Enterprise Wireless LAN Security

WHITE PAPER
Enterprise Wireless LAN Security
Preface
This paper describes the challenges today’s administrators face when
planning data protection for their wireless networks. Paramount in this
discussion are the existing Motorola solutions in place now to meet
and exceed the data protection expectations of enterprise-class
administrators, and Motorola’s 802.11n support plan.
Users within segregated large enterprise network
environments share the commonality of the data
within their corporate LAN, but not necessarily
the data residing within carefully defined and
proprietary WLAN segments. These WLANs are
typically restricted to just those users requiring
access to it.
While large corporate LANs are still somewhat
viable, they are increasingly being augmented
by multiple WLAN segments devised to support
unique blends of multi-media and traditional
data traffic. Whether these WLAN segments
reside in close proximity of one another or in
remote locations, each requires unique security
mechanisms and must be able to periodically
grant and restrict user permissions across their
virtual networks.
Today’s network administrator’s must devise
security schemes general enough for all to share
access to corporate assets, while simultaneously
providing provisional or temporary restrictions to
specific mission-critical network resources and
domains. No single security method can optimally
protect data corporately while simultaneously
protecting segregated network segments from
unsolicited user access.
For this reason, today’s network administrators can
be equated to “wireless traffic cops” who enforce
laws at both the federal (corporate) and local
(individual WLAN) level. Federal laws can be seen
as security mechanisms providing data protection
for corporate assets regardless of one’s local
domain restrictions. These “federal” security
mechanisms are designed to protect data from
unauthorized access and the hacking of corporate
resources. Security mechanisms at the “local”
level are often mechanisms authenticating user
credentials before access is granted to a WLAN
whose data is interpreted as proprietary.
Only through deploying an intuitive combination
of these federal and local security mechanisms
can an enterprise class network administrator
enforce a “lawful” population of network segments
whose security infractions are kept at the absolute
minimum. Fortunately, the savvy network
administrator has numerous options available to
them for both local and remote wired and wireless
deployments.
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This paper describes the security challenges
network administrators face defining and
implementing security mechanisms within diverse
wired and wireless network environments.
Paramount in this discussion are the existing
Motorola solutions in place now to meet and
exceed the data protection expectations of
enterprise-class administrators, and Motorola’s
plan to support 802.11n as products are
introduced.
WLAN Stability
The medium over which a WLAN operates is air,
which by its nature is insecure and somewhat
“lawless.” Regardless of the safeguards defined
when planning and installing a wireless network,
wireless devices, by nature, still self-deploy and
have the capability to connect to unknown clients
and devices. With the infiltration of wireless
enabled messaging devices, the number of
mobile devices continually probing for stronger
connections is unprecedented.
A wireless access point physically connected
to a wired network can broadcast the sensitive
network credentials a wireless “outlaw” needs
to hack into an entire enterprise network, and
in doing so roam remotely from one network
segment to the next. While a network’s
enterprise-class infrastructure is typically
supported by Ethernet wire, its data repositories
are still exposed on the WLAN over the series
of wireless device associations stemming down
from a switch, to its connected access port
radio and passed over the air to mobile devices.
Without proper security measures, any mobile
device can treat your wireless network like a
“lawless” town and stealthily eavesdrop on all of
its network traffic and resources.
The default security mechanism afforded most
consumer-grade wireless devices are woefully
insufficient beyond the access requirements
of your local Starbucks coffee-house network.
Entry class mobile device security mechanisms
provided by consumer-grade vendors are not
sufficient to secure enterprise WLANs, which
require encryption beyond WEP, additional access
control filtering, intrusion detection, and 24 x
7 monitoring. In response to these business
risks, Motorola has been proactively developing
solutions with exactly this kind of multi-tiered
enterprise data protection in mind.
Motorola has recently equipped its wireless
switch solution set with the following WLAN
stability mechanisms to meet (and exceed) the
needs of expanding wireless networks and
provide administrators with additional options
as their data protection needs expand:
NAC
Using Network Access Control (NAC), Motorola
switch hardware and software grants access to
specific network resources. NAC performs a user and
MU (mobile unit) authorization check for resources
without a NAC agent. NAC verifies a MU’s compliance
with the switch’s security policy. The Motorola
switch family supports the EAP/802.1x type of NAC.
However, the switch also provides a means to bypass
NAC authentication for MUs without NAC 802.1x
support (printers, phones, PDAs etc.). NAC protects
data proliferating your wireless infrastructure by:
• Blocking or quarantining non-compliant
devices from connecting to a WLAN
• Providing 802.1x based pre-admission control
to block devices at the authentication stage
• Working with any NAC solution conducting
802.1x and dynamic VLAN assignment
• Providing qualified interoperability with
MS NAP and Symantec NAC solution
Wireless Firewall
Firewalls protect networks from unauthorized Internet
traffic. Motorola’s switch supported firewalls allow
authorized traffic while blocking unauthorized traffic.
Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and
software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are
frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet
users from accessing private networks connected to
the Internet, especially Intranets. Messages entering
or leaving the Intranet pass through the firewall. The
firewall examines each message and blocks those
not meeting the defined security criteria (much like a
customs agent checking a passport before allowing
entry to a country). The Motorola switch family
supports Stateful Layer 2 and Role-Based firewalls
providing the following data protection mechanisms:
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Stateful Layer 2 Firewalls
• Use Layer 2 as the most common deployment
option
• Provide a fully stateful firewall in Layer 2 mode
• Allow established sessions to continue
uninterrupted after a MU roams
between an AP and a switch
• Handle Layer 2 attacks, including (just to
name a few); Arp cache poisoning/Arp
Spoofing, DHCP Rogue server attack, DHCP
starvation, broadcast storms, incomplete
Fragment attack checks, suspicious activity
checks
Role-Based Firewalls
• Base the security policy on user group,
location, encryption strength etc.
• Follow a user as they move across
different APs and switches
Wireless with WPA2
(More Secure than Wired)
Snooping traffic on a wired LAN is not difficult if
you have physical access to the domain’s wired
infrastructure. However, snooping WPA2 traffic is
next to impossible. As a result, WPA2 has been
made a data security option supported by nearly
all of Motorola’s enterprise-class wireless
infrastructure offerings.
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) is the follow-on
security method to WPA. The “shared medium”
nature of wireless traffic and widespread criticism
of WEP resulted in the development of the
cryptographically secure WPA2. WPA2 uses the
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Virtually no
known wireless attacks exist against AES! CCMP
is the security standard used by AES. CCMP
computes a Message Integrity Check (MIC) using
a proven Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) technique.
Like TKIP, the keys an administrator provides derive
other keys. Messages are encrypted using a
128-bit secret key and a 128-bit block of data. The
result is an encryption scheme as secure as any
Motorola provides in our enterprise-class wireless
infrastructure family of devices.
Distributed Security Enforcement with
Centralized Policy for 802.11n Support
Motorola’s distributed security enforcement
strategy for scaling to 802.11n support includes:
• Wireless encryption/decryption occurring
at the AP
• Policy enforcement occurring at the AP
• Policies following the user as they move from
AP to AP without an impact to ongoing traffic
Rogue Device Detection
Wireless deployments afford network
administrators freedom from the constraints of
wired environments. However, mobile devices may
lack the data protection mechanisms of a wired
infrastructure. Consequently, an open door could be
created for unauthorized (rogue) devices to violate
the poorly enforced laws of an immature security
scheme, thus rendering investments in wired
security useless.
Motorola’s holistic approach to monitoring ensures
WLAN policies are enforced and rogue devices
are promptly detected and removed. The following
describes two of Motorola’s enterprise class
solutions designed to equip today’s wireless traffic
cop with the tools they need catch wireless rogue
offenders and keep them from violating the privacy
of your wireless domain.
By converting the physical dimensions of a network
segment into a representative site map, both
Motorola’s Wireless Intrusion Protection Software
(WIPS) and Motorola’s RF Management Software
(RFMS) can accurately track the deployment of
and operation of authorized devices and use their
location to triangulate the location of potentially
hostile devices.
Motorola Wireless
Intrusion Protection
Wireless IPS (WIPS) is an industry leading
monitoring solution enabling network administrators
to proactively close network security holes and
mitigate the risk of security breaches. WIPS uses
distributed sensors and pre-positioned device radios
to (among other things) detect the presence of
802.11 a/b/g rogue devices.
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WIPS sensors continuously monitor WLAN
activity and report network events to a centralized
server. The WIPS management server correlates
and analyzes the data to provide real-time rogue
detection, policy enforcement and intrusion
protection. If an un-authorized device is detected,
WIPS has the means of interrogating the rouge to
obtain valuable data to aid forensics, reporting and
recording the event.
By converting the physical dimensions of a network
segment into a representative site map, both WIPS
and RFMS can accurately track the deployment
and operation of authorized devices and use their
location to triangulate the location of potentially
hostile devices to provide another level of forensics.
WIPS provides the following data protection
mechanisms:
• Air Lockdown - Enables network administrators
to terminate a connection between a WLAN
and an associated access point or MU upon the
detection of a threat. If the connected device is an
access point, the WIPS server de-authenticates
and disassociates all MUs associated with it. If
the device is an MU, the server terminates the
MUs connection to the access point.
• Wireless Termination – Allows an administrator to
terminate a connection between a WLAN and any
access point or MU associated with it.
• WEP Cloaking – Enables an AP-5131 to actively
transmit WEP cloaking frames for protecting
legacy devices (similar to an AP300’s existing
WEP cloaking functionality).
• AP-51xx Sensor Conversion - Allows a customer
to deploy a single AP-5131 (dual radio model) as
both a traditional infrastructure access point and
a WIPS sensor. Sensor conversion on an AP-5131
provides infrastructure support on one radio while
scanning on the other radio and using the frames
received by the sensor to provide WIPS
algorithms. The WIPS Sensor and AP-5131
run simultaneously.
RF Management Software (RFMS)
Intrusion protection is of limited value if it is
difficult for an IT administrator to initially detect
and categorize potentially hostile devices. RFMS
provides network administrators simple visual data
to react to a rogue identified by WIPS.
With the 3.0 release of RFMS, RFMS becomes
Motorola’s central enterprise WLAN network
management solution. Motorola RFMS provides a
single Manager-of-Manager (MoM) console from
which you can plan, monitor and detect threats
within wireless networks.
RFMS submits a request to gather signal strength
data from at least three detecting devices deployed
and authorized within a RFMS supported site.
Once obtained, RFMS creates a dynamic object of
each detecting switch to obtain RSSI data used to
triangulate the rogue’s location. Once RFMS has
detected the presence of a rogue and can position it
within a site (within 10 meters of its actual location),
rogue detection data is processed and displayed.
Once located, a rogue displays within the site
map as an access port radio with a red X over the
device (defining it as operating illegally). The rogue
device displays a pulsating red box around the
device to further distinguish it from devices placed
and authorized within the site. The detected rogue
device will remain on the site map for two minutes,
after which Motorola RFMS clears the device from
the site and log its detection and removal.
Meeting and Exceeding
the Defense Department’s
FIPS Criteria
The Department of Defense (DoD) requires
commercial WLAN systems incorporate extensive
measures to protect the voice and data traffic
proliferating a wireless network. In standardizing
their WLAN security requirements, the DoD defined
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)
140-2 and Common Criteria, including WLAN Access
System Protection Profile requirements.
Like most typical DoD WLAN deployments (and
their inherent data protection challenges), retail,
healthcare, financial and wireless carrier businesses
are under increasing pressure to ensure information
is secure across their wireless networks. The
majority of these institutions are implementing
the same standards mandated by the U.S.
government. For this reason, FIPS certification has
become central to demonstrating a WLAN security
deployment accepted by IT professionals for
its maturity.
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During FIPS 140-2 and Common Criteria
certification, a wireless solution must pass a
series of comprehensive security tests, including a
vulnerability and penetration analysis. The wireless
solution’s design metaphor and its source code are
scrutinized by experts to ensure its compliance with
advanced cryptographic standards.
Motorola’s enterprise-class RFS7000 and WS5100
switch platforms have satisfied FIPS pre-validation
requirements and have been placed on the FIPS
140-2 pre-validation list.
The RFS7000 and WS5100 have also entered the
Common Criteria evaluation process at the Common
Criteria Evaluation Assurance Level 4 (EAL4). This
represents the highest compliance level with the
U.S. government’s Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN) Access System Protection Profile for Basic
Robustness Environments.
The Motorola RFS7000 and WS5100 are currently
the only wireless/RF switch products undergoing
the Common Criteria evaluation at EAL4 with the
specified U.S. government protection profile for
basic robustness environments. This will ensure
Motorola’s enterprise class switch solutions are
properly certified to meet and exceed the emerging
FIPS requirement. Motorola expects to receive final
FIPS 140-2 and Common Criteria EAL4 validation in
2008, well in advance of the competition.
motorola.com
Part number WP-EWLSECURITY. Printed in USA 03/08. MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo and Symbol and the
Symbol Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property
of their respective owners. ©Motorola, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. For system, product or services availability and
specific information within your country, please contact your local Motorola office or Business Partner. Specifications
are subject to change without notice.
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