UNIT 1
Operating System
OPERATING SYSTEM
Structure
Page No.
1.0
Introduction
5
1.1
Objectives
6
1.2
Familiarization (I/O Port, Keyboard, Memory)
6
1.2.1
Computer and Motherboard
6
1.2.2
I/O Ports
8
1.2.3
I/O Devices
9
1.2.4
Memory
1.3
1.4
14
Windows Operating System
16
1.3.1
Overviews of Windows
16
1.3.2
Windows Installing Procedure
17
1.3.3
Working with XP
25
Linux
Operating System
31
1.4.1
Overview of LUNIX/LINUX Operating System
31
1.4.2
How to install Linux Operating System
32
1.4.3
Linux utilities and Basic Commands
41
1.5
Summary
53
1.6
Answers to Check Your Progress
53
1.0
INTRODUCTION
In this unit, we are going to learn basics of computer. Computer is a machine that
performs tasks or calculations according to a set of instructions, or programs.
Compared to those early machines, today's computers are amazing. Not only are
they thousands of times faster, they can fit on your desk, in your lap, or even in
your pocket. Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software.
Hardware is physical component of a computer system. It is a tiny rectangular
chip inside the computer called the central processing unit (CPU),
or microprocessor. It is the "brain" of computer—the part that translate
instructions and performs calculations. Hardware items such as monitor,
keyboard, mouse, printer, and other items are often called hardware devices.
Software refers to the instructions or programs that tell the hardware what to do.
The operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer and the
devices connected to it. OS is responsible for management and coordination of
activities and the sharing of the limited resources of computer. The OS acts as a
host for other application software.
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We will be discussing about two well known operating systems:
(a)
Windows operating system, and
(b)
Linux operating system.
1.1
OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you should be able to:
understand about computer and it’s components;
features of Windows XP;
know the installation procedure of Windows XP;
features of Linux (Fedora);
know the installation procedure of Fedora; and
know the utilities and basic commands of Fedora.
1.2
FAMILIARIZATION WITH I/O PORT, KEYBOARD,
MEMORY
Computer plays a key role in how individuals work and how they live. Even the
smallest organizations have computers to help them operate more efficiently, and
many individuals use computers at home for educational, entertainment, and
business purposes. Thus you must be familiar with computers and its
components.
In the following sub-sections, we will discuss the same and there is practice
session also at the end of this section. Hope you will enjoy this practice session.
1.2.1
Computer and Motherboard
Computer : A computer is programmable machine that receives input, stores,
manipulate data, and provides output in a useful format.
Computer takes input from input devices and then compute in CPU and stores in
memory and sends output to output devices. The most common device for input is
the keyboard. When you type, you are putting information into the computer,
which is known as input. The most common device for output is the monitor.
These input output devices are connected through I/O Ports.
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Operating System
Figure 1.1 : Working of Computer
A computer system unit contains many parts. As shown in Figure 1.2(a) and
Figure 1.2 (b).
Motherboard : The motherboard is the main circuit board of a computer. It is
also known as the main board or system board. Typically, the motherboard
contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel
ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard
peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive.
Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the
motherboard's chipset. The motherboard can be thought of as the "back bone" of
the computer.
Figure 1.2(a) : Overview of Motherboard
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Figure 1.2 (b) : Detailed Overview of Motherboard
CPU : The CPU is the central electronic chip that contains the processing power
of the computer. Today, all CPUs are microprocessors.
1.
A microprocessor is a complete computer on a silicon chip.
2.
A microprocessor does all of the functions of a computer.
stores data and instructions waiting to be used.
follows changeable instructions.
does input, processing, and output.
Memory : Memory is the part of the computer that temporarily stores
applications, documents, and system operating information.
1.2.2
I/0 Ports
In this sub-section, we will study about I/O ports.
Ports and Connectors : A port is a connector located on the motherboard or on a
separate adapter. This we will discuss in following sub section.
As shown in figure 1.2 an internal view of some of the I/O ports. On the back of
computers are several I/O (or Input/output) ports. Above, on the very top are two
PS/2 ports, normally used for mouse and keyboard connections. Below that are
the USB, (or Universal Serial Bus), ports. Below those are two serial ports beside
a long parallel port that is often used to connect to a printer. On the bottom right is
a game port for joysticks or other game controllers. On the bottom left is a
microphone hook up, a speaker hook up, and an additional hook up for another
sound input device like a musical keyboard.
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Operating System
Figure 1. 3. I/O Port
I/O ports are there to connect to I/O devices. There are various I/O devices which
are discussed in the next subsection:
1.2.3
I/O Devices
Few I/O devices are given Table 1.1.
Table 1.1 : I/O Devices
Input Devices
Output Devices
Mouse
Joystick
Monitor
LCD
Scanner
Printer
Light Pen
Plotter
Here, we are discussing about Keyboard and mouse. Rest is kept for you to
explore.
Keyboard Basics
Keyboard
is used to type data into the computer.
is most common input device.
has special keys for giving the computer commands.
Commands tell the computer to do something, like save the file.
These special keys are called command or function keys.
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Figure 1.4: Overview of Keyboard
Types of Keys
Typing Keys / Main Typing Keypad: It holds alphabetic character such as letter,
special characters and numbers for typing.
Numeric Keypad: It can be used as numeric and directional keys, pressing the
Num Lock key above the numeric keypad will tell whether the keys are on
numeric or directional mode. If it is on, it is on numeric mode and can enter
numbers. If it is off, it is on directional mode and only used for moving a cursor
on screen UP, Down, Left or Right.
Function Keys: There are 12 functions keys starting from F1 through F12. These
keys are used for special purposes.
Control Keys: It has two groups of keys, arranged from top to bottom.
The top keys holds Insert, Home, Page Up, Page Down, Delete, and End keys.
Insert key switches between insert and overtype modes. Home key brings you
back at the beginning of a page. Page Up and Page Down keys help you to move
one page or screen up or down. Delete key erases a text or page. The End key
takes you at the end of a page.
The bottom keys are independent directional keys, which let you to move the
cursor Left, Right, Up and Down. Status lights, Escape key, Print Screen/SysRq,
Scroll Lock, and Pause/Break are user for frequent functions.
Status Lights : These light indicate whether Num Lock, Caps Lock or scroll
Lock light is on /off.
There are several short cut keys to make our work convenient when mouse is not
working or if we do not want to do several manouvres with the mouse. It makes
our work convenient while working with MS-Word.
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Shortcut Keys
Description
Operating System
e
Ctrl + A
Select all contents of the page.
Ctrl + B
Bold highlighted selection.
Ctrl + C
Copy selected text.
Ctrl + E
Aligns the line or selected text to the center of the
screen.
Ctrl + F
Open find box.
Ctrl + I
Italic highlighted selection.
Ctrl + J
Aligns the selected text or line to justify the screen.
Ctrl + K
Insert link.
Ctrl + L
Aligns the line or selected text to the left of the screen.
Ctrl + M
Indent the paragraph.
Ctrl + P
Open the print window.
Ctrl + Spacebar
Reset highlighted text to the default font.
Ctrl + 1
Single-space lines.
Ctrl + 2
Double-space lines.
Ctrl + 5
1.5-line spacing.
Ctrl + Alt + 1
Changes text to heading 1.
Ctrl + Alt + 2
Changes text to heading 2.
Ctrl + Alt + 3
Changes text to heading 3.
Alt + Ctrl + F2
Open new document.
Ctrl + F1
Open the Task Pane.
Ctrl + F2
Display the print preview.
Ctrl + Shift >
Increases the highlighted text size by one.
Ctrl + ]
Increase selected font +1pts.
Ctrl + Shift + <
Decrease selected font -1pts if 12pt or lower, if above
12 decreases font by +2pt.
Ctrl + [
Decrease selected font -1pts.
Ctrl + / + c
Insert a cent sign (¢).
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Ctrl + R
Aligns the line or selected text to the right of the
screen.
Ctrl + T
Create a hanging indent.
Ctrl + U
Underline highlighted selection.
Ctrl + V
Paste.
Ctrl + X
Cut selected text.
Ctrl + Y
Redo the last action performed.
Ctrl + Z
Undo last action.
Ctrl + Shift + F
Change the font.
Ctrl + Shift + >
Increase selected font +1pts up to 12pt and then
increases font +2pts.
Ctrl + ' + <char>
Insert a character with an accent (grave) mark,
where <char> is the character you want. For
example, if you wanted an accented è you would
use Ctrl + ' + e as your shortcut key. To reverse
the accent mark use the opposite accent mark,
often on the tilde key.
Ctrl + Shift + *
View or hide non printing characters.
Ctrl + <left arrow>
Moves one word to the left.
Ctrl + <right arrow>
Moves one word to the right.
Ctrl + <up arrow>
Moves to the beginning of the line or paragraph.
Ctrl + <down arrow>
Moves to the end of the paragraph.
Ctrl + Del
Deletes word to right of cursor.
Ctrl + Backspace
Deletes word to left of cursor.
Ctrl + End
Moves the cursor to the end of the document.
Ctrl + Home
Moves the cursor to the beginning of the
document.
How keyboard connects to a computer?
Computer Keyboard can connect with a computer through a cable or signal
(wireless connection). Until recently, a keyboard used to connect with the
standard PS/2 type or Serial.
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Now, this trend has changed and the connection is replaced by USB (universal
serial bus) and wireless connectors. Most modern PCs (motherboards) even don’t
have PS/2 connectors, only USB.
Operating System
Since, there is no cable connection with main PC, wireless keyboard gets power
from battery or a/c power connection. This is the side effect of wireless
keyboards; you often have to change battery.
Mouse
The mouse is a small device used to point to a particular place on the screen and
select in order to perform one or more actions. It can be used to select menu
commands, size windows, start programs etc. The most conventional kind of
mouse has two buttons on top: the left one being used most frequently.
Figure 1.5 : Mouse and its buttons
Mouse buttons
Primary button / left button for left click
Secondary button / right button for right click
Scroll wheel for moving page up or down
Mouse Actions
Pointing : Point the object
Left Click: Used to select an item.
Double Click: Used to start a program or open a file.
Right Click: Usually used to display a set of commands.
Drag and Drop: It allows you to select and move an item from one location to
another. To achieve this place the cursor over an item on the screen, click the left
mouse button and while holding the button down move the cursor to where you
want to place the item, and then release it.
How Mouse is connected to PC
Mouse is connected to pc similarly as keyboard. It can be connected with either
PS/2 connectors or USB. The connections can be through a cable or wirelessly as
well.
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1.2.4
Memory
Now we discuss about one of the most important parts of computers i.e memory.
Computers generally possess several distinct types of memory, each of which
"holds" or stores information for subsequent use. The vast majority of computer
memory can be placed into one of two categories: primary memory and
secondary memory.
Figure 1.6 : Hierarchy of memory
Primary memory, often called main memory, constitutes that device, or group of
devices, that holds instructions and data for rapid and direct access by the
computer's central processing unit (CPU). Primary memory is synonymous with
random-access memory (RAM).
Figure 1.7 : RAM
Modern RAM is made of semiconductor circuitry. RAM is a volatile form of
information storage, meaning that when electrical power is terminated any data
that it contains is lost. There are other semiconductor memory devices accessed
by the CPU that are generally considered as being distinct from primary memory
(i.e., different from RAM). These memory units include cache memory, read-only
memory (ROM), and Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) and
EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory
Secondary memory, also called auxiliary memory or mass storage, consists of
devices not directly accessible by the CPU. Hard drives, floppy disks, tapes, and
optical disks are widely used for secondary storage. First, most secondary storage
devices are capable of containing much more information than is feasible for
primary memory (hence the use of the term "mass storage" as
a synonym for secondary memory).
A
second,
and essential,
feature
of secondary memory is that it is non-volatile. This means that data is stored with
or without electrical power being supplied to the device, as opposed to RAM,
which can retain its data only so long as electrical power is present.
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Like primary memory, many secondary memory devices are capable of storing
information, as well as retrieving it. Magnetic technology devices (such as hard
drives, floppy disks, and tape) have this read-write capability, as do magnetooptical drives. However, some mass storage devices can only read data, as in the
case of CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory) drives. CD-ROMs utilize
optical technology; however, newer optical technologies, such as CD-RW
(compact disk-rewriteable), can both read and write information like
magnetic storage devices.
Operating System
Hard Disk
Figure 1.8(a) : Internal view
Figure 1.8(b) : External view
The hard disk is the main, and usually largest, data storage device in a computer.
The operating system, software titles and most other files are stored in the hard
disk.
Now let’s have a Practice Session
Check Your Progress 1
1. Find shortcut keys for the following:
a) To Open Help.
b) To repeat the last action performed.
c) To save document
d) To Bold the selected text
e) Change the text in Microsoft Word from uppercase to lowercase or capital
letter at the beginning of every word.
2. List use of following function keys:
F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F7, F8, F12
3. Type the following passage in MS-WORD
over the past few years the growth of the computer industry has been quiet
remarkable and today it is the fastest growing industry in our economy.
Nowadays, many schools are equipped with computers for educating their
students. Thereby making computers an integral part of education system.
Teachers and profesors use computers for teaching, giving presentations,
assessing various data banks, maintaining database of students,
communication in the form of e mails or chat, browsng the Internet and
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Preparing students to have a competitive edge in the global job market.
Computers have revolutionized the learning for students in a big way. They
can watch various films on wild life, history, geography, science and
encyclopedias with loud sound and excellent picture quality on
CompactDisc’sorDVD’s.
(a)
In this paragraph, there are few spelling errors. Try spelling check for
this. Try to find and replace ‘loud’ by ‘‘excellent”.
(b) Now save this paragraph with the name ‘computer’ on your desktop.
1.3
WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM
The main operating systems involved in networking now days are Windows and
Linux. Both are having their own advantages and disadvantages. Linux works
better on older, less powerful computer hardware because it requires less resource
(memory or processing) as compared to Windows. Compared to Windows, Linux
is virus-free and bugs free. Windows provides the user a mature, familiar and
interactive interface that is easy to learn and understandable. But we think that a
network administrator should have an expertise on both of these leading network
operating systems. Even most of the network administrators are running both
Linux and Windows on the server for the best networking.
This section provides you the:
(1)
Discussions, demonstrations, and lab exercises to sharpen your skills and
knowledge necessary to admin and support Windows XP/Linux
networking.
(2)
It contains an overview of Windows XP and Linux/Unix in the beginning
to develop your understanding of these operating systems.
(3)
Further in this course you have an example to introduce you in the lab.
Then you have different lab exercises on Linux/Unix and on Windows XP.
1.3.1
Overview of Windows
Background to Windows
Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on
personal, including home and business desktops, laptops, and media centers. It
was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24, 2001, and is the most
popular version of Windows, based on installed user base. The name "XP" is
short for "experience."
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Windows XP was the successor to both Windows 2000 and Windows Me, and
was the first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoft
System Requirement for windows XP.
Pentium 233-megahertz
recommended).
(MHz) processor
or faster
(300 MHz
Operating System
is
At least 64 megabytes (MB) of RAM (128 MB is recommended).
At least 1.5 gigabytes (GB) of available space on the hard disk.
CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive.
Keyboard and a Microsoft Mouse or some other compatible pointing device.
Video adapter and monitor with Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher resolution.
Sound card.
Speakers or headphones.
1.3.2
Windows Installing Procedure
This procedure demonstrates how to install Windows XP Professional. The
procedure to install Windows XP home edition is very similar to the professional
edition. Since Windows XP Pro is more advanced operating system, it will be
used to demonstrate the installation procedure.
The best way install Windows XP is to do a clean install. It is not difficult to
perform a clean installation. Before you perform the installation I recommend that
you check Windows XP Compatibility List to ensure that your hardware is
supported by XP. If your hardware is not on the compatibility list you can check
your hardware manufactures website to download the drivers for Windows XP.
Save all the necessary drivers onto floppy disks or CD before you start the
installation.
Step 1 : Start your PC and place your Windows XP CD in your CD/DVD-ROM
drive. Your PC should automatically detect the CD and you will get a
message saying "Press any key to boot from CD". Soon as computer
starts booting from the CD your will get the following screen:
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Step 2 :
At this stage it will ask you to press F6
Step 3 Press S to specify that you want to install additional device.
Step 4 : You will be asked to insert the floppy disk with drivers. Press enter after
you have inserted the disk.
Step 5 : You will see a list of drivers for your HDD. Select the correct driver for
your device and press enter.
Step 6 : You will then get a Windows XP Professional Setup screen. You have
the option to do a new Windows install, Repair previous install or quit.
Since we are doing a new install we just press Enter to continue.
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Step 7 : You will be presented with the End User Licensing Agreement. Press F8
to accept and continue
Operating System
Step 8 : This step is very important. Here we will create the partition where
Windows will be installed. If you have a brand new unformatted drive
you will get a screen similar to below. In our case the drive size is
8190MB. We can choose to install Windows in this drive without
creating a partition, hence use the entire size of the drive. If you wish to
do this you can just press enter and Windows will automatically partition
and format the drive as one large drive.
Step 9: Windows will show the total size of the hard drive and ask you how much
you want to allocate for the partition you are about to create. I will choose
6000MB. You will then get the screen below. Notice it shows C: Partition
1 followed by the size 6000 MB. This indicates the partition has been
created. We still have an unpartitioned space of 2189MB. Next highlight
the unpartitioned space by pressing down the arrow key. Then press C to
create another partition. You will see the total space available for the new
partition. Just choose all the space left over, in our case 2180MB.
Step 10 :
Choose format the partition using NTFS file system.This is the
recommended file system. If the hard drive has been formatted
before then you can choose quick NTFS format. We chose NTFS
because it offers many security features, supports larger drive size,
and bigger size files.
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Windows will now start formatting drive C: and start copying setup files as shown
on the two images below :
Step 11 : After the setup has completed copying the files the computer will
restart. Leave the XP CD in the drive but this time DO NOT press any
key when the message "Press any key to boot from CD" is displayed. In
few seconds setup will continue. Windows XP Setup wizard will guide
you through the setup process of gathering information about your
computer.
Step 12 : Choose your region and language.
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Step 13 : Type in your name and organization.
Operating System
Step 14 : Enter your product key.
Step 15: Name the computer, and enter an Administrator password. Don't forget
to write down your Administrator password.
Step 16: Enter the correct date, time and choose your time zone.
Step 17: For the network setting choose typical and press next.
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Step 18 : Choose workgroup or domain name. If you are not a member of a
domain then leave the default settings and press next. Windows will
restart again and adjust the display.
Step 19: Finally, Windows will start and present you with a Welcome screen.
Click next to continue.
Step 20 : Choose 'help protect my PC by turning on automatic updates now' and
press next.
Step 21 :
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Will this computer connect to the internet directly, or through a
network? If you are connected to a router or LAN then choose: 'Yes,
this computer will connect through a local area network or home
network'. If you have dial up modem choose: 'No, this computer will
connect directly to the internet'. Then click Next.
Step 22 : Ready to activate Windows? Choose yes if you wish to active Windows
over the internet now. Choose no if you want to activate Windows at a later stage.
Operating System
Step 23: Add users that will sign on to this computer and click next.
Step 24 : You will get a Thank you screen to confirm setup is complete. Click
finish.
Step 25 : Log in, to your PC for the first time.
Step 26 : You now need to check the device manager to confirm that all the
drivers has been loaded or if there are any conflicts. From the start
menu select Start -> Settings -> Control Panel. Click on
the System icon and then from the System Properties window select
the Hardware tab, then click on Device Manager.
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If there are any yellow exclamation mark "!" next to any of the listed device, it
means that no drivers or incorrect drivers has been loaded for that device. In our
case we have a Video Controller (VGA card) which has no drivers installed.
Your hardware should come with manufacturer supplied drivers. You need to
install these drivers using the automatic setup program provided by the
manufacturer or you need to manually install these drivers. If you do not have the
drivers, check the manufacturer’s website to download them.
To install a driver manually use the following procedure:
(a)
From the device manager double click on the device containing the
exclamation mark.
(b)
This would open a device properties window.
(c)
Click on the Driver tab.
(d)
Click Update Driver button. The Wizard for updating device driver pops up
as shown below:
You now get two options. The first option provides an automatic search for the
required driver. The second option allows you to specify the location of the
driver. If you don't know the location of the driver choose the automatic search
which would find the required driver from the manufacturer supplied CD or
Floppy disk. Windows would install the required driver and may ask you to restart
the system for the changes to take affect. Use this procedure to install drivers for
all the devices that contain an exclamation mark.
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1.3.3
i)
Working with XP
Operating System
Desktop
The typical Windows XP desktop includes following desktop icons
Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs, and other items.
Double-clicking a desktop icon starts or opens the item it represents. For e.g.
Internet Explorer. It is used to quickly access Internet.
The Taskbar is usually located on the bottom of the screen. It houses the Start
button, clock, and a task button for each active program currently running and
each open folder.
ii) Parts of a window
Most windows have the same basic parts:
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Title bar. Displays the name of the document and program (or the
folder name if you’re working in a folder).
Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons. These buttons hide the
window, enlarge it to fill the whole screen, and close it, respectively
(more details on these shortly).
Menu bar. Contains items that you can click to make choices in a
program. See Using menus, buttons, bars, and boxes.
Scroll bar. Lets you scroll the contents of the window to see
information that is currently out of view.
Borders and corners. You can drag these with your mouse pointer to
change the size of the window.
a) Moving a window
To move a window, point to its title bar with the mouse pointer . Then drag
the window to the location that you want. (Dragging means pointing to an
item, holding down the mouse button, moving the item with the pointer, and
then releasing the mouse button.)
Changing the size of a window
To make a window fill the entire screen, click its Maximize button
double-click the window's title bar.
or
To return a maximized window to its former size, click
its Restore button
(this appears in place of the Maximize button). Or,
double-click the window's title bar.
To resize a window (make it smaller or bigger), point to any of the
window's borders or corners. When the mouse pointer changes to a twoheaded arrow (see picture below), drag the border or corner to shrink or
enlarge the window.
A window that is maximized cannot be resized. You must restore it to its
previous size first.
b) Hiding a window
Hiding a window is called minimizing it. If you want to get a window out
of the way temporarily without closing it, minimize it.
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To minimize a window, click its Minimize button
. The window disappears
from the desktop and is visible only as a button on the taskbar, the long horizontal
bar at the bottom of your screen.
Operating System
To make a minimized window appear again on the desktop, click its taskbar
button. The window appears exactly as it did before you minimized it.
Closing a window
Closing a window removes it from the desktop and taskbar. If you're done with a
program or document and don't need to return to it right away, close it.
To close a window, click its Close button
.
c) Switching between windows
If you open more than one program or document, your desktop can
quickly become cluttered with windows. Keeping track of which windows
you have open isn't always easy, because some windows might partially or
completely cover others.
Using ALT+TAB. You can switch to the previous window by pressing
ALT+TAB, or cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding
down ALT and repeatedly pressing TAB. Release ALT to show the
selected window.
Arranging windows automatically
Now that you know how to move and resize windows, you can arrange them
however you like on your desktop. You can also have Windows automatically
arrange them in one of three ways: cascading, vertically stacked, or side by side.
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To choose one of these options, right-click an empty area of the taskbar, then
click Cascade Windows, Show Windows Stacked, or Show Windows Side by
Side.
iii) Program Management
You can launch most of your applications via the Start button and Start Menu.
Most of your applications can be launched by selecting Start, All Programs, then
any program name, e.g. Microsoft Word. If an application is saved within a
folder, you would launch it by selecting Start, Programs, folder name (e.g.,
Accessories), then program name (e.g., WordPad).
You can switch between running applications by clicking on them in the Taskbar
or holding down the Alt key, then depressing and releasing the Tab key. If you
inadvertently launch multiple copies of the same program, you will find that all
the of copies will be grouped on to one particular Tab button. The Tab will
display the name of the program and the number of copies of the program that are
open. To choose a specific copy, click the Tab button and all of the copies of the
program names will pop up. Click the one you want to view and it will be
displayed
Similarly you can open other search engine like Google chrome & Fire fox
explore whole world .
iv) File Management
Step by step illustration for Creating and deleting Folder :
Click on the Start button.
Place the pointer on My documents.
Select New from the menu File.
Select Folder.
Once the folder option has been selected you will see that on the right
window a new folder will appear that has the name New Folder and that it
is selected. Rename it My folder.or any other name you want.
Then select the folder, right click and then select option
clicking.
delete
by
When it asks you if you want to send the folder to the Recycle
Bin click Yes.
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Copy or Move a Folder or file
Operating System
Select the folder to be copied.
Once the folder has been selected, click on Copy.
Select the folder where you want to copy then open that folder , right click
and select paste option.
In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to copy to,
click Make new folder, rename new folder with name you want and Click OK.
Copy or Move Multiple Files or Folders
1. Double-click on the folder My documents and create folder 1 and folder 2 .
2. Select the folder ‘folder 1’
3. Press CTRL , Select another folder ‘folder 2’
4. Select from right panel under ‘file and folder task ‘heading ‘Copy the selected
items’ or ‘Move the selected items’
5) The following window will be open
6) Then double-click the folder you want to move the selected items
7) if you want to copy in new folder then select ‘ make new folder ‘ and new
folder is created then select copy
This can also be done to move or copy Files.
Some Windows XP Tips
Check the Taskbar for the programs that are currently running on your computer.
You should close (click on the X at the upper right) all duplicate instances of the
same program to free up memory.
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If your application should "hang" (keyboard or mouse does not respond), hold
down the CONTROL and ALT keys, then depress and release the DELETE key.
You will get a menu of the tasks currently loaded in memory. Highlight the
application that hung (usually the one that is marked "not responding"), and click
on End Task. You can usually unload the application gracefully without having to
reboot your computer.
Files deleted from your local hard drive will be saved in the Recycle Bin until you
empty the Recycle Bin. To empty the Recycle Bin, right click on Recycle Bin,
and select Empty Recycle Bin. If you need to recover deleted files from the
Recycle Bin, right click on Recycle Bin, and select Explore. You should move the
file from the Recycle Bin to another folder on the hard drive (for example, click
and drag the file in Recycle Bin, Explore to the desktop).
It's best to empty the Recycle Bin from time to time as deleted files saved in the
Recycle Bin actually take up more hard disk space than if they were in a regular
folder. But remember, once the Recycle Bin is emptied, you can NOT recover the
deleted files. Also, files deleted from diskettes are not saved in the Recycle Bin.
Finding a "Missing" Document
If the document was created recently on your computer, launch the application
you used to create it, and select File. Windows remembers the last nine
documents you opened by default.
If you remember the file name or part of the file name but not its location, click
on the START button, Search, and Files or Folders. On the menu on the left side,
select All Files and Folders. In the Look In box, select (C:). In the All or Part of
Name: box, enter the file name, and click Search. Windows will list all instances
of the file if it finds any matches. If you know part of the file name, you can enter
it in A Word or Phrase In the File: box.
Saving Documents
In Microsoft Word, the default location to save your document is the My
Documents folder. To save your document in a different folder, click on the
yellow folder with the up-arrow to browse one level up, on the left side click on
the yellow folder with the * to get to your Favorites folders, or click the yellow
folder with a yellow * on it (on the toolbar) to create a new folder. The Save In:
box shows the current folder.
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Operating System
Note: if you use Corel WordPerfect, your default folder for saving documents is
My Files. You may use either folder but it's best to create a folder for each project
and save your documents in their corresponding project folder.
Check Your Progress 2
1. Find out whether your PC has compatibility to install windows XP.
2. Practice and install Windows XP in your PC.
Check Your Progress 3
1. Organize your Desktop icons by name then change the Desktop theme also
2. Your desktop is showing date “Wednesday, may 22, 2011” and time “11:48
AM” now change it to present date and time.
3. Create shortcuts for MS-Word.
4. i) Create new folder rename it as “Lab1”.
ii) Create new ms-word document. Type a paragraph on “computer operating
system “and save it as “session 3”
iii) Ask your friend to search document “session 3”
5. How can you remove an item from the Start menu or from a Program menu?
6. Search Calculator, notepad, paint.
7. Where the pen drive is connected?
8. How will you install extra ram in your computer.
1.4
LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM
1.4.1
Overview of UNIX/ LINUX Operating System
Even after thirty years of its creation UNIX is still regarded as one of the most
versatile, flexible and powerful operating systems in the computer world. It was
created at Bell Labs in 1970 written in the C programming language, which was
developed at the same time. It supports large numbers of simultaneous users, runs
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with few alterations on many hardware platforms (provides some platform
independence) and of course it was and is a simple, elegant, and easy to use (at
least compared to its predecessors) Linux is a relatively new UNIX flavor derived
from the work of Linus Torvalds, who was interested to develop a UNIX for
academic use. Linux is one of the many versions of the UNIX operating system.
Working on Linux means working on one of the flavors of UNIX. The main
advantage that Linux is absolutely free, you need not spend even the cost CD it
can be entirety free downloadable from the Internet. (No registration fees, no
costs per user, free updates, and freely available Operating System and
Networking Lab source code). It is portable (means can be configured on any
processor like Intel, Solaris, etc), dual-bootable, fast, reliable, secure and
versatile. These properties make it popular among the System Administrators.
While working on it you may realize many more important features and
advantages of Linux. Most of the exercises are command line based but similar
exercises you can try on your GUI based Linux.
Fedora 10, also known as Cambridge, was released on November 25th, 2008, and
it brings faster boot experience with Plymouth, better printing, better webcam
support, improved wireless network connection sharing, better software
maintenance and update. We will learn how to install the DVD edition of the
Fedora 10 operating system on your PC. Why the DVD edition? Because we
believe it offers most of the applications you'll need. However, this guide will
make things very simple for you, but if you get stuck somewhere in the middle of
the installation and you need help, do not hesitate to use our commenting system
at the end of the article.
1.4.2
How to install Linux Operating System
You will need the Fedora 10 DVD image that corresponds to your hardware
architecture (i386 or amd64), and which can be downloaded from here. When
the download is over, burn the ISO image with your favorite CD/DVD
burning application (Brasero on Linux or Nero, CDBurnerXP, Roxio on
Windows) on a blank DVD at 4x speed.
It is always recommend having an empty hard drive for a Linux installation
(that means no other operating system on it, no Windows), and you must have
a minimum of 10 GB free space for the Fedora installation.
Great, now let's begin. Insert or leave the DVD in your CD/DVD-ROM device,
and reboot the computer in order to boot from the DVD. Hit the F8 or F12 key
(depending on your BIOS) to select the CD/DVD-ROM as the boot device.
You'll be presented with a very nice Fedora artwork GRUB splash and some
options...
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Operating System
At this stage, we simply suggest you press Enter, and wait for the system to load...
Select the "Skip" option when you're asked if you want to check the media
before installation, and press "Enter"...
Anaconda (the Fedora installer) will load and you'll see the welcome screen. Click
"Next"...
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Choose your language...
Choose your keyboard layout...
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Operating System
Type a name for the computer. It can be anything you want...
Select your location (country/city)...
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Enter the root (System Administrator) password. The longer, the better (WRITE
IT SOMEWHERE)...
Here, comes the partitioning part! If you have an empty hard drive, all you have
to do is click "Next," but make sure the"Remove all partitions on selected drives
and create default layout" option is selected. If you don't have an empty hard drive
and you still want to install Fedora 10 on your machine, then make sure you select
the "Use free space on the selected drives and create default layout" option (10
GB minimum of free space is required). Click "Next"...
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We also recommend to select the "Encrypt system" option. Enter a password (the
longer, the better) for the encrypted partition...
Operating System
Click the "Write changes to disk" button when asked...
The hard drive will be formatted and the partitions will be created...
Now, you can select the desired packages...
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Hit the "Next" button and everything will be done automatically from now on,
just sit back and watch how the packages are copied to your hard drive.The
installation process will take about 8-10 minutes (depending on your computer
specs and the selected packages).
It starts installing, wait for sometime
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Operating System
When the installation is over, you will get a "Congratulations, the installation is
complete" screen. Click the "Reboot" button and your computer will
automatically restart...
Remove the DVD from your optical drive. Your brand new Fedora 10 operating
system will boot for the first time...
If you've chosen to encrypt your partition, then you'll be prompted for the
password ...
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Lab Course
The system will continue to boot and in a few seconds you will see the First Boot
Configuration Wizard. Click "Forward" on the Welcome screen...
Click "Forward" on the License screen...
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Create a regular user for the system...
Operating System
Set the date and time...
Click "Finish" and you will see the login screen. Enter the password for the
regular user you've just created...
That's it!
1.4.3
Linux utilities and Basic Commands
The following is a list of commonly used commands which are organized under
different categories for understanding and ease of use. Keys proceeded by a ^
character are CONTROL key combinations.
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Terminal Control Characters
^h
backspace erase previously typed character
^u
erase entire line of input so far typed
^d
end-of-input for programs reading from terminal
^s
stop printing on terminal
^q
continues printing on terminal
^z
currently running job; restart with bg or fg
DEL, ^c kill currently running program and allow clean-up before exiting
^\
emergency kill of currently running program with no chance of cleanup
Login and Authentication
Login
Logout
Passwd
access computer; start interactive session
disconnect terminal session
change local login password; you MUST set a non-trivial password
Information
date
show date and time
history
list of previously executed commands
pine
send or receive mail messages
msgs
display system messages
man
show on-line documentation by program name
info
on-line documentation for GNU programs
w, who
who is on the system and what are they doing
who am i who is logged onto this terminal
top
show system status and top CPU-using processes
uptime
show one line summary of system status
finger
find out info about a user@system
File Management
cat
cp
ls
mv
rm
ln
chmod
des
find
combine files
copy files
list files in a directory and their attributes
change file name or directory location
remove files
create another link (name) to a file
set file permissions
encrypt a data file with a private key
find files that match specified criteria
Display Contents of Files
cat
vi
more
head
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copy file to display device
screen editor for modifying text files
show text file on display terminal with paging control
show first few lines of a file(s)
tail
grep
lpr
pr
diff
cmp
od
file
wc
show last few lines of a file; or reverse line order
display lines that match a pattern
send file to line printer
format file with page headers, multiple columns etc.
compare two files and show differences
compare two binary files and report if different
display binary file as equivalent octal/hex codes
examine file(s) and tell you whether text, data, etc.
count characters, words, and lines in a file
Operating System
Directories
cd
mkdir
rmdir
mv
pwd
change to new directory
create new directory
remove empty directory (remove files first)
change name of directory
show current directory
Devices
df
du
summarize free space on disk device
show disk space used by files or directories
Special Character Handling for C-shell
*
~user
$name
\
‘
“
`
match any characters in a file name
shorthand for home directory of "user"
substitute value of variable "name"
turn off special meaning of character that follows
In pairs, quote string with special chars, except !
In pairs, quote string with special chars, except !, $
In pairs, substitute output from enclosed command
Controlling Program Execution for C-shell
&
DEL, ^c
^z
fg
bg
;
()
!
ps
kill
nice
at
run job in background
kill job in foreground
suspend job in foreground
restart suspended job in foreground
run suspended job in background
delimit commands on same line
group commands on same line
re-run earlier command from history list
print process status
kill background job or previous process
run program at lower priority
run program at a later time
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crontab
limit
alias
sh, csh
run program at specified intervals
see or set resource limits for programs
create alias name for program (in .login)
execute command file
Description of Commonly Used UNIX Commands
The description for the most commonly used UNIX commands is given below in
an alphabetic order.
a) cat
cat allows you to read multiple files and then print them out. You can combine
files by using the > operator and append files by using >>.
Syntax: cat [argument] [specific file]
Example:
cat abc.txt
If you want to append three files (abc.txt, def.txt, xyz.txt), give the command
as,
cat abc.txt def.txt xyz.txt > all
b) cd, chdir
cd (or chdir) stands for “change directory”. This command is the key
command to move around your file structure.
Syntax: cd [name of directory you want to move to]
When changing directories, start with / and then type the complete file path,
like
cd /vvs/abc/def
in this eg. You are moving from vvs directory to abc directory then move to
def directory .
You can also move relative to the current directory by typing
cd vvs/abc/def
To move relative to the parent directory of your current directory, use
Cd ../vvs/abc/def
c ) chmod
chmod (which stands for “change mode”) changes who can access a particular
file. A “mode” is created by combining the various options from who, opcode,
and permission.
Syntax: chmod [option] mode file
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If you look at a list of files using the long list command ls –l, you’ll see the
permissions, owner, file size, modification time, and filename. The first
column of the list shows who can read, write, and execute the files or
directories, in other words, the permissions. It basically shows who has
permission to do what to a given file or directory. r stands for “read” and
means that you’re allowed to read the file or directory. w stands for “write”
and gives permission to edit or change the file as well as create, move,
rename, or remove a directory. x stands for “execute” which gives permission
to run a file or search a directory. Every file or directory has four sets of rwx
permissions. The first set represents the user (u), the second set represents the
group (g), the third set represents other (o), and the fourth set represents all
(a). The column will look like this: rwxrwxrwx
Operating System
Each set of rwx represents user, group, and other respectively. Only the owner
of a file or a privileged user may change the permissions on a file. There are
two ways to change permissions on a file or directory, either numerically or
by using lettered commands. Both ways use the command chmod. To add
permissions to a file, you use +, to remove permissions you use-.
For example, take a file:
-rw-r--r-- 1 yash mony 476 Apr 14 17:13 vvs.txt
To allow a group (mony, in this case) “write” access, you would type:
chmod g+w vvs.txt
If you wanted to remove “read” ability from “other” you would type:
chmod o-r vvs.txt
It is also possible to specify permissions using a three-digit sequence. This is a
more efficient way to change permissions (or at least it requires less typing),
so use this method if it doesn’t confuse you. Each type of permission is given
an octal value. Read is given the value of 4, write is given the value of 2, and
execute is given the value of 1. These values are added together for each user
category. The permissions are changed by using a three-digit sequence with
the first digit representing owner permission, the second digit representing
group permission, and the third digit representing other permission. For
example, if you wanted to make vvs.txt readable, writable, and executable for
the user, readable and writable for the group, and readable for other, you
would type: chmod 764 vvs.txt
The first digit means readable and writable for the user (4+2+1), the second
digit means readable and writable for the group (4+2+0), and the third digit
means readable for other (4+0+0). if you want to change the permissions on a
directory tree use the -R option. chmod –R will recursively change the
permissions of directories and their contents.
d) cp
The cp command copies files or directories from one place to another. You
can copy a set of files to another file, or copy one or more files under the same
name in a directory. If the destination of the file you want to copy is an
existing file, then the existing file is overwritten. If the destination is an
existing directory, then the file is copied into that directory.
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Syntax: cp [options] file1 file2 If you want to copy the file favourites.html
into the directory called laksh, you give
the command as:
cp favourites.html /vvs/laksh/
A handy option to use with cp is -r. This recursively copies a particular
directory and all of its contents to the specified directory, so you won’t have
to copy one file at a time.
e) date
The date command can be used to display the date or to set a date. In unix the
term date includes the time as well.
Syntax: date [option] [+format]
date [options] [string]
The first structure shows how date can be used to display the current date. A
certain format can be specified in which the date should be displayed. Check
the Unix manual for specific formats and options. The second structure
allows you to set the date by supplying a numeric string. Only privileged users
will be able to use this second command structure.
f) diff
diff displays the lines that differ between two given files.
Syntax: diff [options] [directory options] file1 file2
diff can be an extremely valuable tool for both checking errors and building
new pages. If you run a diff between two files, you'll be shown what
differences the files have line by line. The lines referring to file1 are marked
with the < symbol. The lines referring to file2 are marked by the > symbol. If
the file is a directory, diff will list .the file in the directory that has the same
name as file2. If both of the files are directories, diff will list all the lines
differing between all files that have the same name. If you have a file that is
not working properly, it can be a great help to check it against a similar file
that is working. It will often quickly alert you to a line of code that’s missing.
A handy option to use if you want to generally compare two files without
noting the complex differences between them is the -h option (h stands for
half-hearted). Using -i as an option will ignore differences in uppercase and
lowercase characters between files, and -b will ignore repeating blanks and
line breaks.
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g) exit
Operating System
The exit command allows you to terminate a process that is currently
occurring. For example, if you wanted to leave a remote host that you were
logged onto (see rlogin also), you should type exit. This would return you to
your home host.
h) find
find searches through directory trees beginning with each pathname and finds
the files that match the specified condition(s). You must specify at least one
pathname and one condition.
Syntax: find pathname(s) condition(s)
There are several handy conditions you can use to find exactly what you want.
The -name condition will find files whose names match a specified pattern.
The structure for the name condition is: find pathname -name pattern
The condition -print will print the matching files to the pathname specified. printcan also be used in conjunction with other conditions to print the output.
If you wanted to find all the files named favorites.html in the directory Ram,
then
you’d do this:
find /Ram -name favorites.html –print
This looks through the directory Ram and finds all the files in that directory
that contain favorites.html, then prints them to the screen. Your output would
look like this:
/Ram/sixteen_candles/favorites.html
/Ram/favorites.html
/Ram/breakfast_club/favorites.html
All meta-characters (!, *, ., etc.) used with -name should be escaped (place a \
before the character) or quoted. Meta-characters come in handy when you are
searching for a pattern and only know part of the pattern or need to find
several similar patterns.
For example, if you are searching for a file that contains the word “favorite”,
then use the meta-character * to represent matching zero or more of the
preceding characters.
This will show you all files which contain favorite.
find /Ram -name '*favorite*' -print
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This looks through the directory Ram and finds all the files in that directory
that contain the word “favorite”. The output would look like this:
/Ram/sixteen_candles/favorites.html
/Ram/favorites.html
/Ram/least_favorites.html
/Ram/breakfast_club/favorites.html
/Ram/favorite_line.html
The -user condition finds files belonging to a particular user ID or name.
i) grep
The grep command searches a file or files for lines that match a provided
regular expression (“grep” comes from a command meaning to globally
search for a regular expression and then print the found matches).
Syntax: grep [options] regular expression [files]
To exit this command, type 0 if lines have matched, 1 if no lines match, and 2
for errors. This is very useful if you need to match things in several files. If
you wanted to find out which files in our vvs directory contained the word
“bca” you could use grep to search the directory and match those files with
that word. All that you have to do is give the command as shown:
grep ‘bca’ /vvs/*
The * used in this example is called a meta-character, and it represents
matching zero or more of the preceding characters. In this example, it is used
to mean “all files and directories in this directory”. So, grep will search all the
files and directories in vvsand tell you which files contain “bca”.
j) head
Displays the first ten lines of a file, unless otherwise stated.
[-n] [files]
Syntax: head
For example, the following command will display the first 15 lines of
favourites.html.
head -15 favourites.html
k) kill
kill ends the execution of one or more process ID’s. In order to do this you
must own the process or be designated a privileged user. To find the process
ID of a certain job give the command ps.
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Syntax: kill [options] PIDs
Operating System
There are different levels of intensity to the kill command, and these can be
represented either numerically or symbolically. kill -1 or HUP makes a
request to the server to terminate the process, while kill -9 or kill KILL forces
a process to terminate absolutely. Most politely, UNIX users will attempt to
kill a process using-1 first before forcing a process to die.
l)
ls
ls will list all the files in the current directory. If one or more files are given,
ls will display the files contained within “name” or list all the files with the
same name as “name”. The files can be displayed in a variety of formats
using various options.
Syntax: ls [options] [names]
ls is a command you'll end up using all the time. It simply stands for list. If
you are in a directory and you want to know what files and directories are
inside that directory, type ls. Sometimes the list of files is very long and it
flies past your screen so quickly .You miss the file you want. To overcome
this problem give the command as shown below:
ls | more
The character | (called pipe) is typed by using shift and the \ key. | more will
show as many files as will fit on your screen, and then display a highlighted
“more” at the bottom. If you want to see the next screen, hit enter (for
moving one line at a time) or the spacebar (to move a screen at a time). |
more can be used anytime you wish to view the output of a command in this
way. A useful option to use with ls command is -l. This will list the files
and directories in a long format. This means it will display the permissions
(see chmod), owners, group, size, date and time the file was last modified,
and the filename.
drwxrwxr-x vvs staff 512 Apr 5 09:34 sridhar.txt
-rwx-rw-r-- vvs staff 4233 Apr 1 10:20 resume.txt
-rwx-r--r-- vvs staff 4122 Apr 1 12:01 favourites.html
There are several other options that can be used to modify the ls command,
and many of these options can be combined. -a will list all files in a
directory, including those files normally hidden. -F will flag filenames by
putting / on directories, @ on symbolic links, and * on executable files.
m) man
The man command can be used to view information in the online Unix
manual.
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Syntax: man [options] [[section] subjects]
man searches for information about a file, command, or directory and then
displays it on your screen. Each command is a subject in the manual. If no
subject is specified, you must give either a keyword or a file. You can also
search for commands that serve a similar purpose. For example, if you want
more information about the chmod command, you should type:
man chmod
A screen will then appear with information about chmod. Type q to quit.
n) mkdir
mkdir creates a new directory.
Syntax: mkdir [options] directory name
For example, to create a directory called parkhyath in the present working
directory, give the command as,
mkdir prakhyath
o) more
more displays the contents of files on your screen.
Syntax: more [options] [files]
To have the next line displayed, hit the return key, otherwise press the
spacebar to bring up the next screen. Press h for assistance with other
commands, n to move to the next file, or q to quit.
p) less
less is similar to more in that it displays the contents of files on your screen.
Unlike more, less allows backward and forward movement within the file. It
does not read the whole file before displaying its contents, so with large files
less displays faster than more. Press h for assistance with other commands or
q to quit.
Syntax: less [options] [files]
q) mv
mv moves files and directories. It can also be used to rename files or
directories.
Syntax: mv [options] source target
If you wanted to rename vvs.txt to vsv.txt, you should give the command as:
50
mv vvs.txt vsv.txt
Operating System
After executing this command, vvs.txt would no longer exist, but a file with
name
vsv.txt would now exist with the same contents.
r) passwd
The passwd command creates or changes a user’s password. Only the owner
of the password or a privileged user can make these changes.
Syntax: passwd [options] files
s) pwd
pwd prints the pathname of the current directory. If you wanted to know the
path of the current directory you were in you give the command as pwd. You
will get the complete path.
t) rm
rm removes or deletes a link to a file from a directory. If a file has more than
one link then removing a link does not delete the file. But when the last link
to a file is removed, the file gets deleted.
A link is a name of a file. In unix a file can have many names.
Syntax: rm [options] files
In order to remove a file, you must have write permission to the directory
where the file is located. While removing a which does’t have write
permission on, a prompt will come up asking you whether or not you wish to
override the write protection.
The -r option is very handy and very dangerous. -r can be used to remove a
directory and all its contents. If you use the -i option, you can possibly catch
some disastrous mistakes because it’ll ask you to confirm whether you really
want to remove a file before going ahead and doing it.
u) rmdir
rmdir allows you to remove or delete directories but not their contents. A
directory must be empty in order to remove it using this command.
Syntax: rmdir [options] directories
If you wish to remove a directory and all its contents, you should use rm -r.
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Lab Course
Check Your Progress 4
1. Practice to install Fedora 10 in your pc.
2. First try to execute the following commands on your operating system and
write down the results and use of each command.
• man ( find manual help)
• cd
• ls, ls -a (try to find out other options of ls using man)
• cd .
• pwd
• cd ..
• ls -al
• ls -al | more
• cat passwd 22
• cd –
• chmod
We hope you will stop here and you will keep digging more and more
commands but do it after the session.
Check Your Progress 5
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1
Try to explore the file system, write what is there in /bin, /usr/bin, /sbin, /tmp
and /boot. Find and list the devices that are available in your system.
2
Make your own subdirectories called rc1 and rc2 in your home directory,
mca? Ok, now delete the subdirectory called rc2 .
3
Create a file called ignou.txt that contains the words "hello I am student of
IGNOU". Now copy this file and paste to other director. Copied? Can you
move the file also from one directory to another?
4
In the previous question you have a file ignou.txt; change its permission to
rwxrwxr-x. You can try different possibilities to changes in its permissions.
One possibility may be rwxr-xr-x permissions. Find out what are the different
commands available that can be used to change the permissions of a file/files.
5
Display the names of all files in the home directory using find .Can you
display the names of all files in the home directory that are bigger than
500KB.
6
Display a sorted list of all files in the home directory that contain the Word
ignou inside them. Hint: Use find and grep and sort. Can you use locate to
find all filenames that contain the word ignou?
7
Use egrep to try to find out which lines in an ignou.txt file are satisfied by the
regular expression given: (^ [0-9]{1,5}[a-zA-z ]+$)|none and check the result
with different combinations of lines.
8
Change your password and write down the restrictions for given password.
1.5
SUMMARY
Operating System
In this section you have studied a brief introduction of computers, the history, and
familiarization with its basic features including the technical description, the
advantages and the differences between the two network operating systems:
Windows and Linux/Unix. Last but not the least you would have understood the
concepts better by undergoing through the interesting exercises
1.6
ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
Check Your Progress 1
1. a) F 1
b) CTRL+Y
c) CTRL+S
d) CTRL+B
e) Shift +F3
2. Try it yourself
3. Over the past few years the growth of the computer industry has been quiet
remarkable and today it is the fastest growing industry in our economy.
Nowadays, many schools are equipped with computers for educating their
students. Thereby making computers an integral part of education system.
Teachers and professors use computers for teaching, giving presentations,
assessing various data banks, maintaining database of students, communication in
the form of e mails or chat, browsing the Internet and Preparing students to have a
competitive edge in the global job market. Computers have revolutionized the
learning for students in a big way. They can watch various films on wild life,
history, geography, science and encyclopedias with loud sound and excellent
picture quality and commentaries on Compact Discs or DVD’s.
Check Your Progress 2
1. Refer Sec 1.3.2
2. Try it yourself.
Check Your Progress 3
1. The computer has a clock located on the right side of the task bar.
You can also check and modify the properties of the clock with the dialog box
that appears next. It appears as you double-click on the clock on the task bar.
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To change the Date follow these steps:
1)
Double-click on the clock on the task bar to open the dialog box.
2)
To change the month, place the pointer on the month box and click
with the mouse on the arrow to the right. A list with the months will
be displayed. Select the appropriate month.
3)
To change the year, place the pointer on the year box and with the
arrows you can change the year.
4)
To change the days select it on the calendar that appears.
5)
Click Apply and OK
To change the Time do the following:
1)
Place the pointer on the clock.
2)
To change the time select the time digits with the arrows to the right
and adjust to the necessary time.
3)
This same process must be done with the minutes and seconds.
2. To create a desktop shortcut for a default folder such as My Computer and My
Document:
1. Click on the start button
2. Right click on My Computer or My Document on
the right panel of the start menu
3. Click on "Show on Desktop" just like it shows on
the picture
.
3: To create a program desktop shortcut:
1. Click on the start button
2. Select "All Programs"
3. Select and right click the program you
want place on the desktop
4. Select "Send To" from the displayed
menu
5. Click on "Desktop (create shortcut)"
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4. Try it yourself
Operating System
5. Click on the Start button and choose Control Panel Click on Add or Remove
Programs option, a window will display with the three basic options shown on
the left side of the picture as it appears below. Then click on Change or
Remove Programs.
6.
Click on the Start button and choose Search button and type Calculator
/notepad / paint. It will open the respective application.
Check Your Progress 4
1. Refer to the section 1.4.1
2. Try it your self
Check Your Progress 5
Try exercise 1-8 yourself.
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Lab Course
UNIT 2
WORD PROCESSOR
Structure
Page No.
2.0
Introduction
56
2.1
Objectives
57
2.2
What is Word Processor ?
57
2.3
Word Basics
58
2.3.1
Starting Word
58
2.3.2
Introduction to Commands and Resources in Word Window
59
2.3.3
Setting up Your Word Environment
61
2.3.4
Creating a New Document
64
2.3.5
Opening an Existing Document
64
2.3.6
Saving a Existing Document
64
2.3.7
Working with Multiple Documents
65
2.3.8
Closing a Document
65
2.4
Editing and Formatting Text
66
2.4.1
Text Basics
66
2.4.2
Formatting Text
67
2.4.3
Formatting Paragraphs, Adding Lists and Working with Styles
70
2.4.4
Working with Tables and Illustrations
74
2.5
Document Formatting, Proofing and Printing Features
76
2.6
Other Word Features
81
2.7
Mail Merge
85
2.8
Summary
87
2.9
List of Useful Keyboard Shortcuts
87
2.10
Lab Exercise
88
2.11
Further Readings
90
2.0
INTRODUCTION
Computers have been in use in businesses, schools, hospitals, homes for many
years now. Apart from being used to automate large systems and processes, they
have made a big difference in office automation. Day-to-day office tasks such as
creating documents, letters, memos, faxes, filing, storing, retrieving, mailing has
become simpler and sophisticated with the use of computers. There are many
software applications that help to create, edit, save and print documents, letters,
mailing labels and reports. Same software can be used by students to create their
project reports or assignments, at home to make a list of things to do or to buy and
by anyone for any kind of document work.
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Software package that enables you to create, edit, print and save documents for
future retrieval and reference is known as a Word Processor. We will study
about Word Processor, its features and how to use it in this unit.
2.1
Word Processor
OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you will be able to :
learn what a Word Processor is and how to use it;
create, edit, save, preview and print a document;
format a document with different page layouts, borders, headers, footers and
other settings;
manage and Manipulate text, font, colour, size, table and images; and
use different features available in word processor to check spelling or
grammar, use dictionary or create multiple letters.
2.2
WHAT IS WORD PROCESSOR ?
A word processor is a software program capable of creating, storing, and printing
documents. It helps you to create a document, format it, correct your mistakes,
save, review and print it.
Word processors vary considerably, but all word processors support the following
basic features:
Cut, copy and paste text
Insert or delete text
Set page size and margins
Search and replace
Word wrap
Print
Word Processors that support only above features (and may be few more) are
called Text Editors. Most word processors, however, are quite advanced and
support many additional features as listed below:
Allows to create, delete, move, copy, rename and search for files.
Allows to specify font, size, colour, header, footer, page numbering, footnote,
cross-reference, bullets and numbering, table, images, graphics, table of
contents and indexes.
Allows to specify page layout, page orientation and margins.
Allows use of spell checker, thesaurus, macros, merges.
Allows to open and edit multiple documents at the same time in separate
windows.
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The word processors that support above features are called full featured word
processors. There are many word processors available in the market. We will
consider MS Word 2007 for our study. We will understand what the above feature
are and how we can use them.
2.3
WORD BASICS
In this section we will cover how to start, open, create, save and close a word
document and what do different parts in a Word window stand for. The editing
and formatting of the created document will be covered in the next section.
2.3.1
Starting Word
You can start MS Word by either of the following two ways:
Click on Startà All ProgramsàMicrosoft Officeà Microsoft Office Word
2007.
Double click on the MS Word icon on the desktop (if you have one).
When word opens, a new document with default name as Document1 is opened.
For each additional document you open, the number increases by one. Please note
that you can open more than one document at a time.
You may also start Word by clicking on a document saved on your hard drive.
Word will open automatically and the document will be displayed in the
document area.
When you open word from the menu or desktop icon, the screen will look like in
Figure 2.1.
Microsoft Office Button
Document Title on Title Bar
Quick Access Toolbar
Minimize, Restore Down and Close Buttons
Tabs on the
Ribbon
Ribbon
Group on Tab
Dialog Box
Launcher for
the Group
Ruler
Status Bar
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Text Area
Figure 2.1: Microsoft Word Window
2.3.2
Introduction to Commands and Resources in Word Window
Word Processor
Let us familiarize ourselves with the key commands and resources in Word
Window:
The Microsoft Office Button
It is the button in the upper-left corner of the Word Window. When you click on
the button, it displays a menu that can be used to create a new document, open an
existing document, save a document, print a document and perform many other
tasks.
The Quick Access Toolbar
It is present next to the Microsoft Office Button on the top. It provides you access
to the commands you frequently use. By default Following appear on the Quick
Access Toolbar:
Save: To save your file (you may also press keyboard button Ctrl+S).
Undo: To rollback the action that you last took (Ctrl+Z).
Redo: To reapply the action you rolled back or to repeat an action(Ctrl+Y).
The Title Bar
It is next to the Quick Access toolbar at the top. It displays the title of the
document on which you are currently working. By default, the first new document
is named as Document1. For each additional document you open, the number
increases by one. You may save the documents by any legal filename you want.
The Ribbon
The Ribbon is the panel at the top portion of the document, right below the Title
Bar. To begin with it has following seven tabs:
Home: It has basic commands for creating and formatting the documents. It
has controls for working with the clipboard, setting fonts, formatting
paragraphs, applying styles and using Find and Replace.
Insert: It has commands for inserting pages, tables, pictures, shapes, other
illustrations, links, headers, footers, symbols, signature line and much more.
Page Layout: The commands here help to set the layout of the document,
apply a theme to the document to set the overall look of the document, set the
margins, background colours, etc.
References: It has commands that let you create Table of contents, footnotes,
indexes, etc.
Mailings: Has commands for creating mail merges.
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Lab Course
Review: Has commands to track changes and add comments to the
documents.
View: Helps to change the document views.
(We cover in detail each of the above features in the later sections of this unit.)
Besides these basic tabs, additional tabs appear from time to time, depending on
the context we are working in. These tabs are called contextual tabs. For example,
if you select a drawing, a Drawing Tools contextual tab appears that has
commands to help you manipulate the drawing. These contextual tabs appear in a
different colour to make them easy to spot.
The commands on each tab are organized into groups. Hence, a group is a
collection of logically related command buttons that you can use to develop or
edit your Word document. Commonly used features are displayed on the Ribbon
and additional options can be accessed through the dialog box launcher at the
bottom-right corner of each group.
The Ruler
The ruler can be found right below the Ribbon. The ruler is useful for document
layout purposes. It is used to set the margins, tab stops, align text, graphics, tables
and other elements in a document. You may change the setting to show or hide
the ruler.
The Text Area
You can type you content in the Text Area. The blinking vertical line is the cursor
which marks the insertion point. As you type, text displays at the cursor location.
The vertical scroll bar on the window helps you to move up and down the
document.
The Status Bar
The Status Bar is at the very bottom of the window. It provides information such
as the current page and the number of words in the document. You can change
what displays on the Status Bar by right clicking on the Status Bar and selecting/
deselecting the options from the menu. You may also view your document in one
of the following ways using the hot buttons in the status bar:
Draft View: It is used to quickly edit your document. It shows the page in a
simplified format and is most frequently used view.
Web Layout: Shows how a page will appear when viewed from a Web
Browser.
Full Screen Reading: Shows the page in a way that it makes it easy and
comfortable to read your document onscreen.
Print Layout: Shows the document as it will look when it is printed.
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Outline View: Displays the document in outline form. The outline view
allows you to see either the entire contents of the document, or just chapter
headings or section heading and so on.
2.3.3
Word Processor
Setting up Your Word Environment
Before you begin creating Word documents, you may want to set up your Word
environment and become familiar with a few key tasks such as how to maximize
and minimize the Ribbon, configure the Quick Access toolbar, display the ruler,
etc.
Minimize and Maximize the Ribbon
Right click anywhere in the main menu
Select Minimize the Ribbon in the menu that appears. This will toggle the
Ribbon on and off.
Figure 2.2 : Minimize the Ribbon
The check mark beside ‘Minimize the Ribbon’ option indicates the feature is
active. You may choose to use this option, if you prefer not to use the Ribbon, but
use different menus and keyboard shortcuts. This has the advantage of giving you
more screen space to work on the document.
Add Commands to Quick Access Toolbar
Click the arrow (customize quick access toolbar) to the right of the Quick
Access toolbar.
Select the command you wish to add from the drop down menu. The
command will appear in the Quick Access Toolbar
Figure 2.3 : Adding Commands to Quick Access Toolbar
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Lab Course
You may want to add frequently used commands to your Quick Access Toolbar,
to make the specific Word features more convenient to you.
Display or Hide the Ruler
Click the View Ruler icon over the scrollbar.
Figure 2.4 : View Ruler Icon
The View Ruler icon is a toggle button that shows or hides the ruler.
Customize the Status Bar
Right click anywhere on the Status Bar.
From the menu that appears, select the options that you want to see on the
Status Bar. Each click on an option will toggle it between show and hide on
the Status Bar.
Customizing the Environment Using Word Options
The Word options menu allows you to customize Word 2007 according to your
preferences.
Click the Microsoft Office Button
Click on ‘Word Options’ button located at the bottom of the menu.
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Word Processor
Figure 2. 5: Word Options Button
When you click on ‘Word Options’ button, an extensive menu will open. It is has
more than hundred configurable options, not including submenus!
You can set your preferences for Autocorrect, printing, saving, custom directories,
colour scheme, spell check, grammar check, updating fields and much more. In
addition this menu contains help options, such as repairing Microsoft Office or
changing security settings. You may not be able to understand most of these
options for now. We will take up some examples now and cover some more
options while we progress through this unit.
Change the Colour of the Office Ribbon:
a. Click the Office Button.
b. Click the Word Options.
c. On the Popular Tab, under Color Scheme, select the preferred colour.
Change the Default Document Folder:
a. Click the Office Button.
b. Click the Word Options.
c. On the Save Tab, under Save Documents, click Browse button next to the
Default File Location text box.
d. Navigate to and click the folder you want to be your default.
e. Click OK twice.
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Lab Course
Reorder Items on Quick Access Toolbar:
a. Click the Office Button.
b. Click the Word Options.
c. On the Customize Tab, under Customize Quick Access Toolbar, select
the command and then use the up/ down arrow key to change its position
on the bar.
2.3.4
Creating a New Document
You can create a new document as follows:
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select New. The New Document dialog box appears.
Select Blank Document under ‘Blank and Recent’ section. It will be
highlighted by default.
Click Create. A new, blank document appears in the Word window.
You may also use keyboard shortcut Ctrl+N to create a new document.
2.3.5
Opening an Existing Document
You can open an existing document in one of the following ways:
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select Open. Select the required document in the dialog box.
OR
Use keyboard shortcut Ctrl+O to select and open an existing document.
OR
If you have recently used document then
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Choose from the Recent Documents section.
OR
Go to Windows Explorer. Find your document.
Right mouse click on the document and select Open.
2.3.6
Saving a Existing Document
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select Save from the menu.
OR
Use keyboard shortcut Ctrl+S
OR
64
Use Save on the Quick Access Toolbar
On using any of these options, the document is saved in its current location with
the same file name. If you are saving the document for the first time, then Save
As dialog box appears which accepts the document name and location (folder)
where it is to be saved.
Word Processor
Using Save As Option
You may use Save As option as below:
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select Save As from the menu. The Save As dialog box appears.
Select the location where you wish to save the document.
Enter the name for the document
Click the Save button
The Save As option can be used to:
Create a backup copy of the document by saving it at another location or by
different name.
Save the document as a template
Save the document in a format that is fully compatible with Word97-2003
Save the document in other formats, for example PDF
2.3.7
Working with Multiple Documents
Multiple documents can be opened simultaneously if there is such a need. To see
the list of open documents:
Click on View tab of the Ribbon
Click on Switch Windows in the Window group. A drop down list of all open
documents is displayed.
The current document has a checkmark besides its name. You may select any
document from the list to make it current.
2.3.8
Closing a Document
To close a document:
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select Close from the menu.
The current document closes. The next document in the list becomes current.
If there is no other open document, then only Word window is there.
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Lab Course
2.4
EDITING AND FORMATTING TEXT
In this section we will study how to add, delete, insert, copy, paste, drag and drop
text in a document and then how to design a creative and effective document
using the formatting features of Word.
2.4.1
Text Basics
In this section we will learn how to insert, select, delete, copy, paste, drag and
drop text.
To Insert Text
Move the mouse to the location where you wish the text to appear in the
document and left click the mouse there.
OR
Use the arrow buttons on the keyboard to reach the location where the text
should appear.
The insertion point (blinking cursor) appears. Start typing the text at the insertion
point. You may also use the following keyboard shortcuts or Tab or Enter keys
to move through the document:
Home: To reach the beginning of the line
End: To reach end of the line
Ctrl+Home: To reach beginning of the document
Ctrl+End: To reach end of the document
To Delete Text
Place your cursor next to the text you wish to delete.
Press the Backspace key on the keyboard to delete the text on the left of the
cursor.
Press the Delete key to delete the text on the right of the cursor.
To Select Text
Place your cursor next to the text you wish to select.
Left-click your mouse and while holding it down, drag you mouse over the
text to select it. Release the mouse button. The selected text gets highlighted.
OR
Press the Shift key on the keyboard and use arrow keys to highlight the text.
When you select a text or image using mouse, a Mini Toolbar with formatting
options appear. This happens only when the option has been selected in Word
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Options --> Popular. Mini Toolbar makes formatting commands easily
accessible.
Word Processor
Shortcuts for selecting a portion of the text are:
To select Whole Word: double-click within
Shift+Ctrl+arrow(right or left) keys on the keyboard.
the word OR
use
To select Whole Paragraph:triple-click within the paragraph OR use
Shift+Ctrl+arrow(up or down) keys on the keyboard.
To select Entire Document: Use Editing à Select à Select All from the
Home Tab OR
press Ctrl+A
To Cut, Copy and Paste Text
Select the text you wish to cut or copy.
Click the Copy command on the Home Tab OR use the keyboard shortcut
CTRL+C to copy the text.
OR
Click Cut command on the Home Tab OR use the keyboard shortcut
CTRL+X to cut the text.
Set the cursor where you wish to paste the text
Click the Paste command on the Home Tab OR the keyboard shortcut
CTRL+V. The text will appear at the cursor position. In case of copy, there
will be a duplicate copy of the selected text. In case of cut, the selected text
will be moved from its original place to the new cursor position.
To Drag and Drop Text
Select the text you wish to copy.
Left-click your mouse and while pressing the mouse button, drag the text to
the location where you wish it to appear. The cursor will have a text box under
it to indicate that you are moving text.
Release the mouse button and the text will appear at the desired position.
2.4.2
Formatting Text
In this section you will learn how to manage the font, font size, colour,
indentation, justification, paragraphs, styles, etc to create an effective document.
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Lab Course
Increase Indent
Font Size box
Numbering
Bullets
Decrease Indent
Font Style box
Bold Text
Text Highlight
Colour box
Italics Text
Left Justify
Underline Text
Bottom Border
Line Spacing
Font Colour box
Strikethrough
Figure 2.6 : Text Formatting Options
Show/ Hide
Formatting
Symbols
To understand how to use text formatting features we will work towards writing
following text:
Invitation for
36TH ANNUAL CONCERT
Open a new document and type the following text:
Invitation for 36th Annual Concert
Use Enter key for Newline: To get the text in two lines as above
Set the cursor right before 36 and press Enter key from the keyboard. You
will get the text as Invitation for 36th Annual Concert.
Change the Font: to change the font of the above text:
Select the text 36th Annual Concert.
Click on the drop down arrow next to the font style box in the Font Group of
the Home Tab. A drop down menu appears.
Move the cursor over various font styles. A live preview of the font will
appear for the selected text.
Choose the font called Baskerville Old Face from the menu. Font style will
change for the selected text.
Now select Invitation for and set the font to Bodoni MT for this text.
Change the Font Size:
Select the text 36th Annual Concert.
Click on the drop down arrow next to the font size box in the Font Group of
the Home Tab. A drop down menu appears.
68
Move the cursor over various font sizes. A live preview of the font size will
appear for the selected text.
Word Processor
Choose the 28 as the font size. Font size will change for the selected text.
Now select Invitation for and set the font size to 18 for this text.
Change the Font Colour:
Select the text 36th Annual Concert.
Click on the drop down arrow next to the font colour box in the Font Group of
the Home Tab. A font colour menu appears.
Move your cursor over the various font colours. A live preview of the colour
will appear in the document.
Choose the colour of your choice for the text. You have a choice of lot many
colours than in the menu. Click on More Colors at the bottom of the menu to
access the Colors dialog box. You can choose any colour from there also.
Note: You must have noticed that whenever you select text, a Mini Toolbar
appears. You may use that toolbar also to format the selected text. The toolbar
appears only if it is set in the Word Options menu.
To use the Bold, Italic and Underline Commands
Select the text Invitation for.
Click the Bold command in the font group. The selected text becomes bold.
Similarly you may use Italics or underline command whenever needed. You may
also use keyboard shortcuts once you have selected the text:
Bold: Ctrl+B
Italics: Ctrl+I
Underline: Ctrl+U
To change the Text Case
Select the text 36th Annual Concert.
Click the Change Case command in the Font group on the Home tab.
Select UPPERCASE form the drop down list. The selected text changes to all
uppercase.
To Change the Text Case
Select the text 36th Annual Concert.
Select Center Align text from the Paragraph group on the Home Tab. The
selected text is centered.
There are four alignment options:
Align Text Left (Ctrl+L): Aligns all the selected text to the left margin.
Center (Ctrl+E): Aligns text an equal distance from the left and right margins.
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Lab Course
Align Text Right (Ctrl+R): Aligns all the selected text to the right margin.
Justify (Ctrl+J): Justified text lines up equally to the right and left margins.
To Add the Border
Select the text around which you wish to have a border.
Click on the drop down arrow of Border command in the Paragraph group on
the Home tab.
Choose what kind of border you want from the drop down list. We will
choose Outside Borders for our purpose.
To Add the Superscript or Subscript
There are instances where we need text below or above the baseline, for example
in mathematical formulae (X3) or chemical symbols (H2O). To learn how to
achieve this effect, we take the following example:
(a – b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab
Type the following text
(a – b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab
Select the text 2 after (a– b).
Select Superscript from the font group in Home Tab. (a – b)2 becomes
(a – b)2. Similarly change (a + b)2 to (a + b)2.
You can choose Subscript from the Font group in Home tab to give the subscript
effect to the select text.
2.4.3
Formatting Paragraphs, Adding Lists and Working with Styles
In Word, when you type content, each time you press Enter key, a new
paragraph is created. You can format each paragraph by setting the font,
indentation and alignment, specifying the space between two paragraphs or
between lines in a paragraph.
Styles are set of formats like font size, colour, alignment, etc that you can apply to
a paragraph all together in one go.
To Format Line Spacing
Select the text you want to format.
Click on line spacing command in the Paragraph group on Home tab.
Select any of the spacing options from the drop down list
OR
70
You may set it in the Paragraph dialog Box that appears when you choose
Line Spacing Options… from the drop down menu. Set the appropriate value
in the Line spacing drop down box.
Word Processor
To Format Paragraph Spacing
Click on line spacing command in the Paragraph group on Home tab.
Click the Add Space Before Paragraph or Remove Space After Paragraph
from the menu.
OR
You may select Line Spacing Options… to open the Paragraph dialog box.
Set the Before and After points in the Paragraph section.
Line spacing is measured in lines or points, which is referred to as leading.
When you reduce the leading, you automatically bring the lines of text closer
together.
Using Indents and Tabs
Indentation is a good way to draw attention to a specific text. You may use Show/
Hide command in the Paragraph group of the Home tab to see the non printing
characters such as spacebar or Tab key markings. This is particularly useful while
working with tabs and indents.
Use the Tab key to indent a single line of text. You can also indent multiple
lines together by selecting all the lines and then pressing Tab key. Shift+Tab
will decrease the indent.
Multiple lines can also be indented using Indent commands in the Paragraph
group on the Home tab. You can use these commands multiple times.
Modify Default Indent Setting
Select the text for which you would like to modify the indent setting.
Select the Page Layout Tab.
In the Paragraph group, under Indent, set the values for Left and Right
Indents.
The Tab Selector
You can set tabs to get several lines of text indented properly. Without any tabs
added, each press of the tab key moves the cursor along by one inch. You can
specify precisely where you want your text to start after you press the tab key, so
that you get the layout you want.
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Lab Course
First Line Indent
Center Tab
Tab Selector
Right Tab
Left Tab
Hanging Indent
Figure 2.7 : Tab Selector
The tab selector is above the vertical ruler on the left. The tab option changes
when you click on the tab selector. To set the tab stop:
Click the tab selector till you see the tab stop you want to use.
Click at the point on the horizontal ruler where you want that tab stop.
To remove the tab, just click and drag it off from the ruler.
The tab options are:
Symbol
Tab Type
Left Tab - Moves the text right as you type
Center Tab – Centers text according to the tab
Right Tab – Moves text to the left as you type
Decimal Tab – Aligns decimal numbers using the decimal point
Bar Tab – Draws a vertical line of the document
First Line Indent – Inserts the indent marker on the ruler and
indenets the first line of text in a paragraph
Inserts the hanging indent marker and indents all lines other than
the first line
Working with Lists
Bulleted and numbered lists can be used in your documents to arrange and format
text to draw emphasis. To create a new list:
Select the text you want to format as a list.
Click the Bullets or Numbering command in the Paragraph group on the
Home Tab.
Click the bullet or numbering style you want to use. It will appear in the
document.
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When you position your cursor at the end of the list item and press Enter, an
item is added to the list.
Word Processor
You can also change the bullets or numbering style anytime. Select the text in
the existing list and use the Bullets or Numbering command in the Paragraph
group to select an alternate bullet or numbering style.
You can use Define New Bullet or Define New Number format to change
the bullet style and colour or number style and font.
Applying Styles
Styles are powerful tools that can help you create professional looking documents
easily. A style is a predefined combination of font style, colour, size of text that
can be applied to selected text.
Create a new Style
Click the arrow in the bottom right corner of the Styles group on the Home
Tab. This opens the Styles task pane.
There are three buttons at the bottom left corner of the Styles task pane. These
buttons are New Style, Style Inspector and Manage Style. Click New Style
button. A dialog box appears.
Enter the name of the style and set all the formatting requirements like font
style, size, alignment, justification, etc.
If you want the style to be available to all the new documents from now
onwards, then select the option New Document based on this template.
Selecting and Applying a Style
Select text to format.
In the Style group on the Home tab, hover over each style to see a live
preview in the document. Click More drop down arrow to see additional
styles.
Click to select the style. The selected text is formatted in the selected style.
OR
Click Change Styles command on the Ribbon.
Select the style set from the menu that appears. Change is reflected in the
entire document.
Format Painter Command
Format Painter is a copying tool that allows you to copy formatting from text to
text, or from one graphic or table to another. Format Painter is available in the
Clipboard group Home Tab.
Click the formatted text or graphics.
Click on Format Painter button. The cursor will change.
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Click the unformatted text or graphics to change the style. The text or graphics
will format exactly as the previous section.
2.4.4
Working with Tables and Illustrations
A table is a grid of cells arranged in horizontal rows and vertical columns. Tables
can be customized and are useful for various tasks such as presenting text
information and numerical data for financial reports, catalogs, etc.
An illustration like Pictures, Shapes, ClipArts, Charts, etc make documents
visually more appealing and adds clarity and readability to the document.
Creating a New Table
Place the cursor where you want table to appear
Select the Insert Tab
Click Table command
Drag your mouse over the diagram squares to select the number of rows and
columns in the table. Click to create the table with selected number of cells.
Modifying the Table.
When you select a table in the document, Design and Layout tabs appear under
Table Tools on the Ribbon.
Using commands on the Layout Tab, you can make a variety of modifications
to the table such as adding or deleting columns and rows, merge or split cells,
change cell size, align cell text, change text direction, etc.
Figure 2.8 : Layout Tab
Using the Design Tab, you can choose a Table Style and modify table border
or shading.
Figure 2.9 : Design Tab for Table Tools
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You can also add your own table styles or modify the existing ones:
Word Processor
Click on the down arrow of table styles for More Styles.
Choose the option New Table Style… OR Modify Table Style… at the
bottom of the menu.
Adding/ Deleting Row or Column with right mouse click
Place the cursor in the row below/above which you wish to add the row.
Right click the mouse for a menu to appear.
Select Insert àinsert rows below OR insert rows above OR insert columns to
the left OR insert columns to the right option as per your requirement.
You can also use Delete option from the menu to delete the rows or columns.
Convert Existing Text to a Table
Select the text you wish to convert.
Select the Insert tab.
Click the Table command.
Select Convert Text to Table form the menu.
A Dialog box appears. Choose the correct option at Separate text at.
Inserting and Modifying Illustrations
Place your cursor where you want the illustration.
Click the Insert Tab on the Ribbon.
Click on Picture/ ClipArt/ Shapes/ SmartArt/ Chart depending on your
requirement from the Illustrations group.
The dialog box will open and you can choose the illustration of your choice.
When you choose a shape, you have to draw it on the document after your
selection. Other illustrations are automatically copied once you have chosen
them.
You will notice that following contextual Tabs appear depending on the
illustration:
Picture/ ClipArt
:
Format under Picture Tools
Shapes
:
Format under Drawing Tools
SmartArt
:
Design and Format under SmartArt Tools
Chart
:
Design, Layout and Format under Chart Tools
Using the above options on the Ribbon, you can change the style, size, colour,
position, alignment, orientation, etc of the illustration.
You can also do your setting using the Right mouse click on the picture.
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When you have text and shapes overlapping one another, you can use Bring
to Front and Send to Back Ordering options so that they overlap, but still
are visible. The Order option is available when right click on the object.
2.5
DOCUMENT FORMATTING, PROOFING AND
PRINTING FEATURES
In this section we will learn Word features that are applicable to whole document
and not just text or paragraph. We will also learn what features to use to make our
document look professional and polished.
To Change Page Orientation
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Orientation command in the Page Setup group.
Choose the orientation you want – Landscape (horizontal) or Portrait
(vertical).
To Change Paper Size
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Size command in the Page Setup group.
A drop down menu appears with all the available paper sizes. Current size is
highlighted.
Choose the size option. Page size of document changes.
To Set Page Margins
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Margins command in the Page Setup group.
Choose the predefined margins from the list.
OR
Customize your margins by selecting Custom Margins from the menu and
entering the desired margins in the appropriate fields.
To Insert a Break
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Place your cursor at the insertion point
Click Breaks command in the Page Setup group. A menu will appear.
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Choose the appropriate break. A Page break moves text from the insertion
point to a new page. A Section break creates a barrier between parts of the
document for formatting purposes. We will study about sections a little later
in the unit.
To Insert a Blank Page
Word Processor
Position the cursor before which you need to add a blank page.
Select Insert Tab on the Ribbon.
Select Blank Page from the Pages group.
A blank page is added before the insertion point. This option should be used
minimally since at times it poses formatting problems.
To Add Borders to Page
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Page Borders command in the Page Background group.
In the Page Border Tab select the appropriate border. Apply to Whole
document for border on all the pages of the document.
To Add Background Colour / Pattern/ Shading to Page
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Page Color command in the Page Background group.
You can choose a colour from the menu or select Fill Effects…
The Fill Effects dialog box appears. It has four tabs: Gradient, Texture,
Pattern and Picture. You may set any one of them at a time.
To Add Watermark to the Page
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Watermark command in the Page Background group.
You may choose from the pre-existing ones in the list OR setup a custom
picture or text watermark.
The Watermark will appear on all the pages of the document.
Working with Headers and Footers
The header is a section of the document that appears in the top margin, while the
footer is a section that appears in the bottom margin.
Select Insert Tab on the Ribbon.
Select Header from the Header & Footer group.
You can either select from the built-in options from the list OR Blank Header/
Footer OR Edit Header/ Footer from the menu.
The Design tab with Header and Footer tools appears. It has all the header/
footer design option that you can use for your document.
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Figure 2.10 : Design Tab for Header & Footer Tools
Type the information in the header and the footer. You may insert Date &
Time, Page numbers, Author, etc. You also have an option to specify different
header/ footer for first page of the document or for even and odd numbered
pages.
To Create a Document in Columns Layout
Columns are used in many types of documents, but are most commonly used in
newspapers, magazines, academic journals and newsletters. To add columns to a
document:
Select the text you want to format.
Select the Page Layout Tab.
Click on Columns command in the Page Setup group.
Choose the number of columns you want.
The document changes in the column format.
Applying Themes
A theme is a set of formatting choices of colour, font and styles that can be
applied in combination to an entire document. To apply a theme:
Select the Page Layout tab.
Click the Themes command. Please note that the document should not be in
compatibility mode for the Theme group to be enabled.
Select a Theme from the list. The formatting like font styles, sizes, colours,
lines and fill effects would change.
You cannot apply a Theme to a document without applying styles first. Themes
look for and replace the formats of each of the styles.
Create Custom Theme
First Create New Theme Colours using Colors command in Themes group
of Page Layout. Use drop downs to change the colours for each part of the
document and then enter the name for the theme colour. Save.
Similarly Create New Theme Fonts and select Effects.
Now, Click Themes command and select Save Current Theme.
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Enter the theme name and save.
Spelling and Grammar
Word Processor
By default, Word automatically checks your document for spelling and grammar
and indicates the errors by coloured lines.
A red line is indicates misspelled word.
A green line indicates grammar error.
When there is an error, just right-click on the red/green underlined and select
the correct word from the suggested list. You may also choose to Ignore the
underlined word.
You can also wait and the spelling and grammar check after completing the
document. Click the Spelling and Grammar Command in Proofing group on the
Review tab.
Find and Replace Text
If you realize that you need to change a word in the document, for example some
date, location, name, etc that you know exists in the document but don’t know
where exactly it is you can use Find option.
Click Find in the Editing group. You can also use Ctrl+F keyboard shortcut.
In the Find tab enter the text you are looking for.
You may go to the occurrence one by one using Find Next or use Find in… to
see all the occurrences.
If you want to replace the text with some other text, then use the Replace tab
in the dialog box. Enter the text to replace with.
You can replace once by one (Replace button) or all in one go (Replace All).
And if you don’t want to replace an occurrence, then click Find Next.
You can also directly use Replace command in the Editing group OR Ctrl+H.
AutoCorrect Option
Autocorrect option provides feature using which you can replace as you type. It
helps to correct typos and misspellings as they occur. For example, if you
accidently type ‘teh’ Word changes it to ‘the’. This feature saves time and helps
eliminate errors.
Autocorrect is also used to apply special formatting, for example, (C) is changed
to the copyright symbol.
Customizing AutoCorrect
Click Office Button.
Click Word Options.
Select Proofing in the left pane.
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Click Auto Correct Options… button.
Select the AutoCorrect tab.
In the section Replace text as you type, under Replace add the abbreviation or
the text you want to replace.
Under the label With enter the correct text that you want.
Click Add and then OK.
Thesaurus
Thesaurus quickly shows the synonyms for a word that you type.
Right-click the word and choose Synonym from the menu that appears.
A menu listing synonyms for the word appears.
Choose the appropriate word
OR
Click the Review Tab.
Click Thesaurus in the Proofing group.
Research task pane opens with the synonyms listed of the selected word.
Preview before Printing
Click Office Button.
Select Print à Print Preview. The document open in the Print Preview mode.
Click Print to print the document or Close Print Preview to come back to the
document in original mode.
You can modify page margins, orientation, page size, etc in Print Preview mode.
To QuickPrint the Document
Click Office Button.
Select Print à QuickPrint
The document prints to the default printer.
To Print the Document
Click Office Button.
Select Print à Print. The Print dialog box appears.
Select the pages you would like to print – All pages, Current page or range of
pages.
Select the number of copies.
Check the Collate if you are printing multiple copies of a multipage
document.
Select the printer from the drop down list.
Click on Options… button and you can set other printing options, for example
if you need to print the background colour or not.
Click OK to print.
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2.6
OTHER WORD FEATURES
Word Processor
There are many other features in Word that help us to create professional and
error-free documents. Let us learn more about those features.
Inserting HyperLinks
A hyperlink is a piece of Text or image in an electronic document that can
connect readers to another portion of the document or a different web page. To
insert a Hyperlink:
Select the text or image you would like to make hyperlink.
Right-click on the text or image and select Hyperlink option form the menu.
OR
Select Insert tab.
Click Hyperlink in the Links group. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box appears.
The selected text will be in the Text to Display field OR it will be disabled
for an image.
Type the Web address in the Address field and Click OK.
The image or text will now be a hyperlink
You can use options Edit Hyperlink, Remove Hyperlink to Open Hyperlink
that appear when you right click on the hyperlink.
Understanding Sections
Sections are the basis of Word’s page layout formatting. You can divide your
document into any number of sections. Each section can have its own page
formatting with respect to paper size, margins, page orientation, number and
spacing of columns, header, footer, footnotes, endnotes, page numbering or line
numbering. A single page can contain multiple sections.
Create a Section
Position the cursor where you want the new section to begin.
Click Page Layout tab on the Ribbon.
Click Breaks button in the Page Setup Group.
Choose one of the Section Breaks from the drop down list:
Next Page:
The new section begins from the following page.
Continuous: The new section begins from the next line of the same page.
Even Page: The new section begins on the next even numbered page.
Odd Page: The new section begins on the next odd numbered page.
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Creating an Index of a Document
Indexes help to locate specific portions of the document easily. Creating an index
is a three step process:
Mark all the words and phrases within your document that you want to appear
in the index.
Create the index from the marked words.
Carefully review the index created and fix if there are any issues.
Marking Index Entries
Select the word or phrase you want in the index.
Click References Tab
Click Mark Entry in the Index group of the tab OR press Alt+Shift+X. It
opens the Mark Index Entry dialog box.
Ensure that the content in the Main Entry Field is correct and click the Mark
button.
To index an entry under a different word, type the alternative entry in the
Main Entry Field and click the Mark button again.
Mark any additional index entries by highlighting them in the document and
clicking the Mark button.
After you mark all of the index entries you want, click the Close button.
Inserting the Index
Place the cursor where you want Index to appear.
Select the Reference Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Insert Index button in the Index group.
Select the index style from the Formats drop down in the Index dialog box
that opens.
Set the other controls as per your needs.
Click OK
The index is inserted into the document.
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Adding Footnotes and Endnotes
Footnote is the additional information that is found at the bottom of a page. Often
a footnote will contain the source of the information or additional information
about the text contained in the document.
Endnote is additional information or credits given at the end of the document
instead of at the end of each page.
To insert a footnote or an endnote:
Place the cursor where you want the little footnote reference number to appear
in the text.
Click on the References Tab.
Click the Insert Footnote/ Insert Endnote button in the Footnotes group.
Type the footnote/ endnote.
To make any changes:
Word Processor
Click on the arrow in the lower right corner of the Footnotes group to launch
the Footnote and Endnote dialog box.
Make the required changes. You can change a footnote to endnote or vice
versa as needed, using the Convert button in the dialog box.
To delete a footnote, select the footnote reference number in the text and press
Delete.
Building Table of Contents
Table of Contents (TOC) is a listing of all the headings (each with the page
number) you designate throughout your document beforehand. When you create a
TOC, Word searches your document for heading paragraphs to include in the
table, recognizing them by the styles you assign to them.
Apply Heading styles to your chosen headings.
Move the cursor to the place where you want to see your TOC.
Click Reference Tab.
Click Table of Contents button in the Table of Contents group.
Choose the TOC style you wish to use from the menu list.
To Customize, click the TOC button and select Insert Table of Contents…
A Table of contents dialog box appears. Choose the options for your table:
Show Page Numbers: to display/ not display the page numbers in TOC.
Right-Align Page Numbers: to place page numbers either right next to the
corresponding text or at the right margin.
Tab Leader: to change or remove the dotted line that connects each TOC entry to
the page number
Formats: to select one of several predefined formats for the TOC.
Show Levels: to specify which heading level to include in the table.
Re-Building Table of Contents
After you create TOC, it does not reflect later changes you make to the document.
You need to update or rebuild it as follows:
Click the Update Table button in TOC group on References tab.
Click OK to update the table.
Adding Comments
Comments are simple notes, suggestions, questions, thoughts, Ideas or advice that
can be transparently added to the document without altering the text. Comments
are always labeled with your initials and a sequential number. If number of people
are commenting on the document, then each persons’ comment appear in a
different colour. To add a comment in your Word Document:
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Figure 2.11 : Adding Comments
Select the text for which you wish to add a comment.
Click the Review Tab.
Click on New Comments button in the Comments Group. In the markup area,
you see a comment bubble containing the comment number and writer’s
initials.
Type your comment. Comment is added in the markup area.
To close the comment window click the X (Close) button.
Track and Review Changes
To note the changes in a document, you need to activate revision tracking feature.
Click Review Tab.
Click Track Changes button in the Tracking group.
To turn off revision, click the track changes button again. The only clue that
you have properly activated revision tracking is that Track Changes button
appears highlighted in the Ribbon.
With revision tracking, any new text that you add appears in red underline.
Text you delete is colored with red strikethrough.
Figure 2.12 : Adding text with Track Changes On
Begin at the start of the document and Click Next button in the Changes group of
Review tab to go to the next change in your document.
To accept the change, click Accept button.
To reject the change, click Reject button. Change is removed from the
document.
You can also accept or reject all changes in one go.
You can also right click any revision mark to accept or reject it.
Save the final document.
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Document Map
Word Processor
Document map enables you to see a quick overview of a document’s structure,
especially when using the heading styles.
Click View tab on the Ribbon
Select Document Map check box in Show/ Hide group. A DocumentMap
task pane opens, summarizing various heading styles in use.
Click a heading inside the map to instantly jump to that part of your
document.
Protect Document
You can protect your document from being modified or changed by other.
Click the Review tab on the Ribbon.
In the Protect group, click the Protect Document button.
Choose an option from the drop down list. You can limit the formatting styles
and restrict certain types of document editing.
2.7
MAIL MERGE
Mail Merge is a tool that allows you to easily produce personalized multiple
letters, labels, labels and more using information stored in a list, database or
spreadsheet.
To use mail merge:
Select Mailings Tab on the Ribbon.
Click on the Start Mail Merge command
Choose Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard…
The Mail Merge Task Pane appears that will guide you through the six main
steps to complete the task. You will have many decisions to make during the
process. The following is an example of how to create a form letter and merge the
letter with a data list.
Select Letters for the document type in the Mail Merge Task Pane.
Click Next:Starting document at the bottom of the task pane to move to Step
2.
Select the Starting Document. Choose Start from a template and then select
any template from Letters tab for our example.
Click Next:Select recipients at the bottom of the task pane to move to Step 3.
Select Type a new list button, since we don’t have an existing list of
recipients.
Click on Create in the task pane to create a data source. A New Address List
dialog box appears.
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Enter the data only for the columns Title, First Name, Address Line1, City,
Pin Code. Enter the complete name in the First Name column itself. Click
New Entry to add more than one record.
You may Customize the address list by clicking on the customize button. You
can add new columns, delete the column you don’t need, rename a column or
change the column order in the Customize Address List dialog box. For
example, we will delete the columns Last Name, State and Country from the
column list. Select these columns one by one and click delete button after each
selection. You will need to confirm each deletion. After deleting all the
required columns, rename the column ’First Name’ to ‘Name’. Click Ok to
save the changes.
After data entry, when you click OK, it asks for the file name and location.
Provide the required information and click Save.
The Mail Merge Recipients dialog box appears and displays all the records in
the list.
You can refine the recipients list using sort, filter or other options available in
the dialog box.
Click OK once you have ensured that the data list is correct.
Click Next:Write your letter to move to Step 4.
Since we had started with a template, we need not type any letter. Else, you
can type a letter now if you don’t have one.
Also notice <<AddressBlock>> and <<GreetingLine>> in the letter. This is
where the personalized information will appear in the completed letter after
merging.
To see how to add these information, simply place your cursor where you
want to insert the information. Click on Address Block or Greeting Line and a
dialog box appears. Specify what and how you want the information to appear
and Click OK. You can see a placeholder has appeared in the document.
You can display more fields by using the option More items… from the task
pane and selecting the required field from the Insert Merge Field dialog box.
Once you have set all the place holders for the information and completed
your letter, click Next:Preview your letters.
Figure 2.13 : Mail Merge – Setting Address Block
86
When you have previewed the letters to ensure that the information from the
data records appeared correctly in the letter, click Next:Complete the Merge.
Word Processor
Click Print to print the letters. Select All and click OK.
2.8
SUMMARY
Word Processor software is the key to quickly create a formatted and professional
looking document. Its features allow us to create a document with any kind of
layout, formatting, data, graphics, tables and for any purpose. The document once
created can be saved and revisited for further improvements. It helps us to create
an error free content, enables us to ensure that we will get what we want through
preview option and eventually print the document.
Word processor is an extremely useful tool for all kinds of people. It helps
businesses to create legal copies, letters, letterheads, memos, mailing lists,
reference documents. It helps students to prepare their project reports,
assignments, to do list, create work for research and publication. It is useful at
home to write letters, create shopping list, resume’s and cards.
Hence, the utility of a feature rich word processor is immense and abound.
2.9
LIST OF USEFUL KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
Keystroke
F1
Ctrl+S
Ctrl+O
Ctrl+N
Ctrll+P
Ctrl+W
Ctrl+C
Ctrl+X
Ctrl+V
Ctrl+Z
Ctrl+Y
Ctrl+B
Ctrl+U
Ctrl+I
Ctrl+L
Ctrl+E
Ctrl+R
Ctrl+J
Ctrl+A
Ctrl+F
Action
Word Help
Save the document
Open an existing document
Open a New document
Print the document
Close the document
To copy text to the clipboard
To cut text and paste it on the clipboard
To paste text from the clipboard
Undo/ rollback previous action
Reapply/ repeat an action
Bold the selected text
Underline the selected text
Italicize the selected text
Align Left
Center
Align Right
Justify
Select the whole document
Find Text
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Ctrl+H
Home
End
Ctrl+Home
Ctrl+End
Page Up
Page Down
Replace Text
Beginning of a line
End of a line
Beginning of the document
End of the document
Up one Screen
Down one Screen
2.10 LAB EXERCISE
1. Open Word. Set the Word environment as follows:
a. Minimize the Ribbon
b. Display the Ruler
c. Add New and Open commands to the Quick Access Toolbar
d. Show Quick Access Toolbar below the Ribbon
e. Customize Status Bar to show Formatted /Page Number, Line Number and
Caps Lock on/ off.
f. Close Word Window without saving anything.
2. Using the right mouse click at appropriate location, do the following:
a. Add the Word Options menu to the Quick Access Toolbar
b. Add following items in this order to the Quick Access Toolbar:
Format Painter, Font, Font size, Bold, Italic and Underline.
c. Remove font size icon from the Quick Access Toolbar
3. Using ‘Word Options’ do the following customizations:
a. Add ‘Style’ to the Quick Access Toolbar
b. Add a Separator before ‘Style’ added as above.
c. In the ‘Popular’ tab check ‘Show Mini Toolbar on selection’ and ‘Enable
Live Preview’
d. Set ‘Save Autorecover Information’ to every 5 minutes
e. Enable ‘Checking Spelling as you Type’ option
f. Enable ‘Show Shortcut Keys in Screentips’ option
4. Create a new Word Document. Save it by the name FirstDocument in a
folder called IGNOUBCA. Now save the same document
a. by the name SecondDocument in the same folder IGNOUBCA.
b. In a different folder but by the name FirstDocument
c. Save it as PDF file
d. Save it in a format compatible with Word 2003
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You should now have both FirstDocument and SecondDocument open in the
Word window. Open one more Word document. View the list of all the open
documents. Switch to FirstDocument. Close all documents.
Word Processor
5. Design a flyer for sale at a Garments shop. Use different font style, size,
colours, effects, alignments, etc. to create it. It should contain the text ‘Now
40% 50% off’.
6. Create following lists:
a. A multilevel day wise list of things to do. The days should be
numbered (1,2,3…) and for each day, things to do should be in
alphabetical order(a,b,c…)
b. A bulleted shopping list. Also change the line spacing of the list
7. Create a Tab delimited list of subjects and marks as follows:
S No. SubjectMarks
1
English 79
2
Maths
95
And so on…
Now convert this list into a table. Give a shade of any colour to the first row.
8. Create a new document. Type in some text with a heading. Create your own
Style and format the text using that style. Create your own table design for the
document. The design should have red coloured borders in dotted or dashed
line. Create a table using the table design you created.
9. Create a new document. Add a Picture from the sample pictures. Resize it to
make it smaller. Add fifteen lines text to the document for the picture. Tight
wrap the text around the image. Now set the image at the center of the page
using Position option. Change the shape of the picture to oval. Save the
document.
10. Create a three page document. Set its background colour and add
‘confidential’ as the watermark. Give your document a title which should be
displayed in the header. The header/ footer of the first page should be different
from other two pages. Also add author name and date/ time in the header. The
footer should have the page number.
11. Create a Newsletter in two-column layout. Each page should have a border.
And page should be Landscape oriented.
12. Insert an index for a document. The document should be at least a four page
document. You may copy the text from anywhere else to create the document.
13. Build Table of contents for a document. You may use all the headings from
this unit. For your purpose.
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14. You are applying for a job at lot of places. Create a standard cover letter and
use mail merge to generate the customized letters. You will need to create a
database of all the companies where you wish to apply. Also generate labels
for the same.
2.11 FURTHER READINGS
Word 2007 All-In-One Desk Reference for Dummies By Doug Lowe.
Teach Yourself Word 2007 By Moira Stephen.
Word 2007 for Dummies By Dan Gookin.
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UNIT 3
Spreadsheet
SPREADSHEET
Structure
Page No.
3.0
Introduction
92
3.1
Objectives
93
3.3
What is a Spreadsheet ?
93
3.3
Excel Basics
93
3.3.1
Starting Excel
94
3.3.2
Commands and Resources in Excel Window
95
3.3.3
Setting Up in Your Excel Environment
97
3.3.4
Creating a New Workbook
100
3.3.5
Opening an Existing Workbook
101
3.3.6
Saving a Existing Document
101
3.3.7
Working with Multiple Workbooks
102
3.3.8
Closing a Workbook
102
3.3.9
Closing Microsoft Excel
102
3.4
3.5
3.6
Entering, Editing and Formatting Data
102
3.4.1
Moving around the Worksheet
103
3.4.2
Selecting Cells, Rows or Columns
104
3.4.2.1
104
Selecting Cells
3.4.3
Entering Data
105
3.4.4
Deleting Data
105
3.4.5
Editing Data
105
3.4.6
Working with Cells, Rows and Columns
106
3.4.7
Data and Formatting
110
Formulas and Functions
115
3.5.1
Formulas
116
3.5.1.1 Create a Simple Formulas
116
3.5.1.2 Create a Simple Formulas using Point and Click Method
116
3.5.2
Using Cell References
117
3.5.3
Linking Worksheets
117
3.5.4
Functions
118
3.5.4.1 Function Library
118
3.5.4.2 Insert a Function
118
Working with Worksheets
116
3.6.1
Name a Worksheet
119
3.6.2
Insert a New Worksheet
120
3.6.3
Delete a Worksheet
120
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3.7
3.6.4
Grouping Worksheets
120
3.6.5
Ungrouping Worksheets
121
3.6.6
Reposition Worksheets in a Workbook
121
3.6.7
Hide Worksheets
121
3.6.8
Formatting and Printing the Workbook
122
Working with Tables and Charts
124
3.7.1
Tables
124
3.7.1.1 Create Table
125
3.7.1.2 Sort Data
126
3.7.1.3 Filter Data
126
Charts
127
3.7.2.1 Add Data
128
3.7.2.2 Create Chart
128
3.7.2.3 Apply Layout
128
3.7.2.4 Add Labels
129
3.7.2.5 Switch Data
129
3.7.2.6 Change Chart Type, Chart Style or Data Range
129
3.7.2.7 Move the Chart to a Different Worksheet
129
3.7.2
3.8
Other Useful Excel Features
129
3.8.1
Conditional Formating
129
3.8.2
Freeze Rows and Columns
130
3.8.3
Find and Replace
130
3.8.4
Add Comments
131
3.8.5
Protect Worksheet
131
3.8.6
Convert Text to Columns
130
3.9
Summary
133
3.10
Lab Exercise
133
3.11
Further Readings
137
3.0
INTRODUCTION
Every business has numerical tasks to be performed, be it related to accounts,
taxes, sales or budgeting. Businesses also need graphs and charts for analysis and
projections. At homes, we track our own budgets and investments. Mathematics
and Engineering students deal with big numbers, formulas and calculations.
Almost all of us deal with tables, data and calculations in some or the other form.
There are many software packages available to assists us in all these number
based functions. Electronic spreadsheet is most common of them.
In this unit, we will study how we can use electronic spreadsheet to store,
maintain, manage, manipulate and organize our data for budgeting, analysis and
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planning purposes or how we can use to it track students performance, weather
data or inventory and maintain friends list, customer list, etc.
3.1
Spreadsheet
OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you will be able to ;
learn what a Spreadsheet is and how to use it;
create, edit, save, preview and print Workbooks;
format worksheets with different settings such as margins, headers or footers;
store, search, retrieve, sort and filter tabular data;
manage and Manipulate data using functions and formulas; and
create graphical charts and perform analysis functions.
3.3
WHAT IS A SPREADSHEET ?
Spreadsheet is basically a grid consisting of horizontal rows and vertical columns.
This format has traditionally been used in accounting to present book-keeping
ledgers.
Electronic spreadsheet is a computer application that simulates the paper
worksheet to organize data into rows and columns and stores various types of
data.
Each intersection of rows and columns is called a cell where the data is stored to
be used in calculations within the spreadsheet. Electronic spreadsheets have lot of
in built features and tools such as functions, formulas, charts, and data analysis
tools that make it easier to work with large amount of data. It provides ability to
perform mathematical calculations quickly and has flexibility to perform quick
recalculation in case of any data change.
Electronic spreadsheets can be used in any area or field that works with numbers
and are commonly found in the accounting, budgeting, sales forecasting, financial
analysis and scientific fields. It can be used to create and maintain a list, store
database records, create charts or graphs, compare numerical or financial data.
There are quite a few electronic spreadsheet programs available like Excel,
OpenOffice Calc or Google spreadsheets. We will consider MS Excel 3007 for
our study. It comes bundled in MS Office which is an office automation tool.
3.3
EXCEL BASICS
In this section, we will cover how to start Excel, open, save and close a workbook
and what different parts of Excel Window stand for.
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3.3.1
Starting Excel
You can start MS Excel by either of the following two ways:
Click on Startà All ProgramàMicrosoft Officeà Microsoft Office Excel
3007.
Double click on the MS Excel icon on the desktop (if you have one).
When Excel opens, a new document (called Workbook in Excel) with default
name as Book1 is opened. For each additional workbook you open, the number
increases by one. Please note that you can open more than one workbook at a
time. By default each workbook contains three worksheets. You may increase or
decrease the number of worksheets in a workbook. How we do it, we will learn
later in this unit.
You may also start Excel by clicking on a workbook saved on your hard drive.
Excel will open automatically and the workbook will be displayed in the Excel
window.
When you open Excel from the menu or desktop icon, the screen will look like in
Figure 3.1.
Minimize, Restore Down and Close Buttons for Excel window
Workbook Title on Title Bar
Microsoft Office Button
Minimize, Restore Down and Close Buttons for
Workbook
Quick Access Toolbar
Tabs on
the Ribbon
Group on
Tab
Dialog
Box
Launcher
for the
Group
Name
Box
Formula Bar
Ribbon
Formula
Bar
Buttons
A Cell (E8)
Current or
Active Cell
(A1)
Columns
Rows
Worksheet Tabs. By default
three worksheets in a
Workbook
Insert Worksheet
Status Bar
Worksheet Area
Page Views
Figure 3.1: Microsoft Excel Window
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3.3.2
Commands and Resources in Excel Window
Spreadsheet
Let us familiarize ourselves with the key commands and resources in Excel
Window:
The Microsoft Office Button
It is the button in the upper-left corner of the Excel Window. When you click on
the button, it displays a menu that can be used to create a new workbook, open an
existing workbook, save a workbook, print and perform many other tasks.
The Quick Access Toolbar
It is present next to the Microsoft Office Button on the top. It provides you access
to the commands you frequently use. By default Following appear on the Quick
Access Toolbar:
Save: To save your file (you may also press keyboard button ( Ctrl+S).
Undo: To rollback the action that you last took (Ctrl+Z).
Redo: To reapply the action you rolled back or to repeat an action (Ctrl+Y).
The Title Bar
It is next to the Quick Access toolbar at the top. It displays the title of the
workbook on which you are currently working. By default, the first new
workbook is named as Book1. For each additional workbook you open, the
number increases by one. You may save the workbooks by any legal filename you
want.
The Ribbon
The Ribbon is the panel at the top portion of the document, right below the Title
Bar. To begin with it has following seven tabs:
Home: It has basic commands for creating, formatting and editing the
spreadsheets. It has controls for working with the clipboard, fonts, alignment,
number, styles, cells and editing.
Insert: It has commands for inserting tables, pictures, shapes, other
illustrations, links, charts, header, footer, etc.
Page Layout: The commands here help to set the layout of the spreadsheet,
apply a theme to set the overall look, set the margins, orientation, size,
backgrounds, etc.
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Formulas: It has commands that help you use different formulas and
functions.
Data: Has commands to import, query, view data from external sources, sort,
filter or manage data.
Review: Has commands to add comments, protect sheet, protect workbook,
share workbook, etc.
View: Helps to change the display of the worksheet area.
Besides these basic tabs, additional tabs appear from time to time, depending on
the context we are working in. These tabs are called contextual tabs. For example,
if you select a chart, a Chart Tools contextual tab appears that has commands to
help you design and format the chart. These contextual tabs appear in a different
colour to make them easy to spot.
The commands on each tab are organized into groups. Hence, a group is a
collection of logically related command buttons that you can use to manage a
Worksheet. Commonly used features are displayed on the Ribbon and additional
options can be accessed through the dialog box launcher at the bottom-right
corner of each group.
The Formula Bar
The formula bar is divided into three sections:
Name Box: Located on the left most side of the formula bar, it displays the
address of the current cell
Formula Bar Buttons: Middle section of the formula bar with indented circle on
the left (to increase or decrease the size of the name box) and function wizard
(labeled fx) on the right. When you start entering data in the cell, Cancel ( ) and
Enter ( ) buttons also appear.
Cell Contents: Right side of the formula bar displays the cell entries.
The Worksheet Area
The worksheet area displays all the cells. It is in the cells that you enter, format or
edit your data.
The Status Bar
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The Status bar appears at the very bottom of the Excel window and provides such
information as the sum, average, minimum, and maximum value of selected
numbers. You can change what displays on the Status bar by right-clicking on the
Status bar and selecting the options you want from the Customize Status Bar
menu. You click a menu item to select it. You click it again to deselect it. A check
mark next to an item means the item is selected.
3.3.3
Spreadsheet
Setting up Your Excel Environment
Before you begin working on your spreadsheet, you may want to set up your
Excel environment and become familiar with a few key tasks such as how to
maximize and minimize the Ribbon, configure the Quick Access toolbar, display/
hide the formula bar, change page views etc.
Minimize and Maximize the Ribbon
Right click anywhere in the main menu
Select Minimize the Ribbon in the menu that appears. This will toggle the
Ribbon on and off.
Figure 3.2 : Minimize the Ribbon
The check mark beside ‘Minimize the Ribbon’ option indicates the feature is
active. You may choose to use this option, if you prefer not to use the Ribbon, but
use different menus and keyboard shortcuts.
This menu also has option to Show Quick Access Toolbar Below the Ribbon,
instead of at the top. You can also Customize Quick Access Toolbar using the
option available in this menu. Choosing this option displays the window as shown
in figure 3.
Add Commands to Quick Access Toolbar
Click the arrow (customize quick access toolbar) to the right of the Quick
Access toolbar.
Select the command you wish to add from the drop down menu. The
command will appear in the Quick Access Toolbar
You can also select More commands… from the menu to open the screen as
shown in Figure 3.3. Here you can one by one add commands to the toolbar or
remove commands from the toolbar to make specific features easily accessible.
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Figure 3.3: Customizing Quick Access Toolbar
Display or Hide the Formula Bar
Click the View Tab of the Ribbon.
In the Show/ Hide group check/ uncheck against formula bar to show/ hide
formula bar.
Expand Formula Bar
The Expand/ Collapse formula bar button is present at the far right end of the
formula bar.
Figure 3.4: Expand Formula Bar Button
Click on the button to expand or collapse the formula bar.
Customize the Status Bar
Right click anywhere on the Status Bar.
From the menu that appears, select the options that you want to see on the
Status Bar. If the option is selected a check mark appears before it. Ensure that
View Shortcuts and Zoom Slider options are selected.
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Spreadsheet
Zoom In and Out
Locate the zoom bar in the bottom, right corner.
Left-click the slider and drag it to the left to zoom out and to the right to
zoom in.
Zoom Bar
Figure 3.5 : Zoom In
You can also use the Zoom group in the View Tab of the Ribbon to set your
zoom.
Change Page Views
Locate the Page View options in the bottom, right corner. Click on an option
to select it. Different page view options are:
Normal: This is the default view.
Page Layout: This view is very helpful from printing point of view. When
you select this view, you are able to see the header block, all the margins
around the worksheet, the vertical and horizontal rulers and the column
and row headings also appear differently. This view shows how exactly
the workbook would look like when you print it.
Page Break: This is view is useful to determine where the page will break
when you are trying to print an Excel sheet that spans multiple pages.
Normal
Page Layout
Page Break Preview
Figure 3.6 : Page Views
You can also set the page view using Workbook Views group in the View tab on
the Ribbon.
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Customizing the Environment Using Excel Options
The Excel Options menu allows you to customize Excel 3007 according to your
preferences.
Click the Microsoft Office Button
Click on ‘Excel Options’ button located at the bottom of the menu.
Figure 3.7 : Excel Options Button
When you click on Excel Options button, an extensive menu will open.
Using Excel Options menu, you can personalize your work environment with the
mini toolbar, Live preview, colour schemes, customize sort and fill sequence, auto
correction setting, modify default options for new workbooks, calculation options,
specify options for editing, copying, pasting formulas, calculations and other
general setting.
3.3.4
Creating a New Workbook
You can create a new workbook as follows:
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select New. The New Workbook dialog box appears.
Select Blank Workbook under ‘Blank and Recent’ section. It will be
highlighted by default.
Click Create. A new, blank workbook appears in the Excel window.
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You may also use keyboard shortcut Ctrl+N to create a new workbook. Please
note that when you first open Excel, it open with a blank new workbook.
If you want to create a new document from a template, explore the templates and
choose one that fits your needs, instead of choosing new blank workbook.
3.3.5
Spreadsheet
Opening an Existing Workbook
You can open an existing document in one of the following ways:
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select Open. Select the required workbook in the dialog box.
OR
Use keyboard shortcut Ctrl+O to select and open an existing document.
OR
If you have recently used workbook then
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Choose from the Recent Documents section.
OR
Go to Windows Explorer. Find your document.
Right mouse click on the document and select Open.
3.3.6
Saving a Existing Document
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select Save from the menu.
OR
Use keyboard shortcut Ctrl+S
OR
Use Save on the Quick Access Toolbar
On using any of these options, the workbook is saved in its current location with
the same file name. If you are saving the workbook for the first time, then Save
As dialog box appears which accepts the workbook name and location where it is
to be saved.
Using Save As Option
You may use Save As option as below:
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select Save As from the menu. The Save As dialog box appears.
Select the location where you wish to save the workbook.
Enter the name for the workbook.
Click the Save button
The Save As option can be used to:
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Create a backup copy of the workbook by saving it at another location or by
different name.
Save the workbook in a format that is fully compatible with Excel97-3003
Save the workbook as macro-enabled or binary workbook.
3.3.7
Working with Multiple Workbooks
Multiple workbooks can be opened simultaneously if there is such a need. To see
the list of open workbooks:
Click on View tab of the Ribbon
Click on Switch Windows in the Window group. A drop down list of all open
workbooks is displayed.
The current workbook has a checkmark besides its name. You may select any
workbook from the list to make it current.
3.3.8
Closing a Workbook
To close a workbook:
Click the Microsoft Office Button.
Select Close from the menu.
The current workbook closes. The next document in the list becomes current. If
there is no other open document, then only Excel window is there.
3.3.9
Closing Microsoft Excel
Click the Microsoft Office Button. A menu appears.
Click Close. Excel closes.
3.4
ENTERING, EDITING AND FORMATTING DATA
Excel treats different types of data differently. You enter all kinds of data in a cell
in the worksheet. An Excel workbook can hold any number of worksheets and
each worksheet is made up of more than seventeen billion cells. Each cell can
hold any of the following three types of data:
A numeric value : It can be numbers (example 300.40), dates (example
4-Feb-2011) or times (example 3:35 am). There are many different format
options available in Excel for the display of numerical values.
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Text : Text in Excel can be used as labels for values, headings for columns or
worksheet or for any kind of instructions. Text that begins with a number is
still considered as text.
A Formula : Formulas can be entered in a cell where eventually the result of
the formula is displayed. We will study more about formulas later in this unit.
Spreadsheet
A worksheet can also hold charts, diagrams, pictures and other objects. These
objects aren’t contained in cells. Rather, they reside on the worksheet’s draw
layer, which is an invisible layer on top of each worksheet.
In order to enter or edit data in a cell, that cell must be current. Excel indicates
that a cell is current in following ways:
A dark black border (called the cell cursor) appears around the cell.
The cell address appears in the Name box of the formula bar. A cell address
is combination of Column Letter(s) and Row number that intersect at that cell
position. For example, if the cell address is A3, it means it is at the
intersection of column A and row 3.
The cell column heading (letters) and row heading (number) is shaded for that
particular cell.
3.4.1
Moving around the Worksheet
Excel has many ways to move the cell cursor around the worksheet to the cell
where you want to enter new data or edit existing data:
Click the desired cell, provided the cell is displayed within the visible section
of the worksheet area.
In case, cell is not visible, then you may use horizontal or vertical scroll bars
to move to that part of the worksheet that contains the desired cell.
Press F5 to open the Go To dialog box. Type the cell address in the reference
and press Enter or click OK. The cell cursor moves to the desired address.
Press CTRL+G. This again opens Go To dialog box.
Click in the Name box of formula bar and enter the address of the desired cell.
Preas Enter. Cursor moves to the specified cell.
You can also use the arrow and tab keys as specified below to move the cell
cursor to the desired cell:
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To Move
One cell on right
One cell on left
One cell up
One cell down
To cell A1
To last cell with any data (last column and last
row)
Up or Down one screen
First cell of the current row
3.4.2
Keys to Press
Tab or right arrow key
Shift+Tab or left arrow key
Up arrow key
Down arrow key
Ctrl+Home
Ctrl+End
PgUp or PgDn
Home
Selecting Cells, Rows or Columns
If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those
cells by highlighting them.
3.4.2.1 Selecting Cells
You can either use a mouse or a keyboard to select the desired group of cells:
Using Keyboard: To select cell A1 to C5 –
Go to cell A1.
Press F8. This anchors the cursor and ‘Extend Selection’ is displayed in the
Status bar.
Use arrow keys to select the desired cell area.
Press Escape (Esc) to come out of the Extend mode.
Using Mouse: To select cells A1 to C5, as shown in figure 8 –
Click on cell A1.
Keep the left mouse key pressed and drag the mouse to C5.
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Figure 3.8: Noncontiguous Selected Cells
You can also select noncontiguous area of the worksheet using mouse. Press Ctrl
key along with the left mouse key while dragging to select the cells.
Spreadsheet
To select a particular row or a column, just click on that particular row or column
heading. For example, if you want to select row number 3, then just click on
number 3 in the row heading and the entire row will be highlighted. When you
take the cursor over the row heading, then it changes to a right arrow. Similarly,
when you take the cursor over the column heading, then it changed to a down
arrow.
3.4.3
Entering Data
There are different ways to enter data in Excel: in an active cell or in the formula
bar.
To enter data in an active cell:
Click in the cell where you want the data.
Begin typing. Note that the text appears in formula bar also.
To enter data into the formula bar:
Click the cell where you would like the data
Place the cursor in the Formula Bar
Type in the data in the formula bar
Please note that you can use Alt+Enter to go to next line within a cell.
Alt+Enter in a cell works similar to Enter key in a word document.
3.4.4
Deleting Data
Select the cell(s).
Press the Delete key to delete the entire contents of a cell(s).
OR
Double click in a cell. The insertion point appears in the cell.
Press Backspace to delete one character at a time. Press Enter to confirm
changes.
You can also make changes to and delete text from the formula bar. Just select the
cell and place your insertion point in the formula bar and use backspace or select
the whole text and use delete.
3.4.5
Editing Data
To change entire contents of a cell:
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Select the cell and start typing the new data.
Press Enter to confirm the change.
To modify a part of the cell,
Select the cell and switch to edit mode. You can switch to edit mode by
following ways:
Press F3 once you have selected the cell. The Status changes to ‘Edit’
from ‘Ready’ in the status bar.
OR
Double click in the cell to switch to edit mode.
Once you have made your changes, press Enter to confirm changes or press Esc to
cancel changes.
You can also make changes in the Formula bar. Select cell. Click in the formula
bar. Make the required changes. Press Enter to confirm or press Esc to cancel
changes.
3.4.6
Working with Cells, Rows and Columns
Copy/ Cut and Paste
If you need to duplicate data in some cell(s), you can use copy & paste option. In
case you need to move the data from one cell to another, then you use cut & paste
option.
To copy data:
Select the cell(s) that you wish to copy. This is the source location.
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Copy OR use Ctrl+C OR
select Copy option from menu that appears when you right mouse click on the
selected cell(s). The border of the selected cell(s) will change appearance and
the data from the selected cell(s) is copied onto the clipboard.
To cut data:
Select the cell(s) that you wish to cut. This is the source location.
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Cut OR use Ctrl+X OR select
Cut option from menu that appears when you right mouse click on the
selected cell(s). The border of the selected cell(s) will change appearance and
the data from the selected cell(s) is copied onto the clipboard.
To paste data:
Once you have copied or cut data from the source location, you paste it to the
destination location.
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Select the cell(s) where you would like to paste the data. This is the
destination location.
On the Clipboard group of the Home tab, click Paste OR use Ctrl+V OR use
right mouse click menu option. The source information will now appear in
the new destination cells.
Spreadsheet
If you use cut, then the information at the source location is removed
automatically after the paste operation has been performed. If you use copy, then
you have same information at both source and destination locations. Also, in case
of copy, the copied information remains selected with changed border (even after
the paste operation), until you perform next action or press Esc or double click the
selection to deselect it.
Drag and Drop
Drag and drop works similar to cut and paste that you move information from one
cell(s) to another. To drag and drop data from one point to another:
Select the cell(s) that you wish to move.
Position your mouse pointer near one of the outside edges of the selected
cells. The mouse pointer should change from a white, block cross to a black,
thin cross with 4 arrows.
Click and hold the mouse button and drag the cells to the new location. As
you drag the selected cells, the outline of the cells will change.
Release the mouse button and the information appears in the new location.
Please note that for drag and drop to work, it should be enabled in Excel Options.
Undo and Redo
Undo and Redo buttons are present in the Quick Access Toolbar. You can also
use keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+Z and Ctrl+Y for undo and redo respectively.
The undo command allows you to correct your mistakes in the worksheet. The
redo button becomes active when you use undo. It lets you undo what you have
undone. If you want to undo last action, then click on the Undo button. You can
also click the arrow key next to the Undo button to open a list of previous actions.
You can choose from the list to undo multiple actions at the same time. Please
note that once you have saved the file and made a change to the worksheet, then
you cannot undo any action performed before the save.
Insert Cell
You can insert a cell either above a cell or to the left of a cell. Keeping this in
mind,
Select the appropriate cell.
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Click arrow on Insert command from Cells group in the Home tab. If you
click on the Insert button, a cell is inserted above the selected cell. But, if you
click the arrow then a menu opens.
Choose Insert Cells option. Insert dialog box opens.
Choose the appropriate option.
OR
Select the appropriate cell.
Right mouse click on the cell. A menu opens.
Select Insert… option from the menu. Insert dialog box opens.
Choose the appropriate option.
Insert Row or Column
You can insert a row above a particular row or a column to the left of a particular
column. While keeping this in mind,
Select a cell in the appropriate row/ column.
Either use right mouse click OR Insert command in Cells group of the Home
tab on the Ribbon (as done to insert a cell above).
In the Insert dialog box choose the appropriate option for row/ column.
OR
Press right mouse button on the row number (above which you want to insert
a row) in row heading on left of the worksheet OR press right mouse button
on the column letter in column heading (left of which you want to insert the
column) at the top of the worksheet. A menu opens.
Choose insert option from the menu. A row is added above the selected row
OR a column is added to the left of the selected column.
Delete Cell, Row or Column
To delete cells, rows, and columns:
Place the cursor in the cell, row, or column that you want to delete
Click the Delete button on the Cells group of the Home tab
Click the appropriate choice: Cell, Row, or Column
OR
Use right mouse click on the cell, row number in row heading or column
letter(s) in column heading.
Choose Delete option from the menu.
Modify Column Width
There are various ways that you can use to modify column width:
Position the cursor over the column line (line that divides the two columns) in
the column heading. A horizontal double arrow will appear.
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Click the mouse and drag the cursor to the right to increase the column width
or to the left to decrease the column width.
Spreadsheet
Release the mouse button.
OR
Click the column heading of a column you wish to modify. The entire column
will be highlighted.
Click the Format command in the Cells group on the Home tab. A menu will
appear.
Select Column Width to enter a specific column measurement
OR
select AutoFit Column Width to automatically adjust the column so all the
text will fit.
OR
Right mouse click the column heading. A menu will appear.
Select Column Width… from the menu.
Enter the specific column measurement.
Modify Row Height
There are multiple ways that you can use to modify row height:
Position the cursor over the row line (line that divides the two rows) in the
row heading for the row you want to modify. A vertical double arrow will
appear.
Click the mouse and drag the cursor upward to decrease the row height
or downward to increase the row height.
Release the mouse button.
OR
Click the row heading of a row you wish to modify. The entire row will
be highlighted.
Click the Format command in the Cells group on the Home tab. A menu will
appear.
Select Row Height to enter a specific row measurement OR select AutoFit
Row Height to automatically adjust the column so all the text will fit.
OR
Right mouse click the row heading. A menu will appear.
Select Row Height… from the menu.
Enter the specific row measurement.
Hide or Unhide Rows or Columns
To hide or unhide rows or columns:
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Select the row or column you wish to hide or unhide.
Click the Format button on the Cells group of the Home tab. A menu
appears.
Under Visibility heading, click on Hide & Unhide option.
Choose the appropriate option from sub menu that appears: Hide Rows or
Hide Columns or Unhide Rows or Unhide Columns as per the requirements.
3.4.7
Data and Formatting
Auto Fill
Auto Fill feature fills cell data or series of data in a worksheet into a selected
range of cells. If you want the same data copied into the other cells, you only need
to enter data in one cell. If you want to have a series of data (for example, serial
number) fill in the first two cells in the series and then use the auto fill feature. To
use the Auto Fill feature:
Enter the required data in the cell. For example, if you wish to enter 1 in all
cells from A1 to A10, then just type 1 in cell A1. Similarly, if you wish to
enter numbers 1 to 10 in cells A1 to A10 then enter 1 in A1 and 3 in A3.
Now select the cell(s) with value(s) (just A1 OR both A1 and A3 depending
on the case)
Bring your cursor at the bottom right corner of the selection so that it changes
from large white cross to a small, thin, black cross. Now the cursor is
positioned over the fill handle.
Click your mouse at the fill handle and drag it till all the cells you want to fill
are selected (till A10 in our example).
Release the mouse button and all the selected cells are automatically filled.
You can use the fill handle to fill cells horizontally or vertically.
Aligning Values
In Excel, the data in a cell can be aligned both horizontally and vertically. The
default horizontal alignment is left for the text data and right for the numerical
data. Vertically, both text and numerical data are bottom aligned. You can change
the default alignments as per your requirement:
The steps to change alignment are:
Select the cell(s) for which alignment needs to be changed.
Choose horizontal/ vertical alignment command from the Alignment group in
the Home tab.
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In the Figure 3.9, you can see the how the data can be positioned in a cell by
choosing the appropriate combination of horizontal and vertical alignment values.
Horizontal Alignment Commands
Spreadsheet
Vertical Alignment Commands
Figure 3.9: Horizontal and Vertical Alignments
Wrap Text
Wrap text command enable multiple text line inside a single cell. When you type
text that is too long to fit in the cell, either the text is not displayed completely or
it overlaps the next cell if it is empty. If you do not want it to overlap the next
cell, you can wrap the text.
Figure 3.10: Text Wrapping
Select the cell(s) where you wish to wrap the text.
Click on Wrap Text command from Alignment Group in Home Tab. The
text would change to multiline text.
Set the column width and row height as needed.
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Merge Cells
Sometimes, you may want to center a piece of text over several columns or rows.
This is specially the case when you want to give a title to a section of your
worksheet. This can be done through merging the cells (shown in Figure 3.11).
Select the cell you want to merge. In our example in Figure 3.11, we have
merged cells A1 to E1 for the title ‘Student Marks’.
Click Merge and Center Command in Alignment group of Home tab. The
selected cell will be merged together to become one cell (the cell address now
will be A1).
Font Color
Font Style
Font Size
Increase Font Size
Decrease Font Size
Bold
Italics
Underline or
Double
Underline
Figure 3.11: Data and Cell Formatting
Fill Color
In Figure 3.11, we have also merged cells, G5 to I6 for the Note. To do this, again
Select the cells.
Click the arrow for Merge and Center command. The menu opens.
Choose Merge Cells option from the menu.
In case, you want to unmerge the merged cell for any reason:
Select the merged cell.
Click the arrow for Merge and Center command. The menu opens.
Choose Unmerge Cells option from the menu. The cells will be unmerged.
Format Data as Bold, Italicized, Underlined or Double Underlined
The data in the spreadsheet can be formatted to make it more presentable. For
formatting:
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Select the cell(s).
Either click the appropriate command(s) (Bold, Italic, Underline, Double
Underline ) in Font group of the Home tab OR use keyboard shortcuts as
below:
Command
Bold
Italicize
Underline
Spreadsheet
Keyboard Shortcut
Ctrl+B
Ctrl+I
Ctrl+U
For double underline format, click the down arrow next to Underline command.
Choose Double Underline from the menu that opens.
In our example in figure 11, the Headings are in bold and Note is in italics.
Change Font Style
To change the font style,
Select the cell(s).
Click the drop-down arrow next to the Font Style box on the Home tab.
Select a font style from the list.
As you move over the font list, the Live Preview feature previews the font for you
in the spreadsheet.
Change the Font Size
To change the font size,
Select the cell(s) you want to format.
Click the drop-down arrow next to the Font Size box on the Home tab.
Select a font size from the list.
Change the Text Colour
To change the Text Colour,
Select the cell(s) you want to format.
Click the drop-down arrow next to the Font Color command. A color palette
will appear.
Select a color from the palette.
OR
Select More Colors…. A dialog box will appear.
Select a color.
Click OK.
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Add a Border
To add border(s),
Select the cell or cells you want to format.
Click the drop-down arrow next to the Borders command on the Home tab.
A menu will appear with border options.
Click an option from the list to select it.
You can change the line style and color of the border.
In Figure 3.11, we have added thick border to the title and borders to the table,
column heading and the note.
Add a Fill Color
To change the Text Colour,
Select the cell or cells you want to format.
Click the Fill command. A color palette will appear.
Select a color.
OR
Select More Colors…. A dialog box will appear.
Select a color.
Click OK.
You can use the fill color feature to format columns and rows, and format a
worksheet so that it is easier to read.
Format Numbers, Dates and Times
Excel treats dates and times as special type of numeric value. You can format any
of these data as per your requirements:
Select the cell(s) you wish to format.
Click the drop-down arrow next to the Number Format box in Number
Group in Home tab.
Select one of the options for formatting numbers.
Number Format
Accounting Number Format
Percent Style
Figure 3.12 : Number Group in Home Tab
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Comma Style
Increase Decimal
Decrease Decimal
By default, the numbers appear in the General category, which means there is no
special formatting.
Spreadsheet
In the Number group, you have some other options. For example, you can change
the another currency format, set numbers to percents, add commas, and change
the decimal location.
When you click on the dialog box launcher (arrow at the bottom right corner of
the group), the Number tab of the Format Cells dialog box opens as in Figure
3.13. From here you can choose the specific format for number, date or time.
Figure 3.13: Number Tab of Format Cells Dialog box
Please Note: For any of the above formatting options, you can also right mouse
click in the selected cell(s) and then choose Format Cells… option from the
menu that opens. The Format Cells dialog box will appear with different tabs for
number formatting, alignment, font, border, fill and protection.
You can also use Format Painter in Clipboard group of Home Tab to copy
format from one cell to another.
3.5
FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS
Formulas and Functions enhance Excels capability calculating and manipulating
data for analytical purposes.
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3.5.1
Formulas
A formula is a set of mathematical instructions that can be used to perform
calculations. Formulas are started in the formula box with an = sign. A Formula
may consist of:
Operators : Symbols (+, -, *, /, etc.) that specify the calculation to be
performed.
References : The cell or range of cells that you want to use in your
calculation.
Constants : Numbers or text values that do not change.
Functions : Predefined formulas in Excel.
3.5.1.1
Create a Simple Formula
We will learn to create a formula to add two numbers:
Click the cell where you want the formula to be defined (for example cell A3).
Type = sign to let Excel know that a formula is being defined.
Type the two numbers to be added with the operator. For example type
35+1330 in cell A3 (after = sign). Press Enter.
The result of the above addition operation is displayed in the cell A3, instead
of the formula that we had typed. If you select A3, the formula appears in the
formula bar.
We can now modify the above formula to add contents of two cells instead of the
constant values:
Click the cell where you want the formula to be defined and the answer will
appear (for example cell A3).
Type = sign to let Excel know that a formula is being defined.
Type the cell number (example A1) that contains the first number to be added.
Then type + operator and then the cell number (example A3) that contains the
second number to be added. For example type A1+A3 in cell A3 (after =
sign). Please note, if a cell does not contain a number then it is treated as
containing zero.
Press Enter.
The result of the above addition operation is displayed in the cell A3. Cell A3
will display the value 333.
Change the value in cell A1 to 300, and notice that the value in cell A3
automatically changes to 334.
3.5.1.2
Create a Simple Formula using Point and Click Method
To create a formula using mouse:
Click the cell where the answer will appear (B3, for example).
Type the equal sign (=).
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Click on the first cell to be included in the formula (B1, for example).
Spreadsheet
Type the operator sign (+ for addition or – for subtraction or * for
multiplication or / for division) .
Click on the next cell in the formula (B3, for example).
Press Enter or click Enter button on the formula bar.
3.5.2 Using Cell References
When a cell address is used as part of a formula, it is called a cell reference
because instead of entering specific numbers into a formula, the cell address
referring to a specific cell is being used.
You have used Fill Handle in the auto fill feature in section 3.4.7. The same
feature can be used to copy formulas from one cell to another. For example, if you
have the formula =A1+B1 in cell C1, and you can use the fill handle to fill the
formula into cell C3. Note that the formula won’t appear the same in C3 as it does
in C1. Instead of =A1+B1, you will see =A3+B3 in cell C3. This is called
Relative Reference where cell references in formulas has changed cell addresses
relative to the row and column they are moved to. In relative reference, formulas
automatically adjust to new locations when they are pasted into different cells.
Sometimes, our requirement is such that we don’t want this change of cell address
on pasting. To achieve this, cells must be addressed by Absolute Reference.
In Absolute cell references, a formula always refers to the same cell or cell
range used in it. If a formula is copied to a different location, then the cell address
remains the same. An absolute reference is designated in the formula by the
addition of a dollar sign ($). It can precede the column reference or the row
reference, or both. Examples of absolute referencing are:
$A1 - here the column will not change when copied.
A$1 – here the row will not change when copied.
$A$1 – here both row and column will not change when copied.
In the above example, if we have formula as =$A$1+$B$1 in cell C1 and we copy
this formula in cell C3, then you will still see =$A$1+$B$1 in cell C3.
3.5.3
Linking Worksheets
Sometimes, you may want to use the value from a cell in another worksheet
within the same workbook in a formula. For example, the value of cell A1 in the
current worksheet and cell A3 in the second worksheet can be added using the
format "sheetname!celladdress". The formula for this example would be
"=A1+Sheet3!A3" where the value of cell A1 in the current worksheet is added to
the value of cell A3 in the worksheet named "Sheet3".
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3.5.4 Functions
A function is a built in pre defined formula in Excel. One of the key benefits of
functions is that they save your time since you do not have to write the formula
yourself. For example, you could use an Excel function called Average to quickly
find the average of a range of numbers.
Excel has hundreds of different functions to assist with your calculations. Each
function has a particular syntax, which must be strictly followed for the function
to work correctly.
3.5.4.1 Function Library
The function library is a large group of functions on the Formula Tab of the
Ribbon. These functions include:
AutoSum: Easily calculates the sum of a range
Recently Used: All recently used functions
Financial: Accrued interest, cash flow return rates and additional financial
functions
Logical: And, If, True, False, etc.
Text: Text based functions
Date & Time: Functions calculated on date and time
Math & Trig: Mathematical Functions
You can visit each of these functions in the library to know more about them.
3.5.4.2 Insert a Function
To insert a function:
Click the cell where you want the function applied
Click the Insert Function button on the formula bar. The Insert Function
dialog box opens.
Choose the function from the dialog box. You may search on a particular
function in the dialog box or change the category and select the function. Help
for each function is available right there in the dialog box.
Click OK. Function Arguments dialog box opens.
Select the cells or range of cells for function arguments and click OK.
The Function is added to the formula bar
3.6
WORKING WITH WORKSHEETS
In this section we will learn to name, add, delete, group or ungroup worksheets.
We will also learn to format a worksheet for printing.
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3.6.1
Name a Worksheet
Spreadsheet
The default names of Worksheets are Sheet1, Sheet3 and Sheet3. Since these
names are not useful and descriptive, we will learn to rename the worksheet.
You can rename a worksheet using any of the following ways:
Right mouse click on the Sheet1 tab. Menu appears as shown in figure 14(a).
Select option Rename. The name Sheet1 is highlighted by a black box and
becomes editable.
Type the new name at the tab.
Press Enter. The worksheet is renamed.
OR
Click the Format command of the Cells group in Home Tab. A menu appears
as shown is Figure 14(b).
Select option Rename Sheet under Organize Sheet. The sheet name is
highlighted by a black box and becomes editable.
Type the new name at the tab.
Press Enter. The worksheet is renamed.
Figure 3.14: Renaming a Worksheet
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3.6.2
Insert a New Worksheet
You can add worksheets to the workbook anytime you want. The new sheets
added will be named as Sheet4 and so on. There are many ways that you can add
a new worksheet:
Click on the Insert Worksheet icon near the worksheet tabs OR press
Shift+F11.
A new worksheet after the last tab will be added.
OR
Right mouse click on the worksheet tab.
Choose Insert… from the menu (shown in Figure 14(a)). Insert dialog box
opens.
Select Worksheet. Click Ok
A new worksheet before the selected tab will be added.
OR
Click the down arrow of Insert command in the Cells group of Home Tab. A
menu appears.
Choose Insert Sheet from the menu.
A new worksheet before the selected worksheet will be added.
3.6.3
Delete a Worksheet
Any number of worksheets can be deleted irrespective of the fact that they contain
any data or not. But, there should be at least one worksheet in the workbook. To
delete a worksheet:
Right mouse click on the worksheet tab.
Choose Delete from the menu (shown in Figure 14(a)).
The selected worksheet is deleted.
OR
Click the down arrow of Delete command in the Cells group of Home Tab. A
menu appears.
Choose Delete Sheet from the menu.
The selected worksheet is deleted.
3.6.4
Grouping Worksheets
If the multiple worksheets of a workbook contain identical formula and
formatting, then you can group them together. When the worksheets are grouped
together, then any change made to one worksheet will be applied to all other
worksheets in the group. You can group both contiguous and noncontiguous
worksheets. To group contiguous worksheets:
Click on the first worksheet tab.
Press the Shift key.
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While holding the Shift key, click the last worksheet tab you want in the
group.
Release the Shift key.
All the sheets from the first sheet to the last sheet are now grouped. The tab
colour will now change to white indicating that they are grouped together.
Spreadsheet
To group noncontiguous worksheets:
Click on the first worksheet tab.
Press the Ctrl key.
While holding the Ctrl key, select all the other worksheets you want in the
group.
Release the Ctrl key.
All the sheets that you selected while keeping the Ctrl key pressed would be
grouped together and sheet tabs will appear white.
3.6.5
Ungrouping Worksheets
To ungroup worksheets:
Right mouse click one of the worksheets in the group.
Select Ungroup Sheets from the menu.
3.6.6
Reposition Worksheets in a Workbook
To change the position of worksheets in a workbook:
Click and hold the worksheet tab that is to moved until an arrow appears on
the left corner of the sheet.
Drag the worksheet to the desired location
3.6.7
Hide Worksheets
To hide a worksheet:
Right-click on the tab of the sheet you wish to hide.
Select Hide
OR
Click Format button.
Select Hide & Unhide under Visibility in the menu.
Choose Hide Sheet option.
To unhide a worksheet:
Right-click on tab of any sheet.
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Select Unhide…. A dialog box with the list of hidden worksheets is
displayed.
Choose the sheet to unhide.
OR
Click Format button.
Select Hide & Unhide under Visibility in the menu.
Choose Unhide Sheet… option. A dialog box with the list of hidden
worksheets is displayed.
Choose the sheet to unhide.
3.6.8
Formatting and Printing the Workbook
In this section, we will learn how to set page headers, footers, margin, etc and
prepare our workbook for printing.
To Change Page Orientation
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Orientation command in the Page Setup group.
Choose the orientation you want – Landscape (horizontal) or Portrait
(vertical).
To Change Paper Size
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Size command in the Page Setup group.
A drop down menu appears with all the available paper sizes. Current size is
highlighted.
Choose the size option. Page size of workbook changes.
To Set Page Margins
Select Page Layout Tab on the Ribbon.
Click Margins command in the Page Setup group.
Choose the predefined margins from the list.
OR
Customize your margins by selecting Custom Margins from the menu and
entering the desired margins in the appropriate fields.
To Set Headers and Footers
The header is the text that appears in the top margin of every page of the printed
worksheet. Similarly, the footer is the text that appears in the bottom margin of
every page of the printed worksheet. To add header and footer:
Select Insert Tab on the Ribbon.
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Click the Header & Footer button in the Text group. A Design context tab
appears under Header & Footer Tools. And worksheet changes to Page Layout
view from the Normal view. Page Layout view structures the worksheet so
that it is easy to change the format of the worksheet.
Both Header and Footer are divided into three sections: left, center, right. You
can type in your custom header/ footer or you can use predefined headers and
footers. Click on Header/ Footer button in Header & Footer group of Design
context tab to see the list of pre-defined headers and footers.
Spreadsheet
To Use Scale to Fit
Scale to Fit is a useful feature that can help you format spreadsheets to fit on a
page.
Select the Page Layout tab.
Locate the Scale to Fit group.
Enter a specific height and width, or use the percentage field to decrease the
spreadsheet by a specific percent.
Be careful with how small you scale the information – you should be able to read
it.
To Define a Print Area
At times you may want to print just a part of the whole worksheet. In that case
you need to select your print area that you need to be printed. To define your print
area:
Click and drag your mouse to select the cells you wish to print.
Click the Print Area command in Page Setup group of Page Layout Tab.
Choose Set Print Area. Now, only the selected cells will print. You can
confirm this by viewing the spreadsheet in Print Preview.
To return to printing entire worksheet, which is the default setting, click the Print
Area command and select Clear Print Area.
To Print Titles on Each Page
Print Title command allows you to select specific rows and/or columns to
appear on each printed sheet. This helps when the worksheet prints into many
pages, since we can have row and column heading printed on each page for easy
association and readability.
Select the Page Layout tab.
Click the Print Titles command in Page Setup group. The Sheet tab of Page
Setup dialog box opens.
Click the icon at the end of the field Rows to repeat at top.
Select the row headings in the spreadsheet that you want to appear on each
printed page.
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Repeat for the column, if required.
Click OK. The select row/ column will now appear on each printed page.
Preview before Printing
Click Office Button.
Select Print à Print Preview. The worksheet opens in the Print Preview
mode. In Print Preview, you can access many of the same features that you
can from the Ribbon, through the Page Setup dialog box. However, in Print
Preview you can see how the spreadsheet will appear in printed format.
Click Print to print the document or Close Print Preview to come back to the
document in original mode.
You can modify page margins, orientation, page size, etc in Print Preview mode.
To Quick Print the Document
Click Office Button.
Select Print à QuickPrint
The document prints to the default printer. It bypasses the Print dialog box.
To Print the Document
Click Office Button.
Select Print à Print. The Print dialog box appears.
Select the printer from the drop down list.
Click Properties to change any necessary settings.
Select the pages you would like to print – specific pages, all of the worksheet,
a selected area, the active sheet, or the entire workbook.
Select the number of copies.
Click OK to print.
3.7
WORKING WITH TABLES AND CHARTS
Excel has features to help you manage and analyze related data. An Excel table
stores information in a consistent manner, making it easier to format, sort, and
filter worksheet data. Charts allow you to present information contained in the
worksheet in a graphic format, which makes information easy to analyze.
3.7.1
Tables
Typically, an Excel table has only column headings and no row headings. Once
you have converted the information into a table, you can sort and filter it as per
your requirements.
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3.7.1.1
Spreadsheet
Create Table
To create a table you need to have information stored in columns:
Enter Column Headings for the table. Each heading should be in a different
cell in a row. Column headings are also known as field names. The column
headings should appear in a single row without any blank cells between the
entries.
Start adding data in the row right below column heading. This is the first
record/ row of the table.
Select any cell that contains the data.
Click on Format as Table button in the Styles group of Home tab. A gallery
of pre-defined styles of tables appears.
Choose your table style. A Format As Table dialog box appears which has
the range of cells to be converted into the table. Also a marquee appears
around all the cells of the table, indicating the selection to be converted into a
table.
Figure 3.15 : Cell Address to Create a Table
The range of cell to be converted into table in Figure 3.15 is for the Student
Marks example that has been shown in Figure 3.11.
Select My table has headers and click OK. The table created will look like as
shown in Figure 3.16.
Figure 3.16 : An Excel Table
By default, the table will be set up with the drop-down arrows in the header so
that you can sort or filter the table, if you wish.
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Alternatively, after you have selected cell for table creation, you can also choose
the Table command button in the Tables group of the Insert tab. This opens
Create table dialog box with the range of cells to be converted into the table
(similar to as in Figure 3.15). When you click OK, the table is created in the
default style.
If you want to convert an existing Excel table back to a normal range of cells,
select any cell in the table and then click the Convert to Range button on the
Table Tools Design tab. All data and formatting is preserved. Using Table Tools
Design context tab, you can change table style, add or delete table rows, resize
table, remove duplicates, change table name and perform many more other
functions on the table.
3.7.1.2
Sort Data
Sorting allows you to reorder your data. To sort data:
Select a cell in the column you want to sort (for example, you can choose a
cell in Total column to sort on total in our Students Marks example).
Click the Sort & Filter command in the Editing group on the Home tab.
In the menu you can choose Smallest to Largest or Largest to Smallest
order for sort.
For multi level sorting, you can also choose Custom Sort… and specify
different columns and the order of sort for each in the dialog box.
Alternatively, you can also choose sort options from the Sort & Filter group in
the Data Tab.
3.7.1.3
Filter Data
Filtering allows you to display only data that meets certain criteria. To filter:
Click the column or columns that contain the data you wish to filter.
On the Home tab, click on Filter button in the Sort & Filter group. Drop
down arrows appear on column headings. These arrows would already be
there if you are using an Excel table.
Click the arrow in the column heading.
Choose the appropriate data value(s) to filter from the drop down menu.
To clear the Filter, click the Sort & Filter button and choose Filter again.
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3.7.2
Spreadsheet
Charts
Charts allow you to present information contained in the worksheet in a graphic
format. Excel offers many types of charts including: Column, Line, Pie, Bar,
Area, Scatter and more. To create a chart we first need to have the data.
3.7.2.1
Add Data
We will use the following sample data in our example. We will create a graph to
compare daily attendance of two classes.
Figure 3.17: Sample Data for creating Graph
This is the source data for our chart, since it will be based on this data. Any
change in the source data will automatically be reflected in the chart.
3.7.2.2
Create Chart
Select the cells that that contain the data you want to use in the chart,
including the column titles and the row labels.
Click the Insert tab on the Ribbon.
Click on one of the chart options from the Chart group. In this example, we
will use the Columns option.
Select a type of chart you want to create from the list. For our example, we
will use a 3-D Clustered Column. The chart appears in the worksheet. Also
notice Design, Layout and Format context tabs under Chart Tools:
Design Tab: has commands to control the chart type, layout, styles, and location
of the chart.
Layout Tab: has commands to control pictures insert, shapes and text boxes,
labels, axes, background, and analysis.
Format Tab: has commands to modify shape styles, word styles and size of the
chart.
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3.7.2.3
Apply Layout
To apply the layout:
Click your chart. The Chart Tools become available.
Choose the Design tab.
Click the Quick Layout button in the Chart Layout group. A list of chart
layouts appears.
Select the layout. Excel applies the layout to your chart. We have chose layout
9 for our example.
3.7.2.4
Add Labels
Add appropriate Chart title and Axis title to the Chart.
Click on the Chart Title and Axis title labels and change the labels
appropriately.
You can also add more labels, if required. Click on Layout Tab. Choose
Textbox from Insert group. Click on Text box and place it on the chart. We
have added a text box in our example to add the week (March1-7, Figure 3.18)
Chart Title
Values
Y-axis Title
Legends
Categories
X-axis Title
Figure 3.18 : 3D Clustered Column Chart for the Sample Data
3.7.2.5
Switch Data
Switch Data rotates the data displayed on the x and y axes. It rotates row data to
column data and vice versa.
Choose the Design tab.
Click the Switch Row/Column button in the Data group. Excel changes the
data in your chart.
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Spreadsheet
Figure 3.19: 3D Chart after Switch Data has been applied
3.7.2.6
Change Chart Type, Chart Style or Data Range
You can use the Design context tab to change Chart Type, Chart Style or Data
Range.
Select Design Tab.
Choose the commands as per you requirements:
Click on change Chart Type from the Type group. Select the required
type from the dialog box that opens.
Click Select Data command from the data group. You can make the
required changes to the data in the dialog box that opens.
You can choose any of the chart styles available in the Style group.
3.7.2.7
Move the Chart to a Different Worksheet
Select the Design tab.
Click the Move Chart command. A dialog box appears. The current location
of the chart is selected.
Select the desired location for the chart (the desired location can be an
existing worksheet or a New Sheet).
3.8
OTHER USEFUL EXCEL FEATURES
There are many other features in Excel that help us to create professional and
error-free documents. Let us learn more about those features.
3.8.1
Conditional Formatting
Conditional formatting allows you to quickly see differences in numbers, patterns
and trends at a glance. You can highlight interesting or unusual cell values using
different conditional formatting rules. To apply conditional formatting:
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Select the cells you wish to format.
Select the Home tab and locate the Styles group.
Click the Conditional Formatting command. A menu will appear with your
formatting options. You can choose from the predefined rules or create your
own new rule.
Select one of the options to apply it to the selected cells. When you choose a
predefined rule, a cascading menu will appear. And an additional dialog box
may appear, depending on the option you choose. Make the necessary choices,
and click OK.
To Remove Conditional Formatting Rules:
Click the Conditional Formatting command.
Select Clear Rules. A cascading menu appears.
Choose to clear rules from the entire worksheet or the selected cells.
3.8.2
Freeze Rows and Columns
To freeze row(s) or column(s) mean that those row(s) or column(s) are always
visible on the screen and they never scroll. This feature is quite helpful while
working with very large worksheets, where we want to see certain rows/ columns
all the time (for example labels or headings) to be able to relate and analyze data.
To freeze row or column:
Select the row below the one you want to freeze and select the column right of
one you want to freeze. For example, if you want to freeze row 3, then select
row 3 and if you want to freeze column B, then choose column C. If you want
to freeze both row and column, then choose the correct cell.
Click on View tab on the Ribbon.
Click in Freeze Panes Command in the Window group.
Select Freeze Panes from the menu.
A thin black line appears below the frozen row and right of frozen column.
To unfreeze the panes, select Unfreeze Panes option from the menu that appears
when you click Freeze Panes command in the Window group of the View tab.
3.8.3
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Find and Replace
To find data or find and replace data:
Click the Find & Select button on the Editing group of the Home tab.
Choose Find or Replace tab in the dialog box.
Complete the Find What text box.
Click on Options for more search options.
Use the button Replace All, Replace, Find All, Find Next as per the
requirements.
3.8.4
Add Comments
Spreadsheet
Comments are basically notes that can be inserted into any cell in
Excel. Comments can be used to explain formulas, cells, and other data in the
spreadsheet itself. To add a comment in the Excel worksheet:
Select the cell where you want to add the comment.
Click on Review tab on the Ribbon.
Select New Comment in the Comments group.
OR
Right click the cell to which you want to add a comment.
Select Insert Comment from the menu. The comment box appears near the
selected cell, displaying the user name.
Type your comments in the box.
When finished, click any other cell.
A red triangle appears on the upper right corner of the cell, indicating a comment
has been attached. When you place your mouse over the cell, the comment
appears.
Figure 3.20 : Comment on the Total Column in Student Marks Worksheet
In our example of Students Marks in Figure 3.18, notice a small triangle on top
right corner of Total column indicating there is a comment associated with it.
3.8.5
Protect Worksheet
You can protect your worksheet from being modified or changed by somebody
else by using Cell Lock and Protect worksheet feature. The Protect Sheet option
is effective only for the locked cells of the spreadsheet. Inversely, cell locking
doesn’t take effect until you protect your worksheet. Hence, cell lock and protect
worksheet work in compliment with each other.
By default all the cells of the Excel spreadsheet are locked. Hence, it gets very
simple to protect all the data in a single worksheet just by applying the Protect
sheet option.
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Unlocking specific cells permits changes to be made to these cells after the
protect sheet option has been applied.
Unlock Cells
Cells in a worksheet are locked by default. We will unlock some of them:
Click on the Home tab.
Choose the Format option in Cells group to open the drop down list.
Click on Lock Cell option at the bottom of the list (under Protection).
The Lock Cell option works like an ON/OFF button. Since all cells are
initially locked in the worksheet, clicking on the option has the affect
of unlocking the highlighted cells. If you click on Lock Cell option again, it
will lock the selected cells.
Protect Worksheet
Once the cells have been locked, we will protect the worksheet:
Click on the Home tab.
Choose the Format option in Cells group to open the drop down list.
Click on Protect Sheet… option at the bottom of the list (under Protection) to
open the Protect Sheet dialog box.
Provide the password if you want to. Password does not prevent users from
opening and viewing the worksheet. Choose the other options according to
your requirements. Click OK.
Now you can access only unlocked cells on the worksheet.
3.8.6
Convert Text to Columns
Sometimes you might need to split data in one cell into two or more cells. For
example, when both first and last names in a worksheet are stored in one cell, but
they are required separately, then you can do this easily by utilizing the Convert
Text to Columns Wizard. Depending on your data, you can split the cell content
based on a delimiter, such as a space or a comma, or based on a specific column
break location within your data. To use this wizard:
Highlight the column in which you wish to split the data
Click the Text to Columns button in Data Tools group on the Data tab
Click Delimited if you have a comma or tab separating the data, or click fixed
widths to set the data separation at a specific size. Click Next.
In the next screen you either choose the delimiter (for delimited data) or
specify the location where to break the data (for fixed width data). Click Next.
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In the next screen, specify data format and the destination columns for the
separated data. Click Finish. Data is separated.
3.9
SUMMARY
Spreadsheet
Spreadsheets enable working with data easy and effective. It has ability to store,
manipulate, format, sort, filter, retrieve, organize, represent and analyze data as
per your requirements.
You can save any kind of data, in any format in cells of a worksheet. Multiple
worksheets in a workbook enable you to store a large amount of data and manage
it efficiently. Formulas and Functions allow easy calculation and manipulation of
data. Tables facilitate uncomplicated organization and retrieval of data. Charts are
visual display of the information. Additionally, there are many formatting and
design features in the Excel program to create and print a professional looking
workbook.
A Spreadsheet program is useful is any kind of area, since it is associated with
data and information which is an important aspect of all of our lives. You can use
it for small purposes like maintaining birthday lists, home budgets or for big ones
like creating reports, preparing dashboards, for stock management, shipment
planning, as analytical tool in large corporate environments. A Spreadsheet
program can be used for any data related purpose.
3.10 LAB EXERCISE
1. Using ‘Excel Options’ do the following customizations:
a. Set default two worksheets in a workbook. Original number is three.
b. Disable autorecover for your current workbook.
c. Set the Recent number of documents to be displayed to two.
d. Don’t display grid lines.
e. Enable show page breaks.
f. Set the Enter key direction so that the cursor moves to right when you
press enter in a cell.
2. Open a new workbook. Create a table with two columns. Use columns A and
B of the worksheet. The headings for first one should be First Name. Give the
heading as Last Name for the second column. Add records in the table. Please
ensure that you enter all the data in the lower case. For example, you should
enter first name as rahul and second name as gandhi. Your data should
contain multiple records with the same first or last name. Save workbook as
Student.xlsx
3. Open Student.xlsx. Create another table using column E and F. Again the
heading would be First Name and Last Name. Using string functions, change
the names to proper case (for example to Rahul or Gandhi) and store in E and
F. Original data should remain. Save and Close the worksheet.
4. Open Student.xlsx. Hide Columns A and B. Rename Sheet1 as Student Name.
Delete all the worksheets in the workbook except Student Name. Add Borders
to the table. Format heading as: Bold, center aligned, increase font size,
change the font colour and the fill of the heading. Save and close.
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5. Open Student.xlsx. Sort the records in alphabetical order of the first name.
Filter all records with last name Agarwal.
Now use a string function to concatenate the two names (first name and last
name) and store in the column D (give heading as Name).
6. Create a new workbook containing Student Marks. Add column headings :
Name, English, Hindi, Maths, Science, Social Science, Total Marks,
Percentage Marks. Add records to the table. You may copy name from
Student.xlsx. Add title to the table. Format the table properly. Use functions to
calculate Total Marks and Percentage. Freeze the panes, so that headings
don’t scroll. Add Headers and Footer to the worksheet. Preview the
worksheet. Save as StudentMarks.xlsx and close.
7. Create a table of records with columns Name and Donation Amount.
Donation amount should be formatted with two decimal places. There should
be at least twenty records in the table. Create a conditional format to highlight
top 3 donations with blue colour and lowest 3 donations with red colour. The
table should have a a heading.
8. Use Auto fill feature to fill column B with odd numbers and column C with
even numbers. There should be twenty records in each column. Save the
workbook as EvenOdd.xlsx
9. Using the workbook EvenOdd.xlsx, create a formula in column D1 to add B1
and C1. Copy the formula from D1 to all other following rows. Also use
formula to display the sum of all the values in column B in cell B35.
Similarly, for column C in cell C35. Add the label ‘Sum’ in cell A35. It
should be bold and double underlined. Save the workbook.
10. Open workbook EvenOdd.xlsx. Go to Sheet 3. Type the value 1.5 in cell A1.
Come back to Sheet1. Create a formula in E1 to multiply the value is D1 with
the value in cell A1of Sheet3. Copy the formula to other rows.
11. Create a table of expenses for a house hold. The table will have two column :
Expense name and Expense value in percent (it will the total percent spend
under this head). Create a Pie Chart for the same data. Examples of Expense
heads can be Food, education, utilities, clothing, house rent. The chart should
have proper Title, labels and legends.
12. Create a list of names with all the names in column A, stored in the format
Last name, First name, for example: Gandhi,Rahul. Use Convert to Text
feature to separate the first name and the last name. The original data should
not be lost.
3.11 FURTHER READINGS
Excel 3007 All-In-One Desk Reference for Dummies By Greg Harvey.
Teach Yourself Excel 3007 By Moira Stephen.
Microsoft Excel 3007 for Dummies By Greg Harvey.
http://www.gcflearnfree.org/excel3007.
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UNIT 4
Power Point
POWER POINT
Structure
Page No.
4.0
Introduction
135
4.1
Objectives
135
4.2
Basic Operations
135
4.3
Lab Exercises
150
4.4
Summary
151
4.5
Further Readings
151
4.0
INTRODUCTION
Office Automation Products are used all over the industry for performing all kinds
of tasks like word Processing, mathematical calculations, documents
management, Emails, making presentations, creating catalogues and brochures
and websites management. Microsoft office products are the most popular for
Office Automation.
PowerPoint is the most widely used software for making presentations and slide
shows. Now we will learn the Basic features of PowerPoint 2007 which will help
us to create a professional presentations, brochures, graphs and charts.
4.1
OBJECTIVES
After studying this unit, you will be able to :
the basics operations of PowerPoint;
using Templates and Themes;
working with animation and movies; and
working with charts and clip arts.
4.2
BASIC OPERATIONS
PowerPoint is used to create, view and present slide shows that combine text,
shapes, pictures, graphs, animation, charts and videos.
Creating a Presentation
This is the first view which one gets when Power Point is opened. This called the
Normal View of the workspace. There are three main areas in the Normal view:
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Figure 4.1 : Normal View
a)
Slide Pane: This is the big area in the middle where the slide is made. This
has boxes with dotted lines called the placeholders. Placeholders contain text
items or non-text items like pictures, charts etc.
b)
Slides Tab: On the left is the area which has thumbnail versions of the slides
in the presentation and the slide which is currently being edited is
highlighted.
c)
Notes Pane: In the bottom area is the Notes Pane where the notes needed to
be referred during the presentation are written.
Inserting a new slide
Each Presentation opens with a single slide. New slide can be added to the
presentation by selecting New Slide option on the Home Tab in the menu. This
way new Slide gets inserted below the slide selected in the Slides Tab.
The Layout of the slide can also be selected from the gallery of layouts. Once the
layout is selected that kind of Slide will get inserted. If no layout is selected the
default layout slide will be inserted.
A Slide Layout arranges the content of the slide for e.g., One may want the slide
to have a Title and a picture with text or a Title with two pictures with text for
comparison or a slide with just a Title placeholder.
The title and subtitle can be written in the Title placeholder. The Content
placeholder will contain the text or graphic elements like charts, pictures, movie
files etc.
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Some of the layouts have two of these content placeholders so that one can put the
content text in one and graphics in the other like the example shown in Figure 4.2
Add a new slide to the new presentation and choose the Layout for the same:
Power Point
Click New slide Option on the Home Tab in the menu.
Click the Layout Option on the Home Tab. The List of Layouts is displayed.
Figure 4.2 : Layout Gallery
Select the layout for the slide. Every slide can have a separate layout.
Select two different layouts for the two slides as shown in Figure 4.3.
Figure 4.3 : Graphic Layout
Click on the placeholder to write the title and add text.
The default formatting of the text is bulleted list. Use the different levels of
text within the bulleted list to write major and minor points.
Select the various commands in the Font group on the Home Tab menu to
change the character formatting such as font size and colour.
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Figure 4.4 : Formatting Text
Notes can be referred to at the time of presentation can be written in the Notes
pane at the bottom area of the Normal View. These notes will help to keep the
matter in the presentation slides precise and to the point. These can be printed and
used by the presenter at the time of giving the presentation.
Figure 4.5 : Notes Pane
Click on the Notes Pane and write notes for the presentation
To print these notes, select the Print Option from the Microsoft Office
button. Choose the Notes Page option from the Print What list.
Opening and Saving a Presentation
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One can open a New Presentation or open an existing one using the Microsoft
Office menu button.
Select New option to open a new presentation.
Power Point
Lists of templates available are displayed as shown in Figure 4.6. Choose any
one to open the new presentation in the selected template.
Figure 4.6 : New Presentation
To open an existing presentation choose Open option and select the
presentation to be opened.
Figure 4.7 (a) : Open an existing Presentation
To save the Presentation, choose Save option from the Microsoft office
button and give the name for the presentation.
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Figure 4.7 (b) : Save a Presentation
Applying a Theme to the Presentation
Every Presentation can be based on a Theme which determines the look and color
of the slides and gives the presentation a constant look to all the slides.
A Theme includes the following elements:
Background design
Colour scheme
Font types and sizes
Placeholder positions
The colour scheme will include the background colours, font colours, fill colours
or the shapes, borders and table colours etc. The theme will not affect the layout
chosen for the presentation and basic layout will remain the same but will be
implemented with the theme.
To choose a Theme for the presentation:
Click the Design Tab on the menu.
The Theme samples are shown as thumbnails in the Themes group.
When any theme thumbnail is chosen, a preview of the same is shown on the
slide
When the theme is selected by clicking on the thumbnail, it is applied to all
the slides in the presentation
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Power Point
Figure 4.8 : Theme Selection
Every new Presentation is by default opened with the Office Theme. New Theme
can be chosen and applied as and when required.
Working with Pictures and Clipart
The Presentation can be given bright and colourful appearance by adding Pictures
and Clip Arts. There are two different methods of inserting pictures and non-text
items into the slides.
Inserting a Picture
When a new slide is added, different icons appear on the Placeholder. These icons
are used to insert the non-text items like pictures, clip arts, animation files etc.
Click on the Clip Art icon in the placeholder.
The Clip Art pane will open as shown in Figure 4.9. Search for the kind of
clip needed.
Figure 4.9 : Select Clip art
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Select the Clip that is to be inserted into the slide. The picture will
automatically get sized and inserted in the placeholder as shown in Figure
4.10.
The position and size can be modified as required.
Figure 4. 10 : Clip Art added
Another way is to use the Insert tab in the menu. All non-text items like pictures,
sound files, animation files, text boxes, hyperlinks etc. can be added from this
menu option.
Figure 4.11 : Adding Picture
Once the file is selected, it gets inserted into the slide. The position and size can
be modified as required.
Please note that when a picture is added into the presentation it can increase the
size of the presentation.
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Power Point
Formatting the Picture
The Picture or Clip Art can be formatted to change the picture brightness,
compress the picture, change its contrast, or give new picture styles.
Figure 4.12 : Picture Format
Click on the Picture or Clip Art to be formatted.
The Picture Tools -> Format menu appears with various options like Picture
Brightness, Contrast, Resize, Border, Styles, and Effects etc.
Any of these can be applied to the selected picture or Clip Art.
Figure 4.13 : Picture Effects
Arrange the Pictures & Clip Art
After the Picture or Clip Art has been selected and formatted, all the objects on
the slide have to be aligned correctly.
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Choose all the place holders that have to be aligned.
Then use the Arrange option in the Format Tab to Order, Group and position
the objects.
Figure 4.14 : Arrange Objects
Working with Animation and Videos
The Text and objects like charts, graphs, bullets, tables etc can be animated within
a presentation. Special sound effects or visual effects including movement can be
applied to the objects to control the flow of information or to focus on important
points as well as give a better look to the presentation.
There are built-in animation effects within PowerPoint which can be used on the
individual slides within the presentation or the layout can be customized. Also,
custom animation effects can be created if required.
Apply built-in Animation effect to an object
To apply a built-in animation effect:
Select the text or object that has to be animated
On the Animation Tab, in the Animation group, choose the Animation effect
from the Animate list.
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Power Point
Figure 4.15 : Animate Object
Custom effects can be added by to the objects by choosing the Custom
Animation option from the Animation Tab.
Figure 4.16 : Custom Animation
Adding Slide Transition
PowerPoint provides various types of slide transitions like Blinds Horizontal, Box
in, Box out Blinds Vertical, Checkerboard Across, Checkerboard Down etc.
The same transition can be added to all slides or different transition can be applied
to different slides.
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Select the Slide from the Slide window to which slide transition has to be
applied
On the Animation Tab, in the Transition to this Slide group, choose any of
the transition effect option.
The transition speed between the current slide and the next slide can also be
set.
To apply the same effect to all the Slides, Click Apply to All option.
Figure 4.17 : Slide Transition
The sound effect for the Slide transition can also be chosen from the Transition
Sound List.
Add and Play Movie in a Presentation
Movies are video files with formats such as AVI or MPEG. Animated GIF files
which include motion can also be included. Unlike the pictures, clipart drawings
etc which are embedded in the presentation, the movie files are linked to the
presentation. If the location of the file is modified, the movie file cannot be
located.
To add a Movie to the slide:
In Normal View, click the slide to which the movie has to be added.
On the Insert Tab, in the Media Clips group, select the Movie option.
Choose the option Movie from File, locate the folder that contains the file and
then select the file to be inserted.
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Choose from the option to play the movie Automatically or When Clicked.
This will allow the movie to be played either automatically when the slide
appears or has to be started explicitly by clicking on the movie button.
Power Point
Figure 4.18 : Movie from File
When a movie is inserted, a pause trigger is added called Trigger. This is added
because the movie frame has to be clicked within the slide to play the movie. The
movie can be played Full Screen also by choosing the Play Full Screen option.
Viewing and Printing the Presentation
Once the Presentation is ready, one has to prepare to present it. It can be viewed
as slide show on the computer first. Spell check utility can be used to run spelling
cheeked. Notes can be viewed in Print Preview mode to see how they would look
when printed.
Rearranging and adding or deleting slides
The order of the Sides can be changed at any point of time.
To rearrange the slides, Choose View tab from the menu and select the Slide
Sorter option.
Here all the slides are shown as thumbnails. Any slide can be selected and
moved around to re-arrange the order of the slides.
Figure 4.19 : Slide Sorter
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In the Slide Sorter view mode, any slide may be deleted by choosing the Delete
Slide option on the Home Menu. And new slide can be added by choosing the
New Side option on the Home tab.
Viewing the Presentation
After the Presentation is prepared, it can be viewed in Slide Show mode which
will give an idea as to how the slides will appear during the presentation display.
To open Slide Show mode, Click Slide Show tab and click Start Slide Show
to start from first slide or current slide. It can also be started by clicking on
the Slide Show button on the lower right part of the PowerPoint window.
The Slides will start appearing on the computer screen.
Once can navigate through the slides either by using the Slide show toolbar
at bottom of screen or simply by clicking the mouse button.
To come out of this mode simple press ESC key at any point. This will return
the view to Normal mode.
Figure 4.20 : Customizing Slide Show
Once can also set up a Custom Slide show to display only a selected list of slides.
This feature helps to create a 30-minute show or a 60-minute show from the same
presentation as and when required.
Spell Check, Print Handouts and Notes
To remove any spelling errors, the Spell check option can be used.
On the Review tab, in Proofing group, click Spelling and then choose the correct
options as the spell checker moves from one slide to another.
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Power Point
Figure 4.21 : Spell Check
The Handouts for the audience or the Notes for the speaker can be printed using
Print Preview option on the Microsoft Office button.
Select the Print Preview option on the Microsoft Office button.
Select Handouts from the Print What list.
Choose one of the Handout types from the list
As the Handout type is selected, the same is displayed in the preview mode to
show it will look when printed in the selected format.
Figure 4.22 : Print Handouts
To Print the Notes for the Speaker, select the Notes Page option from the Print
What List as shown in Figure 4.23.
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Lab Course
Figure 4.23 : Print Notes
4.3
LAB EXERCISES
1. Take any consumer product of your choice. Make a marketing presentation
with at least 10 slides. Use different customized Animation Effects on Pictures
and Clip Art on any four of the ten slides?
2. How can a Presentation be reviewed by another person and how are comments
added to it?
3. Create a Presentation on “Advantages of Fast Communication in Today’s
world” with three different Slide Transitions with Sound effect?
4. How can a Power Point presentation be saved as a RTF file?
5. Create a Photo Album in PowerPoint?
6. Suppose you have already created a presentation for photo album and now
you want to do the following:
Add slides to this presentation? How will you add slides to this
presentation?
After creating the photo album, you realized that one of the slides will
look better if it had different layout, how do you change the slide layout?
Before printing, you want to preview the slides to check the album.
Print the copies of your photo album.
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7. Create a Presentation for sales presentation with following features:
1. All the slides should follow common design i.e. same title style, same
footer with confidential clause, page numbers.
2. All slides should have slides notes.
8. Make a short presentation on Cloud Computing technology describing the
evolution of the Operating systems?
Power Point
For each of the slide you should have Timer based Transition
Write Speaker Notes for each slide
Add a video to at least two slides which can be run in Play Full Screen
option
4.4
SUMMARY
In this Lab Session, you have learnt how to do the Basic operations on
PowerPoint application. You have also seen how a presentation can be made
interesting and more exciting using different layouts, various themes, and
applying animation and sound effects.
There are lot more features which can be explored further to make your
Presentation better and attractive.
4.5
FURTHER READINGS
Microsoft Office Online Support
Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 for Dummies by Doug Lowe
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UNIT 5
E-MAIL
Stucture
Page No.
5.0
Introduction
152
5.1
Objectives
152
5.2
Basic Operations
152
5.3
Managing Contacts
156
5.4
Lab Exercises
162
5.5
Summary
163
5.6
Further Reading
163
5.0
INTRODUCTION
Office Automation Products are widely used in industry for performing all kinds
of tasks like word processing, mathematical calculations, documents
management, managing E-Mail, making presentations, creating catalogues and
brochures and managing websites. Microsoft Office products are the most popular
for Office Automation.
Outlook is among the most widely used software for communication through email. Now we will learn the basic features of Outlook 2007 which will help us to
manage our communication and make it more efficient.
5.1
OBJECTIVES
After studying this unit, you will be able to :
basic operations of Outlook;
managing Contacts;
calendar and Scheduling Tasks.
5.2
BASIC OPERATIONS
Outlook is used for communication using e-mail, managing contacts, scheduling
tasks and appointments using calendar.
Sending An E-mail
Creating and sending an e-mail is perhaps the most frequent task that is performed
using Outlook.
On the File menu, point to New, and then click Mail Message
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In the subject write the e-mail subject
E-Mail
Add the recipients’ e-mail addresses in the To: and Cc: boxes as needed.
In the BCc box, add those recipient’s e-mail addresses to whom the e-mail has
to be sent as copy but the other recepients should not know that the e-mail has
been copied to them
Write the e-mail matter in the space provided.
Press Send to send the e-mail to the recipients.
Figure 5.1 : New Message
Assign the Level of Importance
The level of importance for a message can be set so that recipients can see the
indicator in their Inbox before they open the item. Setting the level of importance
also enables the recipients to sort their messages by importance. Please note that
this does not expedite or retard the transmission of the message in any way. It is
for the information of the recipient only.
On the message tab, in the Options group choose the
Button to set the
level to High
igh Importance
Im
Choose the
symbol Button to set the importance to low level.
Figure 5.2 : Delivery Importance
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Changing the Appearance of the E-mail
One can change the appearance of the e-mail message by changing the font,
colour of the font and the background colour.
On the Message tab, in the Basic Text group, you can select the font, font size,
font style (bold, italic, and underline), font color, and text highlighting.
On the Format tab, in the Font group, you can select the font and font size;
increase or decrease the size by one increment; change the font style (bold,
italic, underline, strikethrough, subscript, superscript); change the case, the
font color, and the text highlighting; and remove all font formatting.
On the Mini toolbar that appears when you select text, you can select the font,
increase or decrease the size by one increment, select a theme, use the Format
Painter, select the font style (bold, italic, and underline), and highlight text.
Figure 5.3 : Change Font Size
Add a Signature to the E-mail
You can create a default signature to be added to all your outgoing messages, or
you can insert a signature manually into outgoing messages on an individual
basis. Do one of the following:
To Insert a signature automatically:
On the Message tab, in the Include group, click Signature, and then click
Signatures.
On the E-mail Signature tab, in the Select signature to edit list, select the
signature that you want.
Under Choose default signature, in the New messages list, select the signature
that you want.
If you want to include a signature in messages that you reply to and in
messages that you forward, in the Replies/forwards list, select the signature. If
you don't want a signature in these messages, select none.
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Click OK.
To add the default signature to a current message, on the Message tab, in the
Include group, click Signature, and then select the signature.
E-Mail
Figure 5.4 : Add a signature
To insert a signature manually, On the Message tab, in the Include group, click
Signature, and then select the signature that you want.
Note :
You can also access the signature options that are available on the
Message tab after you click Reply, Reply to All, or Forward in an open
message.
Add an Attachment
One can attach files and pictures etc to the e-mail message and send them to the
recipient.
On the File menu, click New, and then click Mail Message.
On the Message tab, in the Include group, click Attach File, and then click
File.
Figure 5.5 : Add Attachment
Browse to and select the file that you want to attach, and then click Insert.
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The selected file will get attached with the e-mail message and will be delivered
to the recipient with the message that is sent.
5.3
MANAGING CONTACTS
One can add new contacts (contact: Person, inside or outside of your organization,
about whom you can save several types of information, such as street and e-mail
addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and Web page URLs.) to the Outlook
Contacts by typing all the information directly in the contact form, or you can use
other Outlook features that automatically fill in some of that information for you.
Each of your contacts is also displayed as an Electronic Business Card. Any
changes that you make to a contact are automatically made to the corresponding
Electronic Business Card, and vice versa.
Create Contacts using Contacts
Contacts can be created with the Contacts directly.
On the File menu, point to New, and then click Contact.
Type a name for the contact.
Enter the information that you want to include for the contact.
To specify how you want the contact's name to appear in the To line of a
message, type a name in the Display As box.
Figure 5.6 Create a Contact
To enter multiple entries for a field, such as more than one phone number or
e-mail address, click the down arrow next to the field.
If you have more than one mailing address for a contact, select the This is the
mailing address check box to establish which address is to be used during a
mail merge.
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Create a Contact from an E-mail message received
E-Mail
When one receives an e-mail message, the sender information can be used to
create a contact in your address book.
Open or preview the e-mail message that contains the name that you want to
add to your contact list.
Right-click the name of the sender who you want to make into a contact, and
then click Add to Contacts on the shortcut menu.
In Outlook, there is no option to add contact information automatically to
Contacts or Address Book when you reply to a contact.
Create a Contact from an Electronic Business Card
When you save an Electronic Business Card received in an e-mail message, you
create a new contact. If you already have a contact by the same name, you can
save the duplicate as a new contact or update the original.
In an open message, right-click the card, and then click Add to Contacts on
the shortcut menu. The new contact opens in the contact form.
On the Contact tab, in the Save group, click Save & Close.
If you already have a contact with the same name, Outlook detects the
duplicate. Do one of the following:
Select Add the new contact. This creates a duplicate contact, including a
contact form and Electronic Business Card.
Select Update the information. Existing duplicate contacts are listed.
Double-click the contact to update it, and then update the information on
the contact form and save it.
Find a Contact
When one needs to find a contact, you will have to search for the contact using
his/her details in the address book. The Contacts can be arranged in different
Views such as Business Cards, Address Cards or a Table View. A View is a
different arrangement or format which help us to look at the same information in
different ways. This can be done using the drop down list in the Toolbar Options.
In order to perform the Search, any of the following methods can be used:
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Figure 5.7: Search Address Book
On the Search toolbar, type the name of the contact or or any other
information based on which the search has to be made such as street and email addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and Web page URLs.
You can enter a partial name, such as Hari Sh, a first or last name, an e-mail
alias, a display name, or a company name. To quickly open a contact that you
previously searched for, click the arrow in the Search Address Books box and
select a name.
In any of the card views such as Business Cards or Address Cards, click a
letter in the alphabetical index displayed next to the cards.
In any table view, such as Phone List or By Company, click a column heading
to sort the contacts by the criteria that are associated with the column. Some
examples of column headings are Full Name, Job Title, Company, and
Categories.
Calendar and Scheduling Tasks
The Calendar can be used to set up reminders for tasks, schedule appointments,
meetings etc.
Set or remove Reminders
Typically, reminders are associated with tasks and deadlines. However, reminders
are versatile and can be used with calendar items, e-mail messages, and contacts
as well as tasks.
To set or remove reminders in appointments and meetings, do one of the
following:
For all new appointments or meetings that you create
On the Tools menu, click Options.
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To have a reminder automatically turned on or off for new appointments or
meetings, on the Preferences tab, in the Calendar group, select or clear the
Default reminder check box.
E-Mail
Figure 5.8: Reminder Options
If you select the check box, enter the amount of time before the appointment
or meeting when you want the reminder to appear.
For existing appointments or meetings
Open the appointment or meeting.
If the Open Recurring Item dialog box is displayed, you must decide whether
to change the reminder for the occurrence that you opened or for the entire
series. Click either Open this occurrence or Open the series, and then click
OK.
On the Appointment tab, in the Options group, in the Reminder list, select the
amount of time before the appointment or meeting when you want he
reminder to appear. To turn a reminder off, select None.
Schedule an Appointment
Appointments are activities that you schedule in your calendar that do not involve
inviting other people or reserving resources.
On the File menu, point to New, and then click Appointment.
In the Subject box, type a description.
In the Location box, type the location
Enter the start and end times. One can type specific words and phrases in the
Start time and End time boxes instead of dates. For example you can type
Today, Tomorrow, New Year’s Day, Two Weeks from Tomorrow, Week
from Yesterday, Three days before New Year's Day, and most holiday names.
Select any other options that you want.
To make the appointment recur, on the Appointment tab, in the Options
group, click Recurrence.
Click the frequency (Daily, Weekly, and Monthly, Yearly) with which the
appointment recurs, and then select options for the frequency.
Click OK.
On the Appointment tab, in the Actions group, click Save & Close.
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Figure 5.9: Creating an Appointment
Change an Appointment
Open the appointment that you want to change and do one of the following:
To Change options for an appointment that is not part of a series:
Change the options, such as subject, location, and time, that you want to
change.
On the Appointment tab, in the Actions group, click Save & Close.
To Change options for all appointments in a series:
Click Open the series, and then change any options, such as subject, location,
and time, that you want to change.
To change recurrence options, on the Recurring Appointment tab, in the
Options group, click Recurrence, change the options, such as time, recurrence
pattern, or range of recurrence, and then click OK.
On the Recurring Appointment tab, in the Actions group, click Save & Close.
To Change options for one appointment that is part of a series
Click Open this occurrence.
On the Recurring Appointment tab, change the options, such as subject,
location, and time that you want.
On the Recurring Appointment tab, in the Actions group, click Save & Close.
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E-Mail
Schedule a Meeting
A Meeting is an appointment where different people are invited and resources can
be reserved. One can create and send meeting requests and reserve resources for
face-to-face meetings or for online meetings. When you create a meeting, you
identify the people to invite and the resources to reserve, and you pick a meeting
time. Responses to your meeting request appear in your Inbox.
On the File menu, point to New, and then click Meeting Request.
In the Subject box give the subject of meeting and specify the location or
venue of meeting in the Location box
Figure 5.10 : Location Box
Give the meeting start and end time in the Start and End time drop box. One
can even make the meeting an all day event by clicking on the checkbox.
Type any information that you want to share with the recipients, attach any
files
On the Meeting tab, in the Show group, click Scheduling Assistant. The
Scheduling Assistant helps to find the best time for your meeting.
Click Add Others, and then click Add from Address Book.
In the Select Attendees and Resources dialog box, in the Search box, enter the
name of a person or resource that you want to invite to the meeting
If you want to make the meeting recur, on the Meeting tab, in the Options
group, click Recurrence, select the recurrence pattern, and then click OK.
Change a Meeting
In case any meeting has to be changed, it can be done as follows:
Open the meeting that you want to change.
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Change any options, such as subject, location, and time, that you want to
change.
To change recurrence options, on the Recurring Meeting tab, in the Options
group, click Recurrence, change the options, such as time, recurrence pattern,
or range of recurrence, and then click OK.
Click Send Update.
5.4
LAB EXERCISES
1. Write an e-mail to the Student Evaluation Division stating that you have not
received your Semester Mark Sheet. In the e-mail use the following features:
Mark the e-mail to different recipients
Mark a Blind Carbon Copy to yourself
2. Change Reminder Options using the Preference Group and see the effect in
your e-mail settings.
3. Make an appointment for Project Weekly Meetings and make it reoccur every
Friday morning at 10am.
4. Write an e-mail inviting your friends to your Birthday Party. Make your own
Signature and add it to the e-mail message. Add a word attachment which
gives them the venue route.
5. Use an Outlook feature to send out a default message when you go on
personal vacations / holidays.
6. Suppose one of your colleagues named 'Vikas' is sending across a large
number of e-mails which you wanted to delete automatically. Please use
outlook features to configure your account to achieve this functionality in
your mailbox.
7. Suppose you have been getting a lot of junk mails that have filled your
mailbox, how can you permanently get rid of all these junk mails?
8. Out of the junk e-mail folder, there are some messages from your friend
named ‘Arti ‘ which were redirected into junk mails folders. You don’t want
her e-mails to be marked as junk in future. What should you do to achieve
this?
9. Create a rule which allows all high priority mails from your professor to an
important folder unless subject says 'Unimportant' and then flag these mails
for follow-up.
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10. How can you set up an alert on the desktop to notify you whenever an e-mail
arrives in your inbox?
5.5
SUMMARY
E-Mail
In this Lab Session, you have learnt how to do the Basic operations on E-mail
application. You have also seen how to write e-mails, change the appearance of
your e-mails, how to use Outlook to schedule appointments and reminders and
how to manage your Contacts Address Book.
There are lot more features which can be explored further to make better and
more efficient usage of Outlook software.
5.6
FURTHER READING
Microsoft Office Online Support.
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UNIT 6
BROWSING AND DISCUSSION FORUM
Structure
Page No.
6.0
Introduction
164
6.1
Objectives
165
6.2
Browsing the Web
165
6.2.1
The Browser
165
6.2.2
Launching the browser
165
6.2.3
Enter URL’s in Address Field
166
6.2.4
Create New Tab
166
6.2.5
Bookmark Web Page
167
6.2.6
Remove Bookmark
167
6.2.7
Navigation Buttons
168
6.2.8
History List
168
6.2.9
Downloading Files
168
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
Searching the Web
168
6.3.1
Basic Search
168
6.3.2
Advanced Basic Search
169
6.3.3
Advanced Search
170
Discussion Forums and Groups
170
6.4.1
Creating a Yahoo Group
171
6.4.2
Joining a Yahoo Group
172
6.4.3
Posting a Message
172
Wiki
173
6.5.1
Creating the Wiki
174
6.5.2
Wikipedia
175
Google Docs
176
6.6.1
Using Google Docs
177
6.6.2
Sharing the Document
178
6.7
Lab Exercises
179
6.8
Summary
181
6.9
Further Readings
181
6.0
INTRODUCTION
In today’s world, you repeatedly hear the terms Internet, going online, surfing the
net, browsing and searching. If you want any information on any topic, you say
you can look up online, or search the net. People all over the world, from all
walks of life use the Internet. They look for availability of movie tickets, local
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restaurants in an area, jobs availability, research papers on varied topics in areas
touching any aspect of life, etc. on the Internet.
Browsing and
Discussion Forum
Since, Internet has become so important, its use is considered an essential aspect
of computer use. In other words, mastering the Internet is one of the first things to
do to get the most from the computing experience.
6.1
OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you will be able to
learn how to use the Web Browser;
learn how to search the information on the Web;
learn different ways to communicate, interact and collaborate on the Web; and
learn how Internet can be used to create different online communities.
6.2
BROWSING THE WEB
Browsing the web is similar to surfing the channels on TV. On TV, you
continually change channels until you find a program of your interest; this is
known as channel surfing. Similarly, on the Web you select a link by clicking on
the word or picture to open a new document or picture. Progressively clicking
through the Web by triggering the links that interests you is know as browsing, a
term synonymous with surfing the Net.
6.2.1
The Browser
A Web Browser is a software application you use to surf the Web. It is a program
designed to find the hypertext documents on the Web and then open those
documents on your computers.
Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome are the
popular Web browsers of current times.
We will consider Google Chrome for our study.
6.2.2
Launching the Browser
Click on the Start menu button.
Choose All Programs option.
Click on Google Chrome option.
Note: Before you launch the browser, please ensure that your computer is
connected to the Internet.
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The browser window opens as shown in the Figure 6.1. The page that opens
when you launch the browser depends on your browser settings. The browser can
be customized as follows:
on the browser toolbar.
1. Click the wrench icon
2. Select Options from the pull down menu.
3. Set the Startup and Homepage sections.
Adding Bookmark
Forward Button
Back Button
Wrench Icon
New Tab Button
Refresh Button
Address Field
Figure 6.1 : Google Chrome Web Browser
6.2.3
Enter URL’s in Address Field
Every place on the Web has a global address known as a Uniform Resource
Locator (URL). A URL uniquely identifies the Website or its associated pages.
1. Click once in the address field to position your cursor there. In case there is
an address already there, delete it.
2. Type www.mapsofindia.com and press enter
3. The website will open.
6.2.4
Create New Tab
1. Click on New Tab button on the top of the browser.
2. Type www.ignou.ac.in in the address field. And press enter
3. The IGNOU website opens.
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You can navigate between the two tabs that you have opened.
6.2.5
Browsing and
Discussion Forum
Bookmark Web Page
You can Bookmark your favorite or most frequently visited pages. This allows
you to go directly to those pages from the Bookmarks list, rather than type the
URL. If you have too many Bookmarks in the list, you may organize them in
folders and sub folders for easy access.
A single click on the star adds the page to the Bookmarks list and the star changes
to yellow color. If you click the star again, the bookmark is removed.
In the IGNOU tab
1. Click on the star at the end of the address line to bookmark the page.
2. Star color changes to yellow. A small bookmark window opens.
3. Leave the bookmark “Name” as is.
4. Click on the drop down button for folder and “Choose another folder”.
5. In the pop up window, click on create new folder and give the new folder any
name.
6. Click OK button.
The page bookmark is stored in the new folder that you created.
To see how your bookmarks have been organized,
1. Click the wrench icon
on the browser toolbar.
2. Choose “Bookmark Manager”.
3. A bookmark manager tab opens and displays all the bookmark folders/
subfolders and pages.
6.2.6
Remove Bookmark
In the IGNOU tab
1. Click on the yellow star at the end of the address line to bookmark the page.
2. A small bookmark window opens.
3. Click on the ‘Remove’ hyperlink on the right side of the window.
4. The star color changes to white and the bookmark is removed.
Bookmarks can also be deleted through the Bookmark Manager.
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6.2.7
Navigation Buttons
At the top left of the browser you should see a row of navigation buttons – back
and forward buttons.
The Back button takes you to previously opened web page. Conversely, the
Forward button moves you to ahead to the page you visited before you clicked the
Back button. When you Right-click on the Back or Forward buttons, a list pops up
that shows the whole path you followed.
6.2.8
History List
The browser creates a History list of the web pages visited earlier.
1. Click the wrench icon
on the browser toolbar.
2. Choose “History” from the menu.
3. A History tab opens which lists all the previously visited pages.
6.2.9
Downloading Files
Downloading means to copy files from the Internet to your machine. You can
download any type of file – text, pdf, exe, spreadsheet, audio, video or image file
from the internet as long as either it is a freeware or you have paid for it. Any file
or image on the Internet is copyrighted if it not freeware and it is illegal to use the
material for commercial purposes without getting permission from the copyright
owner.
Images: You can copy an image by using the right mouse click on the image and
selecting the ‘Save image as…’ option. You can also click the ‘Download’ button
to download the pictures as on the website www.freeclipartpictures.com.
Audio, Video and other files: Normally, you have to click on the ‘Download’
button to copy the file on your computer. When the browser displays ‘Save’ or
‘Save As’ dialog box, choose where you want to save the file.
6.3
SEARCHING THE WEB
Search Engines are tools that help you find specific information and websites on
the internet. There are many search engines available, but we will consider
Google’s search engine for our reference.
6.3.1
Basic Search
1. Go to www.google.co.in. The site opens as shown in Figure 6.2. You may
change the language and see how all the labels change. We will use English
for our purposes.
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2. You can also change your search preferences through the link ‘Search
Setting’.
Browsing and
Discussion Forum
3. Type whatever you want to search for in the Search Box and hit Enter or click
Google Search button. All the words that you have typed will be used for the
search. For example type printer.
4. A list of all the web pages that have printer in it will be displayed with links
to their websites.
5. Also it gives the number of results below the search box.
6. The more words you use for your search, the more restrictive it becomes. For
example of you use color printer, it gives less number of results. And if you
use color inkjet printer, it gives still lesser number of results.
7. You may also check that the search is case insensitive.
Figure 6.2 : Google India Search Engine
6.3.2
Advanced Basic Search
1. Phrase Search(“”): By putting double quotes around a set of words, you are
telling google to consider the exact words in that exact order without any
change. For example search for Mohandas K. Gandhi and for “Mohandas K.
Gandhi”. See the difference in number if results.
2. Search within a specific website (site:): Google allows you to specify that
your search results must come from a specific website. Search on gurgaon
site:timesofindia will return pages on gurgaon but only from
timesofindia.com.
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3. Term to exclude (-):Attaching a minus sign immediately before a word
indicates that you do not want pages that contain this word to appear in your
results. The minus sign should appear immediately before the word and
should be preceded with a space. Example, search on color printer –inkjet lists
all color printers that are not inkjet.
4. Fill in the blanks (*): The * is a wild card character. For example if you
search on Google *, it will give you results about many of Google’s products.
5. Search as is (+): By adding + immediately before the word, you tell the
search engine to match that word as is, and not to look for its synonym in the
search.
6. The OR operator: Used to search for either of several words, instead of all
the words.
6.3.3
Advanced Search
With Advanced Search, you can search for pages that...
contain ALL the search terms you type in
contain the exact phrase you type in
contain at least one of the words you type in
do NOT contain any of the words you type in
is written in a certain language
is created in a certain file format
was updated within a certain period of time
contain numbers within a certain range
within a certain domain, or website
don't contain "adult" material
6.4
DISCUSSION FORUMS AND GROUPS
Discussion Forums are online communities of people with similar interests.
Members of a forum can communicate, discuss, share and comment on an idea
through messages. There are many forums available on the net, each dedicated to
a specific subject, like karate, travel, gardening, cooking, vintage cars, Photoshop,
aviation, laser eye surgery, etc. Anyone can register on the forum website and
become a member of the forum. Registering gives you the opportunity to
contribute your ideas and share your views with other members. Some examples
of discussion forum websites are karateforums.com, photoshopforums.com and
discussions.hardwarecentral.com.
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Each discussion forum has a group of community users who are knowledgeable
about the subject matter. These users are called moderators who are responsible
for the quality and effectiveness of the discussions. They keep the discussions
fresh and clean by starting new topics and removing inappropriate content. Any
new topic in the forum is called a ‘Thread’ and all the messages associated with a
thread are called ‘Posts’.
Browsing and
Discussion Forum
Discussion Groups like Google Groups or Yahoo Groups are based on the
concept of mailing list. You create and see the threads using e-mail and only
people who are subscribed to that group are able to see the threads (e-mails).
Unlike discussion forum, a discussion group does not need any additional
hardware or software for its set up. We will study setting up and using a
discussion group in detail, taking Yahoo Groups as our example.
Figure 6.3: Yahoo Groups Main page
6.4.1
Creating a Yahoo Group
1. Go to http://in.groups.yahoo.com/. You get the screen as above
2. Click on the link ‘Start your group’. If you already have a Yahoo Id then login
using that, else click on the ‘Create New Account’ button. Enter all the details
asked for and a new Yahoo Id will be created for you.
3. Select the category for the Group you want to create. For this you need to be
sure of the purpose of your group. Since we will be creating a community of
BCA students, we select ‘Schools and Education’ and then ‘classmates’ on the
next page.
4. Click on ‘Place my group here’ on the next page.
5. We will give the name and email address for our group on the next page.
Since this group is for all BCA students at centre A, we will name it as
‘BCACenterA’ for our purpose. We will give ‘BCACenterA’ for the email
address too. You may give any name and address as per your requirements.
Click ‘Continue’ button to go to the next screen.
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Lab Course
Figure 6.4: Setting up the group
6. Once the group is created you see the following details on the screen:
Group name:
BCACenterA
Group home page:
http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/BCACenterA
Group email:
BCACenterA@yahoogroups.co.in
7. Now you can customize your group and define who all can join the group or
post messages, whether or not messages are archived, whether or not to list
your group in Yahoo! Groups directory or whether an approval is required to
join the group, etc. You can also invite your friends and other people to join
the group. The creator of the group becomes the moderator by default. The
moderator could define on how the group should be used, add or remove
people from the group, etc.
6.4.2
Joining a Yahoo Group
There are two ways that you can join a group:
1. Search for the group in Yahoo groups. Login using your Id and then send a
request to join the group. Once your request is approved by the moderator,
you become the member.
2. The second way is that you receive the invite to join the group and then you
join the group.
6.4.3
172
Posting a message
Once you are a member of a group, you can login to the group and post a
message. All the members of the group will receive an email about your post and
anybody can reply to that post.
Browsing and
Discussion Forum
Figure 6.5: View of message posts
You can reply to a post by one of the following two ways:
Reply to the email received.
Post a reply to the original message in the group interface.
6.5
WIKI
A Wiki is a website that has a collection of web pages which can be easily
created, viewed and modified by anybody using a Web browser, over the internet.
It encourages communication, sharing and collaboration on documents across
internet. Wikis can be used for a large variety of tasks, from personal note-taking
to collaborating online, creating corporate intranets, knowledge management
systems, online community, and managing a traditional website.
A Wiki website can be created using wiki engine or wiki software on a web
server. The wiki software stores the content including all the current and previous
revisions in either data files (database system) or in flat files. There are many wiki
software available; some like Confluence and Drupal Wiki are paid while other
like TiddlyWiki and TWiki are free of charge.
The main features of Wiki are:
Simplified creating and editing of web pages.
Documents can be written and worked upon by all in collaborative manner.
Pages are stored at a central shared location and document histories are
recorded.
Simplified formatting, use of simple markup and easy creation of links.
Organized web sites.
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6.5.1
Creating the Wiki
To learn create wiki pages, we can use existing hosted wiki software and start
adding to it. We will use Wikispaces for our purpose.
1. Go to www.wikispaces.com
2. Click on ‘Wikis for individuals and groups’.
3. Create login on the next page by providing username, password and email and
click on ‘Join now’ button.
Figure 6.6 : Joining the Wiki Spaces
4. You come to the Dashboard. Click on ‘Create a new Wiki’.
5. Give the Wiki Name, set the permissions and type. Click on ‘Create’ button
on the next screen.
6. You can close the ‘Getting Started’ help screen after reading it. The page that
you see is you first Wiki page.
7. Click ‘Edit’ to make changes to this page.
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Figure 6.7: Editing the Wiki Page
8. After making changes, click ‘Save’ button. You may preview the page before
saving it.
Browsing and
Discussion Forum
9. Since you have created this wiki space, you are its owner. You may invite
other people to contribute to this wiki.
10. Click on ‘Manage Wiki’ in the left hand side menu. Choose ‘Invite People’.
Once the invited people join the wiki, they can add to the content of the wiki.
You can also see recent changes to the wiki or the page.
Any number of people can share notes and ideas through wiki. They all can
contribute towards building the wiki content.
6.5.2
Wikipedia
Wikipedia is a free encyclopedia in many languages that anyone can edit. It is a
great example of a large wiki and is run on MediaWiki wiki engine.
Wikipedia is written collaboratively by largely anonymous Internet volunteers
who write without pay. Anyone with Internet access can write and make changes
to Wikipedia articles (except in certain cases where editing is restricted to prevent
disruption or vandalism). Users can contribute anonymously, under a pseudonym,
or with their real identity, if they choose.
Over the last few years, Wikipedia has become one of the largest reference
websites worldwide attracting several million users each month.
To understand how Wikipedia is written and how one can make changes to it, do
the following:
1. Go to www.wikipedia.org
2. Click in ‘Log in/ Create Account’ on top right corner. Create you account.
You reach the Wikipedia Introduction page.
Figure 6.8: Wikipedia Introduction
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3. Explore the different tabs. When you go to the ‘Tutorial’ page, you will get a
new set of tabs. Click on ‘Editing’ tab. And then ‘try editing in the sandbox’.
You get the screen as in Figure 6.9.
Figure 6.9: Editing in Wikipedia Sandbox
4. Click on Edit and start making changes to the page. Save your changes.
This will give you a fair idea about how you can edit wiki content.
6.6
GOOGLE DOCS
Google docs is a free web-based Word processor, Spreadsheet, Presentation,
Form etc along with online data storage solution from Google. To use this, one
does not need to buy any specific Office suite of products (ex MS Office etc).
This is Google’s Software-As-A-Service (SaaS) version of the Office suite.
Since Google docs is web based, you can access it from anywhere through the
Internet, you need not worry about copying it to transfer it somewhere else, or
about its latest version and you can easily share it with anybody for real time
collaboration.
6.6.1
Using Google Docs
1. Go to the URL (website) – http://docs.google.com. You will get a screen like
the one below.
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Browsing and
Discussion Forum
Figure 6.10: Google Docs Login Page
2.
You can use an existing account (ex Gmail, yahoo) to login on the right
hand side of the above screen. If you don’t have an existing account, you
can easily create one using your last name, first name, preferred user name
(if available) etc. Once you login, you get the screen as in Figure 6.11.
3.
On the left hand side of the window, if you click on Button ‘Create New’,
you would see the drop down options (Document, Presentation, Spreadsheet
etc) as shown Figure 6.11.
4.
Select ‘Document’ option from the drop down. Type some text here. You
may format it as any word document.
Figure 6.11: Google Docs Home Page
5. Click ‘Save’ button on top right corner. When you save the file, it will ask
you to enter the document name. Notice that there is a ‘Share’ button also.
This can be used to share the document. We will discuss about sharing a little
later.
6. Give the file name as ‘Test document for IGNOU BCA Student’ and by
default this document is saved on the Google server.
7. You can also download this document locally on the computer in various
formats such as DOC, PDF, RTF etc. By default, the document is saved in the
folder –C:\Documents and Settings\dell\My Documents\Downloads on your
computer.
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8. You may also upload an existing document from your machine using the
upload button.
Similarly, you can work on other types of docs such as spreadsheet, presentation
etc.
6.6.2
Sharing the Document
In Google Docs, to share a document means to give someone else access to that
document. This can be done in two ways:
Email the document as an attachment
Invite others to read or edit the document online.
Figure 6.12: List of Documents in Google Docs
1. Bring your cursor on a document name in the list, the word ‘Action’ appears
on the right side. When you click on that drop down arrow, a menu appears
with ‘Share’ as an option.
2. Choose Share. Another sub menu opens up. ‘Email as an attachment’ emails
the document.
3. Click on ‘Email editors/viewers’. This option is used to invite people to either
view the document or to collaborate (view and edit) on the document. The
people you have invited must have Google Docs account to view the
document.
4. A shared document is marked as ‘Shared’ in the list on the main page.
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6.7
LAB EXERCISE
Browsing and
Discussion Forum
Lab Exercise 1 (Browsing the Web)
1. In Google Chrome do the following:
Set it as the default browser.
Set www.ignou.ac.in as your home page.
Show ‘Home’ button in the tool bar.
Create a folder ‘Search Engines’ in the Bookmark Manager.
Go to the site www.yahoo.com and bookmark it. Save the bookmark in the
folder ‘Search Engines’ created above. Similarly, bookmark the sites
www.google.com and www.bing.com and save the bookmarks in the same
folder.
Check your history.
Go to the home page directly using the home button.
Create another folder called ‘email’.
Go to www.hotmail.com and bookmark it in ‘email’ folder.
Delete the ‘email’ folder.
(Note: For all above options use icon
on the browser toolbar)
2. Open Internet Explorer and do the following :
Set IE as your default browser.
Set blank page as the home page.
Change the appearance of the browser.
Go to many different sites.
Delete your history.
Explore different tabs and options under Internet Options.
Add and Delete pages to Favorites.
(Note: For all above options use Tools à Internet Options from the main menu)
3. Open Mozilla Firefox
Explore its menu options
Do all the exercises that you have done for Chrome and IE in question 1
and question 2.
4. Go to site www.hyundai.co.in and copy the image of all Hyundai cars on our
computer.
Lab Exercise 2 (Searching the Web)
1.
Use different Search Engines available – for example www.live.com,
www.ask.com, www.about.com, www.shopzilla.com, www.yahoo.com,
www.find.com, www.monster.com. Determine what each search engine can
be used for. Name two more search engine that are not in the given list.
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Lab Course
2.
Go to Google India site. Set the number of results on a page from 10 to 15.
Save your settings.
3.
You want to buy a LCD TV. You want to compare only Sony and Samsung
TV. Create a search string that gives only Sony and Samsung TV’s in the
result list and not Toshiba or LG TV’s
4.
Search on the author Erich Segal
Search on all the books written by Erich Segal.
Search on Erich Segal who is not an author or writer and has not written
any story.
5.
You want know the travel to Agra from Delhi by road. You have no idea
about the distance and the direction. Using the internet search, find out all
the details you need.
6.
Search for all the museums you can visit in Mumbai.
Lab Exercise 3 (discussion Forums and Groups)
1. You and your friends are planning to go on a camping trip. Create a Yahoo
group so that all the friends interact and plan for the trip. One of you can be a
moderator who creates the group and invite all your friends to join the group.
Each one can contribute to the discussion and planning of the trip, for example
to decide on the location, things to take, bookings, etc.
2. Create a group in Google Groups.
3. Register for the forum on http://www.proud2bindian.in and participate in the
discussion on the active topics. Check the latest posts, latest threads and
popular forums.
4. You want to set up your own Discussion Forum Community. Think of a
subject for you forum. Search the Internet and study the hardware and
software requirements to set up a forum. List all the steps need to be taken.
Also note down free and paid forum software available.
Lab Exercise 4 (Wiki)
1. You and your friends are planning to go on a camping trip. Set up a wiki and
invite all your friends to join it. Create a link to the place where you would be
going and a list of items that need to be taken. Ask your friends to update the
list if they can bring any item from the list. This way everybody will know
who is bringing what through the page.
2. Discuss how the communication in the above case (question 1) is different
from communicating through email or through discussion group.
3. Search the Internet for different wiki engines available. Consider any five and
compare them.
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4. Go to www.pbworks.com and setup a wiki there. Develop wiki content in
collaboration with few friends. Check the page history. Compare the
revisions of the page.
Browsing and
Discussion Forum
Lab Exercise 5 (Google Docs)
1. Create a new document in Google Docs. Share it with two other people. One
should have only view access.
2. Create a presentation on Google docs. Ask your friend to review it and
comment on it. Use ‘Discussion’ option for your discussions on the
presentation.
3. Create a spreadsheet on your computer. Upload it to Google Docs.
4. You are a group of four people who are working together on a project report.
Create a report on Google Docs and work on it simultaneously, each from
your own machines. Check different versions of the document.
6.8
SUMMARY
World Wide Web is one of the most used services of the Internet. You can search
the internet for any kind of information. You can create communities of people
with similar interests to interact with each other. There are tools like Wiki and
Google Docs available to create, share, contribute and collaborate on content
online. Internet has made it easier for physically distant people to connect with
each other and work together. It has brought people closer.
6.9
FURTHER READINGS
Internet Technologies at Work By Fred T. Hofstetter Tata McGraw-Hill
Edition.
Information Technology - The Breaking Wave By Dennis P. Curtin, Kim
Foley, Kunal Sen, Cathleen Morin Tata- McGraw-Hill Edition.
Introduction to Computers By Peter Norton Sixth Edition Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Limited.
Wiki for Dummies By Dan Woods, Peter Thoeny.
The Internet for Dummies By John R. Levine.
Google Docs 4 Everyone By Steve Holzner, Nancy Holzner.
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