$2.50
OCTOBER 1979
VOLUME 10
NUMBER 5
-
Stage Monitoring
.
.
The Captain & Tennille S
RELATING
R
IENCE
TO RECORDING ART
TO RECORDING EQUIPMENT
AKG
You want more.
ALLISON RESEARCH
What you've done so far is more than
enough to satisfy the average person. But you're
not average.
You're proud of what you've done. The
but it
records you've made, the awards
doesn't satisfy for long.
You want more.
You want to break new ground. Set the
industry on its ear. Make the very best music ever.
For the
recognition? For
the money?
No. For
something more
important.
...
For yourself.
For your
own satisfaction.
You have what the average engineer lacks.
You have the drive to excel -that motivation
that keeps you moving ahead.
At Everything Audio we understand this
drive. It motivates us, too. It's what keeps us on
top of each new development in the industry.
We have much in common. It makes us
eager to see you succeed.
Instant information over the telephone
on prices and availability.
Data sheets sent on request.
AMBER
AMEK
AMPEX
ANVIL
ASHLY AUDIO
ATLAS
AUDIO & DESIGN
RECORDING
AUDIO KINETICS
AUDIO- TECHNICA
AURATONE
BGW
BELDEN
BEYER
BIAMP
BURWEN
CETEC-GAUSS
CROWN
DBX
DELTA LABS
DOLBY
EMT
ESE
EXR
EDCOR
EDITALL
ELECTRO -VOICE
EVENTIDE CLOCKWORKS
FRAP
INOVONICS
IVIE ELECTRONICS
JBL
KLARK-TEKNIK
KOSS
LEXICON
LOFT MODULAR DEVICES
MCI
MXR INNOVATIONS
MARSHALL
MIC -MIX
MONSTER CABLE
NEUMANN
NEUTRIK
ORBAN
OTARI
PML
PROGRAM TECHNOLOGY
PULTEC
QUAD EIGHT
REVOX
SENNHEISER
SHURE
SONY
SOUND WORKSHOP
SPECK
STUDER
TASCAM
TEAC
3
M
UREI
-16055 VENTURA BOULEVARD
T-sE8Ka
VISONIK
WHITE INSTRUMENTS
D110-z,-9
SUITE 1001
ENCINO, CALIFORNIA 91436
(213) 995 -4175
It's the top of the line from Amek. 36 in, 24 out. Full parametric
equalization. VCA control on all inputs, grouping, echo returns,
and mute matrix. And exceptionally versatile routing.
Before you purchase a console, make sure
you know about the M -3000 A.
Call or write for further information.
me
tf;
$108,468
for dollar
value fluctuations at time of sale.
Subject to adjustment
0'
+
`'
0 00
,
BRIAN CORNFIELD
16055 VENTURA BLVD., SUITE 1001
ENCINO, CALIFORNIA 91436
(213) 995 -4175
AMEK
M-3000 A
MARTIN AUDIO
East coast
distribution:
COURTNEY SPENCER or BRUCE MARTIN
423 WEST 55th, NEW YORK, NY 10019
(212) 541 -5900
AMEK SYSTEMS AND CONTROLS, LTD.
Islington Mill, James St. Salford M3 5HW, England
STORE
CLEAR
CONSOLE
'
S
STORE
STORE
STORE
2
3
4
SE,
1
AUX1
AUX2.
AUX
AUX 2
AUX3
AUK4
:TED TO TRACK
CLEAR
SELECT
TRACK
CHANNEL
01
03
05
07
09
11
13
15
1
n
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
4
2
5
3
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8
9
STEP
REV
AUX
1
AUX 4
2
1
11111
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¡ply
45
KEY
53
AUX 3
6
AUX
7
1
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4
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OSCILLATOR
Al TRACK
STUDIO
/
STUDIO
STEREO
MONITOR
CUT
QUAD
4T
THE NEV E
8108
The most advanced audio console ever!
The 8108 Range.
Just introduced to the world at the AES Exhibition in Los Angeles in May 1979, this thoroughly
new console range received much praise for the quantum leap in sound recording technology
it represents. Building on their computer /digital experience earned through the successful NECAM
Computer Mixing System, Neve engineers have developed the technically superior 8108 range.
The console is in production and early deliveries are now being made to several West Coast top
name studios. The 8108 Range is available in 56/48, 48/32 or 32/24. Join the Neve world of
excellence. Please call or write for our beautiful 8108 brochure.
Memorized Track Assignment.
All track (bus) assignment is performed at the Central Assignment Panel, allowing up to 56 inputs
to be switched to any (or all) of up to 48 tracks. Digitally controlled FET switches provide super
reliable routing steered by a powerful micro-processor. Solid state memories can store complete
track assignments for up to four different recording sessions, available for recall on moments
notice. Days, weeks, months or even years later, input to track switching from memory for a
56/48 console is accomplished in about 2 seconds.
Instant Interrogation.
With the increased number of inputs and tracks being used in studios today, making it difficult
to quickly realize track assignment during operation, Neve devised a unique Assignment
Interrogation System which enables the engineer to instantly realize assignment, either from an
input or to a track. "Finger close" buttons are mounted below the faders in a recessed area.
Assignment indication is cleverly provided both below the faders and on the Central Assignment
Panel, simultaneously readying this panel for reassignment of inputs and tracks.
Simultaneous VUIPPM.
The 8108 Range features operator selected mode of metering. Dual column high resolution
bargraph meters can provide VU only, PPM only, or VU /PPM simultaneously. Additional bargraph
meters may indicate reverberation send or return. Conventional VU meters available on
mixdown output.
NECAM or VCA Grouping.
The 8108 Range gives you the widest choice in fader systems. VCA Grouping is standard.
NECAM Computer Assisted Mixing may be added to bring the ultimate touch to the 8108 console.
Manual faders may also be fitted.
Serviceability.
No other console provides the serviceability and reliability like the 8108 Range consoles.
Computer -wiring is used virtually throughout, with solid state switching cards replacing hundreds
of mechanical switches. Channel strips are easily removed, in turn with readily removable
subassemblies. It is the finest and most advanced console system ever introduced. Please call or
write. The Neve 8108 Range is in your future!
N Neve
Rupert Neve Incorporated- Berkshire Industrial Park, Bethel, Connecticut 06801 Tel: (203) 744 -6230 Telex: 969638
Rupert Neve Incorporated -Suite 609, 6255 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood, California 90028 Tel: (213) 465 -4822
Rupert Neve of Canada, Ltd. -2721 Rena Road, Malton, Ontario L4T 3K1, Canada Tel: (416) 677 -6611 Telex: 983502
Neve Electronics International, Ltd. Cambridge House, Melbourn, Royston, Hertfordshire, SG8 6AU England Tel: (0763)60776
Rupert Neve GmbH -6100 Darmstadt Bismarckstrasse 114, West Germany Tel: (0615.1) 81764
-
R-e/p
5
%ECCRJDI:NG
engineer/producer
- the magazine to exclusively serve the
Recording Studio market ... all those
whose work involves the recording of
-
OCTOBER 1979
NUMBER
VOLUME 10
commercially marketable sound.
- the magazine produced to relate ...
Contents
Recording ART to Recording SCIENCE
to Recording EQUIPMENT.
n
Sigma Sound's JOE TARSIA
Disco AUDIO SYSTEM Design
Editor /Publisher
Managing Editor
Consulting Editors
MARTIN GALLAY
TOM LUBIN
PETER BUTT
PATRICK MALONEY
Operations Manager D KEITH LARKIN
Business Manager
V. L. GAFFNEY
Advertising Services and
Circulation Manager PATTY COLLINS
Staff Illustrator CHARLENE ANDREWS
5
IMPROVED INSTRUMENT TIMBRE
THROUGH MICROPHONE PLACEMENT
(Directional Properties of Instruments
38 by Tom Lubin
60 by Kenneth Fause
78 by Wieslaw
V. R. Woszczyk
82)
Answering the Drummers' Need for More Cue Level:
AN EARPHONE AMPLIFIER/
METRONOME PROJECT
.
96 by Ethan Winer
.
Stage Monitoring:
THE CAPTAIN & TENNILLE SHOW
TURN -ONS FOR THE AUDIO ENGINEER
"RECORDING Engineer/Producer"
(USPS) 768 -840)
is published six times a year by GALLAY
COMMUNICATIONS, INC., 1850 N. Whitley Avenue, Hollywood, California 90028,
and is sent to qualified recipients in the
United States. One year (six issues) subscriptions for other than qualified individuals and companies may be purchased at
the following rates:
United States (surface mail) $10.00
United States (air mail) ... $17.00
All Other Countries
$19.00
Foreign subscriptions payable in U.S.
funds only by bank check or money order.
p
Patrick Maloney
Solid State Switching Circuits:
0
n
4
100 by
O
RECORDING Engineer /Producer is not
responsible for any claim made by any
person based on the publication by RECORDING Engineer /Producer of material
submitted for publication.
Material appearing in RECORDING Engineer /Producer may not be reproduced
without written permission of the publisher.
Controlled Circulation Postage
paid at
Los Angeles, California
Postmaster: Send form 3579 for
address correction to:
RECORDING Engineer /Producer
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, California 90028
(213) 467 -1111
116 by Ben W.
Harris
Generating the Low Frequencies
for "APOCALYPSE NOW"
125 by
dB's CAN BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH
106 by
John Meyer
and Terry Tomaselli
Martin Polon
The Weakest Link in the Audio Chain:
THE STYLUS TO THE PREAMPLIFIER
- JHD's MAINLINE
140
by William Isenberg
Product Review:
A Digital Snake
The Cover:
-
"In The Captain's Absence"
photo by Art Rex. Taken at The
Captain's Rumbo Recorders while
the couple were away appearing in
Las Vegas at the MGM Grand.
Studio designed by Rudi Breuer;
Neve, Studer equipped.
150 by
Peter Butt
Departments:
192
Advertiser Index
190
Cartoon: Doctor Rock
Classified
187
Letters & Late News
10
New Products
158
Studio Update
16
----
- LATE, LATE NEWS -
The Society of Professional Audio Recording Studios (SPARS) will hold its first annual
national convention from Wednesday, October 31, through Sunday, November 4,
headquartered at the Waldorf-Astoria. The SPARS activities include a meeting of the
interium board of directors (Oct. 31), a general membership meeting (Nov. 1), and a full
schedule of technical and non -technical seminars. The seminars will be presented in the
Crystal Room of the Doral Inn (across the street from the Waldorf- Astoria). Topics to be
discussed include, "The Clients' View of Recording Studios" (Nov. 2, morning),
"Economic, Legal, and Financial Observations of Recording Studio Administration" (Nov.
3, morning), and "A Comprehensive Presentation on Multitrack Tape Machines for the
1980s" (Nov. 2 and 3, afternoon).
The multitrack program will feature eight major manufacturers who will have one hour
each to address the following subtopics:
Solid state logic control for transports and electronics.
Interfaces so machines can be controlled by computers and interlocked with one
another.
Capstan motors and tension control by reel motors and tape guiding.
Service- access to components.
Electronics, signal-to- noise, distortion, headroom and how it is measured.
Head stacks, i.e.: (frequency response), wear factors and adjustment, headroom for
new tapes.
Only employees of SPARS members may attend these presentations. For further
information regarding SPARS, contact the SPARS hospitality suite at the Waldorf. The
room number will be at the hotel desk, (212) 3553000.
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Send us the coupon and well rush you a free Coronado Consde
cutout you can build yourself. (Pictured above)
Please rush me your Coronado Automated Console
literature and a free Coronado Console I can build myself.
Have a sales engineer call me so we can get down to
business.
Please send me your beautiful brochures and a free
Coronado Console I can build myself. Don't contact me,
I'm just looking.
I'm an artistic engineer. Please send me my free Coronado
wi a.
-Y-
Console.
Name.
Company:
Address:
_
City:
'ma
The Better Boards
ip.aa.
State:
-
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Zip-
Quad -Eight Electronics/ Quad -Eight International,119Z9vbSE Street, North fib
for additional information circle no.
MINIMUM.
.. d, California 916ó
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We won't promise the world,
but we will deliver what we promise!
Audio delivers a guaranteed acoustic design based on principles proven and refined in 226
worldwide. More than just acoustics, we deliver all the elements required for today's technology
through acoustic, geometric and isolation design, to include turnkey completion.
Le analysis
a
-
[o
-
coincidence that our clients are among the most successful and skilled professionals in their fields.
-
Shinanomachi, Tokyo (12 studios)
VIDTRONICS Los Angeles (Video Sweetening Room)
FANTASY RECORDS Berkeley (2 studios)
MR. "D's," KENDUN RECORDERS Burbank
SOUNDMIXERS New York City (Redesign and Rebuild)
RECORD PLANT Los Angeles (studio C)
SOUNDS INTERCHANGE Toronto
STUDIO SIX Montreal
ARMSTRONG AUDIO/VIDEO Melbourne
MANGO STUDIOS Sydney
CINEMA AUDIO Manila
JEM RECORDS Manila
PIERCE ARROW STUDIOS Chicago
KITTY RECORDS Tokyo (2 studios)
MASTER SOUND Atlanta
CBS /SONY Roppongi, Tokyo (2 studios)
ALFA RECORDS Tokyo
BIAS RECORDING Virginia (3 studios)
SOUND PALACE New York City
RECORD PLANT Los Angeles (Remote Truck)
FANTASY RECORDS Berkeley (studio B)
CBS/SONY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1/
-
-
... Plus another 191 rooms by our exclusive
designer, Tom Hidley. The London Palladium, Virgin Records
Cabaret- Disco, and hundreds of studios ... Your project
should have our acoustic guarantee.
Sierra
(nf) Audio
South Glenwood Place
Burbank, California 91506
(213) 843 -8115
Telex 691138
721
Le
from: John R. Saul
President
MICMIX Audio Products
Dallas, TX
capabilities of Master -Room design can be
June 1979 issue, read like a hyped -up press
understood considering the need to
release.
As to Mr. Duncan's reply to Mr. Cornfield
in the August 1979 issue, I must immediately
set the record straight. I have never been an
employee of Westlake Audio. I've never
received a dime in payment for anything
from Westlake Audio. The confusion may
have arisen over two past projects in which
Mr. Hidley's former firm and my firm were
both involved. In 1974, Mr. Ridley provided
control room design drawings for a studio in
Nashville. Valley Audio was hired directly by
the client for all construction supervision
and electronics installation. Valley Audio
has also done the electronics for another
Westlake control room design in Nashville.
Again, we were hired and paid by the client
not by Mr. Hidley.
Since almost everyone has already done
their best to confuse the public, I'll refrain
from commenting on specific statements
contained in any and all past articles and
letters concerning the subject of studio and
control room electronics and design.
A magazine such as R -e /p has a
responsibility to publish a variety of articles,
presenting differing points of view. It is
exceedingly important for all concerned
readers to survey this wealth of information
with one eye on content and the eye on
authorship. In the professional recording
industry, we deal with a multitude of grays,
no blacks or whites. There is hardly a right
or wrong way to design a studio, only
differing points of view, all dependent on the
perspective of the design's originator.
Perhaps in the fervor of competition,
we've lost sight of the true subjectiveness of
our entire industry. We must remember
that our final goal is the capturing and
dissemination of an artistic expression. An
analogy may be drawn between our line of
work and the creation of a great painting.
Rembrandt, Van Gogh, and Picasso all took
radically different approaches to their work.
Yet they all created artistic masterpieces.
Similarly, the acoustical design of control
rooms and studios may vary drastically. If a
studio/control room creates a technically
and artistically superior recording, then it
no
must be said to have a valid design
matter whose design philosophy has been
generalize, but should be noted as an
exception to the general rule.
James Cunningham presented a fine
overview of reverberation in the August
issue. One comment he made which cannot
be overemphasized is that "the buyer of any
reverb should listen to it with as many
different types of music as possible,
preferably some short brass passages
sustained music like strings
and some
short percussive sounds
" (emphasis
added). We would add to this statement that
reply from:
James Cunningham
I would like to point out a few errors that
crept into my overview article on reverberation in the August 1979 issue. One page 52
it should have been pointed out that the
38.7' referred to is the average distance
travelled between boundary surfaces. On
the prospective buyer should,
chambers should read 200 cubic feet. Also,
on page 54 the frequency response plots for
the live chamber and the plate reverb were
reversed.. On page 56 the room mode
expression should be
.
...
...
if
.
.
at all
possible, listen to several units simultaneously and compare them on an A - B basis
(alternately switching back and forth
between units while listening to the same
page 54 the minimum for acoustic
program material). Reverberation units
which incorporate a mixing capability for
the direct signal should, of course, be
listened to in full reverb mode only, so as not
to mask the reverberant channel's
performance with the dry sounds.
Short percussive sounds as a test of
reverberation performance are emphasized
above because they are the most revealing
single test for any undesirable characteristics such as what has commonly been
referred to as boing, twang, or flutter echoes
(periodicity). This applies to any type of
reverberation unit, not just spring systems.
If a drum track is not readily available, a
sharp snap of the fingers on a microphone
input to the chamber can be very revealing.
As manufacturers of the Master -Room
series of reverberation chambers, we are
familiar with the performance capabilitites
of various types of reverberation systems.
We must also note as comment on
statements in the article, that Master -Room
units do provide a series of early echoes at
the onset of reverberation, followed by an
increasing echo density as the amplitude
decays. This is the characteristic of a natural
chamber and avoids the 'slap' effect
mentioned when additional pre -delay is
t.sed.
We should also note that our stereo units
incorporate a differential timing pattern for
the two channels which provides the cross correlation he discussed and eliminates the
need for synthesizing a stereo effect by
using sum and difference signals.
Again, Jim Cunningham did a very good
job on a difficult task of summarizing the
typical characteristics of various types of
artificial reverberation and must be
complimented. His oversights regarding the
R-e/p 10
(4rrV /C)f.
Lastly, the echo density expression should
be
(4rrC/V)t'.
Correction:
In the August 1979 issue of R -e/p, "Construction of Live Echo Chambers, "by Scott
Putnam and Tom Lubin, the equation on
page 74 was not correctly reproduced from.
its reference, (Acoustic Design and Noise
Control, by M. Rettinger). The formula
should have read:
(5'
'-1)/2
- ACOUSTIC DESIGN -
(continued)
from: Bob Todrank
President
Valley Audio
Nashville, TN
I've been reading with interest the recent
exchanges regarding Control Room and
Acoustical Design. The latest letter from
Mr. Brian Cornfield nicely summed up the
opinions of many people with whom I've
spoken. I must congratulate him on his
convictions and courage to speak out. I
must join Mr. Cornfield in his overall
evaluation that the latest advertisements
(excuse me, articles) by Mr. Kent Duncan,
of Sierra Audio Corporation, have
concentrated more on PR work than on the
dissemination of substantial information.
Even Mr. Hidley's apology, concerning his
unfinished article to have appeared in the
-
-
followed.
Past and present articles and letters will
serve a beneficial purpose, if we all emerge
with the decision to study these controversies as part of a continuing educational
experience. As a consultant in the field of
music recording facilities, I feel it is my
...
continued on page 15
-
'
\Sound.. .
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Consiit'..
.
JEL Recording
-
Newport Beach, CA
RPM Production -Los Angeles, CA
As the most expensive single piece of equipment in
the studio complex, the recording console needs not
only to pass the highest quality audio with a
tremendous amount of flexibility. It remains a major
investment in the future growth of the studio.
The Sound Workshop Series 1600 can adapt to the
changing needs of the studio better than any other
console available today. Thoughtful, innovative design
allows a wide range of initial console options and
configurations. But more importantly, these options
can be added later with a minimum of extra
expenditure and hassle.
Overland Recording -Costa Mtc.a. CA
In its first year
The Sound Workshop Series 1600 has been chosen
as the audio control center in over 50 studios
around the world. Its modular design philosophy
of installations ranging from
input /4 output production consoles, to
36 input /32 output multi -track recording boards
complete with computerized mixdown.
has allowed for a variety
12
Counterpart Creative Studios- Cincinnati. OH
The
Studio
B- Boston,
MA
19
Recording Studio -South Glastonbury, CT
The Sound Workshop Series 1600
A new philosophy of console design.
The diverse range of options available for the Series 1600 creates a console tailored to the individual
needs of the studio: both today; and tomorrow, as need dictates and cash flow allowsHIGH RESOLUTION METERING -a
multi- colored wide range 40 segment meter
with a dynamic range of 40áB and a
resolution greater than 25dB at OVu.
These meters offer 3 modes of operation
including average. peak. and peak -hold. A
built -in spectrum analyzer permits visual
indication of the frequency distribution of
any monitored signal. A spectrum analyzer
can also be added to the standard R
segment LED meters. which are available
with Peak ballistics. Mechanical Vu meters
with Peak indication are also available.
Consoles may be configured with varied
meter options.
fi
_
-n
Jo
-n
EGC 101 VCA CELL -the state of the art
in VCA technology (from Allison
Research). Sound Workshop has
incorporated the EGC 101 in its VCA
grouping package. Studios adding the VCA
package to their Series 16(X) can take
advantage of this sonic breakthrough.
Studios with VCA equipped 1611(Is can
retrofit, and offer their clients the current
edge of VCA technology.
SUPER-GROUP -this new addition to
Sound Workshop's ARMS Automation
system sets new standards for grouping.
tie\ihility, and ease of operation. No other
console offers the visual status indication of
group assignment available with Super Group. "Negative Grouping" permits
formally difficult or impossible group
structures to be instantly available. In
addition. the number of groups available is
limited only by the number of input
channels. Super -Group is now available for
use with ARMS Automation, which
features Independent Mute Write with FETMute switching, eliminating the sluggish
punch-ins associated with ramped VCA
muting systems.
Also available are TRANS -AMP ( Valley
People. Inc.) microphone preamplifiers.
Sweepable and Parametric Equalization. and
many other options. Most options can be
added to existing consoles. It's par of the
unique design philosophy exhibited in all
Sound Workshop products.
The Sound Workshop Series 1600 is sold
through a select group of Dealers. See one
for assistance, or call Emil Handke at
Sound Workshop.
BRINGING TH
E TECHNOWG
Y WITHIN EVE
RYONE'S REA
CH.s
Sound Workshop Professional Audio Products, Inc.
1324 Motor Parkway, Hauppauge, New York 11787
(516) 582-6210 Telex 649230
ctes
ccntinued
responsibility to be aware of many points of
view. A good consultant should be able to
offer many alternatives, and explain the
benefits and drawbacks of each.
If the readers can see through the PR
work in this type of article, there is usually
some interesting information to be gained.
But I caution the buying public to be careful
who they elect to the post of "Resident
Expert." Once elected, or even self appointed, such experts are hard to
impeach. We should ask ourselves whether
we listen to those who yell the loudest, or
those who talk the smartest.
Many clients and fellow professionals
have asked me about the great differences
of opinion, even among the "experts." Mr.
Ron Wickersham, of Alembic, Inc., and
discussed this very topic some months ago.
We concluded that the basic reasons most
"experts" disagree is the color of the axe
they have to grind ... be the axe ego, public
recognition, peer support, or PR support for
a sales business. Everyone has a reason,
honorable or not, for saying what they say.
Thus, it is critically important for the reader
to concern himself as much with the
underlying reason for making a statement,
as with the statement itself. If a person's
reasons are in harmony with yours, the
reader, and your philosophies are the same,
you have a basis for real communication
with the expecation of positive results.
from: Wayne Wadhams
President
Studio B
Boston, MA
hope R -e/p is not going to become a
forum for the kind of argument and vendetta
shown in the series of letters among Brian
Cornfield, Kent Duncan, Michael Rettinger,
et al., published in your August issue. These
I
However, in physics, the derived relationship is the product. Not so in acoustics!
Despite all the contributions of Beranek,
Duncan, Newman, and all the others, the
real meat of acoustics and recording is
making spaces and machines that make
tapes which please ears. Pleasure and the
human ear are very subjective things, and
although the spaces and machines being
designed today do an ever -better job, let's
not get too pompous about whose designs
are 'right.' Technically speaking, none are
right; they just appeal to different sets of
ears.
3 - It is possible, without a great deal of
theory or expensive test equipment, to
design studios and control rooms that
achieve excellent results, i.e., that enhance
musical sounds, produce tapes which
satisfy producers and musicians, and
moreover, produce tapes which still satisfy
musicians and producers when played on
other systems and in other rooms. As a
long -time reader, I am more interested in
hearing about the variety of approaches
people are using in making tapes, rather
than how the 'stars' of the industry are
battling each other into theoretical
extinction trying to design the perfect
studio. Let's have more practical advice to
the small studio owner and engineer. Let's
have dollar value reviews of professional
equipment. It's all very expensive, you can't
see it in action, and aside from word of
mouth, nobody really reviews products. I
know that advertising pays for a lot of your
publication costs, but if I am to continue
reading, R -e/p has to help me improve my
product and business in a very direct way.
Otherwise the magazine will just become a
heady and self- serving irrelevance.
Editor:
In fact, the greatest majority of
reader response has been very favorable to
a continuation of R -e/p's presentation of
debated concepts.
circuitry. I should stress, however, that very
few (if any!) companies like you to mess
around with the innards of their machines;
so, while you're modifying your machine
you should also be aware that you're
modifying the terms of your warranty. With
that consideration out of the way, let's
proceeed to the actual modification itself.
1- You will need to get at the back panel of
the transport section of the recorder.
Remove the 4 screws that hold the rear
cover in place, then pull down the rear cover
(as explained in the manual) to gain access
to the inside of the transport box.
2 - Locate the fuse in the top center area
of the transport. Centered behind the fuse is
a circuit board, labelled #PM875A. This is
the board we're going to be working on.
3 - Look towards the bottom of the
component side of the board; you'll note a
number of wires going into various holes,
and each hole is assigned a number. Desolder the wire that connects to hole 15 (on
my machine, this was a purple /white wire).
4 - Tape the end of the wire so that it
doesn't short out against any other
components. Also, write a short note
explaining that the taped wire has been
removed from terminal 15 of circuit board
PM875A, and tape this note to one of the
inside walls of the transport box. In the
event that you want to return your machine
to "stock" at some future date, having the
information right at hand will be helpful to
you.
I should add that the variable speed
control still works exactly the same as
before: pull the pitch control out for variable
speed enable, and push it back for variable
speed disable. The only difference is that the
variable speed control will now work in the
record mode
and that your machine is
considerably more versatile than it was
before the modification.
-
n
are all very important names in the
recording industry, but let me remind you
that
1 - Scientists and researchers tend to get
overheated about their ideas and discoveries, and well they should. Yet this kind of
debate, in which all parties are misquoting
each other, using undefined technical
terms, and in fact questioning the existence
of allegedly- accepted theories in acoustics,
convinces me that none of these experts has
their clients' interest at heart, only their
personal reputation.
Acoustics and all the recording
2
"sciences" are only quasi -sciences. From
my own background in atomic physics, I
know the value of specualtion. You observe
something, play a hunch and spend some
money to research it, and if you're lucky,
you can come up with a handy mathematical
relationship to describe what you're seen.
-
from: Craig Anderton
Clayton, CA
The Otari MX- 5050 -8SD 8- channel
recorder is an excellent and versatile
machine that has found a home in many
semi -professional and professional
recording studios. Among its convenience
features is
a
variable speed control;
LISTENER SUBJECTIVITY
AFFIRMED AT
"GREAT AMPLIFIER SHOOTOUT"
Responding to a great number of requests
from buyers of their UREI Model 813 Time
Aligned'" monitor sytems to recommend
however, there is an interlock circuit that
defeats this control when in the record
mode. In my opinion variable speed only
realizes its full potential if you can vary the
speed during recording as well as during
playback, as this allows you to tune the
track to out -of -tune instruments, change
the timbre of voices, give a bigger sound to
choral effects and string synthesizers, and
so on.
Luckily, there is an extremely simple
operation for defeating the internal interlock
continued on page 186
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
Northeast:
SOUNDWAVE RECORDING STUDIOS (New York City) announces the completion of a special project for
PHONOGRAM /MERCURY, implementing a special process of disk cutting, resulting in two reverse groove LPs for
in -store promotion. The albums, unlike standard LPs, start tracking from the inside of the disk to the outside where
the groove is specially cut to prevent the stylus from going off the edge and being damaged. Standard equipment
can handle the 12 -inch pressings. The albums are entitled COUNTERREVOLUTIONS IN ROCK and
COUNTERREVOLUTIONS IN R &B, and contain selections from recent Mercury and distributed label releases. 50
West 57th Street, New York, NY 10019. (212) 582-6320.
SIGMA SOUND STUDIOS (New York City) has THE VILLAGE PEOPLE in recording music for their upcoming
CASABLANCA album and for their film, DISCOLAND. Both projects are being produced by JACQUES MORALI.
53rd Street and Broadway, New York, NY.
RPM SOUND STUDIOS' (New York City) recording activity has included the new project by the NEW CHRISTY
MINSTRELS with RON JOHNSEN engineering, BRIAN ENO'S new album being engineered by NEAL TEEMAN and
the new LP by COME ON with vocals by KLAUS NOMI with Johnsen again engineering. HUGH DWYER acted as
assistant engineer on all three projects. 12 East 12th Street, New York, NY 10003. (212) 242 -2100.
BLUE ROCK STUDIO (New York City) has been recording BRIAN ENO producing his own album, RICHARD T.
BEAR producing German singer INGA RUMPF'S first U.S. album for RCA, and JERRY LOVE and MICHAEL ZAGER
doing track for the upcoming SPINNERS LP. EDDIE KORVIN engineered all the sessions. JOSEPH PAPP is also
producing ELIZABETH SWADO'S "The Runaways" at Blue Rock with NIGEL NOBLE engineering. 29 Greene
Street, New York, NY 10013. (212) 925 -2155.
SELECT SOUND STUDIO (Buffalo) has increased tracks with the addition of an MCI 24 -track tape machine, a
Syncon 28 x 28 console, and an MCI 1/2-track mixdown machine. Retained from the old studio are Neuman n,
Sennheiser, and AKG mikes, AKG reverberation, and Lexicon delay lines. Instruments include a 75- year -o Id
Marshall and Wendall grand piano and a full compliment of Moog synthesizers. 1585 Kenmore Avenue, Kenmorre,
14217. (716) 873 -2717.
SOUND PLUS TWO RECORDING FACILITY (Philadelphia) presently an 8 -track studio, is planning expansion to
format utilizing a Tascam 90 -16 and adding UREI Time Aligned monitors, a PSA-2 power amp, and a
compliment of studio instruments. Current outboard equipment includes a Cooper Time Cube, UREI limiters, and
Orban Parametric Equalization. 1564 Temple Drive, Ambler, PA 19002. (215) 646 -2026 or (215) 342 -8093.
a 16 -track
THE NINETEEN RECORDING STUDIO (South Glastonbury, Connecticut) has recently added an MCI JH -114
24 -track machine to its 16 -track facilities and plans to link
the two machines along with a disk drive system to provide
38 dbx tracks with automated mixdown. These upgrades are
in addition to a Sound Workshop 1600, avariety of outboard,
the completion of a string room, and Nineteen's 8/16 -track
remote truck. 19 Water Street, South Glastonbury, CT 06073.
(203) 633 -8634.
QUEEN VILLAGE RECORDING STUDIOS (Philadelphia)
which recently installed a 40 -track Neve recording console
to their 24 -track facility, has named JOE CAMPELLONE general manager for the studio. Campellone handled sales,
marketing, and merchandising for DOMINION MUSIC, and was in charge of that company's east coast operation
before joining Queen Village. Other personnel changes include the promotion of WALLY HAYMAN to studio
manager overseeing all studio operations and acting as liaison for advertising agency business, and the addition to
the staff of engineer BILL OLSZEWSKI, late of MOTOWN, GOLDEN VOICE and HI RECORDS. Queen Village was
honored with seven TRACK AWARDS at this year's ceremony. 800 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19147.
Nineteen Recording
(215) 463 -2200.
have you?
increased track capacity
gone 24, 16, 8
added key people won awards
moved or expanded added important equipment
these are some of the Interesting news items that can be announced in the next
available Issue. Write:
R -e /p STUDIO UPDATE
P. O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
continued on page 20
-
-
R-e p 16
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
THE ONE-KNOB
SQUEEZER.
A compressor/limiter
that gives you a free hand.
There are times in the life of every studio operator when an
extra hand would make things a lot easier. It's for times like
those that dbx designed its new Model 163 compressor /limiter.
We call it the "one -knob squeezer" because it has only one
-to
control
adjust the amount of compression desired. As
increase
you
the compression ratio, the 163 automatically
increases the output gain to maintain a constant output level.
It's quite clearly the easiest -to-use compressor /limiter on
the market.
But that's not all. Because the 163 is an "Over Easy"
compressor /limiter, too. Which means that as the signal level
crosses the threshold, the 163 gradually adds the desired
amount of gain change over the range of several dB. The
result is the most natural- sounding compression you've
ever heard.
The 163 is as easy to install as it is to operate. It's light
and compact -two may be rack mounted in a 13/4" space
and it interfaces easily with phono connectors.
But the easiest part of this "Over Easy" limiter is
its cost. The nationally advertised value of the 163 is $189*
With the money you save on a pair of 163s, you can get two
extra hands in the studio. You
can hire yourself an assistant.
dbx, Incorporated,
71 Chapel Street,
Newton MA 02195,
617 -964 -3210
Making Good Sound Better
-
7-8
M
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PAN
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s
o
dbx
163
ó
COMPRESSION
t
I
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MWE--
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1
'Nationally advertised value.
Actual prices are set
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for additional information circle no.
R-e/p 17
7
www.americanradiohistory.com
test drive
the Auditronics 532
Memphis Machine
Exclusive western distributor
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www.americanradiohistory.com
.... continued from page 16 -
SIGMA SOUND STUDIOS' (Philadelphia) 12th Street facility was the taping site for a concert by THE A'S for an
October BBC Television airing on the network's "Grey Whistle Test." Also at the studios, rhythm tracks are being
recorded for LINDA CLIFFORD'S next LP, as well as the inception of new albums by THE TRAMPS and JERRY
BUTLER. 212 North 12th Street and 309 Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA.
MUSICOR RECORDING STUDIO (Philadelphia) announced the addition of a Peterson Strobe Tuner, a Pioneer
ten -band stereo graphic equalizer, and a new headphone cue system. The studio is also equipped with a Tascam 808 recorder with dbx noise reduction. Chief engineer is ARNOLD TERRY with MICHAEL BROADNAX as assistant
engineer. 2539 West Columbia Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19121. (215) 763 -0741.
SOUND SELLER PRODUCTIONS (Pittsfield, Massachusetts) has added to its track capability with the installation
of a Scully 16 -track tape machine with additional dbx noise reduction. The installation now also features high speed
cassette duplication. Present production includes guitarist SID MARGOLIS, formerly of the NBC and CBS
orchestras. Sound Seller also announces the addition of RIC CORIN to its engineering staff. Sound Seller
Productions is a division of AdCom, Incorporated. P. 0. Box 1303, Birch Grove Road, Pittsfield, MA 01201. (413) 4993899.
LONG VIEW FARMS (North Brookfield, Massachusetts) is recording the new J.
GEILS BAND LP, the groups second release for EMI /AMERICA. North Brook field,
MA 01535.
DUNE RECORDING (Eastham, Massachusetts) has announced the appointment of
CHRIS BLOOD as chief engineer. Blood, a former computer technician and sound
man for the rock group, ANDROMEDIA, will supervise the 16 -track studio, which is
equipped with a custom console, several synthesizers, and a Digital Group Z -80 based
computer. Between Provincetown and Hyannis, Eastham, MA (616) 255 -4443
Southeast:
D ALPHA AUDIO (Richmond, Virginia) announces the completion of
the second phase of renovations of its Studio 1 with the newest construction designed for a 'live' sound for orchestra recording, choral
work and film scoring. The orchestra shell occupies roughly one third of the 2,200 square foot music studio. The structure provides
built -in cue feeds and electrical outlets and employs an anechoic
wedge foam, "Sonex," to eliminate flutter echoes and un- wanted
stray reflections. Composer- conductor PHIL COXON was the first to
use the completed facility recording a 19 -piece orchestra for MOBIL
CHEMICAL. 2049 East Broad Street, Richmond, VA 23220.
(804) 358 -3852.
CRITERIA RECORDING STUDIOS (Miami, Florida) was the recording site for KENNY LOGGINS' upcoming album, "Keep The
Fire," his third LP for Columbia. TOM DOWD produced the project
with Criteria's STEVE GURSKY engineering. Guests on the LP include MICHAEL JACKSON and MICHAEL MC DONALD. The BEE
GEES were also in studio putting the finishing touches on the soundtrack for their upcoming TV special. 1755 North East 149th Street,
Miami, FL 33181. (305) 947 -5611.
Alpha Audio
At THE MUSIC FACTORY (Miami, Florida) producer /engineer
BOB ARCHIBALD is putting the final touches on SHARON ROBBIE'S upcoming LP. Also in the works is an album
with the CORNELIUS BROTHERS and SISTER ROSE. 567 North West 27th Street, Miami, FL 33127. (305) 576 -2600.
FANTASY SOUND STUDIOS (Granite Falls, North Carolina) announces the completion of a new 8 -track facility
installed by RELIABLE MUSIC of Charlotte, North Carolina. The studio features an 80 -8 with dbx noise reduction, a
Tascam 24 x 8 mixing console, and JBL monitors with Crown amplification. Sideboard equipment includes dbx
compressor /limiters, MXR digital delay, and Furman PEQ. Mikes include Neumann, Sennheiser and Electro- Voice.
The studio has just finished a project with JOHN ANTHONY, formerly with THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE and THE
NEW CHRISTY MINSTRELS. 14 Woods Drive, Granite Falls, NC 28630. (704) 396 -1188.
to be represented in the next available issue write:
R -e /p STUDIO UPDATE
P. O. BOX 2449
HOLLYWOOD, CA 90028
R-e p 20
www.americanradiohistory.com
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for additional information circle no. 9
www.americanradiohistory.com
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oe
CENTURI RECORDING STUDIOS (Coral Springs, Florida) was the recording site for the soundtrack of
"Toymaker," a film written and produced by QUAY HAYS, of Los Angeles. Engineering and mixing on the project
were PETER YIANILOS of ARTISAN RECORDING, along with FRANK GIARDINO and RICHARD LAVOIE. Centuri
is currently a 16 -track studio with plans to update soon to 24- track. 11460 West Sample Road, Coral Springs, FL
33065. (305) 753-7440.
LIVE OAK SOUND RECORDERS (Chesapeake, Virginia) has opened a new studio featuring a 24 -track MCI
master recorder and an MCI mixing console. Other equipment includes an Ampex 2-track recorder, a Tascam 4track machine, dbx compressor /limiters, and an Ashley stereo parametric equalizer. AKG, Beyer, Shure and
Electro -Voice microphones are employed. A Marshall Time Modulator is on order, with immediate plans to add
VCAs to the console. An Allison computer will complete automation in the near future. The CHRISTIAN
BROADCASTING NETWORK recently completed its fall campaign in the studio with STEVE PEPPOS engineering.
809 Live Oak Drive, Suite 14, Chesapeake, VA 23320. (804) 422 -1646.
South Central:
BUTTERMILK RECORDS' BICKLEY STUDIOS (Houston, Texas) has acquire a 16-track mobile mini -van for
location broadcasting and recording. Artists having used the van include TOD RUNDGREN, TANYA TUCKER,
TALKING HEADS, and JOHNNY WINTER. The equipment has Video -Sync capability. Buttermilk's regular
installation is equipped with an MCI JH- 11416 -track and an Interface console. Plans are to update to 24 -track within
a few months. Current projects include an album by JOHN BELL for DECCA /LONDON and the basic tracks for an
LP by CRAWLER on EPIC. 1310 Tulane, Houston, TX 77008. (713) 864 -0705.
POLLARO MULTI -MEDIA ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION (Denison, Texas) has completely upgraded their
a Tascam 90 -16 recorder, Model 15 board, DeltaLab 06 -2
Acousticomputer, Roland Jupiter 4, plus Sennheiser, Sony, Neumann and Electro -Voice microphones. PMAP is
currently producing TV and radio spots for SUBARU dealers in 38 states. Elkins Building, Suites 205, 206, 207, P. O.
Box 668, Denison, TX 75020.
control room with new equipment including
SOUNDSHOP STUDIOS (Nashville, Tennessee) has just completed upgrading of its MCI 500 consoles, including
the installation of Trans -Amps, and Allison VCAs, and a change to low- noise, low- distortion and high slew rate
opamps. These conversions are coupled with automation in both studios. This upgrading program also extends to
the outboard gear. 1514 South Street, Nashville, TN 37212. (615) 244 -8872
JACK CLEMENT RECORDING STUDIOS (Nashville, Tennessee) is recording MAC DAVIS' first album for
CASABLANCA, LARRY BUTLER producing and BILLY SHERRILL at the board. ANDY WILLIAMS is in the studio,
with producer DICK PIERCE and Sherrill engineering tracking a series of pop- country songs, and EMI artist
SANDRA STEELE was in Clement recording her first album with RALPH MURPHY producing and HAROLD LEE
engineering. 3102 Belmont Boulevard, Nashville, TN 37212. (615) 383 -1982.
Midwest:
PEARL SOUND, LTD. (Ann Arbor, Michigan) 8 -track studio has been operational for
six months. The studio features an Ampex AG -440 recorder, Quantum Audio Labs
modified console, and dbx noise reduction. Outboard gear includes Lexicon Prime
Time, URSA Major Digital Reverb, Orban Parametric EQ, and a Loft Flanger. 2075
Provincial Drive, Ann Arbor, Ml 48104. (313) 971 -2414.
COUNTERPART CREATIVE STUDIOS (Cincinnati, Ohio) has reopened afterextensive remodeling of the physical plant as well as the purchase of all -new electronics. The
installation was designed by SHAD O'SHEA, president of Counterpart, and the control
room was acoustically designed by TOM IRBY at STUDIO SUPPLY. Irby also installed
the monitoring equipment, a Westlake Bi -Amp System. The main studio has
dimensions of 50' x 31' with a 16' ceiling, and features a 32 -track Sound Workshop
console with an MCI computer -based automation mixdown. New tape machines
include a 24 -track MCI, and outboard gear includes dbx noise reduction, MXR digital
a
delay, and an array of compressor /limiters. GARRY JONES, formerly with Appalachia
Sound Studios, is the new chief engineer and studio manager. 3744 Applegate Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45211. (513)
661 -8810.
COUNTRYSIDE RECORDING STUDIO (Crookston, Minnesota) recently completed the master tape for THE
INSPIRATIONS, a 28- member gospel group. GARY EMERSON engineered for SLADE RECORDS. Equipment in
the studio is by TAPCO, SAE and Tascam, with GTE Sylvania monitors and Eltec 414 mini -monitors. Keyboards
include a Baldwin Electric Harpsichord, a Hammond B3 organ, and a Yamaha grand piano. Rural Route 2,
Crookston, MN 56716. (218) 281 -6450.
-
R-e/p 22
www.americanradiohistory.com
continued on page 26 ..
.
The Ampex
Mastering
S stem
studio mastering tape,
state -of- the -art in
every way- performance, consistency,
specs.
There simply is no
finer tape. Get it all
down on Grand
Master, just the
way you hear it in
your mind.
Put them all
together and you'll
have one beautiful
totally
system
transparent tape -todisc mastering system
that gives you 80 dB
s/n at the cutting head.
And the only thing better
than that is the way the final
disc will sound. Just great.
-a
playback
than has ever been achieved
before, and gentler tape handling than any previous machine,
bar none.
Grand Master" Tape
Don't forget Grand Master
for additional information circle no.
AMPEX
Ampex Corporation. 401 Broadway. Redwood City. California 94063. 415 /367 -2011
R-e/p 25
11
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
continued from page 22
kOi
ACKERMAN & MC QUEEN ADVERTISING (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) has just completed a fully automated 24track recording studio, which was designed by MILAM AUDIO, of Pekin, Illinois. The facility features an MCI J H -636
mixing console feeding an MCI 24-track tape machine with AutoLocator III. Other equipment includes two MCI JH110 mastering machines, Dolby noise reduction, Klipschorn loudspeakers, and an array of Shure, Neumann, AKG
and Sennheiser microphones. The announcement was made by MARK KELLER, vice president and associate
creative director of A &McQ. 5708 Mosteller Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73112. (405) 843 -9451.
Mountain:
SANBORN PRODUCTIONS (Boulder, Colorado) provided its remote truck to CURT GOWDY PRODUCTIONS
for live recording of the PRO RODEO HALL OF FAME, a CBS Sports Spectacular with music acts, including LARRY
MAHAN, RED STEAGAL, and TANYA TUCKER. Sanborn president CARL FROST was at the console. The truck's
mobile control room is 22' by 8' with silent air conditioning and a video link with the musicians. The format is two 24track with dual 24 -track machines and /or Dolby available upon request. A Sound Workshop 1600 series mixing
console is used with a variety of outboard equipment. Monitors are JBLs and Auratones. The truck was designed by
GENE REYNOLDS, LARRY MARTIN and Frost. It was recently used for live recording of the two WAYLON
JENNINGS concerts in Omaha and Kearny, Nebraska. The Boulder MusiComplex, 1865 33rd Street, Boulder, CO
80301. (303) 443 -2372.
NORTHSTAR STUDIOS (Boulder, Colorado) has DAN FOGELBERG putting the finishing touches on his
upcoming album, "Phoenix," for FULL MOON/EPIC. MARTY LEWIS is mixing. P. O. Box D, Boulder, CO 80306.
(303) 442 -2001.
Southern California:
CALIFORNIA RECORDING STUDIOS (Los Angeles) has been recording THE BRATS, with DICK MONDA
producing and MICHAEL ZELLNER engineering. Country singer SONNY MARTIN has been in the studio remixing
his new live album with JOHN BRADY engineering. 5203 Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood, CA 90027. (213) 666-1244.
DOCTOR SOUND RECORDING STUDIO (San Diego) has just added a dbx 162 stereo limiter, a Furman
parametric equalizer, and a Neumann U -87 mike to its 8 -track facility which was recently the recording site for
demos by THE RADIATORS, MICHAEL EDWARDS, and SKYTRAIN. Engineering was RICK GORD. 3191 Adams
Avenue, San Diego, CA 92116. (714) 563 -0164.
OVERLAND RECORDING STUDIOS (Irvine, California) supplied recording services for the two late JOHN
BILEZIKJIAN albums, "Mirage" and "Saroyan Presents: An Oriental Bouquet." These are the second and third
Bilezikjian projects to come out of Overland with ALBERT LYON engineering. 3176 Pullman Street, Suite 123, Costa
Mesa, CA 92626. (714) 957 -1544.
THE PASHA MUSIC ORGANIZATION (Los Angeles) has promoted LARRY BROWN to executive director of
talent acquisition and studio operations, according to SPENCER PROFFER, president of the production
company /recording studios. Brown did the basic acoustical design and planning for the Pasha Music House
Studios, in Hollywood. Brown is currently producing ARLAN GREENE'S debut album, and is co- producing with
RONN PRICE BUCKEYE'S second album for POLYDOR. Other engineering credits include BILLY THORPE'S
"Children of the Sun" LP. Thorpe was recently in the studio doing promotional tapes for release in Australia. 5615
Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, CA 90038. (213) 466-3507.
JOE GOTTFRIED'S SOUND CITY (Van Nuys, California) recently took delivery of a custom Neve computerassisted mixdown system to be fitted into one of the facility's Neve consoles. The Studio "A" console will provide mix
memory on reverb returns as well as 24 -track inputs. 15456 Cabrito Road, Van Nuys, CA 91406. (213) 873-2842.
SALTY DOG RECORDING STUDIOS (Van Nuys, California) is where DOLLY PARTON is working on a disco
version of "Great Balls of Fire," for RCA. DEAN PARKS is producing with ERIC PRESTIDGE at the board. Also in the
studio, THE SANFORD TOWNSEND BAND is mixing its new WARNER BROTHERS single, while THE MARC
TANNER BAND with NAT JEFFREY producing is doing tracks and overdubs for its upcoming album on
ELEKTRA /ASYLUM. BOBBY THOMAS is engineering on the latter two projects. 14511 Delano, Van Nuys, CA
91411. (213) 994 -9973.
GROUP IV RECORDING STUDIOS (Los Angeles) has upgraded its installation in Hollywood with the addition of a
Studer A800 24 -track machine, an EECO MQS 100 Controller- Synchronizer, and Sierra/Tad Tri -Amp monitors in
the control room. Allison /Fadex automation and a Sony 2850'/4-inch video machine have also been added. KENNY
RANKIN has been in the studio finishing his new album with RON MALO engineering. Several TV projects are
scoring there as well. 1541 North Wilcox, Hollywood, CA 90028. (213) 466 -6444.
R-e p 26
www.americanradiohistory.com
We rent the latest state of the
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These systems may be installed at
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But that's not all. In addition to
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aga
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t,
MUSIC LAB STUDIOS (Los Angeles) is recording ALEX CIMA'S second album featuring synthesizers, vocoders
and special effects. Cima's first LP was released by POLYDOR in Germany. P. O. Box 1594, Hollywood, CA 90028.
(213) 662 -8588.
EL DORADO RECORDING STUDIO (Hollywood) opens its door for its first
session in the new room to musician /producer CARMINE APPICE. He is currently working with his new wave group, "The Bank." The new room was
recently completely by NEW ERA WOOD WORKS, who were carrying out the
designs of KEN FAUSE. Pictured left to right is El Dorado's chief engineer
DAVE JERDEN, studio manager NADYA BELL, and Carmine Appice. 1717
North Vine Street, Hollywood, CA 90028. (213) 466-6151.
HRS (Granada Hills, California) announces the addition of ROBERT BILES
as chief engineer of the studio. Biles
background includes work as an engin-
Eldorado
eer at Tewksbury Sound and Sound Genesis, and audio studios at the College
of Recording Arts, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Working in the studio currently is AL VIOLA with TOM LUBIN
engineering. New equipment added to the installation includes dbx noise reduction, an Ampex AG- 440 -B' /2 -track
mastering machine, and a 3M -56 16 -track recorder. 16052 Ludlow, Granada Hills, CA 91344. (213) 365 -0709.
THE SOUND HOUSE (Los Angeles). DON PERRY ENTERPRISES' 24-track studio is expanding with the
a new main room of 35' by 40' and an additional control room with an MCI automated console and a
Stephens tape machine. The installation is designed by WESTLAKE AUDIO to handle larger orchestras, and the
addition of a screen and projection booth will enable the studio to handle live film scoring sessions. The original
control room and a smaller studio will remain in the facility, which is located at 1542 N. Cahuenga Boulevard, in
Hollywood. Contact: KTNT Productions, 13111 Ventura Boulevard, Studio City, CA 91604. (213) 995 -3600.
construction of
RUSK SOUND STUDIOS (Los Angeles) was the mixing site for ELTON JOHN'S new album on ROCKET
RECORDS, with TWIGGY also in the studio recording an album with JUERGEN KOPPERS engineering and
producing, assisted by STEVEN SMITH and CAROLYN TAPP. Other activity includes sessions with THE VILLAGE
PEOPLE and THE RITCHIE FAMILY. Producing both groups were JACQUES MORALI and HENRI BELOLO with
Koppers at the board assisted by Smith and DAVID CLARK. 1556 North La Brea Avenue, Hollywood, CA 90028. (213)
462 -6477.
DAVLEN SOUND STUDIOS (Universal City, California) recording activity includes MELISSA MANCHESTER in
with producer STEVE BUCKINGHAM to record the studio's Bosendorfer piano. Producer MICHAEL MASSER
working with JANE OLIVER and DIANA ROSS, and CHRIS DESMOND engineering and co- producing AL
STEWART'S newest album for KINETIC PRODUCTIONS. 4162 Lankershim Boulevard, Universal City, CA 91602.
(213) 980 -8700.
MYSTIC SOUND STUDIOS (Los Angeles) was the recording site of an afternoon demo session for the disco
group, DR. STRUT. The session producer, DAVE PELL, sold the demo tape to MOTOWN, which used it as a master
for the record's release. Mystic is a 16 -track studio. 6277 Selma Avenue, Hollywood, CA 90028. (213) 464 -9667.
KENDUN RECORDERS (Burbank, California) activity includes BRUCE BOTNICK working with JOHN GOLDEN
on EDDIE MONEY'S single from the soundtrack of "Americathon;" JOHN MAYALL finishing up his new project in
Studio "D" with staff producer /engineer JOHN STRONACH. GREY INGRAM is mixing the music of the DOOBIE
BROTHERS for a fall PBS broadcast; and ED BARTON mixing a new JOHN DENVER AND THE MUPPETS
Christmas LP. 619 South Glenwood Place, Burbank, CA 91506. (213) 843 -8096.
PAUL RATAJCZAK announces the opening of RATAJCZAK PRODUCTIONS STUDIO. Used to produce new acts
signed by Ratajczak Productions for such labels as RCA, the studio boasts the first west coast Amek M -3000
computer -controlled console as well as the first Lyrec 24 -track tape recorder. The studio was designed by
EVERYTHING AUDIO, of Los Angeles, and features a glass walk- through drum booth and vocal overdub booth. 601
Loray Avenue, Long Beach, California.
DAVID GATES, of Los Angeles, has commissioned EVERYTHING AUDIO, of Los Angeles, to design and supply
his new 24 -track studio. The studio will be for personal use and features an Amek M -2000 console, an MCI 24 -track
as well as many other studio standards.
to be represented in the next available issue write:
R-e /p STUDIO UPDATE
P. O. BOX 2449
HOLLYWOOD, CA 90028
R-e p 28
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Eastern Sound's got 20 years' experience and
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For a recording studio to be in business for 20 years
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That's a pretty successful track record and Eastern's
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To celebrate our 20th anniversary and to supply top
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for additional information circle no. 13
www.americanradiohistory.com
Northern California:
FILMWAYS /HEIDER RECORDING (San Francisco) has THE BALL BAND cutting tracks with ANN FRY
engineering the project, EDWIN HAWKINS completing overdubs for his latest album with ALLEN SUDDUTH
engineering and CALVIN SETTLES assisting. MERLE HAGGARD is recording and mixing his new LP with ASHLEY
BRIGDALE at the consoie, and THE TUBES mixing a live recording from the GREEK THEATER in Los Angeles with
MIKE ABBOTT and Ashley Brigdale engineering. 245 Hyde Street, San Francisco, CA 94102. (415) 771 -5780.
AMERICAN ZOETROPE RECORDING'S (San Franciscco) RICHARD BEGGS completed engineering, mixing,
and music production for the film, "Apocalypse Now," at the company's Bay Area facility. 916 Kearny Street, San
Francisco, CA 94133. (415) 788 -8345.
RANCHO RIVERA RECORDING (San Francisco) has completed upgrading to 16 -track with equipment including
an Ampex MM -1000 recorder, a custom modified Cetec /Electrodyne board, URSA Major digital reverb, UREI and
Allison compressors, and a selection of mikes including Neumann, Sennheiser, Shure and AKG. The studio
incorporates hardwood and stone, with a window to the outside. 1124 Rivera Street, San Francisco, CA 94116. (415)
661 -6977.
TEWKSBURY SOUND RECORDERS (Richmond, California) has taken delivery of a Teletronix LA -1 Limiter in
a new Eventide Digital Delay Line, and two AKG D -24 microphones. Recording at the studio are
(formerly with the Nuns) new band with CHRISTA CORVO engineering, and THE PSYCOTIC
MIRO'S
JENNIFER
PINEAPPLE laying background vocals with RICHARD VAN DORN at the board, and THE CHARMERS with JOHN
CUNIBERTI producing and engineering. 6026 Bernhard, Richmond, CA 94805. (415) 232 -7933.
addition to
FANE PRODUCTIONS (Santa Cruz, California) recently installed a set of Tannoy Reference Monitors in their 16track studios, along with a new URSA Major Digital Reverb System and a computer -controlled digital sequencer. ExHumble Pie and Small Faces leader, STEVE MARRIOTT, has recently finished sessions in the installation, and
LESLIE WEST has been recording there of late with FANE OPPERMAN producing. CORIE ANASTASION is studio
manager. 115 -B Harvey West Boulevard, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. (408) 425 -0512.
FREEWAY RECORDING STUDIOS (Oakland, California) announces the addition of BUD OSTERBERG to their
engineering staff. Prior to coming to Freeway, Osterberg was engineering freelance and teaching audio in the San
Francisco Bay Area. 2248 East 14th Street, Oakland, CA. (415) 532 -3700.
to be represented in the next available issue write:
R -e /p STUDIO UPDATE
HOLLYWOOD, CA 90028
P. O. BOX 2449
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continued on page 35
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Northwest:
BEAR CREEK STUDIOS (Woodinville, Washington) has updated to 24 -track with
Dolby and has added BUZZ RICHMOND to its staff as an engineer /producer.
Richmond's credits as an engineer include ELTON JOHN'S release, "Mama Can't Buy
You Love," and several platinum albums. 6313 Maltby Road, Woodinville, WA 98072.
(206) 487 -2533.
Bear Creek
Canada:
SOUNDSTAGE (Toronto) studio manager JIM FRANK reports that the latest NILS
LOFGREN album on the charts is one of the American and Canadian projects recently
recorded or mixed at the studio. Veteran artists SHIRLEY BASSEY and JOHN
SEBASTIAN have completed work at the Soundstage, while PINK FLOYD passed
through for some overdubs. 39 Hazelton Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5R 2E3.
(416) 961 -9688.
STUDIO P.S.M. (Quebec, P.Q., Canada) has taken delivery of a Trident 32-24-24 TSM console from RADIO
SERVICE, INC., of Montreal. Acoustic design at the renovated facility was by SERGE MELANCON of
ACOUSCIENCE, of Montreal. The studio is a 24 -track installation with Ampex tape machines. JEAN -MARC PAYER
is the studio's engineer /director. 115 Saint Pierre, Quebec, P.Q., Canada GIK 4A6. (418) 691 -1571.
STUDIO TEMPO (Montreal, P.Q., Canada) has purchased a Helios console featuring new EQs and automation on
all 32 inputs, returns, and groups. The 24-track studio is equipped with Studer machines with new control room
acoustics by SERGE MELANCON. Equipment was supplied by RADIO SERVICES, INC., of Montreal. 0707
Charlevoix, Montreal, P.Q., Canada H3K 2Y1.
STUDIO ST. CHARLES (Longueuil, P.Q., Canada) installed during August a Trident 32 -24-24 TSM to go with its
Studer equipped studio. The console was supplied by RADIO SERVICE, INC., Montreal. Acoustic design in the
facility was by SERGE MELANCON, of ACOUSCIENCE, of Montreal. PETE TESSIER is chief engineer and director.
87 West Saint Charles, Longueuil, P.Q., Canada J4H 105. (514) 674 -4927.
Australia:
ATA STUDIOS (Sydney) has just purchased the new MCI 600 automated console and is enlarging their control
room and studio complex to include a second studio /mixdown suite in the near future, according to chief engineer,
DUNCAN MC GUIRE. Other equipment at the studio includes an MCI 24 -track tape machine with dbx noise
reduction, Lexicon Prime Time, and an assortment of parametrics and compressor /limiters. 96 Glebe Road, Glebe,
New South Wals, Australia.
UNITED SOUND STUDIOS (Sydney) has taken delivery of a Lyrec 24-track tape machine and has switched to
Tannoys for monitoring, using two of the speakers for each side. Engineer /producer SPENCER LEE has just
returned to United after mixing in England at TRIDENT. 21 Pier Street, Haymarket, Sydney, New South Wales,
Australia.
Guatemala:
DISCO DE CENTROAMERICA has awared the design and equipment contract to EVERYTHING AUDIO, of Los
Angeles, for their new studio and disk mastering facility in Guatemala City, Guatemala. Working with JOHN
MOORE, the Everything Audio rep for Central America, DIDECA will be the first facility in theirareatobe involved in
a total environment design project. The company's newly constructed buildings will house offices, studio, lab and
disk mastering. Dideca is a major pressing and cutting facility and will look toward the U.S. for some of its clientele.
Apto. Postal 1792, Guatemala, Guatemala. Telephone: 537-137.
have you?
Increased track capacity
gone 24, 16, 8
added key people won awards
moved or expanded added Important equipment
these are some of the interesting news items that can be announced in the next
available issue. Write:
R -e /p STUDIO UPDATE
P. O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
-
R-e/p 35
MILAM AUDIO DUAL STUDIO DESIGN
Studio "A -2" Recording Connection, Cleveland, Ohio
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Not relying on conventional live /dead areas
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R-e p 37
Photo by Joan Ruggles
swm11
sounes
JOE TARSIA
by Tom Lubin
R -e /p (Tom Lubin): About 1971 "Backstabbers" became Gamble & Huff's first big hit on Philadelphia
International. Were those the first records that you engineered for them?
Joe Tarsia: No, the first million -selling record I did with them was a record called "Cowboys To Girls" by the
Intruders. That was in 1966 and was recorded at Cameo -Parkway Studios where I was engineering at the
time. The "Backstabber" album was the first successful record they had signed to Columbia -Epic under the
PIR banner. Previous to that album they had multiple successes with the Intruders, Soul Survivors, Archie
Bell and the Drells, Wilson Pickett, Dusty Springfield, Joe Simon and Jerry Butler, among others.
R -e/p (Tom Lubin): When did you start at Cameo?
Joe Tarsia: I started there in 1962.
R -e /p (Tom Lubin): Was that the first studio that you worked at?
Joe Tarsia: Before that I had worked for a year in a studio I built for some people in South Philadelphia. I
worked there for nothing. I learned a lot and then got involved with someone who was doing studio
installation work in the Philadelphia area.
R -e/p (Tom Lubin): Who was that?
Joe Tarsia: His name is Norman Burke. He built Cameo studios and had built the Chancellor record
studios. Chancellor at that time had Fabian and Frankie Avalon. There wasn't much of a recording
community at that time, but what studios there were he built and maintained. I met Norman and did some
service work for him.
-
R-e/p 38
www.americanradiohistory.com
continued overleaf
Freddie started backup singing in his
New Jersey junior high school. He earned a
Bachelor of Music Degree from Howard
University, and taught in Washington, D.C.,
while moonlighting as a producer. In 1969,
his first Motown production, "I Want You
Back" by the Jackson Five, went platinum.
Since then, he has collected close to 30 gold
or platinum records. Freddie now owns his
own studio in L.A. and has recently produced
disco hits for Yvonne Elliman, Tavares,
David Naughton, Gloria Gaynor, and Peaches
and Herb.
ON RHYTHM SESSIONS
"I do my basic rundown on the rhythm
date. The guys are really cookin' and the
groove is there and everything. I come in
and take a listen to what kinds of sounds I
have. But if that sound is not there, then
I don't record until the sound is right. There
may be some other producers who would
just go with the flow. 'If it's groovin', hey,
you know, we'll save it in the mix' But I've
attempted to save things in the mix. It
doesn't happen. It has to be on tape''
ON CREATIVE EXPRESSION
ON TAPE
"I'm thinking charts. I'm thinking commercial. And I'm thinking hit, as opposed to
creative expression. Because that's usually
what I'm hired for. I mean, I hear the standard rap that I would get from a company
person or a manager is that 'this group, live,
is a knockout. I mean, they're killers. All
they need is that hit record. When they get
that hit record, man, you're gonna see the
baddest group that ever existed in the
history of recorded music' So they want
the charts. And that's why I approach it
like that."
ON HEARING
"I only go by the ears, and I do hear
very well. Musically and technically. I hear
stuff all over the place. The guitar player
if he accidentally hits an open A string while
he's fingering a chord, we could have thirty
pieces on tape and I'll hear that and solo it
out and bust him -say, 'Hey, could you keep
that string quiet?' He says, 'You mean you
actually heard that ?' So my ears are really
my fortune. That's where everything lies.
Right in my ears''
-
FREDDIE
PERREN
ON TAPE.
:AYrPI'11' ,+nu4ltutetedtNdeuimM.d
IRA
"I do not know much about the characteristics, physically, of what tape is made of.
I'm not too much into that -the chemistry
involved. However, after spending six years
at Motown -they had many, many rules and
regulations. Now, one was that we always
use Scotch Tape. When I ventured off into
the world of independent producing, out of
habit, and not wanting to change a good
thing, I went right back to the same tape,
which was 250. And I was then approached
by other engineers telling me that if you
switched, you could increase your performances here -you know, the bottom end, so
forth and so on. And I did stray away and I
did try cutting other projects on different
types of tape. And the bottom line is that I
came back to Scotch. I can't say that I noticed the difference of, you know, 3 dB and
the low end with Scotch, and the other only
gave me a dB- and-a -half. I can't say that.
I only go with my ears, which tell me that
my home is with Scotch Tape."
SCOTCH 250
WHEN YOU LISTEN FOR A LIVING.
industry in '63 and Cameo's fortune started
to wane. We did have our own studios, but
they were used exclusively for in -house
work. About that time the original owner,
Bernie Lowe, sold the company to two
Texas people, Griffith and Bowen, and I saw
the company start to change. Dick Clark
was moving his national TV show from
Philadelphia to the west coast, so a great
vehicle for exposure was leaving town. As I
watched Cameo's success start to decline,
found I had an extremely sensitive reaction
to it. I couldn't play anything that I had done
that I would be totally proud of. To this day
when I listen to something I've done all I hear
are mistakes. So, when Cameo's fortune
started to decline
Since my background is in electronics,
I
felt personally
I
responsible. I felt that the sound could have
started doing service work for Cameo
been better and would have made a
difference to their success, so I left the
studio business. Norman Burke and I
started a commercial audio sales and
service company. I think it took about a
month before I realized I made a very big
mistake. Moving away from the business for
a short time gave me a different perspective.
I listened to other records and I began to be
less critical of myself. Lo and behold,
records and had a chance to assist in the
studio and began to get exposed to the
record business. They threw me into doing
some two -track sessions, since that's all we
had in those days. I worked with Chubby
Checker and Bobby Rydell, The Dovells,
the Orlons, Dee Dee Sharp and the Tymes.
R -e/p (Tom Lubin): The "late fifties, early
sixties" Philadelphia sound.
Joe Tarsia: Exactly, pre -Beatles pop, top
forty-type records. Of course, when the
Beatles came along they changed the whole
Cameo was in need of a chief engineer and
they asked me if I wanted the job. They
didn't have to ask twice. That was toward
the end of 1965. I was out of the studio
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JT: No, as producer/writers. Kenny doesn't
play an instrument. He was writing with
Jerry Ross, a writer /producer. Leon was
writing and producing with Madara and
White, the writers of "At The Hop. " Gamble
& Huff got together in '66 and [happened to
be there. Since then I've engineered almost
everything that they've produced.
By 1967 I became concerned about the
studio business in Philadelphia. Most of
them were one -man operations, very small
and were still two- or four -track rooms.
realized that if I was going to stay in the
recording business, I would have to be in
command of my own ship. The Philly studio
owners at that time were not very
records in a row with Jerry Butler on
Mercury: "Only The Strong Survive,"
"Moody Woman," "Western Union Man,"
and so forth. Bell continued to do well.
5770 Uplander Way Culver City, California 90230 (213) 649-5983
R-e p 40
R -e/p: As players at the studio?
progressive. So my only options were to
own my own studio or move to a recording
center like New York or Los Angeles. I was
fortunate enough to find a bank that would
lend me the necessary money to open a
small studio. This meant that I went on the
line for my house, my car and everything I
owned. Sigma's first day of operation was
August 5, 1968. At that time Gable & Huff
had had a couple of successes and Tommy
Bell was doing well with the Delphonics. It
seemed to me there was a re -birth of the
Philadelphia recording business.
I knew when Sigma opened I would get
one shot at the various producers in town
and I had to make the shot count. The
studio had to be right. Fortunately, as things
turned out, they came; they tried it; they
liked it and they stayed, and that was it. They
became very successful. They had six
1-it=i!E"';
(A
business about a year. It was then that
Gamble & Huff started to form as a team
and they had a couple of small productions
that made money. They kept parlaying it
and I started working with them. Previously
I knew them both individually.
15
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
continued overleaf
Speck Electronics Introduces
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R-e p
4
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!JOE TARSIA
R-e /p: How many studios do you have now?
JT: We have five 24 -track studios and hope
to open a sixth in New York some time in
November, that will be a complete 46 -track
We haven't really decided, but we won't
dismantle anything in the old building until
the new rooms prove themselves.
R -e/p: And you were doing all of their
mixing facility. The three rooms in
R -e/p: Has your operation there generally
records?
JT: Yes.
Philadelphia also have 46 -track capability.
stimulated the Philadelphia area?
JT: Definitely. There was a time when
Sigma was the only game in town. Now
there are a number of good studios.
Considering that it's not a recording center
like Nashville, Los Angeles, or New York,
Philly has its fair share. I would say there are
ten -or -so 24 -track rooms in the city. I
couldn't attest to how much business they
generate, but it is a healthy recording
community with a lot of potential.
R -e/p: Did you do "Western Union Man?"
JT: I did part of it. It was cut at Cameo just
before the opening of Sigma. In the
beginning, Sigma was basically a one -man
studio. I had a secretary which I shared with
Frankford/Wayne. They did, and still do, all
the Philly mastering. I worked one session a
day on Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays
and two on Mondays, Tuesdays and
Thursdays. I tried to stay home Sundays.
Most days I would come in at 10:00 in the
morning for the day session and start the
second sessions at 7:00 in the evening. We'd
often work to 3:00 a.m. and I would be back
in at 10:00 a.m. for the next day's session.
I did that for a couple of years and then
the most traumatic experience I ever had as
a
studio owner occurred
- letting
R-e /p: Interlock machines?
JT: Yes.
R -e /p: Originally when Sigma opened what
was it? Eight -track or sixteen?
It was 8- track. We built the board
ourselves, and two years later we built its
replacement.
JT:
R-e /p: Who designed that first room?
JT: It was a studio before (Reco -Art). Emil
Carson, who owned it, could do more with
two mono machines than anyone I knew. I
believe the sound of his recordings would
stand up today. He was really a genius and
an excellent engineer. The room had a great
reputation. I have no idea why he left town,
but it became available and I rented it. The
somebody else sit down at my board and
work with one of my clients. The hardest
thing was being able to wean myself away
and find competent people to help me run
my business. Fortunately, I've developed an
excellent staff. With just
a
R -e /p: Do you still promote from the inside?
JT: Yes. We find our best people are the
ones that grow up in the company. They
R -e/p: How big was that original room?
JT: Twenty -five feet by forty feet. It's still
our largest studio.
R -e /p:
Does it look like it did in the
beginning?
JT: Yes. But things are about to change. We
have plans on the drawing board and have
just purchased a building from NFL Films
that was built by Warner Brothers in 1946. A
nice, strong concrete building with high
ceilings. We plan to go in there and build
three new studios.
you recall your basic drum miking
technique? How is it different today?
1968 I think I was using an RCA BK5
on the bass drum, an Altec 633 saltshaker
for snare drum, and one overhead mike that
varied between a Neumann U47 and a 67.
Of course, today, a lot more microphones
are used. Since then, the drummers have
changed, the room is different, and the
microphone selection is more varied.
Certainly the amount of flexibility is greater
due to the 24 -track machine.
JT: In
R -e /p:
couple of
exceptions, everyone in my organization
started in a menial capacity such as janitor
or gopher and gradually worked themselves
into the system and into the studio.
learn our philosophies and our way of doing
things. Some of our operating procedures
are a little different, not because we set out
to be different, but because we grew up
outside of a major recording center and
there were no sources of information. For
instance, we used speakers instead of
earphones when doing string overdubs. The
string players are used to cue speakers now
and prefer them to phones. It is a little
oddball, but it works for us so we continue
to do it. There are a few little idiosyncracies
that we have evolved that are really
different.
R -e/p: During those early days of Sigma do
acoustics of the room were pretty much
intact. That gave me a little edge.
R -e /p: Did the mastering facility go in at that
same time or were they already located
there?
JT: Frankford/Wayne and Sigma moved in
together. We split the rent and shared a
secretary. Fortunately, hit records started
to come and one thing lead to another.
Within three years I had taken over the first
as well as the second floors, and eventually
bought the building.
R -e /p: Since that original studio was on a
second floor did you have any problems
with acoustical flanking through the floor?
JT: Yes, we had a few problems. We made
some structural changes which made the
situation workable. The rooms work;
there's no question about that. And let me
say this ...1'm not about to go out on a limb
and cut it off behind me. We are planning to
open one studio at a time in our new facility
and then, depending on the market, we
might possibly close down the old studios.
R-e/p 42
www.americanradiohistory.com
Do you prefer to use more
microphones as opposed to using less?
What's your feeling on that?
JT: I think we have gone through an era of
changing mike techniques. As the tape
machine developed from 8 -track to what it is
now, and as the producers realized they had
a greater ability to isolate the individual
elements of a recording, the tendency was
to use more and more microphones. With
greater isolation, however, the result tended
to lean towards sterile sounding recordings.
I think that today the tendency in rock
music is to go back to the ambience sounds
of earlier recordings. We are going back to a
bit more room sound.
I remember visiting sessions that were
happening in large rooms with 18 -foot
ceilings and some 50 -odd feet long, big
rooms. When they soloed the snare drum
mike, it would sound like the snare on any
recording today, but that wasn't the sound
you heard on the record. The sound of the
snare drum you heard was coming from the
string microphones across the room. It's
that across -the -room sound that gives the
big -as -a -house sound. I think mixers and
producers are discovering this since the
tight miked sound is gradually becoming a
thing of the past.
We either have to develop ambience
generators (that's my term for something
other than an echo device that creates a
room sound), or our studios have to have a
legitimate room sound. With close miking
techniques it doesn't really matter in what
kind of room you record. If the microphone
í
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A funny thing happened on the way to the States
A lot of things can happen to a 24 -track master between original recording
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R-e p 43
c SIGMA sounws
=JOE TI1RS1A
JT: Well, since I do most of my mixing in
a
relatively small studio it's necessary to use
delay to simulate the proper distance. By
feeding the signal through the Prime Time I
can make a 450 -square foot studio sound
similar to a 5,000 -square foot ballroom. The
re- generation is used to help disguise the
is very close to the
instrument the room
plays little or no part in the recorded sound.
But who hears a trumpet three inches
from the bell, or the snare drum j2 -inch from
the head? They are not natural sounds. You
have to let the sound of the instrument
breath. This gives it a much fuller quality at
the same given volume level.
discrete delays and simulate natural
diffusion.
For a long while my approach to
recording ambience was to set up spill
microphones and that works great, except if
the producer decides to punch out certain
instruments in the mix, in which case the
ambience tracks become unusable.
R -e/p: When you mike a set of drums, how
high up do you usually place your
overheads?
JT: Well, the overheads vary, depending on
R -e /p:
what studio I'm in, but generally they're
probably three feet above the highest
cymbal. The nine or ten mikes that are used
on a drum kit are used for accent. They are
complimented by artificial ambience which
is added during remix. What I do is feed
some of the program through a Lexicon
Prime Time into the studio monitors when
I'm mixing and bring it back into the board
through a pair of RCA 77s.
microphone would be picking up the
unwanted instrument.
JT: Yes. Generation of artificial ambience is
the way we solve the problem.
R -e/p: Microphone techniques in general,
we talked specifically about the drums. The
kind of recording that you do is pretty
unique in that it's heavily orchestrated.
How do you approach a full string section,
or a brass section?
JT: Okay. The Gamble & Huff typical string
section consists of six violins, two violas and
R -e/p: Do you use the Prime Time mostly
for re- generation and a bit of delay?
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How do you line them up, in two
rows?
JT: Well, as opposed to the way string
players would normally set up for performance with the heavier strings in the rear and
the lighter strings in the front, I do just the
reverse. The cellos and violas in the front
and the violins in the back so that the front
of the violin microphones are looking away
from the cellos and violas and on some
occasions the bowed bass. We record the
strings by themselves in the live section of
the room. The only thing we might cut with
the strings is a harp. The brass and reeds are
also recorded separately. I like to record the
brass with ribbon microphones. For the
reeds when I want a little bit more edge I
usually use condensers.
R -e/p: You get a very crisp, clean piano
sound.
JT: The player has a lot to do with the piano
sound. It amazes me how different the piano
can sound depending on the player. Leon
Huff tends to play in the center, and hard.
He is so intense that it's like he's got to let his
energy explode through the keys. It's sheer
emotion when he plays. The "great piano
sound" is that emotion coming through on
the tape. We also have really good, bright
pianos. For the most part I use two 87s.
JT: It varies depending on the session. I've
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for many of the older records. The violins
and violas are miked in pairs using
Neumann U87s. On cellos I've used a U47
FET.
R -e /p: Above the hammers?
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changing but this was the compliment used
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used one mike over the hammers, one along
the low strings toward the back of the piano.
I've placed them at a 90° angle over the
hammers. A very full mono sound can be
achieved by using a U87 in the figure eight
pattern. About one third from the high end
and perpendicular to the keys. It works very
well. I would say, generally, on most of the
recordings I use two 87s at 90 degrees.
Recently I've gotten good reports from my
people on the stereo AKG microphone and
that's the next thing I'm going to try.
R -e/p: You work with great vocalists: Lou
Rawls, Jerry Butler, the ()jays, Teddy
Pendergrass and Harold Melvin.
JT: Yes, it's fantastic working with such
talents. I think though that they would all
agree that even the best vocalist needs a
vehicle of a great song to have a hit.
R -e/p: Do you think the significance of the
3
Drum Booth
Piano Booth
SIGMA STUDIO 4
R-e/p 44
www.americanradiohistory.com
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JT: A great song with a great arrangement
can be successful with just an adequate
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R-e/p 45
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C
sounrrs
SIGMA
an echo effect here or some digital delay
there, so that when it comes to mix I have a
i3JOE TARSIA
artist and recorded sound. I don't think
you'll find too many cases of a mediocre
tune being a big hit because of the sound.
On the other hand, may I suggest, that the
modern recording studio's role has changed
since the day
started. On today's
I
recordings we no longer try in all cases to
faithfully record the sound produced in the
studio but rather we bend and shape them
into new sounds. Thus the studio not only
functions in the mechanics of recording, but
also becomes part of the creative production. If I were a producer I would want as
many things going for my production as
possible. And one of those things would be
to record in the best studio I could find.
There are too many intangibles in music to
give anything away.
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rapport with
Gamble & Huff, where they for the most
part give me a free hand.
R -e/p: Well, your taste and theirs coincide.
JT: Probably because I appreciate what
they do. I have learned what they expect to
hear and that's the direction I go. I enjoy the
music and the people
therefore it just flows.
I
work with and
R -e/p: Do you work very fast? With the kind
of sessions that you do with a lot of studio
players, there must be very little chance to
be leisurely.
JT: The most hectic part of recording for
me is dubbing, because strings and horns
are done in the same day.
v .I.
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JT: It depends, but generally three or four
tunes with two or three arrangers in an
eight -hour day. We set up for strings in the
morning and do four tunes; the room is torn
down and re -set up for horns and the same
tunes are worked on again. The last thing we
do is specifics like solo instruments. That
tends to be a full day for us.
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Sexes
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R -e/p:
Are most of the horn and string
overdubs doubled or tripled?
JT: We never double horns. Most of the
time we double the strings. We never really
like the effect of doubled horns. There's a
certain unpleasant phasing characteristic
when the same horn plays the same note
that doesn't really work, at least not for me.
R -e/p: How many pieces in the horns?
JT: Depending on the tune, typically three
trumpets, four bones, occasionally five
Drum Booth
Piano Booth
SIGMA STUDIO 4
reeds or any combination thereof. A full
house for us would be maybe five reeds, two
French horns, three trumpets and four
trombones.
R -e/p: You've worked with the same two
producers for many years. Do they pretty
much leave you alone at the board?
JT: Yes ... that comes from being together
for a long time. For the most part I mix
without a producer being there. They give
me that freedom. I can go in and experiment
with an effect and no one gets impatient.
R -e/p:
After doing the tracks and the
overdubs and this and that, how do you
then sit down and start a mix?
JT: I start mixing when I start recording. On
every playback I try to evaluate what I've
recorded. I might try a little EQ on the bass
drum or I may add some flanging to a piano.
While I'm doing vocals I'll fiddle around with
R -e/p: Are they the some tracks?
JT: No, they were re-cut.
R-e/p: Did you do them?
JT: Well, I did part of it. Remember one
thing about all the albums that you're
speaking of right now. Gamble & Huff
produce ten or twelve artists in a year, and if
you figure they write, produce and record
most of this material ... it's an awesome job.
They have staff producers and there are
other mixers. Fortunately, it's all at Sigma,
but other producers and arrangers do coproduce on the various albums. Sometimes
you'll find a different texture or a different
approach on part of an album because they
have been produced by different people. It's
listed on the back.
R -e/p: They put out an enormous amount of
R -e/p: How many tunes?
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pretty good idea of exactly what I'm going to
do. Of course, that's all subject to the
approval of the producers. But as I said, lam
record for Johnny Mathis a couple of years
back and produced it for Teddy in Teddy's
first solo album.
R -e /p: How do you usually set them up?
JT: In separate arcs, and I strive for the
touch of ambience. I mike three trumpets
with one microphone, four bones with two
microphones. The reeds I mike individually.
R-e /p: How do you deal with the French
horns? French horns are a very difficult
instrument to mike as they tend to bleed
into everything else.
JT: I've been using the AKG
414.
R -e/p: The title tune on Teddy Pendergrasses' r' Life Is A Song Worth Singing" album
sounds like it was originally cut fora Johnny
Mathis record some years ago.
JT: You're right. Tom Bell produced that
R-e/p 46
www.americanradiohistory.com
product and have for many years.
JT: I think their longevity is phenomenal.
They have the ability to go in their office two
weeks before an artist comes to town and sit
down at the piano and write the material and
have it ready to record. It's just a talent that
comes to a very few people.
R -e /p: Are you usually booked way in
advance with them? Or, have you gotten to
where you simply prefer to work with them
exclusively.
JT: I do work with them exclusively (mainly
because with running a business with over
fifty employees, I just don't have time to
work with anyone else). But we should
remember that Sigma is in operation with
five 24 -track rooms and we are just about to
open our sixth. We have a varied roster of
clients who are extremely important to us
and who have made us what we are. And I
would be remiss if I didn't acknowledge a
few who are our backbone. Such as Tom
Moulton, Norman Harris, Bobby Eli,
Michael Henderson, John Davis, Vince
Montana, Bunny Sigler, Jimmy Simpson,
Jacques Morali, Ashford and Simpson,
Mitume and Reggie Lucas and Jim Burgess,
just to name a few. I am keenly aware of the
directions of music and the importance of
rock and roll. We have just finished an
album with Edgar Winter, and have
recorded or mixed other rock artists such
as Doobie Brothers, Rod Stewart, Robert
Palmer, David Bowie and Steeley Dan.
R-e/p: You mentioned that when you were
overdubbing strings you used a lot of little
speakers. Is there a problem with leakage?
JT: No. When I double them I reverse the
phase of the microphones so that it makes
the cue speaker spill almost nonexistent.
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JOE TARSIA
R -e/p: How much does the phase reversal
affect the ambience of the room?
JT: It doesn't. The only element with a
phase relationship is the spill from the cue
speaker.
R -e/p: When you do brass do you use
speakers?
JT: In the early days Sigma started on a
shoestring so it was a lot cheaper to buy a
couple of inexpensive speakers and mount
them on mikestands than to have fifteen or
twenty pairs of earphones. This is going
back to the sixties. The horn players now
record with phones.
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R-e /p: Is that echo
is it processed?
JT: I made a tape of a continuous shaker
sound which I use from time -to -time (I think
the last time I used it was on the O'Jays' "I
Love Music "). I gated the shaker tape and
keyed it with a handclap track. I then ran the
multi -track backwards and added echo.
R -e/p: It's a very good record. When you
are mixing, especially in some of those long
vamps, you'll hear things start to come up
and go off and then jump out at you. When
you start doing a mix, at what point do you
start locking into muting sequences and
what -have-you.
JT: Everybody has a different approach to
it. Tom Bell is very specific and very precise.
He writes what he wants the musicians to do
and how he wants them to do it. In the case
of Gamble & Huff, they allow a lot of
freedom to the arranger and will have
strings and horns from the downbeat to the
very end of the song. Then the artist may do
ad -lib overdub tracks from the beginning to
the end. There will also be other effects all
the way through the tune. You said that the
recordings are full and heavily orchestrated.
You should hear what we start out with.
The multi -track is played over and over
and different combinations are tried and
considered for their dramatic impact. This
may mean that the strings and horns are
used in the intro and then punched out until
l
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.Drum Booth
synthesizer, handclaps, and brought the
Girls back in to double one of the vocal
parts. The strings and horns on the original
multi-track were erased. The new simple
version of the same song was mixed for the
second time with a completely different
approach. Yes, we did try to be a little
different with the handclaps.
Piano Booth
SIGMA STUDIO 4
R -e /p: Jones Girls',
"You're Gonna Make
Me Love Somebody Else." It sounds like
there's some backwards echo on the claps?
JT: You know that's an interesting story.
We had completed the Jones Girls' album
and I had gotten a sample acetate. That's
the way that PIR and Sigma work. An
engineer who mixes a particular project,
receives for evaluation a reference lacquer
of the album. He makes any-necessary last
minute changes and gives the necessary
the first chorus. When we reach the vamp
we may alternate between a horn figure and
the vocal ad-lib or punch background vocals
in for a few bars and then out again. This was
definitely the case in the Jones Girls single.
There is much more information on the
multi -track than was every used on the
released single. So as you can see it isn't
until the mixing stage that the actual
arrangement is decided upon.
received,
R -e/p: Do they tell you what to mute or do
you work it out for them to approve?
JT: I'll do it subject to Kenny's approval. We
have been using automation for a long time,
so sometimes Kenny will come into the
studio. He will run an arrangement down
and decide on the punches. We will write the
mutes and then he leaves me to do the mix.
checked, and approved the Jones Girls'
reference album and gave Frankford/
Wayne final mastering instructions. The
next day Kenny called me and told me he
watned to re- sweeten and mix "You're
Gonna Make Me Love Somebody Else." We
went back to the studio, we overdubbed
R-e/p: I would imagine you did a hell of a lot
of editing before automation came along in
order to get the same results. Did you do a
great many mixes and then do a lot of
editing?
JT: No, however we do now edit quite a bit.
instructions to the cutter.
I
R-e/p 48
www.americanradiohistory.com
The seven or ten minute rhythm track is the
reason for that. When it comes time to put a
tune of this length in an album we usually cut
it down to the best five minutes, and then for
the single we edit it down to the best three
minutes. It was never our practice to mix in
pieces. Before automation there were just
more hands required in the mix. Kenny is a
capable mixer. With the use of the assistant,
Kenny and myself, we usually got the job
done. There was a time in the early days
when I would play assistant. I would set up
the EQ, the echo, the panning, etc., and he
would ride the levels. Even now it is not
uncommon for Kenny to reach over the
board and change something while I am at
work.
R -e/p: In your approach to EQ, do you try to
do as little of it as possible and get what you
want by microphone selection?
JT: Having done what I do for as long as I've
done it, I usually have a good idea of what
mike to use and where to place it to get as
close as possible to the sound I'm looking
for. Then I try to do the rest with EQ. In
other words, in the quest for a particular
sound the last alternative is EQ. But don't
get me wrong, I'll use all the EQ I think I need
as often as I think I need it. The case in point
is the kick drum. I sometimes have so much
kick EQ it's embarrassing.
R-e/p: What about the kick and snare
drum?
JT: On the bass drum I use an AKG D200.
On the snare I use an Altec 633. It is a very
inexpensive discontinued PA microphone.
It just has a certain characteristic which I
happen to like. If I found something better I
would use it. I've tried various mikes but
that's my favorite. When it comes to
microphones I'm always looking and I'm
always open to change.
R -e /p: One of the most interesting O'Jays
records is the "Ship Ahoy" album. The title
cut was a very intricate mix of music and
sound effects.
JT: That was a monster. We used a loop
with wind sounds, one with ocean waves,
another with the creaking sounds of a
wooden ship and a loop of the sound of whip
lashes. It was necessary to use the machines
and aux equipment of two studios patched
into the board to do the mix. It was definitely
the assistant, myself and
a three -man mix
Kenny.
I haven't mentioned Huff too much, when
it comes to mixing that's one area he
chooses not to directly be involved in. Huff's
biggest contribution to the Gamble & Huff
team is the writing of a song and the
recording of the rhythm track. He directs
the rhythm section, plays keyboards and
sets the groove.
-
-
continued overleaf
ikidop
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for additional information circle no 22
www.americanradiohistory.com
C
SIGMA
microphones. Huff likes his Fender -Rhodes
sounrrs
loud. The musicians want to sit close
together and feel the music. If you cover
everything with baffles, they just play
louder. There is no point in fighting it,
c]JOE TARSIR
R -e/p: How long do you have to get your
rhythm section happening?
JT: Fortunately, Gamble & Huff take
there's a lot of feeling in black music and the
engineer must allow the musicians to work
the way they feel the most creative. It is the
engineer's job to work around these
a
good bit of time and are very relaxed in the
studio. They usually work with a cassette of
piano and voice. Using the cassette as a
guide they run the tune down over and over
again until the musicians get the exact feel
they are looking for. It's really a mixers'
delight because I get an opportunity to
change microphones and adjust and move
things around while they are perfecting the
chart.
R-e /p: Do yo try to mike them fairly open
without a great deal of baffling so that they
can hear one another?
JT: Yes. And their sessions are loud.
Philadelphia musicians, with the exception
of rock musicians, play louder than most
sessions players I know. I remember years
ago attending a New York City recording
session. The electric guitar players played
just loud enough to be picked up by the
obstacles. The engineer should not force
the musicians into what he considers an
ideal recording situation at the expense of
their creative comfort.
R-e /p: Do you ever want to go back in and
fix something?
JT: Yes, all the time.
R -e/p: The O Jays' "Best Things Since
Candy"
the bass sound in that record
has a certain warm, wooliness to it that is
very distinct. Do you use a direct on the
bass, a mike, or a combination of both? Do
you find that players like to play in the
-
control room?
JT: Sometimes during overdubbing they
play in the control room. Basically,
however, the rhythm tracks are cut in total
and are not piecemeal. With the exception
of maybe little accents or a double guitar,
everything is done simultaneously. The bass
is generally recorded through a transformer
direct box. From my own experiments
prefer the transformer loading effect of the
Fender bass pick -up as opposed to the very
high impedance active direct box sound.
Re /p:
Is it something you guys haue built
yourselves?
JT: No, it's just a standard high impedance
bridging coil. Originally, I used an ElectroVoice 666 on the B -15 Ampeg amplifier and
direct injection from the bass pick -up. Later,
I moved the direct injection point from the
bass pick -up to the output of the Ampeg
pre -amp. I have eliminated the microphone altogether and just use a trans-
former direct box right off the Fender
HOL S UP
ON THE ROAD
pick-up. I limit the signal with an Allison
Gain Brain. That's pretty much how I get
what I want. The quality of the bass sound is
highly dependent on the player. The only
way you can get a good bass sound from a
Fender Precision (they have that very gutty
sound) is to play it close to the bridge and
pull the strings. You can't tickle a Fender
Precision.
R -e/p: Well, a couple of technical things.
Have you found any signal processing
equipment that you've been particularly
TYPE 85 FET DIRECT BOX
impressed with?
JT: I like the Marshall Time Modulator. But
their ergo -nomics leaves something to be
desired and I think it scares a lot of people.
You have to read the manual a couple of
times before it becomes clear what the unit
does. However, it's a real nice, clean piece of
gear. I also like everything Lexicon makes,
including their new 224 digital echo
chamber.
R -e/p: What sort of monitoring do you use?
JT: In all of our studios, save one, we use the
UREI 813 Time -Aligned system. Studio four,
ASSOCIATES INC.
COUNTRYMAN
424 STANFORD AVE.- REDWOOD CITY, CA.- 94063 -PHONE 415- 364 -9988
which is in Gamble & Huff's office building in
Phiadelphia, has a very small control room
and we use Big -Reds in there. So, basically,
we are a 604 facility.
- continued
H-e p
on page 55
for additional information circle no. 23
5.0
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
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J H -1108
These systems feature new, totally transformerless
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Mono to 8 -track versions available, all featuring
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with optional conversion kits for respective head
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Featu -es include automatic sync switching for over dubbiig, separate equalization and bias controls for
3 speeds, three speed timed bias ramp for QUIOR
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stable. Constant tape tension ( ±1/4 oz.) for al' speeds
and reel sizes. Optional remote motion control.
"Paper Basket" and "Hand Spool" edit modes. Compatible with cptional microprocessor based RTZ III,
and/or JH -45 AutoLock. Variable profile or high profile cabinets available for all systems. Optional tape
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JH -110BC Tape Recorder/Reproducer
DIN Standard stereo broadcast recorder equipped
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will accept reels up to 101/2" or pancakes to 1000m.
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JH- 110B -8 Tape Recorder/Reproducer
An 8 -track system for all applications. Tape reel
sizes from E" to 101/2 ". RTZ Ill standard equipment.
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JH -110M Tape Recorder/Reproducer
Specifically designed for tape to disc transfer
reproduction for disc mastering applications. Standard equipment includes adjustable fast wind and
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reproduce equalization, front panel mounted
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The world's best selling multitrack recording system
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head assemblies allow fast track and 1" and 2" tape
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The optional AutoLocator Ill, with microprocessor
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includes a 35 foot cable.
AutoLocator Ill
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JH -110B transport series. Features include the
return to zero function, four memory locations, pre settable up /down real time counter reading in
minutes and seconds, tape speed indicator in ips,
and the ability to locate from positive or negative domain. The RTZ III is standard on the JH- 110BC.
A
special version, the RTZ III /M is standard on the
masteing machine. Features include 20
JH -110M
memory
positions for banding /spiraling,
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and tape velocity indication in ips.
JH500C Series Automation Ready
Recording /Remixing Consoles
The most widely accepted consoles in the industry,
the MCI automation ready JH -500C Series of recording /remixing consoles are available in six sizes,
28 to 56 channels with Plasma Display meter panels,
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Ultimate Console, is designed for use with dual synchronized multitrack recorders. Options available include Spectra Vue realtime analyzer, additional
equalizers and up to 12 echo returns, built in send
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New Products
microprocessor based synchronizer/generator
utilizing SMPTE/EBU or video drop frame code.
Will slave any MCI JH -110 Series or JH -16 Tape
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A
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absolute). Features 10 memories, programmable
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4007 N.E. 6th Ave. /Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33334 USA/ 305 566- 2853/TLX 51 4362
C swmn sounws
JOE TARSI A
.. continued from page 50 .
R-e/p: Let's talk about being an owner of a
studio business. You are running a very
successful, busy, recording operation.
There has been a great deal of talk about
the softening of the record industry along
with the general economy. A great deal of
doom and gloom. How do you feel about
the studio business right now? Is it going to
taper off, or will new studios continue to
open and existing ones expand and
flourish?
JT:
I can only wait and see. I think that the
lull that we see at the moment is caused by a
number of factors. I don't think it's a direct
result of the inflation rate, although that has
a bearing. I believe that it's caused by, 1)
increase in record prices; and, 2) by the lack
of material that people want to buy. I see the
record business as being at a point similar to
where it was in 1963 before the Beatles came
on the scene and turned it completely
around. I think the public is waiting for a new
direction in music. We went from the highly
produced Cameo type records in the fifties
and sixties, to the self -contained group
records of rock and roll during the sixties
and early seventies, and now we're in the
disco medium. I think we are at the
crossroads of another change. The public is
waiting for some creative producer to come
along and hit us with a new direction. The
last factor is how do you follow up a year-
and -a -half of phenomenal sales from
Saturday Night Feuer and Grease with 27
I
R -e /p: Has disco to a certain degree dried
up the record sales market?
JT:
I think the twelve -inch single for
consumer consumption was a mistake and
has hurt album sales. If a person goes out
and spends money for a disco version of a
recording they are not apt to go out and buy
the album.
emegence of the independent engineers and
staff mixer. It seems,
however, with the increased sophistication
and individual idiosyncracies of automated
studios that this trend is reversing. Do you
think this is occurring?
JT: Let me say that Sigma has always
maintained a full mixing staff. We think we
can serve our clients best with our own
people because they are familiar with the
room and have a certain knowledge and
respect for the equipment. We have never
avoid premature obsolescence. Just as
important is keeping the client happy. Sigma
a decline of the
gotten into
a
heavy outside engineer
clientele. However, we would never refuse a
client that wanted to bring in his own
engineer. It would be pleasing to believe that
we are going back to a staff situation. I think
there will always be room for freelance
engineers, but that's not Sigma's forte.
production?
JT: If I thought I had enough imagination, I
probably would have produced. I chose to
work at making Sigma a better recording
facility. Certainly anybody that's been in any
part of the recording business, be it a lawyer
R -e/p: Do you think it has much to do with
the way record companies are being
managed?
JT: I'm not familiar with that part of the
business.
R -e/p: As an owner, what do you think is
your biggest problem in operating a studio?
JT: I would say, first, keeping the studio
state -of- the -art; purchasing today's
R -e/p: Have you any desire to moue into
contributed to the record business' current
woes. I think that the record business and
entertainment industry are here to stay. I
would not alter any of my plans for
expansion based on this temporary lull,
because I think it's merely a pause to catch
our breath. We will continue to go forward. I
think the video recorder tied to high quality
sound is going to open many possibilities in
the market, and that the recording business
will continue to grow.
is, you have to be very
selective in who you make that offer to. It
requires an artistic judgement. This new
studio has one thing that it can offer and that
is time. The newcomer may have more time
than he can sell. If I were in that position and
someone offered me a deal, so to speak, on
spec, the only thing I could lose is my time so
I might entertain such an idea. Depending
on who the deal is with or the owners
knowledge of them, it probably would be
best to run it through an attorney to protect
the studio and the client's interest.
expensive audio equipment wisely so as to
hard act
a
JT: Well, one thing
R -e/p: The past few years have seen the
think all these factors
million-or -so copies sold. That's
to follow.
runs a sale and, if you need a pair, you can
go in and buy them. But no one needs a
phonograph record. It's the songs and the
artists that draw people. So I think it's a
mistake to ship large quantities of records
and think that merchandising is going to
move them from the retail stores into the
consumer's home.
or publicist, or whatever, at one time or
another has contemplated producing. But I
find myself as being most effective asa critic
and helper in recording. I think I'm best
offering suggestions to the creators. As you
can see I'm an old gray -haired man. It's kind
of strange. I don't think there's too many
guys around in my position who stick
exclusively to mixing. The Roy Haleé s and
Phil Ramone's are all involved in production.
It's just that I really enjoy recording and for
that reason I haven't had any great desire to
get into production.
R -e /p: Have they been effected by the
recent practice of shipping gold while
R -e/p:
knowing full well that there's going to be
loads of returns?
JT: It's unfortunate that that is sometimes
done. The record business is not like the
shoe business. All the merchandising in the
world will not bring people into the record
store. If a store overstocks with shoes and
experiences as
Would you care to share your
a
studio owner with
someone who just opened a new facility?
What suggestions would you make, for
instance, in regard to spec deals where
somebody says, "Hey, if I record here, you
help me do a demo, and if it hits I'll do the
master here."
puts a lot of time into seeing that the clients
get what they're going after. Making my staff
of engineers understand that they should be
subservient to the producer is very difficult
sometimes. A mixer is a servant. He does
for the client, the producer, what the
producer doesn't know how to do for
himself. The mechanics. He must interpret
what the producer says and translate it into
the mechanical moves. Many times there is
a tendency for the engineer to think he
knows what's best for the producer. It's the
biggest mistake an engineer can make. He
should never try to make artistic judgements and jam them down the client's throat
or to decide that the product isn't hit
material and lose interest. I've been
embarrassed many times by records that I
thought were hits and weren't, and vice
versa. You've got to maintain that
excitement and interest. Obviously, we are
all human beings and sometimes it's forced
because you can't hear what the producer is
going after. But you should try your best not
to make these artistic judgements or say,
"This piece of material is a waste of time and
I can't put my heart and soul into it." When
you do that you become ineffective as a
mixer or engineer and you're going to hurt
or lose the client.
R -e/p: Do you think with label cutbacks
that the average album budget will also
decline?
JT: I think we can all operate more
efficiently. When times are good you tend to
use a lot more limousine service and deluxe
accommodations, showing up late for
recording sessions, cancelling time.
One of the philosophies that Kenny
Gamble has in the studio is that he will
accept 95% because the other 5% is
extremely expensive to attain. If you buy a
stereo system for a thousand dollars and it
gives you a certain level of performance, and
then you turn around and buy one at twice
that cost, you may improve the performA-e/p 55
www.americanradiohistory.com
c swmn sounws
JOE TRRS111
ance by 25
If you then spend ten times
that amount you may improve the
performance by only a couple of per cent.
Each time the investment is doubled the
percentage of improvement becomes
smaller and smaller. The point is one of
practicalities. When you're striving for
excellence in a studio there's a point where
it becomes impractical to go further. You
may be dealing with subtleties that only the
most acute ear can discern. I'm not saying
that we should strive for less than
excellence, but the record business is a
business. The idea of a business is to turn a
profit. There is a practical end to which you
should strive and not endlessly stay in the
studio. There was a time in the good old
days when a producer went into the studio
for a three -hour session and cut three tunes
and had a chart for the fourth, just in case.
Today it's not uncommon to go into a
rhythm session and spend the first three
hours just rehearsing. That's expensive.
In 1974 there was an economic recession.
During that period the recording business
actually grew. We never felt that recession.
In fact, it was a very good time for us. I
believe the key to turning our industry
around is simply producing product that
people want to buy. Who knows, maybe the
vehicle for this is already here in the form of
the new wave rock and roll.
R-e/p: Something that is interesting as far
as the kind of equipment that we are using is
that the conventional money lenders don't
seem to have a good concept as to what this
equipment is worth at the end offive years.
They tend to appraise it in the same light as
computer equipment. Haue you found that
your financial people are starting to
do you think is important for a recording
environment?
JT: It should be comfortable but it should
not put you to sleep. The original studios
that I worked in were basically factories.
They were large, brightly lit rooms with
acoustical tile on the walls. Today's modern
studio tends to look more like a living room
than a place of business, and that's fine if we
can get the job done. The living room
approach has some merits because many
times the producer and musicians spend
many continuous hours in these rooms.
Nevertheless, we must never loose sight of
what we all are here for. For that reason, I
believe, that a studio should be a clean,
comfortable place to work and conducive
to creativity and productivity.
R -e/p: Air conditioning is a difficult problem.
How haue you dealt with that in your
recording studio environment?
JT: You can have three people in the studio
or control room and two of them will say it's
too warm, and the third will feel it's too cold.
It's a problem. We have found that it's
necessary not only to control the temperature but also to maintain constant humidity.
One of the main criteria is that the studio
and the control room must be controlled by
separate air conditioning devices. Anything
less requires constant adjustment.
R -e /p: And you think a humidistat is
essential?
JT: Sure, depending upon the climate of the
particular area, the grand piano can absorb
lot of moisture. Humidity effects any
acoustic environment. It also can change the
timbre of a room, the absorption of high
a
frequencies. The propagation of high
frequencies in a humid environment is
different from that of a dry one. We know
that moisture is detrimental to a speaker
cone.
understand that this equipment maintains
its value?
R -e/p: Or a microphone.
JT: Of course. We have added dehumidifi-
JT: In our particular banking area, they
have a pretty long yardstick to go by. The
record shows that because the United
cation and humidification to our air
States has the leadership position in the
recording field and our technology is far in
advance of almost all other countries. We
have a market for used recording equip-
conditioning system, plus electronic air
filters so that we are able to .. .
R -e/p: We've talked a lot about studio
acoustics over the past few years and not
much about the decor. Part of what you say
about giving the client what he wants
comes down to the feel of the place. What
'SPARS'
The Society of Professional
Audio Recording Studios
R -e /p:
Tell me about the new studio
organization, SPARS.
JT: In June of 1979 MCI held a studio
workshop. At that workshop there were
sixteen studios represented. In the course
of our three days of discussion regarding the
design of future recording consoles it was
proposed that an organization of recording
studios be formed. It was amazing.
Everybody there felt that good things could
come from a close dialogue between people
in our business. The concensus was that we
were at the crossroads of a lot of issues.
Concerns such as the present slump in
record sales and new technical advances
such as digital recording and automated
consoles, etc., needed exploration and
further discussions. There are also other
things related to the recording business that
further dialogue would help.
For example, establishing ideal recording
levels and agreement as to what tones
should be at the top of the reel. I'm sure that
disk cutting houses would have plenty of
suggestions for us concerning the preparation of masters. These are just simple items
that would make it easier for a client to move
from studio-to -studio and be confident of
finding certain consistencies that would
make his life easier. We are not looking for
each studio to be the same. We want each
studio to retain its individual methods and
techniques. But if a producer uses a SPARS
studio, he can be confident that that studio
has and will provide a certain minimum
quality of equipment and service and has
pledged to adhere to association guidelines
of good practice. Beyond that point it's up to
the individual studio to say, "Hey, that isn't
good enough for me. I'm going to supply
even more service and equipment." I think
you get the idea.
tobacco is incredible.
R -e /p:
R -e/p: How do you deal with studio phone
calls. Everybody wants to make a phone
call.
JT: The receptionist screens all the
incoming calls. We try to ask the client
before he goes into the studio if he wants his
calls or if he wants messages taken. The
client also decides before he enters the
studio if he wants calls put through to the
musicians or engineers.
R -e/p: What about calling out?
R-e/p 56
www.americanradiohistory.com
a
private lounge for the producer. It has a
phone that can only make local calls. Long
distance calls have to be made through the
operator.
R -e/p: Clean out smoke.
JT: The amount of film that builds up from
ment throughout the world. Up until
recently you could sell an Ampex 351 for
more money than you purchased it for.
They are one of the favorites of the
broadcast industry, and used recording
consoles have a big market in South
America.
JT: Associated with our control rooms is
Will they do things like try to
standardize legend sheets and the kind of
information that goes on a tape box? The
sort of things that are very different for
every studio?
JT: There will be open discussion regarding
those areas, such as take sheets and billing
procedures. There are times when just a
glossary of terms that the girl in the
bookkeeping office could use would be
invaluable. Now she deals with a number of
terms, individual to each studio, that
describes the same event. Through SPARS
we will address our clients and say, "What
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Fi-e4) 57
road. You know we are in a technological
explosion; the advent of the IC and the
microprocessor has resulted in a rush of
new and expensive services. We can help
lessen the possibility of a manufacturer or a
studio being involved with equipment that a
year or two down the road might prove to be
obsolete.
R -e /p:
do you find to be a problem in working with a
number of different studios? Where do you
find that description and types of services
become hard to deal with ?" That's one area.
Another is through education. We plan in
the future to devise a curriculum that we
think could produce good mixers and
maintenance people. We might make
suggestions to various schools and supply
the curriculum to them. We would hire
people who have this type of qualification.
R -e/p: That would be excellent.
What you are also saying is the
organization will help the manufacturer
more closely follow the equipment's
practical use.
JT: Right. There are things we want
who is willing to follow high standards.
SPARS now has an office located in
9666.
How should a facility proceed that
wishes to join SPARS and meets these
R -e /p:
What are the qualifications for
membership?
JT: We have a membership application with
basic requirements. The applicant must be a
high -quality mastering room or 24 -track
studio, all of which must be state -of- the -art.
They must have established that their
primary business has been sound recording
for at least two years. Those are basically
°c
organization going to haue
some sort of general office?
JT: Yes, we may hire an executive director
who will deal with day -to -day activities.
There will be a president, chairman of the
board, and regional vice presidents. They
will be the policy making group of the
organization. We are open to any applicant
information and activity. The address is: 7th
Floor, 215 S. Broad Street, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania 19107. Telephone: (215) 735-
understood. The studio business is a small
one. The number of studios that record95%
of the record product is a very small group.
We're faced with special kinds of problems
and we sort of muddle through without the
benefit of exchanging experience with
others. SPARS, we believe, will help us
streamline our craft through innovation,
communication and education.
R -e /p:
R -e /p: Is the
Philadelphia which is the center for
JT: It's our intention to ask manufacturers
to hold additional seminars on the repair
and care of the various types of equipment
that they sell. We'll offer the opportunity
for each manufacturer to come and speak to
us about the benefits and care of a particular
piece of equipment. Also, open up
discussions with manufacturers as to where
we think our craft is going and what kind of
equipment we will need five years down the
the requirements.
requirements?
JT: Along with the application they have to
send a check for two thousand dollars to the
address I just mentioned. The admissions
committee will then assess the applicant. If it
is determined that the applicant's studio is
state -of- the -art, that it has a good
reputation, and that it conducts business
ethically, the application would then be
submitted to the board along with
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R-e p 58
II
I
.
a
recommendation to accept the applicant for
membership. Certainly if a studio is not
accepted the two thousand dollars would be
Framingham. Massachusetts 01701/(617)620-1478
Please stop by and see us at the AES /New York in Demo Room #609.
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recording console will be an extremely
returned.
newsletter and through trade magazines.
R -e/p: You are now the president?
R -e /p: Are you going to limit membership to
JT: lam the interim president. Elections will
studios or are you going to accept
be held this November.
sponsorship from manufacturers?
JT: At this time we are going to limit
membership to studios and mastering
rooms, but we look forward to having
manufacturers participate in our seminars
and educational programs. We've also
R -e /p: How many studios are involved so
far?
JT: There are now 26 studios. I hope,
however, that before the November SPARS
meeting we will have 30 to 35 member
studios. I think eventually membership will
be somewhere between 50 and 75 studios.
The organization will benefit all studios,
members and non -members alike. The
dissemination of information will be to all.
We believe that what's good for the SPARS
members, who are the leaders, will be good
for the smaller studios, and those studios
who might be doing less than professional
work.
R -e /p:
Are you going to try and make it
possible for the eight track and sixteen
track studios to be "affiliates?"
JT: At this time there is no plan for affiliate
members, but the seminars and educational
conventions would be open to anyone who
wishes to attend.
talked about having seminars between
record companies and SPARS so that we
can understand how we may serve our
clients better. We are looking to open up
avenues of communcation with both the
JT: Through public announcement, or
A
R -e /p:
Do you see video becoming a part of
the record business?
JT: Yes, in part. I think the marriage can
only help us.
R -e /p: What do you see in the future
for
us.
you? You've been opening new studios for
the last few years, one every now and then
R -e/p: So you would like to get, for instance,
JT:
people we serve and the people who serve
.
CBS Records to participate?
JT: Yes. As
a matter of fact, we will
encourage the participation of record labels
in our activities, not only with regard to
recording but also to engage in dialogue with
our member mastering rooms to enable
them to better serve the needs of the
various pressing plants. We think that this
would extremely helpful.
R -e /p: What do you see as the future
R -e/p: How will they be able to know of
these functions?
simple device which merely transfers the
microphone information to the tape, to be
treated totally in the remix. I see the mixing
console changing form completely. It will be
controlled by microprocessors with video
displays and will be about the size of a coffee
table.
of the
studio business in general?
JT: Technically, I see a storage medium
that's not necessarily a tape machine. The
Is there an end? I don't know. I want to
be a part of the changes in the business. I
want to have input into things which are
happening. I look forward to the video
cassette and laser recording. I would like to
see Sigma move into the video field. As far
as opening studios in other places, it
requires only money. But to run studios
successfully requires people
qualified,
interested people. The people who work for
Sigma have a strong desire to see it grow.
The possibilities for Sigma's expansion are
limitless. We are confined only by our ability
to find qualified people who see the dream
-
as we do.
THE
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H
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graliMimI:iaMma
The term Discotheque was coined in France in the late
1950s to refer to a place of entertainment where the music
was derived from a record library. From those few, low budget
clubs in France there arose what is now an international
entertainment and social phenomenon. On the occasion of
the New York Disco Show in February of this year, the staff of
Billboard Magazine estimated the United States market
volume of Disco clubs at $8 billion annually. Notice that this
figure is for club operations only, and does not include the
market volume of support industries such as record
production, sound and lighting sales, food and beverage
supplies, fasnions, and the like.
Disco as an entertainment medium is now at least 20 years
old. In this time appropriately programmed recorded music
has proven to be cost effective entertainment compared to live
musicians in the club environment. Where live entertainment
remains a strong market asset, some clubs have experienced
success using a format of alternate sets of live and recorded
music; this permits continuous entertainment without
incurring the expense of employing two live bands. Thus, for
economic reasons, Disco in some form is likely to survive in
the future club entertainment market mix. The present scale
-The Author -
After gradating from Cornell University with
a B.S. in eng-
ineering, author KEN FA USE joined the school's staff as a Research
Engineer for the Social Psychology Laboratory where he deueloped
data acquisition and analysis systems for human communication behavior experiments. More recently he earned an M.A. in Theater
Arts at UCLA. Fause currently heads his own consulting firm, Fause
& Associates, which is involved in performance and presentation
technology. The consultant's work includes room acoustic design,
entertainment sound systems and special-purpose audio /visual
systems.
of the Disco marketplace and the cost -effective nature of
Disco club operation has attracted the notice of the serious
entrepreneur. The author proposes to address the situation
wherein the club is designed, built and operated primarily as a
commercial investment venture. In this case, the club and all
its components are subject to the general investment decision
process: each asset is evaluated on the basis of capital cost,
useful asset life, salvage value at end of asset life, and
probably rate of return on capital invested. The enlightened
investor attempts to minimize risks while maximizing return
on investment. Predictable results will, of course, minimize
risk; in club operation, capturing a substantial share of the
market activity should guarantee a reasonable rate of return if
operating costs are held to appropriate levels. Referenced to
the club sound system, we may observe that present design
methods properly executed will yield entirely predictable
results, and that a "good" sound system should be a strategic
asset which will assist in capturing a market share.
It should be emphasized that the design of an investment
club sound system is not merely a problem in engineering; it is
as well an exercise in engineering economics. The object is
to engineer an optimum system which executes the
functions required of it within the constraint of the
investor's budget, and in support of the investment
objective.
The design method for the Disco sound system is derived
from the well -known techniques for engineered design of
sound reinforcement systems based on the work of the
Boners, Don Davis, George Augspurger, and many other
contributors to the literature. For the sake of this article, we
shall attempt to restrain the discussion to those specific cases
wherein the standard practice is modified to suit the Disco
function or environment. Certain design problems are
R-ep61
www.americanradiohistory.com
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re9ntered trademark of Sony Corporanon
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Almost everybody admits digital recording
will someday be the ideal way to make records.
With a Sony PCM -1600 system, you can stop
waiting for that someday to happen.
And start recording now.
IN THEORY, ALL DIGITAL SOUNDS TERRIFIC.
IN REALITY, SONYACTUALLY DOES.
If your ears are even in semi -reliable condi-
tion, you've no doubt been exposed to incredible
amounts of digital audio hype.
"The most dramatic change in audio since flat
records," says one prestigious audio publication.
"At last...perfect sound reproduction," notes
another.
So instead of dwelling on how digital can
improve the sound of your recordings, we'd rather
dwell on how Sony-and only Sony-has finally
made digital performance live up to its promise.
"WE'D LIKE TO DEDICATE
THE NEXT FEW NUMBERS TO THE SONY
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT."
In
order to convert regular audio signals into
digital, the Sony PCM -1600
digital recorder uses a pulse
code modulation system
developed and perfected
by Sony engineers.
The same people
who have been behind virtually every audio and
video breakthrough since
the late 1940's.
Consequently, the
dynamic range of the two
track PCM -1600 is greater
than 90dB.
Frequency response
is 20 to 20kHz.
The total harmonic
distortion of the PCM -1600
is inaudible over the entire audio spectrum.
There is no measurable wow and flutter.
And because the PCM -1600 puts binary
code on tape instead of audio signals, it's not
susceptible to tape hiss or print-through; there's no
need to subject your music to noise reduction
equipment or realign your recorder for bias and
equalization.
EDITING PROBLEMS HAVE BEEN FADED OUT.
Since the PCM -1600 works in conjunction
with two Sony video recorders, a standard Sony
video editor, the BVE -500A or the new DEC -1000
will fill your every editing need.
DROP-OUTS HAVE BEEN DROPPED.
Based on a technique used by computers
(where the loss of a single bit of information could
mean millions), Sony engineers have created an
ultra- sophisticated digital correcting code that can
actually restore "dropped out" information.
And considering that Sony video recorders
are virtually immune to this problem in the first
place, the chances of it plaguing your sessions are
all
but negligible.
DIRECT-TO -DISC QUALITY
WITHOUT DIRECT-TO -DISC LIMITATIONS.
Because digital quality doesn't deteriorate
from one tape generation to another, the PCM -1600
lets you make generation after generation of lacquers, all with direct -to-disc quality-but without
any limitation on the number of lacquers you can
press.
And if you use the digital format for distribution to your foreign affiliates, you're guaranteed that
your last digital master will be absolutely identical to
your first.
SONY INTRODUCES TWO
NEW WORDS TO THE DIGITAL VOCABULARY:
AVAILABLE NOW.
digital equipment, the PCM -1600
other
Unlike
for delivery today. Not six
available
is actually
now.
"when we finally get all the
from
Or
months
bugs out."
PCM- 1600's are currently being used by well known recording stars,
and are already in operation at Polygram, CBS,
Spectrum Sound and Digital Recording Services in
Los Angeles, and Digital
Recording Systems in
Philadelphia.
A FEW SONY DIGITAL
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Besides the quality
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We're prepared to provide as much technical
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And we intend to continue our exhaustive
research in digital audio -and share future insights
with the growing Sony digital family.
If you'd like more information about any facet
of Sony digital equipment, contact Roger Pryor at
(415) 467 -4900.
You may think you've heard a lot about digital
in the past.
But until you've heard Sony, you haven't
heard anything yet.
SONY
AUDIO
DIGITAL
put our
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We've never
that wasn't the best.
R-e. p 63
for additional information circle no.
28
www.americanradiohistory.com
analyzed with the aid of techniques drawn from the disciplines
of Architectural Acoustics and Industrial Noise Control. The
author hastens to mention that the design methods described
are by no means unique to the practice of his firm; we are
certainly aware of other system designers using similar and
highly successful approaches.
In any engineering endeavor, the first step is to accurately
analyzed with the aid
of techniques drawn
from the disciplines of
Architectural Acous-
tics and Industrial
Noise Control. The
author hastens to
mention that the design methods described are by no means
unique to the practice
of his firm; we are certainly aware of other
built from the ground up for use as a
Disco, VALENTINO'S on the coast at
Mazatlan, Mexico, is surely among the
world's most beautiful Disco venues.
The Spectra Sonics powered sound
system was designed by Ray Kimber.
service be reliable under conditions of 6 to 10 hours of
continuous daily service. System downtime means lost
customer revenue for the duration of the service outage, and
possibly permanent loss of customers to the competition. A
sound system failure when a club is full will almost certainly
result in irate customers; in a large club there is a real risk of
public disturbance. For these reasons, Disco sound systems
should be designed to fail -soft; that is failure of a given system
component should cause only
MARKET
FULL -ON
highly successful approahces.
In any engineering
step is to accurately
define the function of the proposed system. Performance
criteria may then be selected which will detail the degree of
nicety to which the function is to be executed. Consideration
of the environment in which the chosen criteria must be met
leads to specification of the specific elements of the
engineering system.
Disco Sound System Function
The essential function of a Disco sound system is to play
recorded music to an audience, usually of dancers, as one
element which contributes, along with lighting, decor and
special effects, to a total entertainment experience. In some
cases, the entertainment experience is attained by deliberate
sensory overload. We are in a sense describing a
communication network consisting of Sources, a
Transmission System, and Receptors (the audience). In Disco,
the message communicated is Boogie!
Sources
By definition, the source music is pre- recorded; therefore a
means of playback from the storage medium in use is
required. At present, almost all commercial material is
released on phonograph disk, so playback will be via a
turntable system. For continuity, at least two turntables and a
method of blending sources (a mixer with pre -hear function)
are necessary; for special effects and redundancy, a third
turntable system is desirable. Variable speed turntables are
virtually essential to permit the DJ to vary tempo to suit mood
and continuity. A microphone should be available to the DJ for
occasional program announcements and for emergency
crowd control; in some formats, a second microphone on a
long lead will be useful to facilitate dance instruction of large
groups. Installation of a tape recorder /player is urged in
recognition of the finite size of the human bladder
the DJ
will have to take a break sometime in the course of an evening.
-
System Criteria: No Boogie; No Bucks
Above all, it is essential that any technical systems for Disco
reasonably graceful
Figure 1
ACOUSTIC LEVELS ON DANCE FLOOR,
system designers
using similar and
endeavor, the first
a
deterioration of system sound quality, not a total service
outage. Selection of conservative operating parameters and
use of redundant equipment are obvious design techniques.
The guiding rule is simple: No boogie; no bucks!
The nature of the Disco experience implies the need for high
level, wide frequency range acoustic output to the dance floor.
For a given club design, the sound level on the dance floor is a
function of the expectation of the club's chosen market sector;
Figure 1 is indicative of prevalent sound pressure levels for
"
AVERAGE
L,
PEAK
110
125
MODERATE'
95
110
M.O.R.
80
95
Caution: Potential Permanent Threshold Shift
Caution: Potential Temporary Threshold Shift
-
various markets in dB referenced to 20 micro Pascals, C
weighted. Important to notice is the possibiltity of temporary
or permanent hearing damage associated with exposure to
sound levels common to all but the middle -of- the -road market
(MOR). Designers, installers, operators and owners of high
level Disco sound systems are urged to assess the risk of both
short and long -term high -level sound exposure''
and to
consult with qualified consul as to potential legal liability
toward customers and employees. (See Polon, Martin, "dB's
Can Be Hazardous To Your Health, " page
this issue.)
It is the opinion of this author that Disco sound systems,
especially those intended for high -level output should be
designed for low listener fatigue: the implied requirement is
for low distortion at all operating levels including maximum.
The aim is to somewhat lessen the risk of acoustic trauma due
to high level sound exposure. There is an unfortunate paradox:
extremely clean systems may not "sound loud " even when
delivering acoustic output that makes voice communication
nearly impossible at one foot distance. By past experience,
most owners and customers seem to have been conditioned to
accept that "loud" and "distorted" are interchangeable
descriptions for club sound systems.
A design method which contributes to a clean, low fatigue
system is the providing of massive electrical and transducer
headroom so that peak clipping is prevented. We generally
design for a peak clipping level some 15 to 20 dB above the
selected maximum average output level. Some courage and
determination is required when specifying power amplifiers
with such overhead. Of course, it is necessary to exercise
extreme caution in selecting transducers to be so powered: an
operator error in signal duty cycle could easily result in the
expensive smell of roasted loudspeakers. This would violate
our prime requirement for system reliability.
R-e/p 64
www.americanradiohistory.com
,
A RIBBON
FOR THE ROAD
Beyer thinks the ribbonlimicrophone is too good to be
left behind. So we designed our M 500, which comes
with a protective carrying case, to stand up to the
rigors of the road. It's a true handheld performer's mic
that's ruggedly constructed for touring and remote
recording, without sacrificing superior sound.
The heart of the M 500 is Beyer's exclusive corrugated
aluminum ribbon. Its extremely low mass not only
makes it highly responsive to transients, but puts less
strain on the points where it is attached to the transducer to stand the high SPUs of live performance. The
transducer is in a protective subassembly, isolated by a
resilient suspension system. And a special four -stage
pop filter limits the sound pressure on the ribbon
when a performer is working close to the mic.
We don't recommend the M500 for hammering nails
or fighting off groupies. But it can do anything a mic has
to do, anywhere it has to be done. We've made tens of
thousands of them, and 99.5% are still on the road.
THE BEYER M 500
carrying case
aEVfRDVNAMI(
Beyer))))
Dynamic
5 -05 Burns Ave
for additional information circle no. 30
www.americanradiohistory.com
BURNS AUDIOTRONICS, INC.
Hicksville, NY 11801 (516) 935 -8000
ß-e p 65
each case should be investigated for its specific conditions.
We generally prefer to design high- headroom systems with
the gain structure manipulated such that attempts to drive the
system to hearing- damage levels will result in flagrant hard
clipping. The sudden, radical deterioration of sound quality is
intended to serve as clear notice that the system is being
driven beyond its design limits.
The sound spectra to be delivered to the dance floor may be
derived from spectrum analysis of a range of typical program
material. Cumulative spectra for 8 sides of Disco titles of
varying style are shown as Figures 2 through 9. Data were
%CO
<n
SOUND SYSTEM
¡<
Dynamic range manipulation in the form of compressors
and /or limiters may be used to reduce the design peak -toaverage ratio to a more economical figure. Unfortunately,
decreasing the energy density of the signal in this manner
may also increase the potential hazard of acoustic trauma;
;
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"JACK & JILL"
Went up the charts ...
MCI JH536 Console
Thanks to Audio Industries and \M\C\\\
"You can't change that !" (went platinum
!!!)
Ray Parker Jr.; President
Raydio Studios, Hollywood
-
The people and the products
We have them both.
audio industries corporation
1419 N
LA BREA AVE
HOLLYWOOD. CALIFORNIA 90028
for additional information circle no.
31
(213) 851 -4111
TELEX 67 -7363
In practice it is necessary to define some realistic tolerance
limits about the chosen preference curve when issuing a
given system specification. For the curve discussed above, we
have successfully employed the tolerance "window" shown
as Figure 12. With pink noise excitation of the system, sound
C
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ISOUND SYSTEM
LI)rENER PNEPERENCK FONCTION Illnu.. Curse)
III) Inun. 2 r...
Figure
taken us ng a Thorens TD -165 turntable /arm combination,
Shure V15 Type IV cartridge, Bill Isenberg phono preamp (IC
version) and Ivie 30A spectrum analyzer. The analyzer was set
in accumulate mode at 2 dB per step with the memory
initialized for each side. Gain was held constant for all sides
with the 0 dB reference baseline at 110 dB µV (.316V); from
this one may observe the variation in cutting levels among the
sides. Detector decay rate was set at the "D1 " position for a
time constant of approximately 10 ms at the kHz band center
and corresponding approximately constant confidence limits
in all other bands.
Of course, this sample is quite limited in a statistical sense,
but useful information is gained. Of special interest is Figure
10, which is a graphical derivation of the maxima of six sides
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the somewhat abberant "Heatwave" sides having been
deleted from this data. A fairly smooth "haystack" shape
appears which should refute the often -heard conjecture that
Disco music is all bass and high with no midrange. Clearly
untrue.
Experience in equalizing a number of Disco sound systems
of various scales indicates that a listener preference function
may be developed for the amplitude versus frequency
characteristic of the system acoustic response. (This is
analogous to the "Preferred House Curve" familiar in sound
reinforcement practice.) It should be no surprise that the
specific shape of the Disco Listener Preference Function will
vary with the average system loudness level and the average
acoustic source -to- listener distance. A sample curve is shown
as Figure 11; this has proven suitable for a 100 Phon average
loudness level' and 25 foot listener distance. In this case, the
particular shelved characteristic resulted from manipulation
of driver levels in large four -way systems to obtain best
listener satisfaction on Disco music playback. (The music
samples had source spectral characteristics similar to those
previously described.) Numerous subsequent systems of this
type adjusted to the characteristic have met with gratifying
acceptance in the marketplace.
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pressure level in one -third octave bands is required to fall
within the specification envelope when measured at standing
ear height (5 foot, 6 inches) at any point on the dance floor. In
this manner allowable errors in both frequency response and
spatial variation are defined under a single specification. If
reasonable care is taken in selecting appropriate transducers
and most of the curve shape is derived by setting relative
driver levels; then very little narrow band EQ (one -third
octave) should be required to meet the specification if the
room characteristics are at all sensible.
For reference, we have reproduced here as Figure 13 a
portion of ISO Recommendation R226 -1961 "Normal Equal Loudness Contours for Pure Tones and Normal Threshold of
Hearing Under Free Field Listening Conditions " (copyrighted
by the American National Standards Institute, 1430
Broadway, New York,
NY
10018; reproduced with
permission). Although the title of the standard defines the
R-eip 68
www.americanradiohistory.com
Timeforachange?...M.AINLINETM
WHAT IT ALL MEANS
...
... It means you can send all the guitars
and keyboards from the stage to the mixer on
one line of your existing microphone snake.
MAINLINE eliminates costly balancing transformers and tons of additional cable. You
save money, time, and hassle. Its simpler,
more reliable, and most important, the music
sounds much better!
IT HAD TO HAPPEN...
We're all too aware of the vast amount of
audio cable used on stage and in studios
today. The cost of wire connectors and assembly time is astounding! Now, imagine if
you could reduce your cost and trouble by
eight times, while dramatically improving
your sound in the process. Fantasy? We
think not. The recent introduction of the
incredible MAINLINE by J H D Audio is a
reality! It is perhaps the most significant
advance in audio technology of this decade.
WHAT IT IS
...
The MAINLINE will encode and combine
eight signals and transmit them up to 600 ft.
using only one standard microphone cable. It
will then decode each one for mixing resulting in eight separate signals. MAINLINE has
no gain loss (it actually increases gain). It will
reject CB and RF interference. Above all, it
improves microphone performance by ex-
panding dynamic range, extending frequency response, and drastically reducing
hum and noise.
HOW IT WORKS...
MAINLINE employs analog and digital
technology to create a unique "time domain
multiplexing system" specifically designed for
high quality audio reproduction. The system
contains two modules connected by a standard microphone cable. The eight channel
input module is located on stage. This stage
module encodes and transmits data to the
output module (at the console) which decodes
the signals and feeds the mixer. There are
three different MAINLINE encoder designs.
One for balanced lo impedance microphones;
one for hi impedance instruments; another
for mixer output signals. The decoder module
has output levels that accommodate all
mixers and /or amplifiers. The MAINLINE
comes standard with a 100 foot cable. It is
calibrated to operate with cable lengths of 25
to 600 feet without sacrificing performance
(MAINLINE could be adapted to perform at
any distance).
... It means simple, quick system expansion for club, church or studio without costly
new cable installation. Each existing built-in
microphone cable can now carry either eight
microphones or eight instruments.
... It means an engineer can now run a
stereo tri -amp sound system with the crossovers located at the mixer allowing balance
control during performance. The six separate line sends can be carried by any one
channel of a microphone snake, with two
sends to spare!
... It means live 24 track direct stage
recording on three standard microphone
cables offering dynamics and audio fidelity
never before possible outside the studio. In
addition, you can set-up and record from
virtually any remote location.
...It means a keyboard player can do his
own mix on stage and send his keyboards
direct for a separate main mix.
... It means the often unreliable hand soldered connections are reduced 90 %.
... It means the wire required in a conventional 16 channel, 100 ft. cabling system
will be reduced from 3,300 to 600 feet. This
saves money, time and weight. More important, without 2,700 feet of excess wire weighting down the signal, your music emerges
with its dynamic character intact. And that's
what live music is all about!
DOWN THE
ade Mark
MAINLINE....
WHERE TO BUY
of
JH
D
Audio
IT...
With the exception of a few select audio
dealers and commercial sound contractors,
MAINLINE hasn't been available to the
public. General distribution is 12 to 18
months away.
ASPEN &ASSOCIATES was conceived after
years of experience in music, to introduce
new technology and innovative products to
the performing music commmunity. We're
sure you will agree that MAINLINE falls into
this category. So we have secured a supply of
MAINLINE's from J H D Audio and will be
offering them for sale starting July 1st, 1979.
All three systems are eight channel expander models designed for either direct
instrument sends, balanced lo impedance
sends, or line level mixer returns. Each
MAINLINE includes an encoder module, a
decoder module, a 100 ft. connecting cable,
and eight output patch cords. The price?
$500 for an instrument send or mixer return
system ... $550 for the balanced lo impedance system.
ASPEN&ASSOCIATES
guarantees each
satisfied
with its performance, we'll refund the purchase price plus shipping. To order MAINLINE,
just call ASPEN&ASSOCIATES, Monday thru
Friday, 9 AM to 4 PM (PST).
MAINLINE we sell. If not completely
LINE...
All this is possible right now. Imagine
however, what this breakthrough means for
the future! MAINLINE sets new standards
for audio performance (live or in studio). It
has eliminated one of the most common
deterrents to audio excellence... loss of signal quality due to too much cable.
MAINLINE also eliminates the need for
massive quantities of transformers and 3 -pin
connectors ... greatly reduces set-up time ...
requires no maintenance ... could cut the
cost of a typical 16 channel system by 40%
while improving reliability, flexibility and
sound quality.
Perhaps MAINLINE's only drawback is
that is took so long to get here!
for additional information circle no. 32
(2L3)
ASPEN & ASSOCIATES
1.3994 SIMSNAW AVENUE
SVLMAR
CA
362-1551
9n42 - NINE to roUR (PSI)
A-alp 69
Loudspeaker System Selection
Ideally, a Disco loudspeaker system would have the
following attributes:
Di CO
DE f lion
1.
conditions under which the data presented are strictly valid,
the same trends of course exist for music presentation at
various loudness levels. It is interesting to compare the low frequency lift specified in the Listener Preference Curve of
Figure 11, derived empirically, with the 100 Phon contour of
Figure 13: theory and practice do agree quite closely.
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Figure 13: Normal equal- loudness contours for pure tones.
(Binaural free -field listening.)
Control Of Sound Distribution
Controlled sound distribution is usually another system
design objective. The owner often requests the designer to
produce thunderous levels on the dance floor ... but please
don't disturb the seductive conversations in the cocktail
lounge immediately adjacent. Some compromise is inevitible.
When selecting sound coverage patterns it is essential to
recall that the DJ must hear the mix presented to the dance
floor: this is the only way the DJ can properly judge and
manipulate the acoustic stimulus to the dancers. When
conditions of geometry and decor prevent the DJ booth being
in the direct field of the dance floor system, a "DJ monitor"
system closely matched in spectrum and intensity to the main
system is necessary. In remedial work, we frequently
encounter the situation where the DJ booth is removed from
the dance floor and located in a reverberant field with a
predominantly bass spectrum content. To correct the apparent
muddy sound at the control point, the DJ turns up the high
end, making the system very shrill to the dancers and causing
rapid tweeter failure. With several blown tweeters, the system
sounds muddy again; the DJ then turns up the high end still
more and soon blows the remaining tweeters. Club
management will become annoyed at a continuous expense
for tweeter replacement. It is kinder to both patrons and
management to design so as to avoid the problem in the first
place.
SPECIFIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES
convenient and appropriate in sense of philosophy, to
discuss and design any sound system working from the
listeners back to the sources.
It is
Rugged and reliable.
2. Acoustic output to meet market needs.
3. Low distortion (low fatigue).
Controlled coverage.
Efficient (power is expensive).
Compact (say 1 cubic foot).
Lightweight (20 pounds).
The last two items are the strong preference of the interior
designer who usually does not want to see big, ugly
loudspeakers intruding into the visual concept. Given the
physics of planet earth and breathable atmosphere, it is
apparent that 125 dB at 35 Hz will not issue forth from a 1
cubic foot box; so some intelligent compromise must be found.
Presume we have an existing room enclosing dancers on a
dance floor. With the club market defined the first design task
is to select suitable loudspeaker systems to meet the market
sound level distributed over the required coverage area. We
begin by selecting loudspeaker mounting locations which
from prior experience we feel will meet the coverage demands
while causing minimum detrimental impact on the decor. A
typical single loudspeaker system location may then be
analyzed to determine the acoustic output necessary to meet
the selected market sound level on the dance floor and the
electrical power required to achieve that acoustic output. The
required source intensity is derived from the criteria level
selected at the measuring location(s) on the dance floor with
due consideration of the losses in the path from the source
loudspeaker to the measuring location. A suitable adjustment
is later made for the total number of sources operating to
produce the total sound level on the dance floor.
The path loss calculation procedure follows the well known
work of the Boners,' Don Davis,'
"
George Augspurger, "'
Cecil Cable" and many others originally developed for
analysis of sound reinforcement systems. A caution as to
method is necessary: the basic equations for average sound
energy density in a room are based on the assumptions of a
non -directional sound source, Q
1, and boundary surfaces
of the enclosure having uniformly distributed absorptive
material with an average absorption coefficient, a. In clubs,
the perimeter surfaces are generally acoustically "hard"
while the occupied dance floor appears relatively "soft." To
meet the previous "controlled distribution" requirement,
directional loudspeaker arrays are then aimed at what may be
the most absorptive surface in the room. Clearly, only a small
portion of the incident energy is reflected to the boundary
surfaces to create the reverberant field. A calculation method
should be chosen which allows for the case where the
absorption coefficient of the first reflection surface (the
occupied dance floor) defined as a', differs from the average
absorption coefficient, a.
In our own practice, we use the "adjusted room coefficient"
method proposed by George Augspurger; " we find the
scheme well suited to our method of tabulating the absorption
coefficients and surface areas of various room surfaces. the
"Q multiplier" or "architectural acoustic modifier" methods of
Cecil Cable and Don Davis also yield appropriate results; the
designer should choose whichever of the methods is
convenient and familiar.
Thus, from Augspurger's analysis, in cases where "at least
half of the energy from the sound source would seem to be
initially reflected from surfaces having absorption coefficients
differing substantially from á, the expression (1 -a') should be
estimated as closely as possible and used to calculate
R' "using the expression:
continued overleaf
4.
5.
6.
7.
R-e/p 70
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R-e p
77
i
Absorption coefficient data for architectural surface finish
materials are generally published only at the ISO Preferred
Octave Band Centers from 125 Hz to 4 kHz (i.e., 125 Hz, 250
Hz, 500 Hz, kHz, 2 kHz, 4 kHz); calculations are thus limited to
frequencies for which adequate base data are available.
Unfortunately, when considering the behavior of sub woofers; data at 125 Hz is usually at or near the top of the
bandpass. In existing rooms, measurements of reverberation
time in the octave bands at 63 Hz and 125 Hz will often provide
sufficient trend information to complete the design. In new
construction, the designer's experience and engineering
estimates of acoustic material behavior at low frequencies
must control.
C
SOUND SYSTEM
R'
S«/(1 - a')
=
1
IG
(1)
where:
R' = adjusted room coefficient
S = surface area of room
« = average absorption coefficient
a' = absorption coefficient of first reflection surface.
1 - a' = average first -order reflection coefficient
Electrical Power Required (EPR)
Transposing equation (3), we know that:
This expression is then used to modify the formulation of
Boner and Boner.' In this case, the relative sound pressure
level (SPL) in a room at any distance r from a source having a
directivity factor Q in the direction of the observer is found by
(Desired Listener Level) + (Path Loss)
= (Required D ref level)
:
relative SPL
where R'
= S 6/(1
=
10 log [(Q /47rr2)
+
(4 /R')]
(2)
- a')
Desired listener level varies with frequency, for example as
in Figure 11; path loss from equations (3, 4, and 5) also varies
with frequency. Thus, in a final design; the required D ref level
would be calculated for each band of
Returning to the path loss problem, we realize that a
measurement of source level made directly at the source
point, that is r = 0, will be meaningless
such a measurement
will perforce be in the near field of any source device of finite
dimensions. For this reason, it is appropriate to calculate path
loss with respect to a reference distance D,,,, at which real
loudspeakers may be measured and compared. Consider then
the source -listener (dancer) geometry shown as Figure 14.
a
multi -way system.
Recall also that:
-
Power ratio in dB = 10 Log (P, /P.)
Let us consider a major market Disco situation where we
desire levels at the listener of 110 dB average and 120 dB
peak. (This is a peak -to- average ratio of 10 dB; we would really
prefer 15 to 20 dB, but the point is simpler to illustrate with
round numbers). Let us also presume a path loss of 10 dB (not
uncommon) and D ref sensitivity expressed in terms of watt,
metre.
Consider a medium efficiency system with a D ref sensitivity
of 100 dB (1 watt). From equation (6), the average EPR must
then be 20 dB above reference power, and the peak EPR 30 dB
above reference power.
1
1
Solving:
20 dB
=
10 Log [EPR avg /Ref Power
(1
W)]
which yields:
EPR avg
=
10 Log'''
=
100 watts average
for peak:
EPR pk
=
10''
=
1,000 watts peak
Figure 14
The path loss along the path from the reference distance to a
distant listener, say at D:, will be defined as delta D -,,.,, where
OD2,
=
AD: - AD,.,
(3)
Figure 15
ELECTRICAL POWER REQUIRED (EPR)
LET: Path Loss = 10 dB
LRII at 1 w., 1 meter
L, ,,,,.\, R
110 dB Average, 120 dB Peak
:
AD:
AD,
R'
=
=
=
10 Log [(Q /4rrD:2)
+
10 Log [(Q /47rD,,.,')
Sa /(1 - a')
(4 /13')]
+
(4)
(4 /R')]
(5)
(repeating
1)
We must recall at this point that Q, «and a' and thus path
loss, are all functions of frequency. From experience, we know
that most practical Disco sound systems will require three way or four -way loudspeaker systems. To be rigorous, the
preceding calculations should be performed for frequencies
near the center of the bandpass of each transducer.
L,
(1 w.)
EPR, AVG.
(110 dB)
EPR PEAK
100 dB
100 w. (+20)
1,000 w. (+30)
110 dB
10 w. (+10)
100 w. (+20)
90 dB
1,000 w. (+30)
10,000 w. (+40)
R-e/p 72
www.americanradiohistory.com
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zones, lateral restraint of suspended arrays is required.
C
Suspension schemes should allow for sensible service
access.
DE- i'Grrl
Clearly, these are not reasonable input powers for most
practical loudspeakers. The calculations are tabulated in
Figure 15 along with those for systems with W outputs of
110 dB (high efficiency commercial horn) and 90 dB (typical
home bookshelf system. Rapid inspection of the table shows
why high efficiency systems are essential if high overhead
ratios are attempted and why typical home loudspeakers are
inadequate for nearly any Disco application.
1
Failure Modes
When operating loudspeakers at high power, it is necessary
to consider failure modes of the loudspeaker. Thermal failure
occurs when heating due to current flow in the voice coil is
sufficient either to deform the coil by melting the binder
material, or burn out the voice coil by melting the winding
itself. It is pertinent to observe that heating is proportional to (1
- system efficiency). Suddently applied large currents may
also destroy the loudspeaker by causing the moving system
displacement to exceed its mechanical limits.
Loudspeaker protection for Disco application is similar to
that for rock touring systems: Bandwidth restriction to the
optimum operating region is most effective as practical
loudspeaker output is limited by product of power and
bandwidth. "Muddiness," voice coil heating and excess
excursion are all reduced by removing input signals outside
the useful bandpass of the transducer. Proper acoustic
loading is also helpful in maintaining excursion within safe
limits. In reference to an earlier discussion, it is essential to
size power amplifiers large enough to avoid hard clipping on
program peaks. Such clipping increases the transducer
heating duty cycle in addition to sounding awful and
contributing to listener fatigue.
If the designer was not already aware of the fact; the
detailed design process would have led to a basic conclusion:
Loud
+
Low Frequency
=
HUGE
As Paul Klipsch has observed, there is no such thing as a
miniature 32 foot wavelength. A common way to deal with
this logistic and decorating problem begins with the
realization that human hearing localization accuracy is much
diminished at low frequencies. The signal information below
say 100 or 125 Hz is summed from left and right channels and
fed to a single large low frequency array (or a small number of
arrays as architectural conditions require). A large array
increases the radiation efficiency and floor mounting the array
will double its effective Q
the floor is a large, stiff barrier
compared to a wavelength. With frequencies limited to 100 or
125 Hz and up, reasonable size suspended arrays may be used
for overhead, directional dance floor coverage. There is little
artistic loss in using summed bass for Disco music: to achieve
common Disco disc cutting levels the low frequency
information is almost universally panned to center in mixing
or summed to mono in the disc cutting process.
The specific design of hanging systems for suspended
loudspeaker arrays is properly the province of an engineer or
architect duly registered to practice in the jurisdiction where
construction will take place. For suspension over human
occupied areas, a static safety factor of 10 is often used in
absence of specific code requirements. In active seismic
Power Amplifiers
Power requirements have been previously discussed.
Reliable performance under continuous duty operation is
essential. In addition, amplifiers for Disco service should
exhibit subjective sound quality which would make them
suitable for state -of- the -art recording studio monitoring
systems.
Turntable Feedback
When the airborne or structure borne radiated energy of the
Disco sound system is coupled back into the active disc pickup
cartridge, feedback occurs. As in sound reinforcement this
establishes a limit on the system acoustic output level.
In the case of airborne excitation the most effective solution
is simple: select a turntable /arm combination that is not
susceptible to the problem!
A group of people dancing more or less on beat can induce
considerable motion in a floor structure; high output sub woofers may also cause reasonable amplitude diaphragmatic
motion of floors, walls and ceilings. Such vibration induced
into the turntable via its support structure constitutes
mechanical feedback as shown in Figure 16. This should be
Figure
16
MECHANICAL FEEDBACK
A
MUDE
considered even if system output level limit ng is not a
problem: low frequency excitation of the turntable will cause
bass intermodulation distortion in its output'' resulting in
"muddy" sonic character.
A direction for solution lies in methods of long standing in
Industrial and Mechanical Noise Control practice. Consider
the situation shown in Figure 17. Here we have a mechanical
-
Reip
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74
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STANDS
FOR BEST
PERFORMANCE
system with a single degree of freedom consisting of a mass m
supported on a spring with a spring constant k. The base they
are mounted on moves in simple harmonic motion at angular
frequency w with amplitude y,. cos wt. If the base is fixed, the
spring -mass system will exhibit a natural frequency of w,,. For
this simple system, Figure 18 shows the transmissibility
Figure 18
4
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MS-10C
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Height: 35 " -63 ".
Base: 10" dia..
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Isolate
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VARIABLES:
MASS
SPRING
Static
Load
curve, the ratio of amplitude response of the system in steady
state vibration to the excitation amplitude, shown as a
function of the ratio of excitation frequency to natural
frequency. If we manipulate the mass and spring constant
such that the ratio w /w, is greater than \/2, then we may
effectively isolate the mass from the motion of its support.
In a practical case we would have the turntable sitting on an
inertia (mass) block which is mounted in turn on selected
commercial vibration isolators.
We have designed specific isolation systems for a
T
commercial turntable /arm combination to achieve
theoretical isolation efficiency of 98% at 20
Hz
a
(approximately
Figure 19
MS-11C
Modern in appearance,
functional, of rugged
design and construction.
Positive locking clutch,
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DIVISION OF AMERICAN TRADING
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78
INERTIA BLOCK
1
4-
TABLE TOP
/////
R-e p 76
www.americanradiohistory.com
LEGS
->
FLOOR
-1- FLEXIBLE
/FIXED
FLOOR
REFERENCE
,,,,4
17 dB insertion loss). We did not conduct instrumented
measurements, but a brute -force test proved the point: we
mounted a turntable /isolator combination directly on a
system sub -woofer cabinet. The thermal limit of the woofer
was reached before mechanical feedback could be achieved.
We considered this performance to be adequate to the
purpose.
Design of an isolator system is not a casual enterprise- it is
quite easy for the unwary to get in trouble. The transmissibility
curve shows that an error in tuning can cause amplification of
the vibration. A practical system also exhibits multiple
degrees of freedom of mass and compliance "springiness ")
as Figure 19 shows; the isolators must be tuned to avoid
driving any of the sub -systems into a resonance condition.
Despite the cost of design and fabrication of the isolator bases,
the scheme is usually more economical than the alternate of
attempting to stiffen the DJ booth structure. In some cases,
the structure simply cannot be made stiff enough. The isolator
base is a truly effective and predictable approach to
eliminating turntable mechanical feedback; we have yet to
encounter a case where the scheme has not solved the
problem.
Footnotes:
- Richard
C. Cabot, C. Roy Genter II and Thomas Locke, Sound
Levels and Spectra of Rock Music, Audio Engineering Society 60th
Convention, May 2 5, 1978, Pre -print #1358.
2 - Ralph R. Rupp, Sharon B. Banachowski, Anne Shelley
Kiselewich, Hard Rock Music and Hearing Damage Risk, Sound and
Vibration, Volume 8, No. 1, p. 14 ff (January, 1974).
3 - For a pure tone at
kHz, the loudness level expressed in Phons is
defined as equal to the sound pressure level expressed in decibels. For
other frequencies, the relation is defined by the Normal Equal
Loudness Contours, Figure 13.
4 - C. P. Boner and R. E. Boner, The Gain of a Sound System,
Journal Audio Engineering Soceity. Volume 17. No 2 (April, 19691,
pp. 147 -150.
5 - Don Davis, Analyzing Loudspeaker Locations for Sound
1
-
1
(
Reinforcement Systems, Journal Audio Engineering Society,
Volume 17, No. 6 (December, 1969), pp. 683 -689.
6 - Don Davis, Comments on Directivity of Loudspeakers and
Microphones, Altec Technical Letter No. 183 (1968).
7
Don Davis, A Proposed Standard Method of Measuring the
Directivity Factor "Q" of Loudspeakers Used in Commercial
Sound Work, Journal Audio Engineering Soceity, Volume 21, No. 7
(September, 1973), pp. 571 -578.
8 - Don Davis, Interpreting Field Measurements of Directivity
Factor and Their Relation to the Proposed Standard Method of
Measuring the Directivity Factor of Loudspeakers Used in
Commercial Sound Work, Pre -print #1031, Paper K -3 Presented at
the 51st Convention of the Audio Engineering Society, May 13 -16,
1975.
9 - Don Davis and Carolyn Davis, Sound System Engineering,
Howard Sams & Company (1975), Chapters 3 through 6.
10 - George L. Augspurger, More Accurate Calculation of the
Room Constant, Journal Audio Engineering Society, Volume 23, No.
5 (June, 1975), pp. 381-385.
11 - Cecil R. Cable. Loudspeaker Q
What Does It Mean ?, Preprint #956, Paper J -5 Presented at the 48th Convention of the Audio
Engineering Society, May 7 -10, 1974.
12 Poul Ladegaard, Audible Effects of Mechanical Resonances
in Turntables, B &K Instruments, Inc., (Bruel & Kjaer Precision
Instruments) Application Note 17 -233, 1978. Reprint of paper
presented at the 58th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society,
November 4 -7, 1977 (No AES pre -print available).
-
Conclusion
Clearly, not every job will require use of all the detailed
in many cases, the system
design methods outlined
designer's experience with similar situations will provde all
the information necessary. Where the job conditions are
unusual or the arrangement lacks precedent in the designer's
experience, then the engineering approach is extremely
valuable: the designer, installers, owner and club customers
are all rewarded with a Disco sound system that works
properly the first time.
-
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Since this unit has all of its
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R-e p 77
IMPROVED
INSTRUMENT TIMBRE
THROUGH
MICROPHON
''/:
PLACEMENT,
/),050
by Wieslaw
V. R.
Woszczyk
Too often, choice of microphone
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analysis. The subjective element cannot and
should not be eliminated from the recording
process. However, many microphone
- The
Author
-
Wieslaw V. R. Woszczyk is the director of
the Masters of Music in Sound Recording
Program which is part of the music faculty
at McGill University, Montreal Canada.
His background includes a Masters from
the Tonmeisters Department at the State
Academia of Music in Warsaw, Poland. He
is currently working on his Doctorate from
that same institution. His work at McGill
includes the position of assistant professor with the faculty of music, Department
of Theory. He is a member of the AES, and
has presented a number of papers, including a taped demonstration of the subject
covered in this article, at the 63rd Convention in May of 1979.
The author has worked at a number of
commercial studios, including Big Apple
Studios in New York City, where his
credits include work with Harry Belafonte, Gloria Gaynor, Brian Eno, and
George NeCree, among others.
Recently his classical recordings won
the Grand Prix du Disque in Canada.
techniques unwittingly degrade the quality
of sound, especially the natural timbre of an
instrument. This article analyzes some of
the factors which affect the timbrai quality of
recorded instrument sounds and practical
data for the recording engineer using typical
equipment in a studio environment.
Experiments with a close multi -microphone
system document an alternative miking
technique that captures both the presence
and full spectral content of a musical
instrument.
Directional
Characteristics Of Instruments
Musical instruments are often regarded
as loudspeakers that should have well
defined directional response patterns with
the optimum direction of their full spectral
performance on axis. On the contrary, most
musical instruments are very complex
radiators which project sound energy multi directionally, in different and constantly
changing proportions of spectral density.
Every sample of the direct sound picked up
by a single receiver placed anywhere on a
spherical surface around the instrument will
differ. An individual sample does not have a
spectrum of exactly the same nature as the
total power spectrum of the instrument
which is an average of the infinite number of
A-e/p 78
www.americanradiohistory.com
samples creating complete field surrounding the instrument.
This total spectrum can be measured in
reverberant rooms, which integrate
acoustically the total output of the
instrument. In anechoic rooms intensity
readings of many samples would have to be
taken on the sphere surrounding the
instrument, then integrated, and
a
calculated average would produce the total
spectrum.
Knowing that the method of extracting
the instrument's total spectrum is quite
different in reverberant and anechoic
environments, we could presume that the
environment plays an important part as
integrator and carrier of the instrument's
timbrai information.
A short survey of the radiation properties
of various instruments is provided on page
Function Of Acoustic Environment
A standard engineering practice involves
finding a particular acoustic environment
for recording a particular instrument. The
acoustic character of certain areas in a
room influence the acoustic output of
various instruments. The timbre of an
instrument in a reverberant environment is
the result of the interaction between the
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direct and reverberant sound fields.
Reverberant sound contains a large
proportion of lower frequency energy
radiated by the instrument in directions
other than the one of maximum output in
the "presence" range. Most orchestral
instruments are built to be more or less
directional and have an axis of preferred
radiation with a "presence boost" which
enables them to project their sound to the
back of the concert hall. This provides a
desirable ratio of direct sound and
reverberant sound to the audience in the
concert hall. Almost all instruments radiate
their low frequencies omni -directionally so
the participation of low frequencies in the
reverberant field is much greater than in the
direct field. Thus, the reverberant
processing by a room adds warmth and
fullness to a sound. To achieve a fuller
sound with more varied harmonics and
substantial energy in the low end of the
spectrum a microphone should be placed at
some distance from the instrument to allow
the room to collect and remix acoustically
the multi -directional sound ingredients. If
closer microphone placement is utilized the
of audible phase interference. The floor is
the largest and closest reflective surface to
the instrument and its effect on timbre
quality is the strongest. Questioning the
existence of this reflective surface so close
to the source and calculating its degree of
phase interference is impractical. Reflected
sound and some phase interference are
integral parts of the sound of a musical
instrument played in a natural environment.
If the reflective surface is located opposite
the microphone on the other side of a
complex radiator the direct and reflected
signals at the microphone have less similar
spectra.
REFLECTIVE
SURFACE
z
MICROPHONE
PRESSURE
VECTORS
INSTRUMENT
In a concert hall, large reflective surfaces
around the stage area have
a
strong
influence on the definition and timbre of
orchestral instruments. Side walls, front and
back parts of the ceiling, and the back wall
redirect large portions of sound energy into
the audience and onto the stage area,
presenting additional timbre and loudness
information. Without these surfaces, as in
360 degree concert halls, there are
problems in achieving a fullness of sound,
flow of musical events, proper timbre
balance, and loudness. In such halls the
spectral balance of the orchestra is different
in every listening position because the
instruments are placed in a more or less
free -field environment. Increased efficiency
in the rear and side radiations through the
work of reflective surfaces will result in a
fuller and richer instrumental timbre quality
perceived by the audience. The reflective
surfaces are especially important for the
woodwind instruments which have definite
multi -directional patterns.
One strong reflection may substitute for
reverberation if the instrument is placed
next to a reflective surface to redirect the
rear radiation of the instrument toward the
microphone with a slight delay. (Figure 1)
However, the rear radiation must have a
substantially different spectral energy
combination than the front radiation or
audible phase cancellation may occur. This
is not often a problem since the output
energy spectrum of most instruments
changes heavily with direction. The
constantly fluctuating spectrum of most
musical instruments reduces the probability
techniques are used.
Close Miking
With A Single Microphone
It is common practice today to severely
restrict the full spherical radiation of
instruments with the extensive use of
directional microphones. Usually one
cardioid microphone is placed close to the
instrument, in the direction of the
instrument's most efficient sound production in the "presence" frequency range. A
closely placed microphone picks up, to a
great extent, only the partials of the sound
which are directly radiated at the
microphone and may completely miss
sound components sent in other directions.
A single microphone closely placed can only
sample one part of the frequency dependent
polar pattern of an instrument.
In close miking the placement is very
critical for spectrum equalizing.
pick-up becomes selective and less
adequately expresses the instrument's
output.
This environment degrades the timbre
information when distant microphone
A
microphone placed close to an instrument
samples the radiation, achieving a particular
equalization of the instrument's power
spectrum. In this case, electronic
equalization is often used to compensate for
defects, but it can only change the relative
balance of energy in three or four places on
the spectrum. Electronic equalization does
not introduce any new harmonics which
were missed by the microphone, or any
other elements that would change the
Few recording studio rooms provide
useful acoustical assistance for directing
sound radiation to control the timbre of
musical instruments. Rare exceptions have
existing balance properly and increase the
amount of information about the instrument. The complexity of sound is not
matched by the correcting abilities of an
equalizer.
A single microphone placed close and on
the axis of an instrument generally produces
hardwood floors, adjustable reflective
a
Figure
1
panels below high ceilings, and adjustable
absorption side walls. Most of the currently
popular recording environments approach
anechoic chamber rather than concert hall
specifications in their average reverberation
time and in their use of reflective surfaces. In
an acoustically damped environment most
of the energy of the instrument's sound is
wasted because most of its radiation is
absorbed, except for the small portion of the
spherical radiation pattern occupied by the
membrane of the microphone. The special
characteristics of that wasted energy are
not used to add to the spectral information
of the instrument. A microphone placed in a
dead room lacks the additional information
which plays a vital role in the recognition of
an instrument's timbral character, and can
give a misleading interpretation of the
instrument's total power spectrum. The
absorptive environment most frequently
found in a recording studio also has the
tendency to process the energy information
in the frequency domain, attenuating
various frequencies in different proportions.
R-e/p 80
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very hard, concrete sound which is
especially pronounced on directionally
radiated parts of the spectrum. It is
necessary to have the clarity, immediacy,
transient response, spectrum and dynamic
range as received by the close miked sound
received on axis pick -up. But it is also
necessary to have the richness of all the
harmonics produced by the instrument, the
fullness from low frequency components,
and the natural spectral balance. The
ongoing "audio purist" campaign for a
return to the simplicity that ostensibly
captures the "live" sound of the concert hall
substantiates the necessity for a more
natural timbre in recordings.
Let us examine some typical close
placements of microphones applied to
various acoustical instruments and consider
the extent of the timbre weighting the single close-microphone technique achieves in
each case.
The typical placement of a microphone
used in recording a brass instrument is at
the bell. Brass instruments extend their
spectra toward high frequencies when they
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R-e/p 81
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3
4
31 5
125
63
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
31 5
63
OCTAVE BAND CENTER FREQUENCIES IN Hr
Figure
2:
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
OCTAVE BAND CENTER FREQUENCIES IN Hz
The empty concert hall: A) The measured reverberation time. B) The relative power response calculated from the
measured reverberation time.
are played louder and narrow considerably
when played softer, while the intensities in
the main formant region remain at an almost
equal level. This increase in amplitude of
high frequency partials produces a large
subjective treble boost. The very high
frequencies are radiated in a narrow beam.
Further, they do not reach the concert hall
listener directly for a period of long time and
are usually not heard after some reflections.
(Figure 2) But these high frequencies
certainly reach the microphone placed at
the bell. In this position a microphone can
over -estimate the relative level of the higher
harmonics by as much as 25 dB, based on
comparison with the results of acoustic
averaging of power spectrum in reverberant
rooms. A pressure- gradient single-
DIRECTIONAL PROPERTIES
OF INSTRUMENTS
Musical instruments are often regarded as loudspeakers that have well defined
directional response patterns and optimum performance on -axis. On the contrary, musical
instruments are very complicated multi -directional radiators.
The following survey of the radiation properties of various instruments is essential
information for studies in microphone placement.
Bowed string instruments have exceedingly complex directivity patterns which are
different for every partial and alter dramatically with any change in frequency. Numerous
resonances of the top and bottom plates reinforce the harmonics of the string vibrations in a
uniform and effective way throughout the usable frequency range. On the average, the
violin radiates its low frequency components below 400 Hz omni- directionally. The
preferred radiation of partials around 400 - 500 Hz is concentrated toward the back of the
instrument. This is an important frequency range which gives the instrument the deep and
dark singing quality of the vowel "o." Components around 700 Hz are better radiated toward
the right side, over the top plate, and partials around 1,000 Hz toward the left. Partials
around 1,500 Hz tend to radiate both right and left but less directly at the center above the
top plate. All of the components above 1,000 Hz have larger amplitudes over the top plate of
the instrument than below the bottom plate, therefore the frequency range which gives the
timbre the open, lively quality of the vowel "a" (1,000 to 1,250 Hz) is found here. Sounds
above 3,000 Hz exhibit many narrow angles of preferred radiation. The sound above the
instrument is brilliant and lively and below has a deep dark quality. The radiation of celli and
contrabasses is also of a multi-directional nature. Celli radiate the partials below 200 Hz
omni -directionally. In the 200 Hz region and between 350 Hz and 500 Hz the frontal
radiation is stronger. At 800 Hz a cello radiates more sound upwards in the direction of the
neck, while components between 1,000 Hz and 1,250 Hz are best captured in front of the
neck. Contrabasses radiate even the lowest frequency partials in a semi -circle around the
front plate and upper frequency components are directed toward the front and back of the
instrument.
Most of the sound from a woodwind instrument is radiated through the open tone holes.
Only when all the tone holes are closed to obtain the lowest notes in each register is the
radiation from the bell complete. The lowest partials of the woodwind sound are emitted
from the first open hole below the mouthpiece. High frequency components are produced
by a greater number of open tone holes and the highest components are best radiated by all
of the holes and the bell of the instrument. The wavelength of any sound component
radiated through the tone hole is much longer than the diameter of the hole and the sound is
therefore diffracted. When measured by a distant mirophone all but the highest partials,
which are radiated most effectively and directionally by the bell, appear to be radiated
equally in all directions. However, a closely placed microphone will reveal small, sharp
directional patterns which quickly alter with every pitch produced by the instrument. The
proximity of the microphone to a certain tone hole will greatly emphasize a particular
fundamental and the next few partials. The reedy quality of the woodwind instrument is
produced by the higher partials radiated best through the bell. However, if the bell of the
clarinet was stopped with a large cork the tone quality would not, except for a few notes,
change substantially because the radiations through the tone holes sufficiently describe
the instrument.
R-e p 82
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diaphragm microphone placed close to the
source produces a low frequency proximity
boost that might counterbalance the
exaggerated pick up in the upper parts of
the spectrum. Unfortunately, the frequency
of maximum boost caused by the proximity
effect is often around 100 Hz (depending on
the microphone type) and is too low to
effectively increase the energy of the lowest
partials of trumpet sounds in the loud
register. Also, proximity remains when it is
not needed, in softer passages where higher
partials do not overbalance the lower
partials. Ribbon microphones are appreciated for their high -cut, low -boost response
which helps to recover the natural balance
of the closely miked trumpet.
The close microphone placement for
woodwinds, particularly the saxophone, is
also at the bell. This placement picks up an
exaggerated amount of high frequency
components and lacks the fullness of a low
frequency energy that would balance the
spectrum. It totally misses the lower partials
which radiate primarily through the open
tone holes on the wall of the conical tube.
The lowest partials of every tone on the
instrument, except the lowest two in each
register, are radiated through the first open
hole below the mouthpiece. Instead of the
full resonance of the vibrating modes of the
air column the microphone placed at the bell
gets the information describing the
movement of the reed in the mouthpiece.
The timbre of the saxophone on many
current records is very electronic and
shallow, and has mixed -in echo effects
which aggravate this quality.
A single microphone placed over the
bridge of a bowed string instrument does
not collect the radiations of the instrument
in proportions which correspond to its
complete sound output. On the violin the
resonant frequencies of the top and bottom
plates should complement each other and
should differ, not coincide. This shared
radiation in the frequency domain insures
maximum output for every harmonic of
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R-e p 83
string vibration and indicates that very
different sound qualities are produced by
each side of the instrument. The bottom
plate has a strong resonance around 500 Hz
and the top plate has a better radiation of
the higher partials so it sounds brighter and
more nasal. The placement of a microphone
above and close to the bridge emphasizes
the tonal quality of the top plate. Some of
the bottom plate radiation finds its way to
the top through the "f" holes but is
insufficient because of the baffle effect of the
top plate. This microphone placement also
emphasizes the sound of the sticking and
slipping action of the bow on the string and
the subsequent vibration of the bridge. As a
result, the microphone will produce a
vigorous, over- bright, and nasal sound
quality lacking the full and dark timbre of the
bottom plate.
A microphone placed close to the upper
membrane of a tom tom with both
membranes on will not pick up any of the
partials of the lower membrane except the
fundamental, which is coupled to the upper
membrane through the air column. The pick
up of the upper membrane's frequency
components will be very detailed, but the
balance is dependent on the placement of
the microphone between the center and the
edge of the membrane, or outside the rim. A
microphone placed over the center of the
membrane will pick up the fundamental
more than the upper partials. A microphone
placed slightly outside the membrane edge
emphasizes the highest partials, decreases
the fundamental, and increases the
possibility of the lower membrane radiation
reaching the microphone. If the membrane
of the drum is of considerable size
Figure 3A
PRESSURE
VECTOR
compared to the diaphragm of the
microphone, as in the case of a bass drum,
close placement of the microphone is
extremely critical. Figure 3A shows acoustic
summing while 3B illustrates acoustic
cancellation
Place any of the above instruments in a
reverberant environment and withdraw the
microphone to the far field and the
spectrum received would more closely
resemble the total power spectrum of that
instrument. The appropriate balance of
/
.4 MICROPHONE
MARCHING
DRUM
Both heads
struck
Figure 3B
PRESSURE
VECTORS z
J
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-
7
MICROPHONE
\
many distinct sound fields could be
TOM -TOM
DRUM
achieved acoustically through diffusion in
the air and reflections from the room
boundaries. However, the positive qualities
of the close microphone, the impact of the
attack, the detail, and the dynamic range
would be lost. The coloration by the
particular room response and leakage from
other instrument fields could impair the
quality and the separation needed for the
flexibility of independent timbre control.
The particular sound quality and operational advantages of close microphone
placement make the method attractive and
easy to apply. The natural timbre distortions
and simplifications caused by spot-sampling
DIRECTIONAL PROPERTIES OF INSTRUMENTS
Brass instruments have more unidirectional radiation characteristics than woodwinds. In
their lowest frequency components the radiation pattern of brass instruments is omnidirectional because the directional function of the bell is not effective. The omni -directional
radiation characteristics become more directional with increasing pitch and develop side
radiations which show adjacent peaks and dips on a polar diagram. The directional
characteristics begin at different frequencies and depend on the bell diameter, the length of
conical tubing, and the bore size. In trumpets side radiations begin above 600 Hz, in
trombones above 450 Hz, and in tubas around 80 Hz. As the frequency rises the number of
peaks increases but their relative intensity diminishes, and the radiated energy
concentrates on axis into a still narrower angle. Side radiation between 2,000 and 5,000 Hz
has 15 to 25 dB less energy than on axis radiation. The important partials of the trombone's
distinctive timbre, around 700 Hz, are best radiated to the sides. Also, the partials of the
trumpet around 1,200 Hz are side radiated and give this instrument its loudness and tonal
character.
The sound and directional characteristics of drums are produced by two systems, the aircoupled vibration of the fundamental vibrations of the two membranes and the normal
modes of vibration of the struck and passive membranes. The average directionality of the
fundamental frequency, affected by the length of the body, corresponds roughly to a figu reeight pattern with the average sound intensity measured on the line that perpendicularly
bisects the axis of the drum heads, equal to one -half the intensity measured on either of the
two skin -heads of the drum. At any given instant the two membranes coupled through the
air inside the drum can vibrate in phase with an omni -directional characteristic, out of
phase in a figure -eight pattern, or can vibrate in any other phase relationship. Depending on
the ratio of the fundamental frequencies of the two membranes, the changing phase
relationship causes the intensity of the vibration to increase alternately in each membrane
and exchange the energy of the vibration from one membrane to the other. This coupling is
effective only at the fundamental frequency of vibration and does not affect the higher
partials. The higher partials are radiated independently by the two membranes and are
affected by the uniformity of the membrane thickness and its tension around the rim. The
fundamental is radiated most efficiently at the center of the membrane while the higher
partials are radiated off center and closer to the rim. Higher partials appear to be radiated
omni -directionally when measured by a distant microphone since the vibrating parts of a
membrane surface are small compared to the wavelengths they radiate. A closely
directional microphone can pick up the different average balances of spectral energy
separately on each membrane, or different balances of the upper and lower partials
depending on the distance of the microphone from the membrane center, the rim, or
outside the rim.
R-e p 64
www.americanradiohistory.com
the acoustical field are largely overlooked.
The lost information from the complete
spherical radiation of the instrument is
compensated for by an increase in transient
information from the source near the
microphone. Equalizers and microphone
choice attempt to balance the spectrum, but
do not add any information to it.
Close Miking
With Multiple Microphones
The advantages of both close and distant
microphone placements could be utilized by
discovering where a minimum number of
microphones could be located that would
allow a reasonable averaging of the external
spectrum for the most common tones of the
instrument. A reasonable approximation of
this average spectrum could be produced
by combining the outputs of several
microphones from the best samples.
Through independent pick up and mixing
of characteristic spectral qualities of the
instrument, natural equalization of a sound
spectrum could be accomplished. With this
type of equalizing the spectrum does not
merely change the relative magnitudes in
one or two places on the spectrum. It uses
resonant areas (formants) or reinforced
groups of partials that are produced and
radiated by the instrument in different
directions, and which complement each
other in reconstructing the desired total
spectrum. If a number of single partials are
weak in one microphone, they may be
provided by another, hence a proper
balance can be reached, a process not
possible through electronic equalization.
The changing spectral information
produced during performance by the
instrument preserves the characteristics of
- continued
overleaf
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R-e/p 85
the instrument rather than that of the
equalizer.
Some experiments were designed to test
the ability of the close placement of multiple
microphones to combine the advantages of
close miking with the timbre achieved by
distant miking. The objective of the
experiments was to find a means of
recovering the natural timbral balance
which is lost in single close mitring. The pick
up of middle and low frequency energy
radiated by the instrument off-axis was of
primary interest, rather than the presence
range energy which is radiated on -axis.
The experimental method used a multitrack recording of two instruments in three
different acoustic environments. Microphone signals on the tape were mixed,
spectral density analyses were taken, and
several listening tests were conducted. The
spectral density analysis emphasized the
importance of the lowest harmonics that are
largely responsible for creating an
impression of fullness and the characteristic,
timbre of an instrument.
Spectrum averages of single notes as well
as running scale passages were made to
show the emphasis of particular microphone placements in certain harmonic
regions. The captured samples of radiation
have different characteristic spectral energy
distributions. A graph comparison gives an
idea of the polar radiation pattern of an
instrument.
The baritone saxophone and the viola
were selected to represent woodwinds and
bowed stringed instruments, groups whose
timbre is most affected by close microphone
pick up. This is due to their complex, multidirectional radiation characteristics. The
baritone saxophone is a large instrument
with the bell and tone holes well separated
from each other, permitting the use of more
than one microphone to pick up distinctive
sound fields which could demonstrate the
influence of microphone placement on tonal
character. It is also rich in partials and the
lack or excess of important partials has a
marked effect on the spectral energy
balance and audible timbre. The viola,
though smaller, is also multi-directional and
the principles of multi -miking can be
similarly applied to other instruments of the
violin family.
Four microphones were arranged around
the saxophone as shown in Figure 4. All
microphones used in the experiments were
Figure 4
Neumann U87s on cardioid position. The
first microphone was placed in a common
recording position about six inches from the
bell of the instrument. The second
microphone was placed near the largest
open holes on the conical tube, about one
foot below the bell. The third microphone
faced the upper open holes close to the
musician's left side, and the fourth was
placed at the open holes, midway on the
musician's right side and slightly behind the
instrument. The signals were recorded
simultaneously on separate tracks for the
future spectral and aural analysis and
flexibility in mixing. No electronic
equalization was used, so all differences in
spectrum and timbre were caused by the
microphone placement on the polar pattern
of the instrument.
The performer stood in the middle of a
large room, about 20 feet from the nearest
wall. The ceilings are high, the floor and
walls carpeted. The average reverberation
time is approximately half a second,
corresponding to a typical studio environment. He was asked to play forte the most
frequently used range consisting of Eb2, G2,
Bbl, D3, F3, A3, C4 and Eb4. These are the
fundamentals from 77 Hz to 311 Hz. Every
note of the scale was played separately for
five to seven seconds and then the scale was
played legato, up and down a few times, at
approximately two notes for every 1.5
Figure 5
arranged as seen in Figure 5. The first
microphone was placed 12 inches above the
top plate over the bridge, the second placed
below the bottom plate at a similar distance
and facing up, the third microphone was
positioned above and behind the chin rest
about 18 inches from the instrument, and
the fourth was placed above and in front of
the neck about two feet from the bridge.
The viola scale consisted of D3, F #3, A3,
C#4, D4, F#4, A4, C #5 and D5, the range of
fundamentals from 146 Hz to 587 Hz.
A Hewlett- Packard Digital Signal
Analyzer model 5420A was used with the
plotter to measure and plot the spectrum
density. (Figure 6) Signal averaging was
used to reduce random components and
emphasize coherent static components.
Drawings of energy concentrations helped
verify the extent of weighting that a
particular mike placement had on the
received spectrum of the instrument's total
output. Twenty samples were taken in the
time domain of a 3.6 second sustain of every
individual note. Every time sample was 20
ms long and consisted of 256 data points. A
new sample was taken every 160 ms in the
"fast rate" for individual notes, and every
800 ms in the normal rate for complete
scales. The frequency domain measurements were derived by the analyzer by
taking the Fourier transform of time domain
measurements. An ensemble of 256
uniformly spaced (every 50 Hz) frequency
domain samples was created throughout
the chosen bandwidth from 50 Hz to 12,800
seconds.
The same performer repeated the
exercise in an empty 600 seat concert hall
that is rectangular and has a T6o of 2.6
seconds at 500 Hz. The measured
reverberation time and the relative power
response determined direction from the
reverberation time figures as presented in
Figure 2. The musician stood in the center of
the stage. An omni -directional Neumann
U87 was placed in the reverberant far -field,
the audience area about 65 feet from the
performer, and its output was recorded on a
separate track of the multi-track tape. Here
the acoustical method of averaging the
instrument's spectrum was employed.
Hz. The results of the power spectral
density analysis were displayed and plotted
on a logarithmic frequency scale and alinear
magnitude scale. The linear magnitude scale
shows more clearly the energy relationships
between the lower partials which are the
most critical for perceived timbre. It
expands the differences in intensities
between the meaningful half -dozen or so
In the third recording situation the
musician continued the same exercise in a
large, empty, reverberant room with
concrete floor and walls, and an absorptive
ceiling. The sound output of the instrument
was averaged acoustically and picked up by
a single omni -directional microphone placed
asymetrically in the room. The musician
moved around while playing to excite more
room modes and increase the statistical
smoothing effect of many simultaneously
excited modes, producing a good average of
the radiation behavior of the instrument.
The output of the microphone was recorded
on a separate track of the multi -track tape.
The experiments with the viola followed
the same procedures but used a different
- continued
microphone placement and different
musical material. The microphones were
Figure
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- continued from
page 86
..
.
a
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low partials. Each one of the lower partials
belongs to a different critical band and is
processed for loudness separately by the
ear. The loudness of all the critical bands
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Figure 7. The Baritone Saxophone Eb2 (77 Hz): The averaged spectrum density analysis of
the signal received from each microphone as seen in Figure 3. A) At the bell, B) at the open
holes below the bell, C) at the open holes on the musician's left side, D) at the open holes on
the musician's right side.
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added together provides low- frequency
perception of timbre. The lack of energy of a
particular partial will prevent one of these
critical bands from contributing its loudness
to the timbre formation.
After the spectral density measurements
of individual notes was made the analysis of
the close microphones was compared to the
total power spectrum averaged acoustically
in the reverberant room and the concert
hall. Long time averaging was used and
twenty time samples were taken during 16
seconds of the running scale.
The averaged spectral density analysis of
the four microphones placed around the
saxophone (playing Eb2, 77 Hz) is presented
in Figure 7. The complete eight -note scale
analysis is shown in Figure 8. The
microphone at the bell receives a sound
spectrum with strong formant areas around
450 Hz, 800 Hz, and several resonant areas
in the range of 1,000 to 3,000 Hz. In the
subjective listening tests this microphone's
sound was described as harsh, flat and
extensively filtered. The listeners did not
recognize in this sound the characteristic
timbre of the baritone saxophone. The
other microphones produced spectra which
were very rich in low frequency partials. The
two microphones placed at the open holes
of the instrument reveal spectra containing
the lowest partials below 500 Hz
with
peaks at 250 and 300 Hz, and very small
energy content above 1,000 Hz.
-
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Figure
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Figure 8. The Baritone Saxophone Scale: The long -time averaged spectrum density analysis of the signal received from each microphone as seen in Figure 4. A) At the bell, B) at the
open holes below the bell, C) at the open holes on the musician's left side, D) at the open
holes on the musician's right side.
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Figure 9. The Viola Scale: The long -time averaged spectral density analysis of the signal
received from each microphone seen in Figure 5. A) Above the top plate, B) below the
bottom plate, C) above and behind the chin rest, D) above and in front of the neck.
9
compares the long -time
averaged spectral density analysis of the
signal received from each of the four
microphones around the viola. The sound
picked up by the microphone placed below
the bottom plate has a very distinctive color
because of a high formant peak around 400
Hz, peaks at 550 Hz and 700 Hz, and a
relatively small amount of energy above
1,000 Hz. The microphone behind and
above the chin rest picked -up strong
resonances around 1600 Hz that brighten
the sound. The mike above and in front of
the neck reproduced a series of wide
resonances from 1,000 Hz to 4,000 Hz with a
sharp peak at 3,000 Hz. This produced an
over- bright timbre that was harsh and had a
strong bowing quality. These varied timbres
provided good material for balancing.
In conjunction with the four microphone
arrangement a more practical mike set up
that approximated the sound of the first setup was tested. Two microphones were
placed around the baritone saxophone as
shown in Figure 10. One microphone was
positioned at the bell but slightly above it to
pick up some of the radiation from the open
holes close to the mouthpiece. The second
microphone was placed on the right side of
the performer below the bell and close to the
frequency band between 50 Hz to 15 kHz
over the time of 1.0 second. An oscilloscope
responding instantaneously to phase
relationship is also useful.
If the signals contain few frequency
components in common their phase
relationship will be random and they will
behave as independent signals that do not
degrade each other when mixed. Microphone placements which pick up different
timbres will not have many same frequencies with similar magnitudes, so the
Figure 10
open holes. The two microphone arrangement for the viola as shown in Figure 11 has
one microphone above the top plate and
toward the chin rest and the other below the
bottom plate and toward the neck. The
possibility of phase interference
outputs of the two microphones were
combined electrically in the desired
ratio of the distance between two
proportions and spectrally analyzed for the
single notes and the running scale. The
output levels were first set to the optimum
audible balance throughout the scale and
remained in that position throughout the
measurement procedure. These analyses
were compared to the previous diagrams of
independent microphones.
Phase Interference
To find the extent of phase interference
between the common components of the
combined microphone signals the averaged
spectrum density analysis of the separate
microphone signals were summed arithmetically and compared with the diagram of the
electrically combined pair. Spectrum
addition (summing) is done graphically and
does not take into account the phase
relationship of the signals the spectra
represent. Electrical mixing produces phase
interference which appears in the averaged
spectrum density analysis
as a
stable
component.
The slight differences between the
spectra derived though arithmetic addition
and those from electrical mixing indicate
that there is some phase interference in the
signals. However, if every microphone is
placed over a different characteristic field of
radiation, phase interference will be kept
below the level of subjective detectability.
The multi-microphone method demands
some precision. Linear distortion is audible
as timbre coloration and can result from
phase interference between the combined
signals of individual microphones. The
potential for distortion when using this
method is dependent on the degree of
similarity between the microphone signals in
each band of frequencies. To test this,
divide the individual microphone signals into
contiguous frequency bands and measure
the cross correlation of their corresponding
outputs. As an alternative, a correlation
is
decreased. Timbre differentiation is more
likely if the microphones are placed close to
sound radiators which are physically further
apart and radiate directionally. Ideally, the
microphones and the distance of the closest
microphone to the source should be more
than 3:1. Interference is easily avoided on
large instruments, especially those that vary
in timbre in places around it. For example, it
is easier to find unlike sound components on
a bass drum of 26" diameter than one of 20."
The fundamental frequency has its
maximum amplitude in the center, while the
higher partials are found nearer the rim. In
the violin family the baffle effect of the
instrument to itself contributes to different
sound fields.
Instrument design prevents phase
cancellations that would make it less
efficient. Some frequencies are radiated
most strongly in certain directions, and
higher frequencies are radiated directionally. Some instruments, an open pipe organ or
a drum, for example, have their sound
sources separated by a distance which
decreases the degree of effective phase
cancellation from sources that vibrate out of
phase.
Separation or random correlation
between two signals can also be increased
electronically. A low -pass filter applied to
one signal and a high -pass to the other will
decrease the number of common frequency
components. Varied microphones will
lessen the chances for critical partials to be
of comparable magnitude. Phase interference is not more apparent in an electronic
mix of near-field derived signals containing
distinctive spectral characteristics than in
an acoustic mix obtained in the far-field.
It is important to remember that phase
interference is largely responsible for the
Figure 11
meter comparing the outputs of the
combined microphones can be used. This
device indicates the average sum of in and
out of phase components usually within the
R-e/p 92
www.americanradiohistory.com
particular timbre of many instruments. It
plays an important part in shaping the
sounds of instruments in a room or next to a
single reflective surface, the floor. In
practice, phase interference is always
contributing to the sound we perceive.
The two microphone set up for the
saxophone shown in Figure 10 and
illustrated in Figure 12 proved to have
MIC
MI
PRESSURE
VECTOR
Figure 12: Examples of phase interference
in musical acoustics: The interpath delay
at the receiver between the open holes
and the bell radiation of same frequency
partials of a woodwind instrument.
enough flexibility for timbre control. The
microphone at the bell showed a peak at 700
- 800 Hz that dominates the spectral balance
of this arrangement. Diminished energy in
the low frequencies and the relatively high
energy of the partials between 1,000 Hz and
3,000 Hz gave the timbre presence but
lacked fullness and warmth. The side
microphone in this setup receives
substantially more energy below 500 Hz.
The averaged spectral density analyses
derived from the two microphone arrangement are illustrated by Figures 13 (Eb2, 77
Hz), 14 (G2, 98 Hz), and 15 (F3, 175 Hz).
Figures 16, 17, and 18 show the averaged
spectral analysis of the same sounds
recorded in the concert hall and the
reverberant room by the distant microphone. A comparison with the graphs of the
mixed microphone signals reveals marked
similarities.
The set -up shown in Figure 11 demonstrates a practical two mike setup for the
viola. Compared in Figure 19 is the spectral
analysis of the viola scale received in the
reverberant environments with the results
from the two mixed microphones shown.
The similarity demonstrates that two close
microphones can approximate the diversity
of the timbre produced by an instrument in a
concert hall.
- continued overleaf
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Figure 14. The Baritone Saxophone G2
(98 Hz): The averaged spectrum density
analysis of the signal received from: A)
the side microphone, B) the front microphone (both as in Figure 4), C) the spectrums of both microphones summed arithmetically.
Figure 13. The Baritone Saxophone Eb2
(77 Hz): The averaged spectrum density
analysis of the signal received from: A)
the side microphone, B) the front microphone (both as in Figure 4). C) the spectrums of both microphones summed arithmetically.
guilty of constructing the following
studios
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doing work all over North
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Construction and Design
SPEC
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25. 000
For the very best Studio
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10.000
59. 000
Winnipeg. Canada. new
studio
A
Sound Interchange, Toronto. Canada.
SPEC
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new studio
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Superscope. San Fernando, California,
new studio
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Chicago Recording Company, Chicago.
Illinois. Studios
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and
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Bill Szymczyk's
Studios. Inc., Coconut Grove. Florida.
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Bayshore Recording
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Studios. St.
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Village Recorders, Los Angeles, new
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Record Plant, Los Angeles. new studio
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Ronnie Milsap. Nashville, Tennessee.
new studio
Captain
&
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Call for information and details
RUDOLF A. BREUER
805 / 273-3792
ic. No.
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Figure 15: The Baritone Saxophone
(175 Hz): The averaged spectrum density
analysis of the signal received from: A)
the side microphone, B) the front microphone (both as in Figure 4), C) the spectrums of both microphones summed arithmetically.
R-e p 94
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Figure 16. The Baritone Saxophone Eb2
(77 Hz): The averaged spectrum density
analysis of the signal received from: D)
the two microphones seen in Figure 4
mixed electrically, E) the distant microphone in a concert hall, F) the distant
microphone in a reverberant room.
Listening Tests
microphones over the single microphone
sounds to correspond to the timbre quality
of the instrument in the concert hall, and
most preferred the timbre of the mixed
sounds. Heard separately neither of the
closely placed microphones reproduced a
sound satisfactory to the listeners.
Mixed close microphone signals maintain
Listening tests support this statement.
The participants in the tests included
professional musicians and music students.
A tape was prepared providing instant
comparisons between the sounds obtained
from the close and distant microphones
with their levels adjusted for equal loudness.
Participants consistently chose the mixed
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microphone techniques while introducing
some of the frequency domains inherent in
the distant mike technique, without allowing
the time domain processing of room
reflections and reverberation. Phase
interference from reflected sound is largely
reduced. The engineer has a more effective
control of the natural spectral balance in the
mixing process with ingredients that are
pure products of the instrument. Close
multi -miking eliminates the need for
excessive electronic equalization. Microphone choice, microphone placement, and
close multi-miking should be the primary
means of spectrum equalization, leaving
electrical equalization for spectrum
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correction in the mix -down.
During additional listening tests artificial
stereophonic reverberation was added to
the individual and mixed microphone
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quality of reverberation from the mixed
microphone signals. They described this
sound as "rounder" and "fuller." A single
microphone feeding an artificial reverberation system did not have the timbral quality
or the quantity of information that was
received and processed by a room in a live
concert. A mixed multi-microphone signal
provides an almost complete and balanced
spectrum of the instrument output and
contained
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Figure 17. The Baritone Saxophone C2
(98 Hz): The averaged spectrum density
analysis of the signal received from: D)
the two microphones seen in Figure 4
mixed electrically, E) the distant microphone in a concert hall, F) the distant
microphone in a reverberant room.
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Figure 18. The Baritone Saxophone F3
(175 Hz): The averaged spectrum density
analysis of the signal received from: D)
the two' microphones seen in Figure 4
mixed electrically, E) the distant microphone In a concert hall, F) the distant
microphone in a reverberant room.
a
good proportion of low
frequency energy that was characteristic of
live situations.
It should be understood that this system
of miking is not meant to supersede or
replace other microphone techniques. The
close multi-microphone technique is just
another method, but gives very good results
compared to single close miking in a
damped environment.
References:
A
SPEC
IA.
1
2e
A
n Ree
(A
SPEC
RI.
I
A. H. Benade, Fundamentals of Musical
Acoustics, Oxford University Press, 1976, New
York, London, Toronto.
D. W. Martin, Directivity and the Acoustic
Spectra of Brass Wind Instruments, JASA, Vol.
13, (January, 1942), p. 309.
D. Queen, The Application of Reverberant
IR
15.M
)
1
MAC
RAG
50.
SPEC
35.
Loudspeakers and Microphones, JASA, Vol. 14,
No. 3, (1966), p. 252.
Le
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Field Measurements to the Evaluation of
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IL 111
LcHz
511. 51111
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J. Meyer,
K
Directivity of Bowed Stringed
Instruments and Its Effect On Orchestral Sound
In Concert Halls, JASA, Vol. 52, No. 6, (1972), P.
1994.
J. Backus, The
II
IA.
A3EL
32
RF
I
21
IA.
2R
Acoustical Foundations of
Music, W. W. Norton and Company, New York,
1968.
NS
(9)
(D)
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Vol. 6 (1935), p. 267.
ILMK
Figure 19. The Viola Scale: The long -time averaged spectral density analysis of the signal
received from: A) The distant microphone in a reverberant room, B) the distant microphone
in a concert hall, C) the two microphones from Figure 6 mixed electrically, D) the distant
microphone in
a
concert hall with
a
H. F. Olson, Music, Physics, and Engineering,
Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1967.
J. Meyer and K. Wogram, Die Richtcharakteristiken von Trompete, Posaune und Tuba,
Das Musikinstrument 19, (1970), p. 171.
J. Obata and T. Tesima, Experimental Studies
on the Sound and Vibration of Drums, JASA,
reflective baffle behind the musician.
F. Winckel, Music, Sound and Sensation,
Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1978.
J. B. Wood, A Stereo Program Phase Checker,
JAES, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1972.
L. Burroughs, Microphones: Design and
Application, Sagamore Publications, New York,
1974.
R-e/p 95
... an answer to the drummers' need for more cue volume
Build Yourself an Earphone Booster Amp
-
/ Metronome Combination
by Ethan Winer
level to something more comfortable and
then give the booster to the percussionist.
(Here you go, Jack, blow your brains out.) A
volume control has been provided allowing
the drummer to be in complete command,
though obviously anyone can use it. But it
has been designed for a drummer's use
since it includes an electronic metronome
which allows the drummer or other principal
timekeeper to hear a steady beat along with
the music. If you want everybody to hear the
metronome in their phones, its' output is
available for feeding into the control room.
Since the electronic "click" sound is
There are few hard, fast rules in this world
of music and art, but one thing is always for
sure
the drummer wants it louder in the
phones. The singers could be wracked with
pain, tears in their eyes and still the
drummer will want more volume. You could
swear they're all deaf. (H- m-mmm? ... ) So
here, to the rescue, we have a booster
hold on to your hats
amplifier packing
a whopping 1.25 watts into a pair of 8 ohm
-
-
-
stereo headphones. Coupled with a
relatively efficient pair of cans, this
combination could be lethal. But seriously,
the idea is to reduce the overall cue feed
Parts List
2
555 timer ICs
377 audio power amp IC
bridge rectifier, 50 volt /1 amp
1K '/4 watt 5% resistors
-
1 1 -
2
-
watt 5% resistors
watt 5% resistor
1 1/4 watt 5% resistor
2 - 27K 1/4 watt 5% resistors
watt 5% resistor
1 - 39K
6 - 100K 14 watt 5% resistors
1 - 10K potentiometer, audio taper
1 - dual 10K pot, audio taper
or dual 100K pot linear taper (see text)
1
100K pot, linear taper
2 - 100 pf 10% disc capacitors
2 - .0047 mf 10% disc capacitors
3 - .01 mf 10% disc capacitors
2 - .1 mf 10% disc capacitors
2 - 1 mf /16 V electrolytic capacitors
1 - 10 mf/16 V tantalum capacitor
3 - 470 mf /16 V electrolytic capacitors
1 - 1,000 mf /25 V electrolytic capacitor
1 - on/off switch
1
1/8 amp slo -blo fuse in holder
1 - line cord and grommet
1 - power transformer, 12.6 V/400 mA
- suitable enclosure, hardware, input
and output connectors.
Note: A drilled and plated PC board for the
metronome /amplifier is available for $9.50
post paid from The Recording Center, Inc.,
25 Van Zant, East Norwalk, CT 06855.
3
4.7K
1 -
10K
15K
1/4
'/4
1I/4
-
-
O
Photo by Pete Hodgson
0 .16 VDC
100K
15K
Rate
CW
1JJK
7
4100K
2
555
^
Linear
-
3
6
IC
4 7K
6
1K
100ní
4700
27K
01.J
16V
10,1
1C3
16V
Tant
100k
100K
4
a
7
555
Level
39K
Out
10K
Audio
0047uí
3
1K
8
2
0047,f
Metronome
v
Nf
In
5
Line
1
Music
10K
470Ní
16V
14
IC2
15
470µf
-r
-
TO ,f
16V
10
11
12
Dual 10k
01,f
Audio
Volume
100K
100K
4 7K
Phones
100ní
L.
'
X'
RELIABILITY
VERSATILITY
Sphere is known for hard working, low
maintenance console systems. The White
House, the United States Senate, the Dorothy
Chandler Pavilion are Sphere consoles ..
they have to work and they do!
On each and every input we have three
panable stereo sends and four mono sends (for
whatever you need 'em
echo, cue, effects
for), 9 VCA groups, 3 programmable mutes, 4
interchangeable equalizers (2 three -knobs, 2
nine -octave graphics and a four-knob true
parametric available soon).
SOUND
Sphere consoles have no built -in sound ..
they're "like a piece of wire you shape ".
"Transparent
musical ..."
clear
punch, with no "edgyness" common to IC
consoles. We use discrete circuit amps at
mike pre -amp, summing
critical signal points
amps and output amps.
...
.
...
.
-
AUTOMATION
Sphere automation is designed to keep you on
the air, not making excuses. We use the only
proven system in the world
the Allison
65K. All others are hypothetical.
...
PRICE
You've heard about electronics that pass "DC
well Sphere rolls off at the
to daylight'
color green and puts it in your pocket. The
Eclipse C is the finest console in the world for
your dollar. It may be the finest console in the
world for any number of dollars (or pounds or
marks or yen). You're going to be very
we are priced very
pleasantly surprised
close to some of the mass-produced consoles
presently available.
.
...
11"
//// I I 11 1111\
1..,,f,i.1i,.L....d
r
-111111111991
6 1
_
4
"'
++.....
a
MIR"
The Eclipse C joins the company of Bee Jay Studios, Orlando, Florida, Alpha Recording Corporation, Richmond, Virginia; Bang Records, Atlanta, Georgia, Columbia Recording Studios, Ronall
nie Milsap Enterprises; Creative Workshop
of Nashville, Tennessee. Enactron, Los Angeles,
Monterey Records, Los Angeles, Sigla, Brazil,
and Sigma Sound Studios, Inc., of Philadelphia.
-
fpheie
ECTRONICS, INC.
"THE CONSOLE COMPANY"
20201 A Prairie
Chatsworth, California 91311
(213) 349 -4747
Ted Bennett
Sphere Associates
Northeast
(703) 471 -1230
Wally Wilson
Sphere Audio Sales
Midwest & Southeast
(615) 794 -0155
Chris Jones
Sphere Audio Sales
Southeast
(404) 393-9474
for additional information circle no 45
www.americanradiohistory.com
Don Allred
Sound Advice, Inc.
West
(213) 783 -5837
relatively neutral and resonance -free, an
equalizer may be used to create a tone
quality that will help to stand out in the mix.
A parametric EQ would be the most useful
set for a narrow peak and give it a healthy
boost. In the midrange, this will bring out a
wood block or claves type sound. Lower
down, near 80 or 100 Hz, a boost (use less
here) will sound like a kick drum. Cut out
some midrange and it will sound even
better. Play it through a good speaker and
then mike that
you'll think it's the real
thing. But there are even more uses for a
metronome in the control room. For one,
you can keep your 30- second spots to 30
seconds. Or, you can lay a steady beat on
the master tape to hold things together if the
drums won't be added till later. In fact, a
metronome can be so handy in the studio
that many readers may want to build only
that part. No problem. Eliminating the
power amplifier will allow battery operation
-
-
which further simplifies construction.
Simply hook up a 9 -volt battery to the timer
ICs and away you go. No other changes are
required, though the output level will drop
by 6 dB or so.
Most mechanical metronomes have a
range of from 40 to 208 beats per minute.
The electronic version presented here has
been designed to slightly exceed this range
to take component tolerances into account.
Final calibration amounts to little more than
counting beats and timing with a stopwatch.
Marks may be made on the panel indicating
the tempo or you could go all out and have
your unit professionally painted and
screened.
As you might imagine, operation isn't very
complicated. In addition to the tempo
adjustment, there are two volume controls
one for the music and one for the
metronome. The user can set any balance
desired without disturbing the main cue
feed. Incidentally, the music is maintained in
full stereo, while the metronome is fed
equally to the two channels.
-
Construction
Little difficulty should be encountered,
even for novice builders, as the circuit is
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ci+r'
R-e p 98
relatively simple. Also, a printed circuit
board is available from the author for a
nominal cost, though some readers may
prefer to use perf board. Either method
should work fine, but another decision will
need to be made regarding input and output
connectors. The prototype was built into a
fairly small aluminum box with a'%" stereo
phone plug sticking out the side allowing the
whole thing to plug directly into the cue jack
on the wall. This may not be practical if a
larger enclosure is used and you may be
better off with a two or three foot wire
coming out the side for the input. This also
allows you to use any connector type you
want, or even to change later on.
record manufacturing corp.
902 Industnal Blvd.. Dallas. Texas 75207
(214) 741 -2027
for additional information circle no. 46
www.americanradiohistory.com
About The Circuit
For the metronome, two 555 timer ICs
are used
one to set the tempo and the
other to generate the click sound. The 555
was chosen for several reasons. The
accuracy of the timing is independent of the
power supply voltage so the markings, once
established, will not change. This becomes
especially important when powering the
device from batteries since the timing must
not vary as the batteries age. Variations in
temperature won't have much affect either
on this little guy. The 555 is very common,
inexpensive, and available nearly anywhere
electronic parts are sold. The 377 power
amp IC is also pretty common and has
similar tolerance to variations in operating
conditions. But to stay with the timing
circuit for a moment, we should quickly go
over some of the other components.
No matter how stable the IC may be,
unless the remaining parts are of a similar
high quality, full advantage may not be had.
The 10 mf capacitor should be tantalum if
possible and the 10K and 15K resistors
should be carbon film (or better, metal film if
you can find them). A wirewound potentiometer is also preferable, but this may be
even harder to track down. If you can't
locate these special parts, or if you're too
lazy to even try, don't let that stop you from
building this. In fact, I didn't bother with the
wirewound pot either and mine works fine.
Still, there is some satisfaction to be had
from knowing it's the best that it can be. No
other parts are critical at all, though don't
buy the cheapest stuff you can find either.
Regarding hard to find parts, one real
-
winner is the dual taper potentiometer. One
good place to order this and other hard to
find parts is Mouser Electronics, 11511
Woodside Avenue, Lakeside, California
92040. While even they may not have in
stock dual audios, you can get a dual linear
in a higher value, which in many cases can
approximate the audio curve. Incidentally,
Mouser is the only source that I know of for
audio inductors and radio coils. (Stay tuned
for an article on a barely legal AM transmitter you can use to broadcast your mixes to a
car radio.) But back to tapers, for those of
you who don't understand the different
kinds, a brief explanation is in order.
A linear tapered pot is used to "divide" a
voltage or an audio signal linearly. That is,
when the control is turned half way up, the
output voltage is half that of the input. A
quarter way up gives a quarter of the signal
out. While this makes sense for many
applications, it is less useful as a volume
control since the ear doesn't perceive
loudness in a linear fashion. With an audio
tapered pot (sometimes called logarithmic),
when the control is set half way up, only one
tenth of the total output has been reached,
allowing another 20 dB of range till full open.
(Remember, increasing by 20 dB corresponds to multiplying the voltage by ten.)
Many guitar amps are intentionally made
with a linear pot for a volume control to give
the impression of a large power reserve.
(Gee, it's really loud and it's only on two and
a half!) Unfortunately, most of the useful
range has been crammed into the first
quarter of a turn, making adjustment more
difficult than it needs to be.
In the case of our metronome /booster, a
dual 100K linear pot may be used instead of
the dual 10K audio pot specified and the
music will be about 12 dB down from
maximum with the control set in the middle.
While this may be less than optimum, it does
help spread out the range some.
Performance
For the amplifier, you can expect the
worst case THD to be less than .1% when
using 8 ohm phones, and even less with
higher impedance models. Frequency
response is equally impressive, being within
1 dB from 20 Hz to well beyond 100 kHz.
Gain of the audio program will be just over
10 dB with the volume control all the way up.
If you need even more, you can reduce the
27K resistors to 10K which will allow up to
20 dB of increase. Regarding the metronome, there isn't much to spec except
possibly for stability of the tempo. The
biggest factor here will be variations in
temperature, since all electronic components are affected this way. In fact, this is the
main reason film resistors and tantalum
caps were mentioned as being preferable.
The 555 IC varies less than .01% for each
degree (F) of change in the ambient room
temperature.
Of course, it's
Telex /Magnecord
Telex Magnecord broadcast cart machines run cool and steady. So cool no
ventilation is required, so steady not even voltage or frequency fluctuations will
alter their speed. Thanks to our dc servo flutter- filter drive. Completely immune
to RFI and EMI, it meets or exceeds all NAB standards and is suited for local or
remote /automated operation.
Standard features at no extra cost.
An edit pushbutton to add stop cues in playback and omit stop cues in record
LED indicators show end of tape, status and secondary /tertiary cue tones
Front panel headphone jack
VU meters for each channel
Convenient. Flexible
MC- Series is field convertible from mono to stereo, or play to record. Optional
remote controls simply plug in.
Four broadcast cart machines to choose from in the Telex /Magnecord
MC- Series - all made in U.S.A. and affordable. Write for detailed information.
Quality products for the audio professional
eó_o
9600 ALDRICH AVE. SO MINNEAPOLIS. MN 55420 U.S.A.
Telephone -612- 664 -4051, telex: 29-7053
.
EUROPE: 22. rue de la Légion -d'Honneur. 93200 Si. Denis. France. Téléphone: 820-98-46. telex: 63 -0013
CANADA: Telak Electronics. Ltd., 100 Midwest Road. Scarborough, Ontario M1 P3BI. Telephone. 416- 752.6575
for additional information circle no. 47
R -6 /p 99
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by Patrick Maloney
The fact is, musicians are becoming
more demanding in their requirements for good monitors and monitoring systems are growing in complexity and
sophistication to satisfy this demand. The
trend is to more and more independent
mixes on stage and finer control of these
mixes. Of course, there will always be shows
that are best controlled by a simple monitor
send pot on the house console -thank God.
But many systems which are now appearing
can be much more complicated and difficult
to operate than the house console. It is no
longer a place to train future house mixers
nor is it a position for the faint hearted. It is a
highly specialized sound system in itself
-
complete with its own unique set of
problems and solutions whose ultimate
purpose is to provide an environment on
stage that totally supports the artist
acoustically, musically and emotionally.
The most complex system I've encountered to date is owned by "The Captain and
Tennille." Designed and operated by
Rodney Pearson, the system utilizes 15
separate output channels, 15 amplifiers, 18
speaker cabinets and even includes an
intercom for onstage communication
between the monitor mix operator and the
musicians. The system was recently set up
in The Captain and Tennille's Rumbo
Recorders facility in Canoga Park while
the band was in rehearsal for an upcoming
Las Vegas appearance at the MGM Grand
Hotel.
In discussing the system with Rodney,
quickly learned that Daryl Dragon (The
Captain), and Toni Tennille's dedication to
high quality sound is evident not just in their
1
monitor system, but also extends to their
concert touring systems, their first class
recording studio and their Las Vegas
showroom engagements. The key word that
kept coming up in our discussion was
"consistency" and is one of the most
important reasons why a system of this size
and complexity ultimately works.
Rodney Pearson is certainly no stranger
to the sound reinforcement business. He
started his career with BBC, in London, and
eventually came to the States where he
went to work for Stanai Sound as a house
mixer on tours for Liza Minnelli, The 5th
Dimension, Paul Simon, Mac Davis, Dolly
Parton and numerous others. He then
travelled with Mac Davis as an independent
mixer and eventually started working with
The Captain and Tennille when they went to
England to do a television special a few years
ago. It was at this point that he started
working with them on their monitor system.
Prior to Rod's arrival, Daryl had his own
onstage monitor system which was based
on a Yamaha PM -1000 console (16 in by 4
out) that he was using for a keyboard mixer.
He fed a few other instruments through it as
well and routed them through all four
outputs to separate monitor speakers.
Basically he wanted to mix his own monitors
and was quite capable of the task
stemming no doubt from the necessity of
having to do so at the Smokehouse, in
Encino, California, where he and Toni first
started out. In those days there were no
roadies or monitor mixers.
Two outputs from his PM -1000 also fed
the house system in a novel manner: the
keyboards that Daryl played with his left
hand were mixed together on one buss and
the right hand keyboards went down the
-
R-e/p 100
www.americanradiohistory.com
other line, thus giving the house mixer some
control over the sound.
Basically, the present system all grew up
around Daryl's monitors and then expanded to include the whole band. For several
reasons the decision was made to custom
build their own system from scratch instead
of renting a system only when they needed
it. From his experience while working for
Stanal Sound and with other sound rental
companies, Rodney didn't feel he'd have
complete control of
a
rented monitor
system. Based on a situation he had with
Mac Davis where in one ten -day stretch he
had used ten different sound systems from
five different companies. He observed that
the house generally wasn't too much trouble
but the monitor mixer had all kinds of
problems since there was no repeatability.
The Captain and Tennille had shows
coming up in places of varying sizes and
acoustics (i.e.: State Fairs, arenas, Las
Vegas -type showrooms, theaters-in-the round and smaller theaters). They felt they
would have gotten different gear for each
venue depending on the specific monitor
equipment available. Obviously, this would
not have given them what they were really
looking for which was consistency in the
monitors. The decision was made to
develop their own onstage set -up while
continuing to rent the main house system
since they knew that the house sound would
change depending on the venue and that
was part of the concept. For instance they
had a segment of a tour where they did
theaters -in -the -round and had Randy
Weitzel from Clair Brothers mix the house
sound with a Yamaha PM- 1000 -32 that Clair
supplied. The Captain and Tennille supplied
virtually everything else, including McCune
THE VOCAL-STRESSER
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Another original from audio & design recording.
The Vocal- Stresser combines a parametric -type equalizer
with a multi -ratio compressor. peak limiter and expander /gate. An extremely
versatile signal processor in one rack mount unit.
To use the Vocal- Stresser:
. Switch the Equalizer before the Compressor for maximum signal
conditioning while maint:ni ng critical overload protection.
. Switch the Equalizer after the Compressor for enhanced compression and limiting effect
Switch the Equalizer into the Compressor side chain for frequency conscious compression (e g. de- essing. reduction of
modulation effects when compressing a mixed program).
Switch the Equalizer out of the system for simultaneous use of
equalizer on separate program material via additional input/
output channel.
Switch in the Expander /Gate to attenuate source and channel
ncise. cross mic pick -up and reverb. and to cancel increased
as well as for
compression noise during program pauses
effect.
punchy
. Jse the Vocal- Stresser on vocals. or any signal source.
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E 900 -N
Sweep Equalizer
E 900 -RS
Sweep Equalizer
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Providing the international audio industry with clean. quiet. dependable
Signal Processing for more than 15 years.
Excellent specs. Exemplary sound. Definitive practicality.
A-alp 101
Sound Service's SM-4B hanging speaker
system, specifically developed for theater in- the-round shows. In Las Vegas, they
augmented the house sound with speakers
at stage level to give more of a feeling of
sound coming from the performers rather
than from above the stage where the house
speakers are usually located. Clair Brothers
S -4 system was used for State Fairs and
large venues but throughout the tour they
maintained a consistency of sound on stage
for the performers by using their own
monitoring system at every show. Furthermore, Daryl's concern that the sound in the
house be consistent with their recorded
sound was so strong that he has his studio
recording engineer, Roger Young, operate
the controls of the house console.
Before that tour could start, however, the
group needed to assemble a system that
would be flexible enough to adjust to these
various instrument tracks through different
monitors and checked to see how well the
speakers reproduced these individual
instruments.
Daryl was especially concerned with
getting a good kick drum sound and the final
tests were to determine which woofer could
best reproduce it. They used a two-way
monitor and kept changing the woofer until
they were satisfied. By this time they had
already decided on the high frequency
The Speakers
Rodney's intention was to design a
workable system for Daryl and then adapt it
to work for everyone else. He started out by
doing some research using a 24 -track tape
that they had recorded live at the Greek
Theater in Los Angeles. They played
-
first used
different acoustical environments and
roadworthy enough to withstand the many
thousands of miles the tour would take
them.
They had also picked up some monitors
made by TASCO which were used with
success at Harrah's Club in Lake Tahoe. It
used the same Emilar driver but with a
different horn
the Emilar EH -500
and a
JBL 2220 woofer which was subsequently
replaced with the Yamaha (Figure 1).
There are certain things that are unique
to this band and one of them is that the basis
of their monitors is a good tight kick drum to
keep everyone in time. The system needed
to deliver a fair amount of kick without
sounding boomy and out of control. This
being achieved the rest of the system was
designed around it.
Some of the speakers are bi -amped while
others have passive crossovers but the
basic speaker elements are the same. Rod
-
element they wanted to go with
the
Emilar EH -800 coupled to an Emilar EA -175
16 -ohm driver. The woofer continued to be
in question, but a decision was made soon
after they started adding other instruments
on top of the kick drum sound. Adding the
conga really started showing the difference
between speakers and led them to choose a
Yamaha woofer. A cabinet was then
designed to house the woofer and horn.
a
Crown VFX -2 variable
crossover to find the optimum turnover
point. He then orderd a White type 4016 800 Hz crossover with an 18 dB per octave
rolloff. The passive crossovers used in a few
of the monitors are made by Histrionics and
work well.
The speaker system was designed to
sound good to start with and does not
require a lot of equalization. According to
Rodney, "we didn't take a system and say
`we can make it sound good.' It had to sound
good to start with. When EQ is found to be
necessary it is done with a combination of
ear and real time analysis using the
The strong silent type.
glance at the Yamaha
power amp tells you the whole
story. The case, the handles, the
whole exterior relate a single, powerful
message -rock -solid reliability, stability
and high performance. The P -2200
is no hi -fi retread. It's designed fora wide
variety of professional applications.
Strong! With 200 watts of continuous
average sine wave power into 8 ohms,
you've got plenty of punch to handle the
high peaks essential to clean studio
monitoring, as well as all -night cooking
in "live" concert reinforcement or
Just one
P -2200
R-e/p 102
disco sound systems. (You can easily
convert it into a monaural super
amp and/or 70 -volt line output capability for distribution systems.)
Silent! With a 110dB SIN ratio and
05% THD from 20Hz to 20kHz, the P -2200
satisfies even the most critical ears.
How pro can you go? The P- 2200's
dB- calibrated input attenuators and
50dB peak reading meters are flush
mounted. Inputs to each channel have
XLR connectors with a parallel
phone jack, plus a phase reversing
switch. Speaker connectors are five -way
for additional information circle no. 49
www.americanradiohistory.com
-
binding posts that take wire or
"banana" plugs.
We build the P -2200, and all our
Professional Series power amplifiers
with you, the professional, in mind.
We know you take your job seriously.
The P -2200 does the same. Visit your
Yamaha dealer for a demonstration.
Also available, the P -2201. same
as P -2200, but without meters.
Because you're serious.
*YAMAHA
Divide and conquer.
e
a
Conquer distortion, defeat clipping,
cleanup your mix.
Bi- amplification or tri- amplification
with Ycmaha's F -1030 frequency dividing network can take you a long
way down the road to audio perfection.
By separating high, mid and low
frequencies befoe amplification, the
F -1030 increases efficiency and headroom to the point where you need
fewer amplifiers and speakers to produce the same sound level. What's
more, by dividing the sound for several
amplifiers and many sets of speakers,
the F -1030 eliminates the cost of
individual passive crossovers.
Control your own! Unlike other dividing networks,Yamaha's F -1030 offers
dB-calibrated detented controls on
both inputs and outputs, as well as transformer- coupled XLR and standard
phone jack connectors. Twelve selectable crossover frequencies range
from 250Hz to 8kHz, with your choice of
12dBloctave or 18dB /octave slopes,
plus a switchable 40Hz 12dB /octave high
output into a 600 -ohm load.
will also accept input levels to +30dB.
The F -1030 crossover, like all our
Professional Series equipment, was
designed with you, the professional,
in mind. It performs its job as expertly
as you do yours. Visit your Yamaha
dealer for a demonstration.
The F -1040, a 4 -wcy crossover, will be
(12.3 volt)
It
available in early '80.
Because you're serious.
-
pass filter.
Use with confidence! Noise and
distortion are virtually extinct.The
Yamaha F -1030 will drive a full +24dBm
YAMAHA
Inovonics Model 500 analyzer which I'm
closely with Yamaha in modifying this
very happy with." Orban parametrics
(model 622 -B) are available for use on each
console, took out four of the input modules
and replaced them with four more output
modules. He then replaced the four output
assign buttons on each input strip with eight
rotary send pots. This gave Rod 28 inputs
and 8 totally separate outputs, plus the two
echo sends. It was necessary to re -wire the
mother board to accept these last changes
but it was done in such a way that it is still
possible to put back the original 4 input
strips if that should ever be desired. No rewiring would be necessary. According to
Rod, this was the second console of its type
customized in this manner by Mr. Windt
and is currently available as a standard
modification through Windt Audio in Los
Angeles.
The eight rotary output pots are all color
coded in order to simplify the operation of
the console as well as to help speed up the
installation of the entire system.
The 4 x 4 output matrix familiar to all
Yamaha PM -1000 users has been expanded
to 8 x 4 to accommodate the additional 4
output busses but Rod is not using it as part
of his monitor system. However, it is
occasionally used to make reference tapes
during the course of the show. The eight
channel but are used only when necessary.
Generally, the units are in the circuit in the
bypass mode and Rod hasn't noticed any
coloration or other problems by leaving
them in. On occasion he will not connect
for instance, in the
through the unit at all
case of the bass player whose signal is not
put through his own monitor and there is
little danger of feedback. In a situation like
the conga player's, however, where his
signal is fed back to him through a close by
monitor, then the parametric is used to cut
down on feedback. The units aren't used
much for EQ purposes as this can be
handled adequately from the EQ section in
the board.
However, Rod and company don't believe
in a lot of equalization. They chose their
microphones as carefully as they chose their
with an ear to faithfully
speakers
reproducing the sound of each instrument
as it occurs at the source. In a system as
complex as this one is, the fewer paths that a
signal takes and the fewer modifications that
are made to it, the better it's ultimately going
to sound.
-
-
-
matrix masters were converted into
The Main Mixing Console
The heart and soul of the system is a
muchly modified Yamaha PM -1000 32 -input
console. John Windt, who worked very
8
auxiliary inputs and the "direct /PB" switch
at the top of each output module was
changed into a headphone cue switch to
provide monitoring of each output buss
individually.
The cue system of the console has been
further modified by Rod for a louder output
and cleaner signal by removing some
terminating resistors in the cue circuitry and
by bypassing the headphone amp. Other
modifications Rod has made to the console
include making the echo sends appear on
the cue buss; re-wiring them to be post fader
so they could be used as monitor busses;
and installing kill switches on each input
channel. He doesn't change levels a lot
during the show but instead chooses to use
the kill switches to bring signals in and out as
needed. This helps keep the monitors clean
sounding. Toni, for instance, uses only one
of her three vocal mikes at a time and
keeping the other two off prevents
unwanted noise from cluttering up the
monitors.
It was thought at the time that 28 inputs
famous
and 8 outputs would be sufficient
last words, etc. It's never been a real
problem but there have been a couple of
times when they could have used more
-
inputs depending on the requirements of the
lead -on act. However, it is usually more than
adequate, and according to Rod, the
board's flexibility and size came in handy
when they had Gene Cotton opening for
them. "He had a guitar -based band and we
were able to use seven inputs for his group
which we didn't need for our part of the
show. So we could give him the exact mix he
R-e/p 103
www.americanradiohistory.com
wanted and then re -patch the mikes to
different input modules for our part of the
show. So everybody had exactly what they
wanted." By making the system bigger
this: When Toni sits at her piano she has two
monitors connected in parallel which are fed
off one buss of the main console. The three
well as throughout the rest of the band. The
bass guitar is taken direct into the monitors
and PA although the bass player does use an
background singers have two speakers
and in some people'a opinion more
which are fed off another channel. The horn
players have the same setup. The drummer
gets one mix from Rod which contains his
kick drum, bass, vocals and piano. He also
gets another mix directly from Daryl's
keyboards which goes to a separate monitor
behind him. The bass player gets an
independent mix from Rod, as does the
percussionist. The second keyboard player
has a small Bi -Amp model 8802 mixer which
he uses as a keyboard mixer. The 8802 has
instrument level inputs as well as balanced
mike level inputs on each channel
a
feature which eliminates the need for direct
boxes for each keyboard. This mixer in turn
feeds the main monitor mixer which routes
the signal back to the keyboard player as
amp on stage for his main monitor.
However, none of the electric keyboards
have amps. They are all taken direct or
submixed, sent to the monitor mixer and
then fed back out to the various monitor
speakers at the appropriate levels. The idea
is to cut down on a lot of unnecessary and to
some extent uncontrollable sound on stage.
They have been using SESCOM passive
direct boxes (model SM- 1A) to interface the
instruments with the various consoles, as
well as an 8 input box custom made by
Stanal Sound for Daryl.
Sidefill speakers are on yet another buss
(lost count yet ?) and are basically designed
by Stanal Sound to combine two Altec 816s
into one cabinet. The ports were moved
from the bottom of the cabinet to the sides
so that it became more of a squat, square
shape instead of a tall narrow one. They
were further modified to incorporate a 90°
JBL 2350 horn, an Altec 288 -16G driver and
two of their beloved Yamaha woofers.
When it was first assembled in this fashion it
was flat from 125 Hz to 6 kHz with no EQ.
These side fills cover the front part of the
stage and provide an even monitoring field
for Toni when she's not sitting at the pianos.
When Toni is playing the Wurlitzer electric
piano she hears herself through a combination of side fills and one of Daryl's monitors.
-
-
complicated
they've actually made it
easier. To be sure, the system is involved
but it has been designed by Rod and Daryl
along simple workable principles and is set
up in a logical straightforward manner.
Complex, yes; complicated, no.
Fifteen Independent Mixes
-
The system is now set up to handle 15
separate mixes
10 being controlled from
the main console and the remaining 5
through Daryl's PM- 1000.16. Referring to
Figures 2 and 3 should clear up any
confusion resulting from my forthcoming
description of the routing of these 15 mixes.
-
The way it breaks down is somethng like
Figure 2
Spere
Tape FE
House Announce Feed
Baritone Sax
Tenor Sax
s
BOO Hz
Toni
Active /toyer
Side Fill
1200 Ho
Act
Trombone
Alto Sa,
Trumpet
VD
zW
Kp
f0
s:
ON
zp
f?
B G,
B G.
Vox
Vox
7
A
z
us
BOO No
1
Active Wove,
AMP RACK NO 1
2
Vox
Wurlitaer Electric Pano
Daryl Keyboards 1
Daryl Keyboards 2
Tr
4
To D rvl
"Synare"
Kick Drum
Snare
Conga
AMP RACK NO
Acoustic Piano Mike
f
e
Background Vox
BG. Vox 3
B
K'o
LIJ
r.r.]
2
2
Toni Vocal 1
Toni Vocal 2
Toni Vocal 3
Keyboard 1
3
2
Return
Daryl's System
6
D
6
B
7
P
C
K
yb
8
Echo
1
Echo
2
Ho
SS
d
s
Echo
Return
TAPCO 4400
<
T
Send
Figure 3
SM 58
Clavmet
ARP Odyssey
Yamaha CP70 Electric Grand
Oberharm OBI
ARP Omni
Vibes IDeagen Electravibe
Bus Guitar IDeryll
Roland Organ Direct
Organ Leslie Lo
Organ Leslie High
.
SM 58
Sound
Custom
Direct Box
Split
Split
Split
.8
inputsi
Monitor Miser PM- 100032
Monitor Mata PM- 1000.32
-
-
Kick Drum
Bass Guitar
Min !Rhythm Horns. BG Vox
Toni Voa
Echo Return
Output
Output
Output
Output
To House PA
Mier
and Mad, Mond °, Mixei
Daryl s
Amp Rack
1
Echo Send 2,Post Fade
Fcno Send 2 Pr.. Fade
To Dr immer
Roland Space Echo RE201
Output
-
desires.
2
3
Second Keyboards Pianos
Second Keyboard Synthesisers
Daryl's four monitor speakers are fed
directly from the four output channels of his
own Yamaha PM- 1000 -16. Two of these
outputs are also used to feed both the house
system and the main monitor console in the
novel method described earlier.
Daryl uses four discrete monitors instead
of simply combining all the signals and
sending them to one speaker for several
reasons, one of which is greater clarity. For
example, Tonï s vocal doesn't have to fight
with the bass guitar for the woofer's
attention. Localization of sound with
respect to feedback is another consideration
the idea being that it's easier to
isolate which microphones are feeding back
if the signals come from different speaker
positions. Also Daryl has better control
he can, for instance, bring up just the vocal
master during a particular song in order to
more easily listen to the harmonies if he so
Bi Amp 8802 Ch
1
Bi Amp 8802 Ch
2
To Sub ii. Ch 2 of PM 1000 16
R-e/p 104
www.americanradiohistory.com
Microphones
Toni uses a total of three vocal mikes, all
Beyer M500 ribbons. One is located at the
Yamaha grand piano, one at the Wurlitzer
and the third one is used as a hand held mike
down front. Beyer M -69 dynamics are used
for the background vocal mikes and Rod
has found them to give a combination of
smooth sound, good low end and significant
TSrt,' THREE
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Features include fully parametric equalisation,
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jackfield. Conversion to automation is readily
available.
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FLEXIMIX A reliable mixer unit designed for
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.1
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tt
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TRIDENT
Trident Audio Developments Limited
Shepperton Studio Centre, Squires Bridge Road,
Shepperton Middlesex, England.
Telephone: Chertsey (09328) 60241 Telex: 8813982
America Area 1 Studio Maintenance Services. California. Tel: 213- 877 -3311
America Area 2 Sound 80 Inc., Minneapolis. Tel: 612 -721 -6341
America Area 3 Winteradio
Companies, Parma, Ohio. Tel: 216 -886 -5536
America Area 4 Empirical Audio, New York. Tel: 914- 762 -3089
Australia John Barry Group, Sydney. Tel: 6: -2- 439 -6955
Belgium Naybies, Brussels. Tel: 32 -2- 734 -31 -38
France Lazare Electronics. Paris. Tel: 33 -1- 878 -62 -10
Canada La Salle Audio Products Ltd, Montreal. Tel: 513- 342 -2511
Germany Peter Struven, Hamburg. Tel: 49- 40- 801028 Holland Cadac Holland BV. Hilversum. Tel: 31 -35 -17722
Italy Audio Products International, Milan Tel: 392 -273 -896
Japan Continental Far East. Tokyo. Tel:
81- 3- 583 -8451
South Africa Leephy (Pty) Ltd.. Johannesburg 2092. Tel:
010 -48 -3821
Spain Neotecnica S.A.E., Madrid. Tel:
34 -1- 242 -09 -00
R -e /p 105
for additional information circle no.
51
freedom from feedback. The manner in
which the drums are miked differs slightly
depending on the venue. On large concert
dates all the drums are individually miked
although only the kick, snare and high hat
ever go through the monitors (Figure 5).
PA with Sennheiser 421s mounted on clips
underneath the toms. The mike heads are
placed inside the shell just far enough to
provide some isolation from the other toms
and cymbals. Beyer M201s are used both on
the percussion and on the hi -hat while a
Shure SM -57 picks up the snare. Overhead
drum mikes are AKG 452s. The two congas
The toms have the bottom heads
removed and are individually miked for the
Figure 4
are also miked with a 452 in the middle
above the heads. Horns are all miked with
Shure SM -58s.
A good deal of attention was placed on
the kick drum miking since it plays such a
large part in this particular system. It's
miked with a Sennheiser 441 which is fed
directly into
a
UREI LA -4 limiter. One
44' -0"
21'-0"
21'
0"
a
TRUCK ACCESS
SERVICE DOOR
etc.
201
Ore:
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PERCUSSIOP
onga -C452
Amp Racks
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Yellow
Oberheim OB1
j ARP Odyssey
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Electrov
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CP70
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PM180
PM- 1000 -1M
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SM -1A
Direct Box
Side
Fill
EDGE
MGM GRAND HOTEL
CELEBRITY THEATRE
STAGE PROP PLAN
OF
STAGE
GENERAL LAYOUT NOTES:
POSITION DRUM PLATFORM 3'-0" F
I.
AND OFF-CENTER FROM STAGE CEr
2.
2
4
8
16
www.americanradiohistory.com
PLATFORMS
I
SHOWN.
3.
POSITION TENNILLES' PLATFORM
C-6" FROM TRAVELER CURTAIN
4.
POSITION
5.
POSITION
SCALE
0
POSITION REMAINING
PLATFORM AS
DRUM
A
CAPTAINS' PLATFORM
HORN PLATFORM ASKE
advantage of this unit is that it has a high
gain position which boosts the output of the
441 enough to drive the circuitry without
just limiting a lot of noise. Of course, having
a pretty hot signal from the kick drum helps.
I would hesitate to try this with a soft singing
vocalist. The LA -4 tightens up the kick drum
and saves a lot of headroom in the amps
/
44'-0"
CYCLORAMA
1
M53
The limiter is usually set on a 12:1 ratio so
there is actually some compression going
on. It basically is set up to prevent the
woofers in the monitors from kissing the grill
cloth. This way they can get a little more
level without the associated amplifier
problems and blown woofers. The outer
head of the kick is removed and the 441 is
placed as close to the remaining head as
possible. It's positioned off to the side away
from the beater area.
There are no other outboard devices
used in the main monitoring system other
than a TAPCO 4400 reverb unit for Toni
which is used to create a little fuller sound
onstage. A Master -Room reverb model MR
III is used for the house PA and has proven
to be perfectly suited for the job, says
Rodney.
The piano uses a Helpinstill 110 pickup
which is basically used just for the monitors.
The isolation and freedom from feedback it
provides is a welcome aid to the monitor
mixer. An AKG 414 mike set for a
unidirectional pattern over the second
sound hole is the main source of piano
sound for the house PA, although it can be
mixed into the monitors if so desired. This
also provides a backup for the piano in case
either the pickup or microphone malfunction.
The Yamaha piano always travels with
the group and is another example of their
dedication to consistency. They also carry
many spare instruments as well as a spare
monitor mixer for Daryl. Figure 4 shows the
entire microphone instrument set -up, and
speaker layout.
STAGE
ARRANGEFE NT
Redundancies and Backups
This recurring aspect of The Captain and
FOR
CAPTAIN
E
TENNILLE
Tennille's monitor system impressed me a
great deal. Spares, backups and instant
alternative course of action are all part of the
philosophy of a good monitor system.
Pulling out the soldering iron on stage in the
middle of a set is considered bad form. It
upstages the musicians and you can never
find an empty AC socket anyway.
Daryl recently started playing bass guitar
on a few tunes which necessitated the
additon of another mixer since he had long
since run out of available inputs. So a
Yamaha PM -180 was pressed into service.
Daryl uses two Leslie organ speakers
located offstage which are miked top and
bottom with Shure SM -58s and these two
signals are then fed to his mixer where they
are combined and sent to the main monitor
mixer. Two Leslies are not needed from a
DWNLIart
MY1i)LIAS, INI.
TRAVELER
CURTAIN
CYCLORAMA
LINE AS SHOWN.
power standpoint since they are re-
LOCKED ON
CENTERLINE
IO'-O" FROM
INTERLOCK
ROM
DRUM
OF STAGE
DRUM PLATFORM.
WITH
TENNILLES'
PLATFORM
AS
PLATFORM
SHOWN.
amplified anyway; but the interaction of the
various speakers all rotating at slightly
different speeds provide a fuller, richer
sound. Also, again we have the backup
factor. If one Leslie fails, the other one will
still supply the necessary effect.
The microphone cables are made by
Recorders
Consoles
SMPTE
Automation
And over 55 lines including:
AKG, Ampex, Annis, Aura tone, Beyer, BGW, DBX,
Deltalab, ElectroVoice,
Eventide, Gauss, Ivie, JBL,
Klipsch, Koss, Leader, Lexicon, Master Room, MRL,
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R-e p 107
Neumann and are all of various colors to
match the color coding on the console
output buses. If you have ten or so cables
bundled together and there is a problem in
the red channel, it helps to be able to
immediately pick out that color cable from
the rest and trace it.
All monitors are marked so that they
always go to the same location on stage and
are always connected to the same amplifier
with the same cable. This simplifies trouble
shooting considerably by preventing a
particular problem from turning up at a
different location every time the stage is set
up, due to the same piece of faulty
equipment being in a different place each
time.
Another built -in safeguard of Rod's
console setup is the fact that he sets all input
faders at the same position
around 8 on
the linear scale. This is the position Yamaha
recommends for optimum signal -to-noise.
The various signals are actually mixed via
the 8 individual rotary pots at the top of each
input. Therefore, if someone comes and
plays with the console there is less likelihood
that they'll seriously foul anything up
the
feeling being that the 8 small knobs at the
top of the strip are not as accessible and fun
to play with as the faders are. If these faders
are touched Rod will notice it immediatley,
reset them back to 8 and then check the rest
of the board for any other changes.
All speaker cables are color -coded with
strips of colored tape which are then sealed
with clear heat shrink to keep them from
unravelling or getting dirty. Connections to
the speaker cabinets are made by three -wire
-
-
Hubbell Twist -Lok connectors which
provide a very positive, polarity correct
connection
no phone plugs here, folks.
Stagehands can't confuse them with AC
plugs, mike cables or guitar cords, as they
can with other connectors, and they are
-
about as foolproof as the man who wires
them. Available from most electrical supply
houses, they come in almost limitless sizes
and styles. The one used by The Captain
and Tennille is especially handy in that it is a
right angle connector, thus allowing the
cable to lie alongside the speaker cabinet
instead of sticking straight out of it. This
makes for a neater appearance and fewer
tripping accidents. Recommended. Color
coding even extends to the banana plug
connectors on the back of the amplifiers.
These amps are mounted in self-contained
shippable racks which have a simple yet
extremely useful feature: small music stand
lamps mounted in the back. No more
flashlights in the teeth for Rodney.
Housed in the amp racks are Yamaha
2200s (200 watts per channel into 8 ohms)
and Yamaha 2100s (95 watts per channel
into 8 ohms). One of the nice things about
using Yamahas for monitor amps is the fact
that they have meters on them which help
keep track of the signal flow through the
system. With 10 outputs from the main
board alone, it helps to have a visual
indication that signals are getting to all the
amplifiers, especially since it is possible to
only listen to one of the outputs at any one
time. At Rod's position there are two power
amp racks and one effects rack which
houses two Pioneer CTF919 cassette
decks, the Clearcom CS200K base station,
the TAPCO 4400 reverb, a spare power
amp, and a Crown D -60 which is used to
power the headphones at the console
(Figure 6).
Daryl has his own rack which houses two
Yamaha P2200s, two P2100s and a UREI
1176 limiter which can be connected to any
of his outputs. The rack also contains a
spare Yamaha amp.
Many of the major components of The
Captain and Tennille's monitor system are
manufactured by Yamaha
-
a
factor
Rodney feels plays a large part in the
dependability and consistently high quality
performance of the system as a whole. The
excellent backup, cooperation, and
continuous support they have received
from Yamaha has made Rod a firm believer
in the company and their products.
Snake System
In the past, Rod had too many bad
experiences using other people's multi cables and going through house patching
systems, so now the group owns all its own
snakes and never do a show without them.
The snakes were built by Stanai Sound and
are designed around a heavy duty gold
plated pin conector manufactured by AMP.
A similar system was pioneered by McCune
Sound a few years earlier using a slightly
larger AMP connector. At about that time
several other professional companies
-
among them, the Record Plant, Wally
Heider Recording, Filmways Audio and A-1
Audio
followed McCune Sound's lead
and built their snake systems using the same
connector and pin configuration. Stanal has
constructed adapters to properly interface
with this earlier system. So, today, remote
recordings at live concerts that involve any
of these companies are a lot easier to do
-
since the snake systems are all the same.
This is a good example of competitors
cooperating with each other for the sake of
compatibility and ease of doing a show. This
is especially helpful in the situation where
more than one sound company's equipment
is being used at the same time
situation
The Captain and Tennille are often involved
in. Their particular snake system makes the
hookup in theaters that have a sound
system installed by Stanai a lot quicker since
all Rod has to do is connect to the existing
-a
cables.
The Captain and Tennille use a 27 -pair
snake and a 15 -pair. The 27 -pair system
incorporates a simple 1 in by 2 out splitter
box which feeds signals to both the house
and monitor mixers while the 15 -pair goes
directly out to the house console. The
splitter is not active nor are there any
transformers in it. Each input is simply hard
wired to the two separate outputs although
there are ground lift switches on each line
that goes to Rodney. He reports there have
not been any problems with hums or buzzes
in the system as careful attention is paid to
the AC grounds and the interconnected
consoles are always Yamaha's. In addition,
the connections and cable routing from
microphone or direct box to the two
consoles are always the same
-
a
factor
which decreases the hum and buzz
potential considerably. They do have some
SESCOM transformer -type splitter boxes if
they ever do get into a problem. A few of the
instruments are actually split three ways.
continued on page 112
-
Figure 5
R-e/p 108
www.americanradiohistory.com
what have
YOU
done for your
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Oh sure, you occasionally clean the panels and polish up the meters.
And... if you're real considerate, you might even disassemble the
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But a pretty suit of clothes does not impress all clients. In fact, it's
what they hear that brings them back. And that's our point!
clean console is important, but not so
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The VCA employed relates directly to clean sound. Chances are
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R -eip 109
Revolutionary, in that, unlike any other split console, it has a monitoring section which does
not become redundant during mixdown.
Instead, with simple switching, the monitor channels become fully functional input channels, each
with EQ, aux, pan, fader, solo and mute, and are assigned directly to the main mix buss.
Therefore, a 24/16 console has 40 channels in mixdown, during which the main 24 input channels may
still be assigned to the 16 group faders as sub groups.
Furthermore, the auxiliary sends (cues) and pan may be lifted out of the monitor channel signal
path and inserted into the subgroup signal path.
Revolutionary, in that the console provides all three conventional solo modes: pre -fade
(mono), post -fade (stereo) and solo in- place.
The first two modes do not disturb any signal paths, so they may safely be used during
recording or mixdown.
The in -place mode mutes all channels not soloed, except monitor channels being used as effects returns or input
channels in "safe" mode.
Other sophisticated features include: two programmable mute busses; six auxiliary sends, two of which may
be assigned to follow the pan pot; a proprietary transformerless mic pre -amplifier; 41- position detented potentiometers, which are so precise that volume tracking between two similar controls will be typically within 1dB, and
frequency tracking within 2 semitones.
Console equalisation is particularly versatile. Input channel equalisers have 4 variable- frequency bands, and
a separate variable high -pass filter, while the monitor channel equalisers have 3 bands; the mid band with
variable frequency.
All sections of the console electronics have been carefully designed to minimise phase deviation through
the signal path, so that, typically, channel to track phase error is within 20,° at 20kHz.
Conventional VU meters with peak level LED indicators are standard (as illustrated), but Soundcraft bargraph
displays are available as an option.
Series 1624 is available in two mainframe sizes- 24 /16(which with an optional 8 channel 1
OUnOCFFIFT1
ELECTRONICS LIMITED
module provides 24 track monitoring) and 16/16, either of which can be supplied part filled.
Soundcraft Electronics Ltd 5 -8 Great Sutton St London EC1V OBX England Telephone 01 -251 3631 Telex 21198
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track
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Electronics
for additional information circle no. 42
-
continued from page 108
The kick drum for instance goes to Daryl's
monitor, to the main monitor console, and
out to the house as well.
On Stage Intercom
After a while, most monitor mixers get
quite adept at sign language and secret
signals. A tug on the right earlobe could be a
pre- determined signal to turn the monitor
up while a left earlobe tug means to turn it
down. You hardly ever see left tugs,
however. Covering the ear with the hand is a
sure sign of low monitor level while an index
finger in the ear could either mean just the
opposite or the same thing. I love to watch
the movements a band goes through for the
first couple of tunes. Well there is an easier
way; unless, of course, you really enjoy
having internationally known stars scream
at you in front of 10,000 people. The Captain
and Tennille solve the problem with a two channel Clearom intercom with the base
station located at the monitor console. One
channel is for communication with the
house mixer and the other channel allows
Rod to communicate with various musicians
onstage. The drummer has a station, the
second keyboard player has one and Daryl
has one. The other people generally have
good eye contact with Rod and communication with them is not a problem. Daryl's
system is quite interesting
it uses a
Clearcom King Biscuit speaker box coupled
-
to an AKG model D58 -E close talking
microphone. There is a switch on the mike
but it is generally live all the time since it is of
a noise -cancelling design and Rod doesn't
hear too much sound through it unless
Daryl gets right on top of it. Clearcom
telephone handsets are now used at the
other stations instead of the standard
headsets because they don't require two
hands to put on and they automatically shut
off when the push -to -talk switch is released.
If the drummer had a regular headset and
forgot to turn the mike off, the system would
be rendered useless due to the constant
barrage of drum sound in all the headsets.
Daryl doesn't have to pick anything up
all he has to do is go over to his mike and
speak into it. Rodney can either see him do
this and either picks up his handset or
listens to Daryl on a regular headset if he
happens to be wearing it at the time.
Sometimes Rod uses a Shure SM12
combination headset /microphone which
-
has the advantage of leaving one ear free at
all times. Rod has installed a remote signal
light on top of his console which is wired up
to the Clearcom and alleviates the necessity
of having to look over at the master station
in the effects rack to see if someone needs
his attention. A red and green light indicate
either channel one or channel two. The belt
pack out at the house console has also been
modified by wiring in a Mallory Sonalert
which puts out a high pitched beep to attract
the mixer's attention. There is a switch to
defeat it if necessary. The drummer's belt
pak is fitted with a clip to attach it to the high
hat microphone stand and thus keep it
within easy reach.
A further aid to onstage communication is
the talkback microphone which is a
standard feature on the Yamaha PM -1000.
The signal from this mike can be routed to
any of the outputs including the cue output.
This enables Rodney to speak to any
individual through the separate monitor
busses without disturbing the rest of the
musicians during a sound check. Of course,
it also allows him to talk to anyone without a
Clearcom during the show if necessary.
Mixing Approach
Rodney Pearson's approach to mixing
monitors can best be described as a passive
one
most of the action taking place
during set-up and sound checks.
There are exceptions, of course, but
generally very little mixing is done during the
course of the show. One thing Rod had seen
to be a problem back when he was mixing
the house system for other groups was the
prevailing attitude whereby someone new
was put on the monitors and then eventually
moved up to the house mix position
providing he lasted that long. Rod felt that
these aspiring house mixers "seemed to
-
-
Get to know a Stephens
A Stephens will save worn and weary tapes
from falling apart before the mix is finished.
This is because a Stephens doesn't have a
capstan and pinch rollers.
A Stephens will take dull sounding tapes and
make them sound like they were supposed to
sound; with the punch and clarity of live
music. This is because a Stephens has a
highly sophisticated audio system.
A Stephens also costs less than most other
tape machines.
Shouldn't you get to know
(It
a
Stephens?
STEPHENS
Ili ELECTRONICS, INC
3513 Pacific Avenue, Burbank, Calif. 91505
R-e/p 112
for additional information circle no. 54
www.americanradiohistory.com
Phone (213) 842 -5116
Figure 6
think that they were going to mix the
monitors and play around with the levels a
lot. I have found from my experience that
the less you do the better it turns out to be."
If a situation does come up where someone
wants something changed, Rod generally
tries to find some other way of handling the
problem before changing the mix. The
difficulty may have been due to someone
not using a mike properly during a particular
song and sometimes just a word concerning
this will take care of the situation. It's
necessary for performers to have
a
reference. If you take away their frame of
reference by turning monitors up and down
it becomes more difficult for them to
determine if they are loud enough or not. So
The Captain and Tennille try to maintain an
accurate frame of reference at all times.
Consistency in monitors is very important,
especially on a string of one nighters where
something has to stay the same show after
show. It's difficult enough for the house
mixer to have to adjust to all the various
changing conditions. And, since the sound
of the monitor system, especially one of this
size, does get out into the house any change
in the monitor mix can be heard to some
extent. This can throw off the house sound
mixer when he's least expecting it. He ends
up reacting to and compensating for
whatever the monitor mixer is doing. In
small halls, Rod will sometimes back off on
the overall monitor level to prevent
interferring with the house sound. Everyone
in the group is very understanding of this
it is discussed at the sound check and
-
adjustments are made at this time.
With most groups, just turning down the
monitors in an attempt to lower the overall
stage level doesn't always work due to the
live guitar amps on stage which the artist has
total control over. And telling all the
musicians to turn down isn't always
successful since they all have their own
concept of what "down" means. When the
balance between instruments changes the
mixer finds he has to readjust all his levels.
And then, of course, the musicians rebalance depending on what they then hear
through their monitors. Ad infinitum.
With The Captain and Tennille's system,
continued overleaf
-
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ly recreate to his satisfaction. Most amp
heads made nowadays however, have extra
gain stages that approximate the sound and
sustain of an overdriven amp and speaker
quite well. They also tend to have direct
outputs designed to feed console inputs
directly at line level. Hopefully, more sound
I think
men will explore these possibilities
the benefits are well worth the effort.
One of the biggest advantages of this
technique is immediately apparent in
theaters -in -the -round that use rotating
circular stages in the middle of the audience.
A stack of amps onstage becomes a focused
-
sound barage that sweeps across the
audience and totally destroys the mix that
the audience hears. The house mixer finds
himself choosing between mixing for the
people that face the amps or for those who
are momentarily on the back side of them
a decision made extremely difficult by a
constantly rotating stage. A much more
even mix results when the instruments are
-
however, where just about everything goes
direct and is then fed back to the musician
through his own monitor, the situation is
much more controllable. The overall level
can be lowered while still maintaining the
relative balance between instruments.
Seasoned monitor mixers will immediately
recognize the benefits of such a system.
Imagine giving everyone in the group just
the amount of lead guitar they want instead
of fighting with and compensating for the
killer -watt output of the guitarist's amp on
stage. House mixers no longer have the
problem of a loud localized sound source
destroying the mix for the first twenty rows.
The hard part, of course, is getting the
guitarist to trade in his pre -CBS Twin
Reverb for a direct box. And rightly so
that sound is extremely important to the
guitarist and is quite difficult to electronical-
-
TOWARD BETTER UNDERSTANDING ..
The Model 4240 Active Equalizer is a
hybrid of ONE -SIXTH octave filters,
which are concentrated in the speech
intelligibility region between 250 and
2000 Hz, and broader bandwidth filters
on either end. The intended application of the Model 4240 is the equaliza-
tion of sound reinforcement systems
employing voice as the main program
material as in corporate boardrooms,
meeting halls, legislative chambers
and courtrooms.
Extremely high 0 room modes which
cause feedback, ringing and loss of
Intelligibility are excited by these midrange frequencies. Equalization to suppress these modes using one -third
octave or broader bandwidth filters
can attenuate other frequencies necessary to voice intelligibility. Loss of
intelligibility can not be compensated
by increased gain.
P O
114
sound system and affect only HALF
as much program material.
The Model 4240 Equalizer is highly
cost -effective for these applications
since it is built on the same chassis as
our one-third octave models. It has 27
filters like the one-third octave units,
but 19 are ONE-SIXTH octave and concentrated in the midrange. The broader
bandwidth filters on either end are
more than adequate to shape the extreme low and high ends of the spectrum.
Our new System 200 Signal Analyzer
features field interchangeable, plug -in
filters and may be equipped to match
the Model 4240 Equalizer making ONE SIXTH octave adjustment as convenient as one -third octave.
a
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.
taken direct and all amplified sounds
eminate from uniformly hung speakers
above the stage.
As complex as the system is, it had to be
designed to go together quickly and
flawlessly if it was to work at its full potential.
Much thought was put into the packaging
and hookup procedures and the result is a
remarkably quick installation. Since the
stage setup is the same for each show, it's
possible to bunch a lot of the cable together
that always go to the same location on stage.
This is another advantage to custom
if you were renting a
designing a system
different system for each show all these
individual cable lengths would have to be
figured out each time.
In this case, howeve., all eight speaker
lines that go to the back of the stage are laid
out and connected the first time and are
then tie -wrapped together into one neat
bundle. This makes for a more efficient and
accurate installation and as a result sound
checks are quite quick and fairly predictable
-
-
generally lasting only two or three
numbers. In one instance they went from
the Tennessee State Fair, which was an
outdoor show with a loud PA to an indoor
arena with typical arena acoustics. The
monitor system was set up and when the
group arrived for the sound check they were
happy right away. No adjustments had to be
made at all, not even to any individual mixes.
Rod says the system is so predictable and
consistant that, given a time problem, it is
possible to set up and do a show without a
sound check. He's confident that the
system will be pretty accurate to start with,
and only minor tweeking during the first
song will be necessary.
Visually Attractive
The speakers are designed to look like
part of the set instead of being dirty black
boxes coverd with shipping labels. The
cabinets are painted white with dark grey
foam grill cloths and are transported in
individual shipping cases. There are no
handles or recessed latches visible. They
blend in perfectly with the black and white
set which comes complete with a portable
white floor and white grand piano. You'll
also notice from the performance photos
that there are no monitors down front to
block sight lines. This is an extremely
important consideration in places like Las
Vegas where people sitting up next to the
stage pay $30 or so for the privilege of being
close to a real, live performer and not a loud
wooden box, however attractive. In The
Captain and Tennille's, case monitoring up
front is handled by the side fill speakers.
Cable grouping also contributes to the
clean line.
This concept of setup and appearance
was developed for the Vegas -style
showroom and is carried over on tour
whether the venues be theaters-in-the round or state fairs. It takes a little more
time and attention originally but the hours
saved setting up on the road make it all
worthwhile.
The system has been operating for over
18 months without any major hitches. The
only real problem resulted from the time
Daryl attempted to recreate the sound of an
earthquake with his synthesizers. Needless
to say, a few woofers decided they'd rather
quit than fight, so the UREI 1176 limiter was
brought in to help keep the woofer cones
within their specified excursion range.
build that way but the end result is worth it."
Of the many unique features of this
facility, the first to catch my eye was the
sunken drum booth. As can be seen from
the photo on the front of this issue, the
booth is totally glassed in and the drums are
all sitting under the level of the main studio
floor where extensive sub -floor trapping
prevents the drums from leaking into the
main room. (Sketches of this design were
shown in the April 1979 R -e/p, Riordan, J.,
The Rudi Breuer Approach, page 45,
Volume 10, Number 2.) The slanting glass
walls are all non -parallel and close enough
together to prevent any smearing slap -back
or echo. The space actually sounds a lot
bigger than it is and reports are that it gives a
nice open live sound to the drums.
This was the first of several such sunken
drum booths Rudi is building. Besides the
drum pit there are three separate isolation
rooms adjoining the main studio and are all
quite visible from the large control room. All
the rooms are floating on separate concrete
slabs of differing thicknesses to cut down on
sound transmission and sympathetic
vibrations between areas.
The studio acoustics have been made
variable to adjust to a client's preferences.
Pivoting wall panels are hard on one side
and absorbent on the other. There is no
permanent flat ceiling surface
instead
-
ceiling traps of various densities and
construction are individually covered with
material to match the decor and are hung in
such a way that they can be move° around
to different positions.or removed altogether
to provide
a
totally variable acoustic
environment.
They have just taken delivery of a new 52
input x 48 out Neve Model 8088 console
fitted with NECAM faders. This is the
largest complete Neve recording console in
the United States at the moment and is
specifically designed for dual 24 -track
recording. A separate monitor section was
specified with the board, a system they feel
is quicker to operate than the in -line system.
From their extensive experience with
monitor systems in general, they know that
if things don't happen quickly, even in a
"relaxed" studio situation, they often don't
happen at all. In addition, again based on
their road experience and in keeping with
the current trend toward separate
headphone mixes in the studio, Rumbo will
be offering nine separate cue mix channels,
all musician controllable from the studio.
The two 24 -track recorders are Studer
A800s and the control room monitors are
UREI 813 Time Aligned'" units. The studio
will, of course, offer all the standard goody
boxes.
Oh yes, one more thing. The hot tub is 8
feet in diameter
at last there will be room
for the roadies!
-
Rumbo Recorders
As I mentioned earlier, this entire system
was set up for rehearsal sessions inside the
comfortably spacious studio at Daryl and
Toni's new Rumbo Recorders facilities. The
room was so large and well- designed that
there was actually enough room left in the
studio for over one hundred packing and
shipping cases with lots of room to walk
around. A large cleverly designed artificial
skylight overhead helps contribute to the
bright open effect of the room.
Located about twenty -five minutes from
downtown Los Angeles at 20215 Saticoy, in
Canoga Park, the studio is yet another
example of The Captain and Tennille's non compromising dedication to quality. Daryl
and Toni wish to stress that the facility was
not built for their exclusive personal use but
was designed as a top-of- the -line, cream -ofthe -crop, pick -of- the -pack, state -of- the -art
studio available to anyone who picks up the
phone and dials (213) 998-5398.
Built by Rudi Breuer, the overall design
was a result of the cooperative input of all
involved: Daryl, Toni, Rodney, engineer
Roger Young, and of course, Rudi himself.
"This was one of the more -or -less ideal jobs
I've ever done," Rudi explained. "It was
determined that the only way to go was first
class. It may prove to be more expensive to
Recording Systems
for the Entertainment Industries
You deserve the best. Let us design a system for you featuring
one of the "No Compromise" consoles from IHarrisonLA
Dan Gwynne
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8230 Beverly Blvd. Ste 27
for additional information circle no. 57
R-e p 115
"TURN -ONS" or AUDIO ENGINEERS
by
BEN W. HARRIS, Chief Engineer
Ground Star Laboratories
Division of Ronnie Milsap Enterprises, Nashville
Through the years, I have had to produce
numerous circuits to accomplish various
tasks and functions. Many times those
circuits evolved around audio switching and
indication. The following article describes
some of those circuits and their uses. I do
not mean to imply that these designs are
totally mine, having had input from many
knowledgeable people.
The first circuit described will be the
building block for later circuits covered in
this article. Figure 1 consists of one SPST
switch, one 1 -watt 4.7 kilohm resistor, and
one 2N3904 transistor. The load can be any
DC voltage device, including relays and
lamps. For discussion purposes we will
assume the load to be a 24 volt relay, which
is close to the maximum voltage this circuit
can handle. First, the relay is connected to
the +24 V supply, and its common or
negative pole to the collector of the 2N3904
transistor. With the switch in the "open"
position, the relay is not activated for
current cannot flow from collector to
emitter to "ground" because the transistor's
base is open. When the switch is connected
to the +6 VDC, a bias voltage is applied to
the base of the 2N3904, forcing the collector
to emitter to conduct, activating the relay.
The reason for such a circuit is to eliminate
the need to switch directly heavy voltages
such as the 24 volt supply, thus reducing
FIGURE
"pops" and "clicks" in the audio chain. The
diode across the relay further reduces
transient spikes.
In some very sensitive circuits, "pops"
and "clicks" may still be present. If this is the
case, the circuit of Figure 2 will still further
reduce this problem. The two circuits of
Figure 1 and Figure 2 are practically the
same, except that the SPST switch is now
shunting or opening the +6 VDC to
"ground" through the 4.7 kilohm series
resistor. Also, there are two 1N4001 diodes
in series with the B+ bias supply. If this
circuit is to be used with the relay or load,
normally closed, or push -push switch. All
other parameters are the same as Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a much more complicated
switching scheme. This time I have included
a CMOS CD4069 as part of our circuit. The
CMOS, as shown, provides a latching
operation, while using a momentary SPST
normally open switch to control the flip-flop.
Each time the switch is momentarily
engaged, the CMOS CD4069 alternately
provides a B+ bias to the base of the 2N3904
transistor. The B+ in this case would be +6
VDC. However, up to 14 VDC may be used.
The alternate action works extremely well
and can be used in countless variations.
Figure 4 depicts an actual circuit you
Ampex ATR -100 users will appreciate.
Many consoles now come standard with
remote tape transport controls, complete
1
FIGURE 2
24v
1
N4001
4 7K
6V
6v
2N3904
FIGURE 3
Ampex ATR -100 "ground" must be
10K
I
3
with 24 volt bulbs. Now, as you may already
know, the ATR's remote indication was
designed to power the LEDs in the ATR's
remote transport control unit, and are not
capable of supplying neither the current nor
the voltage that the 24 V lamps require. The
remote switching works fine with the ATR100's transport functions alone, therefore,
an interface to a +24 V lamp supply for
function indication must be designed.
The logic of the ATR is a bit unusual and
requires an interverting type circuit. Each
indicator send is at a +5 VDC until that
function is selected, where it then drops to
zero volts or "goes low." There is aleo a
constant 5 VDC supply designed to be the
common power rail for the LEDs of the
factory remote, as well as supplying logic B+
for the transport functions. The play, stop,
fast forward, rewind, record and edit may be
remoted with visual indication as follows:
The constant +5 VDC is connected to Rl
which, in turn, is connected to the collector
of Ql and the base of Q2. One of the
transport function indicator sends is then
connected to R2, which is in series with the
base of Ql. When the transport function is
idle, Q1 remains biased by the +5 VDC from
the indicator function. This, in turn, causes
the collector to emitter of Ql to conduct,
shunting the constant +5 VDC to "ground,"
starving the base of transistor Q2 of bias,
and forbidding the collector and emiter of
Q2 to conduct, now allowing the 24 V lamp
to be "grounded." When the transport
function is selected, the +5 VDC at R2 goes
"low" or to zero volts, relaxing the collector
to emitter of Q2 due to insufficient bias at its
base. This allows the B+ at Rl to bias the
base of Q2, forcing the collector and emitter
to conduct, turning "on" the 24 volt
indicator lamp for as long as that function is
in use. There has to be one such circuit for
each function that you wish to have
indication on. Therefore, to provide
indication for all six transport functions, you
must have six such circuits. One other
requirement is that 24 VDC "ground" and
CD4069 CMOS
BULB
FIGURE 4
24V
4 7K
01
Constant 5V
56K
24V
4 7K
--
1N4001
FROM EACH
01
ATR100
4 7K
2N3904"
R1
R2
2N3904
INDICATOR LOCATED
ON EDGE CONNECTOR
UNDER TRANSPORT
CONTROLS PLAY PIN 2.
RECORD PIN B. REWIND PIN 18.
FAST FORWARD PIN V.
STOP PIN 6. and EDIT PIN 4
R-e/p 116
www.americanradiohistory.com
common, which is the normal in most studio
applications. This inverting type circuit may
be used with other recorders with similar
transport logic.
In all of the preceding circuits, I have used
no more than +6 VDC to bias the
transistors, however, up to +24 VDC may
be used, except in the case of the CMOS
CD4069 which can only handle about +14
VDC. The series resistors may have to be
changed in value with other bias voltages,
depending upon the circuit application.
I would like to thank the following people
who provided much of the information
contained in this article: Paul Buff, Allison
Research; Gary Carrelli, Valley Audio; and
George Cumbee, Audio Creations.
Happy "turn ons!"
10 to 1 'Dull
Every studio needs a $1,000 microphone.
tells everyone you're serious about good sound,
and it impresses the talent.
But when the session gets under way, all that
counts is results. Not price tags. And judged only
by what you hear, the new AT813 Unidirectional
Electret Condenser from Audio -Technica is going
to truly impress you...at about 1/10 the cost you
might expect.
Recently a recording engineering class at a
major university made simultaneous multi -track
tapes comparing our AT813 side -by -side with
some of the best microphones money can buy. The
informed and critical students did the judging.
It
e
' (ours!
Surprisingly, in many cases they couldn't find a
nickel's worth of difference. And some preferred the
AT813 sound to the expensive competition.
You may agree with these student engineers
when you hear the AT813. Or you may not.
But at these odds, you can't afford to overlook us.
And for new studios just getting underway, who
can't afford a roomful of top -dollar microphones,
the AT813 is an effective way to achieve full
multi -mike capability. Write today for the AT813
spec sheet and A -T microphone dealer list. Then
see your Audio -Technica sound specialist for great
sound...right from the start.
audio technica.
INNOVATION
PRECISION
INTEGRITY
AUDIO- TECHNICA U.S., INC., Dept. 99RE. 33 Shiawassee Avenue, Fairlawn, Ohio 44313
R-e/p 117
for additional information circle no. 58
www.americanradiohistory.com
oaREGnont
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Photo by Robert Peterson, courtesy of American Zoetrope & Dolby Laboratories, Inc.
American Zoetrope, the producers of the
film Apocalypse Now, wanted to extend the
bass response of existing playback systems
in the 70 mm theaters that they were going
to show their film in this fall. They felt if they
could hear and feel the power produced by
the low frequencies in their soundtrack,
especially in the battle scenes the audience
would experience a greater realism.
The existing "standard" theater playback
system produced by Altec was designed
many years ago before low frequencies were
considered desirable or even possible to
reproduce; hence, they produced very little
energy below 100 Hz. Tom Scott, the
theater sound consultant from Zoetrope,
was looking for sub -woofer systems with a
range of 30 to 100 Hz. We invited him to hear
our ACD /John Meyer Studio Reference
Monitor with the accessory sub woofer
which extends the power bandwidth down
-
Meyer Sound Laboratories, Inc.,
(MSLI) is a new company located in San
Leandro, California, building sound
equipment for the professional market.
John Meyer, the president and founder
of MSLI, has worked over ten years in
professional sound reinforcement and
recording studios. He is the creator of
the JM -3 sound system being used
currently for Beatlemania and other
popular tours. He worked in 1974 for the
Institute for Advanced Musical Studies in
Switzerland during which time he
developed a studio monitor system (the
ACD/John Meyer system). John has
been technical director for Crystal Clear
Records, in San Francisco, and has been
a consultant to JVC Cutting Center, in
Los Angeles.
Terry Tomaselli, the general manager
of Meyer Sound Laboratories, has
worked for numerous recording studios
as a sound engineer, has toured with
several concert groups and has been
involved in the development of high powered lasers.
to 25 Hz. Passively crossed over at 100 Hz
and driven by the ACD's 125 watt low
frequency bi- amplifier, it produced 120 dB at
50 Hz at 1 meter. We had designed signal
processing electronics to flatten the
response and almost eliminate the effects of
energy storage, which is responsible for the
"juke box" syndrome or boominess
associated with many sub -woofer designs.
Ours is a seventh order reflex design with an
18 -inch driver and measures 48" x 24" x 24"
and weighs 110 lbs.
Mating The New To Old
Tom liked the sound of the system and
wanted to hear them at the North Point
Theater in San Francisco where American
Zoetrope does most of its testing and
development. Briefly, the North Point has a
70 mm format with six discrete channels for
playback. It has five Altec A -4 speaker
systems behind the screen and several small
surround speakers placed on both sides of
the theater. The Altec A -4s consist of two
515 -B Altec 15 -inch drivers in a horn loaded
enclosure and a multi -cellular horn driven by
two 288 drivers. This system is passively
crossed over. Each system is driven by an
Electro Sound amplifier rated at 125 watts.
The surround system consists of Altec 409
8 -inch coaxial speakers. Channels 1 through
5 are used for the front speakers and the 6th
channel feeds the surrounds. Channels 2
and 4 were used by American Zoetrope for
their low frequency effects. The entire
system utilizes Dolby noise reduction.
At this early stage, none of us knew how
much low frequency level was going to be
necessary; very few people have had much
experience with low bass.
We placed two of our sub -woofers behind
the screen under the scaffolding that holds
the Altec system. We interrupted the
speaker wires that fed channels 2 and 4 of
the Altec system just before the 500 Hz
crossover, so that our crossover and
speakers were passively fed from the house
amplifier while the information above 100 Hz
R-e,p 118
www.americanradiohistory.com
was passed onto the Altec crossover. This
procedure is similar to the way we drive the
sub -woofers for the ACD /John Meyer
system. In the projection booth we ran sine
wave sweeps from 30 to 125 Hz into the
amplifiers and obtained almost nothing from
our sub -woofers. When we looked at the
output of the 125 watt rated amplifiers, we
found that they produced less than 25 watts
at 30 Hz. When we tried to drive the amps
harder, they broke into oscillation. The
amplifiers hadn't been designed to
reproduce low frequencies because it was
part of a theater system where no bass was
expected.
It was obvious that we needed an external
power amplifier. This meant that we had to
design active control electronics so that we
could take a line level feed from the Dolby
noise reduction unit and drive our 125 watt
stereo amplifier to get 120 dB. Once these
were designed, we brought the electronics
and the amplifier behind the screen and fed
tone into the system and obtained the
expected 120 dB at 1 meter. We were now
ready to run the sound effect which was a
recording of a Howitzer on a 35 mm
magnetic film loop played back at half speed.
We were still trying to determine if 125 watts
would be sufficient power to create the
desired low frequency effect. If so we could
replace the amplifiers in channels 2 and 4
and drive our sub -woofers with a passive
crossover. Tom Scott started the film loop
of the Howitzer and we took sound level
readings in the center section of the theater.
We were using a Bruel & Kjaer 2209
Precision Sound Level Meter to obtain our
readings. We were getting readings of a little
over 90 dB SPL measured with an
integration time constant of 500 milliseconds
(slow). The peak reading was in the high 90s.
This was right before the 125 watt amplifier
commenced clipping. Due to the high peak to- average power factor of an explosion, we
discovered we were not generating enough
bass energy without clipping the amplifier. It
was obvious we needed more bass energy to
They said we couldn't
doit!
modern
amplifiers and
to fulfill
contemporary
music and reliability
requirements. These
For years Peavey
(and everyone else)
depended on the same
two or three companies
to supply high
efficiency, high quality
loudspeaker products
for use in our
equipment. These few
companies have been
around for years and
are, for the most part,
producing their loudspeakers in the same
way and from the same
materials they always
have. As the market
demanded better
performance, Peavey
and other manufacturers
increased the electronic
sophistication of their
products far in excess of
the capabilities of the
available high efficiency
transducers. We
attempted to explain to
the "speaker geniuses"
the problems and
shortcomings encountered with their
"beloved" products. We
tried to explain why
paper voice coils were
inadequate. We tried to
explain the power
handling requirements
necessary with the new
generation of power
amps. We tried to
explain the need for
better cooling, for
stronger and lighter
cones and diaphragms.
But they wouldn't listen.
They said, "We are the
experts and we know
that most equipment
manufacturers and
soundmen don't understand our 'precision'
transducers and how to
use them."
In desperation, we
agonized over what we
might do to satisfy our
customers and to match
the increasing sophistication of our electronics.
After examining all the
alternatives, we decided
that we must apply an
old adage...."If you want
It done right, then do It
yourself."
We did!
Over five years of
research and development, millions of dollars.
and many thousands of
hours of engineering
time have gone into
what we believe is the
finest series of
transducers avilable,...
at any price.
The Black Widow
loudspeakers have been
designed "from the
ground up" to handle
the power delivered by
speakers are not
"rehashes" of units
designed back in the
30's or 40's but are all
new, utilizing the latest
in computer aided
design techniques and
the most efficient
computer and numeri-
cally controlled
production equipment.
We have discovered new
and superior materials,
instituted new production techniques and
adhesives. The need for
field -replaceability was
solved by having a field replaceable basket
assembly,...(A Peavey
exclusive!) New technology for forming huge,
4 -inch aluminum dome/
coil forms and ribbon
wire processing
techniques we perfected
to allow maximum
efficiency and power
handling while
maintaining transient
response, structural
rigidity, and resistance
to many classic failure
mechanisms prevalent
in older designs. Special
attention has been paid
to increased cooling
capabilities with larger
venting holes featuring
acoustic foam /stainless
steel mesh filters to
prevent entry of dust.
We recognized years
ago the coming scarcity
of alnico and we
designed our loudspeaker around the new
for additional information circle no. 59
www.americanradiohistory.com
super- energy strontium
ferrite magnets giving us
additional efficiency and
magnetic energy in the
gap (12,500 gauss).
The "established
manufacturers" of high
efficiency loudspeakers
have been very critical
of our efforts and
continue to emphasize
the various features on
which they have
depended so long, while
branding us and our
products as "upstarts"
and extolling the
virtues of alnico and
other venerable
materials and techniques. Meanwhile, they
have been frantically
redesigning their dated
products and you will
soon see that their
"fantastic new
generation of loudspeakers," which will be
introduced with great
hullabaloo, will closely
resemble our innovative
Black Widow series. We
would ask that you
remember where you
saw these features
initially and also ask that
you consider the amount
of care and dedication
we at Peavey are putting
into offering you what
we believe to be the
finest series of
loudspeakers ever
introduced for sound
reinforcement,...Firstl
©
1979
PEAVEY ELECTRONICS
711 A Street /Meridian, MS.
R-e;p 119
audible rumble, that film mixers never put
any low bass on tracks and that the speakers
wouldn't reproduce it if it were there
anyway.
We demonstrated to Dolby that we could
accurately reproduce and track bass and
that this was not a sense -surround type
J.M. SUB WOOFERS
be effective. Also, the North Point (which
seats 1,000) is a very dry sounding theater
which added to the problem of effectiveness.
The floors are concrete so you do not feel
the sound up through the floor.
We brought in a 250 watt stereo amp,
placed the speakers together against the
back wall to help them couple better, ran our
tones and obtained readings of about 125 dB
at 50 Hz at 1 meter. It appeared that we had
sufficient power, so Tom set up some pink
noise tests using 35 mm magnetic film run
through the house systems. A real time
analyser showed that the response was
down almost 6 dB at 30 Hz when the signal
was run through the house electronics. Tom
called Dolby labs to have them check their
system. Apparently, Dolby, like almost
everyone else, was led to believe that the
projectors and sync motors would produce
rumble device that simply injected low
frequency monotone noise at predetermined intervals with a toggle switch type on/off
response curve. Dolby labs, not wanting to
be a limiting factor in the playback chain,
took about a week and redesigned their
system so that it was flat down to 30 Hz.
The entire system was working well and
the Howitzer firing on the film loop had a
sharp crack, a low frequency blast, and
finally a rumble at the end. Tom Scott
brought in Walter Murch, the sound
designer and mixer for Apocalypse Now to
hear the system. The sub -woofers were AB'ed in and out from the middle of the
theater by means of a remote control cable
which enabled Tom to turn on or off any
channel and control overall system level.
Walter decided that there was not enough
power to give him the intensity he
considered essential.
At this stage in the project, American
Zoetrope didn't want to bring in additional
speakers and amplifiers because the cost
would have to be born by the theaters
and/or film distributor. We told Tom that we
Everyone has a line, ours
1
is flat
Hoping to convince you that their
studio monitor is the best, many
manufacturers provide a graph
showing the "flat" frequency response
of their speakers. Unfortunately, you
don't get to see anything about the
writing speed of the plotter, the
vertical resolution of the graph, or the
specific characteristics of the test
environment.
The line on our graph is flat, and it
means something.
..
The Eastern Acoustic Work.
MS -50 Studio Reference Monitor
displays virtually flat amplitude
response in realistic, well documented
tests. Its' high acoustic output and
generous power handling capacity
make the MS -50 an ideal reference
monitor for broadcast or recording
studio applications. All this at a cost
signifigantly lower than you might
expect.
We want you to see our graphs along
with some very precise documentation. If you'd like to learn more, drop
its a line, and well send you ours.
_59Eastern Acoustic Works 'Inc.
N13
Fountain Street. Box
R -e /p 120
III. Framingham. Massachusetts
01701 1617) 6201478
Please stop by and see us at the AES /New York in Demo Room ä609.
for additional information circle no. 60
www.americanradiohistory.com
could probably redesign our system to
obtain more power.
Essentially we needed a more powerful
amplifier. After testing several, we found the
Crest 3501 which produced 800 watts
continuous into an 8 ohm load in bridging
configuration. The 18 -inch drivers were
modified to handle more power. At these
power levels we decided that we needed to
protect the system in some way without the
necessity for an operator to monitor the
system. The speakers couldn't be fused
because they were located in hard to get to
areas behind the screen.
We designed an RMS limiter circuit to put
into our control electronics and a low pass
filter to filter out the high frequencies. It
allowed undistorted 1,500 watt peaks to
pass through the amplifier unaltered if they
are of short duration. When the continuous
power exceeds 325 watts per speaker, 650
watts for the two speakers on the one
amplifier, the limiter will hold the power to
this maximum level. This method of limiting
is very soft and unnoticeable. It keeps the
voice coil from overheating to the point of
failure.
At 50 Hz
this configuration, we were able to
obtain 130 dB at 50 Hz at 1 meter in front of
the speakers. At these levels it was very
difficult to talk as our voice boxes were being
modulated. The type of feeling produced by
low frequencies at this level is very different,
more a feeling of pressure than anything
else. The Howitzer test tape was again run
for Walter, who insisted that an earlier
system he had heard was louder. We
couldn't believe that anything else anywhere
near our size and cost could be louder so we
brought the other system in to evaluate it. It
produced 10 dB less level than ours on our
sound level meter, but subjectively sounded
loud. We checked this system with tone
bursts, slowly varying the frequency from 30
Hz to 100 Hz and noticed there was very
130 dB
In
little subjective change in the sound
regardless of where the fundamental
frequency of the tone was set. We also
noticed that the system exhibited an
in other
incredible amount of hangover
words, was a very boomy box. As the North
Point was very dry, this ringing and long
decay time gave the system subjectively
enormous power. Our system measured 10
dB more, but didn't sound "loud." We had
purposely gone to a great deal of design
effort to eliminate "boominess" as unusable
in studios because it tended to obscure
information we wanted recording engineers
to be able to hear clearly in our monitor
system. Our system was very powerful,
sounded tight and tracked bass accurately,
subjectively, it didn't
but Walter was right
sound "loud" in a large dry place like the
North Point Theater.
After talking to Walter and other mixers,
-
-
Imagination fuses two powerful illusions.
Experimentation leads to the
discovery of new realities.
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Introducing the MXR Flanger /Doubler.
For more information see your MXR dealer or write us.
MXR Innovations, Inc., 247 N. Goodman Street.
(MXR)
Rochester. New York 14607. (716) 442 -5320
for additional information circle no.
Professional
Products Group
R-e/p
61
www.americanradiohistory.com
121
control electronics is the active crossover so
that the high frequencies can be sent to the
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house system and the low frequencies are
sent to the sub -woofer system.
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When we brought our new control
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we decided to design a user variable "bass
extender" circuit which would allow the
duration of the signal fed into it to be
stretched to an almost continous ring, or
anywhere in between from an ultra -tight
monitor -accurate snap to a super -boom
box, depending upon preference or
environment.
We went back to our laboratory and
designed an electronic circuit which would
simulate this boomy property and included it
in our control electronics. This circuit could
be adjusted by a small trim pot underneath
the front panel from a very short ring to a
long one or could be switched out altogether
by a toggle switch. We also included a
peaking filter set to 50 Hz which could also
be switched in and out. The ringing circuit
only controls the phase of the signal,
therefore has no effect on continuous tones.
It will only alter an impulse by causing it to
ring. When the ringing circuit, called the
bass extender, is set to maximum (fully
clockwise on the trim control) there will be a
certain amplitude loss due to the energy
storage nature of the circuit. The peaking
filter is included to restore the amplitude of
the stretched impulse. Also included in the
NOISE GATE GT-4
Ir
Four self powered channels in
1 -3/4" of rack space.
Each channel has threshold and
release control, key input switch,
and a condition - indicating led.
$395.00 for four channels.
OMNI CRAFT
If you have been reluctant to use noise
gates in your mixdowns because you
don't like the way they "sound ", then
you have been waiting for the Omni
Craft GT -4. The GT -4 uses only
a resistive L -pad to attentuate and
therefore contributes no noise or
distortion.
OMNI CRAFT INC.
RT. .4 BOX 40
LOCKPORT, IL.
60441
815- 838 -1285
R-e, p 122
To get the full story, call or
write Omni Craft and ask about
the noise gate that "doesn't make
a sound"
for additional information circle no. 62
www.americanradiohistory.com
electronics back to the theater, and set the
bass extender to % of the maximum ring,
everyone liked the sound and subjectively it
was very loud except at the back of the
theater.
We now have learned, through experience, just how much power and duration of
signal was necessary in order for the listener
to hear and feel low bass. It is necessary to
have enormous power available to be
effective. Everyone concurred that another
two speakers and amplifier were necessary.
After installing a total of four speakers and
two amplifiers plus control electronics in the
projection booth we were able to obtain 100
dB SPL at the back of the theater with the
Howitzer track. Walter Murch was very
pleased and decided to have a sub -woofer
system installed at the American Zoetrope
studio so that he could mix the sound and
hear the bass reproduced accurately.
The North Point was showing (in the
afternoon) a science fiction film Alien which
has a giant space ship landing scene. With
our system running on the effects channel
the sound of the ship landing was incredible.
With accurate tracking of amplitude,
frequency and extended duration, the
realism factor was greatly increased. The
ship's approach was perceived as higher
frequencies at low level when at a distance.
As it came nearer the amplitude and lower
frequencies increased to thunderous, long
continual pounding as it actually landed.
By actually testing our system during the
running of the film, we became aware of the
extensive frequency and dynamic range'
possible with 70 mm magnetic film. It
became necessary to further protect the
speakers from excessive voltage peaks by
placing an audioformer in each speaker
which allows approximately 75% of the peak
voltage to pass to the voice coil, limiting the
peaks that each speaker would see to under
500 watts, while not effecting continuous
power at all.
The variable bass extender has proved to
be very useful for different installations. For
instance, the Cinerama Dome, in Hollywood, is very reverberant and the system
worked best with the bass extender circuit
switched off. While the North Point, in San
Francisco, being dry, needs more bass
extender, other theaters have proved to be
somewhere in between.
FM Productions, Bill Graham's sound
company, is handling installations and
provides leasing arrangements for the sub woofer system. Stephen Neal, from FM,
used 16 theater systems stacked up for a
Grateful Dead concert in a 7,500 seat hall to
shake the concrete walls. It may be that the
bass will become a new dimension for more
than just theaters.
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The 85 -16 gives you sixteen
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you have 28dB of system
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There's servo control throughout.
And an internal micro- processor for
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With a used machine, you
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So why buy someone else's
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TEAC TASCAM SERIES Dealer.
TASCAM SERIES
TEAC Professional Products Group
c
1979 TEAC Corporation of America. 7733 Telegraph Road. Montebello, CA 90640
for additional information circle no. 63
R-e p 123
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Introducing The
HR -1 Phase Coherent
Studio Monitoring
System!
Westlake Audio monitoring systems are recognized throughout
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reproduction of the most demanding sources the HR -1, first in a
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Coupled to its companion HR -1X crossover, the HR -1 directly
addresses the problems of polarity and phase in multiple
transducer reproduction. Critical listening by artists, engineers
and producers point out the significant sonic improvements
provided by its proprietary design. Low distortion, reduced ear
fatigue, improved transients and a stereo image previously
unknown to large 4 -way monitor systems are examples of
improvements most often noted. The system can be previewed
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quality
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03s
Hazardous
to your Health
can be
by Martin Polon
Many people are involved in the
development and advancement of audio as
an art form for our times. Audio professionals enjoy their creative work and enjoy
the music that is being enhanced. State -ofthe -art electronics have brought audio
systems to the limits of measurable
distortion. Digital electronics are gradually
Photographed at RECORD PLANT, Los Angeles, CA
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pair. Shipping and handling add:
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pair. Calif. res. add sales tax.
Mail to
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pair
5
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City
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for additional information circle no. 2
R-e/p 126
Zip
expanding the flexibilities of the 3 Cs of
audio. These three Cs: create audio, control
audio, and communicate audio, are at the
center of the professional audio experience.
One element is common to the creation,
controlling, and communicating of audio.
Whether sound is being recorded,
transferred, re-recorded, mixed down,
duplicated, blended, reinforced or
broadcast, it has to be monitored. The
process of monitoring becomes the electroacoustic connection between the electronic
element of audio and the creative interaction of man.
The human exposure to the monitored
audio becomes more than a link in the
creative chain of the three Cs when that
exposure leads to whole body damage. The
human body can be compared to a
programmable calculator with continuous
memory that stores everything entered into
it. The body, when exposed to excessive
energy, assumes these characteristics by
permanent unalterable tissue change.
Exposure to energy in any form can lead to
mutagenic or carcinogenic damage. The
only variables are the duration of exposure
and the intensity; how long and how much.
In this way, the body is an unforgiving
storage medium, compiling exposure.
Energy of any kind has the property of
Martin Polon is director of AudioVisual Services at UCLA, in Westwood,
California, where he has been since
1961. He is a graduate of UCLA and is
currently working on a doctorate in
Educational Technology. Mr. Polon is
also a noise consultant for the aerospace
industry and related technologies. He is
session chairman at the November New
York AES Convention for the topic on
Enrivronmental Audio/Acoustical and
Medical Impact on Man. His field of
research covers the epidemiological
effects of sound on the human body.
causing body damage. A gas stove can burn
your hand. The sun will cause severe
sunburn if exposure
is
not limited, or even
lead to skin cancer for susceptible
individuals. Nuclear energy has a long list of
mutagenic or carcinogenic consequences of
exposure. All three energy forms share the
characteristics of toxicity. But, the three
energy forms have varying levels of visibility.
No one will put their hand into a gas flame
because the consequences are so obvious.
Less obvious is exposure to the sun, and
worse still the sun is quite attractive.
Nuclear energy is not attractive at all, but it
totally invisible.
Audio is an invisible source of energy. The
use of high level audio is attractive, both to
the audio professional and to the skilled
musician. The invisibility and attractiveness
of electro- acoustic energy is a paradox
because at the high levels considered
desirable for listening and monitoring, the
physiological tools used for evaluating
quality of performance are severly impaired.
The lexicon of sound induced damage to
the body includes such terms as noise,
pollution, invisibility, exposure, duration,
intensity, and susceptibility. The study of
the effect of negative factors on mass
populations is called Epidemiology. The
word is derived from the study of epidemics,
and describes the impact of a disease or
is
pollutant upon susceptible groups of
people. Epidemiologically speaking, high
level sound is noise polluting the environment. It is an invisible source of energy,
which damages the body based on how
much exposure there is (time x level). The
affect on any given individual is difficult to
predict precisely, since each human being
has a different genetic signature based on
the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). What is
known is the scale of damage that can be
predicted with exposure to sound pressure
levels in excess of 90 decibels.
Damage to the body from energy occurs
over a long time span. High energy levels in
audio monitoring and reproduction are a
fairly recent phenomena, and some of the
predictable sequences of damage, especially in the non hearing areas, are occuring on
-
a
continuing basis. Hearing damage,
compared to whole body damage, begins
rapidly and deterioration can be accelerated
in a shorter time frame. The "inflation" of
audio levels has reached a point where it is
Introducing the new
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At TDK, we know that your test cassette is a
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No matter what data you need, TDK has a
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2906 W. Peterson Ave Chicago, IL 60645: 2041 Rosecrans Ave Suite 365. El Segundo. CA 90245.
.
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for additional information circle no. 66
EXPOSURE STANDARDS TO HIGH SOUND LEVELS
c
o
o
a
C
Hazardous
to your Health
can be
not uncommon to find concert environments where backstage monitoring is done
with six theatre-type speaker systems and
the amplifier drive is 2,000 watts. Sound
levels in excess of 110 dB (A) will be found
during the entire performance. Similarly, a
studio mixdown session might take as long
as 24 hours, during which time the
monitoring of as many as 32 tracks will take
place at levels ranging from 100 to 120 dB
(A). Thousands of watts of amplification are
found in most studios, and the trend is
towards more power in most applications.
The point is that most audio professionals
and enthusiasts involved with high level
sound are currently experiencing greater
levels of exposure than their predecessors
did in years past. Just as an inflated
economy leads to eventual acceptance of
higher prices by the population; the use of
high sound levels constitutes an "audio
inflation" that is eventually accepted as the
norm by people working in the audio
profession.
Acceptance of audio inflation is like a
COMPARISON OF EXPOSURE TIMES
PERMITTED BY THE BRITISH OCCUPATIONAL
HYGIENE SOCIETY (BONS), AND THE
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR
FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO)
BONS Permitted
Duration, Hours
per Day
12
8
ISO Permitted
40 hours
35
30
25
20
7
90.5
91
5
4
92
93
94
96
99
102
105
108
2
1
0.5
0.25
0.125
0.0625
0.03125
0.015625
0.0078125
0.00390625
0.001953125
0.0009765625
Per Week
90
6
3
Duration,
Sound Level
SPL, dB (A)
88
5
Our New Model 3000
The Model 3000 Multitrack Recording Console is the newest addition
to our line of professional audio products. Specially designed to meet
the performance demands of today's recording studios, it offers the
some superior mix of operational flexibility and long range dependability you have come to expect from APSI consoles.
_L-
"
to the Model 3000 and the roadworthy
Model 2000 Mixing Console. See you there!
((uDlo PROCESSING SYSTEMS, INC.
40
R-e/p 128
Landsdowne St., Cambridge, MA 02139
for additional Information circle no. 67
www.americanradiohistory.com
dB (A)
90
92
95
97
100
102
Daily
Exposure,
Hours
8
6
4
3
2
11/2
1
'a
1/4
or less
40
20
10
double edged sword. Extreme caution has
to be exhibited in its use, or somebody is
going to get hurt. On one side there is the
acceptance of higher amplifier power and
loudspeaker power handling capacity as
tools for achieving extraordinary transient
RECORDING FLEXIBILITY AT ITS FINEST
Come
-see us and
mix for yourself...
AES Exhibition, New York,
Room 666. We'll introduce you
Permissible
Sound
Level
150 minutes
75
114
117
120
123
126
129
auto mute. 4 -band semi -parametric equalization,
extensive patching, balanced transformeriess'
input/output circuitry, and other advanced
engineering features. And its unusually flexible
mixdown system is second to none.
OCCUPATIONAL
SAFETY 8 HEALTH ACT
105
110
115
15
10
111
The Model 3000 offers master status switching.
PERMISSABLE
EXPOSURE UNDER THE
response. On the other side, we have an
acquiescence because the hearing mechanism may be damaged without the condition
being recognized.
One way to state the potential for hearing
and whole body damage from high level
sound is to view various standards used for
occupational exposure to noise. In all cases,
these standards are designed to prevent
damage by restricting exposure; regardless
of content. At sound levels higher than 110
dB SPL (A), the damage caused by high
level sound can be calculated with a stop
watch. American standards were established by the Department of Labor, and the
input of the U.S. Public Health Service, and
the Environmental Protection Agency. The
current Occupational Safety and Health Act
standards allow a maximum of 15 minutes
exposure, per day, to a level of 115 dB. Far
less lenient are the standards imposed in the
United Kingdom by Her Majesty's Factory
Inspectorate based on "The Code of
Practice for reducing the Exposure of
employed Persons to Noise."
These standards in the U.K. are also
endorsed by the British Occupational
Hygiene Society. The standard calls for a
maximum exposure of 112 seconds, per
day, to a sound level of 114 dB (A). Even
more restrictive, are the figures used by the
International Organization for Standardization and recommended to the entire world.
The ISO document #R 1999 -1975, calls for a
weekly totalized exposure of 10 minutes to a
sound pressure level of 114 dB (A).
That these standards do not agree, with
the American standards being the least
restrictive, illustrates the dichotomy of risk
assessment in high SPL exposures. The
U.S. standards were based on the
.
The CS15P condenser
' Id
microphone is equally at home in a recording environment or broadcast studio.
When hand -held it puts sex appeal in
a voice with its bass -boosting proximity
effect. With shaped high- frequency
response and its ability to handle high
sound pressure levels (140 dB with
1% THD at 1kHz), the CS15P is ideal for
close -up vocal or solo instrument miking
applications.
When boom mounted, the CS15P has
better gain-before -feedback and a better
signal -to -noise ratio than most shotguns.
It's phantom powered and its rugged.
The CO15P condenser omni
extends frequency response to the very
limits of audibility, 20 to 20,000 Hz. Unlike other "omni's;' the CO15P maintains
its omnidirectional polar pattern at the
very highest frequencies. Perfect for the
distant miking of an entire orchestra as
well as up close on individual instruments.
And like the CS15P, it's phantom powered
and it's rugged.
The Electro -Voice warranty
Electro -Voice backs up these two microphones with the only unconditional
warranty in the business: for two years
we will replace or repair your CS15P or
CO15P microphone, when returned to
Electro -Voice for service, at no charge no matter what caused the damage!
for additional information circle no. 68
We can do this because we build these
microphones to meet our standards for
performance, ruggedness and durability.
We accept nothing less, and if you're a
professional, buying a professional quality
microphone, you shouldn't either.
u
(
U Cú
System C
ElecfroVoice
a
?Ann company
600 Cecil Street. Buchanan. Michigan 49107
R-e'p
129
0
membrane, also a part of the inner ear
hearing mechanism, stiffens with age
limiting response. Blood supply reduction to
the inner ear is involved with the process as
20 years old
is the general brain cell deterioration
common to aging. A normal hearing curve
for a twenty year old male will be relatively
flat, while the same individual will have a 15
dB rolloff at 40 years of age, and a 30 dB
rolloff at age 65 (rolloff at 8 kHz). This
10
40 yea
s
old
65 yea
s
old
20
30
40
l
function of aging varies from individual to
individual and becomes serious when other
App oximate range
of speech f equencies
is present. The
presence of high level sound can and does
become additive to the degeneration of
presbycusis.
The mechanism of hearing has three
divisions in the human ear. (Figure 2) The
outer and middle ear serve to gather and
pathological impact
50
60
200
8000
4000
6000
3000
2000
1000
500
FREQUENCY, Hz
condition sound for reception and
perception in the inner ear. The mechanism
of the inner ear consists of a complex
Figure 1. Audiograms showing the typical reduction of hearing sensitivity with increasing age.
The approximate range of speech frequencies is shown.
system of fluid mechanics, frequency
dB SPL (A). The continued exposure to
higher levels and /or at longer durations can
cause damage to the entire body. What is
most disturbing clinically is that the damage
ear after being funneled through the
external ear canal, via the tympanic
membrane or eardrum of the external or
outer ear, to the three vibration transfering
bones of the air filled middle ear (malleus,
g3s
Hazardous
to your Health
can be
assumption that 90 dB was the maximum
allowable level for 8 hours of exposure. The
British and International standards also
calculate base exposure with an 8 hour /90
dB (A) basis. But, the method of calculating
the time - intensity trade -off for exposure
above 90 dB is the point of departure
between the systems used on the two
continents. The question of intermittency
was used as the justification for the so- called
5 dB rule in the U.S. That is, each increase of
5 dB above 90 dB, would be matched by a
corresponding decrease in time by one half.
Thusly, the 95 dB exposure time would be
only 4 hours. The hypothesis was that
intermittent sound of low or moderate levels
does not cause the same kinds of temporary
damage to the hearing mechanism as more
persistent sources of sound. But, the
supposition is based on low level, evenly
spaced sources of energy. At high levels,
such as 100 dB or greater, and without
regard to content or spacing, damage is far
more severe than this criteria allows for.
The European approach is to use a 3 dB
increase to halve exposure time. This is
becoming favored in this country as well.
Thusly, at 99 dB, exposure would be
reduced to a time frame of 1 hour per day,
five days per week.
What is significant to the audio professional, is that the criteria for risk assessment
from sound exposure do not agree, but that
the most lax interpretation allows for only 15
minutes exposure per day at a level of 115
to the hearing mechanism constantly
increases over a long time frame, reducing
the awareness of any change in level, while
the rest of the body is being impacted.
Damage attenuates hearing perception.
(Figure 1)
The human hearing mechanism has a
built -in loss factor to start with, that is a
result of aging. This condition is known as
Presbycusis. Although it is as inevitable as
the other consequences of growing old, it is
not of itself
a
condition which will
necessarily disenfranchise the working
audio professional. The deteriorative affects
are predictable and are confined primarily to
high frequncy information. The condition is
not totally understood medically, but the
celular degeneration brought by advancing
age seems to affect the hair cells of the inner
ear. The cells are not destroyed, but are
deteriorated, reducing function. The basilar
selective reception, and transmission paths
to the brain. Sound stimuli reach the inner
incus, stapes). (Figure 3)
The damage that high level sound induces
in the human hearing mechanism takes
place primarily in the inner ear. The inner
ear consists of three sections known as the
vestibule, the semi -circular canals, and the
cochlea. It is the cochlea which houses the
mechanism to transfer the mechanical
impulses of sound into neural impulses for
transmission to the brain. The inner ear is
filed with lymphatic fluids, which serve as
transfer mediums for various ear nutrients
and waste products. The mechanical
vestibule and canals are filled with
perilymph fluid, while the cochlea operates
with endolymph fluid. The cochlea is
essentially a triple canal coiled up spirally
around a bony axis. At the base of the
cochlea, a progressively widening membrane, known as the basilar membrane,
Semicircular canals
Stapes
Incus
Malleus
Cochlea
Eardrum
Pinna
External
auditory canal
Figure
2.
Round
Modiolus
window
Drawing of human ear showing three subdivisions in cross section.
R-e/p 130
www.americanradiohistory.com
When you observe the A 800.
you can't miss the legendary
Studer head assembly and
jewel -like tape handling mechanism.
But, there's much more you can't
see. Like half - horsepower spooling motors
that let you stop 14" reels from full shuttle speed in less than
two seconds at controlled tape tension. Or the unique
"rehearse" function that lets you preview an edit decision
before you commit yourself. Or the microprocessor
controlled drop-in and drop -out record and erase
function that lets you make high precision gap
free edits every time. Or the exclusive Studer
"spot erase" feature that energizes the
erase head only, to let you remove clicks with absolute
precision. Or the single
knob master bias control for
rapid alignment when
changing tape formulations.
To learn about these and
many other advantages that make
us superior, please call or write to us.
tJ_
-
Jv
Studer ReVox America, Inc., 1819 Broadway
Nashville, Tennessee 37203 (615) 329 -9576
In Canada: Studer Revox Canada. Ltd. / (416) 423 -2831
for additional information circle
R-e/p 131
n
69
www.americanradiohistory.com
th)
,,ss
ao
c
24
D
s
lß',1
Inner
Hair Cell
Hazardous
to your Health
can be
G ossary:
Audiological Checkup
-A diagnostic
a
graph, showing as
a
function of
-A
sound pressure in which that pressure
corresponds to the levels of the various
frequency bands; the bands having been
weighted to conform approximately with the
frequency senstivity of the human hearing
apparatus. The A- weighting conforms most
closely to the susceptibilities of the human
hearing system to energy damage. Defined as a
standard internationally in IEC 179 (1973), and
in the U.S. as ANSI S1.4. 1971 (same standards
defined B, C and D weightings).
The structure of the brain
Cerebellum
responsible for regulation and coordination of
voluntary complex muscle movement.
Criterion
The factor which is used to
judge noise or sound. As an example, criteria for
an acceptable sound would be that it causes no
annoyance, does not impact or modify any
patterns of behavior, and damages nothing and
-
-
-
dB (A) The unit of A- weighted sound level.
(Also dB (B), (C) and (D).)
Deafness
Total degradation of the hearing
function.
Decibel
unit used to connote relative
difference in power, usually between acoustic or
electric signals, equal to ten times the common
logarithm of the ratio of the two levels. In
defining sound pressure levels, it is ten times the
logarithm (base ten) of the ratio of the root
mean- square sound pressure squared, and a
reference pressure squared.
-
-A
-
Diastolic
- Relating to the normally
rhythmically occurring relaxation and dilation of
the heart cavities during which time the cavities
are filled with blood.
Frequency The time ratio of repetition of
a
-
sound pressure. This characteristic
determines whether human perceptions identify
sounds as high or low in pitch.
Hypothalamus That part of the brain that
lies beneath the thalamus, functioning to
-
regulate the body temperature, certain
metabolic processes, and other autonomic
activities.
Limitations
- Legal, and extra -legal
prohibitions on the quantity of sound. Amounts
to be limited can be identified in terms of sound
level, sound duration, exposure, or any other
appropriate expression of acoustic output.
Clear, transparent,
Lymphatic Fluids
watery fluids that contain white blood cells and
red blood cells. The fluids travel through the
lymph system to return to the blood stream and
act as an agent for the removal of bacteria and
certain proteins from tissue, and as an agent of
exchange for various other substances.
Medulla
Nervous tissue at the bottom of
the brain responsible for circulation, respiration,
and certain other body functions.
Motility
Movement, or having the power
Hair Cells
Spiralis
frequency, the amount measured in decibels of
deviation from the standard hearing thresholds.
measure of
A- Weighted Sound Level
no one.
Outer
Lim bus
experience, using an audiometer to measure the
sensitivity of hearing. A record is produced,
usually
Tectorial
Membrane
Reissner's
Membrane
o
-
Spiral
Ganglion
\
External
Spiral
Sulcus
Spiral
Ligament
Basilar
Membrane
Figure
3.
Enlarged cross -section drawing of the cochlea.
supports the hair cells. These hair cells,
comprising four rows (one inner row, three
outer rows) on the membrane, number
about 30,000.
The hair cells are the sensory receptors
for hearing which, with supporting cells
constitute the Organ of Corti, the human
auditory sense organ. The hair cells are
innervated by nerve fibers which have their
cell bodies grouped to form the spiral
ganglion. Axions from this ganglion collect
at the base of the cochlea, and pass out to
become the auditory branch of the 8th
cranial nerve. Information transmitted upon
this neural path goes to the medulla in the
brain, and then on to the higher nerve
centers of the thalamus and cerebellum.
The sensory function of hearing seems to
be related to the transfer of acoustical
energy via fluid motion in the inner ear,
which bends the hair cells triggering electrochemical impulses, which are transmitted as
neural energy to the brain. (Figure 4)
Discrimination of different sounds results
from the analysis in the cochlea, which is
mechanical in nature, and in the brain,
which utilizes the neural impulses. The
language of hearing and of hearing damage
uses terms such as "can," "seems," and
"will." It is a given that precise examination
of human hearing and hearing damage can
take place only as an autopsy exercise.
While this has contributed a remarkable
body of information, especially in terms of
damage assessment, the exact mechanisms
in a living person remain subject to
hypothesis. There has been considerable
work done with laboratory animals such as
rats, gerbils, and human ear analogs such as
chinchillas and monkeys so that the body of
medical information is definitive; but open to
interpretation in a living creature.
In damaging the hearing mechanism, high
energy sound is a function of the "constant
energy" principle. The presence of a
measured amount of "A" weighted sound
energy will cause a corresponding amount
of damage to the hearing mechanism. A
trading relationship exists between the
exposure time and the sound level in dB (A),
the product of the two being a measurement
of the total acoustical energy received at the
Reissner's Membrane
-
-
Tectorial Membrane
Organ of Corti
Auditory Nerve
to move, possibly spontaneously depending on
stimulus.
large mass of grey matter
Thalamus
that relays sensory stimulus to the cerebral
cortex, and acts with integrative and nonspecific functions.
The intensity
Threshold of Perception
below which a stimulus, mental or physical,
cannot be preceived and will not produce any
response or recognition.
-A
-
Figure 4. Section through one turn of the cochlea showing its three sections. The basilar
membrane, tectorial membrane, and hair cells are not shown in detail.
R-e/p 132
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Hazardous
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can be
inner ear. There is some proportional
relationship to frequency in the acoustical
energy received, although not necessarily
on a linear basis.
Physical damage to the receptors in the
inner ear has been identified as having a
greater high frequency component.
Histological examination (microscopic
tissue and cellular analysis) has identified
those regions of the basilar membrane
having greatest cellular injury. These areas
are usually in the base area of the membrane
where high frequency discrimination takes
place. There are several factors that operate
in the concentration of damage at the high
frequency sensory cells:
1. The regions of the membrane receiving
high frequency information consign higher
FIG. 5. Membranous spiral and osseous lamina dissected from the left cochlea of RS, age 25, a hunter, showing extensive loss
of organ of Corti and myelinated nerve fibers from the first quadrant. Note the surviving nerve fibers at and below the arrow
and even near the cecum vestibulare, wherever small patches of supporting cells and hair cells persist. DR, ductus reuniens; S,
stria vascularis. (Reprinted with permission from The Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Loryngology, 83:294-303,1974.)
amplitudes and more sharply defined
patterns of response to incoming stimulation.
2. Energy protective reflex actions of the
middle ear provide less attenuation at high
frequencies.
3. Resonant frequency of the external ear
canal operates to acoustically amplify high
frequencies relative to low frequency
information.
Bibliography:
Effects of Noise On Hearing edited by
Donald Henderson, Roger P. Hamernik,
-
Darshan S. Dosanjh and John H. Mills. Rauen
Press, New York, 1976.
A Review of Adverse Biomedical Effects
of Sound in the Military Environment
-
prepared by Life Sciences Research Office,
Federation of American Societies for Experi-
mental Biology; U.S. Army Life Sciences
Division, Army Research Office, Office of the
Chief of Research and Development, Department of the Army, Washington, 1971.
Proceedings of the International Con-
gress On Noise As A Public Health Problem
(Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, May 13-18, 1973)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office
of Noise Abatement and Control, Washington,
-
-
1974.
The Effect of Noise On Man by Kark D.
Kryter, Academic Press, New York, 1970.
by William Burns, J. B.
Noise and Man
Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1973.
Central
Effects of Noise On People
Institute for the Deaf, for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Noise
Abatement and Control, Washington, 1971.
Report of the
Noise Pollution In Israel
-
-
-
Committee on Research in Noise Pollution,
National Council for Research and Development, Jerusalem, 1974.
The Noise Around Us
- (Including
Technical Backup), Report of the Panel on
Noise Abatement, U.S. Department of
Commerce, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, 1971.
S. Wilson, compiler,
Noise, Final Report
Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, 1963.
-
R-e/p 134
Medically defined, hearing damage from
high level sound exposure assumes the
following syndrome:
1. High intensity sound will result in a
detachment of a portion of the Organ of
Corti (hair cells and supporting cells) from
the basilar membrane. This appears to be a
mechanical consequence of stress developing in the organ during high intensity sound
exposure. This is in contrast to the other
patterns of cellular degeneration which are
not solely mechanical.
2. Damage to the hair cells varies in
function. The outer row of cells seems the
most vulnerable to noise exposure, while
the inner cells degenerate from secondary
biochemical degradation.
3. The permeability of the membrane is
changed during episodes of high level sound
exposure. This seems to accelerate the
severe damage to a number of cells during
the exposure.
4. When a particularly severe episode of
high intensity sound exposure causes a
number of sensory cells to degenerate,
simultaneously, small holes will exist for a
given amount of time, allowing the leakage
of fluids.
5. The presence of unwanted potassium
ions or endolymph fluids can cause
secondary damage in the Organ of Corti.
Uninjured cells and nerve fibers will undergo
an isosmotic (osmosis) swelling that will
eventually rupture many of them. This is
thought to be the phenomena that is
responsible for the degeneration of many
supporting cells and nerve fibers after sound
exposure. Figure
5
illustrates cochlea
damage.
The scenario just given is the medical
explanation of degeneration that occurs
when the human ear is exposed to high
intensity sound. Each and every exposure
produces the affects described. The only
variables are the susceptibility to damage
that varies from individual to individual, and
the duration of time between exposure.
Time between exposures becomes
important since it is this unexposed time
that allows the ear to regenerate and
recover sensitivity.
The mechanism by which temporary
hearing damage becomes permanent
hearing damage is known as TTS (Temporary Threshold Shift), and PTS (Permanent
Threshold Shift). A warning of the damage
to the hair cells of the hearing mechanism is
the onset of
a
condition known
as
"tinnitus." This is a ringing, buzzing or
whistling in the ears that is a precursor of
inner ear damage. Unfortunately, the use of
sound levels above 100 dB (A) can usually
mask this reaction. The previously
described "equal energy" principle comes
into effect as exposure takes place, and the
ears accumulate exposure as damage. The
terms threshold shift refer to the fact that
attenuation of response in the ear is
maximum at a frequency of one-half octave
above that involved in the exposure. If an
exposure takes place, the net result is a
notching of perceptive sensitivity in the
1,000 to 6,000 Hertz range.
The goal for the audio professional is
avoidance of this notching condition, the
threshold shift, and PTS. There is no way to
know for a given individual what combination of intensity and duration is going to
induce damage, but it is medically advisable
to separate exposures. The ideal situation
would be to have no exposure over 80 dB
(A) for a period of 7 to 14 days after a
significant high level episode. It is possible to
recover in 16 to 24 hours, if an exposure is
not "pathologically fatiguing." That
presumes regularized exposure patterns to
moderate sound levels in the 85 to 95 dB
range. In between the two axis, there is a
compromise which would grant some
immunity from severity in permanent
damage. If there was a staggering of work
assignments with levels in excess of 100 dB,
the intervening time would allow for
recovery.
For the person who uses audio regularly,
in excess of 100 or 110 dB, the long term
consequences could be viewed similarly to
the affect of smoking a pack of cigarettes a
day over twenty or thirty years. Mutagenic
change will occur in the hearing mechanism.
This change can be further complicated by
the use of ototraumatic drugs; i.e. those
agents used for medical or recreational
purposes that will accelerate inner ear
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damage. Aminoglycoside antibiotics,
certain diuretics and analgesics (pain
killers), and some stimulants and intoxi-
cants (drugs, marijuana and alcohol)
ingested in varying ways fall into this
category.
It is apparent that the practicing audio
professional or musician who three or four
times a week undergoes sustained (2 hours
plus) exposure to sound pressure levels of
110 to 120 dB (A) or better will gradually
reduce sensitivity by the process of
converting TTS to Permanent Threshold
Shift. There are two significant results of this
syndrome. Firstly, the person involved is
going to need more energy to reach the
same sense of perceptive accomplishment
held prior to the attenuation of the PTS.
This slowly increasing need for higher level
of input matches the deterioration of
sensitivity from hearing damage. The higher
the new level, the greater the new level of
damage. Secondly, the lack of sensitivity will
mask the continuing exposure of the rest of
the body to high level sound.
The affect of sound on the body does not
stop with the gradual degeneration of the
inner ear hearing mechanism. Whole body
damage is a phenomena in which the
activation of basic defense mechanisms by
high level sound involves many different
body organs and interferes with certain
necessary bodily functions. The perceptions of high level sound trigger primordial
reactions that evolved to protect man from
dangers of the environment. Attack by
predatory enemies was presaged by certain
sounds that would give warning. The body
responds today as it did thousands of years
ago. A noise outside at three o'clock in the
morning will activate modern man the same
way a saber- toothed cat alarmed the cave
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The defensive response to perceived
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Professfonal Audio
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71
R-e p '35
susceptible individuals.
The most dramatic involvement in terms
of health, of high level sound can be seen in
(DDS
Hazardous
to your Health
can be
danger is just that. The body cannot detect
the nature of the danger; just the projected
perceptions. High level sound triggers
regularly body responses that were
intended to function infrequently. The
perception of danger from high level sound
causes the operation of a complex chain
from the inner ear to the brain, where the
hypothalamus triggers hormonal outputs,
stimulates the pituitary gland and involves
the endocrine system. The voluntary
nervous system, the autonomic nervous
system and the central nervous system are
involved to prepare for danger. Muscles are
tensed by the main motor nerves. Heart
activity, rate of breathing, blood pressure,
and other functions are altered to prepare
for fight or flight. This series of reactions in
man complicate the health pattern by
adding stress systemically. Stressing the
system to prepare for self -protection is the
body's response to high level sound. The
consequences are not positive, especially
viewed over a long time frame and/or for
interference with the cardiovascular
system. In a high level sound episode, the
body goes into an Orienting Response, and
then assumes a sustained reaction known
as the Defense Response. The blood vessels
undergo a narrowing of caliber, known as
vaso-constriction. This changing in size of
the blood vessels occurs at the onset of the
exposure episode, and does not disappear
in some individuals until the sound ceases or
even continues after extinction of the sound
source. Other cardiovascular changes
include the blood pressure rate (especially
diastolic), heart rate, cardiac output, and
pulse volume. All of these heart functions
are interrelated, and may create further
affects. For example, while high level sound
does not seriously modify the long term
blood pressure rate for a normal population
group, patients already suffering from
hypertension will probably undergo a
moderate further increase in blood
pressure. Another area of concern is the
interference of certain hormones released
during a high level sound episode. These
hormones actually cause an increased
blood level of serum chloresterol, which the
body produces normally. The deposition of
placque, which is involved in arterial
blockage, is also enhanced during the sound
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episodes.
There is an interesting contradiction in
the vasoconstrictive response to high
energy sound. The ear's blood supply is cut
down along with all of the other areas
supplied by the peripheral blood supply.
The ear, however, is undergoing the
extreme trauma previously described. The
sensory cells need an increased blood flow
to remove the metabolic products and to
provide ionic exchange. The lack of blood
from cardiovascular response to high level
sound further accelerates the degenerative
process going on in the inner ear. One might
say the hearing mechanism "gets it from
both sides" when this condition known as
cochlear anemia or ischemia occurs.
The continuing exposure to high energy
sound creates a stress reaction in the body
that significantly involves the gastrointestinal system. Certain stomach
functions are disrupted by abnormal
contractions of the abdominal area, and
increased infusion of hydrochloric acid
causing dyspepsia. Recurring activation of
this syndrome will lead to peptic ulceration
in susceptible individuals. The intestinal
system has increased motility with waves of
contractions which coupled with the highly
acidic condition of the stomach produce
diarrhea and/or frequent loose motions.
This syndrome in the gastro- intestinal
system, when combined with a diet of junk
food, and the on -going stress of demanding
creative activity, could explain "Sound man's Stomach."
Less easily explained, but far more
fascinating is the interaction of the creative
environment with intestinal motility.
Research has established that those
individuals who can control the high level
sound source, but continue their exposure
to it suffer far greater motility problems than
those who have no control over the
exposure. Even more interesting is the disco
related problem with unwanted release of
intestinal contents during episodes of high
level sound on the dance floor. This reaction
to sound has been parenthetically named
the "Disco Dump" although it is by no
means confined to discos. The presence of
stimulus that confuses the brain, along with
the reaction to high level sound triggers a
simultaneous release of control by the
sphincter muscle while the intestines are in
extreme motility. Fortunately for the disco
business, this phenomena appears to be
restricted to susceptible individuals,
AGNE TICS
R-e,p 136
tor additional information circle no. 72
www.americanradiohistory.com
although susceptibility is enhanced by the
presence of alcohol and other ingested
stimulants.
The hormonal outpouring during high
level sound exposure episodes has a
definable consequence of negatives. The
hypothalamus in the brain signals the
release of a number of hormones throughout the body. (Figure 6)
1. The pituitary is stimulated directly to
Brain
Hypothalamus
via
Portal Vein
Direct
Pituitary
Anterior
Thyroid Stimulating
Hormone lTSHI
Chloresterol
Levels
Blood Arterial
Plaque
Hormone
Adreno-
Gonadotrophic
Corticotropic
Oxytocrn
Hormone
Hormone (ACTH)
---->
Adrenal
Cortex
Thyroid
Thyroxine
Antiduretic
Posterior
Aldosterone
y
Blood Volume
Uterus
Breasts
->Lactation
Gonad
-4
Sex Hormones
17- Hydroxy
Corticosterone
y
Metabolism
Adrenaline
Blood Sodium
level
Allergic Response
Fight or Flight
Infection Resistance
throughout the body from the brain
Dilation of Pupils
hypothalamus due to high sound levels.
acts as an antidiuretic to the kidneys
(possibly upsetting the body's fluid and
sodium balance).
3. The anterior lobe of the pituitary
(adenohypophysis) releases three sub-
stances of interest:
A. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Vasoconstriction
Increased
Heart Rate
Figure 6. The hormonal chain reaction
the posterior lobe by the hypothalamus; the
anterior lobe is stimulated by the portal vein
from the hypothalamus.
2. The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
(neurohypophysis), releases oxytocin
which affects the uterus and lactation in the
breast of females, and vasopressin which
_
stimulates the thyroid which in turn
produces thyroxine, which is responsible
for blood levels of serum cholesterol, and
the deposition of atheromatous plaques.
B. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH) activates the adrenal cortex, which
releases aldosterone and 17- hydroxycorti-
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R-e/p 137
distraction effect, and is "invisible" as are
most of the affects of high level sound
s
iL
Hazardous
to your Health
can be
costerone. These corticosteroids tend to
remain active for a long time frame with high
level sound exposure. Blood levels of
sodium, blood volume, kidney effectiveness, metabolic regulation of carbohydrates
and proteins and fats, body inflamation, and
body allergic response are all modified by
these steroid hormones. Resistance to
infection may also be impaired with
continued long term high intensity sound
exposure.
C. Gonadotrophic hormone is released
which may decrease potency in the male by
gonadial interference.
exposure. The presence of sound levels as
low as 80 dB (A) can interfere with the
achievement of cognitive tasks such as
those involving memory. Complex tasks,
especially new ones that have to be learned
in the presence of high level sound (90 dB +),
can be seriously interfered with. This
interference is especially significant where
multiple components or high information
loads are involved. The capacity to
communicate can be interfered with beyond
the inability to detect speech as the brain's
ability to process speech information is
degraded as well.
Lastly, the presence of continued
exposure to high level sound can trigger
psychopathological impacts on individuals
who have otherwise been primed by internal
or external factors. These impacts can
range from depressions noted among
females during the menstrual period to
The hypothalamus activates the
actual presence in the brain of chemicals
sympathetic nervous system, which in turn
normally found in schizophrenia and
involves the adrenal medulla which
psychosis. There are a number of other
interesting reactions to the presence of high
4.
mediates the release of adrenaline and
noradrenaline to the blood. These
hormones trigger the fight -flight response
affecting heart rate, vasoconstriction, etc.
High level sound episodes can also affect
the ability to concentrate on performing a
task. The phenomena is known as the
Manner
level sound which involve the brain,
including interference with vision.
The evidence of interference, degradation and/or mutagenic impact of high level
sound on the human body is overwhelming.
The facts point to the dangers of continued
Ilalsoos
MUSIC HOUSE LTD.
exposure of the body to acoustical energy
greater than 90 dB (A). The current
argument circulating among noise damage
specialists is where between 70 and 90 dB
(A), the real threshold of damage to the
body is located for 90% of the population.
This is not to say that music in a working
and /or recreational environment does not
have value medically. The therapeutic value
of sound constituted as music is as well
documented as the extent of sound induced
damage. The keystone to understanding the
paradox of high level sound is that it ceases
to be music when the brain cannot
discriminate it as music. Certainly at levels
in excess of 110 dB (A), if the brain cannot
processor detect the articulation of speech,
the real cognizance of music has to be
diminished.
It is fortunate perhaps that the laws of
logarithmic progression require such
quantum doubling of power that the much
dreaded figures above 160 dB will never be
reached with audio systems. This is the
hypothetical point where human life is
imperiled by audiogenic seizure producing
respiratory failure. It is sobering to note two
facts, however. Firstly, laboratory animals
die from audiogenic seizure at levels far
lower than 160 dB. While it has never been
documented in man, the other similarities
found in the effect of sound on man and
animals are defined. This syndrome of
painful, sudden death remains an unknown
factor in the equation. Secondly, the current
measurements made of bands performing in
the United States have seen levels in the
high 130s and low 140s, "A" weighted. It
would seem time to put an end to the
inflation of levels in audio and stabilize the
technology of monitoring, reproducing, and
reinforcing sound. (Figure 7)
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deterioration of sound effectiveness in
various applications.
1. Traveling concert systems should be
designed in modules that can be easily split
apart and identified for various sizes of halls
and auditoriums. Most concert sound
systems are designed for large arenas and
pavillions. Often, during a tour middle sized
halls and small auditoriums are also booked.
The standard system is often used for all
three kinds of engagements. A well designed system with thousands of watts is
not dangerous where there is a large
absorption and a large volume of air to be
moved. It is when the huge systems are
placed into a small hall with highly reflective
surfaces that real difficulty is engendered.
2. Performers should not feel the need to
keep up with the "Joneses." Just because
"Eddie Machete and The Switchblades" use
20,000 watts of power to the audience or
5,000 watts for stage monitoring is no
reason for a grcup with a well- designed
reinforcement system that has had good
reviews and which the band enjoys, to
replace it.
3. Each band should consider the services
of a consultant in acoustical damage, or at
least have the sound mixer for the unit well
versed in damage versus protection. For
instance, a complete audiological checkup
would give a specialist the tools to alter both
the monitoring setup and the information
necessary to equip band members with
hearing protection. It might be that some
band members could benefit from certain
types of hearing protectors while others
would use different types of protectors. By
tailoring the protection to the band, its
music, and its instruments, the protection
package could be designed to have the least
impact on the creative aspects of the music.
4. The purchase and use of a sound level
meter is recommended to all involved in
audio: professionals, semi -professionals and
talented enthusiasts. The meter could be a
professional meter capable of calibration
and of meeting legal standards, but it could
just as well be an inexpensive unit which
may be 1 or 2 dB off, but which would still
provide a relative indication. Knowing the
level being encountered is the first step in
dealing with high level sound.
5. Investigate studio monitoring acoustics
to determine if levels in the 120 to 130 dB
range are being used to bulldoze improperly
designed studio acoustics, especially in old
studios or studios where no acoustic
consultant was employed.
6. If customers consistently demand high
monitoring levels, studios could consider a
"hot" room with isolation to keep the high
levels from the working staff.
7.
Each audio professional should
consider the acquisition of some kind of
hearing protectors to be used when creative
interference is not a problem, or hopefully
when perception might be enhanced by a
little less level. Certainly 30 or 40 dB of
attenuation is not going to hamper anyone
at a level of 140 dB.
8. Sound system designers can consider
the use of headroom limitations that would
bring in distortion for disco or reinforcement systems at a given sound level to
protect the audience and performers /users.
A peak limiter could be used in the same
way as an alternative.
9. Careful use of headphones by all who
have need of them. The headphone's direct
coupling to the head can create high levels
with a minimum of input power.
10. Equalization can be used creatively to
reduce monitoring levels. Correct voicing of
a room or measured adjustment of room
equalization might correct a problem being
dealt with at the power amplifier's gain
controls. Insufficient bass can be corrected
in other ways besides moving up the overall
system gain.
The above suggestions are not of real
interference to the creative aspects of
audio; creating, controlling, and communicating. The other side of the coin is that the
future holds no other alternatives. If the
industry does not recognize the health
hazards, the regulatory implications of well
used Federal and State laws will soon reach
the audio profession. If self-regulation, or
more properly moderation can become the
norm, then the heavy hand of regulatory
enforcement might be avoided. The
industry would benefit.
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amplifier. Call or write RTS Systems for
details.
Preamp
Interface
...the
weakest link in the
audio reproduction chain
by William Isenberg
CARTRIDGE
LOADING
In every record project there is a crucial
moment when everyone concerned gathers
round to find out what has happened to the
sound when the final mix was transferred to
disk. No matter what was done at the
mastering facility, inevitably a reference cut
or test pressing must be compared to the
master tape. Ideally this means the playing of
that disk in the same room used for
mixdown, so as to be absolutely sure of the
sound.
Such comparisons are truly unfair, but
there is no alternative. Even under ideal
conditions, a record cannot sound as good
as the original tape since no analog system
can improve fidelity or reduce distortion. All
we can hope for is the least possible number
of devices in the signal path. If a certain piece
of equipment is not being used, it should be
bypassed with patchcords, rather than
running program through it.
When it comes to that all- important
playback, it is equally important that top
quality gear be used. This means a high
quality belt or direct driven turntable
rAl
G
A
PNpN
rPL IFIER
Pß
EA
1100 WEST CHESTNUT STREET
BURBANK, CALIFORNIA 91506 213/843 -7022
TX. 66 -2404 ANS BK IMAGETRANS -LSA
R -e p 140
Mr. Isenberg is currently associated
with RTS Systems Division of Compact
Video, Burbank, California. He is
responsible for circuit design of the
professional audio product line. Previous
properly fitted with a grade "A" tonearm and
the best cartridge available. The playback
equipment must be above suspicion, or
there is little point in listening. If any changes
employers include Pioneer North
America, Pasadena, Pioneer of America,
Long Beach, Scientific Audio Electronics, Los Angeles, James B. Lansing
Sound, Northridge, Record Plant, Los
Angeles, Daniel Flickinger & Associates,
Hudson, Ohio and Mastersound
Recording, Atlanta, Georgia.
SEE US AT A.E.S. BOOTH 203
www.americanradiohistory.com
Figure
1:
Flux Loop
for Phono Cartridges
I ncred 1 b I
the "Acoustic Chamber Synthesizer'L'
the XL -305
by
Totally new design approach
The sound of
a
live acoustic chamber
Natural sound, even on percussion
Self- contained rack mount unit
Full two- channel stereo
The Master Room XL -305 is a totally new design approach in reverberation technology. For the first time, the
qualities and properties of a live acoustic chamber are available in a rack mount unit at an affordable price.
There is a natural sound on percussion, as well as voices and all other musical instruments. This quality has not
been obtainable from other compact reverberation devices. The XL -305 exhibits no unwanted side effects; it's
as natural as a live chamber itself.
To hear this new
advancement in reverberation, see your professional audio dealer and ask for a demonstration
Hear the XL -305 "Acoustic Chamber Synthesizer" for yourself, and you tco will agree ..
of this exciting new unit.
.
It's INCREDIBLE.
MICMIX Audio Products, Inc.
2995 Ladybird Lane
Dallas, Texas 75220
for additional information circle no. 77
(214) 352 -3811
Function Generator
Tektronix FG 503
Buffer Amplifier
RCA CA3140
1
50P.
Flux
Loop
Phono
Cartridge
1歭f
á
o
----4311
á
o
To
3K
Frequency
Waveform
=
=
Scope
2KHz
27K
Triangle
o
Figure 2 Phono Cartridge Flux Loop Test Setup
are made, particularly to cartridge or
electronics, it would be a very good idea for
all concerned to listen first to a representative sample of familiar discs, including some
direct -to -disk material. Since we are talking
about a professional situation, one might
think that professional equipment would be
the best choice to insure reliable service.
However, this may not be the case.
The prime users of professional turntables are radio stations, syndication services
and discos. In these applications rugged,
reliable construction and ease of maintenance come first, but a recording studio user
will also be very picky about the sound
quality as well. This can be a problem
because it is quite possible that the slip -cue
felt -covered turntable which works so well
over at the local radio station has so much
rumble that it becomes unusable in a
recording studio. The electronics can also
be a problem, because the type made for
radio usage often has to perform in a strong
radio field. Our friends in radio know how
hard it is to eliminate RF pickup. Thus we
a preamp designed for radio
probably has lots of RF chokes and bypass
capacitors to kill RFI. Sad to say, these
find that
things tend to kill the high frequency
response as well. Again, the fact that we are
picky about sound quality is causing us to
wonder about alternatives.
As far as sound quality is concerned, we
can probably get what we want by using hi -fi
gear. This will result in good sound, but not
for long, as most hi -fi gear isn't rugged
enough for studio use and has many features
that are great for the hi -fi market but too
complex for professional application.
Certain hi -fi products will be okay if not
abused. The trade refers to this type as
"esoteric." In this category, extra gadgets
and features are left out and the prime thrust
is better sound. Sad to say, there are many
opinions of what good sound is in the hi -fi
business. The only way to find out is borrow
some promising units and take them to the
studio and listen carefully.
If test equipment is available the units
R-e/p 142
should be checked out before listening. It is
possible to waste a good deal of time trying
to figure out what sounds good or bad since
the objective measurement figures may run
termination makes vast differences in the
sound quality of microphone preamps.
Square wave testing is a powerful tool for
evaluating the transient performance of
contrary to the subjective evaluation. transformers which are step-up in the case
However, some folks insist on listening first of mike preamps. The usual ratio is 1 to 8 or
because "if it sounds bad you'll hear it." If so with the primary source impedance
there weren't so many factors involved
usually 150 ohms which the transformer
could agree, but experience has convinced reflects into the amplifier as 10K ohms. This
me that complex problems are solved more is done to obtain the best noise performance
easily if divided into bite -sized chunks.
using a typical bi -polar transistor amplifier.
Unless the secondary of the transformer is
A Playback Cart
properly terminated, the capacity present in
Since a disk playback is not done every circuit will resonate with the inductance of
day in most studios, the most practical the secondary winding and cause a peak in
package is probably a roll -around cart. If the the response at some very high frequency.
cart can be locked up when not in use it will On the surface of it there would be no harm
be more likely to have a cartridge with a in this, but contrary to some opinions, many
good stylus when needed.
musical instruments have substantial
Once the gross mechanics have been transients and overtones well above 20 kHz.
dealt with, what about those all- important When bells and triangles are struck a whole
details that affect sound quality? The two spectrum of ultrasonic information appears
most critical areas are the cartridge chosen to excite any spurious resonances in a mike
and the preamp. In addition, we face a transformer. This is plainly audible as a
serious challenge in proper matching of shattering sound on impact instead of the
these components.
distinctive click heard in person. Broadband
Until recently proper termination of sources such as ride cymbals generally
phono cartridges has been one of the more sound harsh and nasty through a preamp
neglected areas in disk reproduction. A flat with transient distortion.
response is difficult to maintain because the
mechanical and electrical systems tend to
resonate at different frequencies in the
upper end of the audio spectrum. For many
years cartridge loading was done on a
compromise basis which included
a
standard load resistance of 47K and the
assumption that anywhere from 200 to 500
picofarads of capacitive loading would be
presented to the cartridge. Typical cartridge
inductance evolved to be anywhere from
500 to 900 millihenrys. A glance at a
reactance chart shows resonance to fall in
the octave from 10 kHz to 20 kHz. This
electrical resonance is somewhat damped
by the 47K load resistance, but the overall
result is not outstanding as far as transient
performance is concerned.
Having done some work with microphone
transformers I became very aware that
Measurement Procedure
There is no substantive difference
between the secondary of a microphone
transformer and a phono cartridge. It is not
hard to measure the response of a mike
preamp as long as the generator has the
proper source impedance, but how to go
about measuring a phono cartridge? Vibrate
the stylus? With what, and with what kind of
precision? Even if it were possible, the stylus
mechanical resonance would influence the
results. In order to treat the electrical and
mechanical areas separately there must be
an electrical method of exciting the cartridge
without the stylus being used.
There seemed to be no answer until
Lyman Miller and I were part of a group
listening to Peter Butt describe the
calibration of magnetic tape duplicators
Kenton Forsythe
Designed The
Bin
Better
Bass
...
and left the rest to the folks at Eastern Acoustic Works.
Kenton has spent several years designing a better bass box;
we've helped him to make it the best.
The 8.215 is intended for sound reinforcement applications, but
can be utilized in any situation requiring low frequency response
down to 40 hZ, at extremely high output levels.
At Eastern Acoustic Works, we believe in using only the finest in
craftsmanship and materials. Our cabinets are constructed with high
quality, European cross -grain, laminated hardwoods. And because we
use a mathematically correct exponential horn, the B -215 delivers
more gain and a more solid low end than the commonly used quasi
-
radial horns.
Eastern Acoustic Works has built a bass cabinet that is optimized for
real life applications in terms of construction and performance. It's
built better, sounds better and lasts longer than any other product of
it's type. For more details. call or write.
1-4Eastern Acoustic Works
59 Fountain Street. Box
1
1
1.
Inc.
Framingham. Massachusetts 01701 (617) 620-1478
Please stop by and see us at the AES /New York in Demo Room o609.
Call Steve 8021862-1905
BRIGHTON SOUND
Call Dully 716/454-3030
Rochester. N Y
CARUSO'S MUSIC
Call Larry 203/x42 -9600
Ness London. C
CIRCLE SOUND
Call John 607,: 853586
Endicott
SOUTH
SH SALES
EAST
N Y
CLAIR BROTHERS
Call Dave 717. 33.1211
Lititz. PA
DIST RONICS
Call Glen 61 7;926.19,9
Watertown MA
EAST COAST SOUND
Call Ed 203, 7482799
Danbury CT
KLEARSOUND
Call Brdy 203.532 -2470
Bristol CT
LUDWIG SOUND 8 STAGE
Call 000 203 239-5553
North Haven CT
MUSIC WAREHOUSE
Call Rod 603'658-4880
Manchester.
N H
PARK MUSIC
Can Keith 412 842-6171
Leechburg. PA
RED BANK MUSIC
Can Bill 201 7474315
Red Bann. N
J
Burlington
VT
SID STONE SOUND
Call Don 5179262-2470
Boston MA
THE SOUND LAB
Call Dave 717 845-9186
York. PA
SOUNOO-RA MA
Call Kevin 401 944.7374
Cranston. R
I
SPECTRUM L 8 S
Call Mork 603/7494399
Dover N H
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Call vince 412 728,1 234
Monaca PA
QUANTUM AUDIO
Can Marvin 212 260-2300
New York N Y
TO AUDIO
Can Torn 201
.1unn..nr
746.1233
N J
UNI-STAGE
Call Ruben 716 853-6500
Bulla.
N
HOUSTON CINEMA 8 SOUND
ATLANTA SOUND WORKS
Call Ellis 404,457.8252
Atlanta. GA
AUDIO LIGHT & MUSICAL
Lan Ed 804 58 61894
No0olk
VA
THE AUDIO SPECTRUM
Call Hai 601 8562569
kson MS
HARRIS AUDIO
Call Mike 305'944.4448
Miami FLA
SOUND INC
Call Dave 703 9531363
Biackabury
VA
SOUND PLUS
Call Phil 703 896-2714
Broadway VA
STAGE 8 STUDIO SUPPLY
Call Gary 501 562.3605
Little Rock AK
THOROUGHBRED MUSIC
Call Joey 813'9: 7 -6040
CENTRAL
Call John
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110051on Tx
MIGAR PRO AUDIO
Call Wiliam 816 O l3-4001
Indellendenre MO
LEE S MUSIC
NEWCOME SOUND
Call Tim 614 2685605
Culurnbus OH
LEO S MUSIC
Call Jim 415,5631000
PICKERS PARADISE
Chu Ken or Ed 5,2,392-9467
San Man. os Tx
MATRIX MARKETING
Call CIMI or Dougre 206 789-5490
SOUND INVESTMENTS
Call Glen 112 2571217
IndIanapulIs IN
THE MUSIC STORE
SOUND SHOW
Call Mark 401 5S. 634.14
Omaha NE
NORTHWEST SOUND
Can Run S03. 2231924
Portland OR
WATERMELON SUGAR
Call Al 517 793-7600
Sayinaw MI
THE
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Call Charles 714 560-7727
CRAIG BUZZART 8 CO
Can Crag 213 4548196
Pac.tc Palisades. CA
San Oego CA
Y
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Call Greg 617 261-5862
Boston MA
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Cali George 716 3730317
Olean N Y
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Call Bob 716 663-8820
Rochester N Y
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Cal Ron 419 435-8431
A SOUND
Call Ronald 213 8742100
Hollywood CA
L
DELICATE ACOUSTICS
Can Soy 213 8497871
Fostoria OH
Burbank CA
GARY GAND MUSIC
Cadi Gary 312 831 -3080
Highland Park. IL
ELECTRONIC SOUND PRODUCTS
Call Don 303/390-7069
Colorado Sonngs CO
GREAT AMERICAN MUSIC
Can Bob 2,7,367-6615
GREGS SOUND
Can Greg 209 6744195
Madera CA
Call Randy 509 45 65732
Yak.ma WA
Oakland CA
Seeable WA
Lail Ray 51)4 682 -5424
Chelan WA
SOUND SOLUTION
Can Da.,d 113 391.5332
Santa Monica CA
WAH SOUND
CALL WALTER 916.444.5491
Sacramento CA
WHITTIER MUSIC
Can Tom 213 947.4671
Wnrttrer CA
UNIVERSITY AUDIO
Can MCC or
Provo UT
'.m 307.883-2303
CANADA CONCERT SYSTEMS
Call Rob 4, 6 743-5865
Rekoale. Ontario
JAPAN
THE UNICUS
Cal
Y
Krose
61
3
662.8518
Tokyo Japan
R-eip 143
for additional information circle no. 78
using
a
flux loop. This gadget makes it
possible to check performance of
a
reproduce channel without worrying about
tape -to -head interface problems such as
poor tape wrap or azimuth. Eureka! All we
had to do was remove the stylus assembly
from a phono cartridge and insert a ten -turn
Flux loop (Figure 1). Lyman pursued the
concept and read a paper on flux loop
calibration of phonograph reproducing
systems at the AES convention in Los
Angeles in May, 1976. My own effort along
these lines did not progress as rapidly, but
the insight obtained proved to be quite an
eye- opener.
Figure 3 F = 2kHz, 100 µsec /div.
Capacitive Load Only, Overshoot 42 %.
I
\
I
\
I
I
I
I
.1
Figure 4 Resistive and Capacitive Loading.
Risetime 26psec, Overshoot 9%
The biggest single problem with the
phono cartridge is that it has to be installed
in a tone arm away from the preamp. Tone
arm lead capacity is difficult to reduce below
100 pf. To simulate this a capacitor was
connected in parallel with the cartridge while
using a flux loop to excite the coils (diagram
in Figure 2). This caused substantial
overshoot and ringing; the square wave was
badly distorted, as shown in Figure 3. By
connecting a 47K resistor in parallel, the
damping of the square wave got much
better, but the rise time became unacceptable (Figure 4). Now what? By transformer
standards this performance was terrible.
Was this the only way to listen to records?
Not exactly. Moving coil cartridges which
operate at a lower impedance and thus are
relatively immune to capacitive loading are
available but they have problems of their
own, such as non -replaceable styli, high
cost, and more hum and noise. What really
intrigued me was that with both resistive and
capacitive loads removed from the cartridge
driven by the flux loop, square wave
performance improved incredibly (Figure 5).
If the cartridge could somehow be operated
with no loading whateuer, a dramatic sonic
improvement could be expected. The only
thing to do was either put the entire phono
preamp in the tonearm headshell, or use
some kind of buffer to lower the impedance
such that the cartridge would not be loaded
by tonearm wiring. A method was devised
using two transistors to buffer the cartridge
as required. With electrical problems
bypassed, it became possible to investigate
the mechanical situation. Various cartridges
were installed into the buffered headshell
and the DIN 45541 test record (sold by
Gotham Audio) was played. Incredible!
Some cartridges performed very well, but
others had very pronounced peaks in the
high frequency end. One highly rated
cartridge had a stylus assembly which
resonated so strongly that it reached a 10 dB
peak at 22 kHz! Flat as a pancake all the way
from 10 Hz (tonearm resonance) until 10
kHz and then a curve that shot up like a
rocket from Vandenburg! No wonder the
spec sheets recommended a 500 pf load.
Figure 5 F = 2 kHz, 100 psec /div.
No Load, Rise Time 8 psec.
R-e/p 144
www.americanradiohistory.com
Needless to say, my personal system did not
use this cartridge.
ORIGINAL MASTER RECORDING..
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mobile fidelity
sound lab
Imported Super Vinyl Pressings
or write /phone
Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab
P.O. Box 919
Chatsworth, CA 91311
(213) 993 -4945
Half -Speed Mastered
Special Protective Packaging
R -e p 145
for additional information circle no. 79
New Cartridge Designs
Fortunately, new cartridges appear with
regularity and the CD -4 quadraphonic
system has served as
a
100
I
stimulus to improve
the status quo. The latest cartridges
available have lower inductance which
reduces electrical problems and better
90
designs for the stylus/cantilever assembly
70
difficulties. These benefits are complemented by a growing consumer awareness of the
situation and the appearance of preamps
with adjustable cartridge loading. Some
preamps have switches on the front panel to
make it easy.
Once the cartridge output is presented to
60
very important process
20
a
begins. The amplifying devices used and the
connection of circuits in conjunction with
them can affect listening greatly. It is very
important that no spurious responses be
generated by the preamp. The two types
likely to cause the most trouble are
harmonic and intermodulation distortion.
By far the most noticeable is third
harmonic. Third harmonics do not normally
occur in music (other than fuzz -tone guitars
and synthesizers) and as a result just a little
bit is audible. If a preamp has a lot of third
harmonic distortion, voices will buzz, brass
will sound bigger than life, and everything
will tend to smear in a concave manner. In
fact, this sonic effect
is
Open Loop
Response
with 22pf
80
which addresses mechanical resonance
the preamp,
5534
often called
"transistor smear" or "transistor sound." It
not musical and also causes listening
fatigue.
Second harmonic distortion can also
cause trouble, but in a different way. Since
music naturally contains second harmonics
(octaves), it would seem that some of this
distortion would be a good thing. Having too
much of a good thing can be a problem,
however, when it slowly dawns on you that
is
vocals sound very closed miked and
intimate, woodwinds swell and bloat, brass
sounds muffled and strings get sleek and fat.
The perspective becomes convex as things
seem to bulge towards you. (Fat) Vacuum
tube equipment is prone to this type of
distortion. Some people cherish old (or new)
tube equipment because of the less
annoying characteristic sound and relative
lack of fatigue.
Intermodulation distortion is difficult to
measure using the SMPTE method because
it always turns out to be very low. A more
stringent test has been devised which uses
two tones much higher in frequency. This
process goes by the general name of twin
tone and involves two tones separated by 1
kHz. If the amplifier were perfectly linear, no
1 kHz beat note would be produced. Real
amplifiers aren't so good. The sonic result is
muddiness and loss of articulation.
-
Phono Pre -Amp Circuitry
At this point it might be a good thing to
consider the amplifier internal circuitry,
sometimes called topology. Remember that
!Compensation
50
40
--
30
,C
__ - - -
10
0
-_-
RIAA
Curve
IFirstStager
Response
Figure 6
20
10K
1K
100
20K
Frequency in Hertz
an amplifier does not amplify anything. What
is called an amplifier and looks simple is in
make a good discrete op -amp and lots of
other parts as well.
fact a complex servo system which takes
power obtained from the power supply and
uses that power to create a replica of the
incoming signals.
Most amplifiers used for audio signal
processing are known as operational
RIAA
Just as important is the overall circuit
configuration used to implement the RIAA
playback equilization. Almost all phono
preamps on the market use a feedback
circuit which attempts to accomplish the
amplifiers or "op- amps." Originally entire task with a single network/amplifier.
developed for analog computers, this This may be good enough for a compact
flexible device has found application in many stereo or a small receiver, but component
audio amplifiers and signal processors. quality stereo and professional usage
When monolithic op -amps were first requires less compromise.
The RIAA curve requires a 40 dB change
designed, performance was limited. The first
integrated circuit op -amp to be widely' over the frequency range of 20 to 20 kHz.
accepted is the FairchildiA709 which came Since a 40 dB change represents a voltage
out in 1965. Although many other devices ratio of 100 to 1, the network used imposes
have appeared since and come with as many severe demands on the amplifier used. This
as four units per package, they all have
is shown graphically in Figure 6, where a
certain things in common as far as the audio standard RIAA curve (40 dB @ 1 kHz) is the
middle trace. The open loop (no feedback)
designer is concerned.
Low cost.
response of a signetics NE5534 op -amp with
22 pf compensation is shown at the top for
Ease of application (fewer parts)
Small size
comparison. Note that there is 43 dB of loop
Low power consumption
gain (difference between open loop and
So much for the good side. But you don't closed loop) at kHz which degrades to 37
get something for nothing. Here are some of dB at higher frequencies. Feedback theory
indicates that error caused by having only 40
their deficiencies:
Distortion rarely specified
dB of loop gain will be approximately -84 dB
Noise can be a problem
or about .006%. This is not as good as it is
Large product variation
possible to do with the 5534 or a good
Occasional stability problems
discrete amplifier. If the loop gain is 60 dB
Inconsistant sonic characteristics.
instead of 40 dB, theoretical error becomes
This puts the designer in a tough spot. To -126 dB or .00005 %. This is much lower than
keep costs down and make a salable the -70/80 dB signal -to -noise ratio obtained
product, it is necessary to use ICs, but a by most good phono preamps. It is obviously
truly high performance design requires a preferable to have error (distortion) be 40
discrete transistor approach. The most dB below the noise level than approximately
desirable advantage of discrete amplifiers is equal to it.
the total control which is available to the
Given the fact that this amplifier chip has
designer. This doesn't come cheap, only 83 dB of gain at 1 kHz, it appears that
however. It takes about 8 transistors to the maximum closed loop gain shouldn't be
I
R-e/p 146
www.americanradiohistory.com
EVERYONE KNOWS THAT
SWEDISH PRODUCTS ARE
BUILT TO LAST.
PML
HANDCRAFTED IN SWEDEN
SINCE 1941
DC -73 CARDIOID CONDENSER
MICROPHONE
Cardioid condenser microphone for 48 volt
Symsi powering. Features an integral
electrical "pop" filter which has no effect on
high frequency response, and a built -in
shock resistant elastic suspension to reduce
hand noise to a minimum. A large diameter
circular condenser element provides full
natural sound in highly rugged package with
a steel mesh protective grille. A two position
slide switch on the case permits selection of
either flat response or 100 Hz high -pass for
vocal work.
Excellent hand -held vocal microphone.
Also for brass or percussion where cardioid
pattern is demanded. Studio, broadcast and
especially recommended for live
performance. $295
DC -96 CARDIOID CONDENSER
VM -40 (Omni) and VM -41 (Cardioid)
MICROPHONE
CONDENSER MICROPHONES
The VM -40 (Omni- directional) and VM -41
(Cardioid) condenser microphones both
feature a 1.5 cm diameter circular condenser
element. Small in physical size and very
rugged, they operate on 48 volts Symsi
power. A four position ring switch is
incorporated to permit selection of either
full range frequency response or 100 Hz
high -pass and for each position there is a
The DC -96 is a cardioid condenser
microphone for 48 volt Symsi powering. The
DC -96 employs the unique rectangular dual
membrane capsule similar to the DC-63 and
ST -8 Stereo microphones with FET preamplifier. Features: very low noise, high
output level and extremely smooth
frequency response both on and off -axis.
The small size of the DC -96 further enhances
its use where larger mikes become
obtrusive.
For all live performances and studio work
where a high quality cardioid microphone
pickup is required: for both close and distant
pickup. $465
10
dB pad.
All high quality studio and broadcast
work, but particularly impressive for close
range brass, strings, percussion, and close
to medium distance orchestral pickup. $360
PML. THE SWEDISH STEAL
For a catalog of additional PML microphones, contact your favorite Pro Sound dealer, or your nearest PML factory representative:
San Francisco: Brian Trankle & Assoc., (415) 344 -1133 / Nashville: Technicon, (615) 865 -6040 / Dallas: Sound & Comm. Mktg
(214) 243.8436 / New York: Harvey Sound Co., (212) 921 -5920 U.S. Distributor: In Los Angeles:
Cara International, LTD., P.O. Box 9339. Marina Del Rey, Ca. 90291 (213) 821-7898
Worldwide Marketing: CREATIVE TRADE, CTAB AB. Knutsgatan 6. S-265 00, Astorp. Sweden, Tel: 4642/515 21
NAME-
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ADDRESS
STATE
ZIP
Active Direct
Passive
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SM
SM-1A
Deluxe Active
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Box
Direct Box
dB dr
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Input
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ic-splitters
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8x2 "Mixsplitter'
Om- Ansplifi,rl'"nfiltur:rti"n
MS-8
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MS-10
Direct Boxes: Both active and passive SM-1A for
guitars SM -2 and SM -3 for keyboards and
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"Mue- splitters ": Low impedance in and out. Will
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Figure 7: Comparison of Amplifier Configurations
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any greater than 23 dB @ 1 kHz in order to
maintain 60 dB of loop gain. Since 40 dB
overall is required, the best way to get it is to
cascade two stages. The lower curve on the
graph, Figure 6, shows the 50 - 500 Hz
portion of the RIAA curve implemented with
67.5 dB of loop gain at 1 kHz, 66 dB at 20 Hz,
degrading to 42 dB at 20 kHz. This
configuration has 15.5 dB of gain at 1 kHz,
requiring an additional 24.50 dB to reach a
total of 40 dB. A second amplifier with no EQ
network is quite acceptable as there will be
58.5 dB of loop gain at 1 kHz and 32.5 dB @
20 kHz. In order to accomplish the HF
equalization ( -3 dB @ 2,122 Hz) a passive
RC network is used between the amplifiers.
This network is independent of the 50 - 500
network used in the first stage and because
it is passive there is no departure from the
ideal 20 dB/decade (--' 6 dB /octave) slope as
unity gain is approached. The output of the
second amplifier is available to drive cables
without changing equalization due to
capacitive loading. Schematic diagrams of
the one- and two-amplifier configurations
are shown in Figure 7.
To evaluate sonic differences the author
has built many "little grey box" preamps in
the past five years (Figure 8). The first few
used IC op -amps of various types, and,
when ICs available at the time proved to be
less than perfect, a discrete op -amp was
designed using 8 transistors. This made the
phono preamp a bulky box containing 32
transistors and many other parts (Figure 9),
however the effort was justified as sound
H-e p 148
www.americanradiohistory.com
quality developed an "effortless" character
which I have not heard from any IC op -amp.
As better sounding IC's became available,
the IC version was re- designed to take
advantage of the newer devices (Figure 10).
One advantage is that newer ICs can be
plugged into old sockets, which produces
amazing changes in sound quality. All of
these grey boxes use the two stage
configuration described earlier.
Calibration
To get the best performance, the
turntable -tonearm- cartridge -preamp
system should be calibrated. This means
that all members of the group play in tune, so
the sound doesn't suffer.
Calibration should not prove to be a
serious problem if it is undertaken carefully.
Warning: Not all test records are created
equal. Some are more equal than others!
(My personal favorite is DIN standard 45541
available through Gotham Audio). With
careful adjustment of cartridge termination
and perhaps the tone controls (if any) it
should be possible to get response within
30.5 dB of flat at least to 15 kHz. Do not use a
VU meter on the console or a tape machine
to measure frequency response. Some of
them are unacceptable above 10 kHz. If you
have a Hewlett- Packard or Sound Technology distortion analyzer the meter section is
ideal. You will probably notice that the
meter responds to rumble and record warp
well enough to make measurements
difficult. The preamp rumble filter may help
as you adjust the top end termination. At the
FIGURE 8: GREY BOX PREAMPS
FIGURE 9: DISCRETE PREAMP INTERIOR
FIGURE 10: I.C. PREAMP INTERIOR
bottom end it is likely there will be a slight
rise in response caused by tonearm/stylus
resonance. Very few tonearms have any
overhang, tracking force and all the routine
things have been done as well.
References:
Dynamic Range Requirements of Phonograph Preamplifiers
Tom Holman, Audio
damping mechanism to adjust, but some
cartridges have an integral brush which is an
effective substitute. Now that frequency
response is as flat as it will get, don't forget to
set the two channels equal in level. This
should be done while playing the mono
section of the test record.
If you are really brave and have a
distortion analyzer you can adjust anti
-
ready to undertake an important step
skating to optimum instead of taking their
word for it. Find a tone on the record long
enough to permit the analyzer to lock on.
Don't expect any marvels of low distortion,
either. Anything under 3 percent is an
incredible miracle. Before the tone quits,
adjust anti -skating and stylus pressure for
the least odious result.
toward better reproduction. Compare the
two channels for phase difference as you
would to check azimuth on a two -track tape
machine. Adjust the phase by loosening the
cartridge screws slightly and swiveling the
cartridge as viewed from the top. Then
tighten the screws again. This assumes that
Now you have a calibrated disk playback
system. It may not be quite as good as the
stuff at your friendly disk mastering facility,
but at least when you play a reference on
your monitor system, you'll be giving it a fair
chance.
Hears to fidelity.
If an oscilloscope is available you are
Magazine, July, 1977.
-
Record Warps and System Playback
Performance
-
Larry Happ and Frank Karlow,
Journal of the AES, October, 1976.
Understanding Phono Cartridges
--
-
S. K.
Pramanik, Audio Magazine, March, 1979.
Disk Cutting in Practice
Tony Bridge;
Disk Cutting in Theory
Hugh Finnimore,
Studio Sound Magazine, July, 1975.
New Factors in Phonograph Preamplifier
Design
Tom Holman, Journal of the AES,
May, 1976.
An Overview of SID and TIM
Jung,
Stephens, Todd, Audio Magazine, June, 1979
(contains extensive bibliography).
Noise Specs Confusing?
Jim Sherwin,
National Semiconductor Corporation, AN-104,
May, 1974.
-
-
-
Flux Loop Calibration of Phonograph
Reproducing Systems
-
paper read by Lyman
Miller, Palo Alto, California. May, 1976 AES 54th
Convention.
Two More Springs
For No More Money
Now Orban advances its price /performance
leadership in compact, professional reverb
systems. Our 111B Dual Reverb now comes with
six springs per channel at no increase in cost.
You get:
Lower flutter
Higher echo density
Smoother, more natural sound
Plus, these Orban standard features:
Advanced signal processing
Floating threshold to minimize twang
Midrange parametric equalizer
Bass shelving equalizer
For the 111B Reverb and other fine professional
audio products, see your local dealer, or contact
Orban for the location of the dealer nearest you.
Hear it at AES Booth 28
Orban Associates Inc.
orban
645 Bryant Street
San Francisco, CA 94107
for additional information circle no. 83
(415) 957 -1067
R-eip 149
¡\\\,,
audio
C>j*
Vv
to
I
... a
new approach
data transmission: a digital snake
`
-
THE JHD MAINLINE
by Peter Butt
The Mainline Line Return is new product recently
introduced by JHD Audio, of Costa Mesa, California.
In simplest terms, the device could be called a "digital
snake" inasmuch as it permits the transmission of
eight channels of 22 kHz bandpass signals over a
single pair of wires for a distance of 25 to 600feet (7.6
impedance instrument pick -up applications, and a
high- impedance, low gain model for line level
transmission. The receiving terminal is the same
basic unit for the three different models. The
transmitting modules are adapted for each input
signal requirement. The transmission cable itself can
be any length of shielded pair microphone cable with
the familiar three -pin XLR -type connectors. The only
really stringent requirement of the transmission
cable is that it have low leakage and well -soldered
connections so that non -linearities are minimized.
Earlier models of the Mainline system have been
supplanted with an up- graded version that includes a
line compensation network at the transmitting
module. Adjustment of the compensation controls
permits the optimization of transmission and
isolation characteristics for the specific length and
to 183 m).
The Mainline system consists of a transmission
unit, (a transmission cable,) and a receiving unit. The
system is supplied in three versions for balanced low m
impedance microphone applications, high-
type of interconnecting cable used. The
recommended method of achieving this optimization
simply feed program material through one of the
system channels and to listen for crosstalk on the
next lower- number channel while the compensation
network is adjusted for maximum attenuation. All
tests described were preceded with the optimization
continued overleaf
procedure.
is to
-
,
DC
11
/ \
Sync
11
Driver
DC Supply
Data
11
Amp
1
Regulator
Transmission
Cable
Sync
Gen
Line
Sample
$ Hold
Driver
Low- -Pass
Line
Filter
Driver
Low- -Pass
Filter
0
8
O
0
0
0 Y
o0
O
Audio
Sgnal
Inputs
0
o
Commutator
-
.
Pre
Audio Signal Outputs
Low -Pass
Filter
De-Commutator
JHD
MAINLINE SYSTEM
SIGNAL BLOCK
FIGURE
Signal Origination Unit
1
R-e p 150
www.americanradiohistory.com
Sgnal Terminal
Low -Pass
Filter
Line
Driver
8
WHAT REALLY COUNTS
DOESN'T COME IN A BOX.
Successful studios are an integrated combination of
talent and facilities. If you want to stay on top. you've
got to be aware of current developments in studio technology.
At Martin. our diversified staff keeps abreast of advances while maintaining close contact with the needs
and problems of professional studios in this rapidly evolving industry. Martin offers some of today's
most intriguing new au-
dio hardware, from Time
AlignedTM monitors and
computer controlled
power amplifiers, to a new
generation of SMPTE synchronizers.
console with
world -class
facilities for under
$70,000.. and the
industry's newest
A
24- track.
We offer a wide range of
multitrack consoles and machines. Among the best and
most cost effective is the new
Amek M2000A, an automated 36/24 multitrack recording console which offers
IO VCA subgroups, 4 hand true
parametric equalization and sweeping filters on each channel, and extremely versatile routing.
With the MIR -90. Otani has made its entry into
the world of no- compromise recording. A symmetrical
tape path and a pinchroller-free direct drive capstan
assure optimum head -to-tape contact, with minimal tape
wear. The MIR -90's advanced electronics, with active
bias circuitry, offers sonic performance second to
none in the 2" multitrack format.
A new breakthrough In 1" 16- track.
and an automation ready console for
under $10.000.
The Tascam 85 -16 represents a new generation in the
cost effective multitrack concept
that has made Teac/
Tascam world famous.
With its advanced
transport and integral
Tascam /dbx®noise
reduction, the 85 -16
provides better performance than its predecessor. at a significantly
lower price.
The Sound Workshop
Series 30 recording console
features expandable mainframe construction. with optional 3 band sweepable
equalization, Penny & Giles
faders, VCA grouping. and
ARMS automation. These
features make the Series 30
adaptable to a wide variety of
studio applications.
But anyone can sell
boxes. So what makes us so
special?
Understanding, knowledge,
and hard work. Expertise in design,
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The largest equipment and parts inventory in the East. And new demonstration
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So give us a call, or come in to Martin, and let us show
you that what really counts doesn't come in a box.
martin audio video corp.
Martin Audio Video Corp. /423
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-dbx is the registered trademark of dbx. Inc.
West 55th Street /New York, N.Y. 10019/(212)541 -5900
TM -Time Align and its derivatives are the trademark of and licensed by
for additional information circle no. 84
E M.
Long Associates
R-e/p 151
The Concept
The Mainline concept is a rather clever one in
which digital data acquisition technology is applied
to a common problem encountered in stage
performance sound reinforcement: the transmission
of a multi -channel signal package from one point to a
distant one.
The historical solution to this problem has been to
simply run as many pairs of shielded wire between
the two or more points as may be needed. That is
simple enough in concept but suffers a bit in actual
application. The Mainline system approaches the
problem from a different direction. The eight audio
channels to be transmitted are each fed into the
transmitting terminal box where each is
independently amplified and low -pass filtered. Then
each of the eight signals is sampled in sequence by a
solid state commutating switching device that feeds
samples of the input signals to the transmission
circuitry.
The data package is then sent down the
interconnecting cable to the receiving unit which
also provides power to both units of the system. Here
the data sample stream is picked off of the cable and
converted to analog form at a rate and sequence
corresponding to the conversion at the transmitting
end. These reconstructed slices of analog signals are
then passed to a decommutator similar to the
commutator at the transmitting end. Commutation
and decommutation occur synchronously,
permitting separation of the eight signals at the
receiving end. Each decommutated signal stream is
then low -pass filtered, smoothing the spaces
between the decommutated signal segments. The
filtered channel signals are then fed to the outside
world by eight buffering amplifiers.
The block diagram of Figure 1 shows the general
progress of events within the Mainline signal system.
The rotary switch devices are, of course, not
anything like that in reality. The commutation
concept seems easier to portray as pictured rather
than by the strict specifics of what is really going on.
All well and good, one may say. The real question
is: "How well does all of this exotica work as
compared to the wire and cable approach ?" Given
the following data, one may well conclude that it is
not much worse and probably a good bit better than
the traditional method.
Table 1 summarizes the technical specifications of
FIGURE 2: Mainline return frequency response, 8- channels
overlaid. Top graticule line Is 0 dBv reference, 2 dB /div. vertical,
log frequency horizontal, 20 Hz to 43 kHz.
FIGURE 3: Mainline Lo -Z microphone Input system frequency
response traces, 8- channels overlaid. Top graticule One is + 10 dBv,
other scale factors as in Figure 2.
TABLE 1
SUMMARY OF MAINLINE SPECIFICATIONS
.I'2
Lu
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER
PUBLISHED
MAXIMUM
OUTPUT LEVEL
REOUENCV
RESPONSE
20 Hz - 20 kHz
0
INPUT
IMPEDANCE
THD
HUM
NOISE
1001.
130B
E
OUTPUT
IMPEDANCE
PUBLISHED
10 a8r
SYSTEM GAIN
2
20
220 k0ohm
dB
0. 20B
dB
150ohms nommas
10 K actual
ohms actual
ohms actual
10
12hmaslmum
06% typcal
12
CROSSTALK
WORST CASE
60 dB
CROSSTALK
TYPICAL
2508
NOISE HUM
10308
%mas,mum
06%
MEASURED
122.135
2
lypcal
.onms
10 aB.
30B
10H2
0
0. 17d8
-2 dB
t I
IH, m
no
measurement
122 -121
2
EIohms
25.3308
I 5142
0.,I e aB
065%mas.mum
1 kHz
220 k0onm
160 K
500 ohms nominal
no
measurement
10
ohms actual
12.ma.,mum
06%
60 dB
dB
54 5 arg
(a 1 kHz
75
clp
300
kHz
yan0Yn0Ih
11\maslmum
typcal
-6008
-92 dB
MEASURED
greater than
-44 0B IA
20 Hz
75
ETURN
SPECIE CATIONS
PUBLISHED
1920508
500 ohms nommai 500 ohms nominal
10
ONE
Z
SPECIFICATIONS
1
kHz
-42 08 ta
20 Hz
515
dB
-10208
(a
clip
1
013
SNz
30 5144
band »mm
FIGURE 4: Crosstalk attenuation of Lo -Z transmission unit,
channel 1 driven. Top graticule ref Is 0 dBv/div. vertical,
log f horizontal.
R-e/p 152
www.americanradiohistory.com
ACOUSTICOMPUTER::. a true stereo special effects processor
For further information call or write Phil Markham at DeltaLab Research, Inc.,
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Del taLab
DeltaLab Research, Inc.
27 Industrial Ave., Chelmsford, MA 01824
Available at Quality Dealers
See us at
NY AES Show at Suites 5L & 5M
R-e p 153
for additional information circle no. 85
the three types of device. Only the balanced Lo -Z and
Line Return units were tested as the only difference
between the Line Return and the Hi -Z unit is the
system gain specification. The only observed
performance parameter that differed from the
published specifications were the crosstalk data.
Figure 2 shows the frequency response of the Line
Return unit. The response curves for the balanced
Lo -Z microphone unit are shown in Figure 3. The
traces of all eight channels are shown overlaid on a
logarithmic frequency scale extending from 20 Hz to
43 kHz and having a 2 dB /div. vertical scale. Figure 4
shows the crosstalk traces of the Lo -Z unit. Again, a
log frequency sweep is shown, however, with a 10
dB /div. vertical scale factor. The top trace is the
output of the driven signal channel while the lower
traces are the crosstalk levels of the other seven
channels. The data for the Line Return system was
not very much different.
Distortion (THD) versus input level for a 1 kHz
signal is shown plotted in Figure 5. The onset of
clipping is fairly abrupt and is shown about 3 dB into
overload in Figure 6. Again, the data is similar for
both units.
Squarewave response at 1 kHz is shown in Figure
7. Close examination of the photo will reveal a slight
delay between the upper, input, trace and lower
output trace. System propagation time, through a
100 foot (30.5 m) cable was measured at 16.462
microseconds at half pulse height. Squarewave rise
time was 15.102 microseconds, fall time was 15.960
microseconds, with a 4% overshoot. The
preservation of the squarewave shape and lack of
discontinuities on the slopes indicate that the phase
response, and therefore group delay, are quite
acceptable for most audio applications.
A
comparison of the Mainline system against a 100 foot
run of common microphone cable was not
Figure 6: Clipping characteristic at 2 dB over threshold. 1 kHz signal, 2V/div. vertical sensitivity.
FIGURE 5
INPUT LEVEL vs OUTPUT SIGNAL
THD, %
to
to
Figure 7- Unsaturated square -wave response.
2 V /div. vertical, .2 msec /div. horizontal.
to
10
Hi Z
LOW Z
%THO
Mt
Loe Level
Level
uoTHD
Marnline
Mantels
O1
O1
001
Dot
25
-20
-
5
10
Input Level OBv
Ire 0
75V)
-5
-10
0
0
Input Level 06v
tre 0775V)
.20
Figure 8: Twin -tone IM spectra. +20 dBv ref. level, .5
kHz /div. horizontal, 10 dB /div. vertical. Center frequency 2.5 kHz top trace, 10 kHz bottom trace.
R-e/p 154
www.americanradiohistory.com
The new multitrack recorder is now internationally recognized as an
eligible standard for modern multitrack recording. It incorporates stateof- the-art technologies to make it the most functional machine in
the market.
The sophisticated approach is represented by the outstanding transport
response and stability backed up by the latest electronics. The PLL dcservo for pinch -roller -free direct drive capstan plus dc-servo spooling
motors. Full- fledged remote and gapless /noise -free punches. SMPTE interface access for any audio-video and audio-audio synchronization.
The MTR -90 is available in 16, 16 prewired for 24 and 24 track
formats. For details, please contact us.
Otani Corporation
981 Industrial Road
San Carlos, California 94070
Phone: (415) 593 -1648
Otani Electric Co., Ltd.
4 -29 -18
Minami Ogikubo
Suginami -ku, Tokyo 167
Phone: (03) 333 -9631
The acclaimed approach to sophisticated multitrack recording.
OTARI MTR 90
for additional information circle no. 86
www.americanradiohistory.com
H-e p 155
attempted. It is likely that the squarewave would not
fare quite so well on its own.
Twin -tone intermodulation distortion was
determined using a 9.4 and a 10.0 kHz pair of signals
Figure 9: 20 Hz tone burst response.
Figure 10:
1
kHz tone burst response.
Figure 11: 20 kHz tone burst response.
in 1:1 ratio. Figure 8 shows the resultant output with a
0.5 kHz/div. sweep and a 10 dB /div. vertical scale.
The lower trace is centered at 10.0 kHz while the
upper one is centered at 2.5 kHz. A 100 Hz resolution
bandwidth was used for both traces. The upper trace
was displaced upward 10 dB for clarity, and shows
second order IM products while the lower trace
shows third order IM. The top graticule line is +20
dBv. IM distortion measures 0.01 %second and 0.05%
third order for a signal input approximately 2 dB
below clipping. This should be a fair approximation
of a worst -case situation.
Figures 9, 10 and 11 show the system response to
single -cycle tone bursts at frequencies of 20 Hz, 1
kHz and 20 kHz, respectively. Vertical sensitivity is 2
V /div. in each case. Response of the Lo -Z
microphone unit is shown, although the Line Return
system behaved similarly.
The polarity response of all three systems is
positive output for a positive input, case taken as
common. The microphone Lo -Z device responds
positively to a positive -going transition at pin 3 of the
input XL connector, pin 2 common, pin 1 shield.
There are no blocking capacitors in the microphone
input circuit, so phantom powered microphones will
have to be used with an appropriate powering device.
In taking the crosstalk attenuation measurements,
it was found that ground loop coupling between
generator and detector degrade performance
noticeably. System grounding is definitely a
consideration in application of the device as output
ports are AC- coupled unbalanced. Only the Lo -Z
microphone transmitting module has balanced
inputs.
The most obvious application for the Mainline
signal transmission systems would seem to be the
live performance situation. Multiple instrument pickup and microphone feeds to a central mixing console
would seem to be greatly simplified. The quality of
the signal as received at the terminal point would
seem to incur much less degradation than for the
case of multiple shielded pairs.
The use of the Line Return system to feed actively crossed power amplifier systems would permit
isolation of the crossovers at the sound console and
power amplifiers at the speaker array location, thus
eliminating line losses. For the cases where all
signals within an eight -channel group are related as
part of a common program system, the crosstalk
figures observed should not impair separation of
signals in the final mix to any noticeable extent.
Multi -track tape machines show similar or worse
separations between adjacent tracks, and consoles
often are not very much better. The cost of a single
Mainline system varies between $450 and $550. This
is fairly comparable to the cost of an eight -channel
snake of about 200 ft. or more. The microphone Lo -Z
unit shows a high noise figure that will probably
preclude its use in classical music or other relatively
low level pick -up applications. The majority of studio
and live situations will probably find use of the device
practical.
R-e/p 156
www.americanradiohistory.com
Rugged high performance
low cost mixers
SERIES 308/312/316
Since 1971, Interface Electronics mixers have built up a
well justified reputation for no- frills high performance at
reasonable cost. Simple uncomplicated designs make for
ease of operation and high reliability but without sacrificing any essential controls. A large number of options permits incorporating all the features needed without paying
for unneeded features, and much of the equipment that is
usually "outboard" can be incorporated inboard thus
eliminating many problems.
The Series 308/316 Mixers are available configured especially for8 or 16 track recording, theatre sound systems,
house mixer for rock sound systems, and stage monitor.
TRACK RECORDING mainframes are available
for up to 48 inputs and with either switched -frequency or
parametric equalizers suitable for multitrack recording
and mixdown and feature large lighted VU meters, six inch
Duncan professional conductive plastic sliders, and performance equal to or exceeding that of consoles costing
many times more: for example a dynamic range of 90 to
100 db is attainable in mixdown. Provision is made for control room monitor, studio talk/slate, and reverb control.
8 OR 16
HOUSE MIXERS FOR ROCK SOUND SYSTEMS also are
available for up to 48 inputs: these make eight stereo
group submixes, and have a stereo slider and panpot for
the house mixdown as well as a selective operator's
monitor which can monitor any submix or any input solo
and can talk to any submix. These are rugged reliable
systems suitable for extended road use, with optional Anvil travel case. Output options include transformers,
graphic or parametric equalizers, and tuneable
crossovers.
THEATRE SOUND SYSTEM mainframes are also
available for up to 48 inputs and with either switched or
parametric equalizers: these mixers make eight group
submixes which can then feed through an output matrix
to eight different locations in the theatre, making different mixes for the different locations. Submixes and
outputs can be monitored on the large lighted VU meters
for complete control. Six inch conductive plastic attenuators are used for inputs and submasters.
STAGE MONITOR mixers make a number of entirely
different mixes for feed back to performers on stage, each
of which want to hear something different: the 312L stage
monitor makes 12 independent mixes and includes three
full -range parametric equalizers on each input, solo to
operators monitor, slider input channel master, slider output masters (optional), and other features not found in our
standard model 104L Stage Monitor, which is the standard
of the industry.
STANDARD FEATURES: Most inputs include phantom
power, phase reverse, odd/even panpot, four position input pad, four position input gain set, *_6 db gain trim
thumbwheel, LED input overload-danger indicator, four
frequency mid -frequency equalizer (or full -range
parametric equalizers tuneable 150 -15000 Hz and with "Q"
or width variable from 0.1 to 2 octaves and symmetrical
boost/cut of 15 db), solo to monitor, module off /on. Sub masters or masters can be pot type or slider and include
setup oscillator; outputs can be balanced or unbalanced.
VU meters are industry standard response four inch
lighted meters with 30000 hour lamps, power supplies are
internal, simple and ultra reliable. Output section options
include several types of monitors, talk /slate, graphic or
parametric equalizers, and tuneable crossovers. Modules
are plug -in and use the latest type plug -in integrated cir-
cuits throughout.
INTERFACE ELECTRONICS
3810 WESTHEIMER
for additional information circle no. 87
HOUSTON, TEXAS 77027
1713) 626 1190
R-e p 157
rro
c
5
AMPEX UNVEILS ATR -124
24 -TRACK RECORDER
modes without pinch rollers.
Both reel motors and the single drive
capstan are servo controlled. Unlike ordinary records that use pinch rollers to pull the
tape and reels to take up the slack, the capstan- controlled reels on the ATR control the
motion of the tape at all times.
It senses the motion of the capstan, the
direction it is moving, and then automatically adjusts the tension accordingly.
Flux gate'" record heads that combine
the recording and sync playback windings
on one head are utilized in the recorder,
giving the user Sel Sync'" response that
approximates normal reproduce response.
The system also offers a unique transfor-
Called the analog recorder of the '80s, the
Ampex ATR-124 24 -track audio recorder
will make its debut at the Audio Engineering
Society convention, November 2.5 in New
York City. Demonstrations will be held
during the show.
"The ATR -102 and ATR-104 are the best
analog mastering -mixdown machines on the
market today," said Lee Cochran, general
manager, audio products group, of the
Ampex audio -video systems divisio.
"We have built on those ATR advances
and on technology completely new to the
recording industry to produce a multitrack
recorder that will satisfy the most demanding requirements of the audio professional
for years to come," he added. "It is truly
the system and format for the 1980s."
The ATR Series of multitrack recorders,
also available in a 16 -track configuration,
offer exclusive features that enhance the
creative capabilitites of the recording professional.
The ATR multitrack series features the
smooth tape handling characteristics deve-
It's everything you need
for fast, accurate one
Digital display of RT60
with decay characteristic plotted on screen
Built -in pink -noise
-
third-octave sound -level
and reverberation -time
analysis ...all in one
easy -to -use package.
at the airport,
auditorium, or laboraRear -panel connectors tory. For all the details,
for external oscillo- call or write us today.
Model 500 - 52850.
scope and digital
peripherals
AC and battery
operation
adjustment
Inovonics Inc. Ic
sis
Exclusive export distribution
Gotham Export Corp.
741 Washington Street
Vendee Way
Campbell CA 950088
Ca
R-e p 758
Inovonics' Model 500
Acoustic Analyzer. The
sound choice for analy-
generator
Weighted or unweighted SPL analysis
Automatic or manual
reference -level
(4081 374 -8300
loped by Ampex for computer tape transports and first offered to the audio industry in the ATR -100 recorder /reproducer.
The record employs a closed loop DC
servoed transport that maintains constant
tape tension at each reel in all operating
New York, NY 10014 USA
1.
Telex 23 -6779 GOTHM UR
for additional information circle no. 88
www.americanradiohistory.com
merless I/O capability that eliminates
annoying distortions while offering excellent frequency response.
A variable speed shuttle control lets the
engineer control the forward and reverse
motion of the tape by merely sliding his
finger along the switch. Shuttle speeds can
be regulated from slow to 300 ips.
The recorder has a 16 -inch reel capability,
making it ideal for double system recording
in a quad videotape recorder environment.
Membrane switches are utilized on the
setup panel for greater reliability. Setup is
further enhanced by the recorder's VO bus
capability, which provides evaluation of
each channel without continual moving of
the I/O cables.
The system features programmable
monitoring with memory and a batterypowered backup memory that retains setup
instructions in the event of a power failure.
Dual microprocessor controls are utilized
in all ATR multitrack recorders for greater
reliability and less down time. The system
also features record mode diagnostics that
alert the engineer through flashing VU
meter lights if there is a record malfunction.
Other standard features of the recorder
include Pick Up Recording Capability
(PURC), which permits the editing or dubbing of new material without creating errors
at either end of the new insert.
The ATR multitrack series also provides
four assignable record, playback and Sel
Sync equalizers per channel.
Another convenience feature stops the
transport or slows the reels at either end -oftape or near -end -of-tape.
Single point search -to -cue with tape looping is also standard. With the tape looping
feature, the recorder will automatically go
into rewind when it reaches a preset stop
point, return to the start point, and then go
back into play continuously.
The recorder's vary -speed control will
display the tape speed as a percentage of the
e
Pro Audio Equipment Sales
The Express Sound Company
Turn -key Studio Design and Construction
(714) 645 -8501
24 -Hour Service
Nice People
1833 Newport Boulevard, Costa Mesa, CA 92627
panel level controls, four phase reversal
switches, a system overload indicator and a
master level control. A variable high pass
nominal tape speed and in 1/4- tones, and the
phase -loc capstan provides precise control
of the rotation of the capstan to insure
absolutely accurate tape speed.
The ATR also provides the noise reduction interface needed to use many of the
professional noise reduction systems in use
today.
Dynamic braking in all modes means fewer mechanical problems and breakdowns. A
universal power supply is offered in all
versions of the ATR, along with NAB or
CCIR equalization standards. The recorders are also designed for top and front end
service accessibility for easy maintenance.
Several option features are also available
on the recorders.
A new multipoint search-to -cue, designed
to replace the standard single point search
to -cue, provides a capacity of 99 memories.
A complete remote control panel that is
identical to all the functions on the main
panel is also available in the same panel.
Auxiliary output monitoring amplifiers
-
19
give the engineer the ability to have separate
output for sync playback. A two-to -one
conversion kit for one -inch, eight -track
heads is also available.
AMPEX CORPORATION
401 BROADWAY
REDWOOD CITY, CA 94063
(415) 3674151
for additional information circle no.
high).
AUDIOARTS ENGINEERING
286 DOWNS ROAD
BETHANY, CT 06525
(203) 393 -0887
for additional information circle no. 2
1
AUDIOARTS 4 -WAY
PARAMETRIC CROSSOVER
The Audioarts Engineering Model 1400 is
a
filter is incorporated.
Specifications: Frequency response 20
Hz to 100 kHz (±' dB); THD .004 %;
Dynamic range 110 dB; Slope 12 dB/octave;
Maximum input +26 dB; Maximum output
+22 dB into 600 ohms. The Model 1400
mounts in one standard rack space (13/4"
monophonic four -way parametric
electronic crossover intended for use with
high power four -way and three-way speaker
systems. It is equipped with front panel
crossover frequency controls, enabling it to
be easily matched to virtually any
combination of drivers. Furthermore,
crossover depth controls ( -7 to +1 dB) are
also provided to compensate for speaker
frequency abnormalities in the crossover
region. The Model 1400 also has four front
STUDER REVOX ANNOUNCES
NEW MULTI -SPEED
CONFIGURATIONS IN B77
OPEN -REEL TAPE RECORDER
The B77 open-reel tape recorder is now
available in four different speed configuration: 15/16 and 1%, or 1% and 3%, or 33/4 and
7V2, or 7'/2 and 15 ips. These speed options
make the B77 ideal for logging purposes,
extended recording and playback, back-
ground music systems or professional,
studio or portable use.
The B77 is available in both half -track and
:ro154'L
quarter -track formats, and may be ordered
with an A/V head option which permits
recording sync pulses between stereo
tracks, for slide -show presentations.
A versatile input-switching system allows
selection or low- or high- impedance
microphones, preamplified "Aux" or
"Radio" sources.
The Revox B77 operates in either stereo
or mono modes, and may be configured to
record monaurally from either or both
A MATTER OF INCHES
Whatever your tape transport size, we offer a beautifully constructed and finished console. The RL 500, 600 or 700 (left to
right) accepts MCI, Scully, Otari, Tascam, Ampex, etc. You
name it and there's an RL console for it. And each incorporates
the latest design features, including front panel access in both
horizontal and vertical positions. Ask for details and pricing.
RUS LANG CORP.
247 Ash Street, Bridgeport, CT 06605 Telephone: 203 384 1266
H
erns
for additional information circle no.
4
www.americanradiohistory.com
inputs, onto one or two tracks. In the mono
mode, any combination of input sources
(microphone, auxiliary, radio) may be
mixed together. This feature facilitates
"voice -overs" and other techniques
important to audio-visual and broadcast
production.
The B77 stereo tape recorder is also
equipped for the sound -on -sound transfer of
a previously- recorded track. Sound -onsound is accomplished by a simple switch
SYNCON
Logic and Music in Harmony
It is a fact that many medium priced consoles use ungraded VCAs and ICs resulting in
signal degradation and unpredictable performance. Syncon uses top quality discrete
circuitry on interchangeable cards which
allow not only instant replacement but future
upgrading.
Sophisticated PCB design has virtually
eliminated hardwiring making Syncon not
only cost effective but incredibly reliable and
serviceable, an important factor for studios
without resident 'boffins:
Add to this a superb status, routing and
grouping system enabling 28 tracks or effects
to be mixed through 14 stereo subgroups and
you have a very logical alternative to the headaches of cut price automation.
SYNCON FEATURES
28 Input output capacity.
24 Track monitor.
Quad mixing.
26dB Output.
Parametric eq.
3 Module inserts.
Autosolo.
6 Auxiliaries.
2 Stereo and quad echo.
Master and channel
Producer's desk and patchbay.
Price range $20,000 -$30,000.
i
I
I14
14-----1
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1
Made in England by:
ALLEN AND HEATH LTD.
Pembroke House
Campsbourne Road
London N.B.
Tel: 01 -340 3291
1
1
audiomarketing ltd
Glenbrook Industrial Park
Stamford, Connecticut 06906
U.S.A.
ALLI
i'V;J
t
LATH BRENFl
for additional information circle no.
I
3
LTD.
Tel:
(203) 359 2312
R-e/p 163
selection. Simultaneous with the transfer, a
microphone or line-level source may be
combined and balanced with the track being
transferred. The ease with which "bouncing
tracks" is accomplished emphasizes the
B77's practicality for even the most complex
small -production requirements.
Front panel 1/4" stereo phone jacks are
provided for two headphone pairs, driven by
built -in amplifiers. A most -flexible monitor
switching arrangement selects either input
or tape source, with normal or reverse stereo monitoring, as well as left -only or
right -only applied to both outputs. When
auditioning in mono, another monitor
position allows stereo/mono compatibility
checks, without affecting the recording.
A dual -concentric front -panel volume
control adjusts headphone levels without
affecting the recorder's main output level.
Separate screwdriver adjustments are used
to calibrate the B77's output level, over a 26
dB range. Illuminated, ASA- standard VU
meters, combined with LED peak indicators, provide comprehensive monitoring of
signal levels.
A three -motor drive system, logic
controlled and electronically regulated,
assures stable and precise tape motion, at
both 3% ips and 71/2 ips. Wow and flutter are
less than 0.1% at 33/4 ips and less than 0.08%
-
at
71/2
the B77 stereo tape recorder well- suited to
all professional production requirements, as
well as those of the critical audiophile.
Suggested retail price for 3% and 71/2 ips is
$1,499.00.
STUDER REVOX AMERICA, INC.
1819 BROADWAY
NASHVILLE, TN 37203
(615) 329 -9576
ips.
Other performance features at 71/2 ips are:
frequency response from 30.20 kHz, +2, -3
dB (50 - 15 kHz, ±1.5 dB); distortion of less
than 0.6% at 0 VU; signal -to-noise ratio of
better than -67 dB (half- track).
Revox B77 has a built -in tape cutter for
editing, and accepts either cine or NAB -hub
TEAC's new lightweight M -144 Portastua complete portable studio that
dio
combines a four-in, two-out mixer with a
multi -track cassette recorder and weighs
reels.
less than 20 pounds
The extensive complement of functions
and superior performance features make
for additional information circle no. 89
PORTASTUDIO FROM TEAC
-
.
is a musical
instrument," according to Bill Mohrhoff,
"The Portastudio really
national sales manager for TEAC1Tascam
Series, under whose banner the M -144 will
be marketed in the United States.
Mohrhoff pointed to the Portastudio's
lightweight, compact,
unique features
extremely mobile. "You can pack it under
and record
your arm, plug it in anywhere
merely by plugging in a microphone and a
headphone. The Portastudio is not forcing
the musician to pay for specifications and
other features he doesn't want or need. But
it does fulfill the needs of the songwriter/
-
-
composer."
"What the Portastudio is not," he
emphasized, "is an audio/high fidelity
product. The Portastudio has a new head
configuration that is not compatible with
other audio products on the market. It will
not replace other audio products in the
SAVES TIME, SPACE, MONEY
Say you want to brighten up
the piano. You figure maybe plus
four at 8 k. So you
write it down, take it
in to your secretary,
she figures out what
form to use, types it
up, and bingo: Plus
four at 8 k.
Idiotic, isn't it?
Yet that's how your
paperwork is still done:
16055 VENTURA BLVD., SUITE 1001
invoices, checks, statements, etc.
BUT NO MORE.
ways- progressive
product line.
Want to know
more? Give us a call.
Alpha Micro Computer System
ÉV'ERYTHING
%"
R e p 164
We found a small business
computer system that can save you
time, space, and money. It
works so well for us,
we decided to
add it to our al-
1
I
O
for additional information circle no. 90
www.americanradiohistory.com
ENCINO, CA 91436
(213) 995-4175
rr
(giv'ashipl
rt.. to present for the gratification or acceptance of others; to transfer
to another in exchange: n. Having the state. condition, or quality of giving of one's
concern, knowledge, or interest. in behalf of others, as in Friendship. or Stewardship. The art or skill of, as in penmanship. marksmanship.
That's why we do everything in our power to supply what you need (and want)
in professional audio products and service. Our staff members were chosen
because "they care', and because they're good at what they do ...two of the
same qualities we look for when we select manufacturers of product lines. Before we make it available to you, all equipment and instrumentation is first
tested and approved by our testing division. Our research, quality control,
hard work and, most of all, our level of caring, have earned for us a large
number of the most consistently satisfied customers in the recording service
business.
Sure, we could give you a bunch of "hype" and make a lot of impossible
promises. But remember what happened the last time someone did that? When
time came to back up their claim, you got stuck holding a bag of hot air...
or worse.
The difference is people. The difference between equipment working or not,
or the service coming through on time or not, is the people behind it. Customers and clients know it, manufacturers and reps know it, and I think you know
it. But if you haven't seen it in action for a while, call us. Tell us about that
studio you're ready to build, or that new piece of equipment you've been
debating about buying.
We've served and created, designed and assisted all over America. Our prices
and fees include free access to our imagination...make use of it.
When it seems like nobody does,
We Givaship!
VALLEY
IAUDiD
DIVISION OF TODRANK TECHNICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 40743
2821 Erica Place
Nashville, Tennessee 37204
615 -383 -4732
MA51ER5 OF AURAL GRA7IFICA1iON
for additional information circle no.
91
Tascam or TEAC multi -track lines. It is a
creative tool or musical instrument, a
recording system capable of making
practice tapes with amazing ease at a very
low cost."
Mohrhoff said the Portastudio carries a
suggested retail of $1,100 and will be
available nationally in October.
Up to 10 instruments, or vocals, can be
recorded using TEAC simul -sync "ping pong" reco ding with only one -time dubbing
for each i strument. Mohrhoff said the
Portastudio ecords only two tracks in sync
t will play back all four tracks
at one time,
simultaneously.
The mixer has four line or mike inputs, a
pan pot, individual bass and treble controls
on each track, easy track -to -track dubbing
without cabling, mix down from 4 to 2
channels for dubbing to an external
recorder or audio system, tape cue
monitoring, stereo auxiliary return input for
external echo unit hook -up, and four large
VU meters. Mixer specifications include 68
dB (weighted) signal-to-noise ratio, 20 to
20,000 Hz frequency range, -60 dB mike
input (nominal level unbalanced for 200
ohms or more), -10 dB line input (nominal
level unbalanced).
The Portastudiro s cassette section has a
two -motor, soft -touch logic control
transport (including an FG -servo DC motor
for the capstan), pitch control for precise
tuning or special effects, full -time Dolby
noise reduction, and a faster - than -normal
cassette tape speed of 3% ips for wider
dynamic range. The cassette has less than
0.04% wow and flutter, 20 to 18,000 Hz
frequency response, 63 dB signal-to-noise
ratio (with Dolby), higher than 50 dB (at 1
kHz) crosstalk track -to-track, and pitch
control of ±15%.
The M -144 measures
14 -9/16
18 -1/8
W x 4-5/8 H x
D (in inches).
TEAC CORPORATION OF AMERICA
7733 TELEGRAPH ROAD
MONTEBELLO, CA 90640
(213) 726-0303
for additional information circle no. 93
CYBERSONICS DM 2002
DISCMASTER
product available today. "Don't let the size
fool you."
The Electro Mechanical systems
employed are the ultimate in simplicity and
accuracy from its quartz lock servo drive
turntable to its patented cutter head
suspension system,
unlike anything in use
The design criteria
intentional with the
totally unique and
today.
of compactness was
thought in mind of
Cybersonics announces the release and
delivery of the DM 2002 Discmaster. The
DM 2002 is a revolutionary concept in
expanding discmastering to unusual
Discmastering lathes. One of the most
interesting features of this lathe is its
studios with limited space, and the
compact size.
Tom Lippel, president of the company,
located in North Hollywood, says its unique
concept is one of the reasons it was over five
years in development. This product was
totally designed from scratch, with all the
features, functions and quality of any
locations such as the recording control
room environment, mobile applications,
possibility of high production, multiple unit
installation. Or, just being able to put two
lathes in a normal mastering room where
one older unit stood before.
One of the outstanding features is its
integral computer. The pitch control
function of the computer is most interesting.
All control signals are taken from the
Advancing the
State of the Art
a:N7E
Lexicon's new
Model 224 digital
reverberation system
yi'How
Call for demonstration
16055
H e
VENTURA BOULEVARD
SUITE
1001
ENCINO,
p 166
for additional information circle no. 92
www.americanradiohistory.com
CA 91436
(213) 995-4175
7101148.41A
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Produced by Jimmy Messina
Engineered by Don Murray
ON COLUMBIA RECORDS
Recorded nd Mixed at
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33 West
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Sound Recording
.mtalic. r ara CA
93101
(845) 963 4425
4007 N.E.
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standard preview head on the tape playback
system to allow circuits to anticipate what is
going to happen to the groove when it is cut.
The preview signal is also stored for one
revolution in the computer, where a
comparison is made between what the
previous groove looked like and what the
e
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information is converted into pitch and
depth control signals.
The computer receives new information
constantly and is capable of up- dating pitch
and depth information from two to eighteen
times per turntable revolution. A programmable delay time in the computer's logic
compensates for preview head -to- playback
head distances, disc speed, and tape speed,
thereby eliminating the need for complicated tape paths on the master tape machine.
All control signals are formed into eight bit words, in order to facilitate automated
disc recording, in conjunction with
presently available computer mixdown
system, or with future microprocessor
based system. This feature also makes it
possible to link several lathes together
electronically, for high production or direct to-disc recording.
The vacuum disc hold -down system is
incorporated into the turntable drive motor
shaft, thereby eliminating the need for
-
'
'
upcoming groove will look like. This
L
in the final act of transfering of tape to disk.
sub -panel located directly under the front
CYBERSONICS
panel are specialized control functions,
such as stylus head, adjust, band time,
deepening control, etc.
Also located on the front panel is a digital
electronic ruler which reads out cutting
diameter to within .01 inches, digital stylus
heater current indicator and digital strobe
indicating speed of turntable.
Analog meters are used for LPI and depth
of cut.
All lathe functions are controlled by push
11128 WEDDINGTON
NO. HOLLYWOOD, CA 91601
(213) 766 -7104
for additional information circle no. 95
PA PROCESSING SYSTEM
FOUR EQUALIZATION
TOOLS IN ONE
The UREI Model 567 PA Processing
System offers compact, economical signal
processing for small auditorium and church
public address and sound reinforcement
buttons on the front panel with LED
indication of current operating status.
installations where full 1/3 octave
These are the only mechanical switches in
the entire machine. All functions related to
cutter head position are accomplished
through the use of linear position decoding
in conjunction with solid state switching
equalization and/or elaborate tuning is too
costly.
The 567 includes: an input amplifier/gain
control, level monitor, pink noise source; for
setup; a 10 band Graphic Equalizer; a four
frequency Feedback Suppressor; and a
devices incorporated within the lathe
computer.
Cybersonics has not only eliminated most
external drive motor shaft, thereby
eliminating the need for external hoses and
manual disc diameter selection. The
diameter selection is automatically
two -way Electronic Crossover with
continuously adjustable crossover frequency point. These are contained in a single
rack mounted unit with a regulated power
supply.
The 567 operates at high or low
impedances, and at any nominal level from
-20 dB. Rear panel patch points allow for
other signal processing equipment (i.e.
mechanical switches but has also eliminated
any belts, pulleys, springs, cables and
hydraulic dampers, all of which are prone to
periodic failure or change and adjustment.
Total direct drive and digital electronic
simplicity insure reliability and ease of
operation, allowing the creative process of
the mastering engineer to take precedence
achieved.
The inspection microscope is on a
leadscrew that is directly driven by a servo
system for easy front panel control of
movement across the disc.
Front panel controls are kept to the
essentials for day to day operation. On a
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The new Harmonizer (Model H -949) from Eventide
features increased delay, glitch noise improvement, and random flanging.
EVE YTHI'NC
,D
Call for demonstration
a
16055 VENTURA BL.
R-e/p 168
ENCINO, CA 91436
SUITE 1001
for additional information circle no. 96
www.americanradiohistory.com
(213) 995-4175
MODULAR DEVIC
SERIES 800
Professional Recording Console
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The Logical Choice
For Further Information Contact
91 Elm Street, Manchester, CT 06040 (203) 646 -7806
for additional information circle no. 97
R-e/p 169
Limiter or Leveling amplifier) between the
Feedback Suppressor and the Electronic
Crossover sections.
UNITED RECORDING
ELECTRONICS
INDUSTRIES (UREI)
8460 SAN FERNANDO ROAD
SUN VALLEY, CA 91352
for additional information circle no. 98
BGW INTRODUCES THEIR
NEW AMP
THE 50A
-
The 50A features teflon interconnecting
wires, totally modular construction, an all steel chassis and cover, metal-cased output
transistors, and large aluminum heat -sink
extrusions.
At 8 ohms over a power band from 20 Hz
to 20 kHz, the BGW 50A delivers 25 watts
per channel with a maximum THD of no
more than 0.02% at any power level from 250
milliwatts to 25 watts, and 0.03% THD from
any power level from 250 milliwatts to 50
watts monaural.
The manufacturer emphasizes the
following features: less than 0.01%
intermodulation distortion from 250
milliwatts to rated power; a small signal
frequency response of +0, 3 dB, 1 Hz to 100
kHz, +0, 0.25 dB, 20 Hz to 20 kHz; hum and
noise level (unweighted, 20 Hz to 20 kHz)
better than 102 dB below 25 watts; and 0.7
volt input sensitivity for maximum power
output and an input impedance of 15K
ohms.
Further, the damping factor is greater
1 at 8 ohms and output
impedance designed for any load impedance equal to or greater than 4 ohms.
The 50A is 1 -3/4" x 19" standard rack
front panel by 11-1/2" deep, and weighes 15
than 400 to
lbs.
bell of a saxophone.
By enabling the performer to mount the
microphone right on the instrument, the
SM17 allows high quality acoustic pickup
with excellent isolation from other
instruments and freedom from feedback.
The SM17 also features an omnidirectional
pickup pattern and a frequency response
well suited for instrument use.
BGW SYSTEMS
YUKON AVENUE
HAWTHORNE, CA 90250
13130 SOUTH
for additional information circle no. 100
MINIATURE INSTRUMENT PICKUP
ANNOUNCED BY SHURE
Specifically designed to be mounted on
acoustic stringed instruments and other
acoustic musical instruments, the SM17 is a
very small, lightweight unit. The SM17
comes with two mounting options: an
expansion mount for string hole mounting
on violins, violas, and cellos, and a clip that
fits on the sound hole of acoustic guitars,
and edges of other instruments, such as the
As used in 70 mm first run theaters for Apocalypse Now:
The Only True Subwoofer Systems
On the Market Today
Greater than 130 dB SPL(1 meter)
at less than 3 percent
distortion, 50 Hz
Generates 8 acoustical watts
continuously over 25 -100 Hz
Controller electronics protects
drivers from excessive
heating and /or excursion via
sense line to amplifier
(amplifier not included)
Applications: Disco,
Sound Reinforcement, Mixdown
Three cabinet versions
available: Road, Utility
& Finished
Cabinets; 24" W x 24 "D x 48"H
110 pounds each
Dealer Inquiries Invited
Meyer Subwoofer Systems
msu
Meyer Sound Laboratories, Inc.
2194 Edison Avenue, San Leandro, CA 94577
recessed grille screen to minimize
accidental rubbing noise.
Other supplied accessories include an
attached 3 m (10 ft.) cable, additional
bushings for the expansion mount, and two
cable clips.
User net price for the Shure Model SM17
Microphone is $76.80.
SHURE BROTHERS INC.
222 HARTREY AVENUE
EVANSTON, ILL 60204
for additional information circle no. 101
please mention
YOU SAW IT IN R-E P
(415) 569-2866
R-e/p 170
The SM17 is supplied wired for low impedance microphone inputs. The low impedance, balanced line operation is
desirable where long cable lengths are
required or conditions where severe hum
pickup may exist.
The unit has a rugged aluminum case
construction with a smooth exterior and a
.
tor additional information circle no. 99
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
HOW TO
CHOOSE FROM
CHOICEST
MICROPHONES WE'VE
EVER MADE.
LCM-990E
Among recording professionals. Sony is
recognized as an expert on micniphones. Thais because we're continually apply\k idcly
ing new technology to deliver better sound.
Our latest innovation is the exclusive Back
Electret condenser microphone capsule.
which delivers response truer than ever thought
possible.
You can get this capsule in a variety of
Sony mikes. And that's a hit of a problem: its
hard to know which mike is appropriate for
your recording needs.
Therefore. let us clear up any confusion:
is ideal. It provides flat frequency response
over the entire range. and picks up amplified
and non-amplified instruments equally well.
Both of the above plug into mixers fbr
multi- channel recording.
LOCATION MIKES, FOR
STUDIO SOUND WITHOUT THE STUDIO.
MICROPHONES THAT
ARE AT HOME IN YOUR HOME STUDIO.
If
re my ,bed in the music business and
has :i home studio. you need a microphone
as professional as the rest of your equipment.
For all- purpose recording. we recommend
the Sony ECM-561- Ifs a uni- directional
Back Electret condenser mike with excellent
transient response. good for close miking of
But suppose you want to record on location. At a rock concert. say: or a performance
of your church choir or glee club. Sony has
mikes that. combined with your tape recorder.
practically make up a portable studio.
Take the ECM -990E an especially versatile
and lightweight stereo Back Electret
condenser mike. You can vary its directional
quality to adapt for everything from solo voice
to small groups to lull (irchestra.
Or choose an ECM -23E It runs more than
6.500 hours on a single AA batten: and its
uni- directional. Use a pair when you want to
create a stereo eflèct. The ECM -23F also
incorporates Sony Back Electret technology.
both instruments and voices.
For recording instruments only. the uni -directional Back EYectret condenser f t 1-31 I
RECORD FOR RECREATION
AND STILL RECREATE NATURAL SOUND.
1.1\ he you just need .t mike to use at
m
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Intl
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torl,,,lAn,rrhe.
.
home, to record family sing- alongs. Or someone's pertimnance on-guitar or piano. for your
own enjoyment.
You can still get a Sony Back Electret mike
at a very affordable price. Ifs the ECM -260E
which plugs into a tape recorder and makes
whatever you record - instrumentals. singing or
speech -sound true to lilè.
For greatest versatility use our ECM -l50
omni-directional condenser mike. It's Sony's
tiniest mike. smaller than a dime in circumference. and you can clip it to the fingerboard of
a guitar or use it as a lapel or tie tack alike.
I Incidentalk it's great for business conferences
or any occasion when you want the mike to be
inconspicuous.)
and whervon need to
ever you need to record it. there's a choice Sony
niike to do the job.
And now that you know which mikes to
choose. all you need to do is see your Sony'
dealer.
-
SONY
Were never put our name on ail\ thing
Mat 'sasn t the best.
R-e/p 171
for additional information circle no. 102
200 to 2,000 Hz. In addition, high frequency
distortion is reduced by allowing a higher
crossover frequency to the high frequency
drivers.
The MR -109 is a straight exponential horn
with a 200 Hz cutoff frequency. The horn
flare is constructed of hand -laminated
fiberglass with high density sheets inserted
to damp resonances to well below cut-off.
Additional damping material is used inside
the enclosure to reduce resonances, even at
130 dB SPL in the throat region.
The drive unit incorporates a large
Alcomax magnet thermally bonded to a
heatsink to improve heat dissipation,
minimize stray magnetic fields and
WHITE INSTRUMENTS
ANNOUNCES TWO NEW
ONE -SIXTH OCTAVE
ACTIVE EQUALIZERS
The Model 4240 is a cost effective onesixth octave hybrid which concentrates its
double resolution in the speech intelligibility
region between 200 Hz and 2 kHz. End
shaping is accomplished with broader
filters. The intended application of the
Model 4240 is the equalization of sound
systems employing speech as the primary
program material.
The Model 4310 is similar to White
Instrument's first one -sixth octave
equalizer, the Model 4301, but the one-sixth
octave resolution has been moved up in
frequency to accommodate the modes
found in larger rooms. It features 29 onesixth octave bands from 180 Hz through
4,500 Hz. End shaping is accomplished with
11 one -third octave filters from 31.5 Hz
through 160 Hz and 5,000 Hz through 8,000
Hz plus a single octave wide filter centered
at 12.5 kHz.
To support these new equalizers, White
Instruments reports that they are in full
production of their new System 200 Signal
Analyzer which features interchangeable
filter sets, total software dependent
microprocessor control, RT -60, 8 non-
maximize the efficiency of return magnetic
fields. This magnetic structure produces
12,000 Gauss on the 75 mm copper
edgewound ribbon voice coil.
volatile memories, dual mode display, and a
number of software dependent features and
functions.
WHITE INSTRUMENTS INC.
P. O. BOX 698
AUSTIN, TX 78767
(512) 892 -0752
for additional information circle no. 103
NEW LOWER MID -RANGE
REPRODUCER FROM
EASTERN ACOUSTIC WORKS
Designated the MR -109, the new lower
mid -range unit is designed to meet the
demanding requirements of high level sound
reinforcement. The MR -109 is said to excel
in both power handling and distortion as
compared to other compression driver/
horn combinations. This new level of
performance results in exceptional clarity
and definition in the principal music band of
BUILDING A
RECORDING STUDIO?
Make us your first call.
Audiotechniques
(203) 359 -2312
We're not only the biggest, we think we're the best, by far' We've been
building studios for nearly eight years and have more years of combined professional audio engineering experience than we like to
admit. Initial planning, financing, designing, equipment installation,
maintenance ... they're all our business. If your business is recording, you should be talking to us.
R-e p 172
www.americanradiohistory.com
The horn box is constructed of cross
grain laminated Baltic Birch, and comes
standard with metal corners, skids, handles
and a protective lid that clamps on with
recessed spring loaded twist catches. An
internal passive 200 Hz crossover is
provided to protect the system from
inadvertant low frequency signals. Input
connections are male and female 15 amp
twist -lock connectors, dual 14" phone jacks
and dual banana plugs.
The drivers are built to withstand
continuous use at high power inputs without
overheating. When operated within the
units specifications, field failures are
virtually unknown, making is unnecessary
to haul spares around on location.
EASTERN ACOUSTIC WORKS
59 FOUNTAIN STREET
FRAMINGHAM, MA 01701
(617) 620-1478
for additional information circle no. 100
ORANGE COUNTY ELECTRONICS
INTRODUCES NEW DEQ FULL
PARAMETRIC EQUALIZER MODULE
The new DEQ module is a four -band
parametric with center frequencies variable
from 20 Hz to 20 kHz in overlapping five
octave (32:1) ranges. Each section tunes
over an 80 dB control range (60 dB cut and
20 dB boost). Bandwidth is variable from .15
Is depend
on their equipment.
Like their BGW amplifiers.
Why is it so many have come
to rely on BGW? Why in less
than ten years have BGW
amps become the number
one choice among audio
pros worldwide?
Because their legendary
performance refuses to fail
even under the most severe
conditions you can throw at them.
Rugged, awesome power that's been
tamed by continuous common -sense
engineering. That's why there are more BGW amps in
discos than any other kind, and why there are so many
in recording studios and on concert stages.
BGW has earned a reputation for building superbly
engineered products ... massive heat
sinks, large safe operating area,
redundant output stages, welded '
irae Depend On Us.
6V 6TEMS
steel modular construction
are all synonymous with a
BGW product.
We are now proud to
introduce a new cost effective 175 watt per
channel power amplifier...
the Model 600. Its a quality
basic power amp, built
around our super reliable
750 B/C output modules. Its in a big
83/4" high rack -mount package so it runs cool and
costs substantially less than a 750C. It's a quality BGW
amp and the answer to the professional who wants
BGW on a budget.
Check out the new 600 at your dealer. He'll show you
an amp that lives up to your expectations with
performance you can compare to
anyone... and reliability that
compares to no one.
IC_
r
BGW Systems Inc., 13130 S Yukon Ave., Hawthorne, CA 90250 (213) 973 -8090
In Canada: Omnimedia Corp., 9653 Cote de Liesse Dorval. Quebec H9P 1A3
R-e/p 173
for additional information circle no. 105
www.americanradiohistory.com
audio
'CONSTANT -Q. PARAMETRIC EQUALIZER
-20.10
-e0
Connectors
19
jr
UNITY
m INPUT 0
SWITCHCRAFT BRAND
IN
2
OUT
ae
-
PEAK
G
INz
1-°--1
DIP
Bw
®
PEAK
r-°-1
PEAK
DIP
1K0
4C1'2;37,
octaves (Q= 10.0.33)aswell.
A unique feature of this new parametric
equalizer module is that all controls are noninteracting. This means that when the
bandwidth is varied, for example, there is no
change in level.
This module also offers extremely low
noise operations. Signal -to -noise is 110 dB
with all sections in 20 dB boost. Distortion is
0.05% THD @ 18 dBm output. Standard
-
Poty
-20.10
.0
E°-1
®
01P
SV 9TEM
ASK FOR OUR CATALOG
OF PRO -AUDIO SPECIALTIES
-20 .10
9
10
jacks, Plugs
Patch Cords
Shipped from Stock
-20.10
5
3
0.7
01P
°A.-^ew
°-1
C) PEAK
4X4
0.7.
Hz and more than 40 dB at 5 Hz also at 18
dB/octave. The boost compensates for the
drop in low frequency response of many
speaker systems.
balanced or unbalanced operation is
Corp. 312/298-5302
1233 Rand Rd.
Des Plaines, IL 60016
18
17a
DIRECT BOXES
CABLES
SNAKES
HEADPHONE
DISTRIBUTION
BOXES
CABLE TESTER
YAMAHA
CONSOLE
MODIFICATION
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Orders processed same day.
COD's accepted.
Write for free catalog and price list.
Windt Audio Inc.
1207 No. Western Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90029
1213) 466 -1271
available. An overload indicator warns of
excessive levels in any stage of the module.
Output capability is +30 dB (10K load); +24
dB (600 ohm load).
The DEQ is designed to be used as a
stereo parametric equalizer in the standard
Orange County FR -1 rack frame or as a
mono unit in the FR -2 Desk Housing. It can
also be utilized as part of the Orange
County VS -1 Stressor, thereby offering
more control in a signal- processing system
than is available elsewhere in the market,
according to the manufacturer.
The Model 501 comes with its own power
supply. It can be connected to any source
up to +30 VDC ... current required is less
than 20 mA. Uses !/a" phone plugs In/Out.
PARASOUND INC.
680 BEACH STREET, SUITE 414
SAN FRANCISCO, CA 94109
(415) 673 -4544
UNITED RECORDING ELECTRONIC
INDUSTRIES (UREI)
8460 SAN FERNANDO ROAD
SUN VALLEY, CA 91352
for additional information circle no. 108
SUB -SONIC PROCESSOR SAVES
DISCO AND MONITOR SPEAKERS
UREI's new Model 501 two channel SubSonic Processor attentuates frequencies
below the audible range that may cause
excessive speaker cone excursions in high
level sound programs.
Sub-sonic sounds from turntable rumble,
warped records, acoustic coupling of
turntables to speakers and wind blast in
microphones are removed saving amplifier
power and costly speaker repairs.
The Model 501 has a two -position
response switch: In the "Flat" position,
response is -3 dB at 30 Hz and down more
than 50 dB at 5 Hz, with a rolloff of 18
dB /octave. The "Boost" position actually
enhances the LF response by adding a 5 dB
peak at 40 Hz. The signal is down 3 dB at 27
R-e p 174
www.americanradiohistory.com
for additional information circle no. 109
AUDIO CONTROL INTRODUCES
GRAIPHIC EQUALIZER/REAL
TIME SPECTRUM ANALYZER
The Audio Control C -101 is said to be the
world's first graphic equalizer with a real
time spectrum analyzer built in.
"For the first time, the listener can
actually see music broken down into ten
separate frequency bands and watch the
effect of equalizer controls," states Greg
Mackie, Audio Control president.
The Audio Control Spectrum Analyzer
Equalizer features a 92 LED display divided
into ten frequency bands with nine vertical
level LED's and two green center level
reference LED's activated in the sound
pressure level mode.
Four push buttons control speed of
display change, meter range, choice of
designed and built
by people who still
care about quality
and reliability
Mp
,
pJ
f
The
ASHLY7
Package
SC-22 $290
SC-77 $429
SC-70 $249
SC-80 $349
SC-66/A $599
SC-63 $369
SC-50 $299
Dozens of new features and
a new look are added to
the operational flexibility,
advanced design, reliability,
rugged construction, and
value of the ASHLY
PACKAGE
SC-55 $499
SC-40
$349
these are the things you
look for in signal processing
equipment plan your sound
system around the ASHLY
"stay ahead" PACKAGE.
If
NEW
SC -44 Keyboard
Input Processor
$499
Call or write for our new
brochure and the name of
your nearest Ashly dealer.
EXCLUSIVE DISTRIBUTION IN CANADA
Gerr Electro- Acoustics
365 Adelaide Street East
Toronto, Ontario. Canada M5B 4R9
#416- 868 -0528
1099 JAY STREET
ASHLY AUDIO Inc.
ROCHESTER, N.Y. 14611 (716) 328 -9560
tor additional information circle no. 110
.
'
_
,
..,t
-
sound pressure level or real time analyzer
and on/off. In addition, a center detent input
level control is built in for calibrating input
sensitivity.
To aid in using the Spectrum Analyzer
Equalizer for room acoustic analysis, tape
bias and speaker adjustment, a high quality
pink noise generator is built into the unit.
The equalizer portion of the Audio
Control Spectrum Analyzer features stereo
paired center detent slide pots in ten octave
bands from 32 to 15.5 kHz. In addition an 18
dB per octave Tchebychev subsonic filter is
included. Finally, the Equalizer includes a
phase correlation rumble reducing circuit
The top -of- the-line AT -25 cartridge, with
integrated headshell and built-in device to
adjust overhang for adjusting stylus
overhang to optimum tonearm specifications, is nationally advertised at $275.
AT -24, the same cartridge minus the
headshell and overhang adjustment, has a
suggested price of $250.
AUDIO CONTROL CORP.
6520 - 212th S.W.
LYNWOOD, WA 98036
A more economical dual magnet
cartridge is the AT -23, which is nationally
advertised at $225 with integral headshell
and built -in overhang adjustment. For $200,
audiophiles can choose the AT -22 phono
cartridge, identical to the AT-23, minus the
integrated headshell and distance gauge.
AUDIO TECHNICA
33 SHIAWASSEE AVENUE
FAIRLAWN, OHIO 44313
(216) 836-0246
ALTAIR INTRODUCES
NEW FUSE CUP
Altair Corporation recently introduced
OMNITEC" PREMIUM OMEGA SHAPED MOVING MAGNET
CARTRIDGES INTRODUCED
BY AUDIO-TECHNIC
111.
A, iA f!
Mt
C09GORAU
Sahne
.'I
spare fuses. Double -sided foam adhesive on
the back of the FC -1 allows it to be
conveniently attached to the amplifier at a
location close to the fuse holder.
for additional information circle no. 113
for additional information circle no. 112
for additional information circle no. 111
t
jriFC -1
FUSE CUP
ALTAIR CORPORATION
202 WEST BENNETT STREET
SAUNE, MI 48176
(313) 429 -5454
for reduction of rumble, phase and
intermodulation distortion below 200 Hz. It
effectively mono's bass below this
frequency. Since master tapes are often
mixed or mastered with mono bass at these
frequencies, and since in the very low bass
source directionality is undiscernable, no
reduction in program material quality
results. Frequency response of the unit is
rated at 3 Hz to 100 kHz with THD at less
than 0.025 %. EQ range is ±15 dB.
problem of not having the proper replacement fuse handy when the fuse on an
amplifier or other electronics blows. The
fuse clip has four clips mounted on a 1'/e' x
1%" phenolic block and holds two '4" x 1 %"
the FC -1 Fuse Clip. The FC -1 solves the
Innovative doughnut- shaped coil dual
moving magnet cartridge design is featured
in the new Omnitec' line of phono
cartridges from Audio-Technica.
Each of four cartridges in this line has two
omega -shaped coils, whose laminated cores
also serve as pole pieces for the moving
magnets. Technical benefits of the single
piece design are low inductance and greater
efficiency, according to Audio -Technica.
Audible benefits include cleaner reproduction of transients and high -level, high frequency signals.
Omnitec cartridges use rigid, lightweight
square shanked beryllium cantilever, and
nude -mounted 0.2 x 0.7 mil elliptical tip
diamond stylus. Stylus assembly is secured
to the cartridge body with a set screw to
eliminate unwanted resonances that can
occur with conventional stylus assemblies.
-
Like other Audio -Technica phono
cartridges, the Omnitec models feature two
separate magnetic systems for maximum
stereo separation.
R-e/p 176
www.americanradiohistory.com
VOCODER PLUS INTRODUCED
BY ROLAND
The Roland Vocoder Plus is an instrument that combines vocoder circuitry with
two other tone -generating sections (String,
Human Voice) to achieve a dramatic and
usable effect.
Each of the three sections may be
independently assigned to cover the whole
keyboard, or either the upper or lower half.
In addition, each half of the keyboard feeds
into its own output so that the Vocoder Plus
can be run in stereo.
The String section produces orchestral
string sounds that are warm and natural
feeling. The tone and attack time of this
section can be controlled independently,
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CONCERN/VI SO\ S. ì., \D
/NO COMPROMISE
Vision -Sound is proud to represent the following manufacturers:
MONSTER NON -REACTI\
ALLISON
ELECTRO -VOICE
BRYSTON AMPLIFIERS
CALREC SOUNDFIELD
HARRISON RECORDING
MICROPHONE
CALZONE CASES
DYNETIC ACOUSTICS
SYSTEMS
IVIE ELECTRONICS
KEITH MONKS AUDIO, LTD.
KOSS
EDCOR/CALREC
LEXICON
VISIO -SOUND PROFESSIONAL AUDIS)
f
MONITOR CABLE
110
MRL
NEOTEK
NORTHWEST SOUND
ORANGE COUNTY ELECTRONICS
SENNHEISER
SHURE
SONY
STUDER PROFESSIONAL
RECORDERS
TECHNICS
WEST PENN WIRE
WHITE INSTRUMENTS
GRAND AVENUE, ENGLEWOOD, N.1.07631.12011871 -471 -4101
toll -tree mio line:
(800) 526 4710
for additional information circle no 115
www.americanradiohistory.com
R-e p 177
the release time is shared with the Human
Voice section.
The Human Voice section is said to
produce an incredibly lifelike chorus of
human voices. The upper half of the
keyboard contains one female and one male
chorus, the lower half contains two male
choruses.
The Vocoder section processes the
spoken or sung human voice, and uses this
information (or program) to modify another
musical signal (known as the carrier). The
Vocoder section uses the Human Voice
section as its carrier, but will also process an
external signal if desired.
In a live performance, the Vocoder Plus
can be used to strengthen a band's vocal
capabilities by literally adding a chorus of
voices singing the same part. The String and
Human Voice sections give additional
enhancement.
The Vocoder Plus contains a Balance
control between all sections as well as
vibrato controls that allow selection of rate,
depth and delayed vibrato. The Microphone
Input will accept either phone plug or XLR
connector.
The list price is $2,695.
ROLAND CORP. U.S.
2401 SAYBROOK AVENUE
LOS ANGELES, CA 90040
(213) 685 -5141
for additional information circle no. 116
NEW FROM SPECK: MODEL
800 -D MIXING CONSOLE
The Speck 800 -D is a 28- input, 16/28
output studio mixing console. The console
is totally modular with 28 input modules, a
master module, and a complete communications module housed in a sturdy
mainframe that contains 16 large illuminated
VU meters.
Each input has 8 panable assigns, 3 band
parametric equalizers, 3 sends, pan, stereo
solo, a long throw slide fader, and most
important: a second line input with an
independent slide fader, a 2 band equalizer
and pan.
Since the Speck 800 -D has two discrete
line input circuits for each input module and
28 assignable direct outputs in addition to
the 8 submasters, the 800 -D is well suited for
16 -, 24 -, or 32 -track studio operations. The
stereo program buss is independent of the
multitrack assign section which allows the
console to feed a full compliment of 1/2- track,
14- track, and cassette recorders simultan-
eously during mixdown.
A 384 point patch bay is standard on all
"D" models, and is wired to accept two 16track, 24- track, or 32 -track tape recorders.
All connections for tape recorders, power
amps, chambers and outboard equipment
Compress. Limit. & Expand.
the heart of the most versatile signal conditioning
device available lies an exclusive, advanced feed-forward
VCA controlled circuit design. This helps to eliminate
common control and distortion problems in ordinary,
conventional compressors and limiters. Like all
Quad- Eight precision modular products, the CL22 is
available in 19" rack and standard 1-1/2" console
configurations. Contact us now for more juicy details.
At
146-77:
gat
o
]
For the Artist in Every Engineer.
Quad -E1 ht In
R-e p 178
ih Hollywood. California 91605,
for additional information circle no. 117
www.americanradiohistory.com
12131
764- 15161blett1662 -446
dB from 20 to 20 kHz with less than 1%
distortion and a better than 99 dB signal -tonoise ratio.
For the most exacting tour requirements
Nady offers the "Pro 500" receiver which
when used with a "Blue Transmitter" and
the "Pro 400" receiver will guarantee no
"null spot" or "drop out" of the received
signal. (An area where the radio signal is
momentarily not received properly.) The
Pro 500 combiner circuitry continuously
monitors the received RF signal strength of
both receivers and instantaneously selects
the stronger of the two.
The fixed frequency lines offered by Nady
include the "VHF 600" and the "VHF 700
True Diversity." Designed for applications
that don't require tunable frequencies this
line offers a 102 dB signal-to -noise ratio, 20
to 20 kHz frequency response, and over 100
dB image rejection. This last feature gives
complete channel isolation without phasing
or squelching which commonly plagues
many other VHF systems.
Nasty Cordless products are currently
being used by many top acts, including Rod
±3
are made via eight high density multi -pin
connectors at the rear of the console.
Price of the Model SP- 800 -D -28 is listed at
$23,900.00.
SPECK ELECTRONICS
7400 GREENBUSH AVENUE
NORTH HOLLYWOOD, CA 91605
(213) 764-1200
for additional information circle no. 118
NADY WIRELESS AUDIO
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Nady Systems, Inc., (formerly Nasty
Cordless) will be showing their two lines of
professional wireless audio transmission
systems. They have both a tunable system
as well as a fixed frequency approach.
Nady Systems claim the tunable unit is
interference free since it operates on blank
108 MHz bandwidth of
spots on the 88
radio frequencies. Its normal range is 250
-
feet.
Three different tunable systems are
available. The Nasty Cordless "Black
Transmitter" was designed for the
professional on a budget. It is used in
conjunction with the users' own receiver,
hence the quietness of operation is
determined by the inherent signal -to -noise
of the receiver that is used. The "Blue
Transmitter" requires a "Pro 400" receiver.
This system gives a frequency response of
Stewart, The Rolling Stones, Bruce
Springsteen, and Alice Cooper.
NADY SYSTEMS
- 65TH STREET
OAKLAND, CA 94608
1145
(415) 652 -2411
for additional information circle no. 119
10 mixes
5 knob EQ
5 subgroups
metered solo
modular design
AUDIOARTS
direct outputs
metered outputs
®
ENGINEERING
286 DOWNS ROAD. BETHANY. CT 06525
for additional information circle no. 120
203 J93.0887
R-e p 179
JBL ANNOUNCES
THE CABARET SERIES
secure vertical array.
JAMES B. LANSING
for additional information circle no.
specific application. The present line
consists of the 4602 Stage Monitor, t he 4622
Lead Instrument System and the 4680 Line
Array.
Cabaret Series products are completely
self- contained, rugged enclosures which
provide flush- mounted professional road
handles and offer ease of set -up and tear down. Loaded with JBL K Series musical
instrument loudspeakers, they are built to
provide greatest accuracy, efficiency and
power handling capability.
The 4602 Stage Monitor offers smooth,
wide frequency response and controlled
directiviity for stage and general purpose
sound reinforcement applications. A wedge
shaped enclosure allows it to be placed in
either an upright position, or at 30- or 60degree angles to the floor. The enclosure
houses the K120 12 -inch loudspeaker, 2402
high frequency ring radiator, and a specially
-
designed crossover network:
a
highly
accurate and efficient system, capable of
handling up to 100 watts continuous sine
wave power.
The 4622 Lead Instrument system
features two K120 12 -inch loudspeakers
SOUND, INC.
8500 BALBOA BOULEVARD
NORTHRIDGE, CA 91329
(213) 893 -8411
James B. Lansing Sound, Inc., announces
the Cabaret Series, developed for club
sound reinforcement applications. Each
unit is designed without compromise for a
NEW PROFESSIONAL- QUALITY
CASSETTE MASTER TWO SLAVE
IN CASSETTE DUPLICATOR
Otani has announced the introduction of
mounted in an enclosure engineered
specifically for the distortion -free great
power handling capability and clarity
characteristic of K Series products. Suitable
for lead guitar and keyboards, the 4622 can
accommodate up to 200 watts continuous
the DP- 4050-C2, a new compact version of
its widely -used professional- quality DP -4050
in- cassette duplicator system. Featuring a
cassette master and two slaves, it has the
capability of adding up to nine additional
slaves in groups of three, for a total of eleven
slaves all driven from one master.
sine wave power.
The 4680 Line Array features four K110
10 -inch
loudspeakers and a 2902 High
Frequency Power Pack for clean, crisp
sound reproduction. A JBL Professional
Series 4682 Line Array housed in a special
Cabaret Series enclosure, the 4680 is ideal
for any application demanding uncompromising sound quality over a wide spectrum
of power levels and frequency ranges.
Specially designed corners on the 4622
and 4680 provide additional protection and
also permit stacking of the systems in a
Although new in configuration, the DP4050-C2 retains all of the proven features of
the more expensive DP- 4050 -OCF and
Amber 4400A:
product design and
production test
specialist.
AMBER 4400A MULTIPURPOSE AUDIO
TEST SET. A powerful and cost effective
development and production test instrument,
integrating virtually every professional audio
test and measurement function. Drastically
reduces setup time and increases efficiency.
Produces graphs on your oscilloscope, or
with optional interface on your XY recorder.
for easy and immediate comprehension.
Allows much greater R &D flexibility in
gathering test results. The Amber 4400A
was designed to do everything you need
done. But faster.
Use the Amber 4400A for production line
response plotting of speaker systems, amplifiers or equalizers. Check the gain, noise
and phase characteristics of transmission
devices. In the lab, it lets you generate families of curves of new designs, or spectrum
analysis of noise characteristics. Or you
can quickly and easily plot the phase and
amplitude responses of new filter designs.
Quality and accuracy are assured with features like low
distortion, high power generator and wide bandwidth;
high sensitivity digital readout.
Of all the Amber 4400A's capabilities,
its best is saving time. And money.
Amber Electro Design Ltd.
4810 Jean Talon West
Export
Gotham Export Corporation. New York
121
Montreal Canada H4P 2N5
Telephone (514) 735 4105
R-e/p 180
for additional information circle no. 122
www.americanradiohistory.com
amber
long -life ferrite heads, flip -down panel for
easy access to VU meters, and duplication
of all four tracks simultaneously in one pass.
From two to eleven C -30 cassettes can be
produced in less than two minutes,
depending on the number of slaves.
Servo- controlled modular transports are
an important benefit of the DP-4050 -C2.
Each is an individual unit, such that failure of
one unit does not disable the entire
machine. The master transport features
automatic rewind and stop. In addition, it
has a ± 4% speed control to compensate for
non-optimum cassette masters.
The add-on slave unit is called the DP4050-Z3 and contains three cassette slave
decks. It is easily attached to the master by
means of a multi -pin connector cable.
Suggested professional user price of the
DP4050 -C2 with cassette master and two
This means a snake cable can be tested after
a sound system has been set up, without
moving the cable. Permanent studio wiring
can likewise be tested. This method will
detect many faults (such as shorts to
ground, open ground, and reversed phase)
that would be overlooked by a simple mike
check. The CT -3 is powered by a readily
available mercury battery which will give
many thousands of tests.
ALTAIR CORPORATION
202 WEST BENNETT STREET
SAUNE, MI 48176
(313) 429 -5454
for additional information circle no. 124
MEYER SOUND LABS ANNOUNCES
ACD/JOHN MEYER STUDIO-
STANDARD
REFERENCE MONITOR
Designed to provide the analogue and
digital recording engineer with a high output
monitor system of unparalleled accuracy
and transparency, this system is said to be
an acoustic testing device, a listening tool
with no perceptible tonal coloration or
noise.
The Swiss constructed ACD system
consists of two biamplifiers and electronic
crossovers in a single chassis and two
speaker cabinets with horns and 12 -inch
MUIR
slaves is $2,950. Price of the DP-4050 -Z3
three slave add -on unit is $2,750.
OTARI CORPORATION
1559 INDUSTRIAL ROAD
SAN CARLOS, CA 94970
(415) 592 -8311
DRIVERS
cR
for additional information circle no. 123
ALTAIR CT -3 MIKE CABLE TESTER
The CT -3 is said to be an entirely new
ma
concept in microphone cable- testers. It is
six inches long, 3/4 inch in diameter, is made
from extremely rugged epoxy fiberglass and
weighs only four ounces. It easily fits into a
shirt pocket (and even has a pocket clip).
The CT -3 has an XLR -type connector in
each end and is switched on by pushing in
on the cable's female conenctor. There are
no buttons to push, so both hands are free
to wiggle the cable and connectors to check
for loose, intermittent connections. All
three of the cable's conductors are tested
simultaneously and continuously. A failure
in any one of them will cause one of the two
light emitting diodes to go out. One stays on
to let you know the cable is being tested.
The CT -3 checks for all the common wiring
faults: shorts, open circuits and cross wiring
(including reverse phase). With the CT -31/2
Remote Testing Accessory, which is
provided with the CT -3, a mike cable can be
tested without bringing its ends together.
Booth 87A
New York AES
Write for full technical information
on
exceptional Emilar loudspeaker components:
high and low frequency drivers, exponential horns, and dividing networks.
EMILARCorporation.
2837 Coronado Street. Anaheim. CA 92806. (714) 632-8500
R-e/p
for additional information circle no. 125
181
cone drivers.
The crossover and each channel of the
power amplifier are electronically phase and
amplitude synchronized to each of the
elements of the speaker system. This
provides the smooth linear phase response
necessary for true stereo imaging and tonal
balance.
settling time eliminates transient smearing,
500 ns. High power output maintained
continuously, no thermal losses, 115 dB.
Smooth frequency response on and off axis.
RMS power limiting allows undistorted
peaks in excess of 125 dB.
Limiting occurs only when average power
exceeds continuous rated output. This
protects speakers without fuses or breakers
and instantly resets when overload ceases.
Every system exhibits almost identical
response due to absolute factory commitment of quality control and system -tosystem consistency. Individual testing and
calibration assures that each system is
within specs.
Options include the 200 X Subwoofers
which move the power bandwidth of the
I:.....
ACD system one full octave lower. It
7.w'1A
II
produces 4 acoustic watts, 114 dB at 30 Hz
and 120 dB at 50 Hz continuously, with
higher peaks. It is an eight order system
design.
The system features signal -to -noise ratio
that exceeds that of digital tape recorders,
110 dB. No perceptual harmonic or
intermodulation distortion. Accurate
response ±3 dB from 27 Hz to 18 kHz at
every frequency, not just 1/3 octave
intervals, which hide many irregularities.
Tested by sine wave generator swept
through entire range, outdoors, pointed up,
into B&K mike. Extremely fast rise and
MEYER SOUND LABORATORIES
2194 EDISON AVENUE
SAN LEANDRO, CA 94577
(415) 569 -2866
for additional Information circle no. 126
ESS/RCF INTRODUCES
ITALIAN WOOFER
The ESS /RCF L15P /06C is a high
powered bass driver conservatively rated to
Stressing Quality
handle 300 watts of continuous program
material with a sensitivity rating of 97.5 dB
sound pressure at a distance of 1 meter with
1 watt input. This 15 -inch woofer can be
crossed over at anywhere from 100 Hz to
1,500 Hz and its treated corrugated front
surround insures linearity even at high
outputs.
Konrad Kratz, ESS /RCF operations
manager for the pro products division in the
U.S. and Canada, points out that "it's the
precision construction of the L15P/06C that
gives it such outstanding capability. The
The Orange County VS -1 Stressor combines several
necessary signal processing functions to give you the
power to handle problems such as level control, noise,
and equalization all in one 3'i2" package:
Compressor with adjustable ratio, threshold, attack
and release times, for loudness enhancement
Fast peak limiter with 250:1 slope for overload
protection
Highly effective expander/noise-gate for noise
reduction
Full parametric equalizer with extraordinary
tuning capabilities
Overall performance specs and construction to the
highest industry standard
The VS -1 Stressor belongs in your studio as a versatile and powerful production tool. It offers the
creative producer/engineer the most control in any
single package on the market.
Also investigate the VS -2 Stressor, which offers internally pre -set functions for the budget-conscious user
looking for great sound.
ORANGE COUNTY ELECTRONICS
INTERNATIONAL INC.
Exclusive Sales & Marketing:
%ICbOUf1d
Dealer Inquiries Invited
680 Beach Street, San Francisco, Ca. 94109 (415) 6734544
R-e/p 182
for additional Information circle no. 127
www.americanradiohistory.com
- continued
four -inch copper wire voice coil is edge
wound in two layers on the aluminum form,
one layer wrapped around the outside, the
other on the inside. This type of winding
serves to prevent flexing and separation
under heavy loads."
Kraft further explains "the coil assembly
ESS, INC.
9613 OATES DRIVE
SACRAMENTO, CA 95827
(916) 3624102
for additional information circle no. 128
page 15..
.
TAPES
-
o
ON
AMP A
DISK ---0
813
Q
DIGITAL
coupled with the long -throw linear
excursion of the cone assembly allows the
L15P /06C to deliver high powered low
frequency response with detailed clarity."
The cone itself is fabricated from heavy duty
corrugated fiber to minimize cone breakup,
and is supported by a cast aluminum frame
for structural rigidity.
Most of the 23.3 lb. (10.6 kg) total weight
of the driver is centered in the 20.5 lb. (9.3
kg) magnet assembly which is rear -vented
to dissipate heat.
The L15 /06C is suitable for disco
systems, musical instruments and studio or
home system monitors. Included in the sale
of each woofer is an "Enclosure Size Chart"
with precise measurements for enclosure
and port size to achieve several desired
frequency responses.
from
-o
24 V
o-1
fo
AMP
B
1
Figure
1
Schematic of Switching
System Used for the
"Great Amplifier Shootout"
the ideal power amplifier for use with their
system, UREI sponsored what is thought to
be the most impartial and accurate listening
shootout, conducted in an actual controlroom environment, comparing ten of the
most prominent power amplifiers currently
available in the marketplace. Each of the ten
selected for the comparison had proven
capable of providing the maximum SPL's
typically demanded by studio clients,
without observable clipping on the monitor
oscilloscope. In alphabetical order they are:
AMP
1 -
2
3
4
-
5
-
-
o
ó°
C
AB Systems 410A
BGW 750B
Cerwin Vega A600
Crest P3501
Crown PSA -2
6- HHS500D
Macintosh 2300 (4 ohm output tap)
Studer A68
9 - Unisync 350
10 - Yamaha P -2200
7
-
8
-
-
continued overleaf
You do the talking...
The Syntovox Vocoder does the rest
Introducing the intelligible and
affordable Syntovox 221 Vocoder from Holland -a 20- channel
analyzer /synthesizer which
and effective speech synthesis.
allows the creation of many exciting, new voice effects as well
as speech analysis and synthesis. With the Syntovox, a
voice input can be imprinted on
any musical instrument or
sound effect to create truly
unbelievable "talking musical
effects." Technical features
of the 221 include the use of
8 -pole filters with initial roll -off
of 54 dB /octave, assuring high
intelligibility, matrix patching of analyzer and synthesizer
sections, and a built -in audio pulse generator for simple
Syntoön
AND
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Musicians will love the Syntovox 222, a simplified, yet
versatile adaptation of the
larger studio vocoder. The 222
allows the performing musician
direct vocal control over each
note which is played. And any
voice can be transformed to
cover a range of many octaves
when interfaced with a syn-
thesizer keyboard.
Choral
sounds, percussion effects...
the "triple -two" does it all and
much more!
Hear for yourself the new wave in vocal processing-the
incredible, intelligible Syntovox Vocoders.
Exclusive Sales & Marketing:
Pactpund
680 Beach St., Suite 414
(415)673 -4544
San Francisco,
California 94109
Dealer Inquiries Invited
R-e/p 183
for additional information circle no. 129
-continued...
THE GREAT AMPLIFIER SHOOTOUT
Several hundred invitations were sent to,
in the words of UREI, an impressive list of
the golden -eared people in the recording
industry." The event took place on August
29, in the control -room of URC'c Western United Studio 'A'. A buffet lunch was
served.
The Impartial System
The competing amplifiers were
assembled into a system with 10 switches so
that any one of the 10 stereo amps could be
switched into the circuit at the listeners
direction. (Figure 1) Care was taken so that
the level match between amplifiers was .25
dB and the frequency response of all
amplifiers was within 1 dB from 20 Hz to 20
kHz. The third -octave pink -noise response
at the listening position was flat, plus or
minus 2 dB from 50 Hz to 10 kHz. A variety
of music from different sources could be
selected. These included tape, disk and
digital multi- track. The controls for
switching were located at the console
mixing position.
Each participant was asked to mark the
supplied ballot with the three best
amplifiers, as well as the three worst from
among the ten. Many taking part could
discern no difference among the amps, most
having taken considerable time A-B'ing one
against the other at the console.
"From the ballots that were marked,"
according to UREI, "we had something of a
shock when we tabulated the results and
found that each amplifier had almost as
many votes for it as against it. This seems to
suggest that the personal tastes of human
beings tend to average themselves out if the
number is large enough. There are,
however, too many complex variables at
work here to go much farther than this
statement. A safe conclusion might be, that
for the majority of listeners, any one of the
ten amplifiers would be a good match for the
813 loudspeaker system."
JBL produces loudspeakers for the home
and sound systems for recording studios
and other professional applications. The
distribution units to be sold include
operations in England, France, Germany,
Belgium, Australia, and Japan.
Beatrice previously had announced its
intention to sell the Harman Kardon unit of
Harman International to Shin Shirasuna
Electric Corporation. Beatrice retains
ownership of the Harman Automative
Mirror Division, as well as the Tannoy
Group, a U.K. -based sound distribution
company, and Ortofon Manufacturing, a
Danish -based producer of cartridges and
tonearms.
BEATRICE FOODS ANNOUNCES
LETTER OF INTENT TO SELL JBL
TO DR. SIDNEY HARMAN
AND GROUP OF ASSOCIATES
HARRISON TO INTRODUCE
TOTALLY NEW CONSOLES
David Harrison, president of Harrison
Beatrice Foods Company has announced
it has signed a letter of intent to sell James B.
Lansing Sound, Inc., and several overseas
distribution units of its stereo components
company, Harman International Industries,
Inc., to Dr. Sidney Harman and a group of
associates. Dr. Harman is the founder of
Harman International, which was purchased by Beatrice in August 1977.
The transaction, the terms of which were
not announced, is subject to the approval of
Systems, Inc., has announced that the
company will begin delivery of a long rumored, totally new, music recording
console during the first quarter of 1980.
Harrison said, "Although sales of the
eighteen -month -old, top -of- the -line 32C
Series consoles have never been better,
there has been an intensive engineering
program at Harrison to develop advanced
new concepts, both operationally and
technically, for the eighties. A major
Beatrice's board of directors. The
development in this program is the concept
of 'Distributed Control Intelligence' ( "DCI ").
anticipated closing date
is
early next year.
QM -8B Professional
Mixing Console
FEATURES
Extremely low
noise
High slew rate
Stereo panning
on each
input channel
Smooth, conductive plastic, straight -line faders
B
input channels
Expandable to 16 inputs
Balanced bridging line input
Solo
XL type connectors on all main inputs & outputs
Talkback
Patch point for accessories
EQ in /out switch
6- frequency, 3
mic
4 large VU meters
-knob equalization on each
input channel
OPTIONS
Phantom power
The QM -8B is a fully professional, value- engineered
mixing console, with features and specifications that
make it suitable for recording, mixdown, and fixed or
portable sound reinforcement. A lightweight, portable
design makes it perfect for road touring and other
applications which require equipment mobility and
reliability. The QM -8B is an excellent stand -alone
console, and it may also be used as a submixer for
larger recording or reinforcement systems.
Patch bay (QM -171)
Direct outputs for driving
from each input channel
a
uAnium
AUDIO LABS,
tape machine straight
1909 Riverside Dr., Glendale, CA 91201
R-e,p
IU
for additional information circle no. 132
www.americanradiohistory.com
INC.
(213) 841 -0970
console was delivered to Walt Disney
Productions in Burbank. Late in June it was
installed in their newly refurbished re-
recording theater, where production
is
currently in progress on The Black Hole,
Disney's latest motion picture undertaking.
According to Harrison, "The 'DCI'
concept of placing an intelligent software controlled microcomputer in each module
offers the end -user many advantages over
the older 'hardware logic- controlled' analog
consoles. Included in these advantages are
tremendously expanded automation
opportunities, improved ergonomics
recording console are automated panning,
echo sends, group assignment, echo return,
and automated insertion of patch points,
filter, and equalization.
Harrison Systems plans to show the input
module from the 'DCI' music console and a
completely operational 'DCI' post production console at the fall convention of the AES
to be held the weekend of November 2, at
the Waldorf-Astoria in New York.
Although pricing has not been announced, Harrison has taken production
reservations from several major clients,
including Streeterville Studios in Chicago.
(human engineering), better reliability,
easier maintenance, and many side benefits
such as noiseless switching on most
functions."
Harrison continued, "One of the most
signficiant advantages of DCI' is that the
'personality' or operational characteristics
of the console are under the control of
software (computer code) rather than
hardware. This software control allows the
console to be modified for unique applications by simple programming rather than
This involves placing an individual
microcomputer in each input module of the
console and in most of the other major
modules."
Harrison Systems demonstrated "DCI"
for the first time in its new, modular Post
Production Series console at the May 1979
convention of the Audio Engineering
Society in Los Angeles. The console
displayed was configured as a four -operator,
forty - eight -input, film post production rerecording console, containing seventy seven individual microcomputers.
Subsequent to its public introduction, the
DIGITAL EDITING
DEMONSTRATED AT
3M AUDIO SYMPOSIUM
Some two dozen recording studio
executives recently witnessed the first
demonstration of 3M's electronic digital
editing system during a three-day audio
symposium presented in St. Paul, Minnesota, at 3M headquarters.
The demonstration consisted of an
assembly edit performed by what was
"simplified" editor.
laborious, often-irreversible hardware
described
modifications. Additionally, many new and
unique features can be incorporated with
little additional expense when using the
DCI' concept."
Harrison tells us that among the new
features to be included in the new music
According to Bob Youngquist, research
manager for 3M's Mincom Division, a
deluxe automated system prototype with
video display is still being refined and
as a
evaluated.
-
continued overleaf
The most versatile digital reverb ever made...
RENDIS/010
MULTI TAP DIGITAL DEIST
DIRECT
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SPACE REPEATS
Ursa Major's new SPACE STATION is a true breakthrough in audio technology
a digital reverb so versatile it can create virtually any pattern of direct sound, early
reflections and reverberation, yet which costs only a third of what you would pay for
a single -function reverb system. This easy -to-use unit will take your dry tracks and
put them Into an endless variety of reverberant spaces, from tiny rooms to concert
halls to parking garages and sci-fi locales. And the SPACE STATION does even
more: its Multi-Tap Delay and built -in mixer give you totally new pure delay effects,
while feedback of a single tap provides simultaneous echo or resonance effects.
URSA MAJOR
SWAPS
AUDITION DELAY PROGRAMS
for only $1995.
KEY SPECS: Delay Mode: 80dB dynamic range,
0.1% T (N+D). 7kHz, 256ms delay. 16 programs of
delay times for 8 Audition Taps: Reverb Mode: decay
time 0 to 3.5s. EQ +0/ -10dB at 20 Hz and 7kHz. two
programs of reverb taps: Echo Mode: delay time I to
255ms. decay time 0 to I 3s. Mono In /Stereo Out.
LED Peak Level Indicator at 0. -6,
and -30dB.
Manufactured in USA URSA MAJOR, SPACE
STATION and Multi -Tap Digital Delay are
trademarks of Ursa Major, Inc.
I5
C.
US DEALERS: AUDIO CONCEPTS. Hollywood. CaM. (213) 851 -7172 BANANAS AT LARGE, San Rafael,
(415)
4577600 MARTIN AUDIO VIDEO. N.Y., N.Y. (212) 541-5900 AUDIOTECHNIQUES, Stamford. Conn. (203) 3592312
PI CORP, Cleveland. Ohio (216) 238-0644
SUNTRONICS, Upland. CaM. (714) 985-0701
KGL SOUND, Watertown. Maas.
(617) 926-6100 MILAM AUDIO, Pekin, III. (309) 3463161 BROADCAST DISTRIBUTORS, Oevelsnd. Tenn. (615)
472 -8200 CREATIVE AUDIO, Nashville. Tenn. (615) 3313247
HY JAMES, Ann Arbor, Mkh. (313) 994-0934 HASK ELL
RECORDING. Troy. N.Y. (518) 237-9191 CANADIAN DEALERS: J-MAR ELECTRONICS. Toronto (416) 421.9080 CABLE
BROTHERS, Edmonton (403) 465.9731.
A-3 -A
R-e p 185
for additional information circle no. 133
The edit was performed via a compact
20x10x10-inch console wired to two 32track digital pre -mix recorders. A sequence
of command buttons was punched to select
pair of edit points, preview them
separately, precisely redefine these
a
locations in terms of aural aesthetics,
repeatedly audition the proposed assembly
edit, then accomplish the noise -free edit by
microprocessor -controlled copying onto
the new master tape.
Plans calls for this editing system or a
variation of it to be sold to studios following
studio evaluations this fall. Pricing and
delivery information will follow this phase.
On the subject of recording equipment,
Bob Brown, marketing director for the
Mincom Division, indicated the company
plans to deliver six systems by the end of the
year and produce at least several per month
next year. Noting industry enthusiasm for
the sound recreated by digital recording, he
also predicted that between 30 and 40 per
cent of the studios will be "into digital" in the
next five years.
Primary host of the symposium, the
company's Magnetic Audio /Video Products
Division, provided attendees with an
overview of its broad range of Scotch brand
tapes and an update on the latest technical
and product developments. This included a
look at Scotch 265 digital audio mastering
tape, developed for 3M's digital recorders,
and Scotch Metafine audio cassettes, the
first fine metal particle cassettes commercially introduced for a new generation of
consumer recorders.
Following the presentations, the studio
executives toured the St. Paul research
facilities of the Magnetic Audio /Video
Products Division and one of its tape
manufacturing plants. They then convened
at a 3M conference center to participate in
an open exchange of information on a
variety of business subjects.
NEW HOLLYWOOD BOWL
SYSTEM FEATURES
QUAD/EIGHT CONSOLE
Quad /Eight Electronics, the North
Hollywood, California, based console
manufacturer, delivered a large sound
reinforcement /recording console to the
Hollywood Bowl in May. The console
features up to 160 microphone inputs, six
electronic sub -masters, full VCA inputs on a
basic Ventura Model 40 input by 40 output
configuration.
In June, the Bowl's first major summer
show was The Playboy Jazz Festival where
the console found its first service. The
Quad /Eight console works into
a
JBL
speaker system. Local reviews in the Los
Angeles Times have given raves to the
greatly improved sound quality at California's most famous outdoor amphitheater.
OTARI MOVES
TO NEW FACILITY
Effective September 24th, the new
address for Otani Corporation is 1559
Industrial Road, San Carlos, California
94070. The new telephone number is (415)
592 -8311.
The new facility contains 50% more office
space and 100% more lab space. The new
telephone number allows Otani to utilize a
new, modern, expanded telephone system.
What it all means is increased capability to
serve you, according to Otani officials.
Otani wishes to extend a "thank you" for
making this expansion necessary, and a
wish that "we may all continue to grow and
prosper."
AMERICAN AUDIO FIRM TRAINS
SOVIET TECHNICIANS
IN ADVANCE
OF 1980 OLYMPIC GAMES
Mr. Max W. Scholfield, president of
Crown International, Inc., has announced
that nine Soviet technicians have successfully completed a special audio service and
repair program provided by this American
manufacturer of audio electronics.
Audio power amplifiers manufactured in
Elkhart, Indiana, by Crown International will
be used in the Moscow World Trade
Center. The Trade Center, equipped with
over 50 Crown amplifiers capable of
4600 SMPTE Tape Controller
Before you do another
multi -track
V,
The BTX Corporation
R-e/p 186
session, call us for a personal
FRAME
TAPE
MODE
HOURS
introduction to electronic audio editing.
MINUTES
SECONDS
EPAMES
I..um inl RI;I, A1innl. ALu,uchu+u>()'I19 inl1 ,I_l'
,25; Sunset IAullceard, Hullyc:v Caifumia 0028 X2131 162 -I 'n,
tor additional Information circle no. 130
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
I
TAPE
MODE
delivering over 10,000 watts of audio power,
is expected to play a vital role in the 1980
Summer Olympics.
Detailed classroom instruction and actual
test -bench experience were provided on the
Crown D -60, D -150A, DC -300A, and M -600
power amplifiers. Lecture content included
design theory, trouble shooting techniques
and field serivce procedures.
SID ZIMET JOINS
AUDIOTECHNIQUES
Sid Zimet, founder of Audio by Zimet,
Roslyn, New York, and co- founder of
Sound Workshop, Hauppauge, New York,
has joined the New York offices of
Audiotechniques, Inc., a professional audio
sales and engineering firm headquartered in
Stamford, Connecticut.
"A more qualified man would be hard to
find," says Hamilton Brosious, the
company's president. "With this move, we
have acquired not only one of the industry's
top technicians, but also a real recording
engineering pro."
Zimet's first assignment, according to
Brosious, will be to expand the services of
the firm's Audiotechniques Rentals division
at 1619 Broadway, New York City, in the
heart of the recording studio area. Rentals
offers a unique service to both large and
small studios and to musicians by providing,
within the confines of Metropolitan New
York, virtually any missing component in
the time it takes a cab or messenger to reach
its destination. Overnight air freight delivers
needed equipment to neighboring states
and as far West as California.
In his first moves toward expansion,
Zimet has put into operation laboratory
facilities for testing rental equipment berfore
delivery and upon return; and an increased
inventory covering a full range of components, including new equipment and the
latest models of existing stock from 24 -track
tape recorders to microphones.
Sid Zimet draws on more than thirty years
experience in professional audio. His career
is, in effect, the story of the industry, and
spans from his start as instructor of basic
electronics in the U.S. Air Force to his
present -day knowledge of the most
sophisticated equipment in the field.
Classified
-
One-inch minimum, payable in advance. Four inches maximum. Space
over four inches will be charged for
at regular display advertising rates.
HANDBOOK OF
MULTICHANNEL
RECORDING
by
F. A /ton Everest
320 pages
201 illustrations
The book that coven it all
a comprehensive guide to all facets of
multi-track recording ... acoustics .. .
construction
studio design
equipment
techniques
and
much, much more.
Hardbound $10.95 Paperback $7.95
-
...
...
...
R -. /p
...
...
debut on the Jerry Lewis Muscular
Dystrophy Telethon broadcast live
nationwide from the Sahara Hotel, Las
Vegas. The microphone was used by
telethon host Lewis during the 21- hour -long
show.
.
Books
P.O. Box 2449 Hollywood, CA 90028
SOUND RECORDING
phone recently made its U.S. television
on page 190..
-
-
SONY UHF WIRELESS MIKE
MAKE U.S. TELEVISION DEBUT
Sony's WRT -57 UHF wireless micro-
- continued
RATES
$51.00 Per Column Inch
(2'4" x 1 ")
by John Eargte. JME
Assocates
"The best book on the technical
thoroughly
side of recording
recommended "
- Studio Sound
338 Pages, Illustrated with 232 tables,
curves, schematic diagrams, photographs,
and cutaway views of equipment.
$16 95 each
R-e /p Books
P.
0. Dos 2449
Hollywood. CA 90028
THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO OUTFIT YOUR
STUDIO WITH SPECIAL EFFECTS...
AND ONE OF THEM MAKES SENSE.
MARSHALL ELECTRONIC, 1205 YORK RD. SUITE 14, LUTHERVILLE, MD. 21093, USA (301) 484 -2220
for additional information circle no. 131
R-e p 187
- continued
BOOKS
Matched Pairs
Stereo Mikes
In Stock
EQUIPMENT WANTED
theory and working
information and emphasis on
practical uses
WANTED
.
RECORDING EQUIPMENT
OF ALL AGES AND
VARIETIES
.
"MICROPHONES -HOW
THEY WORK AND HOW
TO USE THEM"
SCHOEPS Mikes:
Natural sound even
"off mike" and
no transformers.
ECO PLA TE
Great reverb
ECOPLATE
at a good price'
ECO PLATE
Delivery?
From stock.
ECOPLATE
Postpaid
Books
R -e /p
Condenser Mikes
A BBC favorite,
exceptional value.
Hollywood, CA 90028
P.O. Box 2449
SOUND SYSTEM ENGINEERING
by Don 5 Carolyn Da.ns
296 Pages 17 8`/7x11
0
Hollywood, CA 90028
P. O. Box 2449
BACK ISSUES AVAILABLE
Limited Quantity
April. 1975
-
While They Last
February, 1976
IPA
The Reference
Series
June, 1977
August, 1977
October, 1977
December, 1977
February. 1978
Apra, 1978
August, 1978
October, 1978
December, 1978
February, 1979
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
8,
8,
8,
8,
N3
N4
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
9,
9,
9,
9,
9,
9,
#1
10,
10.
10,
10,
e1
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Apra, 1979
June, 1979
August, 1979
REVOX
FREE CATALOG
M I C., E O, AC N, LI NE,
TAPE, DISC, POWER
OSCILLATORS
AUDIO, TAPE BIAS
POWER SUPPLIES
1033 N. SYCAMORE AVE.
LOS ANGELES, CA.
(2131 934 -3566
#5
#6
TO PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS
15 ips B -77s in stock'
#2
ONE STOP FOR ALL YOUR
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO REQUIREMENTS
BOTTOM LINE ORIENTED
F. T. C. BREWER COMPANY
P.O. Box 8057 Pensacola, Florida 32506
e3
#4
#5
#6
e2
03
e4
Foreign orders payable in U S. funds only
eee
#85 ARROYO ANNEX
PASADENA, CA 91109
(213) 798 -9127
by bank check or money
DEO, INCORPORATED
Box
Consulting in Performance and Presentation Technology
I.
'
ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS
ENTERTAINMENT SOUND SYSTEMS
AUDIO
AUDIO ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES
91320
(8051
- STUDIOS CA
VIDEO
.
REMODEL SPECIALISTS
FINEST CRAFTSMANSHIP
14835 AETNA STREET
w
USED TUBE EQUIPMENT
EMT 140S Reverb. $5,000
EMT 140 Electronics
Stereo
$1,000
Mono
$500 each
AKG C -60 Mike
$370
OTHER USED EQUIPMENT
AKG Reverbs
BX10
$1,500
BX20
$2,500
Spectra Sonics 24x 16
MCI JH -16 w /Autolocator II
Take Over Lease
---
-
-
Ampex MM- 1200-24
with 20 pt. Autolocate
CONTACT WES DOOLEY
-
ZIMET PRO AUDIO
Dept. REP
1038 Northern Boulevard
Roslyn, NY 11576
4984006
CUSTOM DESIGN
CONSOLES MONITORS
ACOUSTIC TREATMENTS
VAN NUYS. CA 91411
12131785.3358
OPPORTUNITIES
Exclusive 16/24 track recording studio
Tearing completion. Require participatng partners at minimum 10K. Located in
Southern California. For details call:
(714) 956 -0955 or (213) 994 -9670
We have sixteen half -track 15 ips Master
Tapes on 101/2" reels. We need many
copies made from these masters. Copies
must be 1/2- track, 33/4 ips on 101" reels
only
4 hours of program on each tape.
Must be high quality repro. Frequent
repeat biz. If you have facilities and equipment for this kind of dup. please call
Suzy at (213) 876 -4355.
-
H-e p 188
www.americanradiohistory.com
IL 60025
Technics Pro, Otari, dbx, MXR, ADS,
Eventide, E -V, Shure, Maxell, Ampex,
UREI, Stax, Sennheiser, Orban /Parasound, Spectro Acoustics, NAG, !vie,
and more' Send for price quote.
AUDIO -VISUAL SYSTEMS
Newbury Park
452K- Glenview,
Tascam, TEAC, Sound Workshop,
TIME DELAY SPECTROMETRY
:SEEEI
A SKIN 'E:EIE
1887 Tipperary Une
RECORD SAVERS
Poly -lined inner sleeves ten cents
each, postpaid. Minimum 100.
order.
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
Jr
90038
for additional information circle no. 135
$2.50 each
Mall orders to: R-e /p
P.O. Box 2449 Hollywood, CA 90028
MODIFICATION
3 AUDIO APPLICATIONS
CONSOLES
KITS A WIRED
AMPLIFIERS
Volume 7. #1
Volume 7, 03
Volume 7, #4
June. 1976
June, 1978
101, 104aB, 105
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
Volume 6, n2
Volume 6, #3
Volume 6, #6
June. 1975
December, 1975
August, 1976
Ivie
IE -17 and 30
Rentals & Sales
WANTED: MCI JH -16 parts (heads,
headstacks, guides, amps, control
cards, etc.) and Ampex 440 control
cards. Also, 8 or 16 track console
for $8,000 to $10,000.
(901) 726 -1900
Call Bill Kenner
-
-
Hardbound
$19.95
R-a /p Books
R -e /p
Cal rec
Dan Alexander 6026 Bernhard
Richmond, CA 94805 U.S.A.
(415) 232 -7933 or (415) 232 -7818
-
by Martin Clifford
224 Pages
97 Illustrations
$5.95 Paperback
RECORDING STUDIO AND
OFFICE COMPLEX FOR SALE
MCI 24/16 track; Scully 16/8 track; 4 track,
two 2 tracks, mono, video tape, 26' by 31'
studio, conference room, 5 offices, sauna,
shower, 3 bathrooms. Nine year lease
current rent $1,500.00 month. MANHATTAN MIDTOWN WEST. Asking $175,000.
Call (212) 581 -3970
-
CUSTOM Oliver Systems Console
32 by 24 w /producer desk and patch
bay. Less than 2 years old. We are expanding. Sacrifice $20,000. firm. You
snooze, you lose!
MAGIC WAND STUDIOS
(213) 843 -2112
In
AMPEX, OTARI, SCULLY
stock; all major professional lines;
top dollar trade -ins; 15 minutes George
Washington Bridge.
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO
VIDEO CORPORATION
384 Grand Street
Paterson, NJ 07505
(201) 523-3333
- -
24/16 Track Studio
Just completed
and beautiful
nothing needed to
operate. Sleeping loft. Good lease.
$350,000.00
possible lease.
(714) 292 -7841
-
San Diego, California
ASSORTED SPECTRA SONICS
ELECTRONICS
501 Mike /Program Equalizers, 411 Regulator, 101, 110 Audio Amplifiers - All new,
never used. Also Custom Tiger Oak
Console with Spectra Sonics Electronics
for sale. Presently set up with 10 inputs,
includes
2 phono preamps, 5 mixing
controls, program out (stereo), effects
out (mono), cue out (mono). Will consider
all reasonable offers.
Call (213) 876 -4355
Ask for Suzy.
-
--
(303) 494-2684
COUNTRY STUDIO
plus home In beautiful Western Washington State. Part or full -time business in
secluded setting. Price includes all major
equipment. $95,000. For details, write:
STUDIO, P. O. Box 615
Shelton, WA 98584
FOR SALE: 3M Series M -79 16-track
tape machine (2- inch). Mint condition, $17,000 or best offer.
Phone: (614) 663 -2544
FOR SALE
Established, northern New England
recording studio. Fully equipped ...
many national record releases. Jingle
production.
(207) 786 -3476
-
STUDIO EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
Spectra Sonics 1024B board
10 modules, wired for 24, Scully 284 -B8 -1'
machine w /variable, Scully 280B -2 TKv." machine, (all less than 100 hours);
280 -1" -1/2" machine, piano, organ,
asst'd mikes, stands, tape and accessories, speakers, Complimeter, Technics
T/T
$21,000 takes all.
NEVADA AUDIO VISUAL
Las Vegas
Charles Ivy
(702) 876 -6272
-
-
FOR SALE
LIKE NEW HARRISON 3232 RE-
CORDING CONSOLE WITH 26 I/O
MODULES, SPARE POWER SUPPLY, PRODUCER'S DESK, AND
EXTRA PATCH BAY. $59,000.00.
CALL CHICAGO RECORDING CO.,
(312) 822-9333. ASK FOR CLEON
WELLS, OR ALAN KUBICKA.
RECORD PLANT CONSOLE FOR SALE
Custom 2488 32 in x 24 out; 8 busses; 9
VCA subgroups w /mute switches; Elec-
Ampex AG440-B 4 Channel
Rus -Lang console
Remote
1/2 -Track Head Block
Mint
-
FACTORY SALES
MCI 8 -track recorder, 16 x 8 TEAC
custom console with patch bay, all
wiring. $7,900.00. Call (305) 891 -1206
or (305) 891 -6095.
-
COMPLETE STUDIO PACKAGE
Custom recording console / Parametric
EO / 24 x 32 / 2 ea. 3M -56 16 -track with
API Mini Mag / 2 ea. Selectake / 3M -56
4 -track / 3M -56 2 -track / 2 ea. Nakamichi
1000 cassette decks / JBL 4315 studio
monitors / Crown DC300 / Altec Graphic
EO / AKG EKO / Eventide Phaser / Eventide DDL / Pandora DDL / Shure & EV
Mics / Cables / Headphones / Spare parts
for all tape decks & console all professional. Equipment in excellent condition,
tronic "SoftSwitch" channel muting, API
940 automated faders for Allison Automation; Jensen mike transformers; 4 echo
sends and returns; patching for 36 pieces
of outboard; wired for phantom power to
32 mikes; linear stereo master; API 550 A
EQ on each input channel; speaker select
switching for 3 sets of CR monitors. This
console is 4 years old and in excellent
condition. Please contact Mark Morris,
(415) 332 -6100, for technical information
or Chris Stone, (213) 653-0240, to MAKE
OFFER.
Ampex MM1100 24 -Track Machine,
$20,000. Well serviced. Good condition. Call (213) 828 -0178 mornings, or
write: Resident, 2453 Chelsea Place,
Santa Monica, CA 90404.
ALL RECORDING STUDIOS AND SOUND COMPANIES should own the SOUNDER, "PHASE CHECKER "for
easily determining the Phase Polarity of ALL speakers.
macs, cables, transformers. crossovers. etc. Model 500 is
reliable, durable, with phone, phono, and cannon
connectors, and drives speakers direct. Built -in micand
hi-gain preamp Avoid being 'Phased Out" Free Info.
SOUNDER ELECTRONICS, 21 Madrona Street
Mill Valley, CA 94941
(415) 383 -5811
-
FOR SALE
3 Bushnell Custom Consoles -12 x 4 up
through 24 x 12- excellent performance,
$5,000 through $11,000. Ampex 350
machines with MCI electronics in
consoles -all
"; 2- track, $1,750; Mono,
$1,250; 4 - Koss Pro 4AAA Headsets @$50
each. 2 - Pultec HLF -3C @ $95 each. 4 -
EMT tube -type amplifiers (mono) for
Model 140 reverbs, $350 each.
UNITED RECORDING CORP.
6000 Sunset Boulevard
Hollywood, CA 90028
(213) 469 -3983
-
CONSOLE: SPECTRA SONICS
Model 1020 -8/16
14 buss, 20 input,
16 -track monitor, quad, all factory
wired, mint condition. We paid
$34,600; sell for $19,000 or best
-
offer. Phone for information:
Brian
(213) 461 -3717
installation available for your facility.
Package price: $100,000.00
For more Into and Individual prices
CALL WILL
(312) 280 -2000
-
-
FOR SALE
If you are looking for well -maintained
recording equipment try calling Criteria
Recording Studios, (305) 947-5611. We
are always up- dating our studios and can
offer consoles, tape machines, and many
other items at a good price.
EMPLOYMENT
AUDIO JOBS
National placement agency specializing in Audio. Needs technical people
for equipment design- maintenancesystems engineering positions. All
jobs free.
James Lloyd Executive Search
277 N. Glassell
Orange, CA 92666
We are searching for a personable, well
organized, enthusiastic, individual to join
our Professional Products sales team. The
ability to communicate effectively with
studio engineers, audio equipment
dealers, and factory representatives is
essential. If you enjoy traveling approximately 80% of the time and have a working
knowledge of professional audio equipment, send your resume to Larry Jaffe,
dbx, Inc., 71 Chapel Street, Newton, MA
02195.
Graduate of recording engineering class
with good musical and compositional
abilities desires trainee /second engineer
position at recording studio. Will relocate.
Available immediately.
K. Madsen
243 Augusta Ave.
DeKalb, IL 60115
(815) 756 -5706
TM PRODUCTIONS
seeks additional maintenance engineer,
extremely capable, familiar with multitrack gear. Send resume to Ken Justiss,
VP /Operations, TM Productions, 1349
Regal Row, Dallas, TX 75247. No calls.
EXPERIENCED, ENERGETIC
ENGINEER
with major label credits and good
references
-
SEEKING A MORE
CHALLENGING SITUATION.
Inquire: Box GPO, c/o R-e /p
P.O. Box 2449
Hollywood, CA 90028
ENGINEERING MANAGER
We are a leading manufacturer of audio
console automation, voltage controlled
amplifiers, and signal processing equipment. We need a responsible person to
direct our engineering department. If you
are a creative person with a BS or equivalent in E.E.; 3 to 5 years experience in
analog and digital circuit design; and a
background as a musician and /or mixer in
a music recording studio, you may be the
person we are looking for. You will be
working with a team of dedicated, innovative audio professionals in an atmosphere
conducive to fast personal and corporate
growth. Please send your resume and salary requirements in confidence to:
Norman Baker
ALLISON RESEARCH, INC.
Box 40288
Nashville TN 37204
Regional Manager
Rapid expansion of our west coast recording studio and video production
market requires a strong customer
oriented sales executive to manage
sales, service and customer support
for our SMPTE time code editing and
synchronizing systems, operating
from our recently opened Hollywood
offices.
Maturity and professional competence are essential. Hands -on studio
experience is desirable. Call Ron
Barker at (617) 891 -1239.
The BTX Corporation
438 Boston Post Road
Weston, MA 02193
Or visit AES exhibit 305.
L
rpm
R-e!p 189
Sony Wireless Microphones
continued from page 187
"This marks a significant breakthrough in
TV broadcasting," says Nick Morris,
-
...
general manager of Sony's Professional
Audio Division, which markets professional
audio products. "The WRT -57 mike, about
50 per cent smaller than conventional handheld wireless microphones, is the smallest
hand -held mike in the industry. The electret
condenser mike weighs 190 g (7 oz.), is 17
cm (6.8 inches) long and requires only 16 cm
(6.4 inch) antenna wire.
"Until the telethon," Morris points out,
"the mike had only been used in Las Vegas
shows."
The Sony mike system, consisting of
mike, tuners, antennas and diversity unit,
was selected for use on the telethon by
sound engineer Pete SanFillipo, of Western
Media Entertainment.
According to SanFillipo, "The mike, with
uni- directional characteristics, rejects noise
from the sides and fights feedback for
exceptional sound quality. In addition, the
mike has less external noise interference
than low band systems because it uses the
15 separate
UHF band (947 952 MHz
channels are available)."
SanFillipo feels the mike "looks great" on
TV. "Because of its smaller size and shorter
antenna wire, the mike looks neater than
conventional wireless mikes, and is easier
-
-
The Thompson Vocal
most or virtually all of
stereo record and yet
music untouched! Not
works over the phone.
record below.
MOST STEREO DISCS
Eliminator can actually remove
a solo vocalist from a standard
leave most of the background
an equalizer! We can prove it
Write for a brochure and demo
COST: $249.00
YOU SHOULD
For:
for performers to use. The system is also
very easy to set up."
"The WRT -57 mike," points out Morris,
"features miniature helical resonator filters,
plus hybrid ICs developed by Sony. With a
frequency response of 50 - 15,000 Hz, the
mike has a wide dynamic range that
provides greater linearity than other
wireless systems because the system uses
no limiting or other noise reduction systems
to accomplish this wide dynamic range."
Morris adds that since the UHF band
requires only a 16 cm antenna wire, greater
signal emission efficiency is attained. "And
because transmission power for the WRT57 is decreased, the unit has long battery
life."
-
-
Book Review
HOW TO BUILD A SMALL BUDGET
RECORDING STUDIO FROM
SCRATCH ...with 12 tested designs.
by F. Alton Everest
discussed in the designs are floor plans,
control rooms, walls and ceiling treatment,
reverberation time, air conditioning,
observation windows, room proportions,
acoustical treatment, noise considerations,
etc.
The emphasis is on budget studios and
the efficient production of material on a day to -day, routine basis. The author describes
all the proceedures, the equipment needed,
and the likely costs.
F. Alton Everest is an acoustics
consultant in Whittier, California, and is a
member of several audio engineering
societies. He has been involved in TV
broadcasting since 1936, and has written
several audio and broadcasting books
including, The Handbook Of Multi-Track
Recording.
How To Build a Samll Budget
Recording Studio From Scratch
... with 12 tested designs
by F. Alton Everest
background data needed to design,
Tab Books
Soft Cover
construct, and operate a budget recording
12 plans for acoustical
. . plus
studio
studios that can produce audio, radio,
audiovisual, film, and television program
HOW TO BUILD A SMALL BUDGET
RECORDING STUDIO
FROM SCRATCH
material. The 12 studios featured include a
budget audiovisual recording studio, a
studio built in a residence, a small studio for
instruction and campus radio, a small ad
agency studio for audiovisuals and radio
jingles, a multi -track studio built in a two-car
garage. a radio program production studio,
studios for commercial radio stations, a
single control room for two studios, a
television mini- studio, a television and multitrack studio, a film review theatre, and
multiple studios. Among the items fully
VISION -SOUND
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO DEBUT
This unique volume contains all the
.
DOCTOR ROCK
326 pages
$8.95
is available from R -e /p Books.
Send check or money order for
$8.95 (postage paid) to: R -e/p Books,
P.O. Box 2449, Hollywood, CA 90028.
Audio consultant Michael Salafia has
announced the formation of Vision -Sound
Professional Audio, Inc., a new audio
consulting firm and dealership. Vision Sound will specialize in equipping recording
by Petach
& Leiendecker
SEE US
Studio Echo/Reverb
Tape Noise Reduction
Parametric Equalization
Electronic Crossovers
Comp /Limiters
.
We manufacture a full line of high quality audio and
recording equipment. You will probably have to pay
twice as much elsewhere to obtain comparable quality.
Only Direct Sales make our prices and quality possible.
Send $1 for a 20 page brochure and 20 minute
demonstration record.
Sound, Dept.
Write to: LT
Decatur, GA 30031.
RE,
P.O. Box 729,
(404) 284 -5155
ii
I
"NI NOT
SURE
,
ßOT
OUT
R-e p 190
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
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For the last four years you have heard about the innovative design and technical superiority
of Harrison consoles. In no place has the Harrison "no compromise" philosophy been more
evident than in the Harrison 32C series recording console. This philosophy pays off for you in the
knowledge and confidence that your Harrison 32C series console is the most reliable console
built anywhere in the world. What does this innovative design, technical
superiority and reliability mean to you
The Harrison 32C series console has become the industry standard with installations in every
major recording center in the world. True, a Harrison console initially costs more than most
other consoles, but in the long run this investment in quality pays off in less down time,
increased operating efficiency, and a superior recorded product.
What does this investment security and operating efficiency mean to you
Success is full -time utilization of your recording facility, and that translates into j rofit for you.
Harrison consoles are used in major recording studios around the world. Many of these studios
have purchased a second, and even a third Harrison console. Harrison 32 series consoles have
been instrumental in the production of Grammy Award winning recordings for "Best
Engineered Recording (non-classical)" for the last two years in a row,
and you know what that means
S UCCG88
the bottom line of our "no compromise" philosophy!
0117
HARRISON SYSTEMS, INC.
P
o
,.
:ta
Box 22964. Nashville, Tennessee 37202
for additional information circle no. 137
(615) 834 -1184. TELEX 55513
THIS ISSUE OF R -e /p IS SP ONSORED BY THE FOLLOWING LIST OF ADVERTISERS
184
Quantum Audio
Everything Audio
A &R Record Manufacturing 98
140
RTS Systems
2 -3, 164, 166, 168
128
APSI
162
161
Ruslang Corporation
163
Express Sound
Allen & Heath
40
138
Saki Magnetics
Flanner & Hatsoos
109
Allison Research
167
148
Santa Barbara Sound
Furman Sound ....
180
Amber Electro Design
148
191, 193
SESCOM
175
Harrison Systems
Ashly Audio, Inc.
bk cvr
158
Shure Brothers ...
Inovonics, Inc
69
Aspen & Associates
8-9
157
Sierra Audio Corp.
76
Interface Electronics
Atlas Sound
31 -34
23
Solid State Logic
179
JBL
Audioarts Engineering
62-63, 171
190
Sony
LT Sound
93, 172
Audiotechniques
10-11
Soundcraft
81
Lexicon, Inc.
18 -19
Auditronics
45
169
Sound Technology
Loft Modular Devices
Audio & Design Recording 101
.
.
Audio Engineering Assoc... 188
67
Audio Industries Corp
73, 75
Audio- Kinetics ..
117
Audio -Technica, US
126
Auratone
BGW Systems, Inc.
BTX, Inc
Barclay Analytical
Beyer Dynamic ..
Rudi Breuer
Bright Side Audio
173
187
49
65
94
137
27
Canyon Recorders
50
Countryman Associates
17
dbx, Incorporated
153
DeltaLab Research
43
Dolby Laboratories
133
EDCOR
113
EECO
Eastern Acoustics 58. 120, 143
Eastern Sound Company.... 29
115
Electro -Media Systems
129
Electro -Voice, Inc
.
Emitar Corporation
Eventide Clockworks
181
71
51 -54
MCI
MXR
121
Labs ... 30
Magnetic Reference
186
Marshall Electronics
151
Martin Audio
170
Meyer Sound Labs
MICMIX Audio Products ... 141
79
Midas Audio Systems
192
Mike Shop
36-37
Milam Audio
Mobile Fidelity Sound Labs 145
4 -5
Rupert Neve, Inc
77
Nexus, Inc
122
Omni -Craft, Inc
Orange County /Parasound. 182
149
Orban Associates
87-90, 155
Otari Corporation.
Sound Workshop
Speck Electronics
Spectra Sonics
Sphere Electronics
Stanton Magnetics
Stephens Electronics
Studer ReVox America
Studio Supply Company
Synton /Parasound
TDK, Incorporated
TEAC /Tascam
Telex Communications
3M Company
360 Systems
Trident Audio
-14
11
41
.
the -art equipment, including Harrison
consoles, Studer recorders, Calrec Sound
Field Microphones, and a full complement
of peripheral signal processing hardware.
Vision -Sound is the exclusive East Coast
representative for Neotek Recording
equipment functions in a studio environment.
Salafia, who previously served for two
years as a sales representative for
Audiotechniques, has established Vision Sound to provide the recording industry
with a "fresh approach" to the problems
183
127
123
99
39
85
105
57
185
165
83
47, 177
124 -125
OSC Audio Products
clients with the opportunity to audit
inherent in selecting appropriate audio
systems.
In announcing the formation of Vision Sound, Michael Salafia remarked, "We are
experienced enough to be on top of new
audio developments, and free enough to
keep pace with them. The recording studio
industry is experiencing a period of
dramatic growth, and it is critical that studio
owner /builders have as wide a range of
quality options available to them
mikes by mail? for less?
why not!TM
cued mach
mole/
-
Sound will represent a full range of state -of-
131
21
Vision -Sound Pro Audio
Westlake Audio...
114
White Instrument
Windt Audio Engineering .. 174
Yamaha International .. 102 -103
139
John McLaughlin, reports that Vision
Consoles, and the firm's new headquarters
are being acoustically treated to provide
PML
Peavey Electronics
.
Salafia, designer of elaborate audio
systems for such music business personalities as Charles Koppleman and guitarist
60
97
136
112
UREI
URSA Major
Valley Audio
Valley People
147
119
174
Polyline Corporation
107, 135
Pro Audio /Seattle
Programming Technologies 59
Quad -Eight Electronics .. 7, 178
studio facilities and in providing sophisticated home recording systems for music
industry pros.
as
possible."
Vision -Sound Professional Audio, Inc., is
located at 110 Grand Avenue, Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey. The phone number is
(201) 871 -4101.
ORBAN IMPROVES MODEL
The Mike Shop' now sells audio equipment
as well as mikes by mail! for less!
or call us with your requirements or for ouir rice sheet.
111B DUAL SPRING REVERB
Orban Associates, Inc., has announced a
significant product improvement to their
Model 1118 Dual Spring Reverb. This
compact, professional-quality reverb is now
being delivered with six springs per channel
instead of four.
Based on component advances, this
improvement provides lower flutter, higher
echo density, and a smoother, more natural
sound according to designer Bob Orban. It
is anticipated that this sonic improvement
will further increase the 111B's acceptance
among professional users as the reverb of
choice.
All of the standard Orban signal
processing is retained, including the
exclusive "floating threshold" limiter to
The Mike
Shop'
PO Box 366T, Elmont. NY 11003 (516)
A
om,ion
of
(iTNx,n,, l,d
437 -7925
R-e p 192
for additional Information circle no. 138
www.americanradiohistory.com
minimize "spring twang" and a versatile
equalizer with quasi -parametric midrange
and shelving bass sections. This processing
ideally complements the new six -spring
arrays.
Orban is providing this product improvement at no increase in cost.
Auto -Set is part of a revolution that's happening right
now. A micro-electronics revolution. Some folks call these
times the "micro- computer age" because this decade has
brought us revolutionary advances in digital control and
processing technologies. These developments confront
all of us with the question of how to best use our new -found
computer power. Computer scientists call our relationship with computers the "man- machine interface :'
and have given us some terms to talk about.
For example, some computer systems
are called "transparent" because the user
is not usually aware of the presence of
an information processing device ..,a
it's a "black box" Systems of this type
ry to appear unobtrusive... they
on't have display screens, or data cartridges, or key oards. They are usually hidden somewhere under the
"skin" of the host equipment, and typically are available
to perform only those functions the designer has built -in,
with no variations.
Other computers are called "interactive" Here, the
user is more aware of the processing device because he
can communicate with it. Systems of this type are intended
to be more helpful to the user, and generally meet this
objective. But, there are a few interactive systems around
whose designer was probably more familiar with computers
than with the user and his application. The user is sometimes required to function more like a
computer
programmer than a recording engineer.
Auto-Set is a computer system whose interactive capabilities were developed to help you create the best sounding products possible. You don't have to know much about
computers to use Auto-Set ... it tells you how. And you don't
have to do much to use Auto -Set because its programs
are menu -based ... its memory helps your memory.
Auto -Set's menus and control commands are
designed to promote a "learn -by- using" environment.
You don't have to talk "computerese,'
just key-in simple command codes.
For example, the letter "H" (the command code for HELP) displays a
complete command reference menu
it's like having a built -in teacher.
Auto -Set is effective. Its applications design is
geared to the real -world situations found in the modern
recording studio. Its applications feature data manipulation functions and mix situation logic to introduce a new
dimension of creative capability to the recording studio...
it's a new creative tool.
Auto -Set is flexible. It's two computers in one, with
different ways to store automation data. In real -time, like
a motion -picture, on a spare channel of your multi -track
audio tape; or as pre -set mix "snapshots" stored on special certified data cartridges which plug into the front
of the unit.
Auto -Set is convenient. Whatever's happening with
Auto-Set is in one place, right before your eyes, not spread
out across all the I/O modules. And, if you want to make
Auto -Set operate transparently, like some other automation programmers, a single keystroke is all that's required.
There are no demands from Auto -Set ... just the capabilty
to handle your most complicated mix situations.
Auto -Set ... with single -point interaction, or fully transparent... it's the
automation programmer
that gives you the
options.
HARRISON SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 22964. Nashville, Tennessee 37202
(615) 834 -1184, TELEX 555133
1
fact:
you can choose your
microphone to enhance
your productions.
Shure makes microphones for every imaginable use.
Like musical instruments, each different type of Shure microphone has a
distinctive "sound," or physical characteristic that optimizes it for
particular applications, voices, or effects.
Take, for example, the Shure SM58 and SM59 microphones:
SM59
Mellow, smooth,
silent...
The SM59 is a relatively new,
dynamic cardioid microphone. Yet
it is already widely accepted as a
standard for distinguished studio
productions. In fact, you'll often
see it on TV ... especially on musical shows where perfection of
sound quality is a major consideration. This revolutionary cardioid
microphone has an exceptionally
flat frequency response and neutral sound that reproduces exactly what it
hears. It's designed to give good bass
response when miking at a distance. Remarkably rugged
it's built to shrug off
rough handling. And, it is superb in rejecting mechanical stand noise such as floor
and desk vibrations because of a unique,
patented built -in shock mount. It also features a special hum -bucking coil for
superior noise reduction!
-
Some like it essentially flat...
SM58
Crisp, bright
"abuse proof"
Probably the most widely used
on-stage, hand -held cardioid
dynamic microphone. The
SM58 dynamic microphone is
preferred for its punch in live
vocal applications ... especially where close -up miking is
important. It is THE world standard professional stage microphone with the distinctive Shure
upper mid -range presence peak for
an intelligible, lively sound. World renowned for its ability to withstand
the kind of abuse that would destroy
many other microphones. Designed
to minimize the boominess you'd expect from close miking. Rugged, efficient spherical windscreen eliminates
pops. Lightweight (15 ounces!)
hand-sized. The first choice among
rock, pop, R & B, country, gospel.
and jazz vocalists.
...some like a "presence" peak.
e
v..
.
3
Af ,JUENCY IN HERTZ
so
FREQUENCY
IN
MIN
HERTZ
professional microphones...by
H
SHUR
Shure Brothers Inc., 222 Hartrey Ave., Evanston, IL 60204, In Canada: A. C. Simmonds & Son Limited
Manufacturers of high fidelity components, microphones, sound systems and related circuitry.
for additional information circle no. 140
www.americanradiohistory.com
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