User’s Guide
XGS2210 Series
Intelligent Layer 2 GbE Switch
Default Login Details
LAN IP Address
User Name
Password
Version 4.50 Edition 1, 08/2017
http://DHCP-assigned
IP or 192.168.1.1
admin
1234
Copyright © 2017 Zyxel Communications Corporation
IMPORTANT!
READ CAREFULLY BEFORE USE.
KEEP THIS GUIDE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.
This is a User’s Guide for a system managing a series of products. Not all products support all features.
Menushots and graphics in this book may differ slightly from what you see due to differences in release
versions or your computer operating system. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information
in this manual is accurate.
Related Documentation
• CLI Reference Guide
The CLI Reference Guide explains how to use the Command-Line Interface (CLI) to configure the
Switch.
Note: It is recommended you use the Web Configurator to configure the Switch.
• Online Help
Click the help link for a description of the fields in the Switch menus.
• More Information
Go to support.zyxel.com to find other information on the Switch.
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2
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
User’s Guide ......................................................................................................................................19
Getting to Know Your Switch .............................................................................................................. 20
Hardware Installation and Connection ............................................................................................. 25
Hardware Panels .................................................................................................................................. 28
Technical Reference ........................................................................................................................34
The Web Configurator ......................................................................................................................... 35
Initial Setup Example ............................................................................................................................ 45
Tutorials .................................................................................................................................................. 49
Status and ZON ..................................................................................................................................... 58
Basic Setting .......................................................................................................................................... 63
VLAN .................................................................................................................................................... 106
Static MAC Forward Setup ................................................................................................................ 131
Static Multicast Forward Setup ......................................................................................................... 134
Filtering ................................................................................................................................................. 138
Spanning Tree Protocol ...................................................................................................................... 140
Bandwidth Control ............................................................................................................................. 167
Broadcast Storm Control ................................................................................................................... 171
Mirroring ............................................................................................................................................... 175
Link Aggregation ................................................................................................................................ 178
Port Authentication ............................................................................................................................ 189
Port Security ......................................................................................................................................... 199
Time Range ......................................................................................................................................... 203
Classifier ............................................................................................................................................... 205
Policy Rule ........................................................................................................................................... 214
Queuing Method ................................................................................................................................ 219
Multicast .............................................................................................................................................. 223
AAA ...................................................................................................................................................... 250
IP Source Guard .................................................................................................................................. 261
Loop Guard ......................................................................................................................................... 297
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ................................................................................................................ 302
sFlow ..................................................................................................................................................... 307
PPPoE ................................................................................................................................................... 312
Error Disable ......................................................................................................................................... 321
MAC Pinning ....................................................................................................................................... 330
Private VLAN ....................................................................................................................................... 333
Green Ethernet ................................................................................................................................... 337
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) ................................................................................................ 341
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Contents Overview
Anti-Arpscan ....................................................................................................................................... 369
BPDU Guard ........................................................................................................................................ 376
OAM ..................................................................................................................................................... 380
ZULD ...................................................................................................................................................... 390
Static Route ......................................................................................................................................... 396
Differentiated Services ....................................................................................................................... 400
DHCP .................................................................................................................................................... 405
ARP Setup ............................................................................................................................................ 418
Maintenance ...................................................................................................................................... 424
Access Control .................................................................................................................................... 436
Diagnostic ........................................................................................................................................... 460
System Log .......................................................................................................................................... 463
Syslog Setup ........................................................................................................................................ 464
Cluster Management ......................................................................................................................... 467
MAC Table ........................................................................................................................................... 473
IP Table ................................................................................................................................................. 476
ARP Table ............................................................................................................................................ 478
Routing Table ...................................................................................................................................... 480
Path MTU Table ................................................................................................................................... 481
Configure Clone ................................................................................................................................. 482
IPv6 Neighbor Table ........................................................................................................................... 486
Port Status ............................................................................................................................................ 488
Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................................. 497
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Contents Overview ..............................................................................................................................3
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................5
Part I: User’s Guide.......................................................................................... 19
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your Switch ............................................................................................................20
1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 20
1.1.1 Backbone Application ......................................................................................................... 21
1.1.2 Bridging Example .................................................................................................................. 22
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example ............................................................................... 22
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples ........................................................................... 23
1.2 Ways to Manage the Switch ......................................................................................................... 24
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Switch ........................................................................................ 24
Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and Connection ...........................................................................................25
2.1 Installation Scenarios ...................................................................................................................... 25
2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure .................................................................................................... 25
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack .................................................................................................. 25
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements .......................................................................... 25
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch ............................................................... 26
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack .......................................................................................... 26
Chapter 3
Hardware Panels................................................................................................................................28
3.1 Front Panel ...................................................................................................................................... 28
3.1.1 Gigabit Ethernet Ports .......................................................................................................... 28
3.1.2 SFP/SFP+ Slots ......................................................................................................................... 29
3.2 Rear Panel ....................................................................................................................................... 31
3.2.1 Console Port .......................................................................................................................... 31
3.2.2 Power Connector ................................................................................................................. 31
3.3 LEDs ................................................................................................................................................ 32
Part II: Technical Reference........................................................................... 34
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Table of Contents
Chapter 4
The Web Configurator........................................................................................................................35
4.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 35
4.2 System Login ................................................................................................................................... 35
4.3 The Status Screen .......................................................................................................................... 37
4.3.1 Change Your Password ....................................................................................................... 42
4.4 Saving Your Configuration ............................................................................................................. 42
4.5 Switch Lockout ............................................................................................................................... 42
4.6 Resetting the Switch ...................................................................................................................... 43
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File ............................................................................................. 43
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator ....................................................................................... 43
4.8 Help ................................................................................................................................................. 44
Chapter 5
Initial Setup Example .........................................................................................................................45
5.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 45
5.1.1 Creating a VLAN ................................................................................................................... 45
5.1.2 Setting Port VID ...................................................................................................................... 46
5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address ............................................................................. 47
Chapter 6
Tutorials ...............................................................................................................................................49
6.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 49
6.2 How to Use DHCPv4 Snooping on the Switch ............................................................................. 49
6.3 How to Use DHCPv4 Relay on the Switch .................................................................................... 53
6.3.1 DHCP Relay Tutorial Introduction ........................................................................................ 53
6.3.2 Creating a VLAN ................................................................................................................... 54
6.3.3 Configuring DHCPv4 Relay .................................................................................................. 56
6.3.4 Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................... 57
Chapter 7
Status and ZON...................................................................................................................................58
7.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 58
7.1.1 What You Can Do ................................................................................................................. 58
7.2 Status ................................................................................................................................................ 58
7.3 Zyxel One Network (ZON) Utility Screen ....................................................................................... 60
7.4 ZON Neighbor Management Screen .......................................................................................... 61
Chapter 8
Basic Setting .......................................................................................................................................63
8.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 63
8.1.1 What You Can Do ................................................................................................................. 63
8.2 System Information
...................................................................................................................... 63
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8.2.1 System Information Stacking Hardware Monitor .............................................................. 66
8.3 General Setup ............................................................................................................................... 67
8.4 Introduction to VLANs ................................................................................................................... 69
8.5 Switch Setup ................................................................................................................................... 70
8.6 IP Setup ........................................................................................................................................... 71
8.6.1 Management IP Addresses .................................................................................................. 71
8.6.2 IP Status Details ..................................................................................................................... 72
8.6.3 IP Configuration ................................................................................................................... 73
8.7 Port Setup ....................................................................................................................................... 75
8.8 PoE Status ....................................................................................................................................... 77
8.8.1 PoE Time Range Status ......................................................................................................... 80
8.8.2 PoE Setup .............................................................................................................................. 81
8.9 Interface Setup ............................................................................................................................... 85
8.10 IPv6 ................................................................................................................................................. 86
8.10.1 IPv6 Interface Status ........................................................................................................... 86
8.10.2 IPv6 Configuration .............................................................................................................. 88
8.10.3 IPv6 Global Setup ................................................................................................................ 89
8.10.4 IPv6 Interface Setup ............................................................................................................ 90
8.10.5 IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup ............................................................................................ 91
8.10.6 IPv6 Global Address Setup ................................................................................................. 92
8.10.7 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup ......................................................................................... 93
8.10.8 IPv6 Router Discovery Setup .............................................................................................. 94
8.10.9 IPv6 Prefix Setup .................................................................................................................. 95
8.10.10 IPv6 Neighbor Setup ......................................................................................................... 96
8.10.11 DHCPv6 Client Setup ........................................................................................................ 98
8.11 Stacking ......................................................................................................................................... 99
8.11.1 Stacking Status .................................................................................................................. 100
8.11.2 Stacking Slot ..................................................................................................................... 101
8.11.3 Stacking Configuration .................................................................................................... 102
8.12 DNS ............................................................................................................................................... 104
Chapter 9
VLAN..................................................................................................................................................106
9.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 106
9.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................... 106
9.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................... 106
9.2 VLAN Status .................................................................................................................................. 109
9.2.1 VLAN Details ....................................................................................................................... 110
9.3 Private VLAN Status ..................................................................................................................... 112
9.4 VLAN Configuration .................................................................................................................... 112
9.5 Configure a Static VLAN ............................................................................................................ 113
9.6 Configure VLAN Port Settings .................................................................................................... 116
9.7 Subnet Based VLANs ................................................................................................................... 118
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9.7.1 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN ..................................................................................... 119
9.8 Protocol Based VLANs ................................................................................................................. 121
9.8.1 Configuring Protocol Based VLAN .................................................................................... 121
9.9 Voice VLAN ................................................................................................................................... 123
9.10 MAC Based VLAN ....................................................................................................................... 125
9.11 Port-Based VLAN Setup ............................................................................................................ 126
9.11.1 Configure a Port-Based VLAN ......................................................................................... 126
9.12 Technical Reference .................................................................................................................. 129
9.12.1 Create an IP-based VLAN Example ................................................................................ 129
Chapter 10
Static MAC Forward Setup ..............................................................................................................131
10.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 131
10.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 131
10.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding ....................................................................................... 131
Chapter 11
Static Multicast Forward Setup .......................................................................................................134
11.1 Static Multicast Forward Setup Overview ............................................................................... 134
11.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 134
11.1.2 What You Need To Know ................................................................................................. 134
11.2 Configuring Static Multicast Forwarding .................................................................................. 135
Chapter 12
Filtering..............................................................................................................................................138
12.1 Filtering Overview ...................................................................................................................... 138
12.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 138
12.2 Configure a Filtering Rule .......................................................................................................... 138
Chapter 13
Spanning Tree Protocol ...................................................................................................................140
13.1 Spanning Tree Protocol Overview ........................................................................................... 140
13.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 140
13.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 140
13.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen ..................................................................................... 143
13.3 Spanning Tree Configuration ................................................................................................... 143
13.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
............................................................................. 144
13.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status ...................................................................................... 148
13.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol ................................................................ 150
13.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status ....................................................................... 153
13.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
......................................................................... 155
13.8.1 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Port Configuration .................................................... 159
13.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status ................................................................................... 161
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13.10 Technical Reference ................................................................................................................ 164
13.10.1 MSTP Network Example .................................................................................................. 164
13.10.2 MST Region ....................................................................................................................... 165
13.10.3 MST Instance .................................................................................................................... 165
13.10.4 Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) ............................................................... 166
Chapter 14
Bandwidth Control ...........................................................................................................................167
14.1 Bandwidth Control Overview ................................................................................................... 167
14.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 167
14.2 Bandwidth Control Setup .......................................................................................................... 167
Chapter 15
Broadcast Storm Control .................................................................................................................171
15.1 Broadcast Storm Control Overview ......................................................................................... 171
15.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 171
15.2 Broadcast Storm Control Setup ................................................................................................ 171
Chapter 16
Mirroring............................................................................................................................................175
16.1 Mirroring Overview .................................................................................................................... 175
16.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 175
16.2 Port Mirroring Setup .................................................................................................................... 175
Chapter 17
Link Aggregation .............................................................................................................................178
17.1 Link Aggregation Overview ...................................................................................................... 178
17.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 178
17.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 178
17.2 Link Aggregation Status ............................................................................................................. 179
17.3 Link Aggregation Setting .......................................................................................................... 181
17.3.1 Link Aggregation Control Protocol
.............................................................................. 184
17.4 Technical Reference .................................................................................................................. 187
17.4.1 Static Trunking Example ................................................................................................... 187
Chapter 18
Port Authentication ..........................................................................................................................189
18.1 Port Authentication Overview ................................................................................................. 189
18.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 189
18.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 189
18.1.3 MAC Authentication ........................................................................................................ 190
18.2 Port Authentication Configuration ........................................................................................... 191
18.3 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security ................................................................................................... 191
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18.3.1 Guest VLAN ....................................................................................................................... 193
18.4 Activate MAC Authentication ................................................................................................. 195
Chapter 19
Port Security......................................................................................................................................199
19.1 Port Security Overview .............................................................................................................. 199
19.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 199
19.2 Port Security Setup ...................................................................................................................... 199
Chapter 20
Time Range.......................................................................................................................................203
20.1 Time Range Overview ............................................................................................................... 203
20.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 203
20.2 Configuring Time Range ............................................................................................................ 203
Chapter 21
Classifier............................................................................................................................................205
21.1 Classifier Overview ..................................................................................................................... 205
21.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 205
21.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 205
21.2 Classifier Status ............................................................................................................................ 205
21.3 Classifier Configuration ............................................................................................................. 206
21.3.1 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration Summary ............................................... 210
21.4 Classifier Global Setting Configuration ................................................................................... 211
21.5 Classifier Example ....................................................................................................................... 212
Chapter 22
Policy Rule ........................................................................................................................................214
22.1 Policy Rules Overview ............................................................................................................... 214
22.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 214
22.2 Configuring Policy Rules ............................................................................................................ 214
22.3 Policy Example ............................................................................................................................ 217
Chapter 23
Queuing Method..............................................................................................................................219
23.1 Queuing Method Overview ..................................................................................................... 219
23.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 219
23.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 219
23.2 Configuring Queuing ................................................................................................................. 220
Chapter 24
Multicast............................................................................................................................................223
24.1 Multicast Overview ..................................................................................................................... 223
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Table of Contents
24.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 223
24.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 223
24.2 Multicast Setup ........................................................................................................................... 227
24.3 IPv4 Multicast Status .................................................................................................................. 227
24.3.1 IGMP Snooping ................................................................................................................. 227
24.3.2 IGMP Snooping VLAN ...................................................................................................... 231
24.3.3 IGMP Filtering Profile ........................................................................................................ 232
24.4 IPv6 Multicast Status .................................................................................................................. 234
24.4.1 MLD Snooping-proxy ........................................................................................................ 234
24.4.2 MLD Snooping-proxy VLAN .............................................................................................. 235
24.4.3 MLD Snooping-proxy VLAN Port Role Setting ................................................................. 236
24.4.4 MLD Snooping-proxy Filtering .......................................................................................... 239
24.4.5 MLD Snooping-proxy Filtering Profile ............................................................................... 241
24.5 General MVR Configuration ..................................................................................................... 242
24.5.1 MVR Group Configuration .............................................................................................. 245
24.5.2 MVR Configuration Example ........................................................................................... 247
Chapter 25
AAA ...................................................................................................................................................250
25.1 AAA Overview ........................................................................................................................... 250
25.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 250
25.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 251
25.2 AAA Screens ............................................................................................................................... 251
25.3 RADIUS Server Setup .................................................................................................................. 252
25.4 TACACS+ Server Setup .............................................................................................................. 253
25.5 AAA Setup .................................................................................................................................. 255
25.6 Technical Reference .................................................................................................................. 258
25.6.1 Vendor Specific Attribute ................................................................................................ 258
25.6.2 Supported RADIUS Attributes ........................................................................................... 259
25.6.3 Attributes Used for Authentication .................................................................................. 260
Chapter 26
IP Source Guard ...............................................................................................................................261
26.1 IP Source Guard Overview ....................................................................................................... 261
26.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 261
26.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 262
26.2 IP Source Guard Screen ............................................................................................................ 263
26.3 IPv4 Source Guard Setup .......................................................................................................... 263
26.4 IPv4 Source Guard Static Binding ............................................................................................ 264
26.5 DHCP Snooping ......................................................................................................................... 266
26.6 DHCP Snooping Configure ....................................................................................................... 269
26.6.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure ..................................................................................... 271
26.6.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure ................................................................................... 273
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26.6.3 DHCP Snooping VLAN Port Configure ............................................................................ 274
26.7 ARP Inspection Status ................................................................................................................ 275
26.8 ARP Inspection VLAN Status ...................................................................................................... 276
26.9 ARP Inspection Log Status ......................................................................................................... 277
26.10 ARP Inspection Configure ........................................................................................................ 278
26.10.1 ARP Inspection Port Configure ...................................................................................... 280
26.10.2 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure ................................................................................... 282
26.11 IPv6 Source Guard Overview ................................................................................................. 283
26.12 IPv6 Source Binding Status ....................................................................................................... 283
26.13 IPv6 Static Binding Setup ........................................................................................................ 284
26.14 IPv6 Source Guard Policy Setup ............................................................................................ 286
26.15 IPv6 Source Guard Port Setup ................................................................................................ 287
26.16 IPv6 Snooping Policy Setup .................................................................................................... 289
26.17 IPv6 Snooping VLAN Setup ..................................................................................................... 290
26.18 IPv6 DHCP Trust Setup ............................................................................................................. 291
26.19 Technical Reference ................................................................................................................ 293
26.19.1 DHCP Snooping Overview ............................................................................................. 293
26.19.2 ARP Inspection Overview ............................................................................................... 295
Chapter 27
Loop Guard ......................................................................................................................................297
27.1 Loop Guard Overview .............................................................................................................. 297
27.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 297
27.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 297
27.2 Loop Guard Setup ...................................................................................................................... 299
Chapter 28
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ..............................................................................................................302
28.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Overview ...................................................................................... 302
28.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 302
28.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 302
28.2 Configuring Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ................................................................................... 303
Chapter 29
sFlow..................................................................................................................................................307
29.1 sFlow Overview ........................................................................................................................... 307
29.2 sFlow Port Configuration ............................................................................................................ 307
29.2.1 sFlow Collector Configuration ......................................................................................... 310
Chapter 30
PPPoE.................................................................................................................................................312
30.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Overview ..................................................................................... 312
30.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 312
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30.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 312
30.2 PPPoE Screen .............................................................................................................................. 314
30.3 PPPoE Intermediate Agent ....................................................................................................... 315
30.3.1 PPPoE IA Per-Port .............................................................................................................. 316
30.3.2 PPPoE IA Per-Port Per-VLAN ............................................................................................ 318
30.3.3 PPPoE IA for VLAN ............................................................................................................ 320
Chapter 31
Error Disable......................................................................................................................................321
31.1 Error Disable Overview .............................................................................................................. 321
31.1.1 CPU Protection Overview ................................................................................................ 321
31.1.2 Error-Disable Recovery Overview .................................................................................... 321
31.1.3 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 321
31.2 Error Disable Screen .................................................................................................................... 322
31.3 Error-Disable Status .................................................................................................................... 322
31.4 CPU Protection Configuration .................................................................................................. 325
31.5 Error-Disable Detect Configuration ......................................................................................... 328
31.6 Error-Disable Recovery Configuration ..................................................................................... 329
Chapter 32
MAC Pinning.....................................................................................................................................330
32.1 MAC Pinning Overview ............................................................................................................. 330
32.2 MAC Pinning Configuration ...................................................................................................... 330
Chapter 33
Private VLAN .....................................................................................................................................333
33.1 Private VLAN Overview ............................................................................................................. 333
33.2 Configuring Private VLAN .......................................................................................................... 333
Chapter 34
Green Ethernet .................................................................................................................................337
34.1 Green Ethernet Overview ......................................................................................................... 337
34.2 Configuring Green Ethernet ...................................................................................................... 337
Chapter 35
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) .............................................................................................341
35.1 LLDP Overview ............................................................................................................................ 341
35.2 LLDP-MED Overview ................................................................................................................... 342
35.3 LLDP Screens ............................................................................................................................... 343
35.4 LLDP Local Status ....................................................................................................................... 344
35.4.1 LLDP Local Port Status Detail .......................................................................................... 346
35.5 LLDP Remote Status ................................................................................................................... 349
35.5.1 LLDP Remote Port Status Detail ...................................................................................... 350
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35.6 LLDP Configuration .................................................................................................................... 356
35.6.1 Basic TLV Setting ............................................................................................................... 358
35.6.2 Org-specific TLV Setting .................................................................................................. 360
35.7 LLDP-MED Configuration ........................................................................................................... 361
35.8 LLDP-MED Network Policy ......................................................................................................... 363
35.9 LLDP-MED Location ................................................................................................................... 365
Chapter 36
Anti-Arpscan ....................................................................................................................................369
36.1 Anti-Arpscan Overview ............................................................................................................. 369
36.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 369
36.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 369
36.2 Anti-Arpscan Status ................................................................................................................... 370
36.3 Anti-Arpscan Host Status ........................................................................................................... 371
36.4 Anti-Arpscan Trust Host ............................................................................................................. 372
36.5 Anti-Arpscan Configure ............................................................................................................ 373
Chapter 37
BPDU Guard ......................................................................................................................................376
37.1 BPDU Guard Overview .............................................................................................................. 376
37.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 376
37.2 BPDU Guard Status ..................................................................................................................... 376
37.3 BPDU Guard Configuration ....................................................................................................... 378
Chapter 38
OAM ..................................................................................................................................................380
38.1 OAM Overview .......................................................................................................................... 380
38.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 380
38.2 OAM Status .................................................................................................................................. 380
38.2.1 OAM Details ....................................................................................................................... 382
38.3 OAM Configuration .................................................................................................................... 386
38.4 OAM Remote Loopback ........................................................................................................... 388
Chapter 39
ZULD...................................................................................................................................................390
39.1 ZULD Overview ........................................................................................................................... 390
39.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 390
39.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 390
39.2 ZULD Status .................................................................................................................................. 391
39.3 ZULD Configuration ................................................................................................................... 393
Chapter 40
Static Route.......................................................................................................................................396
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40.1 Static Routing Overview .......................................................................................................... 396
40.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 396
40.2 Static Routing .............................................................................................................................. 397
40.3 IPv4 Static Route ........................................................................................................................ 397
40.4 IPv6 Static Route ....................................................................................................................... 398
Chapter 41
Differentiated Services ....................................................................................................................400
41.1 DiffServ Overview ...................................................................................................................... 400
41.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 400
41.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 400
41.2 Activating DiffServ ..................................................................................................................... 401
41.3 DSCP Settings
............................................................................................................................ 403
41.3.1 Configuring DSCP Settings ............................................................................................... 403
Chapter 42
DHCP .................................................................................................................................................405
42.1 DHCP Overview .......................................................................................................................... 405
42.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 405
42.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 405
42.2 DHCP Configuration ................................................................................................................... 406
42.3 DHCPv4 Status ........................................................................................................................... 406
42.4 DHCPv4 Relay ............................................................................................................................ 407
42.4.1 DHCPv4 Relay Agent Information ................................................................................... 407
42.4.2 DHCPv4 Option 82 Profile ................................................................................................. 408
42.4.3 Configuring DHCPv4 Global Relay ................................................................................. 409
42.4.4 DHCPv4 Global Relay Port Configure ........................................................................... 410
42.4.5 Global DHCP Relay Configuration Example .................................................................. 411
42.4.6 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings
................................................................................. 412
42.4.7 DHCPv4 VLAN Port Configure ........................................................................................ 414
42.4.8 Example: DHCP Relay for Two VLANs ............................................................................. 415
42.5 DHCPv6 Relay ............................................................................................................................. 416
Chapter 43
ARP Setup..........................................................................................................................................418
43.1 ARP Overview ............................................................................................................................ 418
43.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 418
43.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 418
43.2 ARP Setup .................................................................................................................................... 420
43.2.1 ARP Learning .................................................................................................................... 420
43.2.2 Static ARP ........................................................................................................................... 422
Chapter 44
Maintenance....................................................................................................................................424
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44.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 424
44.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 424
44.2 The Maintenance Screen ........................................................................................................ 424
44.3 Erase Running-Configuration ................................................................................................... 426
44.4 Save Configuration .................................................................................................................... 426
44.5 Reboot System ............................................................................................................................ 426
44.5.1 Load Stacking Default ..................................................................................................... 427
44.5.2 Factory Default ................................................................................................................. 427
44.5.3 Custom Default ................................................................................................................ 428
44.6 Firmware Upgrade ..................................................................................................................... 428
44.7 Restore Configuration .............................................................................................................. 430
44.8 Backup Configuration .............................................................................................................. 431
44.9 Tech-Support .............................................................................................................................. 431
44.9.1 Tech-Support Download .................................................................................................. 433
44.10 Technical Reference ................................................................................................................ 433
44.10.1 FTP Command Line ......................................................................................................... 433
44.10.2 Filename Conventions ................................................................................................... 433
44.10.3 FTP Command Line Procedure ..................................................................................... 434
44.10.4 GUI-based FTP Clients ..................................................................................................... 435
44.10.5 FTP Restrictions ................................................................................................................ 435
Chapter 45
Access Control.................................................................................................................................436
45.1 Access Control Overview ......................................................................................................... 436
45.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 436
45.2 The Access Control Main Screen .............................................................................................. 436
45.3 Configuring SNMP
.................................................................................................................... 437
45.3.1 Configuring SNMP Trap Group
..................................................................................... 438
45.3.2 Enabling/Disabling Sending of SNMP Traps on a Port ................................................... 439
45.3.3 Configuring SNMP User
.................................................................................................. 440
45.4 Logins .......................................................................................................................................... 442
45.5 Service Access Control ............................................................................................................ 444
45.6 Remote Management
........................................................................................................... 445
45.7 Technical Reference .................................................................................................................. 446
45.7.1 About SNMP ...................................................................................................................... 446
45.7.2 SSH Overview ..................................................................................................................... 452
45.7.3 Introduction to HTTPS ........................................................................................................ 454
45.7.4 Google Chrome Warning Messages .............................................................................. 457
Chapter 46
Diagnostic.........................................................................................................................................460
46.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 460
46.2 Diagnostic .................................................................................................................................. 460
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
16
Table of Contents
Chapter 47
System Log........................................................................................................................................463
47.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 463
47.2 System Log .................................................................................................................................. 463
Chapter 48
Syslog Setup .....................................................................................................................................464
48.1 Syslog Overview .......................................................................................................................... 464
48.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 464
48.2 Syslog Setup ................................................................................................................................ 464
Chapter 49
Cluster Management.......................................................................................................................467
49.1 Cluster Management Overview .............................................................................................. 467
49.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 468
49.2 Cluster Management Status ..................................................................................................... 468
49.3 Clustering Management Configuration
................................................................................ 469
49.4 Technical Reference .................................................................................................................. 471
49.4.1 Cluster Member Switch Management .......................................................................... 471
Chapter 50
MAC Table ........................................................................................................................................473
50.1 MAC Table Overview ................................................................................................................ 473
50.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 473
50.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 473
50.2 Viewing the MAC Table ............................................................................................................ 474
Chapter 51
IP Table..............................................................................................................................................476
51.1 IP Table Overview ...................................................................................................................... 476
51.2 Viewing the IP Table ................................................................................................................... 477
Chapter 52
ARP Table ..........................................................................................................................................478
52.1 ARP Table Overview .................................................................................................................. 478
52.1.1 What You Can Do ............................................................................................................. 478
52.1.2 What You Need to Know ................................................................................................. 478
52.2 Viewing the ARP Table ............................................................................................................... 478
Chapter 53
Routing Table....................................................................................................................................480
53.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 480
53.2 Viewing the Routing Table Status ............................................................................................ 480
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17
Table of Contents
Chapter 54
Path MTU Table .................................................................................................................................481
54.1 Path MTU Overview .................................................................................................................. 481
54.2 Viewing the Path MTU Table ..................................................................................................... 481
Chapter 55
Configure Clone...............................................................................................................................482
55.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 482
55.2 Configure Clone ........................................................................................................................ 482
Chapter 56
IPv6 Neighbor Table.........................................................................................................................486
56.1 IPv6 Neighbor Table Overview ................................................................................................. 486
56.2 Viewing the IPv6 Neighbor Table ............................................................................................. 486
Chapter 57
Port Status .........................................................................................................................................488
57.1 Status ............................................................................................................................................ 488
57.2 Port Status .................................................................................................................................... 488
57.2.1 Port Details
...................................................................................................................... 490
57.2.2 Port Utilization
................................................................................................................. 494
Chapter 58
Troubleshooting................................................................................................................................497
58.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ............................................................................... 497
58.2 Switch Access and Login ........................................................................................................... 498
58.3 Switch Configuration .................................................................................................................. 499
Appendix A Customer Support ..................................................................................................... 500
Appendix B Common Services ...................................................................................................... 506
Appendix C IPv6.............................................................................................................................. 509
Appendix D Legal Information ...................................................................................................... 517
Index .................................................................................................................................................522
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
18
P ART I
User’s Guide
19
CHAPTER 1
Getting to Know Your Switch
1.1 Introduction
This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the Switch. The XGS2210 Series consists of
the following models:
• XGS2210-28
• XGS2210-28HP
• XGS2210-52
• XGS2210-52HP
Referring to PoE model(s) in this User's Guide only applies to XGS2210-28HP and XGS2210-52HP.
The Switch is a stackable, layer-2, Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) switch with one power slot for single power
supply. The Switch provides four SFP+ slots for uplink. By integrating router functions, the Switch performs
wire-speed layer-3 routing in addition to layer-2 switching.
With its built-in web configurator, including the Zyxel One Network (ZON) Neighbor Management feature
(Section 7.4 on page 61), viewing, managing and configuring the Switch and its neighboring devices is
easy. The Switch can also be managed via Telnet, any terminal emulator program on the console port,
or third-party SNMP management.
In addition, Zyxel offers a proprietary software program called Zyxel One Network (ZON) Utility, it is a
utility tool that assists you to set up and maintain network devices in a more simple and efficient way.
You can download the ZON Utility at www.zyxel.com and install it on a PC. For more information on ZON
Utility see Section 7.3 on page 60.
The following table describes the port features of the Switch by model.
Table 1 Models and Port Features
SWITCH MODEL
PORT FEATURES
XGS2210-28 and XGS221028HP
•
•
24 100/1000 Mbps Ethernet ports
4 SFP+ interfaces
XGS2210-52 and XGS221052HP
•
•
48 100/1000 Mbps Ethernet ports
4 SFP+ interfaces
The following table shows which firmware version supports ZON and Smart Connect for each Switch. The
firmware on each Switch is identified by the firmware trunk version, followed by a unique model code
and release number in brackets. For example, 4.30(AAZJ.0) is a firmware version for XGS2210-28 where
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
20
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
4.30 is the firmware trunk version, AAZJ identifies the XGS2210-28 and .0 is the first release of trunk version
4.30.
Table 2 Models and Firmware Versions
SWITCH MODEL
FIRMWARE VERSION
XGS2210-28
4.30(AAZJ.0) and later
XGS2210-28HP
4.30(AAZK.0) and later
XGS2210-52
4.30(AAZL.0) and later
XGS2210-52HP
4.30(AAZM.0) and later
The XGS2210-28HP and XGS2210-52HP come with a Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) feature. The XGS221028HP and XGS2210-52HP support the IEEE 802.3at High Power over Ethernet (PoE) standard and IEEE
802.3af PoE standard.
Key feature differences between Switch models are as follows. Other features are common to all
models.
The following table describes the PoE features of the Switch by model.
Table 3 Models and PoE Features
SWITCH MODEL
POE FEATURES
XGS2210-28HP
IEEE 802.3af PoE
XGS2210-52HP
IEEE 802.3 at High Power over Ethernet (PoE)
Power management mode - Classification
Power management mode - Consumption
This section shows a few examples of using the Switch in various network environments.
1.1.1 Backbone Application
The Switch is an ideal solution for small networks where rapid growth can be expected in the near future.
The Switch can be used standalone for a group of heavy traffic users. You can connect computers and
servers directly to the Switch’s port or connect other switches to the Switch.
In this example, all computers can share high-speed applications on the server. To expand the network,
simply add more networking devices such as switches, routers, computers, print servers etc.
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
Figure 1 Backbone Application
1.1.2 Bridging Example
In this example, the Switch connects different company departments (RD and Sales) to the corporate
backbone. It can alleviate bandwidth contention and eliminate server and network bottlenecks. All
users that need high bandwidth can connect to high-speed department servers via the Switch. You can
provide a super-fast uplink connection by using a Gigabit Ethernet/mini-GBIC port on the Switch.
Moreover, the Switch eases supervision and maintenance by allowing network managers to centralize
multiple servers at a single location.
Figure 2 Bridging Application
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example
The Switch is ideal for connecting two networks that need high bandwidth. In the following example, use
trunking to connect these two networks.
Switching to higher-speed LANs such as ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode) is not feasible for most
people due to the expense of replacing all existing Ethernet cables and adapter cards, restructuring
your network and complex maintenance. The Switch can provide the same bandwidth as ATM at much
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
22
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
lower cost while still being able to use existing adapters and switches. Moreover, the current LAN
structure can be retained as all ports can freely communicate with each other.
Figure 3 High Performance Switched Workgroup Application
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple logical
networks. Stations on a logical network belong to one group. A station can belong to more than one
group. With VLAN, a station cannot directly talk to or hear from stations that are not in the same group(s)
unless such traffic first goes through a router.
For more information on VLANs, refer to Chapter 9 on page 106.
1.1.4.1 Tag-based VLAN Example
Ports in the same VLAN group share the same frame broadcast domain thus increase network
performance through reduced broadcast traffic. VLAN groups can be modified at any time by adding,
moving or changing ports without any re-cabling.
Shared resources such as a server can be used by all ports in the same VLAN as the server. In the
following figure only ports that need access to the server need to be part of VLAN 1. Ports can belong to
other VLAN groups too.
Figure 4 Shared Server Using VLAN Example
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
1.2 Ways to Manage the Switch
Use any of the following methods to manage the Switch.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the Switch using a (supported)
web browser. See Chapter 4 on page 35.
• Command Line Interface. Line commands offer an alternative to the web configurator and in some
cases are necessary to configure advanced features. See the CLI Reference Guide.
• FTP. Use FTP for firmware upgrades and configuration backup/restore. See Section 44.10.1 on page
433.
• SNMP. The Switch can be monitored by an SNMP manager. See Section 44.8 on page 431.
• Cluster Management. Cluster Management allows you to manage multiple switches through one
switch, called the cluster manager. See Chapter 48 on page 464.
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Switch
Do the following things regularly to make the Switch more secure and to manage the Switch more
effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of different types of
characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an earlier working
configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even crashes. If you forget your
password, you will have to reset the Switch to its factory default settings. If you backed up an earlier
configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the Switch. You could simply restore your
last configuration.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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CHAPTER 2
Hardware Installation and
Connection
2.1 Installation Scenarios
This chapter shows you how to install and connect the Switch.
The Switch can be placed on a desktop or rack-mounted on a standard EIA rack. Use the rubber feet in
a desktop installation and the brackets in a rack-mounted installation.
Note: For proper ventilation, allow at least 4 inches (10 cm) of clearance at the front and 3.4
inches (8 cm) at the back of the Switch. This is especially important for enclosed rack
installations.
2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure
1
Make sure the Switch is clean and dry.
2
Set the Switch on a smooth, level surface strong enough to support the weight of the Switch and the
connected cables. Make sure there is a power outlet nearby.
3
Make sure there is enough clearance around the Switch to allow air circulation and the attachment of
cables and the power cord.
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
The Switch can be mounted on an EIA standard size, 19-inch rack or in a wiring closet with other
equipment. Follow the steps below to mount your Switch on a standard EIA rack using a rack-mounting
kit.
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements
• Two mounting brackets.
• Eight M3 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
• Four M5 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
Failure to use the proper screws may damage the unit.
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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
2.3.1.1 Precautions
• Make sure the rack will safely support the combined weight of all the equipment it contains.
• Make sure the position of the Switch does not make the rack unstable or top-heavy. Take all
necessary precautions to anchor the rack securely before installing the unit.
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch
1
Position a mounting bracket on one side of the Switch, lining up the four screw holes on the bracket with
the screw holes on the side of the Switch.
Figure 5 Attaching the Mounting Brackets
2
Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M3 flat head screws through the mounting bracket holes into
the Switch.
3
Repeat steps 1 and 2 to install the second mounting bracket on the other side of the Switch.
4
You may now mount the Switch on a rack. Proceed to the next section.
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
1
Position a mounting bracket (that is already attached to the Switch) on one side of the rack, lining up
the two screw holes on the bracket with the screw holes on the side of the rack.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
Figure 6 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
2
Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M5 flat head screws through the mounting bracket holes into
the rack.
3
Repeat steps 1 and 2 to attach the second mounting bracket on the other side of the rack.
Note: Make sure you tighten all the four screws to prevent the Switch from getting slanted.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
27
CHAPTER 3
Hardware Panels
This chapter describes the front panel and rear panel of the Switch and shows you how to make the
hardware connections.
3.1 Front Panel
The following figures show the front panels of the Switch.
Figure 7 Front Panel: XGS2210-28
Figure 8 Front Panel: XGS2210-28HP
Figure 9 Front Panel: XGS2210-52
Figure 10 Front Panel: XGS2210-52HP
3.1.1 Gigabit Ethernet Ports
The Switch has 1000Base-T auto-negotiating, auto-crossover Ethernet ports. In 10/100/1000 Mbps Gigabit
Ethernet, the speed can be 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps. The duplex mode can be half duplex or
full duplex.
An auto-negotiating port can detect and adjust to the optimum Ethernet speed (10/100/1000 Mbps)
and duplex mode (full duplex or half duplex) of the connected device.
An auto-crossover (auto-MDI/MDI-X) port automatically works with a straight-through or crossover
Ethernet cable.
When auto-negotiation is turned on, an Ethernet port negotiates with the peer automatically to
determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer Ethernet port does not support autonegotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by detecting the signal
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
28
Chapter 3 Hardware Panels
on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switch’s auto-negotiation is turned off, an Ethernet
port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when making a connection, thus requiring you to
make sure that the settings of the peer Ethernet port are the same in order to connect.
3.1.1.1 Default Ethernet Negotiation Settings
The factory default negotiation settings for the Gigabit ports on the Switch are:
• Speed: Auto
• Duplex: Auto
• Flow control: Off
• Link Aggregation: Disabled
3.1.1.2 Auto-crossover
All ports are auto-crossover, that is auto-MDIX ports (Media Dependent Interface Crossover), so you may
use either a straight-through Ethernet cable or crossover Ethernet cable for all Gigabit port connections.
Auto-crossover ports automatically sense whether they need to function as crossover or straight ports, so
crossover cables can connect both computers and switches/hubs.
3.1.2 SFP/SFP+ Slots
These are four slots for Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) or SFP+ modules, such as an SFP/SFP+
transceiver. The SFP+ (SFP Plus) is an enhanced version of the SFP and supports data rates of 10 Gbps. A
transceiver is a single unit that houses a transmitter and a receiver. Use a transceiver to connect a fiberoptic cable to the Switch. The Switch does not come with transceivers. You must use transceivers that
comply with the Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) Transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA). See the
SFF committee’s INF-8074i specification Rev 1.0 for details.
You can change transceivers while the Switch is operating. You can use different transceivers to
connect to Ethernet switches with different types of fiber-optic connectors.
• Type: SFP or SFP+ connection interface
• Connection speed: 1 or 10 Gigabit per second (Gbps)
To avoid possible eye injury, do not look into an operating fiber-optic
module’s connectors.
3.1.2.1 Transceiver Installation
Use the following steps to install a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1
Insert the transceiver into the slot with the exposed section of PCB board facing down.
2
Press the transceiver firmly until it clicks into place.
3
The Switch automatically detects the installed transceiver. Check the LEDs to verify that it is functioning
properly.
4
Close the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
5
Connect the fiber optic cables to the transceiver.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Panels
Figure 11 Transceiver Installation Example
Figure 12 Connecting the Fiber Optic Cables
3.1.2.2 Transceiver Removal
Use the following steps to remove a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1
Remove the fiber optic cables from the transceiver.
2
Open the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
3
Pull the transceiver out of the slot.
Figure 13 Removing the Fiber Optic Cables
Figure 14 Opening the Transceiver’s Latch Example
Figure 15 Transceiver Removal Example
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Chapter 3 Hardware Panels
3.2 Rear Panel
The following figures show the rear panels of the Switch.
Figure 16 Rear Panel: XGS2210-28
Figure 17 Rear Panel: XGS2210-28HP
Figure 18 Rear Panel: XGS2210-52
Figure 19 Rear Panel: XGS2210-52HP
3.2.1 Console Port
For local management, you can use a computer with terminal emulation software configured to the
following parameters:
• VT100
• Terminal emulation
• 115200 bps
• No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
• No flow control
Connect the male 9-pin end of the console cable to the console port of the Switch. Connect the
female end to a serial port (COM1, COM2 or other COM port) of your computer.
3.2.2 Power Connector
Note: Make sure you are using the correct power source as shown on the panel.
To connect power to the Switch, insert the female end of the power cord to the AC power receptacle
on the rear panel. Connect the other end of the supplied power cord to a power outlet. Make sure that
no objects obstruct the airflow of the fans (located on the side of the unit).
See Chapter 58 on page 497 for information on the Switch’s power supply requirements.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Chapter 3 Hardware Panels
3.3 LEDs
After you connect the power to the Switch, view the LEDs to ensure proper functioning of the Switch
and as an aid in troubleshooting.
Table 4 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
PWR
Green
On
The system is receiving power from the power module in the power slot. The
Switch is acting as a non-master member in a stack or it is in standalone
mode.
Blue
On
The Switch is acting as the master in stacking.
Off
The system is not receiving power from the power module in the power slot.
On
The system is on and functioning properly.
SYS
Green
Red
Blinking
The system is rebooting and performing self-diagnostic tests.
On
The system is functioning abnormally.
Off
The power is off or the system is not ready/malfunctioning.
On
The fan is functioning properly.
FAN
Green
Amber
On
The fan is not functioning at a proper speed or malfunctioning.
LOCATOR
Blue
Blinking
Shows the actual location of the Switch between several devices in a rack.
The default timer is 30 minutes when you are configuring the Switch.
Off
The locator is not functioning or malfunctioning.
PoE MAX
Green
On
PoE power usage is over 80 percent of the power supplied budget, but
below 95 percent of the power supplied budget.
Amber
On
PoE power usage is more than 95 percent of the power supplied budget.
Off
PoE power usage is below 80 percent of the power supplied budget.
On
The link to a 10 Mbps or a 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 10 Mbps or a 1000 Mbps
Ethernet network.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
10/100/1000Base-T Ports
1-48 LNK/ACT
(Left)
Green
Amber
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 100 Mbps Ethernet network.
Off
The link to an Ethernet network is down.
On
The link to a 10 Mbps or a 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 10 Mbps or a 1000 Mbps
Ethernet network.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
PoE 10/100/1000Base-T Ports
1-48 LNK/ACT
(Left)
Green
Amber
1-48 PoE (Right)
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 100 Mbps Ethernet network.
Off
The link to an Ethernet network is down.
Green
On
Power supplied to all PoE Ethernet ports meets the IEEE 802.3at standard.
Amber
On
Power supplied to all PoE Ethernet ports meets the IEEE 802.3af standard.
Off
There is no power supplied.
1G/10G SFP+ Slots
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
32
Chapter 3 Hardware Panels
Table 4 LED Descriptions (continued)
LED
COLOR
49-52 LNK/ACT
Green
Blue
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
On
The port has a successful 1000 Mbps connection.
Blinking
The port is transmitting or receiving data at 1000 Mbps.
On
The port has a successful 10 Gbps connection.
Blinking
The port is transmitting or receiving data at 10 Gbps.
Off
This link is disconnected.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
33
P ART II
Technical Reference
34
CHAPTER 4
The Web Configurator
4.1 Overview
This section introduces the configuration and functions of the web configurator.
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy Switch setup and
management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 9.0 and later versions, Mozilla Firefox 21 and
later versions, Safari 6.0 and later versions or Google Chrome 26.0 and later versions. The recommended
screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by default in
Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScript (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
4.2 System Login
1
Start your web browser.
2
The Switch is a DHCP client by default. Type “http://DHCP-assigned IP” in the Location or Address field.
Press [ENTER].
If the Switch is not connected to a DHCP server, type “http://” and the static IP address of the Switch (for
example, the default management IP address is 192.168.1.1 through an in-band port) in the Location or
Address field. Press [ENTER]. Your computer must be in the same subnet in order to access this website
address.
3
The login screen appears. The default username is admin and associated default password is 1234. The
date and time display as shown if you have not configured a time server nor manually entered a time
and date in the General Setup screen.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Figure 20 Web Configurator: Login
4
Click Log In to view the first web configurator screen.
5
If you didn’t change the default administrator password and/or SNMP community values, a warning
screen displays each time you log into the web configurator. Click Password / SNMP to open a screen
where you can change the administrator and SNMP passwords simultaneously. Otherwise, click Ignore
to close it.
Figure 21 Web Configurator: Warning
Figure 22 Web Configurator: Password
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Change the default administrator and/or SNMP passwords, and then click Apply to save your changes.
Table 5 Web Configurator: Password/SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Administrator
This is the default administrator account with the “admin” user name. You cannot change the default administrator
user name. Only the administrator has read/write access.
Old Password
Type the existing system password (1234 is the default password when shipped).
New Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation
General Setting
Use this section to specify the SNMP version and community (password) values.
Version
Select the SNMP version for the Switch. The SNMP version on the Switch must match the version
on the SNMP manager. Choose SNMP version 2c (v2c), SNMP version 3 (v3) or both (v3v2c).
Note: SNMP version 2c is backwards compatible with SNMP version 1.
Get Community
Enter the Get Community string, which is the password for the incoming Get- and GetNextrequests from the management station.
The Get Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or lower.
Set Community
Enter the Set Community string, which is the password for the incoming Set- requests from the
management station.
The Set Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or lower.
Trap Community
Enter the Trap Community string, which is the password sent with each trap to the SNMP
manager.
The Trap Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or lower.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
4.3 The Status Screen
The Status screen is the first screen that displays when you access the web configurator.
This guide uses the XGS2210-52HP screens as an example. The screens may very slightly for different
models.
The following figure shows the navigating components of a web configurator screen.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Figure 23 Web Configurator Home Screen for PoE model(s) (Status)
B
C
D
E
F
G
A
A - Click the menu items to open submenu links, and then click on a submenu link to open the screen in
the main window.
B, C, D, E, F - These are quick links which allow you to perform certain tasks no matter which screen you
are currently working in.
B - Click this link to update the information in the screen you are viewing currently.
C - Click this link to save your configuration into the Switch’s nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile memory is
the configuration of your Switch that stays the same even if the Switch’s power is turned off.
D - Click this link to go to the status page of the Switch.
E - Click this link to log out of the web configurator.
F - Click this link to display web help pages. The help pages provide descriptions for all of the
configuration screens.
G - Click this link to go to the ZON Neighbor Management screen where you can see and manage
neighbor devices learned by the Switch.
In the navigation panel, click a main link to reveal a list of submenu links.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Table 6 Navigation Panel Sub-links Overview
BASIC SETTING
ADVANCED APPLICATION
IP APPLICATION
MANAGEMENT
The following table describes the links in the navigation panel.
Table 7 Navigation Panel Links
LINK
DESCRIPTION
Basic Settings
System Info
This link takes you to a screen that displays general system information.
General Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure general identification information
about the Switch.
Switch Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can set up global Switch parameters such as VLAN
type, GARP and priority queues.
IP Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the IP address and subnet mask
(necessary for Switch management) and set up to 64 IP routing domains.
Port Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure settings for individual Switch ports.
PoE Setup
For PoE model(s).
This link takes you to a screen where you can set priorities, PoE power-up settings and schedule
so that the Switch is able to reserve and allocate power to certain PDs.
Interface Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure settings for individual interface type
and ID.
IPv6
This link takes you to a screen where you can view IPv6 status and configure IPv6 settings.
Stacking
This link takes you to a screen where you can view and configure stacking system for the
Switch.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Table 7 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
DNS
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure DNS (domain name server) IP
addresses.
Advanced Application
VLAN
This link takes you to screens where you can configure port-based or 802.1Q VLAN (depending
on what you configured in the Switch Setup menu). You can also configure a protocol based
VLAN or a subnet based VLAN in these screens.
Static MAC
Forwarding
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static MAC addresses for a port. These
static MAC addresses do not age out.
Static Multicast
Forwarding
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static multicast MAC addresses for
port(s). These static multicast MAC addresses do not age out.
Filtering
This link takes you to a screen to set up filtering rules.
Spanning Tree
Protocol
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the RSTP/MRSTP/MSTP to prevent
network loops.
Bandwidth
Control
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure bandwidth limits on the Switch.
Broadcast Storm
Control
This link takes you to a screen to set up broadcast filters.
Mirroring
This link takes you to screens where you can copy traffic from one port or ports to another port
in order that you can examine the traffic from the first port without interference.
Link Aggregation
This link takes you to screens where you can logically aggregate physical links to form one
logical, higher-bandwidth link.
Port
Authentication
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure IEEE 802.1x port authentication for
clients communicating via the Switch.
Port Security
This link takes you to screens where you can activate MAC address learning and set the
maximum number of MAC addresses to learn on a port.
Time Range
This link takes you to a screen where you can define different schedules.
Classifier
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the Switch to group packets based on
the specified criteria.
Policy Rule
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to perform special treatment
on the grouped packets.
Queuing Method
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure queuing with associated queue
weights for each port.
Multicast
This link takes you to screens where you can configure various multicast features, IGMP
snooping, MLD snooping-proxy and create multicast VLANs.
AAA
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure authentication, authorization and
accounting services via external servers. The external servers can be either RADIUS (Remote
Authentication Dial-In User Service) or TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control
System Plus).
IP Source Guard
This link takes you to screens where you can configure filtering of unauthorized DHCP and ARP
packets in your network.
Loop Guard
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure protection against network loops that
occur on the edge of your network.
Layer 2 Protocol
Tunneling
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure L2PT (Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling)
settings on the Switch.
sFlow
This link takes you to screens where you can configure sFlow settings on the Switch.
PPPoE
This link takes you to screens where you can configure intermediate agent settings in port,
VLAN, and PPPoE.
Errdisable
This link takes you to screens where you can view errdisable status and configure errdisable
settings in CPU protection, errdisable detect, and errdisable recovery.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Table 7 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
MAC Pinning
This link takes you to a screen where you can set specific ports to have priority over other ports
in MAC address learning.
Private VLAN
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure private VLANs.
Green Ethernet
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure green Ethernet settings in EEE, auto
power down, and short reach for each port.
LLDP
This link takes you to screens where you can configure LLDP settings.
Anti-Arpscan
This link takes you to screens where you can enable anti-arpscan on the Switch and ports, and
view the port state. You can also create trusted hosts, view blocked hosts and unblock them.
BPDU Guard
This link takes you to screens where you can enable BPDU guard on the Switch and ports, and
view the port state
OAM
This link takes you to screens where you can enable Ethernet OAM on the Switch, view the
configuration of ports on which Ethernet OAM is enabled and perform remote-loopback tests.
ZULD
This link takes you to screens where you can enable ZULD on a port and configure related
settings.
IP Application
Static Routing
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure IPv4 static routes. A static route defines
how the Switch should forward traffic by configuring the TCP/IP parameters manually.
DiffServ
This link takes you to screens where you can enable DiffServ, configure marking rules and set
DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mappings.
DHCP
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the DHCP settings.
ARP Setup
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the ARP learning settings for each port.
Management
Maintenance
This link takes you to screens where you can perform firmware and configuration file
maintenance as well as reboot the system.
Access Control
This link takes you to screens where you can change the system login password and configure
SNMP and remote management.
Diagnostic
This link takes you to a screen where you can ping IP addresses, run traceroute, test port(s) and
show the Switch’s location.
System Log
This link takes you to a screen where you can view system logs.
Syslog Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can setup system logs and a system log server.
Cluster
Management
This link takes you to screens where you can configure clustering management and view its
status.
MAC Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC addresses (and types) of devices
attached to what ports and VLAN IDs.
IP Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the IP addresses and VLAN ID of a device
attached to a port.You can also view what kind of device it is.
ARP Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC addresses – IP address resolution
table.
Routing Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the routing table.
Path MTU Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the path MTU aging time, index, destination
address, MTU, and expire settings.
Configure Clone
This link takes you to a screen where you can copy attributes of one port to other ports.
IPv6 Neighbor
Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the IPv6 neighbor table which includes
index, interface, neighbor address, MAC address, status and type.
Port Status
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the port statistics.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
4.3.1 Change Your Password
After you log in for the first time, it is recommended you change the default administrator password.
Click Management > Access Control > Logins to display the next screen.
Figure 24 Change Administrator Login Password
4.4 Saving Your Configuration
When you are done modifying the settings in a screen, click Apply to save your changes back to the
run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the Switch’s power is turned off.
Click the Save link in the upper right hand corner of the web configurator to save your configuration to
nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile memory refers to the Switch’s storage that remains even if the Switch’s
power is turned off.
Note: Use the Save link when you are done with a configuration session.
4.5 Switch Lockout
You could block yourself (and all others) from managing the Switch if you do one of the following:
1
Delete the management VLAN (default is VLAN 1).
2
Delete all port-based VLANs with the CPU port as a member. The “CPU port” is the management port of
the Switch.
3
Filter all traffic to the CPU port.
4
Disable all ports.
5
Misconfigure the text configuration file.
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6
Forget the password and/or IP address.
7
Prevent all services from accessing the Switch.
8
Change a service port number but forget it.
Note: Be careful not to lock yourself and others out of the Switch.
4.6 Resetting the Switch
If you lock yourself (and others) from the Switch or forget the administrator password, you will need to
reload the factory-default configuration file or reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File
Uploading the factory-default configuration file replaces the current configuration file with the factorydefault configuration file. This means that you will lose all previous configurations and the speed of the
console port will be reset to the default of 115200 bps with 8 data bits, no parity, one stop bit and flow
control set to none. The password will also be reset to “1234” and the IP address to 192.168.1.1.
To upload the configuration file, do the following:
1
Connect to the console port using a computer with terminal emulation software.
2
Disconnect and reconnect the Switch’s power to begin a session. When you reconnect the Switch’s
power, you will see the initial screen.
3
When you see the message “Press any key to enter Debug Mode within 1 seconds...” press
any key to enter debug mode.
4
Type atlc after the “Enter Debug Mode” message.
5
Wait for the “Starting XMODEM upload” message before activating XMODEM upload on your
terminal.
6
After a configuration file upload, type atgo to restart the Switch.
The Switch is now reinitialized with a default configuration file including the default password of “1234”.
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator
Click Logout in a screen to exit the web configurator. You have to log in with your password again after
you log out. This is recommended after you finish a management session for security reasons.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Figure 25 Web Configurator: Logout Screen
4.8 Help
The web configurator’s online help has descriptions of individual screens and some supplementary
information.
Click the Help link from a web configurator screen to view an online help description of that screen.
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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example
CHAPTER 5
Initial Setup Example
5.1 Overview
This chapter shows how to set up the Switch for an example network.
The following lists the configuration steps for the initial setup:
• Create a VLAN
• Set port VLAN ID
• Configure the Switch IP management address
5.1.1 Creating a VLAN
VLANs confine broadcast frames to the VLAN group in which the port(s) belongs. You can do this with
port-based VLAN or tagged static VLAN with fixed port members.
In this example, you want to configure port 1 as a member of VLAN 2.
Figure 26 Initial Setup Network Example: VLAN
1
Click Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration in the navigation panel and click the Static
VLAN Setup link.
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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example
2
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a
descriptive name in the Name field, enter 2 in the
VLAN Group ID field for the VLAN2 network, and use
the default VLAN type, Normal, in the VLAN Type
field.
Note: The VLAN Group ID field in this screen and the VID field in the IP Setup screen refer to the
same VLAN ID.
3
Since the VLAN2 network is connected to port 1 on the Switch, select Fixed to configure port 1 to be a
permanent member of the VLAN only.
4
To ensure that VLAN-unaware devices (such as computers and hubs) can receive frames properly, clear
the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending.
5
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the
Switch’s power is turned off.
5.1.2 Setting Port VID
Use PVID to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that port so that the frames are
forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
In the example network, configure 2 as the port VID on port 1 so that any untagged frames received on
that port get sent to VLAN 2.
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Figure 27 Initial Setup Network Example: Port VID
1
Click Advanced Applications > VLAN > VLAN
Configuration in the navigation panel. Then click
the VLAN Port Setup link.
2
Enter 2 in the PVID field for port 2 and click Apply to
save your changes back to the run-time memory.
Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the
Switch’s power is turned off.
5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address
The default management IP address of the Switch is 192.168.1.1. You can configure another IP address in
a different subnet for management purposes. The following figure shows an example.
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Chapter 5 Initial Setup Example
Figure 28 Initial Setup Example: Management IP Address
1
Connect your computer to any Ethernet port on the Switch. Make sure your computer is in the same
subnet as the Switch.
2
Open your web browser and enter 192.168.1.1 (the default IP address) in the address bar to access the
web configurator. See Section 4.2 on page 35 for more information.
3
Click Basic Setting > IP Setup > IP Configuration in
the navigation panel.
4
Configure the related fields in the IP Configuration
screen.
5
For the VLAN2 network, enter 192.168.2.1 as the IP
address and 255.255.255.0 as the subnet mask.
6
In the VID field, enter the ID of the VLAN group to
which you want this management IP address to
belong. This is the same as the VLAN ID you
configure in the Static VLAN screen.
7
Click Add to save your changes back to the runtime memory. Settings in the run-time memory are
lost when the Switch’s power is turned off.
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Chapter 6 Tutorials
CHAPTER 6
Tutorials
6.1 Overview
This chapter provides some examples of using the web configurator to set up and use the Switch. The
tutorials include:
• How to Use DHCPv4 Snooping on the Switch
• How to Use DHCPv4 Relay on the Switch
6.2 How to Use DHCPv4 Snooping on the Switch
You only want DHCP server A connected to port 5 to assign IP addresses to all devices in VLAN network
(V). Create a VLAN containing ports 5, 6 and 7. Connect a computer M to the Switch for management.
Figure 29 Tutorial: DHCP Snooping Tutorial Overview
Note: For related information about DHCP snooping, see Section 26.1 on page 261.
The settings in this tutorial are as the following.
Table 8 Tutorial: Settings in this Tutorial
HOST
PORT CONNECTED
VLAN
PVID
DHCP SNOOPING PORT TRUSTED
DHCP Server (A)
5
1 and 100
100
Yes
DHCP Client (B)
6
1 and 100
100
No
DHCP Client (C)
7
1 and 100
100
No
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Chapter 6 Tutorials
1
Access the Switch through http://192.168.1.1 by default. Log into the Switch by entering the username
(default: admin) and password (default: 1234).
2
Go to Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Static VLAN Setup, and create a VLAN with
ID of 100. Add ports 5, 6 and 7 in the VLAN by selecting Fixed in the Control field as shown.
Deselect Tx Tagging because you don’t want outgoing traffic to contain this VLAN tag.
Click Add.
Figure 30 Tutorial: Create a VLAN and Add Ports to It
3
Go to Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > VLAN Port Setup, and set the PVID of the
ports 5, 6 and 7 to 100. This tags untagged incoming frames on ports 5, 6 and 7 with the tag 100.
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Chapter 6 Tutorials
Figure 31 Tutorial: Tag Untagged Frames
4
Go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure, activate and specify VLAN 100 as the DHCP VLAN as shown. Click Apply.
Figure 32
Tutorial: Specify DHCP VLAN
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Chapter 6 Tutorials
5
Click the Port link at the top right corner.
6
The DHCP Snooping Port Configure screen appears. Select Trusted in the Server Trusted state field for port
5 because the DHCP server is connected to port 5. Keep ports 6 and 7 Untrusted because they are
connected to DHCP clients. Click Apply.
Figure 33
7
Tutorial: Set the DHCP Server Port to Trusted
Go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > VLAN, show VLAN 100 by entering 100 in the Start VID and End VID fields and click Apply.
Then select Yes in the Enabled field of the VLAN 100 entry shown at the bottom section of the screen.
If you want to add more information in the DHCP request packets such as source VLAN ID or system
name, you can also select an Option82 Profile in the entry. See Section 26.19.1.3 on page 294.
Figure 34 Tutorial: Enable DHCP Snooping on this VLAN
8
Click Save at the top right corner of the web configurator to save the
configuration permanently.
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Chapter 6 Tutorials
9
Connect your DHCP server to port 5 and a computer (as DHCP client) to either port 6 or 7. The computer
should be able to get an IP address from the DHCP server. If you put the DHCP server on port 6 or 7, the
computer will not able to get an IP address.
10 To check if DHCP snooping works, go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard
Setup, you should see an IP assignment with the type DHCP-Snooping as shown.
Figure 35 Tutorial: Check the Binding If DHCP Snooping Works
You can also telnet or log into the Switch’s console. Use the command “show dhcp snooping
binding” to see the DHCP snooping binding table as shown next.
sysname# show dhcp snooping binding
MacAddress
IpAddress
----------------- --------------00:02:00:00:00:1c
10.10.1.16
Total number of bindings: 1
Lease
-----------6d23h59m20s
Type
------------dhcp-snooping
VLAN
---100
Port
----7
6.3 How to Use DHCPv4 Relay on the Switch
This tutorial describes how to configure your Switch to forward DHCP client requests to a specific DHCP
server. The DHCP server can then assign a specific IP address based on the information in the DHCP
requests.
6.3.1 DHCP Relay Tutorial Introduction
In this example, you have configured your DHCP server (192.168.2.3) and want to have it assign a
specific IP address (say 172.16.1.18) to DHCP client A based on the system name, VLAN ID and port
number in the DHCP request. Client A connects to the Switch’s port 2 in VLAN 102.
Figure 36 Tutorial: DHCP Relay Scenario
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Chapter 6 Tutorials
6.3.2 Creating a VLAN
Follow the steps below to configure port 2 as a member of VLAN 102.
1
Access the web configurator through the Switch’s management port.
2
Go to Basic Setting > Switch Setup and set the VLAN type to 802.1Q. Click Apply to save the settings to
the run-time memory.
Figure 37 Tutorial: Set VLAN Type to 802.1Q
3
Click Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Static VLAN Setup.
4
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a descriptive name (VLAN 102 for example) in the Name
field and enter 102 in the VLAN Group ID field. Use the default VLAN type, Normal, in the VLAN Type field.
5
Select Fixed to configure port 2 to be a permanent member of this VLAN.
6
Clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending.
7
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the
Switch’s power is turned off.
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Chapter 6 Tutorials
Figure 38 Tutorial: Create a Static VLAN
8
Click the VLAN Configuration link in the Static VLAN Setup screen and then the VLAN Port Setup link in the
VLAN Configuration screen.
Figure 39 Tutorial: Click the VLAN Port Setting Link
9
Enter 102 in the PVID field for port 2 to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that port so
that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
10 Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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Figure 40 Tutorial: Add Tag for Frames Received on Port 2
11 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
6.3.3 Configuring DHCPv4 Relay
Follow the steps below to enable DHCP relay on the Switch and allow the Switch to add relay agent
information (such as the VLAN ID) to DHCP requests.
1
Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 and then the Global link to open the DHCP Relay screen.
2
Select the Active check box.
3
Enter the DHCP server’s IP address (192.168.2.3 in this example) in the Remote DHCP Server 1 field.
4
Select default1 or default2 in the Option 82 Profile field.
5
Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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Chapter 6 Tutorials
Figure 41 Tutorial: Set DHCP Server and Relay Information
6
Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
7
The DHCP server can then assign a specific IP address based on the DHCP request.
6.3.4 Troubleshooting
Check the client A’s IP address. If it did not receive the IP address 172.16.1.18, make sure:
1
Client A is connected to the Switch’s port 2 in VLAN 102.
2
You configured the correct VLAN ID, port number and system name for DHCP relay on both the DHCP
server and the Switch.
3
You clicked the Save link on the Switch to have your settings take effect.
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Chapter 7 Status and ZON
CHAPTER 7
Status and ZON
7.1 Overview
This chapter describes the screens for System Status, ZON Utility, ZON Neighbor Management, Port
Status, and Port Details.
7.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Status screen (Section 7.2 on page 58) to see the Switch’s general device information, system
status, and IP addresses. You can also display other status screens for more information.
• Use the ZON Utility screen (Section 7.3 on page 60) to deploy and manage network devices.
• Use the Neighbor screen (Section 7.4 on page 61) to view and manage Switch’s neighbor devices.
7.2 Status
The Status screen displays when you log into the Switch or click Status at the top right corner of the web
configurator. The Status screen displays general device information, system status, and its IP addresses.
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Chapter 7 Status and ZON
Figure 42 Status (for PoE model(s))
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9 Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Device Information
Device Type
This field displays the model name of this Switch.
System Name
This field displays the name used to identify the Switch on any network.
Boot Version
This field displays the version number and date of the boot module that is currently on the
Switch.
System Location
This field displays the geographic location of your Switch. You can change the setting in the
Basic Setting > General Setup screen.
Firmware
Version
This field displays the version number and date of the firmware the Switch is currently running.
System Time
This field displays the current date and time in the UAG. The format is mm-dd-yyyy hh:mm:ss.
Serial Number
This field displays the serial number of this Switch. The serial number is used for device tracking
and control.
System Up Time
This field displays how long the Switch has been running since it last restarted or was turned on.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC addresses of the Switch.
Login Timeout
This field displays how many minutes a management session can be left idle before the session
times out. After it times out you have to log in with your password again.
Stacking
topology
(Stacking
mode)
This field displays whether the current topology is Chain or Ring.
Detail
Click this link to go to the Basic Setting > System Info screen to check other detailed information,
such as system resource usage and the Switch temperature, fan speeds or voltage.
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Chapter 7 Status and ZON
Table 9 Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address Information
IPv4 Address
This field displays the Switch’s current IPv4 address.
Subnet Mask
This field displays the Switch’s subnet mask.
Default
Gateway
This field displays the IP address of the Switch’s default gateway.
IP Setup
Click the link to go to the Basic Setting > IP Setup screen.
IPV6 Global
Unicast Address
This field displays the Switch’s IPv6 global unicast address
IPV6 Link-Local
Address
This field displays the Switch’s IPv6 link-local address.
IPv6
configuration
Click the link to go to the Basic Setting > IPv6 screen.
Device Status
and Quick
Configuration
This section shows whether a feature is enabled or not on the Switch. You can click a feature’s
Setting link to go to the configuration screen for the feature.
Hover your cursor over a red exclamation mark to display information about the feature.
Note: The Stacking Status field is displayed only on the Switch with stacking support.
Quick Links
This section provides the shortcut link to a specific cofiguration screen.
7.3 Zyxel One Network (ZON) Utility Screen
ZON Utility is a program designed to help you deploy and manage a network more efficiently. It detects
devices automatically and allows you to do basic settings on devices in the network without having to
be near it.
The ZON Utility issues requests via Zyxel Discovery Protocol (ZDP) and in response to the query, the device
responds back with basic information including IP address, firmware version, location, system and model
name in the same broadcast domain. The information is then displayed in the ZON Utility screen and you
can perform tasks like basic configuration of the devices and batch firmware upgrade in it. You can
download the ZON Utility at www.zyxel.com and install it on a PC.
The following figure shows the ZON Utility screen.
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Chapter 7 Status and ZON
Figure 43 ZON Utility Screen
7.4 ZON Neighbor Management Screen
The ZON neighbor management screen allows you to view and manage the Switch’s neighboring
devices more conveniently. It uses Layer Link Discovery Protocol (LLDP) to discover all neighbor devices
connected to the Switch including non-Zyxel devices. You can perform tasks on the neighboring
devices like login, reboot (turn the power off and then back on again), and reset to factory default
settings in the Neighbor Management screen. For more information on LLDP, see (Section 35.1 on page
341).
Click Status > Neighbor to see the following screen.
Figure 44
Status > Neighbor
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Chapter 7 Status and ZON
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 10 Status > Neighbor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local
Port
This shows the port of the Switch, on which the neighboring device is discovered.
Desc.
This shows the port description of the Switch.
PoE Draw
This shows the consumption that the neighboring device connected to this port draws
from the Switch. This allows you to plan and use within the power budget of the Switch.
Remote
Port
This show the number of the neighbor device’s port which is connected to the Switch.
Desc.
This shows the description of the neighbor device’s port which is connected to the
Switch.
Model
This shows the model name of the neighbor device. This field will show “-” for non-Zyxel
devices.
System Name
This shows the system name of the neighbor device.
Location
This shows the geographic location of the neighbor device.
Firmware
This shows the firmware version of the neighbor device. This field will show “-” for non-Zyxel
devices.
IP
This shows the IP address of the neighbor device. The IP address is a hyper link that you
can click to log into and manage the neighbor device through its web configurator. This
field will show “-” for non-Zyxel devices.
MAC
This shows the MAC address of the neighbor device. This field will show “-” for non-Zyxel
devices.
PWR Cycle
Click the Cycle button to turn OFF the power of the neighbor device and turn it back ON
again. A count down button (from 5 to 0) starts.
Note:
•
•
Reset to Default
The Switch must support power sourcing (PSE) or the network device is a powered
device (PD).
If multiple neighbor devices use the same port, the Cycle button is displayed only on
the first device, others will show “-” instead.
Click the Reset button to reset the neighbor device to its factory default settings. A
warning message “Are you sure you want to load factory default?” appears prompting
you to confirm the action. After confirming the action a count down button (from 5 to 0)
starts.
Note:
•
•
•
The Switch must support power sourcing (PSE) or the network device is a powered
device (PD).
If multiple neighbor devices use the same port, the Reset button is not available and
will show “-” instead.
You can only reset Zyxel products.
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Chapter 8 Basic Setting
CHAPTER 8
Basic Setting
8.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to configure the System Info, General Setup, Switch Setup, IP Setup, Port
Setup, PoE, Interface Setup and IPv6 screens.
8.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the System Info screen (Section 8.2 on page 63) to check the firmware version number.
• Use the General Setup screen (Section 8.3 on page 67) to configure general settings such as the
system name and time.
• Use the Switch Setup screen (Section 8.5 on page 70) to choose your VLAN type, set the GARP timers
and assign priorities to queues.
• Use the IP Setup screen (Section 8.6 on page 71) to configure the Switch IP address, default gateway
device, and the management VLAN ID.
• Use the Port Setup screen (Section 8.7 on page 75) to configure Switch port settings.
• Use the PoE Status screens (Section 8.8 on page 77) to view the current amount of power that PDs are
receiving from the Switch and set the priority levels for the Switch in distributing power to PDs. This
screen is available for PoE model(s) only.
• Use the Interface Setup screens (Section 8.9 on page 85) to configure Switch interface type and
interface ID settings.
• Use the IPv6 screens (Section 8.10 on page 86) to view IPv6 status and IPv6 configuration.
• Use the Stacking screens (Section 8.11 on page 99) to view and configure stacking system for the
Switch.
• Use the DNS screen (Section 8.12 on page 104) to configure the default domain name server.
8.2 System Information
In the navigation panel, click Basic Setting > System Info to display the screen as shown. Use this screen
to view general system information. You can check the firmware version number.
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Figure 45 Basic Setting > System Info (for PoE model(s) only) (Standalone mode)
Figure 46 Basic Setting > System Info (for PoE model(s) only) (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 Basic Setting > System Info (Standalone and Stacking Modes)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the Switch for identification purposes.
Product Model
This field displays the product model of the Switch. Use this information when searching for
firmware upgrade or looking for other support information in the website.
ZyNOS F/W
Version
This field displays the version number of the Switch 's current firmware including the date created.
Ethernet
Address
This field refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) address of the Switch.
CPU Utilization
CPU utilization quantifies how busy the system is. Current (%) displays the current percentage of
CPU utilization.
Memory
Utilization
Memory utilization shows how much DRAM memory is available and in use. It also displays the
current percentage of memory utilization.
Name
This field displays the name of memory pool.
Total (byte)
This field displays the total number of bytes in this memory pool.
Used (byte)
This field displays the number of bytes being used in this memory pool.
Utilization
(%)
This field displays the percentage (%) of memory being used in this memory pool.
Hardware Monitor (Standalone Mode)
Temperature
Unit
The Switch has temperature sensors that are capable of detecting and reporting if the
temperature rises above the threshold. You may choose the temperature unit (Centigrade or
Fahrenheit) in this field.
Temperature
(C)
BOARD, MAC and PHY refer to the location of the temperature sensors on the Switch printed
circuit board.
Current
This shows the current temperature at this sensor.
MAX
This field displays the maximum temperature measured at this sensor.
MIN
This field displays the minimum temperature measured at this sensor.
Threshold
This field displays the upper temperature limit at this sensor.
Status
This field displays Normal for temperatures below the threshold and Error for those above.
Fan Speed
(RPM)
A properly functioning fan is an essential component (along with a sufficiently ventilated, cool
operating environment) in order for the device to stay within the temperature threshold. Each fan
has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if the fan speed falls below the threshold
shown.
Current
This field displays this fan's current speed in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MAX
This field displays this fan's maximum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MIN
This field displays this fan's minimum speed measured in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM). "<41" is
displayed for speeds too small to measure (under 2000 RPM).
Threshold
This field displays the minimum speed at which a normal fan should work.
Status
Normal indicates that this fan is functioning above the minimum speed. Error indicates that this
fan is functioning below the minimum speed.
Voltage(V)
The power supply for each voltage has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if the
voltage falls out of the tolerance range.
Current
This is the current voltage reading.
MAX
This field displays the maximum voltage measured at this point.
MIN
This field displays the minimum voltage measured at this point.
Threshold
This field displays the percentage tolerance of the voltage with which the Switch still works.
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Table 11 Basic Setting > System Info (Standalone and Stacking Modes) (continued)
LABEL
Status
DESCRIPTION
Normal indicates that the voltage is within an acceptable operating range at this point;
otherwise Error is displayed.
Hardware Status (Stacking Mode)
Slot
This number identifies the Switch in the stack. Click the number to see more detailed information
on the Switch.
Name
This is the system name of the Switch in the stack.
Voltage
This shows if the power supply voltage sensor is within normal tolerance range.
Temperatur
e
This shows if the temperature sensors on the Switch printed circuit board are within normal
tolerance range.
Fan
This shows if the fan sensors are within normal tolerance range.
8.2.1 System Information Stacking Hardware Monitor
Click a slot number in the System Info screen to display more detailed hardware information on a
Switch.
Figure 47 Basic Setting > System Info > Hardware Monitor (Stacking Mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Basic Setting > System Info > Hardware Monitor (Stacking Mode)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SLOT
This number identifies the Switch in the stack.
Temperature Unit
The Switch has temperature sensors that are capable of detecting and reporting if the
temperature rises above the threshold. You may choose the temperature unit (Centigrade or
Fahrenheit) in this field.
Temperature
BOARD, PHY, CPU and MAC refer to the location of the temperature sensors on the Switch
printed circuit board.
Current
This shows the current temperature at this sensor.
MAX
This field displays the maximum temperature measured at this sensor.
MIN
This field displays the minimum temperature measured at this sensor.
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Table 12 Basic Setting > System Info > Hardware Monitor (Stacking Mode) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Threshold
This field displays the upper temperature limit at this sensor.
Status
This field displays Normal for temperatures below the threshold and Error for those above.
Fan Speed (RPM)
A properly functioning fan is an essential component (along with a sufficiently ventilated, cool
operating environment) in order for the device to stay within the temperature threshold. Each
fan has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if the fan speed falls below the
threshold shown.
Current
This field displays this fan's current speed in Revolutions Per Minute (RPM).
MAX
This field displays this fan's maximum speed measured in RPM.
MIN
This field displays this fan's minimum speed measured in RPM. “<41" is displayed for speeds too
small to measure (under 2000 RPM).
Threshold
This field displays the minimum speed at which a normal fan should work.
Status
Normal indicates that this fan is functioning above the minimum speed. Error indicates that this
fan is functioning below the minimum speed.
Voltage (V)
The power supply for each voltage has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if
the voltage falls out of the tolerance range.
Current
This is the current voltage reading.
MAX
This field displays the maximum voltage measured at this point.
MIN
This field displays the minimum voltage measured at this point.
Threshold
This field displays the percentage tolerance of the voltage with which the Switch still works.
Status
Normal indicates that the voltage is within an acceptable operating range at this point;
otherwise Error is displayed.
8.3 General Setup
Use this screen to configure general settings such as the system name and time. Click Basic Setting >
General Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 48 Basic Setting > General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 Basic Setting > General Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name consists of up to 64 printable
characters; spaces are allowed.
Location
Enter the geographic location of your Switch. You can use up to 32 printable ASCII characters;
spaces are allowed.
Contact Person's
Name
Enter the name of the person in charge of this Switch. You can use up to 32 printable ASCII
characters; spaces are allowed.
Use Time Server
when Bootup
Enter the time service protocol that your time server uses. Not all time servers support all
protocols, so you may have to use trial and error to find a protocol that works. The main
differences between them are the time format.
When you select the Daytime (RFC 867) format, the Switch displays the day, month, year and
time with no time zone adjustment. When you use this format it is recommended that you use a
Daytime timeserver within your geographical time zone.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of seconds since 1970/
1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
None is the default value. Enter the time manually. Each time you turn on the Switch, the time
and date will be reset to 1970-1-1 0:0:0.
Time Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your timeserver. The Switch searches for the timeserver
for up to 60 seconds. If you select a timeserver that is unreachable, then this screen will appear
locked for 60 seconds. Please wait.
Current Time
This field displays the time you open this menu (or refresh the menu).
New Time
(hh:min:ss)
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format. The new time then appears in the
Current Time field after you click Apply.
Current Date
This field displays the date you open this menu.
New Date (yyyymm-dd)
Enter the new date in year, month and day format. The new date then appears in the Current
Date field after you click Apply.
Time Zone
Select the time difference between UTC (Universal Time Coordinated, formerly known as GMT,
Greenwich Mean Time) and your time zone from the drop-down list box.
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Table 13 Basic Setting > General Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Daylight Saving
Time
Daylight saving is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries set their clocks
ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.
Select this option if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected Daylight Saving
Time. The time is displayed in the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second Sunday of March.
Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in
the United States you would select Second, Sunday, March and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March. All of the time
zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT
or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, March and the last field
depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select 2:00 because
Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected Daylight Saving
Time. The time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of November. Each time
zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United
States you would select First, Sunday, November and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of October. All of the time
zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT
or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, October and the last field
depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select 2:00 because
Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.4 Introduction to VLANs
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple logical
networks. Devices on a logical network belong to one group. A device can belong to more than one
group. With VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from devices that are not in the same
group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
In MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and security among the
subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents one subscriber from accessing the network
resources of another on the same LAN, thus a user will not see the printers and hard disks of another user
in the same building.
VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller and more manageable
logical broadcast domain. In traditional switched environments, all broadcast packets go to each and
every individual port. With VLAN, all broadcasts are confined to a specific broadcast domain.
Note: VLAN is unidirectional; it only governs outgoing traffic.
See Chapter 9 on page 106 for information on port-based and 802.1Q tagged VLANs.
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8.5 Switch Setup
Click Basic Setting > Switch Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. The VLAN
setup screens change depending on whether you choose 802.1Q or Port Based in the VLAN Type field in
this screen. Refer to Chapter 9 on page 106 for more information on VLAN.
Figure 49 Basic Setting > Switch Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Basic Setting > Switch Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
(Standalone
mode only)
Choose 802.1Q or Port Based. The VLAN Setup screen changes depending on whether you
choose 802.1Q VLAN type or Port Based VLAN type in this screen. See Chapter 9 on page 106 for
more information. The Switch does not have port-based VLAN available in stacking mode
(Active is enabled in Basic Setting > Stacking > Configuration), so this field does not display in
stacking mode.
Bridge Control
Protocol
Transparency
Select Active to allow the Switch to handle bridging control protocols (STP, for example). You
also need to define how to treat a BPDU in the Port Setup screen.
MAC Address Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing traffic broadcasts. For MAC address learning to occur on a port, the port
must be active.
Aging Time
Enter a time from 10 to 1000000 seconds. This is how long all dynamically learned MAC
addresses remain in the MAC address table before they age out (and must be relearned).
ARP Aging Time
Aging Time
Enter a time from 60 to 1000000 seconds. This is how long dynamically learned ARP entries
remain in the ARP table before they age out (and must be relearned). The setting here applies
to ARP entries which are newly added in the ARP table after you click Apply.
GARP Timer: Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join message using
GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All message terminates all registrations.
GARP timers set declaration timeout values. See the chapter on VLAN setup for more background information.
Join Timer
Join Timer sets the duration of the Join Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each port has a Join
Period timer. The allowed Join Time range is between 100 and 65535 milliseconds; the default is
200 milliseconds. See the chapter on VLAN setup for more background information.
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Table 14 Basic Setting > Switch Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Leave Timer
Leave Time sets the duration of the Leave Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each port has a
single Leave Period timer. Leave Time must be two times larger than Join Timer; the default is 600
milliseconds.
Leave All Timer
Leave All Timer sets the duration of the Leave All Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each port
has a single Leave All Period timer. Leave All Timer must be larger than Leave Timer.
Priority Queue Assignment
IEEE 802.1p defines up to eight separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame that contains bits to
define class of service. Frames without an explicit priority tag are given the default priority of the ingress port. Use
the next fields to configure the priority level-to-physical queue mapping.
The Switch has eight physical queues that you can map to the 8 priority levels. On the Switch, traffic assigned to
higher index queues gets through faster while traffic in lower index queues is dropped if the network is congested.
Priority Level (The following descriptions are based on the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d standard (which
incorporates the 802.1p).
Priority 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration messages.
Priority 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the variations in delay).
Priority 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to jitter.
Priority 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA (Systems Network
Architecture) transactions.
Priority 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would include important
business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Priority 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Priority 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk transfers that are allowed
but that should not affect other applications and users.
Priority 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
8.6 IP Setup
Use the IP Setup screen to configure the Switch IP address, default gateway device, and the
management VLAN ID. The default gateway specifies the IP address of the default gateway (next hop)
for outgoing traffic.
8.6.1 Management IP Addresses
The Switch needs an IP address for it to be managed over the network. The factory default IP address is
192.168.1.1. The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. The factory default
subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
You can configure up to 32 IP addresses which are used to access and manage the Switch from the
ports belonging to the pre-defined VLAN(s).
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Note: You must configure a VLAN first. Each VLAN can have multiple management IP
addresses, and you can log into the Switch via different management IP addresses
simultaneously.
Figure 50 Basic Setting > IP Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 Basic Setting > IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of an entry.
IP Address
This field displays IP address of the Switch in the IP domain.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask of the Switch in the IP domain.
VID
This field displays the VLAN identification number of the IP domain on the Switch.
Type
This shows whether this IP address is dynamically assigned from a DHCP server or manually
assigned (Static).
Renew
Click this to renew the dynamic IP address.
Release
Click this to release the dynamic IP address.
8.6.2 IP Status Details
Use this screen to view IP status details. Click a number in the Index column in the IP Status screen to
display the screen as shown next.
Figure 51 Basic Setting > IP Setup > IP Status Details: Static
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Basic Setting > IP Setup > IP Status Details: Static
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
This shows whether this IP address is dynamically assigned from a DHCP server or manually
assigned (Static or DHCP).
VID
This is the VLAN identification number to which an IP routing domain belongs.
IP Address
This is the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example 192.168.1.1.
IP Subnet Mask
This is the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example 255.255.255.0.
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Figure 52 Basic Setting > IP Setup > IP Status Details: DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 Basic Setting > IP Setup > IP Status Details: DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
This shows whether this IP address is dynamically assigned from a DHCP server or manually
assigned (Static or DHCP).
VID
This is the VLAN identification number to which an IP routing domain belongs.
IP Address
This is the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example 192.168.1.1.
IP Subnet Mask
This is the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example 255.255.255.0.
Lease Time
This displays the length of time in seconds that this interface can use the current dynamic IP
address from the DHCP server.
Renew Time
This displays the length of time from the lease start that the Switch will request to renew its
current dynamic IP address from the DHCP server.
Rebind Time
This displays the length of time from the lease start that the Switch will request to get any
dynamic IP address from the DHCP server.
Lease Time Start
This displays the date and time that the current dynamic IP address assignment from the DHCP
server began. You should configure date and time in Basic Setting > General Setup.
Lease Time End
This displays the date and time that the current dynamic IP address assignment from the DHCP
server will end. You should configure date and time in Basic Setting > General Setup.
Default
Gateway
This displays the IP address of the default gateway assigned by the DHCP server. 0.0.0.0 means
no gateway is assigned.
DNS Server
This displays the IP address of the primary and secondary DNS servers assigned by the DHCP
server. 0.0.0.0 means no DNS server is assigned.
8.6.3 IP Configuration
Use this screen to configure the default gateway device, the default domain name server and add IP
domains.
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Figure 53 Basic Setting > IP Setup > IP Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 Basic Setting > IP Setup > IP Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default
Gateway
Type the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation, for example
192.168.1.254.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
IP Interface
Use these fields to create or edit IP routing domains on the Switch.
DHCP Client
Select this option if you have a DHCP server that can assign the Switch an IP address, subnet
mask, a default gateway IP address and a domain name server IP address automatically.
Static IP
Address
Select this option if you don’t have a DHCP server or if you wish to assign static IP address
information to the Switch. You need to fill in the following fields when you select this option.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation, for example, 192.168.1.1. This is
the IP address of the Switch in an IP routing domain.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask of an IP routing domain in dotted decimal notation, for example,
255.255.255.0.
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number to which an IP routing domain belongs.
Add
Click this to create a new entry.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This field displays the index number of an entry.
IP Address
This field displays IP address of the Switch in the IP domain.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask of the Switch in the IP domain.
VID
This field displays the VLAN identification number of the IP domain on the Switch.
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Table 18 Basic Setting > IP Setup > IP Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
This field displays the type of IP address status.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Note: Deleting all IP subnets locks you out of the Switch.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
8.7 Port Setup
Use this screen to configure Switch port settings. Click Basic Setting > Port Setup in the navigation panel
to display the configuration screen.
Figure 54 Basic Setting > Port Setup (Standalone mode)
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Figure 55 Basic Setting > Port Setup (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Basic Setting > Port Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
This is the port index number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second is the
port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable a port. The factory default for all ports is enabled. A port must be
enabled for data transmission to occur.
Name
Enter a descriptive name that identifies this port. You can enter up to 64 alpha-numerical
characters.
Note: Due to space limitation, the port name may be truncated in some web
configurator screens.
Type
This field displays the capacity that the port can support.
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Table 19 Basic Setting > Port Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Speed/Duplex
Select the speed and the duplex mode of the Ethernet connection on this port. Choices are
Auto-1000M, 10M/Half Duplex, 10M/Full Duplex, 100M/Half Duplex, 100M/Full Duplex and 1000M/
Full Duplex (Gigabit connections only).
Selecting Auto-1000M (auto-negotiation) allows one port to negotiate with a peer port
automatically to obtain the connection speed (of up to 1000M) and duplex mode that both ends
support. When auto-negotiation is turned on, a port on the Switch negotiates with the peer
automatically to determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer port does not
support auto-negotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by
detecting the signal on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switch’s autonegotiation is turned off, a port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when making a
connection, thus requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer port are the same in
order to connect.
Flow Control
A concentration of traffic on a port decreases port bandwidth and overflows buffer memory
causing packet discards and frame losses. Flow Control is used to regulate transmission of signals
to match the bandwidth of the receiving port.
The Switch uses IEEE802.3x flow control in full duplex mode and backpressure flow control in half
duplex mode.
IEEE802.3x flow control is used in full duplex mode to send a pause signal to the sending port,
causing it to temporarily stop sending signals when the receiving port memory buffers fill.
Back Pressure flow control is typically used in half duplex mode to send a "collision" signal to the
sending port (mimicking a state of packet collision) causing the sending port to temporarily stop
sending signals and resend later. Select Flow Control to enable it.
802.1p Priority
This priority value is added to incoming frames without a (802.1p) priority queue tag. See Priority
Queue Assignment in Table 14 on page 70 for more information.
BPDU Control
Configure the way to treat BPDUs received on this port. You must activate bridging control
protocol transparency in the Switch Setup screen first.
Select Peer to process any BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) received on this port.
Select Tunnel to forward BPDUs received on this port.
Select Discard to drop any BPDU received on this port.
Select Network to process a BPDU with no VLAN tag and forward a tagged BPDU.
Media Type
You can insert either an SFP+ transceiver or an SFP+ Direct Attach Copper (DAC) cable into the
10 Gigabit interface of the Switch.
Select the media type (sfp_plus or dac10g) of the SFP+ module that is attached to the 10 Gigabit
interface.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.8 PoE Status
Note: The following screens are available for the PoE model(s) only. Some features are only
available for the Ethernet ports (1 to 24 for XGS2210-28HP and 1 to 48 for XGS221052HP).
The PoE model(s) supports the IEEE 802.3at High Power over Ethernet (PoE) standard.
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A powered device (PD) is a device such as an access point or a switch, that supports PoE (Power over
Ethernet) so that it can receive power from another device through an Ethernet port.
In the figure below, the IP camera and IP phone get their power directly from the Switch. Aside from
minimizing the need for cables and wires, PoE removes the hassle of trying to find a nearby electric
outlet to power up devices.
Figure 56 Powered Device Examples
You can also set priorities so that the Switch is able to reserve and allocate power to certain PDs.
Note: The POE (Power over Ethernet) devices that supply or receive power and their
connected Ethernet cables must all be completely indoors.
To view the current amount of power that PDs are receiving from the Switch, click Basic Setting > PoE
Setup.
Figure 57 Basic Setting > PoE Status (Standalone mode)
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Figure 58 Basic Setting > PoE Setup (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 Basic Setting > PoE Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PoE Status
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
PoE Mode
This field displays the power management mode used by the Switch, whether it is in
Classification or Consumption mode.
Total Power (W)
This field displays the total power the Switch can provide to the connected PoE-enabled
devices on the PoE ports.
Consuming
Power (W)
This field displays the amount of power the Switch is currently supplying to the connected PoEenabled devices.
Allocated Power
(W)
This field displays the total amount of power the Switch has reserved for PoE after negotiating
with the connected PoE device(s).
Consuming Power (W) can be less than or equal but not more than the Allocated Power (W).
Remaining
Power (W)
This field displays the amount of power the Switch can still provide for PoE.
Note: The Switch must have at least 16 W of remaining power in order to supply
power to a PoE device, even if the PoE device needs less than 16W.
Port (Standalone
and stacking
mode)
This is the port index number. In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the
second the port number.
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Table 20 Basic Setting > PoE Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
State
This field shows which ports can receive power from the Switch. You can set this in Section 8.8.2
on page 81.
•
•
Class
Disable - The PD connected to this port cannot get power supply.
Enable - The PD connected to this port can receive power.
This shows the power classification of the PD.
This is a number from 0 to 4, where each value represents a range of power (W) and power
current (mA) that the PD requires to function. The ranges are as follows.
•
•
•
•
•
PD Priority
Class 0 - Default, 0.44 to 12.94
Class 1 - Optional, 0.44 to 3.84
Class 2 - Optional, 3.84 to 6.49
Class 3 - Optional, 6.49 to 12.95
Class 4 - Reserved (PSEs classify as Class 0) in a Switch that supports IEEE 802.3af only.
Optional, 12.95 to 25.50 in a Switch that supports IEEE 802.3at.
When the total power requested by the PDs exceeds the total PoE power budget on the Switch,
you can set the PD priority to allow the Switch to provide power to ports with higher priority first.
•
•
•
Critical has the highest priority.
High has the Switch assign power to the port after all critical priority ports are served.
Low has the Switch assign power to the port after all critical and high priority ports are
served.
Power-Up
This field displays the PoE standard the Switch uses to provide power on this port.
Consuming
Power (mW)
This field displays the current amount of power consumed by the PD from the Switch on this port.
Max Power
(mW)
This field displays the maximum amount of power the PD could use from the Switch on this port.
8.8.1 PoE Time Range Status
Use this screen to see whether PoE is scheduled to be enabled on a port.
Click the PoE Time Range Status link in the Basic Setting > PoE Status screen. The following screen opens.
Figure 59 Basic Setting > PoE Setup > PoE Time Range Status (Standalone mode)
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Figure 60 Basic Setting > PoE Setup > PoE Time Range Status (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 Basic Setting > PoE Setup > PoE Time Range Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
This is the number of the port on the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot
and the second the port number.
Time Range
This field displays the name of the schedule which is applied to the port. PoE is enabled at the
specified time/date.
state
This field displays whether the port can receive power from the Switch (In) or not (Out) currently.
It shows - if there is no schedule applied to the port.
8.8.2 PoE Setup
Use this screen to set the priority levels, power-up mode and schedule for the Switch in distributing power
to PDs.
Click the PoE Setup link in the Basic Setting > PoE Status screen. The following screen opens.
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Figure 61 Basic Setting > PoE Setup (Standalone mode)
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Chapter 8 Basic Setting
Figure 62 Basic Setting > PoE Setup (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 Basic Setting > PoE Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PoE Mode
Select the power management mode you want the Switch to use.
•
•
Classification - Select this if you want the Switch to reserve the Max Power (mW) to each PD
according to the priority level. If the total power supply runs out, PDs with lower priority do not
get power to function.
Consumption - Select this if you want the Switch to manage the total power supply so that
each connected PD gets a resource. However, the power allocated by the Switch may be
less than the Max Power (mW) of the PD. PDs with higher priority also get more power than
those with lower priority levels.
Pre-Allocate
Select this to have the Switch pre-allocate power to each port based on the classification of the
PD device.
Dual Detection
Select this to have the Switch run another detecting procedure between the detection and
classification stages. This helps check if the power interface (PI) range of the connected PD is
within the IEEE 802.3AF/AT standard range and ensures it is an IEEE PD.
Power Up
Sequence
Delay
Select this to allow PoE ports to be powered up one-by-one randomly or clear to allow them all to
be powered up at the same time.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
This is the port index number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second is the
port number. * means all ports.
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Table 22 Basic Setting > PoE Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
PD
Select this to provide power to a PD connected to the port.
If left unchecked, the PD connected to the port cannot receive power from the Switch.
PD Priority
When the total power requested by the PDs exceeds the total PoE power budget on the Switch,
you can set the PD priority to allow the Switch to provide power to ports with higher priority.
Select Critical to give the highest PD priority on the port.
Select High to set the Switch to assign the remaining power to the port after all critical priority
ports are served.
Select Low to set the Switch to assign the remaining power to the port after all critical and high
priority ports are served.
Power-Up
Set how the Switch provides power to a connected PD at power-up.
802.3af - the Switch follows the IEEE 802.3af Power over Ethernet standard to supply power to the
connected PDs during power-up.
Legacy - the Switch can provide power to the connected PDs that require high inrush currents at
power-up. Inrush current is the maximum, instantaneous input current drawn by the PD when first
turned on.
Pre-802.3at - the Switch initially offers power on the port according to the IEEE 802.3af standard,
and then switches to support the IEEE 802.3at standard within 75 milliseconds after a PD is
connected to the port. Select this option if the Switch is performing 2-event Layer-1 classification
(PoE+ hardware classification) or the connected PD is NOT performing Layer 2 power
classification using Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP).
802.3at - the Switch supports the IEEE 802.3at High Power over Ethernet standard and can supply
power of up to 30W per Ethernet port. IEEE 802.3at is also known as PoE+ or PoE Plus. An IEEE
802.3at compatible device is referred to as Type 2. Power Class 4 (High Power) can only be used
by Type 2 devices. If the connected PD requires a Class 4 current when it is turned on, it will be
powered up in this mode.
Max Power
(mW)
Specify the maximum amount of power the PD could use from the Switch on this port.
Wide Range
Detection
Select this to let the Switch have a wider detection range for the PD.
The Switch detects whether a connected device is a powered device or not before supplying
power to the port. For the PD detection, the Switch applies a fixed voltage to the device and
then receives returned current. If the returned current is within the IEEE 802.3AF/AT standard
range, the device will be considered as a valid PD by the Switch.
However, in real cases, environmental interferences might easily cause the returned current to be
out of the standard range.
Time Range
Select a pre-defined schedule (created using the Advanced Application > Time Range screen)
to control when the Switch enables PoE to provide power on the port.
If you leave this field blank, PoE is disabled on the port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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8.9 Interface Setup
An IPv6 address is configured on a per-interface basis. The interface can be a physical interface (for
example, an Ethernet port) or a virtual interface (for example, a VLAN). The Switch supports the VLAN
interface type for IPv6 at the time of writing.
Use this screen to set IPv6 interfaces on which you can configure an IPv6 address to access and
manage the Switch. Click Basic Setting > Interface Setup in the navigation panel to display the
configuration screen.
Figure 63 Basic Setting > Interface Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 Basic Setting > Interface Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface Type
Select the type of IPv6 interface for which you want to configure. The Switch supports the VLAN
interface type for IPv6 at the time of writing.
Interface ID
Specify a unique identification number (from 1 to 4094) for the interface.
To have IPv6 function properly, you should configure a static VLAN with the same ID number in the
Advanced Application > VLAN screens.
Add
Click this to create a new entry.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This field displays the index number of an entry.
Interface Type
This field displays the type of interface.
Interface ID
This field displays the identification number of the interface.
Interface
This field displays the interface’s descriptive name which is generated automatically by the
Switch. The name is from a combination of the interface type and ID number.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
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8.10 IPv6
Use this screen to view the IPv6 interface status and configure Switch’s management IPv6 addresses.
Click Basic Setting > IPv6 in the navigation panel to display the IPv6 status screen as shown next.
Figure 64 Basic Setting > IPv6
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 Basic Setting > IPv6
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of an IPv6 interface. Click on an index number to view more
interface details.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
Active
This field displays whether the IPv6 interface is activated or not.
8.10.1 IPv6 Interface Status
Use this screen to view a specific IPv6 interface status and detailed information. Click an interface index
number in the Basic Setting > IPv6 screen. The following screen opens.
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Figure 65 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Interface Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 25 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Interface Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Active
This field displays whether the IPv6 interface is activated or not.
MTU Size
This field displays the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size for IPv6 packets on this interface.
ICMPv6 Rate
Limit Bucket
Size
This field displays the maximum number of ICMPv6 error messages which are allowed to transmit
in a given time interval. If the bucket is full, subsequent error messages are suppressed.
ICMPv6 Rate
Limit Error
Interval
This field displays the time period (in milliseconds) during which ICMPv6 error messages of up to
the bucket size can be transmitted. 0 means no limit.
Link Local
Address
This field displays the Switch’s link-local IP address and prefix generated by the interface. It also
shows whether the IP address is preferred, which means it is a valid address and can be used as a
sender or receiver address.
Global Unicast
Address(es)
This field displays the Switch’s global unicast address to identify this interface.
Joined Group
Address(es)
This field displays the IPv6 multicast addresses of groups the Switch’s interface joins.
ND DAD Active
This field displays whether Neighbor Discovery (ND) Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is
enabled on the interface.
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Table 25 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Interface Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Number of
DAD Attempts
This field displays the number of consecutive neighbor solicitations the Switch sends for this
interface.
NS-Interval
(millisecond)
This field displays the time interval (in milliseconds) at which neighbor solicitations are re-sent for
this interface.
ND Reachable
Time
(millisecond)
This field displays how long (in milliseconds) a neighbor is considered reachable for this interface.
DHCPv6 Client
Active
This field displays whether the Switch acts as a DHCPv6 client to get an IPv6 address from a
DHCPv6 server.
Identity
Association
An Identity Association (IA) is a collection of addresses assigned to a DHCP client, through which
the server and client can manage a set of related IP addresses. Each IA must be associated with
exactly one interface.
IA Type
The IA type is the type of address in the IA. Each IA holds one type of address. IA_NA means an
identity association for non-temporary addresses and IA_TA is an identity association for
temporary addresses.
IAID
Each IA consists of a unique IAID and associated IP information.
T1
This field displays the DHCPv6 T1 timer. After T1, the Switch sends the DHCPv6 server a Renew
message.
An IA_NA option contains the T1 and T2 fields, but an IA_TA option does not. The DHCPv6 server
uses T1 and T2 to control the time at which the client contacts with the server to extend the
lifetimes on any addresses in the IA_NA before the lifetimes expire.
T2
This field displays the DHCPv6 T2 timer. If the time T2 is reached and the server does not respond,
the Switch sends a Rebind message to any available server.
State
This field displays the state of the TA. It shows
Active when the Switch obtains addresses from a DHCpv6 server and the TA is created.
Renew when the TA’s address lifetime expires and the Switch sends out a Renew message.
Rebind when the Switch doesn’t receive a response from the original DHCPv6 server and sends
out a Rebind message to another DHCPv6 server.
SID
This field displays the DHCPv6 server’s unique ID.
Address
This field displays the Switch’s global address which is assigned by the DHCPv6 server.
Preferred
Lifetime
This field displays how long (in seconds) that the global address remains preferred.
Valid
Lifetime
This field displays how long (in seconds) that the global address is valid.
DNS
This field displays the DNS server address assigned by the DHCPv6 server.
Domain List
This field displays the address record when the Switch queries the DNS server to resolve domain
names.
Restart
DHCPv6 Client
Click Click Here to send a new DHCP request to the DHCPv6 server and update the IPv6 address
and DNS information for this interface.
8.10.2 IPv6 Configuration
Use this screen to configure IPv6 settings on the Switch. Click the IPv6 Configuration link in the Basic
Setting > IPv6 screen. The following screen opens.
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Figure 66 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 26 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Global
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the global IPv6 settings on the Switch.
IPv6 Interface
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can enable an IPv6 interface on the Switch.
IPv6 Addressing
IPv6 LinkLocal
Address
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the IPv6 link-local address for an
interface.
IPv6 Global
Address
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the IPv6 global address for an interface.
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
IPv6
Neighbor
Discovery
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the IPv6 neighbor discovery settings.
IPv6 Router
Discovery
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the IPv6 router discovery settings.
IPv6 Prefix
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the Switch’s IPv6 prefix list.
IPv6 Neighbor
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can create a static IPv6 neighbor entry in the Switch’s
IPv6 neighbor table.
DHCPv6 Client
Setup
Click the link to go to a screen where you can configure the Switch DHCP settings.
8.10.3 IPv6 Global Setup
Use this screen to configure the global IPv6 settings. Click the link next to IPv6 Global Setup in the IPv6
Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 67 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Hop Limit
Specify the maximum number of hops (from 1 to 255) in router advertisements. This is the
maximum number of hops on which an IPv6 packet is allowed to transmit before it is discarded by
an IPv6 router, which is similar to the TTL field in IPv4.
ICMPv6 Rate
Limit Bucket
Size
Specify the maximum number of ICMPv6 error messages (from 1 to 200) which are allowed to
transmit in a given time interval. If the bucket is full, subsequent error messages are suppressed.
ICMPv6 Rate
Limit Error
Interval
Specify the time period (from 0 to 2147483647 milliseconds) during which ICMPv6 error messages
of up to the bucket size can be transmitted. 0 means no limit.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
8.10.4 IPv6 Interface Setup
Use this screen to turn on or off an IPv6 interface and enable stateless autoconfiguration on it. Click the
link next to IPv6 Interface Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 68 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Interface Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Interface Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
Active
Select this option to enable the interface.
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Table 28 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Interface Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
Active
This field displays whether the IPv6 interface is activated or not.
8.10.5 IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup
A link-local address uniquely identifies a device on the local network (the LAN). It is similar to a “private IP
address” in IPv4. You can have the same link-local address on multiple interfaces on a device. A linklocal unicast address has a predefined prefix of fe80::/10.
Use this screen to configure the interface’s link-local address and default gateway. Click the link next to
IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 69 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
Link-Local
Address
Manually configure a static IPv6 link-local address for the interface.
Default
Gateway
Set the default gateway IPv6 address for the interface. When an interface cannot find a routing
information for a frame’s destination, it forwards the packet to the default gateway.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
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Table 29 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Link-Local Address Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Link-Local
Address
This is the static IPv6 link-local address for the interface.
IPv6 Default
Gateway
This is the default gateway IPv6 address for the interface.
8.10.6 IPv6 Global Address Setup
Use this screen to configure the interface’s IPv6 global address. Click the link next to IPv6 Global Address
Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 70 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Address Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Address Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
IPv6 Global
Address
Manually configure a static IPv6 global address for the interface.
Prefix Length
Specify an IPv6 prefix length that specifies how many most significant bits (start from the left) in
the address compose the network address.
EUI-64
Select this option to have the interface ID be generated automatically using the EUI-64 format.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
IPv6 Global
Address/Prefix
Length
This field displays the IPv6 global address and prefix length for the interface.
EUI-64
This shows whether the interface ID of the global address is generated using the EUI-64 format.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
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Table 30 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Global Address Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove and then click Delete to remove the selected
entry(ies) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
8.10.7 IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup
Use this screen to configure neighbor discovery settings for each interface. Click the link next to IPv6
Neighbor Discovery Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 71 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
DAD Attempts
The Switch uses Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) with neighbor solicitation and advertisement
messages to check whether an IPv6 address is already in use before assigning it to an interface,
such as the link-local address it creates through stateless address autoconfiguration.
Specify the number of consecutive neighbor solicitations (from 0 to 600) the Switch sends for this
interface. Enter 0 to turn off DAD.
NS Interval
Specify the time interval (from 1000 to 3600000 milliseconds) at which neighbor solicitations are resent for this interface.
Reachable
Time
Specify how long (from 1000 to 3600000 milliseconds) a neighbor is considered reachable for this
interface.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
DAD Attempts
This field displays the number of consecutive neighbor solicitations the Switch sends for this
interface.
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Table 31 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
NS Interval
This field displays the time interval (in milliseconds) at which neighbor solicitations are re-sent for
this interface.
Reachable
Time
This field displays how long (in milliseconds) a neighbor is considered reachable for this interface.
8.10.8 IPv6 Router Discovery Setup
Use this screen to configure router discovery settings for each interface. Click the link next to IPv6 Router
Discovery Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 72 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Router Discovery Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Router Discovery Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
Flags
Select the Managed Config Flag option to have the Switch set the “managed address
configuration” flag (the M flag) to 1 in IPv6 router advertisements, which means IPv6 hosts
use DHCPv6 to obtain IPv6 stateful addresses. Deselect the option to set the flag to 0 and
the host will not use DHCPv6 to obtain IPv6 stateful addresses.
Select the Other Config Flag option to have the Switch set the “Other stateful
configuration” flag (the O flag) to 1 in IPv6 router advertisements, which means IPv6 hosts
use DHCPv6 to obtain additional configuration settings, such as DNS information. Deselect
the option to set the flag to 0 and the host will not use DHCPv6 to obtain additional
configuration settings.
Minimum Interval
Specify the minimum time interval (from 3 to 1350 seconds) at which the Switch sends
router advertisements for this interface.
Note: The minimum time interval cannot be greater than three-quarters of the
maximum time interval.
Maximum Interval
Specify the maximum time interval (from 4 to 1800 seconds) at which the Switch sends
router advertisements for this interface.
Lifetime
Specify how long (from 0 to 9000 seconds) the router in router advertisements can be used
as a default router for this interface.
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Table 32 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Router Discovery Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Suppress
Select this option to set the Switch to not send router advertisements and responses to
router solicitations on this interface.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
Flags
This field displays whether IPv6 hosts use DHCPv6 to obtain IPv6 stateful addresses (M) and/
or additional configuration settings (O).
Minimum Interval
This field displays the minimum time interval at which the Switch sends router
advertisements for this interface.
Maximum Interval
This field displays the maximum time interval at which the Switch sends router
advertisements for this interface.
Lifetime
This field displays how long the router in router advertisements can be used as a default
router for this interface.
Suppress
This field displays whether the Switch sends router advertisements and responses to router
solicitations on this interface (No) or not (Yes).
8.10.9 IPv6 Prefix Setup
Use this screen to configure the Switch’s IPv6 prefix list for each interface. Click the link next to IPv6 Prefix
Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 73 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Prefix Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Prefix Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
Prefix
Set the IPv6 prefix that the Switch includes in router advertisements for this interface.
Prefix Length
Set the prefix length that the Switch includes in router advertisements for this interface.
Valid Lifetime
Specify how long (from 0 to 4294967295 seconds) the prefix is valid for on-link
determination.
Preferred Lifetime
Specify how long (from 0 to 4294967295 seconds) that addresses generated from the prefix
via stateless address autoconfiguration remain preferred.
The preferred lifetime cannot exceed the valid lifetime.
Flags
Select No-Autoconfig Flag to not allow IPv6 hosts to use this prefix for stateless address
autoconfiguration.
Select No-Onlink Flag to not allow the specified prefix to be used for on-link determination.
Select No-Advertise Flag to set the Switch to not include the specified IPv6 prefix, prefix
length in router advertisements for this interface.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if
it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
Prefix/Prefix Length
This field displays the IPv6 prefix and prefix length that the Switch includes in router
advertisements for this interface.
Valid Lifetime
This field displays the IPv6 prefix valid lifetime.
Preferred Lifetime
This field displays the preferred lifetime of an IPv6 address generated from the prefix.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click Delete
to remove the selected entry(ies) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
8.10.10 IPv6 Neighbor Setup
Use this screen to create a static IPv6 neighbor entry in the Switch’s IPv6 neighbor table to store the
neighbor information permanently. Click the link next to IPv6 Neighbor Setup in the IPv6 Configuration
screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 74 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface Type
Select the type of IPv6 interface for which you want to configure. The Switch supports the VLAN
interface type for IPv6 at the time of writing.
Interface ID
Specify a unique identification number (from 1 to 4094) for the interface.
A static IPv6 neighbor entry displays in the Management > Neighbor Table screen only when the
interface ID is also created in the Basic Setup > Interface Setup screen.
To have IPv6 function properly, you should configure a static VLAN with the same ID number in the
Advanced Application > VLAN screens.
Neighbor
Address
Specify the IPv6 address of the neighboring device which can be reached through the interface.
MAC
Specify the MAC address of the neighboring device which can be reached through the
interface.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
Neighbor
Address
This field displays the IPv6 address of the neighboring device which can be reached through the
interface
MAC
This field displays the MAC address of the neighboring device which can be reached through the
interface.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the table
heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove and then click Delete to remove the selected
entry(ies) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
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8.10.11 DHCPv6 Client Setup
Use this screen to configure the Switch’s DHCP settings when it is acting as a DHCPv6 client. Click the link
next to DHCPv6 Client Setup in the IPv6 Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 75 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > DHCPv6 Client Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > DHCPv6 Client Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the IPv6 interface you want to configure.
IA Type
Select IA-NA to set the Switch to get a non-temporary IP address from the DHCPv6 server for this
interface.
Optionally, you can also select Rapid-Commit to have the Switch send its DHCPv6 Solicit message
with a Rapid Commit option to obtain information from the DHCPv6 server by a rapid twomessage exchange. The Switch discards any Reply messages that do not include a Rapid
Commit option. The DHCPv6 server should also support the Rapid Commit option to have it work
well.
Options
Select DNS to have the Switch obtain DNS server IPv6 addresses and/or select Domain-List to
have the Switch obtain a list of domain names from the DHCP server.
Information
Refresh
Minimum
Specify the time interval (from 600 to 4294967295 seconds) at which the Switch exchanges other
configuration information with a DHCPv6 server again.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the interface index number. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Interface
This is the name of the IPv6 interface you created.
IA-NA
This field displays whether the Switch obtains a non-temporary IP address from the DHCPv6 server.
Rapid-Commit
This field displays whether the Switch obtains information from the DHCPv6 server by a rapid twomessage exchange.
DNS
This field displays whether the Switch obtains DNS server IPv6 addresses from the DHCPv6 server.
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Table 35 Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > DHCPv6 Client Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Domain-List
This field displays whether the Switch obtains a list of domain names from the DHCP server.
Information
Refresh
Minimum
This field displays the time interval (in seconds) at which the Switch exchanges other configuration
information with a DHCPv6 server again.
8.11 Stacking
Stacking is directly connecting Switches to form a larger system that behaves as a single Switch or a
virtual chassis with increased port density.
Figure 76 Switch Stacking Concept
The last two SFP ports of your Switch are dedicated for Switch stacking. These are the Switches that
support stacking at the time of writing.
Table 36 Switch Stacking
MODELS WITH STACKING SUPPORT
XGS2210-28
XGS2210-28HP
XGS2210-52
XGS2210-52HP
Note: Up to 2 Switches per stack are allowed.
You can manage each Switch in the stack from a master Switch using its web configurator or console.
Each Switch supports up to two stacking channels. Use the master Switch to assign a ‘slot ID’ for each
‘linecard’ non-master Switch. ‘Slot’ refers to a Switch in the ‘virtual chassis’ stack.
The advantages of stacking are:
• High port density - for example, two 48-port Switches can become one 96-port logical Switch
• Centralized management - log into a single IP address of the master switch to control all Switches in
the stacking system using the web configurator, CLI, SNMP or FTP
• Redundancy - Data redundancy allows traffic to be forwarded even if one Switch in the stack fails.
Management redundancy lets you still manage the stack even if one Switch in the stack fails
• Modularity and hot-swappable - you can add, remove, or replace Switches to increase or decrease
the stack with minimum disruption to ongoing network traffic.
You can build a Switch stack using a ring or chain topology. In a ring topology, the last Switch is
connected to the first.
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Figure 77 Stacking Topology
8.11.1 Stacking Status
Click Basic Setting > Stacking in the navigation panel to display the Stacking Status screen as shown
next.
Figure 78 Basic Setting > Stacking Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 Basic Setting > Stacking > Stacking Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot
‘Slot’ refers to a Switch in the ‘virtual chassis’ stack. This field displays the slot ID of the stacked
Switch. You can click the ID number to go to the Stacking Slot Status screen.
Name
This field displays the model name of the stacked Switch.
Status
This field displays whether the stacked Switch is active or inactive in a stack system.
Init means the slot ID is being initialized by the master Switch.
active* means the Switch is in the stack, but some items failed to initiate. See the system logs for
details. If the Switch is not a master, disconnect and reconnect the stacking port and wait.
Restart the Switch if it still displays active*. If the Switch is a master, restart it or choose another
master.
MAC address
This field displays the MAC address of the stacked Switch.
Role
This field displays whether the Switch is a master, backup or linecard. There’s only one master
and one backup Switch in the stacking model; all others are linecard Switches.
Stacking Topology: Ring/Chain
Slot No.
This field displays the slot ID number of the stacked Switch.
Stacking Channel1
Neighbor
This field displays the neighbor Switch that is connected using slot channel 1 of the Switch.
Speed
This field displays the Ethernet speed of stacking channel 1 of the Switch.
Stacking Channel2
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Table 37 Basic Setting > Stacking > Stacking Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Neighbor
This field displays the neighbor Switch that is connected to slot channel 2 of the Switch.
Speed
This field displays the Ethernet speed of stacking channel 2 of the Switch.
8.11.2 Stacking Slot
Click Basic Setting > Stacking > Stacking Status > Slot number in the navigation panel to display the
Stacking Slot Status screen as shown next.
Figure 79 Basic Setting > Stacking > Stacking Status > Slot number
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 Basic Setting > Stacking > Stacking Status > Slot number
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot
This field displays the slot ID of the Switch.
Stacking
This field displays whether the Switch is active in the stacking system.
Role
This field displays whether the stacked Switch is a master or linecard Switch.
Force Master
Mode
This field displays whether the Force Master Mode is enabled or disabled on this Switch. The
Active Force Master Mode forces this Switch to become a master Switch. This Switch will have
the highest priority over all other Switch in the stack. If two Switches are set as masters, they will
have the same priority level, but the Switch that has the longest active run-time will be selected
as the master Switch automatically.
Priority
This field displays the priority level of the Switch. A higher number represents higher priority.
Slot ID After
Reboot
This field displays the slot ID of the Switch after a reboot. You can save the slot ID of the Switch
after a reboot by clicking Freeze in the Stacking Configuration screen. See Section 8.11.3 on
page 102.
Stacking Status
This field displays whether the stacked Switch is active or inactive in a stack. Init means the slot
ID is initialized by the master Switch.
Master Capable
This field displays whether the Switch has capacity to become a master Switch. Auto means the
stack system master election process will determine if the Switch can be assigned as a master
Switch.
Stacking MAC
Address
This field displays the stacking Switch MAC address.
Stacking
Channel 1
This field displays the status of the port stacking channel 1 of the Switch. It will display up for
active or down for inactive.
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Table 38 Basic Setting > Stacking > Stacking Status > Slot number (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Stacking
Channel 2
This field displays the status of the port stacking channel 2 of the Switch. It will display up for
active or down for inactive.
Stacking Up
Time
This field displays the time that the active Switch in a stack has been running.
ZyNOS version
*Running/Flash
This field displays the ZyNOS firmware that is currently running on the Switch.
8.11.3 Stacking Configuration
A supported Switch can change between stacking and standalone mode by selecting the Active
check box in the Basic Setting > Stacking > Configuration screen.
Note: When you change modes, all configurations except user accounts, but including
running configuration, config01 and config02 will be erased and the Switch will reboot
with a new config01. Therefore, you should back up previous configurations if you want
to reload them later.
Stacking will automatically choose a master Switch in a stack but you can overwrite that by actively
forcing a Switch to become a master Switch. In the Stacking Configuration screen, click Active Force
Master Mode to choose the master Switch. This master Switch will have the highest priority over all other
stacked Switches even when they have same priority value.
If two or more Switches have Active Force Master Mode enabled, then the Switch will use System Priority
to determine which is master. If they have the same System Priority, then the Switch with the longest uptime is selected. Uptime is measured in increments of 10 minutes. The Switch with the higher number of
increments is selected. If they have the same uptime, then the Switch with the lowest MAC address will
be the master.
This is the master election priority in a stack system:
1
Active Force Master Mode
2
Highest Stacking Priority
3
Longest System Up Time
4
Lowest MAC Address
Note: Master election occurs when a stacking port link status changes (up / down). The link
status changes when (for example):
- a stacking port cable is disconnected
- a Switch in the stack reboots (as happens after you change stacking mode to
standalone)
- you add a Switch to the stack or
- a Switch in the stack shuts down.
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Use the following procedure to create a stack:
1
Select a Switch to be the master. Change its mode to stacking mode. You will see a message asking you
to confirm the change. Click OK to confirm and the Switch will reboot automatically using a new
config01.
2
After reboot completes, the master LED will turn on.
3
Configure the Switch stacking priority to a high value, such as 63.
4
Change a second Switch to stacking mode and wait for it to finish rebooting automatically. This master
LED will also turn on.
5
Connect the two Switches using the stacking ports for the Switch defined.
6
The second Switch master LED will then turn off, and its Sys LED will blink while it's initializing. Please wait
until it stops blinking, indicating that it has joined the stack.
7
Repeat steps 4 to 6 to connect other Switches to the stack.
When the Switch is in Stacking mode, the web configurator will change port and VLAN port settings to
support the stacking mode. See Section 8.7 on page 75 and Section 9.4 on page 112 for details on the
port settings.
Click Basic Setting > Stacking > Configuration to see the following screen.
Figure 80 Basic Setting > Stacking > Configuration
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 Basic Setting > Stacking > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the Active check box to put the Switch in stacking mode. This will erase the running
configuration, config01 and config02. The master Switch’s login will remain unchanged. If you
want to reload a previous configuration, please back one up first.
Apply
Click Apply to activate the stacking mode.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Active check box.
Force Master
Mode
Select the Force Master Mode check box to force this Switch to become a master Switch.
System Priority
Enter a number (from1 to 63) to assign a priority for the stacking Switch. The higher the number,
the higher the priority.
Apply
Click Apply to save the Active Force Master Mode and System Priority fields.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Active Force Master Mode and System Priority fields.
Slot ID Freeze
Click the Freeze button to have the Switch retain its slot ID after reboot.
Slot
This field displays the slot or port channel of the stacked Switch.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address of the stacked Switch.
Type
This field displays the model name of the Switch.
Slot ID After
Reboot
Choose Auto to have a new slot ID assigned after reboot. If you want to keep the original slot ID
after reboot, you can click Freeze or select an ID in the Slot ID After Reboot list box.
Apply
Click Apply to save the Slot ID After reboot field.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Slot ID After reboot field.
8.12 DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address and vice
versa. Use the DNS screen to configure and view the default DNS servers on the Switch.
Figure 81 Basic Setting > DNS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 Basic Setting > DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Static Domain Name Server
Preference
This is the priority of the DNS server address.
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Table 40 Basic Setting > DNS (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Address
Enter a domain name server IPv6/IPv4 address in order to be able to use a domain name
instead of an IP address.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Domain Name Server Table
Index
This field displays priority of the DNS server address.
Server Address
This field displays the IP address of the DNS server.
Source
This field displays whether the DNS server address is configured manually (Static) or
obtained automatically using DHCPv4/DHCPv6 (Dynamic).
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CHAPTER 9
VLAN
9.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure 802.1Q tagged and port-based VLANs. The type of screen you
see here depends on the VLAN Type you selected in the Switch Setup screen.
9.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the VLAN Status screen (Section 9.2 on page 109) to view and search all VLAN groups.
• Use the VLAN Detail screen (Section 9.2.1 on page 110) to view detailed port settings and status of the
VLAN group.
• Use the Static VLAN screen (Section 9.5 on page 113) to configure and view 802.1Q VLAN parameters
for the Switch.
• Use the VLAN Port Setting screen (Section 9.6 on page 116) to configure the static VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q)
settings on a port.
• Use the Subnet Based VLAN screen (Section 9.7 on page 118) to set up VLANs that allow you to group
traffic into logical VLANs based on the source IP subnet you specify.
• Use the Protocol Based VLAN screen (Section 9.8 on page 121) to set up VLANs that allow you to
group traffic into logical VLANs based on the protocol you specify.
• Use the Voice VLAN screen (Section 9.9 on page 123) to set up VLANs that allow you to group voice
traffic with defined priority and enable the switch port to carry the voice traffic separately from data
traffic to ensure the sound quality does not deteriorate.
• Use the MAC Based VLAN screen (Section 9.10 on page 125) to set up VLANs that allow you to group
untagged packets into logical VLANs based on the source MAC address of the packet. This
eliminates the need to reconfigure the switch when you change ports. The switch will forward the
packets based on the source MAC address you setup previously.
• Use the Port-Based VLAN screen (Section 9.11 on page 126) to set up VLANs where the packet
forwarding decision is based on the destination MAC address and its associated port.
9.1.2 What You Need to Know
Read this section to know more about VLAN and how to configure the screens.
IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
A tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the VLAN membership of a
frame across bridges - they are not confined to the switch on which they were created. The VLANs can
be created statically by hand or dynamically through GVRP. The VLAN ID associates a frame with a
specific VLAN and provides the information that switches need to process the frame across the network.
A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an untagged frame and contains two bytes of TPID (Tag
Protocol Identifier, residing within the type/length field of the Ethernet frame) and two bytes of TCI (Tag
Control Information, starts after the source address field of the Ethernet frame).
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The CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet switches. If a
frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be forwarded as it is to
an untagged port. The remaining twelve bits define the VLAN ID, giving a possible maximum number of
4,096 VLANs. Note that user priority and VLAN ID are independent of each other. A frame with VID
(VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a priority frame, meaning that only the priority level is significant and
the default VID of the ingress port is given as the VID of the frame. Of the 4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is
used to identify priority frames and value 4095 (FFF) is reserved, so the maximum possible VLAN
configurations are 4,094.
TPID
User Priority
CFI
VLAN ID
2 Bytes
3 Bits
1 Bit
12 bits
Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames
Each port on the Switch is capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To forward a frame from an
802.1Q VLAN-aware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware switch, the Switch first decides where to
forward the frame and then strips off the VLAN tag. To forward a frame from an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware
switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch, the Switch first decides where to forward the frame, and then
inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port's default VID. The default PVID is VLAN 1 for all ports, but this
can be changed.
A broadcast frame (or a multicast frame for a multicast group that is known by the system) is duplicated
only on ports that are members of the VID (except the ingress port itself), thus confining the broadcast to
a specific domain.
9.1.2.1 Automatic VLAN Registration
GARP and GVRP are the protocols used to automatically register VLAN membership across switches.
GARP
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) allows network switches to register and de-register
attribute values with other GARP participants within a bridged LAN. GARP is a protocol that provides a
generic mechanism for protocols that serve a more specific application, for example, GVRP.
GARP Timers
Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join message using
GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All message terminates all
registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values.
GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for switches to
register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network. Enable this function to permit VLAN
groups beyond the local Switch.
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Please refer to the following table for common IEEE 802.1Q VLAN terminology.
Table 41 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology
VLAN PARAMETER
TERM
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Permanent VLAN
This is a static VLAN created manually.
Dynamic VLAN
This is a VLAN configured by a GVRP registration/deregistration
process.
VLAN Administrative
Control
Registration Fixed
Fixed registration ports are permanent VLAN members.
Registration
Forbidden
Ports with registration forbidden are forbidden to join the specified
VLAN.
Normal Registration
Ports dynamically join a VLAN using GVRP.
VLAN Tag Control
Tagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN tag all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Untagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN don't tag all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Port VID
This is the VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames that this port
received.
Acceptable Frame
Type
You may choose to accept both tagged and untagged incoming
frames, just tagged incoming frames or just untagged incoming
frames on a port.
Ingress filtering
If set, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs that do not
have this port as a member
VLAN Port
9.1.2.2 Port VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on a port to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to pass through
that port. This is useful if you want to set up VLAN groups on end devices without having to configure the
same VLAN groups on intermediary devices.
Refer to the following figure. Suppose you want to create VLAN groups 1 and 2 (V1 and V2) on devices
A and B. Without VLAN Trunking, you must configure VLAN groups 1 and 2 on all intermediary switches C,
D and E; otherwise they will drop frames with unknown VLAN group tags. However, with VLAN Trunking
enabled on a port(s) in each intermediary switch you only need to create VLAN groups in the end
devices (A and B). C, D and E automatically allow frames with VLAN group tags 1 and 2 (VLAN groups
that are unknown to those switches) to pass through their VLAN trunking port(s).
Figure 82 Port VLAN Trunking
9.1.2.3 Select the VLAN Type
Select a VLAN type in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen.
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Figure 83 Switch Setup > Select VLAN Type
Static VLAN
Use a static VLAN to decide whether an incoming frame on a port should be
• sent to a VLAN group as normal depending on its VLAN tag.
• sent to a group whether it has a VLAN tag or not.
• blocked from a VLAN group regardless of its VLAN tag.
You can also tag all outgoing frames (that were previously untagged) from a port with the specified
VID.
9.2 VLAN Status
Use this screen to view and search all VLAN groups. Click Advanced Application > VLAN from the
navigation panel to display the VLAN Status screen as shown next.
Figure 84 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Search by
VID
Enter an existing VLAN ID number(s) (separated by a comma) and click Search to display only
the specified VLAN(s) in the list below.
Leave this field blank and click Search to display all VLANs configured on the Switch.
The Number of
VLAN
This is the number of VLANs configured on the Switch.
The Number of
Search Results
This is the number of VLANs that match the searching criteria and display in the list below.
Index
This is the VLAN index number. Click on an index number to view more VLAN details.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN screen.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a static VLAN was
set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch.
This field displays only when you use the Search button to look for certain VLANs.
Dynamic: using GVRP
Static: added as a permanent entry
Voice: manually added as a Voice VLAN
MVR: added via multicast VLAN registration
Private - manually added as a private VLAN (primary, isolated or community)
Change Pages
Click Previous or Next to show the previous/next screen if all status information cannot be seen in
one screen.
9.2.1 VLAN Details
Use this screen to view detailed port settings and status of the VLAN group. Click on an index number in
the VLAN Status screen to display VLAN details.
Figure 85 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail (Standalone mode)
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Figure 86 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Status
Click this to go to the VLAN Status screen.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN screen.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
‘Slot’ refers to a Switch in the ‘virtual chassis’ stack. This field displays the slot ID of the stacked
Switch.
Port Number
This column displays the ports that are participating in a VLAN. A tagged port is marked as T, an
untagged port is marked as U and ports not participating in a VLAN are marked as “–“.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a static VLAN was
set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch.
Dynamic: using GVRP
Static: added as a permanent entry
Voice: manually added as a Voice VLAN
MVR: added via multicast VLAN registration
Private - manually added as a private VLAN (primary, isolated or community)
Private VLAN
Status
These fields show private VLAN information for the selected VLAN. See Section 33.1 on page 333
for more information on private VLANs.
Primary
VLAN
This field shows the primary VLAN ID in the selected VLAN.
Secondary
VLAN
This field shows the secondary VLAN ID in the selected VLAN.
Type
This field shows the type of private VLAN: Primary, Community or Isolated.
Port List
This shows the ports mapped to the private VLAN using the Advanced Application > Private
VLAN or Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN screen.
Change Pages
Click Previous or Next to show the previous/next screen if all status information cannot be seen
in one screen.
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9.3 Private VLAN Status
Use this screen to view all private VLANs created on the Switch. Click Advanced Application > VLAN >
Private VLAN Status to see the following screen.
Figure 87 Advanced Application > VLAN > Private VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Advanced Application > VLAN > Private VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Private VLAN
Status
These fields show information for the all private VLANs. See also Advanced Application > Private
VLAN.
Primary
VLAN
This field shows the primary VLAN ID in a private VLAN.
Secondary
VLAN
This field shows the secondary VLAN ID in a private VLAN.
Type
This field shows the type of private VLAN: Primary, Community or Isolated.
Port List
This shows the ports mapped to the private VLAN using the Advanced Application > Private
VLAN or Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN screen.
Change Pages
Use the Previous and Next buttons to display different pages.
9.4 VLAN Configuration
Use this screen to view IEEE 802.1Q VLAN parameters for the Switch. Click Advanced Application > VLAN
> VLAN Configuration to see the following screen.
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Figure 88 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration
The following table describes the labels in the above screen.
Table 45 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Static VLAN Setup
Click Click Here to configure the Static VLAN for the Switch.
VLAN Port Setup
Click Click Here to configure the VLAN Port for the Switch.
Subnet Based VLAN Setup
Click Click Here to configure the Subnet Based VLAN for the Switch.
Protocol Based VLAN Setup
Click Click Here to configure the Protocol Based VLAN for the Switch.
Voice VLAN Setup
Click Click Here to configure the Voice VLAN for the Switch.
MAC Based VLAN Setup
Click Click Here to configure the MAC Based VLAN for the Switch.
9.5 Configure a Static VLAN
Use this screen to configure a static VLAN for the Switch. Click the Static VLAN Setup link in the VLAN
Configuration screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 89 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Static VLAN Setup (Standalone
Mode)
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Figure 90 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Static VLAN Setup (Stacking Mode)
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 46 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Static VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ACTIVE
Select this check box to activate the VLAN settings.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the VLAN group for identification purposes. This name consists of up
to 64 printable characters. Spaces are allowed.
VLAN Group ID
Enter the VLAN ID for this static entry; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
VLAN Type
Select Normal (static) or Private. For Private VLANs, select Primary, Isolated or Community.
Association
VLAN List
Primary private VLANs can associate with several (secondary) Community private VLANs and up
to one (secondary) Isolated private VLAN.
You only configure VLAN Association List for Primary private VLANs. Use a dash to associate
consecutive VLANs and a comma (no spaces) to associate non-consecutive VLANs. For
example, 51-53 includes 51, 52 and 53, but 51,53 does not include 52.
Secondary private VLANs can only be associated with one primary private VLAN.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
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Table 46 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Static VLAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring. In stacking mode, the first number
represents the slot and the second the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Control
Select Normal for the port to dynamically join this VLAN group using GVRP. This is the default
selection.
Select Fixed for the port to be a permanent member of this VLAN group.
Select Forbidden if you want to prohibit the port from joining this VLAN group.
Tagging
Select TX Tagging if you want the port to tag all outgoing frames transmitted with this VLAN
Group ID.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to start configuring the screen again.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group. Click the number to edit the VLAN settings.
Active
This field indicates whether the VLAN settings are enabled (Yes) or disabled (No).
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
VLAN Type
This field displays the Normal or Private (Primary, Isolated or Community) type VLAN configured
in the top part of this screen.
Association
VLAN List
This field displays which secondary private VLANs are associated with a primary private VLAN
configured in the top part of this screen.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
9.6 Configure VLAN Port Settings
Use the VLAN Port Setup screen to configure the static VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q) settings on a port. Click the
VLAN Port Setup link in the VLAN Configuration screen.
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Figure 91 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > VLAN Port Setup (Standalone mode)
Figure 92 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > VLAN Port Setup (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration> VLAN Port Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for
switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network.
Select this check box to permit VLAN groups beyond the local Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and
the second the port number. Please note that the default stacking ports (the last two ports of
your Switch) cannot be configured. They are reserved for stacking only.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Ingress Check
If this check box is selected, the Switch discards incoming frames on a port for VLANs that do
not include this port in its member set.
Clear this check box to disable ingress filtering.
PVID
A PVID (Port VLAN ID) is a tag that adds to incoming untagged frames received on a port so
that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
Enter a number between 1and 4094 as the port VLAN ID.
GVRP
Select this check box to allow GVRP on this port.
Acceptable
Frame Type
Specify the type of frames allowed on a port. Choices are All, Tag Only and Untag Only.
Select All from the drop-down list box to accept all untagged or tagged frames on this port.
This is the default setting.
Select Tag Only to accept only tagged frames on this port. All untagged frames will be
dropped.
Select Untag Only to accept only untagged frames on this port. All tagged frames will be
dropped.
VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on ports connected to other switches or routers (but not ports directly
connected to end users) to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to pass through
the Switch.
Isolation
Select this to allows this port to communicate only with the CPU management port and the
ports on which the isolation feature is not enabled.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.7 Subnet Based VLANs
Subnet based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the source IP subnet you
specify. When a frame is received on a port, the Switch checks if a tag is added already and the IP
subnet it came from. The untagged packets from the same IP subnet are then placed in the same
subnet based VLAN. One advantage of using subnet based VLANs is that priority can be assigned to
traffic from the same IP subnet.
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For example, an ISP (Internet Services Provider) may divide different types of services it provides to
customers into different IP subnets. Traffic for voice services is designated for IP subnet 172.16.1.0/24,
video for 192.168.1.0/24 and data for 10.1.1.0/24. The Switch can then be configured to group incoming
traffic based on the source IP subnet of incoming frames.
You configure a subnet based VLAN with priority 6 and VID of 100 for traffic received from IP subnet
172.16.1.0/24 (voice services). You also have a subnet based VLAN with priority 5 and VID of 200 for
traffic received from IP subnet 192.168.1.0/24 (video services). Lastly, you configure VLAN with priority 3
and VID of 300 for traffic received from IP subnet 10.1.1.0/24 (data services). All untagged incoming
frames will be classified based on their source IP subnet and prioritized accordingly. That is video
services receive the highest priority and data the lowest.
Figure 93 Subnet Based VLAN Application Example
9.7.1 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN
Click the Subnet Based VLAN Setup link in the VLAN Configuration screen to display the configuration
screen as shown.
Note: Subnet based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you use
IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.
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Figure 94 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Subnet Based VLAN Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 48 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Subnet Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this subnet based VLANs on the Switch.
DHCP-Vlan
Override
When DHCP snooping is enabled DHCP clients can renew their IP address through the DHCP VLAN
or via another DHCP server on the subnet based VLAN.
Select this checkbox to force the DHCP clients in this IP subnet to obtain their IP addresses through
the DHCP VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Active
Check this box to activate the IP subnet VLAN you are creating or editing.
Name
Enter up to 32 alpha numeric characters to identify this subnet based VLAN.
IP
Enter the IP address of the subnet for which you want to configure this subnet based VLAN.
Mask-Bits
Enter the bit number of the subnet mask. To find the bit number, convert the subnet mask to
binary format and add all the 1’s together. Take “255.255.255.0” for example. 255 converts to
eight 1s in binary. There are three 255s, so add three eights together and you get the bit number
(24).
VID
Enter the ID of a VLAN with which the untagged frames from the IP subnet specified in this subnet
based VLAN are tagged. This must be an existing VLAN which you defined in the Advanced
Applications > VLAN screens.
Priority
Select the priority level that the Switch assigns to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This is the index number identifying this subnet based VLAN. Click on any of these numbers to edit
an existing subnet based VLAN.
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Table 48 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Subnet Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field shows whether the subnet based VLAN is active or not.
Name
This field shows the name the subnet based VLAN.
IP
This field shows the IP address of the subnet for this subnet based VLAN.
Mask-Bits
This field shows the subnet mask in bit number format for this subnet based VLAN.
VID
This field shows the VLAN ID of the frames which belong to this subnet based VLAN.
Priority
This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this subnet based VLAN.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the table
heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click this to delete the subnet based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
9.8 Protocol Based VLANs
Protocol based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the protocol you specify.
When an upstream frame is received on a port (configured for a protocol based VLAN), the Switch
checks if a tag is added already and its protocol. The untagged packets of the same protocol are then
placed in the same protocol based VLAN. One advantage of using protocol based VLANs is that priority
can be assigned to traffic of the same protocol.
Note: Protocol based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.
For example, port 1, 2, 3 and 4 belong to static VLAN 100, and port 4, 5, 6, 7 belong to static VLAN 120.
You configure a protocol based VLAN A with priority 3 for ARP traffic received on port 1, 2 and 3. You
also have a protocol based VLAN B with priority 2 for Apple Talk traffic received on port 6 and 7. All
upstream ARP traffic from port 1, 2 and 3 will be grouped together, and all upstream Apple Talk traffic
from port 6 and 7 will be in another group and have higher priority than ARP traffic, when they go
through the uplink port to a backbone switch C.
Figure 95 Protocol Based VLAN Application Example
9.8.1 Configuring Protocol Based VLAN
Click the Protocol Based VLAN Setup link in the VLAN Configuration screen to display the configuration
screen as shown.
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Note: Protocol-based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.
Figure 96 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Protocol Based VLAN Setup
(Standalone mode)
Figure 97 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Protocol Based VLAN Setup (Stacking
mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Protocol Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this protocol based VLAN.
Port
Type a port to be included in this protocol based VLAN. In stacking mode, the first box field is the
slot ID and the second field is the port number.
This port must belong to a static VLAN in order to participate in a protocol based VLAN. See
Chapter 9 on page 106 for more details on setting up VLANs.
Name
Enter up to 32 alpha numeric characters to identify this protocol based VLAN.
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Table 49 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Protocol Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ethernet-type
Use the drop down list box to select a predefined protocol to be included in this protocol based
VLAN or select Others and type the protocol number in hexadecimal notation. For example the IP
protocol in hexadecimal notation is 0800, and Novell IPX protocol is 8137.
Note: Protocols in the hexadecimal number range of 0x0000 to 0x05ff are not allowed
to be used for protocol based VLANs.
VID
Enter the ID of a VLAN to which the port belongs. This must be an existing VLAN which you defined
in the Advanced Applications > VLAN screens.
Priority
Select the priority level that the Switch will assign to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This is the index number identifying this protocol based VLAN. Click on any of these numbers to
edit an existing protocol based VLAN.
Active
This field shows whether the protocol based VLAN is active or not.
Port
This field shows which port belongs to this protocol based VLAN. In stacking mode, the first number
represents the slot and the second the port number.
Name
This field shows the name the protocol based VLAN.
Ethernet-type
This field shows which Ethernet protocol is part of this protocol based VLAN.
VID
This field shows the VLAN ID of the port.
Priority
This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this protocol based VLAN.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the table
heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click this to delete the protocol based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
9.9 Voice VLAN
Voice VLAN ensures that the sound quality of an IP phone is preserved from deteriorating when the data
traffic on the Switch ports is high. It groups the voice traffic with defined priority into an assigned VLAN
which enables the separation of voice and data traffic coming onto the Switch port.
You can set priority level to the Voice VLAN and add MAC address of IP phones from specific
manufacturers by using its ID from the Organizationally Unique Identifiers (OUI).
Click the Voice VLAN Setup link in the VLAN Configuration screen to display the configuration screen as
shown.
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Figure 98 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Voice VLAN Setup
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 50 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Voice VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Voice VLAN Global Setup
Voice VLAN
Click the Voice VLAN radio button if you want to enable the Voice VLAN feature. Type a
VLAN ID number in the box next to the radio button that is associated with the Voice
VLAN. Click Disable radio button if you do not want to enable the Voice VLAN feature.
Priority
Select the priority level of the Voice VLAN from 0 to 7. Default setting is 5.The higher the
numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this Voice VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to default settings.
Voice VLAN OUI Setup
OUI address
Type the IP Phone manufacturer’s OUI MAC address. The first three byes is the
manufacturer identifier, the last three bytes is a unique station ID.
OUI mask
Type the IP Phone manufacturer's OUI mask address.
Description
Type an description up to 32 characters for the Voice VLAN device. For example:
Siemens.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This field displays the index number of the Voice VLAN.
OUI address
This field displays the OUI address of the Voice VLAN.
OUI mask
This field displays the OUI mask address of the Voice VLAN.
Description
This field displays the description of the Voice VLAN with OUI address.
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Table 50 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > Voice VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in
the table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
9.10 MAC Based VLAN
The MAC-based VLAN feature assigns incoming untagged packets to a VLAN and classifies the traffic
based on the source MAC address of the packet. When untagged packets arrive at the switch, the
source MAC address of the packet is looked up in a MAC to VLAN mapping table. If an entry is found,
the corresponding VLAN ID is assigned to the packet. The assigned VLAN ID is verified against the VLAN
table. If the VLAN is valid, ingress processing on the packet continues; otherwise, the packet is dropped.
This feature allows users to change ports without having to reconfigure the VLAN. You can assign priority
to the MAC-based VLAN and define a MAC to VLAN mapping table by entering a specified source
MAC address in the MAC-based VLAN setup screen. You can also delete a MAC-based VLAN entry in
the same screen.
Click the MAC Based VLAN Setup link in the VLAN Configuration screen to see the following screen.
Figure 99 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > MAC Based VLAN Setup
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 51 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > MAC Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name up to 32 alpha numeric characters for the MAC-based VLAN entry.
MAC Address
Type a MAC address that is bind to the MAC-based VLAN entry. This is the source MAC
address of the data packet that is looked up when untagged packets arrive at the Switch.
VID
Type an ID (from 1 to 4094) for the VLAN ID that is associated with the MAC-based VLAN
entry.
Priority
Type a priority (0-7) for the MAC-based VLAN entry.The higher the numeric value you assign,
the higher the priority for this MAC-based VLAN entry.
Add
Click Add to save the new MAC-based VLAN entry.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the fields in the MAC-based VLAN entry.
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Table 51 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Configuration > MAC Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of the MAC-based VLAN entry.
Name
This field displays the name of the MAC-based VLAN entry.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address that is bind to the MAC-based VLAN entry.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of the MAC-based VLAN entry.
Priority
This field displays the priority level of the MAC-based VLAN entry.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in
the table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
9.11 Port-Based VLAN Setup
Port-based VLANs are VLANs where the packet forwarding decision is based on the destination MAC
address and its associated port.
Port-based VLANs require allowed outgoing ports to be defined for each port. Therefore, if you wish to
allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, for example, between conference rooms in a hotel, you
must define the egress (an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through which a data packet
leaves) for both ports.
Port-based VLANs are specific only to the Switch on which they were created.
Note: When you activate port-based VLAN, the Switch uses a default VLAN ID of 1. You
cannot change it.
Note: In screens (such as IP Setup and Filtering) that require a VID, you must enter 1 as the VID.
The port-based VLAN setup screen is shown next. The CPU management port forms a VLAN with all
Ethernet ports.
9.11.1 Configure a Port-Based VLAN
Select Port Based as the VLAN Type in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen and then click Advanced
Application > VLAN from the navigation panel to display the next screen.
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Figure 100 Advanced Application > VLAN: Port Based VLAN Setup (All Connected)
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Figure 101 Advanced Application > VLAN: Port Based VLAN Setup (Port Isolation)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 Advanced Application > VLAN: Port Based VLAN Setup
label
Description
Setting Wizard
Choose All connected or Port isolation.
All connected means all ports can communicate with each other, that is, there are no virtual
LANs. All incoming and outgoing ports are selected. This option is the most flexible but also the
least secure.
Port isolation means that each port can only communicate with the CPU management port and
cannot communicate with each other. All incoming ports are selected while only the CPU
outgoing port is selected. This option is the most limiting but also the most secure.
After you make your selection, click Apply (top right of screen) to display the screens as
mentioned above. You can still customize these settings by adding/deleting incoming or
outgoing ports, but you must also click Apply at the bottom of the screen.
Incoming
These are the ingress ports; an ingress port is an incoming port, that is, a port through which a data
packet enters. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, you must define the
ingress port for both ports. The numbers in the top row denote the incoming port for the
corresponding port listed on the left (its outgoing port). CPU refers to the Switch management
port. By default it forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN with a particular
port then the Switch cannot be managed from that port.
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Table 52 Advanced Application > VLAN: Port Based VLAN Setup (continued)
label
Description
Outgoing
These are the egress ports; an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through which a data
packet leaves. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, you must define the
egress port for both ports. CPU refers to the Switch management port. By default it forms a VLAN
with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN with a particular port then the Switch cannot be
managed from that port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.12 Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information on the topics discussed in this chapter.
9.12.1 Create an IP-based VLAN Example
This example shows you how to create an IP VLAN which includes ports 1, 4 and 8. Follow these steps:
1
Activate this protocol based VLAN.
2
Type the port number you want to include in this protocol based VLAN. Type 1.
3
Give this protocol-based VLAN a descriptive name. Type IP-VLAN.
4
Select the protocol. Leave the default value IP.
5
Type the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN. In our example we already created a static VLAN with an ID of 5.
Type 5.
6
Leave the priority set to 0 and click Add.
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Figure 102 Protocol Based VLAN Configuration Example
To add more ports to this protocol based VLAN.
1
Click the index number of the protocol based VLAN entry. Click 1.
2
Change the value in the Port field to the next port you want to add.
3
Click Add.
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C H A P T E R 10
Static MAC Forward Setup
10.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure forwarding rules based on MAC addresses of devices on your
network.
Use these screens to configure static MAC address forwarding.
10.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Static MAC Forwarding screen (Section 10.2 on page 131) to assign static MAC addresses for a
port.
10.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
A static MAC address is an address that has been manually entered in the MAC address table. Static
MAC addresses do not age out. When you set up static MAC address rules, you are setting static MAC
addresses for a port. This may reduce the need for broadcasting.
Static MAC address forwarding together with port security allow only computers in the MAC address
table on a port to access the Switch. See Chapter 19 on page 199 for more information on port security.
Click Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding in the navigation panel to display the
configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 103 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding (Standalone mode)
Figure 104 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC address forwarding rule.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.
Note: Static MAC addresses do not age out.
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number.
Port
(standalone or
stacking
mode)
Enter the port where the MAC address entered in the previous field will be automatically
forwarded. In stacking mode, the first box field is the slot ID and the second field is the port
number.
Add
Click Add to save your rule to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this rule if it is turned
off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the
non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Table 53 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
Click an index number to modify a static MAC address rule for a port.
Active
This field displays whether this static MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or not (No). You
may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC addressforwarding rule.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address that will be forwarded and the VLAN identification number to
which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Port
This field displays the port where the MAC address shown in the next field will be forwarded.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the table
heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
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C H A P T E R 11
Static Multicast Forward
Setup
11.1 Static Multicast Forward Setup Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure forwarding rules based on multicast MAC addresses of devices
on your network.
Use these screens to configure static multicast address forwarding.
11.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Static Multicast Forward Setup screen (Section 11.2 on page 135) to configure rules to forward
specific multicast frames, such as streaming or control frames, to specific port(s).
11.1.2 What You Need To Know
A multicast MAC address is the MAC address of a member of a multicast group. A static multicast
address is a multicast MAC address that has been manually entered in the multicast table. Static
multicast addresses do not age out. Static multicast forwarding allows you (the administrator) to forward
multicast frames to a member without the member having to join the group first.
If a multicast group has no members, then the switch will either flood the multicast frames to all ports or
drop them. Figure 105 on page 135 shows such unknown multicast frames flooded to all ports. With static
multicast forwarding, you can forward these multicasts to port(s) within a VLAN group. Figure 106 on
page 135 shows frames being forwarded to devices connected to port 3. Figure 107 on page 135 shows
frames being forwarded to ports 2 and 3 within VLAN group 4.
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Figure 105 No Static Multicast Forwarding
Figure 106 Static Multicast Forwarding to A Single Port
Figure 107 Static Multicast Forwarding to Multiple Ports
11.2 Configuring Static Multicast Forwarding
Use this screen to configure rules to forward specific multicast frames, such as streaming or control
frames, to specific port(s).
Click Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 108 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this static multicast MAC
address forwarding rule. This is for identification only.
MAC Address
Enter a multicast MAC address which identifies the multicast group. The last binary bit of the first
octet pair in a multicast MAC address must be 1. For example, the first octet pair 00000001 is 01
and 00000011 is 03 in hexadecimal, so 01:00:5e:00:00:0A and 03:00:5e:00:00:27 are valid multicast
MAC addresses.
VID
You can forward frames with matching destination MAC address to port(s) within a VLAN group.
Enter the ID that identifies the VLAN group here. If you don’t have a specific target VLAN, enter 1.
Port
Enter the port(s) where frames with destination MAC address that matched the entry above are
forwarded. You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-). For
example, enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the second the port number. Enter 1/11/24,2/28 for ports 1 to 24 for the Switch in slot 1 and port 28 for the Switch in slot 2, for example.
Add
Click Add to save your rule to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this rule if it is turned
off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the
non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
Click an index number to modify a static multicast MAC address rule for port(s).
Active
This field displays whether a static multicast MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or not
(No). You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for a static multicast MAC
address-forwarding rule.
MAC Address
This field displays the multicast MAC address that identifies a multicast group.
VID
This field displays the ID number of a VLAN group to which frames containing the specified
multicast MAC address will be forwarded.
Port
This field displays the port(s) within a identified VLAN group to which frames containing the
specified multicast MAC address will be forwarded.
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Table 54 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
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C H A P T E R 12
Filtering
12.1 Filtering Overview
This chapter discusses MAC address port filtering.
Filtering means sifting traffic going through the Switch based on the source and/or destination MAC
addresses and VLAN group (ID).
12.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Filtering screen (Section 12.2 on page 138) to create rules for traffic going through the Switch.
12.2 Configure a Filtering Rule
Use this screen to create rules for traffic going through the Switch. Click Advanced Application > Filtering
in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 109 Advanced Application > Filtering
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The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 55 Advanced Application > Filtering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Make sure to select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule
without deleting it by deselecting this check box.
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this rule. This is for identification
only.
Action
Select Discard source to drop the frames from the source MAC address (specified in the MAC field).
The Switch can still send frames to the MAC address.
Select Discard destination to drop the frames to the destination MAC address (specified in the MAC
address). The Switch can still receive frames originating from the MAC address.
Select Discard source and Discard destination to block traffic to/from the MAC address specified in
the MAC field.
MAC
Type a MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.
VID
Type the VLAN group identification number.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if
it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to change the settings.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose only.
MAC Address
This field displays the source/destination MAC address with the VLAN identification number to
which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the VLAN group identification number.
Action
This field displays Discard source, Discard destination, or Discard both depending on what you
configured above.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the table
heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove and then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es).
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C H A P T E R 13
Spanning Tree Protocol
13.1 Spanning Tree Protocol Overview
The Switch supports Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multiple
Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) as defined in the following standards.
• IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch also allows you to set up multiple STP configurations (or trees). Ports can then be assigned to
the trees.
13.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Spanning Tree Protocol Status screen (Section 13.2 on page 143) to view the STP status in the
different STP modes (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) you can configure on the Switch.
• Use the Spanning Tree Configuration screen (Section 13.3 on page 143) to activate one of the STP
modes on the Switch.
• Use the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol screen (Section 13.4 on page 144) to configure RSTP settings.
• Use the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status screen (Section 13.5 on page 148) to view the RSTP status.
• Use the Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol screen (Section 13.6 on page 150) to configure MRSTP.
• Use the Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status screen (Section 13.7 on page 153) to view the
MRSTP status.
• Use the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol screen (Section 13.8 on page 155) to configure MSTP.
• Use the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status screen (Section 13.9 on page 161) to view the MSTP
status.
13.1.2 What You Need to Know
Read on for concepts on STP that can help you configure the screens in this chapter.
(Rapid) Spanning Tree Protocol
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. It allows a switch to interact with other (R)STP -compliant switches in your network to ensure that
only one path exists between any two stations on the network.
The Switch uses IEEE 802.1w RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) that allows faster convergence of the
spanning tree than STP (while also being backwards compatible with STP-only aware bridges). In RSTP,
topology change information is directly propagated throughout the network from the device that
generates the topology change. In STP, a longer delay is required as the device that causes a topology
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change first notifies the root bridge that then notifies the network. Both RSTP and STP flush unwanted
learned addresses from the filtering database. In RSTP, the port states are Discarding, Learning, and
Forwarding.
Note: In this user’s guide, “STP” refers to both STP and RSTP.
STP Terminology
The root bridge is the base of the spanning tree.
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame onto a LAN through that port. The recommended cost is
assigned according to the speed of the link to which a port is attached. The slower the media, the
higher the cost.
Table 56 STP Path Costs
LINK SPEED
RECOMMENDED VALUE
RECOMMENDED RANGE
ALLOWED RANGE
Path Cost
4Mbps
250
100 to 1000
1 to 65535
Path Cost
10Mbps
100
50 to 600
1 to 65535
Path Cost
16Mbps
62
40 to 400
1 to 65535
Path Cost
100Mbps
19
10 to 60
1 to 65535
Path Cost
1Gbps
4
3 to 10
1 to 65535
Path Cost
10Gbps
2
1 to 5
1 to 65535
On each bridge, the root port is the port through which this bridge communicates with the root. It is the
port on this switch with the lowest path cost to the root (the root path cost). If there is no root port, then
this switch has been accepted as the root bridge of the spanning tree network.
For each LAN segment, a designated bridge is selected. This bridge has the lowest cost to the root
among the bridges connected to the LAN.
How STP Works
After a bridge determines the lowest cost-spanning tree with STP, it enables the root port and the ports
that are the designated ports for connected LANs, and disables all other ports that participate in STP.
Network packets are therefore only forwarded between enabled ports, eliminating any possible
network loops.
STP-aware switches exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the bridged LAN
topology changes, a new spanning tree is constructed.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs (Bridge Protocol
Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined
interval (Max Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the root bridge is down. This bridge then initiates
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to re-establish a valid network topology.
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STP Port States
STP assigns five port states to eliminate packet looping. A bridge port is not allowed to go directly from
blocking state to forwarding state so as to eliminate transient loops.
Table 57 STP Port States
PORT STATE
DESCRIPTION
Disabled
STP is disabled (default).
Blocking
Only configuration and management BPDUs are received and processed.
Listening
All BPDUs are received and processed.
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Learning
All BPDUs are received and processed. Information frames are submitted to the learning process
but not forwarded.
Forwarding
All BPDUs are received and processed. All information frames are received and forwarded.
Multiple RSTP
MRSTP (Multiple RSTP) is Zyxel’s proprietary feature that is compatible with RSTP and STP. With MRSTP, you
can have more than one spanning tree on your Switch and assign port(s) to each tree. Each spanning
tree operates independently with its own bridge information.
In the following example, there are two RSTP instances (MRSTP 1 and MRSTP2) on switch A.
To set up MRSTP, activate MRSTP on the Switch and specify which port(s) belong to which spanning tree.
Note: Each port can belong to one STP tree only.
Figure 110 MRSTP Network Example
Multiple STP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s) is backward compatible with STP/RSTP and addresses the
limitations of existing spanning tree protocols (STP and RSTP) in networks to include the following
features:
• One Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) that represents the entire network’s connectivity.
• Grouping of multiple bridges (or switching devices) into regions that appear as one single bridge on
the network.
• A VLAN can be mapped to a specific Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTI allows multiple
VLANs to use the same spanning tree.
• Load-balancing is possible as traffic from different VLANs can use distinct paths in a region.
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13.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen
The Spanning Tree Protocol status screen changes depending on what standard you choose to
implement on your network. Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol to see the screen as
shown.
Figure 111 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol (Standalone mode)
Figure 112 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol (Stacking mode)
This screen differs depending on which STP mode (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) you configure on the Switch. This
screen is described in detail in the section that follows the configuration section for each STP mode.
Click Configuration to activate one of the STP standards on the Switch.
13.3 Spanning Tree Configuration
Use the Spanning Tree Configuration screen to activate one of the STP modes on the Switch. Click
Configuration in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol.
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Figure 113 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Spanning Tree
Mode
You can activate one of the STP modes on the Switch.
Select Rapid Spanning Tree, Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree or Multiple Spanning Tree. See
Section 13.1 on page 140 for background information on STP.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Use this screen to configure RSTP settings, see Section 13.1 on page 140 for more information on RSTP.
Click RSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.
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Figure 114 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP (Standalone mode)
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Figure 115 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the RSTP Status screen (see Figure 116 on page 148).
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP. Clear this checkbox to disable RSTP.
Note: You must also activate Rapid Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application >
Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable RSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port. The switch
with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all switches
have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become the root
switch. Select a value from the drop-down list box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time, Max Age and
Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) configuration
message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10 seconds.
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Table 59 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive BPDUs
at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last BPDU)
becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is
selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range is 6 to 40
seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states. This delay is
required because every switch must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting information
that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP on this port.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding
state immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port is
configured as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge
Protocol Data Unit (BPDU).
Root Guard
Select this check box to enable root guard on this port in order to prevent the switch(es)
attached to the port from becoming the root bridge.
With root guard enabled, a port is blocked when the Switch receives a superior BPDU on it. The
Switch allows traffic to pass through this port again when the switch connected to the port
stops to send superior BPDUs.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in a
switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range is
between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is recommended
to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the media, the higher the
cost - see Table 56 on page 141 for more information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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13.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the status
screen as shown next. See Section 13.1 on page 140 for more information on RSTP.
Note: This screen is only available after you activate RSTP on the Switch.
Figure 116 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP (Standalone mode)
Figure 117 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 60 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click RSTP to edit RSTP
settings on the Switch.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this switch. This
Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address. This ID
is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a configuration
message before attempting to reconfigure.
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Table 60 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is, listening to
learning to forwarding).
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology
Changed Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the number of the port on the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number is
the slot ID and the second is the port number.
Port State
This field displays the port state in STP.
•
•
•
Port Role
Discarding - The port does not forward/process received frames or learn MAC addresses,
but still listens for BPDUs.
Learning - The port learns MAC addresses and processes BPDUs, but does not forward
frames yet.
Forwarding - The port is operating normally. It learns MAC addresses, processes BPDUs and
forwards received frames.
This field displays the role of the port in STP.
•
•
•
•
•
Root - A forwarding port on a non-root bridge, which has the lowest path cost and is the
best port from the non-root bridge to the root bridge. A root bridge does not have a root
port.
Designated - A forwarding port on the designated bridge for each connected LAN
segment. A designated bridge has the lowest path cost to the root bridge among the
bridges connected to the LAN segment. All the ports on a root bridge (root switch) are
designated ports.
Alternate - A blocked port, which has a best alternate path to the root bridge. This path is
different from using the root port. The port moves to the forwarding state when the
designated port for the LAN segment fails.
Backup - A blocked port, which has a backup/redundant path to a LAN segment where
a designated port is already connected when a switch has two links to the same LAN
segment.
Disabled - Not strictly part of STP. The port can be disabled manually.
Designated Bridge
ID
This field displays the identifier of the designated bridge to which this port belongs when the
port is a designated port. Otherwise, it displays the identifier of the designated bridge for the
LAN segment to which this port is connected.
Designated Port ID
This field displays the priority and number of the bridge port (on the designated bridge),
through which the designated bridge transmits the stored configuration messages.
Designated Cost
This field displays the path cost to the LAN segment to which the port is connected when the
port is a designated port. Otherwise, it displays the path cost to the root bridge from the
designated port for the LAN segment to which this port is connected,
Root Guard State
This field displays the state of the port on which root guard is enabled.
•
•
Root-inconsistent - the Switch receives superior BPDUs on the port and blocks the port.
Forwarding - the Switch unbolcks and allows the port to forward frames again.
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13.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MRSTP, click MRSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen. See
Section 13.1 on page 140 for more information on MRSTP.
Figure 118 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP (Standalone mode)
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Figure 119 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the MRSTP Status screen (see Figure 120 on page 153).
Tree
This is a read only index number of the STP trees.
Active
Select this check box to activate an STP tree. Clear this checkbox to disable an STP tree.
Note: You must also activate Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree in the Advanced
Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable MRSTP
on the Switch.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port. The switch
with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all switches
have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become the root
switch. Select a value from the drop-down list box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time, Max Age and
Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) configuration
message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10 seconds.
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Table 61 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive BPDUs
at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last BPDU)
becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is
selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range is 6 to 40
seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states. This delay is
required because every switch must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting information
that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate STP on this port.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding
state immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port is
configured as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge
Protocol Data Unit (BPDU).
Root Guard
Select this check box to enable root guard on this port in order to prevent the switch(es)
attached to the port from becoming the root bridge.
With root guard enabled, a port is blocked when the Switch receives a superior BPDU on it.
The Switch allows traffic to pass through this port again when the switch connected to the
port stops to send superior BPDUs.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in a
switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range is
between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is recommended
to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the media, the higher the
cost - see Table 56 on page 141 for more information.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration this port should participate in.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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13.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the status
screen as shown next. See Section 13.1 on page 140 for more information on MRSTP.
Note: This screen is only available after you activate MRSTP on the Switch.
Figure 120 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP (Standalone mode)
Figure 121 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 62 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MRSTP to edit
MRSTP settings on the Switch.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this switch. This
Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address. This ID
is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a configuration
message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is, listening to
learning to forwarding).
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology
Changed Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the number of the port on the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number is
the slot ID and the second is the port number.
Port State
This field displays the port state in STP.
•
•
•
Port Role
This field displays the role of the port in STP.
•
•
•
•
•
Designated Bridge
ID
Discarding - The port does not forward/process received frames or learn MAC addresses,
but still listens for BPDUs.
Learning - The port learns MAC addresses and processes BPDUs, but does not forward
frames yet.
Forwarding - The port is operating normally. It learns MAC addresses, processes BPDUs and
forwards received frames.
Root - A forwarding port on a non-root bridge, which has the lowest path cost and is the
best port from the non-root bridge to the root bridge. A root bridge does not have a root
port.
Designated - A forwarding port on the designated bridge for each connected LAN
segment. A designated bridge has the lowest path cost to the root bridge among the
bridges connected to the LAN segment. All the ports on a root bridge (root switch) are
designated ports.
Alternate - A blocked port, which has a best alternate path to the root bridge. This path is
different from using the root port. The port moves to the forwarding state when the
designated port for the LAN segment fails.
Backup - A blocked port, which has a backup/redundant path to a LAN segment where
a designated port is already connected when a switch has two links to the same LAN
segment.
Disabled - Not strictly part of STP. The port can be disabled manually.
This field displays the identifier of the designated bridge to which this port belongs when the
port is a designated port. Otherwise, it displays the identifier of the designated bridge for the
LAN segment to which this port is connected.
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Table 62 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Designated Port ID
This field displays the priority and number of the bridge port (on the designated bridge),
through which the designated bridge transmits the stored configuration messages.
Designated Cost
This field displays the path cost to the LAN segment to which the port is connected when the
port is a designated port. Otherwise, it displays the path cost to the root bridge from the
designated port for the LAN segment to which this port is connected,
Root Guard State
This field displays the state of the port on which root guard is enabled.
•
•
Root-inconsistent - the Switch receives superior BPDUs on the port and blocks the port.
Forwarding - the Switch unbolcks and allows the port to forward frames again.
13.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MSTP, click MSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen. See
Multiple STP on page 142 for more information on MSTP.
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Figure 122 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP (Standalone mode)
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Figure 123 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 63 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Click Port to display the MSTP Port screen (see Figure 124 on page 160).
Status
Click Status to display the MSTP Status screen (see Figure 126 on page 162).
Active
Select this to activate MSTP on the Switch. Clear this to disable MSTP on the Switch.
Note: You must also activate Multiple Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application >
Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable MSTP on the Switch.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) configuration
message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10 seconds.
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All Switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive BPDUs
at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last BPDU)
becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is
selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range is 6 to 40
seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch will wait before changing states. This delay is
required because every switch must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting information
that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds. As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Maximum hops
Enter the number of hops (between 1 and 255) in an MSTP region before the BPDU is discarded
and the port information is aged.
Configuration
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 characters) of an MST region.
Revision Number
Enter a number to identify a region’s configuration. Devices must have the same revision
number to belong to the same region.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance
Use this section to configure MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance) settings.
Instance
Enter the number you want to use to identify this MST instance on the Switch.
Note: The Switch supports instance numbers 0-16.
Bridge Priority
Set the priority of the Switch for the specific spanning tree instance. The lower the number, the
more likely the Switch will be chosen as the root bridge within the spanning tree instance.
Enter priority values between 0 and 61440 in increments of 4096 (thus valid values are 4096,
8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344 and
61440).
VLAN Range
Enter the start of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or remove from the VLAN range edit
area in the Start field. Enter the end of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or remove
from the VLAN range edit area in the End field.
Next click:
•
•
•
Enabled VLAN(s)
Add - to add this range of VLAN(s) to be mapped to the MST instance.
Remove - to remove this range of VLAN(s) from being mapped to the MST instance.
Clear - to remove all VLAN(s) from being mapped to this MST instance.
This field displays which VLAN(s) are mapped to this MST instance.
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Table 63 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to add this port to the MST instance.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in a
switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range is
between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is recommended
to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the media, the higher the
cost - see Table 56 on page 141 for more information.
Add
Click Add to save this MST instance to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this
change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance
This field displays the ID of an MST instance.
VLAN
This field displays the VID (or VID ranges) to which the MST instance is mapped.
Active Port
This field display the ports configured to participate in the MST instance.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove and then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es).
13.8.1 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Port Configuration
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP > Port in the navigation panel to display
the status screen as shown next. See Multiple STP on page 142 for more information on MSTP.
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Figure 124 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP > Port (Standalone mode)
Figure 125 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP > Port (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 64 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MSTP
Click MSTP to edit MSTP settings on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding
state immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port is
configured as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge
Protocol Data Unit (BPDU).
Root Guard
Select this check box to enable root guard on this port in order to prevent the switch(es)
attached to the port from becoming the root bridge.
With root guard enabled, a port is blocked when the Switch receives a superior BPDU on it.
The Switch allows traffic to pass through this port again when the switch connected to the
port stops to send superior BPDUs.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the status
screen as shown next. See Multiple STP on page 142 for more information on MSTP.
Note: This screen is only available after you activate MSTP on the Switch.
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Figure 126 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP (Standalone mode)
Figure 127 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MSTP to edit MSTP
settings on the Switch.
CST
This section describes the Common Spanning Tree settings.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this switch. This
Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address. This ID
is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) the Switch can wait without receiving a configuration
message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is, listening to
learning to forwarding).
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Configuration
Name
This field displays the configuration name for this MST region.
Revision Number
This field displays the revision number for this MST region.
Configuration
Digest
A configuration digest is generated from the VLAN-MSTI mapping information.
This field displays the 16-octet signature that is included in an MSTP BPDU. This field displays the
digest when MSTP is activated on the system.
Topology
Changed Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Instance:
These fields display the MSTI to VLAN mapping. In other words, which VLANs run on each
spanning tree instance.
Instance
This field displays the MSTI ID.
VLAN
This field displays which VLANs are mapped to an MSTI.
MSTI
Select the MST instance settings you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the MST instance. Our Bridge is this switch. This Switch may also be
the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address. This ID
is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Internal Cost
This is the path cost from the root port in this MST instance to the regional root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the MST instance.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the number of the port on the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number is
the slot ID and the second is the port number.
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Table 65 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port State
This field displays the port state in STP.
•
•
•
Port Role
Discarding - The port does not forward/process received frames or learn MAC addresses,
but still listens for BPDUs.
Learning - The port learns MAC addresses and processes BPDUs, but does not forward
frames yet.
Forwarding - The port is operating normally. It learns MAC addresses, processes BPDUs and
forwards received frames.
This field displays the role of the port in STP.
•
•
•
•
•
Root - A forwarding port on a non-root bridge, which has the lowest path cost and is the
best port from the non-root bridge to the root bridge. A root bridge does not have a root
port.
Designated - A forwarding port on the designated bridge for each connected LAN
segment. A designated bridge has the lowest path cost to the root bridge among the
bridges connected to the LAN segment. All the ports on a root bridge (root switch) are
designated ports.
Alternate - A blocked port, which has a best alternate path to the root bridge. This path is
different from using the root port. The port moves to the forwarding state when the
designated port for the LAN segment fails.
Backup - A blocked port, which has a backup/redundant path to a LAN segment where
a designated port is already connected when a switch has two links to the same LAN
segment.
Disabled - Not strictly part of STP. The port can be disabled manually.
Designated Bridge
ID
This field displays the identifier of the designated bridge to which this port belongs when the
port is a designated port. Otherwise, it displays the identifier of the designated bridge for the
LAN segment to which this port is connected.
Designated Port ID
This field displays the priority and number of the bridge port (on the designated bridge),
through which the designated bridge transmits the stored configuration messages.
Designated Cost
This field displays the path cost to the LAN segment to which the port is connected when the
port is a designated port. Otherwise, it displays the path cost to the root bridge from the
designated port for the LAN segment to which this port is connected,
Root Guard State
This field displays the state of the port on which root guard is enabled.
•
•
Root-inconsistent - the Switch receives superior BPDUs on the port and blocks the port.
Forwarding - the Switch unbolcks and allows the port to forward frames again.
13.10 Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information on the topics discussed in this chapter.
13.10.1 MSTP Network Example
The following figure shows a network example where two VLANs are configured on the two switches. If
the switches are using STP or RSTP, the link for VLAN 2 will be blocked as STP and RSTP allow only one link
in the network and block the redundant link.
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Figure 128 STP/RSTP Network Example
With MSTP, VLANs 1 and 2 are mapped to different spanning trees in the network. Thus traffic from the
two VLANs travel on different paths. The following figure shows the network example using MSTP.
Figure 129 MSTP Network Example
13.10.2 MST Region
An MST region is a logical grouping of multiple network devices that appears as a single device to the
rest of the network. Each MSTP-enabled device can only belong to one MST region. When BPDUs enter
an MST region, external path cost (of paths outside this region) is increased by one. Internal path cost (of
paths within this region) is increased by one when BPDUs traverse the region.
Devices that belong to the same MST region are configured to have the same MSTP configuration
identification settings. These include the following parameters:
• Name of the MST region
• Revision level as the unique number for the MST region
• VLAN-to-MST Instance mapping
13.10.3 MST Instance
An MST Instance (MSTI) is a spanning tree instance. VLANs can be configured to run on a specific MSTI.
Each created MSTI is identified by a unique number (known as an MST ID) known internally to a region.
Thus an MSTI does not span across MST regions.
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The following figure shows an example where there are two MST regions. Regions 1 and 2 have 2
spanning tree instances.
Figure 130 MSTIs in Different Regions
13.10.4 Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST)
A CIST represents the connectivity of the entire network and it is equivalent to a spanning tree in an STP/
RSTP. The CIST is the default MST instance (MSTID 0). Any VLANs that are not members of an MST instance
are members of the CIST. In an MSTP-enabled network, there is only one CIST that runs between MST
regions and single spanning tree devices. A network may contain multiple MST regions and other
network segments running RSTP.
Figure 131 MSTP and Legacy RSTP Network Example
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Chapter 14 Bandwidth Control
C H A P T E R 14
Bandwidth Control
14.1 Bandwidth Control Overview
This chapter shows you how you can cap the maximum bandwidth using the Bandwidth Control screen.
Bandwidth control means defining a maximum allowable bandwidth for incoming and/or out-going
traffic flows on a port.
14.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Bandwidth Control screen (Section 14.2 on page 167) to limit the bandwidth for traffic going
through the Switch.
14.2 Bandwidth Control Setup
Click Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control in the navigation panel to bring up the screen as
shown next.
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Figure 132 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control (Standalone mode)
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Figure 133 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 66 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable bandwidth control on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone
or stacking
mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second
is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set the
common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate ingress rate limits on this port.
Ingress Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the incoming traffic flow
on a port.
Note: Ingress rate bandwidth control applies to layer 2 traffic only.
Active
Select this check box to activate egress rate limits on this port.
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Table 66 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Egress Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the out-going traffic
flow on a port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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C H A P T E R 15
Broadcast Storm Control
15.1 Broadcast Storm Control Overview
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the broadcast storm control feature.
Broadcast storm control limits the number of broadcast, multicast and destination lookup failure (DLF)
packets the Switch receives per second on the ports. When the maximum number of allowable
broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets is reached per second, the subsequent packets are
discarded. Enable this feature to reduce broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets in your network. You
can specify limits for each packet type on each port.
15.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Broadcast Storm Control screen (Section 15.2 on page 171) to limit the number of broadcast,
multicast and destination lookup failure (DLF) packets the Switch receives per second on the ports.
15.2 Broadcast Storm Control Setup
Click Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown next.
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Figure 134 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control (Standalone mode)
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Figure 135 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 67 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable traffic storm control on the Switch. Clear this check box to
disable this feature.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking
mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Broadcast (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many broadcast packets the port receives per second.
Multicast (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many multicast packets the port receives per second.
DLF (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many destination lookup failure (DLF) packets the port
receives per second.
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Table 67 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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Chapter 16 Mirroring
C H A P T E R 16
Mirroring
16.1 Mirroring Overview
This chapter discusses port mirroring setup screens.
Port mirroring allows you to copy a traffic flow to a monitor port (the port you copy the traffic to) in order
that you can examine the traffic from the monitor port without interference.
16.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Mirroring screen (Section 16.2 on page 175) to select a monitor port and specify the traffic flow
to be copied to the monitor port.
16.2 Port Mirroring Setup
Click Advanced Application > Mirroring in the navigation panel to display the Mirroring screen. Use this
screen to select a monitor port and specify the traffic flow to be copied to the monitor port.
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Figure 136 Advanced Application > Mirroring (Standalone mode)
Figure 137 Advanced Application > Mirroring (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 Advanced Application > Mirroring
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate port mirroring on the Switch. Clear this check box to disable the
feature.
Monitor
Port
The monitor port is the port you copy the traffic to in order to examine it in more detail without
interfering with the traffic flow on the original port(s). Enter the port number of the monitor port. In
stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the second the port number.
Slot
(Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalon
e or
stacking
mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second is
the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set the
common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Mirrored
Select this option to mirror the traffic on a port.
Direction
Specify the direction of the traffic to mirror by selecting from the drop-down list box. Choices are
Egress (outgoing), Ingress (incoming) and Both.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if
it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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Chapter 17 Link Aggregation
C H A P T E R 17
Link Aggregation
17.1 Link Aggregation Overview
This chapter shows you how to logically aggregate physical links to form one logical, higher-bandwidth
link.
Link aggregation (trunking) is the grouping of physical ports into one logical higher-capacity link. You
may want to trunk ports if for example, it is cheaper to use multiple lower-speed links than to under-utilize
a high-speed, but more costly, single-port link. However, the more ports you aggregate then the fewer
available ports you have. A trunk group is one logical link containing multiple ports.
The beginning port of each trunk group must be physically connected to form a trunk group.
17.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Link Aggregation Status screen (Section 17.2 on page 179) to view ports you have configured
to be in the trunk group, ports that are currently transmitting data as one logical link in the trunk group
and so on.
• Use the Link Aggregation Setting screen (Section 17.3 on page 181) to configure to enable static link
aggregation.
• Use the Link Aggregation Control Protocol screen (Section 17.3.1 on page 184) to enable Link
Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
17.1.2 What You Need to Know
The Switch supports both static and dynamic link aggregation.
Note: In a properly planned network, it is recommended to implement static link aggregation
only. This ensures increased network stability and control over the trunk groups on your
Switch.
See Section 17.4.1 on page 187 for a static port trunking example.
Dynamic Link Aggregation
The Switch adheres to the IEEE 802.3ad standard for static and dynamic (LACP) port trunking.
The IEEE 802.3ad standard describes the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for dynamically
creating and managing trunk groups.
When you enable LACP link aggregation on a port, the port can automatically negotiate with the ports
at the remote end of a link to establish trunk groups. LACP also allows port redundancy, that is, if an
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operational port fails, then one of the “standby” ports become operational without user intervention.
Please note that:
• You must connect all ports point-to-point to the same Ethernet switch and configure the ports for
LACP trunking.
• LACP only works on full-duplex links.
• All ports in the same trunk group must have the same media type, speed, duplex mode and flow
control settings.
Configure trunk groups or LACP before you connect the Ethernet switch to avoid causing network
topology loops.
Link Aggregation ID
LACP aggregation ID consists of the following information1:
Table 69 Link Aggregation ID: Local Switch
SYSTEM PRIORITY
MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY
PORT NUMBER
0000
00-00-00-00-00-00
0000
00
0000
Table 70 Link Aggregation ID: Peer Switch
SYSTEM PRIORITY
MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY
PORT NUMBER
0000
00-00-00-00-00-00
0000
00
0000
17.2 Link Aggregation Status
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation in the navigation panel. The Link Aggregation Status
screen displays by default. See Section 17.1 on page 178 for more information.
1.
Port Priority and Port Number are 0 as it is the aggregator ID for the trunk group, not the individual port.
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Figure 138 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 71 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group ID
This field displays the group ID to identify a trunk group, that is, one logical link containing multiple
ports.
Enabled Ports
These are the ports you have configured in the Link Aggregation screen to be in the trunk group.
The port number(s) displays only when this trunk group is activated and there is a port belonging
to this group.
Synchronized
Ports
These are the ports that are currently transmitting data as one logical link in this trunk group.
Aggregator ID
Link Aggregator ID consists of the following: system priority, MAC address, key, port priority and
port number. Refer to Link Aggregation ID on page 179 for more information on this field.
The ID displays only when there is a port belonging to this trunk group and LACP is also enabled
for this group.
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Table 71 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Criteria
This shows the outgoing traffic distribution algorithm used in this trunk group. Packets from the
same source and/or to the same destination are sent over the same link within the trunk.
src-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s source MAC address.
dst-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s destination MAC address.
src-dst-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on a combination of the packet’s source
and destination MAC addresses.
src-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s source IP address.
dst-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s destination IP address.
src-dst-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on a combination of the packet’s source
and destination IP addresses.
Status
This field displays how these ports were added to the trunk group. It displays:
•
•
Static - if the ports are configured as static members of a trunk group.
LACP - if the ports are configured to join a trunk group via LACP.
17.3 Link Aggregation Setting
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting to display the screen shown
next. See Section 17.1 on page 178 for more information on link aggregation.
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Figure 139 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting (Standalone mode)
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Figure 140 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 72 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link
Aggregation
Setting
This is the only screen you need to configure to enable static link aggregation.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing multiple ports.
Active
Select this option to activate a trunk group.
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Table 72 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Criteria
Select the outgoing traffic distribution type. Packets from the same source and/or to the same
destination are sent over the same link within the trunk. By default, the Switch uses the src-dst-mac
distribution type. If the Switch is behind a router, the packet’s destination or source MAC address
will be changed. In this case, set the Switch to distribute traffic based on its IP address to make
sure port trunking can work properly.
Select src-mac to distribute traffic based on the packet’s source MAC address.
Select dst-mac to distribute traffic based on the packet’s destination MAC address.
Select src-dst-mac to distribute traffic based on a combination of the packet’s source and
destination MAC addresses.
Select src-ip to distribute traffic based on the packet’s source IP address.
Select dst-ip to distribute traffic based on the packet’s destination IP address.
Select src-dst-ip to distribute traffic based on a combination of the packet’s source and
destination IP addresses.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking
mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second
is the port number.
Group
Select the trunk group to which a port belongs.
Note: When you enable the port security feature on the Switch and configure port
security settings for a port, you cannot include the port in an active trunk group.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
17.3.1 Link Aggregation Control Protocol
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP to display the screen
shown next. See Dynamic Link Aggregation on page 178 for more information on dynamic link
aggregation.
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Figure 141 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP (Standalone
mode)
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Figure 142 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP (Stacking
mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 73 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP
LABEL
Link
Aggregation
Control
Protocol
DESCRIPTION
Note: Do not configure this screen unless you want to enable dynamic link
aggregation.
Active
Select this checkbox to enable Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
System Priority
LACP system priority is a number between 1 and 65,535. The switch with the lowest system priority
(and lowest port number if system priority is the same) becomes the LACP “server”. The LACP
“server” controls the operation of LACP setup. Enter a number to set the priority of an active port
using Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). The smaller the number, the higher the priority
level.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing multiple ports.
LACP Active
Select this option to enable LACP for a trunk.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking
mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second
is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
LACP Timeout
Timeout is the time interval between the individual port exchanges of LACP packets in order to
check that the peer port in the trunk group is still up. If a port does not respond after three tries,
then it is deemed to be “down” and is removed from the trunk. Set a short timeout (one second)
for busy trunked links to ensure that disabled ports are removed from the trunk group as soon as
possible.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Select either 1 second or 30 seconds.
17.4 Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information on the topics discussed in this chapter.
17.4.1 Static Trunking Example
This example shows you how to create a static port trunk group for ports 2-5.
1
Make your physical connections - make sure that the ports that you want to belong to the trunk group
are connected to the same destination. The following figure shows ports 2-5 on switch A connected to
switch B.
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Figure 143 Trunking Example - Physical Connections
2
Configure static trunking - Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting. In
this screen activate trunk group T1, select the traffic distribution algorithm used by this group and select
the ports that should belong to this group as shown in the figure below. Click Apply when you are done.
Figure 144 Trunking Example - Configuration Screen
Your trunk group 1 (T1) configuration is now complete.
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Chapter 18 Port Authentication
C H A P T E R 18
Port Authentication
18.1 Port Authentication Overview
This chapter describes the IEEE 802.1x and MAC authentication methods.
Port authentication is a way to validate access to ports on the Switch to clients based on an external
server (authentication server). The Switch supports the following methods for port authentication:
• IEEE 802.1x2 - An authentication server validates access to a port based on a username and
password provided by the user.
• MAC Authentication - An authentication server validates access to a port based on the MAC address
and password of the client.
Both types of authentication use the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138,
2139) protocol to validate users. See RADIUS and TACACS+ on page 251 for more information on
configuring your RADIUS server settings.
Note: If you enable IEEE 802.1x authentication and MAC authentication on the same port, the
Switch performs IEEE 802.1x authentication first. If a user fails to authenticate via the IEEE
802.1x method, then access to the port is denied.
18.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Port Authentication screen (Section 18.2 on page 191) to display the links to the configuration
screens where you can enable the port authentication methods.
• Use the 802.1x screen (Section 18.3 on page 191) to activate IEEE 802.1x security.
• Use the MAC Authentication screen (Section 18.4 on page 195) to activate MAC authentication.
18.1.2 What You Need to Know
IEEE 802.1x Authentication
The following figure illustrates how a client connecting to a IEEE 802.1x authentication enabled port goes
through a validation process. The Switch prompts the client for login information in the form of a user
name and password. When the client provides the login credentials, the Switch sends an authentication
request to a RADIUS server. The RADIUS server validates whether this client is allowed access to the port.
2.
At the time of writing, IEEE 802.1x is not supported by all operating systems. See your operating system
documentation. If your operating system does not support 802.1x, then you may need to install 802.1x client
software.
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Figure 145 IEEE 802.1x Authentication Process
18.1.3 MAC Authentication
MAC authentication works in a very similar way to IEEE 802.1x authentication. The main difference is that
the Switch does not prompt the client for login credentials. The login credentials are based on the
source MAC address of the client connecting to a port on the Switch along with a password configured
specifically for MAC authentication on the Switch.
Figure 146 MAC Authentication Process
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18.2 Port Authentication Configuration
To enable port authentication, first activate the port authentication method(s) (both on the Switch and
the port(s)), then configure the RADIUS server settings in the AAA > RADIUS Server Setup screen.
Click Advanced Application > Port Authentication in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown. Select a port authentication method’s link in the screen that appears.
Figure 147 Advanced Application > Port Authentication
18.3 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
Use this screen to activate IEEE 802.1x security. In the Port Authentication screen click 802.1x to display
the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 148 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x (Standalone mode)
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Figure 149 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit 802.1x authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable 802.1x authentication on the Switch before configuring it
on each port.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking
mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this to permit 802.1x authentication on this port. You must first allow 802.1x
authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
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Table 74 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Max-Req
Specify the number of times the Switch tries to authenticate client(s) before sending
unresponsive ports to the Guest VLAN.
This is set to 2 by default. That is, the Switch attempts to authenticate a client twice. If the client
does not respond to the first authentication request, the Switch tries again. If the client still does
not respond to the second request, the Switch sends the client to the Guest VLAN. The client
needs to send a new request to be authenticated by the Switch again.
Reauth
Specify if a subscriber has to periodically re-enter his or her username and password to stay
connected to the port.
Reauth-period
secs
Specify the length of time required to pass before a client has to re-enter his or her username
and password to stay connected to the port.
Quiet-period secs
Specify the number of seconds the port remains in the HELD state and rejects further
authentication requests from the connected client after a failed authentication exchange.
Tx-period secs
Specify the number of seconds the Switch waits for client’s response before re-sending an
identity request to the client.
Supp-Timeout
secs
Specify the number of seconds the Switch waits for client’s response to a challenge request
before sending another request.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
18.3.1 Guest VLAN
When 802.1x port authentication is enabled on the Switch and its ports, clients that do not have the
correct credentials are blocked from using the port(s). You can configure your Switch to have one VLAN
that acts as a guest VLAN. If you enable the guest VLAN (102 in the example) on a port (2 in the
example), the user (A in the example) that is not IEEE 802.1x capable or fails to enter the correct
username and password can still access the port, but traffic from the user is forwarded to the guest
VLAN. That is, unauthenticated users can have access to limited network resources in the same guest
VLAN, such as the Internet. The rights granted to the Guest VLAN depends on how the network
administrator configures switches or routers with the guest network feature.
Figure 150 Guest VLAN Example
Use this screen to enable and assign a guest VLAN to a port. In the Port Authentication > 802.1x screen
click Guest Vlan to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 151 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN (Standalone mode)
Figure 152 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking
mode)
This field displays a port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second
is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this checkbox to enable the guest VLAN feature on this port.
Guest Vlan
A guest VLAN is a pre-configured VLAN on the Switch that allows non-authenticated users to
access limited network resources through the Switch. You must also enable IEEE 802.1x
authentication on the Switch and the associated ports. Enter the number that identifies the
guest VLAN.
Clients that fail authentication are placed in the guest VLAN and can receive limited services.
Make sure this is a VLAN recognized in your network.
Host-mode
Specify how the Switch authenticates users when more than one user connect to the port
(using a hub).
Select Multi-Host to authenticate only the first user that connects to this port. If the first user
enters the correct credential, any other users are allowed to access the port without
authentication. If the first user fails to enter the correct credential, they are all put in the guest
VLAN. Once the first user who did authentication logs out or disconnects from the port, rest of
the users are blocked until a user does the authentication process again.
Select Multi-Secure to authenticate each user that connects to this port.
Multi-Secure Num
If you set Host-mode to Multi-Secure, specify the maximum number of users that the Switch will
authenticate on this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
18.4 Activate MAC Authentication
Use this screen to activate MAC authentication. In the Port Authentication screen click MAC
Authentication to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 153 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication (Standalone mode)
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Figure 154 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit MAC authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable MAC authentication on the Switch before configuring it
on each port.
Name Prefix
Type the prefix that is appended to all MAC addresses sent to the RADIUS server for
authentication. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.
If you leave this field blank, then only the MAC address of the client is forwarded to the RADIUS
server.
Password
Type the password the Switch sends along with the MAC address of a client for authentication
with the RADIUS server. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.
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Table 76 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Timeout
Specify the amount of time before the Switch allows a client MAC address that fails
authentication to try and authenticate again. Maximum time is 3000 seconds.
When a client fails MAC authentication, its MAC address is learned by the MAC address table
with a status of denied. The timeout period you specify here is the time the MAC address entry
stays in the MAC address table until it is cleared. If you specify 0 for the timeout value, the
Switch uses the Aging Time configured in the Switch Setup screen.
Note: If the Aging Time in the Switch Setup screen is set to a lower value, then it
supersedes this setting. See Section 8.5 on page 70.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking
mode)
This field displays a port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second
is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to permit MAC authentication on this port. You must first allow MAC
authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Trusted-VLAN List
Enter the ID number(s) of the trusted VLAN(s) (separated by a comma). If a client’s VLAN ID is
specified here, the client can access the port and the connected networks without MAC
authentication.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 19
Port Security
19.1 Port Security Overview
This chapter shows you how to set up port security.
Port security allows only packets with dynamically learned MAC addresses and/or configured static
MAC addresses to pass through a port on the Switch. The Switch can learn up to 16K MAC addresses in
total with no limit on individual ports other than the sum cannot exceed 16K.
For maximum port security, enable this feature, disable MAC address learning and configure static MAC
address(es) for a port. It is not recommended you disable port security together with MAC address
learning as this will result in many broadcasts. By default, MAC address learning is still enabled even
though the port security is not activated.
19.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Port Security screen (Section 19.2 on page 199) to enable port security and disable MAC
address learning. You can also enable the port security feature on a port.
19.2 Port Security Setup
Click Advanced Application > Port Security in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 155 Advanced Application > Port Security (Standalone mode)
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Figure 156 Advanced Application > Port Security (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 Advanced Application > Port Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port List
Enter the number of the port(s) (separated by a comma) on which you want to enable port
security and disable MAC address learning. After you click MAC freeze, all previously learned
MAC addresses on the specified port(s) will become static MAC addresses and display in the
Static MAC Forwarding screen.
MAC freeze
Click MAC freeze to have the Switch automatically select the Active check boxes and clear the
Address Learning check boxes only for the ports specified in the Port list.
Active
Select this option to enable port security on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 77 Advanced Application > Port Security (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the port security feature on this port. The Switch forwards
packets whose MAC address(es) is in the MAC address table on this port. Packets with no
matching MAC address(es) are dropped.
Clear this check box to disable the port security feature. The Switch forwards all packets on this
port.
Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing broadcast traffic. For MAC address learning to occur
on a port, the port itself must be active with address learning enabled.
Limited Number
of Learned MAC
Address
Use this field to limit the number of (dynamic) MAC addresses that may be learned on a port. For
example, if you set this field to "5" on port 2, then only the devices with these five learned MAC
addresses may access port 2 at any one time. A sixth device would have to wait until one of the
five learned MAC addresses aged out. MAC address aging out time can be set in the Switch
Setup screen. The valid range is from “0” to “16K”. “0” means this feature is disabled.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Chapter 20 Time Range
C H A P T E R 20
Time Range
20.1 Time Range Overview
You can set up one-time and recurring schedules for time-oriented features, such as PoE and classifier.
The UAG supports one-time and recurring schedules. One-time schedules are effective only once, while
recurring schedules usually repeat. Both types of schedules are based on the current date and time in
the Switch.
20.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Time Range screen (Section 20.2 on page 203) to view or define a schedule on the Switch.
20.2 Configuring Time Range
Click Advanced Application > Time Range in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 157 Advanced Application > Time Range
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 Advanced Application > Time Range
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Type
Select Absolute to create a one-time schedule. One-time schedules begin on a specific start
date and time and end on a specific stop date and time. One-time schedules are useful for
long holidays and vacation periods.
Alternatively, select Periodic to create a recurring schedule. Recurring schedules begin at a
specific start time and end at a specific stop time on selected days of the week (Sunday,
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday). Recurring schedules are useful
for defining the workday and off-work hours.
Absolute
This section is available only when you set Type to Absolute.
Start
Specify the year, month, day, hour and minute when the schedule begins.
End
Specify the year, month, day, hour and minute when the schedule ends.
Periodic
This section is available only when you set Type to Periodic.
Select the first option if you want to define a recurring schedule for a consecutive time period.
You then select the day of the week, hour and minute when the schedule begins and ends
respectively.
Select the second option if you want to define a recurring schedule for multiple nonconsecutive time periods. You need to select each day of the week the recurring schedule is
effective. You also need to specify the hour and minute when the schedule begins and ends
each day. The schedule begins and ends in the same day.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to change the settings.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose only.
Type
This field displays the type of the schedule.
Range
This field displays the time period(s) to which this schedule applies.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove and then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es).
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C H A P T E R 21
Classifier
21.1 Classifier Overview
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the packet classifier on the Switch. It also
discusses Quality of Service (QoS) and classifier concepts as employed by the Switch.
21.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Classifier Status screen (Section 21.2 on page 205) to view the classifiers configured on the
Switch and how many times the traffic matches the rules.
• Use the Classifier Configuration screen (Section 21.3 on page 206) to define the classifiers and view a
summary of the classifier configuration. After you define the classifier, you can specify actions (or
policy) to act upon the traffic that matches the rules.
• Use the Classifier Global Setting screen (Section 21.4 on page 211) to configure the match order and
enable logging on the Switch.
21.1.2 What You Need to Know
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and the
networking methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is equally likely
to be dropped when the network is congested. This can cause a reduction in network performance and
make the network inadequate for time-critical application such as video-on-demand.
A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source address,
destination address, source port number, destination port number or incoming port number. For
example, you can configure a classifier to select traffic from the same protocol port (such as Telnet) to
form a flow.
Configure QoS on the Switch to group and prioritize application traffic and fine-tune network
performance. Setting up QoS involves two separate steps:
1
Configure classifiers to sort traffic into different flows.
2
Configure policy rules to define actions to be performed on a classified traffic flow (refer to Chapter 22
on page 214 to configure policy rules).
21.2 Classifier Status
Use this screen to view the classifiers configured on the Switch and how many times the traffic matches
the rules.
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Chapter 21 Classifier
Click Advanced Application > Classifier in the navigation panel to display the configuration screen as
shown.
Figure 158 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 79 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Weight
This field displays the rule’s weight. This is to indicate a rule’s priority when the match order is set
to manual in the Classifier > Classifier Global Setting screen.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose only.
Match Count
This field displays the number of times a rule is applied. It displays '-' if the rule does not have
count enabled.
Rule
This field displays a summary of the classifier rule’s settings.
Clear
Select Classifier, enter a classifier rule name and then click Clear to erase the recorded
statistical information for that classifier, or select Any to clear statistics for all classifiers.
The higher the number, the higher the rule’s priority.
21.3 Classifier Configuration
Use the Classifier Configuration screen to define the classifiers. After you define the classifier, you can
specify actions (or policy) to act upon the traffic that matches the rules. To configure policy rules, refer
to Chapter 22 on page 214.
In the Classifier Status screen click Classifier Configuration to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 159 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Weight
Enter a number between 0 and 65535 to specify the rule’s weight. When the match order is in manual
mode in the Classifier Global Setting screen, a higher weight means a higher priority.
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Table 80 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Log
Select this option to have the Switch create a log message when the rule is applied and record the
number of matched packets in a particular time interval.
Note: Make sure you also enable logging in the Classifier Global Setting screen.
Count
Select this option to have the Switch count how many times the rule is applied.
Time
Range
Select the name of the pre-configued schedule that you want to apply to the rule. The rule will be
active only at the scheduled date and/or time.
If you select None, the rule will be active all the time.
Ingress Port
Port
Type the port number to which the rule should be applied. You may choose one port only or all ports
(Any).
Trunk
Select Any to apply the rule to all trunk groups.
To specify a trunk group, select the second choice and type a trunk group ID.
Packet
Format
Specify the format of the packet. Choices are All, 802.3 tagged, 802.3 untagged, Ethernet II tagged
and Ethernet II untagged.
A value of 802.3 indicates that the packets are formatted according to the IEEE 802.3 standards.
A value of Ethernet II indicates that the packets are formatted according to RFC 894, Ethernet II
encapsulation.
Layer 2
Specify the fields below to configure a layer 2 classifier.
VLAN
VLAN
Select Any to classify traffic from any VLAN or select the second option and specify the source VLAN
ID in the field provided.
Inner
VLAN
Select Any to classify traffic from any inner VLAN (the customer's VLAN) or select the second option
and specify the source VLAN ID in the field provided.
Priority
Priority
Select Any to classify traffic from any priority level or select the second option and specify a priority
level in the field provided.
Inner
Priority
Select Any to classify traffic from any inner priority level or select the second option and specify a
priority level in the field provided.
Ethernet
Type
Select an Ethernet type or select Other and enter the Ethernet type number in hexadecimal value.
Refer to Table 82 on page 211 for information.
Source
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a source, select MAC/Mask to enter the source MAC address of the packet in valid MAC
address format (six hexadecimal character pairs) and type the mask for the specified MAC address to
determine which bits a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address should match. Enter
“0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to 00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to
ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria. If you leave the
Mask field blank, the Switch automatically sets the mask to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
Destination
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Chapter 21 Classifier
Table 80 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a destination, select MAC/Mask to enter the destination MAC address of the packet in
valid MAC address format (six hexadecimal character pairs) and type the mask for the specified MAC
address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address should match. Enter
“0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to 00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to
ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria. If you leave the
Mask field blank, the Switch automatically sets the mask to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
Layer 3
Specify the fields below to configure a layer 3 classifier.
IP Packet
Length
Click Any to classify any size of packet length or manually enter a range of number (from/to) of
packet size in the field provided.
DSCP
Select Any to classify traffic from any DSCP or select the second option and specify a DSCP (DiffServ
Code Point) number between 0 and 63 in the field provided.
IPv4/IPv6
Preceden
ce
Select Any to classify traffic from any precedence or select the second option and specify an IP
Precedence (the first 3 bits of the 8-bit ToS field) value between 0 and 7 in the field provided.
ToS
Select Any to classify traffic from any ToS or select the second option and specify Type of Service (the
last 5 bits of the 8-bit ToS field) value between 0 and 255 in the field provided.
IP Protocol
Select an IPv4 protocol type or select Other and enter the protocol number in decimal value. Refer to
Table 83 on page 211 for more information.
You may select Establish Only for TCP protocol type. This means that the Switch will pick out the
packets that are sent to establish TCP connections.
IPv6 Next
Header
Select an IPv6 protocol type or select Other and enter an 8-bit next header in the IPv6 packet. The
Next Header field is similar to the IPv4 Protocol field. The IPv6 protocol number ranges from 1 to 255.
You may select Establish Only for TCP protocol type. This means that the Switch will identify packets
that initiate or acknowledge (establish) TCP connections.
Source
IP
Address/
Address
Prefix
Enter a source IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
A subnet mask can be represented in a 32-bit notation. For example, the subnet mask “255.255.255.0”
can be represented as “11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000”, and counting up the number of
ones in this case results in 24.
Destination
IP
Address/
Address
Prefix
Enter a destination IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
Layer 4
Specify the fields below to configure a layer-3 classifier.
Source
Socket
Number
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before you configure the
socket numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second option and
enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number. Refer to Table 84 on page 211 for more information.
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Chapter 21 Classifier
Table 80 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Destination
Socket
Number
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before you configure the
socket numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second option and
enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number. Refer to Table 84 on page 211 for more information.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the Switch’s runtime memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on
the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields back to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
21.3.1 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration Summary
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the bottom of the
Classifier screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index field.
Note: When two rules conflict with each other, a higher layer rule has priority over lower layer
rule.
Figure 160 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration: Summary Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 81 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration: Summary Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Weight
The field displays the priority of the rule when the match order is in manual mode. A higher weight
means a higher priority.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purpose only.
Rule
This field displays a summary of the classifier rule’s settings.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the table
heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
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Chapter 21 Classifier
The following table shows some other common Ethernet types and the corresponding protocol number.
Table 82 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Numbers
ETHERNET TYPE
PROTOCOL NUMBER
IP ETHII
0800
X.75 Internet
0801
NBS Internet
0802
ECMA Internet
0803
Chaosnet
0804
X.25 Level 3
0805
XNS Compat
0807
Banyan Systems
0BAD
BBN Simnet
5208
IBM SNA
80D5
AppleTalk AARP
80F3
In the Internet Protocol there is a field, called “Protocol”, to identify the next level protocol. The following
table shows some common protocol types and the corresponding protocol number. Refer to http://
www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers for a complete list.
Table 83 Common IP Protocol Types and Protocol Numbers
PROTOCOL TYPE
PROTOCOL NUMBER
ICMP
1
TCP
6
UDP
17
EGP
8
L2TP
115
Some of the most common TCP and UDP port numbers are:
Table 84 Common TCP and UDP Port Numbers
PROTOCOL NAME
TCP/UDP PORT NUMBER
FTP
21
Telnet
23
SMTP
25
DNS
53
HTTP
80
POP3
110
See Appendix B on page 506 for information on commonly used port numbers.
21.4 Classifier Global Setting Configuration
Use this screen to configure the match order and enable logging on the Switch. In the Classifier
Configuration screen click Classifier Global Setting to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Chapter 21 Classifier
Figure 161 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration > Classifier Global Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 85 Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration > Classifier Global Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Match
Order
Select manual to have classifier rules applied according to the weight of each rule you configured in
Advanced Application > Classifier > Classifier Configuration.
Alternatively, select auto to have classifier rules applied according to the layer of the item configured
in the rule. Layer-4 items have the highest priority, and layer-2 items has the lowest priority. For
example, you configure a layer-2 item (VLAN ID) in classifier A and configure a layer-3 item (source IP
address) in classifier B. When an incoming packet matches both classifier rules, classifier B has priority
over classifer A.
Logging
Active
Select this to allow the Switch to create a log when packets match a classifier rule during a defined
time interval.
Interval
Select the length of the time period (in seconds) to count matched packets for a classifier rule. Enter
an integer from 0-65535. 0 means that no logging is done.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it
is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to
the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
21.5 Classifier Example
The following screen shows an example where you configure a classifier that identifies all traffic from
MAC address 00:50:ba:ad:4f:81 on port 2.
After you have configured a classifier, you can configure a policy (in the Policy screen) to define
action(s) on the classified traffic flow.
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Chapter 21 Classifier
Figure 162 Classifier: Example
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Chapter 22 Policy Rule
C H A P T E R 22
Policy Rule
22.1 Policy Rules Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure policy rules.
A classifier distinguishes traffic into flows based on the configured criteria (refer to Chapter 21 on page
205 for more information). A policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the requested treatment in the
network.
22.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Policy screen (Section 22.2 on page 214) to enable the policy and display the active classifier(s)
you configure in the Classifier screen.
22.2 Configuring Policy Rules
You must first configure a classifier in the Classifier screen. Refer to Section 21.3 on page 206 for more
information.
Click Advanced Applications > Policy Rule in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Chapter 22 Policy Rule
Figure 163 Advanced Application > Policy Rule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 86 Advanced Application > Policy Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable the policy.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the active classifier(s) you configure in the Classifier screen.
Select the classifier(s) to which this policy rule applies. To select more than one classifier, press
[SHIFT] and select the choices at the same time.
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Table 86 Advanced Application > Policy Rule (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Parameters
Set the fields below for this policy. You only have to set the field(s) that is related to the action(s) you configure in
the Action field.
General
Egress Port
Type the number of an outgoing port.
Priority
Specify a priority level.
DSCP
Specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63.
TOS
Specify the type of service (TOS) priority level.
Metering
You can configure the desired bandwidth available to a traffic flow. Traffic that exceeds the
maximum bandwidth allocated (in cases where the network is congested) is called out-of-profile
traffic.
Bandwidth
Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 1 and 1000000.
Out-ofProfile DSCP
Specify a new DSCP number (between 0 and 63) if you want to replace or remark the DSCP
number for out-of-profile traffic.
Action
Specify the action(s) the Switch takes on the associated classified traffic flow.
Note: You can specify only one action (pair) in a policy rule. To have the Switch take multiple actions
on the same traffic flow, you need to define multiple classifiers with the same criteria and apply
different policy rules.
Say you have several classifiers that identify the same traffic flow and you specify a different policy rule for each. If
their policy actions conflict (Discard the packet, Send the packet to the egress port and Rate Limit), the Switch only
applies the policy rules with the Discard the packet and Send the packet to the egress port actions depending on
the classifier names. The longer the classifier name, the higher the classifier priority. If two classifier names are the
same length, the bigger the character, the higher the classifier priority. The lowercase letters (such as a and b)
have higher priority than the capitals (such as A and B) in the classifier name. For example, the classifier with the
name of class 2, class a or class B takes priority over the classifier with the name of class 1 or class A.
Let’s say you set two classifiers (Class 1 and Class 2) and both identify all traffic from MAC address 11:22:33:44:55:66
on port 3.
If Policy 1 applies to Class 1 and the action is to drop the packets, Policy 2 applies to Class 2 and the action is to
forward the packets to the egress port, the Switch will forward the packets.
If Policy 1 applies to Class 1 and the action is to drop the packets, Policy 2 applies to Class 2 and the action is to
enable bandwidth limitation, the Switch will discard the packets immediately.
If Policy 1 applies to Class 1 and the action is to forward the packets to the egress port, Policy 2 applies to Class 2
and the action is to enable bandwidth limitation, the Switch will forward the packets.
Forwarding
Select No change to forward the packets.
Select Discard the packet to drop the packets.
Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to retain the frames that
were marked to be dropped before.
Priority
Select No change to keep the priority setting of the frames.
Select Set the packet’s 802.1p priority and send the packet to priority queue to replace the
packet’s 802.1p priority field with the value you set in the Priority field and put the packets in the
designated queue.
Select Replace the 802.1p priority field with the IP TOS value and send the packet to priority
queue to replace the packet’s 802.1p priority field with the value you set in the TOS field and put
the packets in the designated queue.
Select Replace the 802.1p priority field with the inner 802.1p priority value and send the packet to
priority queue to replace the packet’s 802.1p priority field with the existing customer priority level
carried in the frames and put the packets in the designated queue.
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Chapter 22 Policy Rule
Table 86 Advanced Application > Policy Rule (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Diffserv
Select No change to keep the TOS and/or DSCP fields in the packets.
Select Set the packet’s TOS field to set the TOS field with the value you configure in the TOS field.
Select Replace the IP TOS field with the 802.1p priority value to replace the TOS field with the
value you configure in the Priority field.
Select Set the Diffserv Codepoint field in the frame to set the DSCP field with the value you
configure in the DSCP field.
Outgoing
Select Send the packet to the mirror port to send the packet to the mirror port.
Select Send the packet to the egress port to send the packet to the egress port.
Metering
Select Enable to activate bandwidth limitation on the traffic flow(s) then set the actions to be
taken on out-of-profile packets.
Out-of-profile
action
Select the action(s) to be performed for out-of-profile traffic.
Select Drop the packet to discard the out-of-profile traffic.
Select Change the DSCP value to replace the DSCP field with the value specified in the Out of
profile DSCP field.
Select Set Out-Drop Precedence to mark out-of-profile traffic and drop it when network is
congested.
Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to queue the frames that
are marked to be dropped.
Add
Click Add to inset the entry to the summary table below and save your changes to the Switch’s
run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save
link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields back to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the policy index number. Click an index number to edit the policy.
Active
This field displays Yes when policy is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the name you have assigned to this policy.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the name(s) of the classifier to which this policy applies.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
22.3 Policy Example
The figure below shows an example Policy screen where you configure a policy to limit bandwidth on a
traffic flow classified using the Example classifier (refer to Section 21.5 on page 212).
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Chapter 22 Policy Rule
Figure 164 Policy Example
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Chapter 23 Queuing Method
C H A P T E R 23
Queuing Method
23.1 Queuing Method Overview
This chapter introduces the queuing methods supported.
Queuing is used to help solve performance degradation when there is network congestion. Use the
Queuing Method screen to configure queuing algorithms for outgoing traffic. See also Priority Queue
Assignment in Switch Setup and 802.1p Priority in Port Setup for related information.
Note: Six queues are supported in Stacking mode.
23.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Queuing Method screen (Section 23.2 on page 220) set priorities for the queues of the Switch.
This distributes bandwidth across the different traffic queues.
23.1.2 What You Need to Know
Queuing algorithms allow switches to maintain separate queues for packets from each individual
source or flow and prevent a source from monopolizing the bandwidth.
Strictly Priority Queuing
Strictly Priority Queuing (SPQ) services queues based on priority only. As traffic comes into the Switch,
traffic on the highest priority queue, Q7 is transmitted first. When that queue empties, traffic on the next
highest-priority queue, Q6 is transmitted until Q6 empties, and then traffic is transmitted on Q5 and so on.
If higher priority queues never empty, then traffic on lower priority queues never gets sent. SPQ does not
automatically adapt to changing network requirements.
Weighted Fair Queuing
Weighted Fair Queuing is used to guarantee each queue's minimum bandwidth based on its bandwidth
weight (portion) (the number you configure in the Weight field) when there is traffic congestion. WFQ is
activated only when a port has more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights get more
guaranteed bandwidth than queues with smaller weights. This queuing mechanism is highly efficient in
that it divides any available bandwidth across the different traffic queues. By default, the weight for Q0
is 1, for Q1 is 2, for Q2 is 3, and so on.
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Chapter 23 Queuing Method
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR)
Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis and is activated only when a port has more
traffic than it can handle. A queue is a given an amount of bandwidth irrespective of the incoming
traffic on that port. This queue then moves to the back of the list. The next queue is given an equal
amount of bandwidth, and then moves to the end of the list; and so on, depending on the number of
queues being used. This works in a looping fashion until a queue is empty.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) uses the same algorithm as round robin scheduling, but
services queues based on their priority and queue weight (the number you configure in the queue
Weight field) rather than a fixed amount of bandwidth. WRR is activated only when a port has more
traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights get more service than queues with smaller
weights. This queuing mechanism is highly efficient in that it divides any available bandwidth across the
different traffic queues and returns to queues that have not yet emptied.
23.2 Configuring Queuing
Use this screen to set priorities for the queues of the Switch. This distributes bandwidth across the different
traffic queues.
Click Advanced Application > Queuing Method in the navigation panel.
Figure 165 Advanced Application > Queuing Method (Standalone mode)
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Figure 166 Advanced Application > Queuing Method (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 87 Advanced Application > Queuing Method
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot
(Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalo
ne or
stacking
mode)
This label shows the port you are configuring. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set the
common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Chapter 23 Queuing Method
Table 87 Advanced Application > Queuing Method (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Method
Select SPQ (Strictly Priority Queuing), WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing) or WRR (Weighted Round Robin).
Strictly Priority Queuing services queues based on priority only. When the highest priority queue
empties, traffic on the next highest-priority queue begins. Q7 has the highest priority and Q0 the
lowest.
Weighted Fair Queuing is used to guarantee each queue's minimum bandwidth based on their
bandwidth portion (weight) (the number you configure in the Weight field). Queues with larger
weights get more guaranteed bandwidth than queues with smaller weights.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis based on their queue weight
(the number you configure in the queue Weight field). Queues with larger weights get more service
than queues with smaller weights.
Weight
When you select WFQ or WRR enter the queue weight here. Bandwidth is divided across the different
traffic queues according to their weights.
HybridSPQ
LowestQueue
This field is applicable only when you select WFQ or WRR.
Select a queue (Q0 to Q7) to have the Switch use SPQ to service the subsequent queue(s) after and
including the specified queue for the port. For example, if you select Q5, the Switch services traffic on
Q5, Q6 and Q7 using SPQ.
Select None to always use WFQ or WRR for the port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if
it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to
the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 24
Multicast
24.1 Multicast Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure various multicast features.
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender to 1 recipient) or
Broadcast (1 sender to everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to just a group of hosts
on the network.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership
in a multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. Refer to RFC 1112, RFC 2236 and RFC 3376 for
information on IGMP versions 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
24.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Multicast Setup screen (Section 24.2 on page 227) to display the links to the configuration
screens where you can configure IPv4 or IPv6 multicast settings.
• Use the IPv4 Multicast Status screen (Section 24.3 on page 227) to view multicast group information.
• Use the IGMP Snooping screen (Section 24.3.1 on page 227) to enable IGMP snooping to forward
group multicast traffic only to ports that are members of that group.
• Use the IPv6 Multicast Status screen (Section 24.4 on page 234) to view multicast group information,
• Use the MLD Snooping-proxy screen (Section 24.4.1 on page 234) to enable the upstream port to
report group changes to a connected multicast router and forward MLD messages to other upstream
ports.
• Use the MVR screens (Section 24.5 on page 242) to create multicast VLANs and select the receiver
port(s) and a source port for each multicast VLAN.
24.1.2 What You Need to Know
Read on for concepts on Multicasting that can help you configure the screens in this chapter.
IP Multicast Addresses
In IPv4, a multicast address allows a device to send packets to a specific group of hosts (multicast
group) in a different subnetwork. A multicast IP address represents a traffic receiving group, not
individual receiving devices. IP addresses in the Class D range (224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255) are used for
IP multicasting. Certain IP multicast numbers are reserved by IANA for special purposes (see the IANA
website for more information).
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IGMP Snooping
A Switch can passively snoop on IGMP packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP
multicast hosts to learn the IP multicast group membership. It checks IGMP packets passing through it,
picks out the group registration information, and configures multicasting accordingly. IGMP snooping
allows the Switch to learn multicast groups without you having to manually configure them.
The Switch forwards multicast traffic destined for multicast groups (that it has learned from IGMP
snooping or that you have manually configured) to ports that are members of that group. IGMP
snooping generates no additional network traffic, allowing you to significantly reduce multicast traffic
passing through your Switch.
IGMP Snooping and VLANs
The Switch can perform IGMP snooping on up to 16 VLANs. You can configure the Switch to
automatically learn multicast group membership of any VLANs. The Switch then performs IGMP
snooping on the first 16 VLANs that send IGMP packets. This is referred to as auto mode. Alternatively,
you can specify the VLANs that IGMP snooping should be performed on. This is referred to as fixed
mode. In fixed mode the Switch does not learn multicast group membership of any VLANs other than
those explicitly added as an IGMP snooping VLAN.
MLD Snooping-proxy
MLD snooping-proxy is a Zyxel-proprietary feature. IPv6 MLD proxy allows only one upstream interface on
a switch, while MLD snooping-proxy supports more than one upstream port on a switch. The upstream
port in MLD snooping-proxy can report group changes to a connected multicast router and forward
MLD messages to other upstream ports. This helps especially when you want to have a network that uses
STP to provide backup links between switches and also performs MLD snooping and proxy functions.
MLD snooping-proxy, like MLD proxy, can minimize MLD control messages and allow better network
performance.
In MLD snooping-proxy, if one upstream port is learned via snooping, all other upstream ports on the
same device will be added to the same group. If one upstream port requests to leave a group, all other
upstream ports on the same device will also be removed from the group.
In the following MLD snooping-proxy example, all connected upstream ports (1 ~7) are treated as one
interface. The connection between ports 8 and 9 is blocked by STP to break the loop. If there is one
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query from a router (X) or MLD Done or Report message from any upstream port, it will be broadcast to
all connected upstream ports.
MLD Messages
A multicast router or switch periodically sends general queries to MLD hosts to update the multicast
forwarding table. When an MLD host wants to join a multicast group, it sends an MLD Report message
for that address.
An MLD Done message is similar to an IGMP Leave message. When an MLD host wants to leave a
multicast group, it can send a Done message to the router or switch. If the leave mode is not set to
Immediate, the router or switch sends a group-specific query to the port on which the Done message is
received to determine if other devices connected to this port should remain in the group.
MVR Overview
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as Media-on-Demand (MoD)) that
use multicast traffic across an Ethernet ring-based service provider network.
MVR allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different subscriber VLANs on the network.
While isolated in different subscriber VLANs, connected devices can subscribe to and unsubscribe from
the multicast stream in the multicast VLAN. This improves bandwidth utilization with reduced multicast
traffic in the subscriber VLANs and simplifies multicast group management.
MVR only responds to IGMP join and leave control messages from multicast groups that are configured
under MVR. Join and leave reports from other multicast groups are managed by IGMP snooping.
The following figure shows a network example. The subscriber VLAN (1, 2 and 3) information is hidden
from the streaming media server, S. In addition, the multicast VLAN information is only visible to the
Switch and S.
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Figure 167 MVR Network Example
Types of MVR Ports
In MVR, a source port is a port on the Switch that can send and receive multicast traffic in a multicast
VLAN while a receiver port can only receive multicast traffic. Once configured, the Switch maintains a
forwarding table that matches the multicast stream to the associated multicast group.
MVR Modes
You can set your Switch to operate in either dynamic or compatible mode.
In dynamic mode, the Switch sends IGMP leave and join reports to the other multicast devices (such as
multicast routers or servers) in the multicast VLAN. This allows the multicast devices to update the
multicast forwarding table to forward or not forward multicast traffic to the receiver ports.
In compatible mode, the Switch does not send any IGMP reports. In this case, you must manually
configure the forwarding settings on the multicast devices in the multicast VLAN.
How MVR Works
The following figure shows a multicast television example where a subscriber device (such as a
computer) in VLAN 1 receives multicast traffic from the streaming media server, S, via the Switch.
Multiple subscriber devices can connect through a port configured as the receiver on the Switch.
When the subscriber selects a television channel, computer A sends an IGMP report to the Switch to join
the appropriate multicast group. If the IGMP report matches one of the configured MVR multicast group
addresses on the Switch, an entry is created in the forwarding table on the Switch. This maps the
subscriber VLAN to the list of forwarding destinations for the specified multicast traffic.
When the subscriber changes the channel or turns off the computer, an IGMP leave message is sent to
the Switch to leave the multicast group. The Switch sends a query to VLAN 1 on the receiver port (in this
case, an uplink port on the Switch). If there is another subscriber device connected to this port in the
same subscriber VLAN, the receiving port will still be on the list of forwarding destination for the multicast
traffic. Otherwise, the Switch removes the receiver port from the forwarding table.
Figure 168 MVR Multicast Television Example
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24.2 Multicast Setup
Use this screen to configure IGMP for IPv4 or MLD for IPv6 and set up multicast VLANs. Click Advanced
Application > Multicast in the navigation panel.
Figure 169 Advanced Application > Multicast Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 88 Advanced Application > Multicast Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv4 Multicast
Click the link to open screens where you can configure IGMP snooping and IGMP filtering for
IPv4.
IPv6 Multicast
Click the link to open screens where you can configure MLD snooping-proxy and MLD filtering
for IPv6.
MVR
Click the link to open screens where you can create multicast VLANs.
24.3 IPv4 Multicast Status
Click Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast to display the screen as shown. This screen
shows the IPv4 multicast group information. See Section 24.1 on page 223 for more information on
multicasting.
Figure 170 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 89 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
VID
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Port
This field displays the port number that belongs to the multicast group.
Multicast Group
This field displays IP multicast group addresses.
24.3.1 IGMP Snooping
Click the IGMP Snooping link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast screen to display
the screen as shown. See Section 24.1 on page 223 for more information on multicasting.
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Figure 171 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping (Standalone mode)
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Figure 172 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 90 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping
LABEL
IGMP Snooping
DESCRIPTION
Use these settings to configure IGMP snooping.
Active
Select Active to enable IGMP Snooping to forward group multicast traffic only to ports that
are members of that group.
Querier
Select this option to allow the Switch to send IGMP General Query messages to the VLANs with
the multicast hosts attached.
Host Timeout
Specify the time (from 1 to 16 711 450) in seconds that elapses before the Switch removes an
IGMP group membership entry if it does not receive report messages from the port.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the priority in outgoing IGMP control
packets. Otherwise, select No-Change to not replace the priority.
IGMP Filtering
Select Active to enable IGMP filtering to control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a port
can join.
If you enable IGMP filtering, you must create and assign IGMP filtering profiles for the ports that
you want to allow to join multicast groups.
Unknown Multicast
Frame
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives an unknown multicast frame. Select
Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all ports.
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Table 90 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping (continued) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reserved Multicast
Group
The IP address range of 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255 are reserved for multicasting on the local
network only. For example, 224.0.0.1 is for all hosts on a local network segment and 224.0.0.9 is
used to send RIP routing information to all RIP v2 routers on the same network segment. A
multicast router will not forward a packet with the destination IP address within this range to
other networks. See the IANA web site for more information.
The layer-2 multicast MAC addresses used by Cisco layer-2 protocols, 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CC
and 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CD, are also included in this group.
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives a frame with a reserved multicast
address. Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all ports.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Immed. Leave
Select this option to set the Switch to remove this port from the multicast tree when an IGMP
version 2 leave message is received on this port.
Select this option if there is only one host connected to this port.
Normal Leave
Enter an IGMP normal leave timeout value (from 200 to 6,348,800) in miliseconds. Select this
option to have the Switch use this timeout to update the forwarding table for the port.
In normal leave mode, when the Switch receives an IGMP leave message from a host on a
port, it forwards the message to the multicast router. The multicast router then sends out an
IGMP Group-Specific Query (GSQ) message to determine whether other hosts connected to
the port should remain in the specific multicast group. The Switch forwards the query message
to all hosts connected to the port and waits for IGMP reports from hosts to update the
forwarding table.
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing an IGMP
snooping membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received on this port from a
host.
Fast Leave
Enter an IGMP fast leave timeout value (from 200 to 6,348,800) in miliseconds. Select this
option to have the Switch use this timeout to update the forwarding table for the port.
In fast leave mode, right after receiving an IGMP leave message from a host on a port, the
Switch itself sends out an IGMP Group-Specific Query (GSQ) message to determine whether
other hosts connected to the port should remain in the specific multicast group. This helps
speed up the leave process.
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing an IGMP
snooping membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received on this port from a
host.
Group Limited
Select this option to limit the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join.
Max Group Num.
Enter the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join. Once a port is registered in the
specified number of multicast groups, any new IGMP join report frame(s) is dropped on this
port.
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Table 90 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping (continued) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Throttling
IGMP throttling controls how the Switch deals with the IGMP reports when the maximum
number of the IGMP groups a port can join is reached.
Select Deny to drop any new IGMP join report received on this port until an existing multicast
forwarding table entry is aged out.
Select Replace to replace an existing entry in the multicast forwarding table with the new
IGMP report(s) received on this port.
IGMP Filtering
Profile
Select the name of the IGMP filtering profile to use for this port. Otherwise, select Default to
prohibit the port from joining any multicast group.
You can create IGMP filtering profiles in the Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP
Filtering Profile screen.
IGMP Querier
Mode
The Switch treats an IGMP query port as being connected to an IGMP multicast router (or
server). The Switch forwards IGMP join or leave packets to an IGMP query port.
Select Auto to have the Switch use the port as an IGMP query port if the port receives IGMP
query packets.
Select Fixed to have the Switch always use the port as an IGMP query port. Select this when
you connect an IGMP multicast server to the port.
Select Edge to stop the Switch from using the port as an IGMP query port. The Switch will not
keep any record of an IGMP router being connected to this port. The Switch does not forward
IGMP join or leave packets to this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
24.3.2 IGMP Snooping VLAN
Click Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast in the navigation panel. Click the IGMP
Snooping link and then the IGMP Snooping VLAN link to display the screen as shown. See IGMP Snooping
and VLANs on page 224 for more information on IGMP Snooping VLAN.
Figure 173 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping VLAN
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 91 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
Select auto to have the Switch learn multicast group membership information of any VLANs
automatically.
Select fixed to have the Switch only learn multicast group membership information of the
VLAN(s) that you specify below.
In either auto or fixed mode, the Switch can learn up to 16 VLANs (including up to five VLANs
you configured in the MVR screen). For example, if you have configured one multicast VLAN
in the MVR screen, you can only specify up to 15 VLANs in this screen.
The Switch drops any IGMP control messages which do not belong to these 16 VLANs.
You must also enable IGMP snooping in the Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping screen
first.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
Use this section of the screen to add VLANs upon which the Switch is to perform IGMP
snooping.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of the VLAN for identification purposes.
VID
Enter the ID of a static VLAN; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
You cannot configure the same VLAN ID as in the MVR screen.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of the IGMP snooping VLAN entry in the table. Click on an index
number to view more details or change the settings.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
24.3.3 IGMP Filtering Profile
An IGMP filtering profile specifies a range of multicast groups that clients connected to the Switch are
able to join. A profile contains a range of multicast IP addresses which you want clients to be able to
join. Profiles are assigned to ports (in the IGMP Snooping screen). Clients connected to those ports are
then able to join the multicast groups specified in the profile. Each port can be assigned a single profile.
A profile can be assigned to multiple ports.
Click Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast in the navigation panel. Click the IGMP
Snooping link and then the IGMP Filtering Profile link to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 174 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Filtering Profile
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 92 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv4 Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Filtering Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes.
To configure additional rule(s) for a profile that you have already added, enter the profile
name and specify a different IP multicast address range.
Start Address
Type the starting multicast IP address for a range of multicast IP addresses that you want to
belong to the IGMP filter profile.
End Address
Type the ending multicast IP address for a range of IP addresses that you want to belong to
the IGMP filter profile.
If you want to add a single multicast IP address, enter it in both the Start Address and End
Address fields.
Add
Click this to create a new entry.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile.
Start Address
This field displays the start of the multicast address range.
End Address
This field displays the end of the multicast address range.
Delete Profile
Select a profile’s check box to select a specific profile. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all profiles.
Delete Rule
Select the check box(es) of the rule(s) that you want to remove from a profile.
Delete
To delete the profile(s) and all the accompanying rules, select the profile(s) that you want to
remove in the Delete Profile column, then click the Delete button.
To delete a rule(s) from a profile, select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete Rule
column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete Profile/Delete Rule check boxes.
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24.4 IPv6 Multicast Status
Click Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast to display the screen as shown. This screen
shows the IPv6 multicast group information. See Section 24.1 on page 223 for more information on
multicasting.
Figure 175 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 93 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
VID
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Port
This field displays the port number that belongs to the multicast group.
Multicast Group
This field displays IP multicast group addresses.
Group Timeout
This field displays the time (in seconds) that elapses before the Switch removes a MLD group
membership entry if it does not receive report messages from the port.
24.4.1 MLD Snooping-proxy
Click the MLD Snooping-proxy link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast screen to
display the screen as shown. See Section 24.1 on page 223 for more information on multicasting.
Figure 176 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 94 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MLD Snooping-proxy
Use these settings to configure MLD snooping-proxy.
Active
Select Active to enable MLD snooping-proxy on the Switch to minimize MLD control
messages and allow better network performance.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the priority in outgoing MLD
messages.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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24.4.2 MLD Snooping-proxy VLAN
Click the VLAN link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy
screen to display the screen as shown. See Section 24.1 on page 223 for more information on
multicasting.
Figure 177 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 95 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN on which you want to enable MLD snooping-proxy and
configure related settings.
Upstream
Query Interval
Enter the amount of time (in miliseconds) between general query messages sent by the
router connected to the upstream port. This value should be exactly the same as what’s
configured in the connected multicast router.
This value is used to calculate the amount of time an MLD snooping membership entry
(learned only on the upstream port) can remain in the forwarding table.
When an MLD Report message is received, the Switch sets the timeout period of the entry
to be T = (QI*RV) + MRD, where T = Timeout, QI = Query Interval, RV = Robustness Variable,
and MRD = Maximum Response Delay.
Maximum Response
Delay
Enter the amount of time (in miliseconds) the router connected to the upstream port waits
for a response to an MLD general query message. This value should be exactly the same
as what’s configured in the connected multicast router.
This value is used to calculate the amount of time an MLD snooping membership entry
(learned only on the upstream port) can remain in the forwarding table.
When an MLD Report message is received, the Switch sets the timeout period of the entry
to be T = (QI*RV) + MRD, where T = Timeout, QI = Query Interval, RV = Robustness Variable,
and MRD = Maximum Response Delay.
When an MLD Done message is received, the Switch sets the entry’s lifetime to be the
product of Last Member Query Interval and Robustness Variable.
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Table 95 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Robustness Variable
Enter the number of queries. A multicast address entry (learned only on an upstream port
by snooping) is removed from the forwarding table when there is no response to the
configured number of queries sent by the router connected to the upstream port. This
value should be exactly the same as what’s configured in the connected multicast
router.
This value is used to calculate the amount of time an MLD snooping membership entry
(learned only on the upstream port) can remain in the forwarding table.
Last Member Query
Interval
Enter the amount of time (in miliseconds) between the MLD group-specific queries sent by
an upstream port when an MLD Done message is received. This value should be exactly
the same as what’s configured in the connected multicast router.
This value is used to calculate the amount of time an MLD snooping membership entry
(learned only on the upstream port) can remain in the forwarding table after a Done
message is received.
When an MLD Done message is received, the Switch sets the entry’s lifetime to be the
product of Last Member Query Interval and Robustness Variable.
Downstream
Query Interval
Enter the amount of time (in miliseconds) between general query messages sent by the
downstream port.
Maximum Response
Delay
Enter the maximum time (in miliseconds) that the Switch waits for a response to a general
query message sent by the downstream port.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of the MLD snooping-proxy VLAN entry in the table. Click on an
index number to view more details or change the settings.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in
the table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry(ies) permanently.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
24.4.3 MLD Snooping-proxy VLAN Port Role Setting
Click the Port Role Setting link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snoopingproxy > VLAN screen to display the screen as shown. See Section 24.1 on page 223 for more information
on multicasting.
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Figure 178 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN > Port Role
Setting (Standalone mode)
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Figure 179 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > VLAN > Port Role
Setting (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 96 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Port Role Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MLD Snooping-proxy
VLAN ID
Select the VLAN ID for which you want to configure a port’s MLD snooping-proxy settings.
Slot (Stacking mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot
number of the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Port Role
A port on the Switch can be either a Downstream port or Upstream port in MLD. A
downstream port connects to MLD hosts and acts as a multicast router to send MLD
queries and listen to the MLD host’s Report and Done messages. An upstream port
connects to a multicast router and works as a host to send Report or Done messages
when receiving queries from a multicast router.
Otherwise, select None if the port is not joining a multicast group or does not belong to
this VLAN.
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Table 96 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Port Role Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Leave Mode
Select the leave mode for the specified downstream port(s) in this VLAN.
This specifies whether the Switch removes an MLD snooping membership entry (learned
on a downstream port) immediately (Immediate) or wait for an MLD report before the
leave timeout (Normal) or fast leave timeout (Fast) when an MLD leave message is
received on this port from a host.
Leave Timeout
Enter the MLD snooping normal leave timeout (in milliseconds) the Switch uses to update
the forwarding table for the specified downstream port(s).
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an MLD report before removing an
MLD snooping membership entry (learned on a downstream port) when an MLD Done
message is received on this port from a host.
Fast Leave Timeout
Enter the fast leave timeout (in milliseconds) for the specified downstream port(s).
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an MLD report before removing an
MLD snooping membership entry (learned on a downstream port) when an MLD Done
message is received on this port from a host.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
24.4.4 MLD Snooping-proxy Filtering
Use this screen to configure the Switch’s MLD filtering settings. Click the Filtering link in the Advanced
Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 180 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering
(Standalone mode)
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Figure 181 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering
(Stacking mode)
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 97 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable MLD filtering on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Group Limit
Select this option to limit the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join.
Max Group Num.
Enter the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join. Once a port is registered in
the specified number of multicast groups, any new MLD Report message is dropped on this
port.
Filtering Profile
Select the name of the MLD filtering profile to use for this port. Otherwise, select Default to
prohibit the port from joining any multicast group.
You can create MLD filtering profiles in the Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy
> Filtering > Filtering Profile screen.
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Table 97 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
24.4.5 MLD Snooping-proxy Filtering Profile
Use this screen to create an MLD filtering profile and set the range of the multicast address(es). Click the
Filtering Profile link in the Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy >
Filtering screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 182 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering >
Filtering Profile
The following table describes the fields in the above screen.
Table 98 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes.
To configure additional rule(s) for a profile that you have already added, enter the profile
name and specify a different IP multicast address range.
Start Address
Type the starting multicast IPv6 address for a range of multicast IPv6 addresses that you want
to belong to the MLD filtering profile.
End Address
Type the ending multicast IPv6 address for a range of IPv6 addresses that you want to
belong to the MLD filtering profile.
If you want to add a single multicast IPv6 address, enter it in both the Start Address and End
Address fields.
Add
Click this to create a new entry.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it
is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile.
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Table 98 Advanced Application > Multicast > IPv6 Multicast > MLD Snooping-proxy > Filtering Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Address
This field displays the start of the multicast IPv6 address range.
End Address
This field displays the end of the multicast IPv6 address range.
To delete the profile(s) and all the accompanying rules, select the profile(s) that you want to
remove, then click the Delete button. You can select the check box in the table heading
row to select all profiles.
To delete a rule(s) from a profile, select the rule(s) that you want to remove, then click the
Delete button.
Delete
Click Delete button to permanently delete the entries you selected.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
24.5 General MVR Configuration
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as Media-on-Demand (MoD)) that
use multicast traffic across an Ethernet ring-based service provider network.
MVR allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different subscriber VLANs on the network.
While isolated in different subscriber VLANs, connected devices can subscribe to and unsubscribe from
the multicast stream in the multicast VLAN. This improves bandwidth utilization with reduced multicast
traffic in the subscriber VLANs and simplifies multicast group management.
Use the MVR screen to create multicast VLANs and select the receiver port(s) and a source port for
each multicast VLAN. Click Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR to display the screen as shown
next.
Note: You can create up to five multicast VLANs and up to 256 multicast rules on the Switch.
Note: Your Switch automatically creates a static VLAN (with the same VID) when you create
a multicast VLAN in this screen.
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Figure 183 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR (Standalone mode)
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Figure 184 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 99 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable MVR to allow one single multicast VLAN to be shared among
different subscriber VLANs on the network.
Group Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Multicast VLAN ID
Enter the VLAN ID (1 to 4094) of the multicast VLAN.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) with which the Switch replaces the priority in outgoing IGMP or MLD
control packets (belonging to this multicast VLAN).
Mode
Specify the MVR mode on the Switch. Choices are Dynamic and Compatible.
Select Dynamic to send IGMP reports or MLD messages to all MVR source ports in the multicast
VLAN.
Select Compatible to set the Switch not to send IGMP reports or MLD messages.
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Table 99 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking mode)
This field displays the port number on the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot
ID and the second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Source Port
Select this option to set this port as the MVR source port that sends and receives multicast
traffic. All source ports must belong to a single multicast VLAN.
Receiver Port
Select this option to set this port as a receiver port that only receives multicast traffic.
None
Select this option to set the port not to participate in MVR. No MVR multicast traffic is sent or
received on this port.
Tagging
Select this checkbox if you want the port to tag the VLAN ID in all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID. Click on an index number to change the settings.
Active
This field displays whether the multicast group is enabled or not.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Mode
This field displays the MVR mode.
Source Port
This field displays the source port number(s).
Receiver Port
This field displays the receiver port number(s).
802.1p
This field displays the priority level.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
To delete a multicast VLAN(s), select the rule(s) that you want to remove, then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
24.5.1 MVR Group Configuration
All source ports and receiver ports belonging to a multicast group can receive multicast data sent to this
multicast group.
Use this screen to configure MVR IP multicast group address(es). Click the Group Configuration link in the
MVR screen.
Note: A port can belong to more than one multicast VLAN. However, IP multicast group
addresses in different multicast VLANs cannot overlap.
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Figure 185 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR > Group Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 100 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR > Group Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast VLAN ID
Select a multicast VLAN ID (that you configured in the MVR screen) from the drop-down list
box.
Group Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Start Address
Enter the starting IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal notation.
Refer to IP Multicast Addresses on page 223 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
End Address
Enter the ending IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal notation.
Enter the same IP address as the Start Address field if you want to configure only one IP
address for a multicast group.
Refer to IP Multicast Addresses on page 223 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
Add
Click this to create a new entry.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
MVLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Group Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Start Address
This field displays the starting IP address of the multicast group.
End Address
This field displays the ending IP address of the multicast group.
To delete the profile(s) and all the accompanying rules, select the profile(s) that you want to
remove, then click the Delete button. You can select the check box in the table heading row
to select all profiles.
To delete a rule(s) from a profile, select the rule(s) that you want to remove, then click the
Delete button.
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Table 100 Advanced Application > Multicast > MVR > Group Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove, then click the Delete button to remove the
selected entry(ies) from the table.
If you delete a multicast VLAN, all multicast groups in this VLAN will also be removed.
Cancel
Select Cancel to clear the checkbox(es) in the table.
24.5.2 MVR Configuration Example
The following figure shows a network example where ports 1, 2 and 3 on the Switch belong to VLAN 1. In
addition, port 7 belongs to the multicast group with VID 200 to receive multicast traffic (the News and
Movie channels) from the remote streaming media server, S. Computers A, B and C in VLAN 1 are able
to receive the traffic.
Figure 186 MVR Configuration Example
To configure the MVR settings on the Switch, create a multicast VLAN in the MVR screen and set the
receiver and source ports.
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Figure 187 MVR Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
To set the Switch to forward the multicast group traffic to the subscribers, configure multicast group
settings in the Group Configuration screen. The following figure shows an example where two IPv4
multicast groups (News and Movie) are configured for the multicast VLAN 200.
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Figure 188 MVR Group Configuration Example-1
EXAMPLE
Figure 189 MVR Group Configuration Example-2
EXAMPLE
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C H A P T E R 25
AAA
25.1 AAA Overview
This chapter describes how to configure authentication, authorization and accounting settings on the
Switch.
Authentication is the process of determining who a user is and validating access to the Switch. The
Switch can authenticate users who try to log in based on user accounts configured on the Switch itself.
The Switch can also use an external authentication server to authenticate a large number of users.
Authorization is the process of determining what a user is allowed to do. Different user accounts may
have higher or lower privilege levels associated with them. For example, user A may have the right to
create new login accounts on the Switch but user B cannot. The Switch can authorize users based on
user accounts configured on the Switch itself or it can use an external server to authorize a large number
of users.
Accounting is the process of recording what a user is doing. The Switch can use an external server to
track when users log in, log out, execute commands and so on. Accounting can also record system
related actions such as boot up and shut down times of the Switch.
The external servers that perform authentication, authorization and accounting functions are known as
AAA servers. The Switch supports RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service, see RADIUS and
TACACS+ on page 251) and TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus, see
RADIUS and TACACS+ on page 251) as external authentication and authorization servers.
Figure 190 AAA Server
25.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the AAA screen (Section 25.2 on page 251) to display the links to the screens where you can
enable authentication and authorization or both of them on the Switch.
• use the RADIUS Server Setup screen (Section 25.3 on page 252) to configure your RADIUS server
settings.
• Use the TACACS+ Server Setup screen (Section 25.4 on page 253) to configure your TACACS+
authentication settings.
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• Use the AAA Setup screen (Section 25.5 on page 255) to configure authentication, authorization and
accounting settings, such as the methods used to authenticate users accessing the Switch and which
database the Switch should use first.
25.1.2 What You Need to Know
Authentication is the process of determining who a user is and validating access to the Switch. The
Switch can authenticate users who try to log in based on user accounts configured on the Switch itself.
The Switch can also use an external authentication server to authenticate a large number of users.
Authorization is the process of determining what a user is allowed to do. Different user accounts may
have higher or lower privilege levels associated with them. For example, user A may have the right to
create new login accounts on the Switch but user B cannot. The Switch can authorize users based on
user accounts configured on the Switch itself or it can use an external server to authorize a large number
of users.
Accounting is the process of recording what a user is doing. The Switch can use an external server to
track when users log in, log out, execute commands and so on. Accounting can also record system
related actions such as boot up and shut down times of the Switch.
Local User Accounts
By storing user profiles locally on the Switch, your Switch is able to authenticate and authorize users
without interacting with a network AAA server. However, there is a limit on the number of users you may
authenticate in this way (See Section 45.4 on page 442).
RADIUS and TACACS+
RADIUS and TACACS+ are security protocols used to authenticate users by means of an external server
instead of (or in addition to) an internal device user database that is limited to the memory capacity of
the device. In essence, RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication both allow you to validate an unlimited
number of users from a central location.
The following table describes some key differences between RADIUS and TACACS+.
Table 101 RADIUS vs. TACACS+
RADIUS
TACACS+
Transport
Protocol
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Encryption
Encrypts the password sent for
authentication.
All communication between the client (the Switch)
and the TACACS server is encrypted.
25.2 AAA Screens
The AAA screens allow you to enable authentication and authorization or both of them on the Switch.
First, configure your authentication server settings (RADIUS, TACACS+ or both) and then set up the
authentication priority, activate authorization.
Click Advanced Application > AAA in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 191 Advanced Application > AAA
25.3 RADIUS Server Setup
Use this screen to configure your RADIUS server settings. See RADIUS and TACACS+ on page 251 for more
information on RADIUS servers and Section 25.6.2 on page 259 for RADIUS attributes utilized by the
authentication features on the Switch. Click on the RADIUS Server Setup link in the AAA screen to view
the screen as shown.
Figure 192 Advanced Application > AAA > RADIUS Server Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 102 Advanced Application > AAA > RADIUS Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Server
Use this section to configure your RADIUS authentication settings.
Mode
This field is only valid if you configure multiple RADIUS servers.
Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured RADIUS server,
if the RADIUS server does not respond then the Switch tries to authenticate with the second
RADIUS server.
Select round-robin to alternate between the RADIUS servers that it sends authentication
requests to.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication request
response from the RADIUS server.
If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two RADIUS servers
then the timeout value is divided between the two RADIUS servers. For example, if you set the
timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch waits for a response from the first RADIUS server for
15 seconds and then tries the second RADIUS server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external RADIUS server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port
The default port of a RADIUS server for authentication is 1812. You need not change this value
unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external RADIUS server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This key must be the
same on the external RADIUS server and the Switch.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS server entry from the Switch. This entry
is deleted when you click Apply.
Accounting
Server
Use this section to configure your RADIUS accounting server settings.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting request
response from the RADIUS accounting server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS accounting server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external RADIUS accounting server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port
The default port of a RADIUS accounting server for accounting is 1813. You need not change
this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external RADIUS accounting server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This key
must be the same on the external RADIUS accounting server and the Switch.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS accounting server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
25.4 TACACS+ Server Setup
Use this screen to configure your TACACS+ server settings. See RADIUS and TACACS+ on page 251 for
more information on TACACS+ servers. Click on the TACACS+ Server Setup link in the AAA screen to view
the screen as shown.
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Figure 193 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 103 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Server
Use this section to configure your TACACS+ authentication settings.
Mode
This field is only valid if you configure multiple TACACS+ servers.
Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured TACACS+
server, if the TACACS+ server does not respond then the Switch tries to authenticate with the
second TACACS+ server.
Select round-robin to alternate between the TACACS+ servers that it sends authentication
requests to.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication request
response from the TACACS+ server.
If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two TACACS+ servers
then the timeout value is divided between the two TACACS+ servers. For example, if you set
the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch waits for a response from the first TACACS+
server for 15 seconds and then tries the second TACACS+ server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external TACACS+ server in dotted decimal notation.
TCP Port
The default port of a TACACS+ server for authentication is 49. You need not change this value
unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external TACACS+ server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This key must be
the same on the external TACACS+ server and the Switch.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ server entry from the Switch. This
entry is deleted when you click Apply.
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Table 103 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Accounting
Server
Use this section to configure your TACACS+ accounting settings.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting request
response from the TACACS+ server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ accounting server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external TACACS+ accounting server in dotted decimal notation.
TCP Port
The default port of a TACACS+ accounting server is 49. You need not change this value unless
your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external TACACS+ accounting server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This
key must be the same on the external TACACS+ accounting server and the Switch.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ accounting server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
25.5 AAA Setup
Use this screen to configure authentication, authorization and accounting settings on the Switch. Click
on the AAA Setup link in the AAA screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 194 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 104 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Use this section to specify the methods used to authenticate users accessing the Switch.
Privilege Enable
These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third) to
authenticate access privilege level for administrator accounts (users for Switch management).
Configure the access privilege of accounts via commands (See the CLI Reference Guide) for
local authentication. The TACACS+ and RADIUS are external servers. Before you specify the
priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding database correctly first.
You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate the access privilege level
of administrators. The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them (first Method
1, then Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in the Method 1 field. If
you want the Switch to check other sources for access privilege level specify them in Method 2
and Method 3 fields.
Select local to have the Switch check the access privilege configured for local authentication.
Select radius or tacacs+ to have the Switch check the access privilege via the external servers.
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Table 104 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Login
These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third) to
authenticate administrator accounts (users for Switch management).
Configure the local user accounts in the Access Control > Logins screen. The TACACS+ and
RADIUS are external servers. Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the
corresponding database correctly first.
You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate administrator accounts.
The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them (first Method 1, then Method 2
and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in the Method 1 field. If you want the
Switch to check other sources for administrator accounts, specify them in Method 2 and
Method 3 fields.
Select local to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured in the Access
Control > Logins screen.
Select radius to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via your RADIUS
server.
Select tacacs+ to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via your
TACACS+ server.
Authorization
Use this section to configure authorization settings on the Switch.
Type
Set whether the Switch provides the following services to a user.
•
•
Exec: Allow an administrator which logs into the Switch through Telnet or SSH to have a
different access privilege level assigned via the external server.
Dot1x: Allow an IEEE 802.1x client to have different bandwidth limit or VLAN ID assigned via
the external server.
Active
Select this to activate authorization for a specified event types.
Console
Select this to allow an administrator which logs in the Switch through the console port to have
different access privilege level assigned via the external server.
Method
Select whether you want to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for authorization of specific types of
events.
RADIUS is the only method for IEEE 802.1x authorization.
Accounting
Use this section to configure accounting settings on the Switch.
Update Period
This is the amount of time in minutes before the Switch sends an update to the accounting
server. This is only valid if you select the start-stop option for the Exec or Dot1x entries.
Type
The Switch supports the following types of events to be sent to the accounting server(s):
• System - Configure the Switch to send information when the following system events occur:
system boots up, system shuts down, system accounting is enabled, system accounting is
disabled
• Exec - Configure the Switch to send information when an administrator logs in and logs out
via the console port, telnet or SSH.
• Dot1x - Configure the Switch to send information when an IEEE 802.1x client begins a session
(authenticates via the Switch), ends a session as well as interim updates of a session.
• Commands - Configure the Switch to send information when commands of specified
privilege level and higher are executed on the Switch.
Active
Select this to activate accounting for a specified event types.
Broadcast
Select this to have the Switch send accounting information to all configured accounting
servers at the same time.
If you don’t select this and you have two accounting servers set up, then the Switch sends
information to the first accounting server and if it doesn’t get a response from the accounting
server then it tries the second accounting server.
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Table 104 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
The Switch supports two modes of recording login events. Select:
• start-stop - to have the Switch send information to the accounting server when a user begins
a session, during a user’s session (if it lasts past the Update Period), and when a user ends a
session.
• stop-only - to have the Switch send information to the accounting server only when a user
ends a session.
Method
Select whether you want to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for accounting of specific types of events.
Privilege
This field is only configurable for Commands type of event. Select the threshold command
privilege level for which the Switch should send accounting information. The Switch will send
accounting information when commands at the level you specify and higher are executed on
the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
TACACS+ is the only method for recording Commands type of event.
25.6 Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information on the topics discussed in this chapter.
25.6.1 Vendor Specific Attribute
RFC 2865 standard specifies a method for sending vendor-specific information between a RADIUS server
and a network access device (for example, the Switch). A company can create Vendor Specific
Attributes (VSAs) to expand the functionality of a RADIUS server.
The Switch supports VSAs that allow you to perform the following actions based on user authentication:
• Limit bandwidth on incoming or outgoing traffic for the port the user connects to.
• Assign account privilege levels (See the CLI Reference Guide for more information on account
privilege levels) for the authenticated user.
The VSAs are composed of the following:
• Vendor-ID: An identification number assigned to the company by the IANA (Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority). Zyxel’s vendor ID is 890.
• Vendor-Type: A vendor specified attribute, identifying the setting you want to modify.
• Vendor-data: A value you want to assign to the setting.
Note: Refer to the documentation that comes with your RADIUS server on how to configure
VSAs for users authenticating via the RADIUS server.
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The following table describes the VSAs supported on the Switch.
Table 105 Supported VSAs
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
Ingress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890
Vendor-Type = 1
Vendor-data = ingress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
Egress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890
Vendor-Type = 2
Vendor-data = egress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
Privilege Assignment
Vendor-ID = 890
Vendor-Type = 3
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
or
Vendor-ID = 9 (CISCO)
Vendor-Type = 1 (CISCO-AVPAIR)
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
where N is a privilege level (from 0 to 14).
Note: If you set the privilege level of a login account differently on the RADIUS
server(s) and the Switch, the user is assigned a privilege level from the
database (RADIUS or local) the Switch uses first for user authentication.
25.6.1.1 Tunnel Protocol Attribute
You can configure tunnel protocol attributes on the RADIUS server (refer to your RADIUS server
documentation) to assign a port on the Switch to a VLAN based on IEEE 802.1x authentication. The port
VLAN settings are fixed and untagged. This will also set the port’s VID. The following table describes the
values you need to configure. Note that the bolded values in the table are fixed values as defined in
RFC 3580.
Table 106 Supported Tunnel Protocol Attribute
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
VLAN Assignment
Tunnel-Type = VLAN(13)
Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802(6)
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = VLAN ID
Note: You must also create a VLAN with the specified VID on the Switch.
25.6.2 Supported RADIUS Attributes
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) attributes are data used to define specific
authentication elements in a user profile, which is stored on the RADIUS server. This appendix lists the
RADIUS attributes supported by the Switch.
Refer to RFC 2865 for more information about RADIUS attributes used for authentication.
This section lists the attributes used by authentication functions on the Switch. In cases where the
attribute has a specific format associated with it, the format is specified.
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25.6.3 Attributes Used for Authentication
The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when performing
authentication.
25.6.3.1 Attributes Used for Authenticating Privilege Access
User-Name
- The format of the User-Name attribute is $enab#$, where # is the privilege level (1-14).
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
25.6.3.2 Attributes Used to Login Users
User-Name
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
25.6.3.3 Attributes Used by the IEEE 802.1x Authentication
User-Name
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Port
NAS-Port-Type
- This value is set to Ethernet(15) on the Switch.
Calling-Station-Id
Frame-MTU
EAP-Message
State
Message-Authenticator
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C H A P T E R 26
IP Source Guard
26.1 IP Source Guard Overview
Use IPv4 and IPv6 source guard to filter unauthorized DHCP and ARP packets in your network.
IP source guard uses a binding table to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized DHCP and
ARP packets in your network. A binding contains these key attributes:
• MAC address
• VLAN ID
• IP address
• Port number
When the Switch receives a DHCP or ARP packet, it looks up the appropriate MAC address, VLAN ID, IP
address, and port number in the binding table. If there is a binding, the Switch forwards the packet. If
there is not a binding, the Switch discards the packet.
26.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the IP Source Guard screen (Section 26.2 on page 263) to display the links to the configuration
screens where you can configure IPv4 or IPv6 source guard settings.
• Use the IPv4 Source Guard Setup screen (Section 26.3 on page 263) to look at the current bindings for
DHCP snooping and ARP inspection.
• Use the IP Source Guard Static Binding screen (Section 26.4 on page 264) to manage static bindings
for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection.
• Use the DHCP Snooping screen (Section 26.5 on page 266) to look at various statistics about the DHCP
snooping database.
• Use this DHCP Snooping Configure screen (Section 26.6 on page 269) to enable DHCP snooping on
the Switch (not on specific VLAN), specify the VLAN where the default DHCP server is located, and
configure the DHCP snooping database.
• Use the DHCP Snooping Port Configure screen (Section 26.6.1 on page 271) to specify whether ports
are trusted or untrusted ports for DHCP snooping.
• Use the DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure screen (Section 26.6.2 on page 273) to enable DHCP
snooping on each VLAN and to specify whether or not the Switch adds DHCP relay agent option 82
information to DHCP requests that the Switch relays to a DHCP server for each VLAN.
• Use the DHCP Snooping VLAN Port Configure screen (Section 26.6.3 on page 274) to apply a different
DHCP option 82 profile to certain ports in a VLAN.
• Use the ARP Inspection Status screen (Section 26.7 on page 275) to look at the current list of MAC
address filters that were created because the Switch identified an unauthorized ARP packet.
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• Use the ARP Inspection VLAN Status screen (Section 26.8 on page 276) to look at various statistics
about ARP packets in each VLAN.
• Use the ARP Inspection Log Status screen (Section 26.9 on page 277) to look at log messages that
were generated by ARP packets and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet.
• Use the ARP Inspection Configure screen (Section 26.10 on page 278) to enable ARP inspection on
the Switch. You can also configure the length of time the Switch stores records of discarded ARP
packets and global settings for the ARP inspection log.
• Use the ARP Inspection Port Configure screen (Section 26.10.1 on page 280) to specify whether ports
are trusted or untrusted ports for ARP inspection.
• Use the ARP Inspection VLAN Configure screen (Section 26.10.2 on page 282) to enable ARP
inspection on each VLAN and to specify when the Switch generates log messages for receiving ARP
packets from each VLAN.
• Use the IPv6 Source Binding Status screen (Section 26.12 on page 283) to look at the current IPv6
dynamic and static bindings and to remove dynamic bindings based on IPv6 address and/or IPv6
prefix.
• Use the IPv6 Static Binding Setup screen (Section 26.13 on page 284) to manually create an IPv6
source guard binding table and manage IPv6 static bindings.
• Use the IPv6 Source Guard Policy Setup screen (Section 26.14 on page 286) to have IPv6 source guard
forward valid IPv6 addresses and/or IPv6 prefixes that are stored in the binding table and allow or
block data traffic from all link-local addresses
• Use the IPv6 Source Guard Port Setup screen (Section 26.15 on page 287) to apply configured IPv6
source guard policies to the ports you specify.
• Use the IPv6 Snooping Policy Setup screen (Section 26.16 on page 289) to dynamically create an IPv6
source guard binding table using a DHCPv6 snooping policy. A DHCPv6 snooping policy lets the
Switch sniff DHCPv6 packets sent from a DHCPv6 server to a DHCPv6 client when it is assigning an IPv6
address.
• Use the IPv6 Snooping VLAN Setup screen (Section 26.17 on page 290) to enable a DHCPv6 snooping
policy on a specific VLAN interface.
• Use the IPv6 DHCP Trust Setup screen (Section 26.18 on page 291) to specify which ports are trusted
and untrusted for DHCP snooping.
26.1.2 What You Need to Know
The Switch builds the binding table by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic bindings) and from information
provided manually by administrators (static bindings).
IP source guard consists of the following features:
• Static bindings. Use this to create static bindings in the binding table.
• DHCP snooping. Use this to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the binding
table dynamically.
• ARP inspection. Use this to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network.
If you want to use dynamic bindings to filter unauthorized ARP packets (typical implementation), you
have to enable DHCP snooping before you enable ARP inspection.
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26.2 IP Source Guard Screen
Use this screen to go to the configuration screens where you can configure IPv4 or IPv6 source guard
settings. Click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard in the navigation panel.
Figure 195 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 107 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv4 Source Guard
Setup
Click the link to open screens where you can view and manage static bindings, configure
DHCP snooping or ARP inspection and look at various statistics.
IPv6 Source
Binding Status
Click the link to open a screen where you can view the current IPv6 dynamic and static
bindings or remove dynamic bindings based on IPv6 address and/or IPv6 prefix.
IPv6 Static Binding
Setup
Click the link to open a screen where you can manually create IPv6 source guard static
binding entries.
IPv6 Source Guard
Policy Setup
Click the link to open a screen where you can define policies to have IPv6 source guard
forward valid addresses and/or prefixes and allow or block data traffic from all link-local
addresses.
IPv6 Source Guard
Port Setup
Click the link to open a screen where you can apply the configured IPv6 source guard policy
to a port.
IPv6 Snooping
Policy Setup
Click the link to open a screen where you can set up DHCPv6 snooping policies for the
binding table.
IPv6 Snooping
VLAN Setup
Click the link to open a screen where you can enable a DHCPv6 snooping policy on a
specific VLAN interface.
IPv6 DHCP Trust
Setup
Click the link to open a screen where you can specify which ports are trusted for DHCPv6
snooping.
26.3 IPv4 Source Guard Setup
Use this screen to look at the current bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Bindings are used
by DHCP snooping and ARP inspection to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized packets in
the network. The Switch learns the bindings by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic bindings) and from
information provided manually by administrators (static bindings). To open this screen, click Advanced
Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup.
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Figure 196 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 108 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
Lease
This field displays how many days, hours, minutes, and seconds the binding is valid; for
example, 2d3h4m5s means the binding is still valid for 2 days, 3 hours, 4 minutes, and 5
seconds. This field displays infinity if the binding is always valid (for example, a static binding).
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.
dhcp-snooping: This binding was learned by snooping DHCP packets.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to all
ports.
26.4 IPv4 Source Guard Static Binding
Use this screen to manage static bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Static bindings are
uniquely identified by the MAC address and VLAN ID. Each MAC address and VLAN ID can only be in
one static binding. If you try to create a static binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID as an
existing static binding, the new static binding replaces the original one. To open this screen, click
Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > Static Binding.
Figure 197 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > Static Binding
(Standalone mode)
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Figure 198 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > Static Binding
(Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 109 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > Static Binding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ARP Freeze
ARP Freeze allows you to automatically create static bindings from the current ARP entries
(either dynamically learned or static ARP entries) until the Switch’s binding table is full.
Note: The ARP learning mode should be set to ARP-Request in the IP Application >
ARP Setup > ARP Learning screen before you use the ARP Freeze feature.
Condition
All - Select this and click ARP Freeze to have the Switch automatically add all the current
ARP entries to the static bindings table.
Port List - Select this and enter the number of the port(s) (separated by a comma). ARP
entries learned on the specified port(s) are added to the static bindings table after you click
ARP Freeze.
VLAN List - Select this and enter the ID number of the VLAN(s) (separated by a comma). ARP
entries for the specified VLAN(s) are added to the static bindings table after you click ARP
Freeze.
Static Binding
MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
Enter the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
VLAN
Enter the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
Specify the port(s) in the binding. If this binding has one port, select the first radio button and
enter the port number in the field to the right. In stacking mode, the first field is the slot ID
and the second field is the port number. If this binding applies to all ports, select Any.
Add
Click this to create the specified static binding or to update an existing one.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected static binding or, if not
applicable, to clear the fields above.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
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Table 109 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > Static Binding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
Lease
This field displays how long the binding is valid.
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.
VLAN
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to all
ports.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in
the table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove and then click Delete to remove the selected
entry(ies) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
26.5 DHCP Snooping
Use this screen to look at various statistics about the DHCP snooping database. To open this screen, click
Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping.
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Figure 199 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 110 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Database Status
This section displays the current settings for the DHCP snooping database. You can
configure them in the DHCP Snooping Configure screen. See Section 26.6 on page 269.
Agent URL
This field displays the location of the DHCP snooping database.
Write delay timer
This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific update
in the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Abort timer
This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP snooping
database after the current bindings change.
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Table 110 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
This section displays information about the current update and the next update of the
DHCP snooping database.
Agent running
This field displays the status of the current update or access of the DHCP snooping
database.
none: The Switch is not accessing the DHCP snooping database.
read: The Switch is loading dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database.
write: The Switch is updating the DHCP snooping database.
Delay timer expiry
This field displays how much longer (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete the
current update before it gives up. It displays Not Running if the Switch is not updating
the DHCP snooping database right now.
Abort timer expiry
This field displays when (in seconds) the Switch is going to update the DHCP snooping
database again. It displays Not Running if the current bindings have not changed
since the last update.
This section displays information about the last time the Switch updated the DHCP
snooping database.
Last succeeded time
This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
successfully.
Last failed time
This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
unsuccessfully.
Last failed reason
This field displays the reason the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
unsuccessfully.
This section displays historical information about the number of times the Switch
successfully or unsuccessfully read or updated the DHCP snooping database.
Total attempts
This field displays the number of times the Switch has tried to access the DHCP
snooping database for any reason.
Startup failures
This field displays the number of times the Switch could not create or read the DHCP
snooping database when the Switch started up or a new URL is configured for the
DHCP snooping database.
Successful transfers
This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from or updated the
bindings in the DHCP snooping database successfully.
Failed transfers
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read bindings from or
update the bindings in the DHCP snooping database.
Successful reads
This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from the DHCP
snooping database successfully.
Failed reads
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read bindings from the
DHCP snooping database.
Successful writes
This field displays the number of times the Switch updated the bindings in the DHCP
snooping database successfully.
Failed writes
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to update the bindings in
the DHCP snooping database.
Database detail
First successful access
Last ignored bindings
counters
Binding collisions
This field displays the first time the Switch accessed the DHCP snooping database for
any reason.
This section displays the number of times and the reasons the Switch ignored bindings
the last time it read bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can clear these
counters by restarting the Switch or using CLI commands. See the CLI Reference
Guide.
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the Switch
already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
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Table 110 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Invalid interfaces
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the port number
was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
Parse failures
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the Switch was
unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding database.
Expired leases
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the lease time
had already expired.
Unsupported vlans
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the VLAN ID does
not exist anymore.
Last ignored time
This field displays the last time the Switch ignored any bindings for any reason from the
DHCP binding database.
Total ignored bindings
counters
This section displays the reasons the Switch has ignored bindings any time it read
bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can clear these counters by restarting
the Switch or using CLI commands. See the CLI Reference Guide.
Binding collisions
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the Switch
already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
Invalid interfaces
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the port
number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
Parse failures
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the Switch
was unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding database.
Expired leases
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the lease
time had already expired.
Unsupported vlans
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the VLAN ID
does not exist anymore.
26.6 DHCP Snooping Configure
Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch (not on specific VLAN), specify the VLAN where
the default DHCP server is located, and configure the DHCP snooping database. The DHCP snooping
database stores the current bindings on a secure, external TFTP server so that they are still available after
a restart. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup
> DHCP Snooping > Configure.
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Figure 200 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 111 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch. You still have to enable DHCP
snooping on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Note: If DHCP is enabled and there are no trusted ports, DHCP requests will
not succeed.
DHCP Vlan
Select a VLAN ID if you want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to DHCP servers on a
specific VLAN.
Note: You have to enable DHCP snooping on the DHCP VLAN too.
You can enable Option82 in the DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure screen (Section 26.6.2
on page 273) to help the DHCP servers distinguish between DHCP requests from
different VLAN.
Select Disable if you do not want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to a specific
VLAN.
Database
If Timeout interval is greater than Write delay interval, it is possible that the next update
is scheduled to occur before the current update has finished successfully or timed out.
In this case, the Switch waits to start the next update until it completes the current one.
Agent URL
Enter the location of the DHCP snooping database. The location should be expressed
like this: tftp://{domain name or IP address}/directory, if applicable/file name; for
example, tftp://192.168.10.1/database.txt.
Timeout interval
Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific update in
the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Write delay interval
Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP snooping
database the first time the current bindings change after an update. Once the next
update is scheduled, additional changes in current bindings are automatically
included in the next update.
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Table 111 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure (continued) (continued)
LABEL
Renew DHCP
Snooping URL
DESCRIPTION
Enter the location of a DHCP snooping database, and click Renew if you want the
Switch to load it. You can use this to load dynamic bindings from a different DHCP
snooping database than the one specified in Agent URL.
When the Switch loads dynamic bindings from a DHCP snooping database, it does not
discard the current dynamic bindings first. If there is a conflict, the Switch keeps the
dynamic binding in volatile memory and updates the Binding collisions counter in the
DHCP Snooping screen (Section 26.5 on page 266).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.6.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure
Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for DHCP snooping.
Note: If DHCP snooping is enabled but there are no trusted ports, DHCP requests cannot
reach the DHCP server.
You can also specify the maximum number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or untrusted) can
receive each second. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source
Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping > Configure > Port.
Figure 201 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > Port (Standalone mode)
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Figure 202 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > Port (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 112 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot
number of the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and
the second is the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all
of the ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make
them.
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Table 112 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Trusted state
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches, and the Switch discards
DHCP packets from trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too
high.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers, and the Switch discards DHCP packets
from untrusted ports in the following situations:
•
•
•
•
The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).
The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of
the current bindings.
The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and
source port do not match any of the current bindings.
The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
Rate (pps)
Specify the maximum number for DHCP packets (1-2048) that the Switch receives from
each port each second. The Switch discards any additional DHCP packets. Enter 0 to
disable this limit, which is recommended for trusted ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.6.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN and to specify whether or not the Switch adds
DHCP relay agent option 82 information (Chapter 42 on page 405) to DHCP requests that the Switch
relays to a DHCP server for each VLAN. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source
Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping > Configure > VLAN.
Figure 203 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 113 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
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Table 113 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure
the * VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled
Select Yes to enable DHCP snooping on the VLAN. You still have to enable DHCP snooping
on the Switch and specify trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and
there are no trusted ports.
Option 82 Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports in the
specified VLAN(s). The Switch adds the information (such as slot number, port number, VLAN
ID and/or system name) specified in the profile to DHCP requests that it broadcasts to the
DHCP VLAN, if specified, or VLAN. You can specify the DHCP VLAN in the DHCP Snooping
Configure screen (see Section 26.6 on page 269).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.6.3 DHCP Snooping VLAN Port Configure
Use this screen to apply a different DHCP option 82 profile to certain ports in a VLAN. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping > Configure
> VLAN > Port.
Figure 204 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > VLAN > Port
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 114 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > DHCP Snooping >
Configure > VLAN > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN you want to configure here.
Port
Enter the number of port(s) to which you want to apply the specified DHCP option 82
profile.
You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-). For
example, enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the second the port number.
Enter 1/1-1/24,2/28 for ports 1 to 24 for the Switch in slot 1 and port 28 for the Switch in slot 2,
for example.
Option 82 Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the specified port(s)
in this VLAN. The Switch adds the information (such as slot number, port number, VLAN ID
and/or system name) specified in the profile to DHCP requests that it broadcasts to the
DHCP VLAN, if specified, or VLAN. You can specify the DHCP VLAN in the DHCP Snooping
Configure screen (see Section 26.6 on page 269).
The profile you select here has priority over the one you select in the DHCP Snooping >
Configure > VLAN screen.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if
it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected entry or, if not applicable, to
clear the fields above.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each entry. Click an index number to change the
settings.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the port(s) belongs.
Port
This field displays the port(s) to which the Switch applies the settings.
Profile Name
This field displays the DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the port(s).
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button to remove the selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
26.7 ARP Inspection Status
Use this screen to look at the current list of MAC address filters that were created because the Switch
identified an unauthorized ARP packet. When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet, it
automatically creates a MAC address filter to block traffic from the source MAC address and source
VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP packet. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source
Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection.
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Figure 205 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 115 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Total number of filters This field displays the current number of MAC address filters that were created because the
Switch identified unauthorized ARP packets.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each MAC address filter.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the MAC address filter.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the MAC address filter.
Port
This field displays the source port of the discarded ARP packet.
Expiry (sec)
This field displays how long (in seconds) the MAC address filter remains in the Switch. You
can also delete the record manually (Delete).
Reason
This field displays the reason the ARP packet was discarded.
MAC+VLAN: The MAC address and VLAN ID were not in the binding table.
IP: The MAC address and VLAN ID were in the binding table, but the IP address was not
valid.
Port: The MAC address, VLAN ID, and IP address were in the binding table, but the port
number was not valid.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in
the table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove and then click Delete to remove the selected
entry(ies) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
Change Pages
Click Previous Page or Next Page to show the previous/next screen if all status information
cannot be seen in one screen.
26.8 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
Use this screen to look at various statistics about ARP packets in each VLAN. To open this screen, click
Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection > VLAN Status.
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Figure 206 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 116 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN range
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to look at in the section below.
Enabled VLAN
Select this to look at all the VLANs on which ARP inspection is enabled in the section below.
Selected VLAN
Select this to look at all the VLANs in a specific range in the section below. Then, enter the
lowest VLAN ID (Start VID) and the highest VLAN ID (End VID) you want to look at.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above.
Received
This field displays the total number of ARP packets received from the VLAN since the Switch
last restarted.
Request
This field displays the total number of ARP Request packets received from the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
Reply
This field displays the total number of ARP Reply packets received from the VLAN since the
Switch last restarted.
Forwarded
This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch forwarded for the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
Dropped
This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch discarded for the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
26.9 ARP Inspection Log Status
Use this screen to look at log messages that were generated by ARP packets and that have not been
sent to the syslog server yet. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4
Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection > Log Status.
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Figure 207 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection > Log
Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 117 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection > Log
Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clearing log status
table
Click Apply to remove all the log messages that were generated by ARP packets and
that have not been sent to the syslog server yet.
Total number of logs
This field displays the number of log messages that were generated by ARP packets and
that have not been sent to the syslog server yet. If one or more log messages are
dropped due to unavailable buffer, there is an entry called overflow with the current
number of dropped log messages.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each log message.
Port
This field displays the source port of the ARP packet.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID of the ARP packet.
Sender MAC
This field displays the source MAC address of the ARP packet.
Sender IP
This field displays the source IP address of the ARP packet.
Num Pkts
This field displays the number of ARP packets that were consolidated into this log
message. The Switch consolidates identical log messages generated by ARP packets in
the log consolidation interval into one log message. You can configure this interval in the
ARP Inspection Configure screen. See Section 26.10 on page 278.
Reason
This field displays the reason the log message was generated.
dhcp deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a dynamic binding with
the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
static deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a static binding with the
same MAC address and VLAN ID.
deny: An ARP packet was discarded because there were no bindings with the same
MAC address and VLAN ID.
dhcp permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a dynamic binding.
static permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a static binding.
In the ARP Inspection VLAN Configure screen, you can configure the Switch to generate
log messages when ARP packets are discarded or forwarded based on the VLAN ID of
the ARP packet. See Section 26.10.2 on page 282.
Time
This field displays when the log message was generated.
26.10 ARP Inspection Configure
Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You can also configure the length of time the
Switch stores records of discarded ARP packets and global settings for the ARP inspection log. To open
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this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure.
Figure 208 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 118 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You still have to enable ARP inspection
on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Filter Aging Time
Filter aging time
This setting has no effect on existing MAC address filters.
Enter how long (1~2147483647 seconds) the MAC address filter remains in the Switch after
the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet. The Switch automatically deletes the
MAC address filter afterwards. Enter 0 if you want the MAC address filter to be permanent.
Log Profile
Log buffer size
Enter the maximum number (1~1024) of log messages that were generated by ARP
packets and have not been sent to the syslog server yet. Make sure this number is
appropriate for the specified Syslog rate and Log interval.
If the number of log messages in the Switch exceeds this number, the Switch stops
recording log messages and simply starts counting the number of entries that were
dropped due to unavailable buffer. Click Clearing log status table in the ARP Inspection
Log Status screen to clear the log and reset this counter. See Section 26.9 on page 277.
Syslog rate
Enter the maximum number of syslog messages the Switch can send to the syslog server in
one batch. This number is expressed as a rate because the batch frequency is
determined by the Log Interval. You must configure the syslog server (Chapter 48 on page
464) to use this. Enter 0 if you do not want the Switch to send log messages generated by
ARP packets to the syslog server.
The relationship between Syslog rate and Log interval is illustrated in the following
examples:
•
•
4 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 1: the Switch sends 4
syslog messages every second.
6 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 2: the Switch sends 5
syslog messages every 2 seconds.
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Table 118 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure (continued)
LABEL
Log interval
DESCRIPTION
Enter how often (1-86400 seconds) the Switch sends a batch of syslog messages to the
syslog server. Enter 0 if you want the Switch to send syslog messages immediately. See
Syslog rate for an example of the relationship between Syslog rate and Log interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.10.1 ARP Inspection Port Configure
Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for ARP inspection. You can also
specify the maximum rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on each untrusted port. To open
this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure > Port.
Figure 209 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure > Port (Standalone mode)
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Figure 210 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure > Port (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 119 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot
number of the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first field is the slot ID and the
second field is the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to
all of the ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make
them.
Trusted State
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.
The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:
•
•
Limit
The sender’s information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current
bindings.
The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high. You can specify the maximum
rate at which ARP packets can arrive on untrusted ports.
These settings have no effect on trusted ports.
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Table 119 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure > Port (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rate (pps)
Specify the maximum rate (1-2048 packets per second) at which the Switch receives
ARP packets from each port. The Switch discards any additional ARP packets. Enter 0
to disable this limit.
Burst interval
(seconds)
The burst interval is the length of time over which the rate of ARP packets is monitored
for each port. For example, if the rate is 15 pps and the burst interval is 1 second, then
the Switch accepts a maximum of 15 ARP packets in every one-second interval. If the
burst interval is 5 seconds, then the Switch accepts a maximum of 75 ARP packets in
every five-second interval.
Enter the length (1-15 seconds) of the burst interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are
done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.10.2 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on each VLAN and to specify when the Switch generates log
messages for receiving ARP packets from each VLAN. To open this screen, click Advanced Application
> IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection > Configure > VLAN.
Figure 211 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 120 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the
* VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled
Select Yes to enable ARP inspection on the VLAN. Select No to disable ARP inspection on the
VLAN.
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Table 120 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv4 Source Guard Setup > ARP Inspection >
Configure > VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Log
Specify when the Switch generates log messages for receiving ARP packets from the VLAN.
None: The Switch does not generate any log messages when it receives an ARP packet from
the VLAN.
Deny: The Switch generates log messages when it discards an ARP packet from the VLAN.
Permit: The Switch generates log messages when it forwards an ARP packet from the VLAN.
All: The Switch generates log messages every time it receives an ARP packet from the VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.11 IPv6 Source Guard Overview
The purpose of IPv6 source guard is to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized users by using a
binding table that validates the source of IPv6 traffic. The binding table can be manually created or be
learned through Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 6 snooping (DHCPv6 snooping). IPv6
source guard can deny IPv6 traffic from an unknown source. The IPv6 source guard binding table
includes:
• IPv6 address
• IPv6 prefix
• VLAN ID
• Port number
• MAC address
Enable IPv6 source guard on a port for the Switch to check incoming IPv6 packets on that port. A
packet is allowed when it matches any entry in the IPSG binding table. If a user tries to send IPv6 packets
to the Switch that do not match an entry in the IPSG binding table, the Switch will drop these packets.
The Switch forwards matching traffic normally.
26.12 IPv6 Source Binding Status
Use this screen to look at the current IPv6 dynamic and static bindings and to remove dynamic bindings
based on IPv6 address and/or IPv6 prefix. Bindings are used to distinguish between authorized and
unauthorized packets in the network. The Switch learns the bindings by snooping DHCP packets
(dynamic bindings) and from information provided manually by administrators (static bindings). To open
this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source Binding Status.
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Figure 212 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard >IPv6 Source Binding Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 121 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source Binding Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clear Dynamic
Source Binding
Specify how you want the Switch to remove dynamic IPv6 source binding entries when you
click Flush.
•
•
•
Select All to remove all of the dynamic entries from the IPv6 source binding table.
Select IPv6 Address and enter an IPv6 address to remove the dynamic entries snooped
with the specified IPv6 address.
Select IPv6 Prefix and enter a Prefix address to remove the dynamic entries snooped with
the specified Prefix address.
Flush
Click this to remove dynamic IPv6 source binding entries according to your selections.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based or if not applicable, to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
Source Address
This field displays the source IP address in the binding. If the entry is blank, this field will not be
checked in the binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding. If the entry is blank, this field will not
be checked in the binding.
VLAN
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding. If the entry is blank, this field will not be
checked in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to all
ports.
Lease
This field displays how many days, hours, minutes, and seconds the binding is valid; for
example, 2d3h4m5s means the binding is still valid for 2 days, 3 hours, 4 minutes, and 5
seconds. This field displays infinity if the binding is always valid (for example, a static binding).
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
S: This static binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.
DH: This dhcp-snooping binding was learned by snooping DHCP packets.
26.13 IPv6 Static Binding Setup
Use this screen to manually create an IPv6 source guard binding table entry and manage IPv6 static
bindings. Static bindings are uniquely identified by the source IPv6 address / prefix. Each source IPv6
address / prefix can only be in one static binding. If you try to create a static binding with the same
source IPv6 address / prefix as an existing static binding, the new static binding replaces the original
one. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Static Binding Setup.
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Figure 213 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Static Binding Setup (Standalone mode)
Figure 214 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Static Binding Setup (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 122 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Static Binding Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 Static Binding
Source Address
Enter the IPv6 address or IPv6 prefix and prefix length in the binding.
MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address in the binding. If this binding doesn’t check this field, select
Any.
Note: You cannot choose Any for all three of MAC Address, VLAN and Port. You
must fill in at least one.
VLAN
Enter the source VLAN ID in the binding. If this binding doesn’t check this field, select Any.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
Specify the port(s) in the binding. If this binding has one port, select the first radio button and
enter the port number in the field to the right. In stacking mode, the first field is the slot ID and
the second field is the port number. If this binding applies to all ports, select Any.
Add
Click this to create the specified static binding or to update an existing one.
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Table 122 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Static Binding Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based or if not applicable, to clear the fields above.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
Source Address
This field displays the IPv6 address or IPv6 prefix and prefix length in the binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding. If the entry is blank, this field will not
be checked in the binding.
VLAN
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding. If the entry is blank, this field will not be
checked in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to all
ports.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Select an entry checkbox and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes above.
26.14 IPv6 Source Guard Policy Setup
Use this screen to have IPv6 source guard forward valid IPv6 addresses and/or IPv6 prefixes that are
stored in the binding table and allow or block data traffic from all link-local addresses. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source Guard Policy Setup.
• If you select Validate Address and not Validate Prefix, traffic for a binding entry that matches an IPv6
address and VLAN ID, port number, and MAC address will be forwarded. If this binding entry is an IPv6
prefix, the traffic will be denied.
• If you select Validate Prefix and not Validate Address, traffic for a binding entry that matches an IPv6
prefix and VLAN ID, port number, and MAC address will be forwarded. If this binding entry is an IPv6
address, the traffic will be denied.
• If you select both Validate Prefix and Validate Address then traffic matching either IPv6 address or
prefix will be forwarded.
Figure 215 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source Guard Policy Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 123 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source Guard Policy Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes for this IPv6 source guard policy.
Validate Address
Select Validate Address to have IPv6 source guard forward valid addresses that are stored in
the binding table.
Validate Prefix
Select Validate Prefix to have IPv6 source guard forward valid prefixes that are stored in the
binding table.
Link Local
Select Permit to allow data traffic from all link-local addresses; otherwise leave the setting at
Deny. A link-local address is an IPv6 unicast address that can be automatically configured on
any interface using the link-local prefix FE80::/10 and the interface identifier in the modified
EUI-64 format.
Add
Click this to create the IPv6 source guard policy or to update an existing one.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above or if not applicable, to clear the fields above.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each policy.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for this IPv6 source guard
policy.
Validate Address
This field displays the Validate Address status for this IPv6 source guard policy.
Validate Prefix
This field displays the Validate Prefix status for this IPv6 source guard policy.
Link Local
This field displays the Link Local traffic status for this IPv6 source guard policy.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Select an entry checkbox and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes above.
26.15 IPv6 Source Guard Port Setup
Use this screen to apply configured IPv6 source guard policies to ports you specify. Use port * to apply a
policy to all ports. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source
Guard Port Setup.
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Figure 216 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source Guard Port Setup (Standalone
mode)
Figure 217 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source Guard Port Setup (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 124 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Source Guard Port Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all of the
ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Policy Name
Select an IPv6 source guard policy that the Switch will apply to this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.16 IPv6 Snooping Policy Setup
Use this screen to dynamically create an IPv6 source guard binding table using a DHCPv6 snooping
policy. A DHCPv6 snooping policy lets the Switch sniff DHCPv6 packets sent from a DHCPv6 server to a
DHCPv6 client when it is assigning an IPv6 address. When a DHCPv6 client successfully gets a valid IPv6
address, DHCPv6 snooping builds the binding table dynamically. To open this screen, click Advanced
Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Snooping Policy Setup.
Note: If you do not select Protocol and Prefix Glean, then the Switch cannot perform DHCPv6
snooping.
Figure 218 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Snooping Policy Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 125 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Snooping Policy Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes for this IPv6 snooping policy.
Protocol
Select DHCP to let the Switch sniff DHCPv6 packets sent from a DHCPv6 server to a
DHCPv6 client.
Prefix Glean
Select this to learn the IPv6 prefix and length from DHCPv6 sniffed packets.
Limit Address Count
This is the number of IPv6 addresses and prefixes learned using the IPv6 snooping
policy.
Note: The maximum limit address count is the maximum size of the IPv6
source guard binding table. At the time of writing, it is 50 for the
GS2210 Switch series. See the product datasheet for the latest
specifications.
Add
Click this to create the specified IPv6 snooping policy or to update an existing one.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based or if not applicable, to clear the fields
above.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each IPv6 snooping policy.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for this IPv6 source
guard policy.
Protocol
This field displays the protocols learned from DHCPv6 sniffed packets.
Prefix Glean
This field displays the IPv6 prefixes learned from DHCPv6 sniffed packets.
Limit Address Count
This field displays the number of IPv6 addresses and prefixes learned using the IPv6
snooping policy.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box
in the table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Select an entry checkbox and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes above.
26.17 IPv6 Snooping VLAN Setup
Use this screen to enable a DHCPv6 snooping policy on a specific VLAN interface. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Snooping VLAN Setup.
Figure 219 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Snooping VLAN Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 126 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 Snooping VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select the VLAN interface to apply the selected DHCPv6 snooping policy.
Policy
Select the IPv6 snooping policy to apply to this VLAN interface.
Add
Click this to create the VLAN interface-to-IPv6 snooping policy association.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based or, if not applicable, to clear the fields above.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
Interface
This field displays the VLAN interface.
Policy
This field displays the DHCPv6 snooping policy.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Select an entry checkbox and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes above.
26.18 IPv6 DHCP Trust Setup
Use this screen to specify which ports are trusted for DHCPv6 snooping. To open this screen, click
Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 DHCP Trust Setup.
Note: DHCPv6 solicit packets are sent from a DHCPv6 client to a DHCPv6 server. Reply
packets from a DHCPv6 server connected to an untrusted port are discarded.
Use port * to have all ports be Untrusted or Trusted.
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Figure 220 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 DHCP Trust Setup (Standalone mode)
Figure 221 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 DHCP Trust Setup (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 127 Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > IPv6 DHCP Trust Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for DHCP snooping. If you do
not select this then IPv6 DHCP Trust is not used and all ports are automatically trusted.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port (Standalone
or stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all of the
ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Trusted state
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
Trusted ports are connected to DHCPv6 servers or other switches.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers, and the Switch discards DHCPv6 packets from
untrusted ports in the following situations:
•
•
The packet is a DHCPv6 server packet (for example, ADVERTISE, REPLY, or RELAY-REPLY).
The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the
current bindings.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.19 Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information on the topics discussed in this chapter.
26.19.1 DHCP Snooping Overview
Use DHCP snooping to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the binding table
dynamically. This can prevent clients from getting IP addresses from unauthorized DHCP servers.
26.19.1.1 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for DHCP snooping. This setting is independent of
the trusted/untrusted setting for ARP inspection. You can also specify the maximum number for DHCP
packets that each port (trusted or untrusted) can receive each second.
Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches. The Switch discards DHCP packets from
trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high. The Switch learns dynamic
bindings from trusted ports.
Note: If DHCP is enabled and there are no trusted ports, DHCP requests will not succeed.
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Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers. The Switch discards DHCP packets from untrusted ports in
the following situations:
• The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).
• The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the current
bindings.
• The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and source port do not
match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
26.19.1.2 DHCP Snooping Database
The Switch stores the binding table in volatile memory. If the Switch restarts, it loads static bindings from
permanent memory but loses the dynamic bindings, in which case the devices in the network have to
send DHCP requests again. As a result, it is recommended you configure the DHCP snooping database.
The DHCP snooping database maintains the dynamic bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection
in a file on an external TFTP server. If you set up the DHCP snooping database, the Switch can reload the
dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database after the Switch restarts.
You can configure the name and location of the file on the external TFTP server. The file has the following
format:
Figure 222 DHCP Snooping Database File Format
<initial-checksum>
TYPE DHCP-SNOOPING
VERSION 1
BEGIN
<binding-1> <checksum-1>
<binding-2> <checksum-1-2>
...
...
<binding-n> <checksum-1-2-..-n>
END
The <initial-checksum> helps distinguish between the bindings in the latest update and the bindings
from previous updates. Each binding consists of 72 bytes, a space, and another checksum that is used
to validate the binding when it is read. If the calculated checksum is not equal to the checksum in the
file, that binding and all others after it are ignored.
26.19.1.3 DHCP Relay Option 82 Information
The Switch can add information to DHCP requests that it does not discard. This provides the DHCP server
more information about the source of the requests. The Switch can add the following information:
• Slot ID (1 byte), port ID (1 byte), and source VLAN ID (2 bytes)
• System name (up to 32 bytes)
This information is stored in an Agent Information field in the option 82 field of the DHCP headers of client
DHCP request frames. See Chapter 42 on page 405 for more information about DHCP relay option 82.
When the DHCP server responds, the Switch removes the information in the Agent Information field
before forwarding the response to the original source.
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You can configure this setting for each source VLAN. This setting is independent of the DHCP relay
settings (Chapter 42 on page 405).
26.19.1.4 Configuring DHCP Snooping
Follow these steps to configure DHCP snooping on the Switch.
1
Enable DHCP snooping on the Switch.
2
Enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN, and configure DHCP relay option 82.
3
Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of DHCP packets that each
port can receive per second.
4
Configure static bindings.
26.19.2 ARP Inspection Overview
Use ARP inspection to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network. This can prevent many kinds of
man-in-the-middle attacks, such as the one in the following example.
Figure 223 Example: Man-in-the-middle Attack
In this example, computer B tries to establish a connection with computer A. Computer X is in the same
broadcast domain as computer A and intercepts the ARP request for computer A. Then, computer X
does the following things:
• It pretends to be computer A and responds to computer B.
• It pretends to be computer B and sends a message to computer A.
As a result, all the communication between computer A and computer B passes through computer X.
Computer X can read and alter the information passed between them.
26.19.2.1 ARP Inspection and MAC Address Filters
When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet, it automatically creates a MAC address filter to
block traffic from the source MAC address and source VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP packet. You
can configure how long the MAC address filter remains in the Switch.
These MAC address filters are different than regular MAC address filters (Chapter 12 on page 138).
• They are stored only in volatile memory.
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• They do not use the same space in memory that regular MAC address filters use.
• They appear only in the ARP Inspection screens and commands, not in the MAC Address Filter screens
and commands.
26.19.2.2 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for ARP inspection. This setting is independent of
the trusted/untrusted setting for DHCP snooping. You can also specify the maximum rate at which the
Switch receives ARP packets on untrusted ports.
The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.
The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:
• The sender’s information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high.
26.19.2.3 Syslog
The Switch can send syslog messages to the specified syslog server (Chapter 48 on page 464) when it
forwards or discards ARP packets. The Switch can consolidate log messages and send log messages in
batches to make this mechanism more efficient.
26.19.2.4 Configuring ARP Inspection
Follow these steps to configure ARP inspection on the Switch.
1
Configure DHCP snooping. See Section 26.19.1.4 on page 295.
Note: It is recommended you enable DHCP snooping at least one day before you enable
ARP inspection so that the Switch has enough time to build the binding table.
2
Enable ARP inspection on each VLAN.
3
Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of ARP packets that each port
can receive per second.
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C H A P T E R 27
Loop Guard
27.1 Loop Guard Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to guard against loops on the edge of your network.
Loop guard allows you to configure the Switch to shut down a port if it detects that packets sent out on
that port loop back to the Switch. While you can use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to prevent loops in the
core of your network. STP cannot prevent loops that occur on the edge of your network.
Figure 224 Loop Guard vs. STP
Refer to Section 27.1.2 on page 297 for more information.
27.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Loop Guard screen (Section 27.2 on page 299) to enable loop guard on the Switch and in
specific ports.
27.1.2 What You Need to Know
Loop guard is designed to handle loop problems on the edge of your network. This can occur when a
port is connected to a Switch that is in a loop state. Loop state occurs as a result of human error. It
happens when two ports on a switch are connected with the same cable. When a switch in loop state
sends out broadcast messages the messages loop back to the switch and are re-broadcast again and
again causing a broadcast storm.
If a switch (not in loop state) connects to a switch in loop state, then it will be affected by the switch in
loop state in the following way:
• It will receive broadcast messages sent out from the switch in loop state.
• It will receive its own broadcast messages that it sends out as they loop back. It will then re-broadcast
those messages again.
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The following figure shows port N on switch A connected to switch B. Switch B is in loop state. When
broadcast or multicast packets leave port N and reach switch B, they are sent back to port N on A as
they are rebroadcast from B.
Figure 225 Switch in Loop State
The loop guard feature checks to see if a loop guard enabled port is connected to a switch in loop
state. This is accomplished by periodically sending a probe packet and seeing if the packet returns on
the same port. If this is the case, the Switch will shut down the port connected to the switch in loop state.
The following figure shows a loop guard enabled port N on switch A sending a probe packet P to switch
B. Since switch B is in loop state, the probe packet P returns to port N on A. The Switch then shuts down
port N to ensure that the rest of the network is not affected by the switch in loop state.
Figure 226 Loop Guard - Probe Packet
The Switch also shuts down port N if the probe packet returns to switch A on any other port. In other
words loop guard also protects against standard network loops. The following figure illustrates three
switches forming a loop. A sample path of the loop guard probe packet is also shown. In this example,
the probe packet is sent from port N and returns on another port. As long as loop guard is enabled on
port N. The Switch will shut down port N if it detects that the probe packet has returned to the Switch.
Figure 227 Loop Guard - Network Loop
Note: After resolving the loop problem on your network you can re-activate the disabled port
via the web configurator (see Section 8.7 on page 75) or via commands (See the CLI
Reference Guide).
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27.2 Loop Guard Setup
Click Advanced Application > Loop Guard in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Note: The loop guard feature can not be enabled on the ports that have Spanning Tree
Protocol (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) enabled.
Figure 228 Advanced Application > Loop Guard (Standalone mode)
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Figure 229 Advanced Application > Loop Guard (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 128 Advanced Application > Loop Guard
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable loop guard on the Switch.
The Switch generates syslog, internal log messages as well as SNMP traps when it shuts down a
port via the loop guard feature.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 128 Advanced Application > Loop Guard (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the loop guard feature on this port. The Switch sends probe
packets from this port to check if the switch it is connected to is in loop state. If the switch that
this port is connected is in loop state the Switch will shut down this port.
Clear this check box to disable the loop guard feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 28
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
28.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure layer 2 protocol tunneling on the Switch.
28.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the Layer 2 Protocol Tunnel screen (Section 28.2 on page 303) to enable layer 2 protocol tunneling
on the Switch and specify a MAC address with which the Switch uses to encapsulate the layer 2
protocol packets by replacing the destination MAC address in the packets.
28.1.2 What You Need to Know
Layer 2 protocol tunneling (L2PT) is used on the service provider's edge devices.
L2PT allows edge switches (1 and 2 in the following figure) to tunnel layer 2 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol),
CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) and VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) packets between customer switches
(A, B and C in the following figure) connected through the service provider’s network. The edge switch
encapsulates layer 2 protocol packets with a specific MAC address before sending them across the
service provider’s network to other edge switches.
Figure 230 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Network Scenario
In the following example, if you enable L2PT for STP, you can have switches A, B, C and D in the same
spanning tree, even though switch A is not directly connected to switches B, C and D. Topology change
information can be propagated throughout the service provider’s network.
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To emulate a point-to-point topology between two customer switches at different sites, such as A and B,
you can enable protocol tunneling on edge switches 1 and 2 for PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol),
LACP or UDLD (UniDirectional Link Detection).
Figure 231 L2PT Network Example
28.1.2.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Mode
Each port can have two layer 2 protocol tunneling modes, Access and Tunnel.
• The Access port is an ingress port on the service provider's edge device (1 or 2 in Figure 231 on page
303) and connected to a customer switch (A or B). Incoming layer 2 protocol packets received on an
access port are encapsulated and forwarded to the tunnel ports.
• The Tunnel port is an egress port at the edge of the service provider's network and connected to
another service provider’s switch. Incoming encapsulated layer 2 protocol packets received on a
tunnel port are decapsulated and sent to an access port.
28.2 Configuring Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
Click Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling in the navigation panel to display the screen
as shown.
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Figure 232 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling (Standalone mode)
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Figure 233 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 129 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable layer 2 protocol tunneling on the Switch.
Destination
MAC Address
Specify a MAC address with which the Switch uses to encapsulate the layer 2 protocol packets
by replacing the destination MAC address in the packets.
Note: The MAC address can be either a unicast MAC address or multicast MAC
address. If you use a unicast MAC address, make sure the MAC address does
not exist in the address table of a switch on the service provider’s network.
Note: All the edge switches in the service provider’s network should be set to use the
same MAC address for encapsulation.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
CDP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) packets so that
other Cisco devices can be discovered through the service provider’s network.
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Table 129 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
STP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) packets so that STP can
run properly across the service provider’s network and spanning trees can be set up based on
bridge information from all (local and remote) networks.
VTP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) packets so that all
customer switches can use consistent VLAN configuration through the service provider’s
network.
Point to Point
The Switch supports PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol), LACP (Link Aggregation Control
Protocol) and UDLD (UniDirectional Link Detection) tunneling for a point-to-point topology.
Both PAgP and UDLD are Cisco’s proprietary data link layer protocols. PAgP is similar to LACP
and used to set up a logical aggregation of Ethernet ports automatically. UDLD is to determine
the link’s physical status and detect a unidirectional link.
PAGP
Select this option to have the Switch send PAgP packets to a peer to automatically negotiate
and build a logical port aggregation.
LACP
Select this option to have the Switch send LACP packets to a peer to dynamically creates and
manages trunk groups.
UDLD
Select this option to have the Switch send UDLD packets to a peer’s port it connected to
monitor the physical status of a link.
Mode
Select Access to have the Switch encapsulate the incoming layer 2 protocol packets and
forward them to the tunnel port(s). Select Access for ingress ports at the edge of the service
provider's network.
Note: You can enable L2PT services for STP, LACP, VTP, CDP, UDLD, and PAGP on the
access port(s) only.
Select Tunnel for egress ports at the edge of the service provider's network. The Switch
decapsulates the encapsulated layer 2 protocol packets received on a tunnel port by
changing the destination MAC address to the original one, and then forward them to an access
port. If the service(s) is not enabled on an access port, the protocol packets are dropped.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 29
sFlow
This chapter shows you how to configure sFlow to have the Switch monitor traffic in a network and send
information to an sFlow collector for analysis.
29.1 sFlow Overview
sFlow (RFC 3176) is a standard technology for monitoring switched networks. An sFlow agent embedded
on a switch or router gets sample data and packet statistics from traffic forwarded through its ports. The
sFlow agent then creates sFlow data and sends it to an sFlow collector. The sFlow collector is a server
that collects and analyzes sFlow datagram. An sFlow datagram includes packet header, input and
output interface, sampling process parameters and forwarding information.
sFlow minimizes impact on CPU load of the Switch as it analyzes sample data only. sFlow can
continuously monitor network traffic and create reports for network performance analysis and
troubleshooting. For example, you can use it to know which IP address or which type of traffic caused
network congestion.
Figure 234 sFlow Application
29.2 sFlow Port Configuration
Click Advanced Application > sFlow in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 235 Advanced Application > sFlow (Standalone mode)
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Figure 236 Advanced Application > sFlow (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 130 Advanced Application > sFlow
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable the sFlow agent on the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
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Table 130 Advanced Application > sFlow (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this to allow the Switch to monitor traffic on this port and generate and send sFlow
datagram to the specified collector.
Sample-rate
Enter a number (N) from 256 to 65535. The Switch captures every one out of N packets for this
port and creates sFlow datagram.
poll-interval
Specify a time interval (from 20 to 120 in seconds) the Switch waits before sending the sFlow
datagram and packet counters for this port to the collector.
Collector
Address
Enter the IP address of the sFlow collector.
Note: You must have the sFlow collector already configured in the sFlow > Collector
screen. The sFlow collector does not need to be in the same subnet as the
Switch, but it must be accessible from the Switch.
Note: Configure UDP port 6343 (the default) on a NAT router to allow port forwarding
if the collector is behind a NAT router. Configure a firewall rule for UDP port 6343
(the default) to allow incoming traffic if the collector is behind a firewall.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
29.2.1 sFlow Collector Configuration
Click the Collector link in the sFlow screen to display the screen as shown. You can configure up to four
sFlow collectors in this screen. You may want to configure more than one collector if the traffic load to
be monitored is more than one collector can manage.
Figure 237 Advanced Application > sFlow > Collector
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 131 Advanced Application > sFlow > Collector
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Collector
Address
Enter the IP address of the sFlow collector.
UDP Port
Enter a UDP port number the Switch uses to send sFlow datagram to the collector. If you change
the port here, make sure you change it on the collector, too. The default port is 6343.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of this entry. Click on an index number to change the
settings.
Collector
Address
This field displays IP address of the sFlow collector.
UDP Port
This field displays port number the Switch uses to send sFlow datagram to the collector.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 30
PPPoE
30.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Overview
This chapter describes how the Switch gives a PPPoE termination server additional information that the
server can use to identify and authenticate a PPPoE client.
A PPPoE Intermediate Agent (PPPoE IA) is deployed between a PPPoE server and PPPoE clients. It helps
the PPPoE server identify and authenticate clients by adding subscriber line specific information to
PPPoE discovery packets from clients on a per-port or per-port-per-VLAN basis before forwarding them
to the PPPoE server.
30.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the PPPoE screen (Section 30.2 on page 314) to display the main PPPoE screen.
• Use the Intermediate Agent screen (Section 30.3 on page 315) to enable the PPPoE Intermediate
Agent on the Switch.
• Use the PPPoE IA Per-Port screen (Section 30.3.1 on page 316) to set the port state and configure
PPPoE intermediate agent sub-options on a per-port basis.
• Use the PPPoE IA Per-Port Per-VLAN screen (Section 30.3.2 on page 318) to configure PPPoE IA settings
that apply to a specific VLAN on a port.
• Use the PPPoE IA for VLAN (Section 30.3.3 on page 320) to enable the PPPoE Intermediate Agent on a
VLAN.
30.1.2 What You Need to Know
Read on for concepts on ARP that can help you configure the screen in this chapter.
30.1.2.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Tag Format
If the PPPoE Intermediate Agent is enabled, the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to PADI (PPPoE
Active Discovery Initialization) and PADR (PPPoE Active Discovery Request) packets from PPPoE clients.
This tag is defined in RFC 2516 and has the following format for this feature.
Table 132 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Vendor-specific Tag Format
Tag_Type
Tag_Len
Value
i1
(0x0105)
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The Tag_Type is 0x0105 for vendor-specific tags, as defined in RFC 2516. The Tag_Len indicates the
length of Value, i1 and i2. The Value is the 32-bit number 0x00000DE9, which stands for the “ADSL Forum”
IANA entry. i1 and i2 are PPPoE intermediate agent sub-options, which contain additional information
about the PPPoE client.
30.1.2.2 Sub-Option Format
There are two types of sub-option: “Agent Circuit ID Sub-option” and “Agent Remote ID Sub-option”.
They have the following formats.
Table 133 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: User-defined String
SubOpt
Length
Value
0x01
N
String
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(63 bytes)
Table 134 PPPoE IA Remote ID Sub-option Format
SubOpt
Length
Value
0x02
N
MAC Address or String
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(63 bytes)
The 1 in the first field identifies this as an Agent Circuit ID sub-option and 2 identifies this as an Agent
Remote ID sub-option. The next field specifies the length of the field. The Switch takes the Circuit ID string
you manually configure for a VLAN on a port as the highest priority and the Circuit ID string for a port as
the second priority. In addition, the Switch puts the PPPoE client’s MAC address into the Agent Remote
ID Sub-option if you do not specify any user-defined string.
Flexible Circuit ID Syntax with Identifier String and Variables
If you do not configure a Circuit ID string for a VLAN on a specific port or for a specific port, the Switch
adds the user-defined identifier string and variables into the Agent Circuit ID Sub-option. The variables
can be the slot ID of the PPPoE client, the port number of the PPPoE client and/or the VLAN ID on the
PPPoE packet.
The identifier-string, slot ID, port number and VLAN ID are separated from each other by a pound key
(#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,), forward slash (/) or space. An Agent Circuit ID Sub-option
example is “Switch/07/0123” and indicates the PPPoE packets come from a PPPoE client which is
connected to the Switch’s port 7 and belong to VLAN 123.
Table 135 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: Using Identifier String and Variables
SubOpt
Length
0x01
N
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
Value
Identifier
String
delimiter
Slot ID
delimiter
Port No
delimiter
VLAN ID
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(2 byte)
(1 byte)
(4
bytes)
(53 byte)
WT-101 Default Circuit ID Syntax
If you do not configure a Circuit ID string for a specific VLAN on a port or for a specific port, and disable
the flexible Circuit ID syntax in the PPPoE > Intermediate Agent screen, the Switch automatically
generates a Circuit ID string according to the default Circuit ID syntax which is defined in the DSL Forum
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Working Text (WT)-101. The default access node identifier is the host name of the PPPoE intermediate
agent and the eth indicates “Ethernet”.
Table 136 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: Defined in WT-101
SubOpt
Length
0x01
N
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
Value
Access
Node
Identifier
Space
eth
Space
Slot ID
/
Port No
:
VLAN ID
(1
byte)
(3
byte)
(1
byte)
(1
byte)
(1
byte)
(2 byte)
(1
byte)
(4
bytes)
(20 byte)
30.1.2.3 Port State
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for the PPPoE intermediate agent. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for DHCP snooping or ARP inspection. You can also specify
the agent sub-options (circuit ID and remote ID) that the Switch adds to PADI and PADR packets from
PPPoE clients.
Trusted ports are connected to PPPoE servers.
• If a PADO (PPPoE Active Discovery Offer), PADS (PPPoE Active Discovery Session-confirmation), or
PADT (PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate) packet is sent from a PPPoE server and received on a
trusted port, the Switch forwards it to all other ports.
• If a PADI or PADR packet is sent from a PPPoE client but received on a trusted port, the Switch
forwards it to other trusted port(s).
Note: The Switch will drop all PPPoE discovery packets if you enable the PPPoE intermediate
agent and there are no trusted ports.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers.
• If a PADI, PADR, or PADT packet is sent from a PPPoE client and received on an untrusted port, the
Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to the packet and then forwards it to the trusted port(s).
• The Switch discards PADO and PADS packets which are sent from a PPPoE server but received on an
untrusted port.
30.2 PPPoE Screen
Use this screen to configure the PPPoE Intermediate Agent on the Switch.
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. Click Click
Here to go to the Intermediate Agent screen.
Figure 238 Advanced Application > PPPoE Intermediate Agent
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30.3 PPPoE Intermediate Agent
Use this screen to configure the Switch to give a PPPoE termination server additional subscriber
information that the server can use to identify and authenticate a PPPoE client.
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent in the navigation panel to display the screen
as shown.
Figure 239 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 137 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable the PPPoE intermediate agent globally on the Switch.
access-nodeidentifier
Enter up to 20 ASCII characters to identify the PPPoE intermediate agent. Hyphens (-) and
spaces are also allowed. The default is the Switch’s host name.
circuit-id
Use this section to configure the Circuit ID field in the PADI and PADR packets.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific port or for a specific VLAN on a port has priority over
this.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific port (in the Advanced Application > PPPoE >
Intermediate Agent > Port screen) or for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced Application
> PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has priority over this. That means, if you also
want to configure PPPoE IA Per-Port or Per-Port Per-VLAN setting, leave the fields here empty
and configure circuit-id and remote-id in the Per-Port or Per-Port Per-VLAN screen.
Active
Select this option to have the Switch add the user-defined identifier string and variables
(specified in the option field) to PADI or PADR packets from PPPoE clients.
If you leave this option unselected and do not configure any Circuit ID string (using CLI
commands) on the Switch, the Switch will use the string specified in the access-node-identifier
field.
identifierstring
Specify a string that the Switch adds in the Agent Circuit ID sub-option. You can enter up to 53
ASCII characters. Spaces are allowed.
option
Select the variables that you want the Switch to generate and add in the Agent Circuit ID suboption. The variable options include sp, sv, pv and spv which indicate combinations of slot-port,
slot-VLAN, port-VLAN and slot-port-VLAN respectively. The Switch enters a zero into the PADI and
PADR packets for the slot value.
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Table 137 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent (continued)
LABEL
delimiter
DESCRIPTION
Select a delimiter to separate the identifier-string, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN ID from each
other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,), forward slash (/) or
space.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
30.3.1 PPPoE IA Per-Port
Use this screen to specify whether individual ports are trusted or untrusted ports and have the Switch
add extra information to PPPoE discovery packets from PPPoE clients on a per-port basis.
Note: The Switch will drop all PPPoE packets if you enable the PPPoE Intermediate Agent on
the Switch and there are no trusted ports.
Click the Port link in the Intermediate Agent screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 240 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port (Standalone mode)
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Figure 241 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 138 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 138 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Trusted
State
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
Trusted ports are uplink ports connected to PPPoE servers.
If a PADO (PPPoE Active Discovery Offer), PADS (PPPoE Active Discovery Session-confirmation),
or PADT (PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate) packet is sent from a PPPoE server and received on
a trusted port, the Switch forwards it to all other ports.
If a PADI or PADR packet is sent from a PPPoE client but received on a trusted port, the Switch
forwards it to other trusted port(s).
Untrusted ports are downlink ports connected to subscribers.
If a PADI, PADR, or PADT packet is sent from a PPPoE client and received on an untrusted port,
the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to the packet and then forwards it to the trusted port(s).
The Switch discards PADO and PADS packets which are sent from a PPPoE server but received
on an untrusted port.
Circuit-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Circuit ID suboption for PPPoE discovery packets received on this port. Spaces are allowed.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced Application > PPPoE
> Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has the highest priority.
Remote-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Remote ID suboption for PPPoE discovery packets received on this port. Spaces are allowed.
If you do not specify a string here or in the Remote-id field for a VLAN on a port, the Switch
automatically uses the PPPoE client’s MAC address.
The Remote ID you configure for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced Application >
PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has the highest priority.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
30.3.2 PPPoE IA Per-Port Per-VLAN
Use this screen to configure PPPoE IA settings that apply to a specific VLAN on a port.
Click the VLAN link in the Intermediate Agent > Port screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 242 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN (Standalone mode)
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Figure 243 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 139 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show Port
Enter a port number to show the PPPoE Intermediate Agent settings for the specified VLAN(s) on
the port. In stacking mode, the first field box is the Slot ID, the second field box is the port.
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to configure in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
Apply
Click Apply to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
Port
This field displays the port number specified above.
Slot / Port
In stacking mode, the first field box displaysa the Slot ID, the second field box displays the port
number.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. In stacking mode, the
first number is the slot ID and the second is the port number. If you configure the * VLAN, the
settings are applied to all VLANs.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all VLANs. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a VLAN-by-VLAN basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the VLANs as soon as you make them.
Circuit-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Circuit ID suboption for this VLAN on the specified port. Spaces are allowed.
The Circuit ID you configure here has the highest priority.
Remote-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Remote ID suboption for this VLAN on the specified port. Spaces are allowed.
If you do not specify a string here or in the Remote-id field for a specific port, the Switch
automatically uses the PPPoE client’s MAC address.
The Remote ID you configure here has the highest priority.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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30.3.3 PPPoE IA for VLAN
Use this screen to set whether the PPPoE Intermediate Agent is enabled on a VLAN and whether the
Switch appends the Circuit ID and/or Remote ID to PPPoE discovery packets from a specific VLAN.
Click the VLAN link in the Intermediate Agent screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 244 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 140 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to configure in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
Apply
Click Apply to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the *
VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all VLANs. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a VLAN-by-VLAN basis.
Enabled
Select this option to turn on the PPPoE Intermediate Agent on a VLAN.
Circuit-id
Select this option to make the Circuit ID settings for a specific VLAN take effect.
Remote-id
Select this option to make the Remote ID settings for a specific VLAN take effect.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Changes in this row are copied to all the VLANs as soon as you make them.
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C H A P T E R 31
Error Disable
31.1 Error Disable Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure the rate limit for control packets on a port, and set the Switch
to take an action (such as to shut down a port or stop sending packets) on a port when the Switch
detects a pre-configured error. It also shows you how to configure the Switch to automatically undo the
action after the error is gone.
31.1.1 CPU Protection Overview
Switches exchange protocol control packets in a network to get the latest networking information. If a
switch receives large numbers of control packets, such as ARP, BPDU or IGMP packets, which are to be
processed by the CPU, the CPU may become overloaded and be unable to handle regular tasks
properly.
The CPU protection feature allows you to limit the rate of ARP, BPDU and IGMP packets to be delivered
to the CPU on a port. This enhances the CPU efficiency and protects against potential DoS attacks or
errors from other network(s). You then can choose to drop control packets that exceed the specified
rate limit or disable a port on which the packets are received.
31.1.2 Error-Disable Recovery Overview
Some features, such as loop guard or CPU protection, allow the Switch to shut down a port or discard
specific packets on a port when an error is detected on the port. For example, if the Switch detects that
packets sent out the port(s) loop back to the Switch, the Switch can shut down the port(s)
automatically. After that, you need to enable the port(s) or allow the packets on a port manually via the
web configurator or the commands. With error-disable recovery, you can set the disabled port(s) to
become active or start receiving the packets again after the time interval you specify.
31.1.3 What You Can Do
• Use the Errdisable Status screen (Section 31.3 on page 322) to view whether the Switch detected that
control packets exceeded the rate limit configured for a port or a port is disabled according to the
feature requirements and what action you configure, and related information.
• Use the CPU Protection screen (Section 31.4 on page 325) to limit the maximum number of control
packets (ARP, BPDU and/or IGMP) that the Switch can receive or transmit on a port.
• Use the Errdisable Detect screen (Section 31.5 on page 328) to have the Switch detect whether the
control packets exceed the rate limit configured for a port and configure the action to take once the
limit is exceeded.
• Use the Errdisable Recovery screen (Section 31.6 on page 329) to set the Switch to automatically
undo an action after the error is gone.
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31.2 Error Disable Screen
Use this screen to go to the screens where you can configure error disable related settings. Click
Advanced Application > Errdisable in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
Figure 245
Advanced Application > Errdisable
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 141 Advanced Application > Errdisable
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Errdisable Status
Click this link to view whether the Switch detected that control packets exceeded the rate
limit configured for a port or a port is disabled according to the feature requirements and
what action you configure, and related information.
CPU protection
Click this link to limit the maximum number of control packets (ARP, BPDU and/or IGMP)
that the Switch can receive or transmit on a port.
Errdisable Detect
Click this link to have the Switch detect whether the control packets exceed the rate limit
configured for a port and configure the action to take once the limit is exceeded.
Errdisable Recovery
Click this link to set the Switch to automatically undo an action after the error is gone.
31.3 Error-Disable Status
Use this screen to view whether the Switch detected that control packets exceeded the rate limit
configured for a port or a port is disabled according to the feature requirements and what action you
configure, and related information. Click the Click here link next to Errdisable Status in the Advanced
Application > Errdisable screen to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 246 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Status (Standalone mode)
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Figure 247 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Status (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 142 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Inactive-reason mode reset
Port List
Enter the number of the port(s) (separated by a comma) on which you want to reset inactivereason status.
Cause
Select the cause of inactive-reason mode you want to reset here.
Reset
Press to reset the specified port(s) to handle ARP, BPDU or IGMP packets instead of ignoring
them, if the port(s) is in inactive-reason mode.
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Table 142 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Errdisable Status
Slot
(Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone
or stacking
mode)
This is the number of the port on which you want to configure Errdisable Status. In stacking
mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second is the port number.
Cause
This displays the type of the control packet received on the port or the feature enabled on the
port and causing the Switch to take the specified action.
Active
This field displays whether the control packets (ARP, BPDU, and/or IGMP) on the port is being
detected or not. It also shows whether loop guard, anti-arp scanning, BPDU guard or ZULD is
enabled on the port.
Mode
This field shows the action that the Switch takes for the cause.
•
•
•
inactive-port - The Switch disables the port.
inactive-reason - The Switch drops all the specified control packets (such as BPDU) on the
port.
rate-limitation - The Switch drops the additional control packets the port(s) has to handle in
every one second.
Rate
This field displays how many control packets this port can receive or transmit per second. It can
be adjusted in CPU Protection. 0 means no rate limit.
Status
This field displays the errdisable status
•
•
Forwarding: The Switch is forwarding packets. Rate-limitation mode is always in Forwarding
status.
Err-disable: The Switch disables the port on which the control packets are received
(inactive-port) or drops specified control packets on the port (inactive-reason)
Recovery
Time Left
(secs)
This field displays the time (seconds) left before the port(s) becomes active of Errdisable
Recovery.
Total
Dropped
This field displays the total packet number dropped by this port where the packet rate exceeds
the rate of mode rate-limitation.
31.4 CPU Protection Configuration
Use this screen to limit the maximum number of control packets (ARP, BPDU and/or IGMP) that the
Switch can receive or transmit on a port. Click the Click Here link next to CPU protection in the
Advanced Application > Errdisable screen to display the screen as shown.
Note: After you configure this screen, make sure you also enable error detection for the
specific control packets in the Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect
screen.
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Figure 248 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection (Standalone mode)
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Figure 249 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 143 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reason
Select the type of control packet you want to configure here.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Rate Limit (pkt/s)
Enter a number from 0 to 256 to specify how many control packets this port can receive or
transmit per second.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
0 means no rate limit.
You can configure the action that the Switch takes when the limit is exceeded. See Section 31.5
on page 328 for detailed information.
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Table 143 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
31.5 Error-Disable Detect Configuration
Use this screen to have the Switch detect whether the control packets exceed the rate limit configured
for a port and configure the action to take once the limit is exceeded. Click the Click Here link next to
Errdisable Detect link in the Advanced Application > Errdisable screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 250 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 144 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cause
This field displays the types of control packet that may cause CPU overload.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all entries. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each entry if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the entries as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this option to have the Switch detect if the configured rate limit for a specific control
packet is exceeded and take the action selected below.
Mode
Select the action that the Switch takes when the number of control packets exceed the rate
limit on a port, set in the Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection screen.
•
•
•
inactive-port - The Switch disables the port on which the control packets are received.
inactive-reason - The Switch drops all the specified control packets (such as BPDU) on the
port.
rate-limitation - The Switch drops the additional control packets the port(s) has to handle in
every one second.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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31.6 Error-Disable Recovery Configuration
Use this screen to configure the Switch to automatically undo an action after the error is gone. Click the
Click Here link next to Errdisable Recovery in the Advanced Application > Errdisable screen to display
the screen as shown.
Figure 251 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Recovery
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 145 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Recovery
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to turn on the error-disable recovery function on the Switch.
Reason
This field displays the supported features that allow the Switch to shut down a port or discard
packets on a port according to the feature requirements and what action you configure.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all entries. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each entry if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the entries as soon as you make them.
Timer Status
Select this option to allow the Switch to wait for the specified time interval to activate a port or
allow specific packets on a port, after the error was gone. Deselect this option to turn off this
rule.
Interval
Enter the number of seconds (from 30 to 2592000) for the time interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Chapter 32 MAC Pinning
C H A P T E R 32
MAC Pinning
This chapter shows you how to configure MAC pinning on the Switch.
32.1 MAC Pinning Overview
When the Switch obtains a connected device’s MAC address, it adds an entry in the MAC address
forwarding table and uses the table to determine how to forward frames. In addition to the source MAC
address of a received frame, the Switch also learns the VLAN to which the device belongs and the port
on which the frame is received. If the Switch learns the same MAC address and same VLAN ID on
another port, it updates the MAC address table immediately.
MAC pinning allows you to set a port or multiple ports to have priority over other ports in MAC address
learning. That means when a MAC address (and VLAN ID) is learned on a MAC-pinning-enabled port,
the MAC address will not be learned on any other port until the aging time for the dynamically learned
MAC address in the table expires.
This helps enhance security. For example, when an attacker (A) sends packets to all connected clients
by spoofing the source MAC address of a server (B) connected to one of the Switch’s ports, on which
MAC pinning is enabled, the responses from clients will still be forwarded to the server according to the
Switch’s MAC forwarding table.
32.2 MAC Pinning Configuration
Use this screen to enable MAC pinning on the Switch and on specific ports. Click Advanced Application
> MAC Pinning in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
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Figure 252 Advanced Application > MAC Pinning (Standalone mode)
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Chapter 32 MAC Pinning
Figure 253 Advanced Application > MAC Pinning (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 146 Advanced Application > MAC Pinning
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to turn on the MAC pinning function on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first field is the slot ID and the second
field is the port number. * means all ports (on the same Switch).
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable MAC pinning on this port. The port then has priority over other
ports in MAC address learning.
Clear this check box to disable MAC pinning.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Chapter 33 Private VLAN
C H A P T E R 33
Private VLAN
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to prevent communications between
ports in a VLAN.
33.1 Private VLAN Overview
Private VLAN allows you to do port isolation within a VLAN in a simple way. You specify which port(s) in a
VLAN is not isolated by adding it to the promiscuous port list. The Switch automatically adds other ports
in this VLAN to the isolated port list and blocks traffic between the isolated ports. A promiscuous port can
communicate with any port in the same VLAN. An isolated port can communicate with the promiscuous
port(s) only.
Note: You can have up to one private VLAN rule for each VLAN.
Figure 254 Private VLAN Example
Note: Make sure you keep at least one port in the promiscuous port list for a VLAN with private
VLAN enabled. Otherwise, this VLAN is blocked from the whole network.
33.2 Configuring Private VLAN
Click Advanced Application > Private VLAN in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 255 Advanced Application > Private VLAN (Standalone mode)
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Chapter 33 Private VLAN
Figure 256 Advanced Application > Private VLAN (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 147 Advanced Application > Private VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first box field is the slot ID and the
second field is the port number. * means all ports (on the same Switch).
Mode
This is the type of VLAN mapped to this port.
•
•
•
•
Associated VLAN
Normal: These are ports in a static VLAN. This is not a private VLAN.
Promiscuous: Ports in a Primary VLAN are Promiscuous. They can communicate with all
ports in the Primary VLAN and associated Community and Isolated VLANs. They cannot
communicate with Promiscuous ports in different primary VLANs.
Community: Ports in a Community VLAN can communicate with Promiscuous ports in an
associated Primary VLAN and other community ports in the same Community VLAN.
They cannot communicate with ports in an Isolated VLAN, non-associated Primary VLAN
Promiscuous ports nor Community ports in different Community VLANs.
Isolated: Ports in an Isolated VLAN can communicate with Promiscuous ports in an
associated Primary VLAN only. They cannot communicate with other Isolated ports in
the same Isolated VLAN, non-associated Primary VLAN Promiscuous ports nor any
Community ports.
Enter the VLAN ID of a previously created VLAN here.
Note: The VLAN ID and Mode selected here must be the same as the VLAN ID and
VLAN Type created in Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN.
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Table 147 Advanced Application > Private VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Tagged
A VLAN ID tag identifies VLAN membership of a frame across switches.
Select this if the VLAN includes ports on multiple switches. The Switch forwards tagged
frames through this port; it adds the PVID to untagged frames before sending them out.
Clear this if the VLAN includes ports on this Switch only. The Switch forwards untagged
frames through this port; it removes the VLAN ID from tagged frames before sending them
out.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 34
Green Ethernet
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to reduce the power consumed by switch ports.
34.1 Green Ethernet Overview
Green Ethernet reduces switch port power consumption in the following ways.
IEEE 802.3az Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE)
If EEE is enabled, both sides of a link support EEE and there is no traffic, the port enters Low Power Idle
(LPI) mode. LPI mode turns off some functions of the physical layer (becomes quiet) to save power.
Periodically the port transmits a REFRESH signal to allow the link partner to keep the link alive. When there
is traffic to be sent, a WAKE signal is sent to the link partner to return the link to active mode.
Auto Power Down
Auto Power Down turns off almost all functions of the port’s physical layer functions when the link is
down, so the port only uses power to check for a link up pulse from the link partner. After the link up
pulse is detected, the port wakes up from Auto Power Down and operates normally.
Short Reach
Traditional Ethernet transmits all data with enough power to reach the maximum cable length. Shorter
cables lose less power, so Short Reach saves power by adjusting the transmit power of each port
according to the length of cable attached to that port.
34.2 Configuring Green Ethernet
Click Advanced Application > Green Ethernet in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Note: EEE, Auto Power Down and Short Reach are not supported on an uplink port.
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Figure 257 Advanced Application > Green Ethernet (Standalone mode)
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Chapter 34 Green Ethernet
Figure 258 Advanced Application > Green Ethernet (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 148 Advanced Application > Green Ethernet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
EEE
Select this to activate Energy Efficient Ethernet globally.
Auto Power
Down
Select this to activate Auto Power Down globally.
Short Reach
Select this to activate Short Reach globally.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
(Standalone or
stacking mode)
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
EEE
Select this to activate Energy Efficient Ethernet on this port.
Auto Power
Down
Select this to activate Auto Power Down on this port.
Short Reach
Select this to activate Short Reach on this port.
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Table 148 Advanced Application > Green Ethernet (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 35
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
(LLDP)
35.1 LLDP Overview
The LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) is a layer 2 protocol. It allows a network device to advertise its
identity and capabilities on the local network. It also allows the device to maintain and store information
from adjacent devices which are directly connected to the network device. This helps an administrator
discover network changes and perform necessary network reconfiguration and management. The
device information is encapsulated in the LLDPDUs (LLDP data units) in the form of TLV (Type, Length,
Value). Device information carried in the received LLDPDUs is stored in the standard MIB.
The Switch supports these basic management TLVs.
• End of LLDPDU (mandatory)
• Chassis ID (mandatory)
• Port ID (mandatory)
• Time to Live (mandatory)
• Port Description (optional)
• System Name (optional)
• System Description (optional)
• System Capabilities (optional)
• Management Address (optional)
The Switch also supports the IEEE 802.1 and IEEE 802.3 organizationally-specific TLVs.
IEEE 802.1 specific TLVs:
• Port VLAN ID TLV (optional)
• Port and Protocol VLAN ID TLV (optional)
IEEE 802.3 specific TLVs:
• MAC/PHY Configuration/Status TLV (optional)
• Power via MDI TLV (optional, For PoE models only)
• Link Aggregation TLV (optional)
• Maximum Frame Size TLV (optional)
The optional TLVs are inserted between the Time To Live TLV and the End of LLDPDU TLV.
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Chapter 35 Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)
The next figure demonstrates that the network devices Switches and Routers (S and R) transmit and
receive device information via LLDPDU and the network manager can query the information using
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
Figure 259 LLDP Overview
35.2 LLDP-MED Overview
LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol for Media Endpoint Devices) is an extension to the standard
LLDP developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) TR-41.4 subcommittee which
defines the enhanced discovery capabilities, such as VoIP applications, to enable network
administrators manage their network topology application more efficiently. Unlike the traditional LLDP,
which has some limitations when handling multiple application devices, the LLDP-MED offers display of
accurate physical topology, interoperability of devices, and easy trouble shooting for misconfigured IP
addresses. There are three classes of endpoint devices that the LLDP-MED supports:
Class I: IP Communications Controllers or other communication related servers
Class II: Voice Gateways, Conference Bridges or Media Servers
Class III: IP-Phones, PC-based Softphones, End user Communication Appliances supporting IP Media
The following figure shows that with the LLDP-MED, network connectivity devices (NCD) like Switches
and Routers will transmit LLDP TLV to endpoint device (ED) like IP Phone first (1), to get its device type
and capabilities information, then it will receive that information in LLDP-MED TLV back from endpoint
devices (2), after that the network connectivity devices will transmit LLDP-MED TLV (3) to provision the
endpoint device to such that the endpoint device’s network policy and location identification
information is updated. Since LLDPDU updates status and configuration information periodically,
network managers may check the result of provision via remote status. The remote status is updated by
receiving LLDP-MED TLVs from endpoint devices.
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Figure 260 LLDP-MED Overview
35.3 LLDP Screens
Click Advanced Application > LLDP in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 261 Advanced Application > LLDP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 149 Advanced Application > LLDP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LLDP
LLDP Local
Status
Click here to show a screen with the Switch’s LLDP information.
LLDP Remote
Status
Click here to show a screen with LLDP information from the neighboring devices.
LLDP
Configuration
Click here to show a screen to configure LLDP parameters.
LLDP-MED
LLDP-MED
Configuration
Click here to show a screen to configure LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol for Media
Endpoint Devices) parameters.
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Table 149 Advanced Application > LLDP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LLDP-MED
Network Policy
Click here to show a screen to configure LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol for Media
Endpoint Devices) network policy parameters.
LLDP-MED
Location
Click here to show a screen to configure LLDP-MED (Link Layer Discovery Protocol for Media
Endpoint Devices) location parameters.
35.4 LLDP Local Status
This screen displays a summary of LLDP status on this Switch. Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP
Local Status to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 262 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status (Standalone mode)
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Figure 263 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 150 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Basic TLV
Chassis ID TLV
This displays the chassis ID of the local Switch, that is the Switch you’re configuring. The
chassis ID is identified by the chassis ID subtype.
Chassis ID Subtype - this displays how the chassis of the Switch is identified.
Chassis ID - This displays the chassis ID of the local Switch.
System Name
TLV
This shows the host name of the Switch.
System
Description TLV
This shows the firmware version of the Switch.
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Table 150 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System
Capabilities TLV
This shows the System Capabilities enabled and supported on the local Switch.
Management
Address TLV
The Management Address TLV identifies an address associated with the local LLDP agent
that may be used to reach higher layer entities to assist discovery by network management.
The TLV may also include the system interface number and an object identifier (OID) that are
associated with this management address
•
•
System Capabilities Supported - Bridge
System Capabilities Enabled - Bridge
This field displays the Management Address settings on the specified port(s).
•
•
•
•
Management Address Subtype - ipv4 / all-802
Interface Number Subtype - unknown
Interface Number - 0 (not supported)
Object Identifier - 0 (not supported)
LLDP Port
Information
This displays the local port information.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
Local Port
This displays the number of the Switch port which receives the LLDPDU from the remote
device. Click a port number to view the detailed LLDP status on this port at LLDP Local Port
Status Detail screen. For Stacking mode, the first field box is the Slot ID, the second field box is
the port.
Port ID Subtype
This indicates how the port ID field is identified.
Port ID
This is an alpha-numeric string that contains the specific identifier for the port from which this
LLDPDU was transmitted.
Port Description
This shows the port description that the Switch will advertise from this port.
35.4.1 LLDP Local Port Status Detail
This screen displays detailed LLDP status for each port on this Switch. Click Advanced Application > LLDP
> LLDP Local Status and then, click a port number, for example 1 in the local port column to display the
screen as shown next.
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Figure 264 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status > LLDP Local Port Status Detail (Basic TLV)
Figure 265 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status > LLDP Local Port Status Detail (MED TLV)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 151 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status > LLDP Local Port Status Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Basic TLV
These are the Basic TLV flags
Port ID TLV
The port ID TLV identifies the specific port that transmitted the LLDP frame.
•
•
Port Description
TLV
Port ID Subtype: This shows how the port is identified.
Port ID: This is the ID of the port.
This displays the local port description.
Dot1 TLV
Port VLAN ID
TLV
This displays the VLAN ID sent by the IEEE 802.1 Port VLAN ID TLV.
Port-Protocol
VLAN ID TLV
This displays the IEEE 802.1 Port Protocol VLAN ID TLVs, which indicates whether the VLAN is
enabled and supported.
Dot3 TLV
MAC PHY
Configuration &
Status TLV
The MAC/PHY Configuration/Status TLV advertises the bit-rate and duplex capability of the
sending 802.3 node. It also advertises the current duplex and bit-rating of the sending node.
Lastly, it advertises whether these setting were the result of auto-negotiation during link
initiation or manual override.
•
•
•
•
Link
Aggregation
TLV
AN Supported - Displays if the port supports or does not support auto-negotiation.
AN Enabled - The current auto-negotiation status of the port.
AN Advertised Capability - The auto-negotiation capabilities of the port.
Oper MAU Type - The current Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) type of the port
The Link Aggregation TLV indicates whether the link is capable of being aggregated,
whether the link is currently in an aggregation, and if in an aggregation, the port
identification of the aggregation.
• Aggregation Capability — The current aggregation capability of the port.
• Aggregation Status — The current aggregation status of the port.
• Aggregation Port ID — The aggregation ID of the current port.
Max Frame Size
TLV
MED TLV
Capabilities TLV
This displays the maximum supported frame size in octets.
LLDP Media Endpoint Discovery (MED) is an extension of LLDP that provides additional
capabilities to support media endpoint devices. MED enables advertisement and discovery
of network policies, device location discovery to allow creation of location databases, and
information for troubleshooting.
This field displays which LLDP-MED TLV are capable to transmit on the Switch.
•
•
•
•
•
Device Type
TLV
Network Policy
Location
Extend Power via MDI PSE
Extend Power via MDI PD
Inventory Management
This is the LLDP-MED device class. The Zyxel Switch device type is:
•
Network Connectivity
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Table 151 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Local Status > LLDP Local Port Status Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Network Policy
TLV
This displays a network policy for the specified application.
Location
Identification
TLV
This shows the location information of a caller by its ELIN (Emergency Location Identifier
Number) or the IETF Geopriv Civic Address based Location Configuration Information (Civic
Address LCI).
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Voice
Voice-Signaling
Guest-Voice
Guest-Voice-Signaling
Softphone-Voice
Video-Conferencing
Streaming-Video
Video-Signaling
Civic LCI - IETF Geopriv Civic Address based Location Configuration Information
ELIN - (Emergency Location Identifier Number)
Coordinate-based LCI - latitude, longitude and altitude coordinates of the location
Configuration Information (LCI)
35.5 LLDP Remote Status
This screen displays a summary of LLDP status for each LLDP connection to a neighboring Switch. Click
Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status (Click Here) to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 266 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status (Standalone mode)
Figure 267 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 152 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
Index
The index number shows the number of remote devices that are connected to the Switch.
Click on an index number to view the detailed LLDP status for this remote device in the LLDP
Remote Port Status Detail screen.
Local Port
This is the number of the Switch’s port that received LLDPDU from the remote device. In
stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the second the port number.
Chassis ID
This displays the chassis ID of the remote device associated with the transmitting LLDP agent.
The chassis ID is identified by the chassis ID subtype. For example, the MAC address of the
remote device.
Port ID
This is an alpha-numeric string that contains the specific identifier for the port from which this
LLDPDU was transmitted. The port ID is identified by the port ID subtype.
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Table 152 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Description
This displays a description for the port from which this LLDPDU was transmitted.
System Name
This displays the system name of the remote device.
Management
Address
This displays the management address of the remote device. It could be the MAC address or
IP address. You can click on the IP address hyperlink directly.
35.5.1 LLDP Remote Port Status Detail
This screen displays detailed LLDP status of the remote device conencted to the Switch. Click Advanced
Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status (Click Here) and then click an index number, for example 1, in
the Index column in the LLDP Remote Status screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 268 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail (Basic
TLV)
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The following table describes the labels in Basic TLV part of the screen.
Table 153 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail (Basic
TLV)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local Port
This displays the number of the Switch’s port to which the remote device is connected.
Basic TLV
Chassis ID TLV
•
•
Chassis ID Subtype - this displays how the chassis of the remote device is identified.
Chassis ID - this displays the chassis ID of the remote device. The chassis ID is identified by
the chassis ID subtype.
Port ID TLV
•
•
Port ID Subtype - this displays how the port of the remote device is identified.
Port ID - this displays the port ID of the remote device. The port ID is identified by the port
ID subtype.
Time To Live TLV
This displays the time-to-live (TTL) multiplier of LLDP frames. The device information on the
neighboring devices ages out and is discarded when its corresponding TTL expires. The TTL
value is to multiply the TTL multiplier by the LLDP frames transmitting interval.
Port Description
TLV
This displays the remote port description.
System Name
TLV
This displays the system name of the remote device.
System
Description TLV
This displays the system description of the remote device.
System
Capabilities TLV
This displays whether the system capabilities are enabled and supported on the remote
device.
•
•
Management
Address TLV
System Capabilities Supported
System Capabilities Enabled
This displays the following management address parameters of the remote device.
•
•
•
•
•
Management Address Subtype
Management Address
Interface Number Subtype
Interface Number
Object Identifier
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Figure 269 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail> (Dot
1 and Dot3 TLV)
The following table describes the labels in the Dot1 and Dot3 parts of the screen.
Table 154 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail (Dot1
and Dot3 TLV)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dot1 TLV
Port VLAN ID
TLV
This displays the VLAN ID of this port on the remote device.
Port-Protocol
VLAN ID TLV
This displays the IEEE 802.1 Port Protocol VLAN ID TLV, which indicates whether the VLAN ID
and whether it is enabled and supported on the port of remote Switch which sent the
LLDPDU.
•
•
•
Port-Protocol VLAN ID
Port-Protocol VLAN ID Supported
Port-Protocol VLAN ID Enabled
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Table 154 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail (Dot1
and Dot3 TLV)
LABEL
Vlan Name TLV
DESCRIPTION
This shows the VLAN ID and name for remote device port.
•
•
Protocol
Identity TLV
VLAN ID
VLAN Name
The Protocol Identity TLV allows the Switch to advertise the particular protocols that are
accessible through its port.
Dot3 TLV
MAC PHY
Configuration &
Status TLV
The MAC/PHY Configuration/Status TLV advertises the bit-rate and duplex capability of the
sending 802.3 node. It also advertises the current duplex and bit-rating of the sending node.
Lastly, it advertises whether these setting were the result of auto-negotiation during link
initiation or manual override.
•
•
•
•
Link
Aggregation
TLV
AN Supported - Displays if the port supports or does not support auto-negotiation.
AN Enabled - The current auto-negotiation status of the port.
AN Advertised Capability - The auto-negotiation capabilities of the port.
Oper MAU Type - The current Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) type of the port
The Link Aggregation TLV indicates whether the link is capable of being aggregated,
whether the link is currently in an aggregation, and if in an aggregation, the port
identification of the aggregation.
• Aggregation Capability — The current aggregation capability of the port.
• Aggregation Status — The current aggregation status of the port.
• Aggregation Port ID — The aggregation ID of the current port.
Power Via MDI
TLV
The Power Via MDI TLV allows network management to advertise and discover the MDI
power support capabilities of the sending port on the remote device.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Max Frame Size
TLV
Port Class
MDI Supported
MDI Enabled
Pair Controlable
PSE Power Pairs
Power Class
This displays the maximum supported frame size in octets.
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Figure 270 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail (MED
TLV)
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The following table describes the labels in the MED TLV part of the screen.
Table 155 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Remote Status > LLDP Remote Port Status Detail (MED
TLV)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MED TLV
LLDP Media Endpoint Discovery (MED) is an extension of LLDP that provides additional
capabilities to support media endpoint devices. MED enables advertisement and discovery
of network policies, device location discovery to allow creation of location databases, and
information for troubleshooting.
Capabilities TLV
This displays the MED capabilities the remote port supports.
•
•
•
•
•
Network Policy
Location
Extend Power via MDI PSE
Extend Power via MDI PD
Inventory Management
Device Type
TLV
LLDP-MED endpoint device classes:
Network Policy
TLV
This displays a network policy for the specified application.
Location
Identification
TLV
This shows the location information of a caller by its:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inventory TLV
Voice
Voice-Signaling
Guest-Voice
Guest-Voice-Signaling
Softphone-Voice
Video-Conferencing
Streaming-Video
Video-Signaling
Coordinate-base LCI - latitude and longitude coordinates of the Location Configuration
Information (LCI)
Civic LCI - IETF Geopriv Civic Address based Location Configuration Information
ELIN - (Emergency Location Identifier Number)
The majority of IP Phones lack support of management protocols such as SNMP, so LLDP-MED
inventory TLVs are used to provide their inventory information to the Network Connectivity
Devices such as the Switch. The Inventory TLV may contain the following information.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended
Power via MDI
TLV
Endpoint Class I
Endpoint Class II
Endpoint Class III
Network Connectivity
Hardware Revision
Software Revision
Firmware Revision
Model Name
Manufacturer
Serial Number
Asset ID
Extended Power Via MDI Discovery enables detailed power information to be advertised by
Media Endpoints, such as IP phones and Network Connectivity Devices such as the Switch.
•
•
•
•
Power Type - whether it is currently operating from primary power or is on backup power
(backup power may indicate to the Endpoint Device that it should move to a power
conservation mode).
Power Source - whether or not the Endpoint is currently operating from an external
power source.
Power Priority - the Endpoint Device’s power priority (which the Network Connectivity
Device may use to prioritize which devices will remain in service during power shortages)
Power Value - power requirement, in fractions of Watts, in current configuration
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35.6 LLDP Configuration
Use this screen to configure global LLDP settings on the Switch. Click Advanced Application > LLDP >
LLDP Configuration (Click Here) to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 271 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration (Standalone mode)
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Figure 272 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 156 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select to enable LLDP on the Switch. It is enabled by default.
Transmit Interval
Enter how many seconds the Switch waits before sending LLDP packets.
Transmit Hold
Enter the time-to-live (TTL) multiplier of LLDP frames. The device information on the
neighboring devices ages out and is discarded when its corresponding TTL expires. The TTL
value is to multiply the TTL multiplier by the LLDP packets transmitting interval.
Transmit Delay
Enter the delay (in seconds) between successive LLDPDU transmissions initiated by value or
status changes in the Switch MIB.
Reinitialize Delay
Enter the number of seconds for LLDP to wait before initializing on a port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
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Table 156 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This displays the Switch’s port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Admin Status
Select whether LLDP transmission and/or reception is allowed on this port.
•
•
•
•
Disable - not allowed
Tx-Only - transmit only
Rx-Only - receive only
Tx-Rx - transmit and receive
Notification
Select whether LLDP notification is enabled on this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
35.6.1 Basic TLV Setting
Use this screen to configure Basic TLV settings. Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration
(Click Here) > Basic TLV Setting to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 273 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration > Basic TLV Setting (Standalone mode)
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Figure 274 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration> Basic TLV Setting (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 157 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration > Basic TLV Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
Port
This displays the Switch’s port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Management
Address
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of Management Address TLVs on
the port(s).
Port Description
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of Port Description TLVs on the
port(s).
System Capabilities
Select the check box(es) to enable or to disable the sending of System Capabilities TLVs on
the port(s).
System Description
Select the check box(es) to enable or to disable the sending of System Description TLVs on
the port(s).
System Name
Select the check box(es) to enable or to disable the sending of System Name TLVs on the
port(s).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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35.6.2 Org-specific TLV Setting
Use this screen to configure organization-specific TLV settings. Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP
Configuration (Click Here) > Org-specific TLV Setting to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 275 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration> Org-specific TLV Setting (Standalone
mode)
Figure 276 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration> Org-specific TLV Setting (Stacking
mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 158 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP Configuration > Org-specific TLV Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
Port
This displays the Switch’s port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Dot1 TLV
Port-Protocol
VLAN ID
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.1 Port and Protocol
VLAN ID TLVs on the port(s).
Port VLAN ID
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.1 Port VLAN ID TLVs on
the port(s). All check boxes in this column are enabled by default.
Dot3 TLV
Link
Aggregation
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.3 Link Aggregation TLVs
on the port(s).
MAC/PHY
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.3 MAC/PHY
Configuration/Status TLVs on the port(s). All check boxes in this column are enabled by
default.
Max Frame Size
Select the check box(es) to enable or disable the sending of IEEE 802.3 Max Frame Size TLVs
on the port(s).
Power Via MDI
Note: For PoE models only. The Power Via MDI TLV allows network management to advertise
and discover the MDI power support capabilities of the sending port on the remote device.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Port Class
MDI Supported
MDI Enabled
Pair Controlable
PSE Power Pairs
Power Class
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
35.7 LLDP-MED Configuration
Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Configuration to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 277 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Configuration (Standalone mode)
Figure 278 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Configuration (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 159 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number
of the Switch in a stack.
Port
This displays the Switch’s port number. Select * to configure all ports simultaneously. In
Stacking mode, the first number means Slot ID and the second is the port.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Notification
Topology
Change
Select to enable LLDP-MED topology change traps on this port.
MED TLV Setting
Location
Network Policy
Select to enable transmitting LLDP-MED location TLV.
Select to enable transmitting LLDP-MED Network Policy TLV.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
35.8 LLDP-MED Network Policy
Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Network Policy (Click Here) to display the screen as
shown next.
Figure 279 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Network Policy (Standalone mode)
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Figure 280 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Network Policy (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 160 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Network Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Enter the port number to set up the LLDP-MED network policy. For Stacking mode the first field
box is the slot ID, the second field box is the port number.
Application Type
Select the type of application used in the network policy.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tag
voice
voice-signaling
guest-voice
guest-voice-signaling
softphone-voice
video-conferencing
streaming-video
video-signaling
Select to tag or untag in the network policy.
•
•
tagged
untagged
VLAN
Enter the VLAN ID number. It should be from 1 to 4094. For priority tagged frames, enter “0”.
DSCP
Enter the DSCP value of the network policy. The value is defined from 0 through 63 with the 0
representing use of the default DSCP value.
Priority
Add
Cancel
Enter the priority value for the network policy.
Click Add after finish entering the network policy information. A summary table will list all the
Switch you’ve added.
Click Cancel to begin entering the information afresh.
Index
This field displays the of index number of the network policy. Click an index number to edit
the rule.
Port
This field displays the port number of the network policy.
Application Type
This field displays the application type of the network policy.
Tag
This field displays the Tag Status of the network policy.
VLAN
This field displays the VLANID of the network policy.
Priority
This field displays the priority value of the network policy.
DSCP
This field displays the DSCP value of the network policy.
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Table 160 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Network Policy
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the rules that you want to remove, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected check boxes.
35.9 LLDP-MED Location
Click Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location (Click Here) to display the screen as shown
next.
Figure 281 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location (Standalone mode)
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Figure 282 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 161 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Enter the port number you want to set up the location within the LLDP-MED network. For
stacking mode the first field box is the slot ID, the second field box is the port number.
Location
Coordinates
The LLDP-MED uses geographical coordinates and Civic Address to set the location
information of the remote device. Geographical based coordinates includes latitude,
longitude, altitude and datum. Civic Address includes Country, State, County, City, Street
and other related information.
Latitude
Enter the latitude information. The value should be from 0º to 90º. The negative value
represents the South.
•
•
Longitude
north
south
Enter the longitude information. The value should be from 0º to 180º. The negative value
represents the West.
•
•
west
east
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Table 161 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location
LABEL
Altitude
DESCRIPTION
Enter the altitude information. The value should be from -2097151 to 2097151 in meters or in
floors.
•
•
Datum
Select the appropriate geodetic datum used by GPS.
•
•
•
Civic Address
meters
floor
WGS84
NAD83-NAVD88
NAD83-MLLW
Enter the Civic Address by providing information such as Country, State, County, City, Street,
Number, ZIP code and other additional information. Enter at least two field in this
configuration including the Country. The valid length of the Country field is 2 characters and
all other fields are up to 32 characters.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ELIN Number
Country
State
County
City
Division
Neighbor
Street
Leading-Street-Direction
Street-Suffix
Trailing-Street-Suffix
House-Number
House-Number-Suffix
Landmark
Additional-Location
Name
Zip-Code
Building
Unit
Floor
Room-Number
Place-Type
Postal-Community-Name
Post-Office-Box
Additional-Code
Enter a numerical digit string, corresponding to the ELIN identifier which is used during
emergency call setup to a traditional CAMA or ISDN trunk-based PSAP. The valid length is
from 10 to 25 characters.
Add
Click Add after finish entering the location information.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin entering the location information afresh.
Index
This lists the index number of the location configuration. Click an index number to view or edit
the location.
Port
This lists the port number of the location configuration.
Location
Coordinates
This field displays the location configuration information based on geographical coordinates
that includes longitude, latitude, altitude and datum.
Civic Address
This field displays the Civic Address for the remote device using information such as Country,
State, County, City, Street, Number, ZIP code and additional information.
ELIN Number
This field shows the Emergency Location Identification Number (ELIN), which is used to
identify endpoint devices when they issue emergency call services. The valid length is form
10 to 25 characters.
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Table 161 Advanced Application > LLDP > LLDP-MED Location
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the locations that you want to remove, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected check boxes.
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Chapter 36 Anti-Arpscan
C H A P T E R 36
Anti-Arpscan
36.1 Anti-Arpscan Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), RFC 826, is a protocol used to convert a network-layer IP address to a
link-layer MAC address. ARP scan is used to scan the network of a certain interface for alive hosts. It
shows the IP address and MAC addresses of all hosts found. Hackers could use ARP scan to find targets
in your network. Anti-arpscan is used to detect unusual ARP scan activity and block suspicious hosts or
ports.
Unusual ARP scan activity is determined by port and host thresholds that you set. A port threshold is
determined by the number of packets received per second on the port. If the received packet rate is
over the threshold, then the port is put into an Err-Disable state. You can recover the normal state of the
port manually if this happens and after you identify the cause of the problem.
A host threshold is determined by the number of ARP-request packets received per second. There is a
global threshold rate for all hosts. If the rate of a host is over the threshold, then that host is blocked by
using a MAC address filter. A blocked host is released automatically after the MAC aging time expires.
Note: A port-based threshold must be larger than the host-based threshold or the host-based
threshold will not work.
36.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Anti-Arpscan Status screen (Section 36.2 on page 370) to see what ports are trusted and are
forwarding traffic or are disabled.
• Use the Anti-Arpscan Host Status screen (Section 36.3 on page 371) to view blocked hosts and clear
selected ones.
• Use the Anti-Arpscan Trust Host screen (Section 36.4 on page 372) to create or remove trusted hosts
identified by IP address and subnet mask. Anti-arpscan is not performed on trusted hosts.
• Use this Anti-Arpscan Configure screen (Section 36.5 on page 373) to enable anti-arpscan, set port
and host thresholds as well as configure ports to be trusted or untrusted.
36.1.2 What You Need to Know
• You should set an uplink port as a trusted port before enabling Anti-arpscan so as to prevent the port
from being shutdown due to receiving too many ARP messages.
• When a port is configured as a trusted port, Anti-arpscan is not performed on the port. Both host and
port thresholds are ignored for trusted ports. If the received ARP packet rate on a port or the received
ARP-requests from a host exceed the thresholds, the trusted port will not be closed.
• If a port on the Switch is closed by Anti-arpscan, and you want to recover it, then do one of the
following:
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• Go to Basic Setting > Port Setup. Clear Active and click Apply. Then select Active and click Apply
again.
• Go to Application > Errdiable > Errdisable Recovery and set the interval for Anti-arpscan. After the
interval expires, the closed port(s) will become active and start receiving packets again.
• Use the command port no inactive.
• Refer to the port logs to see when a port was closed.
36.2 Anti-Arpscan Status
Use this screen to see what ports are trusted and are forwarding traffic or are disabled. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan.
Figure 283 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan Status (Standalone mode)
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Figure 284 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan Status (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 162 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Anti-Arpscan is....
This shows whether Anti-arpscan is enabled or disabled on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the port number of the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot
ID and the second is the port number.
Trusted
This field displays whether the port is trusted or untrusted. Anti-arpscan is not performed on a
trusted port.
State
This field displays whether the port can forward traffic normally (Forwarding) or is disabled (ErrDisable).
36.3 Anti-Arpscan Host Status
Use this screen to view blocked hosts and unblock ones connected to certain ports. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Host Status.
Figure 285 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Host Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 163 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Host Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clear Filtered host:
A filtered host is a blocked IP address.
Port List
Type a port number or a series of port numbers separated by commas and spaces, and then
click Clear to unblock all hosts connected to these ports.
Filtered host:
This table lists information on blocked hosts.
Index
This displays the index number of an IP address (a host) that has been blocked.
Host IP
This displays the IP address of the blocked host.
MAC
This displays the MAC address of the blocked host.
VLAN
This displays the VLAN ID that shows which VLAN the blocked host is in.
Port
This displays the port number to which the blocked host is connected.
State
This shows Err-Disable if the ARP-request rate from this host is over the threshold. Forwarding
hosts are not displayed.
36.4 Anti-Arpscan Trust Host
Use this screen to create or remove trusted hosts identified by IP address and subnet mask. Anti-arpscan
is not performed on trusted hosts. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Trust
Host.
Figure 286 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Trust Host
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 164 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Trust Host
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a descriptive name of up to 32 printable ASCII characters to identify this host.
Host IP
Type the IP address of the host.
Mask
A trusted host may consist of a subnet of IP addresses. Type a subnet mask to create a single
host or a subnet of hosts.
Add
Click this to create the trusted host.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based or, if not applicable, to clear the fields above.
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Table 164 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Trust Host (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each trusted host.
Name
This field displays the name of the trusted host.
Host IP
This field displays the IP address of the trusted host.
Mask
This field displays the subnet mask of the trusted host.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Select an entry checkbox and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes above.
36.5 Anti-Arpscan Configure
Use this screen to enable Anti-Arpscan, set port and host thresholds as well as configure ports to be
trusted or untrusted. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Configure.
Figure 287 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Configure (Standalone mode)
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Figure 288 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Configure (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 165 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable Anti-arpscan on the Switch.
Port Threshold
A port threshold is determined by the number of packets received per second on the port. If
the received packet rate is over the threshold, then the port is put into an Err-Disable state.
Type the maximum number of packets per second allowed on the port before it is blocked.
Note: The allowed range is 2 to 255 packets received per second.
Host Threshold
A host threshold is determined by the number of ARP-request packets received per second.
This is the global threshold rate for all hosts. If the rate of a host is over the threshold, then that
host is blocked by using a MAC address filter. A blocked host is released automatically after
the MAC aging time expires.
Type the maximum number of ARP-request packets allowed by a host before it is blocked.
Note: The allowed range is 2 to 100 ARP-request packets per second.
Note: The port-based threshold must be larger than the host-based threshold or the
host-based threshold will not be applied.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This is the port index number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second is
the port number. Use port * to have all ports be Untrusted or Trusted.
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Table 165 Advanced Application > Anti-Arpscan > Configure (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Trusted State
Select Untrusted or Trusted for the associated port. Anti-arpscan is not performed on trusted
hosts.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
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C H A P T E R 37
BPDU Guard
37.1 BPDU Guard Overview
A BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) is a data frame that contains information about STP. STP-aware
switches exchange BPDUs periodically.
The BPDU guard feature allows you to prevent any new STP-aware switch from connecting to an existing
network and causing STP topology changes in the network. If there is any BPDU detected on the port(s)
on which BPDU guard is enabled, the Switch disables the port(s) automatically. You can then enable the
port(s) manually in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen (Section 8.7 on page 75) or use the Errdisable
Recovery screen (see Section 31.6 on page 329) to have the port(s) become active after a certain time
interval.
37.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the BPDU Guard Status screen (Section 37.2 on page 376) to view the BPDU guard status.
• Use the BPDU Guard Configuration screen (Section 37.3 on page 378) to enable BPDU guard on the
Switch.
37.2 BPDU Guard Status
Use this screen to view whether BPDU guard is enabled on the Switch and the port status. Click
Advanced Application > BPDU Guard in the navigation panel.
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Figure 289 Advanced Application > BPDU Guard Status (Standalone mode)
Figure 290 Advanced Application > BPDU Guard Status (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 166 Advanced Application > BPDU Guard Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
BPDU guard
globally
configuration
This field displays whether BPDU guard is activated on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This is the number of the port on the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and
the second is the port number.
Active
This shows whether BPDU guard is activated on the port.
Status
This shows whether the port is shut down (Err-disable) or able to transmit packets (Forwarding).
37.3 BPDU Guard Configuration
Use this screen to turn on the BPDU guard feature on the Switch and port(s).
In the BPDU Guard Status screen click Configuration to display the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 291 Advanced Application > BPDU Guard > BPDU Guard Configuration (Standalone mode)
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Figure 292 Advanced Application > BPDU Guard > BPDU Guard Configuration (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 167 Advanced Application > BPDU Guard > BPDU Guard Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable BPDU guard on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the Switch’s port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and
the second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable the BPDU guard feature on this port. The Switch shuts down this
port if there is any BPDU received on the port.
Clear this check box to disable the BPDU guard feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 38
OAM
38.1 OAM Overview
Link layer Ethernet OAM (Operations, Administration and Maintenance) as described in IEEE 802.3ah is a
link monitoring protocol. It utilizes OAM Protocol Data Units or OAM PDUs to transmit link status
information between directly connected Ethernet devices. Both devices must support IEEE 802.3ah.
Because link layer Ethernet OAM operates at layer two of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection Basic
Reference) model, neither IP or SNMP are necessary to monitor or troubleshoot network connection
problems.
The Switch supports the following IEEE 802.3ah features:
• Discovery - this identifies the devices on each end of the Ethernet link and their OAM configuration.
• Remote Loopback - this can initiate a loopback test between Ethernet devices.
38.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the OAM Status screen (Section 38.2 on page 380) to view the configuration of ports on which
Ethernet OAM is enabled.
• Use the OAM Configuration screen (Section 38.3 on page 386) to enable Ethernet OAM on the Switch.
• Use the OAM Remote Loopback screen (Section 38.4 on page 388) to perform remote-loopback tests.
38.2 OAM Status
Use this screen to view the configuration of ports on which Ethernet OAM is enabled. Click Advanced
Application > OAM in the navigation panel.
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Figure 293 Advanced Application > OAM Status (Standalone mode)
Figure 294 Advanced Application > OAM Status (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 168 Advanced Application > OAM Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Local
This section displays information about the ports on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the number of the port on the Switch. In stacking mode, the first box field is
the slot ID and the second field is the port number.
Mode
This field displays the operational state of the port when OAM is enabled on the port.
Active - Allows the port to issue and respond to Ethernet OAM commands.
Passive - Allows the port to respond to Ethernet OAM commands.
Remote
This section displays information about the remote device.
Mac Address
This field displays the MAC address of the remote device.
OUI
This field displays the OUI (first three bytes of the MAC address) of the remote device.
Mode
This field displays the operational state of the port when OAM is enabled on the port.
Active - Allows the port to issue and respond to Ethernet OAM commands.
Passive - Allows the port to respond to Ethernet OAM commands.
Config
This field displays the capabilities of the Switch and remote device.
38.2.1 OAM Details
Use this screen to view OAM configuration details and operational status of a specific port. Click a
number in the Port column in the OAM Status screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 295 Advanced Application > OAM Status > OAM Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 169 Advanced Application > OAM Status > OAM Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Discovery
This section displays OAM configuration details and operational status of the port on the Switch and/or the remote
device.
Local Client/
Remote Client
OAM
configurations
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Table 169 Advanced Application > OAM Status > OAM Details (continued)
LABEL
Mode
DESCRIPTION
This field displays the OAM mode. The device in active mode (typically the service provider's
device) controls the device in passive mode (typically the subscriber's device).
Active: The port initiates OAM discovery; sends information PDUs; and may send event
notification PDUs, variable request/response PDUs, or loopback control PDUs.
Passive: The port waits for the remote device to initiate OAM discovery; sends information
PDUs; may send event notification PDUs; and may respond to variable request PDUs or
loopback control PDUs.
The Switch might not support some types of PDUs, as indicated in the fields below.
Unidirectional
This field indicates whether or not the port can send information PDUs to transmit fault
information when the receive path is non-operational.
Remote
loopback
This field indicates whether or not the port can use loopback control PDUs to put the remote
device into loopback mode.
Link events
This field indicates whether or not the port can interpret link events, such as link fault and dying
gasp. Link events are sent in event notification PDUs and indicate when the number of errors
in a given interval (time, number of frames, number of symbols, or number of errored frame
seconds) exceeds a specified threshold. Organizations may create organization-specific link
event TLVs as well.
Variable
retrieval
This field indicates whether or not the port can respond to requests for more information, such
as requests for Ethernet counters and statistics, about link events.
Max. OAMPDU
size
This field displays the maximum size of PDU for receipt and delivery.
Local Client/
Remote Client
Operational status
Link status
This field indicates that the link between the Switch port and a connected IEEE 802.3ahenabled remote Ethernet device is up or down.
Info. revision
This field displays the current version of local state and configuration. This two-octet value
starts at zero and increments every time the local state or configuration changes.
Parser state
This field indicates the current state of the parser.
Forward: The port is forwarding packets normally.
Loopback: The port is in loopback mode.
Discard: The port is discarding non-OAMPDUs because it is trying to or has put the remote
device into loopback mode.
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Table 169 Advanced Application > OAM Status > OAM Details (continued)
LABEL
Discovery state
DESCRIPTION
This field indicates the state in the OAM discovery process. OAM-enabled devices use this
process to detect each other and to exchange information about their OAM configuration
and capabilities. OAM discovery is a handshake protocol.
Fault: One of the devices is transmitting OAM PDUs with link fault information, or the interface is
not operational.
Active Send Local: The port is in active mode and is trying to see if the remote device supports
OAM.
Passive Wait: The port is in passive mode and is waiting for the remote device to begin OAM
discovery.
Send Local Remote: This state occurs in the following circumstances.
•
•
The port has discovered the remote device but has not accepted or rejected the
connection yet.
The port has discovered the remote device and rejected the connection.
Send Local Remote OK: The port has discovered the remote device and has accepted the
connection. In addition, the remote device has not accepted or rejected the connection
yet, or the remote device has rejected the connected.
Send Any: The port and the remote device have accepted the connection. This is the
operating state for OAM links that are fully operational.
Statistics
This section displays the number of OAM packets transferred on the port of the Switch.
Information
OAMPDU Tx
This field displays the number of OAM PDUs sent on the port.
Information
OAMPDU Rx
This field displays the number of OAM PDUs received on the port.
Event Notification
OAMPDU Tx
This field displays the number of unique or duplicate OAM event notification PDUs sent on the
port.
Event Notification
OAMPDU Rx
This field displays the number of unique or duplicate OAM event notification PDUs received on
the port.
Loopback Control
OAMPDU Tx
This field displays the number of loopback control OAM PDUs sent on the port.
Loopback Control
OAMPDU Rx
This field displays the number of loopback control OAM PDUs received on the port.
Variable Request
OAMPDU Tx
This field displays the number of OAM PDUs sent to request MIB objects on the remote device.
Variable Request
OAMPDU Rx
This field displays the number of OAM PDUs received requesting MIB objects on the Switch.
Variable Response
OAMPDU Tx
This field displays the number of OAM PDUs sent by the Switch in response to requests.
Variable Response
OAMPDU Rx
This field displays the number of OAM PDUs sent by the remote device in response to requests.
Unsupported
OAMPDU Tx
This field displays the number of unsupported OAM PDUs sent on the port.
Unsupported
OAMPDU Rx
This field displays the number of unsupported OAM PDUs received on the port.
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38.3 OAM Configuration
Use this screen to turn on Ethernet OAM on the Switch and port(s) and configure the related settings.
In the OAM Status screen click Configuration to display the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 296 Advanced Application > OAM > OAM Configuration (Standalone mode)
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Figure 297 Advanced Application > OAM > OAM Configuration (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 170 Advanced Application > OAM > OAM Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable Ethernet OAM on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the Switch’s port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and
the second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable Ethernet OAM on this port.
Clear this check box to disable Ethernet OAM on the port.
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Table 170 Advanced Application > OAM > OAM Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
Specify the OAM mode on the port.
Select Active to allow the port to issue and respond to Ethernet OAM commands.
Select Passive to allow the port to respond to Ethernet OAM commands.
Remote
Loopback
Supported
Select this check box to enable the remote loopback feature on the port. Otherwise, clear the
check box to disable it.
Remote
Loopback
Ignore-Rx
Select this check box to set the Switch to process loopback commands received on the port.
Otherwise, clear the check box to have the Switch ignore loopback commands received on the
port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
38.4 OAM Remote Loopback
Use this screen to perform a remote-loopback test. In the OAM Status screen click Remote Loopback to
display the screen as shown.
Figure 298 Advanced Application > OAM > OAM Remote Loopback (Standalone mode)
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Figure 299 Advanced Application > OAM > OAM Remote Loopback (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 171 Advanced Application > OAM > OAM Remote Loopback
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote Loopback Test
Port
Enter the number of the port from which the Switch performs a remote-loopback test. In stacking
mode, the first box field is the slot ID and the second field is the port number.
Number of
Packet
Define the allowable packet number of the loopback test frames.
Packet Size
Define the allowable packet size of the loopback test frames.
Test
Click Test to begin the test.
Remote Loopback Mode
Port
Enter the number of the port from which the Switch sends loopback control PDUs to initiate or
terminate a remote-loopback test. In stacking mode, the first box field is the slot ID and the
second field is the port number.
Start
Click Start to initiate a remote-loopback test from the specified port by sending Enable
Loopback Control PDUs to the remote device.
Stop
Click Stop to terminate a remote-loopback test from the specified port by sending Disable
Loopback Control PDUs to the remote device.
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C H A P T E R 39
ZULD
39.1 ZULD Overview
A unidirectional link is a connection where the link is up on both ends, but only one end can receive
packets. This may happen if OAM was initially enabled but then disabled, there are misconfigured
transmitting or receiving lines or the hardware is malfunctioning. Zyxel Unidirectional Link Detection
(ZULD) is a layer-2 protocol that can detect and disable these physical one-way links before they cause
loops or communication malfunction.
In the figure below, S1 - A is a bidirectional link as both ends can send packets to each other. S1-B is
unidirectional as B cannot send packets to S1 (although the S1-B link is up). Similarly, S2-S1 is
unidirectional as S1 cannot send packets to S2 (although the S1-S2 link is up).
Figure 300 ZULD Overview
39.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the ZULD Status screen (Section 39.2 on page 391) to see details on ZULD.
• Use the ZULD Configuration screen (Section 39.3 on page 393) to enable ZULD on a port, configure a
mode and set the probe time.
39.1.2 What You Need to Know
• ZULD must be enabled on the Switch and the port(s) in order to detect unidirectional links by
monitoring OAMPDUs.
• Ports advertise their unidirectional link detection capability using OAMPDUs, so all connected devices
must support OAM as well as ZULD. You need to enable OAM on the Switch by going to Advanced
Application > OAM > Configuration and selecting Active. OAM must be enabled on other connected
devices too. If OAM is not enabled initially, ZULD will not work.
• If OAM is enabled initially and later disabled on one end of a link, the link will be unidirectional as that
end cannot send OAMPDUs.
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• OAM discovery, the sending of OAMPDUs to other ports, is initiated by an active port.
• When ZULD detects a unidirectional link, it sends a syslog and SNMP trap and may shut down the
affected port (Aggresssive Mode).
• If a port on the Switch is shut down by ZULD, and you want to recover it, then do one of the following:
• Go to Basic Setting > Port Setup. Clear Active and click Apply. Then select Active and click Apply
again.
• Go to Advanced Application > Errdiable > Errdisable Recovery and set the interval for ZULD. After
the interval expires, the closed port(s) will become active and start receiving packets again.
• Use the command port no inactive.
• Refer to the ZULD logs to see when a unidirectional link is detected and when it is recovered to a
bidirectional link.
39.2 ZULD Status
Use this screen to see details of unidirectional and bidirectional links discovered by ZULD. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > ZULD.
Figure 301 Advanced Application > ZULD Status (Standalone mode)
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Figure 302 Advanced Application > ZULD Status (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 172 Advanced Application > ZULD Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ZULD is....
This shows whether ZULD is enabled or disabled on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the port number of the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot
ID and the second is the port number.
Active
This field displays whether ZULD is enabled on the port or not. ZULD must be enabled to detect
an unidirectional link by monitoring OAMPDUs.
Mode
This field indicates what ZULD will do when a unidirectional link is detected. In Normal mode,
ZULD only sends a syslog and trap when it detects a unidirectional link. In Aggressive mode,
ZULD shuts down the port (puts it into an ErrDisable state) as well as sends a syslog and trap
when it detects a unidirectional link.
Probe Time
Probe time is the length of time that ZULD waits before declaring that a link is unidirectional.
When the probe time expires, and one port (either on the Switch or the connected device)
still has not received an OAMPDU, then ZULD declares that the link is unidirectional.
Link State
This field shows the following link states:
•
•
•
•
•
Remote Operation
Linkdown: This is an initialization state, where the port is not yet up.
Probe: This indicates that ZULD is discovering the connected device on this link.
Bidirectional: Traffic sent by the Switch is received by the connected device on this link,
and traffic from the connected device on this link is received by the Switch.
Unidirectional: The state of the link between the port and its connected port cannot be
determined either because no ZULD message was received, or one port is not capable of
sending traffic.
Shutdown: The port has been shut down because its link with the connected device is
unidirectional and ZULD is in Aggressive mode.
This field displays whether ZULD is enabled or disabled on the connected device on this link.
ZULD must be enabled on the connected device and on the port that’s connecting to the
Switch.
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Table 172 Advanced Application > ZULD Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Remote MAC Addr
This is the MAC address of the port on the connected device to which the port of the Switch
is connected.
Remote Port
This is the port number of the port on the connected device to which the port of the Switch is
connected.
39.3 ZULD Configuration
Use this screen to enable ZULD on a port, configure a mode and set the probe time. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > ZULD > Configuration.
Figure 303 Advanced Application > ZULD > Configuration (Standalone mode)
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Figure 304 Advanced Application > ZULD > Configuration (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 173 Advanced Application > ZULD > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable ZULD on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
Use port * to configure all ports to have the same settings. Alternatively, select individual ports
for different settings. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the second is the port
number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this to enable ZULD on the port. ZULD must be enabled to detect an unidirectional link
by monitoring OAMPDUs.
Mode
Select Normal or Aggressive. In Normal mode, ZULD only sends a syslog and trap when it
detects a unidirectional link. In Aggressive mode, ZULD shuts down the port (puts it into an
ErrDisable state) as well as sends a syslog and trap when it detects a unidirectional link.
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Table 173 Advanced Application > ZULD > Configuration (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Probe Time
Type the length of time that ZULD waits before declaring that a link is unidirectional. When the
probe time expires, and one port (either on the Switch or the connected device) still has not
received an OAMPDU, then ZULD declares that the link is unidirectional.
The allowed time range is from 5-65535 seconds.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
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C H A P T E R 40
Static Route
40.1 Static Routing Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure static routes.
The Switch uses IP for communication with management computers, for example using HTTP, Telnet, SSH,
or SNMP. Use IP static routes to have the Switch respond to remote management stations that are not
reachable through the default gateway. The Switch can also use static routes to send data to a server
or device that is not reachable through the default gateway, for example when sending SNMP traps or
using ping to test IP connectivity.
This figure shows a Telnet session coming in from network N1. The Switch sends reply traffic to default
gateway R1 which routes it back to the manager’s computer. The Switch needs a static route to tell it to
use router R2 to send traffic to an SNMP trap server on network N2.
Figure 305 Static Routing Overview
N1
40.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Static Routing screen (Section 40.2 on page 397) to display the link to the IPv4 Static Route
screen.
• Use the IPv4 Static Route screen (Section 40.3 on page 397) to configure and enable an IPv4 static
route.
• Use the IPv6 Static Route screen (Section 40.4 on page 398) to configure and enable an IPv6 static
route.
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40.2 Static Routing
Click IP Application > Static Routing in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. Click the link
next to IPv4 Static Route to open a screen where you can create IPv4 static routing rules. Click the link
next to IPv6 Static Route to open a screen where you can create IPv6 static routing rules.
Figure 306 IP Application > Static Routing
40.3 IPv4 Static Route
Click the link next to IPv4 Static Route in the IP Application > Static Routing screen to display the screen
as shown.
Figure 307 IP Application > Static Routing > IPv4 Static Route
The following table describes the related labels you use to create a static route.
Table 174 IP Application > Static Routing > IPv4 Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 10 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask for this destination. Routing is always based on network number. If you
need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask
field to force the network number to be identical to the host ID.
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Table 174 IP Application > Static Routing > IPv4 Static Route (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your Switch that
will forward the packet to the destination. The gateway must be a router on the same segment
as your Switch.
Metric
The metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses hop count as
the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected networks. Enter a number
that approximates the cost for this link. The number need not be precise, but it must be between
1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Add
Click Add to insert a new static route to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the route. Click a number to edit the static route entry.
Active
This field displays Yes when the static route is activated and NO when it is deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purposes only.
Destination
Address
This field displays the IP network address of the final destination.
Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask for this destination.
Gateway
Address
This field displays the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your
Switch that will forward the packet to the destination.
Metric
This field displays the cost of transmission for routing purposes.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
40.4 IPv6 Static Route
Click the link next to IPv6 Static Route in the IP Application > Static Routing screen to display the screen
as shown.
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Figure 308 IP Application > Static Routing > IPv6 Static Route
The following table describes the related labels you use to create a static route.
Table 175 IP Application > Static Routing > IPv6 Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Route
Destination
Enter the IPv6 address of the final destination.
Prefix Length
Enter the prefix length number of up to 64 for this destination.
Next Hop
Enter the IPv6 address of the next-hop router.
Interface Type
Select the type of the IPv6 interface through which the IPv6 packets are forwarded.
The Switch supports only the VLAN interface type at the time of writing.
Interface ID
Enter the ID number of the IPv6 interface through which the IPv6 packets are forwarded.
Add
Click Add to insert a new static route to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This field displays the index number of the route. Click a number to edit the static route entry.
Interface
This field displays the descriptive name of the interface that is used to forward the packets to
the destination.
Route
Destination/Prefix
Length
This field displays the IPv6 subnet prefix and prefix length of the final destination.
Next Hop
This field displays the IPv6 address of the gateway that helps forward the packet to the
destination.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
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C H A P T E R 41
Differentiated Services
41.1 DiffServ Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on the Switch.
Quality of Service (QoS) is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the flow are
given the same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different priorities to different packet
types.
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific per-hop
treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application types and
traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the level of service desired.
This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to handle the packets differently
depending on the code points without the need to negotiate paths or remember state information for
every flow. In addition, applications do not have to request a particular service or give advanced
notice of where the traffic is going.
41.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the DiffServ screen (Section 41.2 on page 401) to activate DiffServ to apply marking rules or IEEE
802.1p priority mapping on the Switch.
• Use the DSCP screen (Section 41.3.1 on page 403) to change the DSCP-IEEE 802.1p mapping.
41.1.2 What You Need to Know
Read on for concepts on Differentiated Services that can help you configure the screens in this chapter.
DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (ToS) field in the IP
header. The DS field contains a 6-bit DSCP field which can define up to 64 service levels and the
remaining 2 bits are defined as currently unused (CU). The following figure illustrates the DS field.
Figure 309 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP (6 bits)
CU (2 bits)
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that non-DiffServ
compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
The DSCP value determines the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet gets as it is forwarded across
the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule different kinds of traffic can be marked for different
priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to the DSCP values and the
configured policies.
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DiffServ Network Example
The following figure depicts a DiffServ network consisting of a group of directly connected DiffServcompliant network devices. The boundary node (A in Figure 310) in a DiffServ network classifies (marks
with a DSCP value) the incoming packets into different traffic flows (Platinum, Gold, Silver, Bronze)
based on the configured marking rules. A network administrator can then apply various traffic policies to
the traffic flows. An example traffic policy, is to give higher drop precedence to one traffic flow over
others. In our example, packets in the Bronze traffic flow are more likely to be dropped when congestion
occurs than the packets in the Platinum traffic flow as they move across the DiffServ network.
Figure 310 DiffServ Network
41.2 Activating DiffServ
Activate DiffServ to apply marking rules or IEEE 802.1p priority mapping on the Switch.
Click IP Application > DiffServ in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 311 IP Application > DiffServ (Standalone mode)
Figure 312 IP Application > DiffServ (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 176 IP Application > DiffServ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable DiffServ on the Switch.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the index number of a port on the switch. In stacking mode, the first number is the
slot ID and the second is the port number. * means all ports.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set the
common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select Active to enable Diffserv on the port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
41.3 DSCP Settings
You can configure the DSCP to IEEE 802.1p mapping to allow the Switch to prioritize all traffic based on
the incoming DSCP value according to the DiffServ to IEEE 802.1p mapping table.
The following table shows the default DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mapping.
Table 177 Default DSCP-IEEE 802.1p Mapping
DSCP VALUE
0–7
8 – 15
16 – 23
24 – 31
32 – 39
40 – 47
48 – 55
56 – 63
IEEE 802.1p
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
41.3.1 Configuring DSCP Settings
To change the DSCP-IEEE 802.1p mapping click the DSCP Setting link in the DiffServ screen to display the
screen as shown next.
Figure 313 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 178 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
0 … 63
This is the DSCP classification identification number.
To set the IEEE 802.1p priority mapping, select the priority level from the drop-down list box.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it
is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to
the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 42
DHCP
42.1 DHCP Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure the DHCP feature.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual computers to
obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. If you configure the Switch as a DHCP relay agent,
then the Switch forwards DHCP requests to DHCP server on your network. If you don’t configure the
Switch as a DHCP relay agent then you must have a DHCP server in the broadcast domain of the client
computers or else the client computers must be configured manually.
42.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the DHCPv4 Status screen (Section 42.3 on page 406) to display the relay mode.
• Use the DHCPv4 Relay screen (Section 42.4 on page 407) to enable and configure global DHCPv4
relay.
• Use the VLAN Setting screen (Section 42.4.6 on page 412) to configure your DHCPv4 settings based on
the VLAN domain of the DHCPv4 clients.
• Use the DHCPv6 Relay screen (Section 42.5 on page 416) to enable and configure DHCPv6 relay.
42.1.2 What You Need to Know
Read on for concepts on DHCP that can help you configure the screens in this chapter.
DHCP Modes
If there is already a DHCP server on your network, then you can configure the Switch as a DHCP relay
agent. When the Switch receives a request from a computer on your network, it contacts the DHCP
server for the necessary IP information, and then relays the assigned information back to the computer.
DHCPv4 Configuration Options
The DHCPv4 configuration on the Switch is divided into Global and VLAN screens. The screen you should
use for configuration depends on the DHCP services you want to offer the DHCP clients on your network.
Choose the configuration screen based on the following criteria:
• Global - The Switch forwards all DHCP requests to the same DHCP server.
• VLAN - The Switch is configured on a VLAN by VLAN basis. The Switch can be configured to relay
DHCP requests to different DHCP servers for clients in different VLAN.
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42.2 DHCP Configuration
Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. Click the link next to
DHCPv4 to open screens where you can enable and configure DHCPv4 relay settings and create option
82 profiles. Click the link next to DHCPv6 to open a screen where you can configure DHCPv6 relay
settings.
Figure 314 IP Application > DHCP
42.3 DHCPv4 Status
Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 in the navigation panel. The DHCP Status screen displays.
Figure 315 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 179 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Relay
Status
This section displays configuration settings related to the Switch’s DHCP relay mode.
Relay
Mode
This field displays:
None - if the Switch is not configured as a DHCP relay agent.
Global - if the Switch is configured as a DHCP relay agent only.
VLAN - followed by a VLAN ID or multiple VLAN IDs if it is configured as a relay agent for specific
VLAN(s).
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN for which the Switch acts as a DHCP relay agent.
Current
Source
Address
This field displays the source IP address of the DHCP requests that the Switch forwards to a DHCP server.
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42.4 DHCPv4 Relay
Configure DHCP relay on the Switch if the DHCP clients and the DHCP server are not in the same
broadcast domain. During the initial IP address leasing, the Switch helps to relay network information
(such as the IP address and subnet mask) between a DHCP client and a DHCP server. Once the DHCP
client obtains an IP address and can connect to the network, network information renewal is done
between the DHCP client and the DHCP server without the help of the Switch.
The Switch can be configured as a global DHCP relay. This means that the Switch forwards all DHCP
requests from all domains to the same DHCP server. You can also configure the Switch to relay DHCP
information based on the VLAN membership of the DHCP clients.
42.4.1 DHCPv4 Relay Agent Information
The Switch can add information about the source of client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server
by adding Relay Agent Information. This helps provide authentication about the source of the requests.
The DHCP server can then provide an IP address based on this information. Please refer to RFC 3046 for
more details.
The DHCP Relay Agent Information feature adds an Agent Information field (also known as the Option
82 field) to DHCP requests. The Option 82 field is in the DHCP headers of client DHCP request frames that
the Switch relays to a DHCP server.
Relay Agent Information can include the System Name of the Switch if you select this option. You can
change the System Name in Basic Settings > General Setup.
The following describes the DHCP relay agent information that the Switch sends to the DHCP server:
Table 180 Relay Agent Information
FIELD LABELS
DESCRIPTION
Slot ID
(1 byte) This value is always 0 for stand-alone switches.
Port ID
(1 byte) This is the port that the DHCP client is connected to.
VLAN ID
(2 bytes) This is the VLAN that the port belongs to.
Information
(up to 64 bytes) This optional, read-only field is set according to system name set in Basic
Settings > General Setup.
42.4.1.1 DHCPv4 Relay Agent Information Format
A DHCP Relay Agent Information option has the following format.
Table 181 DHCP Relay Agent Information Option Format
Code
Length
(82)
(N)
i1
i2
iN
...
i1, i2 and iN are DHCP relay agent sub-options, which contain additional information about the DHCP
client. You need to define at least one sub-option.
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42.4.1.2 Sub-Option Format
There are two types of sub-option: “Agent Circuit ID Sub-option” and “Agent Remote ID Sub-option”.
They have the following formats.
Table 182 DHCP Relay Agent Circuit ID Sub-option Format
SubOpt Code
Length
1
N
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
Value
Slot ID, Port ID, VLAN ID, System Name or String
Table 183 DHCP Relay Agent Remote ID Sub-option Format
SubOpt Code
Length
2
N
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
Value
MAC Address or String
The 1 in the first field identifies this as an Agent Circuit ID sub-option and 2 identifies this as an Agent
Remote ID sub-option. The next field specifies the length of the field.
42.4.2 DHCPv4 Option 82 Profile
Use this screen to create DHCPv4 option 82 profiles. Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 in the
navigation panel and click the Option 82 Profile link to display the screen as shown.
Figure 316 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Option 82 Profile
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 184 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Option 82 Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes. You can use up to 32 ASCII
characters. Spaces are allowed.
Circuit-ID
Use this section to configure the Circuit ID sub-option to include information that is specific to
the relay agent (the Switch).
Enable
Select this option to have the Switch add the Circuit ID sub-option to client DHCP requests that it
relays to a DHCP server.
slot-port
Select this option to have the Switch add the number of port that the DHCP client is connected
to.
vlan
Select this option to have the Switch add the ID of VLAN which the port belongs to.
hostname
This is the system name you configure in the Basic Setting > General Setup screen.
Select this option for the Switch to add the system name to the client DHCP requests that it
relays to a DHCP server.
string
Enter a string of up to 64 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the client DHCP requests.
Spaces are allowed.
Remote-ID
Use this section to configure the Remote ID sub-option to include information that identifies the
relay agent (the Switch).
Enable
Select this option to have the Switch append the Remote ID sub-option to the option 82 field of
DHCP requests.
mac
Select this option to have the Switch add its MAC address to the client DHCP requests that it
relays to a DHCP server.
string
Enter a string of up to 64 ASCII characters for the remote ID information in this field. Spaces are
allowed.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile. Click the name to change the settings.
Circuit-ID
Enable
This field displays whether the Circuit ID sub-option is added to client DHCP requests.
Field
This field displays the information that is included in the Circuit ID sub-option.
Remote-ID
Enable
This field displays whether the Remote ID sub-option is added to client DHCP requests.
Field
This field displays the information that is included in the Remote ID sub-option.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove and then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected check box(es).
42.4.3 Configuring DHCPv4 Global Relay
Use this screen to configure global DHCPv4 relay. Click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 in the
navigation panel and click the Global link to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 317 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 185 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable DHCPv4 relay.
Remote DHCP
Server 1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCPv4 server in dotted decimal notation.
Option 82 Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCPv4 option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports. The Switch
adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the profile to DHCP
requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
42.4.4 DHCPv4 Global Relay Port Configure
Use this screen to apply a different DHCP option 82 profile to certain ports on the Switch. To open this
screen, click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global > Port.
Figure 318 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global > Port
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 186 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Enter the number of port(s) to which you want to apply the specified DHCP option 82 profile.
You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-). For example,
enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the second the port number. Enter 1/
1-1/24,2/28 for ports 1 to 24 for the Switch in slot 1 and port 28 for the Switch in slot 2, for example.
Option 82 Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the specified port(s). The
Switch adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the profile to
DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
The profile you select here has priority over the one you select in the DHCP > DHCPv4 > Global
screen.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected entry or, if not applicable, to clear
the fields above.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each entry. Click an index number to change the
settings.
Port
This field displays the port(s) to which the Switch applies the settings.
Profile Name
This field displays the DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the port(s).
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove, then click the Delete button to remove the
selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes above.
42.4.5 Global DHCP Relay Configuration Example
The follow figure shows a network example where the Switch is used to relay DHCP requests for the
VLAN1 and VLAN2 domains. There is only one DHCP server that services the DHCP clients in both
domains.
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Figure 319 Global DHCP Relay Network Example
Configure the DHCP Relay screen as shown. Make sure you select a DHCP option 82 profile (default1 in
this example) to set the Switch to send additional information (such as the VLAN ID) together with the
DHCP requests to the DHCP server. This allows the DHCP server to assign the appropriate IP address
according to the VLAN ID.
Figure 320 DHCP Relay Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
42.4.6 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings
Use this screen to configure your DHCP settings based on the VLAN domain of the DHCP clients. Click IP
Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 in the navigation panel, then click the VLAN link In the DHCP Status screen
that displays.
Note: You must set up a management IP address for each VLAN that you want to configure
DHCP settings for on the Switch. See Section 5.2 on page 47 for information on how to
do this.
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Figure 321 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 187 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN to which these DHCP settings apply.
Relay
Use this section if you want to configure the Switch to function as a DHCP relay for this VLAN.
Remote DHCP
Server 1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Source Address
Enter the source IP address that the Switch adds to DHCP requests from clients on this VLAN
before forwarding them. If you leave this field set to 0.0.0.0, the Switch automatically sets the
source IP address of the DHCP requests to the IP address of the interface on which the packet is
received.
The source IP address helps DHCP clients obtain an appropriate IP address when you configure
multiple routing domains on a VLAN.
Option 82 Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports in this VLAN. The
Switch adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the profile to
DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group to which this DHCP settings apply.
Type
This field displays Relay for the DHCP mode.
DHCP Status
For DHCP server configuration, this field displays the starting IP address and the size of the IP
address pool.
For DHCP relay configuration, this field displays the first remote DHCP server IP address.
Source Address
This field displays the source IP address you configured for DHCP requests from clients on this
VLAN.
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Table 187 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Select the configuration entries you want to remove and click Delete to remove them.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
42.4.7 DHCPv4 VLAN Port Configure
Use this screen to apply a different DHCP option 82 profile to certain ports in a VLAN. To open this screen,
click IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN > Port.
Figure 322 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 188 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN you want to configure here.
Port
Enter the number of port(s) to which you want to apply the specified DHCP option 82 profile.
You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (-). For example,
enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the second the port number. Enter 1/
1-1/24,2/28 for ports 1 to 24 for the Switch in slot 1 and port 28 for the Switch in slot 2, for
example.
Option 82 Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the specified port(s) in this
VLAN. The Switch adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the
profile to DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
The profile you select here has priority over the one you select in the DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN
screen.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected entry or, if not applicable, to
clear the fields above.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
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Table 188 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv4 > VLAN > Port (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each entry. Click an index number to change the
settings.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the port(s) belongs.
Port
This field displays the port(s) to which the Switch applies the settings.
Profile Name
This field displays the DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to the port(s) in this VLAN.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Select the entry(ies) that you want to remove, then click the Delete button to remove the
selected entry(ies) from the table.
Cancel
Click this to clear the check boxes above.
42.4.8 Example: DHCP Relay for Two VLANs
The following example displays two VLANs (VIDs 1 and 2) for a campus network. Two DHCP servers are
installed to serve each VLAN. The system is set up to forward DHCP requests from the dormitory rooms
(VLAN 1) to the DHCP server with an IP address of 192.168.1.100. Requests from the academic buildings
(VLAN 2) are sent to the other DHCP server with an IP address of 172.16.10.100.
Figure 323 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs
For the example network, configure the VLAN Setting screen as shown.
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Figure 324 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
42.5 DHCPv6 Relay
A DHCPv6 relay agent is on the same network as the DHCPv6 clients and helps forward messages
between the DHCPv6 server and clients. When a client cannot use its link-local address and a wellknown multicast address to locate a DHCPv6 server on its network, it then needs a DHCPv6 relay agent
to send a message to a DHCPv6 server that is not attached to the same network.
The DHCPv6 relay agent can add the remote identification (remote-ID) option and the interface-ID
option to the Relay-Forward DHCPv6 messages. The remote-ID option carries a user-defined string, such
as the system name. The interface-ID option provides slot number, port information and the VLAN ID to
the DHCPv6 server. The remote-ID option (if any) is stripped from the Relay-Reply messages before the
relay agent sends the packets to the clients. The DHCPv6 server copies the interface-ID option from the
Relay-Forward message into the Relay-Reply message and sends it to the relay agent. The interface-ID
should not change even after the relay agent restarts.
Use this screen to configure DHCPv6 relay settings for a specific VLAN on the Switch. Click IP Application
> DHCP > DHCPv6 in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 325 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 189 IP Application > DHCP > DHCPv6
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN you want to configure here.
Helper Address
Enter the remote DHCPv6 server address for the specified VLAN.
Options
Interface ID
Select this option to have the Switch add the interface-ID option in the DHCPv6 requests from
the clients in the specified VLAN before the Switch forwards them to a DHCPv6 server.
Remote ID
Enter a string of up to 64 printable characters to be carried in the remote-ID option. The Switch
adds the remote-ID option in the DHCPv6 requests from the clients in the specified VLAN before
the Switch forwards them to a DHCPv6 server.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes
to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID number. Click the VLAN ID to change the settings.
Helper Address
This field displays the IPv6 address of the remote DHCPv6 server for this VLAN.
Interface ID
This field displays whether the interface-ID option is added to DHCPv6 requests from clients in this
VLAN.
Remote ID
This field displays whether the remote-ID option is added to DHCPv6 requests from clients in this
VLAN.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove and then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected check boxes.
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C H A P T E R 43
ARP Setup
43.1 ARP Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP address) to
a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC address, on the local area
network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are 48 bits long. The ARP
table maintains an association between each MAC address and its corresponding IP address.
43.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the ARP Learning screen (Section 43.2.1 on page 420) to configure ARP learning mode on a perport basis.
• Use the Static ARP screen (Section 43.2.2 on page 422) to create static ARP entries on the Switch.
43.1.2 What You Need to Know
Read on for concepts on ARP that can help you configure the screen in this chapter.
43.1.2.1 How ARP Works
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network arrives at the Switch, the
Switch looks in the ARP Table and if it finds the address, it sends it to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the devices on the LAN. The
Switch fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender address fields, and puts the known IP address of
the target in the target IP address field. In addition, the Switch puts all ones in the target MAC field
(FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The replying device (which is either the IP address of
the device being sought or the router that knows the way) replaces the broadcast address with the
target's MAC address, swaps the sender and target pairs, and unicasts the answer directly back to the
requesting machine. ARP updates the ARP Table for future reference and then sends the packet to the
MAC address that replied.
43.1.2.2 ARP Learning Mode
The Switch supports three ARP learning modes: ARP-Reply, Gratuitous-ARP, and ARP-Request.
ARP-Reply
The Switch in ARP-Reply learning mode updates the ARP table only with the ARP replies to the ARP
requests sent by the Switch. This can help prevent ARP spoofing.
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In the following example, the Switch does not have IP address and MAC address mapping information
for hosts A and B in its ARP table, and host A wants to ping host B. Host A sends an ARP request to the
Switch and then sends an ICMP request after getting the ARP reply from the Switch. The Switch finds no
matched entry for host B in the ARP table and broadcasts the ARP request to all the devices on the LAN.
When the Switch receives the ARP reply from host B, it updates its ARP table and also forwards host A’s
ICMP request to host B. After the Switch gets the ICMP reply from host B, it sends out an ARP request to
get host A’s MAC address and updates the ARP table with host A’s ARP reply. The Switch then can
forward host B’s ICMP reply to host A.
Gratuitous-ARP
A gratuitous ARP is an ARP request in which both the source and destination IP address fields are set to
the IP address of the device that sends this request and the destination MAC address field is set to the
broadcast address. There will be no reply to a gratuitous ARP request.
A device may send a gratuitous ARP packet to detect IP collisions. If a device restarts or its MAC address
is changed, it can also use gratuitous ARP to inform other devices in the same network to update their
ARP table with the new mapping information.
In Gratuitous-ARP learning mode, the Switch updates its ARP table with either an ARP reply or a
gratuitous ARP request.
ARP-Request
When the Switch is in ARP-Request learning mode, it updates the ARP table with both ARP replies,
gratuitous ARP requests and ARP requests.
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Therefore in the following example, the Switch can learn host A’s MAC address from the ARP request
sent by host A. The Switch then forwards host B’s ICMP reply to host A right after getting host B’s MAC
address and ICMP reply.
43.2 ARP Setup
Click IP Application > ARP Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. Click the link
next to ARP Learning to open a screen where you can set the ARP learning mode for each port. Click
the link next to Static ARP to open a screen where you can create static ARP entries on the Switch.
Figure 326 IP Application > ARP Setup
43.2.1 ARP Learning
Use this screen to configure each port’s ARP learning mode. Click the link next to ARP Learning in the IP
Application > ARP Setup screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 327 IP Application > ARP Setup > ARP Learning (Standalone mode)
Figure 328 IP Application > ARP Setup > ARP Learning (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 190 IP Application > ARP Setup > ARP Learning
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays the port number. In stacking mode, the first number is the slot ID and the
second is the port number.
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Table 190 IP Application > ARP Setup > ARP Learning (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
ARP Learning
Mode
Select the ARP learning mode the Switch uses on the port.
Select ARP-Reply to have the Switch update the ARP table only with the ARP replies to the ARP
requests sent by the Switch.
Select Gratuitous-ARP to have the Switch update its ARP table with either an ARP reply or a
gratuitous ARP request.
Select ARP-Request to have the Switch update the ARP table with both ARP replies, gratuitous
ARP requests and ARP requests.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
43.2.2 Static ARP
Use this screen to create static ARP entries that will display in the Management > ARP Table screen and
will not age out. Click the link next to Static ARP in the IP Application > ARP Setup screen to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 329 IP Application > ARP Setup > Static ARP (Standalone mode)
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Figure 330 IP Application > ARP Setup > Static ARP (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 191 IP Application > ARP Setup > Static ARP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of a device connected to a Switch port with the corresponding MAC
address below.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of the device with the corresponding IP address above.
VID
Enter the ID number of VLAN to which the device belongs.
Port
Enter the number of port to which the device connects. In stacking mode, the first number
represents the slot and the second the port number.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of an entry. Click an index number to change the settings.
Active
This field displays Yes when the entry is activated and NO when it is deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this entry. This is for identification purposes only.
IP Address
This is the IP address of a device connected to a Switch port with the corresponding MAC
address below.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device with the corresponding IP address above.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the device belongs.
Port
This field displays the port to which the device connects.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the check boxes.
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C H A P T E R 44
Maintenance
44.1 Overview
This chapter explains how to configure the screens that let you maintain the firmware and configuration
files.
44.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Maintenance screen (Section 44.2 on page 424) to erase running configuration, save a
configuration file or restart the Switch.
• Use the Firmware Upgrade screen (Section 44.6 on page 428) to upload the latest firmware.
• Use the Restore Configuration screen (Section 44.7 on page 430) to upload a stored device
configuration file.
• Use the Backup Configuration screen (Section 44.8 on page 431) to save your configurations for later
use.
• Use the Tech-Support screen (Section 44.9 on page 431) to create reports for customer support if
there are problems with the Switch.
44.2 The Maintenance Screen
Use this screen to manage firmware and your configuration files. Click Management > Maintenance in
the navigation panel to open the following screen.
Figure 331 Management > Maintenance (Standalone mode)
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Figure 332 Management > Maintenance (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 192 Management > Maintenance
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
This field displays which configuration (Configuration 1 or Configuration 2) is currently operating
on the Switch.
Firmware
Upgrade
Click Click Here to go to the Firmware Upgrade screen.
Restore
Configuration
Click Click Here to go to the Restore Configuration screen.
Backup
Configuration
Click Click Here to go to the Backup Configuration screen.
Erase RunningConfiguration
Click Click Here to reset the current configuration of the Switch. Note that this will not reset the
configuration to the factory default settings.
Save
Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Click Custom Default to save the current configuration settings to a custom default file on the
Switch.
Reboot System
Click Config 1 to reboot the system and load Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Click Config 2 to reboot the system and load Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Click Stacking Default to reboot the system and load stacking configurations on the Switch.
Click Factory Default to reboot the system and load the default configuration settings on the
Switch.
Click Custom Default to reboot the system and load a saved Custom Default configuration file
on the Switch. This will save the custom default configuration settings to both Configuration 1
and Configuration 2. If a Custom Default configuration file was not saved, clicking Custom
Default loads the factory default configuration on the Switch.
Note: Make sure to click the Save button in any screen to save your settings to the
current configuration on the Switch.
Tech-Support
Click Click Here to see the Tech-Support screen. You can set CPU and memory thresholds for
log reports and download related log reports for issue analysis. Log reports include CPU history
and utilization, crash and memory.
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44.3 Erase Running-Configuration
Follow the steps below to remove the running configuration on the Switch. Unlike when you reset the
Switch to the factory defaults, the username, password, system logs, memory logs, baud rate and SSH
service are not removed.
1
In the Maintenance screen, click the Click Here button next to Erase Running-Configuration to clear all
Switch configuration information you configured.
2
Click OK to remove the running configuration on the Switch.
Figure 333 Erase Running-Configuration: Confirmation
3
In the web configurator, click the Save button in the top of the screen to make the changes take effect.
If you want to access the Switch web configurator again, you may need to change the IP address of
your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default Switch IP address (192.168.1.1).
44.4 Save Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings permanently to Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings permanently to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Click Custom Default to save the current configuration settings permanently to a custom default file on
the Switch. If configuration changes cause the Switch to behave abnormally, click Custom Default (next
to Reboot System) to have the Switch automatically reboot and restore the saved Custom Default
configuration file.
Alternatively, click Save on the top right-hand corner in any screen to save the configuration changes
to the current configuration.
Note: Clicking the Apply or Add button does NOT save the changes permanently. All
unsaved changes are erased after you reboot the Switch.
44.5 Reboot System
Reboot System allows you to restart the Switch without physically turning the power off. It also allows you
to load configuration one (Config 1), configuration two (Config 2), stacking default, a Custom Default or
Factory Default when you reboot. Follow the steps below to reboot the Switch.
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1
In the Maintenance screen, click a configuration button next to Reboot System to reboot and load that
configuration file. The following screen displays.
Figure 334 Reboot System: Confirmation
2
Click OK again and then wait for the Switch to restart. This takes up to two minutes. This does not affect
the Switch’s configuration.
Click Config 1 and follow steps 1 to 2 to reboot and load configuration one on the Switch.
Click Config 2 and follow steps 1 to 2 to reboot and load configuration two on the Switch.
Click Factory Default and follow steps 1 to 2 to reboot and load default configuration settings on the
Switch.
Click Custom Default and follow steps 1 to 2 to reboot and load Custom Default configuration settings on
the Switch. This will save the custom default configuration settings to both Configuration 1 and
Configuration 2.
44.5.1 Load Stacking Default
Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the stacking defaults. The master Switch login
information will not be reset.
1
Click the Stacking Default button to clear all Switch configuration information you configured and return
to the stacking defaults.
2
Click OK to continue or Cancel to abort.
Figure 335 Load Stacking Default: Start
3
If you want to access the Switch web configurator again, you may need to change the IP address of
your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default Switch IP address (192.168.1.1).
44.5.2 Factory Default
Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
1
Click the Factory Default button.
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2
Click OK to continue or Cancel to abort.
Figure 336 Load Factory Default: Start
If you want to access the Switch web configurator again, you may need to change the IP address of
your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default Switch IP address (192.168.1.1 or DHCPassigned IP).
44.5.3 Custom Default
Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the Custom Default configurations file you created.
This will save the custom default configuration settings to both Configuration 1 and Configuration 2.
1
Click the Custom Default button.
2
Click OK to continue or Cancel to abort.
Note: If you did not save a Custom Default file in the web configurator or CLI using copy
running-config custom-default, then the factory default file is restored after you
press click Custom Default (next to Reboot System) on the Switch. You will then have to
make all your configurations again on the Switch.
Figure 337 Load Custom Default: Start
44.6 Firmware Upgrade
Use the following screen to upgrade your Switch to the latest firmware. The Switch supports dual
firmware images, Firmware 1 and Firmware 2. Use this screen to specify which image is updated when
firmware is uploaded using the web configurator and to specify which image is loaded when the Switch
starts up.
Make sure you have downloaded (and unzipped) the correct model firmware and version to your
computer before uploading to the device.
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong
model firmware may damage your device.
Click Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade to view the screen as shown next.
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Figure 338 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
Figure 339 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade (Stacking mode)
Type the path and file name of the firmware file you wish to upload to the Switch in the File Path text box
or click Browse to locate it (Firmware upgrades are only applied after a reboot). Click Upgrade to load
the new firmware.
After the firmware upgrade process is complete, see the System Info screen to verify your current
firmware version number.
Table 193 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking mode)
This is the slot index number.
Name
This is the name of the Switch that you’re configuring.
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Table 193 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status (Stacking
mode)
This field displays the current stacking status on the Switch.
Version
The Switch has two firmware sets, Firmware 1 and Firmware 2, residing in flash.
•
•
•
Running shows the version number (and model code) and MM/DD/YYYY creation date
of the firmware currently in use on the Switch (Firmware 1 or Firmware 2). The firmware
information is also displayed at System Information in Basic Settings.
Firmware 1 shows its version number (and model code) and MM/DD/YYYY creation
date.
Firmware 2 shows its version number (and model code) and MM/DD/YYYY creation
date.
Current Boot Image
This displays which firmware is currently in use on the Switch (Firmware 1 or Firmware 2).
Config Boot Image
Select which firmware (Firmware 1 or Firmware 2) should load, click Apply and reboot the
Switch to see changes, you will also see changes in the Current Boot Image field above as
well.
Apply
Cancel
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
(Stacking mode)
Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the Switch in a stack to upgrade the
firmware on this slot. Alternatively, select All to upgrade the firmware for all slots.
Firmware
Choose to upload the new firmware to (Firmware) 1 or (Firmware) 2.
File Path
Type the path and file name of the firmware file you wish to upload to the Switch in the File
Path text box or click Browse to locate it.
Upgrade
Click Upgrade to load the new firmware. Firmware upgrades are only applied after a
reboot. To reboot, go to Management > Maintenance > Reboot System and click Config 1,
Config 2 or Factory Default (Config 1, Config 2 and Factory Default are the configuration
files you want the Switch to use when it restarts).
44.7 Restore Configuration
Use this screen to restore a previously saved configuration from your computer to the Switch.
Figure 340 Management > Maintenance > Restore Configuration
Type the path and file name of the configuration file you wish to restore in the File Path text box or click
Choose File to locate it. After you have specified the file, click Restore. "config" is the name of the
configuration file on the Switch, so your backup configuration file is automatically renamed when you
restore using this screen.
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44.8 Backup Configuration
Use this screen to save and store your current device settings.
Backing up your Switch configurations allows you to create various “snap shots” of your device from
which you may restore at a later date.
Back up your current Switch configuration to a computer using the Backup Configuration screen.
Figure 341 Management > Maintenance > Backup Configuration
Follow the steps below to back up the current Switch configuration to your computer in this screen.
1
Click Backup.
2
If the current configuration file is open and/or downloaded to your computer automatically, you can
click File > Save As to save the file to a specific place.
If a dialog box pops up asking whether you want to open or save the file, click Save or Save File to
download it to the default downloads folder on your computer. If a Save As screen displays after you
click Save or Save File, choose a location to save the file on your computer from the Save in drop-down
list box and type a descriptive name for it in the File name list box. Click Save to save the configuration
file to your computer.
44.9 Tech-Support
The Tech-Support feature is a log enhancement tool that logs useful information such as CPU utilization
history, memory and Mbuf (Memory Buffer) log and crash reports for issue analysis by customer support
should you have difficulty with your Switch. The Tech Support menu eases your effort in obtaining reports
and it is also available in CLI command by typing “Show tech-support” command.
Click Management > Maintenance > Tech-Support to see the following screen.
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Figure 342 Management > Maintenance > Tech-Support
You may need WordPad or similar software to see the log report correctly. The table below describes
the fields in the above screen.
Table 194 Management > Maintenance > Tech-Support
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
CPU
Type a number ranging from 50 to 100 in the CPU threshold box, and type another
number ranging from 5 to 60 in the seconds box then click Apply.
For example, 80 for CPU threshold and 5 for seconds means a log will be created when
CPU utilization reaches over 80% and lasts for 5 seconds.
The log report holds 7 days of CPU log data and is stored in volatile memory (RAM). The
data is lost if the Switch is turned off or in event of power outage. After 7 days, the logs
wrap around and new ones and replace the earliest ones.
The higher the CPU threshold number, the fewer logs will be created, and the less data
technical support will have to analyze and vice versa.
Mbuf
Type a number ranging from 50 to 100 in the Mbuf (Memory Buffer) threshold box. The
Mbuf log report is stored in flash (permanent) memory.
For example, Mbuf 50 means a log will be created when the Mbuf utilization is over 50%.
The higher the Mbuf threshold number, the fewer logs will be created, and the less data
technical support will have to analyze and vice versa.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
All
Click Download to see all the log report and system status. This log report is stored in flash
memory. If the All log report is too large, you can download the log reports separately
below.
Crash
Click Download to see the crash log report. The log will include information of the last
crash and is stored in flash memory.
CPU history
Click Download to see the CPU history log report. The 7-days log is stored in RAM and you
will need to save it, otherwise it will be lost when the Switch is shutdown or during power
outage.
Memory Section
Click Download to see the memory section log report. This log report is stored in flash
memory.
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Table 194 Management > Maintenance > Tech-Support
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mbuf
Click Download to see the Mbuf log report. The log includes Mbuf over threshold
information. This log report is stored in flash memory.
ROM
Click Download to see the Read Only Memory (ROM) log report. This report is stored in
flash memory.
L3
Click Download to see the layer-3 Switch log report. The log only applies to the layer-3
Switch models. This report is stored in flash memory.
44.9.1 Tech-Support Download
When you click Download to save your current Switch configuration to a computer, the following screen
appears. When the log report has downloaded successfully, click Back to return to the previous screen.
Figure 343 Management > Maintenance > Tech-Support: Download
44.10 Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information on the topics discussed in this chapter.
44.10.1 FTP Command Line
This section shows some examples of uploading to or downloading files from the Switch using FTP
commands. First, understand the filename conventions.
44.10.2 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (also known as the romfile or ROM) contains the factory default settings in the
screens such as password, Switch setup, IP Setup, and so on. Once you have customized the Switch’s
settings, they can be saved back to your computer under a filename of your choosing.
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ZyNOS (Zyxel Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the system firmware
and has a “bin” filename extension.
Table 195 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL NAME
EXTERNAL NAME
DESCRIPTION
Configuration File
config
*.cfg
This is the configuration filename on the
Switch. Uploading the config file replaces
the specified configuration file system,
including your Switch configurations,
system-related data (including the default
password), the error log and the trace log.
Firmware
ras
*.bin
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS
firmware on the Switch.
44.10.2.1 Example FTP Commands
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file "firmware.bin" to the Switch.
ftp> get config config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to a file called “config.cfg” on your
computer.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the source, you will
need to rename them as the Switch only recognizes “config” and “ras”. Be sure you keep unaltered
copies of both files for later use.
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong
model firmware may damage your device.
44.10.3 FTP Command Line Procedure
1
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2
Enter open, followed by a space and the IP address of your Switch.
3
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5
Enter bin to set transfer mode to binary.
6
Use put to transfer files from the computer to the Switch, for example, put firmware.bin ras transfers
the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the Switch and renames it to “ras”. Similarly, put
config.cfg config transfers the configuration file on your computer (config.cfg) to the Switch and
renames it to “config”. Likewise get config config.cfg transfers the configuration file on the Switch
to your computer and renames it to “config.cfg”. See Table 195 on page 434 for more information on
filename conventions.
7
Enter quit to exit the ftp prompt.
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44.10.4 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP clients.
General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server for
anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or service administrator
has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode. Configuration and
firmware files should be transferred in binary mode.
Initial Remote Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
44.10.5 FTP Restrictions
FTP will not work when:
• FTP service is disabled in the Service Access Control screen.
• The IP address(es) in the Remote Management screen does not match the client IP address. If it does
not match, the Switch will disconnect the FTP session immediately.
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C H A P T E R 45
Access Control
45.1 Access Control Overview
This chapter describes how to control access to the Switch.
A console port and FTP are allowed one session each. Telnet and SSH share nine sessions. Up to five Web
sessions (five different user names and passwords) and/or limitless SNMP access control sessions are
allowed.
Table 196 Access Control Overview
Console Port
SSH
Telnet
One session
Share up to nine sessions
FTP
Web
SNMP
One session
Up to five accounts
No limit
A console port access control session and Telnet access control session cannot coexist when multi-login
is disabled. See the CLI Reference Guide for more information on disabling multi-login.
45.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Access Control screen (Section 45.2 on page 436) to display the main screen.
• Use the SNMP screen (Section 45.3 on page 437) to configure your SNMP settings.
• Use the Trap Group screen (Section 45.3.1 on page 438) to specify the types of SNMP traps that should
be sent to each SNMP manager.
• Use the User Information screen (Section 45.3.3 on page 440) to create SNMP users for authentication
with managers using SNMP v3 and associate them to SNMP groups.
• Use the Logins screens (Section 45.4 on page 442) to assign which users can access the Switch via
web configurator at any one time.
• Use the Service Access Control screen (Section 45.5 on page 444) to decide what services you may
use to access the Switch.
• Use the Remote Management screen (Section 45.6 on page 445) to specify a group of one or more
“trusted computers” from which an administrator may use a service to manage the Switch.
45.2 The Access Control Main Screen
Use this screen to display the main screen.
Click Management > Access Control in the navigation panel to display the main screen as shown.
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Figure 344 Management > Access Control
45.3 Configuring SNMP
Use this screen to configure your SNMP settings.
Click Management > Access Control > SNMP to view the screen as shown.
Figure 345 Management > Access Control > SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 197 Management > Access Control > SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General Setting
Use this section to specify the SNMP version and community (password) values.
Version
Select the SNMP version for the Switch. The SNMP version on the Switch must match the
version on the SNMP manager. Choose SNMP version 2c (v2c), SNMP version 3 (v3) or both
(v3v2c).
SNMP version 2c is backwards compatible with SNMP version 1.
Get Community
Enter the Get Community string, which is the password for the incoming Get- and GetNextrequests from the management station.
The Get Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or lower.
Set Community
Enter the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set- requests from the
management station.
The Set Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or lower.
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Table 197 Management > Access Control > SNMP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trap Community
Enter the Trap Community string, which is the password sent with each trap to the SNMP
manager.
The Trap Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or lower.
Trap Destination
Use this section to configure where to send SNMP traps from the Switch.
Version
Specify the version of the SNMP trap messages.
IP
Enter the IP addresses of up to four managers to send your SNMP traps to.
Port
Enter the port number upon which the manager listens for SNMP traps.
Username
Enter the username to be sent to the SNMP manager along with the SNMP v3 trap.
This username must match an existing account on the Switch (configured in Management >
Access Control > Logins screen).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
45.3.1 Configuring SNMP Trap Group
From the SNMP screen, click Trap Group to view the screen as shown. Use the Trap Group screen to
specify the types of SNMP traps that should be sent to each SNMP manager.
Figure 346 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 198 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trap Destination IP
Select one of your configured trap destination IP addresses. These are the IP addresses of the
SNMP managers. You must first configure a trap destination IP address in the SNMP Setting
screen.
Use the rest of the screen to select which traps the Switch sends to that SNMP manager.
Type
Select the categories of SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP manager.
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Table 198 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group (continued) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Options
Select the individual SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP station. See SNMP Traps
on page 447 for individual trap descriptions.
The traps are grouped by category. Selecting a category automatically selects all of the
category’s traps. Clear the check boxes for individual traps that you do not want the Switch
to send to the SNMP station. Clearing a category’s check box automatically clears all of the
category’s trap check boxes (the Switch only sends traps from selected categories).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
45.3.2 Enabling/Disabling Sending of SNMP Traps on a Port
From the SNMP > Trap Group screen, click Port to view the screen as shown. Use this screen to set
whether a trap received on the port(s) would be sent to the SNMP manager.
Figure 347 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port
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Figure 348 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 199 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Option
Select the trap type you want to configure here.
Slot (Stacking
mode)
Select the slot number that represents the Switch in a stack.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some of the settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable the trap type of SNMP traps on this port.
Clear this check box to disable the sending of SNMP traps on this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
45.3.3 Configuring SNMP User
From the SNMP screen, click User to view the screen as shown. Use the User screen to create SNMP users
for authentication with managers using SNMP v3 and associate them to SNMP groups. An SNMP user is
an SNMP manager.
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Figure 349 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 200 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User
LABEL
User Information
DESCRIPTION
Note: Use the username and password of the login accounts you specify in this
screen to create accounts on the SNMP v3 manager.
Username
Specify the username of a login account on the Switch.
Security Level
Select whether you want to implement authentication and/or encryption for SNMP
communication from this user. Choose:
•
•
•
noauth -to use the username as the password string to send to the SNMP manager. This is
equivalent to the Get, Set and Trap Community in SNMP v2c. This is the lowest security
level.
auth - to implement an authentication algorithm for SNMP messages sent by this user.
priv - to implement authentication and encryption for SNMP messages sent by this user.
This is the highest security level.
Note: The settings on the SNMP manager must be set at the same security level or
higher than the security level settings on the Switch.
Authentication
Password
Privacy
Select an authentication algorithm. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm)
are hash algorithms used to authenticate SNMP data. SHA authentication is generally
considered stronger than MD5, but is slower.
Enter the password of up to 32 ASCII characters for SNMP user authentication.
Specify the encryption method for SNMP communication from this user. You can choose one
of the following:
•
•
Password
Group
DES - Data Encryption Standard is a widely used (but breakable) method of data
encryption. It applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
AES - Advanced Encryption Standard is another method for data encryption that also uses
a secret key. AES applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data.
Enter the password of up to 32 ASCII characters for encrypting SNMP packets.
SNMP v3 adopts the concept of View-based Access Control Model (VACM) group. SNMP
managers in one group are assigned common access rights to MIBs. Specify in which SNMP
group this user is.
admin - Members of this group can perform all types of system configuration, including the
management of administrator accounts.
readwrite - Members of this group have read and write rights, meaning that the user can
create and edit the MIBs on the Switch, except the user account and AAA configuration.
readonly - Members of this group have read rights only, meaning the user can collect
information from the Switch.
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Table 200 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is a read-only number identifying a login account on the Switch. Click on an index number
to view more details and edit an existing account.
Username
This field displays the username of a login account on the Switch.
Security Level
This field displays whether you want to implement authentication and/or encryption for SNMP
communication with this user.
Authentication
This field displays the authentication algorithm used for SNMP communication with this user.
Privacy
This field displays the encryption method used for SNMP communication with this user.
Group
This field displays the SNMP group to which this user belongs.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
45.4 Logins
Up to five people (one administrator and four non-administrators) may access the Switch via web
configurator at any one time.
• An administrator is someone who can both view and configure Switch changes. The username for the
Administrator is always admin. The default administrator password is 1234.
Note: It is highly recommended that you change the default administrator password (1234).
• A non-administrator (username is something other than admin) is someone who can view but not
configure Switch settings.
Click Management > Access Control > Logins to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 350 Management > Access Control > Logins
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 201 Management > Access Control > Logins
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Administrator
This is the default administrator account with the “admin” user name. You cannot change the default
administrator user name. Only the administrator has read/write access.
Old Password
Type the existing system password (1234 is the default password when shipped).
New Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to
confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation.
Edit Logins
You may configure passwords for up to four users. These users have read-only access. You can give users higher
privileges via the CLI. For more information on assigning privileges see the Ethernet Switch CLI Reference Guide.
User Name
Set a user name (up to 32 ASCII characters long).
Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to
confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation.
Privilege
Type the privilege level for this user. At the time of writing, users may have a privilege level of 0,
3, 13, or 14 representing different configuration rights as shown below.
•
•
•
•
0 - Display basic system information.
3 - Display configuration or status.
13 - Configure features except for login accounts, SNMP user accounts, the
authentication method sequence and authorization settings, multiple logins, administrator
and enable passwords, and configuration information display.
14 - Configure login accounts, SNMP user accounts, the authentication method
sequence and authorization settings, multiple logins, and administrator and enable
passwords, and display configuration information.
Users can run command lines if the session’s privilege level is greater than or equal to the
command’s privilege level. The session privilege initially comes from the privilege of the login
account. For example, if the user has a privilege of 5, he/she can run commands that requires
privilege level of 5 or less but not more.
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Table 201 Management > Access Control > Logins (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
45.5 Service Access Control
Service Access Control allows you to decide what services you may use to access the Switch. You may
also change the default service port and configure “trusted computer(s)” for each service in the
Remote Management screen (discussed later). Click Access Control to go back to the main Access
Control screen.
Figure 351 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 202 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Services
Services you may use to access the Switch are listed here.
Active
Select this option for the corresponding services that you want to allow to access the Switch.
Service Port
For Telnet, SSH, FTP, HTTP or HTTPS services, you may change the default service port by typing
the new port number in the Service Port field. If you change the default port number then you
will have to let people (who wish to use the service) know the new port number for that
service.
Timeout
Type how many minutes (from 1 to 255) a management session can be left idle before the
session times out. After it times out you have to log in with your password again. Very long idle
timeouts may have security risks.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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45.6 Remote Management
Use this screen to specify a group of one or more “trusted computers” from which an administrator may
use a service to manage the Switch.
Click Management > Access Control > Remote Management to view the screen as shown next.
You can specify a group of one or more “trusted computers” from which an administrator may use a
service to manage the Switch. Click Access Control to return to the Access Control screen.
Figure 352 Management > Access Control > Remote Management
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 203 Management > Access Control > Remote Management
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Entry
This is the client set index number. A “client set” is a group of one or more “trusted computers”
from which an administrator may use a service to manage the Switch.
Active
Select this check box to activate this secured client set. Clear the check box if you wish to
temporarily disable the set without deleting it.
Start Address
Configure the IP address range of trusted computers from which you can manage this Switch.
End Address
The Switch checks if the client IP address of a computer requesting a service or protocol matches
the range set here. The Switch immediately disconnects the session if it does not match.
Telnet/FTP/
HTTP/ICMP/
SNMP/SSH/
HTTPS
Select services that may be used for managing the Switch from the specified trusted computers.
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Table 203 Management > Access Control > Remote Management (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
45.7 Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information on the topics discussed in this chapter.
45.7.1 About SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol used to manage and
monitor TCP/IP-based devices. SNMP is used to exchange management information between the
network management system (NMS) and a network element (NE). A manager station can manage and
monitor the Switch through the network via SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1), SNMP version 2c or SNMP version
3. The next figure illustrates an SNMP management operation. SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is
configured.
Figure 353 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main components: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed Switch (the Switch). An agent
translates the local management information from the managed Switch into a form compatible with
SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators perform network management
functions. It executes applications that control and monitor managed devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a Switch. Examples of variables include number of packets received,
node port status and so on. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection of managed objects.
SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of accessing these objects.
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SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The manager
issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol operations:
Table 204 SNMP Commands
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Get
Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
GetNext
Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an agent. In
SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an agent, it initiates a
Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
Set
Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
Trap
Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
SNMP v3 and Security
SNMP v3 enhances security for SNMP management. SNMP managers can be required to authenticate
with agents before conducting SNMP management sessions.
Security can be further enhanced by encrypting the SNMP messages sent from the managers.
Encryption protects the contents of the SNMP messages. When the contents of the SNMP messages are
encrypted, only the intended recipients can read them.
Supported MIBs
MIBs let administrators collect statistics and monitor status and performance.
The Switch supports the following MIBs:
• SNMP MIB II (RFC 1213)
• RFC 1157 SNMP v1
• RFC 1493 Bridge MIBs
• RFC 1643 Ethernet MIBs
• RFC 1155 SMI
• RFC 2674 SNMPv2, SNMPv2c
• RFC 1757 RMON
• SNMPv2, SNMPv2c or later version, compliant with RFC 2011 SNMPv2 MIB for IP, RFC 2012 SNMPv2 MIB
for TCP, RFC 2013 SNMPv2 MIB for UDP
SNMP Traps
The Switch sends traps to an SNMP manager when an event occurs. The following tables outline the
SNMP traps by category.
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An OID (Object ID) that begins with “1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15” is defined in private MIBs. Otherwise, it is a
standard MIB OID.
Table 205 SNMP System Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
coldstart
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
This trap is sent when the Switch is turned
on.
warmstart
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
fanspeed
zyHwMonitorFanSpeedOutO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.1
fRange
This trap is sent when the fan speed goes
above or below the normal operating
range.
zyHwMonitorFANSpeedOut
OfRangeRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.6
This trap is sent when the fan speed is
recovered from the out of range to normal
operating range.
zyHwMonitorTemperatureOu 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.2
tOfRange
This trap is sent when the temperature goes
above or below the normal operating
range.
zyHwMonitorTemperatureOu 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.7
tOfRangeRecovered
This trap is sent when the temperature is
recovered from the out of range to normal
operating range.
zyHwMonitorPowerSupplyVo 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.3
ltageOutOfRange
This trap is sent when the voltage goes
above or below the normal operating
range.
zyHwMonitorPowerSupplyVo 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.26.2.8
ltageOutOfRangeRecovere
d
This trap is sent when the power supply
voltage is recovered from the out of range
to normal operating range.
zySysMgmtUncontrolledSyste 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.49.2.1
mReset
This trap is sent when the Switch
automatically resets.
zySysMgmtControlledSystem 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.49.2.2
Reset
This trap is sent when the Switch resets by
an administrator through a management
interface.
zySysMgmtBootImageIncons 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.49.2.3
istence
This trap is sent when the index number of
image which is loaded when the Switch
starts up is different from what is specified
via the CLI.
RebootEvent
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.1.1.2
This trap is sent when the Switch reboots by
an administrator through a management
interface.
zyDateTimeTrapTimeServerN
otReachable
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.82.3.1
This trap is sent when the Switch’s date and
time is not manually entered or the
specified time server is not reachable.
zyDateTimeTrapTimeServerN
otReachableRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.82.3.2
This trap is sent when the Switch’s real time
clock is up to date.
intrusionlock
zyPortIntrusionLock
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.61.3.2
This trap is sent when intrusion lock occurs
on a port.
loopguard
zyLoopGuardLoopDetect
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.45.2.1
This trap is sent when loopguard shuts down
a port.
temperature
voltage
reset
timesync
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This trap is sent when the Switch restarts.
Chapter 45 Access Control
Table 205 SNMP System Traps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
errdisable
zyErrdisableDetect
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.24.4.1
This trap is sent when an error is detected
on a port, such as a loop occurs or the rate
limit for specific control packets is
exceeded.
zyErrdisableRecovery
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.24.4.2
This trap is sent when the Switch ceases the
action taken on a port, such as shutting
down the port or discarding packets on the
port, after the specified recovery interval.
zyPoePowerPortOverload
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.1
This trap is sent when the port is turned off to
supply power due to overloading.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.2
This trap is sent when the port is turned off to
supply power due to short circuit.
zyPoePowerPortOverSystem
Budget
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.3
This trap is sent when the port is turned off to
supply power because the requested
power exceeds the total PoE power
budget on the Switch.
zyPoePowerPortOverloadRe
covered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.5
This trap is sent when the port is turned on to
recover from an overloaded state.
zyPoePowerPortShortCircuitR 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.6
ecovered
This trap is sent when the port is turned on to
recover from a short circuit.
zyPoePowerPortOverSystem
BudgetRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.59.4.7
This trap is sent when the port is turned on to
recover from an over system budget.
zyAccessControlLoginRecor
d
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.9.4.1
This trap is sent when users log in.
zyAccessControlLogoutRec
ord
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.9.4.2
This trap is sent when users log out.
zyAccessControlLoginFail
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.9.4.3
This trap is sent when users fail in login.
poe
(For PoE models
zyPoePowerPortShortCircuit
only)
loginrecord
Table 206 SNMP Interface Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
linkup
linkUp
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link
is up.
linkdown
linkDown
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link
is down.
autonegotiation
zyPortAutonegotiationFailed
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.61.3.1
This trap is sent when an Ethernet
interface fails to auto-negotiate with
the peer Ethernet interface.
lldp
lldpRemTablesChange
1.0.8802.1.1.2.0.0.1
The trap is sent when entries in the
remote database have any updates.
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP),
defined as IEEE 802.1ab, enables LAN
devices that support LLDP to
exchange their configured settings.
This helps eliminate configuration
mismatch issues.
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Table 206 SNMP Interface Traps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
transceiver-ddm
zyTransceiverDdmiTemperature
OutOfRange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.1
This trap is sent when the transceiver
temperature is above or below the
normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiTxPowerOutO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.2
fRange
This trap is sent when the transmitted
optical power is above or below the
normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiRxPowerOutO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.3
fRange
This trap is sent when the received
optical power is above or below the
normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiVoltageOutO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.4
fRange
This trap is sent when the transceiver
supply voltage is above or below the
normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiTxBiasOutOfR
ange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.5
This trap is sent when the transmitter
laser bias current is above or below
the normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiTemperature
OutOfRangeRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.6
This trap is sent when the transceiver
temperature is recovered from the
out of normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiTxPowerOutO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.7
fRangeRecovered
This trap is sent when the transmitted
optical power is recovered from the
out of normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiRxPowerOutO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.8
fRangeRecovered
This trap is sent when the received
optical power is recovered from the
out of normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiVoltageOutO 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.9
fRangeRecovered
This trap is sent when the transceiver
supply voltage is recovered from the
out of normal operating range.
zyTransceiverDdmiTxBiasOutOfR
angeRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.84.3.10
This trap is sent when the transmitter
laser bias current is recovered from
the out of normal operating range.
Storm-control
zyPortStormControlTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.78.2.1
This trap is sent when storm control is
detected on a specific port. A packet
filter action has been applied on the
interface.
zuld
zyZuldUnidirectionalDetected
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.110.3.1
This trap is sent when a unidirectional
link is detected.
zyZuldBidirectionalRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.110.3.2
This trap is sent when the port which is
shut down by ZULD becomes active
again.
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Table 207 SNMP AAA Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
authentication
authenticationFailure
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
This trap is sent when authentication
fails due to incorrect user name and/or
password.
zyAaaAuthenticationFailure
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.8.3.1
This trap is sent when authentication
fails due to incorrect user name and/or
password.
zyRadiusServerAuthenticationSer
verNotReachable
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.71.2.1
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the RADIUS
authentication server.
zyTacacsServerAuthenticationSer 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.83.2.1
verUnreachable
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the TACACS+
authentication server.
zyRadiusServerAuthenticationSer
verNotReachableRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.71.2.3
This trap is sent when there is a response
message from the previously
unreachable RADIUS authentication
server.
zyTacacsServerAuthenticationSer 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.83.2.3
verUnreachableRecovered
This trap is sent when there is a response
message from the previously
unreachable TACACS+ authentication
server.
authorization
zyAaaAuthorizationFailure
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.8.3.2
This trap is sent when management
connection authorization failed.
accounting
zyRadiusServerAccountingServer
NotReachable
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.71.2.2
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the RADIUS
accounting server.
zyTacacsServerAccountingServer 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.83.2.2
Unreachable
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the TACACS+
accounting server.
zyRadiusServerAccountingServer
NotReachableRecovered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.71.2.4
This trap is sent when there is a response
message from the previously
unreachable RADIUS accounting server.
zyTacacsServerAccountingServer 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.83.2.4
UnreachableRecovered
This trap is sent when there is a response
message from the previously
unreachable TACACS+ accounting
server.
Table 208 SNMP IP Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
ping
pingProbeFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.1
This trap is sent when a single ping probe fails.
pingTestFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.2
This trap is sent when a ping test (consisting of a series of
ping probes) fails.
pingTestCompleted
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.3
This trap is sent when a ping test is completed.
traceRouteTestFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.2
This trap is sent when a traceroute test fails.
traceRouteTestCompleted
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.3
This trap is sent when a traceroute test is completed.
traceroute
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Table 209 SNMP Switch Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
stp
mactable
rmon
classifier
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
STPNewRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
This trap is sent when the STP root switch changes.
zyMrstpNewRoot
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.5
2.3.1
This trap is sent when the MRSTP root switch changes.
zyMstpNewRoot
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.5
3.3.1
This trap is sent when the MSTP root switch changes.
STPTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
This trap is sent when the STP topology changes.
zyMrstpTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.5
2.3.2
This trap is sent when the MRSTP topology changes.
zyMstpTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.5
3.3.2
This trap is sent when the MSTP root switch changes.
zyMacForwardingTableFull
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.4
8.2.1
This trap is sent when more than 99% of the MAC table is
used.
zyMacForwardingTableFullReco
vered
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.4
8.2.2
This trap is sent when the MAC address switching table
has become normal from full.
RmonRisingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
This trap is sent when a variable goes over the RMON
"rising" threshold.
RmonFallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
This trap is sent when the variable falls below the RMON
"falling" threshold.
zyAclV2ClassifierLogNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.15.3.1
05.4.1
This trap is sent when the Switch detects classifier log
information.
45.7.2 SSH Overview
Unlike Telnet or FTP, which transmit data in clear text, SSH (Secure Shell) is a secure communication
protocol that combines authentication and data encryption to provide secure encrypted
communication between two hosts over an unsecured network.
Figure 354 SSH Communication Example
45.7.2.1 How SSH works
The following table summarizes how a secure connection is established between two remote hosts.
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Figure 355 How SSH Works
1
Host Identification
The SSH client sends a connection request to the SSH server. The server identifies itself with a host key. The
client encrypts a randomly generated session key with the host key and server key and sends the result
back to the server.
The client automatically saves any new server public keys. In subsequent connections, the server public
key is checked against the saved version on the client computer.
2
Encryption Method
Once the identification is verified, both the client and server must agree on the type of encryption
method to use.
3
Authentication and Data Transmission
After the identification is verified and data encryption activated, a secure tunnel is established between
the client and the server. The client then sends its authentication information (user name and password)
to the server to log in to the server.
45.7.2.2 SSH Implementation on the Switch
Your Switch supports SSH version 2 using RSA authentication and three encryption methods (DES, 3DES
and Blowfish). The SSH server is implemented on the Switch for remote management and file transfer on
port 22. Only one SSH connection is allowed at a time.
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45.7.2.3 Requirements for Using SSH
You must install an SSH client program on a client computer (Windows or Linux operating system) that is
used to connect to the Switch over SSH.
45.7.3 Introduction to HTTPS
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a web protocol that
encrypts and decrypts web pages. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is an application-level protocol that
enables secure transactions of data by ensuring confidentiality (an unauthorized party cannot read the
transferred data), authentication (one party can identify the other party) and data integrity (you know if
data has been changed).
It relies upon certificates, public keys, and private keys.
HTTPS on the Switch is used so that you may securely access the Switch using the web configurator. The
SSL protocol specifies that the SSL server (the Switch) must always authenticate itself to the SSL client (the
computer which requests the HTTPS connection with the Switch), whereas the SSL client only should
authenticate itself when the SSL server requires it to do so. Authenticating client certificates is optional
and if selected means the SSL-client must send the Switch a certificate. You must apply for a certificate
for the browser from a Certificate Authority (CA) that is a trusted CA on the Switch.
Please refer to the following figure.
1
HTTPS connection requests from an SSL-aware web browser go to port 443 (by default) on the Switch’s
WS (web server).
2
HTTP connection requests from a web browser go to port 80 (by default) on the Switch’s WS (web
server).
Figure 356 HTTPS Implementation
Note: If you disable HTTP in the Service Access Control screen, then the Switch blocks all HTTP
connection attempts.
45.7.3.1 HTTPS Example
If you haven’t changed the default HTTPS port on the Switch, then in your browser enter “https://Switch
IP Address/” as the web site address where “Switch IP Address” is the IP address or domain name of the
Switch you wish to access.
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Internet Explorer Warning Messages
Internet Explorer 6
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a Windows dialog box pops up asking if you trust
the server certificate.
You see the following Security Alert screen in Internet Explorer. Select Yes to proceed to the web
configurator login screen; if you select No, then web configurator access is blocked.
Figure 357 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer 6)
Internet Explorer 7 later version
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a screen with the message "There is a problem
with this website's security certificate." may display. If that is the case, click Continue to this website (not
recommended) to proceed to the web configurator login screen.
Figure 358 Security Certificate Warning (Internet Explorer 11)
After you log in, you will see the red address bar with the message Certificate Error. Click on Certificate
Error next to the address bar and click View certificates.
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Figure 359 Certificate Error (Internet Explorer 11)
EXAMPLE
Click Install Certificate... and follow the on-screen instructions to install the certificate in your browser.
Figure 360 Certificate (Internet Explorer 11)
EXAMPLE
Mozilla Firefox Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a This Connection is Unstructed or Your connection
is not secure screen may display. If that is the case, click I Understand the Risks or Advanced and then
the Add Exception... button.
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Figure 361 Security Alert (Mozilla Firefox 53.0)
Confirm the HTTPS server URL matches. Click Confirm Security Exception to proceed to the web
configurator login screen.
Figure 362 Security Alert (Mozilla Firefox 53.0)
EXAMPLE
45.7.4 Google Chrome Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a Your connection is not private screen may
display. If that is the case, click Advanced and then Proceed to x.x.x.x (unsafe) to proceed to the web
configurator login screen.
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Figure 363 Security Alert (Google Chrome 58.0.3029.110)
45.7.4.1 The Main Screen
After you accept the certificate and enter the login username and password, the Switch main screen
appears. The lock displayed in the bottom right of the browser status bar or next to the website address
denotes a secure connection.
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Figure 364 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection
EXAMPLE
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C H A P T E R 46
Diagnostic
46.1 Overview
This chapter explains the Diagnostic screen. You can use this screen to help you identify problems.
46.2 Diagnostic
Click Management > Diagnostic in the navigation panel to open this screen. Use this screen to ping IP
addresses, run a traceroute, perform port tests or show the Switch’s location between devices.
Figure 365 Management > Diagnostic (Standalone mode)
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Figure 366 Management > Diagnostic (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 210 Management > Diagnostic
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ping Test
IPv4
Select this option if you want to ping an IPv4 address. Select - to send ping requests to all
VLANs on the Switch.
IPv6
Select this option if you want to ping an IPv6 address. You can also select vlan and specify
the ID number of the VLAN to which the Switch is to send ping requests. Otherwise, select - to
send ping requests to all VLANs on the Switch.
IP Address/Host
Name
Type the IP address or host name of a device that you want to ping in order to test a
connection.
Click Ping to have the Switch ping the IP address.
Source IP
Address
Type the source IP address that you want to ping in order to test a connection.
Count
Enter the number of ICMP Echo Request (ping) messages the Switch continuously sends.
Click Ping to have the Switch ping the IP address.
Trace Route Test
IPv4
Select this option if you want to trace the route packets take to a device with an IPv4
address. Select - to trace the path on any VLAN.
Note: The device to which you want to run a traceroute must belong to the VLAN
you specify here.
IPv6
Select this option if you want to trace the route packets take to a device with an IPv6
address.
IP Address/Host
Name
Enter the IP address or host name of a device to which you want to perform a traceroute.
Click Trace Route to have the Switch perform the traceroute function. This determines the
path a packet takes to the specified device.
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Table 210 Management > Diagnostic (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TTL
Enter the Time To Live (TTL) value for the ICMP Echo Request packets. This is to set the
maximum number of the hops (routers) a packet can travel through. Each router along the
path will decrement the TTL value by one and forward the packets. When the TTL value
becomes zero and the destination is not found, the router drops the packets and informs the
sender.
Wait Time
Specify how many seconds the Switch waits for a response to a probe before running
another traceroute.
Queries
Specify how many times the Switch performs the traceroute function.
Ethernet Port Test
Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the Switch in a stack. Enter a port
number and click Port Test to perform an internal loopback test.
Cable Diagnostics
Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the Switch in a stack. Enter an Ethernet
port number and click Diagnose to perform a physical wire-pair test of the Ethernet
connections on the specified port(s). The following fields display in the Diagnostic field when
you diagnose a port.
This field is available only on the Switch that has one or more copper Ethernet ports (except
the MGMT port).
Port
This is the number of the physical Ethernet port on the Switch.
Channel
An Ethernet cable usually has four pairs of wires. A 10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX port only use and
test two pairs, while a 1000BASE-T port requires all four pairs.
This displays the descriptive name of the wire-pair in the cable.
Pair status
Ok: The physical connection between the wire-pair is okay.
Open: There is no physical connection (an open circuit detected) between the wire-pair.
Short: There is an short circuit detected between the wire-pair.
Unknown: The Switch failed to run cable diagnostics on the cable connected this port.
Unsupported: The port is a fiber port or it is not active.
Cable length
This displays the total length of the Ethernet cable that is connected to the port when the
Pair status is Ok and the Switch chipset supports this feature.
This shows N/A if the Pair status is Open or Short. Check the Distance to fault.
This shows Unsupported if the Switch chipset does not support to show the cable length.
Distance to
fault
This displays the distance between the port and the location where the cable is open or
shorted.
This shows N/A if the Pair status is Ok.
This shows Unsupported if the Switch chipset does not support to show the distance.
Locator LED
Enter a time interval (in minutes) and click Blink to show the actual location of the Switch
between several devices in a rack.
The default time interval is 30 minutes.
Click Stop to have the Switch terminate the blinking locater LED.
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Chapter 47 System Log
C H A P T E R 47
System Log
47.1 Overview
A log message stores the information for viewing.
47.2 System Log
Click Management > System Log in the navigation panel to open this screen. Use this screen to check
current system logs.
Note: When a log reaches the maximum number of log messages, new log messages
automatically overwrite existing log messages, starting with the oldest existing log
message first.
Figure 367 Management > System Log
The summary table shows the time the log message was recorded and the reason the log message was
generated. Click Refresh to update this screen. Click Clear to clear the whole log, regardless of what is
currently displayed on the screen. Click Download to save the log to your computer.
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C H A P T E R 48
Syslog Setup
48.1 Syslog Overview
This chapter explains the syslog screens.
The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an IP network to syslog
servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled device can generate a syslog message and
send it to a syslog server.
Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and system log related
information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a facility and severity level. The syslog facility
identifies a file in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for details. The
following table describes the syslog severity levels.
Table 211 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
0
Emergency: The system is unusable.
1
Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2
Critical: The system condition is critical.
3
Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4
Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
5
Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
6
Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7
Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.
48.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Syslog Setup screen (Section 48.2 on page 464) to configure the device’s system logging
settings and configure a list of external syslog servers.
48.2 Syslog Setup
The syslog feature sends logs to an external syslog server. Use this screen to configure the device’s
system logging settings and configure a list of external syslog servers.
Click Management > Syslog in the navigation panel to display this screen.
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Figure 368 Management > Syslog Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 212 Management > Syslog Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Syslog
Select Active to turn on syslog (system logging) and then configure the syslog setting
Logging Type
This column displays the names of the categories of logs that the device can generate.
Active
Select this option to set the device to generate logs for the corresponding category.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Syslog Server Setup
Active
Select this check box to have the device send logs to this syslog server. Clear the check box
if you want to create a syslog server entry but not have the device send logs to it (you can
edit the entry later).
Server Address
Enter the IPv4 or IPv6 address of the syslog server.
UDP Port
The default syslog server port is 514. If your syslog server uses a different port, configure the
one it uses here.
Log Level
Select the severity level(s) of the logs that you want the device to send to this syslog server.
The lower the number, the more critical the logs are.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
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Table 212 Management > Syslog Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of a syslog server entry. Click this number to edit the entry.
Active
This field displays Yes if the device is to send logs to the syslog server. No displays if the
device is not to send logs to the syslog server.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of the syslog server.
UDP Port
This field displays the port of the syslog server.
Log Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this syslog server.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in the
table heading row to select all entries.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry(ies).
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Chapter 49 Cluster Management
C H A P T E R 49
Cluster Management
49.1 Cluster Management Overview
This chapter introduces cluster management.
Cluster Management allows you to manage switches through one Switch, called the cluster manager.
The switches must be directly connected and be in the same VLAN group so as to be able to
communicate with one another.
Table 213 Zyxel Clustering Management Specifications
Maximum number of cluster members
24
Cluster Member Models
Must be compatible with Zyxel cluster management
implementation.
Cluster Manager
The switch through which you manage the cluster member
switches.
Cluster Members
The switches being managed by the cluster manager switch.
In the following example, switch A in the basement is the cluster manager and the other switches on the
upper floors of the building are cluster members.
Figure 369 Clustering Application Example
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49.1.1 What You Can Do
• Use the Cluster Management screen (Section 49.2 on page 468) to view the role of the Switch within
the cluster and to access a cluster member switch’s web configurator.
• Use the Clustering Management Configuration screen (Section 49.1 on page 467) to configure
clustering management.
49.2 Cluster Management Status
Use this screen to view the role of the Switch within the cluster and to access a cluster member switch’s
web configurator.
Click Management > Cluster Management in the navigation panel to display the following screen.
Note: A cluster can only have one manager.
Figure 370 Management > Cluster Management: Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 214 Management > Cluster Management: Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This field displays the role of this Switch within the cluster.
Manager
Member (you see this if you access this screen in the cluster member switch directly and not via
the cluster manager)
None (neither a manager nor a member of a cluster)
Manager
This field displays the cluster manager switch’s hardware MAC address.
The Number of
Member
This field displays the number of switches that make up this cluster. The following fields describe
the cluster member switches.
Index
You can manage cluster member switches via the cluster manager switch. Each number in the
Index column is a hyperlink leading to the cluster member switch’s web configurator (see Figure
372 on page 471).
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
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Table 214 Management > Cluster Management: Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Model
This field displays the model name.
Status
This field displays:
Online (the cluster member switch is accessible)
Error (for example the cluster member switch password was changed or the switch was set as the
manager and so left the member list, etc.)
Offline (the switch is disconnected - Offline shows approximately 1.5 minutes after the link
between cluster member and manager goes down)
49.3 Clustering Management Configuration
Use this screen to configure clustering management. Click Management > Cluster Management >
Configuration to display the next screen.
Figure 371 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
EXAMPLE
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 215 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clustering Manager
Active
Select Active to have this Switch become the cluster manager switch. A cluster can only
have one manager. Other (directly connected) switches that are set to be cluster
managers will not be visible in the Clustering Candidates list. If a switch that was previously a
cluster member is later set to become a cluster manager, then its Status is displayed as Error
in the Cluster Management Status screen and a warning icon (
) appears in the member
summary list below.
Name
Type a name to identify the Clustering Manager. You may use up to 32 printable characters
(spaces are allowed).
VID
This is the VLAN ID and is only applicable if the Switch is set to 802.1Q VLAN. All switches must
be directly connected and in the same VLAN group to belong to the same cluster. Switches
that are not in the same VLAN group are not visible in the Clustering Candidates list. This
field is ignored if the Clustering Manager is using Port-based VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clustering
Candidate
The following fields relate to the switches that are potential cluster members.
List
A list of suitable candidates found by auto-discovery is shown here. The switches must be
directly connected. Directly connected switches that are set to be cluster managers will
not be visible in the Clustering Candidate list. Switches that are not in the same
management VLAN group will not be visible in the Clustering Candidate list.
Password
Each cluster member’s password is its web configurator password. Select a member in the
Clustering Candidate list and then enter its web configurator password. If that switch
administrator changes the web configurator password afterwards, then it cannot be
managed from the Cluster Manager. Its Status is displayed as Error in the Cluster
Management Status screen.
If multiple devices have the same password then hold [SHIFT] and click those switches to
select them. Then enter their common web configurator password.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Refresh
Click Refresh to perform auto-discovery again to list potential cluster members.
The next summary table shows the information for the clustering members configured.
Index
This is the index number of a cluster member switch.
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This is the cluster member switch’s model name.
Select an entry’s check box to select a specific entry. Otherwise, select the check box in
the table heading row to select all entries.
Remove
Click the Remove button to remove the selected cluster member switch(es) from the
cluster.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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49.4 Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information on the topics discussed in this chapter.
49.4.1 Cluster Member Switch Management
Go to the Clustering Management Status screen of the cluster manager switch and then select an Index
hyperlink from the list of members to go to that cluster member switch's web configurator home page.
This cluster member web configurator home page and the home page that you'd see if you accessed it
directly are different.
Figure 372 Cluster Management: Cluster Member Web Configurator Screen
EXAMPLE
49.4.1.1 Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
You can use FTP to upload firmware to a cluster member switch through the cluster manager switch as
shown in the following example.
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Figure 373 Example: Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
C:\>ftp 192.168.1.1
Connected to 192.168.1.1.
220 Switch FTP version 1.0 ready at Thu Jan 1 00:58:46 1970
User (192.168.0.1:(none)): admin
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> ls
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for LIST
--w--w--w1 owner
group
3042210 Jul 01 12:00 ras
-rw-rw-rw1 owner
group
393216 Jul 01 12:00 config
--w--w--w1 owner
group
0 Jul 01 12:00 fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
-rw-rw-rw1 owner
group
0 Jul 01 12:00 config-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
226 File sent OK
ftp: 297 bytes received in 0.00Seconds 297000.00Kbytes/sec.
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put 430AAHW0.bin fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
226 File received OK
ftp: 262144 bytes sent in 0.63Seconds 415.44Kbytes/sec.
ftp>
The following table explains some of the FTP parameters.
Table 216 FTP Upload to Cluster Member Example
FTP PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
User
Enter “admin”.
Password
The web configurator password default is 1234.
ls
Enter this command to list the name of cluster member switch’s firmware and
configuration file.
430AAHW0.bin
This is the name of the firmware file you want to upload to the cluster member
switch.
fw-00-a0-c5-01-23-46
This is the cluster member switch’s firmware name as seen in the cluster
manager switch.
config-00-a0-c5-01-23-46 This is the cluster member switch’s configuration file name as seen in the cluster
manager switch.
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C H A P T E R 50
MAC Table
50.1 MAC Table Overview
This chapter introduces the MAC Table screen.
The MAC Table screen (a MAC table is also known as a filtering database) shows how frames are
forwarded or filtered across the Switch’s ports. It shows what device MAC address, belonging to what
VLAN group (if any) is forwarded to which port(s) and whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by
the Switch) or static (manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
50.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the MAC Table screen (Section 50.2 on page 474) to check whether the MAC address is dynamic or
static.
50.1.2 What You Need to Know
The Switch uses the MAC table to determine how to forward frames. See the following figure.
1
The Switch examines a received frame and learns the port on which this source MAC address came.
2
The Switch checks to see if the frame's destination MAC address matches a source MAC address
already learned in the MAC table.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, then it forwards the frame to that port.
• If the Switch has not already learned the port for this MAC address, then the frame is flooded to all
ports. Too much port flooding leads to network congestion.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, but the destination port is the same as
the port it came in on, then it filters the frame.
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Chapter 50 MAC Table
Figure 374 MAC Table Flowchart
50.2 Viewing the MAC Table
Use this screen to check whether the MAC address is dynamic or static.
Click Management > MAC Table in the navigation panel to display the following screen.
Figure 375 Management > MAC Table
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 217 Management > MAC Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Condition
Select one of the buttons and click Search to only display the data which matches the criteria
you specified.
Select All to display any entry in the MAC table of the Switch.
Select Static to display the MAC entries manually configured on the Switch.
Select MAC and enter a MAC address in the field provided to display a specified MAC entry.
Select VID and enter a VLAN ID in the field provided to display the MAC entries belonging to the
specified VLAN.
Select Port and enter a port number in the field provided to display the MAC addresses which
are forwarded on the specified port.
Sort by
Define how the Switch displays and arranges the data in the summary table below.
Select MAC to display and arrange the data according to MAC address.
Select VID to display and arrange the data according to VLAN group.
Select PORT to display and arrange the data according to port number.
Transfer Type
Select Dynamic to MAC forwarding and click the Transfer button to change all dynamically
learned MAC address entries in the summary table below into static entries. They also display in
the Static MAC Forwarding screen.
Select Dynamic to MAC filtering and click the Transfer button to change all dynamically learned
MAC address entries in the summary table below into MAC filtering entries. These entries will then
display only in the Filtering screen and the default filtering action is Discard source.
Search
Click this to search data in the MAC table according to your input criteria.
Transfer
Click this to perform the MAC address transferring you selected in the Transfer Type field.
Cancel
Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Index
This is the incoming frame index number.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device from which this incoming frame came.
VID
This is the VLAN group to which this frame belongs.
Port
This is the port where the above MAC address is forwarded.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (manually
entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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Chapter 51 IP Table
C H A P T E R 51
IP Table
51.1 IP Table Overview
The IP Table screen shows how packets are forwarded or filtered across the Switch’s ports. When a
device (which may belong to a VLAN group) sends a packet which is forwarded to a port on the Switch,
the IP address of the device is shown on the Switch’s IP Table. The IP Table also shows whether the IP
address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (belonging to the Switch).
The Switch uses the IP Table to determine how to forward packets. See the following figure.
1
The Switch examines a received packet and learns the port from which this source IP address came.
2
The Switch checks to see if the packet's destination IP address matches a source IP address already
learned in the IP Table.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this IP address, then it forwards the packet to that
port.
• If the Switch has not already learned the port for this IP address, then the packet is flooded to all
ports. Too much port flooding leads to network congestionthen the Switch sends an ARP to request
the MAC address. The Switch then learns the port that replies with the MAC address.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this IP address, but the destination port is the same as
the port it came in on, then it filters the packet.
Figure 376 IP Table Flowchart
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Chapter 51 IP Table
51.2 Viewing the IP Table
Click Management > IP Table in the navigation panel to display the following screen.
Figure 377 Management > IP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 218 Management > IP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Sort by
Click one of the following buttons to display and arrange the data according to that button type.
The information is then displayed in the summary table below.
IP
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to IP address.
VID
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to VLAN group.
Port
Click this button to display and arrange the data according to port number.
Index
This field displays the index number.
IP Address
This is the IP address of the device from which the incoming packets came.
VID
This is the VLAN group to which the packet belongs.
Port
This is the port from which the above IP address was learned. This field displays CPU to indicate the
IP address belongs to the Switch. In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the
second the port number.
Type
This shows whether the IP address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (belonging to the
Switch).
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C H A P T E R 52
ARP Table
52.1 ARP Table Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP address) to
a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC address, on the local area
network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are 48 bits long. The ARP
Table maintains an association between each MAC address and its corresponding IP address.
52.1.1 What You Can Do
Use the ARP Table screen (Section 52.2 on page 478) to view IP-to-MAC address mapping(s).
52.1.2 What You Need to Know
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network arrives at the Switch, the
Switch's ARP program looks in the ARP Table and if it finds the address, it sends it to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the devices on the LAN. The
Switch fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender address fields, and puts the known IP address of
the target in the target IP address field. In addition, the Switch puts all ones in the target MAC field
(FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The replying device (which is either the IP address of
the device being sought or the router that knows the way) replaces the broadcast address with the
target's MAC address, swaps the sender and target pairs, and unicasts the answer directly back to the
requesting machine. ARP updates the ARP Table for future reference and then sends the packet to the
MAC address that replied.
52.2 Viewing the ARP Table
Use the ARP table to view IP-to-MAC address mapping(s) and remove specific dynamic ARP entries.
Click Management > ARP Table in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
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Figure 378 Management > ARP Table (Standalone mode)
Figure 379 Management > ARP Table (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 219 Management > ARP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Condition
Specify how you want the Switch to remove ARP entries when you click Flush.
Select All to remove all of the dynamic entries from the ARP table.
Select IP Address and enter an IP address to remove the dynamic entries learned with the
specified IP address.
Select Port and enter a port number to remove the dynamic entries learned on the specified port.
Flush
Click Flush to remove the ARP entries according to the condition you specified.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the ARP table entry number.
IP Address
This is the IP address of a device connected to a Switch port with the corresponding MAC address
below.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device with the corresponding IP address above.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the device belongs.
Port
This field displays the port to which the device connects. CPU means this IP address is the Switch’s
management IP address. In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the second
the port number.
Age(s)
This field displays how long (in seconds) an entry can still remain in the ARP table before it ages out
and needs to be relearned. This shows 0 for a static entry.
Type
This shows whether the IP address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (manually
configured in the Basic Setting > IP Setup or IP Application > ARP Setup > Static ARP screen).
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C H A P T E R 53
Routing Table
53.1 Overview
The routing table contains the route information to the network(s) that the Switch can reach.
53.2 Viewing the Routing Table Status
Use this screen to view routing table information. Click Management > Routing Table in the navigation
panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 380 Management > Routing Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 220 Management > Routing Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number.
Destination
This field displays the destination IP routing domain.
Gateway
This field displays the IP address of the gateway device.
Interface
This field displays the IP address of the Interface.
Metric
This field displays the cost of the route.
Type
This field displays the method used to learn the route.
STATIC - added as a static entry.
LOCAL - added as a local entry.
Uptime
This field displays how long the route has been running since the Switch learned the route and
added an entry in the routing table.
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Chapter 54 Path MTU Table
C H A P T E R 54
Path MTU Table
54.1 Path MTU Overview
This chapter introduces the IPv6 Path MTU table.
The largest size (in bytes) of a packet that can be transferred over a data link is called the maximum
transmission unit (MTU). The Switch uses Path MTU Discovery to discover Path MTU (PMTU), that is, the
minimum link MTU of all the links in a path to the destination. If the Switch receives an ICMPv6 Packet Too
Big error message after sending a packet, it fragments the next packet according to the suggested MTU
in the error message.
54.2 Viewing the Path MTU Table
Use this screen to view IPv6 path MTU information on the Switch. Click Management > Path MTU Table in
the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 381 Management > Path MTU Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 221 Management > Path MTU Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Path MTU
aging time
This field displays how long an entry remains in the Path MTU table before it ages out and needs to
be relearned.
Index
This field displays the index number of each entry in the table.
Destination
Address
This field displays the destination IPv6 address of each path/entry.
MTU
This field displays the maximum transmission unit of the links in the path.
Expire
This field displays how long (in minutes) an entry can still remain in the Path MTU table before it
ages out and needs to be relearned.
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Chapter 55 Configure Clone
C H A P T E R 55
Configure Clone
55.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how you can copy the settings of one port onto other ports.
55.2 Configure Clone
Cloning allows you to copy the basic and advanced settings from a source port to a destination port or
ports. Click Management > Configure Clone to open the following screen.
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Chapter 55 Configure Clone
Figure 382 Management > Configure Clone (Standalone mode)
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Figure 383 Management > Configure Clone (Stacking mode)
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Chapter 55 Configure Clone
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 222 Management > Configure Clone
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source/
Destination
In stacking mode, a port is defined by a slot ID representing the Switch in the stack and a port
number.
Port / Slot
(Stacking)
Select the source port and slot (in stacking mode) under the Source label. This port’s attributes are
copied.
Enter the destination port or ports under the Destination label. These are the ports which are going
to have the same attributes as the source port. You can enter individual ports separated by a
comma or a range of ports by using a hyphen. For example, 2, 4, 6 indicates that ports 2, 4 and 6
are the destination ports. 2-6 indicates that ports 2 through 6 are the destination ports.
In stacking mode, you can select multiple destination slots.
Basic Setting
Select which port settings (you configured in the Basic Setting menus) should be copied to the
destination port(s).
Advanced
Application
Select which port settings (you configured in the Advanced Application menus) should be copied
to the destination ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Chapter 56 IPv6 Neighbor Table
C H A P T E R 56
IPv6 Neighbor Table
56.1 IPv6 Neighbor Table Overview
This chapter introduces the IPv6 neighbor table.
An IPv6 host is required to have a neighbor table. If there is an address to be resolved or verified, the
Switch sends out a neighbor solicitation message. When the Switch receives a neighbor advertisement
in response, it stores the neighbor’s link-layer address in the neighbor table. You can also manually
create a static IPv6 neighbor entry using the Basic Setting > IPv6 > IPv6 Configuration > IPv6 Neighbor
Setup screen.
When the Switch needs to send a packet, it first consults other table to determine the next hop. Once
the next hop IPv6 address is known, the Switch looks into the neighbor table to get the link-layer address
and sends the packet when the neighbor is reachable. If the Switch cannot find an entry in the
neighbor table or the state for the neighbor is not reachable, it starts the address resolution process. This
helps reduce the number of IPv6 solicitation and advertisement messages.
56.2 Viewing the IPv6 Neighbor Table
Use this screen to view IPv6 neighbor information on the Switch. Click Management > IPv6 Neighbor
Table in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 384 Management > IPv6 Neighbor Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 223 Management > IPv6 Neighbor Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Sort by
Select this to display and arrange the data according to IPv6 address (Address), MAC address
(MAC) or IPv6 interface (Interface). The information is then displayed in the summary table below.
Index
This field displays the index number of each entry in the table.
Address
This field displays the IPv6 address of the Switch or a neighboring device.
MAC
This field displays the MAC address of the IPv6 interface on which the IPv6 address is configured or
the MAC address of the neighboring device.
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Table 223 Management > IPv6 Neighbor Table (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This field displays whether the neighbor IPv6 interface is reachable. In IPv6, “reachable” means an
IPv6 packet can be correctly forwarded to a neighbor node (host or router) and the neighbor can
successfully receive and handle the packet. The available options in this field are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Type
This field displays the type of an address mapping to a neighbor interface. The available options in
this field are:
•
•
•
•
Interface
reachable (R): The interface of the neighboring device is reachable. (The Switch has received
a response to the initial request.)
stale (S): The last reachable time has expired and the Switch is waiting for a response to
another initial request. The field displays this also when the Switch receives an unrequested
response from the neighbor’s interface.
delay (D): The neighboring interface is no longer known to be reachable, and traffic has been
sent to the neighbor recently. The Switch delays sending request packets for a short to give
upper-layer protocols a chance to determine reachability.
probe (P): The Switch is sending request packets and waiting for the neighbor’s response.
invalid (IV): The neighbor address is with an invalid IPv6 address.
unknown (?): The status of the neighboring interface can not be determined for some reason.
incomplete (I): Address resolution is in progress and the link-layer address of the neighbor has
not yet been determined. The interface of the neighboring device did not give a complete
response.
other (O): none of the following type.
local (L): A Switch interface is using the address.
dynamic (D): The IP address to MAC address can be successfully resolved using IPv6 Neighbor
Discovery protocol. Is it similar as IPv4 ARP (Address Resolution protocol).
static (S): The interface address is statically configured.
This field displays the ID number of the IPv6 interface on which the IPv6 address is created or
through which the neighboring device can be reached.
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C H A P T E R 57
Port Status
This chapter introduces the port status screens.
57.1 Status
Use this screen to view system status and click a number in the Slot column to display each port
statistical summary on the stacked Switch. This screen displays only in stacking mode and you click the
Port Status quick link from the Status screen.
Figure 385 Port Status: Status (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 224 Port Status: Status (Stacking mode)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Up Time
This field displays how long the stacked Switch has been running since it last restarted or was
turned on.
Slot
This field displays the slot ID of the stacked Switch. You can click the ID number to go to the Port
Status screen.
Name
This field displays the model name of the stacked Switch.
Status
This field displays whether the stacked Switch is active or inactive in a stack system.
Up Time
This field displays the time that the active Switch in a stack has been running.
57.2 Port Status
This screen displays a port statistical summary with links to each port showing statistical details. To view
the port statistics, click Status in all web configurator screens and then the Port Status link in the Quick
Links section of the Status screen to display the Port Status screen as shown next. You can also click
Management > Port Status to see the following screen.
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Chapter 57 Port Status
Figure 386 Port Status (for PoE model(s)) (Standalone mode)
Figure 387 Port Status (for PoE model(s)) (Stacking mode)
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Chapter 57 Port Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 225 Port Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of
the Switch in a stack.
Port
This identifies the Ethernet port. In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the
second the port number. Click a port number to display the Port Details screen (refer to Figure
388 on page 491).
Name
This is the name you assigned to this port in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen.
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps, 1000M for 1000Mbps, or
10G for 10 Gbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half). It also shows the cable type
(Copper or Fiber) for the combo ports. This field displays Down if the port is not connected to any
device.
State
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port. See page
142 for more information.
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it displays STOP.
When LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol), STP, and dot1x are in blocking state, it displays
Blocking.
PD
For PoE model(s) only.
This field displays whether or not a powered device (PD) is allowed to receive power from the
Switch on this port.
LACP
This fields displays whether LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) has been enabled on the
port.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port.
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port.
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time
This field shows the total amount of time in hours, minutes and seconds the port has been up.
Clear Counter
Select Port, enter a port number and then click Clear Counter to erase the recorded statistical
information for that port, or select Any to clear statistics for all ports.
57.2.1 Port Details
Click a number in the Port column in the Port Status screen to display individual port statistics. Use this
screen to check status and detailed performance data about an individual port on the Switch.
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Figure 388 Port Status > Port Details (Standalone mode)
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Chapter 57 Port Status
Figure 389 Port Status > Port Details (Stacking mode)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 226 Port Status: Port Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Info
Port NO.
This field displays the port number you are viewing. In stacking mode, the first number represents
the slot and the second the port number.
Name
This field displays the name of the port.
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps, 1000M for 1000Mbps, or
10G for 10 Gbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half duplex). It also shows the cable type
(Copper or Fiber) for the combo ports. This field displays Down if the port is not connected to any
device.
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Table 226 Port Status: Port Details (continued)
LABEL
State
DESCRIPTION
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port. See page 142
for more information.
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it displays STOP.
When LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol), STP, and dot1x are in blocking state, it displays
Blocking.
LACP
This field shows if LACP is enabled on this port or not.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port
Tx
Utilization%
This field shows the percentage of actual transmitted frames on this port as a percentage of the
Link speed.
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port
Rx
Utilization%
This field shows the percentage of actual received frames on this port as a percentage of the Link
speed.
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time
This field shows the total amount of time the connection has been up.
Tx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets transmitted.
Unicast
This field shows the number of good unicast packets transmitted.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets transmitted.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets transmitted.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets transmitted.
Tagged
This field shows the number of packets with VLAN tags transmitted.
Rx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets received.
Unicast
This field shows the number of good unicast packets received.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets received.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets received.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets received.
Control
This field shows the number of control packets received (including those with CRC error) but it
does not include the 802.3x Pause packets.
TX Collision
The following fields display information on collisions while transmitting.
Single
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission is inhibited by exactly one
collision.
Multiple
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission was inhibited by more
than one collision.
Excessive
This is a count of packets for which transmission failed due to excessive collisions. Excessive
collision is defined as the number of maximum collisions before the retransmission count is reset.
Late
This is the number of times a late collision is detected, that is, after 512 bits of the packets have
already been transmitted.
Error Packet
RX CRC
The following fields display detailed information about packets received that were in error.
This field shows the number of packets received with CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check) error(s).
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Table 226 Port Status: Port Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Length
This field shows the number of packets received with a length that was out of range.
Runt
This field shows the number of packets received that were too short (shorter than 64 octets),
including the ones with CRC errors.
Distribution
64
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64 octets in
length.
65-127
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 65
and 127 octets in length.
128-255
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 128
and 255 octets in length.
256-511
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 256
and 511 octets in length.
512-1023
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 512
and 1023 octets in length.
1024-1518
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 1024
and 1518 octets in length.
Giant
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 1519
octets and the maximum frame size.
The maximum frame size varies depending on your switch model.
57.2.2 Port Utilization
This screen displays the percentage of actual transmitted or received frames on a port as a percentage
of the Link speed.To view port utilization, click Management > Port Status > Port Utilization to see the
following screen. Alternatively, click Status from any Web Configurator screen and then the Port Status
link in the Quick Links section of the Status screen to display the Port Status screen and then click the
Utilization link tab.
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Chapter 57 Port Status
Figure 390 Management > Port Status > Utilization (Standalone mode)
Figure 391 Management > Port Status > Utilization (Stacking mode)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 227 Port Status: Utilization
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Slot (Stacking
mode)
This field appears only in stacking mode. Click the drop-down list to choose the slot number of the
Switch in a stack.
Port
This identifies the Ethernet port. In stacking mode, the first number represents the slot and the
second the port number.
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for Mbps, 100M for 100 Mbps, 1000M for 1000 Mbps, or 10G
for 10 Gbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex). It also shows the cable type (Copper or Fiber) for
the combo ports. This field displays Down if the port is not connected to any device.
Tx kB/s
This field shows the transmission speed of data sent on this port in kilobytes per second.
Tx Utilization%
This field shows the percentage of actual transmitted frames on this port as a percentage of the
Link speed.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the transmission speed of data received on this port in kilobytes per second.
Rx Utilization%
This field shows the percentage of actual received frames on this port as a percentage of the Link
speed.
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C H A P T E R 58
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential problems are
divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• Switch Access and Login
• Switch Configuration
58.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
The Switch does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1
Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the Switch.
2
Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the Switch and plugged in to an appropriate
power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
3
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch.
4
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 3.3 on page 32.
2
Check the hardware connections. See Section 58.1 on page 497.
3
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
4
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
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58.2 Switch Access and Login
I forgot the IP address for the Switch.
1
The default IP address is http://DHCP-assigned IP or 192.168.1.1.
2
Use the console port to log in to the Switch.
3
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page 43.
I forgot the username and/or password.
1
The default username is admin and the default password is 1234.
2
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page 43.
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1
Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is http://DHCP-assigned IP or 192.168.1.1.
• If you changed the IP address, use the new IP address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting suggestions for I
forgot the IP address for the Switch.
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See Section 3.3
on page 32.
3
Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScripts and Java
enabled.
4
Make sure your computer is in the same subnet as the Switch. (If you know that there are routers
between your computer and the Switch, skip this step.)
5
Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the Switch with the default IP address. See
Section 4.6 on page 43.
6
If the problem continues, contact the vendor, or try one of the advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Try to access the Switch using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access the Switch, check the
remote management settings to find out why the Switch does not respond to HTTP.
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I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the Switch.
1
Make sure you have entered the user name and password correctly. The default user name is admin,
and the default password is 1234. These fields are case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2
You may have exceeded the maximum number of concurrent Telnet sessions. Close other Telnet
session(s) or try connecting again later.
Check that you have enabled logins for HTTP or Telnet. If you have configured a secured client IP
address, your computer’s IP address must match it. Refer to the chapter on access control for details.
3
Disconnect and re-connect the cord to the Switch.
4
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page 43.
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
There is unauthorized access to my Switch via telnet, HTTP and SSH.
To avoid unauthorized access, configure the secured client setting in the Management > Access
Control > Remote Management screen for telnet, HTTP and SSH (see Section 45.6 on page 445).
Computers not belonging to the secured client set cannot get permission to access the Switch.
58.3 Switch Configuration
I lost my configuration settings after I restart the Switch.
Make sure you save your configuration into the Switch’s nonvolatile
memory each time you make changes. Click Save at the top right
corner of the web configurator to save the configuration
permanently. See also Section 44.8 on page 431 for more information about how to save your
configuration.
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APPENDIX A
Customer Support
In the event of problems that cannot be solved by using this manual, you should contact your vendor. If
you cannot contact your vendor, then contact a Zyxel office for the region in which you bought the
device.
See http://www.zyxel.com/homepage.shtml and also
http://www.zyxel.com/about_zyxel/zyxel_worldwide.shtml for the latest information.
Please have the following information ready when you contact an office.
Required Information
• Product model and serial number.
• Warranty Information.
• Date that you received your device.
• Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
Corporate Headquarters (Worldwide)
Taiwan
• Zyxel Communications Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com
Asia
China
• Zyxel Communications (Shanghai) Corp.
Zyxel Communications (Beijing) Corp.
Zyxel Communications (Tianjin) Corp.
• http://www.zyxel.cn
India
• Zyxel Technology India Pvt Ltd
• http://www.zyxel.in
Kazakhstan
• Zyxel Kazakhstan
• http://www.zyxel.kz
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Appendix A Customer Support
Korea
• Zyxel Korea Corp.
• http://www.zyxel.kr
Malaysia
• Zyxel Malaysia Sdn Bhd.
• http://www.zyxel.com.my
Pakistan
• Zyxel Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd.
• http://www.zyxel.com.pk
Philippines
• Zyxel Philippines
• http://www.zyxel.com.ph
Singapore
• Zyxel Singapore Pte Ltd.
• http://www.zyxel.com.sg
Taiwan
• Zyxel Communications Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/tw/zh/
Thailand
• Zyxel Thailand Co., Ltd
• http://www.zyxel.co.th
Vietnam
• Zyxel Communications Corporation-Vietnam Office
• http://www.zyxel.com/vn/vi
Europe
Austria
• Zyxel Deutschland GmbH
• http://www.zyxel.de
Belarus
• Zyxel BY
• http://www.zyxel.by
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
501
Appendix A Customer Support
Belgium
• Zyxel Communications B.V.
• http://www.zyxel.com/be/nl/
• http://www.zyxel.com/be/fr/
Bulgaria
• Zyxel България
• http://www.zyxel.com/bg/bg/
Czech Republic
• Zyxel Communications Czech s.r.o
• http://www.zyxel.cz
Denmark
• Zyxel Communications A/S
• http://www.zyxel.dk
Estonia
• Zyxel Estonia
• http://www.zyxel.com/ee/et/
Finland
• Zyxel Communications
• http://www.zyxel.fi
France
• Zyxel France
• http://www.zyxel.fr
Germany
• Zyxel Deutschland GmbH
• http://www.zyxel.de
Hungary
• Zyxel Hungary & SEE
• http://www.zyxel.hu
Italy
• Zyxel Communications Italy
• http://www.zyxel.it/
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Appendix A Customer Support
Latvia
• Zyxel Latvia
• http://www.zyxel.com/lv/lv/homepage.shtml
Lithuania
• Zyxel Lithuania
• http://www.zyxel.com/lt/lt/homepage.shtml
Netherlands
• Zyxel Benelux
• http://www.zyxel.nl
Norway
• Zyxel Communications
• http://www.zyxel.no
Poland
• Zyxel Communications Poland
• http://www.zyxel.pl
Romania
• Zyxel Romania
• http://www.zyxel.com/ro/ro
Russia
• Zyxel Russia
• http://www.zyxel.ru
Slovakia
• Zyxel Communications Czech s.r.o. organizacna zlozka
• http://www.zyxel.sk
Spain
• Zyxel Communications ES Ltd
• http://www.zyxel.es
Sweden
• Zyxel Communications
• http://www.zyxel.se
Switzerland
• Studerus AG
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix A Customer Support
• http://www.zyxel.ch/
Turkey
• Zyxel Turkey A.S.
• http://www.zyxel.com.tr
UK
• Zyxel Communications UK Ltd.
• http://www.zyxel.co.uk
Ukraine
• Zyxel Ukraine
• http://www.ua.zyxel.com
Latin America
Argentina
• Zyxel Communication Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/ec/es/
Brazil
• Zyxel Communications Brasil Ltda.
• https://www.zyxel.com/br/pt/
Ecuador
• Zyxel Communication Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/ec/es/
Middle East
Israel
• Zyxel Communication Corporation
• http://il.zyxel.com/homepage.shtml
Middle East
• Zyxel Communication Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/me/en/
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix A Customer Support
North America
USA
• Zyxel Communications, Inc. - North America Headquarters
• http://www.zyxel.com/us/en/
Oceania
Australia
• Zyxel Communications Corporation
• http://www.zyxel.com/au/en/
Africa
South Africa
• Nology (Pty) Ltd.
• http://www.zyxel.co.za
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
505
APPENDIX B
Common Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated protocols and port numbers.
For a comprehensive list of port numbers, ICMP type/code numbers and services, visit the IANA (Internet
Assigned Number Authority) web site.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or create a different one,
if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/UDP, then the service uses the
same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is User-Defined, the Port(s) is the IP protocol number, not
the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further information about port
numbers.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service or the situations in which
this service is used.
Table 228 Commonly Used Services
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH (IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header) tunneling
protocol uses this service.
AIM/New-ICQ
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service. It is also used
as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP
7648
A popular videoconferencing solution from
White Pines Software.
UDP
24032
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that matches
web names (for example www.zyxel.com) to IP
numbers.
ESP (IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security Protocol)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related command
that can be used to find out if a user is logged
on.
FTP
TCP
20
TCP
21
File Transfer Program, a program to enable fast
transfer of files, including large files that may not
be possible by e-mail.
H.323
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/server
protocol for the world wide web.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix B Common Services
Table 228 Commonly Used Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often used in ecommerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is often used
for diagnostic or routing purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IGMP (MULTICAST)
User-Defined
2
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is used when
sending packets to a specific group of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm is used for
key distribution and management.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat program.
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service uses this
protocol.
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/server
distributed file service that provides transparent
file sharing for network environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is the delivery
mechanism for the USENET newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that sends
out ICMP echo requests to test whether or not a
remote host is reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client
computer get e-mail from a POP3 server through
a temporary connection (TCP/IP or other).
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables secure
transfer of data over public networks. This is the
control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL (GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) enables
secure transfer of data over public networks. This
is the data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that enables real time
sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media control)
Protocol (RTSP) is a remote control for multimedia
on the Internet.
SFTP
TCP
115
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the messageexchange standard for the Internet. SMTP
enables you to move messages from one e-mail
server to another.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix B Common Services
Table 228 Commonly Used Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an interface to
access data on many different types of
database systems, including mainframes,
midrange systems, UNIX systems and network
servers.
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a UNIX
server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal Access
Controller Access Control System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation
protocol common on the Internet and in UNIX
environments. It operates over TCP/IP networks.
Its primary function is to allow users to log into
remote host systems.
TFTP
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet file
transfer protocol similar to FTP, but uses the UDP
(User Datagram Protocol) rather than TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol).
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
Another videoconferencing solution.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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APPENDIX C
IPv6
Overview
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), is designed to enhance IP address size and features. The increase in
IPv6 address size to 128 bits (from the 32-bit IPv4 address) allows up to 3.4 x 1038 IP addresses.
IPv6 Addressing
The 128-bit IPv6 address is written as eight 16-bit hexadecimal blocks separated by colons (:). This is an
example IPv6 address 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000.
IPv6 addresses can be abbreviated in two ways:
• Leading zeros in a block can be omitted. So 2001:0db8:1a2b:0015:0000:0000:1a2f:0000 can be
written as 2001:db8:1a2b:15:0:0:1a2f:0.
• Any number of consecutive blocks of zeros can be replaced by a double colon. A double colon can
only appear once in an IPv6 address. So 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f:0000:0000:0015 can be
written as 2001:0db8::1a2f:0000:0000:0015, 2001:0db8:0000:0000:1a2f::0015,
2001:db8::1a2f:0:0:15 or 2001:db8:0:0:1a2f::15.
Prefix and Prefix Length
Similar to an IPv4 subnet mask, IPv6 uses an address prefix to represent the network address. An IPv6
prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (start from the left) in the address compose the
network address. The prefix length is written as “/x” where x is a number. For example,
2001:db8:1a2b:15::1a2f:0/32
means that the first 32 bits (2001:db8) is the subnet prefix.
Link-local Address
A link-local address uniquely identifies a device on the local network (the LAN). It is similar to a “private IP
address” in IPv4. You can have the same link-local address on multiple interfaces on a device. A linklocal unicast address has a predefined prefix of fe80::/10. The link-local unicast address format is as
follows.
Table 229 Link-local Unicast Address Format
1111 1110 10
0
Interface ID
10 bits
54 bits
64 bits
Global Address
A global address uniquely identifies a device on the Internet. It is similar to a “public IP address” in IPv4. A
global unicast address starts with a 2 or 3.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix C IPv6
Unspecified Address
An unspecified address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 or ::) is used as the source address when a device does not have
its own address. It is similar to “0.0.0.0” in IPv4.
Loopback Address
A loopback address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1) allows a host to send packets to itself. It is similar to “127.0.0.1”
in IPv4.
Multicast Address
In IPv6, multicast addresses provide the same functionality as IPv4 broadcast addresses. Broadcasting is
not supported in IPv6. A multicast address allows a host to send packets to all hosts in a multicast group.
Multicast scope allows you to determine the size of the multicast group. A multicast address has a
predefined prefix of ff00::/8. The following table describes some of the predefined multicast addresses.
Table 230 Predefined Multicast Address
MULTICAST ADDRESS
DESCRIPTION
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
All hosts on a local node.
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local node.
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
All hosts on a local connected link.
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local connected link.
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
All routers on a local site.
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:3
All DHCP severs on a local site.
The following table describes the multicast addresses which are reserved and can not be assigned to a
multicast group.
Table 231 Reserved Multicast Address
MULTICAST ADDRESS
FF00:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF03:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF04:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF06:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF07:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF08:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF09:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0A:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0B:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0C:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0D:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
FF0F:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
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Appendix C IPv6
Subnet Masking
Both an IPv6 address and IPv6 subnet mask compose of 128-bit binary digits, which are divided into
eight 16-bit blocks and written in hexadecimal notation. Hexadecimal uses four bits for each character
(1 ~ 10, A ~ F). Each block’s 16 bits are then represented by four hexadecimal characters. For example,
FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FC00:0000:0000:0000.
Interface ID
In IPv6, an interface ID is a 64-bit identifier. It identifies a physical interface (for example, an Ethernet
port) or a virtual interface (for example, the management IP address for a VLAN). One interface should
have a unique interface ID.
EUI-64
The EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier) defined by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers) is an interface ID format designed to adapt with IPv6. It is derived from the 48-bit (6-byte)
Ethernet MAC address as shown next. EUI-64 inserts the hex digits fffe between the third and fourth bytes
of the MAC address and complements the seventh bit of the first byte of the MAC address. See the
following example.
Table 232
MAC
00
: 13
: 49
: 12
: 34
: 56
: 13
: 49
: FF
: FE
: 12
: 34
Table 233
EUI-64
02
: 56
Stateless Autoconfiguration
With stateless autoconfiguration in IPv6, addresses can be uniquely and automatically generated.
Unlike DHCPv6 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version six) which is used in IPv6 stateful
autoconfiguration, the owner and status of addresses don’t need to be maintained by a DHCP server.
Every IPv6 device is able to generate its own and unique IP address automatically when IPv6 is initiated
on its interface. It combines the prefix and the interface ID (generated from its own Ethernet MAC
address, see Interface ID and EUI-64) to form a complete IPv6 address.
When IPv6 is enabled on a device, its interface automatically generates a link-local address (beginning
with fe80).
When the interface is connected to a network with a router and the Switch is set to automatically obtain
an IPv6 network prefix from the router for the interface, it generates 3another address which combines
its interface ID and global and subnet information advertised from the router. This is a routable global IP
address.
DHCPv6
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6, RFC 3315) is a server-client protocol that
allows a DHCP server to assign and pass IPv6 network addresses, prefixes and other configuration
information to DHCP clients. DHCPv6 servers and clients exchange DHCP messages using UDP.
3.
In IPv6, all network interfaces can be associated with several addresses.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix C IPv6
Each DHCP client and server has a unique DHCP Unique IDentifier (DUID), which is used for identification
when they are exchanging DHCPv6 messages. The DUID is generated from the MAC address, time,
vendor assigned ID and/or the vendor's private enterprise number registered with the IANA. It should not
change over time even after you reboot the device.
Identity Association
An Identity Association (IA) is a collection of addresses assigned to a DHCP client, through which the
server and client can manage a set of related IP addresses. Each IA must be associated with exactly
one interface. The DHCP client uses the IA assigned to an interface to obtain configuration from a DHCP
server for that interface. Each IA consists of a unique IAID and associated IP information.
The IA type is the type of address in the IA. Each IA holds one type of address. IA_NA means an identity
association for non-temporary addresses and IA_TA is an identity association for temporary addresses.
An IA_NA option contains the T1 and T2 fields, but an IA_TA option does not. The DHCPv6 server uses T1
and T2 to control the time at which the client contacts with the server to extend the lifetimes on any
addresses in the IA_NA before the lifetimes expire. After T1, the client sends the server (S1) (from which
the addresses in the IA_NA were obtained) a Renew message. If the time T2 is reached and the server
does not respond, the client sends a Rebind message to any available server (S2). For an IA_TA, the
client may send a Renew or Rebind message at the client's discretion.
T2
T1
Renew Renew
to S1
to S1
Renew Renew
to S1
to S1
Renew
to S1
Renew
to S1
Rebind
to S2
Rebind
to S2
DHCP Relay Agent
A DHCP relay agent is on the same network as the DHCP clients and helps forward messages between
the DHCP server and clients. When a client cannot use its link-local address and a well-known multicast
address to locate a DHCP server on its network, it then needs a DHCP relay agent to send a message to
a DHCP server that is not attached to the same network.
The DHCP relay agent can add the remote identification (remote-ID) option and the interface-ID option
to the Relay-Forward DHCPv6 messages. The remote-ID option carries a user-defined string, such as the
system name. The interface-ID option provides slot number, port information and the VLAN ID to the
DHCPv6 server. The remote-ID option (if any) is stripped from the Relay-Reply messages before the relay
agent sends the packets to the clients. The DHCP server copies the interface-ID option from the RelayForward message into the Relay-Reply message and sends it to the relay agent. The interface-ID should
not change even after the relay agent restarts.
Prefix Delegation
Prefix delegation enables an IPv6 router to use the IPv6 prefix (network address) received from the ISP (or
a connected uplink router) for its LAN. The Switch uses the received IPv6 prefix (for example, 2001:db2::/
48) to generate its LAN IP address. Through sending Router Advertisements (RAs) regularly by multicast,
the Switch passes the IPv6 prefix information to its LAN hosts. The hosts then can use the prefix to
generate their IPv6 addresses.
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Appendix C IPv6
ICMPv6
Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6 or ICMP for IPv6) is defined in RFC 4443. ICMPv6 has
a preceding Next Header value of 58, which is different from the value used to identify ICMP for IPv4.
ICMPv6 is an integral part of IPv6. IPv6 nodes use ICMPv6 to report errors encountered in packet
processing and perform other diagnostic functions, such as "ping".
Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a protocol used to discover other IPv6 devices and track
neighbor’s reachability in a network. An IPv6 device uses the following ICMPv6 messages types:
• Neighbor solicitation: A request from a host to determine a neighbor’s link-layer address (MAC
address) and detect if the neighbor is still reachable. A neighbor being “reachable” means it
responds to a neighbor solicitation message (from the host) with a neighbor advertisement message.
• Neighbor advertisement: A response from a node to announce its link-layer address.
• Router solicitation: A request from a host to locate a router that can act as the default router and
forward packets.
• Router advertisement: A response to a router solicitation or a periodical multicast advertisement from
a router to advertise its presence and other parameters.
IPv6 Cache
An IPv6 host is required to have a neighbor cache, destination cache, prefix list and default router list.
The Switch maintains and updates its IPv6 caches constantly using the information from response
messages. In IPv6, the Switch configures a link-local address automatically, and then sends a neighbor
solicitation message to check if the address is unique. If there is an address to be resolved or verified, the
Switch also sends out a neighbor solicitation message. When the Switch receives a neighbor
advertisement in response, it stores the neighbor’s link-layer address in the neighbor cache. When the
Switch uses a router solicitation message to query for a router and receives a router advertisement
message, it adds the router’s information to the neighbor cache, prefix list and destination cache. The
Switch creates an entry in the default router list cache if the router can be used as a default router.
When the Switch needs to send a packet, it first consults the destination cache to determine the next
hop. If there is no matching entry in the destination cache, the Switch uses the prefix list to determine
whether the destination address is on-link and can be reached directly without passing through a router.
If the address is onlink, the address is considered as the next hop. Otherwise, the Switch determines the
next-hop from the default router list or routing table. Once the next hop IP address is known, the Switch
looks into the neighbor cache to get the link-layer address and sends the packet when the neighbor is
reachable. If the Switch cannot find an entry in the neighbor cache or the state for the neighbor is not
reachable, it starts the address resolution process. This helps reduce the number of IPv6 solicitation and
advertisement messages.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix C IPv6
Example - Enabling IPv6 on Windows XP/2003/Vista
By default, Windows XP and Windows 2003 support IPv6. This example shows you how to use the ipv6
install command on Windows XP/2003 to enable IPv6. This also displays how to use the ipconfig
command to see auto-generated IP addresses.
C:\>ipv6 install
Installing...
Succeeded.
C:\>ipconfig
Windows IP Configuration
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific
IP Address. . . . .
Subnet Mask . . . .
IP Address. . . . .
Default Gateway . .
DNS
. .
. .
. .
. .
Suffix
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
10.1.1.46
255.255.255.0
fe80::2d0:59ff:feb8:103c%4
10.1.1.254
IPv6 is installed and enabled by default in Windows Vista. Use the ipconfig command to check your
automatic configured IPv6 address as well. You should see at least one IPv6 address available for the
interface on your computer.
Example - Enabling DHCPv6 on Windows XP
Windows XP does not support DHCPv6. If your network uses DHCPv6 for IP address assignment, you have
to additionally install a DHCPv6 client software on your Windows XP. (Note: If you use static IP addresses
or Router Advertisement for IPv6 address assignment in your network, ignore this section.)
This example uses Dibbler as the DHCPv6 client. To enable DHCPv6 client on your computer:
1
Install Dibbler and select the DHCPv6 client option on your computer.
2
After the installation is complete, select Start > All Programs > Dibbler-DHCPv6 > Client Install as service.
3
Select Start > Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Services.
4
Double click Dibbler - a DHCPv6 client.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix C IPv6
5
Click Start and then OK.
6
Now your computer can obtain an IPv6 address from a DHCPv6 server.
Example - Enabling IPv6 on Windows 7
Windows 7 supports IPv6 by default. DHCPv6 is also enabled when you enable IPv6 on a Windows 7
computer.
To enable IPv6 in Windows 7:
1
Select Control Panel > Network and Sharing Center > Local Area Connection.
2
Select the Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) checkbox to enable it.
3
Click OK to save the change.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Appendix C IPv6
4
Click Close to exit the Local Area Connection Status screen.
5
Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
6
Use the ipconfig command to check your dynamic IPv6 address. This example shows a global address
(2001:b021:2d::1000) obtained from a DHCP server.
C:\>ipconfig
Windows IP Configuration
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection:
Connection-specific DNS
IPv6 Address. . . . . .
Link-local IPv6 Address
IPv4 Address. . . . . .
Subnet Mask . . . . . .
Default Gateway . . . .
Suffix
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
:
2001:b021:2d::1000
fe80::25d8:dcab:c80a:5189%11
172.16.100.61
255.255.255.0
fe80::213:49ff:feaa:7125%11
172.16.100.254
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
516
APPENDIX D
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by Zyxel Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, translated into any
language, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of Zyxel Communications Corporation.
Published by Zyxel Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
Zyxel does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or software described herein. Neither does it convey any
license under its patent rights nor the patent rights of others. Zyxel further reserves the right to make changes in any products described herein
without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Regulatory Notice and Statement
United States of America
The following information applies if you use the product within USA area.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) EMC Statement
•
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) This device may not cause harmful interference.
•
•
(2) This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operations.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the
equipment.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These
limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial
environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to
cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Canada
The following information applies if you use the product within Canada area.
Industry Canada ICES statement
CAN ICES-3 (A)/NMB-3(A)
European Union
The following information applies if you use the product within the European Union.
CE EMC statement
WARNING: This equipment is compliant with Class A of EN55032. In a residential environment this equipment may cause radio interference.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
517
Appendix D Legal Information
List of National Codes
COUNTRY
ISO 3166 2 LETTER CODE
COUNTRY
ISO 3166 2 LETTER CODE
Austria
AT
Liechtenstein
LI
Belgium
BE
Lithuania
LT
Bulgaria
BG
Luxembourg
LU
Croatia
HR
Malta
MT
Cyprus
CY
Netherlands
NL
Czech Republic
CR
Norway
NO
Denmark
DK
Poland
PL
Estonia
EE
Portugal
PT
Finland
FI
Romania
RO
France
FR
Serbia
RS
Germany
DE
Slovakia
SK
Greece
GR
Slovenia
SI
Hungary
HU
Spain
ES
Iceland
IS
Sweden
SE
Ireland
IE
Switzerland
CH
Italy
IT
Turkey
TR
Latvia
LV
United Kingdom
GB
Safety Warnings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
To avoid possible eye injury, do NOT look into an operating fiber-optic module’s connector.
Do not use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming pool.
Do not expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
Do not store things on the device.
Do not obstruct the device ventilation slots as insufficient airflow may harm your device. For example, do not place the device in an
enclosed space such as a box or on a very soft surface such as a bed or sofa.
Do not install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
Do not open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to dangerous high voltage points or other risks. Only qualified
service personnel should service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
Do not remove the plug and connect it to a power outlet by itself; always attach the plug to the power adaptor first before connecting it to
a power outlet.
Do not allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor
or cord.
Please use the provided or designated connection cables/power cables/ adaptors. Connect it to the right supply voltage (for example,
110V AC in North America or 230V AC in Europe). If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, it might cause electrocution. Remove it from the
device and the power source, repairing the power adapter or cord is prohibited. Contact your local vendor to order a new one.
Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Caution: Risk of explosion if battery is replaced by an incorrect type, dispose of used batteries according to the instruction. Dispose them at
the applicable collection point for the recycling of electrical and electronic device. For detailed information about recycling of this product,
please contact your local city office, your household waste disposal service or the store where you purchased the product.
Use ONLY power wires of the appropriate wire gauge for your device. Connect it to a power supply of the correct voltage.
Fuse Warning! Replace a fuse only with a fuse of the same type and rating.
The POE (Power over Ethernet) devices that supply or receive power and their connected Ethernet cables must all be completely indoors.
The following warning statements apply, where the disconnect device is not incorporated in the device or where the plug on the power
supply cord is intended to serve as the disconnect device,
- For permanently connected devices, a readily accessible disconnect device shall be incorporated external to the device;
•
•
- For pluggable devices, the socket-outlet shall be installed near the device and shall be easily accessible.
This device must be grounded. Never defeat the ground conductor or operate the device in the absence of a suitably installed ground
conductor. Contact the appropriate electrical inspection authority or an electrician if you are uncertain that suitable grounding is available.
When connecting or disconnecting power to hot-pluggable power supplies, if offered with your system, observe the following guidelines:
- Install the power supply before connecting the power cable to the power supply.
- Unplug the power cable before removing the power supply.
- If the system has multiple sources of power, disconnect power from the system by unplugging all power cables from the power supply.
•
•
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT (for products with mini-GBIC slots or laser products, such as fiber-optic transceiver and GPON products).
PRODUCT COMPLIES WITH 21 CFR 1040.10 AND 1040.11. (for products with mini-GBIC slots or laser products, such as fiber-optic transceiver and
GPON products)
•
APPAREIL À LASER DE CLASS 1 (for products with mini-GBIC slots or laser products, such as fiber-optic transceiver and GPON products).
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
518
Appendix D Legal Information
•
PRODUIT CONFORME SELON 21 CFR 1040.10 ET 1040.11. (for products with mini-GBIC slots or laser products, such as fiber-optic transceiver and
GPON products)
Environment Statement
European Union - Disposal and Recycling Information
The symbol below means that according to local regulations your product and/or its battery shall be disposed of separately from domestic
waste. If this product is end of life, take it to a recycling station designated by local authorities. At the time of disposal, the separate collection of
your product and/or its battery will help save natural resources and ensure that the environment is sustainable development.
Die folgende Symbol bedeutet, dass Ihr Produkt und/oder seine Batterie gemäß den örtlichen Bestimmungen getrennt vom Hausmüll entsorgt
werden muss. Wenden Sie sich an eine Recyclingstation, wenn dieses Produkt das Ende seiner Lebensdauer erreicht hat. Zum Zeitpunkt der
Entsorgung wird die getrennte Sammlung von Produkt und/oder seiner Batterie dazu beitragen, natürliche Ressourcen zu sparen und die Umwelt
und die menschliche Gesundheit zu schützen.
El símbolo de abajo indica que según las regulaciones locales, su producto y/o su batería deberán depositarse como basura separada de la
doméstica. Cuando este producto alcance el final de su vida útil, llévelo a un punto limpio. Cuando llegue el momento de desechar el
producto, la recogida por separado éste y/o su batería ayudará a salvar los recursos naturales y a proteger la salud humana y
medioambiental.
Le symbole ci-dessous signifie que selon les réglementations locales votre produit et/ou sa batterie doivent être éliminés séparément des ordures
ménagères. Lorsque ce produit atteint sa fin de vie, amenez-le à un centre de recyclage. Au moment de la mise au rebut, la collecte séparée
de votre produit et/ou de sa batterie aidera à économiser les ressources naturelles et protéger l'environnement et la santé humaine.
Il simbolo sotto significa che secondo i regolamenti locali il vostro prodotto e/o batteria deve essere smaltito separatamente dai rifiuti domestici.
Quando questo prodotto raggiunge la fine della vita di servizio portarlo a una stazione di riciclaggio. Al momento dello smaltimento, la raccolta
separata del vostro prodotto e/o della sua batteria aiuta a risparmiare risorse naturali e a proteggere l'ambiente e la salute umana.
Symbolen innebär att enligt lokal lagstiftning ska produkten och/eller dess batteri kastas separat från hushållsavfallet. När den här produkten når
slutet av sin livslängd ska du ta den till en återvinningsstation. Vid tiden för kasseringen bidrar du till en bättre miljö och mänsklig hälsa genom att
göra dig av med den på ett återvinningsställe.
台灣
警告使用者:
• 這是甲類的資訊產品,在居住的環境中使用時,可能會造成射頻干擾,在這種情況下,使用者會被要求採取某些適當的對策。」
安全警告 - 為了您的安全,請先閱讀以下警告及指示 :
• 請勿將此產品接近水、火焰或放置在高溫的環境。
• 避免設備接觸
- 任何液體 - 切勿讓設備接觸水、雨水、高濕度、污水腐蝕性的液體或其他水份。
- 灰塵及污物 - 切勿接觸灰塵、污物、沙土、食物或其他不合適的材料。
• 雷雨天氣時,不要安裝,使用或維修此設備。有遭受電擊的風險。
• 切勿重摔或撞擊設備,並勿使用不正確的電源變壓器。
• 若接上不正確的電源變壓器會有爆炸的風險。。
• 請勿隨意更換產品內的電池。
• 如果更換不正確之電池型式,會有爆炸的風險,請依製造商說明書處理使用過之電池。
• 請將廢電池丟棄在適當的電器或電子設備回收處。
• 請勿將設備解體。
• 請勿阻礙設備的散熱孔,空氣對流不足將會造成設備損害。
• 請插在正確的電壓供給插座 ( 如 : 北美 / 台灣電壓 110V AC,歐洲是 230V AC)。
• 假若電源變壓器或電源變壓器的纜線損壞,請從插座拔除,若您還繼續插電使用,會有觸電死亡的風險。
• 請勿試圖修理電源變壓器或電源變壓器的纜線,若有毀損,請直接聯絡您購買的店家,購買一個新的電源變壓器。
• 請勿將此設備安裝於室外,此設備僅適合放置於室內。
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
519
Appendix D Legal Information
•
•
•
•
•
請勿隨一般垃圾丟棄。
請參閱產品背貼上的設備額定功率。
請參考產品型錄或是彩盒上的作業溫度。
設備必須接地,接地導線不允許被破壞或沒有適當安裝接地導線,如果不確定接地方式是否符合要求可聯繫相應的電氣檢驗機構檢驗。
如果您提供的系統中有提供熱插拔電源,連接或斷開電源請遵循以下指導原則
- 先連接電源線至設備連,再連接電源。
- 先斷開電源再拔除連接至設備的電源線。
- 如果系統有多個電源,需拔除所有連接至電源的電源線再關閉設備電源。
• 產品沒有斷電裝置或者採用電源線的插頭視為斷電裝置的一部分,以下警語將適用 :
- 對永久連接之設備, 在設備外部須安裝可觸及之斷電裝置;
- 對插接式之設備, 插座必須接近安裝之地點而且是易於觸及的。
About the Symbols
Various symbols are used in this product to ensure correct usage, to prevent danger to the user and others, and to prevent property damage.
The meaning of these symbols are described below. It is important that you read these descriptions thoroughly and fully understand the
contents.
Explanation of the Symbols
SYMBOL
EXPLANATION
Alternating current (AC):
AC is an electric current in which the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction.
Direct current (DC):
DC if the unidirectional flow or movement of electric charge carriers.
Earth; ground:
A wiring terminal intended for connection of a Protective Earthing Conductor.
Class II equipment:
The method of protection against electric shock in the case of class II equipment is either double insulation
or reinforced insulation.
Viewing Certifications
Go to http://www.zyxel.com to view this product’s documentation and certifications.
Zyxel Limited Warranty
Zyxel warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects in material or workmanship for a specific period (the
Warranty Period) from the date of purchase. The Warranty Period varies by region. Check with your vendor and/or the authorized Zyxel local
distributor for details about the Warranty Period of this product. During the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product
have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, Zyxel will, at its discretion, repair or replace the defective products or
components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to
proper operating condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent product of equal or higher value,
and will be solely at the discretion of Zyxel. This warranty shall not apply if the product has been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by
an act of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties,
express or implied, including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. Zyxel shall in no event be held
liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact your vendor. You may also refer to the warranty policy for the region in which you bought the
device at http://www.zyxel.com/web/support_warranty_info.php.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at
www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (Zyxel Network Operating System) and ZON (Zyxel One Network)are registered trademarks of Zyxel Communications, Inc. Other
trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
520
Appendix D Legal Information
Open Source Licenses
This product contains in part some free software distributed under GPL license terms and/or GPL like licenses. Open source licenses are provided
with the firmware package. You can download the latest firmware at www.zyxel.com. To obtain the source code covered under those Licenses,
please contact support@zyxel.com.tw to get it.
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
521
Index
Index
setup 420
Numerics
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) 478
ARP inspection 262, 295
802.1P priority 77
ARP scan 369
ARP-Reply 418
ARP-Request 419
A
authentication
setup 255
AAA 250
accounting 251
authentication 251
authorization 251
external server 250
RADIUS 250
TACACS+ 250
authentication, authorization and accounting 250
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting, see
AAA 251
authorization
privilege levels 256
setup 255
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
251
access control
limitations 436
login account 442
remote management 445
service port 444
SNMP 446
auto-crossover 29
automatic VLAN registration 107
B
back up, configuration file 431
accounting
setup 255
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 418, 478, 482, 485
administrator password 37, 443
bandwidth control 167
egress rate 170
ingress rate 169
setup 167
basic settings 63
aging time 70
anti-arpscan 369
blocked hosts 371
host threshold 373, 374
port threshold 374
status 370
trusted hosts 372
basic setup tutorial 49
applications
backbone 21
bridging 22
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN 23
switched workgroup 22
BPDU guard 376
and Errdisable Recovery 376
port status 376
binding 261
binding table 261
building 262
BPDU 376
BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) 376
BPDUs 141
Bridge Protocol Data Units 376
ARP
how it works 418
learning mode 418
overview 418
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) 141
broadcast storm control 171
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
522
Index
C
copyright 517
CDP 305
CPU management port 126
certifications
viewing 520
CPU protection 321
CFI 107
current time 68
CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) 107
customer support 500
CoS 400
current date 68
changing the password 42
Cisco Discovery Protocol, see CDP
CIST 166
D
Class of Service 400
classifier 205
and QoS 205
editing 210
example 212
logging 211
match order 211
overview 205
setup 206, 210
status 205
viewing 210
daylight saving time 69
default Ethernet settings 29
default IP 71
DHCP
configuration options 405
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 405
modes 405
Relay Agent Information format 407
setup 406
DHCP relay option 82 294
cloning a port See port cloning
DHCP snooping 49, 262, 293
configuring 295
DHCP relay option 82 294
trusted ports 293
untrusted ports 294
cluster management 467
and switch passwords 470
cluster manager 467, 470
cluster member 467, 470
cluster member firmware upgrade 471
network example 467
setup 469
specification 467
status 468
switch models 467
VID 470
web configurator 471
DHCPv4
global relay 409
global relay example 411
Option 82 407
option 82 profiles 408
Relay Agent Information 407
cluster manager 467
DHCPv4 relay 407
cluster member 467
DHCPv6 relay 416
interface-ID 416
remote-ID 416
DHCP snooping database 294
Common and Internal Spanning Tree, See CIST 166
configuration 396
change running config 426
saving 42
diagnostics 460
Ethernet port test 462
ping 461
configuration file 43
backup 431
restore 43, 430
saving 426
Differentiated Service (DiffServ) 400
Differentiated Services 400
DiffServ 400
activate 401
DS field 400
DSCP 400
console port 31
contact information 500
copying port settings, See port cloning
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
523
Index
network example 401
PHB 400
service level 400
filtering database, MAC table 473
firmware 65
upgrade 428, 471
DiffServ Code Points 400
flow control
back pressure 77
IEEE802.3x 77
disclaimer 517
DNS 104
forwarding
delay 158
DNS (Domain Name System) 104
Domain Name System 104
frames
tagged 118
untagged 118
DS (Differentiated Services) 400
DSCP 400
what it does 400
front panel 28
dual firmware images 428
FTP 433
file transfer procedure 434
restrictions over WAN 435
dynamic link aggregation 178
E
G
egress port 129
egress rate, and bandwidth control 170
GARP 107
errdisable status 325
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) 107
error disable 321
control packets 325
CPU protection 325
detect 328
recovery 329
status 322
GARP timer 70, 107
general setup 67
getting help 44
Gigabit ports 28
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) 68
error-disable recovery 321
gratuitous ARP 419
Ethernet broadcast address 418, 478
green Ethernet 337
and uplink port 337
auto power down 337
EEE 337
short reach 337
Ethernet MAC 65
Ethernet OAM 380
Ethernet port test 462
external authentication server 251
GVRP 107, 118
and port assignment 118
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) 107
F
fan speed 67
H
FCC interference statement 517
file transfer using FTP
command example 434
hardware installation 25
hardware monitor 65, 66
filename convention, configuration
configuration
file names 433
hardware overview 28
hello time 158
high power 77
filtering 138
rules 138
HTTPS 454
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
524
Index
certificates 454
implementation 454
public keys, private keys 454
EUI-64 511
global address 509
interface ID 511
link-local address 509
Neighbor Discovery Protocol 509
neighbor table 486
ping 509
prefix 509
prefix length 509
stateless autoconfiguration 511
unspecified address 510
HTTPS example 454
I
IEEE 802.1x
activate 191
port authentication 189
reauthentication 193
IPv6 interface 85
DHCPv6 client 98
enable 90
global address 92
global unicast address 87
link-local address 91
link-local IP 87
neighbor discovery 93
neighbor table 96
stateless autoconfiguration 90
status 86
IEEE 802.3at 77
IEEE 802.3az 337
IGMP filtering
profile 232
IGMP leave timeout
fast 230
mormal 230
IGMP snooping 224
MVR 225
ingress port 128
IPv6 multicast
234
status 234
ingress rate, and bandwidth control 169
IPv6 neighbor table 486
initial setup 45
IPv6 source guard 261, 283
installation
desktop 25
precautions 26
rack-mounting 25
transceivers 29
IPv6 static binding 284
IGMP throttling 231
IPv6 static route
configuration 398
installation scenarios 25
L
Internet Protocol version 6, see IPv6
IP
L2PT 302
access port 303
CDP 302
configuration 303
encapsulation 302
example 302
LACP 303
MAC address 302, 305
mode 303
overview 302
PAgP 303
point to point 303
STP 302
tunnel port 303
interface 72, 73
IP address 72, 73
IP setup 71
IP source guard 261
ARP inspection 262, 295
DHCP snooping 262, 293
static bindings 262
IP subnet mask 72, 73
IP table 476
how it works 476
IPv4 source guard 261
IPv6 509
addressing 509
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
525
Index
UDLD 303
VTP 302
M
LACP 178, 306
system priority 187
timeout 187
MAC 65
MAC (Media Access Control) 65
MAC address 65, 478
maximum number per port 202
Layer 2 protocol tunneling, see L2PT
LEDs 32
MAC address learning 70, 202
specify limit 202
link aggregation 178
dynamic 178
ID information 179
setup 181
traffic distribution algorithm 181
traffic distribution type 184
trunk group 178
MAC freeze 201
MAC table 473
display criteria 475
how it works 473
sorting criteria 475
transfer type 475
viewing 474
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) 178
Link Layer Discovery Protocol 341
MAC-based VLAN 125
LLDP 341
Basic TLV 358
global settings 356
local port status 346
organization-specific TLV 360
status of remote device 350
TLV 341
maintanence
configuration backup 431
firmware 428
restoring configuration 430
maintenance 424
current configuration 425
main screen 425
LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) 341
Management Information Base (MIB) 446
LLDP-MED 342
classes of endpoint devices 342
example 342
management IP address 71
management port 129
managing the device
good habits 24
using FTP. See FTP. 24
using Telnet. See command interface. 24
using the command interface. See command
interface. 24
lockout 42
log message 463
login 35
password 42
login account
Administrator 442
non-administrator 442
man-in-the-middle attacks 295
maximum transmission unit 481
login accounts 442
configuring via web configurator 442
multiple 442
number of 442
Mbuf 432
Mbuf (Memory Buffer) 432
MDIX (Media Dependent Interface Crossover) 29
login password 443
Media Access Control 65
loop guard 297
examples 298
port shut down 298
setup 299
vs. STP 297
Memory Buffer 432
MIB
and SNMP 446
supported MIBs 447
MIB (Management Information Base) 446
mirroring ports 175
MLD filtering profile 241
MLD snooping-proxy 234
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
526
Index
filtering 239
filtering profile 241
port role 236
VLAN ID 235
O
OAM 380
details 382
discovery 380
discovery state 385
packets statistics 385
PDU size 384
port configuration 380
port operational state 382
remote loopback 380
remote-loopback 388
monitor port 175
mounting brackets 26
MRSTP
configuration 150
status 153
MST Instance, See MSTI 165
MST region 165
MSTI 158, 165
one-time schedule 203
MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance) 158
Operations, Administration and Maintenance 380
MSTP 140, 142
bridge ID 163
configuration digest 163
forwarding delay 158
Hello Time 163
hello time 158
Max Age 158, 163
maximum hops 158
revision level 158
status 161
Option 82 407
P
PAGP 306
password 42
administrator 37, 443
Path MTU 481
MTU 481
Path MTU Discovery 481
MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) 69
Per-Hop Behavior 400
multicast
IGMP throttling 231
IP addresses 223
setup 227
PHB 400
ping, test connection 461
PoE
PD priority 84
power management mode 83
power-up mode 81
schedule 80
multicast group 232
multicast MAC address 134
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, See MSTP 140, 142
Multiple STP 142
PoE Plus 77
Multi-Tenant Unit 69
policy 214
and classifier 214
and DiffServ 214
configuration 214
example 217
overview 214
rules 214
MVR 225
configuration 242
network example 225
MVR (Multicast VLAN Registration) 225
Port Aggregation Protocol, see PAgP
N
port authentication 189
guest VLAN 193
IEEE802.1x 191
MAC authentication 195
method 191
network applications 21
network management system (NMS) 446
NTP (RFC-1305) 68
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
527
Index
port cloning 482, 485
advanced settings 482, 485
basic settings 482, 485
overview 333
promiscuous port 333
product registration 520
port details 490
protocol based VLAN 121
and IEEE 802.1Q tagging 121
application example 121
configuration example 129
isolate traffic 121
priority 123
setup 121
un-tagged packets 121
port mirroring 175
port redundancy 178
port security 199
limit MAC address learning 202
MAC address learning 199
overview 199
setup 199
port setup 75
PVID 107
port status 488
port details 490
port utilization 494
Q
port utilization 494
port VLAN ID, see PVID 118
QoS 400
and classifier 205
port VLAN trunking 108
Quality of Service 400
port-based VLAN 126
all connected 128
port isolation 128
settings wizard 128
queue weight 220
queuing 219
SPQ 220
WRR 220
ports
diagnostics 462
mirroring 175
speed/duplex 77
standby 179
queuing method 219, 222
power
voltage 65, 67
R
power connector 31
rack-mounting 25
power status 65, 67
RADIUS 251
advantages 251
and tunnel protocol attribute 259
setup 252
PPPoE IA 312
agent sub-options 314
configuration 314
drop PPPoE packets 316
port state 314
sub-option format 313
tag format 312
trusted ports 314
untrusted ports 314
VLAN 320
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, See RSTP. 140
rear panel connections 31
reboot
load configuration 426
reboot system 426
recurring schedule 203
registration
product 520
PPPoE Intermediate Agent 312
priority level 71
remote management 445
service 445
trusted computers 445
priority queue assignment 71
private VLAN 333
configuration 333
isolated port 333
resetting 43, 426, 427, 428
to custom default settings 428
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
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Index
to factory default settings 426, 427
setup 437
traps 438
users 440
version 3 and security 447
versions supported 446
restoring configuration 43, 430
RFC 3164 464
Round Robin Scheduling 220
routing table 480
SNMP traps 447
supported 448, 452
RSTP 140
configuration 144
status 148
Spanning Tree Protocol, See STP. 140
SPQ (Strict Priority Queuing) 220
running configuration 426
erase 426
reset 426
SSH
encryption methods 453
how it works 452
implementation 453
SSH (Secure Shell) 452
S
SSL (Secure Socket Layer) 454
standby ports 179
save configuration 42, 426
static bindings 262
schedule
one-time 203
recurring 203
type 204
static MAC address 131
static MAC forwarding 131
static multicast address 134
Secure Shell See SSH
static multicast forwarding 134
service access control 444
service port 444
static route
enable 397
metric 398
sFlow 307
collector 310
configuration 307
datagram 307
overview 307
poll interval 310
sample rate 310
UDP port 311
static routes 396
static VLAN 113
control 116
tagging 116
status 37, 58
MRSTP 153
MSTP 161
port 488
power 65, 67
RSTP 148
VLAN 109
sFlow agent 307
sFlow collector 307
Simple Network Management Protocol, see SNMP
Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) 29
STP 140, 306
bridge ID 148, 154
bridge priority 146, 151
designated bridge 141
edge port 147, 152
forwarding delay 147
Hello BPDU 141
Hello Time 146, 148, 151, 154
how it works 141
Max Age 147, 148, 152, 154
path cost 141, 147, 152
port priority 147, 152
SNMP 446
agent 446
and MIB 446
authentication 441, 442
communities 37, 437
management model 446
manager 446
MIB 447
network components 446
object variables 446
protocol operations 447
security 441, 442
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
529
Index
port role 149, 154
port state 142, 149, 154
root guard 147, 152
root port 141
status 143
terminology 141
vs. loop guard 297
transceivers 29
installation 29
removal 30
traps
destination 438
trunk group 178
trunking 178
subnet based VLAN
and DHCP VLAN 120
priority 120
setup 119
trusted ports
DHCP snooping 293
PPPoE IA 314
tunnel protocol attribute
and RADIUS 259
subnet based VLANs 118
switch lockout 42
tutorials 49
DHCP snooping 49
switch reset 43
switch setup 70
Type of Serivce 400
syslog 464
protocol 464
settings 464
setup 464
severity levels 464
U
system information 63
UDLD 306
system reboot 426
UniDirectional Link Detection, see UDLD
untrusted ports
DHCP snooping 294
PPPoE IA 314
T
user name 35
default 35
TACACS+ 250, 251
advantages 251
setup 253
user profiles 251
tagged VLAN 106
Tech-Support 431
log enhancement 431
V
temperature indicator 65, 66
Vendor Specific Attribute, See VSA 258
Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus
250
VID 74, 110, 111
number of possible VIDs 107
priority frame 107
terminal emulation 31
time
current 68
VID (VLAN Identifier) 107
Time (RFC-868) 68
VLAN 69
acceptable frame type 118
automatic registration 107
ID 106
ingress filtering 118
introduction 69, 106
number of VLANs 110
port number 111
port settings 116
Virtual Local Area Network 69
time range 203
time server 68
time service protocol 68
format 68
ToS 400
trademarks 520
transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA) 29
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
530
Index
port-based VLAN 126
port-based, all connected 128
port-based, isolation 128
port-based, wizard 128
PVID 118
static VLAN 113
status 109, 110, 111
subnet based 118
tagged 106
terminology 108
trunking 108, 118
type 70, 108
ZULD 390
and Error Disable 391
example 390
mode 394
probe time 393
status 391
ZULD (ZyXEL Unidirectional Link Detection) 390
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) 434
ZyXEL Discovery Protocol 60
ZyXEL Unidirectional Link Detection 390
ZyXEL Unidirectional Link Detection (ZULD) 390
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) 69
VLAN ID 106
VLAN number 72, 73, 74
VLAN terminology 108
VLAN trunking 118
VLAN Trunking Protocol, see VTP
VLAN, protocol based, See protocol based VLAN 121
Voice VLAN 123
VSA 258
VT100 31
VTP 306
W
warranty 520
note 520
web configurator
getting help 44
home 37
login 35
logout 43
navigation panel 38
weight, queuing 220
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) 220
WRR (Weighted Round Robin Scheduling) 220
Z
ZDP 60
ZON neighbor management 61
ZON Utility 60
XGS2210 Series User’s Guide
531
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