, 6
Digital Subscriber Line, 30, 206
Digital Video Library, 312. See also
telelearning
distance learning platforms, 310
requirement, 308
medical education enhancement,
302
medical studies, 303
digital library, 303
digital video, 304
Internet streaming, 304
standardization organizations, 306
ADL, 307
AICC, 306
ARIADNE, 307
CBT, 308
IMS, 307
MedBiquitous, 308
discriminant analysis, 196. See also
decision support system; expert
system
distance learning platforms, 310
identity or credential subsystem,
69
information flow control
subsystem, 69
security audit subsystem, 67
solution integrity subsystem, 68
communication technologies. See
also telecommunication network
wireless networks, 85–89
mobile e-health services, 88
PAN, 86
SSID, 90
WLAN, 86
WWAN, 86
communication, interactive and
multimedia, 54
Compaq iPAQ, 87
compositional context, 151
computer-based patient record, 142
recommendations, 142
consultant station, 57. See also
Internet environment; Konsul
DICOM, 57
FTP, 57
non-interactive consultations, 56
context-based access control, 76
Continuing Medical Education, 305,
308
control systems, 187
CPE. See customer premises
equipment
CPR. See computer-based patient
record
Coding Scheme (CS), 104
credential subsystem, 69
Common Criteria, 69
CSD. See Circuit Switched Data
CUI. See unique concept identifier
customer premises equipment, 33
data rate
EDGE, 28
data server (oracle data server), 322
337
evaluation of, 17
growth of, 13
health services delivery, 14
healthcare improvement through,
17
healthcare services, 18
Internet and, 14–15
legal and ethical barriers, 17–18
patient data confidentiality, 17–
18
models of, 13
reimbursement policies, 19
scope of, 12
transaction, 11–19
wireless system, 85–108, 85–108
e-health network services, 216. See
also telematics networks, health
information-oriented services,
217
patient-oriented services, 220
home care, 221
public transparent access to
medical services, 220
EHR. See electronic health record
EIRP. See effective isotropic
radiated power
electrocardiography, 289. See also
biosignals
electroencephalography, 290
electronic health record, 100, 135,
143–145, 161, 164, 207, 211
Care Process Context, 156
characteristics of, 146–149
commissioning decisions, 145
compositional context, 151
comprehensive, 141–146
duplicate data, 141
data types, 153
data value context, 152
ethico-legal context, 153
generic EHR, 149
information architecture, 150, 162
automatic content segmentation,
313
back-office database subsystem,
316
Graphical User Interface, 316
IBM Lotus® LMS, 311
media streaming and video
quality adaptation, 314
Medical Digital Video Library,
312
Pathlore LMS 6, 310
QoS, 317
THINQ TrainingServer, 310
video uploading, handling and
format conversion, 315
VVFS, 320
DRGs, 114
DSL. See Digital Subscriber Line
DVL (Digital Video Library), 312
DWL-900AP+, 39
encryption capability, 39
ECG. See electrocardiography
e-commerce. See Internet
environment
ECSD. See Enhanced Circuit
Switched Data
EDF, 299. See also biosignals
EDGE. See Enhanced Data Rate for
Global Evolution
EEG. See electroencephalography
effective isotropic radiated power,
92
EGPRS. See Enhanced GPRS
EHCR Communication (1999), 207.
See also ENV 13606; telematics
networks, health
e-health, 4, 11–19. See also
telemedicine
barriers and benefits, 13, 16
chronic care, 15
comparison with telemedicine, 4
definition of, 12
338
system architecture, 99
Ethernet, 40
ethico-legal context, 153
event-driven reasoning, 201. See
also decision support system;
expert system
expert system, 185. See also
decision support systems
control systems, 187
design systems, 187
deterministic expert system, 186–
187
diagnostic systems, 187
instruction systems, 187
interpretation systems, 187
knowledge representation, 190
logical decision support systems,
198–202
event-driven reasoning, 201
frame-based expert systems,
200
hypothesize-and-test, 201
neural networks, 202
predicate calculus, 202
rule-based expert systems, 198
semantic nets, 200
logical expert systems, 187
monitoring systems, 187
MYCIN, 186–187
planning systems, 187
prediction systems, 187
probabilistic decision support
systems, 191–192
Bayesian decision support
systems, 192
discriminant analysis, 196
probabilistic expert systems, 187
PROSPECTOR, 186–187
stochastic expert system, 186–187
structure of, 187–188
action execution subsystem,
188, 190
interoperability standards, 165
CEN, 165
reasoning context, 154
record-keeping, 147
representation of
architectural approach, 160
federation approach, 160
two-level modelling approach,
162
representation requirements, 150–
151
role, 143
scope of, 157
SVT, 151
e-medical system, 64–66
access control, 74
security requirements, 64
application software, 66
computer operating systems, 65
data, 66
HIPPA, 64
networks, 65
physical security, 65
Enhanced Circuit Switched Data,
28. See also EGPRS; GSM
Enhanced Data Rate for Global
Evolution, 27. See also GPRS;
GSM; HSCSD
8-PSK modulation, 28
data rate, 28
ECSD, 28
EGPRS, 28
GSM, 104
UMTS, 28
Enhanced GPRS, 28. See also
HSCSD; GSM
ENV (European pre-standard), 207.
See also telematics networks,
health
ENV 13606, 207
e-soul, 97–99. See also wireless
communication technologies
339
transmission bearer, 104
coherence control subsystem,
188, 189
explanation subsystem, 188,
189
inference engine, 188, 190
information acquisition
subsystem, 188, 189
knowledge acquisition
subsystem, 188–189
knowledge base, 187, 188
learning subsystem, 188, 190
user interface subsystem, 188,
189
explanation subsystem, 188, 189.
See also decision support system;
expert system
FDD, 32. See also TDD; UMTS
federation approach, 160. See also
EHR
FHCR (Federated Healthcare
Record)
federation schema, 161
fibreoptic networks, 26–27. See also
access techniques
point-to-point connections, 27
security aspects, 27
frame-based expert systems, 200.
See also decision support system;
expert system
object-oriented programming, 200
static knowledge, 200
FTP Storage Server (UniTree), 322
GALEN, 113, 130
General Packet Radio Service, 28,
103, 104, 106. See also EDGE;
GSM; HSCSD
CS-1, 104
CS-2, 104
data rate, 28
GPRS Support Node (GGSN),
108
QoS, 28
geometrically rendered, 280
GGSN (GPRS Support Node), 107,
108
glaucoma, 123–125. See also
TOSCA
data dictionary for, 125
terminology version, 123
Global System for Mobile (GSM)
Communications, 27–28, 40, 103
CSD, 103
data transmission, 27
EDGE, 27
GPRS, 27, 103
HSCSD, 27, 103
POTS, 27
SMS, 27
telemedical services, 27
electrocardiogram, 27
third generation services, 104
EDGE, 104
UMTS, 104
GPRS. See General Packet Radio
Service
GR. See geometrically rendered
Graphical User Interface (GUI), 313,
316
Health Information Systems
Architecture, 208
Health Level 7, 209. See also ISO
reference model; telematics
networks, health
domain tables and coded
attributes cross-reference
tables, 122
external domain, 122
vocabulary domain values table,
122
health portals, 48. See also Internet
environments; medical portals
340
HISA. See Health Information
Systems Architecture
HL7. See Health Level 7
home care, 221. See also telematics
networks, health
home telecare, 254, 255
Kaiser Permanente Tele-Home
Health Research Project, 254
HSCSD. See High Speed Circuit
Switched Data
HTN. See Health Telematic
Network
HYGEIAnet, 215. See also
telematics networks, health
hypertext transfer protocol
(HTTPS), 52, 87, 103, 126
hypothesize-and-test, 201. See also
decision support system; expert
system
INTERNIST-1, 201
QMR, 201
IBM Lotus® LMS, 311. See also
telelearning
ICD, 114–116
ICD_10 Code, 124
ICP. See integrated care pathways
ICPM. See International
Classification of Procedures in
Medicine
ICT (information and
communication technology), 167,
216
identity subsystem, 69
Common Criteria, 69
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers), 31
IEEE 802.11
WLAN, 90
IGS (image-guided surgery), 271,
272
IHE (Integrating the Health
Environment), 211
health telematic network. See
telematics networks, health
healthcare. See also IT-enhanced
healthcare
chronic care, 248
decision support systems, 182–
203
integrative healthcare, 213
interoperability of, 112
resources of
utilisation, 145
telematics networks, 205–224
technologies, 1–19
comparison of different
technologies, 4
e-health, 2, 11–14
standardised terminology, 111
telemedicine, 1, 2–19
HealthNet Luxembourg, 216. See
also telematics networks, health
hearing remote testing, 225
hearing screening
audiogram curvature index, 227
computer-aided adjustment of
hearing aids, 230
hearing aids, 225, 230, 237
methodology, 226
speech audiograms, 227
Tinnitus, 239
Helix DNA Server, 315
HER, 159
High Speed Circuit Switched Data,
27, 28, 104. See also GSM; EDGE;
GPRS
data rate, 27
data transmission, 104
HIPAA, 63, 64
HIPPA, 64
HIS (Hospital Information System),
94, 207
HIS/LIS, 50
341
connectivity and
communications, 48
content, services and
community, 47
e-commerce applications, 48
point-of-care information
systems, 49
Internet medical system
architectures, 44
client-server architectures, 44
mainframe and client architecture
communication, 45
mainframe systems, 44
multitiered applications, 45
Internet protocol, 33
wireless gateway, 87
interoperability, healthcare, 112
interpretation systems, 187
inter-signal synchronization, 292.
See also biosignals
Intranet, 26
intraoperative imaging. See also
laproscopic surgery
3D ultrasound acquisition, 279
intraoperative ultrasound, 271
IP network, 26, 33
iPAQ, 102
DICOM viewer, 103
iPAQ PDA, 88
IP-multicast, 315
ISDN network, 36–37. See also
BRA; PSTN network; telecare
access connection, 25
BRA vs. PRA, 26
BRA, 25
ISDN with MAN Scenario, 38
PRA, 25
access of medical contents, 25
architecture, 25
bandwidth, 37
ISDN router, 36
IMS, 307
indexing mechanism, 105. See also
wireless communication
technologies
Industrial, Scientific, and Medical
(ISM), 92. See also wireless
communication technologies
inference engine. See also decision
support system; expert system
deterministic knowledge, 190
uncertain knowledge, 190
information acquisition subsystem,
189. See also decision support
system; expert system
information flow control subsystem,
68
Common Criteria, 69
Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers, 31
instruction systems, 187
integrated care pathways, 140
Integrating the Health Environment,
211
DICOM and, 211
HLT and, 211
International Classification of
Procedures in Medicine, 116, 124.
See also coding systems
ICPM-DE, 116
Internet and e-health, 14–15. See
also e-health
associated risks, 14–15
healthcare, 14–15
Internet environment
access technologies
in telecare, 51
health portals, 48
in medical systems, 42–61
architecture, 42–44
requirements of, 42–44
telemedical services, 47
342
minimally invasive surgery, 279
MR/CT images, 275
multimodal imaging, 279
navigation and visualization in
the OR, 276
patient registration in the OR, 275
preoperative segmentation and
imaging, 275
Learning Management Systems, 310
learning subsystem, 188, 190. See
also decision support system;
expert system
LGOB (Loudness Growth in halfOctave Bands), 231, 235, 236.
See also hearing screening
LIS (Laboratory Information
System), 207
LMDS (local multipoint distribution
system), 30, 32–33, 32
access techniques, 33
CDMA, 33
FDMA, 33
TDMA, 33
benefits of, 33
disadvantages of, 33
distribution, 33
multipoint, 33
network architecture, 33
base station, 33
CPE, 33
fibre-based infrastructure, 33
NOC, 33
transport methodologies, 33
ATM, 33
IP, 33
LMS (Learning Management
System), 310
LNP. See laparoscopic navigation
pointer
local multipoint distribution system,
32, 33
software platform and operating
system, 36
software router, 36
UMTS, 32
ISM
frequency bands, 92
ISO reference model, 121
HL7, 121
ISP, 26
IT-enhanced healthcare
e-health, 11–14
KAMATO (Knowledge Acquisition
and Management Tool). See also
TOSCA
terminology module, 128, 129
UMLS, 127
KCT. See Krakow Centre for
Telemedicine
Kerberos, 91. See also WLAN
knowledge acquisition subsystem,
188–189. See also decision
support system; expert system
knowledge-based system, 185. See
also decision support system;
expert system
knowledge representation, 190, 200
logical expert system, 190
probabilistic expert system, 190
Konsul, 56–58, 57. See also telecare
architecture, 57
acquisition station, 57
system server, 57
Krakow Centre for Telemedicine, 55
Laboratory Information System, 207
LAN, 90. See also IP network;
telecare
data security, 26
distributed geographical region,
26
laparoscopic navigation pointer,
laparoscopic surgery, 272–274
intraoperative imaging, 278
343
supplementary concept records,
119
Unified Medical Language
System, 119
metathesaurus, 120. See also UMLS
medical vocabularies, 120
semantic network, 121
MMVV (Multi-Modal Volume
Visualizer), 280
mobile medicine environment, 96
e-soul concept, 97
monitoring systems, 187
MR angiography (MRA), 280
MR images (MRI), 280
MR/CT images, 275. See also
laproscopic surgery
MSH2001, 124
MUSTANG, 125–127, 128. See also
TOSCA
architecture, 126
UMLS, 125, 128
narrowband networks, 22. See also
access techniques; broadband
networks
logical decision support systems,
198–202. See also decision
support system; expert system
event-driven reasoning, 201
frame-based expert systems, 200
hypothesize-and-test, 201
neural networks, 202
predicate calculus, 202
rule-based expert systems, 198
semantic nets, 200
logical expert systems, 187
long running transactions, 52
Loudness Growth in half-Octave
Bands, 231, 235, 236
LRT (long running transactions), 52
MAN, 37–38
MBTelehealth, 216. See also
telematics networks, health
MDVL, 319
architecture, 319
mean opinion score, 317
MedBiquitous, 308
Media Data Store (MDS), 322
medical database access
ISDN connection, 36
MAN, 37
Medical Digital Video Library, 315,
317, 318
Medical Monitoring Center, 99
medical portal. See also health
portals
RAD, 80, 81
medical services
telecare, 22
Medical Subject Headings, 118, 119
medical systems
Internet technologies, 42
MEDLINE, 118, 155
MeSH (Medical Subject Headings),
118–121. See also coding systems
categories, 119
National Programme for IT (NPfIT),
137
network authentication protocol, 91
Kerberos, 91
network operations centre (NOC),
33
neural networks, 202. See also
decision support system; expert
system
NIC (network interface card), 90
NOfIT. See National Programme for
IT
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing), 29
OPHTEL, 123. See also TOSCA
344
medical systems, 54
POTS (Plain Old Telephone
Service), 27
PRA (Primary Rate Access), 25
predicate calculus, 202. See also
decision support system
prediction systems, 187
Primary Rate Access, 25
probabilistic decision support
systems, 191–192. See also
decision support system; expert
system
Bayesian decision support
systems, 192
Bayes' formula, 193
MEDICL, 194, 195
optimal decision function, 194
predictive value positive, 193
predictive value negative, 193
sensitivity (SE), 192
specificity (SD), 192
discriminant analysis, 196
canonical analysis, 198
Fisher's criterion of goodness
of classification, 197
Mahalanobis distance, 197
multivariate normal
distribution, 198
probabilistic network model, 191
odds ratio, 191
likelihood ratio, 191
probabilistic expert systems, 187
protected health information (PHI),
64
PSTN network, 24–25. See also
BRA; ISDN network; telecare
penetration of, 24–25
PubMed, 130
via KAMATO, 130
pulse oximeters, 294. See also
biosignals
Quality of Service (QoS), 5, 207
Organization for the Advancement
of Structured Information
Standards (OASIS), 77
OSI network, 90
OSI/ISO, 50
outer TCP/IP networks, 26
packet-based communication, 205.
See also telematics networks,
health
ADSL, 206
DSL, 206
TCP/IP, 206
UDP/IP, 206
PACS (Picture Archiving and
Communication Systems), 95–96,
103, 207. See also HIS; RIS;
wireless communication
technology
PANs (personal area networks), 86,
96, 97. See also Bluetooth
Pathlore LMS 6, 310. See also
telelearning
PCS (patient classification systems),
114
PDA (personal digital assistant), 96,
100, 222. See also CAS
Picture-Archiving and
Communication System, 207
PKI, 103
planning systems, 187
POCIS (Point-of-Care Information
System), 50, 53. See also
POCCIC
POCs (Point-of-Care), 49–51, 96
applications for, 49
integration with hospital system,
51
POCCIC, 50
POCIS, 50
polygraphic recordings, 299
portal technologies, 53–54
access to resources, 53
345
RIM (Reference Information
Model), 121–122, 209. See also
UML
attributes, 122
classes
Act, 121
ActRelationship, 121
entity, 122
participation, 122
role, 122
RoleLink, 122
semantic and lexical connections,
121
RIS, 207. See also wireless
communication technologies
role-based access control, 75
routers, 37
RTCP (RTP Control Protocol), 314
RTP (Real Time Protocol), 314
UDP, 314
RTSP, 314
rule-based expert systems, 199–200.
See also decision support system;
expert system
declarative rule, 199
MYCIN, 199
procedural rule, 199
satellite networks, 29–30
telecare, 29–30
SCO, 31
SCORM. See Sharable Content
Object Reference Model
SDO, 209
SDT, 227. See also hearing
screening
Secure Socket Layer (SSL), 315
security and safety (e-health), 63,
64, 204
access control models, 74
ACL, 74
authorization policies, 74
UMTS, 32
RAD (Resource Access Decision),
78–82
access control administration
module, 80
access control service, 80
access to medical resources, 78
architecture, 79
resource access decision
facility, 79
authorization service, 79, 80
GUI administration, 82
medical portal and, 78, 80, 81
resource access decision facility,
78
radiological information system. See
RIS
RADIUS (Remote Authentication
Dial-In User Service), 90, 91. See
also authorization techniques;
SSID
RBAC (role-based access control),
75
RCD99, 124
Real Time Protocol, 314
Real Time Streaming Protocol, 314
real-time video linking, 10. See also
store-and-forward telemedicine;
telemedicine
medical documents sharing, 10,
11
teleradiology, 10
reasoning context, 154
Reference Information Model, 209
REM (rapid eye movement), 298
Remote Authentication Dial-In User
Service, 90
remote monitoring systems, 145
Resource Access Decision Facility,
79
346
monitoring access and
modification of protected
information, 73
networks, 70
non-repudiation of changes to
protected information, 72
system infrastructure, 70
security audit subsystem, 67
Common Criteria, 67
semantic nets, 121, 200. See also
decision support system; expert
system
service-oriented architecture, 45–47,
77
SOSA, 77
Sharable Content Object Reference
Model, 307
SIESTA, 299, 300
Simple Object Access Protocol, 52
single sign-on, 53
SME, 311
SMS (short message service), 27,
106
SNMI98, 124
SNOMED, 113, 116, 117–118, 126.
See also coding systems
SOA. See service-oriented
architecture
SOAP, 52
HTTP, 52
HTTPS, 52
solution integrity subsystem, 68
Common Criteria, 68
SOSA. See also SOA
interoperable protocols, 78
policy-based trust, 77
security policies implementation,
77
standards, 78
WS Security, 77
XML and WS Security merge, 77
speech detection threshold. See SDT
context-based access control,
76
role-based access control, 75
Common Criteria, 64–70
access control subsystem, 68
and functional categories, 67
evaluation of security
functionalities, 66
identity or credential
subsystem, 69
information flow control
subsystem, 69
security audit subsystem, 67
security hardware and
software, 66
solution integrity subsystem,
68
HIPAA, 63, 64
mapping design objectives, 70
RAD, 78
access decision, 80
GUI interface, 82
medical portal and, 78, 80, 81
resource access decision
facility, 78
security policy enforcement, 80
requirements for, 64
service-oriented security
architecture, 77
system architecture modeling, 66
techniques, 70
accountability of changes to
protected information, 72
application and data, 70
authentication of users, 71
authorized access to protected
information, 71
basic cryptography, 71
confidentiality of protected
information, 72
integrity of protected
information, 72
347
speech reception threshold. See SRT
SRT, 227. See also hearing
screening
SSID, 90. See also authorization
techniques; RADIUS
SSO, 53
Standards Development
Organisation, 209
store-and-forward telemedicine, 10.
See also real-time video linking;
telemedicine
teleradiology, 8
subject matter experts. See SME
Supplementary Concept Records,
119
supra-ventricular tachycardia. See
SVT
SVT, 151
compositional context, 152
Synchronous Connection Oriented.
See SCO
Systematized Nomenclature of
Human and Veterinary Medicine.
See SNOMED
task force 13606
EHRcom., 165
TCP. See TOSCA Concept
Identifier
TCP/IP, 50
TCSEC. See Trusted Computer
System Security Evaluation
Criteria
TDD. See also FDD; UMTS
TDM. See Time Division
Multiplexed
TDMA, 103
telecare, 36. See also Internet
environment
access techniques, 22–40
fibreoptic networks, 26
GSM, 27
Intranet, 26
ISDN network, 25, 38
MAN, 37, 38
outer TCP/IP networks, 22–40
PSTN network, 24
satellite networks, 29
WLAN, 28
xDSL networks, 30
emerging solutions, 30
Bluetooth, 31
LMDS, 32
UMTS, 32
wireless networks, 30
hospital–hospital scenario, 33–34
hospital–patient scenario, 34
Internet access technologies, 51
interactive and multimedia
communication, 54
portal technologies, 53
web services, 51
ISDN connection, 36
ISDN with MAN scenario, 38
Konsul (case study), 56
supporting teleconsultations with
telenegatoscope (case study),
55
TeleDICOM (case study), 58
wireless connection, 38
telecommunication network, 25. See
also telecare
Bluetooth, 31
fibreoptic networks, 26
GSM, 27
Intranet and outer TCP/IP
networks, 26
ISDN network, 25
PSTN network, 24
satellite networks, 29
WLAN, 28
xDSL Networks, 30
TELEDIAL, 264
TeleDICOM
348
packet-based communication,
205
telemedical services, 47. See also
GSM; Internet environment
electrocardiogram, 27
telemedical systems, 63–82
security and safety, 63, 64, 204
access control models, 74
Common Criteria, 64–70
HIPAA, 63, 64
mapping design objectives, 70
RAD, 78
requirements for, 64
service-oriented security
architecture, 77
system architecture modeling,
66
techniques, 70
telemedicine, 2–19, 34, 42–61, 110–
132. See also e-health
applications of, 7–11
real-time video linking, 8
store-and-forward
telemedicine, 7
benefits, 15–16
comparison with e-health, 4
development conditions, 5–7
dimensions of, 4
distributed clinical decision
making, 145
educational aspects of, 5
evaluation of, 17
evidence-based telemedicine, 17
functional requirements, 43
general requirements, 42
hearing losses treatment, 225
legal and ethical barriers, 17–18
medical data transmission, 5
OSI/ISO, 50
potential benefits of, 4–5
reimbursement policies, 18–19
TCP/IP, 50
collaborative teleconsultation
environment, 58–60
DICOM, 58
interactive, 58
non-interactive, 58
teleconferencing application, 59
Tele-ECG service, 261. See also
chronic care
telehome care
access technologies, 35
GSM, 35
ISDN, 35
PSTN, 35
WLAN, 35
telelearning
Computer-Based Training
Standards and Standardization
Organizations, 306
telematics networks, health. See also
e-health network services
CAS, 221
e-health network services, 216
health digital data standards, 207
data security standards, 211
DICOM, 210
EHCR Communication (1999),
207
ENV 13606, 207
Health Information Systems
Architecture, 208
Health Level 7, 209
organizational model, 212
centralised, 212
dispersed, 212
health telematic network, 215
HealthNet Luxembourg, 216
HYGEIAnet, 215
MBTelehealth, 216
team-oriented healthcare
practice, 213
transport layer, 205
349
transport layer
packet-based communication
edge access technologies, 206
quality of service, 206
Trusted Computer System Security
Evaluation Criteria, 63
two-level modelling approach, 162.
See also EHR
archetypes, 162
EHR information architecture,
162
reference model, 162
UBAC. See user-based access
control
UDDI, 52
UDP. See User Datagram Protocol
ultrasound angiography (power
Doppler imaging) images, 280
ultrasound tissue images, 28, 280
UML
RIM, 121
UMLS (Unified Medical Language
System), 119–121
components of, 120
information source-map, 120
metathesaurus, 120, 121, 127
semantic network, 120
specialist lexicon, 120
UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System), 28,
30, 32
ATM, 32
core network, 32
FDD, 32
GSM, 104
QoS, 32
radio access network, 32
TDD, 32
UTRA, 32
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access, 32
unique concept identifier, 120
telemedical systems, 63
terminological standardisation,
110
classifications, nomenclatures,
114
HL7, 121
ICD, 114
ICPM, 116
MeSH, 118–119
RIM, 121
SNOMED, 117–118
TOSCA, 122
UMLS, 120
telemonitoring systems, 260, 263
TeleNegatoscope, 55–56
peripheral medical centers tool,
56
teleconsultations, 55
teleradiology, 8–9. See also realtime video linking; store-andforward medicine; telemedicine
multi-point, 10
WWW, 8, 9
telesurgery, 48
THINQ TrainingServer, 310. See
also telelearning
Time Division Multiplexed, 33
Tinnitus, 239–245
diagnosis and treatment, 239
TOSCA, 122–132, 126
Data Sets, 130–132
DICOM, 126
HTTPS, 126
KAMATO, 129
terminological component, 126
terminological concepts
in KAMATO, 127
terminological standardisation,
122
glaucoma, 123
TOSCA Concept Identifier, 54, 123
transducers, 292
350
WAP. See wireless application
protocol
WCDMA. See Wideband CDMA
Web Services Description
Language, 52
web services, 51–53, 51–53
architecture, 52
medical environments, 53
SOA, 51–53
WSDL, 52
WEP. See Wired Equivalent Privacy
wideband CDMA, 32
Wired Equivalent Privacy, 90
wireless application protocol, 87
wireless communication
technologies, 85–89
coding systems, 104, 126
DICOM, 102, 103
GPRS access to database, 103
GSM, 103, 104
in hospital environment, 93
HIS, 94
PACS, 95
RIS, 94, 95
Kerberos, 91
medical environments, 91
radio interference, 91, 92
mobile e-health services, 88
mobile medicine environment, 96
e-soul concept, 97–100
PAN, 85–89
PDA, 101
radiology database access, 101
security aspects, 89
end-to-end encryption, 89
full support for mobility, 89
mutual authentication, 89
per-client keys, 89
secure automated key
distribution, 89
VPN, 90
SSID, 90
universal description, discovery and
integration, 52
US images. See ultrasound tissue
images
User Datagram Protocol, 54, 314
video servers, 314
User Interface Subsystem. See also
decision support system; expert
system
user-based access control, 74
UTRA. See UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access
video library, 316
Video Server (Oracle Video Server),
322
virtual private network (VPN), 90.
See also wireless communication
technologies
Virtual Video File System, 320. See
also distance learning platforms
architecture, 322
MDS, 322
multimedia database, 321
structure, 320
UniTree, 322
user interface, 323
visualisation panel, 107
volume-rendered (VR), 280. See
also MMVV
VVFS, 320
architecture, 322
MDS, 322
multimedia database, 321
structure, 320
UniTree, 322
user interface, 323
VVFS (Virtual Video File System),
320
WAN. See also LAN
data security, 26
distributed geographical region,
26
351
WEP, 90
wireless devices, 85–89
wireless LAN radios, 92
WLANs, 86–89
WWANs, 86–89
wireless connection, 38–40. See also
WLAN
DWL-900AP+, 39
point-to-point link, 39
wireless handheld devices, 101
wireless LAN radios, 92
wireless local area networks, 28–29,
40, 86, 93
authentication
SSID, 90
data transmission, 29
IEEE 802.11, 86
IEEE 802.11a, 29
IEEE 802.11b, 29
network architecture, 39
point-to-point, 39
wired LAN, 86
WLAN. See wireless local area
networks
WSDL. See Web Services
Description Language
WWAN (wireless wide-area
networks), 86
xDSL networks, 30
352
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