The NetBSD Guide
(2008/02/19)
The NetBSD Developers
The NetBSD Guide
by The NetBSD Developers
Published 2008/02/19 18:52:52
Copyright © 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Federico Lupi
Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 The NetBSD Foundation
All brand and product names used in this guide are or may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
NetBSD® is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.
Table of Contents
Purpose of this guide ............................................................................................................................ xvii
I. About NetBSD .................................................................................................................................. xviii
1 What is NetBSD? ............................................................................................................................1
1.1 The story of NetBSD ..........................................................................................................1
1.2 NetBSD features.................................................................................................................1
1.3 Supported platforms ...........................................................................................................2
1.4 NetBSD’s target users.........................................................................................................2
1.5 Applications for NetBSD ...................................................................................................2
1.6 How to get NetBSD............................................................................................................2
II. System installation and related issues.................................................................................................1
2 Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations ..................................................2
2.1 Preliminary considerations .................................................................................................2
2.1.1 Dual booting...........................................................................................................2
2.1.2 NetBSD on emulation and virtualization...............................................................2
2.2 Install preparations .............................................................................................................2
2.2.1 The INSTALL document .......................................................................................3
2.2.2 Partitions ................................................................................................................3
2.2.3 Hard disk space requirements ................................................................................4
2.2.4 Network settings ....................................................................................................4
2.2.5 Backup your data and operating systems! .............................................................4
2.2.6 Preparing the installation media.............................................................................4
2.2.6.1 Booting the install system from CD ..........................................................5
2.2.6.2 Booting the install system from floppy .....................................................5
2.3 Checklist .............................................................................................................................5
3 Example installation........................................................................................................................7
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................7
3.2 The installation process ......................................................................................................7
3.3 Keyboard layout .................................................................................................................7
3.4 Starting the installation.......................................................................................................8
3.5 MBR partitions .................................................................................................................12
3.6 Disklabel partitions...........................................................................................................15
3.7 Setting the disk name........................................................................................................17
3.8 Last chance!......................................................................................................................18
3.9 The disk preparation process ............................................................................................19
3.10 Choosing the installation media .....................................................................................20
3.10.1 Installing from CD-ROM or DVD .....................................................................21
3.10.2 Installing from an unmounted file system..........................................................22
3.10.3 Installing via FTP...............................................................................................23
3.10.4 Installing via NFS ..............................................................................................28
3.11 Extracting sets ................................................................................................................29
3.12 System configuration......................................................................................................30
3.13 Finishing the installation ................................................................................................33
4 Upgrading NetBSD .......................................................................................................................36
4.1 Overview ..........................................................................................................................36
4.2 The INSTALL document..................................................................................................36
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4.3 Performing the upgrade ....................................................................................................36
III. System configuration, administration and tuning..........................................................................43
5 The first steps on NetBSD.............................................................................................................44
5.1 Troubleshooting................................................................................................................44
5.1.1 Boot problems......................................................................................................44
5.1.2 Misconfiguration of /etc/rc.conf...........................................................................44
5.2 The man command ...........................................................................................................45
5.3 Editing the configuration files ..........................................................................................46
5.4 Login.................................................................................................................................47
5.5 Changing the root password ...........................................................................................47
5.6 Adding users.....................................................................................................................47
5.7 Shadow passwords............................................................................................................48
5.8 Changing the keyboard layout..........................................................................................48
5.9 System time ......................................................................................................................48
5.10 Secure Shell (ssh(1)).......................................................................................................49
5.11 Basic configuration in /etc/rc.conf ..........................................................................49
5.12 Basic network settings....................................................................................................50
5.13 Mounting a CD-ROM.....................................................................................................50
5.14 Mounting a floppy ..........................................................................................................51
5.15 Installing additional software .........................................................................................51
5.15.1. Using packages from pkgsrc.............................................................................51
5.15.2. Storing third-party software..............................................................................52
5.16 Security alerts .................................................................................................................52
5.17 Stopping and rebooting the system.................................................................................52
6 Editing...........................................................................................................................................54
6.1 Introducing vi ...................................................................................................................54
6.1.1 The vi interface ....................................................................................................54
6.1.2 Switching to Edit Mode .......................................................................................54
6.1.3 Switching Modes & Saving Buffers to Files .......................................................55
6.1.4 Yanking and Putting.............................................................................................55
6.1.4.1 Oops I Did Not Mean to do that!.............................................................55
6.1.5 Navigation in the Buffer ......................................................................................55
6.1.6 Searching a File, the Alternate Navigational Aid ................................................56
6.1.6.1 Additional Navigation Commands..........................................................56
6.1.7 A Sample Session ................................................................................................56
6.2 Configuring vi...................................................................................................................57
6.2.1 Extensions to .exrc ............................................................................................58
6.2.2 Documentation.....................................................................................................58
6.3 Using tags with vi.............................................................................................................59
7 rc.d System....................................................................................................................................60
7.1 The rc.d Configuration......................................................................................................60
7.2 The rc.d Scripts.................................................................................................................61
7.3 The Role of rcorder and rc Scripts ...................................................................................62
7.4 Additional Reading...........................................................................................................62
8 Console drivers..............................................................................................................................64
8.1 wscons ..............................................................................................................................64
8.1.1 wsdisplay..............................................................................................................64
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8.1.1.1 Virtual consoles .......................................................................................64
8.1.1.1.1 Getting rid of the message WSDISPLAYIO_ADDSCREEN: Device busy
66
8.1.1.2 50 lines text mode with wscons...............................................................66
8.1.1.3 Enabling VESA framebuffer console......................................................67
8.1.1.4 Enabling scrollback on the console.........................................................67
8.1.1.5 Wscons and colors...................................................................................67
8.1.1.5.1 Changing the color of kernel messages ......................................68
8.1.1.5.2 Getting applications to use colors on the console.......................69
8.1.1.6 Loading alternate fonts............................................................................69
8.1.2 wskbd ...................................................................................................................69
8.1.2.1 Keyboard mappings.................................................................................69
8.1.2.1.1 Hacking wscons to add a keymap...............................................71
8.1.2.2 Changing the keyboard repeat speed.......................................................71
8.1.3 wsmouse...............................................................................................................72
8.1.3.1 Serial mouse support ...............................................................................72
8.1.3.2 Cut&paste on the console with wsmoused..............................................72
8.2 pccons ...............................................................................................................................72
9 X....................................................................................................................................................74
9.1 What is X? ........................................................................................................................74
9.2 Configuration....................................................................................................................75
9.3 The mouse ........................................................................................................................76
9.4 The keyboard ....................................................................................................................77
9.5 The monitor ......................................................................................................................77
9.6 The video card ..................................................................................................................77
9.6.1 XFree 3.x..............................................................................................................77
9.6.2 XFree86 4.x..........................................................................................................78
9.7 Starting X..........................................................................................................................78
9.8 Customizing X..................................................................................................................78
9.9 Other window managers...................................................................................................79
9.10 Graphical login with xdm...............................................................................................80
10 Linux emulation ..........................................................................................................................82
10.1 Emulation setup ..............................................................................................................82
10.1.1 Configuring the kernel .......................................................................................82
10.1.2 Installing the Linux libraries..............................................................................82
10.1.3 Installing Acrobat Reader ..................................................................................83
10.2 Directory structure..........................................................................................................84
10.3 Emulating /proc ..............................................................................................................84
10.4 Using Linux browser plugins .........................................................................................85
10.5 Further reading ...............................................................................................................85
Bibliography .................................................................................................................85
11 Audio...........................................................................................................................................87
11.1 Basic hardware elements ................................................................................................87
11.2 BIOS settings..................................................................................................................87
11.3 Configuring the audio device..........................................................................................88
11.4 Configuring the kernel audio devices .............................................................................88
11.5 Advanced commands......................................................................................................89
11.5.1 audioctl(1)..........................................................................................................89
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11.5.2 mixerctl(1)..........................................................................................................89
11.5.3 audioplay(1) .......................................................................................................89
11.5.4 audiorecord(1)....................................................................................................90
12 Printing........................................................................................................................................91
12.1 Enabling the printer daemon ..........................................................................................91
12.2 Configuring /etc/printcap........................................................................................92
12.3 Configuring Ghostscript .................................................................................................93
12.4 Printer management commands .....................................................................................95
12.5 Remote printing ..............................................................................................................95
13 Using removable media...............................................................................................................97
13.1 Initializing and using floppy disks..................................................................................97
13.2 How to use a ZIP disk.....................................................................................................97
13.3 Reading data CDs with NetBSD ....................................................................................98
13.4 Reading multi-session CDs with NetBSD....................................................................100
13.5 Allowing normal users to access CDs ..........................................................................100
13.6 Mounting an ISO image ...............................................................................................101
13.7 Using video CDs with NetBSD....................................................................................102
13.8 Using audio CDs with NetBSD....................................................................................102
13.9 Creating an MP3 (MPEG layer 3) file from an audio CD............................................102
13.10 Using a CD-R writer with data CDs...........................................................................103
13.11 Using a CD-R writer to create audio CDs ..................................................................104
13.12 Creating an audio CD from MP3s ..............................................................................105
13.13 Copying an audio CD .................................................................................................105
13.14 Copying a data CD with two drives............................................................................105
13.15 Using CD-RW rewritables..........................................................................................105
13.16 DVD support...............................................................................................................106
13.17 Creating ISO images from a CD ................................................................................106
13.18 Getting volume information from CDs and ISO images............................................106
14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD) ...................................................................................108
14.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................108
14.1.1 Why use disk encryption?................................................................................108
14.1.2 Logical Disk Drivers........................................................................................108
14.1.3 Availability.......................................................................................................109
14.2 Components of the Crypto-Graphic Disk system.........................................................109
14.2.1 Kernel driver pseudo-device ............................................................................109
14.2.2 Ciphers .............................................................................................................109
14.2.3 Verification Methods........................................................................................109
14.3 Example: encrypting your disk.....................................................................................110
14.3.1 Preparing the disk ............................................................................................110
14.3.2 Scrubbing the disk............................................................................................111
14.3.3 Creating the cgd ..............................................................................................111
14.3.4 Modifying configuration files ..........................................................................112
14.3.5 Restoring data ..................................................................................................113
14.4 Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs...................................................................................113
14.4.1 Introduction......................................................................................................113
14.4.2 Creating an encrypted CD/DVD ......................................................................113
14.4.3 Using an encrypted CD/DVD ..........................................................................116
14.5 Suggestions and Warnings............................................................................................117
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14.5.1 Using a random-key cgd for swap ...................................................................117
14.5.2 Warnings ..........................................................................................................118
14.6 Further Reading ............................................................................................................118
Bibliography ...............................................................................................................118
15 Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration......................................................................120
15.1 Install physical media ...................................................................................................120
15.2 Configure Kernel Support.............................................................................................121
15.3 Disklabel each volume member of the CCD ................................................................121
15.4 Configure the CCD .......................................................................................................123
15.5 Initialize the CCD device .............................................................................................123
15.6 Create a 4.2BSD/UFS filesystem on the new CCD device ..........................................124
15.7 Mount the filesystem ....................................................................................................125
16 NetBSD RAIDframe .................................................................................................................126
16.1 RAIDframe Introduction ..............................................................................................126
16.1.1 About RAIDframe ...........................................................................................126
16.1.2 A warning about Data Integrity, Backups, and High Availability ...................126
16.1.3 Getting Help.....................................................................................................126
16.2 Setup RAIDframe Support ...........................................................................................127
16.2.1 Kernel Support .................................................................................................127
16.2.2 Power Redundancy and Disk Caching.............................................................127
16.3 Example: RAID-1 Root Disk .......................................................................................128
16.3.1 Pseudo-Process Outline ...................................................................................129
16.3.2 Hardware Review.............................................................................................130
16.3.3 Initial Install on Disk0/wd0 .............................................................................131
16.3.4 Preparing Disk1/wd1 .......................................................................................133
16.3.5 Initializing the RAID Device ...........................................................................136
16.3.6 Setting up Filesystems .....................................................................................138
16.3.7 Setting up kernel dumps...................................................................................140
16.3.8 Migrating System to RAID..............................................................................142
16.3.9 The first boot with RAID .................................................................................144
16.3.10 Adding Disk0/wd0 to RAID ..........................................................................145
16.3.11 Testing Boot Blocks.......................................................................................147
16.4 Testing kernel dumps....................................................................................................150
17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) ...............................................................................151
17.1 About ............................................................................................................................151
17.2 Introduction ..................................................................................................................151
17.3 Terms and conventions .................................................................................................151
17.3.1 Definitions........................................................................................................151
17.3.2 Usage examples ...............................................................................................153
17.3.2.1 Client and server are one.....................................................................153
17.3.2.2 Client and server are separate..............................................................154
17.3.2.3 Sample policy ......................................................................................154
17.4 PAM Essentials.............................................................................................................155
17.4.1 Facilities and primitives ...................................................................................155
17.4.2 Modules............................................................................................................156
17.4.2.1 Module Naming...................................................................................156
17.4.2.2 Module Versioning ..............................................................................156
17.4.2.3 Module Path ........................................................................................156
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17.4.3 Chains and policies ..........................................................................................157
17.4.4 Transactions .....................................................................................................158
17.5 PAM Configuration.......................................................................................................158
17.5.1 PAM policy files...............................................................................................158
17.5.1.1 The /etc/pam.conf file ...................................................................158
17.5.1.2 The /etc/pam.d directory.................................................................159
17.5.1.3 The policy search order .......................................................................159
17.5.2 Breakdown of a configuration line...................................................................159
17.5.3 Policies.............................................................................................................160
17.6 PAM modules ...............................................................................................................161
17.6.1 Common Modules............................................................................................161
17.6.1.1 pam_deny(8)........................................................................................161
17.6.1.2 pam_echo(8)........................................................................................161
17.6.1.3 pam_exec(8) ........................................................................................161
17.6.1.4 pam_ftpusers(8)...................................................................................161
17.6.1.5 pam_group(8)......................................................................................161
17.6.1.6 pam_guest(8).......................................................................................161
17.6.1.7 pam_krb5(8)........................................................................................162
17.6.1.8 pam_ksu(8)..........................................................................................162
17.6.1.9 pam_lastlog(8).....................................................................................162
17.6.1.10 pam_login_access(8).........................................................................162
17.6.1.11 pam_nologin(8) .................................................................................162
17.6.1.12 pam_permit(8)...................................................................................162
17.6.1.13 pam_radius(8)....................................................................................162
17.6.1.14 pam_rhosts(8)....................................................................................162
17.6.1.15 pam_rootok(8)...................................................................................163
17.6.1.16 pam_securetty(8)...............................................................................163
17.6.1.17 pam_self(8)........................................................................................163
17.6.1.18 pam_ssh(8) ........................................................................................163
17.6.1.19 pam_unix(8) ......................................................................................163
17.6.2 FreeBSD-specific PAM Modules.....................................................................164
17.6.2.1 pam_opie(8) ........................................................................................164
17.6.2.2 pam_opieaccess(8) ..............................................................................164
17.6.2.3 pam_passwdqc(8)................................................................................164
17.6.2.4 pam_tacplus(8)....................................................................................164
17.6.3 NetBSD-specific PAM Modules ......................................................................164
17.6.3.1 pam_skey(8) ........................................................................................164
17.7 PAM Application Programming...................................................................................164
17.8 PAM Module Programming .........................................................................................164
17.9 Sample PAM Application.............................................................................................165
17.10 Sample PAM Module .................................................................................................168
17.11 Sample PAM Conversation Function .........................................................................170
17.12 Further Reading ..........................................................................................................172
Bibliography ...............................................................................................................172
18 Tuning NetBSD.........................................................................................................................173
18.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................173
18.1.1 Overview..........................................................................................................173
18.1.1.1 What is Performance Tuning?.............................................................173
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18.1.1.2 When does one tune?...........................................................................173
18.1.1.3 What these Documents Will Not Cover ..............................................174
18.1.1.4 How Examples are Laid Out ...............................................................174
18.2 Tuning Considerations..................................................................................................174
18.2.1 General System Configuration.........................................................................174
18.2.1.1 Filesystems and Disks .........................................................................174
18.2.1.2 Swap Configuration.............................................................................175
18.2.2 System Services ...............................................................................................175
18.2.3 The NetBSD Kernel.........................................................................................176
18.2.3.1 Removing Unrequired Drivers ............................................................176
18.2.3.2 Configuring Options............................................................................176
18.2.3.3 System Settings ...................................................................................176
18.3 Visual Monitoring Tools...............................................................................................176
18.3.1 The top Process Monitor..................................................................................177
18.3.1.1 Other Neat Things About Top .............................................................178
18.3.2 The sysstat utility .............................................................................................178
18.4 Monitoring Tools ..........................................................................................................179
18.4.1 fstat...................................................................................................................180
18.4.2 iostat.................................................................................................................180
18.4.3 ps ......................................................................................................................181
18.4.4 vmstat...............................................................................................................182
18.5 Network Tools ..............................................................................................................183
18.5.1 ping ..................................................................................................................183
18.5.2 traceroute..........................................................................................................184
18.5.3 netstat ...............................................................................................................185
18.5.4 tcpdump............................................................................................................187
18.5.4.1 Specific tcpdump Usage ......................................................................187
18.6 Accounting ...................................................................................................................188
18.6.1 Accounting.......................................................................................................188
18.6.2 Reading Accounting Information ....................................................................188
18.6.2.1 lastcomm .............................................................................................188
18.6.2.2 sa..........................................................................................................189
18.6.3 How to Put Accounting to Use ........................................................................190
18.7 Kernel Profiling ............................................................................................................190
18.7.1 Getting Started .................................................................................................190
18.7.1.1 Using kgmon .......................................................................................190
18.7.2 Interpretation of kgmon Output .......................................................................191
18.7.2.1 Flat Profile ...........................................................................................191
18.7.2.2 Call Graph Profile................................................................................192
18.7.3 Putting it to Use ...............................................................................................193
18.7.4 Summary..........................................................................................................194
18.8 System Tuning..............................................................................................................194
18.8.1 Using sysctl......................................................................................................194
18.8.2 memfs & softdeps ............................................................................................195
18.8.2.1 Using memfs .......................................................................................195
18.8.2.2 Using softdeps .....................................................................................195
18.8.3 LFS...................................................................................................................196
18.9 Kernel Tuning ...............................................................................................................196
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18.9.1 Preparing to Recompile a Kernel.....................................................................196
18.9.2 Configuring the Kernel ....................................................................................196
18.9.2.1 Some example Configuration Items ....................................................197
18.9.2.2 Some Drivers.......................................................................................198
18.9.2.3 Multi Pass ............................................................................................199
18.9.3 Building the New Kernel .................................................................................199
18.9.4 Shrinking the NetBSD kernel ..........................................................................200
18.9.4.1 Removing ELF sections and debug information.................................200
18.9.4.2 Compressing the Kernel ......................................................................201
19 NetBSD Veriexec subsystem.....................................................................................................202
19.1 How it works ................................................................................................................202
19.2 Signatures file ...............................................................................................................202
19.3 Generating fingerprints.................................................................................................202
19.4 Strict levels ...................................................................................................................204
19.5 Veriexec and layered file systems.................................................................................204
19.6 Kernel configuration.....................................................................................................205
20 Bluetooth on NetBSD ...............................................................................................................206
20.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................206
20.2 Supported Hardware.....................................................................................................206
20.3 System Configuration ...................................................................................................207
20.4 Human Interface Devices .............................................................................................208
20.4.1 Mice .................................................................................................................208
20.4.2 Keyboards ........................................................................................................210
20.5 Personal Area Networking ...........................................................................................211
20.5.1 Personal Area Networking User ......................................................................211
20.6 Serial Connections........................................................................................................213
20.7 Audio ............................................................................................................................214
20.7.1 SCO Audio Headsets .......................................................................................215
20.7.2 SCO Audio Handsfree .....................................................................................216
20.8 Object Exchange...........................................................................................................217
20.9 Troubleshooting............................................................................................................218
21 Miscellaneous operations..........................................................................................................219
21.1 Installing the boot manager ..........................................................................................219
21.2 Deleting the disklabel ...................................................................................................219
21.3 Speaker .........................................................................................................................219
21.4 Forgot root password? ..................................................................................................220
21.5 Password file is busy?...................................................................................................220
21.6 Adding a new hard disk ................................................................................................221
21.7 How to rebuild the devices in /dev ...............................................................................223
IV. Networking and related issues........................................................................................................225
22 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking..........................................................................................226
22.1 Audience.......................................................................................................................226
22.2 Supported Networking Protocols .................................................................................226
22.3 Supported Media ..........................................................................................................227
22.3.1 Serial Line........................................................................................................227
22.3.2 Ethernet............................................................................................................227
22.4 TCP/IP Address Format ...............................................................................................228
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22.5 Subnetting and Routing ................................................................................................230
22.6 Name Service Concepts................................................................................................232
22.6.1 /etc/hosts ....................................................................................................233
22.6.2 Domain Name Service (DNS) .........................................................................233
22.6.3 Network Information Service (NIS/YP) ..........................................................234
22.6.4 Other ................................................................................................................234
22.7 Next generation Internet protocol - IPv6......................................................................235
22.7.1 The Future of the Internet ................................................................................235
22.7.2 What good is IPv6?..........................................................................................235
22.7.2.1 Bigger Address Space .........................................................................236
22.7.2.2 Mobility...............................................................................................236
22.7.2.3 Security................................................................................................236
22.7.3 Changes to IPv4 ...............................................................................................236
22.7.3.1 Addressing...........................................................................................236
22.7.3.2 Multiple Addresses..............................................................................239
22.7.3.3 Multicasting.........................................................................................239
22.7.3.4 Name Resolving in IPv6 .....................................................................240
23 Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice ................................................................................242
23.1 A walk through the kernel configuration......................................................................242
23.2 Overview of the network configuration files ................................................................246
23.3 Connecting to the Internet with a modem ....................................................................247
23.3.1 Getting the connection information .................................................................247
23.3.2 resolv.conf and nsswitch.conf ..............................................................247
23.3.3 Creating the directories for pppd .....................................................................248
23.3.4 Connection script and chat file.........................................................................248
23.3.5 Authentication..................................................................................................249
23.3.5.1 PAP/CHAP authentication ..................................................................249
23.3.5.2 Login authentication............................................................................250
23.3.6 pppd options.....................................................................................................250
23.3.7 Testing the modem...........................................................................................250
23.3.8 Activating the link............................................................................................251
23.3.9 Using a script for connection and disconnection .............................................252
23.3.10 Running commands after dialin .....................................................................252
23.4 Creating a small home network....................................................................................253
23.5 Setting up an Internet gateway with IPNAT .................................................................255
23.5.1 Configuring the gateway/firewall.....................................................................256
23.5.2 Configuring the clients.....................................................................................257
23.5.3 Some useful commands ...................................................................................257
23.6 Setting up a network bridge device ..............................................................................258
23.6.1 Bridge example ................................................................................................258
23.7 A common LAN setup..................................................................................................258
23.8 Connecting two PCs through a serial line ....................................................................259
23.8.1 Connecting NetBSD with BSD or Linux.........................................................259
23.8.2 Connecting NetBSD and Windows NT ...........................................................260
23.8.3 Connecting NetBSD and Windows 95.............................................................260
23.9 IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4......................................................................261
23.9.1 Getting 6to4 IPv6 up & running ......................................................................262
23.9.2 Obtaining IPv6 Address Space for 6to4...........................................................262
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23.9.3 How to get connected.......................................................................................262
23.9.4 Security Considerations ...................................................................................263
23.9.5 Data Needed for 6to4 Setup.............................................................................263
23.9.6 Kernel Preparation ...........................................................................................264
23.9.7 6to4 Setup ........................................................................................................264
23.9.8 Quickstart using pkgsrc/net/hf6to4..................................................................266
23.9.9 Known 6to4 Relay Routers ..............................................................................267
23.9.10 Tunneling 6to4 through an IPFilter firewall...................................................268
23.9.11 Conclusion & Further Reading ......................................................................269
24 The Internet Super Server inetd ................................................................................................271
24.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................271
24.2 What is inetd? ...............................................................................................................271
24.3 Configuring inetd - /etc/inetd.conf ......................................................................271
24.4 Services - /etc/services .........................................................................................273
24.5 Protocols - /etc/protocols .....................................................................................273
24.6 Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - /etc/rpc ...............................................................273
24.7 Allowing and denying hosts - /etc/hosts.{allow,deny} ....................................274
24.8 Adding a Service ..........................................................................................................274
24.9 When to use or not to use inetd ....................................................................................275
24.10 Other Resources..........................................................................................................276
25 The Domain Name System .......................................................................................................277
25.1 DNS Background and Concepts...................................................................................277
25.1.1 Naming Services ..............................................................................................277
25.1.2 The DNS namespace........................................................................................277
25.1.3 Resource Records.............................................................................................278
25.1.4 Delegation ........................................................................................................279
25.1.5 Delegation to multiple servers .........................................................................280
25.1.6 Secondaries, Caching, and the SOA record .....................................................280
25.1.7 Name Resolution..............................................................................................281
25.1.8 Reverse Resolution ..........................................................................................281
25.2 The DNS Files ..............................................................................................................282
25.2.1 /etc/namedb/named.conf ..........................................................................283
25.2.1.1 options .................................................................................................285
25.2.1.2 zone “diverge.org”...............................................................................285
25.2.2 /etc/namedb/localhost ............................................................................286
25.2.3 /etc/namedb/zone.127.0.0......................................................................287
25.2.4 /etc/namedb/diverge.org ........................................................................287
25.2.5 /etc/namedb/1.168.192 ............................................................................288
25.2.6 /etc/namedb/root.cache ..........................................................................288
25.3 Using DNS....................................................................................................................289
25.4 Setting up a caching only name server .........................................................................291
25.4.1 Testing the server .............................................................................................291
26 Mail and news ...........................................................................................................................293
26.1 postfix ...........................................................................................................................295
26.1.1 Configuration of generic mapping ...................................................................296
26.1.2 Testing the configuration..................................................................................297
26.1.3 Using an alternative MTA ................................................................................297
26.2 fetchmail .......................................................................................................................297
xii
26.3 Reading and writing mail with mutt.............................................................................298
26.4 Strategy for receiving mail ...........................................................................................299
26.5 Strategy for sending mail..............................................................................................299
26.6 Advanced mail tools .....................................................................................................300
26.7 News with tin................................................................................................................301
27 Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP) .....................................303
27.1 CARP Operation...........................................................................................................303
27.2 Configuring CARP .......................................................................................................304
27.3 Enabling CARP Support...............................................................................................306
27.4 CARP Example ............................................................................................................306
27.5 Advanced CARP configuration ....................................................................................306
27.6 Forcing Failover of the Master .....................................................................................308
28 Network services.......................................................................................................................309
28.1 The Network File System (NFS) ...................................................................................309
28.1.1 NFS setup example ..........................................................................................309
28.1.2 Setting up NFS automounting for /net with amd(8)......................................310
28.1.2.1 Introduction .........................................................................................311
28.1.2.2 Actual setup.........................................................................................311
28.2 The Network Time Protocol (NTP)...............................................................................312
V. Building the system...........................................................................................................................314
29 Obtaining the sources................................................................................................................315
29.1 Preparing directories.....................................................................................................315
29.2 Terminology .................................................................................................................315
29.3 Downloading tarballs....................................................................................................315
29.3.1 Downloading sources for a NetBSD release....................................................316
29.3.2 Downloading sources for a NetBSD stable branch..........................................316
29.3.3 Downloading sources for a NetBSD-current development branch..................317
29.4 Fetching by CVS ..........................................................................................................317
29.4.1 Fetching a NetBSD release ..............................................................................318
29.4.2 Fetching a NetBSD stable branch....................................................................318
29.4.3 Fetching the NetBSD-current development branch .........................................319
29.4.4 Saving some cvs(1) options .............................................................................319
29.5 Sources on CD (ISO)....................................................................................................320
30 Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh ................................................................................321
30.1 Building the crosscompiler...........................................................................................321
30.2 Configuring the kernel manually ..................................................................................323
30.3 Crosscompiling the kernel manually ............................................................................323
30.4 Crosscompiling the kernel with build.sh..................................................................324
30.5 Crosscompiling the userland ........................................................................................325
30.6 Crosscompiling the X Window System........................................................................325
30.7 Changing build behaviour ............................................................................................326
30.7.1 Changing the Destination Directory ................................................................326
30.7.2 Static Builds .....................................................................................................326
30.7.3 Using build.sh options.................................................................................327
30.7.4 make(1) variables used during build ................................................................328
31 Compiling the kernel.................................................................................................................334
31.1 Requirements and procedure ........................................................................................334
xiii
31.2 Installing the kernel sources .........................................................................................334
31.3 Creating the kernel configuration file ...........................................................................335
31.4 Building the kernel manually .......................................................................................336
31.4.1 Configuring the kernel manually .....................................................................337
31.4.2 Generating dependencies and recompiling manually ......................................337
31.5 Building the kernel using build.sh ...........................................................................338
31.6 Installing the new kernel...............................................................................................338
31.7 If something went wrong..............................................................................................339
32 Updating an existing system from sources................................................................................340
32.1 The updating procedure................................................................................................340
32.1.1 Building a new userland...................................................................................340
32.1.2 Building a new kernel ......................................................................................340
32.1.3 Installing the kernel and userland ....................................................................341
32.1.4 Updating the system configuration files...........................................................341
32.1.5 Summary..........................................................................................................341
32.1.6 Alternative: using sysinst .................................................................................342
32.2 More details about the updating of configuration and startup files ..............................342
32.2.1 Using etcupdate with source files ....................................................................342
32.2.2 Using etcupdate with binary distribution sets ..................................................343
32.2.3 Using etcmanage instead of etcupdate ......................................................343
33 Building NetBSD installation media.........................................................................................344
33.1 Creating custom install or boot floppies for your architecture e.g. i386 ......................344
33.2 Creating a custom install or boot CD with build.sh .....................................................345
A. Information........................................................................................................................................346
A.1 Where to get this document.....................................................................................................346
A.2 Guide history ...........................................................................................................................346
B. Contributing to the NetBSD guide ..................................................................................................347
B.1 Translating the guide ...............................................................................................................347
B.1.1 What you need to start a translation............................................................................348
B.1.2 Writing XML/DocBook..............................................................................................348
B.2 Sending contributions..............................................................................................................349
B.3 XML/DocBook template.........................................................................................................349
C. Getting started with XML/DocBook ...............................................................................................352
C.1 What is XML/DocBook ..........................................................................................................352
C.2 Installing the necessary tools...................................................................................................352
C.3 Using the tools.........................................................................................................................353
C.4 Language-specific notes ..........................................................................................................354
C.4.1 Enabling hyphenation for the Italian language ...........................................................354
C.5 Links........................................................................................................................................354
D. Acknowledgements ...........................................................................................................................356
D.1 Original acknowledgements....................................................................................................356
D.2 Current acknowledgements.....................................................................................................356
D.3 Licenses...................................................................................................................................357
D.3.1 Federico Lupi’s original license of this guide ............................................................357
D.3.2 Networks Associates Technology’s license on the PAM article.................................357
D.3.3 Joel Knight’s license on the CARP article..................................................................358
xiv
E. Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................359
Bibliography...................................................................................................................................359
xv
List of Tables
17-1. PAM chain execution summary......................................................................................................160
19-1. Veriexec fingerprints tools..............................................................................................................202
19-2. Veriexec access type aliases ...........................................................................................................203
xvi
Purpose of this guide
This guide describes the installation and the configuration of the NetBSD operating system as well as the
setup and administration of some of its subsystems. It primarily addresses people coming from other
Unix-like operating systems, and aims to be a useful guide in the face of the many small problems one
encounters when using a new tool.
This guide is not a Unix tutorial: basic knowledge of some concepts and tools is assumed. You should
know, for example, what a file and a directory are, and how to use an editor. There are plenty of books
explaining basic Unix and operating system concepts, and you should consult one if you need more
background information. It is better to choose a general book and avoid titles like “Learning Unix-XYZ,
version 1.2.3.4 in 10 days”, but this is a matter of personal taste.
Much work is still required to finish this introduction to NetBSD: some chapters are not finished (some
are not even started) and some subjects need more testing. Corrections and additions are most certainly
welcome.
This guide is currently maintained by the NetBSD www team (<www@NetBSD.org>). Corrections and
suggestions should be sent to that address. See also Appendix B.
xvii
I. About NetBSD
Chapter 1
What is NetBSD?
NetBSD is a free, fast, secure, and highly portable Unix-like Open Source operating system. It is
available for many platforms, from 64-bit x86 servers and PC desktop systems to embedded ARM and
MIPS based devices. Its clean design and advanced features make it excellent in both production and
research environments, and it is user-supported with complete source. Many applications are easily
available through pkgsrc, the NetBSD Packages Collection.
1.1 The story of NetBSD
The first version of NetBSD (0.8) dates back to 1993 and springs from the 4.3BSD Lite operating
system, a version of Unix developed at the University of California, Berkeley (BSD = Berkeley Software
Distribution), and from the 386BSD system, the first BSD port to the Intel 386 CPU. In the following
years, modifications from the 4.4BSD Lite release (the last release from the Berkeley group) were
integrated into the system. The BSD branch of Unix has had a great importance and influence on the
history of Unix-like operating systems, to which it has contributed many tools, ideas and improvements
which are now standard: the vi editor, the C shell, job control, the Berkeley fast file system, reliable
signals, support for virtual memory and TCP/IP, just to name a few. This tradition of research and
development survives today in the BSD systems and, in particular, in NetBSD.
1.2 NetBSD features
NetBSD operates on a vast range of hardware platforms and is very portable. The full source to the
NetBSD kernel and userland is available for all the supported platforms; please see the details on the
official site of the NetBSD Project (http://www.NetBSD.org/).
A detailed list of NetBSD features can be found at: http://www.NetBSD.org/about/features.html.
The basic features of NetBSD are:
•
Code quality and correctness
•
Portability to a wide range of hardware
•
Secure defaults
•
Adherence to industry standards
•
Research and innovation
These characteristics bring also indirect advantages. For example, if you work on just one platform you
could think that you’re not interested in portability. But portability is tied to code quality; without a well
written and well organized code base it would be impossible to support a large number of platforms. And
1
Chapter 1 What is NetBSD?
code quality is the base of any good and solid software system, though surprisingly few people seem to
understand it.
One of the key characteristics of NetBSD is that its developers are not satisfied with partial
implementations. Some systems seem to have the philosophy of “If it works, it’s right”. In that light
NetBSD’s philosophy could be described as “It doesn’t work unless it’s right”. Think about how many
overgrown programs are collapsing under their own weight and “features” and you’ll understand why
NetBSD tries to avoid this situation at all costs.
1.3 Supported platforms
NetBSD supports many platforms, including the popular PC platform (i386 and amd64), SPARC and
UltraSPARC, Alpha, Amiga, Atari, and m68k and PowerPC based Apple Macintosh machines. Technical
details for all of them can be found on the NetBSD site (http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/).
1.4 NetBSD’s target users
The NetBSD site states that: “The NetBSD Project provides a freely available and redistributable system
that professionals, hobbyists, and researchers can use in whatever manner they wish”. It is also an ideal
system if you want to learn Unix, mainly because of its adherence to standards (one of the project goals)
and because it works equally well on the latest PC hardware as well as on hardware which is considered
obsolete by many other operating systems. To learn and use Unix you don’t need to buy expensive
hardware; you can use that old PC or Mac in your attic. It is important to note that although NetBSD runs
on old hardware, modern hardware is well supported and care has been taken to ensure that supporting
old machines does not inhibit performance on modern hardware. In addition, if you need a Unix system
which runs consistently on a variety of platforms, NetBSD is probably your best choice.
1.5 Applications for NetBSD
Aside from the standard Unix productivity tools, editors, formatters, C/C++ compilers and debuggers
and so on that are included with the base system, there is a huge collection of packages (currently over
8,000) that can be installed both from source and in pre-compiled form. All the packages that you expect
to find on a well configured system are available for NetBSD for free. The framework that makes this
possible, pkgsrc, also includes a number of commercial applications. In addition, NetBSD provides
binary emulation for various other *nix operating systems, allowing you to run non-native applications.
Linux emulation is probably the most relevant example. You can run the Linux versions of
•
Firefox
•
the Adobe Flash player plugin
•
Acrobat Reader
•
many other programs
2
Chapter 1 What is NetBSD?
1.6 How to get NetBSD
NetBSD is an Open Source operating system, and as such it is freely available for download from
ftp.NetBSD.org (ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org) and its mirrors (http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/).
There is no “official” supplier of NetBSD CD-ROMs but there are various resellers. You can find the
most up to date list on the relevant page (http://www.NetBSD.org/sites/cdroms.html) on the NetBSD site.
3
II. System installation and related
issues
Chapter 2
Installing NetBSD: Preliminary
considerations and preparations
2.1 Preliminary considerations
2.1.1 Dual booting
It is possible to install NetBSD together with other operating systems on one hard disk.
If there is already an operating system on the hard disk, think about how you can free some space for
NetBSD; if NetBSD will share the disk with other operating systems you will probably need to create a
new partition (which you will do with sysinst). Often times this will not be possible unless you resize an
existing partition.
Unfortunately, it is not possible to resize an existing partition with sysinst, but there are some commercial
products (like Partition Magic) and some free tools (GNU Parted, FIPS, pfdisk) available for this.
You can also install NetBSD on a separate hard disk.
Advice: Unless you are comfortable with setting up a partitioning scheme for two or more operating
systems, and unless you understand the risk of data loss if you should make a mistake, it is
recommended that you give NetBSD its own hard disk. This removes the risk of damage to the
existing operating system.
2.1.2 NetBSD on emulation and virtualization
It is possible to install and run NetBSD on top of other operating systems without having to worry about
partitioning. Emulators or virtualization environments provide a quick and secure way to try out NetBSD.
The host operating system remains unchanged, and the risk of damaging important data is minimized.
Information about NetBSD as a Xen host and guest system is available on the NetBSD/xen web page
(http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/xen/).
The NetBSD on emulated hardware (http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/emulators.html) web page provides
detailed information about various emulators and the supported NetBSD platforms. It should also be
noted that NetBSD runs as a VMware guest.
2
Chapter 2 Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations
2.2 Install preparations
2.2.1 The INSTALL document
The first thing to do before installing NetBSD is to read the release information and installation notes in
one of the INSTALL files: this is the official description of the installation procedure, with
platform-specific information and important details. It is available in HTML, PostScript, plain text, and
an enhanced text format to be used with more. These files can be found in the root directory of the
NetBSD release (on the install CD or on the FTP server). For example:
• ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0/port/INSTALL.html
2.2.2 Partitions
The terminology used by NetBSD for partitioning is different from the typical DOS/Windows
terminology; in fact, there are two partitioning schemes involved when running NetBSD on a typical PC.
NetBSD installs in one of the four primary BIOS partitions (the partitions defined in the hard disk
partition table).
Within a BIOS partition (also called slice) NetBSD defines its BSD partitions using a disklabel: these
partitions can be seen only by NetBSD and are identified by lowercase letters (starting with “a”). For
example, wd0a refers to the “a” partition of the first IDE disk (wd0) and sd0a refers to the “a” partition
of the first SCSI disk. In Figure 2-1 there are two primary BIOS partitions, one used by DOS and the
other by NetBSD. NetBSD describes the disk layout through the disklabel.
Figure 2-1. Partitions
BIOS partitions
(MBR)
/usr
b
swap
NetBSD slice
a
/
d
1 - NetBSD
whole disk
e
c
Disklabel
0 - DOS
Note: The meaning of partitions “c” and “d” is typical of the i386 port. On most other ports, “c”
represents the whole disk.
3
Chapter 2 Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations
Note: If NetBSD shares the hard disk with another operating system (like in the previous example)
you will want to install a boot manager , i.e., a program which lets you choose which OS to start at
boot time. sysinst can do this for you and will ask if you want to install one. Unless you have specific
reasons not to, you should let sysinst perform this step.
2.2.3 Hard disk space requirements
The exact amount of space required for a given NetBSD installation varies depending on the platform
being used and which distribution sets are selected. In general, if you have 1GB of free space on your
hard drive, you will have more than enough space for a full installation of the base system.
2.2.4 Network settings
If you plan to fetch distribution sets over the network (not necessary if you downloaded a full-size install
ISO) and do not use DHCP, write down your basic network settings. You will need:
•
Your IP address (example: 192.168.1.7)
•
the netmask (example: 255.255.255.0)
•
the IP address of your default gateway (example: 192.168.1.1)
•
the IP address of the DNS server you use (example: 145.253.2.75)
2.2.5 Backup your data and operating systems!
Before you begin the installation, make sure that you have a reliable backup of any operating systems
and data on the used hard disk. Mistakes in partitioning your hard disk can lead to data loss. Existing
operating systems may become unbootable. "Reliable backup" means that the backup and restore
procedure is tested and works flawlessly!
2.2.6 Preparing the installation media
The NetBSD installation system consists of two parts. The first part is the installation kernel. This kernel
contains the NetBSD install program sysinst and it is booted from a CD (or DVD), memory card, USB
flash drive, or floppy disk. The sysinst program will prepare the disk: it separates the disk space into
partitions, makes the disk bootable and creates the necessary file systems.
The second part of the install system is made up of the binary distribution sets: the files of the NetBSD
operating system. The installer needs to have access to the distribution sets. sysinst will usually fetch
these files from the CD or DVD you burned, but it can also get them via FTP, NFS, or local filesystem.
The NetBSD Project provides complete install media for every supported hardware architecture. This is
usually in the form of bootable CD images (.iso files). For example:
•
ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/5.0/
4
Chapter 2 Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations
Note: Please see the list of mirrors (http://NetBSD.org/mirrors/#iso) and choose a local server near
you for downloads
2.2.6.1 Booting the install system from CD
To use a bootable NetBSD install CD download the iso file for your hardware architecture and burn it to
a CD or DVD. You will need to handle this step alone, as burning programs vary widely. Ensure that your
computer is set up to boot from CD-ROM before hard drives, insert the disc, and reboot the computer.
2.2.6.2 Booting the install system from floppy
If you need to create installation floppies, you need to copy floppy images to a diskette. The floppy
images are available on the NetBSD FTP servers or on a NetBSD install CD. To perform this operation
in DOS you can use the rawrite program in the i386/installation/misc directory. For Windows,
there’s a version in rawr32.zip. The image files are i386/installation/floppy/boot1.fs and
i386/installation/floppy/boot2.fs for installation of a “normal” PC. The other floppies that
are available are described in more detail in the INSTALL document.
Note: Before you write the boot images to floppies, you should always check that the floppies are
good: this simple step is often overlooked, but can save you a lot of trouble!
The procedure to write floppies is:
1.
Format the floppy.
2.
Go to the I386\INSTALLATION\FLOPPY directory of the CD-ROM.
3.
Run the ..\MISC\RAWRITE program (or extract ..\MISC\RAWR32.ZIP if you’re on a Windows
system, and run the RAWRITE32 program in that file). Usually the “Source file”s are BOOT1.FS
and BOOT2.FS and the “Destination drive” is A:
To create a boot floppy in a Unix environment, the dd command can be used: For example:
# cd i386/installation/floppy
# dd if=boot.fs of=/dev/fd0a bs=36b
Note: A 1440K floppy contains 1474560 bytes and is made up of 80 cylinders, 2 tracks, 18 sectors
and 512 bytes per sector, i.e., 80 * 2 * 18 = 2880 blocks. Thus bs=36b copies one cylinder (18 * 2
blocks) at a time and repeats the operation 80 times instead of 2880.
5
Chapter 2 Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations
2.3 Checklist
This is the checklist about the things that should be clear and on-hand now:
•
Available disk space
•
Bootable medium with the install system
•
CD/DVD or server with the distribution sets
•
Your network information (only if you will be fetching distribution sets via the network and do not use
DHCP)
•
A working backup
•
A printout of the INSTALL document
6
Chapter 3
Example installation
3.1 Introduction
This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts presented here apply to all
installation methods. The only difference is in the way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer.
Some details of the installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this chapter
were created with NetBSD 5.0.
Note: The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as your hardware
and configuration details may be different!
3.2 The installation process
The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part you create a partition for
NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In the second part you decide which distribution sets
(subsets of the operating system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created
partition(s).
3.3 Keyboard layout
The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout during the installation. If
for some reason this does not work for you, you can use the map in the following table.
US
IT
DE
FR
-
’
ß
)
/
-
-
!
=
ì
’
-
:
ç
Ö
M
;
ò
ö
m
#
£
§
3
"
°
Ä
%
*
(
(
8
(
)
)
9
)
=
=
0
7
Chapter 3 Example installation
US
IT
DE
FR
’
à
ä
ù
‘
\
^
@
\
ù
#
‘
3.4 Starting the installation
To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB drive, floppy, etc.)
and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation medium will be booted and start displaying a lot
of messages on the screen about hardware being detected.
Figure 3-1. Selecting the language
When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation program, sysinst, shown in
Figure 3-1. From here on you should follow the instructions displayed on the screen, using the INSTALL
document as a companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in the root
directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or less the same layout: the upper part
of the screen shows a short description of the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of
the screen is made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys, the
“Ctrl+N” (next) and “Ctrl+P” (previous) keys, or press one of the letters displayed left of each choice.
Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.
8
Chapter 3 Example installation
Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
The next screen Figure 3-2 will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type.
Figure 3-2. Selecting a keyboard type
This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program (Figure 3-3).
9
Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-3. The sysinst main menu
Choosing the “Install NetBSD to hard disk” option brings you to the next screen (Figure 3-4), where you
need to confirm that you want to continue the installation.
Figure 3-4. Confirming to install NetBSD
10
Chapter 3 Example installation
After choosing “Yes” to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks and asks which one you
want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in Figure 3-5, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be
installed on “wd0”, the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will be
named “sd0”, the second “sd1” and so on.
Figure 3-5. Choosing a hard disk
The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom installation. NetBSD is
broken into a collection of distributions sets. “Full installation” is the default and will install all sets;
“Minimal installation” will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working
system. If you select “Custom installation” you can select which sets you would like to have installed.
This step is shown in Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6. Full or custom installation
11
Chapter 3 Example installation
If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose which distribution sets to
install, as shown in Figure 3-7. At a minimum, you must select a kernel and the “Base” and “System
(/etc)” sets.
Figure 3-7. Selecting distribution sets
3.5 MBR partitions
The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the hard disk. First, you need to
specify whether NetBSD will use a partition (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is
still possible to create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (Figure 3-8) so we recommend that you
select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format which is compatible with other
operating systems.
12
Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-8. Choosing the partitioning scheme
The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard disk before the installation
of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and as you can see, this example disk is currently empty.
If you do have other partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is
currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
Figure 3-9. fdisk
Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with options for that partition will
appear (Figure 3-10). Change the partition kind to “Delete partition” to remove the partition. Of course,
if you want to use the partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to “NetBSD”.
You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to install NetBSD to. The
partition names “a” to “d” correspond to the four primary partitions on other operating systems. After
13
Chapter 3 Example installation
selecting a partition, a menu with options for that partition will appear, as shown in Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-10. Partition options
To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:
•
the type (kind) of the new partition
•
the first (start) sector of the new partition
•
the size of the new partition
Choose the partition type “NetBSD” for the new partition (using the “type” option). The installation
program will try to guess the “start” position based on the end of the preceding partition. Change this
value if necessary. The same thing applies to the “size” option; the installation program will try to fill in
the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk (depending on which comes first).
You can change this value if it is incorrect, or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of
space.
After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good idea to set the name that
should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by selecting the “bootmenu” option and providing a
label, e.g., “NetBSD”. It is a good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot
both NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD bootselector. If you
are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your choice by selecting “Partition OK”. Choose
“Partition table OK” to leave the MBR partition table editor.
If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created overlapping partitions) sysinst
will display a message and suggest that you go back to the MRB partition editor (but you are also
allowed to continue). If the data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors
which is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed anyway. Doing so
may lead to problems on older PCs.
Note: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a partition which lies outside
the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the problem you should study the different type of
14
Chapter 3 Example installation
BIOSes and the many addressing schemes that they use (physical CHS, logical CHS, LBA, ...).
These topics are not described in this guide.
On modern computers (those with support for int13 extensions), it is possible to install NetBSD in
partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is
installed.
Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This screen is shown in Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-11. Installing the boot selector
At this point, the BIOS partitions (called slices on BSD systems) have been created. They are also called
PC BIOS partitions, MBR partitions or fdisk partitions.
Note: Do not confuse the slices or BIOS partitions with the BSD partitions, which are different things.
3.6 Disklabel partitions
Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions to separate file
systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the installation process is necessary to make sure that
other operating systems do not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a disklabel, which is stored at the start of the MBR
partition. In the next few steps you will create a disklabel(5) and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions,
or use existing partition sizes, as shown in Figure 3-12.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-12. Edit partitions?
When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the partitions you would like
to create. The installation program will generate a disklabel based on these settings. This installation
screen is shown in Figure 3-13.
Figure 3-13. Setting partition sizes
The default partition scheme of just using a big / (root) file system (plus swap) works fine with NetBSD,
and there is little need to change this. Figure 3-13 shows how to change the size of the swap partition to
600 MB. Changing /tmp to reside on a RAM disk (mfs(8)) for extra speed may be a good idea. Other
partition schemes may use separate partitions for /var, /usr and/or /home, but you should use your
own experience to decide if you need this.
The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary, using the disklabel editor
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Chapter 3 Example installation
(Figure 3-14). If you predefined the partition sizes in the previous step, the resulting disklabel will
probably fit your wishes. In that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting “Partition
sizes ok”.
Figure 3-14. The disklabel editor
There are two reserved partitions, “c”, representing the NetBSD partition, and “d”, representing the
whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can
add a partition by selecting an unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing
screen is shown in Figure 3-15.
Figure 3-15. Disklabel partition editing
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Chapter 3 Example installation
3.7 Setting the disk name
After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a name for the NetBSD disk as
shown in Figure 3-16. This can be used later to distinguish between disklabels of otherwise identical
disks.
Figure 3-16. Naming the NetBSD disk
3.8 Last chance!
The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has been written to the disk at this
point but, and now is your last chance to abort the installation process before actually writing data to the
disk. Choose “no” to abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by selecting
“yes”.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-17. Last chance to abort
3.9 The disk preparation process
After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run disklabel(8) to create the NetBSD
partition layout and newfs(8) to create the file systems on the disk.
After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question (shown in Figure 3-18) is
which bootblocks to install. Usually you will choose the default of BIOS console, i.e., show boot
messages on your computer’s display.
If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use a serial console running
on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows changing the serial port’s baud rate from the default of
9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity and one stopbit.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-18. Selecting bootblocks
3.10 Choosing the installation media
At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the installation!
The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file systems by extracting the
distribution sets that you selected earlier (base, compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets,
sysinst asks what information you would like to see during that process, as shown in Figure 3-19. You
can choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or nothing.
Figure 3-19. Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find them. The menu offers
several choices, as shown in Figure 3-20. The options are explained in detail in the INSTALL documents.
Figure 3-20. Installation media
3.10.1 Installing from CD-ROM or DVD
When selecting “CD-ROM / DVD”, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device and the
directory in which the set files are stored, see Figure 3-21. The device is usually cd0 for the first
CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).
Figure 3-21. CD-ROM/DVD installation
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Chapter 3 Example installation
The CD-ROM/DVD device name: If you don’t know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can
find by doing the following:
1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
2. Type the command:
# dmesg
This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for
example cd0.
3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use more:
# dmesg | more
4. Go back to the installation program with the command:
# fg
3.10.2 Installing from an unmounted file system
Figure 3-22 shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system. It is necessary to specify
the device ("Device"), the file system of the device ("File system") and the path to the install sets ("Set
directory"). The setting for the "Base directory" is optional and can be kept blank.
In the following example the install sets are stored on a MSDOS file system, on partition "e" on the
device "sd0".
Figure 3-22. Mounting a file system
It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. Figure 3-23 shows how to specify
device "sd0" with partition "e".
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-23. Mounting a partition
In Figure 3-24 the file system type is specified. It is “msdos” but it could also be the NetBSD file system
“ffs” or “ext2fs”, a Linux file system. The “Base directory” item is left blank and the binary sets are
stored under “/sets”. Choosing “Continue” will start the extraction of the sets.
Figure 3-24. Accessing a MSDOS file system
3.10.3 Installing via FTP
If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst will configure the system’s
network connection, download the selected set files to a temporary directory, and then extract them.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless, and wireless LAN.
Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported during installation.
The first step shown in Figure 3-25 consists of selecting which network card to configure. sysinst will
determine a list of available network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
Note: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you use. Example
interfaces are “wm” for Intel Gigabit interfaces, “ne” for NE2000 and compatible ethernet cards, and
“ath” for Atheros based wireless cards. This list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports
many more network devices.
To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the installation process by
pressing “Ctrl+Z”, then enter
# ifconfig -a
ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
address: 00:06:0d:c6:73:d5
media: Ethernet autoselect 10baseT full-duplex
status: active
inet 0.0.0.0 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 0.0.0.0
inet6 fe80::206:dff:fec6:73d5%ne2 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 33196
inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2
ppp0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
ppp1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100
strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100
To get more information about all the devices found during system startup, including network
devices, type
# dmesg | more
You can return to the NetBSD installation by typing
# fg
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-25. Which network interface to configure
Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
Note: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the default here. If you experience
problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, you may, for example, force different duplex settings for
ethernet cards. To get a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2,
for example), escape from sysinst by pressing “Ctrl+Z”, then enter:
# ifconfig -m ne2
ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
status: active
supported Ethernet media:
media 10baseT
media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
media 10base2
media autoselect
The various values printed after “media” may be of interest here, including keywords like “autoselect”
but also including any “mediaopt” settings.
Return to the installation by typing:
# fg
The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as shown in
Figure 3-26. Answer “Yes” if you have a DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) running
somewhere on your network, and sysinst will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer “No” to enter
all the values manually.
We will assume you answered “No” and go into all the questions asked in detail.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-26. Using DHCP for network configuration
Figure 3-27 shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The values to be entered are:
Your DNS Domain:
This is the name of the domain you are in.
Your hostname:
The name by which other machines can usually address your computer. Not used during installation.
Your IPv4 number:
Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in “dotted quad” notation here, for example,
192.168.1.3
IPv4 Netmask:
The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value (“0xffffff00”) or in dotted-quad notation
(“255.255.255.0”).
IPv4 gateway:
Your router’s (or default gateway’s) IP address. Do not use a hostname here!
IPv4 name server:
Your (first) DNS server’s IP address. Again, don’t use a hostname.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-27. Entering and configuring network data
After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed, and you will have a chance
to go back and make changes (Figure 3-28).
Figure 3-28. Confirming network parameters
sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure the network: flushing the
routing table, setting the default route, and testing if the network connection is operational.
Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer how to get the distribution
sets, as shown in Figure 3-29.
When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time), choose “Get Distribution”
to continue.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-29. Defining the FTP settings
3.10.4 Installing via NFS
If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an alternative to FTP.
Note: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS server, a topic which is not
discussed here.
As shown in Figure 3-30, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host", the "Base
directory" that is exported by the NFS server, and the "Set directory", which contains the install sets.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-30. NFS install screen
Figure 3-31 shows an example: Host “192.168.1.50 ” is the NFS server that provides the directory
“/home/username/Downloads” The NetBSD install sets are stored in the directory
“/home/username/Downloads/sets” on the NFS server. Choose “Continue” to start the installation of the
distribution sets.
Figure 3-31. NFS example
3.11 Extracting sets
After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if applicable) after those sets have
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Chapter 3 Example installation
been transferred, they will be extracted into the new NetBSD file system.
After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the /dev directory and then display a
message saying that everything went well.
Another message (see Figure 3-32) will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and that
you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before finishing the NetBSD installation.
Figure 3-32. Extraction of sets completed
3.12 System configuration
The first thing you can configure is your timezone. It is Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) by default,
and you can use the two-level menu of continents/countries and cities shown in Figure 3-33 to select
your timezone with the Return key. Next, press “x” followed by Return to exit timezone selection.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-33. Selecting the system’s time zone
At this point, you are given the option to choose a password encryption scheme. While “DES” is the
standard algorithm used on most Unix systems, “MD5”, “Blowfish”, and “SHA1” allow longer
passwords than DES, which only uses the first eight characters of the password that is entered. DES is
still useful for interoperability with other operating systems.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-34. Selecting a password encryption scheme
After choosing the password cipher you are asked if you want to set the root password. It is
recommended to set a root password at this point for security reasons.
Figure 3-35. Set a root password?
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Chapter 3 Example installation
When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the passwd(1) utility for you. Please note that the
password is not echoed.
Figure 3-36. Setting root password
The next menu allows you to choose which command line interpreter - also known as a “shell” - will be
used for the root account. The default is the classic Bourne shell, sh(1). Other choices are the Korn shell
(ksh(1)) and the C shell (csh(1)). If, upon reading this, you don’t have some idea of which shell you
prefer, simply use the default, as this is a highly subjective decision. Should you later change your mind,
root’s shell can always be changed.
Figure 3-37. Choosing a shell
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Chapter 3 Example installation
3.13 Finishing the installation
At this point the installation is finished.
Figure 3-38. Installation completed
After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to the main menu. Remove any
installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose “Reboot the computer” to boot your new NetBSD
installation.
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Chapter 3 Example installation
Figure 3-39. Reboot to finish installation
35
Chapter 4
Upgrading NetBSD
4.1 Overview
This chapter describes the binary upgrade of a NetBSD system. To do the upgrade, you must have some
form of bootable media (CD-ROM, USB drive, floppy, etc.) available and at least the base and kern
distribution sets. Since files already installed on the system are overwritten in place, you only need
additional free space for files which weren’t previously installed or to account for growth of the sets
between releases. Usually this is not more than a few megabytes.
Note: Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel, boot blocks, and most of the system binaries, it
has the potential to cause data loss. Before beginning, you are strongly advised to back up any
important data on the NetBSD partition or on any other partitions on your disk.
The upgrade procedure is similar to an installation, but without the hard disk partitioning. sysinst will
attempt to merge the settings stored in your /etc directory with the new version of NetBSD. Also, file
systems are checked before unpacking the sets. Fetching the binary sets is done in the same manner as in
the installation procedure.
4.2 The INSTALL document
Before doing an upgrade it is essential to read the release information and upgrading notes in one of the
INSTALL files: this is the official description of the upgrade procedure, with platform specific
information and important details. It can be found in the root directory of the NetBSD release (on the
install CD or on the FTP server)
It is advisable to print the INSTALL document out. It is available in four formats: .txt, .ps, .more, and
.html
4.3 Performing the upgrade
The following section provides an overview of the binary upgrade process. Most of the following sysinst
dialogs are similar to those of the installation process. More verbose descriptions and explanations of the
dialogs are available in Chapter 3.
After selecting the installation language and the keyboard type, the main menu appears. Choosing option
“b: Upgrade NetBSD on a hard disk” will start the the upgrade process.
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Chapter 4 Upgrading NetBSD
Figure 4-1. Starting the upgrade
The dialog in Figure 4-2 will request permission to continue with the upgrade. At this point nothing has
been changed yet and the upgrade can still be cancelled. This is a good time to ask yourself whether you
have made a backup, and if you know for certain that you will be able to restore from it.
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Chapter 4 Upgrading NetBSD
Figure 4-2. Continuing the upgrade
After choosing to continue with “Yes”, the next dialog will ask you to specify the hard disk with the
NetBSD system that shall be upgraded. If more than one disk is available a list of the disks will be
displayed.
Figure 4-3. Choosing the hard drive
The system used for the example has only one hard disk available: “wd0”.
The following dialog provides a menu to choose the installation type. The choices are “Full installation”,
“Minimal installation”, or “Custom installation”.
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Chapter 4 Upgrading NetBSD
Figure 4-4. Choosing the distribution filesets
At this point, sysinst will perform a check of the file system to ensure its integrity.
Figure 4-5. File system check
The next step is to choose which type of bootblocks to install.
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Chapter 4 Upgrading NetBSD
Figure 4-6. Choosing bootblocks
The next dialog will ask how much information should be displayed during the extraction of the
distribution sets.
Figure 4-7. Upgrade process - verbosity level
The following dialog asks for the install method of choice and provides a list of possible options. The
install medium contains the new NetBSD distribution sets. You will be prompted for different
information depending on which option you choose. For example, a CD-ROM or DVD install requires
you to specify which device to use and which directory the sets are in, while an FTP install requires you
to configure your network and specify the hostname of an FTP server. More details can be found in
Section 3.10.
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Chapter 4 Upgrading NetBSD
Figure 4-8. Install medium
sysinst will now unpack the distribution sets, replacing your old binaries. After unpacking these sets, it
runs the postinstall script to clean up various things. If no problems occur, you are done. If postinstall
produces errors, you will have to manually resolve the issues it brings up. See postinstall’s man page for
more information. You should also read the remarks in INSTALL about upgrading, as specific
compatibility issues are documented there.
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Chapter 4 Upgrading NetBSD
Figure 4-9. Upgrade complete
When you are back at the main menu, remove the boot medium (if applicable) and reboot. Have fun with
your new version of NetBSD!
42
III. System configuration,
administration and tuning
Chapter 5
The first steps on NetBSD
After installing and rebooting, the computer will boot from the hard disk. If everything went well you’ll
be looking at the login prompt within a few seconds (or minutes, depending on your hardware). The
system is not yet fully configured but basic configuration is easy. You will see how to quickly configure
some basic things, and in the meantime, you will learn some basics about how the system works.
5.1 Troubleshooting
5.1.1 Boot problems
If the system does not boot it could be that the boot manager was not installed correctly or that there is a
problem with the MBR (Master Boot Record). Reboot the machine from the boot medium (CD-ROM,
DVD, floppy, etc.) and when you see the boot menu, select the option to drop to the boot prompt.
type "?" or "help" for help.
> ?
commands are:
boot [xdNx:][filename] [-12acdqsvxz]
(ex. "hd0a:netbsd.old -s")
ls [path]
dev xd[N[x]]:
consdev {pc|com[0123]|com[0123]kbd|auto}
modules {enabled|disabled}
load {path_to_module}
multiboot [xdNx:][filename] [<args>]
help|?
quit
> boot hd0a:netbsd
The system should now boot from the hard disk. If NetBSD boots correctly from the hard disk, there is
probably a Master Boot Record problem: you can install the boot manager or modify its configuration
with the fdisk -B command. See Section 21.1 for a detailed description.
5.1.2 Misconfiguration of /etc/rc.conf
If you or the installation software haven’t done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst normally
will), the system will drop you into single user mode and show the message:
/etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted
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Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply
press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or
whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the
following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
# stty erase ’^h’
# stty erase ’^?’
At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your
root file system read- and writable with:
# /sbin/mount -u -w /
Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes,
making sure that you set “rc_configured=YES ” so that your changes will be enabled and a
multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in
/etc/defaults/rc.conf. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).
If your /usr directory is on a separate partition and you do not know how to use the ed(1) editor, you
will have to mount your /usr partition to gain access to the ex(1) or vi editor. Do the following:
# mount /usr
# export TERM=vt220
If you have /var on a separate partition, you need to repeat that step for it. After that, you can edit
/etc/rc.conf with vi. When you have finished, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell
and continue with the multi-user boot.
5.2 The man command
If you have never used a Unix(-like) operating system before, your best friend is now the man command,
which displays a manual page: the NetBSD manual pages are amongst the best and most detailed you
can find, although they are very technical.
A good starting point after booting a new NetBSD system is the afterboot(8) manual page. It contains
more detailed information about necessary and useful configuration settings.
man name shows the man page of the “name” command and man -k name shows a list of man pages
dealing with “name” (you can also use the apropos command).
To learn the basics of the man command, type:
# man man
The manual is divided into nine sections, containing not only basic information on commands but also
the descriptions of some NetBSD features and structures. For example, take a look at the hier(7) man
page, which describes in detail the layout of the filesystem used by NetBSD.
# man hier
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Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
Other similar pages are release(7) and pkgsrc(7). Each section of the manual has an intro(8) man page
describing its content. For example, try:
# man 8 intro
Manual pages are divided in several sections, depending on what they document:
1. general commands (tools and utilities), see intro(1)
2. system calls and error numbers, see intro(2)
3. C libraries, see intro(3)
4. special files and hardware support, see intro(4)
5. file formats, see intro(5)
6. games, see intro(6)
7. miscellaneous information pages, see intro(7)
8. system maintenance and operation commands, see intro(8)
9. kernel internals, see intro(9)
A subject may appear in more than one section of the manual; to view a specific page, supply the section
number as an argument to the man command. For example, time appears in section 1 (the time user
command), in section 3 (the time function of the C library) and in section 9 (the time system variable).
To see the man page for the time C function, write:
# man 3 time
To see all the available pages:
# man -w time
# man -a time
5.3 Editing the configuration files
Besides the shell, a text editor is the most essential tool for the NetBSD system administration.
There are two obvious options in the base system
•
ed(1), a line orientated text editor. ed is a very simplistic text editor. It has a command mode, (active
when first started) and an input mode. Its primary advantage is that it is available even in single-user
mode with only the / filesystem mounted, and will work even without a correct terminal type set. It is
worth gaining a basic understanding of ed - enough to fix the /etc/fstab and /etc/rc.conf files
in an emergency.
•
vi(1), a screen orientated text editor. vi retains the command and input modes of ex (which in fact is
just different representation of the vi), but adds a full screen visual interface. vi is the only screen
editor available in the base install, and requires a valid terminal type to run. Refer to Chapter 6 to learn
more about NetBSD’s default editor.
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Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
Advise: Before you continue you should know or learn how to open, edit and save files within vi.
Study at least the vi(1) manual page.
5.4 Login
For the first login you will use the root superuser, which is the only user defined at the end of the
installation. At the password prompt type the password for root that you have defined during the
installation. If you haven’t defined a password, just press Enter.
NetBSD/i386 (Amnesiac) (ttyE0)
login: root
password:
We recommend creating a non-root account and using su(1) for
root access.
#
5.5 Changing the root password
If you haven’t defined a password for root during the installation, you should use the /usr/bin/passwd
command to do so now.
# /usr/bin/passwd
Changing local password for root.
New password:
Retype new password:
Passwords are not displayed on the screen while you type. Later we will see how to add other accounts
on the system.
Choose a password that has numbers, digits, and special characters (not space) as well as from the upper
and lower case alphabet. Do not choose any word in any language. It is common for an intruder to use
dictionary attacks.
5.6 Adding users
It is time to add new users to the system, since you do not want to use the root account for your daily
work. For security reasons, it is bad practice to login as root during regular use and maintenance of the
system. Instead, administrators are encouraged to add a regular user, add the user to the wheel group,
then use the su(1) command when root privileges are required. NetBSD offers the useradd(8) utility to
create user accounts. For example, to create a new user:
# useradd -m joe
The defaults for the useradd command can be changed; see the useradd(8) man page.
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Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
User accounts that can su to root are required to be in the "wheel" group. This can be done when the
account is created by specifying a secondary group:
# useradd -m -G wheel joe
As an alternative, the usermod(8) command can be used to add a user to an existing group:
# usermod -G wheel joe
In case you just created a user but forgot to set a password, you can still do that later using the passwd(1)
command.
# passwd joe
Note: You can edit /etc/group directly to add users to groups, but do not edit the /etc/passwd file
directly, as all changes made to that file will get lost.
5.7 Shadow passwords
Shadow passwords are enabled by default;: all the passwords in /etc/passwd contain an “*”; the
encrypted passwords are stored in another file /etc/master.passwd, that can be read only by root.
When you start vipw(8) to edit the password file, the program opens a copy of /etc/master.passwd;
when you exit, vipw checks the validity of the copy, creates a new /etc/passwd and installs the new
/etc/master.passwd file. Finally, vipw launches pwd_mkdb(8), which creates the files
/etc/pwd.db and /etc/spwd.db, two databases which are equivalent to /etc/passwd and
/etc/master.passwd but faster to process.
As you can see, passwords are handled automatically by NetBSD; if you use vipw to edit the password
file you don’t need any special administration procedure.
It is very important to always use vipw and the other tools for account administration (chfn(1), chsh(1),
chpass(1), passwd(1)) and to never modify directly /etc/master.passwd or /etc/passwd.
5.8 Changing the keyboard layout
The keyboard still has the US layout; if you have a different keyboard it’s better to change its layout now,
before starting to configure the system. For example, to use the italian keyboard, give the following
command:
# wsconsctl -k -w encoding=it
encoding -> it
To save the keyboard layout permanently add the following line to the /etc/wscons.conf file:
encoding it
See Section 8.1.2.1 for a list of keymaps available as well as how to make these settings permanent.
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Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
5.9 System time
NetBSD, like all Unix systems, uses a system clock based on Greenwich time (GMT) and this is what
you should set your system clock to. If you want to keep the system clock set to the local time (because,
for example, you have a dual boot system with Windows installed), you must notify NetBSD, adding
rtclocaltime=YES to /etc/rc.conf:
# echo rtclocaltime=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
# sh /etc/rc.d/rtclocaltime restart
The value of the number of minutes west of GMT is calculated automatically and it’s set under
kern.rtc_offset sysctl variable.
To display the current setting of the kern.rtc_offset variable:
# sysctl kern.rtc_offset
kern.rtc_offset = -60
Now the kernel knows how to convert the time of the PC clock in the GMT system time but you must
still configure the system for your local time zone (which you will find in the /usr/share/zoneinfo
directory).
If needed, change the date and change the symbolic link of /etc/localtime to the appropriate time
zone in the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory.
Examples:
# date 200705101820
Sets the current date to May 10th, 2007 6:20pm.
# ln -fs /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Helsinki /etc/localtime
Sets the time zone to Eastern Europe Summer Time.
5.10 Secure Shell (ssh(1))
By default, all services are disabled in a fresh NetBSD installation, and ssh(1) is no exception. You may
wish to enable it so you can remotely control your system. Set sshd=yes in /etc/rc.conf and then
starting the server with the command
# /etc/rc.d/sshd start
The first time the server is started, it will generate a new keypair, which will be stored inside the
directory /etc/ssh.
5.11 Basic configuration in /etc/rc.conf
NetBSD uses the /etc/rc.conf for system configuration at startup: this file determines what will be
executed when the system boots. Understanding this file is important. The rc.conf(5) manual page
contains a detailed description of all the options.
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Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
The /etc/defaults/rc.conf file contains the default values for a lot of settings, and to override a
default value, the new value must be put into /etc/rc.conf: the definitions there override the one in
/etc/defaults/rc.conf (which should stay unchanged).
# man rc.conf
The first modifications are:
•
Set “rc_configured=yes” (this modification might already have been done by the installation
software.)
•
Set “dhclient=yes” to configure your system’s network using DHCP.
•
Define a hostname for your machine (use a fully qualified hostname, i.e. one including domain). If you
have a standalone machine you can use any name (for example, vigor3.your.domain). If your machine
is connected to a network, you should supply the correct network name.
•
If your are connected to a local network or the internet over a router, set the defaultroute Network
default route to the IP address of your router (also called default gateway), for example
“defaultroute=192.168.1.1”.
5.12 Basic network settings
Not all necessary network settings can be set in the /etc/rc.conf file. The system needs to know the
names and the IP addresses of the computers (hosts) in the local network. These settings need to be
added to the /etc/hosts file in the form:
IP-address
hostname
host
For example:
192.168.1.3 vigor3.your.domain vigor3
To resolve the names and IP addresses of remote hosts the system needs access to a (remote or local)
DNS nameserver. That means to simply add the IP addresses of one or more nameservers to the
/etc/resolv.conf file, using the following form:
nameserver 145.253.2.75
5.13 Mounting a CD-ROM
New users are often surprised by the fact that although the installation program recognized and mounted
their CD-ROM perfectly, the installed system seems to have “forgotten” how to use the CD-ROM. There
is no special magic for using a CD-ROM: you can mount it as any other file system, all you need to know
is the device name and some options to the mount(8) command. You can find the device name with the
aforementioned dmesg(8) command. For example, if dmesg displays:
# dmesg | grep ^cd
cd0 at atapibus0 drive 1: <ASUS CD-S400/A, , V2.1H> type 5 cdrom removable
50
Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
the device name is cd0, and you can mount the CD-ROM with the following commands:
# mkdir /cdrom
# mount -t cd9660 -o ro /dev/cd0a /cdrom
To make things easier, you can add a line to the /etc/fstab file:
/dev/cd0a /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
Without the need to reboot, you can now mount the CD-ROM with:
# mount /cdrom
When the CD-ROM is mounted you can’t eject it manually; you will have to unmount it before you can
do that:
# umount /cdrom
There is also a software command which unmounts the CD-ROM and ejects it:
# eject /dev/cd0a
5.14 Mounting a floppy
To mount a floppy you must know the name of the floppy device and the file system type of the floppy.
Read the fdc(4) manpage for more information about device naming, as this will differ depending on the
exact size and kind of your floppy disk. For example, to read and write a floppy in MS-DOS format you
use the following command:
# mount -t msdos /dev/fd0a /mnt
Instead of /mnt, you can use another directory of your choice; you could, for example, create a /floppy
directory like you did for the cdrom. If you do a lot of work with MS-DOS floppies, you will want to
install the mtools package, which enables you to access a MS-DOS floppy (or hard disk partition)
without the need to mount it. It is very handy for quickly copying a file from or to a floppy:
# mcopy foo bar a:
# mcopy a:baz.txt baz
# mcopy a:\*.jpg .
5.15 Installing additional software
5.15.1. Using packages from pkgsrc
If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised
to first check the NetBSD package system pkgsrc (http://www.pkgsrc.org). This automatically handles
any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD, retrieval and installation of any other
51
Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
packages on which the software may depend, and simplifies installation (and deinstallation), both from
source and precompiled binaries.
•
See the list of available packages
(ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/pkgsrc/README-all.html)
•
Precompiled binaries are available on the NetBSD FTP server for some ports. To install them the
PKG_PATH variable needs to be adjusted in the following way (under the sh(1) shell):
# export PKG_PATH="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/<PORT>/<RELEASE-NUMBER>/All"
# export PKG_PATH
Where <RELEASE-NUMBER> needs to be replaced by the release number of an existing NetBSD
release (for example, 5.0). <PORT> needs to be replaced by the Port name for the used architecture (for
example, amd64)
Applications can now be installed by the superuser root with the pkg_add command:
#
#
#
#
pkg_add
pkg_add
pkg_add
pkg_add
-v
-v
-v
-v
perl
apache
firefox
kde
The above commands will install the Perl programming language, Apache web server, Firefox web
browser and the KDE desktop environment as well as all the packages they depend on.
Installed applications can be updated in the following way:
# pkg_add -uv firefox
The following command will force an update and update even dependant packages:
# pkg_add -fuuv firefox
All details about package management can be found in The pkgsrc guide
(http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/index.html)
5.15.2. Storing third-party software
On many UNIX-like systems the directory structure under /usr/local is reserved for applications and
files, which are independent of the system’s software management. This convention is the reason why
most software developers expect their software to be installed under /usr/local. NetBSD has no
/usr/local directory, but it can be created manually if needed. NetBSD will not care about anything
installed under /usr/local, this task is left to you as the system administrator.
5.16 Security alerts
By the time that you have installed your system, it is quite likely that bugs in the release have been
found. All significant and easily fixed problems will be reported at
http://www.NetBSD.org/support/security/. It is recommended that you check this page regularly.
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Chapter 5 The first steps on NetBSD
5.17 Stopping and rebooting the system
Use one of the following two shutdown commands to halt or reboot the system:
# shutdown -h now
# shutdown -r now
Two other commands to perform the same tasks are:
# halt
# reboot
halt, reboot and shutdown are not synonyms: the latter is more sophisticated. On a multiuser system you
should really use shutdown this will allow you to schedule a shutdown time, notify users, and it will also
take care to shutdown database processes etc. properly without simply kill(1)ing them. For a more
detailed description, see the shutdown(8), halt(8) and reboot(8) manpages.
53
Chapter 6
Editing
6.1 Introducing vi
It is not like the vi editor needs introducing to seasoned UNIX users. The vi editor, originally developed
by Bill Joy of Sun Microsystems, is an endlessly extensible, easy to use light ASCII editor and the bane
of the newbie existence. This section will introduce the vi editor to the newbie and perhaps toss in a few
ideas for the seasoned user as well.
The first half of this section will overview editing, saving, yanking/putting and navigating a file within a
vi session. The second half will be a step by step sample vi session to help get started.
This is intended as a primer for using the vi editor, it is not by any means a thorough guide. It is meant to
get the first time user up and using vi with enough skills to make changes to and create files.
6.1.1 The vi interface
Using the vi editor really is not much different than any other terminal based software with one
exception, it does not use a tab type (or curses if you will) style interface, although many versions of vi
do use curses it does not give the same look and feel of the typical curses based interface. Instead it
works in two modes, command and edit. While this may seem strange, it is not much different than
windows based editing if you think about it. Take this as an example, if you are using say gedit and you
take the mouse, highlight some text, select cut and then paste, the whole time you are using the mouse
you are not editing (even though you can). In vi, the same action is done by simply deleting the whole
line with dd in command mode, moving to the line you wish to place it below and hitting p in command
mode. One could almost say the analogy is “mouse mode vs. command mode” (although they are not
exactly identical, conceptually the idea is similar).
To start up a vi session, one simply begins the way they might with any terminal based software:
$ vi filename
One important note to remember here is that when a file is edited, it is loaded into a memory buffer. The
rest of the text will make reference to the buffer and file in their proper context. A file only changes when
the user has committed changes with one of the write commands.
6.1.2 Switching to Edit Mode
The vi editor sports a range of options one can provide at start up, for the time being we will just look at
the default startup. When invoked as shown above, the editors default startup mode is command mode, so
in essence you cannot commence to typing into the buffer. Instead you must switch out out of command
mode to enter text. The following text describes edit start modes:
54
Chapter 6 Editing
a
A
C
cw
i
I
o
O
Append after cursor.
Append to end of line.
Change the rest of current line.
Change the current word.
Insert before cursor.
Insert before first non blank line.
Open a line below for insert
Open a line above for insert.
6.1.3 Switching Modes & Saving Buffers to Files
Of course knowing the edit commands does not do much good if you can’t switch back to command
mode and save a file, to switch back simply hit the ESC key. To enter certain commands, the colon must
be used. Write commands are one such set of commands. To do this, simply enter :.
Hitting the colon then will put the user at the colon (or command if you will) prompt at the bottom left
corner of the screen. Now let us look at the save commands:
:w Write the buffer to file.
:wq Write the buffer to file and quit.
6.1.4 Yanking and Putting
What good is an editor if you cannot manipulate blocks of text? Of course vi supports this feature as well
and as with most of the vi commands it somewhat intuitive. To yank a line but not delete it, simply enter
yy or Y in command mode and the current line will be copied into a buffer. To put the line somewhere,
navigate to the line above where the line is to be put and hit the p key for the “put” command. To move a
line, simply delete the whole line with the dd command, navigate and put.
6.1.4.1 Oops I Did Not Mean to do that!
Undo is pretty simple, u undoes the last action and U undoes the last line deleted or changes made on the
last line.
6.1.5 Navigation in the Buffer
Most vi primers or tutorials start off with navigation, however, not unlike most editors in order to
navigate a file there must be something to navigate to and from (hence why this column sort of went in
reverse). Depending on your flavor of vi (or if it even is vi and not say elvis, nvi or vim) you can navigate
in both edit and command mode.
For the beginner I feel that switching to command mode and then navigating is a bit safer until one has
practiced for awhile. The navigation keys for terminals that are not recognized or do not support the use
of arrow keys are the following:
55
Chapter 6 Editing
k
j
l
h
Moves the cursor up one line.
Moves the cursor down one line.
Moves the cursor right one character.
Moves the cursor left one character.
If the terminal is recognized and supports them, the arrow keys can be used to navigate the buffer in
command mode.
In addition to simple “one spot navigation” vi supports jumping to a line by simply typing in the line
number at the colon prompt. For example, if you wanted to jump to line 223 the keystrokes from editor
mode would look like so:
ESC
:223
6.1.6 Searching a File, the Alternate Navigational Aid
The vi editor supports searching using regular expression syntax, however, it is slightly different to
invoke from command mode. One simply hits the / key in command mode and enters what they are
searching for, as an example let us say I am searching for the expression foo:
/foo
That is it, to illustrate a slightly different expression, let us say I am looking for foo bar:
/foo bar
6.1.6.1 Additional Navigation Commands
Searching and scrolling are not the only ways to navigate a vi buffer. Following is a list of succinct
navigation commands available for vi:
0
$
b
w
G
H
L
M
N
n
Move to beginning of line.
Move to end of line.
Back up one word.
Move forward one word.
Move to the bottom of the buffer.
Move to the top line on the screen.
Move to the last line on the screen.
Move the cursor to the middle of the screen.
Scan for next search match but opposite direction.
Scan for next search match in the same direction.
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Chapter 6 Editing
6.1.7 A Sample Session
Now that we have covered the basics, let us run a sample session using a couple of the items discussed so
far. First, we open an empty file into the buffer from the command line like so:
# vi foo.txt
Next we switch to edit mode and enter two lines separated by an empty line, remember our buffer is
empty so we hit the i key to insert before cursor and enter some text:
This is some text
there we skipped a line
~
~
~
~
Now hit the ESC key to switch back into command mode.
Now that we are in command mode, let us save the file. First, hit the : key, the cursor should be sitting in
the lower left corner right after a prompt. At the : prompt enter w and hit the ENTER or RETURN key.
The file has just been saved. There should have been a message to that effect, some vi editors will also
tell you the name, how many lines and the size of the file as well.
It is time to navigate, the cursor should be sitting wherever it was when the file was saved. Try using the
arrow keys to move around a bit. If they do not work (or you are just plain curious) try out the hjkl keys
to see how they work.
Finally, let us do two more things, first, navigate up to the first line and then to the first character. Try out
some of the other command mode navigation keys on that line, hit the following keys a couple of times:
$
0
$
0
The cursor should hop to the end of line, back to the beginning and then to the end again.
Next, search for an expression by hitting the / key and an expression like so:
/we
The cursor should jump to the first occurrence of we.
Now save the file and exit using write and quit:
:wq
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Chapter 6 Editing
6.2 Configuring vi
The standard editor supplied with NetBSD is, needless to say, vi, the most loved and hated editor in the
world. If you don’t use vi, skip this section, otherwise read it before installing other versions of vi.
NetBSD’s vi (nvi) was written by Keith Bostic of UCB to have a freely redistributable version of this
editor and has many powerful extensions worth learning while being still very compatible with the
original vi. Nvi has become the standard version of vi for BSD.
Amongst the most interesting extensions are:
•
Extended regular expressions (egrep style), enabled with option extended.
•
Tag stacks.
•
Infinite undo (to undo, press u; to continue undoing, press .).
•
Incremental search, enabled with the option searchincr.
•
Left-right scrolling of lines, enabled with the option leftright; the number of columns to scroll is
defined by the sidescroll option.
•
Command line history editing, enabled with the option cedit.
•
Filename completion, enabled by the filec option.
•
Backgrounded screens and displays.
•
Split screen editing.
6.2.1 Extensions to .exrc
The following example shows a .exrc file with some extended options enabled.
set showmode ruler
set filec=^[
set cedit=^[
The first line enables the display of the cursor position (row and column) and of the current mode
(Command, Insert, Append) on the status line. The second line (where ^[ is the ESC character) enables
filename completion with the ESC character. The third line enables command line history editing (also
with the ESC character.) For example, writing “:” and then pressing ESC opens a window with a list of
the previous commands which can be edited and executed (pressing Enter on a command executes it.)
6.2.2 Documentation
The source tarball (src.tgz) contains a lot of useful documentation on (n)vi and ex, in the
/usr/src/usr.bin/vi/docs directory. For example:
•
Edit: A tutorial
•
Ex Reference Manual
•
Vi man page
•
An Introduction to Display Editing with Vi by William Joy and Mark Horton
58
Chapter 6 Editing
•
Ex/Vi Reference Manual by Keith Bostic
•
Vi Command & Function Reference
•
Vi tutorial (beginner and advanced)
If you have never used vi, the “Vi tutorial” is a good starting point. It is meant to be read using vi and it
gradually introduces the reader to all the vi commands, which can be tested while reading. An
Introduction to Display Editing with Vi by William Joy and Mark Horton is also a very good starting
point.
If you want to learn more about vi and the nvi extensions you should read the Ex/Vi Reference Manual by
Keith Bostic which documents all the editor’s commands and options.
6.3 Using tags with vi
This topic is not directly related to NetBSD but it can be useful, for example, for examining the kernel
sources.
When you examine a set of sources in a tree of directories and subdirectories you can simplify your work
using the tag feature of vi. The method is the following:
1.
cd to the base directory of the sources.
$ cd /path
2.
Write the following commands:
$ find . -name "*.[ch]" > filelist
$ cat filelist | xargs ctags
3.
Add the following line to .exrc
set tags=/path/tags
(substitute the correct path instead of path.)
59
Chapter 7
rc.d System
As of NetBSD 1.5, the startup of the system changed to using rc-scripts for controlling services, similar
to the init-system System V and Linux use, but without runlevels. This chapter is an overview of the
rc-system and its configuration on NetBSD.
7.1 The rc.d Configuration
The startup files for the system reside under /etc, they are:
• /etc/rc
• /etc/rc.conf
• /etc/rc.d/*
• /etc/rc.lkm
• /etc/rc.local
• /etc/rc.shutdown
• /etc/rc.subr
• /etc/defaults/*
• /etc/rc.conf.d/*
First, a look at controlling and supporting scripts, also documented in rc(8):
•
When the kernel has initialized all devices on startup, it usually starts init(8), which in turn runs
/etc/rc
sorts the scripts in /etc/rc.d using rcorder(8), and runs them in that order. See the
rcorder(8) manpage for more details on how the order of /etc/rc.d scripts is determined.
• /etc/rc
• /etc/rc.subr contains common functions used
•
by many /etc/rc.d/* scripts.
When shutting down the system with shutdown(8), /etc/rc.shutdown is run which runs the scripts
in /etc/rc.d in reverse order (as defined by rcorder(8)).
Additional scripts outside of the rc.d directory:
• /etc/rc.lkm loads or
unloads Loadable Kernel Modules (LKMs), see modload(8) and
/etc/rc.d/lkm[123].
• /etc/rc.local is
almost the last script called at boot up. This script can be edited by the
administrator to start local daemons that don’t follow the rc-concept.
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Chapter 7 rc.d System
For example, packages installed pkgsrc usually add their startup files to /usr/pkg/etc/rc.d, and
it’s left as a decision to the system administrator on enabling them, either by manually copying/linking
them to /etc/rc.d, or by adding them to /etc/rc.local. The following is the example from the
system for an apache web server added to /etc/rc.local:
if [ -f /usr/pkg/etc/rc.d/apache ]; then
/usr/pkg/etc/rc.d/apache start
fi
There’s a central config file for bootscripts, rc.conf(5) located in /etc/rc.conf. /etc/rc.conf loads
its defaults from /etc/defaults/rc.conf, the latter of which should not be touched. In order to alter
a default setting, an override may be installed in /etc/rc.conf.
For example, if you wanted to enable the Secure Shell Daemon:
# cd /etc; grep ssh defaults/rc.conf
sshd=NO
sshd_flags=""
# echo "sshd=YES" >> rc.conf
Or just edit /etc/rc.conf with your favorite editor. The same can be done with any default that needs
to be changed. A common sequence often done after installing a fresh NetBSD system is:
# cat /etc/defaults/rc.conf >>/etc/rc.conf
# vi /etc/rc.conf
Be careful to use “>>” and not “>” else you will destroy the default contents in /etc/rc.conf, which
are critical to remain there! After you have copied the defaults that way, modify anything you need to in
/etc/rc.conf. Be sure to consult the rc.conf(5) manpage to explain all the settings in detail.
Last and not least, the /etc/rc.conf.d/ directory can be used for scripts-snippets from third party
software, allowing setting only one or few settings per file.
7.2 The rc.d Scripts
The actual scripts that control services are in /etc/rc.d. Once a service has been activated or told not
to activate in /etc/rc.conf it can be also be modified by calling the rc script from the command line,
for example if an administrator needed to start the secure shell daemon:
# /etc/rc.d/sshd start
Starting sshd.
The rc scripts must receive one of the following arguments:
•
start
•
stop
•
restart
•
kill
An example might be when a new record has been added to the named database on a named server:
# /etc/rc.d/named restart
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Chapter 7 rc.d System
Stopping named.
Starting named.
A slightly more complex example is when a series of settings have been changed, for instance a firewall’s
ipfilter rules, ipnat configuration, and the secure shell server has switched encryption type:
# sh /etc/rc.d/ipfilter restart
# sh /etc/rc.d/ipnat restart
# sh /etc/rc.d/sshd restart
7.3 The Role of rcorder and rc Scripts
The startup system of every Unix system basically determines the order in which services are started one
way or another. On some Unix systems this is done by numbering the files and/or putting them in
separate run level directories. (Solaris relies on wildcards like /etc/rc[23].d/S* being sorted
numerically when expanded.) Or they simply put all the commands that should be started at system boot
time into a single monolithic script, which can be messy. (This is what ancient BSD and NetBSD did
before the rc-system). On NetBSD this is done by the rc-scripts and their contents. Please note that
NetBSD does not have multiple runlevels as found e.g. in System V systems like Solaris, or Linux.
At the beginning of each of the rc-scripts in /etc/rc.d/*, there is a series of comment-lines that have
one of the following items in them:
•
REQUIRE
•
PROVIDE
•
BEFORE
•
KEYWORD
These dictate the dependencies of that particular rc script and hence rcorder can easily work either “up”
or “down” as the situation requires. Following is an example of the /etc/rc.d/nfsd script:
...
PROVIDE: nfsd
REQUIRE: mountd
. /etc/rc.subr
...
Here we can see that this script provides the “nfsd” service, however, it requires “mountd” to be running
first. The rcorder(8) utility will be used at system startup time to read through all the rc-scripts, and
determine the correct order in which to run the rc-scripts (hence its name).
7.4 Additional Reading
There are other resources available pertaining to the rc.d system:
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Chapter 7 rc.d System
•
One of the principal designers of rc.d, Luke Mewburn, gave a presentation on the system at USENIX
2001. It is available in PDF (http://www.mewburn.net/luke/papers/rc.d.pdf) format.
•
Will Andrews wrote a Daemonnews (http://www.daemonnews.org/) article called The NetBSD rc.d
System (http://ezine.daemonnews.org/200108/rcdsystem.html).
63
Chapter 8
Console drivers
In NetBSD versions before 1.4 the user could choose between two different drivers for screen and
keyboard, pccons (specific for i386) and pcvt. In NetBSD 1.4 the new wscons multiplatform driver
appeared, which has substituted the previous drivers, of which pccons is still supported as it uses less
system resources and is used for install floppies due to that.
8.1 wscons
Wscons is NetBSD’s platform-independent workstation console driver. It handles complete abstraction
of keyboards and mice. This means that you can plug in several keyboards or mice and they will be
multiplexed onto a single terminal, but also that it can multiplex several virtual terminals onto one
physical terminal.
The capabilities of wscons can vary depending on the port. Starting with NetBSD 4.0, almost all ports
have full support for most capabilities wscons has to offer. If you are using a non-mainstream
architecture, please see the port-specific FAQ if wscons seems to lack features.
Wscons support is enabled by default on most architectures. This can be done manually by adding
wscons=YES to your /etc/rc.conf. Then configure the desired number of virtual consoles as
described in Section 8.1.1.1 and start wscons by entering sh /etc/rc.d/wscons start followed by
sh /etc/rc.d/ttys restart. You can now switch virtual consoles by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Fn or
similar, depending on the platform.
wscons comprises three subsystems: wsdisplay, wskbd and wsmouse. These subsystems handle
abstraction for all display, keyboard and mouse devices respectively. The following sections discuss the
configuration of wscons per subsystem.
8.1.1 wsdisplay
This section will explain how to configure display and screen-related options.
8.1.1.1 Virtual consoles
The number of pre-allocated virtual console is controlled by the following option
options
WSDISPLAY_DEFAULTSCREENS=4
Other consoles can be added by enabling the relevant lines in the /etc/wscons.conf file: the comment
mark (#) must be removed from the lines beginning with screen x. In the following example a fifth
console is added to the four pre-allocated ones:
# screens to create
#
idx
screen
emul
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
#screen 0
screen 1
screen 2
screen 3
screen 4
#screen 4
#screen 5
80x25bf
80x50
vt100
vt100
vt100
vt100
vt100
vt100
The rc.wscons script transforms each of the non commented lines in a call to the wsconscfg command:
the columns become the parameters of the call. The idx column becomes the index parameter, the
screen column becomes the -t type parameter (which defines the type of screen: rows and columns,
number of colors, ...) and the emul column becomes the -e emul parameter, which defines the
emulation. For example:
screen 3
-
vt100
becomes a call to:
wsconscfg -e vt100 3
Please note that it is possible to have a (harmless) conflict between the consoles pre-allocated by the
kernel and the consoles allocated at boot time through /etc/wscons.conf. If during boot the system
tries to allocate an already allocated screen, the following message will be displayed:
wsconscfg: WSDISPLAYIO_ADDSCREEN: Device busy
The solution is to comment out the offending lines in /etc/wscons.conf.
Note that while it is possible to delete a screen and add it with different settings, it is, technically
speaking, not possible to actually modify the settings of a screen.
screen 0 cannot be deleted if used as system console. This implies that the setting of screen 0 cannot
be changed in a running system, if used as system console.
The virtual console must also be active in /etc/ttys, so that NetBSD runs the getty(8) program to ask
for login. For example:
console
ttyE0
ttyE1
ttyE2
ttyE3
...
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
pc3
vt220
vt220
vt220
vt220
off secure
on secure
on secure
on secure
off secure
When starting up the X server, it will look for a virtual console with no getty(8) program running, e.g.
one console should left as "off" in /etc/ttys. The line
ttyE3
"/usr/libexec/getty Pc"
vt220
off secure
of /etc/ttys is used by the X server for this purpose. To use a screen different from number 4, a
parameter of the form vtn must be passed to the X server, where n is the number of the function key used
to activate the screen for X.
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
For example, screen 7 could be enabled in /etc/wscons.conf and X could be started with vt8. If
you use xdm you must edit /etc/X11/xdm/Xserver. For example:
:0 local /usr/X11R6/bin/X +kb dpms -bpp 16 dpms vt8
For xdm3d the path is different: /usr/X11R6/share/xdm3d/Xservers.
8.1.1.1.1 Getting rid of the message WSDISPLAYIO_ADDSCREEN: Device busy
This error message usually occurs when wsconscfg tries to add a screen which already exists. One time
this occurs is if you have a screen 0 line in your /etc/wscons.conf file, because the kernel always
allocates a screen 0 as the console device. The error message is harmless in this case, and you can get rid
of it by deleting (or commenting out) the screen 0 line.
8.1.1.2 50 lines text mode with wscons
A text mode with 50 lines can be used starting with version 1.4.1 of NetBSD. This mode is activated in
the /etc/wscons.conf. The following line must be uncommented:
font ibm
-
8
ibm
/usr/share/pcvt/fonts/vt220l.808
Then the following lines must be modified:
#screen
screen
screen
screen
screen
screen
screen
screen
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
80x50
80x50
80x50
80x50
80x50
80x50
80x50
80x50
vt100
vt100
vt100
vt100
vt100
vt100
vt100
vt100
This configuration enables eight screens, which can be accessed with the key combination Ctrl-Alt-Fn
(where n varies from 1 to 8); the corresponding devices are ttyE0..ttyE7. To enable them and get a login
prompt, /etc/ttys must be modified:
ttyE0
ttyE1
ttyE2
ttyE3
ttyE4
ttyE5
ttyE6
ttyE7
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
"/usr/libexec/getty
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
Pc"
vt220
vt220
vt220
vt220
vt220
vt220
vt220
vt220
on
on
on
on
on
on
on
on
secure
secure
secure
secure
secure
secure
secure
secure
screen 0 as system console can be set to another screen type at boot time on VGA displays. This is a
kernel configuration option. If a non-80x25 setting is selected, it must be made sure that a usable font is
compiled into the kernel, which would be an 8x8 one for 80x50.
There is a problem with many ATI graphics cards which don’t implement the standard VGA font
switching logics: These need another kernel option to make a nonstandard console font work.
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
An example set of kernel configuration options might be:
options VGA_CONSOLE_SCREENTYPE="\"80x50\""
options VGA_CONSOLE_ATI_BROKEN_FONTSEL
options FONT_VT220L8x8
8.1.1.3 Enabling VESA framebuffer console
On many architectures, there is only one type of screen mode: a graphical framebuffer mode. On
machines with VGA graphics cards, there is a second mode: textmode. This is an optimized mode
specially made for displaying text. Hence, this is the default console mode for GENERIC kernels on
architectures where the graphics graphics card is typically a VGA card (i386, amd64).
However, you can enable a framebuffer on machines with VGA cards that support the VESA BIOS
extension (VBE). To enable support for this mode, uncomment the following lines in the kernel
configuration file:
# VESA framebuffer console
options KVM86
# required for vesabios
vesabios* at vesabiosbus?
vesafb* at vesabios?
options VESAFB_WIDTH=640
options VESAFB_HEIGHT=480
options VESAFB_DEPTH=8
options VESAFB_PM # power management support
wsdisplay* at vesafb? console ?
If you happen to have a VIA Unichrome capable graphics card, you can enable the following instead:
# VIA Unichrome framebuffer console
unichromefb* at pci? dev ? function ?
wsdisplay* at unichromefb?
8.1.1.4 Enabling scrollback on the console
You can enable scrolling back on wscons consoles by compiling the WSDISPLAY_SCROLLSUPPORT
option into your kernel. Make sure you don’t have option VGA_RASTERCONSOLE enabled at the same
time though! See Chapter 31 for instructions on building a kernel.
When you have a kernel with options WSDISPLAY_SCROLLSUPPORT running, you can scroll up on the
console by pressing LEFT SHIFT plus PAGE UP/DOWN. Please note that this may not work on your
system console (ttyE0)!
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
8.1.1.5 Wscons and colors
8.1.1.5.1 Changing the color of kernel messages
It is possible to change the foreground and background color of kernel messages by setting the following
options in kernel config files:
options WS_KERNEL_FG=WSCOL_xxx
options WS_KERNEL_BG=WSCOL_xxx
The WSCOL_xxx color constants are defined in src/sys/dev/wscons/wsdisplayvar.h.
Starting from NetBSD 3.0, you can easily customize many aspects of your display appearance: the colors
used to print normal messages, the colors used to print kernel messages and the color used to draw a
border around the screen.
All of these details can be changed either from kernel options or through the wsconsctl(8) utility; the
later may be preferable if you don’t want to compile your own kernel, as the default options in GENERIC
are suitable to get this tip working.
The following options can be set through wsconsctl(8):
• border: The
color of the screen border. Its respective kernel option is WSDISPLAY_BORDER_COLOR.
• msg.default.attrs: The
attributes used to print normal console messages. Its respective kernel
options are WS_DEFAULT_COLATTR and WS_DEFAULT_MONOATTR (the former is used in color
displays, while the later is used in monochrome displays).
• msg.default.bg: The background color used
to print normal console messages. Its respective kernel
option is WS_DEFAULT_BG.
• msg.default.fg: The
foreground color used to print normal console messages. Its respective kernel
option is WS_DEFAULT_FG.
• msg.kernel.attrs: The
attributes used to print kernel messages and warnings. Its respective kernel
options are WS_KERNEL_COLATTR and WS_KERNEL_MONOATTR (the former is used in color displays,
while the later is used in monochrome displays).
• msg.kernel.bg: The
background color used to print kernel messages and warnings. Its respective
kernel option is WS_KERNEL_BG.
• msg.kernel.fg: The
foreground color used to print kernel messages and warnings. Its respective
kernel option is WS_KERNEL_FG.
The values accepted as colors are: black, red, green, brown, blue, magenta, cyan and white. The attributes
are a comma separated list of one or more flags, which can be: reverse, hilit, blink and/or underline.
For example, to emulate the look of one of those old Amstrad machines:
wsconsctl -d -w border=blue msg.default.bg=blue msg.default.fg=white msg.default.attrs=hi
Or, to make your kernel messages appear red:
wsconsctl -d -w msg.kernel.fg=red
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
Note that, in older versions of NetBSD, only a subset of this functionality is available; more specifically,
you can only change the kernel colors by changing kernel options, as explained above. Also note that not
all drivers support these features, so you may not get correct results on all architectures.
8.1.1.5.2 Getting applications to use colors on the console
NetBSD uses the termcap database to tell applications what the current terminal’s capabilities are. For
example, some terminals don’t support colors, some don’t support underlining (PC VGA terminals don’t,
for example) etc. The TERM environment variable tells the termcap library the type of terminal. It then
refers to its database for the options.
The default setting for TERM can be inspected by typing echo $TERM on the terminal of interest.
Usually this is something like vt220. This terminal type doesn’t support colors. On a typical PC console
with 25 lines, you can change this value to wsvt25 instead, to get colors. This is done in the C shell (csh)
by entering:
setenv TERM wsvt25
In a Bourne-compatible shell (sh, ksh), you can enter:
export TERM=wsvt25
If this does not work for you, you can try the ansi terminal type, which supports ANSI color codes.
However, other functionality may be missing with this terminal type. You can have a look at the file
/usr/share/misc/termcap to see if you can find a useful match for your console type.
8.1.1.6 Loading alternate fonts
There are several fonts in /usr/share/wscons/fonts that can be loaded as console fonts. This can be
done with the wsfontload(8) command, for example: wsfontload -N ibm -h 8 -e ibm
/usr/share/wscons/fonts/vt220l.808. This command loads the IBM-encoded (-e ibm) font in
the file vt2201.808 which has a height of eight pixels (-h 8). Name it ibm for later reference (-N
ibm).
To actually display the font on the console, use the command wsconsctl -dw font=ibm.
If you want to edit a font, you can use the old pcvt utils that are available in the sysutils/pcvt-utils
package.
8.1.2 wskbd
8.1.2.1 Keyboard mappings
Wscons also allows setting the keymap to map the keys on various national keyboards to the right
characters. E.g. to set the keymap for an Italian keymap, run:
# wsconsctl -k -w encoding=it
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
encoding -> it
This setting will last until the next reboot. To make it permanent, add a encoding line to
/etc/wscons.conf: it will be executed automatically the next time you reboot.
# cp /etc/wscons.conf /etc/wscons.conf.orig
# echo encoding it >>/etc/wscons.conf
Please be careful and type two > characters. If you type only one >, you will overwrite the file instead of
adding a line. But that’s why we always make backup files before touching critical files!
A full list of keyboard mappings can be found in /usr/src/sys/dev/wscons/wsksymdef.h:
•
be - Belgian
•
de - German
•
dk - Danish
•
es - Spanish
•
fi - Finnish
•
fr - French
•
gr - Greek
•
hu - Hungarian
•
it - Italian
•
jp - Japanese
•
no - Norwegian
•
pl - Polish
•
pt - Portuguese
•
ru - Russian
•
sf - Swiss French
•
sg - Swiss German
•
sv - Swedish
•
ua - Ukrainian
•
uk - UK-English
•
us - US-English
There are also several "variants" that can be used to modify a map:
• declk
• dvorak
• iopener
• lk401
• metaesc
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
• nodead
• swapctrlcaps
dvorak uses the Dvorak keyboard layout. swapctrlcaps switches the functions of the Caps Lock and
Left Control keys. iopener is for the nonstandard keyboard layout on the Netpliance i-opener and
makes F1 into Escape and F2 through F12 into F1 through F11. These can be combined with another
map by appending a dot and then the variant name, for example, us.iopener. Multiple variants can be
combined, such as us.dvorak.swapctrlcaps. Note that not all combinations are allowed.
You can change the compiled in kernel default by adding options PCKBD_LAYOUT=KB_encoding
where encoding is an uppercase entry from the list above (eg: PCKBD_LAYOUT=KB_FR). Variants can be
bitwise or’d in (eg: PCKBD_LAYOUT=KB_US|KB_SWAPCTRLCAPS).
Configuring the keyboard layout under X is described elsewhere
(http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/x/#x-keyboard-maps).
8.1.2.1.1 Hacking wscons to add a keymap
If your favourite keymap is not supported, you can start digging in
src/sys/dev/wscons/wsksymdef.h and src/sys/dev/pckbport/wskbdmap_mfii.c to make
your own. Be sure to send-pr (http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html#submitting) a
change-request PR with your work, so others can make use of it!
You can test your keymap by using wsconsctl instead of directly hacking the keymaps into the keyboard
mapping file. For example, to say keycode 51 without any modifiers should map to a comma, with shift it
should map to a question mark, with alt it should map to a semicolon and with both alt and shift it should
map to colon, issue the following command:
wsconsctl -w "map += keycode 51=comma question semicolon colon"
8.1.2.2 Changing the keyboard repeat speed
Keyboard repeat speed can be tuned using the wsconsctl(8) utility. There are two variables of interest:
repeat.del1, which specifies the delay before character repetition starts, and repeat.deln, which
sets the delay between each character repetition (once started).
Let’s see an example, assuming you want to accelerate keyboard speed. You could do, from the
command line:
wsconsctl -w repeat.del1=300
wsconsctl -w repeat.deln=40
Or, if you want this to happen automatically every time you boot up the system, you could add the
following lines to /etc/wscons.conf:
setvar repeat.del1=300
setvar repeat.deln=40
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
8.1.3 wsmouse
8.1.3.1 Serial mouse support
The wsmouse device (part of wscons) does not directly support serial mice. The moused(8) daemon is
provided to read serial mouse data, convert it into wsmouse events and inject them in wscons’ event
queue, so the mouse can be used through the abstraction layer provided by wsmouse.
A typical use can be: moused -p /dev/tty00. This will try to determine the type of mouse connected
to the first serial port and start reading its data. The moused(8) man page contains more examples.
8.1.3.2 Cut&paste on the console with wsmoused
It is possible to use the mouse on the wscons console to mark (cut) text with one mouse button, and
insert (paste) it again with another button.
To do this, enable "wsmoused" in /etc/rc.conf, and start it:
# echo wsmoused=yes >>/etc/rc.conf
# sh /etc/rc.d/wsmoused start
After that you can use the mouse to mark text with the left mouse button, and paste it with the right one.
To tune the behaviour of wsmoused(8) see its manpage, which also describes the format of the
wsmoused.conf(5) config file, an example of which can be found in
/usr/share/examples/wsmoused.
8.2 pccons
This console driver doesn’t offer virtual consoles and utility programs for configuration but takes up very
little space. Due to this, it can be found on the i386 install floppy. It is only available for a handful of
architectures, mostly i386 derivatives.
To enable it, put the following line in your kernel config file:
pc0 at isa? port 0x60 irq 1 # pccons generic PC console driver
You can also set one of several options to compile in a non-english keymap:
# Keyboard layout configuration for pccons
#options
FRENCH_KBD
#options
FINNISH_KBD
#options
GERMAN_KBD
#options
NORWEGIAN_KBD
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Chapter 8 Console drivers
Remove the comment character in front of one of this to enable the corresponding keymap, then follow
the instructions in Chapter 31 to rebuild your kernel.
In general, you shouldn’t need pccons though, and wscons should fit all your needs.
73
Chapter 9
X
9.1 What is X?
The X Window System is the graphical subsystem available for NetBSD and many Unix (and non Unix)
systems. In fact it is much more than that: thanks to the usage of the X protocol, the X Window System is
“network transparent” and can run distributed applications (client-server). This means, roughly, that you
can run an application on one host (client) and transparently display the graphical output on another host
(server); transparently means that you don’t have to modify the application to achieve this result. The X
Window System is produced and maintained by the X Consortium and the current release is X11R6. The
flavour of X used by NetBSD is XFree86, a freely redistributable open source implementation of the X
Window System.
Please note that the X Window System is a rather bare bones framework which acts again as a base for
modern desktop environments like GNOME, KDE or XFCE, but they are not part of the X Windows
System, and while NetBSD ships with the X Window System, it does not include these desktop
environments. They can be added easily via the pkgsrc system, though, if needed.
When you start using X you’ll find many new terms which you’ll probably find confusing at first. The
basic elements to use X are:
•
Video hardware supported by XFree86, i.e. your video card.
•
An X server running on top of the hardware. The X server provides a standard way to open windows,
do graphics (including fonts for text display), and get mouse/keyboard/other input. X is
network-transparent, so that you can run X clients on one machine, and the X server (i.e., the display,
with video hardware) on another machine.
•
A window manager running on the X server. The window manager is essentially a special client that is
allowed to control placement of windows. It also “decorates” windows with standard “widgets”
(usually these provide window-motion, resizing, iconifying, and perhaps a few other actions). A
window manager also may provide backdrops, etc. Window managers can also let you kill
windows/programs by clicking on their windows, and so forth.
•
A desktop environment (optional.) KDE and GNOME, for example, are desktops: they are suites of
more-or-less integrated software designed to give you a well-defined range of software and a more or
less common interface to each of the programs. These include a help browser of some kind, a
“desktop-metaphor” access to your filesystem, custom terminals to replace xterm, software
development environments, audio, picture/animation viewers, etc.
•
Any other applications (3rd party X clients) that you have. These talk to the X server and to the
window manager. Unless the window manager is part of the desktop (if any), the desktop probably
doesn’t get involved in much of anything that these applications do. (However, e.g., GNOME may be
able to detect that you’ve installed the GIMP, for example, and so offer a menu to launch the GIMP.)
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Chapter 9 X
To summarize: in order to use a graphical environment you need
•
the XFree86 system
•
a window manager (XFree86 already comes with a very basic window manager called twm.)
•
If you prefer a more sophisticated environment you’ll probably want to install a desktop too, although
this is not necessary. Desktops have some nice features that are helpful to users who come from
environments such as Macintosh or MS-WINDOWS (the KDE desktop, for example, has a very
similar flavour to MS-WINDOWS.)
Note: By now it should be clear that desktops like GNOME and KDE do not provide X servers. They
run on top of an existing X server supplied by XFree86. KDE and GNOME can make use of their own
window manager or of a separately installed window manager.
Normally, you can run at most one window manager at any given time on a given X server. (But you can
run multiple X servers on a single computer.) If you are not running a window manager of your
choosing, and start KDE/GNOME, then that desktop environment will run a window manager for you.
9.2 Configuration
If you haven’t chosen a minimal configuration during installation, X is already installed and ready to run
on your computer. Depending on the exact hardware platform you run NetBSD and X on, you may or
may not need to configure your X server. While most workstation ports (sparc, pmax, ...) will just work
without further configuration if you use the right X-server, which is what /usr/X11R6/bin/X is usually
linked to.
On PCs (i386, amd64), Shark and some other platforms, you will have to tune the X server first by create
the menacing /etc/X11/XF86Config file. To get an idea of what this file looks like, examine the
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XF86Config.eg file. The structure of the configuration file is described
formally in XF86Config(5), which can be examined with the following command:
# man XF86Config
Before configuring the system it is advisable to carefully read the documentation found in
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc: there are various README’s for the video cards, for the mouse and even
a NetBSD specific one (README.NetBSD.) I suggest to start by reading QuickStart.doc. You might
have the feeling that other systems let you start more quickly and with less effort, but the time spent
reading this documentation is not wasted: the knowledge of X and of your configuration that you gain
will turn out very useful on many future occasions and you’ll be able to get the most from your hardware
(and software too.)
You can create the /etc/X11/XF86Config file manually with an editor or you can generate it
automatically with an interactive configuration program. The best known programs are xf86config,
XF86Setup (XFree86 3.x) and xf86cfg (XFree86 4.x). Both xf86config and xf86cfg are installed by
default with X; XF86Setup is a graphical configuration tool which can be installed from pkgsrc.
You may find that a mixed approach is better: first create the XF86Config with one of the two programs
and then check it and tune it manually with an editor. E.g. for the GUI based xf86cfg:
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Chapter 9 X
# xf86cfg
# configure to your will, and at the end save to /etc/X11/XF86Config
# vi /etc/X11/XF86Config
or for the screen-oriented, non-graphical xf86config:
# xf86config
# configure to your will, and at the end save to /etc/X11/XF86Config
# vi /etc/X11/XF86Config
The interface of the two programs is different but they both require the same set of information:
•
the mouse type and the mouse device to be used
•
the keyboard type and its layout
•
the type of video card
•
the type of monitor
Before configuring the system you should collect the required information.
9.3 The mouse
The first thing to check is the type of mouse you are using (for example, serial or PS/2, ...) and the mouse
device (for example, wsmouse requires a different protocol). If you are using a serial mouse, choose the
required protocol and specify the serial port to which it is connected.
For example, PS/2 and USB mice usually are attached to the wsmouse device, and as such you can use:
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Mouse0"
Driver
"mouse"
Option
"Protocol" "wsmouse"
Option
"Device" "/dev/wsmouse"
EndSection
If you use a mouse with a scroll wheel, scrolling up and down is handled as mouse buttons 4 and 5 being
pressed (respectively). Many applications like xterm or Firefox handle these button presses. To enable
the scroll wheel, add the following lines to the "Pointer" section:
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Mouse0"
Driver
"mouse"
Option
"Protocol" "wsmouse"
Option
"Device" "/dev/wsmouse"
Option
"ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
EndSection
For a serial mouse on the first serial port, try something like:
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Mouse0"
Driver
"mouse"
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Chapter 9 X
Option
Option
EndSection
"Protocol" "auto"
"Device" "/dev/tty00"
In this example. /dev/tty00 is the first serial port here, use /dev/tty01 for the second and so on.
Protocol "auto" will try to automatically detect the protocol of your serial mouse. If this doesn’t work, try
values like "Microsoft", "IntelliMouse" or "Logitech", see /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XF86Config.eg
and /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc/README.mouse for more information.
9.4 The keyboard
Even if you have already configured your keyboard for wscons, you need to configure it for X too, at
least if you want to get a non US layout.
An easy solution is to use the XKB protocol, specifying the keyboard type and layout.
This is one area in which that configuration programs are weak and you may want to choose the standard
layout and modify the generated configuration file manually:
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Keyboard0"
Driver
"keyboard"
Option
"XkbRules" "xfree86"
Option
"XkbModel" "pc102"
Option
"XkbLayout" "de"
Option
"XkbOptions" "ctrl:nocaps"
EndSection
If you want to use the “Windows” keys on your keyboard, use “pc105” instead of “pc102” for XkbModel.
9.5 The monitor
It is very important to correctly specify the values of the horizontal and vertical frequency of the monitor:
a correct definition shields the monitor from damages deriving from an incompatible setup of the video
card. This information can be found in the monitor’s manual. In the X documentation directory there is a
file containing the settings of many monitors; it can be used as a starting point to customize your own
settings.
9.6 The video card
The video card can be chosen from the database of the configuration programs; the program will take
care of all the needed setups. Video card support is slightly different between XFree86 3.x and 4.x.
XFree86 3.x has multiple servers for different categories of video card chipsets. XFree86 4.x has only
one server. Different video chipsets are supported via platform independent driver modules, which can be
found in /usr/X11R6/lib/modules/drivers.
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Chapter 9 X
9.6.1 XFree 3.x
When you have selected the correct video card you must choose the X server for the card. Usually, the
configuration programs can automatically determine the correct server, but some video cards can be
driven by more than one server (for example, S3 Virge is supported by the SVGA and S3V servers); in
this case, study the documentation of the servers to decide which one you need: different servers usually
have different capabilities and a different degree of support for the video cards.
9.6.2 XFree86 4.x
After selecting the correct video card the configuration program will automatically select the appropriate
driver or suggest it. If you have not selected a card you can configure your video card by selecting the
required module.
9.7 Starting X
When you exit the configuration program, it creates the file /etc/X11/XF86Config, which can be
further examined and modified by hand.
Before starting X you should:
•
check that the symbolic link /usr/X11R6/bin/X points to the correct X server:
# ls -l /usr/X11R6/bin/X
•
Verify that the configuration is correct. Launch:
# X -probeonly
and examine carefully the output.
Now you can start X with the following command:
# startx
If X doesn’t fire up there is probably some error in the configuration file.
If X starts but doesn’t work as expected (for example, you can’t move the mouse pointer) you can exit
quickly with the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination (not available on all ports). If everything worked
correctly you are left in the X environment with the default window manager (twm): although it is a
simple window manager many users feel that it is enough for their needs. If you want a highly
configurable window manager with many bells and whistles, you have many choices in the package
collection, see Section 9.9 below.
To start customizing X, try giving the following command in an xterm to change the background color:
# xsetroot -solid DarkSeaGreen
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Chapter 9 X
9.8 Customizing X
The look of the X environment can be customized in several ways. The easiest method is to copy the
default .xinitrc file in your home directory and modify it, or create a simple, new one from scratch.
For example:
$ cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc $HOME/.xinitrc
$ vi $HOME/.xinitrc
The following example shows how to start the window manager (twm), open an instance of the xclock
program in the lower right part of the screen and two xterm windows. The “Bisque4” color is used for
the background.
The first part of the file is the same
...
# start some nice programs
xclock -geometry 50x50-1-1 &
xterm -geometry 80x34-1+1 -bg OldLace &
xsetroot -solid Bisque4 &
xterm -geometry 80x44+0+0 -bg AntiqueWhite -name login
twm
# no ’&’ here
With this type of setup, to exit X you must end the window manager, which is usually done by selecting
"exit" from its menu.
Even with this simple configuration X has a considerably nicer look. To give an even better look to the
environment you can install some utility program from the package collection. For example:
xcolorsel
displays all the colors defined in rgb.txt. Use it to choose background colors for the root window
or for xterms.
xpmroot
lets you use a pixmap for the background.
xscreensaver
X screen saver.
xdaemon
no desktop can be complete without this package, which displays a moveable bitmap of the BSD
daemon in two selectable sizes.
9.9 Other window managers
If you don’t like twm, which is a very simple window manager lacking many features and not very
configurable, you can choose another window manager from the package collection. Some of the most
popular are: fvwm2, olwm/olvwm (Open Look Window Manager), WindowMaker, Enlightenment,
AfterStep.
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Chapter 9 X
In the rest of this section the installation of WindowMaker is described as an example. WindowMaker is
a nice looking and highly configurable window manager. It can be installed directly via pkg_add:
# pkg_add -v windowmaker
Alternatively, it can be built from pkgsrc using the make install command:
# cd /usr/pkgsrc/wm/windowmaker
# make install
As usual, both pkg_add and make install will fetch the needed packages automatically, so there is no
need to deal with dependencies manually.
More themes for WindowMaker are available in the wmthemes package.
WindowMaker is now installed; to start it you must modify your .xinitrc and/or .xsession file:
substitute the line which calls twm with a line which calls wmaker. For example:
# start some useful programs
xclock -geometry 50x50-1-1 &
xdaemon2 -geometry +0-70 &
# start window manager:
wmaker
# no ’&’ here to exit the session after the window manager’s done
The startx command will start the X11 session with WindowMaker. As configured in the example
.xinitrc file above, choosing “Quit” or similar from the window manager’s menu will quit the window
manager and the X11 session.
9.10 Graphical login with xdm
If you always use X for your work and the first thing you do after you log in is run startx, you can set up
a graphical login for your workstation which does this automatically. It is very easy:
1.
Create the .xsession file in your home directory. This file is similar to ~/.xinitrc and can, in
fact, be a link to the latter.
$ cd $HOME
$ ln -s .xinitrc .xsession
2.
Modify /etc/rc.conf:
xdm=YES
xdm_flags=""
# x11 display manager
If you prefer you can add the following line at the end of /etc/rc.local instead of modifying
rc.conf:
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdm
This method can be used to start, for example, kdm or gdm instead of xdm.
The configuration files for xdm are in the /etc/X11/xdm directory. In the Xservers file X is started by
default on “vt05”, which is the console you reach via “Ctrl+Alt+F5”; if you want to use another virtual
console instead, this is the right place to modify the setting. In order to avoid keyboard contention
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Chapter 9 X
between getty and xdm it is advisable to start xdm on a virtual terminal where getty is disabled. For
example if in Xservers you have:
:0 local /usr/X11R6/bin/X :0 vt04
in /etc/ttys you should have
ttyE3
"/usr/libexec/getty Pc"
vt220
off secure
(Please note that vt04 corresponds to ttyE3 because vt start at 1 and ttyE start at 0).
If you want a nice look for your xdm login screen, you can modify the xdm configuration file. For
example, to change the background color you can add the following line to the Xsetup_0 file:
xsetroot -solid SeaGreen
Instead of setting a color, you can put an image on the background using the xpmroot program: For
example:
xpmroot /path_to_xpm/netbsd.xpm
If you experiment a little with the configuration file you can achieve many nice looking effects and build
a pleasing login screen. Note that other display managers like gdm and kdm offer different ways of
configuration, usually GUI based.
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Chapter 10
Linux emulation
The NetBSD port for i386, alpha, mac68k, macppc, and many others can execute a great number of
native Linux programs, using the Linux emulation layer. Generally, when you think about emulation you
imagine something slow and inefficient because, often, emulations must reproduce hardware instructions
and even architectures (usually from old machines) in software. In the case of the Linux emulation this is
radically different: it is only a thin software layer, mostly for system calls which are already very similar
between the two systems. The application code itself is processed at the full speed of your CPU, so you
don’t get a degraded performance with the Linux emulation and the feeling is exactly the same as for
native NetBSD applications.
This chapter explains how to configure the Linux emulation with an example: the installation of the well
known Acrobat Reader version 7 program.
10.1 Emulation setup
The installation of the Linux emulation is described in the compat_linux(8) man page; using the package
system only two steps are needed.
1.
Configuring the kernel.
2.
Installing the Linux libraries.
3.
Installing Linux applications like Acrobat Reader
10.1.1 Configuring the kernel
If you use a GENERIC kernel you don’t need to do anything because Linux compatibility is already
enabled.
If you use a customized kernel, check that the following options are enabled:
option COMPAT_LINUX
option EXEC_ELF32
or the following options if you are going to use 64-bit ELF binaries:
option COMPAT_LINUX
option EXEC_ELF64
when you have compiled a kernel with the previous options you can start installing the necessary
software.
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Chapter 10 Linux emulation
10.1.2 Installing the Linux libraries
Usually, applications are linked against shared libraries, and for Linux applications, Linux shared
libraries are needed. You can get the shared libraries from any Linux distribution, provided it’s not too
old, but the suggested method is to use the package system and install the libraries automatically (which
uses SUSE libraries). When you install the libraries, the following happens:
•
A secondary root directory is created which will be used for Linux programs. This directory is
/emul/linux. The Linux programs in emulation mode will use this directory as their root directory
and use files there. If a required file is not found, it will be searched with / as root directory.
For example, if a Linux application opens /etc/ld.so.conf, it will first be searched in
/emul/linux/etc/ld.so.conf, and if not found there in /etc/ld.so.conf.
•
The shared libraries for Linux are installed. Most applications are linked dynamically and expect to
find the necessary libraries on the system. For example, for Acrobat Reader, if you go to the
/usr/pkgsrc/print/acroread7 and give the make depends command, pkgsrc will fetch and
install all dependencies for Acrobat Reader.
Both operations will be handled automatically by the package system, without the need of manual
intervention from the user (we suppose that, by now, you have already begun to love the package
system...). Note that this section describes manual installation of the Linux libraries.
To install the libraries, a program must be installed that handles the RPM format: it is rpm, which will be
used to extract the SUSE libraries. Execute make and make install in the /usr/pkgsrc/misc/rpm/
directory to build and install rpm.
Next the suse100_base package must be installed. The SUSE RPM files can be downloaded by the
package system or, if you have a SUSE CD, you can copy them in the
/usr/pkgsrc/distfiles/suse100 directory and then run make and make install after going to the
/usr/pkgsrc/emulators/suse100_base directory.
With the same method install suse100_compat and suse100_x11. The final configuration is:
# pkg_info -a | grep suse
suse_base-10.0nb3
Linux compatibility package
suse_compat-10.0nb1 Linux compatibility package with old shared libraries
suse_x11-10.0nb2
Linux compatibility package for X11 binaries
10.1.3 Installing Acrobat Reader
Now everything is ready for the installation of the Acrobat Reader program (or other Linux programs).
Change to /usr/pkgsrc/print/acroread7 and give the usual commands.
# make
# make install
Note: To download and install Acrobat Reader you need to add the line
“ACCEPTABLE_LICENSES+=adobe-acrobat-license” to /etc/mk.conf to accept the Acrobat
Reader license, simply follow the instructions given after make.
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Chapter 10 Linux emulation
10.2 Directory structure
If we examine the outcome of the installation of the Linux libraries and programs we find that
/emul/linux is a symbolic link pointing to /usr/pkg/emul/linux, where the following directories
have been created:
bin/
dev/
etc/
lib/
opt/
proc/
root/
sbin/
usr/
var/
Note: Please always refer to /emul/linux and not to /usr/pkg/emul/linux. The latter is an
implementation detail and may change in the future.
How much space is required for the Linux emulation software? On one system we got the following
figure:
# cd /usr/pkg/emul
# du -k /emul/linux/
...
127804
/emul/linux/
Acrobat Reader, the program, has been installed in the usual directory for package binaries:
/usr/pkg/bin. It can be run just as any other program:
$ acroread netbsd.pdf
10.3 Emulating /proc
Some Linux programs rely on a Linux-like /proc filesystem. The NetBSD procfs filesystem can
emulate a /proc filesystem that contains Linux-specific pseudo-files. To accomplish this you can mount
the procfs with the “linux”-option:
# mount_procfs -o linux procfs /emul/linux/proc
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Chapter 10 Linux emulation
In this example a Linux-like proc filesystem will be mounted to the /emul/linux/proc directory. You
can also let NetBSD mount it automatically during the booting process of NetBSD, by adding the
following line to /etc/fstab:
procfs /emul/linux/proc procfs ro,linux
10.4 Using Linux browser plugins
Linux plugins for Mozilla-based browsers can be used on native NetBSD Firefox builds through
nspluginwrapper, a wrapper that translates between the native browser and a foreign plugin. At the
moment, nspluginwrapper only works reliably on Mozilla-based browsers that link against GTK2+
(GTK1+ is not supported). nspluginwrapper can be installed through pkgsrc:
# cd /usr/pkgsrc/www/nspluginwrapper
# make install
Plugins can then be installed in two steps: first, the plugin has to be installed on the system (e.g. through
pkgsrc). After that the plugin should be registered with the nspluginwrapper by the users who want to
use that plugin.
In this short example we will have a look at installing the Macromedia Flash plugin. We can fullfill the
first step by installing the Flash plugin through pkgsrc:
# cd /usr/pkgsrc/multimedia/ns-flash
# make install
After that an unprivileged user can register the Flash plugin:
$ nspluginwrapper -i /usr/pkg/lib/netscape/plugins/libflashplayer.so
The plugin should then be registered correctly. You can check this by using the -l option of
nspluginwrapper (nspluginwrapper -l). If the plugin is listed, you can restart Firefox, and verify that
the plugin was installed by entering about:plugins in the location bar.
10.5 Further reading
The following articles may be of interest for further understanding Linux (and other) emulation:
Bibliography
Implementing Linux emulation on NetBSD (http://www.linux.com/articles/35998) , Peter Seebach, May
2004.
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Chapter 10 Linux emulation
Linux compatibility on BSD for the PPC platform, part 1
(http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2001/05/10/linux_bsd.html) , Emmanuel Dreyfus, May
2001.
Linux compatibility on BSD for the PPC platform, part 2
(http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2001/05/17/linux_bsd.html) , Emmanuel Dreyfus, May
2001.
Linux compatibility on BSD for the PPC platform, part 3
(http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2001/06/07/linux_bsd.html) , Emmanuel Dreyfus, Jun
2001.
Linux compatibility on BSD for the PPC platform, part 4
(http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2001/06/21/linux_bsd.html) , Emmanuel Dreyfus, Jun
2001.
Linux compatibility on BSD for the PPC platform, part 5
(http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/onlamp/2001/08/09/linux_bsd.html) , Emmanuel Dreyfus, Aug
2002.
Irix binary compatibility, part 1 (http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/bsd/2002/08/08/irix.html) , Emmanuel
Dreyfus, Aug 2002.
Irix binary compatibility, part 2 (http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/bsd/2002/08/29/irix.html) , Emmanuel
Dreyfus, Aug 2002.
Irix binary compatibility, part 3 (http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/bsd/2002/09/12/irix.html) , Emmanuel
Dreyfus, Sep 2002.
Irix binary compatibility, part 4 (http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/bsd/2002/10/10/irix.html) , Emmanuel
Dreyfus, Oct 2002.
Irix binary compatibility, part 5 (http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/bsd/2002/12/19/irix.html) , Emmanuel
Dreyfus, Dec 2002.
Irix binary compatibility, part 6 (http://www.onlamp.com/pub/a/bsd/2003/04/03/irix.html) , Emmanuel
Dreyfus, Apr 2003.
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Chapter 11
Audio
This chapter is a short introduction to the usage of audio devices on NetBSD (who wants a dumb
computer, anyway?)
11.1 Basic hardware elements
In order to make audio work on your system you must know what audio card is installed. Sadly it is often
not enough to know the brand and model of the card, because many cards use chipsets manufactured
from third parties. Therefore knowing the chipset installed on the audio card can sometimes be useful.
The NetBSD kernel can recognize many chipsets and a quick look at dmesg is enough most of the time.
Therefore, type the following command:
# dmesg | more
and look for the audio card and chipset. If you’re lucky you won’t need to do anything because NetBSD
automatically detects and configures many audio cards.
Sometimes audio doesn’t work because the card is not supported or because you need to do some work
in order for the card to be detected by NetBSD. Many audio cards are nowadays very cheap, and it is
worth considering buying a different card, but before doing this you can try some simple steps to make
the card work with NetBSD.
11.2 BIOS settings
This section is useful only to the owners of i386 PCs; on other architectures (e.g. Amiga) there are no
such features. The most important thing to determine in order to use the audio card with NetBSD is the
type of bus supported by the card.
The most common interfaces are ISA and PCI.
ISA Plug and Play cards are usually more tricky to configure mostly because of the interaction with the
BIOS of the computer.
On the newer machines (those produced after 1997) there is a BIOS option which causes many
headaches for the configuration of ISA Plug and Play audio cards (but not only audio cards): this option
is usually named “PNP OS Installed” and is commonly found in the “PNP/PCI Configuration” (the
names can be different in your BIOS.) As a general rule it is usually better to disable (i.e. set it to “NO”)
this option for NetBSD.
Note: On many systems everything works fine even if this option is enabled. This is highly system
dependent.
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11.3 Configuring the audio device
During the installation of NetBSD the devices are created in the /dev directory. We are primarily
interested in:
/dev/audio
/dev/sound
/dev/mixer
If they are not present they can be created like this:
# cd /dev
# ./MAKEDEV all
This command creates all the devices, including the audio devices.
The audio card is now probably ready to be used without further work.
You can make a quick test and send an audio file to the device (audio files usually have the .au
extension), but if you don’t have an audio file you can just send a text or binary file (of course you won’t
hear anything useful...). Use /dev/audio or /dev/sound:
# cat filename > /dev/audio
or
# cat filename > /dev/sound
If you hear something it means that the card is supported by NetBSD and was recognized and configured
by the kernel at boot; otherwise you must configure the kernel settings for the audio device installed on
the system (assuming the card/chipset is supported.)
11.4 Configuring the kernel audio devices
NetBSD supports a wide range of audio cards and the GENERIC kernel already enables and configures
most of them. Sometimes it is necessary to manually set up the IRQ and DMA for non-PnP ISA cards.
Note: When you create a custom kernel it is better to work on a copy of the GENERIC file, as
described in Chapter 31.
If you still have problems you can try enabling all the devices, because some audio cards can be made to
work only by emulating another card.
Many chipset make use of the SoundBlaster and OPL compatibility, but a great number of them work
with the WSS emulation.
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Chapter 11 Audio
OPL is a MIDI synthesizer produced by Yamaha; there are many OPL variants (e.g. OPL2, OPL3SA,
OPL3SA2, etc.). Many audio cards rely on this component or on a compatible one. For example, the
chips produced by Crystal (and amongst them the very common CS423x) all have this chipset, and that’s
why they work with NetBSD.
WSS is not a microchip; it is the acronym of Windows Sound System. WSS is the name of the NetBSD
kernel driver which supports the audio system of Microsoft Windows. Many audio cards work with
Windows because they adhere to this standard (WSS) and the same holds for NetBSD.
Of the many audio cards that I tested with NetBSD, a good number work only if opl* and wss* are
enabled in the kernel.
You should have no problem to get the Creative SoundBlaster cards to work with NetBSD: almost all of
them are supported, including the Sound Blaster Live 1024!
When everything works you can disable in the kernel configuration file the devices that you don’t need.
11.5 Advanced commands
NetBSD comes with a number of commands that deal with audio devices. They are:
•
audioctl(1)
•
mixerctl(1)
•
audioplay(1)
•
audiorecord(1)
11.5.1 audioctl(1)
audioctl(1) made its appearance in NetBSD 1.3 and is used to manually set some variables regarding
audio I/O, like the frequencies for playing and recording. The available parameters can be displayed with
the following command:
# audioctl -a | more
For example, to listen to CD quality music you can use the following command.
# audioctl -w play=44100,2,16,slinear_le
This command sets the frequency to 44100Hz, 2 audio channels, 16 bit, slinear_le encoding.
You can see the supported encodings with:
# audioctl encodings
This command displays the list of all the encodings supported by the audio card on your system.
11.5.2 mixerctl(1)
This command is used to configure the audio mixing and has an interface similar to that of audioctl(1).
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Chapter 11 Audio
11.5.3 audioplay(1)
With this command you can play audio files in simple formats like ULAW and WAV. For more
sophisticated needs you might want to install one of the many programs available in the package system
which let you play audio files in different formats (e.g. MP3, etc.)
11.5.4 audiorecord(1)
Not unsurprisingly this command is used to record audio files.
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Chapter 12
Printing
This chapter describes a simple configuration for printing, using an HP Deskjet 690C printer connected
to the first parallel port and the lpd printing system that comes with NetBSD. First, the system will be
configured to print text documents, and next the configuration will be extended to print PostScript
documents using the Ghostscript program (print/ghostscript). Please note that there are other,
alternative printing systems available from the packages collection
(http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/software/packages.html), like LPRng (print/LPRng) and the Common
Unix Printing System (CUPS) (print/cups) which are not covered here.
12.1 Enabling the printer daemon
After installation it is not yet possible to print, because the lpd printer spooler daemon is not enabled. To
enable lpd, one line in the /etc/rc.conf file must be changed from:
lpd=NO
to
lpd=YES
The change will come into effect at the next boot, but the daemon can be started manually now:
# sh /etc/rc.d/lpd start
To check if lpd is active, type the following command:
# ps ax | grep lpd
179 ??
Is
0:00.01 lpd
If you don’t see an entry for lpd in the output of the previous command, the daemon is not active.
The lpd system is configured via /etc/printcap. Before configuring /etc/printcap it is a good
idea to make a printer test, to check if the physical connection between your computer and the printer is
working. The test sends out some data directly to the printer device. Assuming you use a printer
connected to the parallel port, this is /dev/lpt0; if you use an USB printer try /dev/ulpt0. Please
check the manpages of these devices (lpt(4), ulpt(4)) for more information!
In our example we have a printer attached to the parallel port, so we run this:
# lptest 70 5 > /dev/lpt0
To see what the output should look like, try the same command without redirecting the output to the
printer:
# lptest 70 5
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Chapter 12 Printing
!"#$%&’()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_‘abcdef
"#$%&’()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_‘abcdefg
#$%&’()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_‘abcdefgh
$%&’()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_‘abcdefghi
%&’()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_‘abcdefghij
A frequent problem is that the output on the printer is not correctly aligned in columns but has a
“staircase” configuration. This usually means that the printer is configured to begin a new line at the left
margin after receiving both a <CR> (carriage return, ASCII 13) character and a <LF> (line feed, ASCII
10) character. NetBSD only sends a <LF> character. You can fix this problem in two ways:
•
by changing the configuration of the printer
•
by using a simple printer filter (described later)
Note: In the previous example the lpd spooler is not involved because the program output is sent
directly to the printer device (/dev/lpt0) and is not spooled.
12.2 Configuring /etc/printcap
This section explains how to configure the example printer to print text documents.
The printer must have an entry in the /etc/printcap file; the entry contains the printer id (the name of
the printer) and the printer description. The lp id is the default used by many programs. Here is an
example entry:
Example 12-1. /etc/printcap
lp|local printer|HP DeskJet 690C:\
:lp=/dev/lpa0:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:\
:sh:pl#66:pw#80:if=/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter:
The file format and options are described in detail in the printcap(5) manpage. Please note that an input
filter has been specified (with the if option) which will take care of eliminating the staircase problem:
if=/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter
Printer driver and HP printers: Example 12-1 uses the lpa0 device (polled driver) for the printer,
instead of the lpd0 (interrupt driven driver). Using interrupts there is a communication problem with
some printers, and the HP Deskjet 690C is one of them: printing is very slow and one PostScript
page can take hours. The problem is solved using the lpa driver. It is also possible to compile a
custom kernel where lpt is polled.
The printcap entry for the printer also specifies a spool directory, which must be created; this directory
will be used by the lpd daemon to accumulate the data to be printed:
# cd /var/spool/lpd
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Chapter 12 Printing
# mkdir lp
# chown daemon:daemon lp
# chmod 770 lp
The only missing part is the lpfilter input filter, which must be written. The only task performed by
this filter is to configure the printer for the elimination of the staircase problem before sending the text to
be printed. The printer used in this example requires the following initialization string: “<ESC>&k2G”.
Example 12-2. /usr/local/libexec/lpfilter
#!/bin/sh
# Treat LF as CR+LF
printf "\033&k2G" && cat && exit 0
exit 2
After saving this script into the name you used in /etc/printcap, you need to make sure it’s
executable:
# chmod 755 /usr/local/libexec/lpfilter*
Note: There is another filter that can be used:
if=/usr/libexec/lpr/lpf:
This filter is much more complex than the one presented before. It is written to process the output of
nroff and handles underline and overprinting, expands tab characters and converts LF to CR + LF.
The source to this filter program can be found in /usr/src/usr.sbin/lpr/filters/lpf.c.
After everything is in place now, the lptest command can be run again now, this time using the lpr
command, which will first send the data to the lpd spooler, then runs the filter and sends the data off to
the printer:
# lptest 70 5 | lpr -h
The lpr program prints text using the spooler to send data to the printer; the -h option turns off the
printing of a banner page (not really necessary, because of the sh option in /etc/printcap). Users
more familiar with the System V printing system can also use the lp(1) command that comes as an
alternative to lpr(1).
12.3 Configuring Ghostscript
Now that basic printing works, the functionality for printing PostScript files can be added. The simple
printer used in this example does not support native printing of PostScript files; a program must be used
which is capable of converting a PostScript document in a sequence of commands that the printer
understands. The Ghostscript program, which can be found in packages collection, can be used to this
purpose. This section explains how to configure lpd to use Ghostscript to print PostScript files on the HP
Deskjet 690C.
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Chapter 12 Printing
A second id for the printer will be created in /etc/printcap: this new id will use a different input
filter, which will call Ghostscript to perform the actual print of the PostScript document. Therefore, text
documents will be printed on the lp printer and PostScript documents on the ps printer: both entries use
the same physical printer but have different printing filters.
The same result can be achieved using different configurations. For example, a single entry with only one
filter could be used. For this, the filter should be able to automatically determine the format of the
document being printed, and use the appropriate printing program. This approach is simpler but leads to
a more complex filter; if you like it you should consider installing the magicfilter program from the
packages collection: it does this and many other things automatically.
For our approach, the new /etc/printcap file looks like this:
Example 12-3. /etc/printcap
lp|local printer|HP DeskJet 690C:\
:lp=/dev/lpa0:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:\
:sh:pl#66:pw#80:if=/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter:
ps|Ghostscript driver:\
:lp=/dev/lpa0:sd=/var/spool/lpd/ps:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:\
:mx#0:sh:if=/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter-ps:
Option mx#0 is very important for printing PostScript files because it eliminates size restrictions on the
input file; PostScript documents tend to be very big. The if option points to the new filter. There is also a
new spool directory.
The next steps are the creation of the new spool directory and of the filter program. The procedure for the
spool directory is the same as above:
#
#
#
#
cd /var/spool/lpd
mkdir ps
chown daemon:daemon ps
chmod 770 ps
The filter program for PostScript output is more complex than the text base one: the file to be printed is
fed to the interpreter which converts it into a sequence of commands in the printer’s control language,
and then sends that off to the printer. We have achieved to transform a cheap color printer in a device
suitable for PostScript output, by virtue of the NetBSD operating system and some powerful freeware
packages. The options used to configure Ghostscript are described in the Ghostscript documentation:
cdj550 is the device used to drive the HP printer.
Example 12-4. /usr/local/libexec/lpfilter-ps
#!/bin/sh
# Treat LF as CR+LF
printf "\033&k2G" || exit 2
# Print the postscript file
/usr/pkg/bin/gs -dSAFER -dBATCH -dQUIET -dNOPAUSE -q -sDEVICE=cdj550 \
-sOutputFile=- -sPAPERSIZE=a4 - && exit 0
exit 2
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Chapter 12 Printing
To summarize: two different printer names have been created on the system, which point to the same
physical printer but use different options, different filters and different spool directories. Text files and
PostScript files can be printed. To print PostScript files the Ghostscript package must be installed on the
system.
12.4 Printer management commands
This section lists some useful BSD commands for printer and print jobs administration. Besides the
already mentioned lpr and lpd commands, we have:
lpq
examine the printer job queue.
lprm
delete jobs from the printer’s queue.
lpc
check the printing system, enable/disable printers and printer features.
12.5 Remote printing
It is possible to configure the printing system in order to print on a printer connected to a remote host.
Let’s say that, for example, you work on the wotan host and you want to print on the printer connected to
the loge host. The /etc/printcap file of loge is the one of Example 12-3. From wotan it will be
possible to print Postscript files using Ghostscript on loge.
The first step is to accept the print jobs submitted from the wotan host to the loge host. To accomplish
this, a line with the wotan host name must be added to the /etc/hosts.lpd file on loge:
# hostname
loge
# cat /etc/hosts.lpd
wotan
The format of this file is very simple: each line contains the name of a host which is permitted to print on
the local system. By default the lpd daemon only listens on UNIX domain sockets for local connections,
it won’t accept any network connects. To ensure the daemon also accepts incoming network traffic, the
following will need to be added to /etc/rc.conf:
lpd_flags=""
Next, the /etc/printcap file on wotan must be configured in order to send print jobs to loge. For
example:
lp|line printer on loge:\
:lp=:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp:lf=/var/log/lp-errs:\
:rm=loge:rp=lp
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Chapter 12 Printing
ps|Ghostscript driver on loge:\
:lp=:sd=/var/spool/lpd/ps:lf=/var/log/lp-errs:\
:mx#0:\
:rm=loge:rp=ps
There are four main differences between this configuration and the one of Example 12-3.
1. The definition of “lp” is empty.
2. The “rm” (remote machine) entry defines the name of the host to which the printer is connected.
3. The “rp” (remote printer) entry defines the name of the printer connected to the remote host.
4. It is not necessary to specify input filters because the definitions on the loge host will be used.
5. The spool directories must still be created locally on wotan:
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
cd /var/spool/lpd
mkdir lp
chown daemon:daemon lp
chmod 770 lp
mkdir ps
chown daemon:daemon ps
chmod 770 ps
Now the print jobs for the “lp” and “ps” queues on wotan will be sent automatically to the printer
connected to loge.
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Using removable media
13.1 Initializing and using floppy disks
PC-style floppy disks work mostly like other disk devices like hard disks, except that you need to
low-level format them first. To use an common 1440 KB floppy in the first floppy drive, first (as root)
format it:
# fdformat -f /dev/rfd0a
Then create a single partition on the disk using disklabel(8):
# disklabel -rw /dev/rfd0a floppy3
Creating a small filesystem optimized for space:
# newfs -m 0 -o space -i 16384 -c 80 /dev/rfd0a
Now the floppy disk can be mounted like any other disk. Or if you already have a floppy disk with an
MS-DOS filesystem on it that you just want to access from NetBSD, you can just do something like this:
# mount -t msdos /dev/fd0a /mnt
However, rather than using floppies like normal (bigger) disks, it is often more convenient to bypass the
filesystem altogether and just splat an archive of files directly to the raw device. E.g.:
# tar cvfz /dev/rfd0a file1 file2 ...
A variation of this can also be done with MS-DOS floppies using the sysutils/mtools package which
has the benefit of not going through the kernel buffer cache and thus not being exposed to the danger of
the floppy being removed while a filesystem is mounted on it.
13.2 How to use a ZIP disk
1. See if your system has a ZIP drive:
# dmesg | grep -i zip
sd0 at atapibus0 drive 1: <IOMEGA
ZIP 100
ATAPI, , 14.A> type 0 direct removabl
Seems it has one, and it’s recognized as sd0, just like any SCSI disk. The fact that the ZIP here is an
ATAPI one doesn’t matter - a SCSI ZIP will show up here, too. The ZIP is marked as "removable",
which means you can eject it with:
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Chapter 13 Using removable media
# eject sd0
2. Insert ZIP disk
3. Check out what partitions are on the ZIP:
# disklabel sd0
# /dev/rsd0d:
type: ATAPI
...
8 partitions:
#
size
offset
fstype
d:
196608
0
unused
h:
196576
32
MSDOS
disklabel: boot block size 0
disklabel: super block size 0
[fsize bsize
0
0
cpg]
# (Cyl.
# (Cyl.
0 - 95)
0*- 95)
Partition d
is the whole disk, as usual on i386.
Partition h
is what you want, and you can see it’s a msdos filesystem even.
Hence, use /dev/sd0h to access the zip’s partition.
4. Mount it:
# mount -t msdos /dev/sd0h /mnt
5. Access your files:
# ls -la /mnt
total 40809
drwxr-xr-x
1 root
drwxr-xr-x 28 root
-rwxr-xr-x
1 root
-rwxr-xr-x
1 root
-rwxr-xr-x
1 root
-rwxr-xr-x
1 root
wheel
wheel
wheel
wheel
wheel
wheel
16384
1024
1474560
1474560
548864
38271173
Dec
Aug
Feb
Feb
Feb
Feb
31 1979 .
2 22:06 ..
23 1999 boot1.fs
23 1999 boot2.fs
23 1999 boot3.fs
23 1999 netbsd19990223.tar.gz
6. Unmount the ZIP:
# umount /mnt
#
7. Eject the ZIP:
# eject sd0
#
13.3 Reading data CDs with NetBSD
Data CDs can contain anything from programs, sound files (MP3, wav), movies (MP3, QuickTime) to
source code, text files, etc. Before accessing these files, a CD must be mounted on a directory, much like
hard disks are. Just as hard disks can use different filesystems (ffs, lfs, ext2fs, ...), CDs have their own
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Chapter 13 Using removable media
filesystem, "cd9660". The NetBSD cd9660 filesystem can handle filesystems without and with
Rockridge and Joliet extensions.
CD devices are named /dev/cd0a for both SCSI and IDE (ATAPI).
With this information, we can start:
1. See if your system has some CD drive:
# dmesg | grep ^cd
cd0 at atapibus0 drive 0: <CD-R/RW RW8040A, , 1.12> type 5 cdrom removable
cd0: 32-bit data port
cd0: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 0
cd0(pciide0:1:0): using PIO mode 0, DMA mode 0 (using DMA data transfers)
We have one drive here, "cd0". It is an IDE/ATAPI drive, as it is found on atapibus0. Of course the
drive (rather, its medium) is removable, i.e., you can eject it. See below.
2. Insert a CD
3. Mount the CD manually:
# mount -t cd9660 /dev/cd0a /mnt
#
This command shouldn’t print anything. It instructs the system to mount the CD found on /dev/cd0a
on /mnt, using the "cd9660" filesystem. The mountpoint "/mnt" must be an existing directory.
4. Check the contents of the CD:
# ls /mnt
INSTALL.html INSTALL.ps
INSTALL.more INSTALL.txt
TRANS.TBL
binary
boot.catalog
installation
#
Everything looks fine! This is a NetBSD CD, of course. :)
5. Unmount the CD:
# umount /mnt
#
If the CD is still accessed (e.g. some other shell’s still "cd"’d into it), this will not work. If you shut
down the system, the CD will be unmounted automatically for you, there’s nothing to worry about
there.
6. Making an entry in /etc/fstab:
If you don’t want to type the full "mount" command each time, you can put most of the values into a
line in /etc/fstab:
# Device
/dev/cd0a
mountpoint
/cdrom
filesystem
cd9660
mount options
ro,noauto
Make sure that the mountpoint, /cdrom in our example, exists:
# mkdir /cdrom
#
Now you can mount the cd with the following command:
# mount /cdrom
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Chapter 13 Using removable media
#
Access and unmount as before.
The CD is not mounted at boot time due to the "noauto" mount option - this is useful as you’ll
probably not have a CD in the drive all the time. See mount(8) and mount_cd9660(8) for some other
useful options.
7. Eject the CD:
# eject cd0
#
If the CD is still mounted, it will be unmounted if possible, before being ejected.
13.4 Reading multi-session CDs with NetBSD
Use mscdlabel(8) to add all sessions to the CDs disklabel, and then use the appropriate device node to
mount the session you want. You might have to create the corresponding device nodes in /dev manually.
For example:
# mscdlabel cd1
track (ctl=4) at sector 142312
adding as ’a’
track (ctl=4) at sector 0
adding as ’b’
# ls -l /dev/cd1b
ls: /dev/cd1b: No such file or directory
# cd /dev
# ls -l cd1*
brw-r----brw-r-----
1 root
1 root
operator
operator
6, 8 Mar 18 21:55 cd1a
6, 11 Mar 18 21:55 cd1d
# mknod cd1b b 6 9
to create /dev/cd1b. Make sure you fix the permissions of any new device nodes you create:
# ls -l cd1*
brw-r----brw-r--r-brw-r-----
1 root
1 root
1 root
operator
wheel
operator
6, 8 Mar 18 21:55 cd1a
6, 9 Mar 18 22:23 cd1b
6, 11 Mar 18 21:55 cd1d
operator
operator
operator
6, 8 Mar 18 21:55 cd1a
6, 9 Mar 18 22:24 cd1b
6, 11 Mar 18 21:55 cd1d
# chgrp operator cd1b
# chmod 640 cd1b
# ls -l cd1*
brw-r----brw-r----brw-r-----
1 root
1 root
1 root
Now you should be able to mount it.
# mount /dev/cd1b /mnt
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13.5 Allowing normal users to access CDs
By default, NetBSD only allows "root" to mount a filesystem. If you want any user to be able to do this,
perform the following steps:
•
Give groups and other the access rights to the device.
# chmod go+rw /dev/cd0a
•
Ask NetBSD to let users mounting filesystems.
# sysctl -w vfs.generic.usermount=1
Note that this works for any filesystem and device, not only for CDs with a ISO 9660 filesystem.
To perform the mount operation after these commands, the user must own the mount point. So, for
example:
$ cd $HOME
$ mkdir cdrom
$ mount -t cd9660 -o nodev,nosuid /dev/cd0a ‘pwd‘/cdrom
Note: The mount options nodev and nosuid are mandatory from NetBSD 4.0 on. They are not
necessary on NetBSD 3.x systems.
Please also see mount(8) and as an alternative the auto mount daemon amd(8), for which example config
files can be found in /usr/share/examples/amd.
13.6 Mounting an ISO image
Sometimes, it is interesting to mount an ISO9660 image file before you burn the CD; this way, you can
examine its contents or even copy files to the outside. If you are a Linux user, you should know that this
is done with the special loop filesystem. NetBSD does it another way, using the vnode pseudo-disk.
We will illustrate how to do this with an example. Suppose you have an ISO image in your home
directory, called "mycd.iso":
1. Start by setting up a new vnode, "pointing" to the ISO file:
# vnconfig -c vnd0 ~/mycd.iso
2. Now, mount the vnode:
# mount -t cd9660 /dev/vnd0a /mnt
3. Yeah, image contents appear under /mnt! Go to that directory and explore the image.
4. When you are happy, you have to umount the image:
# umount /mnt
5. And at last, deconfigure the vnode:
# vnconfig -u vnd0
Note that these steps can also be used for any kind of file that contains a filesystem, not just ISO images.
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See the vnd(4) and vnconfig(8) man pages for more information.
13.7 Using video CDs with NetBSD
To play MPEG Video streams as many DVD players can play them under NetBSD, mount the CD as you
would do with any normal (data) CD (see Section 13.3), then use the multimedia/xine-ui,
multimedia/mplayer or multimedia/gmplayer package to play the mpeg files stored on the CD.
13.8 Using audio CDs with NetBSD
There are two ways to handle audio CDs:
1. Tell the CD drive to play to the headphone or to a soundcard, to which CDROMs are usually
connected internally. Use programs like cdplay(1), audio/xmcd, "kscd" from the
multimedia/kdemultimedia3 package, mixer programs like mixerctl(1), audio/xmix,
audio/xmmix, the Curses based audio/cam, or kmix, which is part of
multimedia/kdemultimedia3.
This usually works well on both SCSI and IDE (ATAPI) CDROMs, CDRW and DVD drives.
2. To read ("rip") audio tracks in binary form without going through digital->analog conversion and
back. There are several programs available to do this:
•
For most ATAPI, SCSI and several proprietary CDROM drives, the audio/cdparanoia package
can be used. With cdparanoia the data can be saved to a file or directed to standard output in WAV,
AIFF, AIFF-C or raw format. Currently the -g option is required by the NetBSD version of
cdparanoia. A hypothetical example of how to save track 2 as a WAV file is as follows:
$ cdparanoia -g /dev/rcd0d 2 track-02.wav
If you want to grab all files from a CD, cdparanoia’s batch mode is useful:
$ cdparanoia -g /dev/rcd0d -B
•
For ATAPI or SCSI CD-ROMs the audio/cdd package can be used. To extract track 2 with cdd,
type:
# cdd -t 2 ‘pwd‘
This will put a file called track-02.cda in the current directory.
•
For SCSI CD-ROMS the audio/tosha package can be used. To extract track 2 with tosha, you
should be able to type:
# tosha -d CD-ROM-device -t 2 -o track-02.cda
The data can then be post-processed e.g. by encoding it into MP3 streams (see Section 13.9) or by
writing them to CD-Rs (see Section 13.11).
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13.9 Creating an MP3 (MPEG layer 3) file from an audio CD
The basic steps in creating an MPEG layer 3 (MP3) file from an audio CD (using software from the
NetBSD packages collection (http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/)) are:
1. Extract (rip) the audio data of the CD as shown in Section 13.8.
2. Convert the CD audio format file to WAV format. You only need to perform this job if your ripping
program (e.g. tosha, cdd) didn’t already do the job for you!
•
Using the audio/sox package, type:
$ sox -s -w -c 2 -r 44100 -t cdr track-02.cda track-02.wav
This will convert track-02.cda in raw CD format to track-02.wav in WAV format, using
signed 16-bit words with 2 channels at a sampling rate of 44100kHz.
3. Encode the WAV file into MP3 format.
•
Using the audio/bladeenc package, type:
$ bladeenc -128 -QUIT track-02.wav
This will encode track-02.wav into track-02.mp3 in MP3 format, using a bit rate if
128kBit/sec. The documentation for bladeenc describes bit-rates in more detail.
•
Using the audio/lame package, type:
$ lame -p -o -v -V 5 -h track-02.wav track-02.mp3
You may wish to use a lower quality, depending on your taste and hardware.
The resultant MP3 file can be played with any of the audio/gqmpeg, audio/maplay, audio/mpg123
or audio/splay packages.
13.10 Using a CD-R writer with data CDs
The process of writing a CD consists of two steps: First, a "image" of the data must be generated, which
can then be written to CD-R in a second step.
1. Reading an pre-existing ISO image
# dd if=/dev/rcd0a of=filename.iso bs=2k
#
Alternatively, you can create a new ISO image yourself:
2. Generating the ISO image
Put all the data you want to put on CD into one directory. Next you need to generate a disk-like ISO
image of your data. The image stores the data in the same form as they’re later put on CD, using the
ISO 9660 format. The basic ISO9660 format only understands 8+3 filenames (max. eight letters for
filename, plus three more for an extension). As this is not practical for Unix filenames, a so-called
"Rockridge Extension" needs to be employed to get longer filenames. (A different set of such
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extension exists in the Microsoft world, to get their long filenames right; that’s what’s known as
Joliet filesystem).
The ISO image is created using the mkisofs command, which is part of the sysutils/cdrtools
package.
Example: if you have your data in /usr/tmp/data, you can generate a ISO image file in
/usr/tmp/data.iso with the following command:
$ cd /usr/tmp
$ mkisofs -o data.iso -r data
Using NETBS000.GZ;1 for data/binary/kernel/netbsd.INSTALL.gz (netbsd.INSTALL_TINY.gz
Using NETBS001.GZ;1 for data/binary/kernel/netbsd.GENERIC.gz (netbsd.GENERIC_TINY.gz
5.92% done, estimate finish Wed Sep 13 21:28:11 2000
11.83% done, estimate finish Wed Sep 13 21:28:03 2000
17.74% done, estimate finish Wed Sep 13 21:28:00 2000
23.64% done, estimate finish Wed Sep 13 21:28:03 2000
...
88.64% done, estimate finish Wed Sep 13 21:27:55 2000
94.53% done, estimate finish Wed Sep 13 21:27:55 2000
Total translation table size: 0
Total rockridge attributes bytes: 5395
Total directory bytes: 16384
Path table size(bytes): 110
Max brk space used 153c4
84625 extents written (165 Mb)
$
Please see the mkisofs(8) man page for other options like noting publisher and preparer. The
Bootable CD ROM How-To (http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/bootcd.html) explains how to generate a
bootable CD.
3. Writing the ISO image to CD-R
When you have the ISO image file, you just need to write it on a CD. This is done with the
"cdrecord" command from the sysutils/cdrtools package. Insert a blank CD-R, and off we go:
# cdrecord -v dev=/dev/rcd0d data.iso
...
#
After starting the command, ’cdrecord’ shows you a lot of information about your drive, the disk
and the image you’re about to write. It then does a 10 seconds countdown, which is your last chance
to stop things - type ^C if you want to abort. If you don’t abort, the process will write the whole
image to the CD and return with a shell prompt.
Note that cdrecord(8) works on both SCSI and IDE (ATAPI) drives.
4. Test
Mount the just-written CD and test it as you would do with any "normal" CD, see Section 13.3.
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13.11 Using a CD-R writer to create audio CDs
If you want to make a backup copy of one of your audio CDs, you can do so by extracting ("ripping") the
audio tracks from the CD, and then writing them back to a blank CD. Of course this also works fine if
you only extract single tracks from various CDs, creating your very own mix CD!
The steps involved are:
1. Extract ("rip") the audio tracks as described as in Section 13.8 to get a couple of .wav files.
2. Write the .wav files using cdrecord command from the sysutils/cdrtools package:
# cdrecord -v dev=/dev/rcd0d -audio -pad *.wav
13.12 Creating an audio CD from MP3s
If you have converted all your audio CDs to MP3 and now want to make a mixed CD for your (e.g.) your
car, you can do so by first converting the .mp3 files back to .wav format, then write them as a normal
audio CD.
The steps involved here are:
1. Create .wav files from your .mp3 files:
$ mpg123 -w foo.wav foo.mp3
Do this for all of the MP3 files that you want to have on your audio CD. The .wav filenames you use
don’t matter.
2. Write the .wav files to CD as described under Section 13.11.
13.13 Copying an audio CD
To copy an audio CD while not introducing any pauses as mandated by the CDDA standard, you can use
cdrdao for that:
# cdrdao read-cd --device /dev/rcd0d data.toc
# cdrdao write
--device /dev/rcd1d data.toc
13.14 Copying a data CD with two drives
If you have both a CD-R and a CD-ROM drive in your machine, you can copy a data CD with the
following command:
# cdrecord dev=/dev/rcd1d /dev/rcd0d
Here the CD-ROM (cd0) contains the CD you want to copy, and the CD-R (cd1) contains the blank disk.
Note that this only works with computer disks that contain some sort of data, it does not work with audio
CDs! In practice you’ll also want to add something like "speed=8" to make things a bit faster.
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13.15 Using CD-RW rewritables
You can treat a CD-RW drive like a CD-R drive (see Section 13.10) in NetBSD, creating images with
mkisofs(8) and writing them on a CD-RW medium with cdrecord(8).
If you want to blank a CD-RW, you can do this with cdrecord’s "blank" option:
# cdrecord dev=/dev/rcd0d blank=fast
There are several other ways to blank the CD-RW, call cdrecord(8) with "blank=help" for a list. See
the cdrecord(8) man page for more information.
13.16 DVD support
Currently, NetBSD supports DVD media through the ISO 9660 also used for CD-ROMs. The new UDF
filesystem also present on DVDs has been supported since NetBSD 4.0. Information about mounting ISO
9660 and UDF filesystems can be found in the mount_cd9660(8) and mount_udf(8) manual pages
respectively. DVDs, DivX and many avi files be played with multimedia/ogle or
multimedia/gmplayer.
For some hints on creating DVDs, see this postings about growisofs
(http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/current-users/2004/01/06/0021.html) and this article about recording CDs
and DVDs with NetBSD (http://www.mreriksson.net/blog/archive/15/).
13.17 Creating ISO images from a CD
To create an ISO image and save the checksum do this:
# readcd dev=/dev/cd0d f=/tmp/cd.iso
Here is an alternative using dd(1):
# dd if=/dev/cd0d of=/tmp/cd.iso bs=2048
If the CD has errors you can recover the rest with this:
# dd if=/dev/cd0d of=/tmp/cd.iso bs=2048 conv=noerror
To create an ISO image from a mounted data CD first, mount the CD disk by:
# mount -t cd9660 -r /dev/cd0d /mnt/cdrom
Second, get the image:
# mkhybrid -v -l -J -R -o /tmp/my_cd.iso /mnt/cdrom/
13.18 Getting volume information from CDs and ISO images
You can read the volume data from an unmounted CD with this command:
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Chapter 13 Using removable media
# file -s /dev/cd0d
You can read the volume data from an ISO image with this command:
# isoinfo -d -i /tmp/my_cd.iso
You can get the unique disk number from an unmounted CD with this:
# cd-discid /dev/cd0d
You can read the table of contents of an unmounted CD with this command:
# cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cd0d -toc
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Chapter 14
The cryptographic device driver
(CGD)
The cgd driver provides functionality which allows you to use disks or partitions for encrypted storage.
After providing the appropriate key, the encrypted partition is accessible using cgd pseudo-devices.
14.1 Overview
People often store sensitive information on their hard disks and are concerned about this information
falling into the wrong hands. This is particularly relevant to users of laptops and other portable devices,
or portable media, which might be stolen or accidentally misplaced.
14.1.1 Why use disk encryption?
File-oriented encryption tools like GnuPG are great for encrypting individual files, which can then be
sent across untrusted networks as well as stored encrypted on disk. But sometimes they can be
inconvenient, because the file must be decrypted each time it is to be used; this is especially cumbersome
when you have a large collection of files to protect. Any time a security tool is cumbersome to use,
there’s a chance you’ll forget to use it properly, leaving the files unprotected for the sake of convenience.
Worse, readable copies of the encrypted contents might still exist on the hard disk. Even if you overwrite
these files (using rm -P) before unlinking them, your application software might make temporary copies
you don’t know about, or have been paged to swapspace - and even your hard disk might have silently
remapped failing sectors with data still in them.
The solution is to simply never write the information unencrypted to the hard disk. Rather than taking a
file-oriented approach to encryption, consider a block-oriented approach - a virtual hard disk, that looks
just like a normal hard disk with normal filesystems, but which encrypts and decrypts each block on the
way to and from the real disk.
14.1.2 Logical Disk Drivers
The cgd device looks and behaves to the rest of the operating system like any other disk driver. Rather
than driving real hardware directly, it provides a logical function layered on top of another block device.
It has a special configuration program, cgdconfig, to create and configure a cgd device and point it at the
underlying disk device that will hold the encrypted data.
NetBSD includes several other similar logical block devices, each of which provides some other function
where cgd provides encryption. You can stack several of these logical block devices together: you can
make an encrypted raid to protect your encrypted data against hard disk failure as well.
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Once you have created a cgd disk, you can use disklabel to divide it up into partitions, swapctl to enable
swapping to those partitions or newfs to make filesystems, then mount and use those filesystems, just
like any other new disk.
14.1.3 Availability
The cgd driver was written by Roland C. Dowdeswell, and introduced in NetBSD-current between the
1.6 and 2.0 release branches. As a result, it is not in the 1.6 release series; it is in the 2.0 release.
14.2 Components of the Crypto-Graphic Disk system
A number of components and tools work together to make the cgd system effective.
14.2.1 Kernel driver pseudo-device
To use cgd you need a kernel with support for the cgd pseudo-device. Make sure the following line is in
the kernel configuration file:
pseudo-device
cgd
4
# cryptographic disk driver
The number specifies how many cgd devices may be configured at the same time. After configuring the
cgd pseudo-device you can recompile the kernel and boot it to enable cgd support.
14.2.2 Ciphers
The cgd driver provides the following encryption algorithms:
Encryption Methods
aes-cbc
AES (Rijndael). AES uses a 128 bit blocksize and accepts 128, 192 or 256 bit keys.
blowfish-cbc
Blowfish uses a 64 bit blocksize and accepts 128 bit keys
3des-cbc
Triple DES uses a 64 bit blocksize and accepts 192 bit keys (only 168 bits are actually used for
encryption)
All three ciphers are used in CBC mode. This means each block is XORed with the previous encrypted
block before encryption. This reduces the risk that a pattern can be found, which can be used to break the
encryption.
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
14.2.3 Verification Methods
Another aspect of cgd that needs some attention are the verification methods cgdconfig provides. These
verification methods are used to verify the passphrase is correct. The following verification methods are
available:
Verification Methods
none
no verification is performed. This can be dangerous, because the key is not verified at all. When a
wrong key is entered cgdconfig configures the cgd device as normal, but data which was available
on the volume will be destroyed (decrypting blocks with a wrong key will result in random data,
which will result in a regeneration of the disklabel with the current key).
disklabel
cgdconfig scans for a valid disklabel. If a valid disklabel is found with the key that is provided
authentication will succeed.
ffs
cgdconfig scans for a valid FFS file system. If a valid FFS file system is found with the key that is
provided authentication will succeed.
14.3 Example: encrypting your disk
This section works through a step-by-step example of converting an existing system to use cgd,
performing the following actions:
1. Preparing the disk and partitions
2. Scrub off all data
3. Create the cgd
4. Adjust config-files
5. Restoring your backed-up files to the encrypted disk
14.3.1 Preparing the disk
First, decide which filesystems you want to move to an encrypted device. You’re going to need to leave at
least the small root (/) filesystem unencrypted, in order to load the kernel and run init, cgdconfig and the
rc.d scripts that configure your cgd. In this example, we’ll encrypt everything except the root (/)
filesystem.
We are going to delete and re-make partitions and filesystems, and will require a backup to restore the
data. So make sure you have a current, reliable backup stored on a different disk or machine. Do your
backup in single-user mode, with the filesystems unmounted, to ensure you get a clean dump. Make sure
you back up the disklabel of your hard disk as well, so you have a record of the partition layout before
you started.
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
With the system at single user, / mounted read-write and everything else unmounted, use disklabel to
delete all the data partitions you want to move into cgd.
Then make a single new partition in all the space you just freed up, say, wd0e. Set the partition type for
this partition to ccd (there’s no code specifically for cgd, but ccd is very similar. Though it doesn’t
really matter what it is, it will help remind you that it’s not a normal filesystem later). When finished,
label the disk to save the new partition table.
14.3.2 Scrubbing the disk
We have removed the partition table information, but the existing filesystems and data are still on disk.
Even after we make a cgd device, create filesystems, and restore our data, some of these disk blocks
might not yet be overwritten and still contain our data in plaintext. This is especially likely if the
filesystems are mostly empty. We want to scrub the disk before we go further.
We could use dd to copy /dev/zero over the new wd0e partition, but this will leave our disk full of
zeros, except where we’ve written encrypted data later. We might not want to give an attacker any clues
about which blocks contain real data, and which are free space, so we want to write "noise" into all the
disk blocks. So we’ll create a temporary cgd, configured with a random, unknown key.
First, we configure a cgd to use a random key:
# cgdconfig -s cgd0 /dev/wd0e aes-cbc 128 < /dev/urandom
Now we can write zeros into the raw partition of our cgd (/dev/rcgd0d on NetBSD/i386,
/dev/rcgd0c on most other platforms):
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rcgd0d bs=32k
The encrypted zeros will look like random data on disk. This might take a while if you have a large disk.
Once finished, unconfigure the random-key cgd:
# cgdconfig -u cgd0
14.3.3 Creating the cgd
The cgdconfig program, which manipulates cgd devices, uses parameters files to store such information
as the encryption type, key length, and a random password salt for each cgd. These files are very
important, and need to be kept safe - without them, you will not be able to decrypt the data!
We’ll generate a parameters file and write it into the default location (make sure the directory /etc/cgd
exists and is mode 700):
# cgdconfig -g -V disklabel -o /etc/cgd/wd0e aes-cbc 256
This creates a parameters file /etc/cgd/wd0e describing a cgd using the aes-cbc cipher method, a
key verification method of disklabel, and a key length of 256 bits. It will look something like this:
algorithm aes-cbc;
iv-method encblkno;
keylength 256;
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
verify_method disklabel;
keygen pkcs5_pbkdf2/sha1 {
iterations 6275;
salt AAAAgHTg/jKCd2ZJiOSGrgnadGw=;
};
Note: Remember, you’ll want to save this file somewhere safe later.
Tip: When creating the parameters file, cgdconfig reads from /dev/random to create the password
salt. This read may block if there is not enough collected entropy in the random pool. This is unlikely,
especially if you just finished overwriting the disk as in the previous step, but if it happens you can
press keys on the console and/or move your mouse until the rnd device gathers enough entropy.
Now it’s time to create our cgd, for which we’ll need a passphrase. This passphrase needs to be entered
every time the cgd is opened, which is usually at each reboot. The encryption key is derived from this
passphrase and the salt. Make sure you choose something you won’t forget, and others won’t guess.
The first time we configure the cgd, there is no valid disklabel on the logical device, so the validation
mechanism we want to use later won’t work. We override it this one time:
# cgdconfig -V re-enter cgd0 /dev/wd0e
This will prompt twice for a matching passphrase, just in case you make a typo, which would otherwise
leave you with a cgd encrypted with a passphrase that’s different to what you expected.
Now that we have a new cgd, we need to partition it and create filesystems. Recreate your previous
partitions with all the same sizes, with the same letter names.
Tip: Remember to use the disklabel -I argument, because you’re creating an initial label for a new
disk.
Note: Although you want the sizes of your new partitions to be the same as the old, unencrypted
ones, the offsets will be different because they’re starting at the beginning of this virtual disk.
Then, use newfs to create filesystems on all the relevant partitions. This time your partitions will reflect
the cgd disk names, for example:
# newfs /dev/rcgd0h
14.3.4 Modifying configuration files
We’ve moved several filesystems to another (logical) disk, and we need to update /etc/fstab
accordingly. Each partition will have the same letter (in this example), but will be on cgd0 rather than
wd0. So you’ll have /etc/fstab entries something like this:
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
/dev/wd0a
/dev/cgd0b
/dev/cgd0b
/dev/cgd0e
/dev/cgd0f
/dev/cgd0h
/
none
/tmp
/var
/usr
/home
ffs
swap
mfs
ffs
ffs
ffs
rw,softdep
sw
rw,-s=132m
rw,softdep
rw,softdep
rw,softdep
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
2
2
2
Note: /tmp should be a separate filesystem, either mfs or ffs, inside the cgd, so that your temporary
files are not stored in plain text in the / filesystem.
Each time you reboot, you’re going to need your cgd configured early, before fsck runs and filesystems
are mounted.
Put the following line in /etc/cgd/cgd.conf:
cgd0
/dev/wd0e
This will use /etc/cgd/wd0e as config file for cgd0.
To finally enable cgd on each boot, put the following line into /etc/rc.conf:
cgd=YES
You should now be prompted for /dev/cgd0’s passphrase whenever /etc/rc starts.
14.3.5 Restoring data
Next, mount your new filesystems, and restore your data into them. It often helps to have /tmp mounted
properly first, as restore can use a fair amount of temporary space when extracting a large dumpfile.
To test your changes to the boot configuration, umount the filesystems and unconfigure the cgd, so
when you exit the single-user shell, rc will run like on a clean boot, prompting you for the passphrase
and mounting your filesystems correctly. Now you can bring the system up to multi-user, and make sure
everything works as before.
14.4 Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs
14.4.1 Introduction
This section explains how to create and use encrypted CDs/DVDs with NetBSD (all I say about "CDs"
here does also apply to "DVDs"). I assume that you have basic knowledge of cgd(4), so I will not explain
what cgd is or what’s inside it in detail. The same applies to vnd(4). One can make use of encrypted CDs
after reading this howto, but for more detailed information about different cgd configuration options,
please read Chapter 14 or the manpages.
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
14.4.2 Creating an encrypted CD/DVD
cgd(4) provides highly secure encryption of whole partitions or disks. Unfortunately, creating "normal"
CDs is not disklabeling something and running newfs on it. Neither can you just put a CDR into the
drive, configure cgd and assume it to write encrypted data when syncing. Standard CDs contain at least
an ISO-9660 filesystem created with mkisofs(8) from the sysutils/cdrtools package. ISO images
may not contain disklabels or cgd partitions.
But of course CD reader/writer hardware doesn’t care about filesystems at all. You can write raw data to
the CD if you like - or an encrypted FFS filesystem, which is what we’ll do here. But be warned, there is
NO way to read this CD with any OS except NetBSD - not even other BSDs due to the lack of cgd.
The basic steps when creating an encrypted CD are:
•
Create an (empty) imagefile
•
Register it as a virtual disk using vnd(4)
•
Configure cgd inside the vnd disk
•
Copy content to the cgd
•
Unconfigure all (flush!)
•
Write the image on a CD
The first step when creating an encrypted CD is to create a single image file with dd. The image may not
grow, so make it large enough to allow all CD content to fit into. Note that the whole image gets written
to the CD later, so creating a 700 MB image for 100 MB content will still require a 700 MB write
operation to the CD. Some info on DVDs here: DVDs are only 4.7 GB in marketing language. 4.7GB =
4.7 x 1024 x 1024 x 1024 = 5046586573 bytes. In fact, a DVD can only approximately hold 4.7 x 1000 x
1000 x 1000 = 4700000000 bytes, which is about 4482 MB or about 4.37 GB. Keep this in mind when
creating DVD images. Don’t worry for CDs, they hold "real" 700 MB (734003200 Bytes).
Invoke all following commands as root!
For a CD:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=image.img bs=1m count=700
or, for a DVD:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=image.img bs=1m count=4482
Now configure a vnd(4)-pseudo disk with the image:
# vnconfig vnd0 image.img
In order to use cgd, a so-called parameter file, describing encryption parameters and a containing
"password salt" must be generated. We’ll call it /etc/cgd/image here. You can use one parameter file
for several encrypted partitions (I use one different file for each host and a shared file image for all
removable media, but that’s up to you).
I’ll use AES-CBC with a keylength of 256 bits. Refer to cgd(4) and cgdconfig(8) for details and
alternatives.
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
The following command will create the parameter file as /etc/cgd/image. YOU DO NOT WANT TO
INVOKE THE FOLLOWING COMMAND AGAIN after you burnt any CD, since a recreated parameter
file is a lost parameter file and you’ll never access your encrypted CD again (the "salt" this file contains
will differ among each call). Consider this file being HOLY, BACKUP IT and BACKUP IT AGAIN! Use
switch -V to specify verification method "disklabel" for the CD (cgd cannot detect whether you entered a
valid password for the CD later when mounting it otherwise).
# cgdconfig -g -V disklabel aes-cbc 256 > /etc/cgd/image
Now it’s time to configure a cgd for our vnd drive. (Replace slice "d" with "c" for all platforms that use
"c" as the whole disk (where "sysctl kern.rawpartition" prints "2", not "3"); if you’re on i386 or amd64,
"d" is OK for you):
# cgdconfig -V re-enter cgd1 /dev/vnd0d /etc/cgd/image
The "-V re-enter" option is necessary as long as the cgd doesn’t have a disklabel yet so we can access
and configure it. This switch asks for a password twice and uses it for encryption.
Now it’s time to create a disklabel inside the cgd. The defaults of the label are ok, so invoking disklabel
with
# disklabel -e -I cgd1
and leaving vi with ":wq" immediately will do.
Let’s create a filesystem on the cgd, and finally mount it somewhere:
# newfs /dev/rcgd1a
# mount /dev/cgd1a /mnt
The cgd is alive! Now fill /mnt with content. When finished, reverse the configuration process. The steps
are:
1. Unmounting the cgd1a:
# umount /mnt
2. Unconfiguring the cgd:
# cgdconfig -u cgd1
3. Unconfiguring the vnd:
# vnconfig -u vnd0
The following commands are examples to burn the images on CD or DVD. Please adjust the dev= for
cdrecord or the /dev/rcd0d for growisofs. Note the "rcd0d" is necessary with NetBSD. Growisofs is
available in the sysutils/dvd+rw-tools package. Again, use "c" instead of "d" if this is the raw
partition on your platform.
Finally, write the image file to a CD:
# cdrecord dev=/dev/rcd0d -v image.img
...or to a DVD:
# growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/rcd0d=image.img
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
Congratulations! You’ve just created a really secure CD!
14.4.3 Using an encrypted CD/DVD
After creating an encrypted CD as described above, we’re not done yet - what about mounting it again?
One might guess, configuring the cgd on /dev/cd0d is enough - no, it is not.
NetBSD cannot access FFS file systems on media that is not 512 bytes/sector format. It doesn’t matter
that the cgd on the CD is, since the CD’s disklabel the cgd resides in has 2048 bytes/sector.
But the CD driver cd(4) is smart enough to grant "write" access to the (emulated) disklabel on the CD.
So before configuring the cgd, let’s have a look at the disklabel and modify it a bit:
# disklabel -e cd0
# /dev/rcd0d:
type: ATAPI
disk: mydisc
label: fictitious
flags: removable
bytes/sector: 2048
#
sectors/track: 100
#
tracks/cylinder: 1
sectors/cylinder: 100 #
cylinders: 164
total sectors: 16386 #
rpm: 300
interleave: 1
trackskew: 0
cylinderskew: 0
headswitch: 0
track-to-track seek: 0
drivedata: 0
4 partitions:
#
size offset
a:
65544
0
d:
65544
0
-- Change to 512 (= orig / 4)
-- Change to 400 (= orig * 4)
-- Change to 400 (= orig * 4)
-- Change to value of slice "d" (=65544)
# microseconds
# microseconds
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
4.2BSD 0
0
0 # (Cyl. 0 - 655+)
ISO9660 0
0
# (Cyl. 0 - 655+)
If you don’t want to do these changes every time by hand, you can use Florian Stoehr’s tool neb-cd512
which is (at time of writing this) in pkgsrc-wip and will move to sysutils/neb-cd512 soon. You can
also download the neb-cd512 source from http://sourceforge.net/projects/neb-stoehr/
(http://sourceforge.net/projects/neb-stoehr/) (be sure to use neb-cd512, not neb-wipe!).
It is invoked with the disk name as parameter, by root:
# neb-cd512 cd0
Now as the disklabel is in 512 b/s format, accessing the CD is as easy as:
# cgdconfig cgd1 /dev/cd0d /etc/cgd/image
# mount -o ro /dev/cgd1a /mnt
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
Note that the cgd MUST be mounted read-only or you’ll get illegal command errors from the cd(4) driver
which can in some cases make even mounting a CD-based cgd impossible!
Now we’re done! Enjoy your secure CD!
# ls /mnt
Remember you have to reverse all steps to remove the CD:
# umount /mnt
# cgdconfig -u cgd1
# eject cd0
14.5 Suggestions and Warnings
You now have your filesystems encrypted within a cgd. When your machine is shut down, the data is
protected, and can’t be decrypted without the passphrase. However, there are still some dangers you
should be aware of, and more you can do with cgd. This section documents several further suggestions
and warnings that will help you use cgd effectively.
•
Use multiple cgd’s for different kinds of data, one mounted all the time and others mounted only
when needed.
•
Use a cgd configured on top of a vnd made from a file on a remote network fileserver (NFS, SMBFS,
CODA, etc) to safely store private data on a shared system. This is similar to the procedure for using
encrypted CDs and DVDs described in Section 14.4.
14.5.1 Using a random-key cgd for swap
You may want to use a dedicated random-key cgd for swap space, regenerating the key each reboot. The
advantage of this is that once your machine is rebooted, any sensitive program memory contents that may
have been paged out are permanently unrecoverable, because the decryption key is never known to you.
We created a temporary cgd with a random key when scrubbing the disk in the example above, using a
shorthand cgdconfig -s invocation to avoid creating a parameters file.
The cgdconfig params file includes a “randomkey” keygen method. This is more appropriate for
"permanent" random-key configurations, and facilitates the easy automatic configuration of these
volumes at boot time.
For example, if you wanted to convert your existing /dev/wd0b partition to a dedicated random-key
cgd1, use the following command to generate /etc/cgd/wd0b:
# cgdconfig -g -o /etc/cgd/wd0b -V none -k randomkey blowfish-cbc
When using the randomkey keygen method, only verification method "none" can be used, because the
contents of the new cgd are effectively random each time (the previous data decrypted with a random
key). Likewise, the new disk will not have a valid label or partitions, and swapctl will complain about
configuring swap devices not marked as such in a disklabel.
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
In order to automate the process of labeling the disk, prepare an appropriate disklabel and save it to a file,
for example /etc/cgd/wd0b.disklabel. Please refer to disklabel(8) for information about how to
use disklabel to set up a swap partition.
On each reboot, to restore this saved label to the new cgd, create the /etc/rc.conf.d/cgd file as
below:
swap_device="cgd1"
swap_disklabel="/etc/cgd/wd0b.disklabel"
start_postcmd="cgd_swap"
cgd_swap()
{
if [ -f $swap_disklabel ]; then
disklabel -R -r $swap_device $swap_disklabel
fi
}
The same technique could be extended to encompass using newfs to re-create an ffs filesystem for
/tmp if you didn’t want to use mfs.
14.5.2 Warnings
Prevent cryptographic disasters by making sure you can always recover your passphrase and parameters
file. Protect the parameters file from disclosure, perhaps by storing it on removable media as above,
because the salt it contains helps protect against dictionary attacks on the passphrase.
Keeping the data encrypted on your disk is all very well, but what about other copies? You already have
at least one other such copy (the backup we used during this setup), and it’s not encrypted. Piping dump
through file-based encryption tools like gpg can be one way of addressing this issue, but make sure you
have all the keys and tools you need to decrypt it to restore after a disaster.
Like any form of software encryption, the cgd key stays in kernel memory while the device is
configured, and may be accessible to privileged programs and users, such as /dev/kmem grovellers.
Taking other system security steps, such as running with elevated securelevel, is highly recommended.
Once the cgd volumes are mounted as normal filesystems, their contents are accessible like any other
file. Take care of file permissions and ensure your running system is protected against application and
network security attack.
Avoid using suspend/resume, especially for laptops with a BIOS suspend-to-disk function. If an attacker
can resume your laptop with the key still in memory, or read it from the suspend-to-disk memory image
on the hard disk later, the whole point of using cgd is lost.
14.6 Further Reading
The following resources contain more information on CGD:
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Chapter 14 The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
Bibliography
NetBSD CGD Setup (http://www.s-mackie.demon.co.uk/unix-notes/NetBSD-CGD-Setup.html), Stuart
Mackie.
I want my cgd (http://www.nycbug.org/uploads/_netbsdcgd.html) aka: I want an encrypted
pseudo-device on my laptop.
The original paper on The CryptoGraphic Disk Driver (http://www.imrryr.org/~elric/cgd/cgd.pdf),
Roland Dowdeswell and John Ioannidis.
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Chapter 15
Concatenated Disk Device (CCD)
configuration
The CCD driver allows the user to “concatenate” several physical disks into one pseudo volume. While
RAIDframe (see Chapter 16) also allows doing this to create RAID level 0 sets, it does not allow you to
do striping across disks of different geometry, which is where CCD comes in handy. CCD also allows for
an “interleave” to improve disk performance with a gained space loss. This example will not cover that
feature.
The steps required to setup a CCD are as follows:
1.
Install physical media
2.
Configure kernel support
3.
Disklabel each volume member of the CCD
4.
Configure the CCD conf file
5.
Initialize the CCD device
6.
Create a filesystem on the new CCD device
7.
Mount the CCD filesystem
This example features a CCD setup on NetBSD/sparc 1.5. The CCD will reside on 4 SCSI disks in a
generic external Sun disk pack chassis connected to the external 50 pin SCSI port.
15.1 Install physical media
This step is at your own discretion, depending on your platform and the hardware at your disposal.
From my DMESG:
Disk #1:
probe(esp0:0:0): max sync rate 10.00MB/s
sd0 at scsibus0 target 0 lun 0: <SEAGATE, ST32430N SUN2.1G, 0444> SCSI2 0/direct fixed
sd0: 2049 MB, 3992 cyl, 9 head, 116 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 4197405 sectors
Disk #2
probe(esp0:1:0): max sync rate 10.00MB/s
sd1 at scsibus0 target 1 lun 0: <SEAGATE, ST32430N SUN2.1G, 0444> SCSI2 0/direct fixed
sd1: 2049 MB, 3992 cyl, 9 head, 116 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 4197405 sectors
Disk #3
probe(esp0:2:0): max sync rate 10.00MB/s
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Chapter 15 Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration
sd2 at scsibus0 target 2 lun 0: <SEAGATE, ST11200N SUN1.05, 9500> SCSI2 0/direct fixed
sd2: 1005 MB, 1872 cyl, 15 head, 73 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 2059140 sectors
Disk #4
probe(esp0:3:0): max sync rate 10.00MB/s
sd3 at scsibus0 target 3 lun 0: <SEAGATE, ST11200N SUN1.05, 8808 > SCSI2 0
sd3: 1005 MB, 1872 cyl, 15 head, 73 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 2059140 sectors
15.2 Configure Kernel Support
The following kernel configuration directive is needed to provide CCD device support. It is enabled in
the GENERIC kernel:
pseudo-device
ccd
4
# concatenated disk devices
In my kernel config, I also hard code SCSI ID associations to /dev device entries to prevent bad things
from happening:
sd0
# SCSI
sd1
# SCSI
sd2
# SCSI
sd3
# SCSI
sd4
# SCSI
sd5
# SCSI
sd6
# SCSI
at scsibus0
disk drives
at scsibus0
disk drives
at scsibus0
disk drives
at scsibus0
disk drives
at scsibus0
disk drives
at scsibus0
disk drives
at scsibus0
disk drives
target 0 lun ?
target 1 lun ?
target 2 lun ?
target 3 lun ?
target 4 lun ?
target 5 lun ?
target 6 lun ?
15.3 Disklabel each volume member of the CCD
Each member disk of the CCD will need a special file system established. In this example, I will need to
disklabel:
/dev/rsd0c
/dev/rsd1c
/dev/rsd2c
/dev/rsd3c
Note: Always remember to disklabel the character device, not the block device, in /dev/r{s,w}d*
Note: On all platforms, the c slice is symbolic of the entire NetBSD partition and is reserved.
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Chapter 15 Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration
You will probably want to remove any pre-existing disklabels on the disks in the CCD. This can be
accomplished in one of two ways with the dd(1) command:
#
#
#
#
dd
dd
dd
dd
if=/dev/zero
if=/dev/zero
if=/dev/zero
if=/dev/zero
of=/dev/rsd0c
of=/dev/rsd1c
of=/dev/rsd2c
of=/dev/rsd3c
bs=8k
bs=8k
bs=8k
bs=8k
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
If your port uses a MBR (Master Boot Record) to partition the disks so that the NetBSD partitions are
only part of the overall disk, and other OSs like Windows or Linux use other parts, you can void the
MBR and all partitions on disk by using the command:
#
#
#
#
dd
dd
dd
dd
if=/dev/zero
if=/dev/zero
if=/dev/zero
if=/dev/zero
of=/dev/rsd0d
of=/dev/rsd1d
of=/dev/rsd2d
of=/dev/rsd3d
bs=8k
bs=8k
bs=8k
bs=8k
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
This will make all data on the entire disk inaccessible. Note that the entire disk is slice d on i386 (and
some other ports), and c elsewhere (e.g. on sparc). See the “kern.rawpartition” sysctl - "3" means "d",
"2" means "c".
The default disklabel for the disk will look similar to this:
# disklabel -r sd0
[...snip...]
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 116
tracks/cylinder: 9
sectors/cylinder: 1044
cylinders: 3992
total sectors: 4197405
[..snip...]
3 partitions:
#
size
offset
c: 4197405
0
fstype
unused
[fsize bsize
1024 8192
cpg]
# (Cyl.
0 - 4020*)
You will need to create one “slice” on the NetBSD partition of the disk that consumes the entire partition.
The slice must begin at least one cylinder offset from the beginning of the disk/partition to provide space
for the special CCD disklabel. The offset should be 1x sectors/cylinder (see following note). Therefore,
the “size” value should be “total sectors” minus 1x “sectors/cylinder”. Edit your disklabel accordingly:
# disklabel -e sd0
Note: The offset of a slice of type “ccd” must be a multiple of the “sectors/cylinder” value.
Note: Be sure to export EDITOR=[path to your favorite editor] before editing the disklabels.
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Chapter 15 Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration
Note: The slice must be fstype ccd.
Because there will only be one slice on this partition, you can recycle the c slice (normally reserved for
symbolic uses). Change your disklabel to the following:
3 partitions:
#
size
c: 4196361
offset
1044
fstype
ccd
[fsize bsize
cpg]
# (Cyl. 1 - 4020*)
Optionally you can setup a slice other than c to use, simply adjust accordingly below:
3 partitions:
#
size
a: 4196361
c: 4197405
offset
1044
0
fstype
ccd
unused
[fsize bsize
1024
cpg]
8192
# (Cyl. 1 - 4020*)
# (Cyl. 0 - 4020*)
Be sure to write the label when you have completed. Disklabel will object to your disklabel and prompt
you to re-edit if it does not pass its sanity checks.
15.4 Configure the CCD
Once all disks are properly labeled, you will need to generate a configuration file, /etc/ccd.conf. The
file does not exist by default, and you will need to create a new one. The format is:
#ccd
ileave
flags
component
devices
Note: For the “ileave”, if a value of zero is used then the disks are concatenated, but if you use a
value equal to the “sectors/track” number the disks are interleaved.
Example in this case:
# more /etc/ccd.conf
ccd0
0
none /dev/sd0c /dev/sd1c /dev/sd2c /dev/sd3c
Note: The CCD driver expects block device files as components. Be sure not to use character device
files in the configuration.
15.5 Initialize the CCD device
Once you are confident that your CCD configuration is sane, you can initialize the device using the
ccdconfig(8) command: Configure:
# ccdconfig -C -f /etc/ccd.conf
123
Chapter 15 Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration
Unconfigure:
# ccdconfig -u -f /etc/ccd.conf
Initializing the CCD device will activate /dev entries: /dev/{,r}ccd#:
# ls -la
/dev/{,r}ccd0*
brw-r----brw-r----brw-r----brw-r----brw-r----brw-r----brw-r----brw-r----crw-r----crw-r----crw-r----crw-r----crw-r----crw-r----crw-r----crw-r-----
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
operator
9,
9,
9,
9,
9,
9,
9,
9,
23,
23,
23,
23,
23,
23,
23,
23,
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Apr
Apr
May
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Jun
Apr
Jun
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
Apr
28
28
12
28
28
28
28
28
12
28
12
28
28
28
28
28
21:35
21:35
00:10
21:35
21:35
21:35
21:35
21:35
20:40
21:35
20:58
21:35
21:35
21:35
21:35
21:35
/dev/ccd0a
/dev/ccd0b
/dev/ccd0c
/dev/ccd0d
/dev/ccd0e
/dev/ccd0f
/dev/ccd0g
/dev/ccd0h
/dev/rccd0a
/dev/rccd0b
/dev/rccd0c
/dev/rccd0d
/dev/rccd0e
/dev/rccd0f
/dev/rccd0g
/dev/rccd0h
15.6 Create a 4.2BSD/UFS filesystem on the new CCD device
You may now disklabel the new virtual disk device associated with your CCD:
# disklabel -e ccd0
Once again, there will be only one slice, so you may either recycle the c slice or create a separate slice
for use.
# disklabel -r ccd0
# /dev/rccd0c:
type: ccd
disk: ccd
label: default label
flags:
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 2048
tracks/cylinder: 1
sectors/cylinder: 2048
cylinders: 6107
total sectors: 12508812
rpm: 3600
interleave: 1
trackskew: 0
cylinderskew: 0
headswitch: 0
# microseconds
track-to-track seek: 0 # microseconds
drivedata: 0
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Chapter 15 Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration
#
size
c: 12508812
offset
0
fstype
4.2BSD
[fsize bsize
1024 8192
cpg]
16 # (Cyl. 0 - 6107*)
The filesystem will then need to be formatted:
# newfs /dev/rccd0c
Warning: 372 sector(s) in last cylinder unallocated
/dev/rccd0c:
12508812 sectors in 6108 cylinders of 1 tracks, 2048 sectors
6107.8MB in 382 cyl groups (16 c/g, 16.00MB/g, 3968 i/g)
super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
[...]
15.7 Mount the filesystem
Once you have a created a file system on the CCD device, you can then mount the file system against a
mount point on your system. Be sure to mount the slice labeled type ffs or 4.2BSD:
# mount /dev/ccd0c /mnt
Then:
# export BLOCKSIZE=1024; df
Filesystem
/dev/sd6a
/dev/ccd0c
1K-blocks
376155
6058800
Used
Avail Capacity
320290
37057
89%
1 5755859
0%
Mounted on
/
/mnt
Congratulations, you now have a working CCD. To configure the CCD device at boot time, set ccd=yes
in /etc/rc.conf. You can adjust /etc/fstab to get the filesystem mounted at boot:
/dev/ccd0c
/home ffs
rw,softdep
1 2
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NetBSD RAIDframe
16.1 RAIDframe Introduction
16.1.1 About RAIDframe
NetBSD uses the CMU RAIDframe (http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/RAIDframe/) software for its RAID
subsystem. NetBSD is the primary platform for RAIDframe development. RAIDframe can also be found
in OpenBSD and older versions of FreeBSD. NetBSD also has another in-kernel RAID level 0 system in
its ccd(4) subsystem (see Chapter 15). You should possess some basic knowledge
(http://www.acnc.com/04_00.html) about RAID concepts and terminology before continuing. You should
also be at least familiar with the different levels of RAID - Adaptec provides an excellent reference
(http://www.adaptec.com/en-US/_common/compatibility/_education/RAID_level_compar_wp.htm), and
the raid(4) manpage contains a short overview too.
16.1.2 A warning about Data Integrity, Backups, and High Availability
RAIDframe is a Software RAID implementation, as opposed to Hardware RAID. As such, it does not
need special disk controllers supported by NetBSD. System administrators should give a great deal of
consideration to whether software RAID or hardware RAID is more appropriate for their “Mission
Critical” applications. For some projects you might consider the use of many of the hardware RAID
devices supported by NetBSD (http://www.NetBSD.org/support/hardware/). It is truly at your discretion
what type of RAID you use, but it is recommend that you consider factors such as: manageability,
commercial vendor support, load-balancing and failover, etc.
Depending on the RAID level used, RAIDframe does provide redundancy in the event of a hardware
failure. However, it is not a replacement for reliable backups! Software and user-error can still cause data
loss. RAIDframe may be used as a mechanism for facilitating backups in systems without backup
hardware, but this is not an ideal configuration. Finally, with regard to "high availability", RAID is only a
very small component to ensuring data availability.
Once more for good measure: Back up your data!
16.1.3 Getting Help
If you encounter problems using RAIDframe, you have several options for obtaining help.
1.
Read the RAIDframe man pages: raid(4) and raidctl(8) thoroughly.
2.
Search the mailing list archives. Unfortunately, there is no NetBSD list dedicated to RAIDframe
support. Depending on the nature of the problem, posts tend to end up in a variety of lists. At a very
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
minimum, search netbsd-help (http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/netbsd-help/),
netbsd-users@NetBSD.org (http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/netbsd-users/),
current-users@NetBSD.org (http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/current-users/). Also search the list for
the NetBSD platform on which you are using RAIDframe: port-${ARCH}@NetBSD.org.
Caution
Because RAIDframe is constantly undergoing development, some
information in mailing list archives has the potential of being dated and
inaccurate.
3.
Search the Problem Report database (http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html).
4.
If your problem persists: Post to the mailing list most appropriate (judgment call). Collect as much
verbosely detailed information as possible before posting: Include your dmesg(8) output from
/var/run/dmesg.boot, your kernel config(8) , your /etc/raid[0-9].conf, any relevant
errors on /dev/console, /var/log/messages, or to stdout/stderr of raidctl(8). The output
of raidctl -s (if available) will be useful as well. Also include details on the troubleshooting steps
you’ve taken thus far, exactly when the problem started, and any notes on recent changes that may
have prompted the problem to develop. Remember to be patient when waiting for a response.
16.2 Setup RAIDframe Support
The use of RAID will require software and hardware configuration changes.
16.2.1 Kernel Support
The GENERIC kernel already has support for RAIDframe. If you have built a custom kernel for your
environment the kernel configuration must have the following options:
pseudo-device
options
raid
8
RAID_AUTOCONFIG
# RAIDframe disk driver
# auto-configuration of RAID components
The RAID support must be detected by the NetBSD kernel, which can be checked by looking at the
output of the dmesg(8) command.
# dmesg|grep -i raid
Kernelized RAIDframe activated
Historically, the kernel must also contain static mappings between bus addresses and device nodes in
/dev. This used to ensure consistency of devices within RAID sets in the event of a device failure after
reboot. Since NetBSD 1.6, however, using the auto-configuration features of RAIDframe has been
recommended over statically mapping devices. The auto-configuration features allow drives to move
around on the system, and RAIDframe will automatically determine which components belong to which
RAID sets.
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
16.2.2 Power Redundancy and Disk Caching
If your system has an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), and/or if your system has redundant power
supplies, you should consider enabling the read and write caches on your drives. On systems with
redundant power, this will improve drive performance. On systems without redundant power, the write
cache could endanger the integrity of RAID data in the event of a power loss.
The dkctl(8) utility to can be used for this on all kinds of disks that support the operation (SCSI, EIDE,
SATA, ...):
# dkctl wd0 getcache
/dev/rwd0d:
/dev/rwd0d:
/dev/rwd0d:
/dev/rwd0d:
# dkctl wd0
# dkctl wd0
/dev/rwd0d:
/dev/rwd0d:
/dev/rwd0d:
/dev/rwd0d:
/dev/rwd0d:
read cache enabled
read cache enable is not changeable
write cache enable is changeable
cache parameters are not savable
setcache rw
getcache
read cache enabled
write-back cache enabled
read cache enable is not changeable
write cache enable is changeable
cache parameters are not savable
16.3 Example: RAID-1 Root Disk
This example explains how to setup RAID-1 root disk. With RAID-1 components are mirrored and
therefore the server can be fully functional in the event of a single component failure. The goal is to
provide a level of redundancy that will allow the system to encounter a component failure on either
component disk in the RAID and:
•
Continue normal operations until a maintenance window can be scheduled.
•
Or, in the unlikely event that the component failure causes a system reboot, be able to quickly
reconfigure the system to boot from the remaining component (platform dependant).
Figure 16-1. RAID-1 Disk Logical Layout
Because RAID-1 provides both redundancy and performance improvements, its most practical
application is on critical "system" partitions such as /, /usr, /var, swap, etc., where read operations are
more frequent than write operations. For other file systems, such as /home or /var/{application},
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
other RAID levels might be considered (see the references above). If one were simply creating a generic
RAID-1 volume for a non-root file system, the cookie-cutter examples from the man page could be
followed, but because the root volume must be bootable, certain special steps must be taken during initial
setup.
Note: This example will outline a process that differs only slightly between the i386 and sparc64
platforms. In an attempt to reduce excessive duplication of content, where differences do exist and
are cosmetic in nature, they will be pointed out using a section such as this. If the process is
drastically different, the process will branch into separate, platform dependant steps.
16.3.1 Pseudo-Process Outline
Although a much more refined process could be developed using a custom copy of NetBSD installed on
custom-developed removable media, presently the NetBSD install media lacks RAIDframe tools and
support, so the following pseudo process has become the de facto standard for setting up RAID-1 Root.
1.
Install a stock NetBSD onto Disk0 of your system.
Figure 16-2. Perform generic install onto Disk0/wd0
2.
Use the installed system on Disk0/wd0 to setup a RAID Set composed of Disk1/wd1 only.
Figure 16-3. Setup RAID Set
3.
Reboot the system off the Disk1/wd1 with the newly created RAID volume.
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
Figure 16-4. Reboot using Disk1/wd1 of RAID
4.
Add / re-sync Disk0/wd0 back into the RAID set.
Figure 16-5. Mirror Disk1/wd1 back to Disk0/wd0
16.3.2 Hardware Review
At present, the alpha, amd64, i386, pmax, sparc, sparc64, and vax NetBSD platforms support booting
from RAID-1. Booting is not supported from any other RAID level. Booting from a RAID set is
accomplished by teaching the 1st stage boot loader to understand both 4.2BSD/FFS and RAID partitions.
The 1st boot block code only needs to know enough about the disk partitions and file systems to be able
to read the 2nd stage boot blocks. Therefore, at any time, the system’s BIOS / firmware must be able to
read a drive with 1st stage boot blocks installed. On the i386 platform, configuring this is entirely
dependant on the vendor of the controller card / host bus adapter to which your disks are connected. On
sparc64 this is controlled by the IEEE 1275 Sun OpenBoot Firmware.
This article assumes two identical IDE disks (/dev/wd{0,1}) which we are going to mirror (RAID-1).
These disks are identified as:
# grep ^wd /var/run/dmesg.boot
wd0 at atabus0 drive 0: <WDC WD100BB-75CLB0>
wd0: drive supports 16-sector PIO transfers, LBA addressing
wd0: 9541 MB, 19386 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 19541088 sectors
wd0: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 5 (Ultra/100)
wd0(piixide0:0:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (Ultra/33) (using DMA data transfer
wd1 at atabus1 drive 0: <WDC WD100BB-75CLB0>
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
wd1: drive supports 16-sector PIO transfers, LBA addressing
wd1: 9541 MB, 19386 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 19541088 sectors
wd1: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 5 (Ultra/100)
wd1(piixide0:1:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (Ultra/33) (using DMA data transfer
Note: If you are using SCSI, replace /dev/{,r}wd{0,1} with /dev/{,r}sd{0,1}
In this example, both disks are jumpered as Master on separate channels on the same controller. You
would never want to have both disks on the same bus on the same controller; this creates a single point of
failure. Ideally you would have the disks on separate channels on separate controllers. Some SCSI
controllers have multiple channels on the same controller, however, a SCSI bus reset on one channel
could adversely affect the other channel if the ASIC/IC becomes overloaded. The trade-off with two
controllers is that twice the bandwidth is used on the system bus. For purposes of simplification, this
example shows two disks on different channels on the same controller.
Note: RAIDframe requires that all components be of the same size. Actually, it will use the lowest
common denominator among components of dissimilar sizes. For purposes of illustration, the
example uses two disks of identical geometries. Also, consider the availability of replacement disks if
a component suffers a critical hardware failure.
Tip: Two disks of identical vendor model numbers could have different geometries if the drive
possesses "grown defects". Use a low-level program to examine the grown defects table of the disk.
These disks are obviously suboptimal candidates for use in RAID and should be avoided.
16.3.3 Initial Install on Disk0/wd0
Perform a very generic installation onto your Disk0/wd0. Follow the INSTALL instructions for your
platform. Install all the sets but do not bother customizing anything other than the kernel as it will be
overwritten.
Tip: On i386, during the sysinst install, when prompted if you want to "use the entire disk for
NetBSD", answer "yes".
•
Chapter 2
•
NetBSD/i386 Install Directions
(ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/i386/INSTALL.html)
•
NetBSD/sparc64 Install Directions
(ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/sparc64/INSTALL.html)
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
Once the installation is complete, you should examine the disklabel(8) and fdisk(8) / sunlabel(8) outputs
on the system:
# df
Filesystem
/dev/wd0a
1K-blocks
9343708
Used
191717
Avail Capacity
8684806
2%
Mounted on
/
On i386:
# disklabel -r wd0
type: unknown
disk: Disk00
label:
flags:
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 63
tracks/cylinder: 16
sectors/cylinder: 1008
cylinders: 19386
total sectors: 19541088
rpm: 3600
interleave: 1
trackskew: 0
cylinderskew: 0
headswitch: 0
# microseconds
track-to-track seek: 0 # microseconds
drivedata: 0
16 partitions:
#
size
offset
a: 19276992
63
b:
264033 19277055
c: 19541025
63
d: 19541088
0
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
4.2BSD
1024 8192 46568 #
swap
#
unused
0
0
#
unused
0
0
#
(Cyl.
(Cyl.
(Cyl.
(Cyl.
0* - 19124*)
19124* - 19385)
0* - 19385)
0 - 19385)
# fdisk /dev/rwd0d
Disk: /dev/rwd0d
NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
total sectors: 19541088
BIOS disk geometry:
cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
total sectors: 19541088
Partition table:
0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
start 63, size 19541025 (9542 MB, Cyls 0-1216/96/1), Active
1: <UNUSED>
2: <UNUSED>
3: <UNUSED>
Bootselector disabled.
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
On Sparc64 the command / output differs slightly:
# disklabel -r wd0
type: unknown
disk: Disk0
[...snip...]
8 partitions:
#
size
a: 19278000
b:
263088
c: 19541088
offset
0
19278000
0
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
4.2BSD
1024 8192 46568 # (Cyl.
swap
# (Cyl.
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
0 19125 0 -
19124)
19385)
19385)
# sunlabel /dev/rwd0c
sunlabel> P
a: start cyl =
b: start cyl =
c: start cyl =
0, size = 19278000 (19125/0/0 - 9413.09Mb)
19125, size =
263088 (261/0/0 - 128.461Mb)
0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
16.3.4 Preparing Disk1/wd1
Once you have a stock install of NetBSD on Disk0/wd0, you are ready to begin. Disk1/wd1 will be
visible and unused by the system. To setup Disk1/wd1, you will use disklabel(8) to allocate the entire
second disk to the RAID-1 set.
Tip: The best way to ensure that Disk1/wd1 is completely empty is to ’zero’ out the first few sectors
of the disk with dd(1) . This will erase the MBR (i386) or Sun disk label (sparc64), as well as the
NetBSD disk label. If you make a mistake at any point during the RAID setup process, you can
always refer to this process to restore the disk to an empty state.
Note: On sparc64, use /dev/rwd1c instead of /dev/rwd1d!
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd1d bs=8k count=1
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
8192 bytes transferred in 0.003 secs (2730666 bytes/sec)
Once this is complete, on i386, verify that both the MBR and NetBSD disk labels are gone. On sparc64,
verify that the Sun Disk label is gone as well.
On i386:
# fdisk /dev/rwd1d
fdisk: primary partition table invalid, no magic in sector 0
Disk: /dev/rwd1d
NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
total sectors: 19541088
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
BIOS disk geometry:
cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
total sectors: 19541088
Partition table:
0: <UNUSED>
1: <UNUSED>
2: <UNUSED>
3: <UNUSED>
Bootselector disabled.
# disklabel -r wd1
[...snip...]
16 partitions:
#
size
c: 19541025
d: 19541088
offset
63
0
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
0* - 19385)
0 - 19385)
On sparc64:
# sunlabel /dev/rwd1c
sunlabel: bogus label on ‘/dev/wd1c’ (bad magic number)
# disklabel -r wd1
[...snip...]
3 partitions:
#
size
offset
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
c: 19541088
0
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
disklabel: boot block size 0
disklabel: super block size 0
0 -
19385)
Now that you are certain the second disk is empty, on i386 you must establish the MBR on the second
disk using the values obtained from Disk0/wd0 above. We must remember to mark the NetBSD partition
active or the system will not boot. You must also create a NetBSD disklabel on Disk1/wd1 that will
enable a RAID volume to exist upon it. On sparc64, you will need to simply disklabel(8) the second disk
which will write the proper Sun Disk Label.
Tip: disklabel(8) will use your shell’ s environment variable $EDITOR variable to edit the disklabel.
The default is vi(1)
On i386:
# fdisk -0ua /dev/rwd1d
fdisk: primary partition table invalid, no magic in sector 0
Disk: /dev/rwd1d
NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
total sectors: 19541088
BIOS disk geometry:
cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
total sectors: 19541088
Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n]
Partition 0:
<UNUSED>
The data for partition 0 is:
<UNUSED>
sysid: [0..255 default: 169]
start: [0..1216cyl default: 63, 0cyl, 0MB]
size: [0..1216cyl default: 19541025, 1216cyl, 9542MB]
bootmenu: []
Do you want to change the active partition? [n] y
Choosing 4 will make no partition active.
active partition: [0..4 default: 0] 0
Are you happy with this choice? [n] y
We haven’t written the MBR back to disk yet. This is your last chance.
Partition table:
0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
start 63, size 19541025 (9542 MB, Cyls 0-1216/96/1), Active
1: <UNUSED>
2: <UNUSED>
3: <UNUSED>
Bootselector disabled.
Should we write new partition table? [n] y
# disklabel -r -e -I wd1
type: unknown
disk: Disk1
label:
flags:
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 63
tracks/cylinder: 16
sectors/cylinder: 1008
cylinders: 19386
total sectors: 19541088
[...snip...]
16 partitions:
#
size
offset
a: 19541025
63
c: 19541025
63
d: 19541088
0
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
RAID
# (Cyl.
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
0*-19385)
0*-19385)
0 -19385)
On sparc64:
# disklabel -r -e -I wd1
type: unknown
135
Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
disk: Disk1
label:
flags:
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 63
tracks/cylinder: 16
sectors/cylinder: 1008
cylinders: 19386
total sectors: 19541088
[...snip...]
3 partitions:
#
size
offset
a: 19541088
0
c: 19541088
0
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
RAID
# (Cyl.
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
0 0 -
19385)
19385)
# sunlabel /dev/rwd1c
sunlabel> P
a: start cyl =
c: start cyl =
0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
Note: On i386, the c: and d: slices are reserved. c: represents the NetBSD portion of the disk. d:
represents the entire disk. Because we want to allocate the entire NetBSD MBR partition to RAID,
and because a: resides within the bounds of c:, the a: and c: slices have same size and offset
values and sizes. The offset must start at a track boundary (an increment of sectors matching the
sectors/track value in the disk label). On sparc64 however, c: represents the entire NetBSD partition
in the Sun disk label and d: is not reserved. Also note that sparc64’s c: and a: require no offset from
the beginning of the disk, however if they should need to be, the offset must start at a cylinder
boundary (an increment of sectors matching the sectors/cylinder value).
16.3.5 Initializing the RAID Device
Next we create the configuration file for the RAID set / volume. Traditionally, RAIDframe configuration
files belong in /etc and would be read and initialized at boot time, however, because we are creating a
bootable RAID volume, the configuration data will actually be written into the RAID volume using the
"auto-configure" feature. Therefore, files are needed only during the initial setup and should not reside in
/etc.
# vi /var/tmp/raid0.conf
START array
1 2 0
START disks
/dev/wd9a
/dev/wd1a
START layout
128 1 1 1
START queue
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
fifo 100
Note that wd9 is a non-existing disk. This will allow us to establish the RAID volume with a bogus
component that we will substitute for Disk0/wd0 at a later time. Regardless, a device node in /dev for
wd9 must exist.
# cd /dev
# sh MAKEDEV wd9
# cd -
Tip: On systems running NetBSD 2.0+, you may substitute a "bogus" component such as
/dev/wd9a for a special disk name "absent"
Next we configure the RAID device and initialize the serial number to something unique. In this example
we use a "YYYYMMDDRevision" scheme. The format you choose is entirely at your discretion,
however the scheme you choose should ensure that no two RAID sets use the same serial number at the
same time.
After that we initialize the RAID set for the first time, safely ignoring the errors regarding the bogus
component.
# raidctl -v -C /var/tmp/raid0.conf raid0
raidlookup on device: /dev/wd9a failed!
raid0: Component /dev/wd9a being configured at col: 0
Column: 0 Num Columns: 0
Version: 0 Serial Number: 0 Mod Counter: 0
Clean: No Status: 0
Number of columns do not match for: /dev/wd9a
/dev/wd9a is not clean!
raid0: Component /dev/wd1a being configured at col: 1
Column: 0 Num Columns: 0
Version: 0 Serial Number: 0 Mod Counter: 0
Clean: No Status: 0
Column out of alignment for: /dev/wd1a
Number of columns do not match for: /dev/wd1a
/dev/wd1a is not clean!
raid0: There were fatal errors
raid0: Fatal errors being ignored.
raid0: RAID Level 1
raid0: Components: /dev/wd9a[**FAILED**] /dev/wd1a
raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
# raidctl -v -I 2004082401 raid0
# raidctl -v -i raid0
Initiating re-write of parity
# tail -1 /var/log/messages
raid0: Error re-writing parity!
# raidctl -v -s raid0
Components:
/dev/wd9a: failed
/dev/wd1a: optimal
No spares.
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
/dev/wd9a status is: failed. Skipping label.
Component label for /dev/wd1a:
Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
Version: 2, Serial Number: 2004082401, Mod Counter: 7
Clean: No, Status: 0
sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
RAID Level: 1
Autoconfig: No
Root partition: No
Last configured as: raid0
Parity status: DIRTY
Reconstruction is 100% complete.
Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
Copyback is 100% complete.
16.3.6 Setting up Filesystems
Caution
The root filesystem must begin at sector 0 of the RAID device. Else, the primary
boot loader will be unable to find the secondary boot loader.
The RAID device is now configured and available. The RAID device is a pseudo disk-device. It will be
created with a default disk label. You must now determine the proper sizes for disklabel slices for your
production environment. For purposes of simplification in this example, our system will have 8.5
gigabytes dedicated to / as /dev/raid0a and the rest allocated to swap as /dev/raid0b.
Caution
This is an unrealistic disk layout for a production server; the NetBSD Guide can
expand on proper partitioning technique. See Chapter 2
Note: Note that 1 GB is 2*1024*1024=2097152 blocks (1 block is 512 bytes, or 0.5 kilobytes).
Despite what the underlying hardware composing a RAID set is, the RAID pseudo disk will always
have 512 bytes/sector.
Note: In our example, the space allocated to the underlying a: slice composing the RAID set differed
between i386 and sparc64, therefore the total sectors of the RAID volumes differs:
On i386:
# disklabel -r -e -I raid0
type: RAID
disk: raid
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
label: fictitious
flags:
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 128
tracks/cylinder: 8
sectors/cylinder: 1024
cylinders: 19082
total sectors: 19540864
rpm: 3600
interleave: 1
trackskew: 0
cylinderskew: 0
headswitch: 0 # microseconds
track-to-track seek: 0 # microseconds
drivedata: 0
#
a:
b:
d:
size
19015680
525184
19540864
offset
0
19015680
0
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
4.2BSD
0
0
0 # (Cyl.
swap
# (Cyl.
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
0 - 18569)
18570 - 19082*)
0 - 19082*)
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
4.2BSD
0
0
0 # (Cyl.
swap
# (Cyl.
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
0 18800 0 -
On sparc64:
# disklabel -r -e -I raid0
[...snip...]
total sectors: 19539968
[...snip...]
3 partitions:
#
size
offset
a: 19251200
0
b:
288768 19251200
c: 19539968
0
18799)
19081)
19081)
Next, format the newly created / partition as a 4.2BSD FFSv1 File System:
# newfs -O 1 /dev/rraid0a
/dev/rraid0a: 9285.0MB (19015680 sectors) block size 16384, fragment size 2048
using 51 cylinder groups of 182.06MB, 11652 blks, 22912 inodes.
super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
32,
372896,
745760, 1118624, 1491488, 1864352, 2237216, 2610080,
2982944, 3355808, 3728672, 4101536, 4474400, 4847264, 5220128, 5592992,
5965856, 6338720, 6711584, 7084448, 7457312, 7830176, 8203040, 8575904,
8948768, 9321632, 9694496, 10067360, 10440224, 10813088, 11185952,11558816,
11931680, 12304544, 12677408, 13050272, 13423136, 13796000, 14168864,14541728,
14914592, 15287456, 15660320, 16033184, 16406048, 16778912, 17151776,17524640,
17897504, 18270368, 18643232,
# fsck -fy /dev/rraid0a
**
**
**
**
**
/dev/rraid0a
File system is already clean
Last Mounted on
Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes
Phase 2 - Check Pathnames
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
** Phase
** Phase
** Phase
1 files,
3
4
5
1
- Check Connectivity
- Check Reference Counts
- Check Cyl groups
used, 4680062 free (14 frags, 585006 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
16.3.7 Setting up kernel dumps
The normal swap area in our case is on raid0b. In NetBSD 5.0 and newer raid0b can automatically be
used for kernel dumps if raid0 is a RAID level 1 set.
In NetBSD versions prior to 5.0 kernel dumps can only be made to a real disk device. Since nothing
stops us from defining a dump area which overlaps with raid0b th trick here is to calculate the correct
start offset for our crash dump area. This is dangerous and it is possible to destroy valuable data if we
make a mistake in these calculations! Data corruption will happen when the kernel writes its memory
dump over a normal filesystem. So we must be extra careful here. (The author destroyed his 100+ GB
/home with a kernel crash dump!)
First we need to take a look at the disklabel for swap (raid0b) and the real physical disk (wd1).
On i386:
# disklabel raid0
8 partitions:
#
size
a: 19015680
b:
525184
d: 19540864
offset
0
19015680
0
fstype
4.2BSD
swap
unused
[fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
1024 8192
64
offset
63
63
0
fstype
RAID
unused
unused
[fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
0
0
0
# disklabel wd1
8 partitions:
#
size
a: 19541025
c: 19541025
d: 19541088
0
0
0
0
Each component of a RAID set has a 64 block reserved area (see RF_PROTECTED_SECTORS in
<dev/raidframe/raidframevar.h>) in the beginning of the component to store the internal RAID structures.
# dc
63
64
+
19015680
+p
19015807
q
# offset of wd1a
# RF_PROTECTED_SECTORS
# offset of raid0b
# offset of swap within wd1
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
We know now the real offset of the still-nonexisting wd1b is 19015807 and size is 525184. Next we need
to add wd1b to wd1’s disklabel.
# disklabel wd1 > disklabel.wd1
# vi disklabel.wd1
8 partitions:
#
size
a: 19541025
b:
525184
c: 19541025
d: 19541088
offset
63
19015807
63
0
fstype
RAID
swap
unused
unused
[fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
0
0
0
0
Next we install the new disklabel.
# disklabel -R -r wd1 disklabel.wd1
On sparc64:
On sparc64 (and sparc), all partitions must start on cylinder boundaries. Due to this, the start of the dump
partition must be moved up to the next cylinder boundary, and the size shrunk by the difference that the
start was moved:
# disklabel raid0
3 partitions:
#
size
a: 19251200
b:
288768
c: 19539968
offset
0
19251200
0
fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
4.2BSD
0
0
0 # (Cyl.
swap
# (Cyl.
unused
0
0
# (Cyl.
0 18800 0 -
18799)
19081)
19081)
0 0 -
19385)
19385)
# disklabel wd1
...
sectors/cylinder: 1008
...
3 partitions:
#
size
offset
a: 19541088
0
c: 19541088
0
fstype
RAID
unused
[fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
# (Cyl.
0
0
# (Cyl.
Like on i386, each component of a RAID set has a 64 block reserved area (see
RF_PROTECTED_SECTORS in <dev/raidframe/raidframevar.h>) in the beginning of the component to
store the internal RAID structures. This needs to be skipped, and then moved up to the next cylinder
boundary as outlines above:
# dc
0
64
+
# offset of wd1a
# RF_PROTECTED_SECTORS
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
19251200
+p
19251264
sa la
1008 /
1 +
1008 *p
19251792
sb lb la -p
528
sc
288768
lc -p
288240
q
# offset of raid0b
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
offset of swap within wd1
Remember the new offset
determine cylinder offset
move to next full cylinder boundary
convert back to sectors
Our real, cylinder-aligned offset of wd1b
Determine how far the offset was moved
# Remember how many sectors we moved the start
# Size of swap on raid0
# Our real, smaller swap/dump size of wd1b
We know now the real offset of the still-nonexisting wd1b is 19251792 and size is 288240. Next we need
to add wd1b to wd1’s disklabel.
# disklabel wd1 > disklabel.wd1
# vi disklabel.wd1
8 partitions:
#
size
a: 19541088
b:
288240
c: 19541088
offset
0
19251792
0
fstype
RAID
swap
unused
[fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
# (Cyl.
0
0
# (Cyl.
0 -
19385)
0 -
19385)
Next we install the new disklabel.
# disklabel -R -r wd1 disklabel.wd1
Why isn’t sizeof(raid0d) == (sizeof(wd1a) - RF_PROTECTED_SECTORS)? Size of raid0d is based on
the largest multiple of the stripe size used for a RAID set. As an example, with stripe width of 128, size
of raid0d is:
# dc
19541025
64
128
/p
152663
128
*p
19540864
# size of wd1a
# RF_PROTECTED_SECTORS
# stripe width
# number of stripes
# number of blocks per stripe
# size of raid0d
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
16.3.8 Migrating System to RAID
The new RAID filesystems are now ready for use. We mount them under /mnt and copy all files from
the old system. This can be done using dump(8) or pax(1).
# mount /dev/raid0a /mnt
# df -h /mnt
Filesystem
Size
Used
Avail Capacity
/dev/raid0a
9.0G
2.0K
8.6G
0%
# cd /; pax -v -X -rw -pe . /mnt
[...snip...]
Mounted on
/mnt
The NetBSD install now exists on the RAID filesystem. We need to fix the mount-points in the new copy
of /etc/fstab or the system will not come up correctly. Replace instances of wd0 with raid0.
Note that for NetBSD releases prior to 5.0 the kernel crash dumps must not be saved on a RAID device
but on a real physical disk (wd0b). This dump area was created in the previous chapter on the second
disk (wd1b) but we will make wd0 an identical copy of wd1 later so wd0b and wd1b will have the same
size and offset. If wd0 fails and is removed from the server wd1 becomes wd0 after reboot and crash
dumps will still work as we are using wd0b in /etc/fstab. The only fault in this configuration is when
the original, failed wd0 is replaces by a new drive and we haven’t initialized it yet with fdisk and
disklabel. In this short period of time we can not make crash dumps in case of kernel panic. Note how the
dump device has the “dp” keyword on the 4th field.
# vi /mnt/etc/fstab
/dev/raid0a / ffs rw 1 1
/dev/raid0b none swap sw 0 0
/dev/wd0b none swap dp 0 0
kernfs
/kern kernfs rw
procfs
/proc procfs rw
The swap should be unconfigured upon shutdown to avoid parity errors on the RAID device. This can be
done with a simple, one-line setting in /etc/rc.conf.
# vi /mnt/etc/rc.conf
swapoff=YES
Next the boot loader must be installed on Disk1/wd1. Failure to install the loader on Disk1/wd1 will
render the system un-bootable if Disk0/wd0 fails making the RAID-1 pointless.
Tip: Because the BIOS/CMOS menus in many i386 based systems are misleading with regard to
device boot order. I highly recommend utilizing the "-o timeout=X" option supported by the i386 1st
stage boot loader. Setup unique values for each disk as a point of reference so that you can easily
determine from which disk the system is booting.
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
Caution
Although it may seem logical to install the 1st stage boot block into
/dev/rwd1{c,d} (which is historically correct with NetBSD 1.6.x installboot(8) , this
is no longer the case. If you make this mistake, the boot sector will become
irrecoverably damaged and you will need to start the process over again.
On i386, install the boot loader into /dev/rwd1a :
# /usr/sbin/installboot -o timeout=30 -v /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
File system:
/dev/rwd1a
File system type:
raw (blocksize 8192, needswap 1)
Primary bootstrap:
/usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
Preserving 51 (0x33) bytes of the BPB
On sparc64, install the boot loader into /dev/rwd1a as well, however the "-o" flag is unsupported (and
un-needed thanks to OpenBoot):
# /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootblk
File system:
/dev/rwd1a
File system type:
raw (blocksize 8192, needswap 0)
Primary bootstrap:
/usr/mdec/bootblk
Bootstrap start sector: 1
Bootstrap byte count:
4915
Writing bootstrap
Finally the RAID set must be made auto-configurable and the system should be rebooted. After the
reboot everything is mounted from the RAID devices.
# raidctl -v -A root raid0
raid0: Autoconfigure: Yes
raid0: Root: Yes
# tail -2 /var/log/messages
raid0: New autoconfig value is: 1
raid0: New rootpartition value is: 1
# raidctl -v -s raid0
[...snip...]
Autoconfig: Yes
Root partition: Yes
Last configured as: raid0
[...snip...]
# shutdown -r now
Warning
Always use shutdown(8) when shutting down. Never simply use reboot(8).
reboot(8) will not properly run shutdown RC scripts and will not safely disable
swap. This will cause dirty parity at every reboot.
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
16.3.9 The first boot with RAID
At this point, temporarily configure your system to boot Disk1/wd1. See notes in Section 16.3.11 for
details on this process. The system should boot now and all filesystems should be on the RAID devices.
The RAID will be functional with a single component, however the set is not fully functional because the
bogus drive (wd9) has failed.
# egrep -i "raid|root" /var/run/dmesg.boot
raid0: RAID Level 1
raid0: Components: component0[**FAILED**] /dev/wd1a
raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
boot device: raid0
root on raid0a dumps on raid0b
root file system type: ffs
# df -h
Filesystem
/dev/raid0a
kernfs
Size
8.9G
1.0K
Used
196M
1.0K
Avail Capacity
8.3G
2%
0B
100%
Mounted on
/
/kern
# swapctl -l
Device
1K-blocks
Used
Avail Capacity Priority
/dev/raid0b
262592
0
262592
0%
0
# raidctl -s raid0
Components:
component0: failed
/dev/wd1a: optimal
No spares.
component0 status is: failed. Skipping label.
Component label for /dev/wd1a:
Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
Version: 2, Serial Number: 2004082401, Mod Counter: 65
Clean: No, Status: 0
sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
RAID Level: 1
Autoconfig: Yes
Root partition: Yes
Last configured as: raid0
Parity status: DIRTY
Reconstruction is 100% complete.
Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
Copyback is 100% complete.
16.3.10 Adding Disk0/wd0 to RAID
We will now add Disk0/wd0 as a component of the RAID. This will destroy the original file system
structure. On i386, the MBR disklabel will be unaffected (remember we copied wd0’s label to wd1
anyway) , therefore there is no need to "zero" Disk0/wd0. However, we need to relabel Disk0/wd0 to
have an identical NetBSD disklabel layout as Disk1/wd1. Then we add Disk0/wd0 as "hot-spare" to the
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
RAID set and initiate the parity reconstruction for all RAID devices, effectively bringing Disk0/wd0 into
the RAID-1 set and "synching up" both disks.
# disklabel -r wd1 > /tmp/disklabel.wd1
# disklabel -R -r wd0 /tmp/disklabel.wd1
As a last-minute sanity check, you might want to use diff(1) to ensure that the disklabels of Disk0/wd0
match Disk1/wd1. You should also backup these files for reference in the event of an emergency.
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
disklabel -r wd0 > /tmp/disklabel.wd0
disklabel -r wd1 > /tmp/disklabel.wd1
diff /tmp/disklabel.wd0 /tmp/disklabel.wd1
fdisk /dev/rwd0 > /tmp/fdisk.wd0
fdisk /dev/rwd1 > /tmp/fdisk.wd1
diff /tmp/fdisk.wd0 /tmp/fdisk.wd1
mkdir /root/RFbackup
cp -p /tmp/{disklabel,fdisk}* /root/RFbackup
Once you are certain, add Disk0/wd0 as a spare component, and start reconstruction:
# raidctl -v -a /dev/wd0a raid0
/netbsd: Warning: truncating spare disk /dev/wd0a to 241254528 blocks
# raidctl -v -s raid0
Components:
component0: failed
/dev/wd1a: optimal
Spares:
/dev/wd0a: spare
[...snip...]
# raidctl -F component0 raid0
RECON: initiating reconstruction on col 0 -> spare at col 2
11% |****
| ETA:
04:26 \
Depending on the speed of your hardware, the reconstruction time will vary. You may wish to watch it on
another terminal:
# raidctl -S raid0
Reconstruction is 0% complete.
Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
Copyback is 100% complete.
Reconstruction status:
17% |******
| ETA: 03:08 -
After reconstruction, both disks should be “optimal”.
# tail -f /var/log/messages
raid0:
raid0:
raid0:
raid0:
raid0:
raid0:
Reconstruction of disk at col 0 completed
Recon time was 1290.625033 seconds, accumulated XOR time was 0 us (0.000000)
(start time 1093407069 sec 145393 usec, end time 1093408359 sec 770426 usec)
Total head-sep stall count was 0
305318 recon event waits, 1 recon delays
1093407069060000 max exec ticks
# raidctl -v -s raid0
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
Components:
component0: spared
/dev/wd1a: optimal
Spares:
/dev/wd0a: used_spare
[...snip...]
When the reconstruction is finished we need to install the boot loader on the Disk0/wd0. On i386, install
the boot loader into /dev/rwd0a:
# /usr/sbin/installboot -o timeout=15 -v /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
File system:
/dev/rwd1a
File system type:
raw (blocksize 8192, needswap 1)
Primary bootstrap:
/usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
Preserving 51 (0x33) bytes of the BPB
On sparc64:
# /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootblk
File system:
/dev/rwd0a
File system type:
raw (blocksize 8192, needswap 0)
Primary bootstrap:
/usr/mdec/bootblk
Bootstrap start sector: 1
Bootstrap byte count:
4915
Writing bootstrap
And finally, reboot the machine one last time before proceeding. This is required to migrate Disk0/wd0
from status "used_spare" as "Component0" to state "optimal". Refer to notes in the next section
regarding verification of clean parity after each reboot.
# shutdown -r now
16.3.11 Testing Boot Blocks
At this point, you need to ensure that your system’s hardware can properly boot using the boot blocks on
either disk. On i386, this is a hardware- dependant process that may be done via your motherboard
CMOS/BIOS menu or your controller card’s configuration menu.
On i386, use the menu system on your machine to set the boot device order / priority to Disk1/wd1
before Disk0/wd0. The examples here depict a generic Award BIOS.
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
Figure 16-6. Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk1/wd1
Save changes and exit.
>> NetBSD/i386 BIOS Boot, Revision 3.1
>> (seklecki@localhost, Fri Aug 13 08:08:47 EDT 2004)
>> Memory: 640/31744 k
Press return to boot now, any other key for boot menu
booting hd0a:netbsd - starting in 30
You can determine that the BIOS is reading Disk1/wd1 because the timeout of the boot loader is 30
seconds instead of 15. After the reboot, re-enter the BIOS and configure the drive boot order back to the
default:
Figure 16-7. Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk0/wd0
Save changes and exit.
>> NetBSD/i386 BIOS Boot, Revision 3.1
>> (seklecki@localhost, Fri Aug 13 08:08:47 EDT 2004)
>> Memory: 640/31744 k
Press return to boot now, any other key for boot menu
booting hd0a:netbsd - starting in 15
Notice how your custom kernel detects controller/bus/drive assignments independent of what the BIOS
assigns as the boot disk. This is the expected behavior.
On sparc64, use the Sun OpenBoot devalias to confirm that both disks are bootable:
Sun Ultra 5/10 UPA/PCI (UltraSPARC-IIi 400MHz), No Keyboard
OpenBoot 3.15, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #nnnnnnnn.
Ethernet address 8:0:20:a5:d1:3b, Host ID: nnnnnnnn.
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
ok devalias
[...snip...]
cdrom /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/cdrom@2,0:f
disk /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@0,0
disk3 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@3,0
disk2 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@2,0
disk1 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@1,0
disk0 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@0,0
[...snip...]
ok boot disk0 netbsd
Initializing Memory [...]
Boot device /pci/pci/ide@3/disk@0,0 File and args: netbsd
NetBSD IEEE 1275 Bootblock
>> NetBSD/sparc64 OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.8
>> (lavalamp@j8, Thu Aug 19: 15:45:42 EDT 2004)
loadfile: reading header
elf64_exec: Booting [...]
symbols @ [....]
Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001
The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
[...snip...]
And the second disk:
ok boot disk2 netbsd
Initializing Memory [...]
Boot device /pci/pci/ide@3/disk@2,0: File and args:netbsd
NetBSD IEEE 1275 Bootblock
>> NetBSD/sparc64 OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.8
>> (lavalamp@j8, Thu Aug 19: 15:45:42 EDT 2004)
loadfile: reading header
elf64_exec: Booting [...]
symbols @ [....]
Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001
The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
[...snip...]
At each boot, the following should appear in the NetBSD kernel dmesg(8) :
raid0: RAID Level 1
raid0: Components: /dev/wd0a /dev/wd1a
raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
boot device: raid0
root on raid0a dumps on raid0b
root file system type: ffs
Once you are certain that both disks are bootable, verify the RAID parity is clean after each reboot:
# raidctl -v -s raid0
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Chapter 16 NetBSD RAIDframe
Components:
/dev/wd0a: optimal
/dev/wd1a: optimal
No spares.
[...snip...]
Component label for /dev/wd0a:
Row: 0, Column: 0, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
Version: 2, Serial Number: 2004082401, Mod Counter: 67
Clean: No, Status: 0
sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
RAID Level: 1
Autoconfig: Yes
Root partition: Yes
Last configured as: raid0
Component label for /dev/wd1a:
Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
Version: 2, Serial Number: 2004082401, Mod Counter: 67
Clean: No, Status: 0
sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
RAID Level: 1
Autoconfig: Yes
Root partition: Yes
Last configured as: raid0
Parity status: clean
Reconstruction is 100% complete.
Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
Copyback is 100% complete.
16.4 Testing kernel dumps
It is also important to test the kernel crash dumps so that they work correctly and do not overwrite any
important filesystems (like the raid0e filesystem).
Press Ctrl+Alt+Esc to test the kernel crash dump. This will invoke the kernel debugger. Type sync or
reboot 0x104 and press Enter. This will save the current kernel memory to the dump area (raid0b in
NetBSD 5.0 and newer, wd0b in others) for further analysis. Most likely the offset and/or size of wd0b is
wrong if the system will not come up correctly after reboot (unable to mount /home, corrupted
super-blocks, etc). It is very important to test this now, not when we have lots of valuable files in /home.
As an example, the author destroyed his 100+ GB /home partition with a kernel crash dump! No real
harm was caused by this because of up-to-date backups (backup was made just before converting to
RAID-1). One more time: take a backup of all your files before following these instructions!
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Pluggable Authentication
Modules (PAM)
17.1 About
This article describes the underlying principles and mechanisms of the Pluggable Authentication
Modules (PAM) library, and explains how to configure PAM, how to integrate PAM into applications,
and how to write PAM modules.
See Section D.3.2 for the license of this chapter.
17.2 Introduction
The Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) library is a generalized API for authentication-related
services which allows a system administrator to add new authentication methods simply by installing
new PAM modules, and to modify authentication policies by editing configuration files.
PAM was defined and developed in 1995 by Vipin Samar and Charlie Lai of Sun Microsystems, and has
not changed much since. In 1997, the Open Group published the X/Open Single Sign-on (XSSO)
preliminary specification, which standardized the PAM API and added extensions for single (or rather
integrated) sign-on. At the time of this writing, this specification has not yet been adopted as a standard.
Although this article focuses primarily on FreeBSD 5.x and NetBSD 3.x, which both use OpenPAM, it
should be equally applicable to FreeBSD 4.x, which uses Linux-PAM, and other operating systems such
as Linux and Solaris™.
17.3 Terms and conventions
17.3.1 Definitions
The terminology surrounding PAM is rather confused. Neither Samar and Lai’s original paper nor the
XSSO specification made any attempt at formally defining terms for the various actors and entities
involved in PAM, and the terms that they do use (but do not define) are sometimes misleading and
ambiguous. The first attempt at establishing a consistent and unambiguous terminology was a whitepaper
written by Andrew G. Morgan (author of Linux-PAM) in 1999. While Morgan’s choice of terminology
was a huge leap forward, it is in this author’s opinion by no means perfect. What follows is an attempt,
heavily inspired by Morgan, to define precise and unambiguous terms for all actors and entities involved
in PAM.
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account
The set of credentials the applicant is requesting from the arbitrator.
applicant
The user or entity requesting authentication.
arbitrator
The user or entity who has the privileges necessary to verify the applicant’s credentials and the
authority to grant or deny the request.
chain
A sequence of modules that will be invoked in response to a PAM request. The chain includes
information about the order in which to invoke the modules, what arguments to pass to them, and
how to interpret the results.
client
The application responsible for initiating an authentication request on behalf of the applicant and
for obtaining the necessary authentication information from him.
facility
One of the four basic groups of functionality provided by PAM: authentication, account
management, session management and authentication token update.
module
A collection of one or more related functions implementing a particular authentication facility,
gathered into a single (normally dynamically loadable) binary file and identified by a single name.
policy
The complete set of configuration statements describing how to handle PAM requests for a
particular service. A policy normally consists of four chains, one for each facility, though some
services do not use all four facilities.
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server
The application acting on behalf of the arbitrator to converse with the client, retrieve authentication
information, verify the applicant’s credentials and grant or deny requests.
service
A class of servers providing similar or related functionality and requiring similar authentication.
PAM policies are defined on a per-service basis, so all servers that claim the same service name will
be subject to the same policy.
session
The context within which service is rendered to the applicant by the server. One of PAM’s four
facilities, session management, is concerned exclusively with setting up and tearing down this
context.
token
A chunk of information associated with the account, such as a password or passphrase, which the
applicant must provide to prove his identity.
transaction
A sequence of requests from the same applicant to the same instance of the same server, beginning
with authentication and session set-up and ending with session tear-down.
17.3.2 Usage examples
This section aims to illustrate the meanings of some of the terms defined above by way of a handful of
simple examples.
17.3.2.1 Client and server are one
This simple example shows alice su(1)’ing to root.
$ whoami
alice
$ ls -l ‘which su‘
-r-sr-xr-x
1 root
wheel
10744 Dec
6 19:06 /usr/bin/su
$ su -
Password: xi3kiune
# whoami
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root
•
The applicant is alice.
•
The account is root.
•
The su(1) process is both client and server.
•
The authentication token is xi3kiune.
•
The arbitrator is root, which is why su(1) is setuid root.
17.3.2.2 Client and server are separate
The example below shows eve try to initiate an ssh(1) connection to login.example.com, ask to log
in as bob, and succeed. Bob should have chosen a better password!
$ whoami
eve
$ ssh bob@login.example.com
bob@login.example.com’s password: god
Last login: Thu Oct 11 09:52:57 2001 from 192.168.0.1
NetBSD 3.0 (LOGIN) #1: Thu Mar 10 18:22:36 WET 2005
Welcome to NetBSD!
$
•
The applicant is eve.
•
The client is Eve’s ssh(1) process.
•
The server is the sshd(8) process on login.example.com
•
The account is bob.
•
The authentication token is god.
•
Although this is not shown in this example, the arbitrator is root.
17.3.2.3 Sample policy
The following is FreeBSD’s default policy for sshd:
sshd
sshd
sshd
sshd
sshd
sshd
•
auth required pam_nologin.so no_warn
auth required pam_unix.so no_warn try_first_pass
account required pam_login_access.so
account required pam_unix.so
session required pam_lastlog.so no_fail
password required pam_permit.so
This policy applies to the sshd service (which is not necessarily restricted to the sshd(8) server.)
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• auth, account, session
and password are facilities.
• pam_nologin.so, pam_unix.so, pam_login_access.so, pam_lastlog.so and
pam_permit.so are modules. It is clear from this example that pam_unix.so provides at least two
facilities (authentication and account management.)
There are some differences between FreeBSD and NetBSD PAM policies:
•
By default, every configuration is done under /etc/pam.d.
•
If configuration is non-existent, you will not have access to the system, in contrast with FreeBSD that
has a default policy of allowing authentication.
•
For authentication, NetBSD forces at least one required, requisite or binding module to be
present.
17.4 PAM Essentials
17.4.1 Facilities and primitives
The PAM API offers six different authentication primitives grouped in four facilities, which are
described below.
auth
Authentication. This facility concerns itself with authenticating the applicant and establishing the
account credentials. It provides two primitives:
•
pam_authenticate(3) authenticates the applicant, usually by requesting an authentication token
and comparing it with a value stored in a database or obtained from an authentication server.
•
pam_setcred(3) establishes account credentials such as user ID, group membership and resource
limits.
account
Account management. This facility handles non-authentication-related issues of account availability,
such as access restrictions based on the time of day or the server’s work load. It provides a single
primitive:
•
pam_acct_mgmt(3) verifies that the requested account is available.
session
Session management. This facility handles tasks associated with session set-up and tear-down, such
as login accounting. It provides two primitives:
•
pam_open_session(3) performs tasks associated with session set-up: add an entry in the utmp and
wtmp databases, start an SSH agent, etc.
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
•
pam_close_session(3) performs tasks associated with session tear-down: add an entry in the utmp
and wtmp databases, stop the SSH agent, etc.
password
Password management. This facility is used to change the authentication token associated with an
account, either because it has expired or because the user wishes to change it. It provides a single
primitive:
•
pam_chauthtok(3) changes the authentication token, optionally verifying that it is sufficiently
hard to guess, has not been used previously, etc.
17.4.2 Modules
Modules are a very central concept in PAM; after all, they are the “M” in “PAM”. A PAM module is a
self-contained piece of program code that implements the primitives in one or more facilities for one
particular mechanism; possible mechanisms for the authentication facility, for instance, include the
UNIX® password database, NIS, LDAP and Radius.
17.4.2.1 Module Naming
FreeBSD and NetBSD implement each mechanism in a single module, named pam_mechanism.so (for
instance, pam_unix.so for the UNIX® mechanism.) Other implementations sometimes have separate
modules for separate facilities, and include the facility name as well as the mechanism name in the
module name. To name one example, Solaris™ has a pam_dial_auth.so.1 module which is
commonly used to authenticate dialup users. Also, almost every module has a man page with the same
name, i.e.: pam_unix(8) explains how the pam_unix.so module works.
17.4.2.2 Module Versioning
FreeBSD’s original PAM implementation, based on Linux-PAM, did not use version numbers for PAM
modules. This would commonly cause problems with legacy applications, which might be linked against
older versions of the system libraries, as there was no way to load a matching version of the required
modules.
OpenPAM, on the other hand, looks for modules that have the same version number as the PAM library
(currently 2 in FreeBSD and 0 in NetBSD), and only falls back to an unversioned module if no versioned
module could be loaded. Thus legacy modules can be provided for legacy applications, while allowing
new (or newly built) applications to take advantage of the most recent modules.
Although Solaris™ PAM modules commonly have a version number, they’re not truly versioned,
because the number is a part of the module name and must be included in the configuration.
17.4.2.3 Module Path
There isn’t a common directory for storing PAM modules. Under FreeBSD, they are located at
/usr/lib and, under NetBSD, you can find them in /usr/lib/security.
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17.4.3 Chains and policies
When a server initiates a PAM transaction, the PAM library tries to load a policy for the service specified
in the pam_start(3) call. The policy specifies how authentication requests should be processed, and is
defined in a configuration file. This is the other central concept in PAM: the possibility for the admin to
tune the system security policy (in the wider sense of the word) simply by editing a text file.
A policy consists of four chains, one for each of the four PAM facilities. Each chain is a sequence of
configuration statements, each specifying a module to invoke, some (optional) parameters to pass to the
module, and a control flag that describes how to interpret the return code from the module.
Understanding the control flags is essential to understanding PAM configuration files. There are a
number of different control flags:
binding
If the module succeeds and no earlier module in the chain has failed, the chain is immediately
terminated and the request is granted. If the module fails, the rest of the chain is executed, but the
request is ultimately denied.
This control flag was introduced by Sun in Solaris™ 9 (SunOS™ 5.9), and is also supported by
OpenPAM.
required
If the module succeeds, the rest of the chain is executed, and the request is granted unless some
other module fails. If the module fails, the rest of the chain is also executed, but the request is
ultimately denied.
requisite
If the module succeeds, the rest of the chain is executed, and the request is granted unless some
other module fails. If the module fails, the chain is immediately terminated and the request is denied.
sufficient
If the module succeeds and no earlier module in the chain has failed, the chain is immediately
terminated and the request is granted. If the module fails, the module is ignored and the rest of the
chain is executed.
As the semantics of this flag may be somewhat confusing, especially when it is used for the last
module in a chain, it is recommended that the binding control flag be used instead if the
implementation supports it.
optional
The module is executed, but its result is ignored. If all modules in a chain are marked optional, all
requests will always be granted.
When a server invokes one of the six PAM primitives, PAM retrieves the chain for the facility the
primitive belongs to, and invokes each of the modules listed in the chain, in the order they are listed, until
it reaches the end, or determines that no further processing is necessary (either because a binding or
sufficient module succeeded, or because a requisite module failed.) The request is granted if and
only if at least one module was invoked, and all non-optional modules succeeded.
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Note that it is possible, though not very common, to have the same module listed several times in the
same chain. For instance, a module that looks up user names and passwords in a directory server could
be invoked multiple times with different parameters specifying different directory servers to contact.
PAM treat different occurrences of the same module in the same chain as different, unrelated modules.
17.4.4 Transactions
The lifecycle of a typical PAM transaction is described below. Note that if any of these steps fails, the
server should report a suitable error message to the client and abort the transaction.
1. If necessary, the server obtains arbitrator credentials through a mechanism independent of
PAM—most commonly by virtue of having been started by root, or of being setuid root.
2. The server calls pam_start(3) to initialize the PAM library and specify its service name and the
target account, and register a suitable conversation function.
3. The server obtains various information relating to the transaction (such as the applicant’s user name
and the name of the host the client runs on) and submits it to PAM using pam_set_item(3).
4. The server calls pam_authenticate(3) to authenticate the applicant.
5. The server calls pam_acct_mgmt(3) to verify that the requested account is available and valid. If the
password is correct but has expired, pam_acct_mgmt(3) will return PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD
instead of PAM_SUCCESS.
6. If the previous step returned PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD, the server now calls pam_chauthtok(3) to
force the client to change the authentication token for the requested account.
7. Now that the applicant has been properly authenticated, the server calls pam_setcred(3) to establish
the credentials of the requested account. It is able to do this because it acts on behalf of the
arbitrator, and holds the arbitrator’s credentials.
8. Once the correct credentials have been established, the server calls pam_open_session(3) to set up
the session.
9. The server now performs whatever service the client requested—for instance, provide the applicant
with a shell.
10. Once the server is done serving the client, it calls pam_close_session(3) to tear down the session.
11. Finally, the server calls pam_end(3) to notify the PAM library that it is done and that it can release
whatever resources it has allocated in the course of the transaction.
17.5 PAM Configuration
17.5.1 PAM policy files
17.5.1.1 The /etc/pam.conf file
The traditional PAM policy file is /etc/pam.conf. This file contains all the PAM policies for your
system. Each line of the file describes one step in a chain, as shown below:
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login
auth
required
pam_nologin.so
no_warn
The fields are, in order: service name, facility name, control flag, module name, and module arguments.
Any additional fields are interpreted as additional module arguments.
A separate chain is constructed for each service / facility pair, so while the order in which lines for the
same service and facility appear is significant, the order in which the individual services and facilities are
listed is not. The examples in the original PAM paper grouped configuration lines by facility, and the
Solaris™ stock pam.conf still does that, but FreeBSD’s stock configuration groups configuration lines
by service. Either way is fine; either way makes equal sense.
17.5.1.2 The /etc/pam.d directory
OpenPAM and Linux-PAM support an alternate configuration mechanism, which is the preferred
mechanism in FreeBSD and NetBSD. In this scheme, each policy is contained in a separate file bearing
the name of the service it applies to. These files are stored in /etc/pam.d/.
These per-service policy files have only four fields instead of pam.conf’s five: the service name field is
omitted. Thus, instead of the sample pam.conf line from the previous section, one would have the
following line in /etc/pam.d/login:
auth
required
pam_nologin.so
no_warn
As a consequence of this simplified syntax, it is possible to use the same policy for multiple services by
linking each service name to a same policy file. For instance, to use the same policy for the su and sudo
services, one could do as follows:
# cd /etc/pam.d
# ln -s su sudo
This works because the service name is determined from the file name rather than specified in the policy
file, so the same file can be used for multiple differently-named services.
Since each service’s policy is stored in a separate file, the pam.d mechanism also makes it very easy to
install additional policies for third-party software packages.
17.5.1.3 The policy search order
As we have seen above, PAM policies can be found in a number of places. If no configuration file is
found for a particular service, the /etc/pam.d/other is used instead. If that file does not exist,
/etc/pam.conf is searched for entries matching he specified service or, failing that, the "other" service.
It is essential to understand that PAM’s configuration system is centered on chains.
17.5.2 Breakdown of a configuration line
As explained in the PAM policy files section, each line in /etc/pam.conf consists of four or more
fields: the service name, the facility name, the control flag, the module name, and zero or more module
arguments.
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The service name is generally (though not always) the name of the application the statement applies to. If
you are unsure, refer to the individual application’s documentation to determine what service name it
uses.
Note that if you use /etc/pam.d/ instead of /etc/pam.conf, the service name is specified by the
name of the policy file, and omitted from the actual configuration lines, which then start with the facility
name.
The facility is one of the four facility keywords described in the Facilities and primitives section.
Likewise, the control flag is one of the four keywords described in the Chains and policies section,
describing how to interpret the return code from the module. Linux-PAM supports an alternate syntax
that lets you specify the action to associate with each possible return code, but this should be avoided as
it is non-standard and closely tied in with the way Linux-PAM dispatches service calls (which differs
greatly from the way Solaris™ and OpenPAM do it.) Unsurprisingly, OpenPAM does not support this
syntax.
17.5.3 Policies
To configure PAM correctly, it is essential to understand how policies are interpreted.
When an application calls pam_start(3), the PAM library loads the policy for the specified service and
constructs four module chains (one for each facility.) If one or more of these chains are empty, the
corresponding chains from the policy for the other service are substituted.
When the application later calls one of the six PAM primitives, the PAM library retrieves the chain for
the corresponding facility and calls the appropriate service function in each module listed in the chain, in
the order in which they were listed in the configuration. After each call to a service function, the module
type and the error code returned by the service function are used to determine what happens next. With a
few exceptions, which we discuss below, the following table applies:
Table 17-1. PAM chain execution summary
PAM_SUCCESS
PAM_IGNORE
other
binding
if (!fail) break;
-
fail = true;
required
-
-
fail = true;
requisite
-
-
fail = true; break;
sufficient
if (!fail) break;
-
-
optional
-
-
-
If fail is true at the end of a chain, or when a “break” is reached, the dispatcher returns the error code
returned by the first module that failed. Otherwise, it returns PAM_SUCCESS.
The first exception of note is that the error code PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD is treated like a success,
except that if no module failed, and at least one module returned PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD, the
dispatcher will return PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD.
The second exception is that pam_setcred(3) treats binding and sufficient modules as if they were
required.
The third and final exception is that pam_chauthtok(3) runs the entire chain twice (once for preliminary
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checks and once to actually set the password), and in the preliminary phase it treats binding and
sufficient modules as if they were required.
17.6 PAM modules
17.6.1 Common Modules
17.6.1.1 pam_deny(8)
The pam_deny(8) module is one of the simplest modules available; it responds to any request with
PAM_AUTH_ERR. It is useful for quickly disabling a service (add it to the top of every chain), or for
terminating chains of sufficient modules.
17.6.1.2 pam_echo(8)
The pam_echo(8) module simply passes its arguments to the conversation function as a
PAM_TEXT_INFO message. It is mostly useful for debugging, but can also serve to display messages such
as “Unauthorized access will be prosecuted” before starting the authentication procedure.
17.6.1.3 pam_exec(8)
The pam_exec(8) module takes its first argument to be the name of a program to execute, and the
remaining arguments are passed to that program as command-line arguments. One possible application is
to use it to run a program at login time which mounts the user’s home directory.
17.6.1.4 pam_ftpusers(8)
The pam_ftpusers(8) module successes if and only if the user is listed in /etc/ftpusers. Currently, in
NetBSD, this module doesn’t understand the extended syntax of ftpd(8), but this will be fixed in the
future.
17.6.1.5 pam_group(8)
The pam_group(8) module accepts or rejects applicants on the basis of their membership in a particular
file group (normally wheel for su(1)). It is primarily intended for maintaining the traditional behaviour
of BSD su(1), but has many other uses, such as excluding certain groups of users from a particular
service.
In NetBSD, there is an argument called authenticate in which the user is asked to authenticate using
his own password.
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17.6.1.6 pam_guest(8)
The pam_guest(8) module allows guest logins using fixed login names. Various requirements can be
placed on the password, but the default behaviour is to allow any password as long as the login name is
that of a guest account. The pam_guest(8) module can easily be used to implement anonymous FTP
logins.
17.6.1.7 pam_krb5(8)
The pam_krb5(8) module provides functions to verify the identity of a user and to set user specific
credentials using Kerberos 5. It prompts the user for a password and obtains a new Kerberos TGT for the
principal. The TGT is verified by obtaining a service ticket for the local host. The newly acquired
credentials are stored in a credential cache and the environment variable KRB5CCNAME is set
appropriately. The credentials cache should be destroyed by the user at logout with kdestroy(1).
17.6.1.8 pam_ksu(8)
The pam_ksu(8) module provides only authentication services for Kerberos 5 to determine whether or
not the applicant is authorized to obtain the privileges of the target account.
17.6.1.9 pam_lastlog(8)
The pam_lastlog(8) module provides only session management services. It records the session in
utmp(5), utmpx(5), wtmp(5), wtmpx(5), lastlog(5) and lastlogx(5) databases.
17.6.1.10 pam_login_access(8)
The pam_login_access(8) module provides an implementation of the account management primitive
which enforces the login restrictions specified in the login.access(5) table.
17.6.1.11 pam_nologin(8)
The pam_nologin(8) module refuses non-root logins when /var/run/nologin exists. This file is
normally created by shutdown(8) when less than five minutes remain until the scheduled shutdown time.
17.6.1.12 pam_permit(8)
The pam_permit(8) module is one of the simplest modules available; it responds to any request with
PAM_SUCCESS. It is useful as a placeholder for services where one or more chains would otherwise be
empty.
17.6.1.13 pam_radius(8)
The pam_radius(8) module provides authentication services based upon the RADIUS (Remote
Authentication Dial In User Service) protocol.
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17.6.1.14 pam_rhosts(8)
The pam_rhosts(8) module provides only authentication services. It reports success if and only if the
target user’s ID is not 0 and the remote host and user are listed in /etc/hosts.equiv or in the target
user’s ~/.rhosts.
17.6.1.15 pam_rootok(8)
The pam_rootok(8) module reports success if and only if the real user id of the process calling it (which
is assumed to be run by the applicant) is 0. This is useful for non-networked services such as su(1) or
passwd(1), to which the root should have automatic access.
17.6.1.16 pam_securetty(8)
The pam_securetty(8) module provides only account services. It is used when the applicant is attempting
to authenticate as superuser, and the process is attached to an insecure TTY.
17.6.1.17 pam_self(8)
The pam_self(8) module reports success if and only if the names of the applicant matches that of the
target account. It is most useful for non-networked services such as su(1), where the identity of the
applicant can be easily verified.
17.6.1.18 pam_ssh(8)
The pam_ssh(8) module provides both authentication and session services. The authentication service
allows users who have passphrase-protected SSH secret keys in their ~/.ssh directory to authenticate
themselves by typing their passphrase. The session service starts ssh-agent(1) and preloads it with the
keys that were decrypted in the authentication phase. This feature is particularly useful for local logins,
whether in X (using xdm(1) or another PAM-aware X login manager) or at the console.
This module implements what is fundamentally a password authentication scheme. Care should be taken
to only use this module over a secure session (secure TTY, encrypted session, etc.), otherwise the user’s
SSH passphrase could be compromised.
Additional consideration should be given to the use of pam_ssh(8). Users often assume that file
permissions are sufficient to protect their SSH keys, and thus use weak or no passphrases. Since the
system administrator has no effective means of enforcing SSH passphrase quality, this has the potential
to expose the system to security risks.
17.6.1.19 pam_unix(8)
The pam_unix(8) module implements traditional UNIX® password authentication, using getpwnam(3)
under FreeBSD or getpwnam_r(3) under NetBSD to obtain the target account’s password and compare it
with the one provided by the applicant. It also provides account management services (enforcing account
and password expiration times) and password-changing services. This is probably the single most useful
module, as the great majority of admins will want to maintain historical behaviour for at least some
services.
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17.6.2 FreeBSD-specific PAM Modules
17.6.2.1 pam_opie(8)
The pam_opie(8) module implements the opie(4) authentication method. The opie(4) system is a
challenge-response mechanism where the response to each challenge is a direct function of the challenge
and a passphrase, so the response can be easily computed “just in time” by anyone possessing the
passphrase, eliminating the need for password lists. Moreover, since opie(4) never reuses a challenge that
has been correctly answered, it is not vulnerable to replay attacks.
17.6.2.2 pam_opieaccess(8)
The pam_opieaccess(8) module is a companion module to pam_opie(8). Its purpose is to enforce the
restrictions codified in opieaccess(5), which regulate the conditions under which a user who would
normally authenticate herself using opie(4) is allowed to use alternate methods. This is most often used
to prohibit the use of password authentication from untrusted hosts.
In order to be effective, the pam_opieaccess(8) module must be listed as requisite immediately after a
sufficient entry for pam_opie(8), and before any other modules, in the auth chain.
17.6.2.3 pam_passwdqc(8)
The pam_passwdqc(8) module is a simple password strength checking module for PAM. In addition to
checking regular passwords, it offers support for passphrases and can provide randomly generated
passwords.
17.6.2.4 pam_tacplus(8)
The pam_tacplus(8) module provides authentication services based upon the TACACS+ protocol for the
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) framework.
17.6.3 NetBSD-specific PAM Modules
17.6.3.1 pam_skey(8)
The pam_skey(8) module implements S/Key One Time Password (OTP) authentication methods, using
the /etc/skeykeys database.
17.7 PAM Application Programming
This section has not yet been written.
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
17.8 PAM Module Programming
This section has not yet been written.
17.9 Sample PAM Application
The following is a minimal implementation of su(1) using PAM. Note that it uses the OpenPAM-specific
openpam_ttyconv(3) conversation function, which is prototyped in security/openpam.h. If you wish
build this application on a system with a different PAM library, you will have to provide your own
conversation function. A robust conversation function is surprisingly difficult to implement; the one
presented in the Sample PAM Conversation Function sub-chapter is a good starting point, but should not
be used in real-world applications.
#include <sys/param.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
<err.h>
<pwd.h>
<stdio.h>
<stdlib.h>
<string.h>
<syslog.h>
<unistd.h>
#include <security/pam_appl.h>
#include <security/openpam.h> /* for openpam_ttyconv() */
extern char **environ;
static pam_handle_t *pamh;
static struct pam_conv pamc;
static void
usage(void)
{
fprintf(stderr, "Usage: su [login [args]]\n");
exit(1);
}
int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
char hostname[MAXHOSTNAMELEN];
const char *user, *tty;
char **args, **pam_envlist, **pam_env;
struct passwd *pwd;
int o, pam_err, status;
pid_t pid;
while ((o = getopt(argc, argv, "h")) != -1)
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
switch (o) {
case ’h’:
default:
usage();
}
argc -= optind;
argv += optind;
if (argc > 0) {
user = *argv;
--argc;
++argv;
} else {
user = "root";
}
/* initialize PAM */
pamc.conv = &openpam_ttyconv;
pam_start("su", user, &pamc, &pamh);
/* set some items */
gethostname(hostname, sizeof(hostname));
if ((pam_err = pam_set_item(pamh, PAM_RHOST, hostname)) != PAM_SUCCESS)
goto pamerr;
user = getlogin();
if ((pam_err = pam_set_item(pamh, PAM_RUSER, user)) != PAM_SUCCESS)
goto pamerr;
tty = ttyname(STDERR_FILENO);
if ((pam_err = pam_set_item(pamh, PAM_TTY, tty)) != PAM_SUCCESS)
goto pamerr;
/* authenticate the applicant */
if ((pam_err = pam_authenticate(pamh, 0)) != PAM_SUCCESS)
goto pamerr;
if ((pam_err = pam_acct_mgmt(pamh, 0)) == PAM_NEW_AUTHTOK_REQD)
pam_err = pam_chauthtok(pamh, PAM_CHANGE_EXPIRED_AUTHTOK);
if (pam_err != PAM_SUCCESS)
goto pamerr;
/* establish the requested credentials */
if ((pam_err = pam_setcred(pamh, PAM_ESTABLISH_CRED)) != PAM_SUCCESS)
goto pamerr;
/* authentication succeeded; open a session */
if ((pam_err = pam_open_session(pamh, 0)) != PAM_SUCCESS)
goto pamerr;
/* get mapped user name; PAM may have changed it */
pam_err = pam_get_item(pamh, PAM_USER, (const void **)&user);
if (pam_err != PAM_SUCCESS || (pwd = getpwnam(user)) == NULL)
goto pamerr;
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
/* export PAM environment */
if ((pam_envlist = pam_getenvlist(pamh)) != NULL) {
for (pam_env = pam_envlist; *pam_env != NULL; ++pam_env) {
putenv(*pam_env);
free(*pam_env);
}
free(pam_envlist);
}
/* build argument list */
if ((args = calloc(argc + 2, sizeof *args)) == NULL) {
warn("calloc()");
goto err;
}
*args = pwd->pw_shell;
memcpy(args + 1, argv, argc * sizeof *args);
/* fork and exec */
switch ((pid = fork())) {
case -1:
warn("fork()");
goto err;
case 0:
/* child: give up privs and start a shell */
/* set uid and groups */
if (initgroups(pwd->pw_name, pwd->pw_gid) == -1) {
warn("initgroups()");
_exit(1);
}
if (setgid(pwd->pw_gid) == -1) {
warn("setgid()");
_exit(1);
}
if (setuid(pwd->pw_uid) == -1) {
warn("setuid()");
_exit(1);
}
execve(*args, args, environ);
warn("execve()");
_exit(1);
default:
/* parent: wait for child to exit */
waitpid(pid, &status, 0);
/* close the session and release PAM resources */
pam_err = pam_close_session(pamh, 0);
pam_end(pamh, pam_err);
exit(WEXITSTATUS(status));
}
pamerr:
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
fprintf(stderr, "Sorry\n");
err:
pam_end(pamh, pam_err);
exit(1);
}
17.10 Sample PAM Module
The following is a minimal implementation of pam_unix(8), offering only authentication services. It
should build and run with most PAM implementations, but takes advantage of OpenPAM extensions if
available: note the use of pam_get_authtok(3), which enormously simplifies prompting the user for a
password.
#include <sys/param.h>
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
<pwd.h>
<stdlib.h>
<stdio.h>
<string.h>
<unistd.h>
#include <security/pam_modules.h>
#include <security/pam_appl.h>
#ifndef _OPENPAM
static char password_prompt[] = "Password:";
#endif
#ifndef PAM_EXTERN
#define PAM_EXTERN
#endif
PAM_EXTERN int
pam_sm_authenticate(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags,
int argc, const char *argv[])
{
#ifndef _OPENPAM
const void *ptr;
const struct pam_conv *conv;
struct pam_message msg;
const struct pam_message *msgp;
struct pam_response *resp;
#endif
struct passwd *pwd;
const char *user;
char *crypt_password, *password;
int pam_err, retry;
/* identify user */
if ((pam_err = pam_get_user(pamh, &user, NULL)) != PAM_SUCCESS)
return (pam_err);
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
if ((pwd = getpwnam(user)) == NULL)
return (PAM_USER_UNKNOWN);
/* get password */
#ifndef _OPENPAM
pam_err = pam_get_item(pamh, PAM_CONV, &ptr);
if (pam_err != PAM_SUCCESS)
return (PAM_SYSTEM_ERR);
conv = ptr;
msg.msg_style = PAM_PROMPT_ECHO_OFF;
msg.msg = password_prompt;
msgp = &msg;
#endif
password = NULL;
for (retry = 0; retry < 3; ++retry) {
#ifdef _OPENPAM
pam_err = pam_get_authtok(pamh, PAM_AUTHTOK,
(const char **)&password, NULL);
#else
resp = NULL;
pam_err = (*conv->conv)(1, &msgp, &resp, conv->appdata_ptr);
if (resp != NULL) {
if (pam_err == PAM_SUCCESS)
password = resp->resp;
else
free(resp->resp);
free(resp);
}
#endif
if (pam_err == PAM_SUCCESS)
break;
}
if (pam_err == PAM_CONV_ERR)
return (pam_err);
if (pam_err != PAM_SUCCESS)
return (PAM_AUTH_ERR);
/* compare passwords */
if ((!pwd->pw_passwd[0] && (flags & PAM_DISALLOW_NULL_AUTHTOK)) ||
(crypt_password = crypt(password, pwd->pw_passwd)) == NULL ||
strcmp(crypt_password, pwd->pw_passwd) != 0)
pam_err = PAM_AUTH_ERR;
else
pam_err = PAM_SUCCESS;
#ifndef _OPENPAM
free(password);
#endif
return (pam_err);
}
PAM_EXTERN int
pam_sm_setcred(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags,
int argc, const char *argv[])
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
{
return (PAM_SUCCESS);
}
PAM_EXTERN int
pam_sm_acct_mgmt(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags,
int argc, const char *argv[])
{
return (PAM_SUCCESS);
}
PAM_EXTERN int
pam_sm_open_session(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags,
int argc, const char *argv[])
{
return (PAM_SUCCESS);
}
PAM_EXTERN int
pam_sm_close_session(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags,
int argc, const char *argv[])
{
return (PAM_SUCCESS);
}
PAM_EXTERN int
pam_sm_chauthtok(pam_handle_t *pamh, int flags,
int argc, const char *argv[])
{
return (PAM_SERVICE_ERR);
}
#ifdef PAM_MODULE_ENTRY
PAM_MODULE_ENTRY("pam_unix");
#endif
17.11 Sample PAM Conversation Function
The conversation function presented below is a greatly simplified version of OpenPAM’s
openpam_ttyconv(3). It is fully functional, and should give the reader a good idea of how a conversation
function should behave, but it is far too simple for real-world use. Even if you’re not using OpenPAM,
feel free to download the source code and adapt openpam_ttyconv(3) to your uses; we believe it to be as
robust as a tty-oriented conversation function can reasonably get.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <security/pam_appl.h>
int
converse(int n, const struct pam_message **msg,
struct pam_response **resp, void *data)
{
struct pam_response *aresp;
char buf[PAM_MAX_RESP_SIZE];
int i;
data = data;
if (n <= 0 || n > PAM_MAX_NUM_MSG)
return (PAM_CONV_ERR);
if ((aresp = calloc(n, sizeof *aresp)) == NULL)
return (PAM_BUF_ERR);
for (i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
aresp[i].resp_retcode = 0;
aresp[i].resp = NULL;
switch (msg[i]->msg_style) {
case PAM_PROMPT_ECHO_OFF:
aresp[i].resp = strdup(getpass(msg[i]->msg));
if (aresp[i].resp == NULL)
goto fail;
break;
case PAM_PROMPT_ECHO_ON:
fputs(msg[i]->msg, stderr);
if (fgets(buf, sizeof buf, stdin) == NULL)
goto fail;
aresp[i].resp = strdup(buf);
if (aresp[i].resp == NULL)
goto fail;
break;
case PAM_ERROR_MSG:
fputs(msg[i]->msg, stderr);
if (strlen(msg[i]->msg) > 0 &&
msg[i]->msg[strlen(msg[i]->msg) - 1] != ’\n’)
fputc(’\n’, stderr);
break;
case PAM_TEXT_INFO:
fputs(msg[i]->msg, stdout);
if (strlen(msg[i]->msg) > 0 &&
msg[i]->msg[strlen(msg[i]->msg) - 1] != ’\n’)
fputc(’\n’, stdout);
break;
default:
goto fail;
}
}
*resp = aresp;
return (PAM_SUCCESS);
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Chapter 17 Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
fail:
for (i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
if (aresp[i].resp != NULL) {
memset(aresp[i].resp, 0, strlen(aresp[i].resp));
free(aresp[i].resp);
}
}
memset(aresp, 0, n * sizeof *aresp);
*resp = NULL;
return (PAM_CONV_ERR);
}
17.12 Further Reading
Bibliography
Papers
Making Login Services Independent of Authentication Technologies
(http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/pam/pam.external.pdf), Vipin Samar and Charlie Lai, Sun
Microsystems.
X/Open Single Sign-on Preliminary Specification (http://www.opengroup.org/pubs/catalog/p702.htm),
The Open Group, 1-85912-144-6, June 1997.
Pluggable Authentication Modules (http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/libs/pam/pre/doc/current-draft.txt),
Andrew G. Morgan, October 6, 1999.
User Manuals
PAM Administration (http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/pam/pam.admin.pdf), Sun Microsystems.
Related Web pages
OpenPAM homepage (http://openpam.sourceforge.net/), Dag-Erling Smørgrav, ThinkSec AS.
Linux-PAM homepage (http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/libs/pam/), Andrew G. Morgan.
Solaris PAM homepage (http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/pam/), Sun Microsystems.
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Chapter 18
Tuning NetBSD
18.1 Introduction
18.1.1 Overview
This section covers a variety of performance tuning topics. It attempts to span tuning from the
perspective of the system administrator to systems programmer. The art of performance tuning itself is
very old. To tune something means to make it operate more efficiently, whether one is referring to a
NetBSD based technical server or a vacuum cleaner, the goal is to improve something, whether that be
the way something is done, how it works or how it is put together.
18.1.1.1 What is Performance Tuning?
A view from 10,000 feet pretty much dictates that everything we do is task oriented, this pertains to a
NetBSD system as well. When the system boots, it automatically begins to perform a variety of tasks.
When a user logs in, they usually have a wide variety of tasks they have to accomplish. In the scope of
these documents, however, performance tuning strictly means to improve how efficient a NetBSD system
performs.
The most common thought that crops into someone’s mind when they think "tuning" is some sort of
speed increase or decreasing the size of the kernel - while those are ways to improve performance, they
are not the only ends an administrator may have to take for increasing efficiency. For our purposes,
performance tuning means this: To make a NetBSD system operate in an optimum state.
Which could mean a variety of things, not necessarily speed enhancements. A good example of this is
filesystem formatting parameters, on a system that has a lot of small files (say like a source repository) an
administrator may need to increase the number of inodes by making their size smaller (say down to
1024k) and then increasing the amount of inodes. In this case the number of inodes was increased,
however, it keeps the administrator from getting those nasty out of inodes messages, which ultimately
makes the system more efficient.
Tuning normally revolves around finding and eliminating bottlenecks. Most of the time, such bottlenecks
are spurious, for example, a release of Mozilla that does not quite handle java applets too well can cause
Mozilla to start crunching the CPU, especially applets that are not done well. Occasions when processes
seem to spin off into nowhere and eat CPU are almost always resolved with a kill. There are instances,
however, when resolving bottlenecks takes a lot longer, for example, say an rsynced server is just getting
larger and larger. Slowly, performance begins to fade and the administrator may have to take some sort of
action to speed things up, however, the situation is relative to say an emergency like an instantly spiked
CPU.
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
18.1.1.2 When does one tune?
Many NetBSD users rarely have to tune a system. The GENERIC kernel may run just fine and the
layout/configuration of the system may do the job as well. By the same token, as a pragma it is always
good to know how to tune a system. Most often tuning comes as a result of a sudden bottleneck issue
(which may occur randomly) or a gradual loss of performance. It does happen in a sense to everyone at
some point, one process that is eating the CPU is a bottleneck as much as a gradual increase in paging.
So, the question should not be when to tune so much as when to learn to tune.
One last time to tune is if you can tune in a preventive manner (and you think you might need to) then do
it. One example of this was on a system that needed to be able to reboot quickly. Instead of waiting, I did
everything I could to trim the kernel and make sure there was absolutely nothing running that was not
needed, I even removed drivers that did have devices, but were never used (lp). The result was reducing
reboot time by nearly two-thirds. In the long run, it was a smart move to tune it before it became an issue.
18.1.1.3 What these Documents Will Not Cover
Before I wrap up the introduction, I think it is important to note what these documents will not cover.
This guide will pertain only to the core NetBSD system. In other words, it will not cover tuning a web
server’s configuration to make it run better; however, it might mention how to tune NetBSD to run better
as a web server. The logic behind this is simple: web servers, database software, etc. are third party and
almost limitless. I could easily get mired down in details that do not apply to the NetBSD system.
Almost all third party software have their own documentation about tuning anyhow.
18.1.1.4 How Examples are Laid Out
Since there is ample man page documentation, only used options and arguments with examples are
discussed. In some cases, material is truncated for brevity and not thoroughly discussed because, quite
simply, there is too much. For example, every single device driver entry in the kernel will not be
discussed, however, an example of determining whether or not a given system needs one will be. Nothing
in this Guide is concrete, tuning and performance are very subjective, instead, it is a guide for the reader
to learn what some of the tools available to them can do.
18.2 Tuning Considerations
Tuning a system is not really too difficult when pro-active tuning is the approach. This document
approaches tuning from a “before it comes up” approach. While tuning in spare time is considerably
easier versus say, a server that is almost completely bogged down to 0.1% idle time, there are still a few
things that should be mulled over about tuning before actually doing it, hopefully, before a system is
even installed.
18.2.1 General System Configuration
Of course, how the system is setup makes a big difference. Sometimes small items can be overlooked
which may in fact cause some sort of long term performance problem.
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
18.2.1.1 Filesystems and Disks
How the filesystem is laid out relative to disk drives is very important. On hardware RAID systems, it is
not such a big deal, but, many NetBSD users specifically use NetBSD on older hardware where hardware
RAID simply is not an option. The idea of / being close to the first drive is a good one, but for example
if there are several drives to choose from that will be the first one, is the best performing the one that /
will be on? On a related note, is it wise to split off /usr? Will the system see heavy usage say in
/usr/pkgsrc? It might make sense to slap a fast drive in and mount it under /usr/pkgsrc, or it might
not. Like all things in performance tuning, this is subjective.
18.2.1.2 Swap Configuration
There are three schools of thought on swap size and about fifty on using split swap files with prioritizing
and how that should be done. In the swap size arena, the vendor schools (at least most commercial ones)
usually have their own formulas per OS. As an example, on a particular version of HP-UX with a
particular version of Oracle the formula was:
2.5 GB * Number_of_processor
Well, that all really depends on what type of usage the database is having and how large it is, for instance
if it is so large that it must be distributed, that formula does not fit well.
The next school of thought about swap sizing is sort of strange but makes some sense, it says, if possible,
get a reference amount of memory used by the system. It goes something like this:
1. Startup a machine and estimate total memory needs by running everything that may ever be needed
at once. Databases, web servers .... whatever. Total up the amount.
2. Add a few MB for padding.
3. Subtract the amount of physical RAM from this total.
If the amount leftover is 3 times the size of physical RAM, consider getting more RAM. The problem, of
course, is figuring out what is needed and how much space it will take. There is also another flaw in this
method, some programs do not behave well. A glaring example of misbehaved software is web browsers.
On certain versions of Netscape, when something went wrong it had a tendency to runaway and eat swap
space. So, the more spare space available, the more time to kill it.
Last and not least is the tried and true PHYSICAL_RAM * 2 method. On modern machines and even
older ones (with limited purpose of course) this seems to work best.
All in all, it is hard to tell when swapping will start. Even on small 16MB RAM machines (and less)
NetBSD has always worked well for most people until misbehaving software is running.
18.2.2 System Services
On servers, system services have a large impact. Getting them to run at their best almost always requires
some sort of network level change or a fundamental speed increase in the underlying system (which of
course is what this is all about). There are instances when some simple solutions can improve services.
One example, an ftp server is becoming slower and a new release of the ftp server that is shipped with the
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
system comes out that, just happens to run faster. By upgrading the ftp software, a performance boost is
accomplished.
Another good example where services are concerned is the age old question: “To use inetd or not to use
inetd?” A great service example is pop3. Pop3 connections can conceivably clog up inetd. While the
pop3 service itself starts to degrade slowly, other services that are multiplexed through inetd will also
degrade (in some case more than pop3). Setting up pop3 to run outside of inetd and on its own may help.
18.2.3 The NetBSD Kernel
The NetBSD kernel obviously plays a key role in how well a system performs, while rebuilding and
tuning the kernel is covered later in the text, it is worth discussing in the local context from a high level.
Tuning the NetBSD kernel really involves three main areas:
1. removing unrequired drivers
2. configuring options
3. system settings
18.2.3.1 Removing Unrequired Drivers
Taking drivers out of the kernel that are not needed achieves several results; first, the system boots faster
since the kernel is smaller, second again since the kernel is smaller, more memory is free to users and
processes and third, the kernel tends to respond quicker.
18.2.3.2 Configuring Options
Configuring options such as enabling/disabling certain subsystems, specific hardware and filesystems
can also improve performance pretty much the same way removing unrequired drivers does. A very
simple example of this is a FTP server that only hosts ftp files - nothing else. On this particular server
there is no need to have anything but native filesystem support and perhaps a few options to help speed
things along. Why would it ever need NTFS support for example? Besides, if it did, support for NTFS
could be added at some later time. In an opposite case, a workstation may need to support a lot of
different filesystem types to share and access files.
18.2.3.3 System Settings
System wide settings are controlled by the kernel, a few examples are filesystem settings, network
settings and core kernel settings such as the maximum number of processes. Almost all system settings
can be at least looked at or modified via the sysctl facility. Examples using the sysctl facility are given
later on.
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
18.3 Visual Monitoring Tools
NetBSD ships a variety of performance monitoring tools with the system. Most of these tools are
common on all UNIX systems. In this section some example usage of the tools is given with
interpretation of the output.
18.3.1 The top Process Monitor
The top monitor does exactly what it says: it displays the CPU hogs on the system. To run the monitor,
simply type top at the prompt. Without any arguments, it should look like:
load averages: 0.09, 0.12,
21 processes: 20 sleeping, 1
CPU states: 0.0% user, 0.0%
Memory: 15M Act, 1104K Inact,
PID
13663
127
22591
108
22597
22592
203
1
205
206
208
207
13667
9926
200
182
180
13666
USERNAME PRI NICE
root
2
0
root
10
0
root
2
0
root
2
0
jrf
28
0
jrf
18
0
root
10
0
root
10
0
root
3
0
root
3
0
root
3
0
root
3
0
nobody
2
0
root
2
0
root
2
0
root
2
0
root
2
0
nobody
-4
0
0.08
on processor
nice, 0.0% system, 0.0% interrupt,
208K Wired, 22M Free, 129M Swap free
SIZE
1552K
129M
388K
132K
156K
828K
220K
312K
48K
48K
48K
48K
1660K
336K
76K
92K
92K
1600K
RES
1836K
4464K
1156K
472K
616K
1128K
424K
192K
432K
424K
424K
424K
1508K
588K
456K
436K
436K
1260K
STATE
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
onproc
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
TIME
0:08
0:01
0:01
0:01
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
WCPU
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
CPU
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
20:23:41
100% idle
COMMAND
httpd
mount_mfs
sshd
syslogd
top
tcsh
cron
init
getty
getty
getty
getty
httpd
sshd
inetd
portsentry
portsentry
httpd
The top utility is great for finding CPU hogs, runaway processes or groups of processes that may be
causing problems. The output shown above indicates that this particular system is in good health. Now,
the next display should show some very different results:
load averages: 0.34, 0.16,
25 processes: 24 sleeping, 1
CPU states: 0.5% user, 0.0%
Memory: 20M Act, 1712K Inact,
PID
5304
5294
108
187
5288
5302
USERNAME PRI NICE
jrf
-5
0
root
2
0
root
2
0
root
2
0
root
2
0
jrf
28
0
0.13
21:13:47
on processor
nice, 9.0% system, 1.0% interrupt, 89.6% idle
240K Wired, 30M Free, 129M Swap free
SIZE
RES STATE
56K 336K sleep
412K 1176K sleep
132K 472K sleep
1552K 1824K sleep
412K 1176K sleep
160K 620K onproc
TIME
WCPU
CPU COMMAND
0:04 66.07% 19.53% bonnie
0:02 1.01% 0.93% sshd
1:23 0.00% 0.00% syslogd
0:07 0.00% 0.00% httpd
0:02 0.00% 0.00% sshd
0:00 0.00% 0.00% top
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
5295
5289
127
204
1
208
210
209
211
217
184
201
jrf
jrf
root
root
root
root
root
root
root
nobody
root
root
18
18
10
10
10
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
828K
828K
129M
220K
312K
48K
48K
48K
48K
1616K
336K
76K
1116K
1112K
8388K
424K
192K
432K
424K
424K
424K
1272K
580K
456K
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
sleep
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0:00
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
tcsh
tcsh
mount_mfs
cron
init
getty
getty
getty
getty
httpd
sshd
inetd
At first, it should seem rather obvious which process is hogging the system, however, what is interesting
in this case is why. The bonnie program is a disk benchmark tool which can write large files in a variety
of sizes and ways. What the previous output indicates is only that the bonnie program is a CPU hog, but
not why.
18.3.1.1 Other Neat Things About Top
A careful examination of the manual page top(1) shows that there is a lot more that can be done with top,
for example, processes can have their priority changed and killed. Additionally, filters can be set for
looking at processes.
18.3.2 The sysstat utility
As the man page sysstat(1) indicates, the sysstat utility shows a variety of system statistics using the
curses library. While it is running the screen is shown in two parts, the upper window shows the current
load average while the lower screen depends on user commands. The exception to the split window view
is when vmstat display is on which takes up the whole screen. Following is what sysstat looks like on a
fairly idle system with no arguments given when it was invoked:
Load Average
/0
|
/1
/2
/3
/4
/5
/6
/7
/8
/9
/10
/0
/10 /20 /30 /40 /50 /60 /70 /80 /90 /100
<idle> XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Basically a lot of dead time there, so now have a look with some arguments provided, in this case,
sysstat inet.tcp which looks like this:
Load Average
/0
|
/1
/2
0 connections initiated
0 connections accepted
0 connections established
0 connections dropped
0
in embryonic state
/3
/4
/5
/6
/7
/8
/9
/10
19 total TCP packets sent
11
data
0
data (retransmit)
8
ack-only
0
window probes
0
window updates
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
0
0
0
11
11
9
0
0
0
0
on retransmit timeout
by keepalive
by persist
0
0
urgent data only
control
29 total TCP packets received
17
in sequence
0
completely duplicate
0
with some duplicate data
4
out of order
0
duplicate acks
11
acks
0
window probes
0
window updates
potential rtt updates
successful rtt updates
delayed acks sent
retransmit timeouts
persist timeouts
keepalive probes
keepalive timeouts
Now that is informative. The first poll is accumulative, so it is possible to see quite a lot of information in
the output when sysstat is invoked. Now, while that may be interesting, how about a look at the buffer
cache with sysstat bufcache:
/0
/1
/2
/3
/4
/5
/6
/7
/8
/9
/10
Load Average
There are 1642 buffers using 6568 kBytes of memory.
File System
/
/var/tmp
Bufs used
877
5
%
53
0
kB in use
6171
17
%
93
0
Bufsize kB
6516
28
%
99
0
882
53
6188
94
6544
99
Total:
Util %
94
60
Again, a pretty boring system, but great information to have available. While this is all nice to look at, it
is time to put a false load on the system to see how sysstat can be used as a performance monitoring tool.
As with top, bonnie++ will be used to put a high load on the I/O subsystems and a little on the CPU. The
bufcache will be looked at again to see of there are any noticeable differences:
Load Average
/0
|||
/1
/2
/3
/4
/5
/6
/7
/8
/9
/10
There are 1642 buffers using 6568 kBytes of memory.
File System
/
Total:
Bufs used
811
%
49
kB in use
6422
%
97
Bufsize kB
6444
%
98
811
49
6422
97
6444
98
Util %
99
First, notice that the load average shot up, this is to be expected of course, then, while most of the
numbers are close, notice that utilization is at 99%. Throughout the time that bonnie++ was running the
utilization percentage remained at 99, this of course makes sense, however, in a real troubleshooting
situation, it could be indicative of a process doing heavy I/O on one particular file or filesystem.
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
18.4 Monitoring Tools
In addition to screen oriented monitors and tools, the NetBSD system also ships with a set of command
line oriented tools. Many of the tools that ship with a NetBSD system can be found on other UNIX and
UNIX-like systems.
18.4.1 fstat
The fstat(1) utility reports the status of open files on the system, while it is not what many administrators
consider a performance monitor, it can help find out if a particular user or process is using an inordinate
amount of files, generating large files and similar information.
Following is a sample of some fstat output:
USER
jrf
jrf
jrf
root
root
nobody
nobody
nobody
nobody
...
CMD
tcsh
tcsh
tcsh
sshd
sshd
httpd
httpd
httpd
httpd
PID
21607
21607
21607
21597
21597
5032
5032
5032
5032
FD MOUNT
INUM MODE
SZ|DV
wd /
29772 drwxr-xr-x
512
3* unix stream c057acc0<-> c0553280
4* unix stream c0553280 <-> c057acc0
wd /
2 drwxr-xr-x
512
0 /
11921 crw-rw-rwnull
wd /
2 drwxr-xr-x
512
0 /
11921 crw-rw-rwnull
1 /
11921 crw-rw-rwnull
2 /
15890 -rw-r--r-- 353533
R/W
r
r
rw
r
r
w
rw
The fields are pretty self explanatory, again, this tool while not as performance oriented as others, can
come in handy when trying to find out information about file usage.
18.4.2 iostat
The iostat(8) command does exactly what it sounds like, it reports the status of the I/O subsystems on the
system. When iostat is employed, the user typically runs it with a certain number of counts and an
interval between them like so:
$ iostat 5 5
tty
tin tout
0
1
0
54
0
18
0
18
0
28
wd0
KB/t t/s MB/s
5.13
1 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
8.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
cd0
KB/t t/s MB/s
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
fd0
KB/t t/s MB/s
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
md0
KB/t t/s MB/s
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
cpu
us ni sy in id
0 0 0 0 100
0 0 0 0 100
0 0 0 0 100
0 0 0 0 100
0 0 0 0 100
The above output is from a very quiet ftp server. The fields represent the various I/O devices, the tty
(which, ironically, is the most active because iostat is running), wd0 which is the primary IDE disk, cd0,
the cdrom drive, fd0, the floppy and the memory filesystem.
Now, let’s see if we can pummel the system with some heavy usage. First, a large ftp transaction
consisting of a tarball of netbsd-current source along with the bonnie++ disk benchmark program
running at the same time.
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
$ iostat 5 5
tty
wd0
tin tout KB/t t/s MB/s
0
1 5.68
1 0.00
0
54 61.03 150 8.92
0
26 63.14 157 9.71
0
20 43.58 26 1.12
0
28 19.49 82 1.55
cd0
KB/t t/s MB/s
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
fd0
KB/t t/s MB/s
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
md0
KB/t t/s MB/s
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
0.00
0 0.00
cpu
us ni sy in id
0 0 0 0 100
1 0 18 4 78
1 0 20 4 75
0 0 9 2 88
1 0 7 3 89
As can be expected, notice that wd0 is very active, what is interesting about this output is how the
processor’s I/O seems to rise in proportion to wd0. This makes perfect sense, however, it is worth noting
that only because this ftp server is hardly being used can that be observed. If, for example, the cpu I/O
subsystem was already under a moderate load and the disk subsystem was under the same load as it is
now, it could appear that the cpu is bottlenecked when in fact it would have been the disk. In such a case,
we can observe that "one tool" is rarely enough to completely analyze a problem. A quick glance at
processes probably would tell us (after watching iostat) which processes were causing problems.
18.4.3 ps
Using the ps(1) command or process status, a great deal of information about the system can be
discovered. Most of the time, the ps command is used to isolate a particular process by name, group,
owner etc. Invoked with no options or arguments, ps simply prints out information about the user
executing it.
$ ps
PID
21560
21564
21598
21673
21638
TT
p0
p0
p1
p1
p2
STAT
Is
I+
Ss
R+
Is+
TIME
0:00.04
0:00.37
0:00.12
0:00.00
0:00.06
COMMAND
-tcsh
ssh jrf.odpn.net
-tcsh
ps
-tcsh
Not very exciting. The fields are self explanatory with the exception of STAT which is actually the state a
process is in. The flags are all documented in the man page, however, in the above example, I is idle, S is
sleeping, R is runnable, the + means the process is in a foreground state, and the s means the process is a
session leader. This all makes perfect sense when looking at the flags, for example, PID 21560 is a shell,
it is idle and (as would be expected) the shell is the process leader.
In most cases, someone is looking for something very specific in the process listing. As an example,
looking at all processes is specified with -a, to see all processes plus those without controlling terminals
is -ax and to get a much more verbose listing (basically everything plus information about the impact
processes are having) aux:
# ps aux
USER
root
root
root
jrf
root
jrf
PID %CPU %MEM
0 0.0 9.6
23362 0.0 0.8
23328 0.0 0.4
23312 0.0 1.8
23311 0.0 1.8
21951 0.0 1.7
VSZ
0
144
428
828
388
244
RSS
6260
488
280
1132
1156
1124
TT
??
??
p1
p1
??
p0
STAT
DLs
S
S
Is
S
S+
STARTED
16Jul02
12:38PM
12:34PM
12:32PM
12:32PM
4:22PM
TIME
0:01.00
0:00.01
0:00.04
0:00.06
0:01.60
0:02.90
COMMAND
(swapper)
ftpd -l
-csh
-tcsh
sshd: jrf@ttyp1
ssh jrf.odpn.net
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
jrf
21947
root
21946
nobody 5032
...
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.7
1.8
2.0
828 1128 p0 Is
388 1156 ?? S
1616 1300 ?? I
4:21PM 0:00.04 -tcsh
4:21PM 0:04.94 sshd: jrf@ttyp0
19Jul02 0:00.02 /usr/pkg/sbin/httpd
Again, most of the fields are self explanatory with the exception of VSZ and RSS which can be a little
confusing. RSS is the real size of a process in 1024 byte units while VSZ is the virtual size. This is all
great, but again, how can ps help? Well, for one, take a look at this modified version of the same output:
# ps aux
USER
root
root
root
jrf
root
jrf
jrf
root
nobody
...
PID %CPU %MEM
0 0.0 9.6
23362 0.0 0.8
23328 0.0 0.4
23312 0.0 1.8
23311 0.0 1.8
21951 0.0 1.7
21947 0.0 1.7
21946 0.0 1.8
5032 9.0 2.0
VSZ
0
144
428
828
388
244
828
388
1616
RSS
6260
488
280
1132
1156
1124
1128
1156
1300
TT
??
??
p1
p1
??
p0
p0
??
??
STAT
DLs
S
S
Is
S
S+
Is
S
I
STARTED
16Jul02
12:38PM
12:34PM
12:32PM
12:32PM
4:22PM
4:21PM
4:21PM
19Jul02
TIME
0:01.00
0:00.01
0:00.04
0:00.06
0:01.60
0:02.90
0:00.04
0:04.94
0:00.02
COMMAND
(swapper)
ftpd -l
-csh
-tcsh
sshd: jrf@ttyp1
ssh jrf.odpn.net
-tcsh
sshd: jrf@ttyp0
/usr/pkg/sbin/httpd
Given that on this server, our baseline indicates a relatively quiet system, the PID 5032 has an unusually
large amount of %CPU. Sometimes this can also cause high TIME numbers. The ps command can be
grepped on for PIDs, username and process name and hence help track down processes that may be
experiencing problems.
18.4.4 vmstat
Using vmstat(1), information pertaining to virtual memory can be monitored and measured. Not unlike
iostat, vmstat can be invoked with a count and interval. Following is some sample output using 5 5 like
the iostat example:
# vmstat 5 5
procs
r b w
0 7 0
0 7 0
0 7 0
0 7 0
0 7 0
memory
avm
fre
17716 33160
17724 33156
17724 33156
17724 33156
17724 33156
page
flt re
2
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
pi
0
0
0
0
0
po
0
0
0
0
0
fr
0
0
0
0
0
disks
sr w0 c0 f0 m0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
faults
in
sy
105
15
109
6
105
6
107
6
105
6
cpu
cs us sy
4 0 0
3 0 0
3 0 0
3 0 0
3 0 0
id
100
100
100
100
100
Yet again, relatively quiet, for posterity, the exact same load that was put on this server in the iostat
example will be used. The load is a large file transfer and the bonnie benchmark program.
# vmstat 5 5
procs
r b w
1 8 0
0 8 0
1 7 0
1 8 0
memory
avm
fre
18880 31968
18888 31964
18888 31964
18888 31964
page
flt re
2
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
pi
0
0
0
0
po
0
0
0
0
fr
0
0
0
0
sr
0
0
0
0
disks
w0 c0 f0 m0
1 0 0 0
130 0 0 0
130 0 0 0
160 0 0 0
faults
in
sy
105
15
1804 5539
1802 5500
1849 5905
cpu
cs us sy id
4 0 0 100
1094 31 22 47
1060 36 16 49
1107 21 22 57
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
1 7 0 18888 31964
1
0
0
0
0
0 175
0
0
0 1893 6167 1082
1 25 75
Just a little different. Notice, since most of the work was I/O based, the actual memory used was not very
much. Since this system uses mfs for /tmp, however, it can certainly get beat up. Have a look at this:
# vmstat 5 5
procs
memory
r b w
avm
fre
0 2 0 99188
500
0 2 0111596
436
0 3 0123976
784
0 2 0134692 1236
2 0 0142860
912
page
flt re pi
2
0
0
592
0 587
666
0 662
581
0 571
433
0 406
po
0
624
643
563
403
disks
faults
fr
sr w0 c0 f0 m0
in
sy
0
0 1 0 0 0 105
16
586 1210 624 0 0 0 741 883
683 1326 702 0 0 0 828 993
595 1158 599 0 0 0 722 863
405 808 429 0 0 0 552 602
cpu
cs us sy id
4 0 0 100
1088 0 11 89
1237 0 12 88
1066 0 9 90
768 0 7 93
Pretty scary stuff. That was created by running bonnie in /tmp on a memory based filesystem. If it
continued for too long, it is possible the system could have started thrashing. Notice that even though the
VM subsystem was taking a beating, the processors still were not getting too battered.
18.5 Network Tools
Sometimes a performance problem is not a particular machine, it is the network or some sort of device
on the network such as another host, a router etc. What other machines that provide a service or some
sort of connectivity to a particular NetBSD system do and how they act can have a very large impact on
performance of the NetBSD system itself, or the perception of performance by users. A really great
example of this is when a DNS server that a NetBSD machine is using suddenly disappears. Lookups
take long and they eventually fail. Someone logged into the NetBSD machine who is not experienced
would undoubtedly (provided they had no other evidence) blame the NetBSD system. One of my
personal favorites, “the Internet is broke” usually means either DNS service or a router/gateway has
dropped offline. Whatever the case may be, a NetBSD system comes adequately armed to deal with
finding out what network issues may be cropping up whether the fault of the local system or some other
issue.
18.5.1 ping
The classic ping(8) utility can tell us if there is just plain connectivity, it can also tell if host resolution
(depending on how nsswitch.conf dictates) is working. Following is some typical ping output on a
local network with a count of 3 specified:
# ping -c 3 marie
PING marie (172.16.14.12): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 172.16.14.12: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0.571 ms
64 bytes from 172.16.14.12: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=0.361 ms
64 bytes from 172.16.14.12: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=0.371 ms
----marie PING Statistics---3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.361/0.434/0.571/0.118 ms
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
Not only does ping tell us if a host is alive, it tells us how long it took and gives some nice details at the
very end. If a host cannot be resolved, just the IP address can be specified as well:
# ping -c 1 172.16.20.5
PING ash (172.16.20.5): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 172.16.20.5: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=0.452 ms
----ash PING Statistics---1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.452/0.452/0.452/0.000 ms
Now, not unlike any other tool, the times are very subjective, especially in regards to networking. For
example, while the times in the examples are good, take a look at the localhost ping:
# ping -c 4 localhost
PING localhost (127.0.0.1): 56 data
64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0
64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=1
64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=2
64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=3
bytes
ttl=255
ttl=255
ttl=255
ttl=255
time=0.091
time=0.129
time=0.120
time=0.122
ms
ms
ms
ms
----localhost PING Statistics---4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.091/0.115/0.129/0.017 ms
Much smaller because the request never left the machine. Pings can be used to gather information about
how well a network is performing. It is also good for problem isolation, for instance, if there are three
relatively close in size NetBSD systems on a network and one of them simply has horrible ping times,
chances are something is wrong on that one particular machine.
18.5.2 traceroute
The traceroute(8) command is great for making sure a path is available or detecting problems on a
particular path. As an example, here is a trace between the example ftp server and ftp.NetBSD.org:
# traceroute ftp.NetBSD.org
traceroute to ftp.NetBSD.org (204.152.184.75), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 208.44.95.1 (208.44.95.1) 1.646 ms 1.492 ms 1.456 ms
2 63.144.65.170 (63.144.65.170) 7.318 ms 3.249 ms 3.854 ms
3 chcg01-edge18.il.inet.qwest.net (65.113.85.229) 35.982 ms 28.667 ms 21.971 ms
4 chcg01-core01.il.inet.qwest.net (205.171.20.1) 22.607 ms 26.242 ms 19.631 ms
5 snva01-core01.ca.inet.qwest.net (205.171.8.50) 78.586 ms 70.585 ms 84.779 ms
6 snva01-core03.ca.inet.qwest.net (205.171.14.122) 69.222 ms 85.739 ms 75.979 ms
7 paix01-brdr02.ca.inet.qwest.net (205.171.205.30) 83.882 ms 67.739 ms 69.937 ms
8 198.32.175.3 (198.32.175.3) 72.782 ms 67.687 ms 73.320 ms
9 so-1-0-0.orpa8.pf.isc.org (192.5.4.231) 78.007 ms 81.860 ms 77.069 ms
10 tun0.orrc5.pf.isc.org (192.5.4.165) 70.808 ms 75.151 ms 81.485 ms
11 ftp.NetBSD.org (204.152.184.75) 69.700 ms 69.528 ms 77.788 ms
All in all, not bad. The trace went from the host to the local router, then out onto the provider network
and finally out onto the Internet looking for the final destination. How to interpret traceroutes, again, are
subjective, but abnormally high times in portions of a path can indicate a bottleneck on a piece of
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
network equipment. Not unlike ping, if the host itself is suspect, run traceroute from another host to the
same destination. Now, for the worst case scenario:
# traceroute www.microsoft.com
traceroute: Warning: www.microsoft.com has multiple addresses; using 207.46.230.220
traceroute to www.microsoft.akadns.net (207.46.230.220), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 208.44.95.1 (208.44.95.1) 2.517 ms 4.922 ms 5.987 ms
2 63.144.65.170 (63.144.65.170) 10.981 ms 3.374 ms 3.249 ms
3 chcg01-edge18.il.inet.qwest.net (65.113.85.229) 37.810 ms 37.505 ms 20.795 ms
4 chcg01-core03.il.inet.qwest.net (205.171.20.21) 36.987 ms 32.320 ms 22.430 ms
5 chcg01-brdr03.il.inet.qwest.net (205.171.20.142) 33.155 ms 32.859 ms 33.462 ms
6 205.171.1.162 (205.171.1.162) 39.265 ms 20.482 ms 26.084 ms
7 sl-bb24-chi-13-0.sprintlink.net (144.232.26.85) 26.681 ms 24.000 ms 28.975 ms
8 sl-bb21-sea-10-0.sprintlink.net (144.232.20.30) 65.329 ms 69.694 ms 76.704 ms
9 sl-bb21-tac-9-1.sprintlink.net (144.232.9.221) 65.659 ms 66.797 ms 74.408 ms
10 144.232.187.194 (144.232.187.194) 104.657 ms 89.958 ms 91.754 ms
11 207.46.154.1 (207.46.154.1) 89.197 ms 84.527 ms 81.629 ms
12 207.46.155.10 (207.46.155.10) 78.090 ms 91.550 ms 89.480 ms
13 * * *
.......
In this case, the Microsoft server cannot be found either because of multiple addresses or somewhere
along the line a system or server cannot reply to the information request. At that point, one might think to
try ping, in the Microsoft case, a ping does not reply, that is because somewhere on their network ICMP
is most likely disabled.
18.5.3 netstat
Another problem that can crop up on a NetBSD system is routing table issues. These issues are not
always the systems fault. The route(8) and netstat(1) commands can show information about routes and
network connections (respectively).
The route command can be used to look at and modify routing tables while netstat can display
information about network connections and routes. First, here is some output from route show:
# route show
Routing tables
Internet:
Destination
default
loopback
localhost
172.15.13.0
172.16.0.0
172.16.14.8
172.16.14.10
marie
172.16.14.37
172.16.16.15
loghost
artemus
Gateway
208.44.95.1
127.0.0.1
127.0.0.1
172.16.14.37
link#2
0:80:d3:cc:2c:0
link#2
0:10:83:f9:6f:2c
0:5:32:8f:d2:35
link#2
8:0:20:a7:f0:75
8:0:20:a8:d:7e
Flags
UG
UG
UH
UG
U
UH
UH
UH
UH
UH
UH
UH
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
ash
208.44.95.0
208.44.95.1
208.44.95.2
208.44.95.25
0:b0:d0:de:49:df
link#1
0:4:27:3:94:20
0:5:32:8f:d2:34
0:c0:4f:10:79:92
UH
U
UH
UH
UH
Internet6:
Destination
default
default
localhost
::127.0.0.0
::224.0.0.0
::255.0.0.0
::ffff:0.0.0.0
2002::
2002:7f00::
2002:e000::
2002:ff00::
fe80::
fe80::%ex0
fe80::%ex1
fe80::%lo0
fec0::
ff01::
ff02::%ex0
ff02::%ex1
ff02::%lo0
Gateway
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
localhost
link#1
link#2
fe80::1%lo0
localhost
localhost
link#1
link#2
fe80::1%lo0
Flags
UG
UG
UH
UG
UG
UG
UG
UG
UG
UG
UG
UG
U
U
U
UG
U
U
U
U
The flags section shows the status and whether or not it is a gateway. In this case we see U, H and G (U is
up, H is host and G is gateway, see the man page for additional flags).
Now for some netstat output using the -r (routing) and -n (show network numbers) options:
Routing tables
Internet:
Destination
default
127
127.0.0.1
172.15.13/24
172.16
...
Internet6:
Destination
Mtu Interface
::/104
33228 lo0 =>
::/96
Gateway
208.44.95.1
127.0.0.1
127.0.0.1
172.16.14.37
link#2
Flags
UGS
UGRS
UH
UGS
UC
Refs
0
0
1
0
13
Use
330309
0
1624
0
0
Mtu
1500
33228
33228
1500
1500
Interface
ex0
lo0
lo0
ex1
ex1
Gateway
Flags
Refs
Use
::1
UGRS
0
0
::1
UGRS
0
0
The above output is a little more verbose. So, how can this help? Well, a good example is when routes
between networks get changed while users are connected. I saw this happen several times when someone
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
was rebooting routers all day long after each change. Several users called up saying they were getting
kicked out and it was taking very long to log back in. As it turned out, the clients connecting to the
system were redirected to another router (which took a very long route) to reconnect. I observed the M
flag or Modified dynamically (by redirect) on their connections. I deleted the routes, had them reconnect
and summarily followed up with the offending technician.
18.5.4 tcpdump
Last, and definitely not least is tcpdump(8), the network sniffer that can retrieve a lot of information. In
this discussion, there will be some sample output and an explanation of some of the more useful options
of tcpdump.
Following is a small snippet of tcpdump in action just as it starts:
# tcpdump
tcpdump: listening on ex0
14:07:29.920651 mail.ssh > 208.44.95.231.3551: P 2951836801:2951836845(44) ack 2
476972923 win 17520 <nop,nop,timestamp 1219259 128519450> [tos 0x10]
14:07:29.950594 12.125.61.34 > 208.44.95.16: ESP(spi=2548773187,seq=0x3e8c) (DF)
14:07:29.983117 smtp.somecorp.com.smtp > 208.44.95.30.42828: . ack 420285166 win
16500 (DF)
14:07:29.984406 208.44.95.30.42828 > smtp.somecorp.com.smtp: . 1:1376(1375) ack 0
win 7431 (DF)
...
Given that the particular server is a mail server, what is shown makes perfect sense, however, the utility
is very verbose, I prefer to initially run tcpdump with no options and send the text output into a file for
later digestion like so:
# tcpdump > tcpdump.out
tcpdump: listening on ex0
So, what precisely in the mish mosh are we looking for? In short, anything that does not seem to fit, for
example, messed up packet lengths (as in a lot of them) will show up as improper lens or malformed
packets (basically garbage). If, however, we are looking for something specific, tcpdump may be able to
help depending on the problem.
18.5.4.1 Specific tcpdump Usage
These are just examples of a few things one can do with tcpdump.
Look for duplicate IP addresses:
tcpdump -e host ip-address
For example:
tcpdump -e host 192.168.0.2
Routing Problems:
tcpdump icmp
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
There are plenty of third party tools available, however, NetBSD comes shipped with a good tool set for
tracking down network level performance problems.
18.6 Accounting
The NetBSD system comes equipped with a great deal of performance monitors for active monitoring,
but what about long term monitoring? Well, of course the output of a variety of commands can be sent to
files and re-parsed later with a meaningful shell script or program. NetBSD does, by default, offer some
extraordinarily powerful low level monitoring tools for the programmer, administrator or really astute
hobbyist.
18.6.1 Accounting
While accounting gives system usage at an almost userland level, kernel profiling with gprof provides
explicit system call usage.
Using the accounting tools can help figure out what possible performance problems may be laying in
wait, such as increased usage of compilers or network services for example.
Starting accounting is actually fairly simple, as root, use the accton(8) command. The syntax to start
accounting is: accton filename
Where accounting information is appended to filename, now, strangely enough, the lastcomm command
which reads from an accounting output file, by default, looks in /var/account/acct so I tend to just
use the default location, however, lastcomm can be told to look elsewhere.
To stop accounting, simply type accton with no arguments.
18.6.2 Reading Accounting Information
To read accounting information, there are two tools that can be used:
•
lastcomm(1)
•
sa(8)
18.6.2.1 lastcomm
The lastcomm command shows the last commands executed in order, like all of them. It can, however,
select by user, here is some sample output:
$ lastcomm jrf
last
man
sh
less
lastcomm
stty
tset
-
jrf
jrf
jrf
jrf
jrf
jrf
jrf
ttyp3
ttyp3
ttyp3
ttyp3
ttyp3
ttyp3
ttyp3
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00
secs
secs
secs
secs
secs
secs
secs
Tue
Tue
Tue
Tue
Tue
Tue
Tue
Sep
Sep
Sep
Sep
Sep
Sep
Sep
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
14:39
14:38
14:38
14:38
14:38
14:38
14:38
(0:00:00.02)
(0:01:49.03)
(0:01:49.03)
(0:01:49.03)
(0:00:00.02)
(0:00:00.02)
(0:00:01.05)
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
hostname
ls
...
-
jrf
jrf
ttyp3
ttyp0
0.00 secs Tue Sep
0.00 secs Tue Sep
3 14:38 (0:00:00.02)
3 14:36 (0:00:00.00)
Pretty nice, the lastcomm command gets its information from the default location of /var/account/acct,
however, using the -f option, another file may be specified.
As may seem obvious, the output of lastcomm could get a little heavy on large multi user systems. That
is where sa comes into play.
18.6.2.2 sa
The sa command (meaning "print system accounting statistics") can be used to maintain information. It
can also be used interactively to create reports. Following is the default output of sa:
$ sa
77
3
2
2
10
2
4
2
3
5
10
11
9
2
12
18.62re
4.27re
0.68re
1.09re
0.61re
0.01re
0.00re
0.00re
0.03re
0.02re
3.98re
0.00re
3.95re
0.00re
3.97re
0.02cp
0.01cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
8avio
45avio
33avio
23avio
7avio
29avio
8avio
3avio
1avio
10avio
2avio
0avio
12avio
4avio
1avio
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
ispell
mutt
vi
***other
exim
lastcomm
atrun
cron*
exim*
less
ls
man
sa
sh
...
From left to right, total times called, real time in minutes, sum of user and system time, in minutes,
Average number of I/O operations per execution, size, command name.
The sa command can also be used to create summary files or reports based on some options, for example,
here is the output when specifying a sort by CPU-time average memory usage:
$ sa -k
86
10
2
3
2
5
3
4
12
13
11
2
3
30.81re
0.61re
0.00re
0.03re
0.01re
0.02re
4.27re
0.00re
8.04re
0.00re
8.01re
0.68re
0.00re
0.02cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.01cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
0.00cp
8avio
7avio
3avio
1avio
29avio
10avio
45avio
8avio
2avio
0avio
12avio
33avio
4avio
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
0k
***other
atrun
cron*
exim
exim*
ispell
lastcomm
less
ls
man
mutt
sa
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
14
2
8.03re
1.09re
0.00cp
0.00cp
1avio
23avio
0k
0k
sh
vi
The sa command is very helpful on larger systems.
18.6.3 How to Put Accounting to Use
Accounting reports, as was mentioned earlier, offer a way to help predict trends, for example, on a
system that has cc and make being used more and more may indicate that in a few months some changes
will need to be made to keep the system running at an optimum level. Another good example is web
server usage. If it begins to gradually increase, again, some sort of action may need to be taken before it
becomes a problem. Luckily, with accounting tools, said actions can be reasonably predicted and planned
for ahead of time.
18.7 Kernel Profiling
Profiling a kernel is normally employed when the goal is to compare the difference of new changes in the
kernel to a previous one or to track down some sort of low level performance problem. Two sets of data
about profiled code behavior are recorded independently: function call frequency and time spent in each
function.
18.7.1 Getting Started
First, take a look at both Section 18.9 and Chapter 31. The only difference in procedure for setting up a
kernel with profiling enabled is when you run config add the -p option. The build area is
../compile/<KERNEL_NAME>.PROF , for example, a GENERIC kernel would be
../compile/GENERIC.PROF.
Following is a quick summary of how to compile a kernel with profiling enabled on the i386 port, the
assumptions are that the appropriate sources are available under /usr/src and the GENERIC
configuration is being used, of course, that may not always be the situation:
1. cd /usr/src/sys/arch/i386/conf
2. config -p GENERIC
3. cd ../compile/GENERIC.PROF
4. make depend && make
5. cp /netbsd /netbsd.old
6. cp netbsd /
7. reboot
Once the new kernel is in place and the system has rebooted, it is time to turn on the monitoring and start
looking at results.
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
18.7.1.1 Using kgmon
To start kgmon:
$ kgmon -b
kgmon: kernel profiling is running.
Next, send the data into the file gmon.out:
$ kgmon -p
Now, it is time to make the output readable:
$ gprof /netbsd > gprof.out
Since gmon is looking for gmon.out, it should find it in the current working directory.
By just running kgmon alone, you may not get the information you need, however, if you are comparing
the differences between two different kernels, then a known good baseline should be used. Note that it is
generally a good idea to stress the subsystem if you know what it is both in the baseline and with the
newer (or different) kernel.
18.7.2 Interpretation of kgmon Output
Now that kgmon can run, collect and parse information, it is time to actually look at some of that
information. In this particular instance, a GENERIC kernel is running with profiling enabled for about an
hour with only system processes and no adverse load, in the fault insertion section, the example will be
large enough that even under a minimal load detection of the problem should be easy.
18.7.2.1 Flat Profile
The flat profile is a list of functions, the number of times they were called and how long it took (in
seconds). Following is sample output from the quiet system:
Flat profile:
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
%
cumulative
self
self
total
time
seconds
seconds
calls ns/call ns/call name
99.77
163.87
163.87
idle
0.03
163.92
0.05
219 228310.50 228354.34 _wdc_ata_bio_start
0.02
163.96
0.04
219 182648.40 391184.96 wdc_ata_bio_intr
0.01
163.98
0.02
3412 5861.66 6463.02 pmap_enter
0.01
164.00
0.02
548 36496.35 36496.35 pmap_zero_page
0.01
164.02
0.02
Xspllower
0.01
164.03
0.01
481968
20.75
20.75 gettick
0.01
164.04
0.01
6695 1493.65 1493.65 VOP_LOCK
0.01
164.05
0.01
3251 3075.98 21013.45 syscall_plain
...
As expected, idle was the highest in percentage, however, there were still some things going on, for
example, a little further down there is the vn_lock function:
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
...
0.00
0.00
0.00
164.14
164.14
164.14
0.00
0.00
0.00
6711
6677
6441
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1493.65
0.00
VOP_UNLOCK
vn_lock
genfs_unlock
This is to be expected, since locking still has to take place, regardless.
18.7.2.2 Call Graph Profile
The call graph is an augmented version of the flat profile showing subsequent calls from the listed
functions. First, here is some sample output:
Call graph (explanation follows)
granularity: each sample hit covers 4 byte(s) for 0.01% of 164.14 seconds
index % time
self
children
called
name
<spontaneous>
[1]
99.8 163.87
0.00
idle [1]
----------------------------------------------<spontaneous>
[2]
0.1
0.01
0.08
syscall1 [2]
0.01
0.06
3251/3251
syscall_plain [7]
0.00
0.01
414/1660
trap [9]
----------------------------------------------0.00
0.09
219/219
Xintr14 [6]
[3]
0.1
0.00
0.09
219
pciide_compat_intr [3]
0.00
0.09
219/219
wdcintr [5]
----------------------------------------------...
Now this can be a little confusing. The index number is mapped to from the trailing number on the end of
the line, for example,
...
[72]
0.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
85/85
85
85/89
dofilewrite [68]
soo_write [72]
sosend [71]
...
Here we see that dofilewrite was called first, now we can look at the index number for 64 and see what
was happening there:
...
[64]
0.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
101/103
103
103/105
ffs_full_fsync <cycle 6> [58]
bawrite [64]
VOP_BWRITE [60]
...
And so on, in this way, a "visual trace" can be established.
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
At the end of the call graph right after the terms section is an index by function name which can help
map indexes as well.
18.7.3 Putting it to Use
In this example, I have modified an area of the kernel I know will create a problem that will be blatantly
obvious.
Here is the top portion of the flat profile after running the system for about an hour with little interaction
from users:
Flat profile:
Each sample counts as 0.01 seconds.
%
cumulative
self
self
total
time
seconds
seconds
calls us/call us/call name
93.97
139.13
139.13
idle
5.87
147.82
8.69
23 377826.09 377842.52 check_exec
0.01
147.84
0.02
243
82.30
82.30 pmap_copy_page
0.01
147.86
0.02
131
152.67
152.67 _wdc_ata_bio_start
0.01
147.88
0.02
131
152.67
271.85 wdc_ata_bio_intr
0.01
147.89
0.01
4428
2.26
2.66 uvn_findpage
0.01
147.90
0.01
4145
2.41
2.41 uvm_pageactivate
0.01
147.91
0.01
2473
4.04 3532.40 syscall_plain
0.01
147.92
0.01
1717
5.82
5.82 i486_copyout
0.01
147.93
0.01
1430
6.99
56.52 uvm_fault
0.01
147.94
0.01
1309
7.64
7.64 pool_get
0.01
147.95
0.01
673
14.86
38.43 genfs_getpages
0.01
147.96
0.01
498
20.08
20.08 pmap_zero_page
0.01
147.97
0.01
219
45.66
46.28 uvm_unmap_remove
0.01
147.98
0.01
111
90.09
90.09 selscan
...
As is obvious, there is a large difference in performance. Right off the bat the idle time is noticeably less.
The main difference here is that one particular function has a large time across the board with very few
calls. That function is check_exec. While at first, this may not seem strange if a lot of commands had
been executed, when compared to the flat profile of the first measurement, proportionally it does not
seem right:
...
0.00
...
164.14
0.00
37
0.00 62747.49
check_exec
The call in the first measurement is made 37 times and has a better performance. Obviously something in
or around that function is wrong. To eliminate other functions, a look at the call graph can help, here is
the first instance of check_exec
...
----------------------------------------------0.00
8.69
23/23
syscall_plain [3]
[4]
5.9
0.00
8.69
23
sys_execve [4]
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
8.69
0.00
0.00
0.00
23/23
20/20
check_exec [5]
elf32_copyargs [67]
...
Notice how the time of 8.69 seems to affect the two previous functions. It is possible that there is
something wrong with them, however, the next instance of check_exec seems to prove otherwise:
...
----------------------------------------------8.69
0.00
23/23
sys_execve [4]
[5]
5.9
8.69
0.00
23
check_exec [5]
...
Now we can see that the problem, most likely, resides in check_exec. Of course, problems are not always
this simple and in fact, here is the simpleton code that was inserted right after check_exec (the function is
in sys/kern/kern_exec.c):
...
/* A Cheap fault insertion */
for (x = 0; x < 100000000; x++) {
y = x;
}
..
Not exactly glamorous, but enough to register a large change with profiling.
18.7.4 Summary
Kernel profiling can be enlightening for anyone and provides a much more refined method of hunting
down performance problems that are not as easy to find using conventional means, it is also not nearly as
hard as most people think, if you can compile a kernel, you can get profiling to work.
18.8 System Tuning
Now that monitoring and analysis tools have been addressed, it is time to look into some actual methods.
In this section, tools and methods that can affect how the system performs that are applied without
recompiling the kernel are addressed, the next section examines kernel tuning by recompiling.
18.8.1 Using sysctl
The sysctl utility can be used to look at and in some cases alter system parameters. There are so many
parameters that can be viewed and changed they cannot all be shown here, however, for the first example
here is a simple usage of sysctl to look at the system PATH environment variable:
$ sysctl user.cs_path
user.cs_path = /usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/pkg/bin:/usr/pkg/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/u
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
Fairly simple. Now something that is actually related to performance. As an example, lets say a system
with many users is having file open issues, by examining and perhaps raising the kern.maxfiles parameter
the problem may be fixed, but first, a look:
$ sysctl kern.maxfiles
kern.maxfiles = 1772
Now, to change it, as root with the -w option specified:
# sysctl -w kern.maxfiles=1972
kern.maxfiles: 1772 -> 1972
Note, when the system is rebooted, the old value will return, there are two cures for this, first, modify
that parameter in the kernel and recompile, second (and simpler) add this line to /etc/sysctl.conf:
kern.maxfiles=1972
18.8.2 memfs & softdeps
An operating system can often benefit from a few configuration changes (along the same lines, it can also
be of great detriment). Two particular cases where system performance can be changed are by using
memory based filesystems and/or soft updates.
18.8.2.1 Using memfs
When to use and not to use the memory based filesystem can be hard on large multi user systems. In
some cases, however, it makes pretty good sense, for example, on a development machine used by only
one developer at a time, the obj directory might be a good place, or some of the tmp directories for
builds. In a case like that, it makes sense on machines that have a fair amount of RAM on them. On the
other side of the coin, if a system only has 16MB of RAM and /var/tmp is memfs based, there could be
severe applications issues that occur.
The GENERIC kernel has memfs enabled by default. To use it on a particular directory first determine
where the swap space is that you wish to use, in the example case, a quick look in /etc/fstab indicates
that /dev/wd0b is the swap partition:
mail% cat /etc/fstab
/dev/wd0a / ffs rw 1 1
/dev/wd0b none swap sw 0 0
/kern /kern kernfs rw
This system is a mail server so I only want to use /tmp with memfs, also on this particular system I have
linked /tmp to /var/tmp to save space (they are on the same drive). All I need to do is add the
following entry:
/dev/wd0b /var/tmp mfs rw 0 0
Now, a word of warning, make sure said directories are empty and nothing is using them when you
mount the memory file system! At this point I can either mount -a or reboot the system.
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18.8.2.2 Using softdeps
Soft-dependencies is a mechanism that does not write meta-data to disk immediately, but it is written in
an ordered fashion, which keeps the filesystem consistent.
Soft-dependencies can be enabled by adding softdep to the filesystem options in /etc/fstab. Let’s
look at an example of /etc/fstab:
/dev/wd0a
/dev/wd0b
/dev/wd0e
/dev/wd0f
/dev/wd0g
/ ffs rw 1 1
none swap sw 0 0
/var ffs rw 1 2
/tmp ffs rw 1 2
/usr ffs rw 1 2
Suppose we want to enable soft-dependencies for all file systems, except for the / partition. We would
change it to (changes are emphasized):
/dev/wd0a
/dev/wd0b
/dev/wd0e
/dev/wd0f
/dev/wd0g
/ ffs rw 1 1
none swap sw 0 0
/var ffs rw,softdep 1 2
/tmp ffs rw,softdep 1 2
/usr ffs rw,softdep 1 2
More information about softdep capabilities can be found on the author’s page
(http://www.mckusick.com/softdep/index.html).
18.8.3 LFS
LFS writes data to disk in a way that is sometimes too aggressive and leads to congestion. Information
on how to throttle writing and finding the right parameters are available this
(http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/tech-perform/2007/04/01/0000.html) and this
(http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/tech-perform/2007/04/01/0001.html) mail.
18.9 Kernel Tuning
While many system parameters can be changed with sysctl, many improvements by using enhanced
system software, layout of the system and managing services (moving them in and out of inetd for
example) can be achieved as well. Tuning the kernel however will provide better performance, even if it
appears to be marginal.
18.9.1 Preparing to Recompile a Kernel
First, get the kernel sources for the release as described in Chapter 29, reading Chapter 31 for more
information on building the kernel is recommended. Note, this document can be used for -current tuning,
however, a read of the Tracking -current (http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/current/) documentation should
be done first, much of the information there is repeated here.
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18.9.2 Configuring the Kernel
Configuring a kernel in NetBSD can be daunting. This is because of multiple line dependencies within
the configuration file itself, however, there is a benefit to this method and that is, all it really takes is an
ASCII editor to get a new kernel configured and some dmesg output. The kernel configuration file is
under src/sys/arch/ARCH/conf where ARCH is your architecture (for example, on a SPARC it
would be under src/sys/arch/sparc/conf).
After you have located your kernel config file, copy it and remove (comment out) all the entries you
don’t need. This is where dmesg(8) becomes your friend. A clean dmesg(8)-output will show all of the
devices detected by the kernel at boot time. Using dmesg(8) output, the device options really needed can
be determined. For some automation, check the "adjustkernel" package.
18.9.2.1 Some example Configuration Items
In this example, an ftp server’s kernel is being reconfigured to run with the bare minimum drivers and
options and any other items that might make it run faster (again, not necessarily smaller, although it will
be). The first thing to do is take a look at some of the main configuration items. So, in
/usr/src/sys/arch/i386/conf the GENERIC file is copied to FTP, then the file FTP edited.
At the start of the file there are a bunch of options beginning with maxusers, which will be left alone,
however, on larger multi-user systems it might be help to crank that value up a bit. Next is CPU support,
looking at the dmesg output this is seen:
cpu0: Intel Pentium II/Celeron (Deschutes) (686-class), 400.93 MHz
Indicating that only the options I686_CPU options needs to be used. In the next section, all options are
left alone except the PIC_DELAY which is recommended unless it is an older machine. In this case it is
enabled since the 686 is “relatively new.”
Between the last section all the way down to compat options there really was no need to change anything
on this particular system. In the compat section, however, there are several options that do not need to be
enabled, again this is because this machine is strictly a FTP server, all compat options were turned off.
The next section is File systems, and again, for this server very few need to be on, the following were left
on:
# File systems
file-system
file-system
file-system
file-system
file-system
file-system
file-system
file-system
file-system
...
options
...
FFS
LFS
MFS
CD9660
FDESC
KERNFS
NULLFS
PROCFS
UMAPFS
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
UFS
log-structured file system
memory file system
ISO 9660 + Rock Ridge file system
/dev/fd
/kern
loopback file system
/proc
NULLFS + uid and gid remapping
SOFTDEP
# FFS soft updates support.
Next comes the network options section. The only options left on were:
options
INET
# IP + ICMP + TCP + UDP
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
options
options
INET6
IPFILTER_LOG
# IPV6
# ipmon(8) log support
IPFILTER_LOG is a nice one to have around since the server will be running ipf.
The next section is verbose messages for various subsystems, since this machine is already running and
had no major problems, all of them are commented out.
18.9.2.2 Some Drivers
The configurable items in the config file are relatively few and easy to cover, however, device drivers are
a different story. In the following examples, two drivers are examined and their associated “areas” in the
file trimmed down. First, a small example: the cdrom, in dmesg, is the following lines:
...
cd0 at atapibus0 drive 0: <CD-540E, , 1.0A> type 5 cdrom removable
cd0: 32-bit data port
cd0: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 2
pciide0: secondary channel interrupting at irq 15
cd0(pciide0:1:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (using DMA data transfer
...
Now, it is time to track that section down in the configuration file. Notice that the "cd"-drive is on an
atapibus and requires pciide support. The section that is of interest in this case is the kernel config’s "IDE
and related devices" section. It is worth noting at this point, in and around the IDE section are also ISA,
PCMCIA etc., on this machine in the dmesg(8) output there are no PCMCIA devices, so it stands to
reason that all PCMCIA references can be removed. But first, the "cd" drive.
At the start of the IDE section is the following:
...
wd*
at atabus? drive ? flags 0x0000
...
atapibus* at atapi?
...
Well, it is pretty obvious that those lines need to be kept. Next is this:
...
# ATAPI
# flags
cd*
sd*
st*
uk*
...
devices
have the same meaning as for IDE drives.
at atapibus? drive ? flags 0x0000
#
at atapibus? drive ? flags 0x0000
#
at atapibus? drive ? flags 0x0000
#
at atapibus? drive ? flags 0x0000
#
ATAPI
ATAPI
ATAPI
ATAPI
CD-ROM drives
disk drives
tape drives
unknown
The only device type that was in the dmesg(8) output was the cd, the rest can be commented out.
The next example is slightly more difficult, network interfaces. This machine has two of them:
...
ex0 at pci0 dev 17 function 0: 3Com 3c905B-TX 10/100 Ethernet (rev. 0x64)
ex0: interrupting at irq 10
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
ex0: MAC address 00:50:04:83:ff:b7
UI 0x001018 model 0x0012 rev 0 at ex0 phy 24 not configured
ex1 at pci0 dev 19 function 0: 3Com 3c905B-TX 10/100 Ethernet (rev. 0x30)
ex1: interrupting at irq 11
ex1: MAC address 00:50:da:63:91:2e
exphy0 at ex1 phy 24: 3Com internal media interface
exphy0: 10baseT, 10baseT-FDX, 100baseTX, 100baseTX-FDX, auto
...
At first glance it may appear that there are in fact three devices, however, a closer look at this line:
exphy0 at ex1 phy 24: 3Com internal media interface
Reveals that it is only two physical cards, not unlike the cdrom, simply removing names that are not in
dmesg will do the job. In the beginning of the network interfaces section is:
...
# Network Interfaces
# PCI network interfaces
an*
at pci? dev ? function
bge*
at pci? dev ? function
en*
at pci? dev ? function
ep*
at pci? dev ? function
epic*
at pci? dev ? function
esh*
at pci? dev ? function
ex*
at pci? dev ? function
...
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
Aironet PC4500/PC4800 (802.11)
Broadcom 570x gigabit Ethernet
ENI/Adaptec ATM
3Com 3c59x
SMC EPIC/100 Ethernet
Essential HIPPI card
3Com 90x[BC]
There is the ex device. So all of the rest under the PCI section can be removed. Additionally, every single
line all the way down to this one:
exphy*
at mii? phy ?
# 3Com internal PHYs
can be commented out as well as the remaining.
18.9.2.3 Multi Pass
When I tune a kernel, I like to do it remotely in an X windows session, in one window the dmesg output,
in the other the config file. It can sometimes take a few passes to rebuild a very trimmed kernel since it is
easy to accidentally remove dependencies.
18.9.3 Building the New Kernel
Now it is time to build the kernel and put it in place. In the conf directory on the ftp server, the following
command prepares the build:
$ config FTP
When it is done a message reminding me to make depend will display, next:
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
$ cd ../compile/FTP
$ make depend && make
When it is done, I backup the old kernel and drop the new one in place:
# cp /netbsd /netbsd.orig
# cp netbsd /
Now reboot. If the kernel cannot boot, stop the boot process when prompted and type boot
netbsd.orig to boot from the previous kernel.
18.9.4 Shrinking the NetBSD kernel
When building a kernel for embedded systems, it’s often necessary to modify the Kernel binary to reduce
space or memory footprint.
18.9.4.1 Removing ELF sections and debug information
We already know how to remove Kernel support for drivers and options that you don’t need, thus saving
memory and space, but you can save some KiloBytes of space by removing debugging symbols and two
ELF sections if you don’t need them: .comment and .ident. They are used for storing RCS strings
viewable with ident(1) and a gcc(1) version string. The following examples assume you have your
TOOLDIR under /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-2.0-i386 and the target architecture is i386.
$ /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-2.0-i386/bin/i386--netbsdelf-objdump -h /netbsd
/netbsd:
file format elf32-i386
Sections:
Idx Name
0 .text
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Size
VMA
LMA
File off Algn
0057a374 c0100000 c0100000 00001000 2**4
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE
.rodata
00131433 c067a380 c067a380 0057b380 2**5
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
.rodata.str1.1 00035ea0 c07ab7b3 c07ab7b3 006ac7b3 2**0
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
.rodata.str1.32 00059d13 c07e1660 c07e1660 006e2660 2**5
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
link_set_malloc_types 00000198 c083b374 c083b374 0073c374 2**2
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
link_set_domains 00000024 c083b50c c083b50c 0073c50c 2**2
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
link_set_pools 00000158 c083b530 c083b530 0073c530 2**2
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
link_set_sysctl_funcs 000000f0 c083b688 c083b688 0073c688 2**2
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
link_set_vfsops 00000044 c083b778 c083b778 0073c778 2**2
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
link_set_dkwedge_methods 00000004 c083b7bc c083b7bc 0073c7bc 2**2
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
link_set_bufq_strats 0000000c c083b7c0 c083b7c0 0073c7c0 2**2
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Chapter 18 Tuning NetBSD
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
11 link_set_evcnts 00000030 c083b7cc c083b7cc 0073c7cc 2**2
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA
12 .data
00048ae4 c083c800 c083c800 0073c800 2**5
CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA
13 .bss
00058974 c0885300 c0885300 00785300 2**5
ALLOC
14 .comment
0000cda0 00000000 00000000 00785300 2**0
CONTENTS, READONLY
15 .ident
000119e4 00000000 00000000 007920a0 2**0
CONTENTS, READONLY
On the third column we can see the size of the sections in hexadecimal form. By summing .comment
and .ident sizes we know how much we’re going to save with their removal: around 120KB (= 52640
+ 72164 = 0xcda0 + 0x119e4). To remove the sections and debugging symbols that may be present,
we’re going to use strip(1):
# cp /netbsd /netbsd.orig
# /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-2.0-i386/bin/i386--netbsdelf-strip -S -R .ident -R .comment /netbsd
# ls -l /netbsd /netbsd.orig
-rwxr-xr-x
-rwxr-xr-x
1 root
1 root
wheel
wheel
8590668 Apr 30 15:56 netbsd
8757547 Apr 30 15:56 netbsd.orig
Since we also removed debugging symbols, the total amount of disk space saved is around 160KB.
18.9.4.2 Compressing the Kernel
On some architectures, the bootloader can boot a compressed kernel. You can save several MegaBytes of
disk space by using this method, but the bootloader will take longer to load the Kernel.
# cp /netbsd /netbsd.plain
# gzip -9 /netbsd
To see how much space we’ve saved:
$ ls -l /netbsd.plain /netbsd.gz
-rwxr-xr-x
-rwxr-xr-x
1 root
1 root
wheel
wheel
8757547 Apr 29 18:05 /netbsd.plain
3987769 Apr 29 18:05 /netbsd.gz
Note that you can only use gzip coding, by using gzip(1), bzip2 is not supported by the NetBSD
bootloaders!
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Chapter 19
NetBSD Veriexec subsystem
Veriexec is NetBSD’s file integrity subsystem. It’s kernel based, hence can provide some protection even
in the case of a root compromise. This chapter applies only to NetBSD 3.0 and onwards.
19.1 How it works
Veriexec works by loading a specification file, also called the signatures file, to the kernel. This file
contains information about files Veriexec should monitor, as well as their digital fingerprint (along with
the hashing algorithm used to produce this fingerprint), and various flags that will be discussed later.
At the moment, the following hashing algorithms are supported by Veriexec: MD5, SHA1, SHA256,
SHA384, SHA512, and RMD160.
19.2 Signatures file
An entry in the Veriexec signatures file looks like this:
/path/to/file algorithm fingerprint flags
Where the first element, the path, must always be an absolute path. The algorithm is one of the
algorithms listed above, and fingerprint is the ASCII fingerprint.
19.3 Generating fingerprints
You can generate ASCII fingerprints for each algorithm using the following tools:
Table 19-1. Veriexec fingerprints tools
Algorithm
Tool
MD5
/usr/bin/cksum -a md5
SHA1
/usr/bin/cksum -a sha1
SHA256
/usr/bin/cksum -a sha256
SHA384
/usr/bin/cksum -a sha384
SHA512
/usr/bin/cksum -a sha512
RMD160
/usr/bin/cksum -a rmd160
For example, to generate a MD5 fingerprint for /bin/ls:
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Chapter 19 NetBSD Veriexec subsystem
% cksum -a md5 < /bin/ls
a8b525da46e758778564308ed9b1e493
And to generate a SHA512 fingerprint for /bin/ps:
% cksum -a sha512 < /bin/ps
381d4ad64fd47800897446a2026eca42151e03adeae158db5a34d12c529559113d928a9fef9a7c4615d25768
Each entry may be associated with zero or more flags. Currently, these flags indicate how the file the
entry is describing should be accessed. Note that this access type is enforced only in strict level 2 (IPS
mode) and above.
The access types you can use are “DIRECT”, “INDIRECT”, and “FILE”.
•
DIRECT access means that the file is executed directly, and not invoked as an interpreter for some
script, or opened with an editor. Usually, most programs you use will be accessed using this mode:
% ls /tmp
% cp ~/foo /tmp/bar
% rm ~/foo
•
INDIRECT access means that the file is executed indirectly, and is invoked to interpret a script. This
happens usually when scripts have a #! magic as their first line. For example, if you have a script with
the following as its first line:
#!/bin/sh
And you run it as:
% ./script.sh
Then /bin/sh will be executed indirectly -- it will be invoked to interpret the script.
•
FILE entries refer to everything which is not (or should not) be an executable. This includes shared
libraries, configuration files, etc.
Some examples for Veriexec signature file entries:
/bin/ls
/usr/bin/perl
/etc/pf.conf
MD5 dc2e14dc84bdefff4bf9777958c1b20b DIRECT
MD5 914aa8aa47ebd79ccd7909a09ed61f81 INDIRECT
MD5 950e1dd6fcb3f27df1bf6accf7029f7d FILE
Veriexec allows you to specify more than one way to access a file in an entry. For example, even though
/usr/bin/perl is mostly used as an interpreter, it may be desired to be able to execute it directly, too:
/usr/bin/perl MD5 914aa8aa47ebd79ccd7909a09ed61f81 DIRECT, INDIRECT
Shell scripts using #! magic to be “executable” also require two access types: We need them to be
“DIRECT” so we can execute them, and we need them to be “FILE” so that the kernel can feed their
contents to the interpreter they define:
/usr/src/build.sh MD5 e80dbb4c047ecc1d84053174c1e9264a DIRECT, FILE
To make it easier to create signature files, and to make the signature files themselves more readable,
Veriexec allows you to use the following aliases:
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Chapter 19 NetBSD Veriexec subsystem
Table 19-2. Veriexec access type aliases
Alias
Expansion
PROGRAM
DIRECT
INTERPRETER
INDIRECT
SCRIPT
DIRECT, FILE
LIBRARY
FILE
Sample scripts for generating fingerprints are available in /usr/share/examples/veriexecctl.
After you’ve generated a signatures file, you should save it as /etc/signatures, and enable Veriexec
in rc.conf:
veriexec=YES
19.4 Strict levels
Since different people might want to use Veriexec for different purposes, we also define four strict levels,
ranging 0-3, and named “learning”, “IDS”, “IPS”, and “lockdown” modes.
In strict level 0, learning mode, Veriexec will act passively and simply warn about any anomalies.
Combined with verbose level 1, running the system in this mode can help you fine-tune the signatures
file. This is also the only strict level in which you can load new entries to the kernel.
Strict level 1, or IDS mode, will deny access to files with a fingerprint mismatch. This mode suits mostly
to users who simply want to prevent access to files which might’ve been maliciously modified by an
attacker.
Strict level 2, IPS mode, takes a step towards trying to protect the integrity of monitored files. In
addition to preventing access to files with a fingerprint mismatch, it will also deny write access and
prevent the removal of monitored files, and enforce the way monitored files are accessed. (as the
signatures file specifies).
Lockdown mode (strict level 3) can be used in highly critical situations such as custom made
special-purpose machines, or as a last line of defense after an attacker compromised the system and we
want to prevent traces from being removed, so we can perform post-mortem analysis. It will prevent the
creation of new files, and deny access to files not monitored by Veriexec.
It’s recommended to first run Veriexec in strict level 0 and verbose level 1 to fine-tune your signatures
file, ensuring that desired applications run correctly, and only then raise the strict level (and lower the
verbosity level). You can use /etc/sysctl.conf to auto raise the strict level to the desired level after a
reboot:
kern.veriexec.strict=1
19.5 Veriexec and layered file systems
Veriexec can be used on NFS file systems on the client side and on layered file systems such as the union
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Chapter 19 NetBSD Veriexec subsystem
file system. The files residing on these file systems need only be specified in the /etc/signatures file
and that the file systems be mounted prior to the fingerprints being loaded.
If you are going to use layered file systems then you must ensure that you include the fingerprint for files
you want protected at every layer. If you fail to do this someone could overwrite a file protected by
Veriexec by using a different layer in a layered file system stack. This limitation may be removed in later
versions of NetBSD.
It’s recommended that if you are not going to use layered file systems nor NFS then these features should
be disabled in they kernel configuration. If you need to use layered file systems then you must follow the
instructions in the previous paragraph and ensure that the files you want protected have fingerprints at all
layers. Also you should raise securelevel to 2 after all mounts are done:
kern.securelevel=2
To prevent new layers being mounted which could compromise Veriexec’s protection.
19.6 Kernel configuration
To use Veriexec, aside from creating a signatures file, you should enable (uncomment) it in your kernel’s
config file: (e.g. /usr/src/sys/arch/i386/conf/GENERIC):
pseudo-device veriexec
Then, you need to enable the hashing algorithms you wish to support:
options
options
options
options
options
options
VERIFIED_EXEC_FP_MD5
VERIFIED_EXEC_FP_SHA1
VERIFIED_EXEC_FP_RMD160
VERIFIED_EXEC_FP_SHA512
VERIFIED_EXEC_FP_SHA384
VERIFIED_EXEC_FP_SHA256
Depending on your operating system version and platform, these may already be enable. Once done,
rebuild and reinstall your kernel, see Chapter 31 for further instructions.
If you do not have the Veriexec device /dev/veriexec, you can create it manually by running the
following command:
# cd /dev
# sh MAKEDEV veriexec
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Chapter 20
Bluetooth on NetBSD
20.1 Introduction
Bluetooth is a digital radio protocol used for short range and low power communications. NetBSD 4.0
introduced support for the Bluetooth protocol stack, and some integration of service profiles into the
NetBSD device framework.
The lower layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack pertaining to actual radio links between devices are
handled inside the Bluetooth Controller, which communicates with the Host computer using the “Host
Controller Interface” (HCI) protocol which can be accessed via a raw packet BTPROTO_HCI socket
interface.
Most of the Bluetooth protocols or services layer atop the “Link Layer Control and Adaptation Protocol”
(L2CAP), which can be accessed via a BTPROTO_L2CAP socket interface. This provides sequential
packet connections to remote devices, with up to 64k channels. When an L2CAP channel is opened, the
protocol or service that is required is identified by a “Protocol/Service Multiplexer” (PSM) value.
Service Discovery in the Bluetooth environment is provided for by the sdp(3) library and the sdpd(8)
daemon (both ported from FreeBSD), which allow programs to register services and makes the
information available to remote devices performing queries. Limited queries can be made with the
sdpquery(1) program.
Security on Bluetooth links can be enabled by encryption and authentication options to btconfig(8)
which apply to all baseband links that a controller makes, or encryption and authentication can be
enabled for individual RFCOMM and L2CAP links as required. When authentication is requested, a PIN
is presented by each side (generally entered by the operator, some limited input devices have a fixed
PIN). The controller uses this PIN to generate a Link Key and reports this to the Host which may be
asked to produce it to authenticate subsequent connections. On NetBSD, the bthcid(8) daemon is
responsible for storing link keys and responding to Link Key Requests, and also provides an interface to
allow unprivileged users to specify a PIN with a PIN client, such as btpin(1).
20.2 Supported Hardware
Because Bluetooth controllers normally use the standard HCI protocol as specified in the “Bluetooth 2.0
Core” documentation to communicate with the host, the NetBSD Bluetooth stack is compatible with
most controllers, only requiring an interface driver, with the following drivers available in NetBSD 4.0:
•
bt3c(4) provides an interface to the 3Com Bluetooth PC Card, model 3CRWB6096-A.
•
ubt(4) interfaces to all USB Bluetooth controllers conforming to the “HCI USB Transport Layer”
specification.
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Chapter 20 Bluetooth on NetBSD
If support for the NetBSD Bluetooth stack is enabled in the kernel, autoconfiguration messages will
show up in the dmesg output, for example:
bt3c0 at pcmcia0 function 0: <3COM, 3CRWB60-A, Bluetooth PC Card>
ubt0 at uhub1 port 4 configuration 1 interface 0
ubt0: Cambridge Silicon Radio Bluetooth USB Adapter, rev 2.00/19.58, addr 4
ubt1 at uhub1 port 2 configuration 1 interface 0
ubt1: Broadcom Belkin Bluetooth Device, rev 1.10/0.01, addr 5
When support is not already compiled in, it can be added to the kernel configuration file for any platform
that supports USB and/or PCMCIA (see Section 18.9), using the following declarations, as required:
# Bluetooth Controller and Device support
# Bluetooth PCMCIA Controllers
bt3c* at pcmcia? function ?
# 3Com 3CRWB6096-A
# Bluetooth USB Controllers
ubt* at uhub? port ?
# Bluetooth Device Hub
bthub* at bt3c?
bthub* at ubt?
# Bluetooth HID support
bthidev* at bthub?
# Bluetooth Mouse
btms* at bthidev? reportid ?
wsmouse* at btms? mux 0
# Bluetooth Keyboard
btkbd* at bthidev? reportid ?
wskbd* at btkbd? console ? mux 1
# Bluetooth Audio support
btsco* at bthub?
audio* at btsco?
Some older USB Bluetooth dongles based on the Broadcom BCM2033 chip require firmware to be
loaded before they can function, and these devices will be attached to ugen(4). Use the “sysutils/bcmfw”
package from the NetBSD Package Collection, to load firmware and enable these.
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20.3 System Configuration
To fully enable Bluetooth services on NetBSD, the following lines should be added to the
/etc/rc.conf file.
btconfig=YES
btconfig_args="up pscan switch class 0x02010c"
btdevctl=YES
bthcid=YES
sdpd=YES
and either reboot, or execute the following commands:
#
#
#
#
/etc/rc.d/btconfig start
/etc/rc.d/bthcid start
/etc/rc.d/btdevctl start
/etc/rc.d/sdpd start
Note: Configuration of Bluetooth controllers is done with the btconfig(8) program, and the above
argument provides only basic functionality, see the manual page for other useful options.
Important: bthcid(8) must be running in order to make authenticated connections with remote
devices, and authentication may be requested by either device.
20.4 Human Interface Devices
Support for “Human Interface Devices” (HIDs), which operate using the USB HID protocol over a pair
of L2CAP channels is provided by the bthidev(4) driver. Currently, keyboards and mice are catered for,
and attach to wscons(4) as normal.
20.4.1 Mice
Bluetooth Mice can be attached to the system with the btms(4) driver, using btdevctl(8).
First, you must discover the BDADDR of the device. This may be printed on the box, but the easiest way
is to place the device into discoverable mode and perform a device inquiry with the appropriate
controller:
% btconfig ubt0 inquiry
Device Discovery on ubt0 .... 1 response
1: bdaddr 00:14:51:c1:b9:2d (unknown)
: name "Mighty Mouse"
: class: [0x002580] Peripheral Mouse <Limited Discoverable>
: page scan rep mode 0x01
: page scan period mode 0x02
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: page scan mode 0x00
: clock offset 6944
For ease of use, you may want to add the address to the /etc/bluetooth/hosts file, so that you can
refer to the mouse by alias:
# echo "00:14:51:c1:b9:2d mouse" >>/etc/bluetooth/hosts
Now, you can query the mouse, which will likely request authentication before it accepts connections.
The fixed PIN should be listed in the documentation, though “0000” is often used. Set the PIN first using
the btpin(1) program:
% btpin -d ubt0 -a mouse -p 0000
# btdevctl -d ubt0 -a mouse -s HID
local bdaddr: 00:08:1b:8d:ba:6d
remote bdaddr: 00:14:51:c1:b9:2d
link mode: auth
device type: bthidev
control psm: 0x0011
interrupt psm: 0x0013
Collection page=Generic_Desktop usage=Mouse
Input id=2 size=1 count=1 page=Button usage=Button_1 Variable, logical range 0..1
Input id=2 size=1 count=1 page=Button usage=Button_2 Variable, logical range 0..1
Input id=2 size=1 count=1 page=Button usage=Button_3 Variable, logical range 0..1
Input id=2 size=1 count=1 page=Button usage=Button_4 Variable, logical range 0..1
Input id=2 size=4 count=1 page=0x0000 usage=0x0000 Const Variable, logical range 0..1
Collection page=Generic_Desktop usage=Pointer
Input id=2 size=8 count=1 page=Generic_Desktop usage=X Variable Relative, logical range
Input id=2 size=8 count=1 page=Generic_Desktop usage=Y Variable Relative, logical range
Input id=2 size=8 count=1 page=Consumer usage=AC_Pan Variable Relative, logical range Input id=2 size=8 count=1 page=Generic_Desktop usage=Wheel Variable Relative, logical r
End collection
Input id=2 size=8 count=1 page=0x00ff usage=0x00c0 Variable, logical range -127..127
Feature id=71 size=8 count=1 page=0x0006 usage=0x0020 Variable NoPref Volatile, logical r
End collection
This tells you that the mouse has responded to an SDP query, and the device capabilities are shown. Note
that authentication is enabled by default for Bluetooth mice. You may now attach to the system:
# btdevctl -d ubt0 -a mouse -s HID -A
which should generate some messages on the system console:
bthidev0 at bthub0 remote-bdaddr 00:14:51:c1:b9:2d link-mode auth
btms0 at bthidev1 reportid 2: 4 buttons, W and Z dirs.
wsmouse1 at btms0 mux 0
bthidev1: reportid 71 not configured
bthidev1: connected
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and the mouse should work.
The device capabilities are cached by btdevctl(8), and to reattach the mouse at system startup, place an
entry in /etc/bluetooth/btdevctl.conf and ensure that /etc/rc.conf contains btdevctl=YES.
The bthidev(4) driver will attempt to connect once, though mice will usually be sleeping and may require
a tap on the shoulder to awake, in which case they should initiate the connection to the host computer.
20.4.2 Keyboards
Bluetooth Keyboards can be attached to the system with the btkbd(4) driver, using btdevctl(8).
First, you must discover the BDADDR of the device. This may be printed on the box, but the easiest way
is to place the device into discoverable mode and perform a device inquiry with the appropriate
controller:
% btconfig ubt0 inquiry
Device Discovery on ubt0 .... 1 response
1: bdaddr 00:0a:95:45:a4:a0 (unknown)
: name "Apple Wireless Keyboard"
: class: [0x002540] Peripheral Keyboard <Limited Discoverable>
: page scan rep mode 0x01
: page scan period mode 0x00
: page scan mode 0x00
: clock offset 18604
For ease of use, you may want to add the address to the /etc/bluetooth/hosts file, so that you can
refer to the keyboard by alias:
# echo "00:0a:95:45:a4:a0 keyboard" >>/etc/bluetooth/hosts
Now, you can query the keyboard, which will likely request authentication before it accepts connections.
The PIN will need to be entered on the keyboard, and we can generate a random PIN, using the btpin(1)
program.
% btpin -d ubt0 -a keyboard -r -l 8
PIN: 18799632
# btdevctl -d ubt0 -a keyboard -s HID
< ENTER PIN ON BLUETOOTH KEYBOARD NOW >
local bdaddr: 00:08:1b:8d:ba:6d
remote bdaddr: 00:0a:95:45:a4:a0
link mode: encrypt
device type: bthidev
control psm: 0x0011
interrupt psm: 0x0013
Collection page=Generic_Desktop usage=Keyboard
Input id=1 size=1 count=1 page=Keyboard usage=Keyboard_LeftControl Variable, logical ra
Input id=1 size=1 count=1 page=Keyboard usage=Keyboard_LeftShift Variable, logical rang
Input id=1 size=1 count=1 page=Keyboard usage=Keyboard_LeftAlt Variable, logical range
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Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=8
Output id=1 size=1
Output id=1 size=1
Output id=1 size=1
Output id=1 size=1
Output id=1 size=1
Output id=1 size=3
Input id=1 size=8
Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=1
Input id=1 size=1
End collection
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=6
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=1
count=4
page=Keyboard usage=Keyboard_Left_GUI Variable, logical range
page=Keyboard usage=Keyboard_RightControl Variable, logical r
page=Keyboard usage=Keyboard_RightShift Variable, logical ran
page=Keyboard usage=Keyboard_RightAlt Variable, logical range
page=Keyboard usage=Keyboard_Right_GUI Variable, logical rang
page=0x0000 usage=0x0000 Const, logical range 0..1
page=LEDs usage=Num_Lock Variable, logical range 0..1
page=LEDs usage=Caps_Lock Variable, logical range 0..1
page=LEDs usage=Scroll_Lock Variable, logical range 0..1
page=LEDs usage=Compose Variable, logical range 0..1
page=LEDs usage=Kana Variable, logical range 0..1
page=0x0000 usage=0x0000 Const, logical range 0..1
page=Keyboard usage=No_Event, logical range 0..255
page=Consumer usage=Eject Variable Relative, logical range 0.
page=Consumer usage=Mute Variable Relative, logical range 0..
page=Consumer usage=Volume_Up Variable, logical range 0..1
page=Consumer usage=Volume_Down Variable, logical range 0..1
page=0x0000 usage=0x0000 Const, logical range 0..1
This tells you that the keyboard has responded to an SDP query, and the device capabilities are shown.
Note that encryption is enabled by default, since encrypted connection support is mandatory for
Bluetooth keyboards. You may now attach to the system:
# btdevctl -d ubt0 -a keyboard -s HID -A
which should generate some messages on the system console:
bthidev1 at bthub0 remote-bdaddr 00:0a:95:45:a4:a0 link-mode encrypt
btkbd0 at bthidev0 reportid 1
wskbd1 at btkbd0 mux 1
wskbd1: connecting to wsdisplay0
bthidev1: connected
and the keyboard should work.
The device capabilities are cached by btdevctl(8), and to reattach the keyboard at system startup, place an
entry in /etc/bluetooth/btdevctl.conf and ensure that /etc/rc.conf contains btdevctl=YES.
The bthidev(4) driver will attempt to connect once when attached, but if the keyboard is not available at
that time, you may find that pressing a key will cause it to wake up and initiate a connection to the last
paired host.
20.5 Personal Area Networking
Personal Area Networking services over Bluetooth are provided by the btpand(8) daemon which can
assume all roles from the PAN profile and connects remote devices to the system through a tap(4) virtual
Ethernet interface.
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20.5.1 Personal Area Networking User
The "Personal Area Networking User" role is the client that accesses Network services on another
device. For instance, in order to connect to the Internet via a smart phone with the NAP profile, make
sure that the the phone is discoverable, then:
% btconfig ubt0 inquiry
Device Discovery from device: ubt0 .... 1 response
1: bdaddr 00:17:83:30:bd:5e (unknown)
: name "HTC Touch"
: class: [0x5a020c] Smart Phone <Networking> <Capturing> <Object Transfer>
<Telephony>
: page scan rep mode 0x01
: clock offset 9769
: rssi -42
# echo "00:17:83:30:bd:5e phone" >>/etc/bluetooth/hosts
You will see that the phone should have the <Networking> flag set in the Class of Device. Checking for
the NAP service:
% sdpquery -a phone search NAP
Record Handle: 0x00010000
Service Class ID List:
0x00001116-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
Protocol Descriptor List:
L2CAP (0x0100)
Protocol specific parameter #1: u/int/uuid16 15
BNEP (0x000f)
Protocol specific parameter #1: u/int/uuid16 256
Protocol specific parameter #2: 0x09 0x08 00 0x09 0x08 0x06 0x09 0x86 0xdd
Bluetooth Profile Descriptor List:
0x00001116-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb ver. 1.0
reveals to the experienced eye that the NAP service is available on PSM 15 and that it provides the
protocol types 0x0800 (IPv4), 0x0806 (ARP) and 0x86dd (IPv6).
Most likely, the phone will request authentication before it allows connections to the NAP service, so
before you make the first connection you may need to provide a PIN, which can be randomly generated.
Then start btpand(8):
% btpin -d ubt0 -a phone -r -l 6
PIN: 862048
# btpand -d ubt0 -a phone -s NAP
< ENTER PIN ON PHONE NOW >
Searching for NAP service at 00:17:83:30:bd:5e
Found PSM 15 for service NAP
Opening connection to service 0x1116 at 00:17:83:30:bd:5e
Using interface tap0 with addr 00:10:60:e1:50:3d
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Finally, you will need to configure the tap(4) interface, but the phone should have a DHCP server so
dhclient(8) will do that for you.
# dhclient -q -o -w -nw tap0
Now you can surf the World Wide Web, but watch your data usage unless you have a comprehensive data
plan.
20.6 Serial Connections
Serial connections over Bluetooth are provided for by the RFCOMM protocol, which provides up to 30
channels multiplexed over a single L2CAP channel. This streamed data protocol can be accessed using
the BTPROTO_RFCOMM socket interface, or via the rfcomm_sppd(1) program.
For instance, you can make a serial connection to the “Dial Up Networking” (DUN) service of a mobile
phone in order to connect to the Internet with PPP. First you should discover the BDADDR of the phone,
and add this to your /etc/bluetooth/hosts for ease of use. Place the phone into Discoverable mode,
and perform an inquiry from the appropriate controller:
% btconfig ubt0 inquiry
Device Discovery from device: ubt0 ..... 1 response
1: bdaddr 00:16:bc:00:e8:48 (unknown)
: name "Nokia 6103"
: class: [0x520204] Cellular Phone <Networking> <Object Transfer> <Telephony>
: page scan rep mode 0x01
: page scan period mode 0x02
: page scan mode 0x00
: clock offset 30269
# echo "00:16:bc:00:e8:48 phone" >>/etc/bluetooth/hosts
Now, you can query the phone to confirm that it supports the DUN profile:
% sdpquery -d ubt0 -a phone search DUN
Record Handle: 0x00010000
Service Class ID List:
Dial-Up Networking (0x1103)
Generic Networking (0x1201)
Protocol Descriptor List:
L2CAP (0x0100)
RFCOMM (0x0003)
Protocol specific parameter #1: u/int8/bool 1
Bluetooth Profile Descriptor List:
Dial-Up Networking (0x1103) ver. 1.0
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Most likely, the phone will request authentication before it allows connections to the DUN service, so
before you make the first connection you may need to provide a PIN, which can be randomly generated.
You can use rfcomm_sppd in stdio mode to check that the connection is working ok, press ^C to
disconnect and return to the shell, for example:
% btpin -d ubt0 -a phone -r -l 6
PIN: 904046
% rfcomm_sppd -d ubt0 -a phone -s DUN
< ENTER PIN ON PHONE NOW >
rfcomm_sppd[24635]: Starting on stdio...
at
OK
ati
Nokia
OK
ati3
Nokia 6103
OK
at&v
ACTIVE PROFILE:
E1 Q0 V1 X5 &C1 &D2 &S0 &Y0
+CMEE=0 +CSTA=129 +CBST=0,0,1 +CRLP=61,61,48,6 +CR=0 +CRC=0 +CLIP=0,2
+CLIR=0,2 +CSNS=0 +CVHU=1 +DS=0,0,2048,32 +DR=0 +ILRR=0
+CHSN=0,0,0,0 +CHSR=0 +CPBS="SM"
S00:000 S01:000 S02:043 S03:013 S04:010 S05:008 S07:060 S08:002
S10:100 S12:050 S25:000
OK
^C
rfcomm_sppd[24635]: Completed on stdio
To have pppd(8) connect to the DUN service of your phone automatically when making outbound
connections, add the following line to the /etc/ppp/options file in place of the normal tty declaration:
pty "rfcomm_sppd -d ubt0 -a phone -s DUN -m encrypt"
20.7 Audio
Isochronous (SCO) Audio connections may be created on a baseband radio link using either the
BTPROTO_SCO socket interface, or the btsco(4) audio device driver. While the specification says that
up to three such links can be made between devices, the current Bluetooth stack can only handle one
with any dignity.
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Important: When using SCO Audio with USB Bluetooth controllers, you will need to enable
isochronous data, and calculate the MTU that the device will use, see ubt(4) and btconfig(8).
Note: SCO Audio does not work properly with the bt3c(4) driver, use a USB controller for best results.
Note: SCO Audio will not work with ehci(4) USB controllers, since support for Isochronous data over
EHCI is missing in NetBSD.
20.7.1 SCO Audio Headsets
Audio connections to Bluetooth Headsets are possible using the btsco(4) audio driver, and the bthset(1)
program. First, you need to discover the BDADDR of the headset, and will probably wish to make an
alias in your /etc/bluetooth/hosts file for ease of use. Place the headset into discoverable mode
and perform an inquiry with the appropriate controller:
% btconfig ubt0 inquiry
Device Discovery from device: ubt0 ..... 1 response
1: bdaddr 00:07:a4:23:10:83 (unknown)
: name "JABRA 250"
: class: [0x200404] Wearable Headset <Audio>
: page scan rep mode 0x01
: page scan period mode 0x00
: page scan mode 0x00
: clock offset 147
# echo "00:07:a4:23:10:83 headset" >>/etc/bluetooth/hosts
You will need to pair with the headset the first time you connect, the fixed PIN should be listed in the
manual (often, “0000” is used). btdevctl(8) will query the device and attach the btsco(4) audio driver.
% btpin -d ubt0 -a headset -p 0000
# btdevctl -d ubt0 -a headset -s HSET -A
local bdaddr: 00:08:1b:8d:ba:6d
remote bdaddr: 00:07:a4:23:10:83
link mode: none
device type: btsco
mode: connect
channel: 1
which should generate some messages on the system console:
btsco0 at bthub0 remote-bdaddr 00:07:a4:23:10:83 channel 1
audio1 at btsco0: full duplex
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In order to use the audio device, you will need to open a control connection with bthset(1) which conveys
volume information to the mixer device.
% bthset -d /dev/mixer1 -v
Headset Info:
mixer: /dev/mixer1
laddr: 00:08:1b:8d:ba:6d
raddr: 00:07:a4:23:10:83
channel: 1
vgs.dev: 0, vgm.dev: 1
and you should now be able to transfer 8khz samples to and from /dev/audio1 using any program that
supports audio, such as audioplay(1) or audiorecord(1). Adjusting the mixer values should work when
playing though you may find that when opening a connection, the headset will reset the volume to the
last known settings.
% audiorecord -d /dev/audio1 voice.au
< TALK NONSENSE NOW >
^C
% audioplay -d /dev/audio voice.au
< THATS REALLY WHAT YOU SOUND LIKE >
% audioplay -d /dev/audio1 voice.au
< IN THE HEADSET >
The device capabilities are cached by btdevctl(8), and to reattach the btsco(4) driver at system startup,
add an entry to /etc/bluetooth/btdevctl.conf and ensure that /etc/rc.conf contains
btdevctl=YES.
20.7.2 SCO Audio Handsfree
Audio connections to Bluetooth mobile phones using the Handsfree profile are possible with the
“comms/bthfp” program from the NetBSD Package Collection.
First, you need to discover the BDADDR of the phone, and will probably wish to make an alias in your
/etc/bluetooth/hosts file for ease of use. Place the phone into discoverable mode and perform an
inquiry with the appropriate controller:
% btconfig ubt0 inquiry
Device Discovery from device: ubt0 ..... 1 response
1: bdaddr 00:16:bc:00:e8:48 (unknown)
: name "Nokia 6103"
: class: [0x520204] Cellular Phone <Networking;gt; <Object Transfer;gt; <Telephony;gt;
: page scan rep mode 0x01
: page scan period mode 0x02
: page scan mode 0x00
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: clock offset 10131
# echo "00:16:bc:00:e8:48 phone" >>/etc/bluetooth/hosts
Now, you should be able to query the phone to confirm that it supports the Handsfree profile:
% sdpquery -d ubt0 -a phone search HF
Record Handle: 0x00010003
Service Class ID List:
Handsfree Audio Gateway (0x111f)
Generic Audio (0x1203)
Protocol Descriptor List:
L2CAP (0x0100)
RFCOMM (0x0003)
Protocol specific parameter #1: u/int8/bool 13
Bluetooth Profile Descriptor List:
Handsfree (0x111e) ver. 1.1
and you will be able to use the bthfp program to access the Handsfree profile. The first time you connect,
you may need to use a PIN to pair with the phone, which can be generated randomly by btpin(1):
% btpin -d ubt0 -a phone -r -l 6
PIN: 349163
% bthfp -d ubt0 -a phone -v
< ENTER PIN ON PHONE NOW >
Handsfree channel: 13
Press ? for commands
Connecting.. ok
< AT+BRSF=20
> +BRSF: 47
Features: [0x002f] <3 way calling> <EC/NR> <Voice Recognition> <In-band ringtone> <reject
> OK
< AT+CIND=?
> +CIND: ("call",(0,1)),("service",(0,1)),("call_setup",(0-3)),("callsetup",(0-3))
> OK
< AT+CIND?
> +CIND: 0,1,0,0
> OK
< AT+CMER=3,0,0,1
> OK
< AT+CLIP=1
> OK
Service Level established
When the phone rings, just press a to answer, and audio should be routed through the /dev/audio
device. Note that you will need a microphone connected in order to speak to the remote party.
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20.8 Object Exchange
NetBSD does not currently have any native OBEX capability, see the “comms/obexapp” or
“comms/obexftp” packages from the NetBSD Package Collection.
20.9 Troubleshooting
When nothing seems to be happening, it may be useful to try the hcidump program from the
“sysutils/hcidump” package in the NetBSD Package Collection. This has the capability to dump packets
entering and leaving Bluetooth controllers on NetBSD, which is greatly helpful in pinpointing problems.
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Miscellaneous operations
This chapter collects various topics, in sparse order
21.1 Installing the boot manager
Sysinst, the NetBSD installation program usually installs the NetBSD boot manager on the hard disk.
The boot manager can also be installed or reconfigured at a later time, if needed, with the fdisk
command. For example:
# fdisk -B wd0
If NetBSD doesn’t boot from the hard disk, you can boot it from the installation floppy and start the
kernel on the hard disk. Insert the installation disk and, at the boot prompt, give the following command:
> boot wd0a:netbsd
This boots the kernel on the hard disk (use the correct device, for example sd0a for a SCSI disk).
Note: Sometimes fdisk -B doesn’t give the expected result (at least it happened to me), probably if
you install/remove other operating systems like Windows 95 or Linux with LILO. In this case, try
running fdisk -i (which is known as fdisk /mbr from DOS) and then run again fdisk from NetBSD.
21.2 Deleting the disklabel
Though this is not an operation that you need to perform frequently, it can be useful to know how to do it
in case of need. Please be sure to know exactly what you are doing before performing this kind of
operation. For example:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd0c bs=8k count=1
The previous command deletes the disklabel (not the MBR partition table). To completely delete the
disk, the whole device rwd0d must be used. For example:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd0d bs=8k
The commands above will only work as expected on the i386 and amd64 ports of NetBSD. On other
ports, the whole device will end in c, not d (e.g. rwd0c).
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21.3 Speaker
I found this tip on a mailing list (I don’t remember the author). To output a sound from the speaker (for
example at the end of a long script) the spkr driver can be used in the kernel config, which is mapped on
/dev/speaker. For example:
echo ’BPBPBPBPBP’ > /dev/speaker
Note: The spkr device is not enabled in the generic kernel; a customized kernel is needed.
21.4 Forgot root password?
If you forget root’s password, not all is lost and you can still recover the system with the following steps:
boot single user, mount / and change root’s password. In detail:
1. Boot single user: when the boot prompt appears and the five seconds countdown starts, give the
following command:
> boot -s
2. At the following prompt
Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for sh:
press Enter.
3. Write the following commands:
#
#
#
#
fsck -y /
mount -u /
fsck -y /usr
mount /usr
4. Change root’s password:
# passwd root
Changing local password for root.
New password: (not echoed)
Retype new password: (not echoed)
#
5. Exit the shell to go to multiuser mode.
# exit
If you get the error “Password file is busy”, please see the section below.
21.5 Password file is busy?
If you try to modify a password and you get the mysterious message “Password file is busy”, it probably
means that the file /etc/ptmp has not been deleted from the system. This file is a temporary copy of the
/etc/master.passwd file; check that you are not losing important information and then delete it:
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# rm /etc/ptmp
Note: If the file /etc/ptmp exists you can also receive a warning message at system startup. For
example:
root: password file may be incorrect - /etc/ptmp exists
21.6 Adding a new hard disk
This section describes how to add a new hard disk to an already working NetBSD system. In the
following example a new SCSI controller and a new hard disk, connected to the controller, will be added.
If you don’t need to add a new controller, skip the relevant part and go to the hard disk configuration. The
installation of an IDE hard disk is identical; only the device name will be different (wd# instead of sd#).
As always, before buying new hardware, consult the hardware compatibility list of NetBSD and make
sure that the new device is supported by the system.
When the SCSI controller has been physically installed in the system and the new hard disk has been
connected, it’s time to restart the computer and check that the device is correctly detected, using the
dmesg command. This is the sample output for an NCR-875 controller:
ncr0 at pci0 dev 15 function 0: ncr 53c875 fast20 wide scsi
ncr0: interrupting at irq 10
ncr0: minsync=12, maxsync=137, maxoffs=16, 128 dwords burst, large dma fifo
ncr0: single-ended, open drain IRQ driver, using on-chip SRAM
ncr0: restart (scsi reset).
scsibus0 at ncr0: 16 targets, 8 luns per target
sd0(ncr0:2:0): 20.0 MB/s (50 ns, offset 15)
sd0: 2063MB, 8188 cyl, 3 head, 172 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 4226725 sectors
If the device doesn’t appear in the output, check that it is supported by the kernel that you are using; if
necessary, compile a customized kernel (see Chapter 31).
Now the partitions can be created using the fdisk command. First, check the current status of the disk:
# fdisk sd0
NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
cylinders: 8188 heads: 3 sectors/track: 172 (516 sectors/cylinder)
BIOS disk geometry:
cylinders: 524 heads: 128 sectors/track: 63 (8064 sectors/cylinder)
Partition table:
0: sysid 6 (Primary ’big’ DOS, 16-bit
start 63, size 4225473 (2063 MB),
beg: cylinder
0, head
1,
end: cylinder 523, head 127,
1: <UNUSED>
2: <UNUSED>
3: <UNUSED>
FAT (> 32MB))
flag 0x0
sector 1
sector 63
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In this example the hard disk already contains a DOS partition, which will be deleted and replaced with a
native NetBSD partition. The command fdisk -u sd0 allows to modify interactively the partitions. The
modified data will be written on the disk only before exiting and fdisk will request a confirmation before
writing, so you can work relaxedly.
Disk geometries
The geometry of the disk reported by fdisk can appear confusing. Dmesg reports 4226725
sectors with 8188/3/172 for C/H/S, but 8188*3*172 gives 4225008 and not 4226725. What
happens is that most modern disks don’t have a fixed geometry and the number of sectors
per track changes depending on the cylinder: the only interesting parameter is the number of
sectors. The disk reports the C/H/S values but it’s a fictitious geometry: the value 172 is the
result of the total number of sectors (4226725) divided by 8188 and then by 3.
To make things more confusing, the BIOS uses yet another “fake” geometry (C/H/S
524/128/63) which gives a total of 4225536, a value which is a better approximation to the
real one than 425008. To partition the disk we will use the BIOS geometry, to maintain
compatibility with other operating systems, although we will loose some sectors (4226725 4225536 = 1189 sectors = 594 KB).
To create the BIOS partitions the command fdisk -u must be used; the result is the following:
Partition table:
0: sysid 169 (NetBSD)
start 63, size 4225473 (2063 MB), flag 0x0
beg: cylinder
0, head
1, sector 1
end: cylinder 523, head 127, sector 63
1: <UNUSED>
2: <UNUSED>
3: <UNUSED>
Now it’s time to create the disklabel for the NetBSD partition. The correct steps to do this are:
# disklabel sd0 > tempfile
# vi tempfile
# disklabel -R -r sd0 tempfile
If you try to create the disklabel directly with
# disklabel -e sd0
you get the following message
disklabel: ioctl DIOCWDINFO: No disk label on disk;
use "disklabel -I" to install initial label
because the disklabel does not yet exist on the disk.
Now we create some disklabel partitions, editing the tempfile as already explained. The result is:
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Chapter 21 Miscellaneous operations
#
a:
c:
d:
e:
size
2048004
4226662
4226725
2178658
offset
63
63
0
2048067
fstype [fsize bsize
4.2BSD
1024 8192
unused
0
0
unused
0
0
4.2BSD
1024 8192
cpg]
16 #
#
#
16 #
(Cyl.
(Cyl.
(Cyl.
(Cyl.
0*- 3969*)
0*- 8191*)
0 - 8191*)
3969*- 8191*)
Note: When the disklabel has been created it is possible to optimize it studying the output of the
command newfs -N /dev/rsd0a, which warns about the existence of unallocated sectors at the end
of a disklabel partition. The values reported by newfs can be used to adjust the sizes of the partitions
with an iterative process.
The final operation is the creation of the file systems for the newly defined partitions (a and e).
# newfs /dev/rsd0a
# newfs /dev/rsd0e
The disk is now ready for usage, and the two partitions can be mounted. For example:
# mount /dev/sd0a /mnt
If this succeeds, you may want to put an entry for the partition into /etc/fstab.
21.7 How to rebuild the devices in /dev
First shutdown to single user, partitions still mounted “rw” (read-write); You can do that by just typing
shutdown now while you are in multi user mode, or reboot with the -s option and make / and /dev
read-writable by doing.
# mount -u /
# mount -u /dev
Then:
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
mkdir /newdev
cd /newdev
cp /dev/MAKEDEV* .
sh ./MAKEDEV all
cd /
mv dev olddev
mv newdev dev
rm -r olddev
Or if you fetched all the sources in /usr/src:
#
#
#
#
#
#
mkdir /newdev
cd /newdev
cp /usr/src/etc/MAKEDEV.local .
( cd /usr/src/etc ; make MAKEDEV )
cp /usr/src/etc/obj*/MAKEDEV .
sh ./MAKEDEV all
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Chapter 21 Miscellaneous operations
# cd /
# mv dev olddev; mv newdev dev
# rm -r olddev
You can determine $arch by
# uname -m
or
# sysctl hw.machine_arch
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IV. Networking and related issues
Chapter 22
Introduction to TCP/IP
Networking
22.1 Audience
This section explains various aspects of networking. It is intended to help people with little knowledge
about networks to get started. It is divided into three big parts. We start by giving a general overview of
how networking works and introduce the basic concepts. Then we go into details for setting up various
types of networking in the second parts, and the third part of the networking section covers a number of
“advanced” topics that go beyond the basic operation as introduced in the first two sections.
The reader is assumed to know about basic system administration tasks: how to become root, edit files,
change permissions, stop processes, etc. See the other chapters of this NetBSD guide and e.g.
AeleenFrisch for further information on this topic. Besides that, you should know how to handle the
utilities we’re going to set up here, i.e. you should know how to use telnet, FTP, ... I will not explain the
basic features of those utilities, please refer to the appropriate man-pages, the references listed or of
course the other parts of this document instead.
This introduction to TCP/IP Networking was written with the intention in mind to give starters a basic
knowledge. If you really want to know what it’s all about, read CraigHunt. This book does not only cover
the basics, but goes on and explains all the concepts, services and how to set them up in detail. It’s great,
I love it! :-)
22.2 Supported Networking Protocols
There are several protocol suites supported by NetBSD, most of which were inherited from NetBSD’s
predecessor, 4.4BSD, and subsequently enhanced and improved. The first and most important one today
is DARPA’s Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Other protocol suites available in
NetBSD include the Xerox Network System (XNS) which was only implemented at UCB to connect
isolated machines to the net, Apple’s AppleTalk protocol suite and the ISO protocol suite, CCITT X.25
and ARGO TP. They are only used in some special applications these days.
Today, TCP/IP is the most widespread protocol of the ones mentioned above. It is implemented on
almost every hardware and operating system, and it is also the most-used protocol in heterogenous
environments. So, if you just want to connect your computer running NetBSD to some other machine at
home or you want to integrate it into your company’s or university’s network, TCP/IP is the right choice.
Besides the "old" IP version 4, NetBSD also supports the "new" IP version 6 (IPv6) since NetBSD 1.5,
thanks to code contributed by the KAME project.
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Chapter 22 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking
There are other protocol suites such as DECNET, Novell’s IPX/SPX or Microsoft’s NetBIOS, but these
are not currently supported by NetBSD. These protocols differ from TCP/IP in that they are proprietary,
in contrast to the others, which are well-defined in several RFCs and other open standards.
22.3 Supported Media
The TCP/IP protocol stack behaves the same regardless of the underlying media used, and NetBSD
supports a wide range of these, among them are Ethernet (10/100/1000MBd), Arcnet, serial line, ATM,
FDDI, Fiber Channel, USB, HIPPI, FireWire (IEEE 1394), Token Ring, and serial lines.
22.3.1 Serial Line
There are a couple of reasons for using TCP/IP over a serial line.
•
If your remote host is only reachable via telephone, you can use a modem to access it.
•
Many computers have a serial port, and the cable needed is rather cheap.
The disadvantage of a serial connection is that it’s slower than other methods. NetBSD can use at most
115200 bit/s, making it a lot slower than e.g. Ethernet’s minimum 10 Mbit/s and Arcnet’s 4 Mbit/s.
There are two possible protocols to connect a host running NetBSD to another host using a serial line
(possibly over a phone-line):
•
Serial Line IP (SLIP)
•
Point to Point Protocol (PPP)
The choice here depends on whether you use a dial-up connection through a modem or if you use a static
connection (null-modem or leased line). If you dial up for your IP connection, it’s wise to use PPP as it
offers some possibilities to auto-negotiate IP-addresses and routes, which can be quite painful to do by
hand. If you want to connect to another machine which is directly connected, use SLIP, as this is
supported by about every operating system and more easy to set up with fixed addresses and routes.
PPP on a direct connection is a bit difficult to setup, as it’s easy to timeout the initial handshake; with
SLIP, there’s no such initial handshake, i.e. you start up one side, and when the other site has its first
packet, it will send it over the line.
RFC1331 and RFC1332 describe PPP and TCP/IP over PPP. SLIP is defined in RFC1055.
22.3.2 Ethernet
Ethernet is the medium commonly used to build local area networks (LANs) of interconnected machines
within a limited area such as an office, company or university campus. Ethernet is based on a bus
structure to which many machines can connect to, and communication always happens between two
nodes at a time. When two or more nodes want to talk at the same time, both will restart communication
after some timeout. The technical term for this is CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense w/ Multiple Access and
Collision Detection).
Initially, Ethernet hardware consisted of a thick (yellow) cable that machines tapped into using special
connectors that poked through the cable’s outer shielding. The successor of this was called 10base5,
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Chapter 22 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking
which used BNC-type connectors for tapping in special T-connectors and terminators on both ends of the
bus. Today, ethernet is mostly used with twisted pair lines which are used in a collapsed bus system that
are contained in switches or hubs. The twisted pair lines give this type of media its name - 10baseT for
10 Mbit/s networks, and 100baseT for 100 MBit/s ones. In switched environments there’s also the
distinction if communication between the node and the switch can happen in half- or in full duplex mode.
22.4 TCP/IP Address Format
TCP/IP uses 4-byte (32-bit) addresses in the current implementations (IPv4), also called IP-numbers
(Internet-Protocol numbers), to address hosts.
TCP/IP allows any two machines to communicate directly. To permit this all hosts on a given network
must have a unique IP address. To assure this, IP addresses are administrated by one central organisation,
the InterNIC. They give certain ranges of addresses (network-addresses) directly to sites which want to
participate in the internet or to internet-providers, which give the addresses to their customers.
If your university or company is connected to the Internet, it has (at least) one such network-address for
its own use, usually not assigned by the InterNIC directly, but rather through an Internet Service Provider
(ISP).
If you just want to run your private network at home, see below on how to “build” your own IP
addresses. However, if you want to connect your machine to the (real :-) Internet, you should get an IP
addresses from your local network-administrator or -provider.
IP addresses are usually written in “dotted quad”-notation - the four bytes are written down in decimal
(most significant byte first), separated by dots. For example, 132.199.15.99 would be a valid address.
Another way to write down IP-addresses would be as one 32-bit hex-word, e.g. 0x84c70f63. This is not
as convenient as the dotted-quad, but quite useful at times, too. (See below!)
Being assigned a network means nothing else but setting some of the above-mentioned 32 address-bits to
certain values. These bits that are used for identifying the network are called network-bits. The
remaining bits can be used to address hosts on that network, therefore they are called host-bits.
Figure 22-1 illustrates the separation.
Figure 22-1. IPv4-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits
n netbits
32−n hostbits
In the above example, the network-address is 132.199.0.0 (host-bits are set to 0 in network-addresses)
and the host’s address is 15.99 on that network.
How do you know that the host’s address is 16 bit wide? Well, this is assigned by the provider from
which you get your network-addresses. In the classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) used today, host
fields are usually between as little as 2 to 16 bits wide, and the number of network-bits is written after the
network address, separated by a “/”, e.g. 132.199.0.0/16 tells that the network in question has 16
network-bits. When talking about the “size” of a network, it’s usual to only talk about it as “/16”, “/24”,
etc.
Before CIDR was used, there used to be four classes of networks. Each one starts with a certain
bit-pattern identifying it. Here are the four classes:
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Chapter 22 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking
•
Class A starts with “0” as most significant bit. The next seven bits of a class A address identify the
network, the remaining 24 bit can be used to address hosts. So, within one class A network there can
be 224 hosts. It’s not very likely that you (or your university, or company, or whatever) will get a whole
class A address.
The CIDR notation for a class A network with its eight network bits is an “/8”.
•
Class B starts with “10” as most significant bits. The next 14 bits are used for the networks address
and the remaining 16 bits can be used to address more than 65000 hosts. Class B addresses are very
rarely given out today, they used to be common for companies and universities before IPv4 address
space went scarce.
The CIDR notation for a class B network with its 16 network bits is an “/16”.
Returning to our above example, you can see that 132.199.15.99 (or 0x84c70f63, which is more
appropriate here!) is on a class B network, as 0x84... = 1000... (base 2).
Therefore, the address 132.199.15.99 can be split into an network-address of 132.199.0.0 and a
host-address of 15.99.
•
Class C is identified by the MSBs being “110”, allowing only 256 (actually: only 254, see below) hosts
on each of the 221 possible class C networks. Class C addresses are usually found at (small) companies.
The CIDR notation for a class C network with its 24 network bits is an “/24”.
•
There are also other addresses, starting with “111”. Those are used for special purposes (e. g.
multicast-addresses) and are not of interest here.
Please note that the bits which are used for identifying the network-class are part of the network-address.
When separating host-addresses from network-addresses, the “netmask” comes in handy. In this mask,
all the network-bits are set to “1”, the host-bits are “0”. Thus, putting together IP-address and netmask
with a logical AND-function, the network-address remains.
To continue our example, 255.255.0.0 is a possible netmask for 132.199.15.99. When applying this
mask, the network-address 132.199.0.0 remains.
For addresses in CIDR notation, the number of network-bits given also says how many of the most
significant bits of the address must be set to “1” to get the netmask for the corresponding network. For
classful addressing, every network-class has a fixed default netmask assigned:
•
Class A (/8): default-netmask: 255.0.0.0, first byte of address: 1-127
•
Class B (/16): default-netmask: 255.255.0.0, first byte of address: 128-191
•
Class C (/24): default-netmask: 255.255.255.0, first byte of address: 192-223
Another thing to mention here is the “broadcast-address”. When sending to this address, all hosts on the
corresponding network will receive the message sent. The broadcast address is characterized by having
all host-bits set to “1”.
Taking 132.199.15.99 with its netmask 255.255.0.0 again, the broadcast-address would result in
132.199.255.255.
You’ll ask now: But what if I want a host’s address to be all bits “0” or “1”? Well, this doesn’t work, as
network- and broadcast-address must be present! Because of this, a class B (/16) network can contain at
most 216-2 hosts, a class C (/24) network can hold no more than 28-2 = 254 hosts.
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Chapter 22 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking
Besides all those categories of addresses, there’s the special IP-address 127.0.0.1 which always refers to
the “local” host, i.e. if you talk to 127.0.0.1 you’ll talk to yourself without starting any network-activity.
This is sometimes useful to use services installed on your own machine or to play around if you don’t
have other hosts to put on your network.
Let’s put together the things we’ve introduced in this section:
IP-address
32 bit-address, with network- and host-bits.
Network-address
IP-address with all host bits set to “0”.
Netmask
32-bit mask with “1” for network- and “0” for host-bits.
Broadcast
IP-address with all host bits set “1”.
localhost’s address
The local host’s IP address is always 127.0.0.1.
22.5 Subnetting and Routing
After talking so much about netmasks, network-, host- and other addresses, I have to admit that this is
not the whole truth.
Imagine the situation at your university, which usually has a class B (/16) address, allowing it to have up
to 216 ~= 65534 hosts on that net. Maybe it would be a nice thing to have all those hosts on one single
network, but it’s simply not possible due to limitations in the transport media commonly used today.
For example, when using thinwire ethernet, the maximum length of the cable is 185 meters. Even with
repeaters in between, which refresh the signals, this is not enough to cover all the locations where
machines are located. Besides that, there is a maximum number of 1024 hosts on one ethernet wire, and
you’ll loose quite a bit of performance if you go to this limit.
So, are you hosed now? Having an address which allows more than 60000 hosts, but being bound to
media which allows far less than that limit?
Well, of course not! :-)
The idea is to divide the “big” class B net into several smaller networks, commonly called sub-networks
or simply subnets. Those subnets are only allowed to have, say, 254 hosts on them (i.e. you divide one
big class B network into several class C networks!).
To do this, you adjust your netmask to have more network- and less host-bits on it. This is usually done
on a byte-boundary, but you’re not forced to do it there. So, commonly your netmask will not be
255.255.0.0 as supposed by a class B network, but it will be set to 255.255.255.0.
In CIDR notation, you now write a “/24” instead of the “/16” to show that 24 bits of the address are used
for identifying the network and subnet, instead of the 16 that were used before.
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This gives you one additional network-byte to assign to each (physical!) network. All the 254 hosts on
that subnet can now talk directly to each other, and you can build 256 such class C nets. This should fit
your needs.
To explain this better, let’s continue our above example. Say our host 132.199.15.99 (I’ll call him dusk
from now; we’ll talk about assigning hostnames later) has a netmask of 255.255.255.0 and thus is on the
subnet 132.199.15.0/24. Let’s furthermore introduce some more hosts so we have something to play
around with, see Figure 22-2.
Figure 22-2. Our demo-network
ftp
cisco
132.199.1.202
132.199.1.8
Subnet 132.199.1.0
Broadcast 132.199.1.255
Netmask 255.255.255.0
132.199.1.33
rzi
132.199.15.1
Subnet 132.199.15.0
Broadcast 132.199.15.255
Netmask 255.255.255.0
132.199.15.100
dawn
132.199.15.99
dusk
S L I P
132.199.15.98
132.199.15.97
noon
In the above network, dusk can talk directly to dawn, as they are both on the same subnet. (There are
other hosts attached to the 132.199.15.0/24-subnet but they are not of importance for us now)
But what if dusk wants to talk to a host on another subnet?
Well, the traffic will then go through one or more gateways (routers), which are attached to two subnets.
Because of this, a router always has two different addresses, one for each of the subnets it is on. The
router is functionally transparent, i.e. you don’t have to address it to reach hosts on the “other” side.
Instead, you address that host directly and the packets will be routed to it correctly.
Example. Let’s say dusk wants to get some files from the local ftp-server. As dusk can’t reach ftp directly
(because it’s on a different subnet), all its packets will be forwarded to its "defaultrouter" rzi
(132.199.15.1), which knows where to forward the packets.
Dusk knows the address of its defaultrouter in its network (rzi, 132.199.15.1), and it will forward any
packets to it which are not on the same subnet, i.e. it will forward all IP-packets in which the third
address-byte isn’t 15.
The (default)router then gives the packets to the appropriate host, as it’s also on the FTP-server’s
network.
In this example, all packets are forwarded to the 132.199.1.0/24-network, simply because it’s the
network’s backbone, the most important part of the network, which carries all the traffic that passes
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Chapter 22 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking
between several subnets. Almost all other networks besides 132.199.15.0/24 are attached to the
backbone in a similar manner.
But what if we had hooked up another subnet to 132.199.15.0/24 instead of 132.199.1.0/24? Maybe
something the situation displayed in Figure 22-3.
Figure 22-3. Attaching one subnet to another one
Subnet 132.199.1.0
(Backbone)
132.199.1.33
rzi
132.199.15.1
Subnet 132.199.15.0
132.199.15.2
route2
132.199.15.99
dusk
132.199.16.1
Subnet 132.199.16.0
When we now want to reach a host which is located in the 132.199.16.0/24-subnet from dusk, it won’t
work routing it to rzi, but you’ll have to send it directly to route2 (132.199.15.2). Dusk will have to know
to forward those packets to route2 and send all the others to rzi.
When configuring dusk, you tell it to forward all packets for the 132.199.16.0/24-subnet to route2, and
all others to rzi. Instead of specifying this default as 132.199.1.0/24, 132.199.2.0/24, etc., 0.0.0.0 can be
used to set the default-route.
Returning to Figure 22-2, there’s a similar problem when dawn wants to send to noon, which is
connected to dusk via a serial line running. When looking at the IP-addresses, noon seems to be attached
to the 132.199.15.0-network, but it isn’t really. Instead, dusk is used as gateway, and dawn will have to
send its packets to dusk, which will forward them to noon then. The way dusk is forced into accepting
packets that aren’t destined at it but for a different host (noon) instead is called “proxy arp”.
The same goes when hosts from other subnets want to send to noon. They have to send their packets to
dusk (possibly routed via rzi),
22.6 Name Service Concepts
In the previous sections, when we talked about hosts, we referred to them by their IP-addresses. This was
necessary to introduce the different kinds of addresses. When talking about hosts in general, it’s more
convenient to give them “names”, as we did when talking about routing.
Most applications don’t care whether you give them an IP address or a hostname. However, they’ll use IP
addresses internally, and there are several methods for them to map hostnames to IP addresses, each one
with its own way of configuration. In this section we’ll introduce the idea behind each method, in the
next chapter, we’ll talk about the configuration-part.
The mapping from hostnames (and domainnames) to IP-addresses is done by a piece of software called
the “resolver”. This is not an extra service, but some library routines which are linked to every
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application using networking-calls. The resolver will then try to resolve (hence the name ;-) the
hostnames you give into IP addresses. See RFC1034 and RFC1035 for details on the resolver.
Hostnames are usually up to 256 characters long, and contain letters, numbers and dashes (“-”); case is
ignored.
Just as with networks and subnets, it’s possible (and desirable) to group hosts into domains and
subdomains. When getting your network-address, you usually also obtain a domainname by your
provider. As with subnets, it’s up to you to introduce subdomains. Other as with IP-addresses,
(sub)domains are not directly related to (sub)nets; for example, one domain can contain hosts from
several subnets.
Figure 22-2 shows this: Both subnets 132.199.1.0/24 and 132.199.15.0/24 (and others) are part of the
subdomain “rz.uni-regensburg.de”. The domain the University of Regensburg got from its IP-provider is
“uni-regensburg.de” (“.de” is for Deutschland, Germany), the subdomain “rz” is for Rechenzentrum,
computing center.
Hostnames, subdomain- and domainnames are separated by dots (“.”). It’s also possible to use more than
one stage of subdomains, although this is not very common. An example would be
fox_in.socs.uts.edu.au.
A hostname which includes the (sub)domain is also called a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). For
example, the IP-address 132.199.15.99 belongs to the host with the FQDN dusk.rz.uni-regensburg.de.
Further above I told you that the IP-address 127.0.0.1 always belongs to the local host, regardless what’s
the “real” IP-address of the host. Therefore, 127.0.0.1 is always mapped to the name “localhost”.
The three different ways to translate hostnames into IP addresses are: /etc/hosts, the Domain Name
Service (DNS) and the Network Information Service (NIS).
22.6.1 /etc/hosts
The first and simplest way to translate hostnames into IP-addresses is by using a table telling which IP
address belongs to which hostname(s). This table is stored in the file /etc/hosts and has the following
format:
IP-address
hostname [nickname [...]]
Lines starting with a hash mark (“#”) are treated as comments. The other lines contain one IP-address
and the corresponding hostname(s).
It’s not possible for a hostname to belong to several IP addresses, even if I made you think so when
talking about routing. rzi for example has really two distinct names for each of its two addresses: rzi and
rzia (but please don’t ask me which name belongs to which address!).
Giving a host several nicknames can be convenient if you want to specify your favorite host providing a
special service with that name, as is commonly done with FTP-servers. The first (leftmost) name is
usually the real (canonical) name of the host.
Besides giving nicknames, it’s also convenient to give a host’s full name (including domain) as its
canonical name, and using only its hostname (without domain) as a nickname.
Important: There must be an entry mapping localhost to 127.0.0.1 in /etc/hosts!
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22.6.2 Domain Name Service (DNS)
/etc/hosts bears an inherent problem, especially in big networks: when one host is added or one
host’s address changes, all the /etc/hosts files on all machines have to be changed! This is not only
time-consuming, it’s also very likely that there will be some errors and inconsistencies, leading to
problems.
Another approach is to hold only one hostnames-table (-database) for a network, and make all the clients
query that “nameserver”. Updates will be made only on the nameserver.
This is the basic idea behind the Domain Name Service (DNS).
Usually, there’s one nameserver for each domain (hence DNS), and every host (client) in that domain
knows which domain it is in and which nameserver to query for its domain.
When the DNS gets a query about a host which is not in its domain, it will forward the query to a DNS
which is either the DNS of the domain in question or knows which DNS to ask for the specified domain.
If the DNS forwarded the query doesn’t know how to handle it, it will forward that query again to a DNS
one step higher. This is not ad infinitum, there are several “root”-servers, which know about any domain.
See Chapter 25 for details on DNS.
22.6.3 Network Information Service (NIS/YP)
Yellow Pages (YP) was invented by Sun Microsystems. The name has been changed into Network
Information Service (NIS) because YP was already a trademark of the British telecom. So, when I’m
talking about NIS you’ll know what I mean. ;-)
There are quite some configuration files on a Unix-system, and often it’s desired to maintain only one set
of those files for a couple of hosts. Those hosts are grouped together in a NIS-domain (which has nothing
to do with the domains built by using DNS!) and are usually contained in one workstation cluster.
Examples for the config-files shared among those hosts are /etc/passwd, /etc/group and - last but
not least - /etc/hosts.
So, you can “abuse” NIS for getting a unique name-to-address-translation on all hosts throughout one
(NIS-)domain.
There’s only one drawback, which prevents NIS from actually being used for that translation: In contrast
to the DNS, NIS provides no way to resolve hostnames which are not in the hosts-table. There’s no hosts
“one level up” which the NIS-server can query, and so the translation will fail! Suns NIS+ takes measures
against that problem, but as NIS+ is only available on Solaris-systems, this is of little use for us now.
Don’t get me wrong: NIS is a fine thing for managing e.g. user-information (/etc/passwd, ...) in
workstation-clusters, it’s simply not too useful for resolving hostnames.
22.6.4 Other
The name resolving methods described above are what’s used commonly today to resolve hostnames into
IP addresses, but they aren’t the only ones. Basically, every database mechanism would do, but none is
implemented in NetBSD. Let’s have a quick look what you may encounter.
With NIS lacking hierarchy in data structures, NIS+ is intended to help out in that field. Tables can be
setup in a way so that if a query cannot be answered by a domain’s server, there can be another domain
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“above” that might be able to do so. E.g. you could choose to have a domain that lists all the hosts (users,
groups, ...) that are valid in the whole company, one that defines the same for each division, etc. NIS+ is
not used a lot today, even Sun went back to ship back NIS by default.
Last century, the X.500 standard was designed to accommodate both simple databases like /etc/hosts
as well as complex, hierarchical systems as can be found e.g. in DNS today. X.500 wasn’t really a
success, mostly due to the fact that it tried to do too much at the same time. A cut-down version is
available today as the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), which is becoming popular in the
last years to manage data like users but also hosts and others in small to medium sized organisations.
22.7 Next generation Internet protocol - IPv6
22.7.1 The Future of the Internet
According to experts, the Internet as we know it will face a serious problem in a few years. Due to its
rapid growth and the limitations in its design, there will be a point at which no more free addresses are
available for connecting new hosts. At that point, no more new web servers can be set up, no more users
can sign up for accounts at ISPs, no more new machines can be setup to access the web or participate in
online games - some people may call this a serious problem.
Several approaches have been made to solve the problem. A very popular one is to not assign a
worldwide unique address to every user’s machine, but rather to assign them “private” addresses, and
hide several machines behind one official, globally unique address. This approach is called “Network
Address Translation” (NAT, also known as IP Masquerading). It has problems, as the machines hidden
behind the global address can’t be addressed, and as a result of this, opening connections to them - which
is used in online gaming, peer to peer networking, etc. - is not possible. For a more in-depth discussion
of the drawbacks of NAT, see RFC3027.
A different approach to the problem of internet addresses getting scarce is to abandon the old Internet
protocol with its limited addressing capabilities, and use a new protocol that does not have these
limitations. The protocol - or actually, a set of protocols - used by machines connected to form today’s
Internet is know as the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol, Internet Protocol) suite, and version 4
currently in use has all the problems described above. Switching to a different protocol version that does
not have these problems of course requires for a ’better’ version to be available, which actually is.
Version 6 of the Internet Protocol (IPv6) does fulfill any possible future demands on address space, and
also addresses further features such as privacy, encryption, and better support of mobile computing.
Assuming a basic understanding of how today’s IPv4 works, this text is intended as an introduction to the
IPv6 protocol. The changes in address formats and name resolution are covered. With the background
given here, Section 23.9 will show how to use IPv6 even if your ISP doesn’t offer it by using a simple yet
efficient transition mechanism called 6to4. The goal is to get online with IPv6, giving example
configuration for NetBSD.
22.7.2 What good is IPv6?
When telling people to migrate from IPv4 to IPv6, the question you usually hear is “why?”. There are
actually a few good reasons to move to the new version:
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•
Bigger address space
•
Support for mobile devices
•
Built-in security
22.7.2.1 Bigger Address Space
The bigger address space that IPv6 offers is the most obvious enhancement it has over IPv4. While
today’s internet architecture is based on 32-bit wide addresses, the new version has 128 bit available for
addressing. Thanks to the enlarged address space, work-arounds like NAT don’t have to be used any
more. This allows full, unconstrained IP connectivity for today’s IP based machines as well as upcoming
mobile devices like PDAs and cell phones will benefit from full IP access through GPRS and UMTS.
22.7.2.2 Mobility
When mentioning mobile devices and IP, another important point to note is that some special protocol is
needed to support mobility, and implementing this protocol - called “Mobile IP” - is one of the
requirements for every IPv6 stack. Thus, if you have IPv6 going, you have support for roaming between
different networks, with everyone being updated when you leave one network and enter the other one.
Support for roaming is possible with IPv4 too, but there are a number of hoops that need to be jumped in
order to get things working. With IPv6, there’s no need for this, as support for mobility was one of the
design requirements for IPv6. See RFC3024 for some more information on the issues that need to be
addressed with Mobile IP on IPv4.
22.7.2.3 Security
Besides support for mobility, security was another requirement for the successor to today’s Internet
Protocol version. As a result, IPv6 protocol stacks are required to include IPsec. IPsec allows
authentication, encryption and compression of any IP traffic. Unlike application level protocols like SSL
or SSH, all IP traffic between two nodes can be handled, without adjusting any applications. The benefit
of this is that all applications on a machine can benefit from encryption and authentication, and that
policies can be set on a per-host (or even per-network) base, not per application/service. An introduction
to IPsec with a roadmap to the documentation can be found in RFC2411, the core protocol is described
in RFC2401.
22.7.3 Changes to IPv4
After giving a brief overview of all the important features of IPv6, we’ll go into the details of the basics
of IPv6 here. A brief understanding of how IPv4 works is assumed, and the changes in IPv6 will be
highlighted. Starting with IPv6 addresses and how they’re split up we’ll go into the various types of
addresses there are, what became of broadcasts, then after discussing the IP layer go into changes for
name resolving and what’s new in DNS for IPv6.
22.7.3.1 Addressing
An IPv4 address is a 32 bit value, that’s usually written in “dotted quad” representation, where each
“quad” represents a byte value between 0 and 255, for example:
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127.0.0.1
This allows a theoretical number of 232 or ~4 billion hosts to be connected on the internet today. Due to
grouping, not all addresses are available today.
IPv6 addresses use 128 bit, which results in 2128 theoretically addressable hosts. This allows for a Really
Big number of machines to addressed, and it sure fits all of today’s requirements plus all those nifty
PDAs and cell phones with IP phones in the near future without any sweat. When writing IPv6
addresses, they are usually divided into groups of 16 bits written as four hex digits, and the groups are
separated by colons. An example is:
fe80::2a0:d2ff:fea5:e9f5
This shows a special thing - a number of consecutive zeros can be abbreviated by a single “::” once in the
IPv6 address. The above address is thus equivalent to fe80:0:00:000:2a0:d2ff:fea5:e9f5 - leading zeros
within groups can be omitted, and only one “::” can be used in an IPv6 address.
To make addresses manageable, they are split in two parts, which are the bits identifying the network a
machine is on, and the bits that identify a machine on a (sub)network. The bits are known as netbits and
hostbits, and in both IPv4 and IPv6, the netbits are the “left”, most significant bits of an IP address, and
the host bits are the “right”, least significant bits, as shown in Figure 22-4.
Figure 22-4. IPv6-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits,
too
n netbits
128−n hostbits
In IPv4, the border is drawn with the aid of the netmask, which can be used to mask all net/host bits.
Typical examples are 255.255.0.0 that uses 16 bit for addressing the network, and 16 bit for the machine,
or 255.255.255.0 which takes another 8 bit to allow addressing 256 subnets on e.g. a class B net.
When addressing switched from classful addressing to CIDR routing, the borders between net and host
bits stopped being on 8 bit boundaries, and as a result the netmasks started looking ugly and not really
manageable. As a replacement, the number of network bits is used for a given address, to denote the
border, e.g.
10.0.0.0/24
is the same as a netmask of 255.255.255.0 (24 1-bits). The same scheme is used in IPv6:
2001:638:a01:2::/64
tells us that the address used here has the first (leftmost) 64 bits used as the network address, and the last
(rightmost) 64 bits are used to identify the machine on the network. The network bits are commonly
referred to as (network) “prefix”, and the “prefixlen” here would be 64 bits.
Common addressing schemes found in IPv4 are the (old) class B and class C nets. With a class C
network (/24), you get 24 bits assigned by your provider, and it leaves 8 bits to be assigned by you. If
you want to add any subnetting to that, you end up with “uneven” netmasks that are a bit nifty to deal
with. Easier for such cases are class B networks (/16), which only have 16 bits assigned by the provider,
and that allow subnetting, i.e. splitting of the rightmost bits into two parts. One to address the on-site
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subnet, and one to address the hosts on that subnet. Usually, this is done on byte (8 bit) boundaries.
Using a netmask of 255.255.255.0 (or a /24 prefix) allows flexible management even of bigger networks
here. Of course there is the upper limit of 254 machines per subnet, and 256 subnets.
With 128 bits available for addressing in IPv6, the scheme commonly used is the same, only the fields
are wider. Providers usually assign /48 networks, which leaves 16 bits for a subnetting and 64 hostbits.
Figure 22-5. IPv6-addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses
IPv4:
16bit
8bit 8bit
IPv6:
48bit
16bit
64bit
Provider−assigned network−bits
Self−assigned subnet−bits
Host−bits
Now while the space for network and subnets here is pretty much ok, using 64 bits for addressing hosts
seems like a waste. It’s unlikely that you will want to have several billion hosts on a single subnet, so
what is the idea behind this?
The idea behind fixed width 64 bit wide host identifiers is that they aren’t assigned manually as it’s
usually done for IPv4 nowadays. Instead, IPv6 host addresses are recommended (not mandatory!) to be
built from so-called EUI64 addresses. EUI64 addresses are - as the name says - 64 bit wide, and derived
from MAC addresses of the underlying network interface. E.g. for ethernet, the 6 byte (48 bit) MAC
address is usually filled with the hex bits “fffe” in the middle and a bit is set to mark the address as
unique (which is true for Ethernet), e.g. the MAC address
01:23:45:67:89:ab
results in the EUI64 address
03:23:45:ff:fe:67:89:ab
which again gives the host bits for the IPv6 address as
::0323:45ff:fe67:89ab
These host bits can now be used to automatically assign IPv6 addresses to hosts, which supports
autoconfiguration of IPv6 hosts - all that’s needed to get a complete IPv6 address is the first (net/subnet)
bits, and IPv6 also offers a solution to assign them automatically.
When on a network of machines speaking IP, there’s usually one router which acts as the gateway to
outside networks. In IPv6 land, this router will send “router advertisement” information, which clients
are expected to either receive during operation or to solicit upon system startup. The router advertisement
information includes data on the router’s address, and which address prefix it routes. With this
information and the host-generated EUI64 address, an IPv6-host can calculate its IP address, and there is
no need for manual address assignment. Of course routers still need some configuration.
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The router advertisement information they create are part of the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP, see
RFC2461), which is the successor to IPv4’s ARP protocol. In contrast to ARP, NDP does not only do
lookup of IPv6 addresses for MAC addresses (the neighbor solicitation/advertisement part), but also does
a similar service for routers and the prefixes they serve, which is used for autoconfiguration of IPv6 hosts
as described in the previous paragraph.
22.7.3.2 Multiple Addresses
In IPv4, a host usually has one IP address per network interface or even per machine if the IP stack
supports it. Only very rare applications like web servers result in machines having more than one IP
address. In IPv6, this is different. For each interface, there is not only a globally unique IP address, but
there are two other addresses that are of interest: The link local address, and the site local address. The
link local address has a prefix of fe80::/64, and the host bits are built from the interface’s EUI64 address.
The link local address is used for contacting hosts and routers on the same network only, the addresses
are not visible or reachable from different subnets. If wanted, there’s the choice of either using global
addresses (as assigned by a provider), or using site local addresses. Site local addresses are assigned the
network address fec0::/10, and subnets and hosts can be addressed just as for provider-assigned
networks. The only difference is, that the addresses will not be visible to outside machines, as these are
on a different network, and their “site local” addresses are in a different physical net (if assigned at all).
As with the 10/8 network in IPv4, site local addresses can be used, but don’t have to. For IPv6 it’s most
common to have hosts assigned a link-local and a global IP address. Site local addresses are rather
uncommon today, and are no substitute for globally unique addresses if global connectivity is required.
22.7.3.3 Multicasting
In IP land, there are three ways to talk to a host: unicast, broadcast and multicast. The most common one
is by talking to it directly, using its unicast address. In IPv4, the unicast address is the “normal” IP
address assigned to a single host, with all address bits assigned. The broadcast address used to address all
hosts in the same IP subnet has the network bits set to the network address, and all host bits set to “1”
(which can be easily done using the netmask and some bit operations). Multicast addresses are used to
reach a number of hosts in the same multicast group, which can be machines spread over the whole
internet. Machines must join multicast groups explicitly to participate, and there are special IPv4
addresses used for multicast addresses, allocated from the 224/8 subnet. Multicast isn’t used very much
in IPv4, and only few applications like the MBone audio and video broadcast utilities use it.
In IPv6, unicast addresses are used the same as in IPv4, no surprise there - all the network and host bits
are assigned to identify the target network and machine. Broadcasts are no longer available in IPv6 in the
way they were in IPv4, this is where multicasting comes into play. Addresses in the ff::/8 network are
reserved for multicast applications, and there are two special multicast addresses that supersede the
broadcast addresses from IPv4. One is the “all routers” multicast address, the others is for “all hosts”.
The addresses are specific to the subnet, i.e. a router connected to two different subnets can address all
hosts/routers on any of the subnets it’s connected to. Addresses here are:
•
ff0X ::1 for all hosts and
•
ff0X ::2 for all routers,
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where “X ” is the scope ID of the link here, identifying the network. Usually this starts from “1” for the
“node local” scope, “2” for the first link, etc. Note that it’s perfectly ok for two network interfaces to be
attached to one link, thus resulting in double bandwidth:
Figure 22-6. Several interfaces attached to a link result in only one scope ID for the link
node
200MBps
One use of the “all hosts” multicast is in the neighbor solicitation code of NDP, where any machine that
wants to communicate with another machine sends out a request to the “all hosts” group, and the
machine in question is expected to respond.
22.7.3.4 Name Resolving in IPv6
After talking a lot about addressing in IPv6, anyone still here will hope that there’s a proper way to
abstract all these long & ugly IPv6 addresses with some nice hostnames as one can do in IPv4, and of
course there is.
Hostname to IP address resolving in IPv4 is usually done in one of three ways: using a simple table in
/etc/hosts, by using the Network Information Service (NIS, formerly YP) or via the Domain Name
System (DNS).
As of this writing, NIS/NIS+ over IPv6 is currently only available on Solaris 8, for both database
contents and transport, using a RPC extension.
Having a simple address<->name map like /etc/hosts is supported in all IPv6 stacks. With the KAME
implementation used in NetBSD, /etc/hosts contains IPv6 addresses as well as IPv4 addresses. A
simple example is the “localhost” entry in the default NetBSD installation:
127.0.0.1
::1
localhost
localhost
For DNS, there are no fundamentally new concepts. IPv6 name resolving is done with AAAA records
that - as the name implies - point to an entity that’s four times the size of an A record. The AAAA record
takes a hostname on the left side, just as A does, and on the right side there’s an IPv6 address, e.g.
noon
IN
AAAA
3ffe:400:430:2:240:95ff:fe40:4385
For reverse resolving, IPv4 uses the in-addr.arpa zone, and below that it writes the bytes (in decimal) in
reversed order, i.e. more significant bytes are more right. For IPv6 this is similar, only that hex digits
representing 4 bits are used instead of decimal numbers, and the resource records are also under a
different domain, ip6.int.
So to have the reverse resolving for the above host, you would put into your /etc/named.conf
something like:
zone "0.3.4.0.0.0.4.0.e.f.f.3.IP6.INT" {
type master;
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file "db.reverse";
};
and in the zone file db.reverse you put (besides the usual records like SOA and NS):
5.8.3.4.0.4.e.f.f.f.5.9.0.4.2.0.2.0.0.0 IN
PTR
noon.ipv6.example.com.
The address is reversed here, and written down one hex digit after the other, starting with the least
significant (rightmost) one, separating the hex digits with dots, as usual in zone files.
One thing to note when setting up DNS for IPv6 is to take care of the DNS software version in use.
BIND 8.x does understand AAAA records, but it does not offer name resolving via IPv6. You need
BIND 9.x for that. Beyond that, BIND 9.x supports a number of resource records that are currently being
discussed but not officially introduced yet. The most noticeable one here is the A6 record which allows
easier provider/prefix changing.
To sum up, this section talked about the technical differences between IPv4 and IPv6 for addressing and
name resolving. Some details like IP header options, QoS and flows were deliberately left out to not
make this document more complex than necessary.
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practice
23.1 A walk through the kernel configuration
Before we dive into configuring various aspects of network setup, we want to walk through the necessary
bits that have to or can be present in the kernel. See Chapter 31 for more details on compiling the kernel,
we will concentrate on the configuration of the kernel here. We will take the i386/GENERIC config file
as an example here. Config files for other platforms should contain similar information, the comments in
the config files give additional hints. Besides the information given here, each kernel option is also
documented in the options(4) manpage, and there is usually a manpage for each driver too, e.g. tlp(4).
The first line of each config file shows the version. It can be used to compare against other versions via
CVS, or when reporting bugs.
options
NTP
# NTP phase/frequency locked loop
If you want to run the Network Time Protocol (NTP), this option can be enabled for maximum precision.
If the option is not present, NTP will still work. See ntpd(8) for more information.
file-system
NFS
# Network File System client
If you want to use another machine’s hard disk via the Network File System (NFS), this option is needed.
Section 28.1 gives more information on NFS.
options
NFSSERVER
# Network File System server
This option includes the server side of the NFS remote file sharing protocol. Enable if you want to allow
other machines to use your hard disk. Section 28.1 contains more information on NFS.
#options
GATEWAY
# packet forwarding
If you want to setup a router that forwards packets between networks or network interfaces, setting this
option is needed. If doesn’t only switch on packet forwarding, but also increases some buffers. See
options(4) for details.
options
INET
# IP + ICMP + TCP + UDP
This enables the TCP/IP code in the kernel. Even if you don’t want/use networking, you will still need
this for machine-internal communication of subsystems like the X Window System. See inet(4) for more
details.
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options
INET6
# IPV6
If you want to use IPv6, this is your option. If you don’t want IPv6, which is part of NetBSD since the
1.5 release, you can remove/comment out that option. See the inet6(4) manpage and Section 22.7 for
more information on the next generation Internet protocol.
#options
IPSEC
# IP security
Includes support for the IPsec protocol, including key and policy management, authentication and
compression. This option can be used without the previous option INET6, if you just want to use IPsec
with IPv4, which is possible. See ipsec(4) for more information.
#options
IPSEC_ESP
# IP security (encryption part; define w/IPSEC)
This option is needed in addition to IPSEC if encryption is wanted in IPsec.
#options
MROUTING
# IP multicast routing
If multicast services like the MBone services should be routed, this option needs to be included. Note
that the routing itself is controlled by the mrouted(8) daemon.
options
#options
NS
NSIP
# XNS
# XNS tunneling over IP
These options enable the Xerox Network Systems(TM) protocol family. It’s not related to the TCP/IP
protocol stack, and in rare use today. The ns(4) manpage has some details.
options
#options
ISO,TPIP
EON
# OSI
# OSI tunneling over IP
These options include the OSI protocol stack, which was said for a long time to be the future of
networking. It’s mostly history these days. :-) See the iso(4) manpage for more information.
options
CCITT,LLC,HDLC
# X.25
These options enable the X.25 protocol set for transmission of data over serial lines. It is/was used
mostly in conjunction with the OSI protocols and in WAN networking.
options
NETATALK
# AppleTalk networking protocols
Include support for the AppleTalk protocol stack. Userland server programs are needed to make use of
that. See pkgsrc/net/netatalk and pkgsrc/net/netatalk-asun for such packages. More information on the
AppleTalk protocol and protocol stack are available in the atalk(4) manpage.
options
options
options
PPP_BSDCOMP
PPP_DEFLATE
PPP_FILTER
# BSD-Compress compression support for PPP
# Deflate compression support for PPP
# Active filter support for PPP (requires bpf)
These options tune various aspects of the Point-to-Point protocol. The first two determine the
compression algorithms used and available, while the third one enables code to filter some packets.
options
options
PFIL_HOOKS
IPFILTER_LOG
# pfil(9) packet filter hooks
# ipmon(8) log support
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These options enable firewalling in NetBSD, using IPFilter. See the ipf(4) and ipf(8) manpages for more
information on operation of IPFilter, and Section 23.5.1 for a configuration example.
# Compatibility with 4.2BSD implementation of TCP/IP.
#options
TCP_COMPAT_42
Not recommended.
This option is only needed if you have machines on the network that still run 4.2BSD or a network stack
derived from it. If you’ve got one or more 4.2BSD-systems on your network, you’ve to pay attention to
set the right broadcast-address, as 4.2BSD has a bug in its networking code, concerning the broadcast
address. This bug forces you to set all host-bits in the broadcast-address to “0”. The TCP_COMPAT_42
option helps you ensuring this.
options
NFS_BOOT_DHCP,NFS_BOOT_BOOTPARAM
These options enable lookup of data via DHCP or the BOOTPARAM protocol if the kernel is told to use
a NFS root file system. See the diskless(8) manpage for more information.
# Kernel root file system and dump configuration.
config
netbsd root on ? type ?
#config
netbsd root on sd0a type ffs
#config
netbsd root on ? type nfs
These lines tell where the kernel looks for its root file system, and which filesystem type it is expected to
have. If you want to make a kernel that uses a NFS root filesystem via the tlp0 interface, you can do this
with “root on tlp0 type nfs”. If a ? is used instead of a device/type, the kernel tries to figure one
out on its own.
# ISA serial interfaces
com0
at isa? port 0x3f8 irq 4
com1
at isa? port 0x2f8 irq 3
com2
at isa? port 0x3e8 irq 5
# Standard PC serial ports
If you want to use PPP or SLIP, you will need some serial (com) interfaces. Others with attachment on
USB, PCMCIA or PUC will do as well.
# Network Interfaces
This rather long list contains all sorts of network drivers. Please pick the one that matches your hardware,
according to the comments. For most drivers, there’s also a manual page available, e.g. tlp(4), ne(4), etc.
# MII/PHY support
This section lists media independent interfaces for network cards. Pick one that matches your hardware.
If in doubt, enable them all and see what the kernel picks. See the mii(4) manpage for more information.
# USB Ethernet adapters
aue*
at uhub? port ?
cue*
at uhub? port ?
kue*
at uhub? port ?
# ADMtek AN986 Pegasus based adapters
# CATC USB-EL1201A based adapters
# Kawasaki LSI KL5KUSB101B based adapters
USB-ethernet adapters only have about 2MBit/s bandwidth, but they are very convenient to use. Of
course this needs other USB related options which we won’t cover here, as well as the necessary
hardware. See the corresponding manpages for more information.
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# network pseudo-devices
pseudo-device
bpfilter
8
# Berkeley packet filter
This pseudo-device allows sniffing packets of all sorts. It’s needed for tcpdump, but also rarpd and some
other applications that need to know about network traffic. See bpf(4) for more information.
pseudo-device
ipfilter
# IP filter (firewall) and NAT
This one enables the IPFilter’s packet filtering kernel interface used for firewalling, NAT (IP
Masquerading) etc. See ipf(4) and Section 23.5.1 for more information.
pseudo-device
loop
# network loopback
This is the “lo0” software loopback network device which is used by some programs these days, as well
as for routing things. It should not be omitted. See lo(4) for more details.
pseudo-device
ppp
2
# Point-to-Point Protocol
If you want to use PPP either over a serial interface or ethernet (PPPoE), you will need this option. See
ppp(4) for details on this interface.
pseudo-device
sl
2
# Serial Line IP
Serial Line IP is a simple encapsulation for IP over (well :) serial lines. It does not include negotiation of
IP addresses and other options, which is the reason that it’s not in widespread use today any more. See
sl(4).
pseudo-device
strip
2
# Starmode Radio IP (Metricom)
If you happen to have one of the old Metricom Ricochet packet radio wireless network devices, use this
pseudo-device to use it. See the strip(4) manpage for detailed information.
pseudo-device
tun
2
# network tunneling over tty
This network device can be used to tunnel network packets to a device file, /dev/tun*. Packets routed
to the tun0 interface can be read from /dev/tun0, and data written to /dev/tun0 will be sent out the
tun0 network interface. This can be used to implement e.g. QoS routing in userland. See tun(4) for
details.
pseudo-device
gre
2
# generic L3 over IP tunnel
The GRE encapsulation can be used to tunnel arbitrary layer 3 packets over IP, e.g. to implement VPNs.
See gre(4) for more.
pseudo-device
ipip
2
# IP Encapsulation within IP (RFC 2003)
Another IP-in-IP encapsulation device, with a different encapsulation format. See the ipip(4) manpage
for details.
pseudo-device
gif
4
# IPv[46] over IPv[46] tunnel (RFC 1933)
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Using the GIF interface allows to tunnel e.g. IPv6 over IPv4, which can be used to get IPv6 connectivity
if no IPv6-capable uplink (ISP) is available. Other mixes of operations are possible, too. See the gif(4)
manpage for some examples.
#pseudo-device
faith
1
# IPv[46] tcp relay translation i/f
The faith interface captures IPv6 TCP traffic, for implementing userland IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relays e.g.
for protocol transitions. See the faith(4) manpage for more details on this device.
#pseudo-device
stf
1
# 6to4 IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation
This adds a network device that can be used to tunnel IPv6 over IPv4 without setting up a configured
tunnel before. The source address of outgoing packets contains the IPv4 address, which allows routing
replies back via IPv4. See the stf(4) manpage and Section 23.9 for more details.
pseudo-device
vlan
# IEEE 802.1q encapsulation
This interface provides support for IEEE 802.1Q Virtual LANs, which allows tagging Ethernet frames
with a “vlan” ID. Using properly configured switches (that also have to support VLAN, of course), this
can be used to build virtual LANs where one set of machines doesn’t see traffic from the other (broadcast
and other). The vlan(4) manpage tells more about this.
23.2 Overview of the network configuration files
The following is a list of the files used to configure the network. The usage of these files, some of which
have already been met the first chapters, will be described in the following sections.
/etc/hosts
Local hosts database file. Each line contains information regarding a known host and contains the
internet address, the host’s name and the aliases. Small networks can be configured using only the
hosts file, without a name server.
/etc/resolv.conf
This file specifies how the routines which provide access to the Internet Domain Name System
should operate. Generally it contains the addresses of the name servers.
/etc/ifconfig.xxx
This file is used for the automatic configuration of the network card at boot.
/etc/mygate
Contains the IP address of the gateway.
/etc/nsswitch.conf
Name service switch configuration file. It controls how a process looks up various databases
containing information regarding hosts, users, groups, etc. Specifically, this file defines the order to
look up the databases. For example, the line:
hosts:
files dns
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specifies that the hosts database comes from two sources, files (the local /etc/hosts file) and
DNS, (the Internet Domain Name System) and that the local files are searched before the DNS.
It is usually not necessary to modify this file.
23.3 Connecting to the Internet with a modem
There are many types of Internet connections: this section explains how to connect to a provider using a
modem over a telephone line using the PPP protocol, a very common setup. In order to have a working
connection, the following steps must be done:
1.
Get the necessary information from the provider.
2.
Edit the file /etc/resolv.conf and check /etc/nsswitch.conf.
3.
Create the directories /etc/ppp and /etc/ppp/peers if they don’t exist.
4.
Create the connection script, the chat file and the pppd options file.
5.
Created the user-password authentication file.
Judging from the previous list it looks like a complicated procedure that requires a lot of work. Actually,
the single steps are very easy: it’s just a matter of modifying, creating or simply checking some small
text files. In the following example it will be assumed that the modem is connected to the second serial
port /dev/tty01 (COM2 in DOS).
A few words on the difference between com, COM and tty. For NetBSD, “com” is the name of the serial
port driver (the one that is displayed by dmesg) and “tty” is the name of the port. Since numbering starts
at 0, com0 is the driver for the first serial port, named tty00. In the DOS world, instead, COM1 refers to
the first serial port (usually located at 0x3f8), COM2 to the second, and so on. Therefore COM1 (DOS)
corresponds to /dev/tty00 (NetBSD).
Besides external modems connected to COM ports (using /dev/tty0[012] on i386, /dev/tty[ab]
on sparc, ...) modems on USB (/dev/ttyU*) and pcmcia/cardbus (/dev/tty0[012]) can be used.
23.3.1 Getting the connection information
The first thing to do is ask the provider the necessary information for the connection, which means:
•
The phone number of the nearest POP.
•
The authentication method to be used.
•
The username and password for the connection.
•
The IP addresses of the name servers.
23.3.2 resolv.conf and nsswitch.conf
The /etc/resolv.conf file must be configured using the information supplied by the provider,
especially the addresses of the DNS. In this example the two DNS will be “194.109.123.2” and
“191.200.4.52”.
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Example 23-1. resolv.conf
nameserver 194.109.123.2
nameserver 191.200.4.52
And now an example of the /etc/nsswitch.conf file.
Example 23-2. nsswitch.conf
# /etc/nsswitch.conf
group:
compat
group_compat: nis
hosts:
files dns
netgroup:
files [notfound=return] nis
networks:
files
passwd:
compat
passwd_compat: nis
shells:
files
The defaults of doing hostname lookups via /etc/hosts followed by the DNS works fine and there’s
usually no need to modify this.
23.3.3 Creating the directories for pppd
The directories /etc/ppp and /etc/ppp/peers will contain the configuration files for the PPP
connection. After a fresh install of NetBSD they don’t exist and must be created (chmod 700).
# mkdir /etc/ppp
# mkdir /etc/ppp/peers
23.3.4 Connection script and chat file
The connection script will be used as a parameter on the pppd command line; it is located in
/etc/ppp/peers and has usually the name of the provider. For example, if the provider’s name is
BigNet and your user name for the connection to the provider is alan, an example connection script could
be:
Example 23-3. Connection script
# /etc/ppp/peers/bignet
connect ’/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/peers/bignet.chat’
noauth
user alan
remotename bignet.it
In the previous example, the script specifies a chat file to be used for the connection. The options in the
script are detailed in the pppd(8) man page.
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Note: If you are experiencing connection problems, add the following two lines to the connection
script
debug
kdebug 4
You will get a log of the operations performed when the system tries to connect. See pppd(8),
syslog.conf(5).
The connection script calls the chat application to deal with the physical connection (modem
initialization, dialing, ...) The parameters to chat can be specified inline in the connection script, but it is
better to put them in a separate file. If, for example, the telephone number of the POP to call is 02
99999999, an example chat script could be:
Example 23-4. Chat file
# /etc/ppp/peers/bignet.chat
ABORT BUSY
ABORT "NO CARRIER"
ABORT "NO DIALTONE"
” ATDT0299999999
CONNECT ”
Note: If you have problems with the chat file, you can try connecting manually to the POP with the
cu(1) program and verify the exact strings that you are receiving.
23.3.5 Authentication
During authentication each of the two systems verifies the identity of the other system, although in
practice you are not supposed to authenticate the provider, but only to be verified by him, using one of
the following methods:
•
PAP/CHAP
•
login
Most providers use a PAP/CHAP authentication.
23.3.5.1 PAP/CHAP authentication
The authentication information (speak: password) is stored in the /etc/ppp/pap-secrets for PAP
and in /etc/ppp/chap-secrets for CHAP. The lines have the following format:
user * password
For example:
alan * pZY9o
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For security reasons the pap-secrets and chap-secrets files should be owned by root and have
permissions “600”.
#
#
#
#
chown
chown
chmod
chmod
root /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
root /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
600 /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
600 /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
23.3.5.2 Login authentication
This type of authentication is not widely used today; if the provider uses login authentication, user name
and password must be supplied in the chat file instead of the PAP/CHAP files, because the chat file
simulates an interactive login. In this case, set up appropriate permissions for the chat file.
The following is an example chat file with login authentication:
Example 23-5. Chat file with login
# /etc/ppp/peers/bignet.chat
ABORT BUSY
ABORT "NO CARRIER"
ABORT "NO DIALTONE"
” ATDT0299999999
CONNECT ”
TIMEOUT 50
ogin: alan
ssword: pZY9o
23.3.6 pppd options
The only thing left to do is the creation of the pppd options file, which is /etc/ppp/options (chmod
644).
Example 23-6. /etc/ppp/options
/dev/tty01
lock
crtscts
57600
modem
defaultroute
noipdefault
Check the pppd(8) man page for the meaning of the options.
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23.3.7 Testing the modem
Before activating the link it is a good idea to make a quick modem test, in order to verify that the
physical connection and the communication with the modem works. For the test the cu(1) program can
be used, as in the following example.
1. Create the file /etc/uucp/port with the following lines:
type modem
port modem
device /dev/tty01
speed 115200
(substitute the correct device in place of /dev/tty01).
2. Write the command cu -p modem to start sending commands to the modem. For example:
# cu -p modem
Connected.
ATZ
OK
~.
Disconnected.
#
In the previous example the reset command (ATZ) was sent to the modem, which replied with OK:
the communication works. To exit cu(1), write ~ (tilde) followed by . (dot), as in the example.
If the modem doesn’t work, check that it is connected to the correct port (i.e. you are using the right port
with cu(1). Cables are a frequent cause of trouble, too.
When you start cu(1) and a message saying “Permission denied” appears, check who is the owner of the
/dev/tty## device, it must be "uucp". For example:
$ ls -l /dev/tty00
crw-------
1 uucp
wheel
8, 0 Mar 22 20:39 /dev/tty00
If the owner is root, the following happens:
$ ls -l /dev/tty00
crw-------
1 root
wheel
8, 0 Mar 22 20:39 /dev/tty00
$ cu -p modem
cu: open (/dev/tty00): Permission denied
cu: All matching ports in use
23.3.8 Activating the link
At last everything is ready to connect to the provider with the following command:
# pppd call bignet
where bignet is the name of the already described connection script. To see the connection messages of
pppd, give the following command:
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# tail -f /var/log/messages
To disconnect, do a kill -HUP of pppd.
# pkill -HUP pppd
23.3.9 Using a script for connection and disconnection
When the connection works correctly, it’s time to write a couple of scripts to avoid repeating the
commands every time. These two scripts can be named, for example, ppp-start and ppp-stop.
ppp-start is used to connect to the provider:
Example 23-7. ppp-start
#!/bin/sh
MODEM=tty01
POP=bignet
if [ -f /var/spool/lock/LCK..$MODEM ]; then
echo ppp is already running...
else
pppd call $POP
tail -f /var/log/messages
fi
ppp-stop is used to close the connection:
Example 23-8. ppp-stop
#!/bin/sh
MODEM=tty01
if [ -f /var/spool/lock/LCK..$MODEM ]; then
echo -f killing pppd...
kill -HUP ‘cat /var/spool/lock/LCK..$MODEM‘
echo done
else
echo ppp is not active
fi
The two scripts take advantage of the fact that when pppd is active, it creates the file LCK..tty01 in the
/var/spool/lock directory. This file contains the process ID (pid) of the pppd process.
The two scripts must be executable:
# chmod u+x ppp-start ppp-stop
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23.3.10 Running commands after dialin
If you find yourself to always run the same set of commands each time you dial in, you can put them in a
script /etc/ppp/ip-up which will be called by pppd(8) after successful dial-in. Likewise, before the
connection is closed down, /etc/ppp/ip-down is executed. Both scripts are expected to be executable.
See pppd(8) for more details.
23.4 Creating a small home network
Networking is one of the main strengths of Unix and NetBSD is no exception: networking is both
powerful and easy to set up and inexpensive too, because there is no need to buy additional software to
communicate or to build a server. Section 23.5 explains how to configure a NetBSD machine to act as a
gateway for a network: with IPNAT all the hosts of the network can reach the Internet with a single
connection to a provider made by the gateway machine. The only thing to be checked before creating the
network is to buy network cards supported by NetBSD (check the INSTALL.* files for a list of
supported devices).
First, the network cards must be installed and connected to a hub, switch or directly (see Figure 23-1).
Next, check that the network cards are recognized by the kernel, studying the output of the dmesg
command. In the following example the kernel recognized correctly an NE2000 clone:
...
ne0 at isa0 port 0x280-0x29f irq 9
ne0: NE2000 Ethernet
ne0: Ethernet address 00:c2:dd:c1:d1:21
...
If the card is not recognized by the kernel, check that it is enabled in the kernel configuration file and
then that the card’s IRQ matches the one that the kernel expects. For example, this is the isa NE2000 line
in the configuration file; the kernel expects the card to be at IRQ 9.
...
ne0 at isa? port 0x280 irq 9 # NE[12]000 ethernet cards
...
If the card’s configuration is different, it will probably not be found at boot. In this case, either change
the line in the kernel configuration file and compile a new kernel or change the card’s setup (usually
through a setup disk or, for old cards, a jumper on the card).
The following command shows the network card’s current configuration:
# ifconfig ne0
ne0: flags=8822<BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
address: 00:50:ba:aa:a7:7f
media: Ethernet autoselect (10baseT)
inet6 fe80::250:baff:feaa:a77f%ne0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
The software configuration of the network card is very easy. The IP address “192.168.1.1” is assigned to
the card.
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# ifconfig ne0 inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 0xffffff00
Note that the networks 10.0.0.0/8 and 192.168.0.0/16 are reserved for private networks, which is what
we’re setting up here.
Repeating the previous command now gives a different result:
# ifconfig ne0
ne0: flags=8863<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
address: 00:50:ba:aa:a7:7f
media: Ethernet autoselect (10baseT)
inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255
inet6 fe80::250:baff:feaa:a77f%ne0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
The output of ifconfig has now changed: the IP address is now printed and there are two new flags, “UP”
and “RUNNING” If the interface isn’t “UP”, it will not be used by the system to send packets.
The host was given the IP address 192.168.1.1, which belongs to the set of addresses reserved for
internal networks which are not reachable from the Internet. The configuration is finished and must now
be tested; if there is another active host on the network, a ping can be tried. For example, if 192.168.1.2
is the address of the active host:
# ping 192.168.1.2
PING ape (192.168.1.2): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 192.168.1.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=1.286 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=0.649 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=0.681 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=255 time=0.656 ms
^C
----ape PING Statistics---4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 0.649/0.818/1.286/0.312 ms
With the current setup, at the next boot it will be necessary to repeat the configuration of the network
card. In order to avoid repeating the card’s configuration at each boot, add the following lines to
/etc/rc.conf:
auto_ifconfig=yes
ifconfig_ne0="inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 0xffffff00"
In this example the variable ifconfig_ne0 was set because the network card was recognized as ne0 by
the kernel; if you are using a different adapter, substitute the appropriate name in place of ne0.
At the next boot the network card will be configured automatically.
If you have a router that is connected to the internet, you can use it as default router, which will handle
all your packets. To do so, set defaultroute to the router’s IP address in /etc/rc.conf:
defaultroute=192.168.0.254
Be sure to use the default router’s IP address instead of name, in case your DNS server is beyond the
default router. In that case, the DNS server couldn’t be reached to resolve the default router’s hostname
and vice versa, creating a chicken-and-egg problem.
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To reach hosts on your local network, and assuming you really have very few hosts, adjust /etc/hosts
to contain the addresses of all the hosts belonging to the internal network. For example:
Example 23-9. /etc/hosts
#
# Host Database
# This file should contain the addresses and aliases
# for local hosts that share this file.
# It is used only for "ifconfig" and other operations
# before the nameserver is started.
#
#
127.0.0.1
localhost
::1
localhost
#
# RFC 1918 specifies that these networks are "internal".
# 10.0.0.0
10.255.255.255
# 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255
# 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
192.168.1.1
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.0
ape.insetti.net ape
vespa.insetti.net vespa
insetti.net
If you are dialed in via an Internet Service Provider, or if you have a local Domain Name Server (DNS)
running, you may want to use it to resolve hostnames to IP addresses, possibly in addition to
/etc/hosts, which would only know your own hosts. To configure a machine as DNS client, you need
to edit /etc/resolv.conf, and enter the DNS server’s address, in addition to an optional domain name
that will be appended to hosts with no domain, in order to create a FQDN for resolving. Assuming your
DNS server’s IP address is 192.168.1.2 and it is setup to serve for "home.net", put the following into
/etc/resolv.conf:
# /etc/resolv.conf
domain home.net
nameserver 192.168.1.2
The /etc/nsswitch.conf file should be checked as explained in Example 23-2.
Summing up, to configure the network the following must be done: the network adapters must be
installed and physically connected. Next they must be configured (with ifconfig) and, finally, the file
/etc/rc.conf must be modified to configure the interface and possibly default router, and
/etc/resolv.conf and /etc/nsswitch.conf should be adjusted if DNS should be used. This type
of network management is sufficient for small networks without sophisticated needs.
23.5 Setting up an Internet gateway with IPNAT
The mysterious acronym IPNAT hides the Internet Protocol Network Address Translation, which enables
the routing of an internal network (e.g. your home network as described in Section 23.4) on a real
network (Internet). This means that with only one “real” IP, static or dynamic, belonging to a gateway
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running IPNAT, it is possible to create simultaneous connections to the Internet for all the hosts of the
internal network.
Some usage examples of IPNAT can be found in the subdirectory /usr/share/examples/ipf: look at
the files BASIC.NAT and nat-setup.
The setup for the example described in this section is detailed in Figure 23-1: host 1 can connect to the
Internet calling a provider with a modem and getting a dynamic IP address. host 2 and host 3 can’t
communicate with the Internet with a normal setup: IPNAT allows them to do it: host 1 will act as a
Internet gateway for hosts 2 and 3. Using host 1 as default router, hosts 2 and 3 will be able to access the
Internet.
Figure 23-1. Network with gateway
Gateway
host 3
host 2
static/dynamic IP
host 1
ne0
192.168.1.3
ne0
modem
ISP
ne0
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.1
...
INTERNET
ppp0
...
local net
192.168.1.0
23.5.1 Configuring the gateway/firewall
To use IPNAT, the “pseudo-device ipfilter” must be compiled into the kernel, and IP packet forwarding
must be enabled in the kernel. To check, run:
# sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding
net.inet.ip.forwarding = 1
If the result is “1” as in the previous example, the option is enabled, otherwise, if the result is “0” the
option is disabled. You can do two things:
1. Compile a new kernel, with the GATEWAY option enabled.
2. Enable the option in the current kernel with the following command:
# sysctl -w net.inet.ip.forwarding=1
You can add sysctl settings to /etc/sysctl.conf to have them set automatically at boot. In this
case you would want to add
net.inet.ip.forwarding=1
The rest of this section explains how to create an IPNAT configuration that is automatically started every
time that a connection to the provider is activated with the PPP link. With this configuration all the host
of a home network (for example) will be able to connect to the Internet through the gateway machine,
even if they don’t use NetBSD.
For the setup, first, create the /etc/ipnat.conf file containing the following rules:
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map ppp0 192.168.1.0/24 -> 0/32 proxy port ftp ftp/tcp
map ppp0 192.168.1.0/24 -> 0/32 portmap tcp/udp 40000:60000
map ppp0 192.168.1.0/24 -> 0/32
192.168.1.0/24 are the network addresses that should be mapped. The first line of the configuration file is
optional: it enables active FTP to work through the gateway. The second line is used to handle correctly
tcp and udp packets; the portmapping is necessary because of the many to one relationship). The third
line is used to enable ICMP, ping, etc.
Next, create the /etc/ppp/ip-up file; it will be called automatically every time that the PPP link is
activated:
#!/bin/sh
# /etc/ppp/ip-up
/etc/rc.d/ipnat forcestart
Create the file /etc/ppp/ip-down; it will be called automatically when the PPP link is closed:
#!/bin/sh
# /etc/ppp/ip-down
/etc/rc.d/ipnat forcestop
Both ip-up and ip-down must be executable:
# chmod u+x ip-up ip-down
The gateway machine is now ready.
23.5.2 Configuring the clients
Create a /etc/resolv.conf file like the one on the gateway machine, to make the clients access the
same DNS server as the gateway.
Next, make all clients use the gateway as their default router. Use the following command:
# route add default 192.168.1.1
192.168.1.1 is the address of the gateway machine configured in the previous section.
Of course you don’t want to give this command every time, so it’s better to define the “defaultroute”
entry in the /etc/rc.conf file: the default route will be set automatically during system initialization,
using the defaultroute option as an argument to the route add default command.
If the client machine is not using NetBSD, the configuration will be different. On Windows PC’s you
need to set the gateway property of the TCP/IP protocol to the IP address of the NetBSD gateway.
That’s all that needs to be done on the client machines.
23.5.3 Some useful commands
The following commands can be useful for diagnosing problems:
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ping
netstat -r
Displays the routing tables (similar to route show).
traceroute
On the client it shows the route followed by the packets to their destination.
tcpdump
Use on the gateway to monitor TCP/IP traffic.
23.6 Setting up a network bridge device
A bridge can be used to combine different physical networks into one logical network, i.e. connect them
at layer 2 of the ISO-OSI model, not at layer 3, which is what a router would do. The NetBSD “bridge”
driver provides bridge functionality on NetBSD systems.
23.6.1 Bridge example
In this example two physical networks are going to be combined in one logical network, 192.168.1.0,
using a NetBSD bridge. The NetBSD machine which is going to act as bridge has two interfaces, ne0
and ne1, which are each connected to one physical network.
The first step is to make sure support for the “bridge” is compiled in the running kernel. Support is
included in the GENERIC kernel.
When the system is ready the bridge can be created, this can be done using the brconfig(8) command.
First of a bridge interface has to be created. With the following ifconfig command the “bridge0” interface
will be created:
$ ifconfig bridge0 create
Please make sure that at this point both the ne0 and ne1 interfaces are up. The next step is to add the ne0
and ne1 interfaces to the bridge.
$ brconfig bridge0 add ne0 add ne1 up
This configuration can be automatically set up by creating an /etc/ifconfig.interface file, in this
case /etc/ifconfig.bridge0, with the following contents:
create
!brconfig $int add ne0 add ne1 up
After setting up the bridge the bridge configuration can be displayed using the brconfig -a command.
Remember that if you want to give the bridge machine an IP address you can only allocate an IP address
to one of the interfaces which are part of the bridge.
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23.7 A common LAN setup
The small home network discussed in the previous section contained many items that were configured
manually. In bigger LANs that are centrally managed, one can expect Internet connectivity being
available via some router, a DNS server being available, and most important, a DHCP server which
hands out IP addresses to clients on request. To make a NetBSD client run in such an environment, it’s
usually enough to set
dhclient=yes
in /etc/rc.conf, and the IP address will be set automatically, /etc/resolv.conf will be created
and routing setup to the default router.
23.8 Connecting two PCs through a serial line
If you need to transfer files between two PCs which are not networked there is a simple solution which is
particularly handy when copying the files to a floppy is not practical: the two machines can be networked
with a serial cable (a null modem cable). The following sections describe some configurations.
23.8.1 Connecting NetBSD with BSD or Linux
The easiest case is when both machines run NetBSD: making a connection with the SLIP protocol is
very easy. On the first machine write the following commands:
# slattach /dev/tty00
# ifconfig sl0 inet 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.2
On the second machine write the following commands:
# slattach /dev/tty00
# ifconfig sl0 inet 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.1
Now you can test the connection with ping; for example, on the second PC write:
# ping 192.168.1.1
If everything worked there is now an active network connection between the two machines and ftp, telnet
and other similar commands can be executed. The textual aliases of the machines can be written in the
/etc/hosts file.
•
In the previous example both PC’s used the first serial port (/dev/tty0). Substitute the appropriate
device if you are using another port.
•
IP addresses like 192.168.x.x are reserved for “internal” networks. The first PC has address
192.168.1.1 and the second 192.168.1.2.
•
To achieve a faster connection the -s speed option to slattach can be specified.
•
ftp can be used to transfer files only if inetd is active and the ftpd server is enabled.
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Linux: If one of the two PC’s runs Linux, the commands are slightly different (on the Linux machine
only). If the Linux machine gets the 192.168.1.2 address, the following commands are needed:
# slattach -p slip -s 115200 /dev/ttyS0 &
# ifconfig sl0 192.168.1.2 pointopoint 192.168.1.1 up
# route add 192.168.1.1 dev sl0
Don’t forget the “&” in the first command.
23.8.2 Connecting NetBSD and Windows NT
NetBSD and Windows NT can be (almost) easily networked with a serial null modem cable. Basically
what needs to be done is to create a “Remote Access” connection under Windows NT and to start pppd
on NetBSD.
Start pppd as root after having created a .ppprc in /root. Use the following example as a template.
connect ’/usr/sbin/chat -v CLIENT CLIENTSERVER’
local
tty00
115200
crtscts
lock
noauth
nodefaultroute
:192.168.1.2
The meaning of the first line will be explained later in this section; 192.168.1.2 is the IP address that will
be assigned by NetBSD to the Windows NT host; tty00 is the serial port used for the connection (first
serial port).
On the NT side a null modem device must be installed from the Control Panel (Modem icon) and a
Remote Access connection using this modem must be created. The null modem driver is standard under
Windows NT 4 but it’s not a 100% null modem: when the link is activated, NT sends the string CLIENT
and expects to receive the answer CLIENTSERVER. This is the meaning of the first line of the .ppprc
file: chat must answer to NT when the connection is activated or the connection will fail.
In the configuration of the Remote Access connection the following must be specified: use the null
modem, telephone number “1” (it’s not used, anyway), PPP server, enable only TCP/IP protocol, use IP
address and nameservers from the server (NetBSD in this case). Select the hardware control flow and set
the port to 115200 8N1.
Now everything is ready to activate the connection.
•
Connect the serial ports of the two machines with the null modem cable.
•
Launch pppd on NetBSD. To see the messages of pppd: tail -f /var/log/messages).
•
Activate the Remote Access connection on Windows NT.
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23.8.3 Connecting NetBSD and Windows 95
The setup for Windows 95 is similar to the one for Windows NT: Remote Access on Windows 95 and the
PPP server on NetBSD will be used. Most (if not all) Windows 95 releases don’t have the null modem
driver, which makes things a little more complicated. The easiest solution is to find one of the available
null modem drivers on the Internet (it’s a small .INF file) and repeat the same steps as for Windows NT.
The only difference is that the first line of the .ppprc file (the one that calls chat) can be removed.
If you can’t find a real null modem driver for Windows 95 it’s still possible to use a little trick:
•
Create a Remote Access connection like the one described in Section 23.8.2 but using the “Standard
Modem”.
•
In .ppprc substitute the line that calls chat with the following line
connect ’/usr/sbin/chat -v ATH OK AT OK ATE0V1 OK AT OK ATDT CONNECT’
•
Activate the connection as described in Section 23.8.2.
In this way the chat program, called when the connection is activated, emulates what Windows 95 thinks
is a standard modem, returning to Windows 95 the same answers that a standard modem would return.
Whenever Windows 95 sends a modem command string, chat returns OK.
23.9 IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4
This section will concentrate on how to get network connectivity for IPv6 and - as that is rarely available
directly - talk at length about the alternatives to native IPv6 connectivity as a transitional method until
native IPv6 peers are available.
Finding an ISP that offers IPv6 natively needs quite some luck. What you need next is a router that will
be able to handle the traffic. To date, not all router manufacturers offer IPv6 or hardware accelerated
IPv6 features, and gateway NAT boxes only rarely support IPv6 and also block IPv6 tunnels. An
alternative approach involves configuring a standard PC running NetBSD to act as a router. The base
NetBSD system contains a complete IPv6 routing solution, and for special routing needs software like
Zebra can provide additional routing protocols. This solution is rather common for sites that want IPv6
connectivity today. The drawbacks are that you need an ISP that supports IPv6 and that you may need a
dedicated uplink only for IPv6.
IPv6 to-the-door may be rare, but you can still get IPv6 connectivity by using tunnels. Instead of talking
IPv6 on the wire, the IPv6 packets are encapsulated in IPv4 packets, as shown in Figure 23-2. Using the
existing IPv4 infrastructure, the encapsulated packets are sent to a IPv6-capable uplink that will then
remove the encapsulation, and forward the IPv6 packets.
Figure 23-2. A frequently used method for transition is tunneling IPv6 in IPv4 packets
local v6
v6
v6
encapsulation
gate v6
de−encapsulation
v4 v6
local v4
gate v4
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When using tunnels, there are two possibilities. One is to use a so-called “configured” tunnel, the other is
called an “automatic” tunnel. A “configured” tunnel is one that required preparation from both ends of
the tunnel, usually connected with some kind of registration to exchange setup information. An example
for such a configured tunnel is the IPv6-over-IPv4 encapsulation described in RFC1933, and that’s
implemented e.g. by the gif(4) device found in NetBSD.
An “automatic” tunnel consists of a public server that has some kind of IPv6 connectivity, e.g. via
6Bone. That server has made its connectivity data public, and also runs a tunneling protocol that does not
require an explicit registration of the sites using it as uplink. A well-used example of such a protocol is
the 6to4 mechanism described in RFC3056, and that is implemented in the stf(4) device found in
NetBSD’s. Another mechanism that does not require registration of IPv6-information is the 6over4
mechanism, which implements transporting of IPv6 over a multicast-enabled IPv4 network, instead of
e.g. ethernet or FDDI. 6over4 is documented in RFC2529. It’s main drawback is that you do need
existing multicast infrastructure. If you don’t have that, setting it up is about as much effort as setting up
a configured IPv6 tunnel directly, so it’s usually not worth bothering in that case.
23.9.1 Getting 6to4 IPv6 up & running
6to4 is an easy way to get IPv6 connectivity for hosts that only have an IPv4 uplink, especially if you
have the background given in Section 22.7. It can be used with static as well as dynamically assigned
IPv4 addresses, e.g. as found in modem dialup scenarios today. When using dynamic IPv4 addresses, a
change of IP addresses will be a problem for incoming traffic, i.e. you can’t run persistent servers.
Example configurations given in this section is for NetBSD 1.5.2.
23.9.2 Obtaining IPv6 Address Space for 6to4
The 6to4 IPv6 setup on your side doesn’t consist of a single IPv6 address; Instead, you get a whole /48
network! The IPv6 addresses are derived from your (single) IPv4 address. The address prefix “2002:” is
reserved for 6to4 based addresses (i.e. IPv6 addresses derived from IPv4 addresses). The next 32 bits are
your IPv4 address. This results in a /48 network that you can use for your very own purpose. It leaves 16
bits space for 216 IPv6 subnets, which can take up to 264 nodes each. Figure 23-3 illustrates the building
of your IPv6 address (range) from your IPv4 address.
Thanks to the 6to4 prefix and your worldwide unique IPv4 address, this address block is unique, and it’s
mapped to your machine carrying the IPv4 address in question.
Figure 23-3. 6to4 derives an IPv6 from an IPv4 address
62.157.9.98
Your IPv4 address:
Decimal:
62
157
9
98
Hex:
3e
9d
09
62
Your IPv6 address:
2002:3e9d:0962:0001::1
6to4
prefix
80 bit
address space
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Chapter 23 Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice
23.9.3 How to get connected
In contrast to the configured “IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnel” setup, you do not have to register at a
6bone-gateway, which would only then forward your IPv6 traffic encapsulated in IPv4. Instead, as your
IPv6 address is derived from your IPv4 address, inbound traffic can be sent through the nearest 6to4
relay router. De-encapsulation of the packet is done via a 6to4-capable network interface, which then
forwards the resulting IPv6 packet according to your routing setup (in case you have more than one
machine connected on your 6to4 assigned network).
To transmit IPv6 packets, the 6to4 router will encapsulate them inside IPv4 packets; a system performing
these functions is called a 6to4 border router. These packets have a default route to the 6to4 relay anycast
prefix. This anycast prefix will route the tunnel to a 6to4 relay router. Figure 23-4 illustrates this.
Figure 23-4. Request and reply can be routed via different gateways in 6to4
other6to4gate
upstream
myhost
my6to4gate
downstream
IPv6−Enabled
Internet
(6Bone, ...)
yetanother6to4gate
23.9.4 Security Considerations
In contrast to the “configured tunnel” setup, you usually can’t setup packet filters to block 6to4-packets
from unauthorized sources, as this is exactly how (and why) 6to4 works at all. As such, malicious users
can send packets with invalid/hazardous IPv6 payload. If you don’t already filter on your border
gateways anyways, packets with the following characteristics should not be allowed as valid 6to4
packets, and some firewalling seems to be justified for them:
•
unspecified IPv4 source/destination address: 0.0.0.0/8
•
loopback address in outer (v4) source/destination: 127.0.0.0/8
•
IPv4 multicast in source/destination: 224.0.0.0/4
•
limited broadcasts: 255.0.0.0/8
•
subnet broadcast address as source/destination: depends on your IPv4 setup
The NetBSD stf(4) manual page documents some common configuration mistakes intercepted by default
by the KAME stack as well as some further advice on filtering, but keep in mind that because of the
requirement of these filters, 6to4 is not perfectly secure. Still, if forged 6to4 packets become a problem,
you can use IPsec authentication to ensure the IPv6 packets are not modified.
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23.9.5 Data Needed for 6to4 Setup
In order to setup and configure IPv6 over 6to4, a few bits of configuration data must be known in
advance. These are:
•
Your local IPv4 address. It can be determined using either the ’ifconfig -a’ or ’netstat -i’ commands
on most Unix systems. If you use a NATing gateway or something, be sure to use the official,
outside-visible address, not your private (10/8 or 192.168/16) one.
We will use 62.224.57.114 as the local IPv4 address in our example.
•
Your local IPv6 address, as derived from the IPv4 address. See Figure 23-3 on how to do that.
For our example, this is 2002:3ee0:3972:0001::1 (62.224.57.114 == 0x3ee03972, 0001::1 arbitrarily
chosen).
•
The 6to4 IPv6 relay anycast address. which is 2002:c058:6301::, or the IPv6 address of a specific 6to4
relay router you want to use. The IPv6 address will do, as it also contains the IPv4 address in the usual
6to4 translation.
23.9.6 Kernel Preparation
To process 6to4 packets, the operating system kernel needs to know about them. For that a driver has to
be compiled in that knows about 6to4, and how to handle it. In NetBSD 4.0 and newer, the driver is
already present in GENERIC kernel configurations, so the procedure below is usually unnecessary.
For a NetBSD kernel, put the following into your kernel config file to prepare it for using IPv6 and 6to4,
e.g. on NetBSD use:
options INET6
pseudo-device stf
# IPv6
# 6to4 IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation
Note that the stf(4) device is not enabled by default on NetBSD releases older than 4.0. Rebuild your
kernel, then reboot your system to use the new kernel. Please consult Chapter 31 for further information
on configuring, building and installing a new kernel!
23.9.7 6to4 Setup
This section describes the commands to setup 6to4. In short, the steps performed here are:
1. Configure interface
2. Set default route
3. Setup Router Advertisement, if wanted
The first step in setting up 6to4 is creating the 6to4 interface and assigning an IPv6 address to it. This is
achieved with the ifconfig(8) command. Assuming the example configuration above, the commands for
NetBSD are:
# ifconfig stf0 create
# ifconfig stf0 inet6 2002:3ee0:3972:1::1 prefixlen 16 alias
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After configuring the 6to4 device with these commands, routing needs to be setup, to forward all
tunneled IPv6 traffic to the 6to4 relay router. The best way to do this is by setting a default route, the
command to do so is, for NetBSD:
# route add -inet6 default 2002:c058:6301::
Note that NetBSD’s stf(4) device determines the IPv4 address of the 6to4 uplink from the routing table.
Using this feature, it is easy to setup your own 6to4 (uplink) gateway if you have an IPv6 uplink, e.g. via
6Bone.
After these commands, you are connected to the IPv6-enabled world - Congratulations! Assuming name
resolution is still done via IPv4, you can now ping an IPv6-site like www.kame.net or
www6.NetBSD.org:
# /sbin/ping6 www.kame.net
As a final step in setting up IPv6 via 6to4, you will want to setup Router Advertisement if you have
several hosts on your network. While it is possible to setup 6to4 on each node, doing so will result in
very expensive routing from one node to the other - packets will be sent to the remote 6to4 gateway,
which will then route the packets back to the neighbor node. Instead, setting up 6to4 on one machine and
talking native IPv6 on-wire is the preferred method of handling things.
The first step to do so is to assign an IPv6-address to your ethernet. In the following example we will
assume subnet “2” of the IPv6-net is used for the local ethernet and the MAC address of the ethernet
interface is 12:34:56:78:9a:bc, i.e. your local gateway’s ethernet interface’s IP address will be
2002:3ee0:3972:2:1234:56ff:fe78:9abc. Assign this address to your ethernet interface, e.g.
# ifconfig ne0 inet6 alias 2002:3ee0:3972:2:1234:56ff:fe78:9abc
Here, “ne0” is an example for your ethernet card interface. This will most likely be different for your
setup, depending on what kind of card is used.
Next thing that needs to be ensured for setting up the router is that it will actually forward packets from
the local 6to4 device to the ethernet device and back. To enable IPv6 packet forwarding, set
“ip6mode=router” in NetBSD’s /etc/rc.conf, which will result in the “net.inet6.ip6.forwarding”
sysctl being set to “1”:
# sysctl -w net.inet6.ip6.forwarding=1
Figure 23-5. Enabling packet forwarding is needed for a 6to4 router
6to4 interface
ethernet interface
node
router
IPv6
forwarding
node
To setup router advertisement on BSD, the file /etc/rtadvd.conf needs to be checked. It allows
configuration of many things, but usually the default config of not containing any data is ok. With that
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Chapter 23 Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice
default, IPv6 addresses found on all of the router’s network interfaces will be advertised.
After checking the router advertisement configuration is correct and IPv6 forwarding is turned on, the
daemon handling it can be started. Under NetBSD, it is called ’rtadvd’. Start it up either manually (for
testing it the first time) or via the system’s startup scripts, and see all your local nodes automagically
configure the advertised subnet address in addition to their already-existing link local address.
# rtadvd
23.9.8 Quickstart using pkgsrc/net/hf6to4
So far, we have described how 6to4 works and how to set it up manually. For an automated way to make
everything happen e.g. when going online, the ’hf6to4’ package is convenient. It will determine your
IPv6 address from the IPv4 address you got assigned by your provider, then set things up that you are
connected.
Steps to setup the pkgsrc/net/hf6to4 package are:
1. Install the package either by compiling it from pkgsrc, or by pkg_add’ing the 6to4-1.2 package.
# cd /usr/pkgsrc/net/hf6to4
# make install
2. Make sure you have the stf(4) pseudo-device in your kernel, see above.
3. Configure the ’hf6to4’ package. First, copy /usr/pkg/share/examples/hf6to4/hf6to4.conf
to /usr/pkg/etc/hf6to4.conf, then adjust the variables. Note that the file is in /bin/sh syntax.
# cd /usr/pkg/etc
# cp ../share/examples/hf6to4/hf6to4.conf hf6to4.conf
# vi hf6to4.conf
Please see the hf6to4(8) manpage for an explanation of all the variables you can set in
hf6to4.conf. If you have dialup IP via PPP, and don’t want to run Router Advertizing for other
IPv6 machines on your home or office network, you don’t need to configure anything. If you want to
setup Router Advertising, you need to set the in_if to the internal (ethernet) interface, e.g.
$in_if="rtk0";
# Inside (ethernet) interface
4. Now dial up, then start the 6to4 command manually:
# /usr/pkg/sbin/hf6to4 start
5. After that, you should be connected, use ping6(8): to see if everything works:
# ping6 www.NetBSD.org
PING6(56=40+8+8 bytes) 2002:d954:110b:1::1 --> 2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe52:9a6b
16 bytes from 2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe52:9a6b, icmp_seq=0 hlim=60 time=250.234 ms
16 bytes from 2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe52:9a6b, icmp_seq=1 hlim=60 time=255.652 ms
16 bytes from 2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe52:9a6b, icmp_seq=2 hlim=60 time=251.237 ms
^C
--- www.NetBSD.org ping6 statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 250.234/252.374/255.652/2.354 ms
# traceroute6 www.NetBSD.org
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Chapter 23 Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice
traceroute6 to www.NetBSD.org (2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe52:9a6b)
from 2002:d954:110b:1::1, 64 hops max, 12 byte packets
1 2002:c25f:6cbf:1::1 66.31 ms 66.382 ms 69.062 ms
2 nr-erl1.6win.dfn.de 76.134 ms * 76.87 ms
3 nr-fra1.6win.dfn.de 76.371 ms 80.709 ms 79.482 ms
4 dfn.de6.de.6net.org 92.763 ms 90.863 ms 94.322 ms
5 de.nl6.nl.6net.org 116.115 ms 93.463 ms 96.331 ms
6 nl.uk6.uk.6net.org 103.347 ms 99.334 ms 100.803 ms
7 uk1.uk61.uk.6net.org 99.481 ms 100.421 ms 100.119 ms
8 2001:798:28:300::2 89.711 ms 90.435 ms 90.035 ms
9 ge-1-0-0-2.r20.londen03.uk.bb.verio.net 179.671 ms 185.141 ms 185.86 ms
10 p16-0-0-0.r81.nycmny01.us.bb.verio.net 177.067 ms 179.086 ms 178.05 ms
11 p16-1-1-3.r20.nycmny01.us.bb.verio.net 178.04 ms 179.727 ms 184.165 ms
12 p16-0-1-1.r20.mlpsca01.us.bb.verio.net 249.856 ms 247.476 ms 249.012 ms
13 p64-0-0-0.r21.snjsca04.us.bb.verio.net 239.691 ms 241.404 ms 240.998 ms
14 p64-0-0-0.r21.plalca01.us.bb.verio.net 247.541 ms 246.661 ms 246.359 ms
15 xe-0-2-0.r20.plalca01.us.bb.verio.net 240.987 ms 239.056 ms 241.251 ms
16 ge-6-1.a01.snfcca05.us.ra.verio.net 240.868 ms 241.29 ms 242.337 ms
17 fa-5-2.a01.snfcca05.us.ce.verio.net 249.477 ms 250.4 ms 256.035 ms
18 2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe52:9a6b 268.164 ms 252.97 ms 252.366 ms
Please note that traceroute6 shows the v6 hops only, any underlying tunnels are invisible and thus
not displayed.
6. If this works, you can put the following lines into your /etc/ppp/ip-up script to run the
command each time you go online:
logger -p user.info -t ip-up Configuring 6to4 IPv6
/usr/pkg/sbin/hf6to4 stop
/usr/pkg/sbin/hf6to4 start
7. If you want to route IPv6 for your LAN, you can instruct 6to4.pl to setup Router Advertising for
you too:
# /usr/pkg/sbin/hf6to4 rtadvd-start
You can put that command into /etc/ppp/ip-up as well to make it permanent.
8. If you have changed /etc/ppp/ip-up to setup 6to4 automatically, you will most likely want to
change /etc/ppp/ip-down too, to shut it down when you go offline. Here’s what to put into
/etc/ppp/ip-down:
logger -p user.info -t ip-down Shutting down 6to4 IPv6
/usr/pkg/sbin/hf6to4 rtadvd-stop
/usr/pkg/sbin/hf6to4 stop
23.9.9 Known 6to4 Relay Routers
It is normally not necessary to pick a specific 6to4 relay router, but if necessary, you may find a list of
known working routers at http://www.kfu.com/~nsayer/6to4/. In tests, only 6to4.kfu.com and
6to4.ipv6.microsoft.com were found working. Cisco has one that requires registration, see
http://www.cisco.com/ipv6/.
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Chapter 23 Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice
There’s also an experimental 6to4 server located in Germany, 6to4.ipv6.fh-regensburg.de. This server
runs under NetBSD 1.6 and was setup using the configuration steps described above. The whole
configuration of the machine can be seen at http://www.feyrer.de/IPv6/netstart.local.
23.9.10 Tunneling 6to4 through an IPFilter firewall
The 6to4 protocol encapsulates IPv6 packets in IPv4, and gives them their own IP type, which most
firewalls block as unknown, as their payload type is directly "TCP", "UDP" or "ICMP". Usually, you
want to setup your 6to4 gateway on the same machine that is directly connected to the (IPv4) internet,
and which usually runs the firewall. For the case that you want to run your 6to4 gateway behind a
firewall, you need to drill a hole into the firewall, to let 6to4 packets through. Here is how to do this!
The example assumes that you use the "ppp0" interface on your firewall to connect to the Internet.
Put the following lines into /etc/ipf.conf to allow your IPFilter firewall let all 6to4 packets pass
(lines broken with \ due to space restrictions; please put them lines continued that way all in one line):
# Handle traffic by different rulesets
block in quick on ppp0 all head 1
block out quick on ppp0 all head 2
### Incoming packets:
# allow some IPv4:
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto tcp from any to any \
port = www flags S keep state keep frags group 1
pass in
quick on ppp0 proto tcp from any to any \
port = ssh keep state
group 1
pass in
quick on ppp0 proto tcp from any to any \
port = mail keep state
group 1
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto tcp from any to any \
port = ftp keep state
group 1
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto tcp from any to any \
port = ftp-data keep state
group 1
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto icmp from any to any
# allow all IPv6:
pass in
quick on ppp0 proto ipv6
from any to
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto ipv6-route from any to
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto ipv6-frag from any to
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto ipv6-icmp from any to
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto ipv6-nonxt from any to
pass in log quick on ppp0 proto ipv6-opts from any to
# block rest:
blockin log quick on ppp0 all
### Outgoing packets:
# allow usual stuff:
pass out
quick on ppp0
keep state keep frags group
pass out
quick on ppp0
keep state keep frags group
pass out
quick on ppp0
keep state
group
group 1
any
any
any
any
any
any
group
group
group
group
group
group
1
1
1
1
1
1
group 1
proto tcp from any to any flags S \
2
proto udp from any to any
\
2
proto icmp from any to any
\
2
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Chapter 23 Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice
# allow all IPv6:
pass out
quick
pass out log quick
pass out log quick
pass out log quick
pass out log quick
pass out log quick
# block rest:
block out log quick
on
on
on
on
on
on
ppp0
ppp0
ppp0
ppp0
ppp0
ppp0
proto
proto
proto
proto
proto
proto
ipv6
ipv6-route
ipv6-frag
ipv6-icmp
ipv6-nonxt
ipv6-opts
on ppp0 all
from
from
from
from
from
from
any
any
any
any
any
any
to
to
to
to
to
to
any
any
any
any
any
any
group
group
group
group
group
group
2
2
2
2
2
2
group 2
Now any host on your network can send (the "out" rules) and receive (the "in" rules) v4-encapsulated
IPv6 packets, allowing setup of any of them as a 6to4 gateway. Of course you only want to do this on one
host and use native IPv6 between your hosts, and you may also want to enforce this with more restrictive
rulesets, please see ipf.conf(5) for more information on IPFilter rules.
After your firewall lets pass encapsulated IPv6 packets, you may want to set up your 6to4 gateway to
monitor the IPv6 traffic, or even restrict it. To do so, you need to setup IPFilter on your 6to4 gateway as
well. For basic monitoring, enable "ipfilter=yes" in /etc/rc.conf and put the following into
/etc/ipf6.conf:
pass in log quick on stf0 from any to any
pass out log quick on stf0 from any to any
This logs all (IPv6) traffic going in and out of your "stf0" tunneling interface. You can add filter rules as
well if needed.
If you are more interested in traffic stats than a general overview of your network traffic, using MRTG in
conjunction with the "net-snmp" package is recommended instead of analyzing IPFilter log files.
23.9.11 Conclusion & Further Reading
Compared to where IPv4 is today, IPv6 is still in its early steps. It is working, there are all sort of
services and clients available, only the userbase is missing. It is hoped the information provided here
helps people better understand what IPv6 is, and to start playing with it.
A few links should be mentioned here for interested parties:
•
An example script to setup 6to4 on BSD based machines is available at
http://www.NetBSD.org/packages/net/hf6to4/. The script determines your IPv6 address and sets up
6to4 and (if wanted) router advertising. It was designed to work in dialup setups with changing IPv4
addresses.
•
Given that there isn’t a standard for IPv6 in Linux land today, there are different setup instructions for
most distributions. The setup of IPv6 on Debian GNU/Linux can be found at
http://people.debian.org/~csmall/ipv6/setup.html.
•
The BSD Unix implementations have their own IPv6 documentation each, interesting URLs are
http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/network/ipv6/ for NetBSD,
http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-ipv6.html for FreeBSD.
•
Projects working on implementing IPv6 protocol stacks for free Unix like operating systems are
KAME for BSD and USAGI for Linux. Their web sites can be found at http://www.kame.net/ and
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Chapter 23 Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice
http://www.linux-ipv6.org/. A list of host and router implementations can be found at
http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng/html/ipng-implementations.html.
•
Besides the official RFC archive at ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes, information on IPv6 can be found at
several web sites. First and foremost, the 6Bone’s web page at http://www.6bone.net/ must be
mentioned. 6Bone was started as the testbed for IPv6, and is now an important part of the
IPv6-connected world. Other web pages that contain IPv6-related contents include
http://www.ipv6.org/, http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng/html/ and http://www.ipv6forum.com/.
Most of these sites carry further links - be sure to have a look!
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Chapter 24
The Internet Super Server inetd
The "internet super server", or inetd(8), is available on all Unix(like) systems, providing many of the
basic network services available. This chapter describes the relationship between the daemon and several
of the config files in the /etc/ directory.
24.1 Overview
In this document we will look at a simple definition of inetd(8), how several files that relate to inetd(8)
work (not that these files are not related to other software), how to add a service to inetd(8) and some
considerations both to use inetd(8) for a particular service and times when a service might be better off
running outside of inetd(8).
24.2 What is inetd?
In traditional Unix scenarios, one server (daemon) process watches for connections on a particular port,
and handles incoming requests. Now if a machine offers many services, many daemon processes would
be needed, mostly running idle but still wasting resources like memory. The internet super server, inetd,
is an approach to this problem. It listens on a number of ports, and when it receives a request it then
determines which program to run to handle the request and starts an instance of that program.
Following is a very simple diagram to illustrate inetd(8):
pop3 ------ |
|
ftpd ------- | INETD | ---- Internet / DMZ / Switch / Whatever . . .
|
cvsupserver - |
In the above diagram you can see the general idea. The inetd(8) process receives a request and then starts
the appropriate server process. What inetd(8) is doing is software multiplexing. An important note here,
regarding security: On many other UNIX-like systems, a package called tcpwrappers is used as a security
enhancement for inetd(8). On NetBSD the tcpwrapper functionality is built into inetd(8) using libwrap.
24.3 Configuring inetd - /etc/inetd.conf
The operation of inetd(8) is controlled by its own config file, surprisingly named /etc/inetd.conf,
see inetd.conf(5). The inetd.conf file basically provides enabling and mapping of services the systems
administrator would like to have multiplexed through inetd(8), indicating which program should be
started for incoming requests on which port.
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inetd.conf(5) is an ascii file containing one service per line, and several fields per line. The basic field
layout is:
service-name socket-type protocol wait/nowait user:group server-program arguments
service-name:
The service name indicates the port inetd(8) should listen on. It is either a decimal number, or a
name matching a service name given in /etc/services.
socket-type:
The communications socket type, the different types are "stream" for a TCP stream, "dgram" for an
UDP service, "raw" for a raw socket, "rdm" for reliably delivered message and "seqpacket" for a
sequenced packet socket. The most common socket types are "stream" and "dgram".
protocol
The protocol used, mostly "tcp", "tcp6", "udp" and "udp6" for stream-oriented services via the
Transmission Control Protocol, or datagram-oriented services via the User Datagram Protocol. It is
worth noting that "tcp" and "udp" mean they use the default (currently IPv4), "tcp4" specifically
means communication via IPv4 only, and "tcp6" and "udp6" are IPv6-only. In addition to those,
protocols based on Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) can be specified as either "rpc/tcp" or "rpc/udp".
wait/nowait
This field tells inetd(8) if it should wait for a server program to return or to continue processing new
connections immediately. Many connections to server processes require answers after data transfers
are complete, where other types can keep transmitting on a connection continuously, the latter is a
"nowait" and the former "wait". In most cases, this entry corresponds to the socket-type, for
example a streaming connection would (most of the time) have a "nowait" value in this field.
user[:group]
This field gives the user name and optionally a group name that the server process which inetd(8)
starts up runs as.
server-program
This field is the full path of the program that gets started.
program-arguments
This field contains the argument vector argv[] of the program started, including the program name
and additional arguments the systems administrator may need to specify for the server program that
is started.
That is all a lot to digest and there are other things the systems administrator can do with some of the
fields. Here is a sample line from an inetd.conf file:
ftp
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/libexec/ftpd
ftpd -ll
From the left, the service-name is "ftp", socket-type is "stream", protocol is "tcp", inetd(8) won’t wait for
the server process to terminate ("nowait"), the process runs as user "root", path is /usr/libexec/ftpd
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and program name and arguments are "ftpd -ll". Notice in the last field, the program name is different
from the service-name.
24.4 Services - /etc/services
The next file to consider is the service name data base that can be found in /etc/services. This file
basically contains information mapping a service name to a port number. The format of the
/etc/services file is:
service-name port-number/protocol-name [aliases]
"service-name" is the name of the service, "port-number" is the port number assigned to the service,
"protocol-name" is either "tcp" or "udp", and if alias names for a port are needed, they can be added as
"aliases", separated by white spaces. Comments may be added after a hash mark (#).
Let’s take a look at the "ssh" entries as an example:
ssh
ssh
22/tcp
22/udp
# Secure Shell
As we can see, from the left, the service name is "ssh", the port number is "22", the protocols are both
"tcp" and "udp". Notice that there is a separate entry for every protocol a service can use (even on the
same port).
24.5 Protocols - /etc/protocols
Another file read by inetd(8) is /etc/protocols. This file has the information pertaining to DARPA
Internet protocols. The format of the protocols name data base is:
protocol-name number [aliases]
where "protocol-name" describes the payload of an IP packet, e.g. "tcp" or "udp". "number" is the official
protocol number assigned by IANA, and optional alias names can be added after that.
Let’s look at the seventh entry in the /etc/protocols db as an example:
tcp
6
TCP
# transmission control protocol
Starting from the left, we see that the protocol name is "tcp", the number is "6" and the only aliases listed
is "TCP", belonging to the Transmission Control Protocol as indicated by the comment in that line.
24.6 Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - /etc/rpc
The rpc program number data base used by services with the "rpc" protocol type in inetd.conf(5) is kept
in /etc/rpc and contains name mappings to rpc program numbers. The format of the file is:
server-name program-number aliases
For example, here is the nfs entry:
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Chapter 24 The Internet Super Server inetd
nfs
100003
nfsprog
24.7 Allowing and denying hosts - /etc/hosts.{allow,deny}
As mentioned above, NetBSD’s inetd(8) has the tcpwrapper package built in via the libwrap library. As
such, inetd(8) can allow or deny access to each service on a more fine-grained base than just allowing a
service to everyone, or not enabling it at all. The access control is defined in the files
/etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny, see the hosts_access(5) manpage.
Each of the two files contains several lines that describe access restrictions for a certain server. Access is
allowed if permission is given in /etc/hosts.allow. If the service is not listened in
/etc/hosts.allow but in /etc/hosts.deny, it is denied. If a service is listed in neither file, it is
allowed, giving standard inetd(8) behaviour.
Each line in /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny contains a service either by name (as given in
the field for argv[0] in /etc/inetd.conf, e.g. "ftpd" instead of "ftp"), or the special service "ALL"
which obviously applies to all services. Following the service name is - separated by a colon - a number
of access restrictions, which can be hostnames, domains, single IP addresses, whole IP subnets or some
other restrictions, please check hosts_access(5) for all the details.
An example configuration that is mostly open but denies access to services to a certain host and all
machines from a certain domain would look like this:
# /etc/hostname.deny:
ALL: some.host.name, .some.domain
Another example that would be mostly closed, denying access to all but very few machines would need
entries in both /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny. The entry for /etc/hosts.deny would
be:
# /etc/hosts.deny
ALL: ALL
The entry to allow a few hosts would be put into /etc/hosts.allow:
# /etc/hosts.allow
ALL: friend.host.domain otherfriend.otherhost.otherdomain
24.8 Adding a Service
Many times a systems administrator will find that they need to add a service to their system that is not
already in inetd(8) or they may wish to move a service to it because it does not get very much traffic. This
is usually pretty simple, so as an example we will look at adding a version of POP3 on a NetBSD system.
In this case we have retrieved and installed the "cucipop" package, which can be found in
pkgsrc/mail/cucipop. This server is pretty simple to use, the only oddities are different path
locations. Since it is POP3 we know it is a stream oriented connection with "nowait". Running as "root"
will be fine, the only item that is different is the location of the program and the name of the program
itself.
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So the first half of the new entry in /etc/inetd.conf looks like this:
pop3
stream
tcp
nowait
root
After installation, pkgsrc deposited cucipop in /usr/pkg/sbin/cucipop. So with the next field we
have:
pop3
stream
tcp
nowait
root /usr/pkg/sbin/cucipop
Last, we want to use the Berkeley mailbox format, so our server program must be called with the -Y
option. This leaves the entire entry looking like so:
pop3
stream
tcp
nowait
root /usr/pkg/sbin/cucipop cucipop -Y
We have added the service named "pop3" to /etc/inetd.conf. Next item to check is that the system
can map the service name to a port number in /etc/services:
# grep ^pop3 /etc/services
pop3
pop3
pop3s
pop3s
110/tcp
110/udp
995/tcp
995/udp
# POP version 3
# pop3 protocol over TLS/SSL (was spop3)
# pop3 protocol over TLS/SSL (was spop3)
The "pop3" entries here are of interest, i.e. they are already contained in the /etc/services file
shipped with NetBSD.
Now, to have inetd(8) use the new entry, we simply restart it using the rc script:
# sh /etc/rc.d/inetd restart
All done, in most cases, the software you are using has documentation that will specify the entry, in the
off case it does not, sometimes it helps to try and find something similar to the server program you will
be adding. A classic example of this is a MUD server which has built-in telnet. You can pretty much
borrow the telnet entry and change parts where needed.
24.9 When to use or not to use inetd
The decision to add or move a service into or out of inetd(8) is usually based on server load. As an
example, on most systems the telnet daemon does not require as many new connections as say a mail
server. Most of the time the administrator has to feel out if a service should be moved.
A good example I have seen is mail services such as smtp and pop. I had setup a mail server in which
pop3 was in inetd(8) and exim was running in standalone, I mistakenly assumed it would run fine since
there was a low amount of users, namely myself and a diagnostic account. The server was also setup to
act as a backup MX and relay in case another heavily used one went down. When I ran some tests I
discovered a huge time lag for pop connections remotely. This was because of my steady fetching of mail
and the diagnostic user constantly mailing diagnostics back and forth. In the end I had to move the pop3
service out of inetd(8).
The reason for moving the service is actually quite interesting. When a particular service becomes
heavily used, of course, it causes a load on the system. In the case of a service that runs within the
inetd(8) meta daemon the effects of a heavily loaded service can also harm other services that use
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inetd(8). If the multiplexor is getting too many requests for one particular service, it will begin to affect
the performance of other services that use inetd(8). The fix, in a situation like that, is to make the
offending service run outside of inetd(8) so the response time of both the service and inetd(8) will
increase.
24.10 Other Resources
Following is some additional reading and information about topics covered in this document.
NetBSD manual pages:
•
inetd(8) (http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi/man?inetd+8+NetBSD-current)
•
protocols(5) (http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi/man?protocols+5+NetBSD-current)
•
rpc(5) (http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi/man?rpc+5+NetBSD-current)
•
services(5) (http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi/man?services+5+NetBSD-current)
•
hosts_access(5) (http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi/man?hosts_access+5+NetBSD-current)
Miscellaneous links:
•
IANA: Protocol Numbers and Assignment Services (http://www.iana.org/numbers.htm)
•
RFC1700: Assigned Numbers (http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1700.txt)
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Chapter 25
The Domain Name System
Use of the Domain Name System has been discussed in previous chapters, without going into detail on
the setup of the server providing the service. This chapter describes setting up a simple, small domain
with one Domain Name System (DNS) nameserver on a NetBSD system. It includes a brief explanation
and overview of the DNS; further information can be obtained from the DNS Resources Directory
(DNSRD) at http://www.dns.net/dnsrd/.
25.1 DNS Background and Concepts
The DNS is a widely used naming service on the Internet and other TCP/IP networks. The network
protocols, data and file formats, and other aspects of the DNS are Internet Standards, specified in a
number of RFC documents, and described by a number of other reference and tutorial works. The DNS
has a distributed, client-server architecture. There are reference implementations for the server and
client, but these are not part of the standard. There are a number of additional implementations available
for many platforms.
25.1.1 Naming Services
Naming services are used to provide a mapping between textual names and configuration data of some
form. A nameserver maintains this mapping, and clients request the nameserver to resolve a name into
its attached data.
The reader should have a good understanding of basic hosts to IP address mapping and IP address class
specifications, see Section 22.6.
In the case of the DNS, the configuration data bound to a name is in the form of standard Resource
Records (RR’s). These textual names conform to certain structural conventions.
25.1.2 The DNS namespace
The DNS presents a hierarchical name space, much like a UNIX filesystem, pictured as an inverted tree
with the root at the top.
TOP-LEVEL
.org
|
MID-LEVEL
.diverge.org
______________________|________________________
|
|
|
BOTTOM-LEVEL strider.diverge.org samwise.diverge.org wormtongue.diverge.org
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The system can also be logically divided even further if one wishes at different points. The example
shown above shows three nodes on the diverge.org domain, but we could even divide diverge.org into
subdomains such as "strider.net1.diverge.org", "samwise.net2.diverge.org" and
"wormtongue.net2.diverge.org"; in this case, 2 nodes reside in "net2.diverge.org" and one in
"net1.diverge.org".
There are directories of names, some of which may be sub-directories of further names. These directories
are sometimes called zones. There is provision for symbolic links, redirecting requests for information
on one name to the records bound to another name. Each name recognised by the DNS is called a
Domain Name, whether it represents information about a specific host, or a directory of subordinate
Domain Names (or both, or something else).
Unlike most filesystem naming schemes, however, Domain Names are written with the innermost name
on the left, and progressively higher-level domains to the right, all the way up to the root directory if
necessary. The separator used when writing Domain Names is a period, ".".
Like filesystem pathnames, Domain Names can be written in an absolute or relative manner, though there
are some differences in detail. For instance, there is no way to indirectly refer to the parent domain like
with the UNIX .. directory. Many (but not all) resolvers offer a search path facility, so that
partially-specified names can be resolved relative to additional listed sub-domains other than the client’s
own domain. Names that are completely specified all the way to the root are called Fully Qualified
Domain Names or FQDNs. A defining characteristic of an FQDN is that it is written with a terminating
period. The same name, without the terminating period, may be considered relative to some other
sub-domain. It is rare for this to occur without malicious intent, but in part because of this possibility,
FQDNs are required as configuration parameters in some circumstances.
On the Internet, there are some established conventions for the names of the first few levels of the tree, at
which point the hierarchy reaches the level of an individual organisation. This organisation is responsible
for establishing and maintaining conventions further down the tree, within its own domain.
25.1.3 Resource Records
Resource Records for a domain are stored in a standardised format in an ASCII text file, often called a
zone file. The following Resource Records are commonly used (a number of others are defined but not
often used, or no longer used). In some cases, there may be multiple RR types associated with a name,
and even multiple records of the same type.
Common DNS Resource Records
A: Address
This record contains the numerical IP address associated with the name.
CNAME: Canonical Name
This record contains the Canonical Name (an FQDN with an associated A record) of the host name
to which this record is bound. This record type is used to provide name aliasing, by providing a link
to another name with which other appropriate RR’s are associated. If a name has a CNAME record
bound to it, it is an alias, and no other RR’s are permitted to be bound to the same name.
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It is common for these records to be used to point to hosts providing a particular service, such as an
FTP or HTTP server. If the service must be moved to another host, the alias can be changed, and the
same name will reach the new host.
PTR: Pointer
This record contains a textual name. These records are bound to names built in a special way from
numerical IP addresses, and are used to provide a reverse mapping from an IP address to a textual
name. This is described in more detail in Section 25.1.8.
NS: Name Server
This record type is used to delegate a sub-tree of the Domain Name space to another nameserver.
The record contains the FQDN of a DNS nameserver with information on the sub-domain, and is
bound to the name of the sub-domain. In this manner, the hierarchical structure of the DNS is
established. Delegation is described in more detail in Section 25.1.4.
MX: Mail eXchange
This record contains the FQDN for a host that will accept SMTP electronic mail for the named
domain, together with a priority value used to select an MX host when relaying mail. It is used to
indicate other servers that are willing to receive and spool mail for the domain if the primary MX is
unreachable for a time. It is also used to direct email to a central server, if desired, rather than to
each and every individual workstation.
HINFO: Host Information
Contains two strings, intended for use to describe the host hardware and operating system platform.
There are defined strings to use for some systems, but their use is not enforced. Some sites, because
of security considerations, do not publicise this information.
TXT: Text
A free-form text field, sometimes used as a comment field, sometimes overlaid with site-specific
additional meaning to be interpreted by local conventions.
SOA: Start of Authority
This record is required to appear for each zone file. It lists the primary nameserver and the email
address of the person responsible for the domain, together with default values for a number of fields
associated with maintaining consistency across multiple servers and caching of the results of DNS
queries.
25.1.4 Delegation
Using NS records, authority for portions of the DNS namespace below a certain point in the tree can be
delegated, and further sub-parts below that delegated again. It is at this point that the distinction between
a domain and a zone becomes important. Any name in the DNS is called a domain, and the term applies
to that name and to any subordinate names below that one in the tree. The boundaries of a zone are
narrower, and are defined by delegations. A zone starts with a delegation (or at the root), and
encompasses all names in the domain below that point, excluding names below any subsequent
delegations.
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This distinction is important for implementation - a zone is a single administrative entity (with a single
SOA record), and all data for the zone is referred to by a single file, called a zone file. A zone file may
contain more than one period-separated level of the namespace tree, if desired, by including periods in
the names in that zone file. In order to simplify administration and prevent overly-large zone files, it is
quite legal for a DNS server to delegate to itself, splitting the domain into several zones kept on the same
server.
25.1.5 Delegation to multiple servers
For redundancy, it is common (and often administratively required) that there be more than one
nameserver providing information on a zone. It is also common that at least one of these servers be
located at some distance (in terms of network topology) from the others, so that knowledge of that zone
does not become unavailable in case of connectivity failure. Each nameserver will be listed in an NS
record bound to the name of the zone, stored in the parent zone on the server responsible for the parent
domain. In this way, those searching the name hierarchy from the top down can contact any one of the
servers to continue narrowing their search. This is occasionally called walking the tree.
There are a number of nameservers on the Internet which are called root nameservers. These servers
provide information on the very top levels of the domain namespace tree. These servers are special in
that their addresses must be pre-configured into nameservers as a place to start finding other servers.
Isolated networks that cannot access these servers may need to provide their own root nameservers.
25.1.6 Secondaries, Caching, and the SOA record
In order to maintain consistency between these servers, one is usually configured as the primary server,
and all administrative changes are made on this server. The other servers are configured as secondaries,
and transfer the contents of the zone from the primary. This operational model is not required, and if
external considerations require it, multiple primaries can be used instead, but consistency must then be
maintained by other means. DNS servers that store Resource Records for a zone, whether they be
primary or secondary servers, are said to be authoritative for the zone. A DNS server can be authoritative
for several zones.
When nameservers receive responses to queries, they can cache the results. This has a significant
beneficial impact on the speed of queries, the query load on high-level nameservers, and network
utilisation. It is also a major contributor to the memory usage of the nameserver process.
There are a number of parameters that are important to maintaining consistency amongst the secondaries
and caches. The values for these parameters for a particular domain zone file are stored in the SOA
record. These fields are:
Fields of the SOA Record
Serial
A serial number for the zone file. This should be incremented any time the data in the domain is
changed. When a secondary wants to check if its data is up-to-date, it checks the serial number on
the primary’s SOA record.
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Refresh
A time, in seconds, specifying how often the secondary should check the serial number on the
primary, and start a new transfer if the primary has newer data.
Retry
If a secondary fails to connect to the primary when the refresh time has elapsed (for example, if the
host is down), this value specifies, in seconds, how often the connection should be retried.
Expire
If the retries fail to reach the primary within this number of seconds, the secondary destroys its
copies of the zone data file(s), and stops answering requests for the domain. This stops very old and
potentially inaccurate data from remaining in circulation.
TTL
This field specifies a time, in seconds, that the resource records in this zone should remain valid in
the caches of other nameservers. If the data is volatile, this value should be short. TTL is a
commonly-used acronym, that stands for "Time To Live".
25.1.7 Name Resolution
DNS clients are configured with the addresses of DNS servers. Usually, these are servers which are
authoritative for the domain of which they are a member. All requests for name resolution start with a
request to one of these local servers. DNS queries can be of two forms:
•
A recursive query asks the nameserver to resolve a name completely, and return the result. If the
request cannot be satisfied directly, the nameserver looks in its configuration and caches for a server
higher up the domain tree which may have more information. In the worst case, this will be a list of
pre-configured servers for the root domain. These addresses are returned in a response called a
referral. The local nameserver must then send its request to one of these servers.
•
Normally, this will be an iterative query, which asks the second nameserver to either respond with an
authoritative reply, or with the addresses of nameservers (NS records) listed in its tables or caches as
authoritative for the relevant zone. The local nameserver then makes iterative queries, walking the tree
downwards until an authoritative answer is found (either positive or negative) and returned to the
client.
In some configurations, such as when firewalls prevent direct IP communications between DNS clients
and external nameservers, or when a site is connected to the rest of the world via a slow link, a
nameserver can be configured with information about a forwarder. This is an external nameserver to
which the local nameserver should make requests as a client would, asking the external nameserver to
perform the full recursive name lookup, and return the result in a single query (which can then be
cached), rather than reply with referrals.
25.1.8 Reverse Resolution
The DNS provides resolution from a textual name to a resource record, such as an A record with an IP
address. It does not provide a means, other than exhaustive search, to match in the opposite direction;
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there is no mechanism to ask which name is bound to a particular RR.
For many RR types, this is of no real consequence, however it is often useful to identify by name the host
which owns a particular IP address. Rather than complicate the design and implementation of the DNS
database engine by providing matching functions in both directions, the DNS utilises the existing
mechanisms and creates a special namespace, populated with PTR records, for IP address to name
resolution. Resolving in this manner is often called reverse resolution, despite the inaccurate
implications of the term.
The manner in which this is achieved is as follows:
•
A normal domain name is reserved and defined to be for the purpose of mapping IP addresses. The
domain name used is "in-addr.arpa." which shows the historical origins of the Internet in the US
Government’s Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency’s funding program.
•
This domain is then subdivided and delegated according to the structure of IP addresses. IP addresses
are often written in decimal dotted quad notation, where each octet of the 4-octet long address is
written in decimal, separated by dots. IP address ranges are usually delegated with more and more of
the left-most parts of the address in common as the delegation gets smaller. Thus, to allow delegation
of the reverse lookup domain to be done easily, this is turned around when used with the hierarchical
DNS namespace, which places higher level domains on the right of the name.
•
Each byte of the IP address is written, as an ASCII text representation of the number expressed in
decimal, with the octets in reverse order, separated by dots and appended with the in-addr.arpa.
domain name. For example, to determine the hostname of a network device with IP address
11.22.33.44, this algorithm would produce the string "44.33.22.11.in-addr.arpa." which is a legal,
structured Domain Name. A normal nameservice query would then be sent to the nameserver asking
for a PTR record bound to the generated name.
•
The PTR record, if found, will contain the FQDN of a host.
One consequence of this is that it is possible for mismatch to occur. Resolving a name into an A record,
and then resolving the name built from the address in that A record to a PTR record, may not result in a
PTR record which contains the original name. There is no restriction within the DNS that the "reverse"
mapping must coincide with the "forward" mapping. This is a useful feature in some circumstances,
particularly when it is required that more than one name has an A record bound to it which contains the
same IP address.
While there is no such restriction within the DNS, some application server programs or network libraries
will reject connections from hosts that do not satisfy the following test:
•
the state information included with an incoming connection includes the IP address of the source of
the request.
•
a PTR lookup is done to obtain an FQDN of the host making the connection
•
an A lookup is then done on the returned name, and the connection rejected if the source IP address is
not listed amongst the A records that get returned.
This is done as a security precaution, to help detect and prevent malicious sites impersonating other sites
by configuring their own PTR records to return the names of hosts belonging to another organisation.
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
25.2 The DNS Files
Now let’s look at actually setting up a small DNS enabled network. We will continue to use the examples
mentioned in Chapter 23, i.e. we assume that:
•
Our IP networking is working correctly
•
We have IPNAT working correctly
•
Currently all hosts use the ISP for DNS
Our Name Server will be the “strider” host which also runs IPNAT, and our two clients use "strider" as a
gateway. It is not really relevant as to what type of interface is on "strider", but for argument’s sake we
will say a 56k dial up connection.
So, before going any further, let’s look at our /etc/hosts file on "strider" before we have made the
alterations to use DNS.
Example 25-1. strider’s /etc/hosts file
127.0.0.1
192.168.1.1
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.3
localhost
strider
samwise sam
wormtongue worm
This is not exactly a huge network, but it is worth noting that the same rules apply for larger networks as
we discuss in the context of this section.
The other assumption we want to make is that the domain we want to set up is diverge.org, and that
the domain is only known on our internal network, and not worldwide. Proper registration of the
nameserver’s IP address as primary would be needed in addition to a static IP. These are mostly
administrative issues which are left out here.
The NetBSD operating system provides a set of config files for you to use for setting up DNS. They are
stored in the /etc/namedb directory, I strongly suggest making a backup copy of this directory for
reference purposes.
The default directory contains the following files:
• named.conf
• localhost
• 127
• loopback.v6
• root.cache
You will see modified versions of these files in this section.
Note: The examples in this chapter refer to BIND major version 8, however, it should be noted that
format of the name database and other config files are almost 100% compatible between version.
The only difference I noticed was that the “$TTL” information was not required.
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25.2.1 /etc/namedb/named.conf
The first file we want to look at is /etc/namedb/named.conf. This file is the config file for bind
(hence the catchy name). Setting up system like the one we are doing is relatively simple. First, here is
what mine looks like:
options {
directory "/etc/namedb";
allow-transfer { 192.168.1.0/24; };
allow-query { 192.168.1.0/24; };
listen-on port 53 { 192.168.1.1; };
};
zone "localhost" {
type master;
notify no;
file "localhost";
};
zone "127.IN-ADDR.ARPA" {
type master;
notify no;
file "127";
};
zone "0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.ip6.int" {
type master;
file "loopback.v6";
};
zone "diverge.org" {
type master;
notify no;
file "diverge.org";
};
zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" {
type master;
notify no;
file "1.168.192";
};
zone "." in {
type hint;
file "root.cache";
};
Note that in my named.conf the root (".") section is last, that is because there is another domain called
diverge.org on the internet (I happen to own it) so I want the resolver to look out on the internet last. This
is not normally the case on most systems.
Another very important thing to remember here is that if you have an internal setup, in other words no
live internet connection and/or no need to do root server lookups, comment out the root (".") zone. It may
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
cause lookup problems if a particular client decides it wants to reference a domain on the internet, which
our server couldn’t resolve itself.
Looks like a pretty big mess, upon closer examination it is revealed that many of the lines in each section
are somewhat redundant. So we should only have to explain them a few times.
Lets go through the sections of named.conf:
25.2.1.1 options
This section defines some global parameters, most noticeable is the location of the DNS tables, on this
particular system, they will be put in /etc/namedb as indicated by the "directory" option.
Following are the rest of the params:
allow-transfer
This option lists which remote DNS servers acting as secondaries are allowed to do zone transfers,
i.e. are allowed to read all DNS data at once. For privacy reasons, this should be restricted to
secondary DNS servers only.
allow-query
This option defines hosts from what network may query this name server at all. Restricting queries
only to the local network (192.168.1.0/24) prevents queries arriving on the DNS server’s external
interface, and prevent possible privacy issues.
listen-on port
This option defined the port and associated IP addresses this server will run named(8) on. Again, the
"external" interface is not listened here, to prevent queries getting received from "outside".
The rest of the named.conf file consists of “zone”s. A zone is an area that can have items to resolve
attached, e.g. a domain can have hostnames attached to resolve into IP addresses, and a reverse-zone can
have IP addresses attached that get resolved back into hostnames. Each zone has a file associated with it,
and a table within that file for resolving that particular zone. As is readily apparent, their format in
named.conf is strikingly similar, so I will highlight just one of their records:
25.2.1.2 zone “diverge.org”
type
The type of a zone is usually of type "master" in all cases except for the root zone “.” and for zones
that a secondary (backup) service is provided - the type obviously is "secondary" in the latter case.
notify
Do you want to send out notifications to secondaries when your zone changes? Obviously not in this
setup, so this is set to "no".
file
This option sets the filename in our /etc/namedb directory where records about this particular
zone may be found. For the "diverge.org" zone, the file /etc/namedb/diverge.org is used.
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
25.2.2 /etc/namedb/localhost
For the most part, the zone files look quite similar, however, each one does have some unique properties.
Here is what the localhost file looks like:
Example 25-2. localhost
1|$TTL
3600
2|@
3|
4|
5|
6|
7|
8|
9|localhost.
10|
IN SOA
IN NS
IN
IN
strider.diverge.org. root.diverge.org. (
1
; Serial
8H
; Refresh
2H
; Retry
1W
; Expire
1D)
; Minimum TTL
localhost.
A
127.0.0.1
AAAA
::1
Line by line:
Line 1:
This is the Time To Live for lookups, which defines how long other DNS servers will cache that
value before discarding it. This value is generally the same in all the files.
Line 2:
This line is generally the same in all zone files except root.cache. It defines a so-called "Start Of
Authority" (SOA) header, which contains some basic information about a zone. Of specific interest
on this line are "strider.diverge.org." and "root.diverge.org." (note the trailing dots!). Obviously one
is the name of this server and the other is the contact for this DNS server, in most cases root seems a
little ambiguous, it is preferred that a regular email account be used for the contact information,
with the "@" replaced by a "." (for example, mine would be "jrf.diverge.org.").
Line 3:
This line is the serial number identifying the "version" of the zone’s data set (file). The serial number
should be incremented each time there is a change to the file, the usual format is to either start with
a value of "1" and increase it for every change, or use a value of "YYYYMMDDNN" to encode
year (YYYY), month (MM), day (DD) and change within one day (NN) in the serial number.
Line 4:
This is the refresh rate of the server, in this file it is set to once every 8 hours.
Line 5:
The retry rate.
Line 6:
Lookup expiry.
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
Line 7:
The minimum Time To Live.
Line 8:
This is the Nameserver line, which uses a "NS" resource record to show that "localhost" is the only
DNS server handing out data for this zone (which is "@", which indicates the zone name used in the
named.conf file, i.e. "diverge.org") is, well, "localhost".
Line 9:
This is the localhost entry, which uses an "A" resource record to indicate that the name "localhost"
should be resolved into the IP-address 127.0.0.1 for IPv4 queries (which specifically ask for the "A"
record).
Line 10:
This line is the IPv6 entry, which returns ::1 when someone asks for an IPv6-address (by
specifically asking for the AAAA record) of "localhost.".
25.2.3 /etc/namedb/zone.127.0.0
This is the reverse lookup file (or zone) to resolve the special IP address 127.0.0.1 back to "localhost":
1| $TTL
2| @
3|
4|
5|
6|
7|
8|
9| 1.0.0
3600
IN SOA
strider.diverge.org. root.diverge.org. (
1
; Serial
8H
; Refresh
2H
; Retry
1W
; Expire
1D)
; Minimum TTL
IN NS
localhost.
IN PTR localhost.
In this file, all of the lines are the same as the localhost zonefile with exception of line 9, this is the
reverse lookup (PTR) record. The zone used here is "@" again, which got set to the value given in
named.conf, i.e. "127.in-addr.arpa". This is a special "domain" which is used to do reverse-lookup of IP
addresses back into hostnames. For it to work, the four bytes of the IPv4 address are reserved, and the
domain "in-addr.arpa" attached, so to resolve the IP address "127.0.0.1", the PTR record of
"1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa" is queried, which is what is defined in that line.
25.2.4 /etc/namedb/diverge.org
This zone file is populated by records for all of our hosts. Here is what it looks like:
1| $TTL
2| @
3|
4|
5|
6|
3600
IN SOA
strider.diverge.org. root.diverge.org. (
1
; serial
8H
; refresh
2H
; retry
1W
; expire
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
7|
8|
9|
10|
11|
12|
13|
14|
strider
samwise
www
worm
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
1D )
; minimum seconds
NS
strider.diverge.org.
MX
10 strider.diverge.org.
; primary mail server
MX
20 samwise.diverge.org.
; secondary mail server
A
192.168.1.1
A
192.168.1.2
CNAME samwise.diverge.org.
A
192.168.1.3
There is a lot of new stuff here, so lets just look over each line that is new here:
Line 9
This line shows our mail exchanger (MX), in this case it is "strider". The number that precedes
"strider.diverge.org." is the priority number, the lower the number their higher the priority. The way
we are setup here is if "strider" cannot handle the mail, then "samwise" will.
Line 11
CNAME stands for canonical name, or an alias for an existing hostname, which must have an A
record. So we have aliased the following:
www.diverge.org to samwise.diverge.org
The rest of the records are simply mappings of IP address to a full name (A records).
25.2.5 /etc/namedb/1.168.192
This zone file is the reverse file for all of the host records, to map their IP numbers we use on our private
network back into hostnames. The format is similar to that of the "localhost" version with the obvious
exception being the addresses are different via the different zone given in the named.conf file, i.e.
"0.168.192.in-addr.arpa" here:
1|$TTL
2|@
3|
4|
5|
6|
7|
8|
9|1
10|2
11|3
3600
IN SOA strider.diverge.org. root.diverge.org. (
1
; serial
8H
; refresh
2H
; retry
1W
; expire
1D )
; minimum seconds
IN NS
strider.diverge.org.
IN PTR strider.diverge.org.
IN PTR samwise.diverge.org.
IN PTR worm.diverge.org.
25.2.6 /etc/namedb/root.cache
This file contains a list of root name servers for your server to query when it gets requests outside of its
own domain that it cannot answer itself. Here are first few lines of a root zone file:
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
;
;
This file holds the information on root name servers needed to
;
initialize cache of Internet domain name servers
;
(e.g. reference this file in the "cache . <file>"
;
configuration file of BIND domain name servers).
;
;
This file is made available by InterNIC
;
under anonymous FTP as
;
file
/domain/db.cache
;
on server
FTP.INTERNIC.NET
;
-ORRS.INTERNIC.NET
;
;
last update:
Jan 29, 2004
;
related version of root zone:
2004012900
;
;
; formerly NS.INTERNIC.NET
;
.
3600000 IN NS
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
3600000
A
198.41.0.4
;
; formerly NS1.ISI.EDU
;
.
3600000
NS
B.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
B.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
3600000
A
192.228.79.201
;
; formerly C.PSI.NET
;
.
3600000
NS
C.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
C.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
3600000
A
192.33.4.12
;
...
This file can be obtained from ISC at http://www.isc.org/ and usually comes with a distribution of BIND.
A root.cache file is included in the NetBSD operating system’s "etc" set.
This section has described the most important files and settings for a DNS server. Please see the BIND
documentation in /usr/src/dist/bind/doc/bog and named.conf(5) for more information.
25.3 Using DNS
In this section we will look at how to get DNS going and setup "strider" to use its own DNS services.
Setting up named to start automatically is quite simple. In /etc/rc.conf simply set named=yes.
Additional options can be specified in named_flags, for example, I like to use -g nogroup -u
nobody, so a non-root account runs the "named" process.
In addition to being able to startup "named" at boot time, it can also be controlled with the ndc
command. In a nutshell the ndc command can stop, start or restart the named server process. It can also
do a great many other things. Before use, it has to be setup to communicate with the "named" process,
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
see the ndc(8) and named.conf(5) man pages for more details on setting up communication channels
between "ndc" and the "named" process.
Next we want to point "strider" to itself for lookups. We have two simple steps, first, decide on our
resolution order. On a network this small, it is likely that each host has a copy of the hosts table, so we
can get away with using /etc/hosts first, and then DNS. However, on larger networks it is much easier
to use DNS. Either way, the file where order of name services used for resolution is determined is
/etc/nsswitch.conf (see Example 23-2). Here is part of a typical nsswitch.conf:
. . .
group_compat:
hosts:
netgroup:
. . .
nis
files dns
files [notfound=return] nis
The line we are interested in is the "hosts" line. "files" means the system uses the /etc/hosts file first
to determine ip to name translation, and if it can’t find an entry, it will try DNS.
The next file to look at is /etc/resolv.conf, which is used to configure DNS lookups ("resolution")
on the client side. The format is pretty self explanatory but we will go over it anyway:
domain diverge.org
search diverge.org
nameserver 192.168.1.1
In a nutshell this file is telling the resolver that this machine belongs to the "diverge.org" domain, which
means that lookups that contain only a hostname without a "." gets this domain appended to build a
FQDN. If that lookup doesn’t succeed, the domains in the "search" line are tried next. Finally, the
"nameserver" line gives the IP addresses of one or more DNS servers that should be used to resolve DNS
queries.
To test our nameserver we can use several commands, for example:
# host sam
sam.diverge.org has address 192.168.1.2
As can be seen, the domain was appended automatically here, using the value from
/etc/resolv.conf. Here is another example, the output of running host www.yahoo.com:
$ host www.yahoo.com
www.yahoo.com is an alias for www.yahoo.akadns.net.
www.yahoo.akadns.net has address 68.142.226.38
www.yahoo.akadns.net has address 68.142.226.39
www.yahoo.akadns.net has address 68.142.226.46
www.yahoo.akadns.net has address 68.142.226.50
www.yahoo.akadns.net has address 68.142.226.51
www.yahoo.akadns.net has address 68.142.226.54
www.yahoo.akadns.net has address 68.142.226.55
www.yahoo.akadns.net has address 68.142.226.32
Other commands for debugging DNS besides host(1) are nslookup(8) and dig(1). Note that ping(8) is not
useful for debugging DNS, as it will use whatever is configured in /etc/nsswitch.conf to do the
name-lookup.
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
At this point the server is configured properly. The procedure for setting up the client hosts are easier, you
only need to setup /etc/nsswitch.conf and /etc/resolv.conf to the same values as on the server.
25.4 Setting up a caching only name server
A caching only name server has no local zones; all the queries it receives are forwarded to the root
servers and the replies are accumulated in the local cache. The next time the query is performed the
answer will be faster because the data is already in the server’s cache. Since this type of server doesn’t
handle local zones, to resolve the names of the local hosts it will still be necessary to use the already
known /etc/hosts file.
Since NetBSD supplies defaults for all the files needed by a caching only server, it only needs to be
enabled and started and is immediately ready for use! To enable named, put named=yes into
/etc/rc.conf, and tell the system to use it adding the following line to the /etc/resolv.conf file:
# cat /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 127.0.0.1
Now we can start named:
# sh /etc/rc.d/named restart
25.4.1 Testing the server
Now that the server is running we can test it using the nslookup(8) program:
$ nslookup
Default server: localhost
Address: 127.0.0.1
>
Let’s try to resolve a host name, for example "www.NetBSD.org":
> www.NetBSD.org
Server: localhost
Address: 127.0.0.1
Name:
www.NetBSD.org
Address: 204.152.190.12
If you repeat the query a second time, the result is slightly different:
> www.NetBSD.org
Server: localhost
Address: 127.0.0.1
Non-authoritative answer:
Name:
www.NetBSD.org
Address: 204.152.190.12
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Chapter 25 The Domain Name System
As you’ve probably noticed, the address is the same, but the message “Non-authoritative answer” has
appeared. This message indicates that the answer is not coming from an authoritative server for the
domain NetBSD.org but from the cache of our own server.
The results of this first test confirm that the server is working correctly.
We can also try the host(1) and dig(1) commands, which give the following result.
$ host www.NetBSD.org
www.NetBSD.org has address 204.152.190.12
$
$ dig www.NetBSD.org
; <<>> DiG 8.3 <<>> www.NetBSD.org
;; res options: init recurs defnam dnsrch
;; got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 19409
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 5, ADDITIONAL: 0
;; QUERY SECTION:
;;
www.NetBSD.org, type = A, class = IN
;; ANSWER SECTION:
www.NetBSD.org.
23h32m54s IN A
;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
NetBSD.org.
NetBSD.org.
NetBSD.org.
NetBSD.org.
NetBSD.org.
23h32m54s
23h32m54s
23h32m54s
23h32m54s
23h32m54s
;;
;;
;;
;;
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
204.152.190.12
uucp-gw-1.pa.dec.com.
uucp-gw-2.pa.dec.com.
ns.NetBSD.org.
adns1.berkeley.edu.
adns2.berkeley.edu.
Total query time: 14 msec
FROM: miyu to SERVER: 127.0.0.1
WHEN: Thu Nov 25 22:59:36 2004
MSG SIZE sent: 32 rcvd: 175
As you can see dig(1) gives quite a bit of output, the expected answer can be found in the "ANSWER
SECTION". The other data given may be of interest when debugging DNS problems.
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Chapter 26
Mail and news
This chapter explains how to set up NetBSD to use mail and news. Only a simple but very common setup
is described: the configuration of a host connected to the Internet with a modem through a provider. You
can think of this chapter as the continuation of Chapter 23, assuming a similar network configuration.
Even this “simple” setup proves to be difficult if you don’t know where to start or if you’ve only read
introductory or technical documentation. A general description of mail and news configuration is beyond
the scope of this guide; please read a good Unix Administration book (some very good ones are listed on
the NetBSD site).
This chapter also briefly describes the configuration (but not the usage) of two popular applications, mutt
for mail and tin for news. The usage is not described because they are easy to use and well documented.
Obviously, both mutt and tin are not mandatory choices: many other similar applications exist but I think
that they are a good starting point because they are widely used, simple, work well and don’t use too
much disk space and memory. Both are console mode programs; if you prefer graphics applications there
are also many choices for X.
In short, the programs required for the configuration described in this chapter are:
•
postfix
•
fetchmail
•
mutt
•
tin
Of these, only postfix is installed with the base system; you can install the other programs from the
NetBSD package collection, pkgsrc.
Note: Since NetBSD 4.0, postfix is the default MTA (Mail Transport Agent) and sendmail was
removed. Also, because sendmail is widely popular and several programs like fetchmail are designed
to be used with it, postfix includes a command line wrapper that accepts sendmail’s commands line
syntax but works with postfix. See sendmail(1) for more details.
Before continuing, remember that none of the programs presented in this chapter is mandatory: there are
other applications performing similar tasks and many users prefer them. You’ll find different opinions
reading the mailing lists. You can also use different strategies for sending and receiving mail: the one
explained here is only a starting point; once you understand how it works you’ll probably want to modify
it to suit your needs or to adopt a different method altogether.
At the opposite extreme of the example presented here, there is the usage of an application like Mozilla,
which does everything and frees you from the need of configuring many components: with Mozilla you
can browse the Internet, send and receive mail and read news. Besides, the setup is very simple. There is
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Chapter 26 Mail and news
a price to pay, though: Mozilla is a “closed” program that will not cooperate easily with other standard
Unix utilities.
Another possibility is to use emacs to read mail and news. Emacs needs no introduction to Unix users
but, in case you don’t know, it is an extensible editor (although calling emacs an editor is somewhat
reductive) which becomes a complete work environment, and can be used to read mail, news and to
perform many operations. For many people emacs is the only environment that they need and they use it
for all their work. The configuration of emacs for mail and news is described in the emacs manual.
In the rest of this chapter we will deal with a host connected to the Internet through a PPP connection via
serial modem to a provider.
•
the local host’s name is “ape” and the internal network is “insetti.net”, which means that the FQDN
(Fully Qualified Domain Name) is “ape.insetti.net”.
•
the user’s login name on ape is “carlo”.
•
the provider’s name is BigNet.
•
the provider’s mail server is “mail.bignet.it”.
•
the provider’s news server is “news.bignet.it”.
•
the user’s (“carlo”) account at the provider is “alan” with the password “pZY9o”.
First some basic terminology:
MUA (mail user agent)
a program to read and write mail. For example: mutt, elm and pine but also the simple mail
application installed with the base system.
MTA (mail transfer agent)
a program that transfers mail between two host but also locally (on the same host). The MTA
decides the path that the mail will follow to get to the destination. On other BSD systems (but not
only) the standard MTA is sendmail, other examples are qmail, exim and Microsoft Exchange.
MDA (mail delivery agent)
a program, usually used by the MTA, that delivers the mail; for example, it physically puts the
messages in the recipient’s mailbox. For example, postfix uses one or more MDAs to deliver mail,
and procmail is another well-known MDA.
Figure 26-1 depicts the mail system that we want to set up. Between the local network (or the single
host) and the provider there is a modem PPP connection. The “bubbles” with the thick border (postfix,
fetchmail, mutt) are the programs launched manually by the user; the remaining bubbles are the programs
that are launched automatically. The circled numbers refer to the logical steps of the mail cycle:
1.
In step (1) mail is downloaded from the provider’s POP server using fetchmail, which hands
messages off to postfix’s sendmail wrapper to put the messages in the user’s mailbox.
2.
In step (2) the user launches mutt (or another MUA) to read mail, reply and write new messages.
3.
In step (3) the user “sends” the mail from within mutt. Messages are accumulated in the spool area.
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Chapter 26 Mail and news
4.
In step (4) the user calls postfix’s sendmail wrapper to transfer the messages to the provider’s SMTP
server, that will deliver them to the final destination (possibly through other mail servers). The
provider’s SMTP server acts as a relay for our mail.
The connection with the provider must be up only during steps (1) and (4); for the remaining steps it is
not needed.
Figure 26-1. Structure of the mail system
POP server
SMTP server
provider
PPP link
home
1
fetchmail
sendmail
4
sendmail
mailbox: /var/mail
spool: /var/spool/mqueue
sendmail
2
mutt
3
26.1 postfix
When an MTA must deliver a local message, it is delivered directly. If the message is intended for a
different domain, the MTA must find out the address of the mail server for that domain. Postfix uses the
DNS service (described in Chapter 25) to find a mail exchanger handling mail for the given domain, and
delivers the message to that mail server then.
Postfix is controlled by a set of configuration files and databases, of which /etc/postfix/main.cf
and /etc/postfix/master.cf are the most important.
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Chapter 26 Mail and news
Note: Prior to version 1.5 of NetBSD, the mail configuration files were in /etc instead of /etc/mail.
Since NetBSD 4.0, the /etc/mail directory is only used to store the local aliases and the
corresponding postmap(1) database.
The first problem to be solved is that the local network we are dealing with is an internal network, i.e. not
directly accessible from the Internet. This means that the names used internally have no meaning on the
Internet; in short, “ape.insetti.net” cannot be reached by an external host: no one will be able to reply to a
mail sent with this return address (many mail systems will even reject the message as spam prevention as
it comes from an unknown host). The true address, the one visible from everybody, is assigned by the
provider and, therefore, it is necessary to convert the local address “carlo@ape.insetti.net” to the real
address “alan@bignet.it”. Postfix, if correctly configured, will take care of this when it transfers the
messages.
You’ll probably also want to configure postfix in order to send the e-mails to the provider’s mail server,
using it as a relay. In the configuration described in this chapter, postfix does not directly contact the
recipient’s mail server (as previously described) but relays all its mail to the provider’s mail server.
Note: The provider’s mail server acts as a relay , which means that it delivers mail which is not
destined to its own domain, to another mail server. It acts as an intermediary between two servers.
Since the connection with the provider is not always active, it is not necessary to start postfix as a
daemon in /etc/rc.conf: you can disable it with the line “postfix=NO”. As a consequence it will be
necessary to launch postfix manually when you want to transfer mail to the provider. Local mail is
delivered correctly even if postfix is not active as a daemon.
Let’s start configuring postfix.
26.1.1 Configuration of generic mapping
This type of configuration uses a new file /etc/postfix/generic which contains the hostname
mapping used by postfix to rewrite the internal hostnames.
The first step is therefore to write the mapping file:
carlo@ape.insetti.net
root@ape.insetti.net
news@ape.insetti.net
alan@bignet.it
alan@bignet.it
alan@bignet.it
These entries will map the mail sent from the users given on the left side into the globally valid email
addresses given on the right, making it appear as if the mail was really sent from that address.
For the sake of efficiency, generic must be transformed into a binary file with the following command:
# postmap /etc/postfix/generic
Now it’s time to create the prototype configuration file which we’ll use to create the postfix configuration
file.
# vi /etc/postfix/main.cf
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For the sake of simplicity, we’ll only show the variables you need change:
relayhost = mail.bignet.it
smtp_generic_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/generic
This configuration tells postfix to rewrite the addresses of type “ape.insetti.net” using the real names
found in the /etc/postfix/generic file. It also says that mail should be sent to the “mail.bignet.it”
server. The meaning of the options is described in detail in postconf(5).
The last step is to reload the configuration. You can do that easily with:
# /etc/rc.d/postfix reload
postfix/postfix-script: refreshing the Postfix mail system
Now everything is ready to start sending mail.
26.1.2 Testing the configuration
Postfix is finally configured and ready to work, but before sending real mail it is better to do some simple
tests. First let’s try sending a local e-mail with the following command (postfix’s sendmail wrapper):
$ sendmail carlo
Subject: test
Hello world
.
Please follow exactly the example above: leave a blank line after Subject: and end the message with a
line containing only one dot. Now you should be able to read the message with your mail client and
verify that the From: field has been correctly rewritten.
From: alan@bignet.it
26.1.3 Using an alternative MTA
Starting from version 1.4 of NetBSD sendmail is not called directly:
$ ls -l /usr/sbin/sendmail
lrwxr-xr-x
1 root
wheel
21 Nov
1 01:14 /usr/sbin/sendmail@ -> /usr/sbin/mailwrapper
The purpose of mailwrapper is to allow the usage of an alternative MTA instead of postfix (for example,
sendmail). If you plan to use a different mailer I suggest that you read the mailwrapper(8) and the
mailer.conf(5) manpages, which are very clear.
26.2 fetchmail
If someone sends me mail, it is received and stored by the provider, and not automatically transferred to
the local hosts; therefore it is necessary to download it. Fetchmail is a very popular program that
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downloads mail from a remote mail server (using e.g. the Post Office Protocol, POP) and forwards it to
the local system for delivery (usually using postfix’s sendmail wrapper). It is powerful yet easy to use
and configure: after installation, the file ~/.fetchmailrc must be created and the program is ready to
run (~/.fetchmailrc contains a password so appropriate permissions on the file are required).
This is an example .fetchmailrc:
poll mail.bignet.it
protocol POP3
username alan there with password pZY9o is carlo here
flush
mda "/usr/sbin/sendmail -oem %T"
The last line (“mda ...”) is used only if postfix is not active as daemon on the system. Please note that the
POP-mail server indicated in this file (mail.bignet.it) is only used to retrieve mails, and that it is not
necessary the same as the mail relay used by postfix to send out mails.
After setting up the .fetchmailrc file, the following command can be used to download and deliver
mail to the local system:
$ fetchmail
The messages can now be read with mutt.
26.3 Reading and writing mail with mutt
Mutt is one of the most popular mail programs: it is “lightweight”, easy to use and has lots of features.
The man page mutt is very bare bones; the real documentation is in /usr/pkg/share/doc/mutt/, in
particular manual.txt.
Mutt’s configuration is defined by the ~/.muttrc file. The easiest way to create it is to copy mutt’s
example muttrc file (usually /usr/pkg/share/examples/mutt/sample.muttrc) to the home
directory and modify it. The following example shows how to achieve some results:
•
Save a copy of sent mail.
•
Define a directory and two files for incoming and outgoing mail saved by mutt (in this example the
directory is ~/Mail and the files are incoming and outgoing).
•
Define some colors.
•
Define an alias.
set copy=yes
set edit_headers
set folder="~/Mail"
unset force_name
set mbox="~/Mail/incoming"
set record="~/Mail/outgoing"
unset save_name
bind pager <up> previous-page
bind pager <down> next-page
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color
color
color
color
color
color
color
color
mono
mono
mono
mono
normal white black
hdrdefault blue black
indicator white blue
markers red black
quoted cyan black
status white blue
error red white
underline yellow black
quoted standout
hdrdefault underline
indicator underline
status bold
alias pippo Pippo Verdi <pippo.verdi@pluto.net>
To start mutt:
$ mutt
Please note that mutt supports color, but this depends on the terminal settings. Under X you can use
"xterm-color", for example:
$ env TERM=xterm-color mutt
26.4 Strategy for receiving mail
This section describes a simple method for receiving and reading mail. The connection to the provider is
activated only for the time required to download the messages; mail is then read offline.
1. Activate the connection to the provider.
2. Run fetchmail.
3. Deactivate the connection.
4. Read mail with mutt.
26.5 Strategy for sending mail
When mail has been written and “sent” with mutt, the messages must be transferred to the provider with
postfix. Mail is sent from mutt with the y command, but this does not really send it; the messages are
enqueued in the spool area; if postfix is not active as a daemon it is necessary to start it manually or the
messages will remain on the hard disk. The necessary steps are:
1. Write mail with mutt, send it and exit mutt. You can check if and what messages are in the postfix
mail queue using the mailq(1) program.
2. Activate the connection with the provider.
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3. If your provider requires you to do "SMTP-after-POP", i.e. it first wants to make sure to know who
you are before you are allowed to send mail (and no spam), you need to run fetchmail again first.
4. Write the command /usr/sbin/postfix flush to transfer the queued messages to the provider.
5. Deactivate the connection when the queue is empty.
26.6 Advanced mail tools
When you start using mail, you won’t probably have very sophisticated requirements and the already
described standard configuration will satisfy all your needs. But for many users the number of daily
messages will increase with time and a more rational organization of the mail storage will become
necessary, for example subdividing mail in different mail boxes organized by topic. If, for example, you
subscribe to a mailing list, you will likely receive many messages every day and you will want to keep
them separate from the rest of your mail. You will soon find that you are spending too much time every
day repeating the same manual operations to organize your mail boxes.
Why repeat the same operations manually when you can have a program perform them automatically for
you? There are numerous tools that you can add to your mail system to increase its flexibility and
automatically process your messages. Amongst the most known and used there are:
•
procmail, an advanced mail delivery agent and general purpose mail filter for local mail, which
automatically processes incoming mail using user defined rulesets. It integrates smoothly with
sendmail/postfix.
•
spamassassin or spamprobe, to help fight spam.
•
metamail, a tool to process attachments.
•
formail, a mail formatter.
In the remaining part of this section a sample configuration for procmail will be presented for a very
common case: delivering automatically to a user defined mailbox all the messages coming from a
mailing list. The configuration of postfix will be modified in order to call procmail directly (procmail
will be the local mailer used by sendmail). and a custom configuration file for procmail will be created.
First, procmail must be installed using the package system (mail/procmail) or pkg_add.
Next, the configuration of postfix must be changed, in order to use procmail as local mailer:
mailbox_command = /usr/pkg/bin/procmail
The line defines the path of the procmail program (you can see where procmail is installed with the
command which procmail).
The last step is the creation of the procmail configuration file, containing the recipes for mail delivery.
Let’s say that, for example, you subscribed to a mailing list on roses whose address is
“roses@flowers.org” and that every message from the list contains the following line in the header:
Delivered-To: roses@flowers.org
Assuming you want to automatically sort all mails going over that list into the local mail folder
"roses_list", the procmail configuration file (.procmailrc) looks like this:
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PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/pkg/bin
MAILDIR=$HOME/Mail
LOGFILE=$MAILDIR/from
:0
* ^Delivered-To: roses@flowers.org
roses_list
The previous file contains only one rule, beginning with the line containing “:0”. The following line
identifies all messages containing the string “Delivered-To: roses@flowers.org” and the last line says that
the selected messages must go to the roses_list mailbox (which you should have created in
$MAILDIR). The remaining messages will be delivered to the default mailbox. Note that $MAILDIR is
the same directory that you have configured with mutt:
set folder="~/Mail"
Of course the mailing list is only an example; procmail is a very versatile tool which can be used to filter
mail based on many criteria. As usual, refer to the man pages for more details: procmail(1),
procmailrc(5), and procmailex(5) (this last one contains many examples of configuration files).
26.7 News with tin
The word news indicates the set of messages posted to the USENET newsgroups, a service available on
the Internet. Each newsgroup contains articles related to a specific topic. Reading a newsgroup is
different than reading a mailing list: when you subscribe to a mailing list you receive the articles by mail
and you read them with a standard mail program like mutt, which you use also to send replies. News,
instead, are read directly from a news server with a dedicated program called newsreader like, for
example, tin. With tin you can subscribe to the newsgroups that you’re interested in and follow the
threads. A thread is a sequence of articles which all derive from an article that we could call “original”.
In short, a message is sent to the group, someone answers, other people answer to those who answered in
the first place and so on, creating a tree like structure of messages and replies: without a newsreader it is
impossible to understand the correct sequence of messages.
After the installation of tin (from the package collection as usual) the only thing left to do is to write the
name of the NNTP server in the file /usr/pkg/etc/nntp/server, which you may need to create first.
For example:
news.bignet.it
Once this has been done, the program can be started with the command tin. On the screen something
similar to the following example will be displayed:
$ tin
Connecting to news.bignet.it...
news.bignet.it InterNetNews NNRP server INN 1.7.2 08-Dec-1997 ready (posting ok).
Reading groups from active file...
Checking for new groups...
Reading attributes file...
Reading newsgroups file...
Creating newsrc file...
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Autosubscribing groups...
Reading newsrc file...
Be patient when you connect for the first time, because tin downloads an immense list of newsgroups to
which you can subscribe and this takes several minutes. When the download is finished, the program’s
main screen is displayed; usually no groups are displayed; to see the list of groups press y. To subscribe
to a group, move on the group’s name and press y.
Once that you have subscribed to some newsgroups you can start tin more quickly with the command tin
-Q. The search for new groups is disabled (-q), only active groups are searched (-n) and newsgroup
description are not loaded (-d): it will not be possible to use the y (yank) command in tin. When tin is
started with this option it can’t tell if a newsgroup is moderated or not.
Note that if you are connecting from an internal network (like in our example), when you send ("post") a
message the address at the beginning of the message will be wrong (because it is the internal address). To
solve the problem, use the option “mail_address” in the tin configuration file (~/.tin/tinrc) or set the
REPLYTO environment variable.
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Chapter 27
Introduction to the Common
Address Redundancy Protocol
(CARP)
See Section D.3.3 for the license of this chapter.
CARP is the Common Address Redundancy Protocol. Its primary purpose is to allow multiple hosts on
the same network segment to share an IP address. CARP is a secure, free alternative to the Virtual Router
Redundancy Protocol (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3768.txt) and the Hot Standby Router Protocol
(http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2281.txt).
CARP works by allowing a group of hosts on the same network segment to share an IP address. This
group of hosts is referred to as a "redundancy group". The redundancy group is assigned an IP address
that is shared amongst the group members. Within the group, one host is designated the "master" and the
rest as "backups". The master host is the one that currently "holds" the shared IP; it responds to any traffic
or ARP requests directed towards it. Each host may belong to more than one redundancy group at a time.
One common use for CARP is to create a group of redundant firewalls. The virtual IP that is assigned to
the redundancy group is configured on client machines as the default gateway. In the event that the
master firewall suffers a failure or is taken offline, the IP will move to one of the backup firewalls and
service will continue unaffected.
While highly redundant and fault-tolerant hardware minimizes the need for CARP, it doesn’t erase it.
There’s no hardware fault tolerance that’s capable of helping if someone knocks out a power cord, or if
your system administrator types reboot in the wrong window. CARP also makes it easier to make the
patch and reboot cycle transparent to users, and easier to test a software or hardware upgrade--if it
doesn’t work, you can fall back to your spare until fixed.
There are, however, situations in which CARP won’t help. CARP’s design does require that the members
of a group be on the same physical subnet with a static IP address, although with the introduction of the
carpdev directive, there is no more need for IP addresses on the physical interfaces. Similarly, services
that require a constant connection to the server (such as SSH or IRC) will not be transparently transferred
to the other system--though in this case, CARP can help with minimizing downtime. CARP by itself
does not synchronize data between applications, for example, manually duplicating data between boxes
with rsync, or whatever is appropriate for your application.
CARP supports both IPv4 and IPv6.
27.1 CARP Operation
The master host in the group sends regular advertisements to the local network so that the backup hosts
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know it’s still alive. If the backup hosts don’t hear an advertisement from the master for a set period of
time, then one of them will take over the duties of master (whichever backup host has the lowest
configured advbase and advskew values). It’s possible for multiple CARP groups to exist on the same
network segment. CARP advertisements contain the Virtual Host ID which allows group members to
identify which redundancy group the advertisement belongs to.
In order to prevent a malicious user on the network segment from spoofing CARP advertisements, each
group can be configured with a password. Each CARP packet sent to the group is then protected by an
SHA1 HMAC.
27.2 Configuring CARP
Each redundancy group is represented by a carp(4) virtual network interface. As such, CARP is
configured using ifconfig(8) The follow options are available:
carpN
The name of the carp(4) virtual interface where N is a integer that represents the interface’s number
(e.g. carp0).
vhid
The Virtual Host ID. This is a unique number that is used to identify the redundancy group to other
nodes on the network. Acceptable values are from 1 to 255. This allows for multiple redundancy
groups to exist on the same network.
password
The authentication password to use when talking to other CARP-enabled hosts in this redundancy
group. This must be the same on all members of the redundancy group.
carpdev
This optional parameter specifies the physical network interface that belongs to this redundancy
group. By default, CARP will try to determine which interface to use by looking for a physical
interface that is in the same subnet as the ipaddress and mask combination given to the carp(4)
interface.
advbase
This optional parameter specifies how often, in seconds, to advertise that we’re a member of the
redundancy group. The default is 1 second. Acceptable values are from 1 to 255.
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advskew
This optional parameter specifies how much to skew the advbase when sending CARP
advertisements. By manipulating advbase, the master CARP host can be chosen. The higher the
number, the less preferred the host will be when choosing a master. The default is 0. Acceptable
values are from 1 to 254.
state
Force a carp(4) interface into a certain state. Valid states are init, backup, and master
ipaddress
This is the shared IP address assigned to the redundancy group. This address does not have to be in
the same subnet as the IP address on the physical interface (if present). This address needs to be the
same on all hosts in the group, however.
mask
The subnet mask of the shared IP.
Further CARP behaviour can be controlled via sysctl(8)
net.inet.carp.allow
Accept incoming CARP packets or not. Default is 1 (yes).
net.inet.carp.preempt
Allow hosts within a redundancy group that have a better advbase and advskew to preempt the
master. In addition, this option also enables failing over all interfaces in the event that one interface
goes down. If one physical CARP-enabled interface goes down, CARP will change advskew to 240
on all other CARP-enabled interfaces, in essence, failing itself over. This option is 0 (disabled) by
default.
net.inet.carp.log
Log bad CARP packets. Default is 0 (disabled).
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net.inet.carp.arpbalance
Load balance traffic across multiple redundancy group hosts. Default is 0 (disabled). See carp(4) for
more information.
27.3 Enabling CARP Support
CARP support is not enabled by default.
To use carp(4) you need a kernel with support for the carp pseudo-device. Make sure the following line
is in your kernel configuration file:
pseudo-device
carp
# CARP
After configuring the carp pseudo-device in your kernel configuration, you must recompile your kernel
and reboot to enable carp(4) support.
27.4 CARP Example
An example CARP configuration:
# sysctl -w net.inet.carp.allow=1
# ifconfig carp0 create
# ifconfig carp0 vhid 1 pass lanpasswd \
carpdev em0 advskew 100 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
This sets up the following:
•
Enables receipt of CARP packets (this is the default setting)
•
Creates a carp(4) interface.
•
Configures carp0 for virtual host #1, enables a password(lanpasswd), sets em0 as the interface
belonging to the group, and makes this host a backup due to the advskew of 100 (assuming of course
that the master is set up with an advskew less than 100). The shared IP assigned to this group is
10.0.0.1/255.255.255.0.
Running ifconfig on carp0 shows the status of the interface:
# ifconfig carp0
carp0: flags=8802<UP,BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
carp: BACKUP carpdev em0 vhid 1 advbase 1 advskew 100
inet 10.0.0.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 10.0.0.255
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27.5 Advanced CARP configuration
The following example creates a cluster of two highly-available, redundant firewalls. The following
diagram presents what we’re trying to achieve:
+----| WAN/Internet |----+
|
|
em1|
|em1
+-----+
+-----+
| fw1 |
| fw2 |
+-----+
+-----+
em0|
|em0
|
|
---+-------Shared LAN-------+---
Both firewalls are connected to the LAN on em0 and to a WAN/Internet connection on em1. IP addresses
are as follows:
•
Firewall 1 (fw1) em0: 172.16.0.1
•
Firewall 1 (fw1) em1: 192.0.2.1
•
Firewall 2 (fw2) em0: 172.16.0.2
•
Firewall 2 (fw2) em1: 192.0.2.2
The IP addresses we wish to share between the redundancy groups:
•
WAN/Internet Shared IP: 192.0.2.100
•
LAN Shared IP: 172.16.0.100
The network policy is that Firewall 1 (fw1) will be the preferred master.
The following configuration is for Firewall 1 (fw1):
#Enable preemption and group interface failover
# sysctl -w net.inet.carp.preempt=1
#Configure CARP on the LAN side
# ifconfig carp0 create
# ifconfig carp0 vhid 1 pass lanpasswd carpdev em0 \
172.16.0.100 255.255.255.0
#Configure CARP on the WAN side
# ifconfig carp1 create
# ifconfig carp1 vhid 2 pass wanpasswd carpdev em1 \
192.0.2.100 255.255.255.0
As mentioned before, our policy is for Firewall 1 to be the preferred master. When configuring Firewall 2
we make the advskew a higher value since it’s less preferred to be the master.
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The following configuration is for Firewall 2 (fw2):
#Enable preemption and group interface failover
# sysctl -w net.inet.carp.preempt=1
#Configure CARP on the LAN side
# ifconfig carp0 create
# ifconfig carp0 vhid 1 pass lanpasswd carpdev em0 \
advskew 128 172.16.0.100 255.255.255.0
#Configure CARP on the WAN side
# ifconfig carp1 create
# ifconfig carp1 vhid 2 pass wanpasswd carpdev em1 \
advskew 128 192.0.2.100 255.255.255.0
27.6 Forcing Failover of the Master
There can be times when it’s necessary to failover or demote the master node on purpose. Examples
include taking the master node down for maintenance or when troubleshooting a problem. The objective
here is to gracefully fail over traffic to one of the backup hosts so that users do not notice any impact.
To failover, shut down the carp(4) interface on the master node. This will cause the master to advertise
itself with an "infinite" advbase and advskew. The backup host(s) will see this and immediately take over
the role of master.
# ifconfig carp0 down
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Chapter 28
Network services
28.1 The Network File System (NFS)
Now that the network is working it is possible to share files and directories over the network using the
Network File System (NFS). From the point of view of file sharing, the computer which gives access to
its files and directories is called the server, and the computer using these files and directories is the
client. A computer can be client and server at the same time.
•
A kernel must be compiled with the appropriate options for the client and the server (the options are
easy to find in the kernel configuration file. See Section 23.1 for more information on NFS related
kernel options.
•
The server must enable the rpcbind, mountd lockd statd and nfs_server daemons in
/etc/rc.conf:
rpcbind=yes
mountd=yes
nfs_server=yes
lockd=yes
statd=yes
•
The client must enable the rpcbind, lockd statd and nfs_client daemons in /etc/rc.conf:
rpcbind=yes
nfs_client=yes
lockd=yes
statd=yes
•
The server must list the exported directories in /etc/exports and then run the command kill -HUP
‘cat /var/run/mountd.pid (hup mountd may work too!).
A client host can access a remote directory through NFS if:
•
The server host exports the directory to the client. The list of filesystems a NFS server exports can be
checked with the showmount -e command, see showmount(8):
# showmount -e 192.168.1.2
Exports list on 192.168.1.2:
/home
•
host1 host2 host3
The client host mounts the remote directory with the command mount 192.168.1.2:/home /home
The mount command has a rich set of options for remote directories which are not very intuitive (to say
the least).
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28.1.1 NFS setup example
The scenario described here is the following: five client machines (cli1, ..., cli5) share some directories
on a server (buzz.toys.org). Some of the directories exported by the server are reserved for a specific
client, the other directories are common for all client machines. All the clients boot from the server and
must mount the directories.
The directories exported from the server are:
/export/cli?/root
the five root directories for the five client machines. Each client has its own root directory.
/export/cli?/swap
Five swap directories for the five swap machines.
/export/common/usr
/usr directory; common for all client hosts.
/usr/src
Common /usr/src directory for all client machines.
The following file systems exist on the server
/dev/ra0a
/dev/ra0f
/dev/ra1a
/dev/ra2a
on
on
on
on
/
/usr
/usr/src
/export
Each client needs the following file systems
buzz:/export/cli?/root
buzz:/export/common/usr
buzz:/usr/src
on /
on /usr
on /usr/src
The server configuration is the following:
# /etc/exports
/usr/src -network 192.168.1.0 -mask 255.255.255.0
/export
-alldirs -maproot=root -network 192.168.1.0 -mask 255.255.255.0
On the client machines /etc/fstab contains:
buzz:/export/cliX /root /
nfs rw
buzz:/export/common/usr /usr
nfs ro,nodev,nosuid
buzz:/usr/src
/usr/src nfs rw,nodev,nosuid
Each client machine has its number substituted to the “X ” character in the first line of the previous
example.
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28.1.2 Setting up NFS automounting for /net with amd(8)
28.1.2.1 Introduction
The problem with NFS (and other) mounts is, that you usually have to be root to make them, which can
be rather inconvenient for users. Using amd(8) you can set up a certain directory (Commonly /net),
under which one can make any NFS-mount as a normal user, as long as the filesystem about to be
accessed is actually exported by the NFS server.
To check if a certain server exports a filesystem, and which ones, use the showmount-command with the
-e (export) switch:
$ showmount -e wuarchive.wustl.edu
Exports list on wuarchive.wustl.edu:
/export/home
onc.wustl.edu
/export/local
onc.wustl.edu
/export/adm/log
onc.wustl.edu
/usr
onc.wustl.edu
/
onc.wustl.edu
/archive
Everyone
If you then want to mount a directory to access anything below it (for example
/archive/systems/unix/NetBSD), just change into that directory:
$ cd /net/wuarchive.wustl.edu/archive/systems/unix/NetBSD
The filesystem will be mounted (by amd), and you can a access any files just as if the directory was
mounted by the superuser of your system.
28.1.2.2 Actual setup
You can set up such a /net directory with the following steps (including basic amd configuration):
1.
in /etc/rc.conf, set the following variable:
amd=yes
2.
mkdir /amd
3.
mkdir /net
4.
Taking /usr/share/examples/amd/amd.conf, put the following into /etc/amd.conf:
[ /net ]
map_name =
map_type =
5.
Taking /usr/share/examples/amd/net as example, put the following into /etc/amd/net:
/defaults
*
6.
/etc/amd/net
file
type:=host;rhost:=${key};fs:=${autodir}/${rhost}/root
host==${key};type:=link;fs:=/
\
host!=${key};opts:=ro,soft,intr,nodev,nosuid,noconn
Reboot, or (re)start amd by hand:
# sh /etc/rc.d/amd restart
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Chapter 28 Network services
28.2 The Network Time Protocol (NTP)
It is not unusual to find that the system clock is wrong, often by several minutes: for some strange reason
it seems that computer clocks are not very accurate. The problem gets worse if you administer many
networked hosts: keeping the clocks in sync can easily become a nightmare. To solve this problem, the
NTP protocol (version 3) comes to our aid: this protocol can be used to synchronize the clocks of a
network of workstations using one or more NTP servers.
Thanks to the NTP protocol it is possible to adjust the clock of a single workstation but also to
synchronize an entire network. The NTP protocol is quite complex, defining a hierarchical master-slave
structure of servers divided in strata: the top of the hierarchy is occupied by stratum 1 servers, connected
to an external clock (ex. a radio clock) to guarantee a high level of accuracy. Underneath, stratum 2
servers synchronize their clocks with stratum 1, and so on. The accuracy decreases as we proceed
towards lower levels. This hierarchical structure avoids the congestion which could be caused by having
all hosts refer to the same (few) stratum 1 servers. If, for example, you want to synchronize a network,
you don’t connect all the hosts to the same public stratum 1 server. Instead, you create a local server
which connects to the main server and the remaining hosts synchronize their clocks with the local server.
Fortunately, to use the NTP tools you don’t need to understand the details of the protocol and of its
implementation (if you are interested, refer to RFC 1305) and you only need to know how to configure
and start some programs. The base system of NetBSD already contains the necessary tools to utilize this
protocol (and other time related protocols, as we’ll see), derived from the xntp implementation. This
section describes a simple method to always have a correct system time.
First, it is necessary to find the address of the public NTP servers to use as a reference; a detailed listing
can be found at http://ntp.isc.org/bin/view/Servers/WebHome. As an example, for Italy the two stratum 1
servers ntp1.ien.it and ntp2.ien.it can be used.
Next, to adjust the system clock give the following command as root:
# ntpdate -b ntp1.ien.it ntp2.ien.it
(substitute the names of the servers in the example with the ones that you are actually using. Option -b
tells ntpdate to set the system time with the settimeofday system call, instead of slewing it with adjtime
(the default). This option is suggested when the difference between the local time and the correct time
can be considerable.
As you’ve seen, ntpdate is not difficult to use. The next step is to start it automatically, in order to always
have the correct system time. If you have a permanent connection to the Internet, you can start the
program at boot with the following line of /etc/rc.conf:
ntpdate=YES
ntpdate_hosts="ntp1.ien.it"
The name of the NTP server to use is specified in the ntpdate_hosts variable; if you leave this field
empty, the boot script will try to extract the name from the /etc/ntp.conf file.
If you don’t have a permanent Internet connection (ex. you have a dial-up modem connection through an
ISP) you can start ntpdate from the ip-up script, as explained in Chapter 23. In this case add the
following line to the ip-up script:
/usr/sbin/ntpdate -s -b ntp1.ien.it
(the path is mandatory or the script will probably not find the executable). Option -s diverts logging
output from the standard output (this is the default) to the system syslog(3) facility, which means that the
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Chapter 28 Network services
messages from ntpdate will usually end up in /var/log/messages.
Besides ntpdate there are other useful NTP commands. It is also possible to turn one of the local hosts
into an NTP server for the remaining hosts of the network. The local server will synchronize its clock
with a public server. For this type of configuration you must use the ntpd daemon and create the
/etc/ntp.conf configuration file. For example:
server ntp1.ien.it
server ntp2.ien.it
ntpd can be started too from rc.conf, using the relevant option:
ntpd=YES
NTP is not your only option if you want to synchronize your network: you can also use the timed
daemon or the rdate(8) command as well. timed was developed for 4.3BSD.
Timed too uses a master-slave hierarchy: when started on a host, timed asks the network time to a master
and adjusts the local clock accordingly. A mixed structure, using both timed and ntpd can be used. One of
the local hosts gets the correct time from a public NTP server and is the timed master for the remaining
hosts of network, which become its clients and synchronize their clocks using timed. This means that the
local server must run both NTP and timed; care must be taken that they don’t interfere with each other
(timed must be started with the -F hostname option so that it doesn’t try to adjust the local clock).
Finally, rdate(8) can be used to synchronize once against a given host, much like ntpdate(8). The host in
question must have the "time" service (port 37) enabled in /etc/inetd.conf.
313
V. Building the system
Chapter 29
Obtaining the sources
To read the NetBSD sources from your local disk or to build the system or parts of it, you need to
download the NetBSD sources. This chapter explains how to get the NetBSD source using a number of
different ways, although the preferred one is to get the tarballs and then update via cvs(1).
29.1 Preparing directories
Kernel and userland sources are usually placed in /usr/src. This directory is not present by default in
the NetBSD installation and you will need to create it first. As it is in a system directory, you will need
root access to create the directory and make sure your normal user account can write to it. For
demonstration purposes, it is assumed that the non-root login is carlo. Please replace it with a valid
login name on your system:
$ su
Password: *****
# mkdir /usr/src
# chown <carlo> /usr/src
Also, if you want X11R6 sources, you can prepare /usr/xsrc:
# mkdir /usr/xsrc
# chown <carlo> /usr/xsrc
Note: Please note that for the subsequent steps, root access is neither needed nor recommended,
so this preparation step should be done first. All CVS operations can (and should) be done as
normal user and you don’t need root privileges any more:
# exit
$
29.2 Terminology
Before starting to fetch or download the required files, you may want to know the definitions of
“Formal releases”, “Maintenance branches” and other related terms. That information is available
under the NetBSD release glossary and graphs (http://www.NetBSD.org/releases/release-map.html).
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Chapter 29 Obtaining the sources
29.3 Downloading tarballs
It is sometimes faster to download a tarball and then continue updating with cvs(1). You can download
tarballs (see tar(1)) from ftp.NetBSD.org (or any other mirror) for a number of releases or branches.
The only drawback is that the tarballs are updated less often. Normally, every three days.
Also, please note that these tarballs include the CVS directories, so you can download them and then
update your source tree using cvs(1), as explained in the CVS section.
29.3.1 Downloading sources for a NetBSD release
The tarball files for the sources of a specific release are available under
/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-<RELEASE-NUMBER>/source/sets/ on ftp.NetBSD.org (or a mirror), where
<RELEASE-NUMBER> is the release you want to fetch (for example, 4.0).
To fetch the sources of a NetBSD release using tarballs, simply do:
$ ftp -i ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-4.0/source/sets/
Trying 2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe21:6563...
Connected to ftp.NetBSD.org.
220 ftp.NetBSD.org FTP server (NetBSD-ftpd 20070809) ready.
331 Guest login ok, type your name as password.
[...]
250 CWD command successful.
250 CWD command successful.
250 CWD command successful.
ftp> mget *.tgz
local: gnusrc.tgz remote: gnusrc.tgz
229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||58302|)
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ’gnusrc.tgz’ (79233899 bytes).
[...]
ftp> quit
221Data traffic for this session was 232797304 bytes in 5 files.
Total traffic for this session was 232803039 bytes in 6 transfers.
221 Thank you for using the FTP service on ftp.NetBSD.org.
You should now have 5 files:
$ ls *.tgz
gnusrc.tgz
sharesrc.tgz
src.tgz
syssrc.tgz
xsrc.tgz
You now must extract them all:
$ foreach file (*.tgz)
?
tar -xzf $file -C /usr/src
? end
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Chapter 29 Obtaining the sources
29.3.2 Downloading sources for a NetBSD stable branch
$ ftp -i ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-release-4-0/tar_files/src/
Trying 2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe21:6563...
Connected to ftp.NetBSD.org.
220 ftp.NetBSD.org FTP server (NetBSD-ftpd 20070809) ready.
331 Guest login ok, type your name as password.
[...]
250 CWD command successful.
250 CWD command successful.
250 CWD command successful.
250 CWD command successful.
ftp> mget *.tar.gz
local: bin.tar.gz remote: bin.tar.gz
229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||56011|)
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ’bin.tar.gz’ (914202 bytes).
[...]
ftp> quit
221Data traffic for this session was 149221420 bytes in 22 files.
Total traffic for this session was 149231539 bytes in 23 transfers.
221 Thank you for using the FTP service on ftp.NetBSD.org.
You should now have 22 files:
$ ls *.tar.gz
bin.tar.gz
config.tar.gz
contrib.tar.gz
crypto.tar.gz
dist.tar.gz
distrib.tar.gz
doc.tar.gz
etc.tar.gz
games.tar.gz
gnu.tar.gz
include.tar.gz
lib.tar.gz
libexec.tar.gz
regress.tar.gz
rescue.tar.gz
sbin.tar.gz
share.tar.gz
sys.tar.gz
tools.tar.gz
top-level.tar.gz
usr.bin.tar.gz
usr.sbin.tar.gz
You now must extract them all:
$ foreach file (*.tar.gz)
?
tar -xzf $file -C /usr/src
? end
29.3.3 Downloading sources for a NetBSD-current development branch
To download the NetBSD-current tarballs, located under
/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/src, just follow the same steps as in the previous
section, but now on a different directory.
You may also want to fetch the X11R6 source, available under:
/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/tar_files/xsrc.
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Chapter 29 Obtaining the sources
29.4 Fetching by CVS
CVS (Concurrent Versions System) can be used to fetch the NetBSD source tree or to keep the NetBSD
source tree up to date with respect to changes made to the NetBSD sources. There are three trees
maintained for which you can use cvs(1) to obtain them or keep them up to date:
The list of currently maintained branches is available under src/doc/BRANCHES (see the “Status” entry
on “Release branches” section).
Before you can do an initial (full) checkout of the NetBSD sources via anonymous CVS, you first have to
set some environment variables. For the C-Shell, type:
$ setenv CVS_RSH ssh
$ setenv CVSROOT anoncvs@anoncvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot
Or, the same for the bourne shell:
$ export CVS_RSH="ssh"
$ export CVSROOT="anoncvs@anoncvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot"
We will also use the -P option in the examples below since it is used to prune empty directories.
29.4.1 Fetching a NetBSD release
A release is a set of particular versions of source files, and once released does not change over time.
To get the NetBSD (kernel and userland) sources from a specific release, run the following command
after the preparations done above:
$ cd /usr
$ cvs checkout -r <BRANCH> -P src
Where <BRANCH> is the release branch to be checked out, for example, “netbsd-3-1-RELEASE” or
“netbsd-4-0-RELEASE”. If you want to fetch a different patchlevel, you would use
“netbsd-3-0-1-RELEASE” or “netbsd-3-0-2-RELEASE”.
For example, in order to fetch “netbsd-4-0-RELEASE” you would use:
$ cvs checkout -r netbsd-4-0-RELEASE -P src
To fetch the X11R6 source, just “checkout” the “xsrc” module. For example:
$ cvs checkout -r netbsd-4-0-RELEASE -P xsrc
29.4.2 Fetching a NetBSD stable branch
NetBSD stable branches are also called “Maintenance branches”. Please consult the Section 29.2.
If you want to follow a stable branch, just pass the branch name to the cvs(1) -r option.
For example, if you want to fetch the most recent version of “netbsd-4”, you just need to use that tag:
$ cd /usr
$ cvs checkout -r netbsd-4 -P src
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Chapter 29 Obtaining the sources
And for the “xsrc” module:
$ cvs checkout -r netbsd-4 -P xsrc
If you have checked out sources from a stable branch in /usr/src and want to update them to get the
latest security-fixes and bug-fixes, run:
$ cd /usr/src
$ cvs update -Pd
The same applies to the “xsrc” module, but in that case you will have to change your working directory
to /usr/xsrc first.
Caution!: Be sure to take care in selecting the correct and desired branch tag so you don’t
accidentally downgrade your source tree.
29.4.3 Fetching the NetBSD-current development branch
To obtain the NetBSD-current source just omit “-r <BRANCH>” and replace it by “-A”:
$ cd /usr
$ cvs checkout -A -P src
The “xsrc” is also available:
$ cd /usr
$ cvs checkout -A -P xsrc
To update your NetBSD-current source tree, add the -A flag:
$ cd /usr/src
$ cvs update -A -Pd
29.4.4 Saving some cvs(1) options
If you find yourself typing some options to cvs over and over again, you can as well put them into a file
.cvsrc in your home directory. It is useful for just typing cvs update on a directory with a branch
checked out to update it (adding -A would revert the branch to the -current branch, which is not what one
usually wants!), For unified diffs, transfers should be compressed and “cvs update” should be mostly
quiet:
Example 29-1. .cvsrc
#update
update
rdiff
diff
-dPA
-dP
-u
-u
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Chapter 29 Obtaining the sources
cvs
-q
29.5 Sources on CD (ISO)
If you prefer to download (and maybe burn) a CD-ROM image with the NetBSD source, just fetch
sourcecd-<RELEASE-NUMBER>.iso from ftp.NetBSD.org or any other mirror.
The sourcecd-<RELEASE-NUMBER>.iso file is located under /pub/NetBSD/iso/<RELEASE>, where
<RELEASE-NUMBER> is a release of NetBSD, for example, 3.1 or 4.0:
ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.1/sourcecd-3.1.iso
ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/4.0/sourcecd-4.0.iso
The next step is to burn the ISO image or mount it with the help of vnconfig(8). Please see Chapter 13 as
it explains in detail how to do it.
Assuming you have mounted the CD under /mnt, /mnt/source/sets should have everything you
need to extract:
$ ls /mnt/source/sets
BSDSUM
CKSUM
MD5
SYSVSUM
gnusrc.tgz
sharesrc.tgz
src.tgz
syssrc.tgz
xsrc.tgz
All tarballs should be extracted to the root file system (/). The following command will do it:
$ foreach file (*.tgz)
?
tar -xzf $file -C /
? end
After that, you should have /usr/src and /usr/xsrc populated with the NetBSD sources.
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Chapter 30
Crosscompiling NetBSD with
build.sh
When targeting a product for an embedded platform, it’s not feasible to have all the development tools
available on that same platform. Instead, some method of crosscompiling is usually used today. NetBSD
1.6 and forward comes with a framework to build both the operating system’s kernel and the whole
userland for either the same platform that the compiler runs on, or for a different platform, using
crosscompiling. Crosscompiling requires assembler, linker, compiler etc. to be available and built for the
target platform. The new build scheme will take care of creating these tools for a given platform, and
make them available ready to use to do development work.
In this chapter, we will show how to use build.sh to first create a crosscompiling toolchain, including
cross-compiler, cross-assembler, cross-linker and so on. While native kernel builds are covered in
Chapter 31, these tools are then used to manually configure and crosscompile a kernel for a different
platform, and then show how to use build.sh as a convenient alternative. After that works, the whole
NetBSD userland will be compiled and packed up in the format of a NetBSD release. In the examples,
we will use the Sun UltraSPARC ("sparc64") 64-bit platform as target platform, any other platform
supported by NetBSD can be targetted as well specifying its name (see /usr/src/sys/arch).
Before starting, take note that it is assumed that the NetBSD sources from the "netbsd-4-0" branch are
available in /usr/src as described in Chapter 29.
A more detailed description of the build.sh framework can be found in Luke Mewburn and Matthew
Green’s paper (http://www.mewburn.net/luke/papers/build.sh.pdf) and their presentation
(http://www.mewburn.net/luke/talks/bsdcon-2003/index.html) from BSDCon 2003 as well as in
/usr/src/BUILDING.
30.1 Building the crosscompiler
The first step to do cross-development is to get all the necessary tools available. In NetBSD terminology,
this is called the "toolchain", and it includes BSD-compatible make(1), C/C++ compilers, linker,
assembler, config(8), as well as a fair number of tools that are only required when crosscompiling a full
NetBSD release, which we won’t cover here.
The command to create the crosscompiler is quite simple, using NetBSD’s new src/build.sh script.
Please note that all the commands here can be run as normal (non-root) user:
$ cd /usr/src
$ ./build.sh -m sparc64 tools
Make sure that the directory /usr/obj does exist, or add a "-O" option to the build.sh call, redirecting
the object directory someplace else.
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Chapter 30 Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh
If the tools have been built previously and they only need updated, then the update option "-u" can be
used to only rebuild tools that have changed:
$ ./build.sh -u -m sparc64 tools
When the tools are built, information about them and several environment variables is printed out:
...
===> build.sh started: Thu Dec 2 22:18:11 CET 2007
===> build.sh ended:
Thu Dec 2 22:28:22 CET 2007
===> Summary of results:
build.sh command: ./build.sh -m sparc64 tools
build.sh started: Thu Dec 2 22:18:11 CET 2007
No nonexistent/bin/nbmake, needs building.
Bootstrapping nbmake
MACHINE:
sparc64
MACHINE_ARCH:
sparc64
TOOLDIR path:
/usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386
DESTDIR path:
/usr/src/destdir.sparc64
RELEASEDIR path: /usr/src/releasedir
Created /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake
makewrapper:
/usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake-sparc64
Updated /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake-sparc64
Tools built to /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386
build.sh started: Thu Dec 2 22:18:11 CET 2007
build.sh ended:
Thu Dec 2 22:28:22 CET 2007
===> .
During the build, object directories are used consistently, i.e. special directories are kept that keep the
platform-specific object files and compile results. In our example, they will be kept in directories named
"obj.sparc64" as we build for UltraSPARC as target platform.
The toolchain itself is part of this, but as it’s hosted and compiled for a i386 system, it will get placed in
its own directory indicating where to cross-build from. Here’s where our crosscompiler tools are located:
$ pwd
/usr/src
$ ls -d tooldir.*
tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386
So the general rule of thumb is for a given "host" and "target" system combination, the crosscompiler
will be placed in the "src/tooldir.host" directory by default. A full list of all tools created for
crosscompiling the whole NetBSD operating system includes:
$ ls tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/
nbasn1_compile
nbcap_mkdb
nbcat
nbcksum
nbcompile_et
nbconfig
nbcrunchgen
nbctags
nbmakefs
nbmakeinfo
nbmakewhatis
nbmenuc
nbmkcsmapper
nbmkdep
nbmkesdb
nbmklocale
nbzic
sparc64--netbsd-addr2li
sparc64--netbsd-ar
sparc64--netbsd-as
sparc64--netbsd-c++
sparc64--netbsd-c++filt
sparc64--netbsd-cpp
sparc64--netbsd-dbsym
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Chapter 30 Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh
nbdb
nbeqn
nbfgen
nbfile
nbgencat
nbgroff
nbhexdump
nbhost-mkdep
nbindxbib
nbinfo
nbinfokey
nbinstall
nbinstall-info
nbinstallboot
nblex
nblorder
nbm4
nbmake
nbmake-sparc64
nbmknod
nbmktemp
nbmsgc
nbmtree
nbnroff
nbpax
nbpic
nbpwd_mkdb
nbrefer
nbrpcgen
nbsoelim
nbstat
nbsunlabel
nbtbl
nbtexi2dvi
nbtexindex
nbtsort
nbuudecode
nbyacc
sparc64--netbsd-g++
sparc64--netbsd-g77
sparc64--netbsd-gcc
sparc64--netbsd-gcc-3.3
sparc64--netbsd-gccbug
sparc64--netbsd-gcov
sparc64--netbsd-ld
sparc64--netbsd-lint
sparc64--netbsd-mdsetim
sparc64--netbsd-nm
sparc64--netbsd-objcopy
sparc64--netbsd-objdump
sparc64--netbsd-ranlib
sparc64--netbsd-readelf
sparc64--netbsd-size
sparc64--netbsd-strings
sparc64--netbsd-strip
As you can see, most of the tools that are available native on NetBSD are present with some program
prefix to identify the target platform for tools that are specific to a certain target platform.
One important tool that should be pointed out here is "nbmake-sparc64". This is a shell wrapper for a
BSD compatible make(1) command that’s setup to use all the right commands from the crosscompiler
toolchain. Using this wrapper instead of /usr/bin/make allows crosscompiling programs that were written
using the NetBSD Makefile infrastructure (see src/share/mk). We will use this make(1) wrapper in a
second to cross compile the kernel!
30.2 Configuring the kernel manually
Now that we have a working crosscompiler available, the "usual" steps for building a kernel are needed create a kernel config file, run config(8), then build. As the config(8) program used to create header files
and Makefile for a kernel build is platform specific, we need to use the "nbconfig" program that’s part of
our new toolchain. That aside, the procedure is just as like compiling a "native" NetBSD kernel.
Commands involved here are:
$
$
$
$
cd /usr/src/sys/arch/sparc64/conf
cp GENERIC MYKERNEL
vi MYKERNEL
/usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbconfig MYKERNEL
That’s all. This command has created a directory ../compile/MYKERNEL with a number of header files
defining information about devices to compile into the kernel, a Makefile that is setup to build all the
needed files for the kernel, and link them together.
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Chapter 30 Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh
30.3 Crosscompiling the kernel manually
We have all the files and tools available to crosscompile our UltraSPARC-based kernel from our
Intel-based host system, so let’s get to it! After changing in the directory created in the previous step, we
need to use the crosscompiler toolchain’s nbmake-sparc64 shell wrapper, which just calls make(1)
with all the necessary settings for crosscompiling for a sparc64 platform:
$ cd ../compile/MYKERNEL/
$ /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake-sparc64 depend
$ /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake-sparc64
This will churn away a bit, then spit out a kernel:
...
text
5016899
data
163728
bss
dec
628752 5809379
hex filename
58a4e3 netbsd
$ ls -l netbsd
-rwxr-xr-x
1 feyrer
666
5874663 Dec
2 23:17 netbsd
$ file netbsd
netbsd: ELF 64-bit MSB executable, SPARC V9, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, not str
Now the kernel in the file netbsd can either be transferred to a UltraSPARC machine (via NFS, FTP,
scp, etc.) and booted from a possible harddisk, or directly from our cross-development machine using
NFS.
After configuring and crosscompiling the kernel, the next logical step is to crosscompile the whole
system, and bring it into a distribution-ready format. Before doing so, an alternative approach to
crosscompiling a kernel will be shown in the next section, using the build.sh script to do configuration
and crosscompilation of the kernel in one step.
30.4 Crosscompiling the kernel with build.sh
A cross compiled kernel can be done manually as described in the previous sections, or by the easier
method of using build.sh, which will be shown here.
Preparation of the kernel config file is the same as described above:
$ cd /usr/src/sys/arch/sparc64/conf
$ cp GENERIC MYKERNEL
$ vi MYKERNEL
Then edit MYKERNEL and once finished, all that needs to be done is to use build.sh to build the kernel
(it will also configure it, running the steps shown above):
$ cd /usr/src
$ ./build.sh -u -m sparc64 kernel=MYKERNEL
Notice that update ("-u") was specified, the tools are already built, there is no reason to rebuild all of the
tools. Once the kernel is built, build.sh will print out the location of it along with other information:
...
===> Summary of results:
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Chapter 30 Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh
build.sh command: ./build.sh -u -m sparc64 kernel=MYKERNEL
build.sh started: Thu Dec 2 23:30:02 CET 2007
No nonexistent/bin/nbmake, needs building.
Bootstrapping nbmake
MACHINE:
sparc64
MACHINE_ARCH:
sparc64
TOOLDIR path:
/usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386
DESTDIR path:
/usr/src/destdir.sparc64
RELEASEDIR path: /usr/src/releasedir
Created /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake
makewrapper:
/usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake-sparc64
Updated /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake-sparc64
Building kernel without building new tools
Building kernel: MYKERNEL
Build directory: /usr/src/sys/arch/sparc64/compile/obj.sparc64/GENERIC
Kernels built from MYKERNEL:
/usr/src/sys/arch/sparc64/compile/obj.sparc64/MYKERNEL/netbsd
build.sh started: Thu Dec 2 23:30:02 CET 2007
build.sh ended:
Thu Dec 2 23:38:22 CET 2007
===> .
The path to the kernel built is of interest here:
/usr/src/sys/arch/sparc64/compile/obj.sparc64/MYKERNEL/netbsd, it can be used the
same way as described above.
30.5 Crosscompiling the userland
By now it is probably becoming clear that the toolchain actually works in stages. First the crosscompiler
is built, then a kernel. Since build.sh will attempt to rebuild the tools at every invocation, using
“update” saves time. It is probably also clear that outside of a few options, the build.sh semantics are
basically build.sh command . So, it stands to reason that building the whole userland and/or a release is
a matter of using the right commands.
It should be no surprise that building and creating a release would look like the following:
$ ./build.sh -U -u -m sparc64 release
These commands will compile the full NetBSD userland and put it into a destination directory, and then
build a release from it in a release directory. The -U switch is added here for an unprivileged build, i.e.
one that’s running as normal user and not as root. As no further switches to build.sh were given nor any
environment variables were set, the defaults of DESTDIR=/usr/src/destdir.sparc64 and
RELEASEDIR=/usr/src/releasedir are used, as shown in the build.sh-output above.
30.6 Crosscompiling the X Window System
The NetBSD project has its own copy of the X Window System’s source which is currently based on
XFree86 version 4, and which contains changes to make X going on as many of the platforms supported
by NetBSD as possible. Due to this, it is desirable to use the X Window System version available from
and for NetBSD, which can also be crosscompiled much like the kernel and base system. To do so, the
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"xsrc" sources must be checked out from CVS into /usr/xsrc just as "src" and "pkgsrc" were as
described in Chapter 29.
After this, X can be crosscompiled for the target platform by adding the -x switch to build.sh, e.g. when
creating a full release:
$ ./build.sh -U -x -u -m sparc64 release
The -U flag for doing unprivileged (non-root) builds and the -u flag for not removing old files before
building as well as the -m arch option to define the target architecture have already been introduced, and
the -x option to also (cross)compile "xsrc" is another option.
30.7 Changing build behaviour
Similar to the old, manual building method, the new toolchain has a lot of variables that can be used to
direct things like where certain files go, what (if any) tools are used and so on. A look in src/BUILDING
covers most of them. In this section some examples of changing default settings are given, each
following its own ways.
30.7.1 Changing the Destination Directory
Many people like to track NetBSD-current and perform cross compiles of architectures that they use.
The logic for this is simple, sometimes a new feature or device becomes available and someone may
wish to use it. By keeping track of changes and building every now and again, one can be assured that
these architectures can build their own release.
It is reasonable to assume that if one is tracking and building for more than one architecture, they might
want to keep the builds in a different location than the default. There are two ways to go about this, either
use a script to set the new DESTDIR, or simply do so interactively. In any case, it can be set the same
way as any other variable (depending on your shell of course).
For bash, the Bourne or Korn shell, this is:
$ export DESTDIR=/usr/builds/sparc64
For tcsh and the C shell, the command is:
$ setenv DESTDIR /usr/builds/sparc64
Simple enough. When the build is run, the binaries and files will be sent to /usr/builds.
30.7.2 Static Builds
The NetBSD toolchain builds and links against shared libraries by default. Many users still prefer to be
able to link statically. Sometimes a small system can be created without having shared libraries, which is
a good example of doing a full static build. If a particular build machine will always need one
environment variable set in a particular way, then it is easiest to simply add the changed setting to
/etc/mk.conf.
To make sure a build box always builds statically, simply add the following line to /etc/mk.conf:
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LDSTATIC=-static
30.7.3 Using build.sh options
Besides variables in environment and /etc/mk.conf, the build process can be influenced by a number
of switches to the build.sh script itself, as we have already seen when forcing unprivileged (non-root)
builds, selecting the target architecture or preventing deletion of old files before the build. All these
options can be listed by running build.sh -h:
$ cd /usr/src
$ build.sh -h
Usage: build.sh [-EnorUux] [-a arch] [-B buildid] [-D dest] [-j njob]
[-M obj] [-m mach] [-N noisy] [-O obj] [-R release] [-T tools]
[-V var=[value]] [-w wrapper] [-X x11src] [-Z var]
operation [...]
Build operations (all imply "obj" and "tools"):
build
Run "make build".
distribution
Run "make distribution" (includes DESTDIR/etc/ files).
release
Run "make release" (includes kernels and distrib media).
Other operations:
help
makewrapper
Show this message and exit.
Create nbmake-${MACHINE} wrapper and nbmake.
Always performed.
obj
Run "make obj". [Default unless -o is used]
tools
Build and install tools.
install=idir
Run "make installworld" to ‘idir’ to install all sets
except ‘etc’. Useful after "distribution" or "release"
kernel=conf
Build kernel with config file ‘conf’
releasekernel=conf Install kernel built by kernel=conf to RELEASEDIR.
sets
Create binary sets in RELEASEDIR/MACHINE/binary/sets.
DESTDIR should be populated beforehand.
sourcesets
Create source sets in RELEASEDIR/source/sets.
params
Display various make(1) parameters.
Options:
-a arch
-B buildId
-D dest
-E
Set MACHINE_ARCH to arch. [Default: deduced from MACHINE]
Set BUILDID to buildId.
Set DESTDIR to dest. [Default: destdir.MACHINE]
Set "expert" mode; disables various safety checks.
Should not be used without expert knowledge of the build system.
-j njob
Run up to njob jobs in parallel; see make(1) -j.
-M obj
Set obj root directory to obj; sets MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX.
Unsets MAKEOBJDIR.
-m mach
Set MACHINE to mach; not required if NetBSD native.
-N noisy Set the noisyness (MAKEVERBOSE) level of the build:
0 Quiet
1 Operations are described, commands are suppressed
2 Full output
[Default: 2]
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-n
-O obj
Show commands that would be executed, but do not execute them.
Set obj root directory to obj; sets a MAKEOBJDIR pattern.
Unsets MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX.
-o
Set MKOBJDIRS=no; do not create objdirs at start of build.
-R release Set RELEASEDIR to release. [Default: releasedir]
-r
Remove contents of TOOLDIR and DESTDIR before building.
-T tools
Set TOOLDIR to tools. If unset, and TOOLDIR is not set in
the environment, nbmake will be (re)built unconditionally.
-U
Set MKUNPRIVED=yes; build without requiring root privileges,
install from an UNPRIVED build with proper file permissions.
-u
Set MKUPDATE=yes; do not run "make clean" first.
Without this, everything is rebuilt, including the tools.
-V v=[val] Set variable ‘v’ to ‘val’.
-w wrapper Create nbmake script as wrapper.
[Default: ${TOOLDIR}/bin/nbmake-${MACHINE}]
-X x11src
Set X11SRCDIR to x11src. [Default: /usr/xsrc]
-x
Set MKX11=yes; build X11R6 from X11SRCDIR
-Z v
Unset ("zap") variable ‘v’.
As can be seen, a number of switches can be set to change the standard build behaviour. A number of
them has already been introduced, others can be set as appropriate.
30.7.4 make(1) variables used during build
Several variables control the behaviour of NetBSD builds. Unless otherwise specified, these variables
may be set in either the process environment or in the make(1) configuration file specified by MAKECONF.
For a definitive list of these options, see BUILDING and share/mk/bsd.README files in the toplevel
source directory.
BUILDID
Identifier for the build. The identifier will be appended to object directory names, and can be
consulted in the make(1) configuration file in order to set additional build parameters, such as
compiler flags.
DESTDIR
Directory to contain the built NetBSD system. If set, special options are passed to the compilation
tools to prevent their default use of the host system’s /usr/include, /usr/lib, and so forth. This
pathname should not end with a slash (/) character (For installation into the system’s root directory,
set DESTDIR to an empty string). The directory must reside on a filesystem which supports long
filenames and hard links.
Defaults to an empty string if USETOOLS is “yes”; unset otherwise. Note: build.sh will provide a
default (destdir.MACHINE in the top-level .OBJDIR) unless run in “expert” mode.
EXTERNAL_TOOLCHAIN
If defined by the user, points to the root of an external toolchain (e.g. /usr/local/gnu). This
enables the cross-build framework even when default toolchain is not available (see
TOOLCHAIN_MISSING below).
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Default: Unset
MAKEVERBOSE
The verbosity of build messages. Supported values:
0
No descriptive
messages are
shown.
1
Descriptive
messages are
shown.
2
Descriptive
messages are
shown (prefixed
with a ’#’) and
command
output is not
suppressed.
Default: 2
MKCATPAGES
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether preformatted plaintext manual pages will be created
during a build.
Default: “yes”
MKCRYPTO
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether cryptographic code will be included in a build;
provided for the benefit of countries that do not allow strong cryptography. Will not affect the
standard low-security password encryption system, crypt(3).
Default: “yes”
MKDOC
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether system documentation destined for
DESTDIR/usr/share/doc will be installed during a build.
Default: “yes”
MKHOSTOBJ
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. If set to “yes”, then for programs intended to be run on the compile
host, the name, release and architecture of the host operating system will be suffixed to the name of
the object directory created by “make obj”. This allows for multiple host systems to compile
NetBSD for a single target. If set to “no”, then programs built to be run on the compile host will use
the same object directory names as programs built to be run on the target.
Default: “no”
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MKINFO
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether GNU info files, used for the documentation of most
of the compilation tools, will be created and installed during a build.
Default: “yes”
MKLINT
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether lint(1) will be run against portions of the NetBSD
source code during the build, and whether lint libraries will be installed into
DESTDIR/usr/libdata/lint
Default: “yes”
MKMAN
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether manual pages will be installed during a build.
Default: “yes”
MKNLS
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether Native Language System locale zone files will be
compiled and installed during a build.
Default: “yes”
MKOBJ
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether object directories will be created when running
“make obj”. If set to “no”, then all built files will be located inside the regular source tree.
Default: “yes”
MKPIC
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether shared objects and libraries will be created and
installed during a build. If set to “no”, the entire build will be statically linked.
Default: Platform dependent. As of this writing, all platforms except sh3 default to “yes”
MKPICINSTALL
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether the ar(1) format libraries (lib*_pic.a), used to
generate shared libraries, are installed during a build.
Default: “yes”
MKPROFILE
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether profiled libraries (lib*_p.a) will be built and
installed during a build.
Default: “yes”; however, some platforms turn off MKPROFILE by default at times due to toolchain
problems with profiled code.
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MKSHARE
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether files destined to reside in DESTDIR/usr/share will
be built and installed during a build. If set to “no”, then all of MKCATPAGES, MKDOC, MKINFO,
MKMAN and MKNLS will be set to “no” unconditionally.
Default: “yes”
MKTTINTERP
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. For X builds, decides if the TrueType bytecode interpreter is turned on.
See freetype.org (http://freetype.org/patents.html) for details.
Default: “no”
MKUNPRIVED
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether an unprivileged install will occur. The user, group,
permissions and file flags will not be set on the installed items; instead the information will be
appended to a file called METALOG in DESTDIR. The contents of METALOG are used during the
generation of the distribution tar files to ensure that the appropriate file ownership is stored.
Default: “no”
MKUPDATE
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether all install operations intended to write to DESTDIR
will compare file timestamps before installing, and skip the install phase if the destination files are
up-to-date. This also has implications on full builds (See below).
Default: “no”
MKX11
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether X11R6 is built from X11SRCDIR.
Default: “yes”
TOOLDIR
Directory to hold the host tools, once built. This directory should be unique to a given host system
and NetBSD source tree. (However, multiple targets may share the same TOOLDIR; the
target-dependent files have unique names). If unset, a default based on the uname(1) information of
the host platform will be created in the .OBJDIR of src.
Default: Unset.
USETOOLS
Indicates whether the tools specified by TOOLDIR should be used as part of a build in progress.
Must be set to “yes” if cross-compiling.
yes
Use the tools
from TOOLDIR.
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no
Do not use the
tools from
TOOLNAME, but
refuse to build
native
compilation tool
components that
are
version-specific
for that tool.
never
Do not use the
tools from
TOOLNAME,
even when
building native
tool
components.
This is similar
to the traditional
NetBSD build
method, but
does not verify
that the
compilation
tools in use are
up-to-date
enough in order
to build the tree
successfully.
This may cause
build or runtime
problems when
building the
whole NetBSD
source tree.
Default: “yes” if building all or part of a whole NetBSD source tree (detected automatically); “no”
otherwise (to preserve traditional semantics of the bsd.*.mk make(1) include files).
X11SRCDIR
Directory containing the X11R6 source. The main X11R6 source is found in
X11SRCDIR/xfree/xc.
Default: “usr/xsrc”
The following variables only affect the top level Makefile and do not affect manually building subtrees
of the NetBSD source code.
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INSTALLWORLDDIR
Location for the “make installworld” target to install to.
Default: “/”
MKOBJDIRS
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. Indicates whether object directories will be created automatically (via a
“make obj” pass) at the start of a build.
Default: “no”
MKUPDATE
Can be set to “yes” or “no”. If set, then addition to the effects described for MKUPDATE=yes above,
this implies the effect of NOCLEANDIR (i.e., “make cleandir” is avoided).
Default: “no”
NOCLEANDIR
If set, avoids the “make cleandir” phase of a full build. This has the effect of allowing only changed
files in a source tree to recompiled. This can speed up builds when updating only a few files in the
tree.
Default: Unset
NODISTRIBDIRS
If set, avoids the “make distrib-dirs” of a full build. This skips running mtree(8) on DESTDIR, useful
on systems where building as an unprivileged user, or where it is known that the system wide mtree
files have not changed.
Default: Unset
NOINCLUDES
If set, avoids the “make includes” phase of a full build. This has the effect of preventing make(1)
from thinking that some programs are out-of-date simply because system include files have
changed. However, this option should not be trusted when updating the entire NetBSD source tree
arbitrarily; it is suggested to use MKUPDATE=yes in that case.
Default: Unset
RELEASEDIR
If set, specifies the directory to which a release(7) layout will be written at the end of a “make
release”.
Default: Unset
TOOLCHAIN_MISSING
Set to “yes” on platforms for which there is no working in-tree toolchain, or if you need/wish using
native system toolchain (i.e. non-cross tools available via your shell search path).
Default: depends on target platform; on platforms with in-tree toolchain is set to “no”.
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Chapter 31
Compiling the kernel
Most NetBSD users will sooner or later want to recompile their kernel, or compile a customized kernel.
This might be for several reasons:
•
you can install bug-fixes, security updates, or new functionality by rebuilding the kernel from updated
sources.
•
by removing unused device drivers and kernel sub-systems from your configuration, you can
dramatically reduce kernel size and, therefore, memory usage.
•
by enabling optimisations more specific to your hardware, or tuning the system to match your specific
sizing and workload, you can improve performance.
•
you can access additional features by enabling kernel options or sub-systems, some of which are
experimental or disabled by default.
•
you can solve problems of detection/conflicts of peripherals.
•
you can customize some options (for example keyboard layout, BIOS clock offset, ...)
•
you can get a deeper knowledge of the system.
31.1 Requirements and procedure
To recompile the kernel you must have installed the compiler set (comp.tgz).
The basic steps to an updated or customised kernel then are:
1. Install or update the kernel sources
2. Create or modify the kernel configuration file
3. Building the kernel from the configuration file, either manually or using build.sh
4. Install the kernel
31.2 Installing the kernel sources
You can get the kernel sources from AnonCVS (see Chapter 29), or from the syssrc.tgz
tarball that is located in the source/sets/ directory of the release that you are using.
If you chose to use AnonCVS to fetch the entire source tree, be patient, the operation can last many
minutes, because the repository contains thousands of files.
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Chapter 31 Compiling the kernel
If you have a source tarball, you can extract it as root:
# cd /
# tar zxf /path/to/syssrc.tgz
Even if you used the tarball from the release, you may wish to use AnonCVS to update the sources with
changes that have been applied since the release. This might be especially relevant if you are updating
the kernel to include the fix for a specific bug, including a vulnerability described in a NetBSD Security
Advisory. You might want to get the latest sources on the relevant release or critical updates branch for
your version, or Security Advisories will usually contain information on the dates or revisions of the files
containing the specific fixes concerned. See Section 29.4 for more details on the CVS commands used to
update sources from these branches.
Once you have the sources available, you can create a custom kernel: this is not as difficult as you might
think. In fact, a new kernel can be created in a few steps which will be described in the following
sections.
31.3 Creating the kernel configuration file
The directories described in this section are i386 specific. Users of other architectures must substitute the
appropriate directories, see the subdirectories of src/sys/arch for a list.
The kernel configuration file defines the type, the number and the characteristics of the devices supported
by the kernel as well as several kernel configuration options. For the i386 port, kernel configuration files
are located in the /usr/src/sys/arch/i386/conf directory.
Please note that the names of the kernel configuration files are historically in all uppercase, so they are
easy to distinguish from other files in that directory:
$ cd /usr/src/sys/arch/i386/conf/
$ ls
CARDBUS
CVS
DELPHI
DISKLESS
GENERIC
GENERIC.FAST_IPSEC
GENERIC.MP
GENERIC.MPDEBUG
GENERIC.local
GENERIC_DIAGNOSTIC
GENERIC_ISDN
GENERIC_LAPTOP
GENERIC_PS2TINY
GENERIC_TINY
GENERIC_VERIEXEC
INSTALL
INSTALL.MP
INSTALL_LAPTOP
INSTALL_PS2
INSTALL_SMALL
INSTALL_TINY
IOPENER
LAMB
Makefile.i386
NET4501
SWINGER
SWINGER.MP
VIRTUALPC
files.i386
kern.ldscript
kern.ldscript.4MB
largepages.inc
majors.i386
std.i386
The easiest way to create a new file is to copy an existing one and modify it. Usually the best choice on
most platforms is the GENERIC configuration, as it contains most drivers and options. In the
configuration file there are comments describing the options; a more detailed description is found in the
options(4) man page. So, the usual procedure is:
$ cp GENERIC MYKERNEL
$ vi MYKERNEL
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Chapter 31 Compiling the kernel
The modification of a kernel configuration file basically involves three operations:
1. support for hardware devices is included/excluded in the kernel (for example, SCSI support can be
removed if it is not needed.)
2. support for kernel features is enabled/disabled (for example, enable NFS client support, enable
Linux compatibility, ...)
3. tuning kernel parameters.
Lines beginning with “#” are comments; lines are disabled by commenting them and enabled by
removing the comment character. It is better to comment lines instead of deleting them; it is always
possible uncomment them later.
The output of the dmesg(8) command can be used to determine which lines can be disabled. For each
line of the type:
XXX at YYY
both XXX and YYY must be active in the kernel configuration file. You’ll probably have to experiment a
bit before achieving a minimal configuration but on a desktop system without SCSI and PCMCIA you
can halve the kernel size.
You should also examine the options in the configuration file and disable the ones that you don’t need.
Each option has a short comment describing it, which is normally sufficient to understand what the
option does. Many options have a longer and more detailed description in the options(4) man page.
While you are at it you should set correctly the options for local time on the CMOS clock. For example:
options RTC_OFFSET=-60
The adjustkernel Perl script, which is available through pkgsrc, analyzes the output of dmesg(8) and
automatically generates a minimal configuration file. Installing adjustkernel basically boils down to:
$ cd /usr/pkgsrc/sysutils/adjustkernel
$ make install
You can now run the script with:
$ cd /usr/src/sys/arch/i386/conf
$ adjustkernel GENERIC > MYKERNEL
This script usually works very well, saving a lot of manual editing. But be aware that the script only
configures the available devices: you must still configure the other options manually.
31.4 Building the kernel manually
Based on your kernel configuration file, either one of the standard configurations or your customised
configuration, a new kernel must be built.
These steps can either be performed manually, or using the build.sh command that was introduced in
section Chapter 30. This section will give instructions on how to build a native kernel using manual
steps, the following section Section 31.5 describes how to use build.sh to do the same.
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Chapter 31 Compiling the kernel
•
Configure the kernel
•
Generate dependencies
•
Compile the kernel
31.4.1 Configuring the kernel manually
When you’ve finished modifying the kernel configuration file (which we’ll call MYKERNEL), you should
issue the following command:
$ config MYKERNEL
If MYKERNEL contains no errors, the config(8) program will create the necessary files for the compilation
of the kernel, otherwise it will be necessary to correct the errors before running config(8) again.
Notes for crosscompilings: As the config(8) program used to create header files and Makefile for a
kernel build is platform specific, it is necessary to use the nbconfig program that’s part of a newly
created toolchain (created for example with
/usr/src/build.sh -m sparc64 tools/
). That aside, the procedure is just as like compiling a "native" NetBSD kernel. The command is for
example:
% /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbconfig MYKERNEL
This command has created a directory ../compile/MYKERNEL with a number of header files defining
information about devices to compile into the kernel, a Makefile that is setup to build all the needed
files for the kernel, and link them together.
31.4.2 Generating dependencies and recompiling manually
Dependencies generation and kernel compilation is performed by the following commands:
$ cd ../compile/MYKERNEL
$ make depend
$ make
It can happen that the compilation stops with errors; there can be a variety of reasons but the most
common cause is an error in the configuration file which didn’t get caught by config(8). Sometimes the
failure is caused by a hardware problem (often faulty RAM chips): the compilation puts a higher stress
on the system than most applications do. Another typical error is the following: option B, active, requires
option A which is not active. A full compilation of the kernel can last from some minutes to several
hours, depending on the hardware.
The result of a successful make command is the netbsd file in the compile directory, ready to be
installed.
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Chapter 31 Compiling the kernel
Notes for crosscompilings: For crosscompiling a sparc64 kernel, it is necessary to use the
crosscompiler toolchain’s nbmake-sparc64 shell wrapper, which calls make(1) with all the necessary
settings for crosscompiling for a sparc64 platform:
% cd ../compile/MYKERNEL/
% /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake-sparc64 depend
% /usr/src/tooldir.NetBSD-4.0-i386/bin/nbmake-sparc64
This will churn away a bit, then spit out a kernel:
...
text
data
5016899 163728
bss
dec
628752 5809379
hex filename
58a4e3 netbsd
% ls -l netbsd
-rwxr-xr-x
1 feyrer
666
5874663 Dec
2 23:17 netbsd
% file netbsd
netbsd: ELF 64-bit MSB executable, SPARC V9, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, not stripped
Now the kernel in the file netbsd can either be transferred to an UltraSPARC machine (via NFS, FTP,
scp, etc.) and booted from a possible harddisk, or directly from the cross-development machine
using NFS.
31.5 Building the kernel using build.sh
After creating and possibly editing the kernel config file, the manual steps of configuring the kernel,
generating dependencies and recompiling can also be done using the src/build.sh script, all in one
go:
$ cd /usr/src
$ ./build.sh kernel=MYKERNEL
This will perform the same steps as above, with one small difference: before compiling, all old object
files will be removed, to start with a fresh build. This is usually overkill, and it’s fine to keep the old file
and only rebuild the ones whose dependencies have changed. To do this, add the -u option to build.sh:
$ cd /usr/src
$ ./build.sh -u kernel=MYKERNEL
At the end of its job, build.sh will print out the location where the new compiled kernel can be found.
It can then be installed.
31.6 Installing the new kernel
Whichever method was used to produce the new kernel file, it must now be installed. The new kernel file
should be copied to the root directory, after saving the previous version.
# mv /netbsd /netbsd.old
# mv netbsd /
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Chapter 31 Compiling the kernel
Customization can considerably reduce the kernel’s size. In the following example netbsd.old is the
install kernel and netbsd is the new kernel.
-rwxr-xr-x
-rwxr-xr-x
3 root
3 root
wheel
wheel
3523098 Dec 10 00:13 /netbsd
7566271 Dec 10 00:13 /netbsd.old
The new kernel is activated after rebooting:
# shutdown -r now
31.7 If something went wrong
When the computer is restarted it can happen that the new kernel doesn’t work as expected or even
doesn’t boot at all. Don’t worry: if this happens, just reboot with the previously saved kernel and remove
the new one (it is better to reboot “single user”):
•
Reboot the machine
•
Press the space bar at the boot prompt during the 5 seconds countdown
boot:
•
Type
> boot netbsd.old -s
•
Now issue the following commands to restore the previous version of the kernel:
#
#
#
#
fsck /
mount /
mv netbsd.old netbsd
reboot
This will give you back the working system you started with, and you can revise your custom kernel
config file to resolve the problem. In general, it’s wise to start with a GENERIC kernel first, and then
make gradual changes.
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Chapter 32
Updating an existing system
from sources
Note: Please remember to check src/UPDATING
(http://cvsweb.NetBSD.org/bsdweb.cgi/src/UPDATING) for the latest changes.
If you are running a stable NetBSD release (such as NetBSD 5.0 (../releases/formal-5/)), in a production
environment, you should occasionally update your sources and rebuild the system or the kernel, in order
to incorporate any security fixes that have been applied to the branch since its release.
Note: The update process is the same for NetBSD-current, therefore the following steps apply to
-current systems as well.
Most of the following steps can be done as ordinary user. Only the installation of a new kernel and the
userland will require root privileges. Although /usr is choosen as the working directory in the following
examples, the procedure can also take place in a user’s home directory. Ordinary users have normally not
the permissions to make changes in /usr, but this can be changed by root.
Having up-to-date sources is a prerequisite for the following steps. Section 29.4 informs about the ways
to retrieve or update the sources for a release, stable or current branch (using CVS).
Please always refer to the output of build.sh -h and the files UPDATING> and BUILDING for details - it’s
worth it, there are many options that can be set on the command line or in /etc/mk.conf
32.1 The updating procedure
32.1.1 Building a new userland
The first step is to build the userland:
$ cd /usr/src
$ ./build.sh -U distribution
32.1.2 Building a new kernel
The next step will build the kernel:
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Chapter 32 Updating an existing system from sources
$ cd /usr/src
$ ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools kernel=<KERNEL>
32.1.3 Installing the kernel and userland
Installing the new kernel, rebooting (to ensure that the new kernel works) and installing the new userland
are the final steps of the updating procedure:
$
$
#
#
#
cd /usr/src
su
mv /netbsd /netbsd.old
mv /usr/obj/sys/arch/<ARCH>/compile/<KERNEL>/netbsd /
shutdown -r now
...
$ cd /usr/src
$ su
# ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -U install=/
If the new kernel netbsd does not boot successfully, you can fall back on booting the netbsd.old
kernel.
32.1.4 Updating the system configuration files
Run the etcupdate script (etcupdate(8)) and follow the instructions in the output for fixing obsolete files:
# /usr/sbin/etcupdate -s /usr/src
Optionally reboot to ensure all running services are using the new binaries:
# shutdown -r now
32.1.5 Summary
1.
From the root of the source tree:
$ cd /usr/src
2.
Build the userland:
$ ./build.sh
3.
Build the kernel:
$ ./build.sh
4.
-O ../obj -T ../tools -U -u distribution
-O ../obj -T ../tools -U -u kernel=GENERIC
Install the kernel:
$ cd ../obj/sys/arch/<ARCH>/compile/GENERIC
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Chapter 32 Updating an existing system from sources
$ su
# mv /netbsd /netbsd.old
# cp netbsd /netbsd
5.
Reboot into the new kernel:
# shutdown -r now
6.
Install the new userland:
$ cd /usr/src
$ su
# ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -U install=/
7.
Update the system and configuration files;:
#
/usr/sbin/etcupdate -s /usr/src
Note: In the procedure above, the -u option indicates an update process, and that a make clean
operation should not be run before starting the build. This is useful when doing an update from a
previous build and/or a fresh build. The -U option allows the entire build by a non-root user followed
with an install by root.
32.1.6 Alternative: using sysinst
It is also possible to use sysinst to install a freshly built system. The steps are as follows:
1.
Build a complete release:
$ ./build.sh
-O ../obj -T ../tools -U -u -x release
2.
The resulting install sets will be in the /usr/obj/releasedir/ directory.
3.
Copy the install kernel to the root directory of your NetBSD system, reboot from it, and upgrade
with sysinst (see Chapter 4).
32.2 More details about the updating of configuration and startup
files
etcupdate is a script to help users compare, merge and install new configuration and startup files (files
found in the etc.tgz distribution set) in /dev, /etc and /root after performing an operating system upgrade.
The upgrade of the operating system could have been performed either by compiling sources or by
extracting the distribution binaries.
32.2.1 Using etcupdate with source files
In case where the sources are in /usr/src the following command should be enough:
# etcupdate
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Chapter 32 Updating an existing system from sources
But what if your NetBSD sources are in an alternative location, such as in /home/jdoe/netbsd/src?
Don’t worry, tell etcupdate the location of your source tree with -s srcdir and it will work just fine:
# etcupdate -s /home/jdoe/netbsd/src
32.2.2 Using etcupdate with binary distribution sets
Sometimes it’s not possible have the sources around but you still want to update the configuration and
startup files. The solution is to extract the desired distribution files (at least etc.tgz) and use the -b srcdir
switch to tell etcupdate that we don’t have the sources but only the official distribution sets.
#
#
#
#
mkdir /tmp/temproot
cd /tmp/temproot
tar xpzf /some/where/etc.tgz
etcupdate -s /tmp/temproot
32.2.3 Using etcmanage instead of etcupdate
The etcmanage perl script (available from pkgsrc/sysutils/etcmanage
(http://pkgsrc.se/sysutils/etcmanage) or as binary package) is an alternative to etcupdate. It should be
used in the following way, in combination with postinstall(8):
# /usr/pkg/bin/etcmanage
# /usr/sbin/postinstall
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Chapter 33
Building NetBSD installation
media
33.1 Creating custom install or boot floppies for your architecture
e.g. i386
Sometimes you may want to create your own boot or install floppies for i386 instead of using the
precompiled ones, or tailor the ones built by the NetBSD build system. This section outlines the steps to
do so.
The overall idea is to have a filesystem with some tools (sysinst, ls, whatever), and embed this filesystem
as some sort of ramdisk into a NetBSD kernel. The kernel needs to include the md pseudo device to be
able to hold a ramdisk. The kernel with the ramdisk can then be put on removable media or made
available via the net (using NFS or TFTP).
To perform the following steps, you need to be running a kernel with the vnd pseudo device enabled (this
is the default for a GENERIC kernel).
1.
First, you must create a valid kernel to put on your floppies, e.g. INSTALL. This kernel must include
the md pseudo device, which allows embedding a ramdisk. See Chapter 31 for kernel building
instructions.
2.
The next step is to create the ramdisk that gets embedded into the kernel. The ramdisk contains a
filesystem with whatever tools are needed, usually init(8) and some tools like sysinst, ls(1), etc. To
create the standard ramdisk, run make in the src/distrib/i386/ramdisks/ramdisk-big
directory (for NetBSD 3.x: src/distrib/i386/floppies/ramdisk-big).
This will create the ramdisk.fs file in the directory. If you want to customize the contents of the
filesystem, customize the list file.
3.
Now, the ramdisk gets inserted into the kernel, producing a new kernel which includes the ramdisk,
all in one file. To do so, change into the src/distrib/i386/instkernel directory (for NetBSD
3.x: src/distrib/i386/floppies/instkernel) and run make.
4.
The next step is to make one or more floppy images, depending on the size of the kernel (including
the ramdisk). This is done by changing into
/usr/src/distrib/i386/floppies/bootfloppy-big, and running make again.
This will create one or two (depending on the size of kernel) files named boot1.fs and boot2.fs
5.
Last, transfer these files to the floppies with the commands
# dd if=boot1.fs of=/dev/fd0a bs=36b
# dd if=boot2.fs of=/dev/fd0a bs=36b
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Chapter 33 Building NetBSD installation media
6.
Put the first floppy in the drive and power on!
33.2 Creating a custom install or boot CD with build.sh
Creating custom install or boot CDs is easy with build.sh. The NetBSD base system includes the makefs
tool for creating filesystems. This tool is used to create iso-images. Creating iso-images includes these
tasks:
1.
Release build
#./build.sh release
2.
CD-ROM iso-image build
#./build.sh iso-image
The build.sh iso-image command will build a CD-ROM image in
RELEASEDIR/MACHINE/installation
Warning
For now not all architectures are supported. The mac/68k ports doesn’t boot for
now.
345
Appendix A.
Information
A.1 Where to get this document
This document is currently available in the following formats:
•
HTML (http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/en/index.html)
•
gzip’d PDF (http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/download/netbsd-en.pdf.gz)
•
gzip’d PostScript (http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/download/netbsd-en.ps.gz)
In addition, this guide is also sold on occasion in printed form at tradeshows and exhibitions, with all
profits being donated to the NetBSD Foundation. On demand printing may at some point be available as
well. If you are interested in obtaining a printed and bound copy of this document, please contact
<www@NetBSD.org>.
A.2 Guide history
This guide was born as a collection of sparse notes that Federico Lupi, the original author of the NetBSD
Guide, wrote mostly for himself. When he realized that they could be useful to other NetBSD users he
started collecting them and created the first version of the guide using the groff formatter. In order to
“easily” get a wider variety of output formats (e.g. HTML and PostScript/PDF), he made the “mistake”
of moving to SGML/DocBook, which is the current format of the sources. Maintainership was picked up
by the NetBSD project and its developers later, and the format was changed to XML/DocBook later due
to better tools and slightly more knowhow on customisations.
The following open source tools were used to write and format the guide:
•
the vi editor which ships with NetBSD (nvi).
•
the libxslt parser from GNOME for transforming XML/DocBook into HTML.
•
the TeX system from the NetBSD packages collection. TeX is used as a backend to produce the PS
and PDF formats.
•
the tgif program for drawing the figures.
•
the gimp and xv programs for converting between image formats and making small modifications to
the figures.
Many thanks to all the people involved in the development of these great tools.
346
Appendix B.
Contributing to the NetBSD
guide
There is a interest for both introductory and advanced documentation on NetBSD: this is probably a sign
of the increased popularity of this operating system and of a growing user base. It is therefore important
to keep adding new material to this guide and improving the existing text.
Whatever your level of expertise with NetBSD, you can contribute to the development of this guide. This
appendix explains how, and what you should know before you start.
If you are a beginner and you found this guide helpful, please send your comments and suggestions to
<www@NetBSD.org>. For example, if you tried something described here and it didn’t work for you, or
if you think that something is not clearly explained, or if you have an idea for a new chapter, etc: this
type of feedback is very useful.
If you are an intermediate or advanced user, please consider contributing new material to the guide: you
could write a new chapter or improve an existing one.
If you have some spare time, you could translate the guide into another language if you want (please read
Section B.1).
Whatever you choose to do, don’t start working before having contacted us, in order to avoid duplicating
efforts.
B.1 Translating the guide
We have decided to keep only the english version of the NetBSD guide. The reason for this is that we do
not have (and history has shown that) enough manpower to maintain multiple translations of the NetBSD
guide, and keep them all in sync. If you want to translate the guide in your preferred language feel free to
do that and make it available for others on your own webspace. It is possible that we list a link to that
location. Please send informations about your projekt to <www@NetBSD.org>.
If you want to translate the guide the first thing to do is, as already said, to contact <www@NetBSD.org>
or to write to the <netbsd-docs@NetBSD.org> mailing list. There are several possible scenarios:
•
someone else is already working on a translation into your language; you could probably help him.
•
nobody is currently working on a translation into your language, but some chapters have already been
translated and you can translate the remaining chapters.
•
you start a new translation. Of course you don’t need to translate all the guide: this is a big effort, but if
you start translating one or two chapters it’ll be a good starting point for someone else.
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Appendix B. Contributing to the NetBSD guide
Even if a translation is already available, it is always necessary to keep it up to date with respect to the
master version when new material is added or corrections are made: you could become the maintainer of
a translation.
B.1.1 What you need to start a translation
In short, all you need is:
•
the guide sources. They are part of “htdocs”, check it out from (anonymous) CVS like you would
check out “src” or “pkgsrc” as described in Chapter 29.
•
a text editor, such as vi or emacs.
Important: Don’t start working with HTML or other formats: it will be very difficult to convert your
work to XML/DocBook, the format used by the NetBSD guide.
B.1.2 Writing XML/DocBook
In order to translate the guide you don’t need to learn XML/DocBook; get the XML/DocBook sources of
the NetBSD guide and work directly on them, in order to reuse the existing format (i.e. tags) in your
work. For example, to translate the previous note, you would do the following:
1.
load the english source of the current chapter, ap-contrib.xml, in your editor.
2.
find the text of the previous note. You will see something like:
<important>
<para>
Don’t start working with HTML or other formats:
it will be very difficult to convert you work
to XML/DocBook, the format used by the NetBSD
guide.
</para>
</important>
3.
add your translation between the tags, after the english version. The text now looks like this:
<important>
<para>
Don’t start working with HTML or other formats:
it will be very difficult to convert you work
to XML/DocBook, the format used by the NetBSD
guide.
your translation goes here
your translation goes here
your translation goes here
</para>
</important>
4.
delete the four lines of english text between the tags leaving your translation.
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Appendix B. Contributing to the NetBSD guide
<important>
<para>
your translation goes here
your translation goes here
your translation goes here
</para>
</important>
When you write the translation please use the same indentation and formatting style of the original text.
See Section B.3 for an example.
One problem that you will probably face when writing the DocBook text is that of national characters
(e.g. accented letters like “è”). You can use these characters in your source document but it’s preferable
to replace them with XML entities. For example, “è” is written as “&egrave;”. Of course this makes your
source text difficult to write and to read; the first problem, writing, can be solved using a good editor with
macro capabilities. Vi and emacs, which are very popular choices, both have this feature and you can
map the accented keys of your keyboard to generate the required entities automatically. For example, for
vi you can put a line like the following in your .exrc file:
map! è &egrave;
Appendix C explains how to install the software tools to generate HTML and other formats from the
DocBook sources. This is useful if you want to check your work (i.e. make sure you didn’t inadvertently
delete some tag) or to see what the output looks like, but it is not a requirement for a translation. If you
don’t want to install the software tools, send your patches and sources to <www@NetBSD.org> and we’ll
check them and create the various output formats.
B.2 Sending contributions
If you want to contribute some material to the guide you have several options, depending on the amount
of text you want to write. If you just want to send a small fix, the easiest way to get it into the guide is to
send it to <www@NetBSD.org> via e-mail. If you plan to write a substantial amount of text, such as a
section or a chapter, you can choose among many formats:
•
XML/DocBook; this is the preferred format. If you choose to use this format, please get the guide
sources and use them as a template for the indentation and text layout, in order to keep the formatting
consistent.
•
text; if the formatting is kept simple, it is not difficult to convert text to XML format.
•
other formats are also accepted if you really can’t use any of the previous ones.
B.3 XML/DocBook template
For the guide I use a formatting style similar to a program. The following is a template:
<chapter id="chap-xxxxx">
<title>This is the title of the chapter</title>
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Appendix B. Contributing to the NetBSD guide
<para>
This is the text of a paragraph.
This is the text of a paragraph.
This is the text of a paragraph.
</para>
This is the text of a paragraph.
This is the text of a paragraph.
<!-- ============================================================= -->
<sect1>
<title>This is the title of a sect1</title>
<para>
This is the text of a paragraph.
This is the text of a paragraph.
This is the text of a paragraph.
</para>
This is the text of a paragraph.
This is the text of a paragraph.
<!-- ........................................................... -->
<sect2>
<title>This is the title of a sect2</title>
<para>
A sect2 is nested inside a sect1.
</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<!-- ============================================================= -->
<sect1>
<title>This is the title of another sect1</title>
<para>
An itemized list:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>
text
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
text
</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</sect1>
</chapter>
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Appendix B. Contributing to the NetBSD guide
The defaults are:
•
two spaces for each level of indentation
•
lines not longer than 72 characters.
•
use separator lines (comments) between sect1/sect2.
351
Appendix C.
Getting started with
XML/DocBook
This appendix describes the installation of the tools needed to produce a formatted version of the
NetBSD guide. Besides that it contains instructions that describe how to build the guide..
C.1 What is XML/DocBook
XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a language which is used to define other languages based on
markups, i.e. with XML you can define the grammar (i.e. the valid constructs) of markup languages.
HTML, for example, can be defined using XML. If you are a programmer, think of XML like the BNF
(Backus-Naur Form): a tool used to define grammars.
DocBook is a markup template defined using XML; DocBook lists the valid tags that can be used in a
DocBook document and how they can be combined together. If you are a programmer, think of DocBook
as the grammar of a language specified with the BNF. For example, it says that the tags:
<para> ... </para>
define a paragraph, and that a <para> can be inside a <sect1> but that a <sect1> cannot be inside a
<para>.
Therefore, when you write a document, you write a document in DocBook and not in XML: in this
respect DocBook is the counterpart of HTML (although the markup is richer and a few concepts are
different).
The DocBook specification (i.e. the list of tags and rules) is called a DTD (Document Type Definition).
In short, a DTD defines how your source documents look like but it gives no indication about the format
of your final (compiled) documents. A further step is required: the DocBook sources must be converted
to some other representation like, for example, HTML or PDF. This step is performed by a tool like Jade,
which applies the DSSSL transforms to the source document. DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and
Specification Language) is a format used to define the stylesheets necessary to perform the conversion
from DocBook to other formats. The build structure for the guide also supports the XSL (Extensible
Stylesheet Language) stylesheet language. The xsltproc program is used for transforming XML with
XSL stylesheets.
C.2 Installing the necessary tools
All the tools that are needed to generate the guide in various formats can be installed through the
netbsd-www, netbsd-doc, and netbsd-doc-print meta-packages. Together the netbsd-doc and netbsd-www
352
Appendix C. Getting started with XML/DocBook
packages install everything that is needed to generate the HTML version of the guide. To be able to
generate printable formats, such as Postscript and PDF, install the netbsd-doc-print meta-package.
Supposing that a current pkgsrc tree is installed at /usr/pkgsrc, you can install all these
meta-packages with:
$
$
$
$
$
$
cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/netbsd-www
make install
cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/netbsd-doc
make install
cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/netbsd-doc-print
make install
C.3 Using the tools
This section provides an overview of how the guide can be compiled from XML to any of the following
target formats: html, html-split, ascii, ps, and pdf . Creating all formats is the default. To produce any of
the above output formats, run make with the format(s) as argument.
Let’s look at a few examples.
Before looking at the output generated in any of the above-mentioned formats, integrity of the XML
structure has to be ensured. This can be done by running make lint:
$ cd htdocs/guide/en
$ make lint
Fix any errors you may get. When working on the contents of the guide, you may want to produce the
HTML version to have a look at it for proofreading:
$ cd htdocs/guide/en
$ make html-split
After this, please update the Postscript and PDF versions of the guide too. The command for this is:
$ cd htdocs/guide/en
$ make pdf
Before you go and commit the generated files, please make sure that you commit the XML files first,
then re-generated all formats, i.e. the procedure would be something like:
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
cd htdocs/guide/en
cvs commit *.xml
make lint
make
make install-doc
cd ..
cvs commit en download
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Appendix C. Getting started with XML/DocBook
When running make with no argument, all formats will be re-generated. This is the default way to build
the guide for the NetBSD.org website.
C.4 Language-specific notes
C.4.1 Enabling hyphenation for the Italian language
The NetBSD guide is currently available in three languages: English, French and Italian. Of these, only
English and French are automatically hyphenated by TeX. To turn on hyphenation for the Italian
language, some simple steps are required:
Edit /usr/pkg/share/texmf/tex/generic/config/language.dat and remove the comment (%)
from the line of the Italian hyphenation. I.e.
%italian ithyph.tex
becomes
italian ithyph.tex
Note: As more translations of the guide become available, you will probably need to enable other
hyphenation patterns as well.
Now the latex and pdflatex formats must be recreated:
# cd /usr/pkg/share/texmf/web2c
# fmtutil --byfmt latex
# fmtutil --byfmt pdflatex
If you check, for example, latex.log you will find something like:
Babel <v3.6Z> and hyphenation patterns for american, french, german,
ngerman, italian, nohyphenation, loaded.
Please note that there are many ways to perform these operations, depending on your level of expertise
with the TeX system (mine is very low). For example, you could use the "texconfig" interactive program,
or you could recreate the formats by hand using the tex program.
If you know a better way of doing the operations described in this appendix, please let me know.
C.5 Links
The official DocBook home page (http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/) is where you can find the
definitive documentation on DocBook. You can also read online or download a copy of the book
DocBook: The Definitive Guide (http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/documentation/reference/) by
Norman Walsh and Leonard Muellner.
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Appendix C. Getting started with XML/DocBook
For DSSSL start looking at http://nwalsh.com.
XSL is described at http://www.w3.org/Style/XSL/.
Jade/OpenJade sources and info can be found on the OpenJade Home Page
(http://openjade.sourceforge.net/).
If you want to produce Postscript and PDF documents from your DocBook source, look at the home
page of JadeTex (http://sourceforge.net/projects/jadetex).
355
Appendix D.
Acknowledgements
The NetBSD Guide was originally written by Federico Lupi who managed the sources, coordinated
updates, and merged all contributions on his own. Since then, it has been updated and maintained by the
NetBSD www team. The Guide has progressed thanks to the contributions of many people who have
volunteered their time and effort, supplied material and sent in suggestions and corrections.
D.1 Original acknowledgements
Federico’s original credits are:
•
Paulo Aukar
•
Grant Beattie, converted to XML DocBook.
•
Manolo De Santis, Audio Chapter
•
Eric Delcamp, Boot Floppies
•
Hubert Feyrer, who contributed the Introduction to TCP/IP Networking in Chapter 22 including Next
generation Internet protocol - IPv6 and the section on getting IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4
in Section 23.9. He also helped with the SGML to XML transition.
•
Jason R. Fink
•
Daniel de Kok, audio and linux chapters fixes.
•
Reinoud Koornstra, CVS chapter and rebuilding /dev in the Misc chapter.
•
Brian A. Seklecki <lavalamp@burghcom.com> who contributed the CCD Chapter.
•
Guillain Seuillot
•
Martti Kuparinen, RAIDframe documentation.
•
David Magda
D.2 Current acknowledgements
This document is currently maintained by the NetBSD www team. Thanks to their efforts, the document
is kept up to date and available online at all times. In addition, special thanks go to (in alphabetical
order):
•
Hubert Feyrer, for getting the guide up to speed for NetBSD 2.0, and for making numerous
improvements to all chapters.
•
Jason R. Fink, for maintaining this document and integrating changes.
356
Appendix D. Acknowledgements
•
Andreas Hallman, for his information in Section 23.9.10.
•
Joel Knight for the Chapter 27. See Section D.3.3 for the accompanying license.
•
Daniel de Kok, for constant contributions of new chapters, maintenance of existing chapters and his
translation work.
•
Hiroki Sato, for allowing us to build PDF and PS versions of this document.
•
Jan Schaumann, for maintenance work and www/htdocs management.
•
Lubomir Sedlacik, for some details on using CGD for swap in Section 14.5.
•
Dag-Erling Smørgrav, for the article on Chapter 17. See Section D.3.2 for the accompanying license.
•
Florian Stöhr, for Section 14.4.
D.3 Licenses
D.3.1 Federico Lupi’s original license of this guide
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided
that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and
the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following
acknowledgement: This product includes software developed by Federico Lupi for the NetBSD
Project.
4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN
NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
D.3.2 Networks Associates Technology’s license on the PAM article
Copyright (c) 2001-2003 Networks Associates Technology, Inc.
All rights reserved.
357
Appendix D. Acknowledgements
This software was developed for the FreeBSD Project by ThinkSec AS and
Network Associates Laboratories, the Security Research Division of
Network Associates, Inc. under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
("CBOSS"), as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote
products derived from this software without specific prior written
permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS” AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.
D.3.3 Joel Knight’s license on the CARP article
Copyright (c) 2005 Joel Knight <enabled@myrealbox.com>
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this documentation for
any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the
above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
THE DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL
WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENTATION INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR
PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER
TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION
358
Appendix E.
Bibliography
Bibliography
[AeleenFrisch] Aeleen Frisch, 1991, O’Reilly & Associates, Essential System Administration.
[CraigHunt] Craig Hunt, 1993, O’Reilly & Associates, TCP/IP Network Administration.
[RFC1034] P. V. Mockapetris, 1987, RFC 1034: Domain names - concepts and facilities.
[RFC1035] P. V. Mockapetris, 1987, RFC 1035: Domain names - implementation and specification.
[RFC1055] J. L. Romkey, 1988, RFC 1055: Nonstandard for transmission of IP datagrams over serial
lines: SLIP.
[RFC1331] W. Simpson, 1992, RFC 1331: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for the Transmission of
Multi-protocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point Links.
[RFC1332] G. McGregor, 1992, RFC 1332: The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP).
[RFC1933] R. Gilligan and E. Nordmark, 1996, RFC 1933: Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and
Routers.
[RFC2004] C. Perkins, 1996, RFC 2003: IP Encapsulation within IP.
[RFC2401] S. Kent and R. Atkinson, 1998, RFC 2401: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol.
[RFC2411] R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, and R. Glenn, 1998, RFC 2411: IP Security Document Roadmap.
[RFC2461] T. Narten, E. Nordmark, and W. Simpson, 1998, RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP
Version 6 (IPv6).
[RFC2529] B. Carpenter and C. Jung, 1999, RFC 2529: Transmission of IPv6 over IPv4 Domains
without Explicit Tunnels.
[RFC3024] G. Montenegro, 2001, RFC 3024: Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP.
[RFC3027] M. Holdrege and P. Srisuresh, 2001, RFC 3027: Protocol Complications with the IP Network
Address Translator.
[RFC3056] B. Carpenter and K. Moore, 2001, RFC 3056: Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds.
359
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