ODIN-W2 series - Using u-blox connectivity software

ODIN-W2 series
Using u-blox connectivity software
Application Note
Abstract
This document provides an overview of ODIN-W2 series and
describes how the u-blox connectivity software can be configured
®
for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth dual mode use cases.
www.u-blox.com
UBX-16024251 - R03
ODIN-W2 series - Application Note
Document information
Title
ODIN-W2 series
Subtitle
Using u-blox connectivity software
Document type
Application Note
Document number
UBX-16024251
Revision and date
R03
26-Jan-2018
Disclosure restriction
This document applies to the following products:
Product name
Type number
Software version
PCN reference
Product status
ODIN-W260
ODIN-W260-04B-00
N/A
Mass Production
ODIN-W262
ODIN-W262-04B-00
5.0.0
5.0.1
5.0.0
5.0.1
N/A
Mass Production
u-blox reserves all rights to this document and the information contained herein. Products, names, logos and designs described herein may in
whole or in part be subject to intellectual property rights. Reproduction, use, modification or disclosure to third parties of this document or
any part thereof without the express permission of u-blox is strictly prohibited.
The information contained herein is provided “as is” and u-blox assumes no liability for the use of the information. No warranty, either
express or implied, is given, including but not limited, with respect to the accuracy, correctness, reliability and fitness for a particular purpose
of the information. This document may be revised by u-blox at any time. For most recent documents, visit www.u-blox.com.
Copyright © 2018, u-blox AG.
u-blox is a registered trademark of u-blox Holding AG in the EU and other countries. Arm is the registered trademark of Arm Limited in the
EU and other countries.
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Contents
Contents.............................................................................................................................. 3
1
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 6
1.1
2
Key features ................................................................................................................. 8
2.1
3
Product description ............................................................................................................................... 6
Sample use case scenarios .................................................................................................................... 9
2.1.1
Industrial automation .................................................................................................................... 9
2.1.2
2.1.3
Hospital systems .......................................................................................................................... 10
Ambulance .................................................................................................................................. 10
2.1.4
Fitness ......................................................................................................................................... 10
u-blox connectivity software .................................................................................... 11
3.1
Software architecture ......................................................................................................................... 11
3.2
Operating modes ................................................................................................................................ 11
3.2.1
Command mode ......................................................................................................................... 11
3.2.2
Data mode .................................................................................................................................. 12
3.2.2.1
Wireless Multidrop ............................................................................................................... 12
3.2.3
Extended data mode ................................................................................................................... 13
3.2.4
3.2.5
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) mode .............................................................................................. 14
Changing operating modes ......................................................................................................... 14
3.2.6
Escape sequence ......................................................................................................................... 15
3.2.7
3.2.8
Wi-Fi Roaming ............................................................................................................................. 15
Bridge functionality ..................................................................................................................... 16
3.3
Client and server roles ........................................................................................................................ 17
3.3.1
Wi-Fi - Access Point and Station .................................................................................................. 17
3.3.2
Bluetooth BR/EDR - Master and Slave .......................................................................................... 17
3.3.3
Bluetooth low energy - Central and Peripheral ............................................................................ 17
3.4
Peers .................................................................................................................................................. 17
3.4.1
TCP peer ..................................................................................................................................... 18
3.4.2
UDP peer ..................................................................................................................................... 18
3.4.3
3.4.4
SPP peer ...................................................................................................................................... 18
SPS peer ...................................................................................................................................... 19
3.5
Security .............................................................................................................................................. 19
3.5.1
Wi-Fi security ............................................................................................................................... 19
3.5.1.1
Wi-Fi security combinations .................................................................................................. 19
3.5.1.2
Key management ................................................................................................................. 19
3.5.2
4
Bluetooth security ....................................................................................................................... 21
Applications ................................................................................................................ 22
4.1
Wi-Fi network connectivity ................................................................................................................. 22
4.1.1
Use case #1: Serial to Wi-Fi Station Bridge ................................................................................... 22
4.1.1.1
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Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 22
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4.1.2
Use case #2: Serial to Wi-Fi Access Point Bridge ........................................................................... 23
4.1.2.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 23
4.1.3
Use case #3: Serial PPP to Wi-Fi Bridge ........................................................................................ 24
4.1.3.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 24
4.1.4
Use case #4: Ethernet to Wi-Fi Bridge .......................................................................................... 25
4.1.4.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 25
4.2
Wi-Fi network sharing / Wi-Fi access point .......................................................................................... 26
4.2.1
Use case #1: Wi-Fi local area network enabler ............................................................................. 26
4.2.1.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 26
4.2.2
Use case #2: (Hosted) Wi-Fi tethering (hot spot) .......................................................................... 27
4.2.2.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 27
4.3
Wireless device configuration ............................................................................................................. 28
4.3.1
Use case #1: Smartphone or tablet using Bluetooth low energy .................................................. 28
4.3.1.1
4.3.2
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 28
Use case #2: Laptop using Wi-Fi .................................................................................................. 29
4.3.2.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 29
4.4
Other use cases .................................................................................................................................. 30
4.4.1
Use case #1: Ethernet to Wi-Fi access Point Bridge ...................................................................... 30
4.4.1.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 30
4.4.2
Use case #2: Wi-Fi access point to PPP ......................................................................................... 30
4.4.2.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 30
4.4.3
Use case #3: Ethernet to UART .................................................................................................... 31
4.4.3.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 31
4.4.4
Use case #4: Serial to Bluetooth .................................................................................................. 31
4.4.4.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 32
4.4.5
Use case #5: Serial to Bluetooth (always connected) .................................................................... 32
4.4.5.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 32
4.4.6
Use case #6: Serial to Bluetooth low energy ................................................................................ 33
4.4.6.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 33
4.4.7
Use case #7: Bluetooth low energy to UART ................................................................................ 33
4.4.7.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 33
4.4.8
Use case #8: Bluetooth Personal Area Network (PAN-User to smartphone) .................................. 34
4.4.8.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 34
4.4.9
Use case #9: Wi-Fi AP and Bluetooth PAN NAP bridge ................................................................. 35
4.4.9.1
Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 35
4.4.10
Use case #10: Wi-Fi Station connecting to Enterprise security using EAP-TLS ............................... 36
4.4.11 Optimization ............................................................................................................................... 37
4.4.11.1 Wi-Fi optimization ................................................................................................................ 37
4.4.11.2
Bluetooth optimization......................................................................................................... 37
4.4.11.3
Bluetooth low energy optimization ...................................................................................... 37
Appendix .......................................................................................................................... 38
A Glossary ...................................................................................................................... 38
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Related documents........................................................................................................... 39
Revision history ................................................................................................................ 39
Contact .............................................................................................................................. 40
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1 Overview
This document describes how to set up and use the ODIN-W2 series module with u-blox connectivity software,
with examples on how to use it in different environments controlled by AT commands.
The ODIN-W2 series also supports open software variants; see ODIN-W2 series System Integration Manual [4] for
additional information about the open software variants.
1.1 Product description
This document explains the functionality of the ODIN-W2 series, which is a highly integrated multiradio module
developed by u-blox for integration in demanding reliable devices, such as those needed for industrial and
medical applications.
It is a compact and powerful stand-alone multiradio module, designed for Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications.
The module includes embedded Bluetooth stack, Wi-Fi driver, IP stack, and an application for wireless data
transfer, all configurable using AT commands. The wireless support includes dual-mode Bluetooth v4.0 (BR/EDR
and low energy) and dual-band Wi-Fi (2.4 and 5 GHz bands).
The module supports point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations and can have concurrent Bluetooth
and Wi-Fi connections. It can operate in Wireless Multidrop™ or Extended Data Mode (EDM) for advanced
multipoint capabilities. Operation in Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) mode gives the host a UART-based IP interface
for advanced use cases. The software provides support for RMII with micro Access Point and iAP2.
The module is professional grade with an extended temperature range and is radio type approved for multiple
countries, which reduces the integration work and cost.
The red circle below shows how the u-blox connectivity software interacts with ODIN-W2 series.
u-blox
connectivity
software
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The table below defines the most frequently used terms in this document. See Glossary for a complete list.
Concept
Definition
Host
In this document, a host refers to the device connected to ODIN-W2 series through any of the physical interfaces. In
a real application, the host is typically a Multipoint Controller Unit (MCU) running a customer specific application.
Module
In this document, module refers to ODIN-W2 series but a module can also be a self-contained unit or item that
performs a defined task and can be linked with similar units to form a larger system.
Peer
A connection consists of a sender and one or several receivers of data. Every sender and receiver in a setup is
referred to as a peer. A peer can either receive or send data.
Remote device
A remote device in a wireless network connecting on Bluetooth EDR/BR, Bluetooth low energy or Wi-Fi with the
module.
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2 Key features
The wireless serial cable replacement functionality is one of the key features of the module. The basic
functionality is to transfer data between the serial port and a wireless link. It is possible to configure the module
to automatically set up a connection and/or accept an incoming connection using AT commands. For a host, this
means that an existing serial cable can be replaced by a wireless solution.
Host
Ethernet
RMII
Host
Ethernet
RMII
UART
Bluetooth
EDR/BR
Master
UART
Slave
Figure 1: Bluetooth SPP connection
Host
Ethernet
RMII
Host
Ethernet
RMII
UART
Bluetooth
Low
Energy
Central
UART
Peripheral
Figure 2: Bluetooth Low Energy SPS connection
Host
Ethernet
RMII
Host
Ethernet
RMII
UART
UART
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi Access Point
Wi-Fi Station
Figure 3: Wi-Fi Connection
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Wi-Fi station
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi access point
Figure 4: Wi-Fi Station connection
Wi-Fi station
Wi-Fi access point
Wi-Fi
Figure 5: Wi-Fi Access Point connections
Host
Wi-Fi station
Ethernet
RMII
Figure 6: Ethernet connection to Host and Wireless Ethernet
Network
Wi-Fi access point
Ethernet
RMII
Figure 7: Ethernet connection Host and Wireless Router
2.1 Sample use case scenarios
2.1.1 Industrial automation
The ODIN-W2 series module can be used in connected wireless tools for configuration and logging. The user
connects to the wireless tools using Bluetooth and then the tool connects over Wi-Fi using an access point (AP)
to the company network to receive proper configuration data. In this way, the configuration is done according
to set values and can be properly logged within the network.
Network
Bluetooth
Wi-Fi
Wireless tool
Smart device
Access point
Figure 8: Example in industrial automation
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2.1.2 Hospital systems
The module can be used in hospital systems where it could be placed within a hospital instrument, for example
an infusion pump. The staff could use a Bluetooth enabled barcode scanner to identify a patient to the hospital
instrument. The Wi-Fi station feature is then used to establish connection to the hospital network to update the
status of the patient.
Figure 9: Example in hospital systems
2.1.3 Ambulance
The module can be placed within an ambulance instrument that checks the status of the patient. The ambulance
staff then use a smart device (mobile phone or tablet) through which the data is transferred via Wi-Fi or
Bluetooth from the ambulance instrument to the hospital cloud. This way, they are informed well in advance
about the patient such as his blood type and heart rate.
Bluetooth / Wi-Fi
Portable medical equipment
in connected ambulance
Cellular
Hospital cloud
Smart device
Figure 10: Example in ambulance
2.1.4 Fitness
The module can be placed within various kinds of fitness equipment, such as a treadmill. The user can connect
to the treadmill using a smartphone via Bluetooth technology, which in turn will transfer information to the
network using Wi-Fi.
Network
Bluetooth
Smart device
Wi-Fi
Access point
Fitness equipment
Figure 11: Example in fitness equipment
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3 u-blox connectivity software
3.1 Software architecture
The u-blox connectivity software contains a Bluetooth 4.0 stack together with a TCP/IP stack with Wi-Fi and
Ethernet drivers.
LED
AT Parser
Application
SPP
SPS
GATT
Buttons
Crypto
GPIO
NVS
TCP and UDP
GAP
IPv4
IPv6
Authenticator
Bluetooth
IP
PPP
Supplicant
UART
Wi-Fi driver
Ethernet
L2CAP/HCI/Driver
Radio
Figure 12: u-blox connectivity software architecture
3.2 Operating modes
The module can operate in the following modes:
•
•
•
•
Command mode (default)
Data mode
Extended data mode
PPP mode
3.2.1 Command mode
The command mode is the default mode, and in this mode the module can be operated using AT commands.
The command mode implements command set to send data commands and events.
AT command types:
•
•
•
•
Set command configures the preferred settings for the specified command. Parameters are used
immediately and can be stored to the startup database using AT&W.
Read command provides the current setting of the command parameters and is used to find out the
current command configuration.
Status command provides current operating status of the module.
Action command forces the module to execute a specific action for the command.
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•
•
Configuration action command requires that the configuration is reset, stored, activated, or
deactivated using a corresponding configuration action command.
Unsolicited result code (URC) is a string message provided by the module. The URC is not triggered as
an information text in response to a previous AT command and can serve as an output when enabled, at
any time to inform the module of a specific event or status change. Typical event is when a connection
is established while disconnecting.
Figure 13: Examples of AT command and URC
For more information about all available AT commands, see u-blox Short Range AT Commands Manual [5].
3.2.2 Data mode
The data mode supports point-to-point and multipoint connections. Multipoint connections are supported
through the Wireless Multidrop feature. Anything transmitted on the UART, is transmitted over air to all the
connected remote devices. The data received over air from the remote devices is transmitted on the serial line
without information about the remote device that transmitted the data.
Data
UART
Data
Wi-Fi / Bluetooth
Data
UART
Figure 14: Data mode
3.2.2.1 Wireless Multidrop
With Wireless Multidrop, the module can communicate with several devices simultaneously without adding any
software to your host system.
The Wireless Multidrop feature is used when the module is in its transparent data mode (ATO1).
Data sent on the UART to the module is distributed to all connected remote devices. The data received from the
connected remote devices is forwarded to the host system via the UART. The data received from a connected
remote device will not be distributed to the other connected remote devices.
Three scenarios where the Wireless Multidrop feature can be used:
•
•
Same to all: The same data is sent from the master device to all the connected remote devices.
Poll one, retrieve data from one device: The same data is sent from the master device to all the
connected remote devices, but only the addressed remote device replies. An example of a higher-level
protocol that can be used to accomplish this is Modbus RTU.
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•
Command one: The same data is sent from the master device to all the connected remote devices, but
only the addressed remote device executes the command. An example of a higher-level protocol that
can be used to accomplish this is Modbus RTU.
Data
Wi-Fi / Bluetooth
Data
Data
UART
Data
Data
UART
Wi-Fi / Bluetooth
UART
Data
Data
Wi-Fi / Bluetooth
UART
Figure 15: Wireless Multidrop
3.2.3 Extended data mode
The extended data mode (EDM) allows individual control of each active link. This makes it possible to transmit
and receive data individually on each active channel and to know from which remote device the data is received.
While sending and receiving data, the AT commands can simultaneously be sent to the module from the host.
The EDM is an alternative to Wireless Multidrop and can be used in more advanced multipoint scenarios.
Data X
Data X, Data Y, Data Z
Wi-Fi / Bluetooth
Data X
UART
Data Y
Data Y
UART
Wi-Fi / Bluetooth
UART
Data Z
Data Z
Wi-Fi / Bluetooth
UART
Figure 16: Extended data mode
There is no extended data mode protocol over air, only "raw" data is transmitted. One side can be configured
for EDM and the other for data mode. This means that almost no penalties or performance degradation is
introduced.
For more information about EDM, see u-blox Extended Data Mode Protocol Specification [7].
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Data + EDM header and tail
Data
Data
UART
UART
Bluetooth
Figure 17: Data mode and extended data mode
3.2.4 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) mode
PPP is supported in the Server role. Use the AT03 or AT+UMSM=3 to enter PPP mode. In this mode, the host
connected to the module must support the PPP client role. The data sent over the UART will contain Ethernet
frames and the Point-Point connection between module and the host is to be used for IP traffic.
Typical PPP Clients are Windows using “dial-up modem” or Linux using “pppd” (Point-to-Point Protocol
daemon).
PPP Server
Host using PPP Client
Ethernet frames
UART
3.2.5 Changing operating modes
The module can be configured to start in any mode. Once up and running, it is possible to switch between the
modes by sending a command or escape sequence to the module, except for the EDM and PPP mode.
Figure 19 shows how an AT command can be used to switch from command mode to either data mode,
extended data mode, or PPP mode. The figure also shows how to change from the data mode to command
mode by sending an escape sequence over UART or toggling the DTR. Once the module is in extended data
mode or PPP mode, the only way to return to the command mode is to restart the module.
Power on
If configured for
data mode
AT+UMSM=1
If configured for
command mode,
factory default or
AT+UMSM=0
Data mode
If configured for
extended data
mode AT+UMSM=2
ATO1
Extended
data mode
AT02
Escape sequence or
toggle the UART DTR
pin from High to Low
If configured for PPP
mode AT+UMSM=3
PPP mode
ATO3
Command
mode
Figure 19: State diagram showing operational mode transitions
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3.2.6 Escape sequence
The default escape character for u-blox connectivity software is “+“ (ASCII value 43), the escape sequence is
triggered by the following sequence;
1. Silence 1 second
2. +++
3. Silence 1 second
The +++ must be sent within 200 ms, which makes it difficult to enter the escape sequence manually using a
terminal window. It is recommended to “paste” the characters to ensure that they are sent as fast as possible.
To enter the command mode, toggle the UART DTR pin from High to Low.
3.2.7 Wi-Fi Roaming
The roaming functionality in ODIN-W2 enables movement between the Wi-Fi Access Points (AP) within the same
SSID, or move in and out of the range of one AP without losing any data. The behavior in ODIN-W2 is to:
•
•
Use the RSSI value to decide when to perform background scanning
Perform the roaming to a better Access Point based on the configured RSSI thresholds
A typical time to a roaming is 100-200 ms, but depending on the network and security settings on the Wi-Fi
network, it may take longer time. When using enterprise security like PEAP and EAP-TLS, it will take longer time,
and depending of the size of the certificates, the normal time could be up to one second.
AP 2
AP 1
ODIN-W2 is moving
Scanning for other AP
•
•
AP 1 RSSI: -30 dBm
AP 2 RSSI: -75 dBm
Good area: No roaming
Slow scan sleep timeout is
used to monitor the
neighborhood
AP 1 is detected with a Bad
RSSI, lower than -70
(configured with
AT+UWCFG=7,<value>)
ODIN-W2 will roam
to AP 2 that has better RSSI
value compared to AP 1
AP 1 RSSI: -50 dBm
AP 1 RSSI: -75 dBm
Slow scan sleep timeout is
used to monitor the
neighborhood
Fast scan sleep timeout will be used
to find a better AP
AP 2 RSSI: -50 dBm
Good area: No roaming
AP 2 RSSI: -30 dBm
Bad area: Perform Roaming
By default ODIN-W2 will stop scanning for more access point if it finds one that is better or the same as the
Figure 20: Basic roaming behavior
Good RSSI (-55 dBm is default).
In some situations, it is required to connect to the best Access Point always and this can be achieved by setting
the Good RSSI to 0, AT+UWCFG=5,0; then ODIN-W2 will scan all the channels and select the best one, which
could also be the one with the same SSID and on the same channel.
It is possible to completely disable the roaming by setting both Slow scan sleep timeout and Fast scan sleep
timeout to zero, using AT+UWCFG=7,0 and AT+UWCFG=8,0.
To avoid fast switching when all APs are in a bad area, the previous connected AP will be blacklisted for 5
seconds, this time is configurable with AT+UWCFG=9,<timeout_in_seconds>.
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3.2.8 Bridge functionality
It is possible to bridge the following four different network interfaces:
• Wi-Fi Station
• Wi-Fi Access Point
• Ethernet and
• Bluetooth PAN
The bridge is on Ethernet level but also bridges the IP traffic including DHCP and broadcasts packets.
The bridge interface supports static IP address and DHCP server and can (if on the same subnet) be accessed on
the network.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bridge
Network
interface
Static IP
DHCP Server
Ethernet bridge
IP traffic bridge
Broadcast data bridge
DHCP packets bridge
PAN
Wi-Fi Station
Wi-Fi AP
Ethernet/RMII
Network
interface
Network
interface
Network
interface
Network
interface
Figure 21: ODIN-W2 Bridge functionality
One bridge function is to bridge the Wi-Fi AP with the Ethernet/RMII network interface; in the current example,
the Ethernet network interface on ODIN-W2 is connected using a PHY to a network that has the DHCP server.
The network interface IDs are listed below:
1. Wi-Fi Station
2. Wi-Fi Access Point
3. Ethernet
4. Reserved (do not use)
5. Bluetooth PAN
It is recommended to setup the bridge before activating any network interfaces.
To setup the bridge with Wi-Fi Access Point and the Ethernet (using PHY) and no DHCP server on the bridge.
AT+UBRGC=0,1,2,3
AT+UBRGC=0,2,2,3
AT+UBRGCA=0,3
It is also possible to bridge a single network interface, such as the Ethernet and the bridge can be used to enable
the DHCP server on the Ethernet interface. See more examples in the use case section of other bridge setups.
AT+UBRGC=0,1,3
AT+UBRGC=0,2,3
AT+UBRGC=0,100,1
AT+UBRGC=0,101,192.168.0.100
AT+UBRGC=0,102,255.255.255.0
AT+UBRGC=0,106,1
AT+UBRGCA=0,3
AT+UETHCA=3
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3.3 Client and server roles
A server provides a function or service to one or many clients, which initiates requests for such services. For the
module, this service is typically access to a data channel. The normal case is that the client “wants the data” and
the server “has the data”.
3.3.1 Wi-Fi - Access Point and Station
The Wi-Fi station is a client that connects to the Access Point. The Access Point then broadcasts beacons and
allows stations to connect; the Access Point can handle many stations.
3.3.2 Bluetooth BR/EDR - Master and Slave
A Bluetooth BR/EDR device supports up to seven parallel Bluetooth connections – this is called multipoint. By
default, the client becomes the master and the server becomes the slave. If a server wants to support multiple
connections and still wants to have a Piconet for best performance, the server must request a master/slave
switch for every incoming connection.
3.3.3 Bluetooth low energy - Central and Peripheral
A Bluetooth low energy device either supports the central, peripheral, or both roles. The central is the client and
makes connection to the peripheral, which is a server. The peripheral is typically a battery powered device like a
sensor, and the central, is often a smartphone or a computer.
3.4 Peers
A connection consists of a sender and one or several receivers of data. Every sender and receiver in a setup are
referred to as a peer. A peer can either receive or send data. There are two kinds of peers:
•
•
Local peer
Remote peer
The local peer is synonymous with the UART. The remote peer is another device or the broadcast range on the
network. Several remote peers can be defined in a Wireless Multidrop scenario.
A remote peer is addressed using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). These URLs are strings representing nodes
on the Internet or on a local net. It is the same addressing technology as used in a web browser. For more
information about URLs, see [6].
<scheme>:<scheme-specific-part>
The scheme or
protocol used when
communicating.
The address and port
number of the remote
node.
Figure 22: Example of a URL
For example, a web server on the Internet can have http://www.u-blox.com as address. This tells the browser to
use the HTTP protocol and connect to the node at address http://www.u-blox.com. Similar addressing scheme is
used by the module to pinpoint the remote peer. The scheme is not "http", but the node addressing is identical.
Available schemes:
•
•
•
•
tcp: TCP connection
udp: UDP connection, broadcast capabilities
spp: Bluetooth Serial Port Profile
dun: Bluetooth Dial Up Networking
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• sps: Bluetooth Low Energy u-blox Serial Port Service
Syntax:
•
•
tcp/udp: <scheme>://ipaddress<:portnumber>
spp/dun/sps: <scheme>://bluetooth_address
Remarks:
•
The IP address can be either a numeric IP address or a host and domain name that can be resolved using
the configured DNS servers.
Example URLs:
•
•
•
•
tcp://10.0.0.9:5003
tcp://echo.u-blox.com:7
udp://192.168.0.42:6809
spp://0012f3000001
3.4.1 TCP peer
A TCP peer is the same as a TCP socket. When a TCP peer is connected, data can flow in both the directions
irrelevant of whether the peer is a server or a client. To optimize the TCP link for short latency, the
<flush_tx=1> can be specified in the URL; though this is not needed in most cases.
The TCP keep alive timeout can also be set using the <keepalive> in the URL.
Example: To connect to port 8080 with an optimized latency
URL
Address
tcp://192.168.0.1:8080
Using IPv4 address
tcp://192.168.0.1:8080/?flush_tx=1
tcp://192.168.0.1:8080/?keepalive=5000+1000+5
tcp://www.u-blox.com:80
tcp://[FE80::7AA5:4FF:FE2F:5F01]:8080
Using IPv4 address and short latency
Using IPv4 address and keep alive for 10 seconds
Using IPv4 DNS address
Using a IPv6 address
3.4.2 UDP peer
A UDP peer is the same as a UDP socket. For the UDP peer, the behavior differs for servers and clients. A server
accepts data from any IP address to the activated port number.
A client can be used to send data to a specified address. To listen on a different port than the remote port,
specify the <local_port> in the URL.
The UPD is setup in one direction only.
Example: To send on port 8080 and receive on port 8081
URL
udp://192.168.0.1:8080/?local_port=8081
3.4.3 SPP peer
The SPP peer is the Bluetooth BR/EDR Serial Port Profile.
A client can be used to send and receive data to and from a specified address. To connect to a different port
other than the remote port, specify the same in the URL.
Example: To connect SPP to remote device
URL
spp://112233AABBCC
spp://112233AABBCC/?port=1
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3.4.4 SPS peer
The SPS peer is the Bluetooth low energy Serial Port Service.
A client can be used to send and receive data to and from a specified address.
Example: To connect SPS to remote device
URL
sps://112233AABBCC
sps://112233AABBCC/?role=p
3.5 Security
3.5.1 Wi-Fi security
3.5.1.1
Wi-Fi security combinations
The module supports several security modes. The matrix below shows valid security combinations for the u-blox
connectivity software.
Wi-Fi Security
Unencrypted
WEP64
WEP128
TKIP
AES/CCMP
Open
Valid
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
-
-
Shared
-
-
-
-
-
WPA
-
-
-
Valid
Valid
WPA2
-
-
-
Valid
Valid
LEAP
-
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
PEAP
-
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
EAP-TLS
-
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
Valid (only station)
Table 1: Security combinations
WEP and TKIP are considered as unsecure. The WEP is deprecated in the 802.11i specification.
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2), also known as WPA-Personal or 802.11i, is the most common security setting
for Wi-Fi networks. The WPA2 has replaced WPA.
The WPA/WPA2 is used by a Wi-Fi Station; a WPA2 with AES/CCMP encryption is used, if supported by the
Access Point, if not, a WPA with TKIP encryption will be used.
It is not possible to have the WPA with AES/CCMP encryption or WPA2 with TKIP.
3.5.1.2
3.5.1.2.1
Key management
WPA PSK
In WPA/WPA2 PSK, AES/CCMP is used for unicast packets and TKIP is used for broadcast packets using either
the pre-shared key (that is, the hexadecimal string) or the password (plain-text) commonly referred to as "WPAPSK" and "WPA-PWD". Whenever you change the password, you need to Deactivate and Activate for the
settings to take effect. If you choose to enter a password (not a hexadecimal string), then the module will take
slightly longer during activation or boot after this change, in order to deduce the real key from the password.
The hexadecimal strings are given byte-by-byte. Each hexadecimal coded byte is prepended with the string
escape character “\”. For example: "\AF\11\12\4C\00\FF\0A\6D".
3.5.1.2.2
Enterprise security
Enterprise security is the common name for all the methods that use 802.1X to authenticate with a backend
RADIUS server. When using enterprise security, some credentials must be stored in the module; typical
credentials include user name, domain name, and password or certificate.
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The 802.1X authentication leads to the exchange of a Master Session Key that can be used either for WEP
encryption or WPA based security.
The username, password and the domain for the RADIUS server should be entered by the user.
If you wish to use enterprise security (LEAP, PEAP, or EAP-TLS) as the authentication algorithm, ensure that your
access point supports it. Not all the access points support enterprise security.
3.5.1.2.3
Certificate management
EAP-TLS uses certificates and keys; these files are stored in the internal storage in the module. The certificate and
the private key, that may be encrypted, must be selected thus making an EAP-TLS connection.
During a certificate request, there is a signing procedure. This is the equivalent of calculation A^E modulus N,
where A, E and N are values in the size of the certificate. That is, this is an operation that is designed to take a
lot of processing time.
The processing time varies for different certificates. Listed below is an example of the processing time required
by different certificate sizes.
The processing time is exponentially increased whenever the certificate size doubles
•
•
512 bit - 250 ms
1024 bit - 500 ms
•
2048 bit - 1000 ms
•
4096 bit - 3000 ms
3.5.1.2.4
PEM format certificates
PEM files are essentially a group of base64 encoded DER certificates and keys with additional meta data. This
allows the stored keys to be encrypted within the PEM file. If the PEM file contains more than one certificate, the
complete order will be determined and the certificates will be sent as a certificate chain.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Keys may be encrypted using either DES (DES-CBC) or 3DES (DES-EDE3-CBC).
Encrypted keys must be contained within "-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----" and "-----END RSA
PRIVATE KEY-----".
Clear text keys should be contained within "-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----" and "-----END PRIVATE KEY----".
Certificates should be contained within "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----" and "-----END CERTIFICATE-----".
Certificate encryption is not supported.
The order of certificates within the PEM file is not important; the certificates will be sorted so that the
order in the TLS packet is correct.
Only one key should be present within a PEM file.
All certificates within a PEM file must belong to the same (straight) chain.
Example to generate a self-signed certificate (should be used only for evaluation):
$ openssl req -x509 -sha256 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout privateKey.key -out
certificate.crt
Convert a PKCS#12 file (.pfx .p12) containing a private key and certificates to PEM:
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# Output the entire certificate chain to cert_chain.pem.
openssl.exe pkcs12 -in certificate.pfx -out cert_chain.pem -nokeys
# First convert the pfx file to PEM, then reformat the PEM file with the RSA module to get a
compatible PEM encrypted key.
openssl.exe pkcs12 -in certificate.pfx -out key.pem -nocerts
openssl.exe rsa -in key.pem -out key_des.pem -des
3.5.1.2.5 PER to DER format conversion
DER is the raw format of certificate that cannot be encrypted, and can only hold a single certificate or key.
Example of converting a certificate in PEM format (.crt .cer .pem), to DER format:
$ openssl x509 -outform der -in certificate.pem -out certificate.der
3.5.1.2.6
Certificate authority (CA)
Client side certificates should be verified by a CA before use. The certificates can be verified before installing
using the openssl tool.
3.5.1.2.7
Example of verification
In this verification example, a self-signed CA is used. The CA is stored in the file - ca.pem.
$ openssl verify -CAfile ca.pem client_1024@example.com.pem
client_1024@example.com.pem: OK
For more options and deeper information about verification, see the openssl manual.
The u-blox connectivity software supports certificates of the format PEM and DER. If the certificates are in other
format, they must be converted before downloading. This can be done using the openssl application, see
http://www.openssl.org for more information about this.
3.5.2 Bluetooth security
There are seven different security modes that support all kinds of use cases regarding the pairing procedure.
If the remote device supports only the previous version, a Bluetooth device must comply with the Bluetooth
previous security algorithms.
All security modes in Bluetooth use encryption and this includes security modes 1 and 2 (Security Disabled). The
encryption algorithm is a 128-bit cipher called E0.
Secure Simple Pairing (SSP) was introduced in Bluetooth 2.1 to improve security and simplify the pairing process.
The SSP uses a form of public key cryptography and Just Works™, numeric comparison, passkey entry and out
of band authentication mechanisms.
•
•
•
Just works: No user interaction is needed, except that the user may need to confirm the pairing
process. The method is typically used by devices with very limited IO capabilities.
Numeric comparison: A 6-digit numeric code is displayed on each device where the user can compare
the numbers to ensure they are identical.
Passkey Entry: Either a 6-digit numeric code is displayed on one device that the user enters on the
other device, or the same 6-digit numbers are entered on both the devices.
For more information about Bluetooth security, see Bluetooth Security Document [8].
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4 Applications
This section describes how the ODIN-W2 series module can be used in different use cases.
The examples include configuration details where as a precondition, it is assumed that the module has been set
in Factory default mode AT+UFACTORY, if nothing else is stated. In some configurations, the default values for
some parameters are assumed. All the configurations listed in this section are based on the software version
3.0.0 or newer.
4.1 Wi-Fi network connectivity
The ODIN-W2 series module enables connectivity to an existing wireless network acting as a Wi-Fi station.
4.1.1 Use case #1: Serial to Wi-Fi Station Bridge
Let ODIN-W2 series act as a Wi-Fi station to connect to the local area network (LAN). This can be useful to
replace cables (serial connections) to improve working conditions and reduce costs in manufacturing industries.
For example, ODIN-W2 series is placed in a tool used to mount bolts in cars. The Host that is connected to the
ODIN-W2 module starts to identify the bolt and sends information to the network or server using access points
(AP). The server or network then returns the torque curve information and correct tool configuration to adjust
the bolt. When done, the tool sends the logging file to the server.
Wi-Fi station
Access point
Wi-Fi
Ethernet
Industry network or server
Figure 23: Example of ODIN-W2 series acting as a Wi-Fi station to provide network connectivity
This use case is similar to the one described in section 4.2.1. The difference is that the ODIN-W2 module acts as
a Wi-Fi station to connect to an existing wireless network in this use case, while in the other, it acts as an AP to
provide access to the network.
4.1.1.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
1
Set SSID for the Network.
AT+UWSC=0,2,"UBXWifi"
2
Use WPA2 as authentication type.
AT+UWSC=0,5,2
3
Use Password “my password”.
AT+UWSC=0,8,"my password"
4
Activate Wi-Fi Station configuration.
AT+UWSCA=0,3
5
Wait for Wi-Fi interface to connect
+UUWLE:0,112233445566,11
6
Connect using TCP port on AP.
AT+UDCP="tcp://192.168.2.1:9000"
7
Enter Data Mode to send data.
ATO1
8
These settings are not stored in the flash memory of ODIN-W2 series.
The host needs to write this every time ODIN-W2 reboots.
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To make the ODIN-W2 module automatically connect to a Wi-Fi network, the following configuration is used.
Instructions
AT command
1
Set Wi-Fi to be active at startup.
AT+UWSC=0,0,1
2
Set SSID for the Network.
AT+UWSC=0,2,"UBXWifi"
3
Use WPA2 as authentication type.
AT+UWSC=0,5,2
4
Use Password “my password”.
AT+UWSC=0,8,"my password"
5
Store the Wi-Fi Station configuration.
AT+UWSCA=0,1
6
Set default remote peer to use TCP port on AP, using always
connected.
AT+UDDRP=0,"tcp://192.168.2.1:9000",2
7
Set startup mode to data mode.
AT+UMSM=1
8
Store configuration to the startup database.
AT&W
9
Reboot the ODIN-W2 module.
AT+CPWROFF
ODIN-W2 module restarts
10
The settings are now stored in the flash memory of the ODIN-W2
module.
On power up, the ODIN-W2 will connect to the network and the TCP
connection whenever the module reboots. All data sent to the UART
on ODIN-W2 will be sent to the remote IP address -192.168.2.1.
4.1.2 Use case #2: Serial to Wi-Fi Access Point Bridge
This use case is similar to the one described in 4.1.1. The difference is that the ODIN-W2 module acts as an AP to
provide access to the network in this use case, while in the other, it acts as a Wi-Fi station to connect to an
existing wireless network.
4.1.2.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
1
Set Wi-Fi Access Point to be active at startup.
AT+UWAPC=0,0,1
1
Set SSID for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,2,"UBXWifi"
2
Set Channel 1 for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,4,1
3
Set WPA2 Security for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,5,2,2
4
Use Password “my password".
AT+UWAPC=0,8,"my password"
5
Set server configuration id 1, using TCP and port 8080.
AT+UDSC=1,1,8080
6
Set startup mode to data mode.
AT+UMSM=1
7
Store configuration to the startup database.
AT&W
8
Reboot the ODIN-W2 module, the following will happen:
AT+CPWROFF
9
The ODIN-W2 module will start the Access Point and devices can now connect to
the network with the SSID "UBXWifi".
When Wi-Fi is connected and the Network is up, the TCP listener on ODIN-W2
will start. The data sent to the TCP connection will be transferred to the serial
interface on ODIN-W2.
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4.1.3 Use case #3: Serial PPP to Wi-Fi Bridge
Use ODIN-W2 series to download or upload larger files using Wi-Fi instead of your cellular data plan. Let the
ODIN-W2 module act as a Wi-Fi station to connect to a known Wi-Fi network when available.
Serial PPP is a protocol commonly used between a device and a cellular modem to provide Internet connectivity.
Since PPP is supported by ODIN-W2, it is easy to integrate the Wi-Fi connectivity using PPP to the Wi-Fi module.
For example, when a truck is within Wi-Fi range returning to the garage, the log files are uploaded and new
driver instructions are received without any interactions from the driver.
Wi-Fi station
Access point
Wi-Fi
Ethernet
Fleet management network
Figure 24: Example of ODIN-W2 series acting as a Wi-Fi station to provide network connectivity
4.1.3.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
1
PPP Network IP address for the client.
AT+UPPPC=101,172.30.0.252
2
PPP Network Subnet mask for the client.
AT+UPPPC=102,255.255.255.0
3
Enter PPP Mode.
ATO3
4
•
•
•
•
5
Make sure the Serial Port in your software is closed.
Connect the Dial up Modem that supports PPP Client such as Windows
or Linux pppd.
ODIN-W2 has now received the address 172.30.0.251 for the PPP
network interface,
Send a ping from the host, to test the interface and ping reply will be
received.
Use a UDP connection to 172.30.0.251 on port 23 to send and receive AT
commands.
•
•
•
Example using Netcat:
nc –u –c 172.30.0.251 23
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netcat
6
Set SSID for the Network (via UDP port 23).
AT+UWSC=0,2,"UBXWifi"
7
Use WPA2 as an authentication type (via UDP port 23).
AT+UWSC=0,5,2
8
Use Password “my password” (via UDP port 23).
AT+UWSC=0,8,"my password"
9
Activate Wi-Fi Station configuration (via UDP port 23).
AT+UWSCA=0,3
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4.1.4 Use case #4: Ethernet to Wi-Fi Bridge
Let ODIN-W2 series act as a Wi-Fi station to connect to an AP or home router to replace the Ethernet cable
without any modification to the device.
When replacing an Ethernet cable, it is possible to use low-level RMII signaling without the need of an external
PHY component to reduce costs. If access to the low-level RMII is not available, external PHY can easily be
integrated and configured by the ODIN-W2 module.
For example, as shown in Figure 25, in home meter monitoring, the home meter offers connectivity to a home
meter monitoring server using a connected Ethernet cable to a switch or router. Then, you can easily monitor the
device using an app on a smart device (mobile phone or tablet).
Wi-Fi station
Access point
Wi-Fi
Ethernet
Home meter monitoring server
Figure 25: Example of ODIN-W2 series acting as a Wi-Fi station to provide network connectivity
4.1.4.1 Configuration
This example configures the Wi-Fi Bridge in the ODIN-W2 module to route all Layer 2 traffic between the Wi-Fi
station interface and the Ethernet interface. See u-blox Short Range Modules AT Commands Manual [5] for
more information about the AT+UBRGC command and the parameters.
In this setup, it is not possible to access the ODIN-W2 module over the network interfaces; you can use
only the UART interface.
Instructions
AT command
1
Enable the Wi-Fi bridge between
1: Wi-Fi station and 3: Ethernet interface
AT+UBRGC=0,1,1,3
2
Optionally, store the configuration to flash and active on startup.
AT+UBRGC=0,0,1
AT+UBRGCA=0,1
Activate the bridge configuration:
• Use PHY
• (use AT+UETHC=1,0 for RMII)
AT+UBRGCA=0,3
Optionally, store the configuration to flash and active on startup.
AT+UETHC=0,1
AT+UETHCA=1
5
Activate the Ethernet configuration. Default values (100 Mbit, Full duplex and
Auto negotiation) are used in this example.
AT+UETHCA=3
6
Connect the Ethernet cable and wait for the interface to go up.
+UUETHLU
7
Use an open network to configure the Wi-Fi Station.
AT+UWSC=0,2,"my_SSID"
AT+UWSC=0,5,1
8
Optionally, store the configuration to flash and active on startup.
AT+UWSC=0,0,1
AT+UWSCA=0,1
9
Activate the Wi-Fi configuration.
AT+UWSCA=0,3
10
Wait for the Wi-Fi interface to be connected.
+UUWLE:0,112233445566,11
3
4
AT+UETHC=1,1
If a PC is used as a host, you might have to disable Autonegotiation on the PC using the AT+UETHC=4,0
or use a switch between the Ethernet interface and the PC.
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4.2 Wi-Fi network sharing / Wi-Fi access point
You can easily create your own wireless network to enable connections to a device or network. The ODIN-W2
series enables secure network access with WPA2 support when acting as a Wi-Fi AP.
4.2.1 Use case #1: Wi-Fi local area network enabler
Let ODIN-W2 series act as a Wi-Fi AP to provide access to the local area network (LAN). Up to ten Wi-Fi stations
can be connected simultaneously to the same ODIN-W2 module to get access to the LAN. A wireless solution
allows improved and flexible working conditions compared to a wired solution.
For example, as shown in Figure 26, the tool acts as a Wi-Fi station and is connected to the ODIN-W2 module
that acts as an AP. The ODIN-W2 then forwards the information from the tool to the network or server, the
server or network then returns the torque curve information and correct tool configuration to adjust the bolt
using the AP.
Wi-Fi station
Wi-Fi
Ethernet
Access point
Industry network or server
Figure 26: Example of ODIN-W2 series acting as an access point to share network
This use case is similar to the one described in section 4.1.1. The difference is that the ODIN-W2 series acts as an
AP to provide access to the network in this use case, while in the other, it acts as a Wi-Fi station to connect to an
existing wireless network.
4.2.1.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
1
Set Wi-Fi Access Point to be active at startup.
AT+UWAPC=0,0,1
1
Set SSID for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,2,"UBXWifi"
2
Set Channel 1 for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,4,1
3
Set WPA2 Security for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,5,2,2
4
Use Password “my password".
AT+UWAPC=0,8,"my password"
5
Set server configuration id 1, using TCP and port 8080.
AT+UDSC=1,1,8080
6
Set startup mode to data mode.
AT+UMSM=1
7
Store configuration to startup database.
AT&W
8
Reboot the ODIN-W2 module
AT+CPWROFF
9
The ODIN-W2 will start the Access Point and devices can now connect to the
network with the SSID "UBXWifi".
When Wi-Fi is connected and the Network is up, the TCP listener on the ODINW2 module will start. The data sent to the TCP connection will be transferred to
the serial interface on ODIN-W2.
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4.2.2 Use case #2: (Hosted) Wi-Fi tethering (hot spot)
Use the ODIN-W2 series together with a cellular modem to enable Internet access. Sharing the cellular network
and allowing smart devices (mobile phone or tablet) to connect is also known as Wi-Fi tethering.
The example in Figure 27 shows a telematics box with an ODIN-W2 module connected with the cellular modem
to enable Internet access to smart devices using Wi-Fi. The module acts as an AP and is connected to the
application’s MCU interface using a RMII interface.
Telematics box with
ODIN-W2 and cellular
modem
Access point
Wi-Fi
Smart device
Figure 27: Example of ODIN-W2 series acting as an access point to share network
4.2.2.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
Bridge configuration
1
Enable bridging between 1: Wi-Fi Station and 3: Ethernet interface.
AT+UBRGC=0,1,1,3
2
Active on startup (optional).
AT+UBRGC=0,0,1
3
Store configuration (optional).
AT+UBRGCA=0,1
4
Activate the bridge configuration.
AT+UBRGCA=0,3
Ethernet configuration
5
Active on startup (optional)
AT+UETHC=0,1
6
Store configuration (optional).
AT+UETHCA=1
7
Use RMII interface (Ethernet is default).
AT+UETHC=1,0
8
Wait for the interface to go up
+UUETHLU
Wi-Fi Access Point configuration
9
Set SSID for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,2,"my_SSID"
10
Set Channel 1 for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,4,1
11
Set WPA2 Security for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,5,2,2
12
Use Password “my password".
AT+UWAPC=0,8,"my password"
13
Active on startup.
AT+UWAPC=0,0,1
14
Store configuration.
AT+UWAPCA=0,1
15
Activate the Wi-Fi Station.
AT+UWAPCA=0,3
16
Wait for the Wi-Fi Clients to connect.
+UUWLE:0,112233445566,11
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4.3 Wireless device configuration
The ODIN-W2 series can be used to replace Human Machine Interface (HMI) on all types of machines in all kinds
of industries. You can easily update machine settings via a wireless connection by sending the configuration
details to the machine using a laptop or smart device (mobile phone or tablet). An easy-to-use app optimizes the
workflow and replaces all physical buttons or LCD displays, thus increasing efficiency and usability.
4.3.1 Use case #1: Smartphone or tablet using Bluetooth low energy
Connect your mobile phone or tablet using Bluetooth low energy (BLE) with the device to update settings using
an app. Bluetooth low energy is battery effective and supported by many smart devices. The ODIN-W2 module
can provide Internet access using Wi-Fi for the device (as described in section 4.1.3) and simultaneously use
Bluetooth low energy for wireless device configuration.
For example, as shown in Figure 28, the ODIN-W2 module can be placed in the telematics box. If the
configuration details must be updated or modified in the telematics box, such as adding credentials for a new
AP, this can be done using the app that uses Bluetooth low energy.
Smart device
Bluetooth LE
Wi-Fi station
Access point
Wi-Fi
Fleet management network
Figure 28: Example of ODIN-W2 series using wireless device configuration
4.3.1.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
1
Enable Peripheral Mode
AT+UBTBLE=2
2
Store and reboot
AT&W
3
Reboot to enable the Peripheral Mode
AT+CPWROFF
4
Change name to something easy to find
AT+UBTLN="ODIN-W2 AP Setup"
5
Use Just Works security
AT+UBTSM=1
6
Enable pairing
AT+UBTPM=2
7
Enable AT Command over Air (COA) using Serial Port Service
AT+UDSC=1,8,6
8
Store and reboot
AT&W
9
Reboot to enable the Peripheral Mode
AT+CPWROFF
Connect from another device such as a smartphone with the u-blox
App
10
Now it is possible to provide AT command using the Serial Port Service on the
ODIN-W2 module
11
Configure the SSID
AT+UWSC=0,2,"my_SSID"
12
Configure the to use WPA2
AT+UWSC=0,5,2
13
Configure Password
AT+UWSC=0,8,"my_Password"
14
Activate Wi-Fi Station
AT+UWSCA=0,3
15
Store Wi-Fi Station
AT+UWSCA=0,1
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4.3.2 Use case #2: Laptop using Wi-Fi
ODIN-W2 series can act as an AP to provide wireless access to a machine for maintenance such as software
updates or real-time diagnostics and control, from a laptop. This enables access to inaccessible machines, such as
spreader or machines located in harsh environments using a Wi-Fi network. Using Wi-Fi improves the throughput
if transferring a large amount of data.
For example, as shown in Figure 29, the ODIN-W2 series is connected to the spreader and enables access from a
laptop to control the spreader or to send new settings.
Access point
Wi-Fi
Laptop
Figure 29: Example of ODIN-W2 series using wireless device configuration
4.3.2.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
1
Set SSID for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,2,"my_SSID"
2
Set Channel 1 for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,4,1
3
Set WPA2 Security for the Network.
AT+UWAPC=0,5,2,2
4
Use Password “my password".
AT+UWAPC=0,8,"my password"
5
Active on startup.
AT+UWAPC=0,0,1
6
Store the configuration.
AT+UWAPCA=0,1
7
Activate the Wi-Fi Station.
AT+UWAPCA=0,3
8
Wait for the Wi-Fi Access Point interface to be enabled. After this event has been
received, the AP is ready and stations can connect.
+UUWAPU:0
9
Set server configuration id 1, using TCP and port 8080.
AT+UDSC=1,1,8080
10
Enter Data Mode to receive data on port 8080 from the remote device.
ATO1
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4.4 Other use cases
4.4.1 Use case #1: Ethernet to Wi-Fi access Point Bridge
4.4.1.1 Configuration
This example configures the bridge in ODIN-W2 series, to route all Layer 2 traffic between the Wi-Fi AP interface
and Ethernet interface. See u-blox Short Range Modules AT Commands Manual [5] for more information about
the interfaces.
In this setup, it is not possible to access the ODIN-W2 module over the network interfaces; you can use
only the UART interface.
Instructions
AT command
1
Enable bridge between 2: Wi-Fi AP and 3: Ethernet interface.
AT+UBRGC=0,1,2,3
2
Optionally, store the configuration to flash and active on startup.
AT+UBRGC=0,0,1
3
Activate the bridge configuration using:
• PHY, or
AT+UBRGCA=0,3
AT+UBRGCA=0,1
•
4
RMII
Optionally, store the configuration to flash and active on startup.
•
•
AT+UETHC=1,1
AT+UETHC=1,0
AT+UETHC=0,1
AT+UETHCA=1
5
Activate the Ethernet configuration. Default values (100 Mbit, Full duplex and
Auto negotiation) are used in this example.
AT+UETHCA=3
6
If a PHY is used, connect the Ethernet cable and wait for the interface to start.
+UUETHLU
7
Configure the Wi-Fi AP. In this example, there is no security and set SSID to
“my_SSID”. Note that the IP address will not be used when the bridge is
activated.
AT+UWAPC=0,2,"my_SSID"
AT+UWAPC=0,4,1
8
Optionally, store the configuration to flash and active on startup.
AT+UWAPC=0,0,1
AT+UWAPCA=0,1
9
Activate the Wi-Fi configuration.
AT+UWAPCA=0,3
10
Enable the Wi-Fi AP interface.
+UUWAPU:0
11
Connect a Wi-Fi station device such as a smartphone or another ODIN-W2
module configured as a Wi-Fi station. The device should now receive a DHCP
address from the network connected to the Ethernet interface.
+UUWAPSTAC:0,D0A637C90E9E
AT+UWAPC=0,5,1,1
4.4.2 Use case #2: Wi-Fi access point to PPP
4.4.2.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
1
PPP Network IP address for the client.
AT+UPPPC=101,172.30.0.252
2
PPP Network Subnet mask for the client.
AT+UPPPC=102,255.255.255.0
3
Enter the PPP Mode.
ATO3
4
•
•
•
•
5
Make sure that the Serial Port in your software is closed.
Connect the Dial up Modem that supports PPP Client such as
Windows or Linux pppd.
The ODIN-W2 module has now received the address 172.30.0.251 for the PPP network interface,
Send a ping from the host, to test the interface and ping reply will
be received.
Use a UDP connection to 172.30.0.251 on port 23 to send and receive AT
commands.
•
Example using Netcat:
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•
•
nc –u –c 172.30.0.251 23
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netcat
6
Set SSID for the Network (via UDP port 23).
AT+UWAPC=0,4,1
7
Use WPA2 as authentication type (via UDP port 23).
AT+UWAPC=0,5,2,2
8
Use the password “my password” (via UDP port 23).
AT+UWAPC=0,8,"my password"
9
Activate Wi-Fi Station configuration (via UDP port 23).
AT+UWAPC=0,3
4.4.3 Use case #3: Ethernet to UART
4.4.3.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT command
1
Use Static IP Address.
AT+UETHC=100,1
2
Use 192.168.0.101 as IP Address.
AT+UETHC=101,192.168.0.101
3
Use 255.255.0.0 as Subnet Mask.
AT+UETHC=102,255.255.0.0
4
Use 192.168.0.1 as Gateway.
AT+UETHC=103,192.168.0.1
5
Use Ethernet interface.
AT+UETHC=1,1
6
Activate the Ethernet settings.
AT+UETHCA=3
7
Enable AT Commands on TCP Port 23.
AT+UDSC=1,1,23
Now, ODIN-W2 series will accept the TCP connection on port 23, and all data will be sent to the UART.
•
•
Example using Netcat: nc –c 192.168.0.101 23
More information about Netcat: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netcat
4.4.4 Use case #4: Serial to Bluetooth
Establish a Bluetooth SPP connection between two ODIN-W2 series modules.
Figure 30: ODIN-W2 series Bluetooth SPP connection
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4.4.4.1
Configuration
Instructions
1
AT commands
ODIN-W2 series accepts incoming connection and replies on
inquiry.
Device 1
2
Find the remote device using Inquiry.
AT+UBTI
3
Find and write down the Bluetooth address for the remote
device (device 2) to be used for the connection command.
+UBTI:222222222222,-52,000000,"Bluetooth Device"
4
Device 1 connects via Bluetooth SPP with device 2.
If no established connection, error code is shown.
+UDCP:1
AT+UDCP="spp:// 222222222222"
5
The connection event is received with information about
connection type and Bluetooth address.
+UUDPC:1,1,1, 222222222222,669
6
To enter data mode to be able to send and receive data
AT01
Device 2
7
The connection event is received with information about
connection type and Bluetooth address.
+UUDPC:1,1,1,111111111111,669
8
To enter data mode to be able to send and receive data
AT01
4.4.5 Use case #5: Serial to Bluetooth (always connected)
Establish a Bluetooth SPP connection that connects automatically (serial cable replacement) to send transparent
data between two devices that stays connected as shown in Figure 31.
Figure 31: ODIN-W2 series Bluetooth SPP connection remote peer
4.4.5.1
Configuration
Instructions
AT commands
1
Setup a default peer and configure with always connected parameter.
AT+UDDRP=0,"spp://222222222222/",2
2
Select startup mode and start in data mode.
AT+UMSM=1
3
Store configuration in the startup database.
AT&W
4
Reboot to use new settings.
AT+CPWROFF
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4.4.6 Use case #6: Serial to Bluetooth low energy
Establish a Bluetooth low energy SPS connection.
4.4.6.1
Configuration
Instruction to setup module (device 1) as central
AT command
1
Device 1: Enable the Central Role.
AT+UBTLE=1
2
Store the configuration.
AT&W
3
Restart the device.
AT+CPWROFF
4
Connect [what] using Serial Port Service. Use the address of Device 2.
AT+UDCP=”spp://222222222222”
5
Enter data mode.
ATO1
Instruction to setup second module (device 2) as peripheral
AT command
1
Device 2: Enable the Peripheral Role.
AT+UBTLE=2
2
Store the configuration.
AT&W
3
Restart the device.
AT+CPWROFF
4
Set server configuration ID 1 to Serial Port Service.
AT+UDSC=1,6
5
Start the device in data mode.
AT+UMSM=1
6
Store the configuration.
AT&W
7
Restart the device.
AT+CPWROFF
It is also possible to connect from the Peripheral device by enabling the Serial Port service AT+UDSC=1,6 on the
Central device and then using the address from device 1 AT+UDCP="spp://Device1".
4.4.7 Use case #7: Bluetooth low energy to UART
Establish a Bluetooth low energy SPS connection from the Central using always connected (serial cable
replacement).
4.4.7.1
Configuration
Instruction to setup module (device 1) as central
AT command
1
Device 1: Enable the Central Role.
AT+UBTLE=1
2
Store the configuration.
AT&W
3
Restart the device.
AT+CPWROFF
4
Default peer using Serial Port Service and always connected. Use the address of
Device 2.
AT+UDDRP=1,sps://112233445566p,2
5
Start the device in data mode.
AT+UMSM=1
6
Store the configuration.
AT&W
7
Restart the device.
AT+CPWROFF
Instruction to setup second module (device 2) as peripheral
AT command
1
Device 2: Enable the Peripheral Role.
AT+UBTLE=2
2
Store the configuration.
AT&W
3
Restart the device.
AT+CPWROFF
4
Set server configuration ID 1 to Serial Port Service.
AT+UDSC=1,6
5
Start the device in data mode.
AT+UMSM=1
6
Store the configuration.
AT&W
7
Restart the device.
AT+CPWROFF
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4.4.8 Use case #8: Bluetooth Personal Area Network (PAN-User to smartphone)
The Bluetooth BR/EDR Profile Personal Area Network (PAN) supports sending Ethernet data over Bluetooth (TCP
or UDP) over Bluetooth. In this example, make sure that the Internet Connection Sharing or Personal Hotspot is
enabled on the smartphone so that the smartphone can do a pairing. Then, open an application on the
smartphone with a TCP listener on port 5003.
Bluetooth PAN
TCP or UDP connection
Figure 32: Bluetooth PAN connection to a smart phone
4.4.8.1
Configuration
Instruction to setup module (device 1) as central
AT command
1
Set Master/Slave role to “don’t case” (default value), the smartphone will be
the master in this case
AT+UBTMSP=1
2
Set the local PAN role to PAN-PANU (client)
AT+UBTPANC=1,0
3
Set the remote PAN role to PAN-NAP (server)
AT+UBTPANC=2,1
4
Use the address of the smartphone
AT+UBTPANC=4,112233445566p
5
Optionally, store the configuration to flash and active on startup
AT+UBTPANC=0,0
6
The phone may initiate a paring, ODIN-W2 will accept this
+UUBTB:48BF6B51D0C6,0
7
The PAN Bluetooth connection is now created
+UUBTPANLU:0,48BF6B51D0C6p
8
The PAN network interface will go up to indicate that the network is up
+UUNU:15
9
PAN has network id 15, use the status command to get more details like IP
Address, in this case the smartphone has the IP of the gateway
172.20.10.1
AT+UNSTAT=15
(Gateway address)
10
Create a TCP connection to the smartphone, make sure the IP address
AT+UDCP="tcp://172.20.10.1:5003"
11
The TCP connection is connected to the application on the phone
+UUDPC:1,2,0,172.20.10.2,49153,172
.20.10.1,5003
12
Switch to the data mode to send data from the UART to the TCP connection
ATO1
AT+UBTPANC=1,0
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+UNSTAT:15,103,172.20.10.1
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4.4.9 Use case #9: Wi-Fi AP and Bluetooth PAN NAP bridge
It is possible to use both the Wi-Fi Access Point and PAN NAP (Network Access Point) to bridge the two
interfaces and use the DHCP server on the bridge to prove the IP address to both Bluetooth and Wi-Fi Station
devices. For this example, make sure your device supports the PAN PANU role. The Bluetooth PAN-PANU device
and the Wi-Fi Station will be able to communicate using TCP or UDP protocol.
Wi-Fi
Bluetooth PAN
TCP or UDP connection
Figure 33: ODIN-W2 bridge between PAN and Wi-Fi
4.4.9.1
Configuration
Instruction to setup module
AT command
1
Bridge Wi-Fi Access Point on Ethernet level
AT+UBRGC=0,1,2,6
2
Bridge Wi-Fi Access Point on IP level
AT+UBRGC=0,2,2,6
3
Use static IP address on the Bridge
AT+UBRGC=0,100,1
4
Bridge Static IP address
AT+UBRGC=0,101,192.168.0.50
5
Bridge Network Mask
AT+UBRGC=0,102,255.255.255.0
6
Bridge Gateway
AT+UBRGC=0,103,192.168.0.50
7
Bridge primary DNS
AT+UBRGC=0,104,192.168.0.50
8
Bridge secondary DNS
AT+UBRGC=0,105,0.0.0.0
9
Enable DHCP Server on the Bridge
AT+UBRGC=0,106,1
10
Activate the Bridge network interface
AT+UBRGCA=0,3
11
Set role to Always Master, to get best performance (and to avoid scatternet)
AT+UBTMSP=0
12
Set the local PAN role to PAN-NAP (server)
AT+UBTPANC=1,1
13
Set the remote PAN role to PAN-PANU (client)
AT+UBTPANC=2,0
14
Activate the PAN-NAP (server), this will allow incoming connections BT
AT+UBTPANCA=3
15
Wait for the PAN-PANU device to connect
+UUBTPANLU:0,112233445566p
16
Set network name SSID
AT+UWAPC=0,2,"my_ssid"
17
Use channel 6
AT+UWAPC=0,4,6
18
Use WPA2 for security
AT+UWAPC=0,5,2,2
19
Set the password
AT+UWAPC=0,8,"my_password"
20
Activate the Access Point on ODIN-W2
AT+UWAPCA=0,3
21
Wait for the Station to connect
+UUWAPSTAC:0,48BF6B51D0DC
Set up a TCP listener on port 5003 of the Wi-Fi Station device; if another
ODIN-W2 is used, send the following command to enable this
AT+UDSC=1,1,5003,0
From the smartphone using PAN-PANU, use an app that supports TCP
connections and connect to the remote device using the IP address received
from the Wi-Fi Access Point
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4.4.10 Use case #10: Wi-Fi Station connecting to Enterprise security using EAP-TLS
To connect to enterprise security using EAP-TLS, which is considered as a high secure Wi-Fi connection, ODINW2 must upload a client certificate obtained by the network administrator. To prevent
man-in-the-middle attacks, it is recommended to upload the CA root certificate also and validate this against the
server certificate that was sent to ODIN-W2 during the connection setup - this is the default behavior. If the
server certificate is not available or if this is not required (less secure though), it can be disabled by the
AT+UWSC=<id>,15,0. The server validation is also valid for PEAP enterprise security Wi-Fi connections.
To upload the (CA) root certificate, use the AT+USECMNG=0,0,<file_name>,<file_size>
Command; The ODIN-W2 will then respond with an “>” and will then wait for the file to be sent in binary
format.
It is recommended to use hardware flow control on the UART for high baud rates above 115200, but for
115200 or lower baud rates; it will work without hardware flow control on the UART.
After the download has been completed (and all bytes in the <file_size> has been received), ODIN-W2 will
reply with a +USECMNG as shown in the example below; it will also return the MD5 hash of the file in DERformat. The host can then verify that the file has been properly been downloaded to ODIN-W2,
If the certificate is downloaded in PEM-format, which is also supported, the certificate must be converted
to DER-format before the MD5 can be verified (on the host).
Example of MD5 hash (128 bit):
+USECMNG:0,0,"ca.der","621279af9b9b144acb61c3237be6fb82"
Example to upload the CA Root certificate (CA):
AT+USECMNG=0,0,ca.der,1024
Example to upload the client certificate (CC):
AT+USECMNG=0,1,client.der,2048
Example to upload the private key (PK):
AT+USECMNG=0,2,private_key.der,1024,"my_password"
Wi-Fi station
Enerprise security using EAP-TLS
Access point
Enterprise security with RADIUS server
Figure 34: Wi-Fi Station Enterprise security EAP-TLS
Instruction to setup module
AT command
1
Use an open network to configure the Wi-Fi Station.
AT+UWSC=0,2,"my_SSID"
2
Set security to EAP-TLS
AT+UWSC=0,5,5
3
Select the Client Certificate that should be uploaded
AT+UWSC=0,12,"client.der"
4
Select the Private Key that should be uploaded
AT+UWSC=0,13,"private_key.der"
5
Select the CA Root Certificate to use in server validation
AT+UWSC=0,14,"ca.der"
6
Enable server certificate validation against CA root certificate
AT+UWSC=0,15,1
7
Activate the Wi-Fi configuration
AT+UWSCA=0,3
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4.4.11 Optimization
4.4.11.1 Wi-Fi optimization
•
•
•
To improve the ping response, disable power save. The Wi-Fi power save mode is enabled by default
and can be turned off using the AT command to get better response time and performance using Wi-Fi.
Use the AT+UWCFG=1,0 command.
To optimize outgoing TCP connections for short latency, (especially for small data packet where this will
improve the performance), specify <flush_tx=1> in the URL in the AT+UDCPC or AT+UDDRP
command.
Example AT+UDCP="tcp://192.168.0.1:5003/?flush_tx=1" or
AT+UDDRP=0,"tcp://192.168.0.1:5003/?flush_tx=1",2 for always connected.
For incoming TCP connections, the Option 2 is set to 1 to enable tx_flush on port 5003.
Example AT+UDSC=1,1,5003,1
4.4.11.2 Bluetooth optimization
•
•
•
•
•
For best performance, keep the allowed number of slaves as small as possible. Use the AT+UBTCFG
command to configure this; the default is one connection (only point-to-point).
To maximize the throughput and minimize jitter on the data, the page and inquiry scan is turned off
when link is connected. To change this, use the AT+UBTCFG=6,0 and 1 to disable this, (though this
need not be done normally).
To maximize the range, select only to use DM1 (one slot) packet using the AT+UBTCFG=3,8. This will
lower the throughput (to about 100 kbit/s), improves the latency, and this command works for both
incoming and outgoing connections.
Quality of Service (QoS) can be used for links where the ODIN-W2 module is the master using
AT+UBTCFG=5,1 this will ensure that the shortest possible poll interval to the connected slaves is
used.
When the requirement is high to get the lowest latest latency possible, the Active Poll configuration is
recommended, and is enabled by AT+UBTCFG=11,1. This command should only be set on either the
Master or the Slave, and not on both.
4.4.11.3 Bluetooth low energy optimization
•
To improve throughput using SPS, the connection interval can be lowered. The minimum value is 7.5 ms
(6 * 1,25 ms) and is set using the AT+UBTCFG=4,6 and AT+UBTCFG=5,6 commands.
All remote devices do not support this low connection interval.
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Appendix
A Glossary
Name
Definition
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard
AFH
Adaptive Frequency Hopping
AP
Access Point
BLE
Bluetooth low energy
BR/EDR
Basic Rate/Enhanced Data Rate
CCMP
Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol
DCE
Data Communication Equipment
DER
Distinguished Encoding Rules
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DUN
Dial-up Networking Profile
EDM
Extended Data Mode
GATT
Generic Attribute Profile
GPIO
General-purpose input/output
HMI
Human Machine Interface
IP
Internet Protocol
IoT
Internet-of-Things
LAN
Local Area Network
MAC
Media Access Control
MCU
Multipoint Controller Unit
NAP
Network Access Point
NFC
Near Field Communication
OOB
Out of band
OSI
Open Systems Interconnection model
PAN
Personal Area Networking
PANU
Personal Area Network User
PEM
Privacy Enhanced Mail
PHY
Physical Layer
PPP
Point to Point Protocol
RMII
Reduced media-independent interface
SPP
Serial Port Profile
SPS
Serial Port Service
SSP
Secure Simple Pairing
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TKIP
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
URC
Unsolicited result code
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Table 2: Explanation of abbreviations used
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Appendix
Page 38 of 40
ODIN-W2 series - Application Note
Related documents
[1]
https://github.com/u-blox
[2]
[3]
https://www.mbed.com
Evaluation kit for ODIN-W2 series User Guide, Document No. UBX-15020900 - R03
[4]
ODIN-W2 series System Integration Manual, Document No. UBX-14040040
[5]
[6]
u-blox Short Range Modules AT Commands Manual, Document No. UBX-14044127
https://www.bluetooth.com/specifications/gatt/services
[7]
u-blox Extended Data Mode Protocol Specification, Document No. UBX-14044126
[8]
Bluetooth Security, Document No. UBX-150116977
For regular updates to u-blox documentation and to receive product change notifications, register on our
homepage (http://www.u-blox.com).
Revision history
Revision
Date
Name
Comments
R01
R02
25-Aug-2017
cmag
Initial release.
22-Dec-2017
cmag, kgom
Updated the applicable products table on page 2 to include support for
ODIN-W2-SW 5.0.0. (Use the ODIN-W2 Getting started (UBX-15017452) for the
ODIN-W2 software versions 1.0.0 to 4.0.1).
Added information about Wi-Fi Roaming (section 3.2.7) and Bridge functionality
(section 3.2.8). Also added information about the following use cases - Bluetooth
Personal Area Network (section 4.4.8), Wi-Fi AP and Bluetooth PAN NAP bridge (section
4.4.9) and Wi-Fi Station connecting to Enterprise security using EAPTLS (section 4.4.10).
R03
26-Jan-2018
kgom
Included support for ODIN-W2 software version 5.0.1.
UBX-16024251 - R03
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Page 39 of 40
ODIN-W2 series - Application Note
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