GENERAL STATEMENT The structural geology of the Sandon area

The structural geology of the Sandon area is of Alpine type and is highly complex.
Very little of the structure can be inferred from the map alone, but by comparing the
map (Fig. 2) and the sections (Figs. 3 and 4) the extent of the present state of knowledge
of the structure can be studied. An important modification of the structure is observed
south of the present area, in-the valley of Silverton Creek, and only a suggestion of that
modification is to be seen in the Sandon area itself. Current work by Mr. Robinson
along Silverton Creek, between Silver Ridge and the contact of the Nelson granite, is
thus an important complement to the present work.
In order to discuss the structure of the Sandon area to best advantage it must first
be considered in a regional frame of reference, namely, the region between the massive
rocks of the Nelson batholith atid the Kaslo greenstone. Further extrapolation of the
structure, and consideration of its significance in the framework of a large part of the
West Kootenay, is highly important from a regional point of view, but, since the present
bulletin aims to describe the geology of a mineralized area and these broader implications
serve no immediate purpose, they will not be discussed.
Future work between Kootenay and Arrow Lakes will throw much light on the
larger regional framework of the West Kootenay.
It is hoped that the material in the
present bulletin will not only add to the stock of knowledge but will prove the necessity
for detailed study in working out regional structures.
In the general section to follow, the writer draws on his own experience, which
includes both detail and reconnaissance work in a large part of the Slocan. Mr. Robinson’s work is used and some concepts of Messrs. Billing&y and Mayo.
Some of Dr.
Cairn& geological compilations have kindly been made available.
Following this general section there are discussions of dragfolds and cleavage,
particularly as these features may be useful in interpreting and integrating the structures
of the Sandon area.
The sedimentary rocks of the Slocan series are strongly folded into a complex of
asymmetrical and overturned folds. The central part of the sedimentary basin between
Silverton and Kaslo Creeks has been greatly compressed, with the formatidn of structures
more Alpine in type than have hitherto been recognized. The general form, if not the
detail, of this folding is reasonably well understood in the Sandon and Silverton areas
and has required a great deal of intensive study for its working out. Study in comparable detail elsewhere has not been possible, but enough is known of the more important
features to .warrant drawing the following conclusions regarding the cross-section of the
basin between Nelson granite on the southwest and Kaslo gr&nstone on the northeast.
The Slocan sediments as a whole are well-bedded, typically blocky rocks in which
little secondary cleavage has been developed. At the headwaters of Kaslo and Seaton
Creeks, however, there is a belt of slate as much as 4 miles wide bordering the Kaslo
greenstone, in which the dip of both bedding and cleavage is dominantly to the southwest.
In a former bulletin (Hedley, 1945) the writer expressed the belief that this thickness
of slaty rocks was a normal succession without duplication by major folding, but probably
thickened to an incalculable degree by dragfolds, crumples, and possibly slicing faults.
The cleavage was held to be of the axial plane variety in spite of its general, but not
detailed, parallelism with bedding and in spite of the absence of isocliial folding. This
opinion is now modified’by a change in concept that recognizes the possibility of the
development of cleavage on so large a scale by an extreme of interbed slipping which
amounts to shear (see section on cleavage, pp. 36-38).
The Whitewater slate belt is
thus considered to be a huge shear zone, localized by the buttress of Kaslo greenstone,
which follows the bedding in general, and expresses an extreme of the same relative
movement as the interbed slipping which accompanied folding.
A second period of
deformation, apparently related to faults, has deformed the cleavage near the head of
-A seconds slate belt crosses Payne Mouptain and is known to extend from the
vicinitv of Codv to that of Three Forks. This is also a shear zone. as much as half a mile
wide, possibly representing a major dislocation.
It follows the r&mm1 trend and tends
to be localized in argillaceous rocks, but it is not entirely a bedded structure and is not
confined to an argillaceous horizon of relatively low competency.
Elsewhere, north and east of Silver Ridge, the rocks are complexly folded into an
aggregate of poorly symmetrical forms with axial planes that are nearly horizontal and
with low angles of plunge. The characteristic form is a recumbent fold, involving overturn of one limb and ranging in intensity from moderate curvature to isoclinal. This is
a pattern of folding not often described, and during the course of the present work it
was thought to be anomalous and that elsewhere there would be found a more conventional series of anticlines and synclines with steep axial planes. However, although
differences in outline have been encountered in the Sloan camp, this fundamental form
of the folding uersists for a cross-sectional distance of 1’21% miles and through a vertical
range of 6,0cO*feet.
The Slocan sediments are involved in a zone of overturning of major proportions.
The form is not completely outlined, because only the lower part remains and the full
implication is not known, but a recumbent fold is indicated with an amplitude at Sandon
of at least 5.000 feet and oossiblv twice that figure. Little is known of the roots or of
the upper eroded limb.
With local and minor exceptions, strata which dip to the southwest are stratigraphially right side up, and strata which dip to the northeast are overturned.
The lowermost,
west-dipping strata steepen upwards and roll over to an overturned position in a huge
crumpled arc, concave to the southwest. The full implication of this arc is not known
because the complementary. arc of recovery by which the overturned strata return to
a right side up position is not seen anywhere in the district. The complete structure, no
matter how complex, must in original outline have been in the form of a gigantic dragfold
in which the higher, overriding strata moved relatively southwestward and the lmver
strata moved relatively northeastward, supposedly in response to tangential earth stresses.
Only part of the lower arc has survived erosion, and an upper arc, the remainder of the
“ dragfold,” must, be sought elsewhere along the regional strike.
This structure, or rather the lower part of it that remains, is here called the Slocan
fold. It cannot be seen anywhere in its entirety, but the general form is a recumbent
fold open or ccmcave to the southwest.
The simplest known outline exists on Twelvemile Creek, where steep southwesterly
dipping rocks on Kaslo Creek steepen and roll over to northeasterly dips and maintain
that dip in a panel that extends northwestward to the head of Jackson Creek. The
details of the folding are not known, but the curvature itself is unmistakable.
The Sandon area is situated in perhaps one of the most complex parts of the
structure. Repeated reversals of dip are the rule, and neither the southwest dipping
roots nor the upper limit of overturning can be seen. The working out of this structure
has involved integration of detail because none of the individual folds is clearly exposed.
Determinations of top and bottom of strata by cross-bedding have been invaluable,
proving in several instances the existence of tight folding that could not otherwise be
The Slocan fold, extending from the Kaslo greenstone to the Nelson granite, may,
and probably does, involve the Kaslo greenstone as well as the Sloan sediments. The
cleavage in the sediments on Kaslo Creek is continuous with shearing in the greenstone,
but whether the greenstone, which is conformable with the overlying sediments, steepens
upwards and rolls over to a northeasterly dip is not definitely known. This latter point
is important in assessing the size and regional implications of the fold, but the mass of
the greenstone and the scarcity of evidence of internal structure make the matter very
hard to determine.
The answer may lie to the northwest, on upper Kane Creek, or
perhaps on Upper Arrow Lake, although the evidence may have been destroyed by
intrusion of the Kuskanax batholith.
The lower limb of the fold is apparently represented by the prevailing southwesterly
dips on Kaslo, Seaton, and lower Carpenter Creeks, and the root zone lies below the
-level of Slocan Lake. Nothing is known of the ultimate base of the structure.
The Sloan fold is seen fragmentally in cross-sectional outline for about 12l/ miles
horizontally and about 1 mile vertically.
It is not and probably never.was a structure
The belt of slaty rocks, interpreted as a huge shear
of simple or uniform curvature.
zone, along the edge of the Kaslo greenstone points to modification of the folded outline
by shearing stresses. The Payne. slate belt is similarly interpreted as being at least in
part a shear zone along which adjustment took place. In order that a uniform outline
be produced in the course of folding over so large an area, uniformity of application of
stress and of response. by layered rocks would have to have been of a high order. Actually
the heterogeneously bedded sediments failed irregularly, and the application of stresses
was far from uniform throughout the known dynamic history of the region.
The Sloan fold is a complex of structures whose present configuration is a result
of changing stress application.
The northwesterly trending complex, characterized by
axial planes with little or no dip and by low plunge, is “ humped ” along a zone extending
from near the Mammoth mine to the Whitewater at Retallack, and some members are
buckled through approximately a right angle near the contact with Nelson granite.
The Slocan fold, referring to the entire complex of individual structures, is a composite structure. The individual folds are folded, a fact which on first thought suggests
a second period of deformation, but, other than the marked curvature of fold axes, there
is no evidence of two periods of deformation.
On the other hand, there is evidence that
folds were formed and then buckled in one more or less continuous process. The
evidence is most abundant in the Silverton Creek area and will be discussed in Mr.
Robinson’s bulletin when field work is completed.
The general form of the Sloan fold is discussed in the following paragraphs inasmuch
as it bears on problems of occurrence and genesis of the major lodes. It is thought that
the Slocan fold developed along a basic recumbent pattern and, probably before the
Fig. 5. ~Structuraltrend lines in part of Slocanmining camp.
present recumbent outlines were fully formed, a redistribution of stresses crowded and
buckled scane of the individual fold elements in the path of the growing Nelson batholith.
This crowding and buckling along the general granite margin must, obviously, bear
some relation to the intrusive body. Speculation on the mechanics of intrusion are not
considered here, particularly as study of the granite itself has not been possible. The
preceding reference to crowding must, however, stand, whether the granite actively did
the crowding or whether the sediments were warped against a gmnitic buttress. The
writer believes, to express the matter in only the most general way, that the development
of the complex Slocan fold and the emplacement of this part of the Nelson granite must
have been interrelated.
Figure 5 shows the general outline of the northern extremity of the Nelson batholith
and the marked swing in structural trend round the northeast edge of it, as mapped by
Cairnes on the Sandon Sheet. Trend lines are also shown to illustrate how Darts of the
Slocan fold are buckled against the northern margin of the granite
Fig. 6. Down buckling of Slocan fold between Idaho Peak and Silverton Creek (not to scale).
Figure 6 illustrates the nature of the down buckling as traced by an element of
recumbent structure which passes through Idaho Peak and near the Mammoth mine, to
show how it is deflected and rotated down across Silverton Creek. In detail, crumpling
complicates the fold and its exact shape is not known, but the general pattern is clear.
In A, Figure 6 is shown the dominant dip and strike of the sediments and the plunge of
the larger fold axes in plan, and in section the dips of a single compressed fold. B is
a perspective drawing of a single plane, essentially horizontal near Idaho Peak and warped
down and around to a steep northwesterly dip near Silverton Creek. Only a plane is
represented because it has proved too difficult to illustrate the assemblage of compressed
folds actually involved in the down buckle. The sketches illustrate the general pattern
of fold elements which have been almost continuously traced in this vicinity.
Most, but
not all, of the individual fold elements curve in this manner to meet the granite.
In curving from a northwesterly to a northeasterly strike the previously folded beds
are rotated and are buckled downward to the south. The curvature is sharpest where
seen on lower Silverton Creek and is apparently a broad open curve south of Adams Peak.
A broad cross-warp extends between the Mammoth mine and the Whitewater tie
at Retallack, separating northwest plunges on the north and west from southeast plunges
on the south and east. The area of the cross-warp, which extends across the entire
sedimentary basin, is one of locally conflicting plunges. It is apparently associated with
the down buckling only on lower Siiverton Creek and may possibly stem from a focus of
stresses in that locality. The actual boundaries of the cross-warp are vague, but this
structure, in general, coincides roughly with the main productive area of the Slocan.
Dragfolds, as defined or implied in standard works on structural geology, are minor,
systematically developed crumples in incompetent strata between more competent beds.
They have been formed by the differential movement between beds during the process of
folding, and friction has played an important part in their formation.
The individual
dragfolds may be irregular in outline but more commonly are S-shaped or Z-shaped.
The relative direction of movement between beds may be deduced from the shape of the
folds and from this, in turn, the direction of curvature of the beds in the nearest major
fold can be determined.
In the Slocan, systematic development of small dragfolds in relatively soft beds or
series of, beds is not of common occurrence, possibly because of the heterogeneous
character of the sediments Such folds do occur locally and are useful in the working
out of structure, but other structures are of more general importance and will also be
called dragfolds in this bulletin. In so doing, current field practice is being followed, but
inasmuch as the standard texts imply restriction of the term it is necessary to deiine
this usage.
A dragfold is considered to represent the folded outline which has resulted from the
overriding of any bed or series of beds by itself. It is not restricted in size or to any type
of rock, other than that it is a product of stratiform folding;* it may be developed in
a soft bed between harder beds, or it may be developed in a hard bed of rock which has
buckled between softer beds which have flowed. It implies shortening of strata and
thickening by repetition. The outlime is as a rule S-shaped or Z-shaped, resulting from
*By Stramxm folding is meantthe formationOf llexurerin layeredrocks. The deformationOf mAwSi”.?.
strafi‘ormrockIis not sonsidercd
Fig. 7. Diagrammatic cross-sectionof B recumbent fold. Cleavage represented by broken lines.
a small or moderate amount of self-overlap as measured on a single bed, but may include,
as extremes, a flexare which has stopped just short of overriding, and an overlap measuring many times the thickness of the band involved. It is a result of partial failure of
a rock band to transmit stress, and so may pass into a shear or fault.
In Figure 7 is shown diagrammatically the cross-section of a fold on which dragfolds
of much smaller size are localized. The fold is drawn recumbent to illustrate some of
the problems of structural study in the Slocan, but in principle it may just as well be
viewed as an upright anticline or syncline by holding the page sideways. The principal
axiom concerned is that in stratiform folding, which always involves some interbed
slippage, the outer beds must move differentially toward any crest with respect to inner
beds which are closer to the axial plane. It follows that dragfolds which have formed
as a direct result of this interbed slippage must indicate the relative direction of movement.
Dragfolds measuring a few inches to a few tens of feet in amplitude are moderately
plentiful in the Sandon area. Some are S-shaped and represent some overlap as measured
on a single bed, but included with them are many flexures in beds which have not overlapped themselves. Some of these latter may be called dragfolds only by courtesy, but
they indicate the same relative movement as do the others. Some irregular buckles are
of uncertain derivation and consequently are of no other value than to prove that contortion has occurred. A structure should be termed a dragfold only when it is related to
the general process of folding. Non-symmetrical buckles and rolls, and even some S- and
Z-shapes, may simply represent loci of failure of the strata in relief of local stresses.
Dragfolds of both overriding and flexural type may be formed at some. time other
than that of the general folding and in response to quite different forces. They may, for
instance, represent incipient shear zones, examples of which have been observed,
particularly in the Whitewater area. In the heterogeneous strata in the Slocan, folded
into complex outlines, the general forces of folding have not acted uniformly throughout
the rock mass and many anomalous structures have been formed.
The foregoing remarks have by direct statement or inference referred to beds, and
by so doing have put some measure on the possible size or limit of a dragfold. Actually
there is believed to be no limit to the thickness of rocks that might be involved, nor to the
size of the structure. In size then, a dragfold may be microscopic, or it may be only
somewhat smaller than the largest structure of which it may form a part.
With the above definitions and qualifications in mind, it may be stated that dragfolds
in the Sandon area may in the majority of cases be used with confidence in the working
out of structure. The dip of the axial plane of a dragfold may be of little positive value
in indicating the dip of the axial plane of the major fold, but the plunge is approximately
that of the larger structure, and the integration of individual plunges is considered to be
the most positive way of determining the major structural plunge.
The Sandon dragfolds indicate the direction of differential movement between beds,
but this does not determine tops and bottoms of the beds. Owing to the nature of the
folding, all beds have in general moved down dip relative to those beneath them,
Reference to Figure 7 will show why this is so. In a recumbent fold the outermost beds
move towards the crest relative to the innermost, as they must io all stratiform folding,
but also the higher beds move down dip relative to the lower, the reverse of the differential
movement seen in upright anticlines and synclines. A newcomer to the district, because
of his experience with upright folds, at first may believe all beds are overturned. In fact,
the only way to determine tops and bottoms is by study of cross-bedding. Dragfolds
prove extremely useful in the field provided the stratigraphic top is known.
A few dragfolds are anomalous, in that they prove that the higher beds have moved
relatively up the dip. This is easily explained in the case of warps on the limbs of some
At the head of White
recumbent folds, but in a few particular cases is inexplicable.
Creek large and small dragfolds prove that the uppermost beds of a west-dipping panel
moved relatively up the dip, the reverse of what is the rule for the remainder of the area.
Knowing the general pattern of folding in the entire district, one explanation is that the
dragfolds have been produced by later acting forces, for which there is no positive
evidence; another explanation is that the west-dipping panel is part of a larger structure,
to which the dragfolds are. related.
One general consequence of the Sandon dragfoldiig is that it steepens the average
or effective dip of a structural panel. Because higher beds override the lower, down the
dip, each bed is in effect lowered each time it is dragfolded, and the average dip is
Cleavage is not prominent in the rocks of the Sandon area and is not characteristic
of the Sloan as a whole. It is developed locally, however, and as its presence is a structural record open to interpretation it is worth discussing for the light it may throw on
general and particular problems.
Cleavage is here taken to mean slaty cleavage, which involves orientation of platy
minerals and which is generally considered to have resulted from rock-flowage.
there is some difference of opinion on the origin and significance of slaty or flow cleavage,
it is well to state the writer’s point of view. The ideas of W. J. Mead (1940) are taken as
setting forward in clearest language in a single paper the principle that cleavage may result
from rock-tlowage during the normal course of folding, given the right conditions of load,
rate of deformation, and degree of compaction and dehydration of suitable rocks.
Under these conditions cleavage may develop, regionally or selectively, approximately
parallel to the axial planes of folds. Cleavage may also develop by rock-flowage in
response to shearing stresses, in which case it may not be parallel to axial planes. The
two products may be identical in appearance.
Fracture cleavage, implying more or less closely spaced fractures or joints with
no orientation of platy minerals, is not considered separately. It is present in the district
and may prove useful in structural determinations, but its implications are not believed
to be as far reaching as those of flow cleavage. In many observed instances it is not
possible. in the field to differentiate between fracture and flow cleavage unless the fracture
crosses the flow cleavage and was thus demonstrably formed at a different time. In fact,
most of what the writer considers to be fracture cleavage in the field seems merely a less
fissile form of flow cleavage with which it intergrades, the degree of fissility and the angle.
of dip varying with the rock traversed, unless the cleavage follows the bedding. The
matter of mineral orientation, although important in the generally accepted classification
of cleavage, cannot be determined in the field and for the present work is not believed
to warrant the extensive laboratory study necessary for its determination.
The best development of flow cleavage is in the Whitewater-Lucky
Jim area,
described in an earlier bulletin (Hedley, 1945).
The next largest development is in
the slate belt on Payne Mountain that passes down the slopes of Reco Mountain to the
vicinity of Cody and is important in mine development as Cairnes has shown ( 1935, p. 1) ,
since it limits to the southwest a number of productive veins. Elsewhere, flow cleavage
is of mire random and frequently very local occurrence.
In 1945 the writer advanced the belief that the flow or slaty cleavage in the Whitewater-Lucky Jim belt was axial-plane cleavage developed in response to the forces of
folding and endeavoured to reconcile the fact of the nearly universal parallelism with
bedding by pointing to the great amount of interbed slippage on what was presumably
the flank of a major fold against an underlying buttress of Kaslo greenstone. Since
additional work has been done this view has been modified.
It is now believed that in
this belt rock-flowage, the evidence of which is slaty cleavage, was not produced as an
over-all result of the general folding but in response to locally resolved stresses. It is
believed that, specifically, the intensity of folding, and of flowage due to folding, may
vary in such a heterogeneous rock-mass as the Slocan series so that flow cleavage will
tend to develop in certain zones more than in others. If the zones of extreme folding
become eventually zones of shear through continued application of the same stresses,
In one or two places such as an asymmetrical buckle in quart&e, argillite has been
squeezed plastically into the fold or cavity and is cleaved in consequence of the squeezing.
Such cleavage of strictly local formation can be recognized for what it is if the exposure
is adequate, but in small outcrops the origin is hard to prove.
Care must be taken if cleavage-bedding relations are to be used to work out structure. The cleavage may not be axial-plane cleavage in the first place and even if it is,
in relation to a single fold, it may be of no value without additional information.
As was
pointed out in the case of dragfolding (see Fig. 7)) in any fold the peripheral beds move
toward the crest and in recumbent folds the upper beds move relatively down the dip,
regardless of stratigraphic tops and bottoms. The best illustration of axial-plane cleavage
developed in a recumbent fold is on the slope of Payne ridge just southeast of the Slocan
Boy (Plate IX). Here southwesterly dipping beds are cut by flatter cleavage, which fact,
under conditions of upright folding, proves that the beds are overturned. Actually, the
beds are known to be stratigraphically right side up from the evidence of cross-bedding,
and the exposure is on the upper limb of a recumbent fold with nearly horizontal axis.
The fact that in many places cleavage is predominantly parallel to bedding is best
explained by the large amount of interbed slippage which has occurred, and by the fact
that many faults or shear zones follow the bedding. The cleavage may thus be produced
by flowage caused by attenuation or by shearing, and may even be of dual origin.
On the Canadian Pacific track between Three Forks and Rambler Siding there is
a greater width of slate in several places than occurs on strike of the formations on higher
ground to the southeast. In some of the slate the bedding has been obliterated and
blocks of harder rocks have migrated through softer. It is not known whether this slate
is the product of extreme buckling alone, during which the rocks first shattered and
then flowed, or whether it is the product of a major zone of shearing.
The Whitewater-Lucky
Jim slate belt is probably the expression of rock-flowage
more intense than that produced solely through the mechanics of folding.
It is probably
related in part to crowding of the argillaceous sediments against the Kaslo greenstone
and involves a strong element of shearing. The fact that cleavage in the sediments is
parallel with cleavage in the adjacent greenstone implies that a single cleavage has
affected both rocks.
Another manifestation of cleavage, which seems to be of possible regional origin
even though it is of local development, is worthy of mention. This is seen particularly
in banded “ pyjama rocks ” in which the banding is between pale siliceous and dark
argillaceous beds ranging in thickness from one-quarter of an inch to 3 or 4 inches.
It is seen in other similarly alternating hard- and soft-bedded rocks whose regularity is
less marked than in the “ pyjama rock ” type. In such alternations the softer beds possess
a poor to good cleavage at a small angle to the bedding in plan and essentially parallel in
section. It has been seen at enough widely scattered points and on enough different
stroctures to imply that it is of possible regional significance. The orientation of this
cleavage is such that it indicates a relative shift of the southwestern beds to the northwest.
strata in the Sandon area are complexly and asymmetrically folded
as part of a huge regional recumbent fold, the Slocan fold. The major Slocan fold cannot
be seen, but its general nattire is deduced from integration of the minor elements. The
strata on the higher slopes of Silver Ridge are on the upper, overturned limb of the major
fold, and the strata in the valley of Carpenter Creek follow round the crest zone of the
major fold. The lower-limb is not seen in the Sandon area, except perhaps west of
Three Forks.
The strata are buckled on a large and small scale, and there are many reversals
in dip about near-horizontal axial planes. Dragfoldiig is on a small and large scale,
and some of the major buckles are considered to be huge dragfolds, the most prominent
of which, on Idaho Peak, is semi-isoclinal in form. No complete folds can be di&xtly
observed in the field and in only a few localities can the curvature of part of a fold be
traced in cross-section. The concept of the structure is built up by integration of all
observations obtained by detailed scouring of all areas of outcrop and by close attention
to distribution of rock type.
There are wide differences in character of the folding in different parts of the major
structure. There are also wide differences in the manner of failure, and of accommodation to the major structure, of rocks differing in degree of competency and in degree of
bedding fissility. Consequently, there are differences in outline of the folding both along
strike and in a single cross-section. The large isoclinal fold on Idaho Peak is on the limb
of the major structure, where differential movement has been extensive, and sharp
reversals in dip in the area of Miller and Tributary Creeks are. in the crest zone of the
major structure. The actual form assumed may differ widely between argillite, quart&e,
and thin-bedded rocks.
Most of the rocks in the Sandon area ultimately Swing through an arc of about
90 degrees to meet the northern edse of the Nelson granite at a small angle (Fig. 5).
One unexplained exception is the continuation of the northwest trend through a prominent
re-entrant in the granite at the head of Sandon Creek. The curvature from northwest
to northeast strike is seen in the Sandon area only in the vicinity of the Mammoth mine.
This curvature, shown in Figure 6, involves compression of the recumbent folds,
a change in plunge from 10 to 15 degrees northwest to 20 degrees southeast, and a
progressive steepening of the plunge. through southerly, ultimately to about 70 degrees
southwesterly. At the same time the tight recumbent folds are buckled down and under
so that the axial planes dip steeply to the northwest.
In spite of the complexity in the Sandon area a few features make structural
interpretation possible. Cross-bedding, though not everywhere present, has permitted
frequent determination of stratigraphic tops and has been invaluable. Dragfolds, with
few exceptions, serve to illustrate the form of the curvature.
Cleavage has proved
unreliable on the whole, although locally it shows the differential movement between beds.
As a general rule, invalidated only by flexures upon folds and by isoclinal dragfolds,
southwest-dipping beds are right side up and northeast-dipping beds are overturned.
The dominant pattern of folding is about near-horizontal axial planes, and the differential
movement between beds has been that the upper beds moved down the dip relative to
the lower.
The plunge of the axes of individual folds is at a low angle to the northwest in the
northern and western parts of the area. The plunge is to the southeast in the southern
and eastern parts. The Sandon area straddles a cross-warp of regional dimension.
Local observations at scattered points lead to the conclusion that southwestern beds
moved relatively to the northwest. The evidence for this is the development of cleavage
in softer interbeds (seep. 38) that is apparently not necessarily related to the major fold
nor to minor folds alone, but which has resulted from a huge creep along the formational
The folded rocks were metamorphosed, intruded by igneous masses, and dislocated
by faults. All these events are believed to have taken place in one semi-continuous and
overlapping process during the final stages of folding.
Some metamorphic effects, such as the growth of fine biotite in the argillites, is
clearly related to individual intrusive bodies, but some are not related to any single
apparent source. Silicification is a more important phase of metamorphism, because it
involved an influx of silica in large quantities, and because it changed the competency
of scane of the rocks affected. Its presence makes correlation difficult in some instances.
The general sequence of events was silicilication, inttision of sills and dykes, faulting, and mineralization.
Although silicification was in general prior to intrusion, it
accompanied the intrusion of some bodies. It is impossible to determine the time of
silicitication relative to folding, but indirect evidence points to the fact that sills and dykes
were intruded before the folds reached their ultimate form, presumably at a time when the
folds were essentially complete but before the folding stresses were fully relieved. Joints
of the principal crosscutting set came later, for had these abundant fractures existed at
the time of intrusion, dykes following this direction would have been common, whereas
the typical intrusive body throughout the area is a sill. Faulting started at about the
same time, although before the last intrusion, and continued for a long period, probably
in a series of pulsations with attendant relief of pressure. Mineralization took place
before the faulting ceased.
The timing of intrusion and faulting is based on the fact that in much of the area
the intrusive sheets follow the bedding more often than not, and some of the sills
continue round broader folds. This is taken as evidence that bedding planes were
easily spread by invading magma because the beds were still subject to flexure by
regional compressive stresses. Tangential faults are so much influenced by the structure, are related to dragfolds and ruptured folds, and have the same relative movement
as the interbed slippage, that the time of their formation is proved to be no later than
the close of the period of folding. Crosscutting faults, some channeled along the joint
system, formed at much the same time. The larger crosscutting faults developed finally
into huge tear faults which involved some underthrusting, with a flatter dip and a more
easterly strike than the smaller faults. They were major avenues for the relief of stresses,
and the direction and amount of movement varied along their courses, influenced by
deflections round and alon~‘some structures. In both classes of faults the movement
locally passed from fault zone to bedding and even from one class of fault to another.
Mineralization took place while the faults were still active and was restricted almost
entirely to the crosscutting faults. Distinctly later faults, post-mineral and related to
a possible period of relaxation, have not been recognized.
structure of the Sandon area involves a gradual upturning of southwesterly dipping strata at the lowest elevations and overturning to northeasterly dipping
strata at the highest elevations. The simplified outline is that of a huge recumbent fold,
open to the southwest, but the details of the folding are highly irregular and complex.
Complex as the structural detail is, and irregular in outline as many fold elements
are, there is a basic pattern that is important to recognize. Strata are folded about nearly
horizontal axial planes and along nearly horizontal axial lines; also, in general, beds
dipping to the southwest are stratigraphically right side up and those dipping to the
northeast are overturned.
The ten cross-sections (Figs. 3 and 4) illustrate better than words the known and
inferred details of folding. These are drawn along vertical planes trending north 55
degrees east, at right angles to the average structural trend. It will at once be obvious
that little enough is known of the full outline of the folding, and that in some parts both
form and detail can be gathered only from mine workings. In some places the lack of
outcrops and of mine workings in areas of relatively low topographic relief makes the
drawing of sections almost impossible..
Equivalence of folds, like equivalence of strata, is sometimes in doubt due to the
unknown amount of movement on the major lodes. This is made more uncertain by
variations in outline of the individual folds. Furthermore, projection is made uncertain
by local changes in plunge of the structures, and by warping of the axial planes of some
folds. The following discussion of folding is of necessity, therefore, a discussion of form
in relation to a major outline that can be recognized but not fully illustrated.
The most continuous structural element is the extensive overturned panel which dips
down the northeast slope of Silver Ridge. At its upper edge it is thrown into a sharp fold
in the vicinity of Idaho Peak, and at an elevation between 5,000 and 5,500 feet it rolls
under in the first of a series of irregular folds. This panel is part of the upper limb of
the Slocan fold. Before erosion produced the present topographic profile the limb
extended for a considerable distance farther up the dip. The extension is deduced from
the form of the fold on Idaho Peak, which is considered to be a tight dragfold. The
strong closure of this fold and the amount of overlap are features more likely to be
developed on a major limb than in the crest zone of a major fold.
The lower limb of the Slocan fold is not well exposed. The upper, overturned limb
rolls under and passes down steeply in a zone of repeated reversals in dip along the crest
of the major arc to the lower liiit of observation at Sandon. The crest zone at Sandon
is apparently of more complex outline than to the northwest, because the same zone is
represented, in different strata, in the lower valley of Howson Creek and below Three
Forks on the road to New Denver. The curvature there is apparently simple in outline,
although interrupted by small buckles and dragfolds.
The lower limb of the Slocan fold is probably represented on Seaton Creek, where
there is an extensive panel of southwest-dipping rocks, but without detailed study correlation of structures is difficult over large areas, owing to uncertainties regarding the precise
plunge and the dip of the major axial plane. Possible dislocation along the Payne slate
belt makes structural correlation with the valley of Seaton Creek a matter of doubt until
the implications of the slate belt are understood.
The structural plunge of large and small fold elements is to the northwest at a low
angle on Idaho Peak and in the basin of Howson Creek. The average inclination is not
more than 15 degrees. In the vicinity of Sandon the plunge is at a low angle to the southeast, and it is to the southeast also on upper Avison Creek. Elsewhere, in intervening
ground, individual determinations of plunge vary and, in spite of local reversals, the fold
axes are on the average nearly horizontal. There is a general reversal of plunge in the
central part of the area, representing a regional cross-warp.
In the southern part of the area, in the vicinity of the Mammoth mine, the southeasterly plunging folds become compressed and swing to a southerly strike and plunge,
while at the same time the axial planes tilt downward to the east. The plunge on Idaho
Peak is about 10 degrees to the northwest and on Avison Creek about 20 degrees to the
south. A similar swing to a southerly strike is seen at Adams Peak, although the curvature
is less abrupt. This is part of the down buckling, discussed in the regional structure, that
has taken place along the northern margin of the Nelson granite. The curvature and
down buckle are sharpest on Avison Creek and broaden to an open curve south of Adams
Peak; in these localities the picture is complicated by the presence of the Mammoth and
Adams lodes.
The axial planes of individual folds are not exactly horizontal, but on the average
are nearly so, and dips do not, as a rule, exceed a few degrees. The axial planes are warped
in some instances, a condition that is probably not the result of a second period of deformation but was caused by an extreme of folding in one period. As a result of this warping
of the axial planes of some folds, shallow anticlines and svnclines may be present on some
limbs, whether the limbs are right side. up or overturned. The degree of symmetry, on
the whole, is not high, and the form of any fold may vary along its strike. The form may
vary also in a single cross-section, across the different rock layers involved in the folding.
Variation in form of the folding is most marked across Silver Ridge and is best seen
in Section G-G’, Figure 4. The nearly isoclinal folding with warped and puckered limbs
on the southwest, in the valley of Avison Creek, is in contrast with the more open folding
of smaller amplitude on the northeast, near Sandon. The difference is in part clearly
related to the down buckling but may also in part be due to differences in lithology and
to the relative position in the Slocan fold. This statement needs amplification.
The down buckling of folded elements takes place along an approximately east-west
line, whereas the regional strike is northwest. Consequently, the northwesterly lying fold
elements are affected progressively farther to the southeast, and any cross-section drawn
at right angles to the regional strike may show compressed folds on the southwest and
relatively open folds on the northeast. This is an important consideration in a study of
the basic pattern of folding, as the complexity and amount of compression may be related
not so much to position in the “ throat ” of the Slocan fold as to nearness to the axis of
down buckling. The buckling is superposed on folds already formed, due to a late shift
in application of compressive stresses rather than to a second period of folding following
a period of quiescence.
In detail, variation in form may be directly related to the character of the rocks
involved and to the degree of bedding cleavage. Strong, well-bedded quartzites may maintain a smooth outline, whereas alternating thin-bedded argillite and quartzite may fold
with intricate outlines and rupture locally. The thicker bands of relatively massive
argillite possess poor bedding fissility and, being soft, may be squeezed irregularly without
regard to bedding planes. Evidence of plastic or semi-plastic flow, with acutely rumpled
remnants of bedding planes, is in many places characteristic of the argillites.
Reference has been made to the large dragfold on Idaho Peak. This is a compressed
and attenuated structure on the gently dipping and overturned limb of the Slocan fold. It
is completely eroded on the northwest slopes of Idaho Peak and is not seen in similar
form to the southeast, in spite of the change to southeasterly plunge. The Idaho Peak
dragfold does, however, in changed attitude and somewhat changed form, pass through
the northwest side of Adams Peak, having been removed by erosion north of Selkirk Peak.
Complete mapping of the north side of Adams Peak was not accomplished, owing to the
steepness of the ground, but parts of a fold can be recognized, partly obscured by faulting
and by irregular dyke-like intrusion.
This fold has an axial plane dipping eastward at
possibly 40 degrees and is believed to have the outline of a dragfold. It cannot be seen
on the south side of the peak because it is cut off by the Adams lode. Unfortunately, this
fold, even in imperfect outline, cannot be shown on the cross-section, although a much
smaller dragfold, possibly related to it, is illustrated in Section B-B‘.
Little is known of the structure on the slopes northeast of Carpenter Creek, and the
present stage of mapping does not permit structural correlation between Silver Ridge and
Payne Mountain.
A prominent overturn or recumbent fold occurs in the vicinity of the
Payne mine, between No. 5 level and the crest of the ridge. It was first mapped by Mayo
in 1941. The fold is open to the northeast, has a low plunge to the southeast, and an
axial plane that possibly dips at a small angle to the northeast. It extends to the southeast through the shoulder of Payne Mountain and is removed by erosion 1,000 feet or
more northwest of the Payne vein. It is one of the very few recumbent folds much of
whose curvature can clearly be followed in the field along a single line of cross-section.
This fold is important, inasmuch as the Payne orebodies occurred where the beds
curve sharply from southwest to northeast dips. A change in dip back to the southwest
in a lower fold takes place somewhere above No. 15 level, and scanty observations
indicate a further reversal below No. 15 level. Important ore was not found much below
No. 5 level, and it is believed that the orebodies were localized because of lithology as well
as structure (see pp. 97-98).
Two, small, tightly compressed dragfolds are poorly exposed on the Queen Bess
lower road, and two occur at the head of White Creek. Jt is quite possible that many more
isoclinal dragfolds exist and have not been recognized. The curvature of such a fold may
be so abrupt that it cannot always be detected, and if the amount of overriding of beds is
comparatively large the fold may pass into a near-bedding shear. On the headwall of
White Creek valley the remains of one sliced off, tight dragfold can be seen, and in one
place on the same high ridge tight folding of beds was proved by cross-bedding although
no folding was detected.
The reason for stressing this kind of fold is that if it is common it can account for
some change in thickness of strata and, by repetition, the thickness can locally be greatly
increased. Such a mechanism may account in part for the large amount of quart&es on
Selkirk Peak. No tight dragfolds or overlaps were seen on the bare, precipitous slopes,
but it is possible that some occur.
Folding in the southeast corner of the area, at the head of White Creek, presents
a westerly dipping panel at a higher elevation than the main upper overturned panel.
This panel lies south of the Adams and Ivanhoe lodes, and the dislocation represented by
Southeast of
the lodes has brought widely separated structures into near conjunction.
the area a broad recumbent fold is plainly visible on the ridge between Sandon and Cody
Creeks. In this fold, overturned rocks on Sandon Peak roll under to a westerly dip in the
valley of upper Sandon Creek. Farther southeast, past Sandon Peak, the same recumbent
fold continues into a prominent reentrant in the granite, whereas the remainder of Silver
Ridge is on the edge of the area of down buckling. Farther to the. east, beyond the
reentrant, down buckling is resumed. (See Fig. 5).
of the structure can best be discussed by reference to
individual cross-sections and comparison between them (Figs. 3 and 4). The area1 map
(Fig. 2) is of chief value in the present discussion to illustrate rock distribution and
structural trends.
The cross-sections have been drawn on planes trending north 55 degrees east, at
right angles to the average regional trend. This direction, which best illustrates the
folding, is at a small angle to most of the lode faults, and consequently the sections do
not illustrate the lodes, except in terms of greatly reduced dip, and fail to show the dislocative effects of the lodes in most instances.
For many of the sections there was not enough information along the actual section
line to illustrate all the known or implied structure. In drawing the sections, contacts
and attitudes were projected along the line of strike for distances as great as 300 feet
and in rare instances 500 feet. Projection was made only of positive data in situations
where uniformity of strike was indicated for the distance involved, and was carried on
the line of plunge where known.
Section A-A’ is in the hangingwall of the Ivanhoe lode and for that reason is not
directly comparable with other sections. The rocks well exposed around the headwall
of White Creek are not correlated with those in the creek valley proper. The structure
figured is more or less hypothetical, but there are irregular dragfold forms in an arc of
overturning which involves differential flexure of a considerable thickness of rock. Dragfolds showing interbed slippage the reverse. of that found in the area as a whole are
illustrated and are unexplainable, except that they may represent abnormal take-up along
some large curvature, of which this southwesterly dipping panel is a part,
Section B-B’ shows the principal overturned panel, dragfolded on Adams Peak. The
dragfold is broken and apparently faulted and, although the full outline is not known, two
dragfolds may be represented. The overturned limb rolls under sharply to an upright
position. A lower overturned panel is encountered in Ruth No. 5 level, broken by tangential faults.
Section C-C’ shows no dragfold on Silver Ridge summit. The folding under, below
the overturned panel, is as abrupt as in Section ‘B-B’. The detail in the Ruth workings
is in part diagramatic, but is a carefully drawn interpretation of the structure. This
section illustrates the complexity in this part of the Slocan fold, where repeated overturning, with a form approaching that of accordion pleating, follows down the steep
crest zone of the Slocan fold. Large tangential faults are localized within this zone.
As previously stated, folding believed to be of dragfold outline and of major importance passes through Adams Peak near the line of Section C-C’. It has not proved
possible to illustrate this fold on the plane of section, even diagramatically, because of
the inadequacy of mapping. The structure is disrupted by faults and apparently warped
so that adequate portrayal on a single plane of cross-section would not be possible even
if mapping were complete. This dragfold structure is possibly continuous with that on
Idaho Peak, in spite of marked differences in outline, but since intervening parts have
been entirely removed by erosion the fold cannot be shown on the succeeding three
These folds are both of a strongly compressed, isoclinal type, a marked contraSt in form
with the folds of smaller amplitude and accordion-pleat type on the northeastern slopes,
The adjustment pattern of strata in the inner part of the Slocan fold is different from that
of strata in the outer or more peripheral part. There must be, in the intervening ground
2,000 feet beneath Silver Ridge, a zone of take-up or modification, the details of which
cannot be surmised. The irregular and dragfolded apex of the Mammoth fold is drawn
in the form shown in an attempt to indicate the possible complexity in this central zone,
in the heart of the mountain.
The meaning of the contrast in outline between the folds
on the northeast and southwest slopes has already been discussed [pp. 41-42).
The form on the Carpenter Creek slope is not essentially different from that figured
in the preceding sections. The structure crossed by the Silver Ridge Oregon crosscut is
complex, in a zone of broken folds. Section G-G’ shows an interpretation of its over-all
form. On the surface in this vicinity the overturned beds are involved in crumples and
open folds which make interpretation of detail extremely difficult.
Section H-H’ shows the general form of the Idaho Peak fold, the highest fold known
on the major overturned panel. It is a limb structure of attenuated, dragfold form. The
outline of the compressed apex on Idaho Peak was traced with diculty
but is drawn
accurately. The position and form of the complementary eastern apex is surmised, but its
existence cannot be doubted in view of the tightly compressed form of the western apex.
The strata, as indicated by the argillite band, are dragfolded on a giant scale and,
above the present erosion surface, they once continued up dip in an overturned position.
If this were not so, an upper major complement to the Slocan fold would be represented,
and the form of adjustment of strata within the apex would surely be different from that
observed. In short, the amount of compression and attenuation of the Idaho’Peak fold
proves it to be part of a limb and not part of the crest of the larger structure.
Section I-I’ is complicated by the Alamo lode and by tangential faulting in the Queen
Bess mine. The Idaho Peak fold is faulted so that overturned argillite beds in the lower
part of the isoclinal fold are contiguous to right-side-up beds on the other side of the
Alamo lode. The steep section of the lode, in which most of the mine workings lie,
coincides nearly with the steeply dipping segment of the fold in this section. The lode
deflected to follow the general course of bedding in this segment, past which it resumed
its average attitude.
Dragfolds on the main overturned panel are drawn diagrammatically in the general
form of several dragfolds observed on the east side of Alamo basin.
The apparent effect of tangential faulting in the Queen Bess mine is shown in
diagrammatic form in this and the next section. Dominantly northeasterly dipping beds
in the basin of Howson Creek are at the same elevation as dominantly southwesterly
dipping beds in the mine area. The displacement on this zone of faulting is large.
Section J-J’ illustrates principally the main overturned panel, beneath the Idaho
Peak fold and in the hangingwall of the Idaho lode. The general outline in the footwall
of the Queen Bess lode seems to illustrate best the double nature of the Queen Bess major
recumbent fold. The outline of this fold is crumpled as well as faulted, and the true
nature of the fold cannot be seen by study of the surface alone.
Northwest of the Queen Bess mine, argillites and quartzites maintain a steep southwesterly dip almost to the main road near the Alamo mill (see Fig. 2)) where they flatten
rather abruptly. The vertical range is about 2,500 feet between the Queen Bess lode
outcrop and the point of flattening above the main road. This does not mean, however,
that the steep panel is 2,500 feet long on the dip, because the exposed depth is exaggerated by the northwesterly structural plunge, the exact amount of which is unknown,
The slope of the line joining mine and mill is 18 degrees, and it follows that, assuming
regularity along strike and a plunge approximating that figure, the steep panel may not
be very extensive. The fact that the general direction of the curvature near the Alamo
mill-site (Fig. 2) is the reverse of that illustrated below C level in Section J-J’ is not
considered contradictory in the distance of nearly 2 miles.
the following discussion no fundamental distinction is made between
faults and lodes. The emphasis here. is on dislocation, and the lodes, which are mineralized faults, will be described in some detail in the chapter on economic geology.
Classification of faults is desirable in order to facilitate discussion, but it is not a
simple matter.
There is no positive evidence of more than one period of faulting, so a
subdivision cannot be made on the basis of age. Subdivision on the basis of attitude is
not entirely satisfactory because most faults in the Sandon area are more or less influenced
by the structures which they transect, and wide variations may occur in the attitudes of
individual faults. Two main classes of faults are, however, recognized, those that, in
general, follow the formation and those that transect it. They are termed tangential and
crosscutting, respectively. The tangential faults with local variations follow the formational strike, which in general is northwesterly, and dip with the formation.
crosscutting faults strike northeastward and with rare exceptions dip southeastward. All
appear to represent normal displacement, in which the upper surface moved downward
relative to the lower surface. The tangential faults are very seldom mineralized, and
most of the crosscutting faults contain some evidence of mineralization.
Faults are numerous, representing displacements of less than an inch to several
hundred feet, but the offsetting of formations by them is not marked, except in the case
of the larger crosscutting faults. Geological mapping on the surface can in many places
disclose the approximate position of a large crosscutting fault but, in general, fails to
indicate tangential faults. Most knowledge of the tangential faults is gained from mine
Many faults which are not readily classifiable are seen in mine workings. As many
of these niay be branches of other faults, or may represent local divergencies, no generalizations can be made regarding them.
In the
The direction or amount of displacement is not as a rule easily deter&ed.
case of faults of a few inches displacement, it may be possible to measure the offset of
a bed or dyke, but in the case of faults with a displacement greater than the height or
width of a mine working, indirect evidence most be looked for. The best evidence is as
a role the presence of dragfolds or rolls within the sheared material of the fault itself.
Shingling or imbrication within the fault can be used, provided it does not represent
merely bedding in a horse of uncrushed rock. Dragfolds or dragging in the walls in the
direction of movement is useful, but the fact that many faults, particularly tangential
ones, are localized along flexures in the bedding makes it obvious that not all flexures
close to a fault were produced by the fault movement alone. The amount of displacement
is even more in doubt as a rule than the direction. The width of the zone and the amount
and character of the gouge vary widely in a single fault and provide only a very rough
measure. Bedded faults-to
be described in more detail later-are
the most difficult;
2 or 3 inches of bedded clay, seen in a mine working, may represent a substantitil fault
or may represent merely a very soft bed along which a small amount of slipping has been
As already stated, all faults are normal as far as the movement on them has been
determined, and no reverse faults have been recognized. This does not mean, however,
that they are gravity or relaxational breaks on which the hangingwall has merely dropped.
A few may have that origin, but almost all show evidence of movement under conditions
of compression and might be termed pressure faults to distinguish them from relaxational
faults. This fact is of fundamental importance.
The tangential faults are closely related to the folding and are normal faults because
of that fact. In all parts of the area these faults occur most frequently at changes in dip
of the strata and in many instances are related to dragfolds or allied flexores. They are
named tangential because they cross the bedding at a small rather than a large angle and
tend to be parallel with the average attitude of the beds, though they are not strictly bedding faults in most instances. The weight of evidence is sufficient to prove that they were
formed during the last stages of folding, and that they represent in large part failure of the
beds to accommodate fully to compressive stresses by stratiform folding alone. It follows
that in this area of recumbent folding, in which the upper beds moved relatively downward, bedded or nearly bedded faults related to the same forces that produced the folding
must be normal, inasmuch as the upper or hangingwall blocks moved relatively downward.
No major tangential fault has been traced from one limb to another of a large
recumbent fold, to determine whether it dies out in the crest of the fold or whether it
continues in a crosscutting relation with the other limb. Some minor faults have been
seen to extend beyond the limits of a single fold of small or moderate size, and many
have been seen to pass into the bedding and lose their identity as faults. One fault of
moderate size was seen to follow, from one steep limb to the other, round the curvature
of a broad fold, with a consequent reversal in dip of the fault plane.
A distinct impression has been gained that there has been differential movement
along some faults as though there had been some mechanism of take-up or absorption
of movement along a single fault fissure. This matter is difficult to assess hut cad be
important in some mining problems. Possible mechanics are indicated by the relation
between faults and folds already cited and, by extension, between faulting and interbed
slip in general. It is a fact that some faults do pass into the bedding and become “ lost.”
The largest known faults of tangential type are in the Silversmith and Ruth workings.
They transect many structures in detail but follow the bedding in others. There are at
least three major faults with interconnecting links, representing a total movement of
several hundred feet at least. They are southwesterly dipping normal faults on which
the horizontal component of movement was of the hangingwall relatively to the northwest
but undetermined in amount. If the faults are tangential to a crumpled westerly dipping
panel and are related to the interbed slippage on that panel, then this direction of horizontal component of movement is a natural one in view of the southeast structural plunge.
The truth of this last statement is apparent when it is remembered that the interbed slip
on any normal fold is at right angles to the axial line of that fold and, if the fold plunges,
the interbed slip did not take place along the presenf dip of the beds.
Faults of the crosscutting class are normal faults, with a large lateral component of
movement, that were formed as compressional and not relaxational breaks. They strike
northeastward to nearly eastward and dip to the southeast. The upper block moved
downward and northeastward relative to the lower block. They may be accurately
termed tear faults but are referred to in this bulletin as crosscutting faults to stress their
relation to the general formational trend.
The crosscutting faults include the lodes. Mineralization is not continuous in them
bit is localized in favourable situations along the zone of faulting, from wall to wall in
some instances in the smaller faults and across part of the width in the larger faults.
The larger known faults, all of which are mineral bearing and are plotted as lodes
on Figure 2, are zones of shearing and shattering from a few feet to about 100 feet in
width. There is commonly one principal gouge zone, but there may be several, in addition to subparallel fractures and shears throughout the zone. A continuous zone of
faulting, not a single fissure, extends through the Standard, Mammoth, Carnation, and
Silversmith mines a known distance of about 6 miles. A branch just north of the Standard mine passes west of Idaho Peak, branching again to pass through the Alamo and
Idaho mines. The main zone is joined at the Carnation by the flat-lying Wakefield fault
which steepens down the Silverton Creek slope south of the area. A branch passes
through the Miiiehaha
The Adams and Ivanhoe faults cross Silver Ridge
farther to the southeast, and their combined offset is large. The Canadian fault is a
steep connection between the Adams and Ivanhoe.
The most accurate estimate of displacement on a major fault is in the Mammoth
mine, where the hangingwall of the lode has moved down and east a distance of several
hundred feet relative to the footwall. This is a measure of the shift of a projected fold
in limestone. In other places on the same fault zone the amount of movement appears to
be more or less, although the basis of determination is not strong. The offset of a rock
unit, say of argillite, is not an accurate measure of the displacement because variations in
thickness and lithology combined with complex folding make correlation uncertain across
a fault, and it is not always known which limb of a fold is being compared with which.
The sum of evidence, which is often conflicting and seldom certain, is that the movement
on the Standard-Silversmith fault varied both in direction and amount along the course
of the fault zone.
Variation in the amount of movement along a fault is usually considered as evidence
of hinging, but in the Sandon area variation is believed to be the result of complex adjustments. Movement is a meawre of relief of stresses, and relief may be accomplished by
unequal response in folded structures, particularly when the stresses of folding and faulting are closely related.
Although the large faults crosscut the structures, there is a marked local tendency to
follow them where possible. There is a tendency in particular for the faults to flatten
and follow the bedding of relatively flat panels, so that flat and steep sections of a lode,
up to a point, reflect the attitude of the sedimentary rocks, in spite of the discordance in
average strike between bedding and faults. The Wakefield fault is semi-bedded in a flatlying panel and rolls up at the Carnation intersection and down southeast of the Wakefield workings. In the Ruth and Silversmith mines the fault or lode locally flattens into
the bedding and also follows round folds on strike, while some of the movement passes
into tangential faults. Although the Alamo mine was inaccessible, the attitude of the
fault is clear from mine maps, and a major steep roll in the fault is related to an element
of folding in argillites (p. 45).
Crosscutting faults of smaller but undetermined displacement along which offsets of
strata were not measured, such as the Corinth, Sunshine, and Wonderful, are smaller
examples of faults similar to the major faults just described. Others of steep dip and
little displacement, such as the Victor, Black Colt, and Payne (in part), seem to be of
different character and seem possibly to have a somewhat different origin. No subclassification is possible, however, because intermediate examples appear to provide evidence
of complete gradation between faults of small and large size.
The smaller crosscutting faults strike more nearly northeast than do the larger and
tend to cross the strata at an angle of 80 degrees. Thus, where the strata strike about
north 40 degrees west the faults strike about north 40 degrees east. They dip steeply to
the southeast and may be vertical and even dip locally to the northwest. They are normal
faults, with a lateral component of movement in some determined instances of southern
side eastward, but on the whole they display few of the characteristics of tear faults and
the movement on some of them is very slight.
The fact that the smaller crosscutting faults are parallel with the most prominent
regionally developed joints, and may be indistinguishable from them, is considered proof
that they were initiated at about the same time and in response to much the same forces
as the joints. Some ore-bearing fractures unquestionably are joints on which there has
been little or no movement. The positive evidence of movement of say 20 to 70 feet on
some faults is at variance with the concept of joints, but the Pay& lode furnishes an
example of a variable amount of movement on a single fracture. On the south side of
the ridge on the surface the fracture is weak and there is no evidence of movement, while
in the vicinity of No. 4 level the fracture is a mere crack and seems to disappear. On the
north side of the ridge, in the workings from No. 8 level up to No. 5, there is evidence of
movement sticient to produce a shear zone as much as 5 feet wide. The only possible
explanation is that some mechanism of take-up has produced a niarked di5erence in the
amount of movement along the lode in a distance of several hundred feet.
The concept that the large and small crosscutting faults belong in the same category
and are related structures seems far fetched in view of the differences between them. No
positive distinction, however, can be made, and while it is easy to conceive of different
origins for, say, the Victor and Carnation faults, there appears to be a complete gradation
in the Sandon area between even such divergent faults as these.
Future study may alter this concept, but at present it is believed that in a regionally
developed set of joints some joints became faults of minor displacement, and that
increasing movements were channeled along others. It can never be determined whether
or not the larger crosscutting faults initially followed actual joint fractures, and it is not
suggested that they did, because movement along them ultimately produced huge zones of
dislocation that trend more nearly east and dip at lower angles than the joint system.
It has been stated (p. 46) that there is no positive evidence of age difference
between the various faults. Some cut others, but there is enough ambiguity of relation
to indicate that the tangential and crosscutting faults were essentially contemporaneous.
There are many ambiguous relations between tangential and crosscutting faults, and
although one fault may be seen to cut another, faults elsewhere are seen to merge. The
best example of inter-relationship is in the Silversmith-Ruth workings. Large tangential
faults appear to offset the crosscutting fault or lode, but the lode also swings into the faults.
Details will not be discussed here (see pp. 110-l 11) , but dislocative movement definitely
passes from one fault to another. In other instances, an offset in a lode is produced partly
by flexure’of the load and partly by shifting along a fault. The former B vein on the
Queen Bess is now seen to be an offset part of the main lode, in which the lode in part
swings from the crosscutting to tangential direction and back. Nearness in time of origin
of tangential and crosscutting faults is indicated by the fact that they both may be
mineralized, even though occurrence of ore within the tangential faults is rare. Nearness
in time of origin is also indicated by the same time relations to the dykes. Whether the
two classes of faults constitute in some instances a conjugate set of shears initiated
simultaneously under the same conditions of stress is not known; the large amount of
movement on them has obscured minor relations that might prove or disprove this point.
A conjugate relationship is believed to exist in part of the Silversmith mine, but the
particulars of stress-strain relationships must have varied greatly throughout the area as
a whole.
There is evidence that the major crosscutting faults, or lodes, are related to the
structural swing and down buckle in the lower basin of Silverton Creek. The lodes in
this section are semi-bedded and dip steeply with the northeasterly strikinq strata.
Furthermore, they appear to be related to dragfolds which plunge steeply to the southwest and show that the southeastern beds moved relatively to the northeast. The same
relative direction of movement is indicated (1) by the displacement on the faults, (2) by
the form of the dragfolds, and (3) by the interbed slippage necessarily produced in the
ccwse of swinging and down buckling of the strata.
A conclusion, which is at least logical, is that on lower Silverton Creek the lodes
were initiated as bedded features in the northeasterly striking rocks in response to the
intense forces of buckling. In the area of sharpest curvature the large tear faults passed
across the strata with a crosscutting relation, and at the same time flattened. Farther east,
where the curvature of the strata was less pronounced, it is possible that similar tear faults
were initiated in the buckled rocks, but that they remained bedded, swung with the structure in a broad arc, and were finally dissipated.
There appears to have been a focussing of structural activity in the lower basin of
Silverton Creek, namely sharper buckling, a concentration of tear faults (lodes), and a
cross-warp marked by reversal in plunge of major axes. The structural features in the
combined Sandon and Silverton areas, as previously stated, are believed to be the final
outcome of one long period of folding, semi-continuous and with varying stress applications, the final form at least having been greatly influenced by granitic intrusion.
Joint&--Joints are numerous and on the whole form complex patterns which have
not been unravelled.
One set in particular is prominently developed throughout the
greater part of the area and has great economic and structural significance. This is the
crosscutting set already mentioned.
The crosscutting joints are most abundant in the northern and western parts of the
area. They are found in all rocks but are less common in limestone. They strike approximately at right angles to the strata in which they occur, tending to be more nearly at 80
degrees, so that in beds that strike north 60 degrees west the joints strike north 20 degrees
east. They dip southeastward at steep angles.
They are well developed in zones of close folding and are most prominent where they
cross a sharp roll in the bedding. The dip in the northern and western parts of the area
is nearly normal to the average northwesterly structural plunge. They appear to be
joints of extension, developed as a result of elongation of the rock-mass along the axes of
folding. Because of this origin they must have formed late in the period of folding and
possibly before the final stages. If this reasoning is correct, it is possible that the joints
were formed somewhat before the crosscutting faults.
Joints are abundant in the southwest-dipping panel of thin-bedded argillites and
quart&es that extends from near Miller Creek past the Victor mine. These thin-bedded
rocks of diverse competency are jointed more continuously over a larger area than is
the rule elsewhere, partly because of the character of the rocks and partly because of the
major uniformity of the structural panel. Bedded faults and slips are common, and the
joints are not very continuous on the dip. Some joints terminate on bedded-clay seams
which may not represent actual faults so much as thin shaly interbeds which have been
reduced to a form of gouge.
Another possible origin of the joints should be considered, even though proof is not
forthcoming: that is, that they were produced in the same manner as has been postulated
for the larger crosscutting faults, namely in response to the late shift in stress application
which caused the down buckling along the granite margin. Analysis of the stress-strain
relationship, which was probably under continuous modification, probably cannot be
made, but it is not impossible that the buckling along the granite front may have been
accompanied by general stresses that were relieved in part by joint formation at greater
distances from the granite.
previous general discussion of cleavage deals sufficiently with the
apparent principles involved, and the following remarks are specific.
The Payne recumbent fold on the southern slope of Payne ridge is composed of
slates and some quartzitic and limy bands. East of the Slocan Boy workings nearly flat
axial-plane cleavage is well developed, with closely related fracture cleavage involving
minor offsets of beds along cleavaee planes. Farther west, in the vicinity of the Payne
workings, cleavage is bedded for the most part and is not parallel to the axial plane of
the recumbent fold. Slaty cleavage is seen also abreast of and below No. 15 level, and
much slate is seen at the old Payne mill-site on the abandoned K. & S. Railway grade.
Slaty cleavage is strongly developed locally between the Sylverite and Victor properties. Few outcrops are seen, but float of slate and phyllite points to a concentration
of deforming forces in this area.
The argillites both north and south of the Queen Bess mine all possess incipient
cleavage. It is bedded in the steeply dipping limbs, but it is also bedded on the crests of
some minor sharp crumples.
Through the area generally, points of sharp flexure may be marked by a local
development of slate which in some instances is rusty. In field mapping the local occwrence of slate, either in place or as float, may provide evidence of a. sharp flexure which
might otherwise be overlooked. Float in the form of rods or splinters is often produced
by the intersection of slaty and bedding cleavage and may indicate the presence of beds
at some angle to the average attitude nearby.
Silver-lead-zinc mineralization occurs in well-defined lodes of either simple or
complex outline. The gangue minerals consist of calcite, siderite, or quartz in various
proportions, with quartz the least abundant as a rule. Some ore is a simple fissure-tilling,
and some is a breccia of rock fragments cemented by gangue and sulphide mineral. The
orebodies vary widely in size, outline, and continuity.
Very little replacement ore is known, in spite of the fact that limestones and limy
rocks are cut by several lodes. Some replacement ore occurs in the Altoona mine northwest of Sandon, and an indication of replacement ore occurs on the Dixie Hummer claim
at the head of Wild Goose basin, where surface workings show mineralization in limestone
that is not obviously related to a lode fissure.
The term lode is used here in the general sense that it is a structure known to be
mineralized. It may consist of a single fissure or a zone of multiple fissuring and, at the
most complex, a zcme of variable fracture and shear. The term fracture refers to any
crack or break in the rock, whereas fissure refers to a continuous fracture of considerable
length and depth. Vein refers to the mineralized part of a lode, whether it be the full
width of the lode, one of a series of fissures, or a zone of fracturing. The term vein is
used only in a particular sense, referring to a specific tabular orebody or oreshoot which
has been explored.
Classification of lodes is not attempted. Single-fissure lodes and complex lodes are
the only qualifying terms used and are self explanatory. They are more or less synonymous with the small and large lodes and faults, although not strictly so. The large or
complex lodes vary in form along their length, largely in response to variations in rock
type and folded structure. Definitions descriptive of form are useful inasmuch as they
may save words in referring to the form of a lode, but terms relating to process of formation are hard to apply. The form of a lode results from the interaction of a number of
factors, of which as a rule few are obvious, and the writer believes that study of process
is more important than description of form in the task of ore-finding.
In a preceding section the lodes have been discussed as crosscutting faults in relation
to the general structure. Evidence was given that the faults were initiated during the
closing stages of the period of folding, and it was presumed that they served as avenues for
the ultimate relief of essentially the same stresses as those that produced the folding.
The larger faults formed as complex zones of dislocation along which the direction and
amount of movement varied as the faults passed through complexly folded stata. The
faults did not slice cleanly across the structure but swung “ into ” it in places. The total
amount of movement along the course of a single major fault was not everywhere
restricted to the fault zone itself but probably followed bedding in places where fault
and bedding were more or less parallel. Some movement is considered to have passed
from crosscutting to tangential faults, or vice versa.
These concepts are considered essential to a proper understanding of the behaviour
of the lodes, an understanding that is vitally important in problems of mine exploration
and development.
Mineral deposition was dependent upon conditions within the lode
being at the time favourable, and these favourable conditions were in many cases a function of the appropriate relation between lode and bedded structure, and not a function
of rock type-&&.
The only attempt at subdivision of the crosscutting lodes is to divide them into large,
intermediate, and small individuals. As indicated in a foregoing section, the concept that
all lodes (faults) formed at much the same time and in resmxue to the same eeneral
stresses may ultimately prove to be wrong, but it has been impossible for the writer to
make any valid distinction between them, except on the basis of size. The terms large
and small are relative only, but in one given area they do describe physical appearance
and, roughly, the amount of movement. Although the width of a zone or the amount of
gouge in it do not always constitute an accurate measure of the amount of movement on
a fault plane, yet in general they do, as in comparison between lodes such as those on the
Black Colt and Victor properties with a displacement of a few inches or a few feet, and
the Carnation lode with a displacement of probably several hundred feet.
The smaller lodes strike about north 30 to 70 degrees east and dip steeply to the
southeast, and the larger strike about north 4.5 to 90 degrees east and dip at an average
angle of about 45 degrees to the southeast. Lodes of other orientation are known, but
it is probable that most of these represent parts of larger lodes with an anomalous attitude,
branches between major planes of movement, or simply mineralized bodies that have
formed along bedding planes at or near a lode zone.
One lode attitude is steep, with a northerly strike. The Canadian, the Buffalo, and
two lodes which intersect the Adams lode on Adams Peaks are in this class. The
Canadian may and probably does constitute a connecting link between the Adams and
Ivanhoe lodes. The actual movement on these lodes is not known, but the Buffalo has a
horizontal component of movement of about 30 feet. More detail will be given in
property descriptions, but at present the structural simGficance of these north-south lodes
is nit well known.
The Carnation section of the Standard-Silversmith lode system may be cited as an
example of the larger lodes. It is a zone SO feet or more wide of subparallel fractures,
shears. and breccia sheets. It is remarkablv continuous and free of offset. to iudee from
its apparent surface trace. In the 6500 (formerly No. 2) adit, it is followed >oGpletely
through the mountain for half a mile without offset and is as much as 100 feet wide. On
the surface, on the west fork of Tributary Creek, the zone is at least SO feet wide and
contains coarse calcite in lenses as much as 15 to 20 feet thick. The lode continues to
the east through the Hope workings to the Silversmith. It is more complex in the Silversmith mine, where it rolls in and out of the structure and bears conflicting relations with
tangential faults of major size; one strand on Silversmith No. 5 level, probably not the
main break, contains up to 12 or 15 feet of quartz.
The larger lodes include the Queen Bess-Idaho, which apparently joins the Alamo,
which, in turn, continues through the Standard. Another branch of the Standard passes
through the Mammoth, Carnation, Mascot, Hope, Silversmith, and Richmond-Eureka;
it branches to form the Minniehaha and possibly the Jennie. Another lode on the
Oakland, southeast of the map-area, branches to pass flatly through the Wakefield to join
the Carnation.
The main branch of the Oakland is continuous with the Adams lode.
The Adams atid Ivanhoe probably merge east of the map-area, and the Adams appears
to be one bf the largest single breaks in the area.
These lodes form a partly connected system of tear faulting and are the largest
known iti point of view of structural significance; some of the largest orebodies in the
area have been found in them.
Although the lodes may contain widespread gangue minerals, orebodies have been
shown by past exploration to be greatly restricted. It is clear that, although the lodes
served as channelways for mineralizing solutions, it was only locally within them that
conditions favoured the formation of an orebody.
Many details of the lodes will be discussed in property descriptions, but some
general comments are in order here, so far as generalization is possible. The following
remarks are based on observations in accessible workings of all mines in the area and
of many nearby mines, and on observations of outcrops. Unfortunately, many of the
underground workings in the ore zones of all properties are inaccessible, and drifts are
on only one element of a lode so full examination is never possible.
The large lodes consist typically of one major and several subsidiary breaks, although
several breaks of nearly equivalent appearance have been noted. Locally, all movement,
with the exception of subparaIle1 small fissures, has channeled through a single break.
The principal locus of movement is usually marked by a gouge zone, 1 to locally 10 or
more feet wide, the amount of gouge depending in some instances on the character of
wallrock and in others on the angle between the plane of the lode and the bedding.
The distribution of planes of fracture and of shear within the limits of the lodes does
not appear to show a regional pattern. Attention was paid to the possible existence of a
conjugate system of shearing and associated tensional fracturing, but none was recognized
with certainty. The distribution of minor or subsidiary planes of fracture and of shear
may in one ore zone constitute a systematic relationship, but the pattern is different in
another ore zone. The pattern ‘may apparently be related only to internal failure within
the lode itself, but in some instances it is related to contiguous structure in the wallrocks
or to an intersection with another lode or fault.
Deflections from tbe average attitude of a lode are usually related to variations in
competency and in structural form of the rocks transversed. The most striking deflection
is that of the Alamo lode to follow the steeply dipping lib of the Idaho Peak fold. The
relatively flat attitude of the Wakefield lode is directly related to the panel of low dips
through which it slices at an acute angle. It is noteworthy that although the strikes of
bedding and of lode are at a large angle to one another, yet the lode flattens to pass
through the beds at an acute angle to the bedding planes and elements of the lode locally
follow the bedding planes. Any section of a lode with a very low dip is almost certainly
related to relatively flat structure in the rocks traversed. In fact, the average dip of the
lodes of about 45 degrees is an average of flat stretches related to flat structure and
steeper stretches which are, possibly, indicative of the “normal ” dip of the lode.
More important than the form of a lode is its effect upon the rocks traversed. The
relative amount of shattering and of shearing has in many instances a direct bearing on
the occurrence of ore. Little enough is known of this subject, but the following remarks
sum up a few important points. By and large, harder rocks may shatter whereas softer
rocks may shear along any one element of a lode, but within the full width of one of the
larger lode zones there may be both shattering and shearing of the same rock, by virtue
of the fact that total movement is distributed unequally along a number of fissures. In
general, the main locus of movement is a gouge zone in which the rock, regardless of
original character, has been ground to a pulp. The remainder of the lode may consist
of subparallel gouge seams in essentially undeformed rock. If the lode is nearly parallel
with the bedding there stil1 may be a principal gouge seam, but the number of subsidiary
gouge seann increases and intermediate bands of rock may be cornminuted and mixed
with gouge, Other relationships will be discussed under the heading of ore controls.
All the foregoing remarks have referred to the large lodes. The small lodes, besides
being smaller, trend more northerly and dip at steeper angles. They are as a rule simple
in outline and commonly consist of a single fissure or of a set of fissures resembling closely
spaced joints. As already mentioned, no sharp line of demarcation can be drawn
between lodes and joints, and it appears to be a fact that some small lodes are mineralized
joints of birtually no displacement, and others are joints along which displacive movement
was later channeled.
The small lodes may contain relatively little gouge and sheared rock. They are
little affected by the bedded structures inasmuch as they tend to follow relatively straight
courses and not to deflect into the bedding. Ore occurs in them in lenses or sheets, inguenced to some degree by the character of the wallrock or by the detlection accompanying
passage from one rock type to another.
The small lodes are, like the crosscutting joint system of which they are believed a
part, localized preferentially in certain structures. They are numerous in panels of thinly
bedded relatively uniform rock, especially in or near a fold or a pronounced roll. Such
a situation exists on the Payne ridge where, in the axial zone ~of folding, numerous joints
and lodes are developed. Another situation is the southwest-dipping upright panel of
interbedded argillites and quartrites northwest of Sandon, including the Black Colt,
Victor, and other mines.
The small lodes and the joints arc greatly affected by bedded-clay seams. Some of
these are tangential faults which follow the average dip and may show clear evidence of
substantial movement, but others represent soft, thin beds which have been reduced to
a clay or gouge by the interbed slippage which was a normal accompaniment of the folding.
In sharp flexures the interbed slippage tends to be abnormally large, and many clay seams
may be considered faults only if it can be proved that the movement along them was
greater than the extreme of interbed movement in contiguous rocks. The erratic
behaviour of some small lodes relative to the clay slips seems further proof that they
driginated as joints, because cases have been observed of a lode stopping on a clay seam,
with nothing to indicate former continuity with any fracture beyond the seam.
Intermediate lodes arc, as the term implies, intermediate in character between the
large and small lodes. As the term refers chiefly to the width and appearance of a lode
on which the amount of movement has not accurately been determined, it is a general
term, used loosely.
On the Payne lode, and on others, the apparent amount of movement varies markedly
from one point to another in some way that is not understood except that it is not due to
hinging action. Besides the obvious possibility of an intersection with another fissure, the
writer considers it possible that movement can be transmitted along bedding planes, to
be deflected into a fissure wherever relative attitudes permit. This is not different in
principle from the passing of a fracture into the bedding, with consequent distribution of
movement along many bedding planes.
Ore minerals are widely distributed throughout the area. Lodes are large and small,
and many small fractures which do not merit being called lodes contain gangue and sulphide minerals in varying amounts. Mineralization
has been widespread, and it is
probable that m&ralizing solutions had access to virtually all crosscutting fractures.
Most known orebodies occupy restricted positions in the lodes. If the search for ore
is to be conducted efficiently, therefore, beyond the finding of an outcropping orebody,
recognition must be given to the various factors that have influenced mineral deposition.
Factors of ore control have been discussed in many texts and papers. The following
discussion deals only with those factors which appear to be of importance in the Sandon
area, as observed in the area and in the Slocan camp at large. No single factor can be
said to “ account ” for the presence of an orebody and, in the general case, an orebody
formed only because a combination of several factors produced a favourable site for the
deposition of ore minerals.
In investigating the subject of ore controls, it is well to pay close attention to the
observations and beliefs of operators, miners, and prospectors who, over the years, have
jointly accumulated a large store of facts and ideas. At the present time very many workings, particularly stopes, are inaccessible, and at probably no time in the history of the
camp were all existing workings open to inspection. Any investigator is, therefore, continually seeking information about important workings which are caved, and this information is mostly verbal because of the scarcity of maps and records. There emerge several
general beliefs or legends, some of which are well founded, and some merely express
the cumulative effect of events over a period of almost sixty years. It is hardly surprising
that some beliefs on ore occurrence are found to be a blend of observations on geology,
mining practice, metallurgy, and the market price of metals.
The type of wallrock may be a very important factor, and the belief that ore is found
mostly in the quartz&s is widespread.
This belief is not, in general, sound for diverse
reasons, among which is the fact that the term “quartzite” is used very loosely. Actually,
much ore has been found in the common rock of the district, a mixture of argillites and
quart&es of a wide range of purity, and ore in the true quartzites is limited, partly because
these rocks appear to have been too “ hard ” and partly, perhaps, because they are of
limited occurrence. Examples of ore in “ porphyry ” have been cited as evidence that
the sills, dykes, and stocks are favourable wallrocks as such, but close investigation proves
that they are favourable only in particular situations.
One of the controls most widely referred to is the cross-fracture.
There are good
grounds for belief that cross-fractures may have an important bearing on the formation
of orebodies, but there is little agreement on just what the term implies. A cross-fracture
appears to be any fracture at an angle to the course of a lode and may be either systematic
or random in occurrence. Mineralized cross-fractures may consist of: Joints crossing a
band of limestone (in which case the band of limestone is the lode), planes of conjugate
shear, tension cracks, bedded offshoots of a lode, crossover or linking fractures within a
lode. The term is not used in this bulletin because of the uncertainty of meaning.
Perhaps the most fundamental fact is that ore is not as a rule deposited in or
associated with strong gouge. Ore is reported to occur “right in the gouge ” in the
Standard mine, but such an occurrence is rare. The second most fundamental fact,
related to the first, is that orebodies other than those of fissure-vein type occur in zones
of shattering rather than of shear. A third fact, stemming from the other two, is that in
the larger lodes orebodies do not as a rule form in the main plane of movement but in or
associated with minor or accessory planes.
These facts are so important that, although exceptions and contradictions may be
encountered, they should be kept uppermost in mind in the search for ore. It is true
that conditions seldom can be foretold in detail but, in the broader field of exploration,
settings which are apt to provide zones of shattering along a lode may sometimes be
recognized in advance.
In general, sites that are apt to be marked by clean-cut fractures rather than by
gouge may be listed as follows, although they are not necessarily in the following order
of importance:( 1) Intersection zones of fissures, whether that involves two lodes, connecting
links between lodes, or crossover links between branches of a single lode.
In such situations a wedge of ground may shatter or a set of subsidiary
fractures may form in or along the margin of the dominant fissure.
(2) Where a bedded lode jumps across the bedding.
(3) Where a lode uosses a band of rock of the right degree of competency that
rock may be cleanly shattered, whereas other bands of lower competency
may be reduced to gouge. On the other hand, if the rock is excessively
hard a complex lode may, in crossing it, be reduced to a single gougefilled fissure. The optimum competency depends largely on the strength
of the lode or of any particular plane of it.
(4) Where a lode crosses harder rocks in a pronounced roll.
(5) Where a lode crosses bedding at a large rather than a small angle and,
more than that, the direction of movement on the lode is across rather than
with the bedding. By extension, this proposition applies to subsidiary
fractures within a complex lode or adjacent to a main plane of movement
and may apply specifically to the angular relation between tension cracks
and bedding.
(6) Where there is a component of tension in the lode movement, with the
result that a zone of relatively low pressure occurs.
Propositions I,& and 3 need no amplification.
They are general principles, perhaps
no more applicable to the Slocan than to any other camp. Propositions 4, 5, and 6 may
involve situations that are not at once apparent, and for that reason merit some analysis.
Proposition 4 describes a situation involving several factors. As a rule a major lode
rolls sharply only to approach parallelism with bedding, the most obvious example being
a flattening of a lode to pass obliquely through a flat panel, in spite of the fact that the
strikes of lode and bedding are normally at a comparatively large angle. The rolls,
whether formed along dip or strike or both, may be accentuated by passage from hard to
soft rock. A roll in a lode may be accompanied by shearing in soft rock, whereas hard
rocks may shatter in response to tangential stresses in the zone of curvature. Many pronounced rolls or deflections in a lode occur where the lode either follows around or is
deflected by some particular structure. This is a matter of direct observation in some
instances, but in others there is no obvious structural influence, and it is to be inferred
that a roll may be initiated locally by some specific structure and may carry through into
a completely different environment.
Proposition 5 refers to the general condition that dislocative movement is least likely
to produce openings if directed along planes of bedding. A bedded lode may have a
relatively large movement distributed along many bedding planes, or it may be localized
along one or more soft beds which are reduced to gouge. It is recognized that dislocative
movement may pry beds apart to form openings of some size, but such effects are as a
rule local and rare. Even though the plane of dislocation meets the beds at a moderate
angle, movement in the general zone of the dislocation may channel in and out of bedding,
shattering the rock it is perhaps true, but often with the production of much gouge. If
the dislocation is at a large angle, only a single or multiple plane of gouge may be produced, but there may also be a clean-cut shattering, providing the rocks are of the proper
A good example of the effect of bedding-lode relations is seen in parts of No. 7 level
in the Standard mine. The lode crosses the beds at a moderate an& in strike. and the
lode movement appears to bleed off into the hangingwall rocks al&g numer&s gouge
zones which closely follow the bedding. The rock in this section of the mine is physically
no less favourable than elsewhere, but the angular relation between the bedding and the
lode is unfavourable.
The mere size of angle between planes of dislocation and bedding is not enough to
account for differences in the nature of rock failure. It is the size of angle between the
direction of movement and the bedding planes that is important.
If a fault crosses
bedding at right angles in terms of strike and the fault dips 45 degrees southeast, there is
the same interplane angle whether the beds dip 45 degrees southwest or 45 degrees northeast. Further, if the movement on the fault is one of dip-slip alone, the angular relation
between the line of direction of movement and the bedding is the same, whether the beds
dip southwest or northeast. In the Sandon area, however, the lode-faults have a component of strike-slip as well as of dip-slip, and the direction of movement is easterly to
southeasterly. It follows that stresses along the major lodes were relieved in a direction
at a small angle to northeasterly dipping beds and at a large angle to southwesterly dipping
beds. If the.direction of lode movement makes a small angle with bedding the rocks
are mashed and bedded-clay seams are common, whereas if the angle is large the rocks
break cleanly and may shatter adjacent to the principal plane or planes of displacement
(Fig. 8). This principle accounts for the fact that in several situations ore makes in a lode
where it crosses the southwest-dipping beds in one limb of a fold and does not extend
into the northeast-dipping beds on the complementary limb.
Fig. 8. Block diagram showing fault-bedding relationships.
The same principle is seen to affect ore deposition in a very different manner in the
Noble Five mine. The normal movement on the lode, of hangingwall relatively down,
tends to produce tension cracks in the hangingwall that dip steeply towards the lode.
These tension cracks are commonly of little importance, but in one structural situation
where thin brittle beds are approximately at right angles to the tension cracks the beds
are much shattered and are mineralized sufficiently to provide stoping ground for several
feet in the hangingwall of the lode. Although the character of the rock contributed to the
formation of ore, it was the favourable structural situation that was the dominant control.
Proposition 6 refers to a much quoted fact that deflections from the average course
of a lode in one direction arc more apt to contain ore than those in another direction.
The explanation commonly given is that movement between the walls of an irregular
fracture produces physical openings (favourable) or pressure areas (unfavourable).
The concept of the formation of physical openings is not a sound one, particularly in the
case of the larger lodes in the Sandon area, on which there has been a relatively large
amount of movement under considerable pressure, and a sounder explanation lies in the
strain relationships of the rock-mass. A lode formed by shearing is, when viewed
broadly, a plane of principal shear, to which is related a complementary plane of shear
and an associated plane of tension. If a part of a lode follows nearly the ideal course
of the plane of tension there is an element of tension in that part and, although there may
be no physical openings and no actual tension cracks formed, there is a zone of lower
containing pressure along which mineralizing solutions have found readier access.
Work by .I. W. Ambrose in the Rambler mine has shown that ore is positively
related to acidic sills because of their effect on the course of the lode. The steeply dipping
lode, crossing the bedding at a moderately large angle, is deflected by each sill so as to
pass through it more nearly at right angles, because of the relatively greater competency
of the sill. The amount of movement on the lode is large enough to produce substantial
displacement of the sills, but not so large as to prevent the deflection from remaining an
integral part of the lode. It is interesting to note that such a situation may be met in
many places, but, unless the deflection (a sort of refraction, actually) is towards the ideal
tensional direction, the deflected section of the lode may not favour ore deposition.
In other properties igneous rock may be defioiteiy unfavourable.
In the Monitor
a steep lode of small displacement crosses steep beds at a large angle. The lode zone may
be several feet wide in the sediments but, in crossing an acidic sill, it contracts to a gouge
zone a few inches to a foot or so wide that contains no ore.
Orebodies occur either in fissures or in zones of shattering along the courses of
the lodes. They may occupy the full width of a single-fissure lode or part of the width of
complex lodes.
The size, form, and mineral content of orebodies vary widely. A large orebody
may represent filling of a complex of fissures and fractures, in part breccia-filling and in
part fissure-filling. The sulphide minerals arc accompanied by more or less waste matter,
in the form of gangue minerals or wallrock.
Massive or nearly massive galena or
sphalerite, or both, tend to occupy clean-cut fractures, but lenses, pods, and veins of
relatively massive sulphides may occur anywhere within a larger orebody.
In the property descriptions the size and physical appearance of orebodies are described. The structural setting is described wherever possible, and there is discussion
of the processes which have contributed to the formation of orebodies. It is diicult to
summarize these remarks, here or elsewhere, because in no case is there a single controlling factor to which an orebody can be attributed.
Rather, an orebody is where it is
because several favourable factors have combined to form a site for the deposition of
Cairnes, in his study of the Slocan camp, made many observations on the mineralogy
and did much microscopic work. At that time many more workings were accessible, so
there was better opportunity to study ores than at the present. The present bulletin
stresses structure, and no detailed study of the mineralogy was attempted by the writer.
The reader interested in details of niineralogy of the ores should consult Memoir 173,
pages 118 to 132, and Memoir 184 for information which may be contained in the
descriptions of individual properties.
Gangue minerals are calcite, siderite (spathic iron), and quartz. Other minerals
are rarities. Quartz, on the average, is least abundant but locally is an important constituent of an oreshoot. On No. 5 level of the Silversmith mine an unmineralized quartz
vein is locally more than 10 feet wide. Calcite forms lenses 1.5 to 20 feet thick in the
Carnation lode and may be the dominant gangue mineral in some orebodies. Siderite is
the most abundant in some properties.
These three gangue minerals, singly or together, fill fractures and fissures or cement
zones of brecciation. Their relation to the ore is somewhat variable, inasmuch as there
has been variation in the order of deposition. Cairnes (1934, pp. 91-95) gives an excellent summary of the evidence of composite mineralization.
The field evidence points
to a complex period of deposition in which the ore minerals, later than most of the
gangue, were deposited before movement on the lodes had ceased, and before all gangue
minerals had been deposited.
The principal ore minerals are galena and sphalerite, with sphalerite the more widespread. Grey copper (and, less often, ruby silver) occurs in many ores in small amounts.
It is commonly associated with galena and in a few instances with sphalerite. Other
sulphide minerals, not as a rule abundant, include pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and
Galena ranges from steel-grained to coarsely cubic in texture. As a rule silver does
not favour the finer-grained varieties. Galena of gneissic texture is common and provides
evidence of movement contemporaneous with its deposition.
Sphalerite is medium to dark-brown in colour and is the common sulphide in the
area, occurring in massive veins, disseminations, stringers, and as scattered single grains.
There is sufficient cadmium in the zinc concentrates from some ores to be paid for by the
smelters. A small amount of tin has been found in several zinc ores. It has long been
known in the Payne ore, and random samples of sphalerite from the Hartney in recent
years showed as much as 0.2 to 0.3 per cent tin. It is present in sphalerite from the
A considerable amount of investigation
Lucky Jim, Mammoth, and other properties.
was done on Lucky Jim ore and concentrates during 1942 and 1943, but the tin was
in too small a quantity and was separable with too great difficulty to be commercial.
Isolation of the tin-bearing mineral was not satisfactory, owing to the fineness of grain,
but although minute amounts of cassiterite may be present the tin apparently occurs for
the most part as &unite.
Oxidation of ore was an important consideration in early mining in the district.
Ore found near the surface was relatively low in zinc and high in silver compared with
the unoxidized portion of the same orebody. No studies were made at the time of
mining, and figures for bulk shipments provide the only available data on metal content.
No oxidized ore has been mined for many years.
The amount of silver in an ore may contribute greatly to its value. Some closely
sorted galena may assay 200 ounces in silver and some may assay a tenth as much. As
a rule, careful visual study of most ores will reveal at least an occasional grain of grey
copper, and the ores richest in silver contain the most. Ruby silver may also be present
in small grains, but positive identification of it is diicult except in the laboratory. Much
of the grey copper is intimately associated with the galena, but not universally so, and
locally it may be associated with sphalerite.
A common expression is that a certain ore contains so much silver to the per cent
of lead. This is often a useful concept but not always an accurate one. Some galena is
probably truly argentiferous, but microscopic study shows much of it to contain tiny
grains or blebs of gray copper and other silver-bearing sulphides sufficient to account,
apparently, for all or most of the silver in the ore. If the silver-bearing sulphides are
closely and uniformly associated with the galena then the ratio of ounces of silver to the
per cent of lead has a real meaning, but if not it is an approximation which may at times
be very misleading. Studies of carload shipments from some of the old properties show
that the silver:lead ratio could be remarkably uniform, notably in ore shipped from the
Ruth mine prior to 1900. The records from some other mines show that the ratio of
silver to lead was much more variable.
The relationship between lead, zinc, and silver has long been a matter of very great
interest to all miners in the district. Silver-bearing and zinc-free lead ore has been sought
from the time of the first discovery and, although galena and sphalerite are easily separable
by modern milling methods, silver-lead ore is still the more valuable.
In the early days, zinc had no commercial value, and sphalerite was removed by ’
cobbig or by gravity concentration and was wasted. In later years, zinc had value, but
serious penalties were attached by the smelters to zinc content in the lead ore. Some
mixed ores were non-economic despite the theoretical value of the contained metal. Still
later, modern selective flotation made possible the relatively clean recovery of lead and
zinc concentrates. At present the shipper’s problem is that much of the zinc that goes to
the lead smelter is wasted, and zinc ore is only acceptable above a minimum grade, hard
to attain by hand sorting.
It follows that any information or any theory that may lead to the discovery of
silver-lead ore, or to the discovery of silver-lead shoots in mixed orebodies, is of great
importance. This applies to the search for any ore on any scale. Data for the formulation of a theory of distribution must be gained by direct observation or from the study of
reliable records regarding metal distribution.
Unfortunately, opportunity for direct observation is limited.
Many workings are
inaccessible, and in the few currently accessible stopes it is almost impossible to estimate
the character of ore that was mined. Records of grade of ore in individual oreshoots and
stopes are so meagre as to be practically valueless, and about all that can be done at the
present is to scan yearly production figures and endeavour to estimate from what part of
a mine they came. Verbal reports from individuals are sometimes reliable but sometimes
are not, and it is a fact that a single ton of massive galena will bulk as large in an individual memory as several tons of equally massive sphalerite.
The cmmnon belief in the camp is that the ore in general is rich in silver and lead at
or near the surface, and increases in zinc content with depth. It is often stated of an old
mine that “as they went down, the orebody turned to zinc and quit.” This is true statistically, in terms of numbers of properties in which relatively high-grade material was
mined at or close to surface and exploration at depth was disappointing.
It is true also
that zinc is more widespread than lead, and that the margins of orebodies, statistically,
contain more zinc than lead. It is a fact that, the relative values of zinc and lead ore
being what they have been, many working-faces have stopped while sphalerite was showing, but seldom have they stopped when galena was visible.
In a former bulletin the present wrjter (1945, pp. 23, 24, 41) showed that the
change with depth from silver-lead-zinc ore to dominantly zinc ore in the Whitewater
mine was a function of a marked change in geological environment and that a similar
change in the Lucky Jim mine was possibly due to a change in the nature of fracturing.
The Payne first shipped sorted silver-lead ore and later produced lead concentrates, and
in the last two years of operation, before closing in 1903, produced a large amount of zinc
concentrates. It might be believed, and is by many, that this record proves that the lower
part of the orebody was zincy. Actually the best reconstruction of Payne. history is that in
early operations zincy ore was rejected and left in place as much as possible, or left as
backfill after underground sorting. In the last stage of milling, old stopes were cleaned
out and portions of the dumps were milled, and although some of this material may have
come from lower levels most of it came from the main ore zone.
The belief of many in the camp that the zinc:lead ratio of most orebodies increases
in depth has been stated more precisely by Cairnes, who recognized evidence of mineral
zoning on a large scale. His treatment of the subject (1934, pp. 110-118) shows that
he considered thermal gradient to be the most important controlling factor in the deposition of different types of ores. He believed the gradient to be steep, and that most
silver-lead and silver-lead-zinc deposits were formed within a zone 1,000 to 2,000 feet
thick. Since the boundaries of this zone are obviously not plane surfaces he formulated
the “belief that mineralization at least of the silver-lead and silver-lead-zinc deposits
formed in an undulating zone which over considerable areas accidentally parallels the
present surface ” (1934, p. 110).
Caimes devoted much space to description of types of ore which he listed in terms
of increasing temperature,, evidence of which is conclusive, and is in full accord with
generally accepted concepts of thermal scale. An ideal sequence grades from silver
through silver-lead mineralization to dominantly zinc and finally to siliceous, pyritic
He believed this sequence to be represented in the thermal zone already
referred to, and that the concept of mineral zoning was generally applicable throughout
the Slocan camp.
The present writer agrees that some veins may show decrease in silver and lead and
increase in zinc with depth but disagrees that the pattern of mineral distribution is such as
to prove that a steep thermal gradient exists in as short a vertical range as that postulated
by Caimes. He has no quarrel with the concept of mineral zoning as such, nor with the
importance of thermal gradient, inasmuch as different metals have demonstrably been
deposited at different temperatures, but recognizes the fact that many orebodies in the
Slocan are limited by structural conditions which have nothing to do with temperature
or with depth below the present surface. In the Sandon area he sees no evidence for a
temperature control of mineral deposition, but abundant evidence for structural control.
The structural environment of lodes in the Sandon area is such that continuity of orebodies through great vertical ranges is not to be expected. On the other hand, there
appears to be nothing to preclude the recurrence of favourable structural conditions at
greater depths in the Sandon area and in most of the sedimentary rocks of the Slocen.
Changes in relative metal content can be seen, and can be deduced from reliable
sources in many places. Small oreshoots have been observed to vary widely amongst
themselves in terms of metal content within a space so small that thermal gradient cannot
have been a deciding factor in the type of ore deposited. Rather, deposition of ore took
place in sites that were structurally favourable, and the mineralogy of one site differed
from another nearby for reasons that can conceivably include rate of passage of solution,
confining pressure, or chemistry of wallrocks, none of which can be evaluated satisfactorily.
The writer has given considerable thought to the subject of the relative abundance
of lead and zinc and the reasons why some oreshoots contain predominantly lead and
others predominantly zinc. It is a recognized fact that sphalerite is a commoner mineral
than galena, a fact that is sometimes overlooked owing to the fact that the net value of
lead ore is higher than that of zinc ore and the fact that most of the silver in an ore is
associated with the galena. If the two minerals were of equal value and specific gravity
and were comparably associated with silver, the point of view of both miners and geologists
would change, but as it is the economic factor strongly affects judgment.
To sum up what appears to be generally true, the following is put down as the result
of direct personal observations in the Slocan camp and a culling of all reliable information.
Galena is not only less abundant but is more restricted than sphalerite. The two minerals
may be completely intergrown, and it is difficult to find a specimen of one. completely free
of the other, yet galena tends to be more segregated than sphalerite with respect to other
mineral or rock matter in a lode. There is a tendency for galena to be deposited in greater
relative abundance in the more open fractures, or in zones in which the confining pressure
was relatively low, from solutions which supposedly carried an adequate amount of both
minerals. In several important orebodies almost massive galena is reported to have
occurred in masses of major size in or near the central part of the orebody. It appears
to be a fact that, with the exception of the original Lucky Jim workings and the Bell mine
in Jackson basin, vein widths of relatively massive galena have exceeded those of relatively
massive sphalerite.
In general, a good summary of the situation is, in the words of R. H. Stewart, who
has had fifty years of experience with the camp, “ the lead tends to be central in the oreFrom the miner’s point of view an oreshoot “gets
bodies and the zinc peripheral.”
ragged and zincy before it quits ” in any direction.
In the Slocan camp in general and in the Sandon area in particular the relative
abundance of lead and zinc is believed to be a problem of segregation rather than of
zoning. Of the many factors affecting deposition of galena and sphalerite from solution,
that of pressure was probably of great importance, namely effective pressure of the particular environment and not that theoretical continiig pressure which is a function of
depth alone.
As exploration proceeds, orebodies will be bottomed and probably will be zincy in
the bottom parts. New orebodies will be found, it is to be hoped, and there seems no
reason why other environments equally favourable to ore deposition do not exist, both
laterally and at depth from those known at present. There seems no valid reason why
these postulated orebodies should diier appreciably in tenor of metals from those
already mined.
In the following descriptions of properties, emphasis is placed upon the lodes and
their geological settings rather than on property holdings. Some property has remained
intact throughout the years, but there has been much change of ownership and many
regroupings. Historical summaries accompanying the individual descriptions record in
piecemeal fashion most of tbe company activity in the area, but sketches of several of
the companies with extensive holdings are given as separate reports. These are Kelowna
Exploration, Kootenay Belle, Silver Ridge, Western Exploration, and the Clarence Gunningham activity of former years. To aid reference the index lists the company holdings
of present and former groups.
Figure 9 shows the larger blocks of ground held by the principal companies and lists
Crown-granted and surveyed claims only. Claims are not enumerated in the property
The notes on properties are arranged alphabetically, according to the property name
generally used in the camp. Thus the name “ Mascot ” is retained for those workings on
the former
is now
of a much
name “ Victor ” is retained for the principal lode and workings on the Violamac property.
All but a few of the smallest properties
are named
portals, most underground
and the courses
on Figure 2, which shows
of the principal
all adit
Maps of some of the more extensive workings accompany this chapter. The location
and extent of other workings can be studied on Figure 2 sticiently well, it is hoped, to
illustrate the descriptions.
Because of the scale of reduction of Figure 2, it was not
possible to show all levels of the more extensive mines, but those which are shown are
to the usage of each mine.
Minnie Hs
3988. Scotland- .................. -. ...................X.&
3992. Consolidated Verginia ................ ~..~C.G.
5073. Dumdl
5191. Miller Creek
5364. Wond&ful-Fr.
5365. !
5366. I
Margaret Fr.
.,..Tornada .~~.~
Friday Fr. .~~
Boss Fr.
Best Fr.
Basso Fr.
Blimp Fr.
Blo’t Fr.
Anchor Fr.
Alta Fr.
Alma Fr.
The Adams showings are on Adams Peak, and the workings are
on the northern and southern slopes. The ground is part of the
holdings of Kelowna Exploration Company Limited. The Adams,
Brandon, and Britomarte lodes were discovered very early in the history of the camp and
were mentioned in some. of the earliest reports. The details of the earlier work are not
available, however, and it is not clear now, reading the reports, what lode was being
referred to. There vas probably some production from these lodes, but there is no
positive record, and a small part of the production credited to the adjoining Canadian
lode may have come from the Adams.
The relation between the Adams, Ivanhoe, Canadian, and the Brandon lodes is not
clear. The main fact is that the Adams is the dominant break, a fact not so apparent by
study of the lode itself but deduced from the amount of displacement along it. The
Ivanhoe lode is subparallel and is a large fault zone with an apparent displacement of
hang&wall down and east. It meets the Canadian lode at the crest of the ridge and is
not recognized with certainty south or west of that point. The Ivanhoe appears to
converge on the Adams lode to the east and presumably merges with it, perhaps in the
basin of White Creek.
The Canadian is a steep lode, with a northerly to northeasterly strike, seen at the
ridge crest and 100 feet or so lower on the north and south slopes. A northeasterly lode
zone, imperfectly exposed on the south slope, may represent a branch of the Canadian,
the Ivanhoe lode, or a connecting link between them. The Canadian is itself probably a
connecting link between the Adams and Ivanhoe lodes and, if so, was probably initiated
as a tensional break, although there is no apparent evidence of tensional character in the
lode as it can now be seen.
The two Brandon lodes have a north to northeasterly strike. The one south of the
Adams lode is seen only as an oxidized zone at the surface and the northern one is seen
in two adits. The general area of intersection of these lodes with the Adams is sheared
and brecciated. On the basis of attitude, they are similar to the Canadian and possibly,
like it, were initiated as tensional breaks, although shearing stresses were later channeled
along them. In any event, the Brandon lodes are subsidiary to the Adams lode.
Reduced to the limit of apparent simplicity, the lode pattern in this vicinity consists
of the dominant and large Adams, with the subparallel Ivanhoe merging with it to the
east. The Canadian is a steep cross-link between them, as is perhaps the south Brandon.
The north Brando” is a lode subparallel to these latter and similar in origin, but extending
to the north of the Adams lode.
The Adams lode crosses the ridge crest diagonally as a zone of shearing and brecciation about 30 feet wide. A caved adit on the southwest side of the ridge, about 200
feet below the crest, shows small amountS of quartz and calcite on the dump and a little
sphalerite and galena. Another caved adit farther to the southwest, not shown on the
map, is the site of a small spring. The actual lode is not seen on the southwest slopes.
The lode crosses a steep golly on the north slope a short distance below the crest.
Strong shearing on an excessively steep slope makes a study of the actual limits of the lode
difficult, particularly as the north Brando” lode meets it in the golly. Of two old adits the
upper appears to be on the Adams lode, dipping southeastward, and the lower, 225 feet
below the crest, is on the north Brandon, dipping eastward.
The general course of the Adams lode is traced by sloughed open-cuts down the east
flank of Adams Peak, and a combined open-cut and short adit just above the talus slopes,
at an elevation of 6,840 feet, provides the last and best view of the lode. Here it consists
of 3 feet of quartz, strike north 62 degrees east, dip 65 degrees southeast, in the footwall
of about 8 feet of shearing, perhaps not all of which is exposed. A 2-inch lens of galena
was seen in the centre of the zone.
The sooth Brandon lode is seen only as a zone of sheared and oxidized rock on which
three adits have been driven. The line of outcrop trends north, but the adits are caved
and the attitude of the lode is not known.
The north Brandon lode strikes about north 25 degrees east and dips 45 to 70
degrees eastward. An adit about 225 feei below the ridge on the north slope. is about 100
feet long, and a second adit, nearly 500 feet below the crest, is about 700 feet long. In
the lower adit the lode is a well-defined but rather irregular zone of shearing locally
mineralized rather sparingly. A turn towards the west in the inner part of the adit may
signify that the lode is turning to become parallel with the Adams lode, but this point
is not clear.
The two Brandon lodes are not well mineralized, judging from what can be seen and
inferred from the old dumps. The zones of intersection with the Adams lode have not
been explored.
The Adams lode has barely been investigated, which is odd considering its structural
However, the early prospectors would probably not have realized its
importance, and the location is a dicult
one. Except for surficial examination, most of
the work done was confined to the two adits on the southern slope, and it is not known
what length of the lode was explored. Some mineral was encountered, but it was predominantly zincy and supposedly not high in grade. Galena was encountered but not in
quantity. In view of the structural importance of this lode, which extends along roughly
the southeastern boundary of the main mineral belt, further geological investigation is
warranted in more detail than thar on which the present description is based. Trenching
should expose the lode to the southwest without great difficulty.
Idah and Alamo, pages 79 to 82.
This property, owned by Kootenay Belle Gold Mines Limited, is
1 mile northwest of Sandon on the northeast side of Carpenter
Creek. No. 2 adit is on the old K. & S. Railway grade about 1,000
feet northwest of a small creek. The workings are not shown on Figure. 2.
The property was first worked many years ago, but early details are lacking, and
It was acquired in 1949 by E. Doney, of New Denver, who
there was no production.
The company first mined a shoot of
sold it to Kootenay Belle Gold Mines Limited.
replacement ore above No. 2 level and in 1951 was mining a fissure zone. About 400
tons was mined in 1950but was not milled.
There are five adits, only the uppermost two of which have encountered mineralization. They are in argillites and quartzites which dip at moderate to steep angles to the
northeast and are intruded by numerous sills and dykes in the vicinity of a large stock.
Two principal fissures strike to the west and northwest and dip to the south and southwest
respectively. Mineralization is mostly in the fissures but also occurs as replacement of
limestone. Pyrite predominates in the ore with dark sphalerite and less galena.
No. 1 level is driven 100 feet to intersect a northwesterly striking fissure zone. conThis zone is followed for at least 200 feet, the full extent
taining scant mineralization.
not being accessible. A second fissure east of the first and dipping to the south at 3.5 to
60 degrees has been followed to the east for 300 feet. Mineralization in this second
fissure is sporadic, the best section, now under development, being about 75 feet long
near the western end of the drift.
No. 2 level, 80 feet below No. 1, follows from near the portal a southerly dipping
fissure for 200 feet. The fissure apparently swings to a southeast course for 90 feet and
swings again to the east in a drift length of 190 feet. Ore is encountered in the first 100
feet of this latter drift and is presumably continuous with ore on No. 1 level. The ore is
as much as 4 feet wide and as little as 1% feet. It is pyritic and locally contains sufficient
dark sphalerite to constitute an ore of good grade.
Ore was encountered replacing limestone 190 feet from the portal of No. 2 adit.
A band of limestone and limy argillite about 25 feet wide is crossed at a large angle by the
east-west lode, and on No. 2 level mineralization replaced the hmestone for a maximum
distance of 20 feet from the lode in the hangingwall. Stoping was carried out for 60 feet
above No. 2 level, and a raise was continued to No. 1. The stope was much steeper than
the lode and a little oxidized matter was seen on No. 1 at the top of the raise, in the
hangingwall and possibly 100 feet south of the lode.
The two levels differ markedly in the apparent relation between the west- and northwest striking fissures. On No. 2 level the east-west fissure is clearly dominant, and the
northwest direction constitutes a bend in it. On No. 1 level the ore-bearing east-west
fissure is terminated by the northwest fissure, but on the same level, 30 feet north of the
initial crosscut, a west-striking fissure possibly terminates the northwest one. It is plain
that the two systems of fissuring were contemporaneous and that the Essure pattern varies
from level to level. Ore occurs dominantly in the east-west fissures.
The limestone repla&ment appears to be a steep chimney apexing downward against
a fissure On NO. 2 level. An old open-cut east of No. 1 adit portal shows replacement
ore which is probably the surface expression of this chimney which, to judge from the
evidence on No. 1 level, is not continuous.
No. 3 level, about 80 feet below No. 2, is an exploratory drive, 120 feet long, in
argillites and quartzites. No. 4 level, reported to contain several hundred feet of workings
but no ore, was not examined. No. 5, a short adit, is below the Sandon-Three Forks road.
The Aurora claim is part of the Ruth-Hope group. An old
working on it not directly related to any others is dealt with here
rather than as part of the Ruth or Hope. The showing is on an
old trail at an elevation of about 4,100 feet, 250 feet west of the Ivanhoe tram-lie.
A shaft about 100 feet higher than the trail is inclined at 38 degrees, south 20
degrees west. Water-level stood at 30 feet below the collar. The shaft is sunk on an
irregular semi-bedded zone several feet wide consisting of masses and stringers of quartz
containing a little sphalerite and galena. The dip is steep at the collar and is flat at
water-level. An adit, 30 feet northwest of the shaft and 16 feet lower, is driven 72 feet
at south 17 degrees west. It crosses an open synclinal roll, and no mineral was seen in it.
A lower adit on the trail is caved.
The rocks are quart&es and argillites, locally crumpled but with a general southwesterly dip.
This claim is owned by Mrs. Clara Y. Robinson, 3703 North
Twenty-ninth Street, Tacoma 7, Wash. It is at the head of Shea
Black Colt
Creek, and its northern extremity is crossed by the main Silver
Ridge road. The Erst shipment was made in 1919, and later work by E. J. Vandergrift,
under lease and option, led to the claim being taken over as part of the Consolidated Queen
Bess holdings in 1929. From then until 1937 work continued irregularly.
A little
exploratory work was done under option in 1949.
Production from 1919 to 1937 amounted to 983 tons containing 11 ounces of gold,
53,510 ounces of silver, 701,774 pounds of lead, and 208,866 pounds of zinc.
There are two adit levels 104 feet apart at elevations of approximately 4,650 and
4,750~feet. The portal of the lower is on the Silver Ridge claim. A third adit level on
the Silver Ridge Fraction crosses into Black Colt ground. In 1949 the Black Colt levels
were accessible by raises from the Silver Ridge Fraction adit.
The rocks are thin-bedded argillites and quart&es right side up and dipping at low
angles to the southwest, although locally they are crumpled. They are cut by steeply
dipping or vertical joints normal in strike to the bedding. Several faults dip at various
angles to the southwest, and there are many fractures of random orientation.
Most of
the faults follow the bedding or cut it at small angles, and because of local crumpling of
the beds it is not always certain whether a fault is parallel to the general bedded attitude,
follows a crumpled zone, or is deflected from some other course by local crumples. The
amount of movement on these faults is not known. It seems evident that in the thinly
bedded rocks a small or moderate amount of movement can produce a prominent
googy zone, and it may be that the interbed movement involved in folding has locally
reduced a single bed to a mass of clay or gouge which closely simulates a fault gouge.
It follows that the amount ‘of movement, if any, can hardly be estimated from the
appearance of a gougy or sheared zone.
Mineralization follows fissures closely allied to the system of joints. A good deal
of the workings is obscured by lagging, and it is not certain what the main ore zones
looked like. Random mineralization occupies joint fractures and locally spreads along
bedding planes and along small crumples; none of this mineralization is impressive.
The chief ore zone was on No. 1 level near the Pahnita boundary, and the ore on the
latter claim was found in an attempt to locate the continuation of the Black Colt ore
beyond a bounding flat fault.
A second zone, on which some mining was done, is
close to the Silver Ridge Fraction boundary on No. 2 level, but no downward continuaThe best clearly visible
tion of it was found by the level driven below for that purpose.
showing is a steep vein up to’ 1 foot wide exposed for 140 feet in a drift on the Ame&
can Girl claim of the Queen Bess group, 1,000 feet in a straight line from the portal of
No. 2 adit. The vein in this drift is clean-walled, is composed of carbonate, and contains sphalerite and a trace of galena.
The Buffalo claim is owned by Western Exploration Company
Limited and is part of the Mammoth group. The lode outcrops
in Avison Creek gulch, and two adits are driven on it about 300
f&t southeast of the portal of No. 9 Mammoth level. The lower adit, at an elevation
of 4,358 feet, is a crosscut for 250 feet and follows the lode in an average direction
of north 25 degrees east. The upper adit in a 60-foot crosscut intersects the lode about
50 feet above the middle part of the lower adit; it follows the lode for 195 feet at
north 35 degrees east. A raise at about 55 degrees connects the two adits and a stope
about 30 feet long extends between them. There is a stope of similar length above
No. 1 adit.
The lode, as seen in the adits and in surface exposures, is a well-defined sinuous
zone of shearing and fracturing up to several feet wide. It follows in general the
bedding in black argillites.
The horizontal component of movement is 30 feet, as
measured by the offset of a vertical dyke, the eastern or hanging wall having moved
relatively to the north.
Observed mineralization was of small scattered amounts of
Between 1905 and 1928 these workings produced 113 tons of ore, containing
15,326 ounces of silver, 52,483 pounds of lead, and 23,612 pounds of zinc. In 1925
a shipment of 23 tons contained 40 ounces of silver per ton and 20 per cent zinc, the
silver probably being contained in grey copper. (See description of the Mammoth lode
for a discussion of the structural relations of the Buffalo lode.)
The old Canadian group of Crown-granted
Brando”, Hilltop Fraction, Katie D, and Sarah B-are held under
lease from the Crown by Kelowna Exploration Company Limited
and form part of that company’s extensive holdings.
The ground lies across Silver
Ridge on the east flank of Adams Peak. It is reached by trail from the end of the
narrow Ivanhoe wagon-road.
A tram-line from No. 2 adit once connected with the
head of the Ivanhoe tram.
Early reports are rather vague as to the naming of lodes on this and the adjoining
Adams property, and the relation of the Canadian to the Adams and Ivanhoe lodes is
not altogether clear. The apparent relationship is discussed under the Adams lode and
The Canadian is a steep north to northeasterly trending lode that passes
through a saddle in the ridge crest. Two adits have been driven on it from the steep
north slope.
Work started on this ground in 1895 or earlier. A report in 1896 mentions outcropping ribs of galena in oxidized ledge matter that must have been plainly visible to
the tist prospectors.
Work commenced on both sides of the ridge but soon was
restricted to the north slope. Small shipments of ore were made from 1904 to 1908
and were started again in 1918 when the property was optioned by the Rosebery
Surprise Mining Company, who presumably built the aerial tram-line to connect No. 2
adit with the Ivanhoe tram.
In 1920, 105 tons of concentrating ore was mined, but
the option was dropped in May of that year. Leasing continued from 1921 to 1942,
The greatest activity was from
shipments being made in fourteen years of that period.
1926 to 1928, when shipments amounted to 357 tons for the three years.
Total production from 1904 to 1942 amounted to 452 tons, containing 9 ounces
of gold, 77,732 ounces of silver, 792,083 pounds of lead, and 30,347 pounds of zinc.
The Canadian lode crosses the ridge at an elevation of about 7,050 feet. It is
traceable down the north slope to No. 1 adit, elevation 6,857 feet, and on the south
slope to a large oxidized strippin:, elevation about 6,930 feet. No. 1 adit comes
through the hill 150 feet southeast of this stripping and was not on the lode in the
outer, southernmost part. The lode has an average strike. of north 28 degrees east and
a steep dip, locally of 75 degrees to the east. It is a zone of shearing and fissuring
about 40 feet wide. A possible subparallel zone crosses the ridge about 100 feet to
the west and has not been explored.
There is an apparent branch of the Canadian lode on the south siope, and there
is stripping and a 30-foot adit on it about 325 feet west of and at almost the same
elevation as the south portal of No. 1 adit. This branch is about 30 feet wide, is
strongly oxidized, and strikes to the northeast and locally dips to the northwest, but
neither the limits of the zone nor the main plane of movement can be determined.
It is believed to be a branch of the Canadian lode but could possibly be the Ivanhoe
lode, which meets the Canadian on the ridge crest and has not been recognized with
certainty on the south slope. The Ivanhoe lode, projected upward from the southern
extremity of No. 4 (Ivanhoe) level with a dip similar to that existing between Nos. 4
and 8 levels, would meet the surface near the zone in question.
No. 1 adit, elevation 6,857 feet, is caved 375 feet from the north portal. In the
first 270 feet it follows at south 20 degrees west a vertical to steep easterly dipping
fissure zone about 15 feet wide. The zone is oxidized but contains veins or remnants
of sulphides, chiefly sphalerite but including some galena. A small amount of stoping
has been done on central, footwall, or hangingwall vein sections. At 270 feet a crosscut 30 feet to the east encounters a subparallel ore-bearing fissure on which there is
a north drift for about 40 feet and on which the drift to the sooth is caved 90 feet
from the intersection.
Stoping has been done in this section, and a raise extends down
to No. 2 level.
The Canadian lode as seen in No. 1 adit is a zone of subparallel fissures at least
40 feet wide and may not have been fully explored. A crosscut extends to the west
for 25 feet at the first turn, but there is a possibility of additional fissures to the west,
especially in view of the indication of a western zone on the ridge crest.
Little can be learned on the sooth slope beyond the apparent fact of continuity of
the general zone. The southern end of No. 1 adit is in bad condition and is caved in the
supposed vicinity of the lode, about 50 feet west of the portal.
No. 2 adit, elevation 6,754 feet, is caved 200 feet from the portal. It is driven
southwest for 140 feet to a face showing a zinc-mineralized fissure a few inches wide,
striking north 15 degrees east and dipping 70 degrees to the east. At 120 feet from
the portal the adit branches to the south and swings gradually to the southwest near
the caved section. Some stoping has been done in the inner section on a fissure zone
up to 3 feet wide containing narrow widths of sphalerite. It may be doubted that the
lode in the accessible parts of the adit is the same lode as that in No. 1 adit, but the
doubt may be created by variation in character and attitude of the lode. Plans of the
full extent of the workings were not available.
No. 3 adit, elevation 6,525 feet, was driven in slide rock below the bluffs in search
of the lode. It is caved, and there is no information concerning it.
‘The innermost parts of the Ivanhoe Nos. 4 and 8 levels are driven across the
boundary of the Ivanhoe claim onto the Katie D claim, a member of the old Canadian
group. The lode followed by these drifts strikes northeastward and dips 45 degrees to
the southeast.
The structural setting and the possible relationship of the lodes in this vicinity are
discussed in the treatment of the Adams lode (pp. 65-56).
The old Carnation group, owned by Kelowna Exploration Company Limited, lies across the crest of Silver Ridge at the summit
known locally as Read Peak. Workings are on both north and
south slopes, and one adit, the 6500 level (formerly No. Z), passes through the ridge.
On the north slope the 5480 adit (designated No. 9 on Fig. 2), in the basin of Tributary Creek, is reached by a new road, which was extended to the upper levels formerly
reached by an old narrow wagon-road.
The workings on the south slope are reached
by trail from the 6500 level or by trail from the road in Wild Goose basin. Access in
early years was from Silverton Creek via the Wakefield trail.
The Carnation lode was discovered in very early days, and work was done on it
in the early 1890’s. Details of ownership are not known, but the earliest work was on
the Read and Robertson claims on the south slope, followed by work on the Carnation
claim on the north slope. Work was done on the Carnation between 1917 and 1921
by G. W. Clark. The combined group was acquired under option by the Victoria
Syndicate in 1925. The Victoria Syndicate pressed development and did some work
on the south slope but concentrated on the Carnation workings on the north. In 1927
the Carnation 6500 (No. 2) adit was driven through the ridge, a distance of 2,800 feet,
and a lO,OOO-foot aerial tram-line was built to connect with the Hewitt mill on Silverton
Creek. The option was dropped in 1928.
Work on 6300 (No. 3) adit was continued by the owners, A. R. Mann and associates, but was stopped in 1930. The property was bought in 1946 by Kelowna
A new low-level adit at an elevation of 5,480 feet was started in 1949, on the west
fork of Tributary Creek and a second, 5480 east adit, was driven the following year.
Two crosscuts were driven across the lode in the old 6300 adit and a new adit (6100) was
driven after the lode had been uncovered at that level by stripping. The results of all of
this work were disappointing, and the decision was made in June, 1951, to cease
operations. Rail, pipe, and equipment were removed.
Surveys of the final work were not at hand when the map (Fig. 2) went to press.
The 6100 and 5480 east adits are not shown, nor is the innermost Dart of the main or
west 5480 adit.
The total recorded production from 1895 to 1928 is 611 tons with a metal content
of 6 ounces of gold, 21,433 ounces of silver, 224,597 pounds of lead, and 36,491 pounds
of zinc.
The Carnation lode is part of one of the largest crosscutting fault zones. One
continuous zone of faulting extends from the Standard, through the Mammoth and
Carnation properties to the Hope, Silversmith, and Richmond-Eureka, a distance of about
6 miles. It is not a single or simple break, but rather a major element of a system of
faulting. The Wakefield lode is one major branch and the Minniehaha is another, while
the relation of the Mammoth to the Standard lode is a complex one, to be described
in a forthcoming bulletin. The lode structure is as much as 100 feet wide.
The structure cm&d by the lode from the Wakefield intersection just below the
southwest portal of the 6500 level to the portal of the 5480 adit is the principal overturned
panel on the upper limb of the Slocan fold. These northeasterly dipping rocks on the
high northern slopes of Silver Ridge roll down and under at elevations between 5,000 and
5,500 feet in the first of a series of recumbent folds. Such an inversion apparently takes
place at some distance below the horizon of the 5480 adit, but the details of this fold may
only be understood after additional development work is done. Exposures are few in the
basin at the head of the west fork of Tributary Creek, and the structure cannot be well
studied on the surface.
The rocks have been greatly deformed in the vicinity of Read Peak. Quartzites
have shattered and argillites have flowed, and an extreme is seen in the argillite band that
crosses the peak in the hangingwall of the lode. This argillite, originally finely banded,
has been finely cornminuted and has flowed, until the light-coloured beds remain as
fragments and streaks; the band apparently pinches out close to the lode. In the headwall of Tributary Creek the structure is apparently uniform, although dragfolding is
noticeable. If black argillite encountered in the hangingwall of the lode by the first
crosscut on the 5480 adit may be correlated with the band crossing Read Peak, then an
average northeasterly dip of the argillite of about 24 degrees is indicated for a horizontal
distance of 3,000 feet.
On the south slope above the Wakefield intersection the lode does not cross southwesterly dipping rocks and is wholly in the overturned panel. On the north slope the
steeply dipping footwall rocks at the 5480 adit portal are probably close to the uppermost
recumbent fold, .but the combined displacements on the Carnation and Minniehaha lodes
make direct structural correlation with the hangingwall rocks very dicult.
The rocks traversed include all types, and the displacement, although of an unknown
amount, is sufficient to bring widely differing rocks into juxtaposition across the lode.
Igneous rocks are few, the largest being a sill at the portal of the 5480 adit. In this
adit, metamorphism has produced a striped brown to green rock from banded argillaceous
On the south slope the lode is traced through a vertical distance of about 650 feet
by the 6500 adit and three short adits above it, and by open-cuts. The exact point of
branchina of the Carnation and Wakefield lodes is not seen. but the lode elements
explored by the adits flatten at the 6500 level from about a 50-degree to about a 30-degree
dip with some strands nearly horizontal. The upper three adits may be on the hangingwall part of the combined lode. The lode is at least 50 feet wide and contains masses
of calcite as much as 15 feet wide. Heavily oxidized sulphide, including galena, is
exposed at the surface in places, and pods of ore are encountered underground.
6500 level was caved at the intersection of the drift with a branch leading to the tram
The lode is not exposed on the crest of Read Peak, and only brecciated rock can
be seen along its supposed course. Footwall strands cross the ridge 100 feet or more in
the footwall of the main break and appear to diverge to the west. One such strand
crosses the ridge 900 feet west of the main lode apex, and an adit (now caved) was driven
on it on the south slope 100 feet below the crest of the ridge. The footwall strands
contain small amounts of sulphides, as exposed at intervals by old open-cuts. Northeast
of Read Peak open-cuts about 400 feet north of the main lode show mineral matter that
may or may not be in place.
The uppermost workings on the north slope consist of a caved shaft on a broad zone
of siderite and breccia. Below the shaft a crosscut (now caved) was driven southerly to
the lode, but very little work was done on the lode itself. About 200 feet lower the 6500
adit is driven through the ridge along the lode for a strike-length of about 2,500 feet.
This adit was inaccessible at the time of the writer’s visits. The drift follows a nearly
straight c.ourse, and numerous crosscuts were driven to right and left to explore the zone.
The full horizontal width of fissuring is as much as 100 feet. Former reports state that
“ no ore was encountered ” in this drift, but some mineralized sections were encountered.
The amount and grade of mineralized matter are not known, but it is undoubtedly more
attractive at current prices than it was in 1927 and 1928.
The innermost section of the 6300 adit (designated No. 3 in Fig. 2) explores the
main lode, the hangingwall of which is a large zone of shearing containing much gouge
and some calcite. Subsidiary footwall strands give a total width of about 50 feet. About
300 feet from the portal a northeasterly trending zone of fissuring and shearing may
represent a fault or a flexure in the lode. In either case the main lode does not appear
to have been reached by the initial crosscutting part of the adit. The exact behaviour
of the lode in this section is important, because there is a complexity here that contrasts
with the nearly straight cowse in the 6500 level above and to the west. Also, the Footwall branch encountered in the 5480 level and believed to be the Minniehaha lode is
approachmg the main lode in this section.
The 6100 adit, not shown on Figure 2, is driven 240 feet below the 6300 adit. The
6100 adit follows the lode along a general westerly course for 545 feet from the portal.
Strata are crossed which in general dip with the lode or are inclined at small angles to it.
The lode dips at 30 to 35 degrees to the south, except at the face where the dip is 45
degrees to the south. The average dip from the face to the 6300 level is 48 degrees.
Neither the 6100 adit nor two recently driven crosscuts in the 6300 adit were
examined. The company reported no favourable results from this work, in spite of the
apparently encouraging situation. The fault or lode flexure in the 6300 adit, a feature
possibly favouring the occurrence of ore, was not apparent on the 6100 level.
A condition of some interest exists in the 6300 and 6100 levels, where strata have
a northeasterly strike and are rudely parallel to the lode. There are not sufficient
exposures to explain the meaning of this panel at a large angle to the general trend.
Three explanations seem possible: (1) the strata are dragged into near parallelism with
the lode, (2) the lode follows the course of a dragfold, and (3) a wedge of different
attitude is caught between branches of the lode.
The 5480 adit (No. 9 in Fig. 2) is driven into the hill for 230 feet and then as
a crosscut for 1,380 feet. Lodes were encountered in the crosscut 680 feet and 1,080
feet from the turn. The first lode, a zone of shearing several feet wide, is probably the
continuation of the Minniehaha and is referred to as the Footwall lode. The second, the
Carnation lode, was followed to the west chiefly in the footwall for about 1,800 feet, and
a second crosscut, 1,300 feet west of the first, was driven 330 feet into the hangingwall.
In the explored length the lode was intersected by short crosscuts at a number of places.
The lode follows in general an east-west course and dips at about 60 degrees to the south.
The main break is several feet wide, and branches and subsidiary fissures make the actual
limits of the lode zone rather indefinite. The movement in several observed places is of
hangingwall down and east at a vertical angle of about 25 to 30 degrees. A very little
sphalerite occurs locally.
The Footwall lode contained lenses of galena and sphalerite as much as 18 inches
wide where first encountered.
It was exposed by a drift for a total length of 340 feet
and two short raises were driven on it, but there was not sufficient encouragement to do
further work in this section. The lode is a zone of shearing and fissuring several feet wide
that strikes northeastward and dips at a moderate angle to the southeast.
The position of the Footwall lode was determined by surface diamond drilling, and
the apex at the 5480 level was found by stripping about 400 feet southeast of the main
adit portal. A second 5480 adit was driven from a point 100 feet northwest of the lode
apex and explored the lode for a total distance of 320 feet southwest of the apex. The
face of the east adit is about 250 feet northeast of the drift on the Footwall lode in the
main adit. The lode strikes north 10 degrees east at and for 100 feet from the surface
and north 30 degrees east farther in the hill. It is weakly mineralized in several places.
The rocks traversed by the main crosscut dip steeply. Argillites in the main crosscut
in the hangingwall of the lode dip southwesterly, with southeasterly axial plunges. These
argillites are probably involved in a dragfold, because they cannot be structurally beneath
the main overturned panel. The rocks in the immediate footwall of the Carnation lode
are northeasterly dipping as a rule and include argillites and quartzites.
A sill or dyke 80 to 90~feet wide is crossed by the outermost section of the main
5480 adit. The same body is exposed on the surface in the small creek, part way to the
5480 east adit, and again in the footwall of the Footwall lode. Quartz dioritic rock also
occurs in the hangingwall of the same lode and, if it is the same body as that in the footwall, a displacement of hangingwall to the northeast is indicated. Strata in both footwall
and hangingwall of the Footwall lode dip to the east, in marked contrast to strata which
dip to the southwest on the surface 200 feet vertically above.
The Footwall lode has been explored at the 5480 level for a total length of about
900 feet, including one gap of about 250 feet. The Carnation lode has ,been explored
for a length of about 1,800 feet, from the main crosscut to a point due south of the inner
end of 6300 level. The two lodes apparently join near the outer part of 6300 level, and
what is supposedly the combined zone, the main Carnation lode, is explored for a strike
distance of about 2,500 feet on 6500 level. These workings have failed to disclose
a” orebody.
I” the area as a whole, although many factors may combine to form a site for ore
deposition it is a rule that, statistically, orebodies favour southwesterly dipping rocks in
which the lode movement is opposed to the bedding.
Furthermore, orebodies on the
larger lodes are found in areas of structural complexity more often than in areas of
consistent dip. The 5480 level is driven “ear the base of the overturned northeasterly
dipping panel, above the general zone of multiple recumbent folding in which most of
the larger orebodies in the area are known to lie.
Far more information is available now than before the adit was driven, and in the
light of that information the 5480 level appears to have been driven at a horizon somewhat high for ore formation.
The southwest-dipping rocks already referred to on the
surface 800 feet south of the main 5480 adit portal are now known to represent a dragfold in the lower part of the main overturned panel, and do not lie beneath that panel.
Another showing on the Carnation lode is on the north part of the Jennie claim,
about 600 feet east of Tributary Creek. A” adit 57 feet long was driven on part of the
lode structure, which here is at least 50 feet wide and contains much calcite. No lead
or zinc mineralization was see”.
The Carnation lode is also exposed where it crosses the west branch of Tributary
Creek. Tbe creek at this point falls rapidly in a cascade over quartzites and the lode,
or part of it, is seen in the lower part of the cascade. Sheared and shattered ground
occurs over a probable lode width of several tens of feet and contains some strands of
siderite and a very little sphalerite.
The Cinderella is owned by Violamac Mines (B.C.) Limited.
It is on the steep slope above Carpenter Creek and is reached by
trail from the Victor road. The earliest shipment was in 1904,
when 188 tons was shipped. Total production, in six years between 1904 and 1936,
was 249 tons, containing 18,448 ounces of silver and 329,515 pounds of lead.
The rocks are argillaceous for the most part, although exposures are few and the
full section cannot be seen. The structure is unknown.
A stock of quartz diorite occupies the northern part of the claim and extends down to Carpenter Creek.
Steep northeasterly trending fissures, which are parallel to or are part of the joint
sysiem, are investigated in six adits. Two adits between 400 and 500 feet north of the
Lone Batchelor adits, are driven on steep joints in thick-bedded argillite that dips southwestward into the hill. The upper adit is caved and the other, 60 feet lower, is about
200 feet long.
Two other adits are at the old camp, elevation about 3,420 feet. The upper adit
is caved and is reported to be 650 feet long. The other adit, 100 feet lower, was recently
opened; it is nearly 800 feet long. The workings are crooked and follow fissures of
variable but general northeasterly strike that are offset or separated by faults. There is
little evidence of mineralization, and continuity of lode is not established. The writer
had no plan of this adit.
West of the camp on a” old trail two adits are in quartz diorite.
One about 180 feet
west of the camp is caved. The other, about 800 feet west of the camp, is about
175 feet long and is driven on a fissure dipping 45 degrees to the southeast.
This claim is owned by W. H. Elson, c/o George A. Richardson,
1829 Twelfth Avenue West, Vancouver.
It is on the ridge east of
lower Alamo basin. Old open-cuts trace the course of a lode over
the ridge nose at a” elevation of 5,800 feet, and a” adit is driven from the western slope
a short distance below the lode outcrop.
The adit is 150 feet long and crosses the lode 40 feet from the portal.
A drift
extends 72 feet at north 68 degrees east. The lode in the drift is oxidized in a streak
A caved adit is driven on a nearly east-west, southerly dipping lode that is stoped
to surface across a low ridge west of the creek. A caved portal on the west side of the
ridge indicates continuity of the lode for about 300 feet. No. 2, a slightly lower adit
175 feet to the northeast, is caved at the portal but was entered by a raise from below.
An irregular southeast-dipping lode fissure 100 feet long in No. 2 adit is stoped to surface
close to the creek; on the southwest it rolls into a bedded shear. Discontinuous mineralized fractures are encountered at intervals in a drift that extends 180 feet farther
west. At the west end of this drift ore stringers are seen to follow the bedding round
minor folds. About 75 feet southwest of this face in a sublevel 25 feet below No. 2 level,
a 35-foot section of mineralized zone is about 2 feet wide and contains 2 to 3 inches of
sphalerite and, locally, pods of galena. A crosscut, an additional 120 feet sooth in the
sublevel, ends at a raise from No. 3 level below.
Continuity of ore is not indicated, in spite of surface evidence of a defmite lode in
t,he uppermost stope. There are two or more fractures in the lode direction, interrupted
by bedded slips and minor folds.
No. 3 adit level is driven south for 1,215 feet. A narrow mineralized lode, as much
as 2 feet wide, is crossed 100 feet from the portal.
It is exposed in a drift to the west
for a length of 65 feet and terminates against a flat-bedded slip. A raise extends to the
surface. Small amounts of sphalerite and galena occur in this lode. At 405 feet from
the portal a nearly flat carbonate stringer, bedded and containing sphalerite, is crossed.
Quartz lenses in the crosscut dip from 50 to 70 degrees to the northwest and represent
tensional fractures.
A strong east-west gougy unmineraiized fissure is crossed 900 feet from the portal.
It is followed to the west by a drift 195 feet long and for 260 feet east, to a point where it
swings sharply into the bedding: the bedding flattens in an additional distance of 110 feet
to the east. A raise west of the crosscut on this fissure extends at about 50 degrees to
sublevels at 80 and 131 feet; the upper sublevel is 25 feet lower than the No. 2 adit
level and has already been described.
Ninety feet up the raise the fissure is topped by
a fault dipping 40 degrees to the northeast. A stron g gougy fissure dipping 65 degrees to
the southwest is exposed 10 feet north, of the raise in the upper sublevel and may be the
same as the fissure below, faulted and with abnormal strike. However, it bears no known
relation to the mineralized fissures already described that lie 100 and 180 feet to the
north and east.
On the surface, 180 feet at north 60 degrees west from No. 3 adit portal, a trench
has been dug on broken mineral-bearing ground. The trench is $0 badly sloughed that
detail is obscure, but the line of the trench ,and of old open-cuts to the west indicates
an east-west fissure or lode zone approximately at right angles to the prevailing local
strike of the strata. The eastward projection of this fissure passes north of No. 3 portal,
Just below the main road, about 450 feet east of the creek, there are two old shallow
workings on a curving lode. Some underhand stoping has been done from one of them.
About 250 feet east of the creek a section of lode 55 feet long was uncovered in 1948,
and lead ore was mined across a maximum width of 18 inches to a depth of 12 feet.
These showings are possibly all on the lode structure that is stoped from No. 2 level
to the surface and is seen crossing the creek, but there is no positive evidence of continuity and the lode, where seen, varies considerably in attitude along the generally
east-west course.
An adit was driven in 1949 and 1950 from a point about 200 feet east of the creek
and 75 feet lower than the 1948 surface showing.
It had been driven south 272 feet
when examined, the inner 30 feet being along an east-dipping fault. At a point 145 feet
from the portal a drive had been made to the east, southeast, and finally sooth a total
distance of 125 feet to get into the hangingwall of the fault, but no lode had been
In August, 1950, no map was available. The rocks in the adit dip to
the northeast.
Clarence Cunningham, who died in 1938, built up a large holding,
including many prominent Slocan mines. His first activity was at
the Wonderful in 1915. and he subseouentlv extracted most of
the ore won from that property.
In 1916 he acquired the Q&en E&s, under lease and
bond, as well as other properties. After a short drive on the Queen Bess an orebody
larger than any before known was encountered.
It was rapidly mined and is reported
to have shown net smelter returns of a million and a quarter dollars.
Cunningham controlled, in 1916, the Queen Bess, Wonderful, Idaho-Alamo, Van
Roi, and Sovereign. Details of ownership or agreement are not clear at this date but,
chiefly as Cunningham Mines Limited, he held these properties for many years, adding
the Hewitt, Black Colt, and others to his list. Within the Sandon area a tram-line system
was reinstalled from the Idaho and Queen Bess mines to Alamo Siding, where a mill was
built on the site of the original Alamo mill. Ore was transported by tram from the
Wonderful to the railway, whence it was shipped to the mill. The Queen Bess ore was
shipped direct to the smelter. Consolidated Queen Bess Mines Limited was formed in
1928, in an amalgamation of the original Queen Bess and the Idaho and Alamo properties.
The Cunningham enterprises did not prosper as well in later years as in earlier,
and at the time of Cunningham’s death he was in debt. It was not until 1949 that most
of the legal details could be untangled, and most of the properties have now passed
into other hands. The Wonderful was bought by Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited,
and the Consolidated Queen Bess holdings are controlled jointly by Bralorne and
Kelowna Exploration through Bess Mines Limited.
The Democrat claim is on the east side of Alamo basin and
extends a short distance over the ridge crest. It is owned by
Mrs. Pearl McLean Stuart, 5508 East Fifty-fifth Street, Seattle,
There are three very short adits and several open-cuts, all sloughed. Evidence
of mineralization is erratic and does not seem to indicate the presence of a throughgoing lode. The limestones and limy strata are involved in a large dragfold with an
amplitude of about 200 feet, and the rocks are locally shattered or torn. The dragfold
is plainly visible from the opposite side of the basin. Mineralizing solutions have
followed, particularly in the steep limb of the dragfold, some of the fractures in these
strongly deformed rocks.
This claim is on the crest of Silver Ridge at the head of Wild
Dixie Hummer
Goose basin. It is owned by Thomas A. Yawkey, 420 Lexington
Avenue, New York, N.Y. A small amount of digging was done
years ago on the ridge crest on a breccia zone in argillite. Surface work was also done
in stripping limestone and limy rocks through a vertical range of about 50 feet on the
steep north slope. This latter work is now partly caved, but a very small amount of
sulphide mineralization was encountered, apparently a replacement in the limestone.
Some very old open-cuts down the north slope show no more than a search for mineral
but, 100 feet from the road, the writer discovered a few small pieces of galena in shattered rocks on which no work had been done. On the south slope a quartz “ blowout ”
in argillite occurs about 200 feet below the ridge crest.
There is evidence of mineral in this locality, and the breccia zone on the ridge
crest has the appearance of lode matter, but careful mapping shows no evidence of
displacement such as would be produced by a lode of even moderate size. It seems
rather that the observed mineral is erratic, following loci of shattering in limy and
mixed rocks. The locality is not far removed from footwall fracturing of the Carnation
lode zone, of which a strand of lode attitude crosses the ridge 600 feet southeast of
the Dixie Hummer stripping and is exposed in an open-cut on the Carnation trail 400
feet from the same stripping.
This open-cut shows about an inch of galena in a small
shear zone, and an adit below the trail, now caved, was apparently driven on the shear.
The Dorothy claim is owned by Kelowna Exploration Company
It is east of the east branch of Tributary Creek and
is crossed by a number of trails. Several old workings are completely caved, and only a lower exploratory adit is open.
Cairnes reports (1935, p. 36): “On this claim, at an elevation of about 4,800
feet, an adit 400 feet long has explored a vein of high-grade silver-lead ore several
inches wide. The vein occurs in a fault fissure striking nearly east, dipping 50 degrees
south, and has been partly stoped out above the adit level. The fissure intersects banded
argillites striking north 15 degrees west and dipping 75 degrees northeast, and is exposed
in open-cuts and pits about 150 feet above the portal of the tunnel.”
The adit referred to is on a small nose on the upper trail, uphill from which there
are several old open-cuts, all badly sloughed. An exploratory adit below the lower
trail is about 125 feet lower. It is driven 220 feet at south 60 degrees east to a raise
driven upwards at 30 degrees. A loo-foot branch to the northeast ends in another
short raise.
The rocks are thin bedded, predominantly argillites, and are fractured; exposures
are ooor. Other short adits in the vicinitv were driven aooarentlv on broken mound.
TheAMinniehaha lode projects through &is general area,’ and it ;s probable &at the
lode referred to by Cairnes is a part of the Minniehaha lode, of which there may be
more than one fissure. The local structure is beneath the main overturned panel and
is not known.
The Elkhorn claim is held under lease from the Crown by Neil
Tattrie. New Denver. The workings are on the west side of
Miller ‘Creek at and above the lower-road crossing.
The workings are all caved and the early history is incomplete.
George Gormley
was one of the group owners for many years and leased the mine as early as 1907.
Caimes (1935, pp. 39, 40) mentions live adits in addition to a shallow shaft,
but the writer distinguished only four adits in the heavily overgrown area. The following
quotations are from Cairnes.
Of about 2,400 feet of lineal work most was done on the two lowest adits. The
second lowest adit exposes “.
a strong zone of shearing along the contact of a
porphyry sill and argillaceous sediments. The zone strikes north 55 degrees west, dips 75
degrees to the southwest, and averages several feet in width. It has been followed for
over 200 feet in which distance some encouraging mineralization has been encountered,
mostly in the form of small shoots. Raises and stopes connect with the surface workings
70 feet above, in which direction the shear zone flattens appreciably. The productive
parts of the shear zone arc at points where it is intersected by mineraliied cross-fissures
striking about nortli 65 degrees east and dipping from 40 to 70 degrees southeast.
“ The lowest or No. 3 adit is a crosscut for about 460 feet to where it is reported
to have intersected a fissure which may correspond with one of the mineralized crossfissures encountered in the upper workings.
Judged from material on the dump
from No. 3 level, the fissure at this depth carries abundant pyrite and considerable zinc
blende in a gangue composed largely of siderite.”
A production of 162 tons is recorded for the seven years from 1907 to 1936.
This contained 1 ounce of gold, 5,440 ounces of silver, 111,468 pounds of lead, and
40,099 pounds of zinc.
This claim, on the west side of Wild Goose basin, is part of the
holdings of Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited.
An adit on
it is driven 250 feet westerly at an elevation of 6,690 feet. In
the first 115 feet it follows a weak fracture in limestone and argillite at south 80 degrees
west. From 115 to 190 feet the fracture is stronger and contains calcite and small
amounts of sphalerite, in argillite. At 190 feet the drift turns to the southwest to follow
light shearing into which the mineralized fracture swings. l%o inches of calcite breccia
containing sphalerite is seen near the face. Seventy feet from the portal a branch
extends 65 feet to the south in lhny rocks.
The Hinckley claim, owned by W. D. Pengelly, of Silverton, is
on Shea Creek and is crossed by the Victor road. Little is
recorded of the history of this claim beyond that it was owned
by the Hinckley & Black Colt Mining Company in 1898, was developed by R. A. Grimes
in 1923, and by the Standard Silver-Lead Mining Company in 1924 and 1925. It
was worked under lease in 1936 and 1937 when 3 tons was shipped, containing 85
ounces of silver per ton and 60 per cent lead.
Workings consist of four adits and a shaft. A fifth adit on the Bear Paw mineral
claim, owned by Mrs. H. V. Dewis, of Silverton, passes into the Hinckley from the
north. Exposures are few, and all that is known is that the rocks in Shea Creek valley
dip steeply to the south and that a considerable thickness of quartzites occurs near the
southernmost workings.
A prominent dyke or sill of porphyritic quartz diorite, 150
feet wide as exposed in the creek, may extend to the east to connect ultimately with
a prominent stock on the north side of Carpenter Creek.
Of three short adits at an elevation of nearly 3,800 feet at the edge of the creek
one is caved and the others are driven southerly on both sides of the creek. They cross
steeply dipping quart&es and argillaceous quartzites. The adit on the east bank is
150 feet long and at 70 feet from the portal encounters a semi-bedded crushed zone in
which there is 6 to 8 inches of quartz and a little siderite and sphalerite.
About 250 feet northeast of this adit a series of small pits exposes an irregular
mineralized fracture, and an adit a little lower in elevation explores what is presumably
the same zone. The adit encounters a quartzose fracture, which dips 45 degrees east,
60 feet from the portal, and follows it for 40 feet, where it fades out in porphyry.
Three short crosscuts into the hangingwall show broken ground in argillaceous rocks
and porphyry.
An old shaft at an elevation of about 3,700 feet near the north edge of the claim
is inaccessible. It is sunk on a fissure zone that strikes north 25 deerees east and dim
65 degrees eastward. Material on the dump is mainly gossan b;t includes a litile
siderite and glassy quartz. A small caved adit close to the shaft collar may be driven
on a fault. An adit 150 feet lower and 350 feet to the northeast is driven southerly
This adit is driven in argillites
260 feet from the Bear Paw claim into the Hinckley.
for’ 180 feet, where it encounters an go-foot sill. A crosscut 60 feet to the west
encounters a fissure striking north 25 degrees east and dipping 55 to 70 degrees eastward.
This fissure, which may be the same as that in the shaft, is followed to the south for
190 feet through the sill and into~argillites. It is a gougy zone between porphyry walls,
but in argillite it is a quartzose vein about 6 inches wide.
These old mines on the headwaters of Howson Creek are conIdaho and Alamo
trolled by Bess Mines Limited, 555 Burrard Street, Vancouver.
Both early discoveries, the Alamo had the distinction of having
the first mill in the Slocan, at Alamo Siding, in operation in 1895. The mines were
at first worked separately but were amalgamated in 1904 or earlier, when an aerial
tram-line was built up Howson Creek and a branch tram extended to the Idaho.
In 1904 most of the available ore was reportedly mined out from the Alamo upper
Work in that year was concentrated on
four levels, and a fifth level was contemplated.
the Idaho.
Production in 1904 and 1905 amounted to 11,200 tons and for the next ten years
never attained 300 tons per year. In this latter period it is presumed that the mines
were worked under lease.
Clarence Cunningham acquired the combined property in 1916, as part of Cunningham Mines Limited.
In 1917 and 1918 the main tram-line was rebuilt, with feeder
trams to the Idaho and to Queen Bess NOS. 5 and 10 levels, and a mill was built on
the site of the old one at Alamo. An amalgamation was made with the Queen Bess
in 1928 and a new company, Consolidated Queen Bess Mines Limited, was formed.
In 1947 Harold Hemsworth and associates, of Vancouver, acquired rights to the
Consolidated Queen Bess property after clearing the legal tangles which followed
Cunningham’s death. A lease and bond was taken by Bralome Mines Limited who,
jointly with Kelowna Exploration Company Limited, formed Bess Mines Limited as
an operating company. A geological investigation was made in 1949 and 1950.
The record of production is not as informative as it might be because the output
of the Idaho and Alamo was grouped. About 30,000 tons was mined altogether, with
a metal content of about 1,625,OOO ounces of silver and about 5,120,OOO pounds of
lead; zinc was recovered in 1905 and again subsequently to 1918. About 85 per cent
of the ore was mined between 1895 and 1905. Dividends amounting to about $400,000
were paid. The last shipment recorded was 114 tons from the Alamo in 1928.
The Idaho and Alamo, two distinct lodes of major size, are continuations of the
Standard lode system. They cross the high ridge. northwest of Idaho Peak, the Alamo
crossing the Sandow claim and the Idaho passing into bedding where last seen on the
southern slope west of the Sandow. The two lodes’may join before passing through
Tiger and Echo ground farther to the south. The Idaho lode is continuous with the
Queen Bess, although it cannot be traced between mines. The Alamo passes through
the Conductor claim on the ridge east of Alamo basin, and its position is not known
with certainty beyond that point. The projected position of the Alamo east of Howson
Creek is shown in Figure 2.
Alamo lode is exposed by five adit levels over a vertical range of
about 500 feet. The adits are all caved, so the following underground detail is taken
from published material or inferred from existing maps.
According to Cairnes (1935, p. 62): “ The lode is a strong, mineralized fissure or
fissured zone along the course of which the country rocks have been much crushed and
brecciated. It varies in width from a few inches to over 9 feet and in its more productive
parts had a tiling composed in part of ore minerals, including at one point between 8 and
9 feet of solid galena and in part of quartz, siderite, calcite, and crushed country rock.
Most of the available ore has been worked out. The principal shoot extended from the
surface to 50 feet or more below No. 4 level and had a maximum length, between Nos. 1
and 2 levels, of about 500 feet. The shoot pitched in general towards the east and the
length decreased downward to less than 200 feet on No. 4 level
On No. 5 level
the lode is well defined, and contains much vein quartz, but has shown only traces or
small lenses of lead and zinc minerals.
“ Grey copper was a conspicuous constituent of the higher grade ore and a small
amount of ruby silver was associated with the galena throughout the mine. Pyrite and
chalcopyrite were also present, the latter, locally, in amounts rather unusual for ores of
this district. Quartz was the most abundant gangue mineral. It was associated with
a small proportion of siderite and calcite.” It is reliably reported that high silver values
were associated with “ sugary ” or finely crystalline vuggy quartz, in which the silver was
contained in small grains of g?ey copper and ruby silver.
The Alamo lode crosses a prominent ridge at an elevation of 6,500 feet. The five
adit portals are on the southeastern slope, but there is a second portal of No. 1 adit on
the northwestern slope. The rocks in the mine area are argillites with a general low dip
and minor warps and crumples. The rocks on the north or footwall side of the lode are
overturned and those on the south are right side up. Although there is no evidence in the
actual mine area, the displacement along the lode has brought into conjunction different
limbs of a large compressed dragfold with a nearly horizontal axial plane (see p. 45
and Section I-I’, Fig. 4). The lode, where it passes through the steeply dipping axial
part of the fold, deflects from its normal course to follow the bedding. In this section
the lode, which normally has a moderate dip to the south, swings to a southeast course
with a high dip to the southwest. Recovery to the normal east-northeast strike takes
place in the vicinity of No. 5 level, and it is reported that the steep dip encountered in the
higher workings decreases a short distance above No. 5. Most of the ore was mined from
the steep part of the lode.
Most of the ore occurred above No. 2 level and was mined to 60 feet above No. 1,
where the lode widened into a zone of stringers. The orebody lay in the upper part of
the steep buckle in the lode, a situation very similar to that of the orebody in the Ivanhoe
lode and not unlike that of the Queen Bess main orebody.
The general controlling factors which localized the Alamo orebody are well
established. The pattern is more distinct than in most of the larger orebodies in the
Sandon area and is not exactly duplicated anywhere, but there is enough similarity to
make a further analysis valuable as a guide to exploration in the Sandon area.
In the Alamo mine area the lode, which in general crosscuts the formation, swings
into parallelism with a panel of strata of anomalous attitude, producing a distinct buckle
in the lode. The buckle is local on strike and probably is,local on dip also, more sharply
&fined near its lower limit than its upper limit. The buckle or flexure on strike is in
a shear direction but on dip is in a tensional direction relative to the lode along which the
hangingwall moved relatively down and to the east.
The ore formed in or towards the upper part of the buckle. In the uppermost
section the lode was wider and more diffused and was not favourable to the formation
of ore in quantity-it
is probable that, above the present erosion surface, the diffused
elements of the lode regathered into a lode of more normal habit. It is not known
whether there was a similar, lower diffusion and regathering.
In the main part of the
buckle the well-defined lode is presumed to have been gouge filled or to have contained
a considerable amount of gouge, but where shattering and brecciation took place rather
than grinding of the rock a site favourable for ore deposition was formed. In the case
of the Alamo lode the influence of rock type was not important, and ore formed in argillite
which in many circumstances is not a good host rock. In other cases of a similar buckle
in a lode it may be presumed that the character of the rock might further localize ore
deposition, depending on its susceptibility to brecciation or to shear.
It will be seen that such a buckle is governed by the folded structure and is, at least
in the case of the Alamo, a bedded feature. It has been presented elsewhere as a general
conclusion that bedded lodes are on the whole not favourable to ore formation.
conclusion is warranted, as a generality, but a distinction should be made between
a general and a local following of bedding because in the latter case the buckle is the
more important factor, and not the angular relation between lode and bedding. Also,
a bedded warp or buckle may occur by reason of a bedded lode being deflected through
an irregularity of bedding, but the tendency to rupture is less than in the case of a crosscutting lode which is ~locally deflected into the bedding. Rupture, of the sort that
produces brecciation, is not a prior necessity for ore deposition but is on the whole a very
important contributing factor.
It is interesting to conjecture whether the Ivanhoe orebody formed for much the
same reason as the Alamo, although in response to a structural environment of quite
different over-all form. The answer is not forthcoming and might not be even after an
exhaustive examination, but the form of the buckle in the lode is the same in both mines.
Idaho lode outcrops in the small valley of a tributary of Howson
Creek. There are few exposures along the course of the lode and most of the workings
are caved. The rocks traversed are chiefly mixed, banded sediments and argillites. Two
quartz diorite stocks lie north and west of the mine area. The structure is not known.
Two other lodes, the Cumberland and St. John, are branches of the Idaho lode on
the northern or foot&J side. The Comberland joins the Idaho lode in the vicinity of
the portal of No. 5 adit and diverges to the west. The St. John merges near the west end
of the mine area and diverges to the northeast.
There are six adit levels on the Idaho lode in a vertical range of about 800 feet.
NO. 5 adit also explores the Cumberland lode. There are two small adits on the
Cumberland and two on the St. John. All are caved except Idaho No. 5 adit. A sublevel
between Nos. 5 and 6 was accessible in 1949 by a raise down from No. 5 level.
The Idaho has a maximum explored length of 2,500 feet. “ The lode forms a strong
shear or fracture zone varying in width from less than a foot to 25 feet. The principal
tonnage was obtained in part from stopes between and above the upper two levels and
in part from the surface about the portals of Nos. 1 and 2 adits.
The main shoot
on the Idaho lode was up to 10 feet thick and included 2 feet of clean galena on the
hanging-wall side. Besides this clean ore a large tonnage of milling ore was mined.
Operations on and below the third level have, on the whole, met with only inferior results,
and this in spite of every evidence of a strong lode carrying, down to the lowest level,
a heavy filling of calcite gangue. Some stoping has been done from the lower levels and
traces of ore mineralization are yet to be seen.” (Caimes, 1935, p. 60.)
-Nothing is now known of the St. John lode. The workings on it were caved at the
time of Cairnes’ examination. The Cumberland has been explored over a length of 1,450
feet on No. 5 level. It is a steep well-defined fissure with little displacement.
It cuts
quartzites and argillites with moderate to low northeasterly dips. The best section seen
contained up to 12 inches of siderite with seams of sphalerite and a little galena. One
small section was stoped.
A length of 800 feet of the Idaho lode was seen on No. 5 level to a cave at the edge
of a stoped section. A sublevel below No. 5, reached by a raise 500 feet from the portal,
is about 700 feet long. The lode is a broad zone of shearing, not everywhere fully
exposed, and locally contains 5 feet or more of calcite. It dips 50 degrees to the south
but in places is steeper or vertical. There is some evidence that the hangingwall moved
relatively down and to the east. The rocks are mixed, banded sediments, locally silicified.
Mineralization seen locally consisted of sphalerite in lenses and streaks and a little
galena. One steep fissure containing sphalerite diverges from the hangingwall to the east.
The lode as a whole is gougy but locally is rather tight and almost free of gouge.
It is as much as 20 feet wide and has the appearance of a strong shear zone.
The old Ivanhoe group, consisting of the Ivanhoe and Elgin claims,
is owned by the Minnesota Silver Company, Limited, c/o Thomas
A. Yawkey, 420 Lexington Avenue, New York, N.Y. Eight other
claims and fractions are held by the Yawkey interests in an adjoining group. The
combined property covers the basin at the head of White Creek and extends eastward
to the Sandon Creek slope.
The Ivanhoe lode was discovered early in the history of the camp and received
almost immediate attention. A mill was built on Carpenter Creek below Sandon in 1900
and an aerial tram was constructed to it from the mine. A total of 40,458 tons of ore
was milled from 1901 to 1905, and activity then stopped for eight years. The mill was
burnt down about 1914 and was rebuilt in 19 16 by the. Surprise Mining Company, who
milled 1,105 tons in 1917. In 1918 the group was optioned by Rosebery Surprise
Mining Company; 2,044 tons was milled in 1919, and Nos. 4 and 8 levels were
advanced, but the option was dropped in 1920. The mill was bought by Silversmith
Mines Limited in 192 1.
Total production from 1895 to 1935 amounted to 44,416 tons, containing 456,295
ounces of silver, 5,211,395 pounds of lead, and 713,689 pounds of zinc. Ore was milled
during seven years of this period and was shipped during fifteen.
The Ivanhoe lode is exposed in bluffs on the steep headwall of White Creek. It can
be traced from talus on the east to a near junction with the Canadian lode on the west.
The rocks on the blutfs are argillaceous and quartzitic, with a steep westerly dip. A few
dragfolds east of the mine show that the upper beds moved relatively upwards, a movement the reverse of that common to the area. There is also some bedded faulting which
has sliced other dragfolds. A discussion of the general structure and of the relationship
between the Ivanhoe, Adams, and Canadian lodes is presented on pages 65 and 66,
together with a description of the Adams property.
The Ivanhoe is a broad and rather irregular zone of faulting and shearing across
a width of 40 feet or more on the bluffs, and the entire zone on No. 4 level appears
to have a horizontal width of 150 feet of subparallel fissures and shears. Sulphides
occur in very restricted parts of the zone.
The bluffs and underground workings were not mapped in detail. The principal
working level, No. 4, was entered in 1948 to the main ore zone but was in poor condition, and the inner parts were caved. The lowest level, No. 8, was caved short of the
lode. The uppermost workings were only partly accessible. Consequently the following description is very general.
The mine is developed by eight levels, of which Nos. 1, 2, 4, and 8 are adits, over
a vertical range of 440 feet. Ore was stoped from No. 6 to 40 feet above No. 1 level,
a vertical distance of 325 feet, but most of the stoping was done between Nos. 2 and 4
levels, a cross-sectional area of about 150 by 600 feet. Details of this stoping are
not know”.
No. 2 level, driven on parts of a large and complex lode, was partly accessible ii
1948. The workings seen were irregular, and it appeared obvious that the existing
outlines were the result of leasing operations in which almost all evidence of mineralization had been gouged out. Although the lode as a whole dips to the’ sooth in this part
of the property, fissures were encountered in the outer part of No. 2 level dipping to
the southeast at angles as low as 30 degrees. Some of these fissures and some small
fractures locally form diagonal breaks between two stronger planes of movement.
A little galena was seen at the two portals of No. 2 level.
On the bluffs near and above No. 2 portal a hangingwall branch of the lode
diverges to the west and passes up the bluffs, possibly even to pass into the bedding,
although the latter point was not established. The main zone may be traced to the
west near the base of the bluffs and ultimately almost to the Canadian lode. In this
interval some parts of the lode zone dip as low as 15 degrees and some dip at 50
degrees. The lode passes under talus a short distance east of No. 2 portal.
No. 4 adit reaches the lode 180 feet from the portal, crosses a branch of the lode
45 feet in the hangingwall, and continues to the south for 135 feet. The main part of
the lode has been followed by drifting for 680 feet to the east and 1,450 feet to the
west and southwest. The hangingwall branch has been followed for 390 feet. Three
fissures up to 100 feet in the footwall of the main part of the lode have not been
The drift on the main lode was accessible only for a short distance on either side
of the crosscut. The workings on the hangingwall branch were open to the west and
connected with a short open section of drift on the main branch of the lode. Stoping
was largely restricted to the main part of the lode and a little exploratory stoping had
been done on the hangingwall branch.
No. 8 adit was open as far as a cave, 600 feet from the portal, in massive argillaceous rocks dipping rather steeply to the east. Several southerly dipping faults were
seen at 400 to 450 feet from the portal. A raise was driven on the main part of the
lode up to No. 4 level, and No. 6 level was driven from the raise for a total length of
240 feet. Some stoping was done between Nos. 6 and 4 levels, but little evidence of
mineralization seems to have been encountered below No. 6 level.
The Adams lode must cross the No. 8 crosscut and may be responsible for the
caving 600 feet from the portal. If so it is possible that the southerly dipping faults
400 to 450 feet from the portal may represent footwall branches of the Adams lode zone.
The Ivanhoe lode swings to the southwest about 500 feet west of the mined area
on No. 4 level and, to judge from the spacing between Nos. 4 and 8 levels, dips 45
degrees to the southeast. The inner parts of these drifts are on Canadian ground.
Little is known of the ore zone beyond the general limits deduced from an old
mine plan and section. Study of the plan shows that the ore zone is related to a part
of the lode with a dip of about 60 degrees to the sooth instead of the more general dip
of 45 degrees. The steepening is accompanied by, and in fact was probably caused by,
a flexure in the lode from a strike approximately east to southeast and back to east.
The southeasterly striking part of the lode is nearly 200 feet long on No. 8 level, half
that length on No. 4 level, and is barely perceptible on No. 3. The subdued upper
part of the flexure is in the central part of the orebody, and ore was not found below
No. 6 level where the flexure is most pronounced.
The combined flexure and steepening of the lode passes above No. 4 level into an increased width of lode marked by
many subsidiary fractures and fissures, a situation apparently favourable to the OCCUIrem% of ore.
There is some slight evidence of normal movement on fissures on No. 4 level as
well as on fissures which are oresumablv in the footwall of the main Adams lode on
No. 8 level. There is a suggestion also’of a relative movement of hangingwall to the
east in subsidiary fracture patterns near No. 2 level, so that the movement on the
Ivanhoe and Adams lodes is indicated to be one of hangingwall down and east in conformity with other major lodes in the area. The amount of movement on the combined
zone is undoubtedly very great.
Other workings presumably on the Ivanhoe lode and probably on the combined
Adams-Ivanhoe lode are on the east side of the basin on the ridge between White and
Sandon Creeks. A shallow stripping on the ridge crest marks the presence of hrecciated
and sheared rock, and a series of sloughed open-cuts down the west slope shows the
zone to be a broad one. The dump of a caved adit indicates that several hundred feet
of drifting may have been done on thu zone. Carbonate is relatively abundant on the
dump, but only a trace of sphalerite was seen.
This lode on the Evening and Jennie claims is on Kelowna Exploration property on the ridge separating the two branches of TribuJennie
tary Creek at an elevation of about 6,000 feet. One adit is on
the bluffs on the western side of the ridge, and a second is on the eastern slope. Both
are caved. Cairnes (1935. p, 40) states that the lode “cuts black argillaceous and
quartzitic sediments of the Slocan series, strikes north 65 degrees east, .and dips 45
degrees or more southeast. The productive part was about 300 feet long and 7 to 12
inches thick.
In this the ore formed streaks of galena and oxidized products from
one-eighth inch to 1 inch wide occurring, principally, in a gangue of quartz and calcite.”
The only record of production shows that, in 1913 and 1914, 16 tons, containing
1,824 ounces of silver and 5,198 pounds of lead, was shipped.
As seen at the top of the bluffs the lode strikes north 65 degrees east and dips 50
degrees to the southeast. It appears to be a moderately strong zone of shattering and
some shearing in quartzites, 10 to 20 feet wide. Its projected continuation passes
through the saddle at the head of Tributary Creek west of Selkirk Peak.
The adit on the eastern slope may connect with that on the west. The dump
shows some calcite and lode breccia, a little sphalerite, and a very little galena.
The company name was changed in 1951 from Kelowna ExploraKelowna Exploration tion Company Limited to Kelowna Mines Hedley Limited.
Company Limited
all but a few of the many references to this company antedate the
change in name the earlier name is used throughout the text.
This company, operatin; the Nickel Plate mine at Hedley, is a subsidiary of South
Company office, 75 West Street, New
American Development Company Limited.
York, N.Y.
R. McLean Stewart, president; W. C. Douglass, general manager; Paul
Billing&y, consulting geologist; George Mill, manager; Evans B. Mayo, geologist.
In 1939 the company began a campaign of investigation in the general vicinity of
Sandon under the supervision of Paul Billing&y.
Ground acquired included the Payne
and Washington groups and various holdings south of Sandon. Mayo carried out
a geological investigation of the Payne ridge in 1940 and 1941, and in 1942 the company did some stripping by bulldozer in search of the southerly continuation of the
Washington lode. The time was not favourable for further investigation, and most of
the ground was relinquished.
In 1946 most of the present ground south of Sandon (Fig. 9) was acquired, and
the Ruth-Hope group was optioned.
Quarters were established in Sandon, the Ruth
No. 5 level was opened up, and crosscutting and diamond drilling were done. This
work was extended in 1947, but the option on the Ruth-Hope was dropped in 1948.
In 1947 an ambitious programme of geological mapping was started by Mayo and
carried on through 1948 and 1949, extending from Sandon, over Silver Ridge, to
Silverton Creek, past the Oakland property, which was optioned in 1948. The mapping
was later extended to cover the former Consolidated Queen Bess property.
This geological mapping, done on a scale of 100 feet to 1 inch, stands out as the most extensive
and detailed examination made by a private company in the Province.
,As a final result of the geological mapping a decision was made to explore the
Carnation lode at depth.
A tunnel site at an elevation of approximately 5,500 feet
was selected on Tributary Creek, and a crosscut adit to tap the lode was started in
August, 1949.
A subsidiary company, Bess Mines Limited, was formed jointly with Bralorne
Mines Limited to devehm the former Consolidated Owen Bess mooertv.
Work in
1949, 1950, and 1951 w& done on and near the surface at the Q&n &s&e.
All activity in the Sandon area was suspended in the summer of 195 1,
Head office, 475 Howe Street, Vancouver.
.I. L. Trumbull, presiKootenay Belle Gold dent; J. A. Clark, secretary; Vere McDowall, mine manager.
Miner Limited
This company owns a 60.per-cent interest in Retallack Mines
Limited, which owns the Whitewater mine and mill at Retallack.
The mill at Retallack treated ore from the Whitewater dumps from 1947 to 1950 and
custom ore from various sources from 1948 on. A sink-float plant was installed in 1950.
In 1950, Kootenay Belle began milling ore from various sources on a royalty basis,
and later acquired several properties in the Sandon area. These included the Altoona,
Elkhorn, Monitor, Payne, Richmond-Eureka,
and Ruth-Hope, which were acquired on
a cash-instalment or cash-option basis. The Altoona was mined in 1950 and 1951 and
the Monitor in 1951. A second sink-float plant was installed on the Richmond-Eureka
to treat dump ore, and Nos. 5 and 6 adits on that property were reclaimed.
exploratory work was done in the Ruth mine and the lower Elkhorn portal was reclaimed.
Ore and sink-float concentrates were hauled by truck to the mill at Retallack.
The Lone Batchelor claim is owned by Violamac Mines (B.C.)
Lone Batch&v
Limited and adjoins the Victor group. The No. 2 adit portal is
on the Victor road. The claim was owned in 1901 by G. A. Petty
and in later years was included in the Victor group.
It was worked under lease by
several individuals during seven years from 1905 to 191,4, in 1917, and in 1923. Total
production for the entire period was 1,068 tons, containing 25 ounces of gold, ~117,570
ounces of silver, 927,038 pounds of lead, and 21,427 pounds of zinc.
There are three adits, Nos. 1 to 3, in a vertical range of about 180 feet, and one
higher “A” adit. None of these was open at the time of examination.
The structural setting is the same as for the Victor lode 1,200 feet to the northwest.
“ The lode is a fissured zone as much as 5 or 6 feet wide composed of crushed fragments
of wall-rock, gouge, and, more locally, vein matter. The vein matter included paystreaks
that varied from an inch or less to 1 foot in width and followed the hanging-wall of the
lode. The ore was composed chiefly of galena, but, particularly in the lower levels, was
associated with varying amounts of zinc blade.
The gangue was chiefly calcite.”
(Caimes, 1935, p. 69.)
In 1951 No. 4 adit was started from a point below the Victor road, with the intention of crosscutting to the lode a distance of 700 to 800 feet to the northwest along the
The Mammoth mine is owned by Western Exploration Company
Limited and is worked jointly with the Standard.
It is reached
from the Standard camp by a steep one-way road. The ore is
delivered to the mill at Silverton by a 16,000-foot aerial tram.
The present Mammoth ground must have been located many years ago, but the
first mention of the group in 1922 (then known as the Monarch) implied a recent
discovery at the apex of the lode above the present ore zone. The Standard Silver-Lead
Mining Company did some work under option in 1923. Porcupine Goldfields Development & Finance Company Limited worked under option through R. A. Grimes in 1926,
in which year the first four adits were started. In 1927 Grimes interested Western
Exploration, who acquired the property and made immediate plans to bring it into production.
During 1929 mill and tram-line were completed, air was delivered to the
mine from the Standard power plant on Silverton Creek, and the orebody was opened
up between Nos. 7 and 4 levels. The new equipment was given a trial run in 1930, and
the property was then shut down pending better metal prices.
After a period in which lessees made small shipments, the mine was brought into
production in 1935 at a rate of about 100 tons a day and was operated, with one major
shut-down, through 1937. Following a period of inactivity when company attention was
directed to reopening the Standard and reclaiming tailings from Slocan Lake, the mine
again came into production in 1942.
By 1944 the orebody between Nos. 7 and 5 levels
was mined out, and a considerable amount of exploratory drilling was done, much of it
below No. 7. The same year a new adit, the Monarch, was started to investigate intersections obtained by surface drilling. All work ceased in 1945.
In September, 1948, No. 9 level was started. The work stopped during the winter,
but the crosscut to the lode was completed, and a raise in the footwall of the lode was
driven to No. 7 level in 1949. In 1950 the tram-line was repaired, and production
started late in the year from No. 8 level, which was driven from the raise.
The Mammoth is at about 4,650 to 5,700 feet elevation on a steep hillside subject
to snowslides, which have impeded winter work in the past. No. 9 adit is collared on
a bluff face between gullies in a situation so exposed to slides that winter work is impossible. No. 9 crosscut was driven to the lode and a raise was put through to No. 7 level in
the summer.
In the future, hoisting and servicing will be done from No. 7.
The orebody is developed by five adits, Nos. 1, 2, 4, 7, and 9. No. 3% and two
other short adits lie to the west of the main orebody, and an exploratory crosscut, the
Monarch adit, lies farther to the west (see Fig. 10).
Complete production figures are not available because the ore has been milled
jointly with that from the Standard and Enterprise. About 1,400 tons of ore was shipped
prior to the start of milling in 1935. The total amount milled from 1935 to 1945 was
109,068 tons, with an average grade of about 12 ounces of silver per ton, 4 per cent
lead, and 7 per cent zinc, according to company figures kindly supplied by Mr. Ham.
The main structural feature at the Mammoth mine is a compressed recumbent fold,
concave to the west (Section F-F’, Fig. 4). The axis of the fold, in the hangingwall of
the lode, is just below No. 4 level. The axis in the footwali of the lode is hidden from
view at a somewhat higher elevation, possibly 100 feet higher. The outline of the fold
is not that of a simple arc, and because there has been strike-slip as well as dip-slip on
the lode (the hangingwall moved down and east an undetermined distance) direct comparison across the lode of the two faulted segments of the fold is impossible.
Below the Mammoth workings a second compressed fold, concave to the east,
plunges to the south and southeast at about 20 degrees. This fold can be seen in plan
on the area1 map but is not shown in section. This complementary pair of compressed
folds appears to have an amplitude, measured parallel to the low-dipping axial planes,
of about 2,000 feet.
Regionally, these folds, beneath which there may be others, are plications within
the major Slocan fold. Their plunge to the southeast is in contrast with the slight northwest plunge in the vicinity of Idaho Peak and in the drainage area of Howson Creek, and
they are, consequently, on the southeast edge of the cross-warp that extends through much
of the major productive part of the Slocan camp.
Regionally, also, the Mammoth is at the edge of. the down buckle described on
page 33 and illustrated diagrammatically in Figures 5 and 6. The compressed recumbent
folding on Idaho Peak, with a northwesterly strike, swings through Mammoth ground
to a northerly strike. At the same time the axial plane dips at a low but increasing angle
to the east. Farther south the compressed folds continue to swing and steepen until
they strike northeastward and dip steeply to the northwest.
The Mammoth, consequently, is situated in a focal area of extreme deformation,
in which recumbent folds are warped round, down, and under into a spiral form.
It is
remarkable that elements of tightly folded strata which have been traced through this
structure showed comparatively little evidence of brecciation.
The down buckling is
considered to be the result not of a second period of folding but of a change in stress
application at the close of the general period of folding.
If this were not so it is hard
to conceive how, under conditions of a second period of folding, entire fold elements
could be compressed and spirally twisted and still maintain their identity.
The fact of this down buckling is firmly established, but details on a scale directly
affecting the course of mine development are very difficult to work out. The continuity
of fold elements, just referred to, is interrupted in detail by warps and crumples which,
being rudely parallel to different parts of the major structure, may be at considerable
angles to ‘one another.
In the mine workings there .are crumples with opposed attitudes
that would be merely confusing if they were not understood to be reflections of the larger
dual environment.
The presence of these opposed crumples has contributed in part to
the existence of an orebody.
The rocks cut by the Mammoth lode are for the most part of mixed, banded type.
Limestone of average flat dip, but locally much crumpled, occurs at the portal of No. 7
level, and about a loo-foot thicknes is represented in the outer part of that level. Dark
siliceous argillite, underlying the limestone, occws in the hantingwall of the lode on
No. 7 level, and No. Y level is driven entirely in that rock. On No. 7 level limestone
occurs in the footwall on the west edge of the orebody; otherwise the footwall rocks are
mostly argillites. The size and nature of the orebody do not vary materially with the
character of the rock.
The amount of displacement on the lode is not accurately known.
In the workings
it has not proved possible to match the footwall and hangingwall structure, but it is
certain from evidence of dragging within the lode that the hangingwall moved relatively
down and east, with changes in direct& during the course of movement.
Study of rock
distribution in the mine area indicates that the amount of movement was probably about
300 or 400 feet.
In view of the postulated amount of movement, no single structural element or
panel of bedding is large or continuous enough to be matched directly across the lode,
particularly because the larger elements are interrupted by opposed crumples.
The orebody on the whole is pipe-like in form and has a known vertical range of
about 1.000 feet. Above No. 5 level it divides into two tabular masses in a comparatively straight fissure. On No. 8 level there is a tabular continuation east of the main
There is no development on No. Y level as yet.
orebody that is not yet fully explored.
When the mine was first opened the orebody was considered to lie at the intersection of the Mammoth and Buffalo lodes. No. 1 level (now inaccessible) was driven on
what was believed to be the Buffalo lode, as was No. 4, and No. 7 level was driven
along the projected course of the Buffalo, although no actual fissure was encountered.
There is now no positive evidence of the Buffalo lode in any of the levels above No. 8.
On No. 8 level and on the first four stooe floors above. a strone fissure with the same
attitude as that of the Buffalo meets the Mammoth lode. This fissure, without doubt
the continuation of the Buffalo lode, terminates the hangingwall of the Mammoth lode
to the east and is itself terminated by the footwall.
The Mammoth lode, or rather the
principal part of it that is exposed, is about 40 feet wide horizontally west of the Buffalo
intersection and a few feet wide to the east of it.
The Buffalo is a lode fissure dipping southeastward with a horizontal component
of movement of east side north of about 30 feet. It is well exposed in the draw below
the Mammoth and has been followed for 200 feet in a drift, and it seems extraordinary
that it is not recygnized throughout the vertical length of the Mammoth orebody. The
only explanation IS that it passes locally into the bedding.
In the discussion of regional structure the belief has been advanced that some or
all of the lodes (considered as major crosscutting faults, p. 49) originated as bedded
structures in the steep northeasterly trending rocks and became crosscutting as they
broke out of and across the tight arc of down buckling.
The movement on the lodes
was in the same direction as the interbed slippage necessitated by the buckling.
concept is supported by the occurrence of dragfolds of secondary origin in the valley
of Silverton Creek, related to the down buckling and presenting evidence of considerable
interbed movement during the late stage of folding.
Expressed differently, the larger
crosscutting faults of the Sandon area were initiated as faults tangential to the steep
northeast panel of downbuckled rocks, and their relationships to their environment were
much the same as those of the tangential northwesterly faults elsewhere described.
The northeasterly striking Buffalo lode meets the easterly striking Mammoth lode
and merges with it, in part through a bedded zone. The two lode movements were. in
the same direction and were additive. Although they were contemporaneous,
influence of the Buffalo was to produce a swelling and slight jog in the Mammoth lode
on No. 7 level and above, that contributed to the formation of a site for ore deposition
in the master lode.
The detail of the ore zone on No. 7 level is shown in inset in Figure 10. The
lode broadens, and there is a jog or offset in it, in a direction favouring the formation
of a low-pressure area under the known conditions of fault movement.
The direction
of the jog is in accord with the Buffalo movement.
In the main part of the orebody there were abundant northeasterly slips and ore
masses between Nos. 7 and 6 levels, as mapped on floor plans by C. C. Starr. Figure
10 shows the distribution of slips and ore on stope floor No. 16 above No. 7 level.
The principal concentrations of ore are for the most part parallel to the average course
of the lode. Northeasterly trending concentrations are common, and a few trend
northward, across the lode; these last are not seen above the eighteenth stope floor
above No. 7 level.
The influence of the northeasterly direction of fissuring seems plain, the Buffalo
lode being a focal accentuation of the systematic interbed movement of the northeasterlv strikine rocks. The Mammoth lode. at some ooint to the west. had left the beddine
and broken across the structure as a dominant crosscutting fissure. The northeast
Rexure or jog in the lode that has localized the orebody is undoubtedly related to
bedding structure, even if more directly to a northeasterly direction of fissuring. It is
believed that the flexure was initiated in a panel with northeast strike and persisted
beyond the actual limits of that panel.
The foregoing is a lengthy treatment of matters in which interpretation overshadows obvious fact, but the localization of an orebody of major importance is worth
more than passing attention.
If it is the aim to recognize combinations of circumstance which have favoured the deposition of ore, one must, in the Slocan, delve into
structural relationships beyond the limits of mine workings.
The Mammoth lode is not seen on the surface east of No. 2 level, but it plainly
follows a steep timbered area east of a prominent gully to the Carnation workings.
The existence of the lode in this area is proved by an offsetting of the formation (Fig. 2).
The Wakefield lode joins the Mammoth just below the Carnation 6500 level, although
the actual intersection cannot be seen.
To the west the lode has been explored by short adits and by diamond driiling as
far as the Monarch adit. It splits at some point east of the Monarch adit and crosses
the next ridge to the west, and Emily Creek, in two members, the southernmost of
which passes through the Robin claim to the vicinity of the Alpha workings of the
Standard mine. The Mammoth is a branch of the Standard lode.
The ore consists of masses and disseminations of sphalerite and galena in a gangue
of rock, calcite, and siderite. Quartz is present locally. The ore minerals are in many
instances concentrated in pods and tabular masses which may be parallel to the walls
of the lode, dip flatter than the lode, or lie along northeasterly trending slips, and may
be of random attitude and distribution within the ore zone. It is the observation of
R. A. Avison, mine superintendent, that an individual mass of ore commonly shows
a segregation of galena in its central and upper part. The uppermost surface of the galena
mass may be rimmed by a concentration of sphalerite, but this is seldom as thick as the
marginal concentration at bottom and sides. There is thus a rude zoning of galena and
sphalerite within individual minor oreshoots of the orebody, but zoning of the orebody
as a whole is not indicated.
A full description of ore occurrence is at present impossible because the mine is
worked out above No. 7 level, and at the last time of examination, in 1951, No. 8 level
did not fully outline the ore zone. The square-set stope floor plans of C. C. Starr
provided all detail in the stopes and showed variations in the limits and distribution of
ore from floor to floor. The stopes above No. 4 level were not entered.
Figure 10
shows the limits of stoping.
The tabular or vein-like part of thcorebody
above No. 5 level persisted to the
apex of the lode, but the heavily oxidized uppermost part was not mined.
The main
stope above No. 7 level had a maximum horizontal areas of about 3,500 square feet,
with a maximum length of about 180 feet and a maximum horizontal width of 75 feet.
The horizontal area on No. 8 level of about 2,000 square feet is comparable to that
above, and a downward constriction is not indicated.
On No. 8 level, in addition to
the main pipe-like orebody, ore extends eastward on the footwall Mammoth fissure for
an undetermined distance, at least SO feet east of the Buffalo intersection.
On No. 7 level the explored part of the lode, apart from the orebody, is not mineralized, and diamond drilling of both footwall and hangingwall did not encounter
In the crosscut leading to the hoist station on No. 7 a subparallel
fissure, in limestone, was encountered about 55 feet in the footwall of the lode. This
fissure, seen also in the rope-raise above, dips at 65 to 70 degrees and is sparsely
It is a downward diverging split in the lode and warrants investigation at
lower levels.
Near-surface adits to the west contain some irregular mineralization.
An interesting intersection was obtained in a surface diamond-drill hole and led to driving the
Monarch adit in 1944. The lode, or rather the branch that was mineralized in the
drill-hole, is encountered at 490 feet from the portal, and the main hangingwall branch
at 3.55 feet. The footwall branch follows a bedded northwesterly course in the adit,
and short holes drilled horizontally from the adit substantiate this attitude for a length
of 150 feet. Only a small amount of mineralization was encountered in this branch,
and the hangingwall branch was onmineralized where cut by the crosscut.
All that is known of the lower limit of the Mammoth orebody is that mineralization
was intersected at the approximate horizon of No. 9 level by diamond drilling from the
surface. At the time of writing there has been no development of the lode on No. 9
level. The occurrence of ore east of the main orebody on No. 8 and the knowledge
that a mineralized fissure exists farther in the footwall indicate that extensive development is warranted on No. 9 level.
The Mascot showing is on the Boss claim, part of the holdings of
Kelowna Exploration Company Limited.
The workings are on
the east branch of Tributary Creek at an elevation of 5,050 feet.
Two short adits close to the trail and one adit a short distance below the trail explore
a southerly dipping lode. The lode is undoubtedly part of the same lode that extends
from the Carnation to the Hope workings.
It is exposed 400 feet to the east in an old
sloughed working and 800 feet to the west on the edge of the creek.
A shipment of 1 ton in 1913 contained 52 ounces of silver and 612 pounds of lead.
Thii was presumably from the two short adits, the lower adit having been driven under
a lease from 1923 to 1925.
The two upper adits at the side of the trail and 60 feet apart are driven into a shattered zone dipping 30 to 40 degrees to the south, in quart&e.
They are 35 and 60 feet
long. The lower adit encounters the lode about 140 feet from the portal and follows it
50 feet to the east and 260 feet to the west beneath the upper adits. The lode dips 65
degrees to the south at the eastern face and 30 degrees at the western. It is a zone more
of shattering than of shearing, and no mineral was seen in it. The lode is sinuous, and
a branch at the face of the main crosscut was not intersected by a crosscut driven 60 feet
into the hangingwall from the west drift.
The apparent weakness of the lode and the lack of gouge are in contrast with its
known size and strength elsewhere. Possibly this is a footwall branch or element of the
Hope-Carnation lode.
Some of the rock referred to as quart&e may be a product of silicification. West of
the adits, on the trail, there is an extensive exposure of siliceous rock which could
in part represent intense silicification.
The Minnesota Fraction in Wild Goose basin, at the head of
Howson Creek, is owned by R. A. Grimes, of Nelson. It was
once owned by Al. Holmquist.
Silver-bearing galena float was
fdund near the base of the steep hillside on the east side of the basin, and three short
adits were driven just above the present road in search of the source of the float. This
work was unsuccessful and the adits are caved. A fourth adit, about 40 feet lower, was
driven under light cover in the bottom of the basin. This was driven southward 185 feet,
and at the face a raise was put up an unknown distance. The rocks traversed are flatlying limy sediments and no mineralization is seen. Some stripping was recently done
by Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited along the side of the road in an unsuccessful
attempt to locate a lode.
The Minniehaha claim, owned by Kelowna Exploration Company
Limited, is on the ridge between the two branches of Tributary
Creek. The workings are on the western slope at an elevation
of about 4,900 feet. The claim is an old one but was not seriously developed until
1924 when G. W. CIark did a large amount of trenching along the course of the
lode and started the main adit. In 1926 it was developed by the Victoria Syndicate in
conjunction with the Carnation and other claims in a large group. The work continued
through 1927 when 99 tons of ore was shipped. No work was done after 1927. The
main adit and most surface workings are now caved or sloughed. One adit on a subsidiary lode fissure is accessible.
The Annual Report of the Minister of Mines for 1924, page 196, stated that the
lode had been traced on the surface for a length of 1,000 feet and that “ a strong outcrop
of galena along a length of 40 or 50 feet ” had been disclosed. Cairnes (1935, p. 85)
reported that: “ Surface trenching exposed an attractive showing at a point about 70 feet
above the portal of the present main working-adit.
This showing is part of a shear or
crushed zone from 15 to 20 feet wide striking north 35 degrees east and dipping 60 degrees
southeast. It carried considerable quartz and calcite and, “ear the footwall, from 2 to 8
feet of oxidized matter containing bunches and disseminations of galena. The main
working-adit, driven as a crosscut, intersected this lode at a distance of 125 feet from the
portal. At this point the lode carried about 2 feet of calcite with some siderite and a little.
galena. Subsequent work consisted of attempts to follow this lode, which proved most
elusive as a result of both pre-mineral and post-mineral tiovements.”
Structurally, the lode crosses quartz& and strong argillite in the zone of repeated
folding immediately beneath the main overturned panel. The lode zone has produced
a marked offset of the strata, and correlation across it is not certain, particularly because
there is more than one plane of movement in a” area of complex folding.
to a degree that is hard to assess makes recognition of original rock types difficult.
The surface workings show one dominant mineralized zone and two subsidiary
fissures, all part of the same lode which is explored at a depth of about 70 feet by the
main adit. A second adit, 330 feet to the northeast, follows a subparallel fissure in the
footwall of the main zone.
The main adit, now caved, has a” aggregate length of about 800 feet and is very
Company data indicate that Cairn& remarks on the elusiveness of the lode
were well founded.
More complexity was encountered underground than is apparent on
the surface, and one interpretation is that elements of the lode zone locally follow fault
fissures and bedding.
The northeastern adit is driven 112 feet along a lode striking north 60 degrees east
The lode in the face
and dipping at about 30 degrees to the southeast, in quart&es.
contains 20 inches of siderite, and in the outer part of the adit is about 3 feet wide, containing strands of quartz and carbonate and a little sphalerite.
The Minniehaha lode is a broad and rather complex zune of faulting, including
several subparallel elements. The displacement along it, in the vicinity of the workings
and about 1,000 feet to the west, shows the fault to be a large one in the Sandon scale
of values. It passes through the Carnation .5480 levels and approaches the Carnation
lode in the vicinity of the 6300 level. To the east it passes through the Dorothy claim,
possibly as mc~re than one zone of fissuring.
The Monitor group of seventeen claims is owned by Sloca” Monitor
Mines Limited, 640 Pender Street West, Vancouver. The property
is southeast of Three Forks and includes the old Monitor group
and the Min and Cork group. The first shipment of ore from the Monitor was made
In 1900 a” English company, Monitor and Ajax Fraction, Limited, acquired
the property and shipped about 2,500 tons prior to building a mill at Rosebery. The
mill, completed at the end of 1905, was intended partly as a custom plant and was
designed to recover zinc concentrates, but the only record of production was 325 tons
of zinc concentrates, containing 30 per cent zinc, in 1909. The mine plant was burnt
by a forest fire in 1910.
In 1917 the mill was taken over by Surprise Mining Company, and in 1922 the
mine was acquired by Rosebery Surprise Mining Company. The mine was leased from
1922 to 1929 by George Gonnley, who shipped 1,331 tons. Slocan Monitor Silver
Mines Limited was formed in 1934 and was reorganized in 1939 as Slocac Monitor
Mines Limited.
Small shipments were made from 1936 to 1941. During this last
period of activity work was concentrated on the Mi” and Cork section of the property.
Total production of shipping ore from 1896 to 1941 was 4,307 tons, containing
982 ounces of gold, 373,894 ounces of silver, 2,726,857 pounds of lead, and 375,351
pounds of zinc. The 325 tons of zinc concentrates already referred to contained
227,500 pounds of zinc.
The ore from the Monitor lode contains more gold on the average than ore from
any other lode in the area. The best yearly shipment was 446 tons, in 1901, and contained 0.41 ounce of gold per ton. The gold is associated with pyrite in a siliceous
gangue; a sample taken by the writer of almost massive pyrite from one of the dumps
assayed 1.03 ounces of gold per ton.
The rocks underlying the property are argillites with some quart&e as local beds
or as bands 10 to 30 feet or more thick. The dip is predominantly to the southwest at
moderate to steep angles. Slaty cleavage is fairly well developed in most of the argillites.
There are a few sills, mostly but not all of quartz diorite type.
The major structure is not known, because exposures are too few to illustrate more
than the fact of the general southwesterly dip. Local crumples and anomalies are small
and perhaps not persistent.
Monitor lode is a steep northeasterly fissure of small displacement,
offsetting steeply dipping sills a maximum of 6 feet. It is locally a sheeted zone and
is related in origin to the prevailing joint system. Only a small part of the stoped ground
is accessible, and it is not known what conditions favoured ore deposition.
The lode is
offset by bedded or near-bedded faults for distances up to 60 feet to the right.
in the amount of offset from level to level, on at least one fault, indicates a complex or
variable fault movement that may be the result of interbed take-up during the latest stages
of the period of folding.
The Monitor lode is developed by five adit levels through a vertical range of 468
feet. The greatest length on the lode is 1,300 feet on No. 5 level. Only No. 3 level,
part of No. 4, and the crosscut on No. 5 were accessible in 1948. The best stoping area
was above No. 2 level, consisting of a nearly continuous block 400 feet long by 100 to
120 feet high, stoped to surface. A second block 200 feet long at the portal of No. 3
level and a third 130 feet long at the inner end of No. 3 were stoped to No. 2 level.
A fourth block 290 feet long in the inner part of No. 4 level was stoped to a sublevel
and in part to No. 3. A little stoping was done at the portal of No. 4 and a little on
No. 5 on both sides of a fault where the lode was first encountered.
There is no apparent
pattern or rake to the ore.
The mine is worked out above No. 4 level. The ore is terminated on Nos. 2 and 3
Exploralevels by a southwest-dipping fault beyond which the lode has not been found.
tion beyond the fault was done on No. 2 level only, crosscuts 140 feet to the left and
100 feet to the right failing to find the lode. The lack of ore on the main part of No. 5
level may mean that the ore does not extend downward from the mineral zone, or it may
mean that the ore-bearing fissure has not been followed; the interval of 212 feet between
Nos. 4 and 5 levels is a long one for as irregular and weak a fissure as the Monitor lode.
No. 5 level stops about 150 feet short of the projected downward position of the bounding
The occurrence of ore does not appear to be.
The ore control is not understood.
related to the bedding except in a general way. The character of the lode is not greatly
influenced by the character of rock traversed, although there is a distinct tendency for
the width to decrease and more gouge to form where the lode crosses a sill. There is
a suggestion, although faint, that ore follows the faults, and it may be that fault movement
tended to open the lode fissure. If, as is presumed, the lode and fault fissures formed
at much the same time, during the close of the period of folding, an interrelationship
between rode and faults is to be expected, and it is even possible that the fissure known
as the Monitor lode is a discontinuous break or series of breaks across interfault blocks,
with continuity more apparent than real.
Kootenay Belle Gold Mines Limited mined 5,488 tons of dump rock in 1950, and
In 1951 mining commenced on
late in the year obtained an option on the property.
No. 5 level.
Min and Co&-The
Min and Cork workings are 1,900 and 2,400 feet southeast
of the Monitor lode at elevations of 3,800 and 3,600 feet respectively. They are short
exploratory drives which were started about 1937.
The Min adit is driven south for 140 feet and then for 70 feet to the southeast along
a sheared argillite-porphyry contact. There is no evidence of mineralization.
There are two Cork adits, one 75 feet higher than the other. The upper adit,
elevation about 3,640 feet, is 285 feet long. It is driven to the southwest along discontinuous fissuring of lode direction, interrupted by several bedded faults in slaty argillite.
The fissure zone is strongly oxidized and contains up to 6 inches of gouge, some carbonate,
and a small amount of ore minerals. A sublevel 60 feet long is 35 feet below No. 1
adit, and some stoping was done from it. No. 2 adit was caved in 1948. It was driven
a total of 240 feet to the southwest, and in an inner stretch 50 feet long apparently followed the same mineralized fissure encountered above. The fissure dips 45 degrees to
the southeast.
The New Springfield claim, owned by E. H. Petersen, of Sandon,
New Snrinafield
and H. Ekeblad. is on Miller Creek on the main road leadine
from Sandon to Wild Goose basin. Development on this propert;
began prior to 1900, and although a considerable amount of work was done at several
points few of the workings are now accessible.
The structure of this area is not well understood because there are few exposures,
except in the upper basin of the creek. Conflicting attitudes in argillites and quart&es
are seen in the creek bed close to the workings, but remarkable continuity on strike is
demonstrated by a branch of the Lookout crosscut that approaches Miller Creek from
the south (seep. 125). The general structure is shown in Section G-G’, Figure 4.
The longest adit is on the road close to the creek, and a smaller adit is 27 feet
higher. Small adits upstream and downstream are caved, and it is not certain what they
followed. Local folds are present, and it is probable that mineralizing solutions entered
some fractures which were associated with sharp folds and were not necessarily parts
of the general lode system.
The main adit at road level crosses a lode 55 feet from the portal. Drifts follow
the lode 50 feet to the southeast and 255 feet to the west to caves. Heavy lagging
makes study of the lode diflicult.
It is sinuous, appears to be a moderately strong
break, and contains as much as 2 feet of quartz and siderite and local sphalerit&
The dip is 35 degrees to the south at several observed points. In the west drift the
lode crosses argillite and quart&
with low easterly dips, lower than at the surface
or in the crosscut part of the adit, and is cut by a strong fault dipping 40 degrees to the
southwest at the point of caving. There are. several short raises in the west drift.
The adit 27 feet above is 50 feet long, and its face is vertically above the lower
drift 30 feet west of the crosscut. The inner half of this adit exposes quartz, carbonate,
sphalerite, and galena in irregular widths as great as several feet. From this some
zinc ore of excellent grade has been cobbed.
The relationship between the mineral in the two adits is not clear. The indicated
dip in the lower adit would bring the lode into the outer part of the upper, or even
outside the portal, and whereas the lode below is gougy the ore in the upper adit seems
not to occur in so well defined a lode. In any event, the amount of work done on the
ore in the upper adit is small.
Production from 1897 to 1937 amounted to 85 tons, containing 8,565 ounces of
silver, 97,084 pounds of lead, and 4,843 pounds of zinc. Production in 1944 was
97 tons, containing 776 ounces of silver, 5,415 pounds of lead, and 39,822 pounds of
zinc. The 1944 production, of a shipping grade of almost 23 per cent zinc, came
from the upper adit.
Exploratory surface
work on the Oregon, Cuba, and adjoining
Oregon, Jan, Belle claims was started in 1937 by Silver Ridee Mining Company
Limited. This was the first extensive stripping done by bulldozer
in alpine topography in the Slocan. The ground is west of the upper stretch of Miller
Creek at elevations between 5,100 feet and 5,900 feet, on slopes locally in excess of
35 degrees.
Many hundreds of feet of trenches were dug in an attempt to locate possible lodes
in addition to the Sunshine and Yakima lodes alreadv known. The work resulted in
the Ending of mineralization on which were later driventhe Jan and Belle adits, although
no major lode was discovered. Late in 1938 the Oregon adit crosscut was started with
the object of intersecting the Jan and Belle mineralization, and possibly the downward
continuation of the Yakima and Sunshine lodes.
The area is structurally at the lower edge of the main overturned panel. Section
G-G’ illustrates the general structure, the details of which are complex. Two bands of
quart&e are involved, between and stratigraphically below which are thin-bedded argillites and some quart&es, including thin, silty beds which weather a buff colour and
are limy. The thin-bedded rocks are caught up in local crumples and sharp plications,
and there are open folds in the overturned panel itself.
Mapping of this area has not been altogether satisfactory, partly because of the
complexity of detail and partly because the ground drops rapidly into Miller Creek,
exposing lower structures in a short lateral distance. Continuity has not been proved
to the west along the flank of the ridge between Howson Creek and Carpenter Creek
drainage, a stretch very poor in rock exposures. Continuity of the rock units is affected
by the possible course of the Alamo lode, which may pass not far west of the Oregon
The bulldozer stripping uncovered two showings known as the Jan and the Belle
and, farther south, a little erratic mineralization apparently more related to a sharply
crumpled zone than to any well-defined fissure.
On the original Jan discovery a shaft was sunk 50 feet to a point where the lode
was cut off by a flat fault. An adit was driven at an elevation IO feet below the bottom
of the shaft and picked up the lode below the fault at a point 125 feet from the portal.
The lode was followed for a total length of 135 feet in an average direction of north
55 degrees west. The dip is from 50 to 70 degrees southwest. This lode is a narrow
oxidized fracture crossing beds that dip about 20 degrees to the northeast; in the portal
section dips are low to the southwest. The lode ranges from a crack to a reported 20
inches in a short underhand stope a few feet deep. For the most part it is 2 to 6 inches
wide and contains some scattered galena. The fault referred to is a bedded-clay slip,
and the lode terminates on the northwest end against a similar slip. It was noted at
one point that bedded clay is terminated by the lode.
The Belle adit, about 100 feet lower t.han the Jan and 200 feet to the northeast, is
nearly 400 feet long in a general west-northwest direction, driven in flatly dipping
warped beds. The adit discloses several oxidized fractures locally containing galena.
The fractures strike nearly east and dip from 50 to 70 degrees to the south. According
to one interpretation they are parts of a single lode interrupted by flat bedded faults,
but the writer considers them to be mineralized fractures terminated by bedded-clay
seams which may not represent appreciable movement.
In more than one place a mineralized fracture. terminates on a bedding plane, and
the mineralization turns into and follows the bedding for as much as 3 to 4 feet. In
one place mineralization follows steep fractures and flat bedding in a series of steps,
with no evidence either of bedding slip or continuity of fracture. Where a fracture
terminates beneath bedded clay and a similar fracture is found at a shott distance
above the same clay seam it may be possible that faulting of a single fracture has occurred,
but the foregoing relation to bedding proves generally the existence of a system of
discontinuous joints, some of which may terminate against and others transect thin
plastic (clayey) beds.
The occurrence at and near the adits of a system of southward-dipping
several of which contain traces of mineral matter, leads to the conclusion that the
Jan and Belle mineralization is directly related to the joint system.
The Oregon adit is an exploratory crosscut driven 2,150 feet in a general direction
of south 22 degrees west. The total amount of work in it is about 2,750 feet. Heavy
ground 925 feet from the portal necessitated an offset in the drive 20 feet to the east.
At 1,650 feet the crosscut was offset 100 feet to the west to avoid a very wet section.
The adit was started late in 1938. Work was suspended for most of the war years
and resumed in 194.5. Excessively wet ground forced abandonment in the spring of
1946. Flow of water was from fractured thin-bedded and flat-lying siliceous rocks,
containing irregular fractured dykes. After work stopped the working quickly became
inaccessible, owing to bad air that did not permit entry for more than a few hundred
feet. The air is deficient in oxygen, a condition fairly common in the Sloan, particularly
in wet workings.
The Oregon adit was mapped at the time of closing before the general structural
pattern of the district was understood, and there has been no opportunity to re-enter the
workings. Much timbered ground was encountered, so that a more than ordinary amount
of interpretation was needed to analyse the structure in the crosscut. The broad interpretation is figured in Section G-G’, Figure 4, involving sharp reversals in a zone of rccumbent folding. The amount of movement on the faults is not known. Only two faults,
apparently the largest of tiany, are shown in the section, one 925 and the other 1,760
feet from the portal.
Mineralization was encountered in three places, apart from two or three apparently
random occurrences of barren quartz. The first, 220 feet from the portal, was entirely
mined from a drift 80 feet long at south 80 degrees west. Recovery of a few tons of lead
ore from this drift has been reported, but no evidence of ore remains. Possibly masses
of galena occurred in the shattered rock with no definite lode structure. A joint system
in quartzites farther in the adit, striking about north 40 degrees east and dipping 50 to 75
degrees southeast, is not mineralized. The second mineralization, at 900 feet, is a narrow
lode zone containing quartz, siderite, and sphalerite. The lode was followed westward
in a drift, the inner part of which was caved. It is in shattered ground near the first major
southwest-dipping fault.
The third mineralization, 1,650 feet from the portal, is a gougy fissure zone
containing a little quartz, striking north 70 degrees east and dipping 55 degrees to the
southeast. It was followed 110 feet westward to where it was intersected by the second
major southwesterly dipping fault. The hangingwall side of the fault was followed for
280 feet to the northwest, and a diamond-drill hole was driven ahead for an unknown
distance without results. Heavy lagging in the vicinity of both fault and fissure obscured
much detail, and it was not certain that the assumption of a right-hand offset was correct.
The “ lode ” fissure is apparently a strong one, with an attitude common to that of many
known lodes.
The Pahnita claim is owned by G. W. Robinson, 9933 Thirteenth
Street, Edmonton.
It is at the head of Shea Creek at an elevation
of about 5,000 feet. The earliest development on the Palmita was
on the eastward extension of the Queen Bess lode, and several short adits were driven
on the general lode zone. Later development, starting about 1928, was initiated by
E. .I. Vandergrift from the upper Black Colt adit, and mining was later carried out by
Clarence Cunningham when the Palmita claim was part of the Consolidated Queen Bess
In 1949 a discovery was made on the main road crossing the claim, and an option
was taken by Kelowna Exploration, but the option was dropped.
Total recorded production in the six years from 1934 to 1939 was 582 tons, containing 6 ounces of gold, 38,457 ounces of silver, 597,835 pounds of lead, and 37,318
pounds of zinc.
Four short adits on the steep hillside between the two branches of the main road
were driven many years ago. One adit was cleaned out by Kelowna Exploration and the
others remained caved. These adits and several open-cuts on the upper branch of the
road arc all in broken and crumpled argillite and quartzhe. No definite lode or shear
zone is to be seen, and it seems probable that the Queen Bess lode passes through here
in more than one plane of movement. There is some zinc mineralization in the open-cuts.
Workings on the Palmita claim, driven from the Black Colt No. 1 adit, were in poor
condition and only partly accessible in 1949. A raise almost on the boundary lme
reaches a level 34 feet above Black Colt No. I level. A crosscut 105 feet long leads to
a northeasterly drift section 240 feet long. A second raise reaches a level 4.5 feet higher
on the same zone and a level 30 feet still higher 50 feet long. The ore, mined locally
to widths of 10 feet, has all been taken out to fault boundaries.
The Pahnita orebody is supposedly an extension of one of the Black Colt orebodies,
above a rather flat fault. Detailed mapping was not attempted, and a brief examination
of the accessible parts of the workings showed only that ore occurred in badly broken
ground and that exploration would be’ difficult.
In 1949 a discovery was made on the main road 45 feet from the eastern boundary
of the claim. This was stripped to show an g-foot length of galena 4 to 10 inches wide,
striking north 75 degrees east and dipping vertical. This block of ore was topped by
a flat bedded slip above which, 7 feet to the north, an erratically mineralized block 12
inches wide by 4 feet high showed in the bank. The showing represented joint filling
with no detinite correlation with ore known elsewhere. It was mined under a lease
in 19.51.
The Payne group is owned by R. A. Grimes, of Nelson. The lode
crosses the ridge extending northwestward from Payne Mountain,
and the workings are on both sides of the ridge through a vertical
range of 1,450 feet. A road from Sandon passes the portal of No. 15, the lowest level,
and extends to an old camp at No. 5 level on the southwest side of the ridge. No. 8 level,
on the northeast slope, is reached by a trail that extends from this road to the Rambler
road on McGuigan Creek.
The Payne lode was located on September 9, 1891, and was the first discovery in
the Sandon area. The property was acquired in 1896 by A. W. McCune, who took out
a large amount of high-grade ore, and sold the property to Payne Consolidated Mining
Company, of Montreal, in 1900. The latter, in 1902, erected a mill on the Kaslo &
Sloan Railway. The mill, which had a capacity of 200 tons per day, was connected with
the mine by surface tramway. The mill operated through 1903 until late in 1904, chiefly
on stope filhng and dump material, when it closed down. The mill operated again in
1905 and 1906, when it was apparently operated by the company for the benefit of
lessees. Since 1906 a total of some 200 tons has been shipped by lessees.
The original development was by five adits, the upper three of which passed through
the ridge. A wince was sunk from No. 5 to No. 8 level, and No. 8 adit level was driven
from the surface to tap the bottom of the winze. Almost all shipping ore had been
extracted by the McCune operation, during the course of which the stopes were back
filled with sorted waste, including sphalerite, which was not shipped. The company
found only a moderate amount of lower-grade ore below No. 5 level.
The property was sold at auction in 1907 to Payne Mines Limited.
In 1911 the
property was under lease and bond to W. E. Zwicky ef al. No. 15 adit was apparently
driven by Spokane interests. After No. 15 level was completed, a 750-foot raise was
driven to connect with No. 8, and Nos. 9 and 10 levels were driven, all by the end of
1916, but the only record of production from this work is 53 tons in 1916. Between
that year and 1939 about 80 tons was shipped by various lessees. The property was
bought by R. A. Grimes in 1948.
The Payne has produced a total of 4,989,156 ounces of silver, 50,244,955 pounds
of lead, and 2,258,322 pounds of zinc. During the period from 1897 to 1900 inclusive,
when ore was sorted underground, 45,085 tons was shipped, containing 4,269,993 ounces
of silver and 43,104,179 pounds of lead. During the period of milling, from 1902 to
1906 inclusive, a total of about 6,640 tons of concentrates was produced, containing
348,131 ounces of silver, 3,555,689 pounds of lead, and 2,257,524 pounds of zinc. The
tonnage milled during thii period is not known, but assuming an average ratio of reduction of 17 to 1, such as was obtained in 1904, about 113,000 tons was milled, a large
part of which was apparently ,stope filling and dump material. The total ore shipped
and milled was not more than 160,000 tons. The total value of production has been
estimated at approximately $5,000,000.
Dividends of $1,438,000 were paid, largely
from profits made from shipping ore.
It should be stated that, from the meagre information available, it is impossible to
hazard a guess as to the probable zinc content of any of the ore as it was mined.
The writer has not examined the mine but has merely walked through the few
accessible parts, namely Nos. 8, 6, 7, and 15 levels and the outermost part of No. 5.
The following notes embody a condensation from Cairnes’ description and data from
various other sources. Statements regarding ore control are the writer’s,
The mine is developed by seven adits and four intermediate levels (Nos. 6, 7, 9,
and 10) to a depth below the outcrop of 1,450 feet. No. 5 was the main haulage level
to the head of the tram in early years; waste was trammed out through No. 8 level on the
McGuigan Creek slope, and ore above No. 8 was hoisted to No. 5. No. 15 level, 600
feet below No. 8, is connected to No. 8 by raise.
The main oreshoot, averaging about 1,000 feet long and attaining a maximum
length of 1,250 feet, was mined from a little below No. 5 level to the surface. Only
low-grade and sporadic ore was found below this oreshoot, although some stoping was
done as far down as No. 10 level. The position of the main lode on No. 15 is not known,
but it is quite possible no single fissure continues throughout the range of mine workiigs.
No. 15 level was driven in the general direction of the course of the lode and has
a total length of more than 4,000 feet. The raise to No. 8 is 3,500 feet from the portal.
Mineralization near the inner end of the level and on Nos. 9 and 10 levels was diiappoint* ing, and little exploration was done. The lode was traced on the surface from the ridge
crest to No. 4 level but not below.
The lode crosses a variety of rocks, including argillites and limy and qnar@tic types.
The rocks are all somewhat slaty, but slate is best developed below No. 4 level on the
Carpenter Creek slope and about ,at the level of No. 8 portal on the McGuigan Creek
slope. The structure of the upper part of the mine is a recumbent fold, first recognized
by Mayo, which has an almost horizontal axial plane and probably plunges a few degrees
to the southeast. The oreshoot lies in the zone of maximum curvature, in relatively
favourable rocks.
Southwesterly dipping rocks at the ridge crest are seen to roll down and under in the
tops of those stopes which reached surface. They dip steeply at No. 3 level and flatten
to moderate northeast&
dies at No. 5 level. As the rocks in No. 15 level again die
to the southwest, another fild is indicated, but the position of the axis has &t beeb
determined. The amplitude of the folding as measured from the upper apex, which is
open to the northeast, to the lower apex, which is open to the southwest, is possibly about
1,000 feet. Another fold, open to the northeast, is believed to lie an unknown distance
below No. 15 level.
The Payne lode passes through the folded rocks in an irregular
manner. At the
surface, as seen in tops of stopes and in surface openings down to No. 4 level, the
ore-bearing structure has the appearance of being a joint or series of closely spaced
joints, part of the crosscutting system which is well developed on Payne ridge. Cairnes
mentions a converging of stringers with depth below No. 3 level. At the portal of No. 4
level what appears to be the lode is no more than a crack in the slates, and it has not been
traced to No. 5 level although bedrock is exposed continuously in that area. A bedded
fault is reported to cut off the lode, but it could as well be said that the lode ends in the
slates. The lode was reportedly picked up on No. 5 level by driving for its downward
continuation some distance from the portal, a point that is now inaccessible. On No. 8
level and up to No. 6 the lode has a very different appearance, being a shear zone as
much as 6 to 8 feet wide, including considerable gouge in places. Faults are reported
to have bounded the oreshoot on the northeast, but mine plans indicate that the amount
of offset of the lode is variable.
The lode on the surface near No. 4 level and the lode on Nos. 6 and 7 levels are so
different in appearance that it may be doubted that they are parts of the same fissur&.
However, the indicated continuity of mine workings is such that it is probable that the
fissuring was continuous but was variable in intensity. In other words, the movement
on the lode fissure varied in amount from place to place and, in spite of the fact that the
fissure crossed the structure at a large angle, there was absorption of movement on
bedding planes and on tangential faults.
The lode dips steeply to the southeast and is reported to have carried a paystreak
of an inch to 8 feet of galena, averaging perhaps 4 to 6 inches, Bands of siderite and
As far as can be judged from
sphalerite made up the remainder of the lode-filling,
surface evidence, the walls of the orebody were gouge free. Below No. 5 level the lode
was more irregular, siderite increased, the walls were sheared, and gouge was locally
abundant. A dyke closely follows the lode on Nos. 6 and 7 levels.
The oreshoot is considered to have occurred in response to a conjunction of the
following factors: (1) The occurrence of gouge-free fractures in the zone of maximum
curvature in a pronounced fold, a condition which favoured maintenance of openings,
and (2) the existence of relatively competent rocks, including bands of quart&es.
It has
been reported by an eye-witness of many years ago that the oreshoot was in reality made
up of eighteen shoots localized in or close to quartzite bands, a condition that strongly
suggests deflections of a fissure of small displacement in crossing rocks of different
competency (see p. 57 in connection with the Rambler mine). The topmost part of the
oreshoot has been removed by erosion. The lower termination of ore may, in part, be
governed by the northeasterly dip of the enclosing rocks, but it is certainly due in part
to the existence of slates beneath the more competent rocks of the ore zone. A change
in character of the lode to a fissure of greater movement, occupied by a variable amount
of gouge, also served to reduce the occurrence of ore.
About 100 feet east of No. 2 portal an adit, known as the Wilson, is about 400 feet
long. It was driven on a mineralized fracture parallel to the Payne lode. Other,
unmineralized fractures occur in the general vicinity.
They are members of the
prominent set of joints with which the Payne lode is parallel.
,In 1948 and I949 Maurice AnsaIdo and partners, under lease, cleaned out the portal
of No. 5 level in an attempt to locate the lode and started an adit 33 feet east of the
portal. R. A. Grimes stripped by bulldozer near the crest of the ridge in search of
parallel fractures, but did not succeed in finding any that were mineralized.
On the
McGuigan slope, on a steep surface on the St. Keveme claim, two almost forgotten adits
were investigated. The upper adit is reported to be about 200 feet long and the lower
about 30 feet below it, is about 35 feet long. A lode similar in attitude to the Payne,
as much as 6 inches wide and containing galena, is exposed only at the portals, where
it is broken by tangential faults.
The property was optioned in 1951 by Kootenay Belle Gold Mines Limited, who
reopened No. 15 level and drove an adit on the St. Keveme claim.
The Queen Bess workings arc on the steep southwestern slope of
a prominent ridge that Banks Howson Creek, at elevations between
Queen Besr
4,900 and 5,500 feet. The workings arc reached by a road about
4 miles long from the New Denver-Kaslo highway. A truck-road was built in 1950
from the Corinth road to provide access from Sandon down the length of the ridge.
Surface and near-surface workings on the northeast side of the ridge explore the lode
structure on Queen Bess and Pahnita ground.
The property is under lease and bond to Bess Mines Limited, 555 Burrard Street,
Vancouver, a company formed jointly by Bralome Mines Limited and Kelowna Exploration Company Liiited to develop the Queen Bess, Idaho, and Alamo ground.
a small tonnage subsequent to 1924. None of this ore was milled because it was more
economical to sort and ship a 50-per-cent lead product.
Structurally, the mine is situated in a recumbent fold, open to the south&t,
immediately below the main panel of overturned strata that flanks Silver Ridge (see
Section I-I’, Fig. 4). The fold is broken by tangential faulting, and its full outline
cannot be seen. Minor crumpling is locally intense.
The rocks include argillite, quart&e, and interbedded argillite and quartzite, but
details of distribution arc not clear. The combination of crosscutting (lode) and
tangential faults in an area of generally poor outcrop in the mine area makes it difficult
to determine the amount of individual movement and the equivalence of strata. Figure
2 shows the distribution of major rock types and the effect of the faulting on them, the
clearest detail being the slicing of a band of quartrite south of the mine area. Lack of
outcrop on the northern nose of the ridge prevents tracing of other quartzite bands
north of the lode. The intermediate band of quart&e on the southeastern side of the
lode is projected from mine workings and does not outcrop.
Queen Bess Lode.-The
Queen Bess lode is traceable, with reasonable certainty,
over the ridge to the northeast onto the Palmita claim. A shear zone poorly exposed
in a gully on the Victor road is probably on the Queen Bess lode or a branch of it. The
lode is broken by faulting southwest of No. 5 portal and is present in a short adit west
of Howson Creek. There is no positive information concerning it farther to the southwest, but projection and the known facts of rock distribution prove the Queen Bess
and Idaho lodes to be the same.
There were at one time believed to be three lodes on the Queen Bess property,
known as the A, B, and C veins, the principal one being named A. It is now known
that the B vein is in reality a faulted segment of the main lode. The C vein, explored
by a series of adits to the northwest, is a fissure of minor size following the direction
of the steep joints which are locally abundant.
The mine was opened by six main adits, Nos. 1 to 5, now all caved, and No. 10,
which is accessible (see Fig. 11). A raise from No. 10 level leads up to No. 5, but
that level is caved. Nos. 9, 7, and 6 levels were accessible from the raise in 1950, but
the upper two levels were in poor condition. A short adit, No. 7, not accessible at the
time of examination, did not encounter the lode, and neither did No. 6, an even shorter
adit. B vein adit was driven on a fault segment of the main lode. Another adit, driven
from near the lower road on the supposed course of the B vein, is in the hangingwall
of the lode. Only the lowest of the series of C vein adits is accessible, about 400 feet
northwest of the main lode.
The lode was followed by each of the five uppermost adits. No. 10, driven roughly
parallel to the lode, although supposedly in the footwall was actually started in the
hangingwall and came into the footwall after crossing a prominent zone of faulting.
The lode was not encountered by No. 10 adit but was intersected at No. 9 level by a
raise. No. 10 adit is 1,650 feet long.
The rich Cunningham shoot (east orebody) was encountered on No. 5 level and
developed by a series of internal levels. It was possibly 300 feet long on No. 5 level
and extended from the vicinity of No. 6 upwards for a vertical distance of about 300
feet. The workings on this orcshoot have been caved for many years, and stope outlies me not known.
The lode is a very irregular structure, as may be judged from the level plan
(Fig. 11). It was followed on No. 5 level from a point about 350 feet from the portal
through the east orebody, according to mapping by E. B. Mayo in 1941 and A.B. Irwin
in 1948 before the workings caved. In this distance marked changes in strike were in
part caused by structores in the rocks traversed, although abundant lagging in the
workings prevented thorough study. The long crosscut to thenorthwest
on No. 5 is
entirely in the lode footwall. No. 6 level was caved 280 feet from the main raise, and
lode detail in the accessible section was obscure.
The lode was followed on No. 7 level for about 350 feet from the main raise, and
the inner workings, beneath the orebody, were on a mineralized fissure dipping at about
20 degrees. A winze was sunk on this fissure which nearly follows the bedding. The
innermost 200 feet of accessible level followed a shear zone dipping about 45 degrees
to the southeast in argillites.
No. 9 level followed the lode for 300 feet from the raise and then worked out into
the hang&wall.
In the innermost part of the level, irregular ore-bearing fissures with
a zonal dip of about 35 degrees are explored by two raises. This zone is apparently
the same as that on which the wince was sunk from No. 7 level at an angle of 20
The east orebody was on the lode at and above No. 5 level, with a dip of 45 to
50 degrees, and below No. 6 level the roots of the orebody were on a flatter, hangingwall branch of the lode. Very little is known of the sedimentary structure in this part
of the mine, but there is an indication that the flatter hangingwall branch slices through
the bedding at a comparatively small angle, and most ore was found at and above the
intersection with the main lode. The hangingwall branch is mineralized to a known
depth of about 150 feet below the orebody proper.
The west orebody occurred above No. 5 level. “ Within this block of ground the
ore formed one composite shoot commencing at the portal of No. 1 adit and raking to
the northeast.
The shoot had a maximum length of about 200 feet along No. 4 level.
Below No. 2 adit it included much lean and barren vein matter ” (Cairnes, 1935,
p. 102).
Any further remarks concerning localization are speculative beyond the fact that:
“ Each of the orebodies lies within a bend in the vein from an easterly to a northeasterly direction, a peculiarity of ore deposition not uncommon in Slocan ” (ibid.).
lode between the oreshoots. is flatter than normal. This feature Cairnes ascribes to the
passage through softer rocks, a view not held by the writer.
Both orebodies were localized by flexures in the lode. The flexures were apparently
marked by more breccia and less gouge than elsewhere. The presence of “ as much as
16 feet of clean galena” in the east orebody implies, if not the presence of physical
openings, then the existence of a zone of relatively low confining pressure. The factor
or factors which produced each flexure are not known, but the northeast strike and
relatively steep dip both favour the existence of a site of lowered confining pressure in
a lode on which the hangingwall moved down and to the east.
The sedimentary structure in the mine workings is not known beyond the fact of
general southwesterly dip, which steepens on No. 10 level and is complicated by minor
dragfolds, and nothing can be said of the structural setting of the orebodies. An upper
reversal in dip to an overturned position undoubtedly occurs, but whether or not the
reversal takes place in any of the upper levels is not known.
The zone of tangential faulting which is crossed by No. 10 adit passes through the
outermost part of No. 5 adit and a branch passes through B adit. The main part of
the zone is thought to pass east of the face of the lowest C adit. One branch passes
through No. 7 adit.
The lode in the outer part of B adit is a broad breccia zone, sparsely mineralized.
It swings into a southeast strike and, 80 to 90 feet south of the main body of the adit,
contains several feet of low-grade zinc mineralization.
It is followed southeast and
south-southeast to a point about 110 feet below No. 5 level and contains a little siderite
and sparse sphalerite through much of that distance. This is undoubtedly the main
Queen Bess lode with anomalous strike. It appears that tangential fault members swing
into the lode rather than that the lode is faulted, but the main part of the faulting seen
on No. 10 level and on the surface must lie east of the present face of B adit and pass
through the outer part of No. 5 level.
An adit 300 feet long driven beneath the road, 450 feet southwest of B adit, is in
the hangingwall of the lode. This adit crosses steeply dipping quartzites and argillites
that are continuous across No. 10 adit, 400 feet distant. The lode is probably faulted
or deflected at some point between this adit and B adit.
An adit on the road 750 feet west of No. 10 portal is driven southeastward and
encounters a lode zone 150 feet from the portal. This is the Queen Bess lode or
a major branch of it. As seen in a drift length of 230 feet, it is a gougy zone as much
as 5 feet wide dipping 50 to 60 degrees to the southeast. Where first encountered the
gouge is of porphyry and is not mineralized, but elsewhere, in argillite, there is as much
as 21% feet of siderite on the hangingwall of the gouge, containing small amounts of
sphalerite. A broad sill or dyke is offset to the left by the lode a distance of about
90 feet.
Trenching between this adit and the Idaho adits failed to disclose the position of
the Queen Bess-Idaho lode.
The lode has been traced on the northeast side of Queen Bess ridge down to an
elevation of about 4,900 feet on the Pahnita claim. Several small open-cuts on the
upper road and four short adits explore what appears to be a broad zone of fracturing
and shearing. Lode material is present, but the evidence of mineralization is not strong.
The possible continuation of the lode is shown in Figure 2, based on projection and on
the assumption that an unexplored shear zone on the Victor road is part of the .Queen
Bess lode.
C V&.-Only
the lowest and by far the longest of the series of adits on the C vein
is accessible. It is driven for the first 360 feet on a small mineralized fissure which
differs little. in appearance from numerous joints in the general vicinity. The inner part
of the adit does not follow the same fissure. and is a, crosscut near the face.
The C vein was apparently as much as several inches wide, and a small amount of
stoping was done on it. One winze was sunk 140 feet from the portal and another was
sunk on the best section of vein 355 feet from the portal. The best section was about
50 feet long and contained galena and sphalerite with quartz. The winze was inaccessible
when the workings were examined.
All work on the property ceased in midsummer of 1951. This
group of seven claims on the east side of Sandon Creek about 1 mile
from Sandon is owned by The Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company of Canada, Limited. The group was optioned by R. Crowe-Swords, of Vancouver, and from him was optioned by Kootenay Belle Gold Mines Limited in 1950.
The lode is the eastern continuation of the Silversmith lode. It was discovered in
1891, and 70 tons of ore was shipped in 1896. In 1908, shipments started that in five
years totalled 13,678 tons, averaging 48 ounces of silver per ton and 15 per cent lead.
After 1912 production dwindled, but in 1919, a year of high silver price, 4,300 tons was
shipped, containing 5.8 ounces of silver per ton, 1.8 per cent lead, and 2.8 per cent zinc.
The last ore shipped was 59 tons in 1926.
Total production was 19,446.tons, containing 743,066 ounces of silver, 4,702,772
pounds of lead, and 241,956 pounds of zinc.
In 1951 Kootenay Belle built a sink-float plant at the bottom of No. 6 dump
with the intention of treating all available dump material. Nos. 5 and 6, the two lowest
adits, were reopened after having been caved at the portals for many years.
The lode was developed by six adits and some higher near-surface workings.
the two lowest were accessible in 1951. In addition, the Slocan King adit was driven
from near the creek into Richmond-Eureka ground. This adit was caved not far from
the portal.
A complete study of the workings was not made, and area1 mapping was halted at
Sandon Creek, so no attempt is made at detailed discussion. A general treatment of the
lode is included in that of the Silversmith (p. 111) . Particular reference is to be found
in Ceirnes (1935, pp. 113-115), and the following remarks are limited.
The lode in No. 5 level dips between 35 and 65 degrees to the southeast and is
a rather irregular fissure zone consisting locally of several planes but in some places
a single gouge zone 6 inches wide. The bangingwall moved down and to the east. In
the drift length of about 1,400 feet there was 500 feet of stoping, butt only one length
of 100 feet and two shorter lengths were, according to an old map, carried up to No. 4
level. Between 625 and 1,000 feet from the portal three sublevels were driven below
No. 5 level. Some mineralization was seen in addition to that in the stoped sections,
but the possibilities of developing more ore on the level are not impressive.
No. 6 adit is about 1,250 feet long on the course of the lode. Ore possibilities are
not impressive in the outer half of the adit, but beyond the main raise to No. 5 level
siderite is locally abundant and there are some sections containing interesting amounts
of sphalerite. The position of the main lode is not certain in much of this inner part,
and the full width or extent of the mineralization has not been determined.
exploration could well be carried out in the inner 600 feet of the adit, beneath the
general ore zone on No. 5 level.
This property is owned by Ruth-Hope Mines Limited, 736 GranRuth-Hope
ville Street, Vancouver.
R. H. Stewart, president. The property
is immediately south of Sandon, and the mill is on the edge of the
townsite. The original claims were located in 1892, and development was undertaken
soon after. In the three-year period from 1896 to 1898 about 12,500 tons was shipped,
containing about l,OOO,OOOounces of silver and about 10,800,OOO pounds of lead, all
from the Ruth lode. The Hope lode apparently did not produce until 1906.
Amill was constructed in 1899 and was modified to recover zinc in 1904. Although
the Zinc Commission Report states (p. 191) that a’quantity of zinc concentrates was on
hand in 1905, there is no record of zinc production until 1917 and 1918, after which
time production of zinc was not the rule until 1925. Early records are not complete,
but it is probable that a large part of the Ruth ore zone was mined prior to construction
of the mill, because from 1900 to 1905 total production is credited as being only 4,277
tons, much of which apparently was of shipping grade. All levels on the Ruth lode were
essentially the same in 1905 as they are to-day.
The Hope lode was mined from 1906 to 1919, the ore being mostly of shipping grade.
The present owners acquired the property in 1924, and a long drive was made to
reach the continuation of the Silversmith orebodies across the, property-line.
At about
the same time the Stewart lode, formerly known as Ruth No. 2, was investigated, four
internal levels being driven from a shaft and from a raise above Ruth No. 2 level. The
mill was rebuilt, and this phase of activity culminated in a yearly production of more
than 13,000 tons in 1928 and 1929. The drop in metal prices closed the property
in 1930.
Since 1930 the property was worked under lease almost continuously until 1940
and again in 1949 and 1950. It was optioned by Kelowna Exploration Company from
1946 until July, 1948, and development work was done on No. 5 level during that
period. In 1951 Kootenay Belle optioned the property and drilled on No. 5 level in
search of a fault block~of the Ruth lode.
Production figures cannot be broken down, but the total production credited to the
Ruth, Stewart, Hope, and Silversmith lodes to the end of 1949 is about 65,000 tons,
containing, in ore and concentrates, 240 ounces of gold, 3,000,OOO ounces of silver,
22,650,OOO pounds of lead, and 3,100,OOO pounds of zinc.
Rufh Lode.-The
Ruth lode strikes north 75 degrees east and is nearly vertical
above No. 3 level. It flattens downwards to a 50- to 55-degree dip on No. 4 level.
The most productive part of the lode lay above No. 3 level, and little was mined
between Nos. 3 and 4. No stope maps are available, and it is not known what proportion of the explored vein was stoped. Access in 1950 was by way of No. 4 level
and up raises to Nos. 3 and 2; No. 1 level was inaccessible.
Production figures for 1897 show that oxidized ore assaying 35 to 40 per cent lead
was shipped as well as ore assaying about 70 per cent lead. Figures are unfortunately
incomplete; the relative amounts of oxidized and unoxidized ore are not known, nor
are full production figures available for the Ruth lode alone. Average figures of grade
are unobtainable, but it is of interest to note that from 1896 to 1898 about 12,500 tons
contained an average of approximately X0 ounces of silver per ton and 44 per cent lead.
Most of the Ruth zone appears to have been mined before construction of the mill
in 1899.
The following remarks sum up the salient apparent facts concerning the geology
of the lode. Reference is made to Figure 12, which is a composite plan from which
No. 3 level has been omitted for clarity. The vertical projection illustrates the general
structure as indicated by study of the levels alone, and the inset shows lode fissurebedding detail on No. 4 level.
The lode appears to have been continuous for 700 feet from near the portal of
No. 3 adit to the point where it terminates. The end of the lode on No. 2 is almost
vertically above, and the end on No. 1 is apparently on the same line. On NO. 4
level the lode is weaker and was not followed to its western termination, nor was it
explored to the Silversmith-Slocan Star fault on the east. It was drifted on for a
length of about 250 feet, and a crosscut intersects what is probably the same lode
fissure about 225 feet farther to the east. On No. 5 level the lode is followed to the
west for about 300 feet to a northeast-dipping fault.
In the section, Figure 12, the Ruth ore zone is shown bounded on the west by a
curving line, beyond which is the Stewart vein. This lime, according to old reports,
was believed to be a fault zone, although the relationship was ambiguous.
On No. 5
level the lode is terminated by a strong-appearing fault which dips northeast but cannot be recognized at higher levels. On No. 4 level (see inset) the lode structure has
not been completely followed, but there is no possible fault that could separate the
Ruth and Stewart as segments of one lode. On No. 3 level the lode ends in a dragfolded zcme where the lode is cut by small flat faults. On No. 2 level the steep lode
crosses flat be.ds and ends where they roll down to a steep weitaly dip. There are on
No. 2 some bedding slips that do not project through to No. 3 and are probably local.
The behaviour on No. 1 level is not known.
The Ruth is a weak fissure with probably a few feet and certainly not more than a
few tens of feet of displacement of hangingwall down and east. At its western end it splits
on Nos. 2, 3, and 4 levels (see inset) and terminates in a zone which is not a fault but is
probably a locus of marked interbed adjustment. This latter concept should be explained.
The explored part of the lode is in the axial region of a recumbent fold, .axwex to
the west. There is evidence of crumpling of beds and of interbed and near-bedded slippage in the general crest zone. The eastward-dipping fault on No. 5 level appears there to
be large, but it does not reach the higher levels. It is believed to penetrate to the general
crest zone, where it is distributed through the bedding planes and possibly is absorbed by
dragfolds and crumples. There may exist a similar but west-dipping fault in the westdipping panel above the fold axis, which fault is similarly absorbed in the bedding on
Nos. 2 and 3 levels. This condition is diagrammed in Section C-C’ of Figure 3, which is
drawn at a different angle and on a smaller scale.
It is apparently a fact that the Ruth lode fissure was not strong enough to persist
through this apical zone of crumpling and more than ordinary interbed slippage and,
although there may have been some post-lode movement, the lode was not faulted but
ended. The split and frayed condition of the west end of the Ruth lode fissure supports
this concept, as does the fact that elements of the fissure tend to become bedded wherever
discrepancies in attitude between bedding and fissuring are reduced. The Ruth and
Stewart are similar lodes, not segments of a single lode.
It is sig&icant that almost all ore was mined in the upper half of the recumbent
fold, where the down and eastward movement on the lode fissure was opposed to the
westward-dipping bedding planes. It is also significant that ore in the vicinity of No. 2
level, and supposedly including some of the better ore in the mine, is in a nearly vertical
lode crossing nearly flat beds. In both cases the rocks fractured more cleanly and with
less gouge than in situations (1) where the lode fissure crossed the beds at a small angle
or (2) where the directions of fissure movement and of bedding dip nearly coincided.
In the vicinity of Nos. 2 and 3 levels the lode is offset a foot to a few feet by flat faults
which step the upper segments to the south. One or two of these faults seem clearly postmineral, but others, more or less bedded, contain a small amount of mineral matter and
merge with the lode. This is in the part where footwall and hangingwall of the lode zone
are about 30 feet apart and, in detail, there is a rather complex pattern of fracturing
involving lode branches both ,steep and flat.
The rock distribution was not carefully studied. As a whole, a mixture of moderate
to thin-bedded argillites and quart&es is represented, and it is not known whether the
occurrence of ore may be locally related to the competency of some particular band of
sediments. Several dykes were seen, but these had no apparent effect on the ore.
The ore zone is mined out except for remnants. Lessees were mining in 1949 on
a sublevel about 30 feet below No. 3 level, on a block of ground which is possibly the last
readily available. A winze below No. 4 level and two raises above No. 5 apparently did
not encounter worthwhile mineralization.
In view of the weakness of the lode fissure and what has been said regarding its
western continuation there may be doubt as to the possible continuation to the east, past
the Silversmith-Slocan Star fault, a possibility never explored on No. 5 level. A general
reversal in dip of bedding in the form of a second recumbent fold, conv6x to the east,
takes place a short distance below No. 5 level, a fact which could be taken as favouring
the existence of a second, lower ore zone.
No. 6 level was driven for a total length of about 800 feet, from a point immediately
behind the mill. A narrow mineralized fissure, dipping 30 degrees to the southeast, was
followed for a distance of 140 feet, but no attempt was made to search for continuations
of it. This fissure, in eastward-dipping beds, bears no relation to the Ruth lode. The
adit is now caved.
Stewarr Lo&.-This
lode was first termed the Ruth No. 2 lode, but in later years
became known as the Stewart lode because of its development at higher levels by R. H.
Stewart. It is considered to have formed contemporaneously with but separately from
the Ruth lode.
Little is known of this lode. The upper four Stewart levels and the shaft are inaccessible, and the workings on the Ruth Nos. 2, 3, and 4 levels are in poor condition.
It is represented on Ruth No. 5 as an irregular semi-bedded and branching zone containing little evidence of mineralization.
A sublevel between Nos. 4 and 5 levels was
not examined.
Study of the level plans, a few points of direct observation, and company data make
the following observations and deductions reasonably sqund.
The Stewart lode is a moderately weak structure merging with and locally dominated
by elements of northwest or tangential faulting. It is less a fissure lode than a zone of
fissuring, a zone consisting of crosscutting and tangential elements, both of which are
greatly influenced by bedding. The irregularity of the zone is apparent from study of the
level plans. The lode is curved in the four Stewart levels, more nearly straight on Ruth
No. 2, was not encountered on Ruth No. 3, and is split on Ruth No. 4 and in the sublevel below.
The lode terminates to the east in a zone of interbed slippage, much as the Ruth
lode terminates to the west. On the west end the Stewart lode is bounded by the RuthSilversmith fault, which is seen only on Ruth No. 2 level. The lode length between
these limits is about 250 feet on the Stewart levels and increases to about 800 feet on
Ruth No. 5.
Where imperfectly seen on Ruth No. 2 level the zone is irregular, the general eastnortheast direction being intermpted by two northwest stretches, which may or may not
represent post-mineral faulting. Some stoping was done, but the ground is heavily timbered and little detail of the lode can be seen. On No. 4 level a small accessible section
of the lode zone shows a footwall and hangingwall split; the footwall is the stronger, and
some stoping was done on it. In one place a 20- to 30-inch zone of quartz, siderite, and
sphalerite was seen. Bedding between the splits is nearly parallel in strike and is flatter
in dip; some bedded slips are present. On No. 5 level the Stewart lode has flattened to
pass obliquely through rather flat bedding, in spite of discordance in strike between lode
and beds.
The Stewart lode in the inner part of Ruth No. 2 level swings into the southwestdipping fault zone which is believed to be the continuation of the Ruth-Silversmjth fault.
Long crosscuts driven to the north and south on this level failed to locate a positive
continuation of the lode west of the fault, and it is possible that the lode terminated at
the fault and was not displaced by it.
A comparison beween the Stewart and Ruth lodes is interesting, because these are
two subparallel lodes which pass through the same general structural zone. Production
from the Stewart lode was largely from the Stewart levels; little was mined on Ruth No.
2 and below. This is in the same upper westerly dipping panel as the productive section
of the Ruth lode. The Stewart was far more irregular in plan and had a variable dip of
35 to 60 degrees, influenced probably by a more irregular structural environment than the
Ruth lode. Below, in the easterly dipping panel, the Stewart lode was unproductive, like
the Ruth lode. On No. 5 level the Stewart lode is in the lower westerly dipping panel,
not reached by the Ruth vein. In this panel, favourable in theory, the observed part of
the Stewart zone is flatter and crosses the low-dipping beds obliquely.
This last situation, that of a lode passing flatly through relatively flat beds, in spite
of divergence in strike, is a condition more productive of an irregular gougy shear zone
than of an ore-bearing zone. The mere flatness of beds is not in itself an unfavourable
condition, as witness the situation on Ruth No. 2 level, where the steep lode crossing
flat beds makes ore. Apart from questions of refraction of a fissure as it passes from
rock of one degree of competency to rock of another, a matter that of itself may account
for variations in attitude of the fissure, it may be that below a limiting angular relation
to bedding a fissure rends to follow the bedding, whereas above the limiting angle it is
unaffected by bedding but maintains a uniform course. The magnitude of the sedimentary structure has also some influence on the course of the fissure, because minor
structural Bats could not conceivably have much effect on the attitude of a fissure, unless
it were very weak indeed.
Hope Lode.-Little
can be said of the Hope lode other than tb repeat material
already published. The portals are all caved, and data other than the level plans are
not available.
The lode is almost certainly the westerly continuation of the Silversmith lode, beyond
the Ruth-Silversmith fault, and possibly beyond a second fault subparallel to it. The
relationship underground can be studied by aid of the fact that the south border of Figure
12 is the same as the north border of Figure 14.
Because of this correlation the Hope is a major lode according to the scale of values
used in this bulletin. The observation by Cairnes (1935, pp. 119, 120) that the Iode is
a “ productive zone rather than a well-marked fissure. ” as much as 40 feet wide substantiates this.
Cairnes further points out that the dip varies between 25 and 40 degrees and that
the steeper parts as a rule are “ better defined and are coincident with the intersection of
the more competent rock members, particularly where the lode cuts most abruptly across
Also, “ The principal productive area was in the eastern section of the mine
workings and extended from the surface to a little below No. 4 level: It had a maximum
length on No. 2 level of about 550 feet and pitched to the east, out of the hill. The lode
filling consisted of crushed rock, calcite, siderite, quartz, and ore.
The oreshoots
were irregular in form, pinching, swelling, and in places abruptly terminating at their
greatest thickness against a cross-fissure.
They varied in thickness from a fraction
of an inch to Z1/2 feet and averaged, probably, about 100 feet in length.
“ The ore as mined was clean galena and blade with comparatively little concentrating material.
. . The steel and fine cube galena ore carried from 155 to 170
ounces of silver to the ton and 60 per cent lead. Some of the zincblende carried high
values in silver.” Grey copper was present in the ore.
Anything further than these salient facts can only be derived from study of the
level plan, Figure 12, from which raises, a sublevel between Nos. 3 and 4 levels, and
a sublevel between Nos. 4 and 5 have been omitted for clarity. There is a northwesttrending section of the workings that probably represents a southwest-dipping fault west
of the productive zone. If No. 5 level was driven on the lode, the lode must be much
straighter on it than on the upper levels.
The dip of the ore zone is lower than is common, and speculation on the significance
of this fact is profitless. Rock exposures in the vicinity of the mine are too few to form
any accurate opinion of the structure.
Silversmith Lo&.-Workings
on the Silversmith lode on Ruth-Hope ground are
shown in Figure 14. They are 3,750 feet from the portal of No. 5 level. The mineralized
sections of the lode are inaccessible, and only the northern part of the older workings can
be entered from a crosscut driven westerly by Kelowna Exploration in 1946 and 1947.
The geology of this section is described under Silversmith-Sloan Star, pages 113 and
The Sandow claim is owned by the estate. of T. Avison; R. A. Avison, Silverton, executor. It is 1,800 feet northwest of Idaho Peak
on a steep southwesterly slope. The rocks are poorly exposed
limestones and mixed rocks on the lower limb of the Idaho Peak dragfold. A short
blocked adit and a 15.foot adit at an elevation of about 6,500 feet disclose a prominent
shear zone, continuous with the Alamo lode which crosses the ridge crest 600 feet to the
north. The main adit is driven on a shear zone 5 feet wide, striking north 75 degrees
east and dipping 70 degrees southward. The smaller, 15-foot adit, 25 feet to the northwest, is on a similar zone. These are the southernmost known points on the Alamo lode.
Head office, 373 Baker Street, Nelson; mine office, Sandon.
Silver Ridge Mining W. Dale Bost, president: R. A. Grimes, vice president; John R.
Company Limited
Kenney, managing director. The Sunshine Silver Lead Company
Limited was organized on December 22, 1935, and the name was
changed to Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited on February 14, 1936. The prime
mover was R. A. Grimes, who had in view the development of the Sunshine and other
lodes at upper elevations of Silver Ridge.
The first work was an adit at the head of Miller Creek driven to locate~the extension
of the Sunshine lode. In 1937 and 1938 a great deal of bulldozing was done, the Jan
and Belle adits were driven, and the Oregon adit was started. Work stopped in March,
1940, and was resumed in November, 1945. The Oregon adit was abandoned in July,
1946, and a site was selected on the Lookout No. 2 claim for a new crosscut at a much
lower elevation. Collared late in 1946, this adit was advanced for a length of 2,200 feet
and, in 1948 when the Wonderful property was purchased, a crosscut was driven northwestward in search of the Wonderful lode. A lease was granted on the Corinth the same
As a result of bulldozing on the Wonderful, the Pearson adit was driven to intersect
the lode, and drifting was done on it in 1949. Late in the same year a crosscut was driven
at shallow depth to reach the Corinth lode beneath a surface showing developed by lessees
the year before.
This property is owned by Silversmith Mines Limited, head office,
526 Lakeside Avenue South, Seattle 44, Wash. B. P. van Andersen, president. The company owns twenty-four claims on lower
Sandon Creek, a consolidation of former groups. This was the
largest and richest mine in the Sandon area and second to the Standard in the Slocan
district. The tonnage of the Lucky Jim is greater than either, but the grade of ore is
The Slocan Star oreshoot was located in October, 1891, and first produced ore in
1893. The first ooeratina comoanv was Bvron N. White Comoanv. of Sookane. Wash..
and the property was controlled and managed by the White family for many years:
A concentrator was built in 1896 and was remodelled for zinc recovery in 1904, and the
Slocan Star mine was, in early years, the outstanding producer of the district. In 1904
litigation began which involved extralateral rights of the Rabbit Paw claim, owned by the
Star Milling and Miig
Company, in which company J. M. Harris was especially
The suit lasted about seven years, being finally carried to the Privy Council,
and was settled against the Whites. The two companies were amalgamated as the Slocan
Star Mining Company in 1911, and production was resumed following a period of
relative inactivity since 1906.
With the Slocan Star orebody exhausted and other development not very productive,
the company got into financial difficulties in 1917 and was reorganized the following year
as Silversmith Mines Limited.
R. H. Stewart was called in as consultant, and the rich
Silversmith orebody was found and was mined until 1926. In 1921 the old Ivanhoe mill
was bought and remodelled, and a tram-line was built to the site below Sandon. Mining
was sharply curtailed in 1927, and from then until 1936 production amounted to only
about 15,000 tons. The company has been inactive since 1940.
In the mid-thirties a considerable amount of development and examination work
was done, including diamond driffling. Slocan King Mines Limited was formed in 1926
under the same control as Silversmith Mines Limited.
Development of this property,
which lay to the east of the Slocan Star and consisted of ground formerly part of the
Slocan Star group, was carried out on Nos. 8 and 10 levels of the Silversmith workings,
but no orebody was found. In 1937 Slocan King Mines Limited was purchased by the
Silversmith Company.
In 1948 and 1949 the Slocan Star dumps were leased to E. H. Petersen, who
hand-sorted material mined in the earlier operations.
In 1948 an agreement of purchase was entered into with Carnegie Mines Limited,
of Montreal.
In 1950 a large part of No. 3 duinp was hauled to Retallack for concentration in the Whitewater mill. Under the direction of R. Crowe-Swords about
250 tons was mined in the Rabbit Paw zone. In 1951 No. 5 level crosscut was reclaimed
under the management of T. R. Buckham.
The Silversmith-Slocan Star is credited with a production pf about 344,600 tons,
containing 1,129 ounces of gold, 7,393,OOO ounces of silver, 76,587,OOO pounds of
lead, and 16,390,OOO pounds of zinc. The tonnage figures are subject to question,
inasmuch as early records were of lot shipments without regard to whether they represented crude ore or concentrates.
An attempt has been made to estimate the production of the two main orebodies,
but the record of mining is not sufficient for accurate figures. The Slocan Star orebody
produced about 3,464,OOO ounces of silver and 43,650,OOO pounds of lead from a total
of possibly 100,000 tons mined. The Silversmith orebody, including that part on
contiguous Ruth-Hope ground, produced an estimated 1,000 ounces of gold, 3,550,OOO
ounces of silver, 26,800,OOO pounds of lead, and 14,450,OOO pounds of zinc from
about 220,000 tons of ore mined. About 90 per cent of this total is believed to have
come from the Silversmith mine.
A total of $1,267,600 has been paid in dividends throughout the life of the property.
Until the recent lease on the dumps, no leasing was permitted on the property.
Veni little of the mine is currentlv accessible. exceot No. 10 crosscut and nearbv
workings, and No. 5’level east of the Slocan Star oreshoot.
The accompanying map, Figure 13, shows the extent of the workings west of the
Slocan King portal. A few minor details have been omitted for clarity, and No. 9 level
in the west end of the mine has been omitted for the same reason. The additional
extent of the workings in the Slocan King part of the property may be judged from
the area1 map (Fig. 2).
In the ~following descriptions the Silversmith lode is treated without regard to
property boundaries.
It is continuously developed from Richmond-Eureka
through the Silversmith, to the Ruth-Hope, the boundary between the latter properties
crossing one of the main productive sections of the lode. The Ruth No. 5 and Silversmith No. 10 levels differ in elevation by about 30 feet, so that the geology of these
The connection between properties is caved.
levels may be directly compared.
Ruth No. 5 level is accessible except for the main productive zone on the Silversmith lode. Only the fringes of the ore zone can be studied directly.
The lode strikes on the average a little north of east and dips about 45 degrees to
the south. It is a major crosscutting zone of fracturing and shearing as much as 50 feet
and more wide. It is a locus of tear faulting along which movement of the hangingwall
was down and to the east at a moderate or low angle. It is interrupted by several
southwest-dipping faults whose cumulative effect produced an apparent offsetting of
the lode to the right of about 1,000 feet. The ambiguous relation between the lode and
some faults makes it clear that they were closely related in time and origin, and that
some displacive movement passed directly from lode to fault. Mineralization is not
entirely restricted to the lode fissures, and some mineralization is continuous between
lode and fault. It was partly this relation that made the litigation on extralateral rights
such a lengthy procedure, because expert testimony was of divided opinion as to the
relation between “ fault ” and “ vein.”
structure of the Silversmith ground is not well kno,wn
because of inaccessibility of workings and scarcity of good surface exposures. The outline of Section B-Bl, Figure 3, provided largely by workings on the Ruth lode, is comparable, but the details of that eection are partly inferred, and the angle of southeasterly
plunge is not known well enough for accurate projection onto Silversmith ground.
The workings lie in a zone of recumbent folding which involves three or more main
reversals in dip. Regionally, the site is in the crest zone of the major Slocan fold.
The rocks consist of argillites and quartzites with few limy beds and have not been
The mine area is cut by a number of acidic sills and dykes a few of which, locally,
were intruded into the lode fissures prior to mineralization.
The largest mass of
I‘ porphyry ” outcrops in the hangingwall of the lode on the steep hillside near the west
portal of No. 4 level and was long considered to be a stock or plug. Opportunity for
study of the surface expression of this body is lessened by the dense cover and the fact
that many surface workings are now obscured. It can be seen underground in only
a few places. Diamond drilling on Ruth ground suggests that the body is sill-like,
with continuity to the northwest, and that it is irregular in shape. Available information
leads to the conclusion that the Silversmith “ plug ” is a local swelling of a sill-like
body which varies in cross-sectional outline and whose form is locally influenced by
the nature of the structural environment.
Judging by exposures of similar rock in
the bed of Sandon Creek, it is probable that there is a swarm of sill-like porphyry bodies
in the general vicinity.
The foregoing remarks of a general nature are. all that can be offered on the
structural setting. They, and more detailed descriptions to follow, serve to illustrate
both the diiculty and importance of the problems involved, and should point to the
necessity for detailed geological mapping at the time of mining if the structure of this or
any similar section is to be understood.
To judge from the report of an examining
engineer who complained, in 1905, of the inaccessibility of many workings, the situation
is not new.
Figure 14 shows, diagrammatically, structural relationships in the principal accessible Darts of the Silversmith lode. No. 10 Silversmith level and No. 5 Ruth levels
are 25 feet apart vertically at their closest points. The workings are caved in the parts
The geology of the accessible parts has been plotted from direct observation
and that in the caved parts has been plotted from company records, wherever available.
The easternmost section of the lode at A has been stoped upward; and mineralization is continuous from it up through the Slocan Star orebody.
Farther east, beyond
the margin of the figure, the position of the lode is uncertain.
West of this section the
lode is interrupted by a large and complex zone of faulting, west of which lies the
Silversmith ore zone and a second irregular zone of faulting.
In the Ruth and Silversmith crosscuts the beds dip to the east and are involved in
a minor amount of dragfolding.
Near the southern end of the Silversmith crosscut
the beds steepen upwards and roll over to a southwesterly dip, in a recumbent fold open
to the northeast and plunging to the southeast at 20 degrees dr less. A similar fold
may account for a change in dip in the Ruth workings, but details are obscured by
crushing of the rock at the crest of the supposed fold.
The Silversmith-Slocan Star faults form a branching tangential system that appears to
converge to the southeast and may also converge to the northwest.
The movement on
the various members is not known. In the area of the workings on No. 10 level there
is an obvious relation between several fault planes and the fold structure. Part of the
over-all fault movement has followed the bedding round the curvature of the strata,
and part has cut across the strata with an abnormal strike of about north 20 degrees
east. The complex of faults diagrammed in Figure 14 cannot be projected upward
through the mine satisfactorily, but it is more than probable that the fault pattern changes
from level to level.
The Rabbit Paw zone lies west of the Silversmith-Slocan Star faults and is separated
from the Silversmith zone by what appears to be a barren and gouge-filled flexure in
the lode. The Silversmith ore zone continues without serious break into Ruth-Hope
ground, where it is terminated by the Ruth-Silversmith fault zone. Some stoping was
done west of the main Ruth-Silversmith fault on a pronounced roll in the vein, beyond
which only scattered mineralization has been discovered.
East of the Slocan Star shoot, beyond the margin of Figure 14, ore was apparently
not encountered in drifting for a length of 2,600 feet on No. 10 level. Mineralization
was found in places, but Study of old maps indicates that the workings were not everywhere on the lode.
At B the northeast striking lode was stoped from No. 9 level to No. 7, above
which the strike became more nearly east. This lode segment ended below No. 4 level,
and stoping above No. 4 was on northwest-trending
mineralization continuous with
the main Slocan Star shoot. Old reports mention that ore was continuous from the
“ vein ” for 90 feet along the ‘: fault ” in one part of the mine and doubtless refer to
this condition (see Fig. 13). Nos. 11, 12, and 13 levels did not succeed in finding ore
on this segment of “ cross-vein,” and it is possible that it lost its identity below No. 10.
Similarly, the “ cross-vein ” segment at A, which is the lowest expression of the main
Slocan Star orebody, was followed in a sublevel drift between Nos. 10 and 11 levels but
was apparently not recognized on No. 11.
The complex of curving, partly bedded faults between B and the Rabbit Paw zone,
in which the lode is missing for a strike-length of about 500 feet, straightened out up
the dip to a northwest fault zone involving an apparent offset of the lode of about 750 feet.
Expressed differently, the northwest fault zone, which separates the Sloan Star and
Rabbit Paw zones and is itself locally mineralized, spreads out down the dip below
No. 4 level, and hangingwall members of it follow bedding in the recumbent fold on
No. 10 level. At the same time, the vein segment B forms between fault members,
rotates to a northeast strike, and apparently loses its identity below No. IO level.
The relation between the lode and the tangential faults is somewhat ambiguous.
There is no doubt that the lode fissure and the fault fissures formed prior to mineralization and prior to some of the dyke intrusion.
On the west side of the Slocan Star
orebody, ore was reported to he continuous from lode to fault and, in places now accessible, not only are parts of some faults sparingly mineralized but lode fissures swing into
the fault direction. There is thus implied an original relationship between fault and lode
The most specific evidence of this relationship is seen on No. 5 level and is shown
in inset on Figure 13. There are two branches of the lode, of which only the hangingwall
branch has been explored. A fault ending against the footwall branch offsets the hanginewall
~~~~~~ A second fault. between the crosscut and the Slocan Star shoot at
A, interrupts the lode or hangin~wall branch, which swings and splits as the fault is
approached. A caved drift driven northwest beneath this fault shows evidence of mineralization related, apparently, to both lode and fault.
East of No. 5 crosscut a wide
section of the lode trends more northeasterly than the normal direction. The mineralization is quartz between walls that are frozen or carry a small amount of gouge, the latter
fact proving that shearing was relatively light in this section. The conclusion is inescapable that the northeasterly direction favoured opening of the lode fissure under conditions
of lessened confining pressure.
The foregoing analysis indicates the possibility that the east-northeast lode and the
northwest faults may have initiated as co-ordinate shears with related northeast tension
fractures. This possibility cannot begestablished as fact owing to insufficient evidence.
The amount of displacement along the shear fractures (fissures) of both lode and faults
and the general absence of fractures which possess direct evidence of being tensional in
origin make it difficult to analyze an idea.1 stress-strain relationship that was initiated
before rupturing.
It may only be pointed out that the general established movement of
hangingwall of lode down and east, and hangingwall of at least some faults down and
northwest is not contrary to a co-ordinate origin. The later channeling of considerable
movement along the initial fracturing and the interrelationship
of fractures and folds
make the study a very difficult one.
The structure in other parts of the mine zone is only conjectural. East of the Slocan
Star shoot, development was unproductive, and apparently the character and position of
the lode were uncertain.
As will be discussed in the next section under “ Slocan Star,”
the lode splits, probably near No. 4 level, and the hangingwall branch becomes erratic
below No. 5 level. The vein and fault pattern deducible from old maps on No. 10 level
is erratic and bears little rewnblance to that in the Slocan King adit, 460 feet vertically
higher. There can be little doubt that details of the lode structure change with depth.
The Slocan King adit starts as a drift and is caved at the first fault, about 240 feet
from the portal. This is the first significant offset of the lode in a distance of more than
900 feet east of the Slocan Star orebody.
This fault dips to the northeast, and other
faults farther to the east dip in various directions eastward. The question arises why in
the western part of the mine zone do the faults almost without exception dip generally
westward and several in the eastern part dip generally eastward? The answer probably is
that the average prevailing dip of the strata, in spite of complexity of folding, is westerly
and easterly, respectively.
The Richmond-Eureka
Nos. 5 and 6 adits are the only ones accessible. Stoping
was done above No. 5 level over a total length of lode of apout 500 feet. The lode on
this level is moderately regular and is not offset appreciably by faults.
&can Star Orebody.-The
Slocan Star orebody was one of the earliest discoveries
and was probably the largest surface showing in the Slocan. It was also one of the richest
bodies. Caimes has calculated the value of mine production from 1894 to 1905 to
have been $2,675,430, a figure which probably approximates the output of the Slocan
Star shoot.
Parts of No. 3 workings are accessible, and the edge of the ore zone can be reached
on No. 5 level. The remainder of the workings are inaccessible.
The body was longest and widest at and near the surface and funnelled down to
No. 5 levels. On the intermediate level between Nos. 3 and 4, elevation 4,710 feet, it was
750 feet long measured on the curve of lode and fault; on No. 4 level, elevation 4,592
feet, it was 300 feet long; on No. 5 level, elevation 4,418 feet, it was 100 feet long; this
length of 100 feet was maintained through almost continuous stopes to No. 10 level,
elevation 4,058 feet. A western body, continuous with the main Slocan Star shoot on
top levels, was separated from it apparently as a fault segment (B, Fig. 13) about 100
feet long and was stoped above No. 9 level. The total vertical range of ore was about
800 feet at an average dip of about 45 degrees.
The average width of the orebody is not known. The total horizontal width of the
combined ore-bearing structure is about 40, feet on No. 3 level, but it was not mined to
the full width. Cairnes reports a maximum width of 80 feet. A northeast-trending vein
structure in the west portal of No. 3 level, containing zincy ore and locally stoped to
surface, may be considered the extreme footwall or else a “cross vein ” in the footwall of
the lode; its behaviour or even location at greater depth is not known.
The bending of the ore-bearing structure from west to northwest strike on the upper
levels may account for the greater width. There are three principal planes of movement
on No. 3 level and possibly more. Two fissures were apparently encountered on the east
end of No. 4. Mining appears to have been carried out on a hangingwall branch of the
lode below No. 4 level.
The Slocan Star orebody was widest in a broad complex lode zone, and its downward
continuation was on a hanpingwall branch of the lode that apparently weakened and
became irregular down the dip. The footwall of the zone is not known for certain, but
it was apparently explored and partly mined on No. 3 level and perhaps on No. 4. On
No. 5 level (see inset, Figure 13) the lode followed by the drift appears to be too weak
to be the main lode, and a semi-parallel shear, observable at a cave in the crosscut, is
almost certainly a footwall element of the lode. Two diamond-drill holes, from information on an old map, intersected mineral on the line of projection of this shear to the east,
and there is, furthermore, mineralization closely associated with the shear in the crosscut.
The lode element followed by No. 5 level, including the Slocan Star shoot, is a flatter
hangingwall “ blister,” at this elevation as much as 175 feet from what is apparently the
footwall and possibly the main element of the lode. Mineralization in the crosscut is
sparse and that in the diamond-drill holes was apparently zincy, which accounts for the
fact that this structure was not further prospected.
The northeast-trending vein-like section about 600 feet long in the eastern part of
No. 5 level is from 3 to 4 feet wide to more than drift width and locally attains a width of
about 20 feet, with a dip of 30 to 45 degrees at the wesern end and a dip of 60 degrees
at the eastern end. Mineralization consists almost entirely of quartz, with local siderite,
especially on the hangingwall.
It contains little or no sulphides.
The western segment (B) of the Slocan Star orebody is not known, except from the
drift and stope outlines as shown. It is definitely part of the main orebody at higher
levels. It probably should not be considered merely as a faulted (hinged) part of the
main body, but as on ore channelway in the lode-fault fissure system.
Rabbit Paw Ore Zone.-The
Rabbit Paw ore zone on No. 10 level is a lode segment
east of the Silversmith zone.and is separated from it by a bend in the lode along a northwest course. The drift is partly caved and details are not known. The ore appears to
be on a major branch of the lode in a situation structurally different from the Silversmith.
A sublevel above No. 10 shows ore faces above stoped ground, but it was not fully examined by the writer. Stoped ground farther up the dip, above No. 5 level, may represent
part of the same zone, but exploration on No. 8 and No. 9 levels (the latter is omitted
from Figure 13) was unproductive, and continuity of the ore zone has not been proved.
The sublevel is 57 feet above No. 10 level and is midway between Nos. 10 and 9.
It is 200 feet long on a lode dipping 60 degrees or more and including nearly flat and
nearly vertical elements. The relation of this to a sparsely mineralized northwest fissure,
dipping 45 degrees and following in part the under side of the porphyry body, is not
known. The two should come together up the dip, and the question naturally arises as
to what was found on Nos. 9 and 8 levels. The sublevel contains the only readily available ore in the Silversmith mine.
Ore Zone.-This
ore zone of major proportion extends from the Rabbit
Paw section into Ruth-Hope ground, where it ends at a prominent zone of tangential
faulting, called here the Ruth-Silversmith fault zone. All workings on ore are now caved,
and for much of the following data the writer is indebted to R. H. Stewart who, in conversation, kindly drew on his extensive knowledge of the mines.
The hangingwall of the lode in much of this section is feldspar porphyry.
Silversmith plug, as it has been called, outcrops in the hangingwall of the lode, principally
along the surface trace of the Silversmith-Slocan Star fault zone. Old open-cuts have
now sloughed, and heavy brush cover makes it difficult to outline the porphyry on the
surface. It is probable, however, that the body is sill-like and variable in cross-section,
the variation being due to the influence of folded structures. The hangingwall or southern
surface of the porphyry has never been investigated in the Silversmith mine.
Although most of the Silversmith ore was near the porphyry, little was in actual
contact with it. The porphyry bears no genetic relation to the ore and any function of
control is probably due to the fact that it contributed to the rigidity of the rock-mass as
a whole and tended to deflect some fissures. In the few places observed it was noted
that the actual contacts are not fault contacts, although some slip or faulting is commonly
present at the border of the porphyry.
The Silversmith zone consists of two subparallel oreshoots in branches steeper than
the main lode fissure. On the west end the zone is terminated by the Ruth-Silversmith
fault, and no reason is known for the eastern termination.
The footwall branch was the
larger and more persistent.
Stoping was carried out over a total length of about 700 feet on the two properties.
From No. 10 level, stoping extended up to No. 4 west level and down to No. 11 level
(Silversmith) on the footwall branch, a vertical distance of 625 feet. Development
on No. 12 level was disappointing.
Most of the ore occurred in two fractures steeper than the hangingwall, which was
supposedly the main element of the lode. The steep orebodies were widest next to
the hangingwall, against which they terminated, and narrowed downward and finally
pinched out. Minor offsets were produced by fault planes which were parallel to the
hangingwall and which showed normal displacement.
The ore occurred in “ quart&es.”
Some ore was mined from the main hangingwall part of the lode, beneath the porphyry
but not everywhere in contact with it.
The foregoing suggests that the steep ore-bearing lode fractures formed tensionally
in the footwall, in response to the normal component of movement on the lode. They
formed in relatively competent rocks whose attitude is not known.
On Ruth-Hope ground, ore was mined up to No. 4 level and down to No. 6 (Ruth),
a total vertical distance of 220 feet. The footwall branch was the better and is reported
to have flattened at the top of the stope. Development on this property was interrupted
by the decline in metal prices in 1930. Company maps show that the branches swing
to the north to meet the Ruth-Silversmith fault zone tangentially, implying a right-hand
In the Ruth as in Silversmith
ground the lode in general cuts the
Ruth, WestSection.-Ore
was encountered in one lode branch west of the RuthSilversmith fault zone (see Fig. 14). It is not definitely known whether this is the
footwall or hangingwall branch, but it is probably the latter. Ore was stoped in this
section from No. 6 level to some distance above No. 5. The ore-bearing structure swings
abruptly from west to northwest, forming a sharp nose that plunges to the southwest. At
the point of curvature, in partly caved workings, it is hard to be certain whether the lode
fissure takes so sharp a bend along bedding planes in argillite or whether there has been
some dragging of the beds into parallelism with the fissure at the point of curvature. This
nose was followed down to No. 6 level, where it had a more pronounced curvature in
plan than on No. 5. The orebody flattened sharply in the vicinity of No. 6 level and lay
beneath porphyry.
The ore-bearing fissure, mineralized principally in that part striking eastward, was
clearly deflected by folded strata and is in part bedded. The evidence at the only present
point of observation is ambiguous, however, as there may be some dragging or flowage of
argillite into a laminar product that simulates bedding.
The western mass of porphyry is probably related to the eastern, but there is no
clear evidence that one body is divided into a series of fault blocks. The western body
at the margin of Figure 14 narrows down, however, even if it does not terminate, because
the faults do not for the most part cut the porphyry, and parts of the intrusive contact may
be seen. It extends about 700 feet to the northwest, as followed for that distance by one
diamond-drill hole drilled north 45 degrees west. A crosscut driven 400 feet westward
from the west edge of Figure 14 was still in porphyry.
In 1946 and 1948 Kelowna Exploration Company drove a little south of west from
the main No. 5 crosscut to tap the north end of the former workings and continued into
the porphyry. East of the porphyry mass, diamond drilling disclosed mineralization in
the footwall of the stoped ground west of the main Ruth-Silversmith fault, in a much
broken area. Drilling was done along the porphyry to the northwest to test the ground
along strike and, as already mentioned, followed porphyry for about 700 feet. Drilling
to south and west, through the porphyry, showed the body to be highly irregular in crosssectional outline and to have a pronounced roll or sag in its hangingwall surface; all holes
were drilled upward. One strong intersection of zinc mineralization was encountered in
the sag on the hangingwall of the porphyry.
This mineralization, in addition to indications in the old drift round the southern end
of the western mass of porphyry, proves the existence of mineral on the hangingwall side,
nowhere else explored. It is doubtful whether this can be directly related to the Silversmith lode.
The western continuation of the Silversmith lode is not known.
In the vicinity
of the Ruth-Silversmith fault and of the western porphyry the lode is irregular, is offset
by the main fault, and is deflected into a northwesterly direction partly or wholly in
response to the local structure. The evidence of only one drill-hole would indicate that
the lode zone follows the northeastern or footwall side of the porphyry for some 700 feet.
Perhaps part of the lode movement is distributed along the hangingwall side of the
Correlation with the lowest workings on the Hope lode, 1,400 feet to the northwest
and 715 feet higher, is unsatisfactory because little is known of the Hope lode and nothing
of the intervening around. If the Silversmith and Hooe lodes a& the same. then another
fault zone probail; lies west of the Ruth-Silversmith fault, and there is an intervening
block of potentially favourable ground. It is of course impossible to say definitely
whether the fault-lode complex, last seen in the Ruth workings and trending to the northwest, perhaps straightens out to a west- or southwest-striking zone which may contain
It is believed Chat the Hope and Silversmith lodes arc one, interrupted by faulting
and invoIved in a compIex of folded strata. The surface geology indicates that the Hope
lode represents a crosscutting fault of major displacement in the district. Less is known
reaardme the Silversmith lode. and although the comolexitv disclosed in the mine workings sho& the possibility of much take-up or variation in-amount of displacement, thi
entire lode, ignoring detail, must represent a substantial crosscutting movement.
lode-fault pattern on the surface (Fig. 2) illustrates a general condition that is probably
correctly interpreted, although branching and variations in strike and dip of all fissures
produce a fissure pattern that, in detail, varies with every horizon.
changing pattern from place to place in this complex mine area
makes both description and summary of detaii very difficult. Rules learned by the miner
in one part of the mine may not apply .in the next. An understanding of the general
processes, forms, and tendencies of the structural complex will, however, prove of value
in reducing the costs of exploration.
The rule is that the lode hangingwall moved down and east, at a rather low angle in
some places but probably not at the same angle throughout.
The faults for the most part
have a movement of hangingwall down and northwest at unknown but perhaps moderate
angIes. As these two directions of movement are at a large angle to one another, it
follows that when an element of the lode swings into a fault direction, or vice versa, the
actual direction of displacement of fissure walls may be in apparent contradiction to the
foregoing rule.
It is a general fact that all fissures express normal and not overthrust movement.
They are not, however, relaxational faults, but were formed under conditions of pressure,
as a result of underthrusting and lateral tear.
There is a tendency for known elements or branches of the lode to converge upward
and a tendency for at least some faults to converge upward. The physical expression of
this is that the Silversmith-Slocan Star mine appears to become more I‘ ragged ” with
depth, a condition that cannot of continue inde6niteIy.
The two largest ore zones formed in response to different sets of conditions. What
is perhaps most important, ,and one of the few factors in common, is that they formed
partly in subsidiary fissures and not in the main element of the lode. The Slocan Star
orebody was widest and most extensive in the zone of intersection of subsidiary fissuring
with the main lode.
A word may be said regarding the possible future of the mine, or rather the chances
for further exploration.
In the first place, inaccessibility makes for expense in extending
or even examining most existing workings. Driving blind through some general area has
little chance for success in the face of the amount of work already done. It should by
now be the plea, not only of the geologist, that geological mapping and investigation
should keep abreast of the working-faces, and not be left to an indefinite future.
The indications of splitting of the lode on the dip provide perhaps the best clue to
exploration, because overlooked segments of ore along the course of the main drifts may
not amount to very much.
Lack of knowledge prevents estimation of continuity of the lode down the dip in
most parts of the mine. No. 5 level, with indications of ore on a footwall split, is perhaps
the easiest to investigate, from the adit crosscut.
Mineralization relatively rich in zinc was reportedly left in the eastern end of No. 4
level and might constitute ore at present prices. There is apparently a split condition in
the lode in this part of No. 4 level.
At present the only block of ore observable, and also accessible without much difficulty, is in the Rabbit Paw zone above No. 10 level.
The reclaiming of No. 10 level from the adit crosscut to any point east of the S&an
Star oreshoot would be a major job roughly equivalent to driving a new heading for the
same distance.
On the west end of the lode zone on Ruth-Hope ground, apart from pumping out
No. 6 (Ruth) level with a vi&v to lateral exoloration or further sinkine. the immediate
goal w&d bk testing the hangingwall of the porphyry, a task already be&
Testing of
the footwall of the porphyry would probably involve several hundred feet of preliminary
The Sunshine and Yakima group now forms part of the property
Sunshine and
of Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited, being under option
from the Thomas A. Yawkey interests, 420 Lexington Avenue,
New York, N.Y. It lies across the ridge between Miller and
Howson Creeks. The ground is in the upper overturned panel in argillites and quartzites.
Sunshine lode is explored by a series of adits crossing the ridge,
two of which on the west slope are accessible. The lower adit on the west slope, the
longest on the lode, was entered in 1946 for a length of 530 feet. It crosses east-dipping
quart&es and argillites in a southeast direction for 220 feet to the lode; a drift follows
the lode in an average direction of south 66 degrees east for 310 feet to a cave. The
lode appears to be a moderate to strong fissure zone up to several feet wide containing
gouge and as much as 2% feet of calcite. The average dip is about 50 degrees to the
southwest. Sphalerite and galena are present locally, although the condition of the
working was such that close investigation was not everywhere possible. One stoped
section 25 feet long is 180 feet from where the lode was first encountered, and a second
stope commences at the cave.
The upper adit is a drift on the lode 205 feet long, and a connection exists with the
lower adit, nearly 100 feet below. The lode is a gougy zone dipping between 55 and
70 degrees.
Small caved adits near the ridge crest and down the eastern slope may or may not
be all on the same lode. Nothing can be learned from them except that sheared rock
and some carbonate may be seen on the dumps, which appear to be very old. An adit
was started in 1936 on the western side of the Miller Creek basin to intersect the lode at
a lower level. This adit encountered broken ground and, when entered in 1946, was
caved 150 feet from the portal.
adits on the Yakima claim at an elevation of nearly 6,000 feet
are all caved. One lode, striking north 70 degrees west and dipping about 50 degrees
to the south, is exposed at the southernmost portal and by stripping near by. It is a
zone of fracture and shear containing some carbonate. Two other adits a short distance
to the north may be on a subparallel lode 50 feet or so in the footwall of the first and
diverging to the east, but the only positive evidence of a second lode is the presence of
lode matter on the dumps.
Still another adit, completely caved but with a large dump, is at the fork of the
road on the east side of then claim. This is known locally as the Granville adit. It is not
known why it was driven, perhaps to explore the lodes already described.
Most of the work on the Sunshine and Yakima was done prior to 1905, although
details are lacking. There was a little activity in 1928, evidence of which is a recorded
shipment of 9 tons in that year. Total production from 1895 to 1928 amounted to 116
tons, containing 1 ounce of gold, 9,329 ounces of silver, and 117,416 pounds of lead.
This group of six claims is owned by Slocan Base Metals Mines
Limited, 602 Hastings Street West, Vancouver.
It is on upper
Shea Creek and is reached from the main Silver Ridge road. The
ground was prospected in early years, and an adit was driven in 1929 on the Silver
Ridge Fraction claim to search for the downward continuation of ore or? the Black Colt.
Mining was done under lease by Clarence Cunningham in 1938, and by others in 1939,
1940, and 1942. Excelda Mines Limited, under Lloyd N. Smith, of Vernon, rehabilitated the camp in 1945 and Sylverite Mines Limited was formed in 1946 to take over
the property. When Slocan Base Metals Mines was formed in 1950 the property was
acquired from Excelda and Sylverite.
were subsequentIy driven. Shipments between 1923 and 1929 amounted to 402 tons.
The property was leased in 1931 by E. Doney, who shipped ore each year from 1932
to 1947. The total production to the end of 1947 was 1,424 tons, containing 132 ounces
of gold, 254,419 ounces of silver, 1,298,664 pounds of lead, and 309,222 pounds of zinc.
In 1948 Violamac Mines Limited, of Toronto, purchased the property and Mr.
Doney’s lease and formed the present company, a wholly owned subsidiary. Production
continued on a hand-sorting basis, but the rate increased when the downward continuation
of the main orebody was located on No. 4 level. In 1950 a small mill was built to
concentrate low-grade material and also to obviate the zinc loss incurred in shipping
ore to the lead smelter.
From 1948 to 1950 the production of crude ore was 4,355 tohs, containing 194
ounces of gold, 368,042 ounces of silver, 3,948,726 pounds of lead, and 1,496,336
pounds of &c.
The rocks are interbedded argillites and quartzites, commonly rather thinly bedded.
There are manv sills in the mine workines. The structure is an extensive southwesterlv
dipping panel, &ht side up stratigraphi&lly,
with an average dip into the hillside estimated to be 40 degrees. Many individual dips are flatter than this figure, but the effect
of minor crumples and dragfolds is to steepen the effective dip of the panel as a whole.
The limits of the panel are not known, particularly of the zone where the strata must
steepen and roll down and under to an overturned position, in accordance with known
structure to the southeast.
The rocks are cut by a system of northeasterly trending steep joints that may dip
either way but on the average dip to the southeast. The joints cut the strata approximateIy at right angles. The lode is paAle to the joint system and in fact appears to be an
accentuated joint on which there has been only a small amount of displacement. The
joints may be mineralized, and even fractures of Iocal or non-systematic development
may contain small amounts of lode matter.
The lode varies in appearance from place to place. It may be a single or multiple
fracture, from a barely perceptible crack to a sheeted or crushed zone several feet wide,
and in parts of No. 3 level several mineralized fractures occur in a width oft 20 feet. In
the oreshoots, siderite, calcite, and quartz are minor in amount, and the lode matter may
be predominantly galena or sphalerite, or both. The ore averages about 1 foot wide in
the ore zone, and widths of 5 feet of almost massive galena have been seen.
Faults are abundant; they are as a rule bedded and may cut the strata on dip but
less often on strike. The larger faults are prominent gougy zones up to 2 feet and more
wide. The movement on them is normal, inasmuch as the hangingwall moved down.
Some are r&ted to dragfolds formed as a result of folding, and it seems that here, as
in other parts of the area, the bedded normal faults formed at a late stage of the folding,
as an extreme of interbed slippage. The amount of movement on the faults cannot be
determined, but it is believed to have been relatively small in spite of the prominent
development of gouge.
The relation between faults and lode is ambiguous. The lode is offset not at all by
some faults, a few inches to a few feet in either direction by others, or an as yet undetermined distance by a few, without regard to the apparent size of the fault. It is probable
that the movement on many of the faults was slight, but it is a fact that lode and faults
were to some degree contemporaneous.
The ore widens close to a fault, proving at once
an opening of the lode at the fault and a damming effect by the fault gouge. It is possible
that the Iode formed as a rupture in interfault blocks and not as a singIe continuous fissure.
The ore solutions clearly penetrated any fracture available to them and deposited
ore in response to local physical opening or lowered pressure, wherever a site was present.
The most favourable site or sites were naturally withbi the lode, but other sites included
joints, random fractures, and bedding planes. Ore has been followed in one instance a
few feet laterally along the bedding, and in one place on No. 5 level, not folly investigated
at ~the time of writing, a “hump ” of ore in the floor of the drib appeared to be the result
of ore filling between beds in a local roll or dome.
The lode is developed by six adits. The upper Eve cover a range of a little more than
400 feet. No. 7, 220 feet below No. 5, was started in 1950. An old adit above No. 1
was driven as a prospect working in the early years of development.
No. 1 adit contained ore in an upper oreshoot which was topped by a Eat fault and
presumably was bottomed by a fault that, close to the portal, offset the lode about 15 feet
to the right. On No. 2 adit no well-detined lode was seen.
No. 3 adit, near the top of the main orebody, is mined out. There was one orebody
between Nos. 2 and 3 levels, but the main body lay below No. 3. No. 4 adit was not
driven originally on the lode, but a short crosscut in 1949 roached the lode and drifts
were driven both ways on it. The main ore on No. 4 is 160 feet long, with some additional length on the southeast.
The ore on No. 5 level is 380 feet long at least, and may be considerably longer.
Most of the block between Nos. 4 and 3 and about half that between Nos. 5 and 4 was
mined by the end of 1950.
No. 7 adit is driven along the course of the joint system and reaches the lode 1,040
feet from the portal. The lode strikes nearly west in the Erst 80 feet of drift; it is mineralized, and is similar in appearance to stretches of comparable length on the levels
above. The ground is very wet on the course of the lode. The ground crossed by the
adit is structurally similar to that above, with fewer faults in evidence. Lode matter
was seen in several joints and minor erratic fractures. The lode was encountered in
May, 1951.
The following remarks, not all sequential, refer to observations relative to geology
and ore control. Some observations are the writer’s, and for others he is grateful to J. W.
Ambrose and W. S. Ellis.
A swarm of porphyry sills is noticeable at camp level and passes through the mine
below No. 3 level. Sills are present in the outer part of No. 5 adit but are comparatively
rare in No. 7 adit. They range in thickness from a few inches to 15 feet. The sills are
not as good host rocks as the sediments, the lode forming in them a gougy zone or else a
relatively tight fissure, rather than the sheeted or blocky fractured zone characteristic in
the sediments.
The strocture on No. 7 level, as far as known, is very similar to that on the levels
above. The average dip is flatter, and the beds are more argillaceous and somewhat
thicker. The contact with a stock of quartz diorite lies at most a few hundred feet down
the hillside from No. 7, but no effects attributable to this body have been detected in the
new level.
OII No. 5 level there is much broken, mashed ground, and the lode matter is crushed.
Some of the sills are shattered, although few faults were seen crossing them. The shattering is possibly caused by late folding, affecting the sills and the lode. There is some
silicification on No. 5 level of sediments and locally of a sill or dyke. It is the only
observed example of an intrusive body having been silicified, probably at the time of
There is no obvious rake to the orebodies or shoots. The distribution of ore is controlled in part by faults which are about parallel to the bedding, but there is no conclusive
evidence that the oreshoots rake with the bedding.
The ore shows abundant evidence of movement apart from the crushed condition
on No. 5 level. A good deal of the galena is gneissic, some is slickensided, and sdme
shows the gneissic bands to be dragfolded.
St& on the lode walls pitch with the bedding. A little dragging suggests a normal
movement. Lenses or spurs from the lode dip to the northwest and may be tensional in
There is a tendency for bends to the right to make ore. All this evidence points
to the southeast side of the lode having moved down and to the southwest, a direction
parallel rather than opposed to both fault and bedding-slip movement.
Where a good face of ore is seen the walls are commonly sheeted.
Some faults persist as clay seams through massive ore without offsetting the lode,
Ore tends to enlarge or blossom near and particularly beneath a fault, and the enlargement
contains principally galena. Some of the larger ore pods persist to the actual fault, but
in many instances ore blossoms near the fault and pinches again immediately at or
beneath it. The ore may be of different character on either side of a fault on which
there has been no apparent displacement.
Where an oreshoot or pod pinches, it characteristically contains more sphaterite.
The greater widths contain predominantly galena, but constrictions and terminations,
and stringers in general, contain mostly sphalerite. Where an oreshoot pinches the
galena may become sheathed with sphalerite before giving way to sphalerite almost
entirely. These observations are similar to others made in different parts of the area,
reliably reported by men who have done much mining on other properties. The occurrence of large and central masses of galena apexing in and locally completely sheathed
by sphalerite is common of the relationship between the two minerals.
The former Wakefield group is owned by Kelowna Exploration
Company Limited.
It is on the steep hillside on the southwest
flank of Selkirk Peak at an elevation of about 5,800 to 6,000 feet.
Access is by trail from the Carnation or by overgrown trail from the Mammoth.
The Wakefield was developed by an English company, Wakefield Mines Limited,
who built a loo-ton mill on Silverton Creek and an aerial tram-line to it from the mine.
This company suspended operations in 1902, and for five years thereafter the property
was worked under lease by various interests. Shipments recorded in 1915, 1919, and
1929 show leasing activity in those years. Options were taken by Clarence Cunningham
in 1918, and later by the Victoria Syndicate, but the workings at the time of writing are
essentially as they were in 1905. The mill burned down in 1912 and was replaced by the
present Hewitt mill.
The 6rst shipment, made in 1899, amounted to more than 500 tons, containing
120 ounces of silver per ton and 48 per cent lead. About 8,000 tons of ore milled in
1900 and 1904 contained 9.5 ounces of silver per ton and 8 per cent Iead. Reference is
made in early reports to a considerable content of zinc in the ore, but although zinc concentrates were made at one time there is no record of their shipment. The small amount
of zinc recorded came from 40 tons shipped in 1929. The total recorded production was
9,858 tons, containing 193,930 ounces of silver, 2,449,159 pounds of lead, and 10.435
pounds of zinc.
The Wakefield lode joins the Carnation lode to the north immediately below the
6300 west portal and passes through the Oakland property to the southeast.
It has
a low average dip to the southeast. The lode slices at a small angle through an overtorned panel consisting predominantly of mixed banded rocks which dip at moderate to
low angles to the east.
The low average dip of the lode is governed by the low dip of the strata traversed,
and the lode tends to be bedded in spite of the marked divergence in strike. In the few
accessible workings there is a wide variation in lode attitude, and sketches of the lode
published in the Zinc Commission Report in 1906 show even greater variations in parts
of the now inaccessible workings.
The Wakefield is a connecting liik between the major Adams-Oakland and Carnation-Mammoth lode zones. It passes through a thick low-dipping panel, locally paralleling the beds and locally crossing them abruptly. Considerable variations in the attitude,
width, and character of the lode are. consequently to be expected.
The trace of the lode on the hillside pitches to the south at a low angle, and seven
adits were driven on the lode in an outcrop distance of 850 feet and a difference in elevation of 177 feet, the average dip of the lode being about 13 degrees. The longest adit,
No. 2, is 8.50 feet long according to an old plan. Most of the ore mined came from
Nos. 1 and 2 adits, now inaccessible.
Only Nos. 5 bnd 7 adits were entered, each being about 500 feet long. The lode
at its broadest shows about 3 or 4 feet of shearing and in places appears to be only a foot
wide, although there may be additional unexplored parts of the lode. Imbrication
indicates that the hangingwall moved down and east. The lode is irregular, is bedded
in many places, and may follow local bends in the strata.
There is not much gouge in Nos. 5 and 7 adits, and the filling of quartz and c&ire
is not abundant.
Sphalerite is common as grains and pods or as stringers as much as
3 inches wide. The best width of zinc-bearing quartz seen in No. 5 adtt was 18 inches
wide. Only a little galena was seen.
Between No. 7, the southernmost adit, and the Carnation 6300 adit, a distance of
about 4,000 feet, there are in addition to the seven main adits a few surface and nearsurface workings. These are all sloughed, and the full width of the lode cannot be seen
clearly anywhere. A little sphalerite is to be seen in some of the dump material.
This property is owned by Washington Mine Limited, c/o Clark
and and Clark, 475 Howe Street, Vancouver.
It crosses Payne ridge
southeast of the Payne mine, and the main workings are on the
Slocan Boy
northeastern slope. The workings can be reached by trail from
the Rambler road on McGuigan Creek or from the end of fhe
Payne Road.
The Washington was located in 1891 and by the end of 1894 had shipped a total of
2,060 tons of ore with an average content of 140 ounces of silver per ton and 60 per cent
lead. A mill was completed at the end of 1895 near McGuigan Creek and was connected
with the mine by a tram-line. In 1896, 6,000 tons was milled, and subsequently 431 tons
was shipped from 1901 to 1939. Total recorded production was 8,491 tons, containing
2,318,738 ounces of silver, 4,256,797 pounds of lead, and 2,353 pounds of zinc.
The Slocan Boy was located in the same year as the Washington and was developed
in the early 1890’s. The recorded production from 1896 to 1905 was 381 tons, containing 44,188 ounces of silver and 491,246 pounds of lead.
In 1940 the Washington, Slocan Boy, and the Payne were optioned by Kelowna
Exploration Company Limited, and the combined area was geologically mapped by Evans
B. Mayo. The company did some bulldozer stripping in 1942 to locate the southern
extension of the Washington lode and later relinquished the option.
The workings were not examined by the writer. The Slocan Boy adits were all
caved, and it was reported that only a very small part of the Washington workings was
accessible. The property was reported on by Cairnes (1935, pp. 159-162), from whose
description the following remarks are abstracted.
The Washington workings, consisting of a, shaft near the ridge crest and six adits on
the McGuigan slope, develop the lode for a total length of about 1,000 feet. The lode
is “ a mineralized fault fissure zone, along which considerable sheating has occurred.
The zone has a general strike of north 50 degrees east, and in most places dips steeply
southeast, but locally is vertical, or, as in places between Nos. 1 and 2 levels, dips northwest. The principal productive section outcropped on the McGuigan Creek slope from
above the highest adit to below No. 2 adit, a vertical distance of about 350 feet. This
section has been largely stoped to the surface.
It had an average pitch of about 48
degrees northeast; a maximum length, on the pitch, of about 750 feet; and a maximum
width across the pitch of about 250 feet. In this section the lode varied in thickness
from a few inches to 12 feet and was composed of crushed rock, quartz and a little
siderite, galena, zinc blade, and pyrite.
“Ore and vein mineralization has been controlled by both bedding and jointing
structures. The general course of the main lode follows the latter. It appears, however,
that no one fissure is continuously mineralized, but that mineralization has been diverted
from one to another by other fissures conforming closely with the bedding structure.
Such cross-fissures arc common in these workings and in many places contain a little ore.
They may cut across both walls of the main 1Ode or lodes, but cqmmonly stop at the
hangingwall and run into the footwall rocks.”
Workings on the Slocan Boy include t&x adits about 200 feet long extending to
a depth of about 300 feet below the crest of the ridge. Early reports state that the lode
was rich but narrow.
The rocks cut by the lodes arc southwesterly dipping argillites with some qua&tic
and limy strata. The workings are in the upper, right-side-up lib of the Payne recumbent fold, and the lower, overturned limb has not been recognized in the McGuigan Creek
basin, as far down as the road crossing at an elevation of 5,200 feet. The axis of the fold
on the Carpenter Creek slope is at an elevation of about 6,150 feet on the line of projection of the Washington lode.
To judge merely from surface exposures at the upper adit portals, the Washington
lode is not everywhere a strong, well-defined zone, and the movement on it probably
was not large in amount. At the portal of No. 2 adit it would appear that the movement
was normal in character and possibly a few tens of feet in amount. To judge from
Cairn& remarks on variability of the lode, and to compare it with the nearby Payne
lode, it is possible that there was considerable take-up along the course of the lode, and
that the amount of movement on it varied from place to place.
The bulldozer stripping done in 1942 on the southwest slope was examined in 1948,
after the banks had sloughed. An old 20-foot adit encountered at an elevation of about
6,300 feet was driven on brecciated material which may represent the extension of the
Washington lode. The amount of breccia is, however, variable and is more widely
distributed in the soil than would be possible if it all came from one lode zone. The
structure is locally complex, with small rolls and strongly cleaved zones a short distance
above the axis of the main fold, a situation which would probably strongly affect the
course and behaviour of the Iode and make its positive identification difficult.
Head office, 38 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. M. P. McCulWestern Exploration lough, president: A. M. Ham, managing director; C. C. Starr,
Company Limited
consulting engineer; R. A. Avison, superintendent.
This company, with mill and offices at Silverton, bought the Mammoth and
Standard mines in 1928 through R. A. Grimes, at a time when the Mammoth orebody
was being developed and the Standard was being worked by lessees. A mill was built at
Silverton and a 16,000-foot aerial tram-line was built to the mine under the management
of Grimes. The new equipment was given a trial run early in 1930 before low metal
prices forced closure.
Later, the Standard was rehabilitated and ore from the two properties was milled.
The Enterprise on Enterprise Creek was bought in I944 at about the time that the Mammoth orebody above No. 7 level was exhausted.
Recent development has again brought the Mammoth into production, and the
three properties tic being operated. Ore is transported by tram from the Mammoth
and by truck from the Standard and Enterprise.
The Wonderful property, 1 mile west of Sandon, was purchased
in 1948 by Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited and added to
that company’s already extensive holdings. The Wonderful was
among the earliest locations. Discovery of galena float led to ground-sluicing in 1894
and the uncovering of a train of boulders of almost massive galena. Total production
of ground-sluicing operations, to the end of 1896, amounted to 400 tons, containing
120 ounces of silver per ton and 70 per cent lead.
Early development underground was not satisfactory.
The first workings were
purely exploratory, and apparently no definite lode was encountered by them. Some
ore was mined, but it seemed doubtful whether the lode, which supposedly produced the
large amount of detrital galena, had been discovered.
The property was acquired by Clarence Cunningham in 1915, who established
continuity of ore and drove most of the existing workings. In 1918 Cunningham built
a 150-ton concentrator at Alamo Siding, on the site of the original Alamo mill, to treat
the ores from his various properties. A tram-line was built to transport the Wonderful
ore to the railroad.
Ore of shipping grade gave place to concentrating ore. The peak
year was 1923, when 10,663 tons of ore was mined, carrying a small amount of gold, 11.6
ounces of silver per ton, 5.1 per cent lead, and 3.3 per cent zinc. Work stopped in 1928,
and an option was taken on the property by the Standard Silver-Lead Mining Company,
who did exploratory work on No. 1 level.
The Wonderful is credited with a production of 31,273 tons, with a metal content
of 221 ounces of gold, 415,156 ounces of silver, 3,530,291 pounds of lead, and 2,559,629
pounds of zinc. From 1896 to 1918 shipping ore, amounting to 1,630 tons, carried
92 ounces of silver per ton and 52.4 per cent lead. Concentrating ore, between 1919
and 1927, amounting to 29,604 tons, contained 9 ounces of silver per ton, 3.06 per cent
lead, and 4.3 per cent zinc, in lead and zinc concentrates.
The Wonderful mine is opened by two adit levels, the A, elevation 4,208 feet, and
the No. 1, elevation 4,107 feet (Fig. 15). Elevations are taken from old company
plans and are close to the datum used in this bulletin. The productive level, A, connected by raise with six interior levels which, with approximate heights above A level,
were named B, 100 feet; B%, 140 feet; C, 200 feet; Cl%, 242 feet; D, 295 feet;
E, 417 feet. There were also several small sublevels. In Figure 15 only No. 1, A, B,
and D levels are shown, because the full level plan is too complex to illustrate at any
convenient scale. The mine is inaccessible.
All the following information is taken from an old company map containing some
geological data. The Wonderful lode was first encountered on A level 35 feet east of
the Wonderful fault, which dips 35 degrees eastward and flattens upwards to a 30-degree
dip above B and as far as C level; the lode was displaced 30 to 35 feet by this fault.
A second, known as the Long fault, strikes northwest and dips very steeply to the
northeast. This fault displaced the lode about 160 feet.
East of the Wonderful fault a lode segment was partly stoped over a length of 35
to 80 feet. What is presumed to be the same segment, but not apparently stoped, was
followed for 500 feet on No. 1 level. The inter-fault block, 725 feet long on B level
and shortening upwards to about half that length on D level, was very irregular. About
50 feet of lode is indicated west of the Long fault on C level, and possibly as much as
250 feet on B level, the only levels which crossed that fault. Farther west B level trends
northwestward, to a total distance of about 500 feet west of the long fault.
Complete stope maps are not available, but some stoping was done on the eastern
block from A to the vicinity of B% level, east of the Wonderful fault. Some stoping
was done in the western block from B level to above C level, west of the Long fault. The
central block, between the two faults, was partly stoped between B and D levels.
The lode structure is irregular, to judge from the record, particularly in the central
block. The strike and dip are variable, and the lode is interrupted by discontinuous fault
and gouge zones whose origin or relation to the lode are uncertain. In the eastern block
the dip above A level is 55 degrees to the south and is somewhat flatter down to No. 1.
In the western block it is about 70 degrees. In the central block the dip ranges between
5’5 degrees and vertical, while there is considerable variation in the direction of strike,
Cairnes reports (1935, p. 164) : “ The principal ore shoots, now mostly exhausted,
have been found in the central and western mine workings, little mineralization having
been encountered elsewhere. In the more productive sections the lode filling varied up
to 8 or more feet in width and consisted of less crushed wall-rock, quartz, spathic iron,
and ore minerals. The ore is brecciated and consists of fragments of galena, blende, and
country rock in a gangue largely of quartz but containing, in places, quite a large proportion of spathic iron. In the less productive section the lode is marked by a few inches
or SOof gouge and crushed wall-rock with, here and there, bunches of quartz and traces
of ore minerals. Pyrite and pyrrhotite are rather common and, in places, are quite
abundant in both the uroductive and lean uortions of the lode.”
The Pearson adi{, approximately 195&f& below A level and 94 feet below No. 1
level, was driven in 1948 and 1949 on a lode uncovered by stripping on the projection of
the drift on NO. 1 level. The finding of this lode on the surface and the tracing of it in
the Pearson adit proves the existence of a segment of the Wonderful lode about 750 feet
long east of the Wonderful fault. This lode segment averages about 45 degrees in dip in
its eastern part and about 20 degrees in its western, in marked contrast with the average
dip of nearly 55 degrees above A level.
In the Pearson adit the lode is intersected 100 feet from the portal and is followed
to the west for 580 feet; a section of drift 140 feet long was detoured into the footwall to
avoid bad ground. The lode is a strong gougy zone, slicing at an acute angle argillites and
quart&es which dip at about 1.5 to 20 degrees for the most part. Where first encountered
the lode contained some sphalerite and galena, between the hangingwall and a steeper
footwall branch. In 1951 a nearly vertical fissure was encountered 35 feet in the footwall
of the lode at a point 260 feet west of the crosscut. In the lirst 100 feet of drift this
footwall branch is mineralized sporadically and contains as much as 3 feet of sljhalerite
of moderate grade, as well as local masses of galena.
The Lookout adit, elevation 4,264 feet, is driven as a crosscut for 2,252 feet at south
78 degrees west on the Lookout No. 2 mineral claim. At a point 1,200 feet from the
portal a branch extends for 2,285 feet about north 24 degrees west; the inner 300 feet of
the branch is deflected nearly 20 degrees westerly.
The main coarse of the adit was started in 1946 as a general exploratory tunnel, with
a view to later lateral investigation.
The branch was driven northward to intersect the
Wonderful lode and was continued in an attempt to intersect the New Springlield lode.
A great deal of water was encountered beneath Miller Creek, in the bedding and in minor
fractures, at a depth of nearly 400 feet below the creek.
The only mineralized structure, apart from one or two thin seams containing calcite
and a little siderite, was a zone 1,625 feet northwest of the main crosscut. This zone
consists of two subparallel fissures 20 feet apart, dipping steeply to the south. The
hangingwall fissure, containing up to 30 inches of calcite, strikes north 55 degrees east.
The footwall branch is 1 to 2 feet wide, strikes east, and contains as much as 3 inches of
calcite and siderite. This zone or pair of fissures has not been explored. Crosscutting
joints, normal in strike to the bedding and dipping steeply to the southeast, are common
through most of this branch of the adit, but are not mineralized.
The sedimentary structure is illustrated in Figure 3, Section E-E’. The main body
of the Lookout adit is driven close to the nearly horizontal axial plane of a recumbent fold.
In the first 800 feet detailed complexity of folding masks the outline, but in the inner
section the nearly vertical beds are interrupted by flat sections which represent open
dragfolds of Z form. The structure has remarkable horizontal continuity, as shown by
the uniformity of strike for the known distance of 2,300 feet in the northern branch (Fig.
15) ; in this distance the dip is consistently to the east, with only minor open rolls. The
plunge on these rolls averages probably a few degrees to the northwest. The rocks in this
section are moderately strong and well-bedded argillites and quartzites.
A different picture is presented in the region of the Wonderful and Pearson adits.
Thin to moderately thin bedded heterogeneous argillites and quartzites dip at moderate to
low angles, predominantly to the east. The beds are overturned, and local open warps
have formed in the overturned panel. Details are unknown because of the scarcity of
and of accessible mine workings. Most of the workings are in the lower limb
of the same fold penetrated axially by the inner part of the Lookout adit. The fold is
faulted upwards by the Long and possibly by other faults. Projection of attitudes farther
down Tributary Creek shows a reversal to a westward-dipping panel at a lower elevation.
The structure may be complicated by granitic intrusion, of which two bodies, possibly
large but of unknown attitude, are exposed in the creek bed. Dykes withii the workings
are few in number.
The Wonderful lode in the Pearson adit, the only place where it can now be seen,
appears to be a strong fissure zone passing obliquely through low-dipping beds. In the
Wonderful ore zone it passes more steeply through probably complex structure, near the
crest zone of the main fold. West of the Long fault it apparently swings into a steeply
dipping zone of shearing which is probably bedded. It is not known whether the lode is
actually faulted at this point or merely passes into the bedding.
The Wonderful lode is a complex fissure in which the occurrence of ore may be
related to character of wallrock, steepness of dip, and nearness to tangential faults. The
particular favourable conditions in other parts of the ground are dillicuh to tell, but the
condition in the Pearson adit, where a flattened lode passes obliquely through beds of
low dip, is not a generally favourable one. The low-dipping panel penetrated by the
Pearson adit is succeeded at depth by a steepening and a reversal of dip round the crest
of a lower recumbent fold and, although such a situation should be a favourable one,
knowledge is insufficient to indicate a suitable horizon for further work. The situation
on the level of the Lookout crosscut is considered to be theoretically a favourable one.
An old adit cm the Early Bird claim at an elevation of about 3,700 feet is entirely in
quarts diorite. The size and continuity of this intrusive body are not known, beyond the
fact that it measures at least 130 by 200 feet on the adit level, because there are practically no exposures on the thickly wooded hillside.
The adit extends 86 feet southwestward from the portal to a gouge zone dipping 60
degrees to the northeast. It then follows for 140 feet at south 15 degrees east a narrow
fissure dipping 60 degrees to the west. A subparallel gouge-filled fissure 40 feet to
the west is explored for a length of 40 feet. A small fissure 120 feet from the portal
dips south at 45 degrees and is followed for 125 feet, mostly to the west. It is semicontinuously filled with calcite.
At Queen ,Bes
‘4; SSoVerelg
At Var
At Wake&
At Wonderful
Cunningham Mines Limited~...~~..~~.~~...~.~.~...77,79
78, 91
Grimes, R. A . . . . . 15, 79, 86, 90, 96, 98, 107, 122
lead ratio ...~~~~~~~~~~~.~~..-. ........ - ..-. ... - 59
Ridge, properties on ......-. .... ~..-...~-..70, 77
Ridge ~1.~............. ~.._~~-...-..-..---..- 68
Ridge Fraction cl.. ................. . ....... -68, 116
Ridge Mining Company Limited.. ........
....... -13, 90, 93, 107, 122
Slocan series, thickness
s,nrnn star Minim Coma*
At Mammotl~.
White Creek, pm
uWhitewater *in
Wonderful prop.~
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