EXMUX® 3500/3500M EXMUX® 3501/3501M IP Access

EXMUX® 3500/3500M
EXMUX® 3501/3501M
IP Access Multiplexer
Instruction Manual
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
353 Powerville Road ● Boonton Twp., NJ 07005-9151 USA
Tel: 973.334.3100 ● Fax: 973.334.3863
Email: Customer.Service@RFLelect.com ● www.rflelect.com
Publication Number MC3500M
Version 1.0, October 2017
“Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. © This document is the property of Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. and may
not be reproduced, transmitted, published or stored in an electronic retrieval system, in whole or in
part, by
any
means, electronic
or
otherwise.
For
permission
contact:
Customer.Service@RFLelect.com.”
Installation
NOTICE
The information in this publication is proprietary and confidential to Hubbell Power
Systems, Inc., RFL™ brand products. No part of this publication may be reproduced or
transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopy,
recording, or otherwise), or stored in any retrieval system of any nature, unless written
permission is given by Hubbell Power Systems, Inc., RFL™ brand products.
This publication has been compiled and checked for accuracy. The information in this
publication does not constitute a warranty of performance. Hubbell Power Systems,
Inc., RFL™ brand products reserves the right to revise this publication and make
changes to its contents from time to time. We assume no liability for losses incurred as
a result of out-of-date or incorrect information contained in this publication.
WARRANTY
The RFL eXmux® comes with a three year warranty from date of shipment for replacement of any part, which
fails during normal operation. RFL will repair or, at its option, replace components that prove to be defective at no
cost to the Customer. All equipment returned to RFL must have an RMA (Return Material Authorization) number,
obtained by calling the RFL Customer Service Department. A defective part should be returned to the factory,
shipping charges prepaid, for repair or replacement FOB Boonton, N.J.
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products is not responsible for warranty of peripherals, such as printers and
external computers. The warranty for such devices is as stated by the original equipment manufacturer. If you have
purchased peripheral equipment not manufactured by Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products, follow the
written instructions supplied with that equipment for warranty information and how to obtain service.
WARRANTY STATEMENT
The RFL eXmux® is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for three year from the date of
shipment. During the warranty period, RFL will repair or, at its option, replace components that prove to be
defective at no cost to the customer, except the one-way shipping cost of the failed assembly to the RFL Customer
Service facility in Boonton, New Jersey. Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products warrants product repair
from three years from the date of repair or the balance of the original factory warranty, whichever is longer.
This warranty does not apply if the equipment has been damaged by accident, neglect, misuse, or causes other than
performed or authorized by Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
This warranty specifically excludes damage incurred in shipment to or from Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL®
Products . In the event an item is received in damaged condition, the carrier should be notified immediately. All
claims for such damage should be filed with the carrier.
NOTE
If you do not intend to use the product immediately, it is recommended that it be opened immediately after
receiving and inspected for proper operation and signs of impact damage.
This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, whether expressed, implied or statutory, including but not limited to
implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. In no event shall RFL be liable, whether
in contract, in tort, or on any other basis, for any damages sustained by the customer or any other person arising
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Installation
from or related to loss of use, failure or interruption in the operation of any products, or delay in maintenance or
for incidental, consequential, indirect, or special damages or liabilities, or for loss of revenue, loss of business, or
other financial loss arising out of or in connection with the sale, lease, maintenance, use, performance, failure, or
interruption of the products.
USING THIS MANUAL
The following Instruction manual is for the use of maintenance and operating personnel responsible for
communications in the electric utility or other facility utilizing the eXmux. All local safety rules in force at the
facility where the eXmux is installed must be strictly enforced. Only properly trained personnel may install or
work on the eXmux.
The instruction manual is divided into the following sections:
1.
Introduction - overview of product.
Introduces the user to the product, gives an overview of the various functions of the eXmux.
2.
Safety instructions.
Important safety information and warnings.
3.
System description.
Describes the various interfaces on the unit (high and low speed connections). Explains the function of
the LED’s and auxiliary ports.
4.
Installation.
Unpacking and physical installation of the unit. Connecting power and data lines but not configuring the
unit.
5.
Module Replacement (3500M/3501M Only).
Instructions for removing and inserting Interface Units, Ethernet Switch and power supplies in the eXmux
3500M/3501M modular (hot swap) eXmux.
6.
System user interface.
Describes the Visual Network Management Software used to configure the eXmux. Installing the
software and connecting a computer to the eXmux.
7.
Configuration.
Interrogating and/or configuring the network using VNMS.
8.
Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
Describes how to configure the Ethernet Switch.
9.
Start-up (Commissioning).
System check-out and functional testing. Includes instructions on using the eXmux System Software
Upgrade Utility.
10. Basic troubleshooting.
An inter-active troubleshooting guide.
11. Technical Data
The technical specifications for the eXmux.
12. Glossary and index.
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13. Application Notes.
Contains additional information, usually customer specific, intended to assist the user in configuring and
operating the eXmux.
OPERATING PERSONNEL
Operating and service personnel must:

Be trained in safety procedures required when working with equipment generating high voltages.

Have a general knowledge of electronic and electrical systems.

Have practical training on communications equipment.

Be comfortable working with a PC/notebook computer in a Windows operating system.

Take ESD precautions when working on or around the eXmux.

Have read and understood this manual.
Trademark information:
“Windows”, “Windows XP”, “Vista” and “Windows 7” are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
“Ethernet” is a trademark of Xerox Corporation.
“eXmux” is a registered trademark of Hubbell Power Systems, Inc..
The trademark information listed above is, to the best of our knowledge, accurate and complete.
Applicable standards and certifications:
European Directives
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Table of Contents
Section 1. Introduction - Overview of Product .................................................................................... 1-1
1.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.2 Major Components ......................................................................................................................... 1-2
Section 2. Safety Instructions ............................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1 Warnings and Safety Summary...................................................................................................... 2-1
Section 3. System Description ............................................................................................................. 3-1
3.1 Features and Typical Applications (3500/3501) ............................................................................. 3-1
3.2 Modular eXmux Features (3500M/3501M) .................................................................................... 3-2
3.3 Firewall Information ........................................................................................................................ 3-2
3.4 Typical Network Application ........................................................................................................... 3-3
3.5 LED Indicators (Front and Rear) .................................................................................................... 3-6
3.6 Customer Interface Units (IU’s) - Layout 3500/3501 Non-Modular .............................................. 3-10
3.7 Customer Interface Units (IU’s) - Layout 3500M/3501M Modular Unit ........................................ 3-11
3.8 Customer Interface Units – Detailed Descriptions ....................................................................... 3-13
3.9 The eXmux TPS System .............................................................................................................. 3-34
3.10 Integrated Ethernet Switch ......................................................................................................... 3-40
3.11 Power Supplies (3500/3501/3500M/3501M) .............................................................................. 3-44
3.12 Service Telephone...................................................................................................................... 3-45
3.13 User Access USB Port ............................................................................................................... 3-45
3.14 T1/E1 Built in Port....................................................................................................................... 3-46
3.15 Additional Network schemes ...................................................................................................... 3-48
3.16 Typical DS0 Grooming Application ............................................................................................. 3-49
Section 4. Installation ............................................................................................................................ 4-1
4.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2 Unpacking ....................................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.3 Mounting the Equipment ................................................................................................................ 4-1
4.4 Ventilation ....................................................................................................................................... 4-4
4.5 Interface Connections (Pin-Outs) ................................................................................................... 4-5
4.6 eXmux TPS System Installation ..................................................................................................... 4-9
4.7 Data and Power Connections ....................................................................................................... 4-13
Section 5. Module Replacement (3500M/3501M Only) ...................................................................... 5-1
5.1 Overview of Module Replacement ................................................................................................. 5-1
5.2 Interface Unit Removal and Replacement ..................................................................................... 5-2
5.3 Ethernet Switch Replacement ........................................................................................................ 5-6
5.4 Power supply Replacement ............................................................................................................ 5-9
Section 6. System User Interface ......................................................................................................... 6-1
6.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.2 MAC Address Information .............................................................................................................. 6-2
6.3 Installing the EXMUX 3500 VNMS ................................................................................................. 6-2
6.4 Accessing the EXMUX through the USB Ports .............................................................................. 6-6
6.5 Installing and Running the USB User Access Utility ...................................................................... 6-7
6.6 System Recovery/Debug Port ...................................................................................................... 6-21
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Section 7. Configuration ....................................................................................................................... 7-1
7.1 Introduction to Opening an Existing or Configuring a New Network .............................................. 7-1
7.2 Getting Started ............................................................................................................................... 7-1
7.3 Viewing a Network ........................................................................................................................ 7-19
7.4 System Configuration ................................................................................................................... 7-21
7.5 VNMS System and User Preferences .......................................................................................... 7-41
7.6 Configuring the Customer Interfaces (IU’s) .................................................................................. 7-42
7.7 Data Interface Configurations ....................................................................................................... 7-47
7.8 Serial Server Interface Unit Configuration .................................................................................... 7-61
7.9 TPS System Configuration ........................................................................................................... 7-84
7.10 Telephone and Audio Interface Unit Configuration .................................................................... 7-95
7.11 Ethernet Switch Configuration .................................................................................................. 7-102
7.12 Interface Mapping ..................................................................................................................... 7-102
7.13 Hitless Switching ...................................................................................................................... 7-118
7.14 Service Telephone Configuration ............................................................................................. 7-124
7.15 System Global Settings ............................................................................................................ 7-125
7.16 Retrieving and Sending Reports .............................................................................................. 7-130
Section 8. Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch .............. 8-1
8.1 Integrated Ethernet Switch Redundancy Protocol ......................................................................... 8-1
8.2 Ethernet Network Message Types ................................................................................................. 8-2
8.3 Ethernet Switch Configuration – Model 3500/3500M ..................................................................... 8-2
8.4 Ethernet Switch Configuration – Model 3501/3501M ................................................................... 8-47
8.5 3500/3501 Interoperability ............................................................................................................ 8-88
Section 9. Start-Up (Commissioning) .................................................................................................. 9-1
9.1 Initial Start-Up ................................................................................................................................. 9-1
9.2 Path Redundancy ......................................................................................................................... 9-19
9.3 eXmux Static Route Builder ......................................................................................................... 9-20
9.4 eXmux Static Route Tool .............................................................................................................. 9-21
9.5 Unicast TDM Timing and Neighbor Discovery Set-Up ................................................................. 9-23
9.6 Unicast Neighbor Discovery ......................................................................................................... 9-32
9.7 Provisioning for TDM Timing ........................................................................................................ 9-35
9.8 TDM VLAN Tagging ..................................................................................................................... 9-41
9.9 Using the RFL System Software Upgrade Utility ......................................................................... 9-47
9.10 Decommissioning ....................................................................................................................... 9-60
Section 10. Troubleshooting Guide ................................................................................................... 10-1
10.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 10-1
10.2 Troubleshooting Main Menu ....................................................................................................... 10-1
10.3 FE/GE (LAN/WAN) Connections Issues .................................................................................... 10-2
10.4 Interface Units Issues ................................................................................................................. 10-9
10.5 Service Channel Issues ............................................................................................................ 10-17
10.6 Alarm Issues ............................................................................................................................. 10-18
10.7 Network Management Software Issues ................................................................................... 10-25
Section 11. Trouble Shooting a TDM Circuit Outage ....................................................................... 11-1
11.1 TDM Bundle Status .................................................................................................................... 11-1
11.2 TDM Timing and Neighbor Discovery Table .............................................................................. 11-7
11.3 Sequence of Events ................................................................................................................. 11-12
11.4 Ethernet Port Mirroring ............................................................................................................. 11-12
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11.5 Putty ......................................................................................................................................... 11-14
11.6 Diagnostics ............................................................................................................................... 11-20
Section 12. Technical Data .................................................................................................................. 12-1
12.1 Electrical Specifications .............................................................................................................. 12-1
12.2 Environmental and Safety Compliances .................................................................................... 12-9
Section 13. Glossary and Index .......................................................................................................... 13-1
13.1 Glossary ..................................................................................................................................... 13-1
13.2 Index ........................................................................................................................................... 13-5
Section 14. Application Notes ............................................................................................................ 14-1
FCC STATEMENT
Federal Communications Commission
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part
15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when
the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio
frequency and, if not installed and used in accordance with the Instruction Manual, may cause harmful interference
to radio communication. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in
which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
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List of Effective Pages
When revisions are made to the eXmux Instruction Manual, the entire section where revisions
were made is replaced. For this addition of the Instruction Manual dated October 2017 the
sections are dated as follows.
EXMUX 3500/3501
October 2017
Section
Date
Front Section, TOC etc.
October 2017
Section 1.
October 2017
Section 2.
October 2017
Section 3.
October 2017
Section 4.
October 2017
Section 5.
October 2017
Section 6.
October 2017
Section 7.
October 2017
Section 8.
October 2017
Section 9.
October 2017
Section 10.
October 2017
Section 11.
October 2017
Section 12.
October 2017
Section 13
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Revision Record
Rev. Date on
Manual
Actual Date
Released
Description of Changes
6-22-09
At Beta
6-22-09
12-1-09
First release of Instruction Manual.
VNMS software at 1.0.0.
12-7-09
6-1-10
T1/E1 and RS-485 Customer IU’s added. System
Configuration added (6.4). DS0 Grooming added.
Inter-active Trouble Shooting Guide added, (9.1)
Hitless Switching set-up added. New section 7
(Ethernet Switch Configuration) added, remaining
sections moved up one. VNMS software at 2.0.0
6-15-10
6-29-10
Trademark information revised.
6-30-10
11-20-10
Updates to Section 3, 5, 6, 8 and 11.
VNMS software at 2.5.0. Note: Manual embedded with
VNMS software with this and all subsequent revisions.
12-6-10
2-1-11
Addition of Serial Server information (VNMS at 3.0.0)
No ECO release.
3-1-11
3-7-11
Addition of new 2-Wire Audio IU (VNMS at 3.1)
Ordering Information added. Minor updates throughout
manual.
3-30-11
6-6-11
Changes to section 6.
6-10-11
10-19-11
Section 2, 4, 5, 9 and 11 updated (VNMS at 3.2)
10-19-11
2-27-12
DNP3 support added to the serial Server.
3-1-12
8-21-12
Addition of the eXmux TPS System to the Instruction
Manual. New pages added in section 3, 4 and 6.
General revision throughout manual.
(VNMS at 3.5)
10-1-12
2-15-13
Inclusion of eXmux 3500M, Modular unit to the
Instruction Manual. New section 5 added, remaining
sections moved up.
(VNMS at 4.0)
4-8-13
Inclusion of changes to manual for 4.1 VNMS release.
Section 6, 7, 8 revised.
3-1-14
3-20-14
Inclusion of eXmux SNMP Trap/SOE list in Section 7.
Minor updates in Section 5 and 8.
3-20-14
5-13-14
Minor updates to Section 3, 5, 7, 10 and 11.
5-13-14
2-10-14
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7-29-14
Addition of singlemode C37.94 fiber interface in section
3, and 7.
7-29-14
12-8-14
Section 7 updated. FPP and CAS added to Bundle
Settings and Status. (VNMS at 4.2)
12-8-14
3-24-15
Section 3, 6, 7 and 9 updated. Extensive changes to
section 7.4 Unicast added. (VNMS at 5.0)
3-24-15
12-1-15
Section 8 updated to include new Ethernet switch.
Additional changes to section 3 and 7. (VNMS at 6.0)
Manual changed to reflect model number changes
which are:3500/3500M Original Ethernet Switch.
3501/3501M New Ethernet Switch.
12-1-15
5-20-16
Inclusion of changes to manual for 6.1 VNMS release.
Section 7, 8, 9 and 10 revised.
5-20-16
10-16-17
Inclusion of user interface changes for VNMS in
sections 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Updates to sections 7.4.2 Bundle Timing, 7.12.4 DSO
Grooming and 7.13 Hitless Switching,
10-16-17
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Ordering Information, Decoding the Part Number
Serial and part number information is located on the right mounting bracket (ear) of the eXmux
unit as shown below. The part number and site name (if provided by the customer) is also
located on the other mounting bracket.
3500
Sales order number
Purchase order number
SO 173377
PO 0963144
PN EXM224GGA1C1DEF
SN 09240032
Serial number
3500M
Sales order number
Part number see the
following page for
configurator
Purchase order number
SO 173388
PO 0963155
PN EXH224GGA1C1DEF
SN 09240042
Serial number
Part number see the
following page for
configurator
Note: Throughout the Instruction Manual the Modular eXmux unit is
referred to as the 3500M. However, when ordering the prefix 'M' is used
for the Non-Modular Unit and the prefix 'H' is used for the Modular Unit.
The following pages list the possible ordering options.
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3500/3500M
MP = Main Power
RP = Redundant Power
L = LAN
WX = WAN Port, X= 5 or 6
SX = Slot, X = Slot 1 to 7
3500 Only D = Can fit double slot module
Double slot can only start in S1, S3 or S5
RFL Smart Number Description (fill in blanks)
D
D
D
CM MP RP
L
W5 W6 S3 S4
S1
S2
S5 S6
S7
EX
CHASSIS AND MOTHER BOARD STYLE
Non Modular
Modular Hot-Pluggable
M
H
CHASSIS WITH MAIN BOARD & MAIN POWER SUPPLY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
24 VDC w/Terminal Block
38-150 VDC/110 VAC w/Terminal Block
200-300 VDC w/Terminal Block
24 VDC w/Compression Block
38-150 VDC/110 VAC w/Compression Block
200-300 VDC w/Compression Block
220 VAC w/Terminal Block
220 VAC w/Compression Block
REDUNDANT POWER SUPPLY OPTION
None
24 VDC
38-150 VDC/110 VAC
200-300 VDC
220 VAC
0
1
2
3
4
ETHERNET SWITCH WITH LAN PORTS (1-4)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4-RJ-45 10/100 Base TX
4-2Km MM Optical 100 Base FX w/ST
4-2Km MM Optical 100 Base FX w/SC
2-RJ-45 10/100 Base TX and 2-2Km MM Optical 100 Base FX w/ST
2-RJ-45 10/100 Base TX and 2-2Km MM Optical 100 Base FX w/SC
2-RJ-45 10/100 Base TX and 2-30Km SM Optical 100 Base FX w/ST
2-RJ-45 10/100 Base TX and 2-30Km SM Optical 100 Base FX w/SC
4-30Km SM Optical 100 Base FX w/ST
4-30Km SM Optical 100 Base FX w/SC
ETHERNET SWITCH WAN PORT 5 AND PORT 6 OPTION
Electrical RJ-45 10/100/1000 Base TX
One(1) SFP-100Base-FX 1310nm 2km/1.2mi MM LC Connector
One(1) SFP-100Base-LX 1310nm 10km/6.2mi SM LC Connector
One(1) SFP-100Base-FX 1310nm 40km/24.9mi SM LC Connector
One(1) SFP-100Base-ZX 1550nm 80km/49.7mi SM LC Connector
One(1) SFP-1000Base-SX 850nm 550m/1800ft MM LC Connector
One(1) SFP-1000Base-LX 1310nm 10km/6.2mi SM LC Connector
One(1) SFP-1000Base-FX 1310nm 40km/24.9mi SM LC Connector
One(1) SFP-1000Base-ZX 1550nm 80km/49.7mi SM LC Connector
One(1) SFP-1000Base-ZX 1550nm 120km/74.5mi SM LC Connector
One (1) Single Fiber SFP - 1000Base - DX TX1310/RX1550nm 10km/6.2mi SM Simplex LC Conn.
One (1) Single Fiber SFP - 1000Base - DX TX1550/RX1310nm 10km/6.2mi SM Simplex LC Conn.
One (1) Single Fiber SFP - 1000Base - DX TX1490/RX1550nm 120km/74.5mi SM Simplex LC Conn.
One (1) Single Fiber SFP - 1000Base - DX TX1550/RX1490nm 120km/74.5mi SM Simplex LC Conn.
DSO INTERFACE UNIT (IU) OPTIONS
SLOT 1-7 DOUBLE AND SINGLE POSITIONS
4-Port Multi-Protocol Sync IU (RS-422/530, X.35, X.21)
4-Port G.703 Sync IU
8-Port Async RS-232 IU
4-Port C37.94 Sync IU
8-Port 4-Wire Audio E&M IU
8-Port 2-Wire FXO IU
4-Port 2-Wire FXS IU
4-Port RS-485 IU
1-Port T1/E1 IU
4-Port RS-232/485 Serial Server IU
4-Port 2-Wire Audio E&M IU
2-Port TPS IU with One(1) SS I/O Box
2-Port TPS IU with One(1) RLY I/O Box
2-Port TPS IU with Two(2) SS I/O Box
2-Port TPS IU with Two(2) RLY I/O Box
2-Port TPS IU with One(1) SS I/O Box and One(1) RLY I/O Box
None
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
SLOT (S)
D
D
D
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
See Note 1 below A 1
See Note 1 below B 1
See Note 1 below C 1
D
E
F
See Note 2 below G
J
See Note 3 below K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
S
Z
Note 1. If A, B or C is selected for S1, S2 must be 1. If A, B or C is selected for S3, S4 must be 1.
If A, B or C is selected for S5. S6 must be 1.
Note 2. A maximum of two(2) FXS IU's is allowed per chassis.
Note 3. The T1/E1 IU canot be placed in slot 7.
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Introduction - Overview of Product
Section 1. Introduction - Overview of Product
1.1 Introduction
The eXmux is a next generation substation hardened IP Access Multiplexer engineered to
seamlessly transport Voice, serial and Ethernet Data communications over Ethernet networks;
providing the flexibility of backward compatibility with legacy devices and forward
compatibility with Ethernet devices on the same communications platform. The eXmux uses
the latest TDM over IP technology and an integrated Layer 2 Managed Switch, which allows
the unit to support legacy interfaces such as T1/E1, RS-232, RS-530/422, V.35, X.21, G.703,
C37.94, and various voice interfaces, along with native IP solutions. A two wire telephone
service channel is incorporated into the eXmux to provide in-band voice communication to any
eXmux connected to the network. The 3500/3501 model is a 3U high economical unit; whereas
the 3500M/3501M is a 5U high unit that offers hot-swap capabilities for all functional Interface
Units for use in mission-critical applications.
The eXmux can support any network topology such as linear, star, rings and mesh setups.
Designed into the eXmux, is a distinctive “Hitless Switching” mechanism that allows the device
to recover from a path failure without losing a single data bit. The simplified diagram below
shows the basic data flow within the unit.
Serial Server Interface Units
User Access USB Port
MUX
7
Main Board
1
Ethernet
Electrical
or Fiber
LAN Ports
(Ethernet)
8
Management
Layer 2 Managed
Ethernet Switch
Ethernet
4
9
Ethernet
5
6
Electrical or Fiber
GigE WAN Ports
(Ethernet)
10
4 Port Packet Trunk
TDM over IP
Converter - 2
E1
4 Port Packet Trunk
TDM over IP
Converter - 1
E1
Service Telephone
7 Interface Units
(IU's) for Sync,
Async, T1/E1,C37.94
or Telephone/Audio.
(Some Modules may
use 2 Slots, Slot 7 is
always single)
Customized
Interface
Units
Local Port, T1/E1
Figure 1-1. Simplified Data Flow

The eXmux is hardware configured at the factory and there should be no need for the
customer to access the inside of the unit, there are no configuration or dip switches to
set.
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Introduction - Overview of Product

Windows® based Visual Network Management Software (VNMS) allows the user to
communicate with the unit and setup configurations. The software is provided on a CD
or can be downloaded from the RFL website.
1.2 Major Components
The illustrations below show both the non-modular 3500 and the modular 3500M eXmux
units. The main components are shown with a brief description of their function. Internal
components are described to give the operating engineer a brief understanding of how the
eXmux functions. The 3500M has a modular design featuring “Hot Swap” capability for
easy Interface Unit replacement without taking down the node.
3500/3501
Front View
3
8
7
7
4
Rear View
7
10
9
6
3500M/3501M
3
Front View
7
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7
7
1-2
Rear View
9
10
4
5
11
6
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Introduction - Overview of Product
1. Mainboard (not shown)
The Mainboard contains control and configuration facilities for the whole chassis. It
also contains two TDM over IP converters which have the capability to convert eight
T1/E1 streams into two Ethernet lines. The Main Board contains a Power PC that
functions as the system CPU and will interface with the TDM over IP converters via the
system bus. The Power PC also communicates with built-in customer specific interfaces
via memory mapped registers resident on an Actel FPGA. The Actel provides hardware
management including interfacing for a local service phone.
2. Motherboard (3500M/3501M only, not shown)
The eXmux 3500M/3501M has a removable motherboard/mainboard assembly that is
accessed from the front of the unit. The motherboard functions as a mid-plane between
the Interface units and the mainboard providing “hot swap” control and buffering.
3. Customer Interface Units
The eXmux is factory configured to meet each customer’s unique communication needs.
There are up to eleven interface units available. Each of these interface units (with the
exception of the Serial server) will convert external low speed traffic into an E1 stream
that connects to the main board. The current list of supported external interfaces is:

Asynchronous Data (RS-232) (See Section 3.8.1.5)

Asynchronous Serial Server (Remote Substation IED monitoring with DNP3
support) (See Section 3.8.2)

RS-485 Asynchronous Data (2 or 4 wire operation) (See Section 3.8.1.6)

Synchronous Data (Multi-Protocol, RS-449/RS-530, V.35, X.21)
(See Section 3.8.1.1)

T1/E1 (See Section 3.8.1.2)

C37.94 Optical (See Section 3.8.1.4)

G.703 (See Section 3.8.1.3)

2 and 4W Audio (See Section 3.8.4)

2W Telephone FXO (See Section 3.8.3.1)

2W Telephone FXS (See Section 3.8.3.2)

TPS System, with separate I/O Module (See Section 3.9)
4. Integrated Ethernet Switch.
The Managed Ethernet Switch connects to the following devices:

2 Internal Ethernet Ports for the TDM over IP converters located on the Main
Board.

EXMUX 3500/3501
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1 dedicated internal Ethernet link for Serial Server Module.
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Introduction - Overview of Product

1 dedicated internal Ethernet link for the Power PC.

2 External GigE (WAN) Ethernet SFP/RJ-45 ports.

4 External 10/100 Base-TX or 100 Base-FX (LAN) optical Ethernet ports.
(See Section 3.10).
5. Power Supplies (shown on the 3500M/3501M only)
The Power supply(ies) convert input power from a station battery or other power source
into an isolated low voltage supply used by the eXmux circuitry.
(See Section 3.11)
6. External Power Connections.
All customer connections to the eXmux are made through the rear of the unit. External
power source(s) and major and minor relay alarm contacts are also connected here. (See
Sections 4.7.2 through 4.7.6).
7. LED Indicators (Front and Rear).
The status of the unit is constantly monitored; LED indicators from either the front or
rear of the unit will display various conditions and alarm states.
(See Section 3.5 for details of the front and rear LED indicators)
8. Front USB Port and Service Telephone.
Customer access through a Universal Serial Bus Port for connection to a laptop or PC
for entry of basic access information (passwords, IP addresses etc.) and Service
Telephone.
(See Section 3.12 and 3.13).
9. Rear USB Port, Service Telephone and T1/E1 Connection
As above, but with the addition of an external built in T1/E1 connection.
(See Section 3.12, 3.13 and 3.14).
10. Power supply(ies) ON/OFF switch
See Section 4.7.3 and 4.7.4
11. External Fuse (3500M/3501M only)
See Section 5.4.2
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Safety Instructions
Section 2. Safety Instructions
2.1 Warnings and Safety Summary
3500/3501
CAUTION
FOR YOUR SAFETY
THE INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE OF THIS EQUIPMENT
SHOULD BE PERFORMED BY
QUALIFIED PERSONS ONLY.
!
CAUTION
TO PREVENT ELECTRICAL SHOCK
PROPER CAUTION MUST BE EXERCISED WHEN SERVICING THIS EQUIPMENT
ALL TERMINALS ON THE REAR OF THIS UNIT MAY HAVE HIGH VOLTAGE
!
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC
rules and regulations. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) This device may not
cause harmful interference, and (2) this device
must accept any interference including
interference that may cause undesired operation.
!
Dangerous Voltages symbols
silk screened onto surface
Figure 2-1. External Labels, Warnings and Cautions (3500/3501)
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Safety Instructions
3500M/3501M
!
CAUTION
FOR YOUR SAFETY
THE INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE OF THIS EQUIPMENT
SHOULD BE PERFORMED BY
QUALIFIED PERSONS ONLY.
CAUTION
TO PREVENT ELECTRICAL SHOCK
PROPER CAUTION MUST BE EXERCISED WHEN SERVICING THIS EQUIPMENT
ALL TERMINALS ON THE REAR OF THIS UNIT MAY HAVE HIGH VOLTAGE
!
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC
rules and regulations. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) This device may not
cause harmful interference, and (2) this device
must accept any interference including
interference that may cause undesired operation.
!
Dangerous Voltages symbols
silk screened onto surface
Figure 2-2. External Labels, Warnings and Cautions (3500M/3501M)
2.1.1 Safety Summary
The following safety precautions must be observed at all times during operation, service, and
repair of this equipment. Failure to comply with these precautions, or with specific warnings
elsewhere in this manual, violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of
this product. RFL assumes no liability for failure to comply with these requirements.
Ground the Chassis
The chassis must be grounded to reduce shock hazard and allow the equipment to perform
properly. Equipment supplied with three-wire ac power cables must be plugged into an
approved three-contact electric outlet. All other equipment is provided with a rear-panel
protective earth terminal, which must be connected to a proper electrical ground by suitable
cabling. The location of the protective earth terminal on the eXmux is shown below. Refer to
the wiring diagram supplied with the unit for additional information on chassis and/or cabinet
grounding.
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Safety Instructions
3500/3501
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
Figure 2-3. Location of Chassis Protective Earth Terminal (3500/3501)
3500M/3501M
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
Figure 2-4. Location of Chassis Protective Earth Terminal (3500M/3501M)
!
Do not Operate in an Explosive Atmosphere or in Wet or Damp Areas
Do not operate the product in the presence of flammable gases or fumes, or in any area that is
wet or damp. Operating any electrical equipment under these conditions can result in a definite
safety hazard.
Keep Away from Live Circuits
Operating personnel should never remove covers. Component replacement and internal
adjustments must be done by qualified service personnel. Before attempting any work inside
the product, disconnect it from the power source and discharge the circuit by temporarily
grounding it. This will remove any dangerous voltages that may still be present after power is
removed.
Unrestricted operator access is only permitted to the front of the unit when hazardous voltage is
applied. It is the responsibility of the installer to restrict access to the rear terminal blocks
where hazardous voltage may exist.
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Safety Instructions
!
Do not Substitute Parts or Modify Equipment
Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install substitute parts or make
unauthorized modifications to the equipment. The product may be returned to RFL for service
and repair, to ensure that all safety features are maintained.
!
Read the Manual
Operators should read this manual before attempting to use the equipment, to learn how to use
the equipment properly and safely. Service personnel must be properly trained and have the
proper tools and equipment before attempting to make adjustments or repairs.
Service personnel must recognize that whenever work is being done on the product, there is a
potential electrical shock hazard and appropriate protection measures must be taken. Electrical
shock can result in serious injury, because it can cause unconsciousness, cardiac arrest, and
brain damage.
Throughout this manual, warnings appear before procedures that are potentially dangerous, and
cautions appear before procedures that may result in equipment damage if not performed
properly. The instructions contained in these warnings and cautions must be followed exactly.
2.1.2 Additional Warnings
WARNING!
The eXmux may use third party SFP Class 1 Laser Modules. These modules may be purchased
through RFL or third parties. The class 1 certification originates with the SFP manufacturer,
not RFL. Read the following safety information and any additional safety information included
with the modules.
Class 1 Laser Products supplied by RFL are not considered dangerous and comply with the
following standards:
US 21 CFR 1040.10 and 1040.11
IEC 60825-1: 2007
Laser light can potentially cause serious eye damage. The lasers used in the eXmux produce
light that is invisible to the naked eye. It should be assumed that the laser is active at all times
and it is imperative that the technician never look into the end of the fiber or the aperture with
the naked eye or with optical instruments.
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Safety Instructions
WARNING!
Extreme care must be used to avoid creating a safety hazard when employing long 2-wire
telephone circuits which extend more than 100 feet (30 meters). Ground potential rise and/or
induced AC voltages can result in injury or death under normal operating conditions and
especially under fault conditions. RFL recommends against the use of this product in
applications where the 2-wire telephone circuit extends beyond the perimeter of the substation
ground mat. It is the installer’s responsibility to ensure that all local, state, federal, and
corporate safety standards and practices are complied with in any installation.
WARNING!
Follow all of your company’s policies and procedures regarding the installation of AC powered
or DC powered equipment. If there is a conflict between any procedure in this manual and your
company’s safety rules, then your company’s safety rules must take priority.
WARNING!
Individual double pole disconnects must be installed between the building or station battery
supply and the eXmux power supply(ies). This must be done for both the main and back-up
supply.
2.1.3 Additional Cautions
CAUTION
Any installation using an enclosed cabinet with a swing-out rack must be securely fastened to
the floor. This will prevent the cabinet from falling forward when the rack is moved outward.
CAUTION
This equipment contains static sensitive devices. Persons working on this equipment must
observe electro static discharge (ESD) precautions before opening the unit or working on the
rear of the chassis. As a minimum you must do the following: Use anti-static devices such as
wrist straps and floor mats.
Additional warnings and cautions appear throughout the manual, these warnings and cautions
must be followed exactly.
NOTICE
RFL products are not designed for safety critical direct control of nuclear reactors and should
not be used as such.
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Safety Instructions
This Page
Intentionally
Left Blank
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System Description
Section 3. System Description
3.1 Features and Typical Applications (3500/3501)
Figure 3-1. eXmux 3500/3501 – Non-Modular
The eXmux 3500 provides a simple one-box solution that converges two important traffic types
onto one infrastructure, providing the benefit of connecting traditional voice, video, serial data
over Ethernet/IP networks and taking advantage of the simplicity and efficiency of IP routing
and Ethernet switching.
When setup as a ring topology or when an alternate path exists, each interface port can be
individually configured for “Redundancy”, allowing the device to transmit the data to both GE
(WAN) ports simultaneously so if a path failure occurs, data continues to reach its destination
with no interruptions.
The eXmux 3500 comes with an advanced Graphical User Interface (GUI) Network
Management Software for Operations, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning
(OAM&P). The intuitive and user friendly VNMS is designed to allow the user to effortlessly
manage their eXmux 3500 network, making configuration, port mapping, network monitoring
and diagnostics simple and easy. The VNMS communicates using the latest SNMPv3 for
authentication and encryption along with cyber security features meeting NERC requirements.
The eXmux 3500 is capable of handling critical real-time applications such as SCADA,
Teleprotection and Relaying over an IP network due to its low latency and the unique “Hitless
Switching” path redundancy feature.
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System Description
3.2 Modular eXmux Features (3500M/3501M)
Figure 3-2. eXmux 3500M/3501M – Modular Hot Swap Option
The 5U high eXmux 3500M/3501M (Modular) IP Access Multiplexer has all the features of the
non-modular unit with the added bonus of “Hot Swapability.” The 3500M/3501M incorporates
a main board motherboard design that allows for easy removal and insertion of Interface Units
without powering down the node. The design of the 3500M/3501M facilitates removal of the
Ethernet Switch, Main and Redundant Power Supplies as well as the Main/Motherboard
assembly if field service by qualified personnel is required, thus keeping down time to a
minimum.
The Interface Units are removed from the rear of the unit while the Main/Motherboard
Assembly is removed from the front. Section 5 in this Instruction Manual gives details on
removing and replacing Interface Units, power supplies and the Ethernet Switch. Users should
review Section 5 before an Interface Unit is replaced.
3.3 Firewall Information
The local system administrator may need to modify any applicable computer’s firewall rules in
order for the VNMS to work properly. The table below lists the network ports that need to be
opened in the firewall for the eXmux VNMS application to function correctly.
Table 3-1. Firewall Information
Incoming/Outgoing Description
Port Name
Firewall
VNMS
Communication
UDP & TCP
Ports1235 & 1236
Both
SNMP
UDP & TCP Port 161
Both
SNMP Traps
UDP & TCP Port 162
Incoming
TFTP
UDP & TCP Port 69
Both
ICMP (ping)
ICMP
Both
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3-2
Port is used for inter-process
communication on the computer
Port is used for secure communication
with the eXmux
Port is used to receive SNMP traps
from the eXmux
Port is used to upgrade the eXmux
The eXmux will ping the computer to
ensure connectivity prior to adding the
computers IP address to the SNMP
Traps table.
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System Description
3.4 Typical Network Application
The illustration below gives an example of a typical communications network using the eXmux
configured with a GigE Fiber interface for the communications backbone and 100 Base-FX on
the star links. Note eXmux 3500/3501 shown, function of the eXmux 3500M/3501M is the
same.
RTU
Router
RS-232
Location G
Location F
Location E
EXMUX 3500
Ethernet
EXMUX 3500
GigE
EXMUX 3500
GigE
DS-1
100Mb
(2km)
T1/E1 Multiplexer
Location J
Protection Relay
C37.94 Intf.
Location A
EXMUX 3500
IP Phone
IP Camera
Ethernet
Ethernet
Location D
EXMUX 3500
GigE
IP Communication
Backbone
Location B
EXMUX 3500
RS-232
2W FXS
Location C
EXMUX 3500
Analog Phone
IED
RS-232
100Mb
(2km)
100Mb
(2km)
Location I
EXMUX 3500
Location H
SCADA
Master
EXMUX 3500
RTU
RS-232
DS-1
RS-449
T1/E1 Multiplexer
Protection Relay
Figure 3-3. Typical Network Application
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System Description
3.4.1 eXmux over a T1 Communications Network
The eXmux can be configured for use over a T1/E1 link when Ethernet connectivity is not
available. This can provide a migration path when your current T1/E1 communications
network is planned to be upgraded in the future to an Ethernet network. The eXmux will need
to be reconfigured for the Ethernet communications network and no hardware needs to be
replaced.
By using the eXmux DS0 grooming feature, all TDM traffic can be groomed from the interface
units onto the T1/E1 communications network to be transported to their appropriate
destinations. Since the eXmux VNMS (Visual Network Management System) uses Ethernet to
communicate over the network, it needs to be converted from Ethernet to TDM to allow
transport over the T1/E1 communications network. This is accomplished by allocating
bandwidth of the T1/E1 signal from the eXmux for VNMS transport. An Ethernet to T1/E1
converter is used for each eXmux to achieve this. The converter will assign the required 12
DSOs for use by the VNMS with the remaining DSOs available for network traffic.
Please contact RFL for further information on this application.
Site A
Site B
Ethernet (VNMS)
Ethernet (VNMS)
T1 DSO 1-12
Grooming
Ethernet/T1 Converter
T1 DSO 1-12
Ethernet (VNMS)
Grooming
EXMUX 3500
EXMUX 3500
DSO 15
Legacy Interfaces
T1 DSO 1-12
T1
T1
EXMUX 3500
DSO 13
Site C
Ethernet/T1 Converter
Ethernet/T1 Converter
DSO 13
DSO 14
DSO 14
DSO 15
Legacy Interfaces
Legacy Interfaces
Figure 3-4. eXmux over T1 Communications Network
3.4.2 eXmux over an ISP (Internet Service Provider) Communications
Network
The eXmux can be configured for use over a third party ISP (Internet Service Provider)
network. Additionally, it can be configured for redundant path communications over the same
ISP or another third party ISP.
In a private network environment the eXmux is typically configured to use multicast addressing
to establish network visibility and connectivity to all locations in the network. Multicast
addressing can present security and network efficiency issues when used over an ISP. The
eXmux can be provisioned to use unicast addressing which provides the required network
visibility and connectivity. Unicast messages use established neighbor tables to create the
network required for eXmux to eXmux communications. For redundant path requirements two
unique unicast IP addresses are transmitted with each one routed over a different path.
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System Description
A comprehensive SLA (Service Level Agreement) must be obtained from the ISP to ensure
sufficient and consistent bandwidth for this network to operate reliably and efficiently.
Refer to Section 7.4 and 9.2 for information and provisioning instructions.
Please contact RFL for further information on this application.
Path A
10.203.55.1
10.203.55.100
HUB
10.203.55.1
10.203.55.11
10.203.55.2
10.203.55.22
10.203.55.100
10.203.55.200
Path A
10.203.55.1
10.203.55.2
10.203.55.100
ISP
NETWORK
Path A
10.203.55.1
10.203.55.11
10.203.55.100
10.203.55.200
Site B
Router
Path B
10.203.55.11
10.203.55.200
EXMUX 3500
10.203.55.1
10.203.55.11
DSO 1
Legacy Interfaces
Router
EXMUX 3500
10.203.55.100
10.203.55.200
DSO 1
Path A
10.203.55.2
10.203.55.100
Path B
10.203.55.11
10.203.55.22
10.203.55.200
DSO 2
10.203.55.2
10.203.55.22
10.203.55.100
10.203.55.200
ISP
NETWORK
Path B
Legacy Interfaces
Site C
Router
Path B
10.203.55.22
10.203.55.200
EXMUX 3500
10.203.55.2
10.203.55.22
DSO 2
Legacy Interfaces
Figure 3-5. eXmux over an ISP Communications Network
3.4.3 Key Features 3500/3501 and 3500M/3501M

Legacy Interfaces
Can accommodate up to seven different DS0 legacy interface units including multiple
T1/E1 units, plus a telephone service channel.

Ethernet Interface
Integrated Layer 2 Managed Ethernet Switch including two GigE WAN ports.

Common IP Platform
Seamlessly transports Voice, Serial Data and Ethernet communications over any
Ethernet IP or MPLS Network.

Network Topology
Supports any network topology, including linear (bus), star and ring configurations.
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System Description

DS0 Grooming
Integrated Digital Access Cross-Connect System (DACS), allowing individual DS0
circuits from any legacy T1/E1 system to be connected to any DS0 circuits within the
eXmux network or to another PCM network.

Hitless Switching
When set up in a redundant ring configuration, the port interface has the ability to
recover from a fiber cut without losing a single data bit.

Advanced Visual NMS User Interface
Advanced Visual Network Management Software for effortless configuration. Tool
Tips are provided with this interface to assist the user in understanding the configuration
dialog screens. Simply sliding the cursor over the setting will display an explanation of
the setting options.

Highly Resilient and Secure
Designed for harsh environments with immunity from SWC, ESD and RFI. Optional
redundant power supply and SNMPv3 compliant for authentication and encryption.

Low Latency
Low latency for critical real-time applications.

Modular eXmux (3500M/3501M)
Modular design with all Interface Units being “Hot Swappable.”
3.5 LED Indicators (Front and Rear)
Straight forward, simple LED indicators are located on the front and rear of the eXmux,
allowing the unit to be reverse mounted in a rack (See 4.3.1) The indicators give the user a
constant picture of the eXmux’s health. Indicators on the front and rear of the unit show:

Power Supply Status.

Whether the unit is in Major or Minor Alarm.

Ethernet Switch Port Status.
Indicators on the front only will show:

The status of the Customer Interfaces (IU’s).
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System Description
3500/3501
Front View
1
2
4
3
Rear View
1
2
3
Figure 3-6. LED Indicators
3500M/3501M
Rear View
Front View
1
2
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System Description
1. Power Supply Status
Two LED’s for the Main and Redundant power supply.
No illumination
No power supply present
Green
Power is ON and functioning normally
Yellow
Power is present but voltage levels are incorrect
2. eXmux Alarm Status
There are two LED indicators marked “Major” and “Minor” Alarm. It is possible for
the eXmux to be in both alarm states.
Color
Status
Red
Major Alarm state
Yellow
Minor Alarm state
No Illumination
Functioning normally
While the eXmux is rebooting the Red Major Alarm will flash, rebooting may take
several minutes.
3. Ethernet Switch Port Status
3500/3500M:
The LED’s on the 3500/3500M units have two functions for the GE (WAN) and (LAN)
ports one through six:
a.
b.
EXMUX 3500/3501
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To show the state of the Ethernet connection.
LED Condition
Status
LED ON
Port is linked and functioning
LED Blinking
There is activity on the port
LED OFF
There is NO connection on the port
To indicate the connection speed.
Color
Status
Green
1000 Mbps
Yellow
100 Mbps
Red
10 Mbps
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System Description
3501/3501M:
The LED’s on the 3501/3501M models indicate the following conditions for the GE
(WAN) and FE (LAN) ports one through six:
LED Condition
Status
LED OFF
No link
LED ON (Solid Green)
Link present
LED ON (Flashing Green)
Network activity
LED ON (Solid Red)
Port blocked or disabled
LED ON (Flashing alternate Red-Green)
Data errors
Port speed is not indicated on the 3501/3501M external LEDs, however it is
indicated through VNMS in node view as follows:
Color
Status
Green
1000 Mbps
Yellow
100 Mbps
Red
10 Mbps
4. Customer Interface Status
It is possible to install up to seven customer interfaces in the eXmux
(See 3.4). LED indicators show the status of these interface modules.
No Illumination
No Interface Unit installed
Green
IU installed and functioning normally
Orange
IU installed and in Minor Alarm
Red
IU installed and in Major Alarm
See Section 10.6.1 for Major and Minor Alarms and how they are generated.
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System Description
3.6 Customer Interface Units (IU’s) - Layout 3500/3501 Non-Modular
The customer interfaces are configured at the factory and can be placed in the unit in many
combinations. However, the interface labels are fixed as shown in the Figure below. For
example if Interface 1 and 2 are combined as one board with 4 synchronous ports they are still
defined as Interface 1 and 2, each having ports 1 and 2. Or if Interface 1 has 8 FXO ports and
Interface 2 has 4 FXS connectors the interface slots remain as 1 and 2. This is necessary as a
reference during the configuration process which is described in Section 7.
Interface 1 Interface 2
Interface 3 Interface 4 Interface 5 Interface 6 Interface 7
Figure 3-7. Customer Interface Scheme (eXmux 3500/3501)
The customer interface scheme is as shown above in the rear view of the eXmux. All the
interfaces can be combined with the exception of Interface 7 which is always single.
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System Description
3.7 Customer Interface Units (IU’s) - Layout 3500M/3501M Modular Unit
The customer interface scheme for the eXmux 3500M/3501M is shown below.
interfaces can be combined with the exception of Interface 7 which is always single.
Interface
1
Interface
2
Interface
3
Interface
4
Interface
5
Interface
7
Interface
6
Main Power
Supply
All the
Redundant
Power
Supply
Ethernet Switch
Figure 3-8. Customer Interface Scheme (eXmux 3500M/3501M – Modular Unit)
The following page gives a list of currently supported Interface Units with certain slot
restrictions. Clicking on the Part Number links the user to a more detailed description of the
interface. Experienced users can also “Jump to Configuration,” a direct link to the interface
units configuration dialogs.
EXMUX 3500/3501
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Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
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System Description
3.7.1 Customer Interface Units – Cross Reference
Interface
Table 3-2. Customer Interface Units
Part Number
Connector Type
T1/E1 (With DSO
Grooming)
Jump to configuration
(includes built-in T1/E1)
109105 Non -Modular
Sync (multi-protocol)
RS-422/530, V.35, X.21
Jump to configuration
109050 Non –Modular
Sync
C37.94 Optical
Jump to configuration
109040 Non -Modular
109040-1 Non-Modular
109260 Modular
109260-1 Modular
Sync
G.703
Jump to configuration
109045 Non -Modular
Async
RS-232, V.24
Jump to configuration
109035 Non -Modular
Async
RS-485 (2 or 4-wire)
Jump to configuration
109130 Non -Modular
Async Serial Server
RS-232, RS-485 4-wire
(Remote Substation IED
Monitoring with DNP3
Support)
Jump to configuration
109145 Non -Modular
Telephone
2-wire FXO
Jump to configuration
109025 Non -Modular
Telephone
2-wire FXS
Jump to configuration
109060 Non -Modular
Audio
2-wire E&M
Jump to configuration
109155 Non -Modular
Audio
4-wire E&M
Jump to configuration
109030 Non -Modular
109295 Modular
109250 Modular
109265 Modular
109255 Modular
109270 Modular
109300 Modular
Ports per Interface
RJ-45
or DB-15 (Male)
(Jump to pin-outs)
1
(Cannot be placed in slot 7)
DB-25
(Female)
(Jump to pin-outs)
4
(Occupies 2 slots in the
eXmux)
Short Haul Fiber
ST
(Jump to pin-outs)
4
(Use restricted in slot 7)
DB-15
(Female)
(Jump to pin-outs)
4
(Occupies 2 slots in the
eXmux)
DB-9
(Female)
(Jump to pin-outs)
8
(Occupies 2 slots in the
eXmux)
Terminal Block
(5-pin quick
release)
(Jump to pin-outs)
4
DB-9
(Female)
(Jump to pin-outs)
4
(Maximum of 3 IU per
chassis)
RJ-11
8
RJ-11
4
(Maximum of 2 IU per
chassis)
RJ-45
(Jump to pin-outs)
4
RJ-45
(Jump to pin-outs)
8
109280 Modular
109275 Modular
109290 Modular
109285 Modular
Continued………..
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Table 3-3. eXmux TPS I/O Module Part Numbers
I/O Module Part Number
Description
109180-1
Solid State Output Unit with Screw Block Terminal
109180-2
Relay Output Unit with Screw Block Terminal
109180-3
Solid State Output Unit with Compression Block Terminal
109180-4
Relay Output Unit with Compression Block Terminal
3.8 Customer Interface Units – Detailed Descriptions
3.8.1 Data Interfaces
3.8.1.1 Synchronous
Data Interface (Multi-Protocol)
This interface provides four channels of synchronous data. Four RS-530 (EIA-422) female
DB-25 connectors are pinned for a standard DCE pinout. All other configurations will
require a special interface cable or adapter. DTE functionality is supported but the pinouts
are not standard.
Interface
Table 3-4. Synchronous Data Interfaces
Data
Connector Ports per
Rate
Type
Interface Unit
RS-422/RS-530, V.35,
X.21
56 to
1984 kb/s
DB-25
(Female)
4
Maximum cable length is 50 meters (164 ft) at 64 Kbps; decreased cable length as data rate
increases.
The Synchronous Interface Unit provides four ports but occupies two locations in the rear of the
eXmux. It is organized as two units for the purpose of configuration and management.
3.8.1.1.1 Functional Overview
The Synchronous Interface Unit accepts one to four synchronous data channels, converting
these channels into TDM over IP signals for transmission over an Ethernet link. RS-422, X.21
or V.35 data interfaces can be set using the VNMS software. The IU uses 1 to 31 bi-directional
timeslots for addressing functions. Any externally supplied clock must be synchronous with the
IU; handshaking will only support RTS (input) and CTS (output), RTS input is looped out to
CTS output (with or without added delay). Loopback testing can be set.
Each port can be configured for the following parameters:

Timeslot Start (Sets the starting Timeslot 1-31)

Data Transfer Rate(56K, 64K and up to 1984K in increments of 64K)

Handshake Delay

Polarity
o RX and TX Data (Normal or Inverted)
o RX and TX Clock (Normal or Inverted)
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DTE and DCE
These commonly used terms in the communications industry are often confused:


DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) at the terminal end of a data transmission, DTE
comprises the transmit and receive equipment, typically a PC.
DCE (Data Communications Equipment) provides a path for communications.
In DTE mode the interface timing provided by the customer equipment must be time synched to
the local eXmux timing, otherwise data errors will occur.
Click to go to Configuration 7.7.1.
3.8.1.2 T1/E1
Interface Unit
This Interface provides a single port for T1 or E1 communication. Three clock modes are
accepted by the interface, either system, for conversion into TDM over IP signals to be
transmitted over an Ethernet link. This interface unit cannot be placed in slot 7.
Table 3-5. T1/E1 Data Interface
Data Rate
Connector Type Ports per Interface Unit
Interface
T1/E1
1.544 Mbps (T1)
2.048 Mbps (E1)
RJ-48C
or
DB-15 (Male)
1
3.8.1.2.1 Functional Overview
There are three operating clock modes supported by this Interface Unit, selectable through the
VNMS user interface software; System, Through and Internal Clock. These clock modes
determine the source of the TX clock used to create the signal from the T1/E1 IU port toward
the external equipment. In System mode the T1/E1 clock is linked directly with the eXmux
system clock while in through and Internal mode the timing can be independent of the eXmux
system clock.
Loopback testing can be enabled. The customer can choose between an RJ-48C or 15-pin Dsubminiature male connector.
The port can be configured for the following parameters:

Selectable, System, Through or Internal TX clock mode

Selectable T1 or E1 mode

DS0 Grooming (System Clock-Mode only)
All other configuration parameters are typical to T1/E1 signaling and are shown in the
Configuration Section (See 7.7.4).
System Clock Mode
o
EXMUX 3500/3501
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Required for DS0 Grooming and allowed for Pass Thru mode.
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System Description
o
TX Timing is locked to the eXmux system clock.
o
All customer supplied equipment connected to the T1/E1 port, operating in
System Clock mode MUST be set for “Looped-timed” operation.
Through Clock Mode
o
Supports direct pass-through of T1/E1 signals with an independent clock.
This clock need not be related to any clock source used within the eXmux.
o
Through Clock mode is supported by the T1/E1 Interface Unit and the BuiltIn T1/E1 Unit.
o
The clock of the outgoing signal on the remote end is acquired from the
incoming signal on the local end – and vice versa.
Internal Clock Mode
o
Internal oscillator, independent of the eXmux system clock.
Clock Mapping for T1/E1 Interface Units
eXmux
RX Clock
To Far
End
From Far
End
T1/E1 In
RX Data
Ethernet
Switch
TDM
over IP
T1/E1 IU
TX Data
Through Clock
*System
Clock
T1/E1 Out
TX Clock
MUX
**Internal
Clock (Oscillator)
* System Clock distributed to all IU's, source selected by chassis configuration
** Internal Clock independent from system clock
Note: Only System Clock selection is valid for the Groomed Mode in the T1/E1 I.U.
Figure 3-9. Clock Mapping
Click to go to Configuration 7.7.4
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System Description
3.8.1.2.2 DS0 Grooming
DS0 Grooming allows the sending of multiple DS0’s from one or more T1/E1 port to other
T1/E1 ports within the network. This feature allows the integration of the eXmux into an
existing older T1/E1 multiplexer network. DS0 Grooming is selected through the VNMS
interface when mapping a network.
Remote eXmux
Local eXmux
Timeslot 3 & 4 combined
Timeslot 3
Timeslot 4
Click to see a typical DS0 Grooming Application, 3.16
Click to go to DS0 Grooming Configuration 7.12.4
3.8.1.3 G.703
Co-Directional Interface
This interface provides four channels of synchronous data. Four DB-15 (D-subminiature)
Female connectors are pinned for a standard DCE pinout.
Interface
G.703
Table 3-6. G.703 Interface
Data
Connector
Rate
Type
64 kb/s
DB-15
(Female)
Ports per
Interface Unit
4
Maximum cable length is 50 meters (164 ft) at 64 Kbps.
The G.703 Interface Unit provides four ports but occupies two locations in the rear of the
eXmux. It is organized as two units for the purpose of configuration and management.
3.8.1.3.1 Functional Overview
The synchronous G.703 Interface Unit accepts one to four synchronous data channels
converting these channels into TDM over IP signals for transmission over an Ethernet link. The
IU is configured using the VNMS software. The interface has no option for speed which is
fixed at 64 kbps. Octet timing patterns can be enabled and loopback testing is available.
Each port can be configured for the following parameters:

Enable Octet Timing

RX and TX Polarity (Normal or Inverted)

Loopback Mode (None – Local or Remote)
Click to go to Configuration 7.7.2.
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Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
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System Description
3.8.1.4 C37.94
Optical Interface
This interface provides four channels of synchronous data per interface.
Interface
Table 3-7. C37.94 Optical Interface
Data
Connector Ports per
Rate
Type
Interface Unit
64 to
768 kb/s
C37.94
Short Haul
Fiber (ST)
4
The C37.94 Interface Unit provides four ports and occupies one location in the rear of the
eXmux. The C37.94 IU has restricted use in slot 7. For a full explanation see 7.7.3
3.8.1.4.1 Functional Overview
The synchronous C37.94 Optical Interface Unit accepts one to four synchronous data channels
converting these channels into TDM over IP signals for transmission over an Ethernet link. The
IU is configured using the VNMS software. The C37.94 IU may be configured for any speed of
operation up to N=12, all four ports have a maximum combined rate of 1984 Kbps. Loopback
testing is available. Both singlemode and multimode fiber heads are available, the singlemode
head can be used for distances up to 10km (6.2 miles).
Each port can be configured for the following parameters:

Data rate by bandwidth allocation

RX and TX Data Polarity

Loopback Mode (None – Local or Remote)
Click to go to Configuration 7.7.3.
IU Part No.
Table 3-8. Characteristics of eXmux Short Haul Fiber Interface (C37.94)
Receiver
Connector
TX Level
Type
Wavelength/Mode
Sensitivity
Type
(average)
(minimum)
-11dBm to
-23dBm
into 50μm fiber
Non-Modular
109040
Modular
109260
LED
Emitter/Detector
820 nm/multimode
Non-Modular
109040-1
Modular
109260-1
LED
Emitter/Detector
1300 nm/singlemode
EXMUX 3500/3501
October 2017
ST
-32dBm
-11dBm to
-19dBm
into 62.5μm fiber
ST
3-17
-35dBm
-20dBm to
-22dBm
into 9 μm fiber
Typical
Distance
Up to 2km
(1.2 miles)
Up to 10km
(6.2 miles)
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3.8.1.5 Asynchronous
Data Interface (RS-232)
The Asynchronous Data Interface uses the following.
Table 3-9. Asynchronous Data Interfaces
Connector
Ports per
Interface
Type
Interface Unit
RS-232, V.24
DB-9
(Female)
8
The Asynchronous Interface Unit provides eight ports but occupies two locations in the rear of
the eXmux. It is organized as two units for the purpose of configuration and management.
3.8.1.5.1 Functional Overview
The Asynchronous Interface Unit provides one to eight asynchronous data channels converting
these channels into TDM over IP signals for transmission over an Ethernet link. The RS-232
data interface is configured using the VNMS software. The IU uses 1 time slot per port and has
various configuration options for baud rate, character length, and handshaking. The IU uses
V.110 framing and V.14 synchronization for async to TDM conversion. The DTR and RTS
pins can be set or disabled as required. Loopback testing is available.
Each port can be configured for the following parameters:

Baud (Data) Rate (0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2 and 38.4 kbps)

Character Length (9, 10 and 11)

DTR (Enable – Disable)

RTS (Enable – Disable)

Loopback Mode (None – Local or Remote)
Click to go to Configuration 7.7.5.
3.8.1.6 Asynchronous
RS-485 Interface Unit
This interface provides four channels of Asynchronous communication occupying one interface
slot in the rear of the eXmux. Each port can provide 2-wire (half duplex) or 4-wire (full
duplex) functionality for this robust serial communication.
Table 3-10. Asynchronous RS-485 Data Interfaces
Ports per
Interface
Connector Type
Interface Unit
RS-485
5-pin terminal block
4
3.8.1.6.1 Functional Overview
The Asynchronous RS-485 Interface Unit provides one to four asynchronous data channels
converting these channels into TDM over IP signals for transmission over an Ethernet link. The
RS-485 data interface is configured using the VNMS software. Note that this IU only functions
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System Description
as a “slave” and will only support point to point connections over the TDM. Multiple
connections must be accommodated by external wiring. The IU uses 1 time slot per port and
has various configuration options for baud rate and character length. This interface will NOT
support handshaking signals. The IU uses V.110 framing and V.14 synchronization for async
to TDM conversion. Loopback testing is supported.
Each port can be configured for the following parameters:

Operating mode (2 or 4-Wire)

4-Wire Idle Output (Tri-state or Mark)

TX/RX Termination (Enable – Disable)

Baud (Data) Rate (0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2 and 38.4 kbps)

Character Length (9, 10 and 11)

Loopback Mode (None – Local or Remote)
Click to go to Configuration 7.7.6
3.8.2 Serial Server
The RFL Serial Server will allow the user to remotely communicate with, and monitor their
IED’s (Intelligent Electronic Devices) utilizing an IP network. Four channels of communication
are provided per Interface Unit for a total of up to 12 channels per eXmux. The IU will support
Serial to multicast topologies and multi-master implementations for RS-232 and RS-485-4W
point to multipoint and multipoint to multipoint applications in Raw Socket Mode. The
following protocols are supported:

Raw socket mode or Telnet.

SSH.

DNP3
Table 3-11. Serial Server Data Interfaces
Connector
Ports per
Interface
Type
Interface Unit
RS-232, RS-485-4W
DB-9
(Female)
4
3.8.2.1 Functional
Overview
The RFL Serial Server Interface Unit differs from other eXmux IU’s in that it has its own
onboard processing capability. Low speed Asynchronous data traffic originating from external
customer IED’s is converted (packetized) on-the-fly and transmitted out over the eXmux high
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System Description
speed Ethernet port without multiplexer intervention. The Serial Server is configured using the
VNMS software; various configuration options are possible including baud rate and
handshaking. Loopback testing is supported.
Each port can be configured for the following parameters:

Operating mode (RS-232 or RS-485-4W)

TX/RX Termination (Enable – Disable)

Baud (Data) Rate:
RS-232, from 0.3 to 38.4 Kbps
RS-485, from 0.3 to 38.4 Kbps

Loopback Mode (None – Local or Remote)

Security:
Port, enable-disable
SSH
Click to go to Configuration 7.8
3.8.2.2 Protocols
Raw Socket Mode
o
Can be used with all operating modes, point to point, point to multipoint and
multipoint to multipoint.
o
There is no encryption or authentication.
SSH (Secure Shell)
o
Used for point to point communication only.
o
Uses full encryption and authentication.
o
Public key authentication possible.
o
Used for communication with DNP3 Master Computers.
o
There is no encryption or authentication.
DNP3
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3.8.2.3 Topologies
Point to Point
This mode uses a single serial server at each end to simulate a traditional modem (point to
point) link. Depending on handshaking lines at the serial port, data is passed full duplex across
the network all the time. Because this is a unicast arrangement various levels of security,
authentication, and encryption can be employed.
Point to Point
IED
Serial
Server
Serial
Server
Station
Master
eXmux
RTU
Ethernet
eXmux
High speed Ethernet link
Point to Multipoint
This mode allows one master unit to send data to many remotes and receive back from the
correct remote. It uses one serial server that multicasts data to the network (master). An
additional 32 serial servers can be configured to receive this data and pass it out their serial
ports (RTU’s). Any data seen coming into their serial ports is sent back to the master. It is the
intelligence of the external devices that prevents two remote units from responding to the same
outbound message, thereby causing collisions (in traditional systems). Because this system is
multicast, authentication and encryption is limited.
Point to Multipoint
IED
Serial
Server
RTU
Station
Master
eXmux
Serial
Server
eXmux
IED
Ethernet
Serial
Server
RTU
eXmux
IED
High speed Ethernet link
Serial
Server
RTU
eXmux
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Multipoint to Multipoint
This mode is similar to point to multipoint but allows more than one master in the system. This
is important when primary and back up master systems are available to communicate with
many remotes. It is important to note that all remotes see all traffic from all masters and all
masters see all traffic from all remotes but remotes don’t see traffic from other remotes and
masters don’t see traffic from other masters. Because this system is multicast, authentication
and encryption is limited.
Multipoint to Multipoint
IED
Station
Master (1)
Serial
Server
Serial
Server
eXmux
eXmux
RTU
IED
Serial
Server
Ethernet
Station
Master (2)
Serial
Server
eXmux
eXmux
Serial
Server
RTU
IED
RTU
High speed Ethernet link
eXmux
DNP3 Configuration
This mode will allow the user to take advantage of the high speed communications features of
the eXmux when using the DNP protocol. Once configured the eXmux Serial Server will
“listen” for data requests from a specific DNP Master Computer and pass this data request on to
the DNP Slave for data transmission back to the DNP Master. The Serial Server DNP option
can be configured for either TCP/IP or UDP/IP. There is no authentication or encryption with
DNP3.
DNP3
RS-485 (4W)
Max 4-ports
GARD or similar
protective relay
device as DNP
Slave
Serial
Server
DNP
eXmux
DNP Master
Computers with
unique IP addresses
High Speed Link
TCP/IP Connection orientated
UDP/IP Connectionless
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3.8.3 Telephone Interfaces
3.8.3.1 Two
Wire FXO Interface
The 2W FXO interface is shown below.
Table 3-12. Two Wire FXO Interface
Connector
Ports per
Interface
Type
Interface Unit
FXO Telephone Port
RJ-11
8
The 2W FXO Interface Unit provides eight ports and occupies one location in the rear of the
eXmux.
3.8.3.1.1 Functional Overview
The eXmux Two Wire Foreign Exchange Office End (FXO) interface will accept independent
voice channels as input, converting these channels into TDM over IP signals for transmission
over an Ethernet link. The IU is intended to provide eight interfaces between the eXmux and
the customer’s PBX equipment. Each port can be configured for the following parameters:

TX and RX level.

Test Tone (TX and RX).

Digital Loopback
The FXO IU provides up to 8 connection ports for 2-wire phone office lines. The Unit contains
interfacing and conditioning circuits as well as analog-to-digital converters for transmission of
the voice signal and of the associated signaling over an Ethernet link. A phone circuit using the
FXO Interface on one end of the link and FXS on the other end can provide a Foreign Exchange
or an Off-Premises Extension line over an Ethernet connection.
Click to go to Configuration 7.10.1
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System Description
Digital Loopback
This mode will turn around data received from the TDM over IP converters and transmit them
back to the far end. The near end phone will still receive the signal from the far end. This is
done in the digital section of the IU.
Terminal
Equipment
RX
TX
X
Terminal
Equipment
RX
FXO Voice Interface at near
end configured for remote
loopback
TX
Near End
Far End
Figure 3-10. eXmux FXO Loopback Mode
3.8.3.2 Two
Wire FXS Interface
The 2W FXS interface is shown below.
Table 3-13. Two Wire FXS Interface
Connector
Ports per
Interface
Type
Interface Unit
FXS Telephone Port
RJ-11
4
The 2W FXS Interface Unit provides four ports and occupies one location in the rear of the
eXmux.
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System Description
WARNING!
Extreme care must be used to avoid creating a safety hazard when employing long 2-wire
telephone circuits which extend more than 100 feet (30 meters). Ground potential rise and/or
induced AC voltages can result in injury or death under normal operating conditions and
especially under fault conditions. RFL recommends against the use of this product in
applications where the 2-wire telephone circuit extends beyond the perimeter of the substation
ground mat. It is the installer’s responsibility to ensure that all local, state, federal, and
corporate safety standards and practices are complied with in any installation.
3.8.3.2.1 Functional Overview
The eXmux Two Wire Foreign Exchange Station End (FXS) interface will accept independent
voice channels as input, converting these channels into TDM over IP signals for transmission
over an Ethernet link. A circuit with an eXmux FXS module at one end and an eXmux FXO
module at the other end can provide a Foreign Exchange (FX) line or an Off-Premise Extension
(OPX) line. An Automatic Ring Down (ARD) line can be set up by using eXmux FXS
interfaces at both ends of the circuit. The FXS IU can be configured for the following
parameters:

Automatic Ring Down (ARD).

Test Tone (TX and RX).

Ring voltage level.

TX and RX level

Ring voltage dc offset.

Loop Current Select.

Digital Loopback.
The FXS IU provides up to 4 connection ports for 2-wire phone station equipment. The Unit
contains interfacing and conditioning circuits as well as analog-to-digital converters for
transmission of the voice signal and of the associated signaling over an Ethernet link. The unit
provides an on-board ring generator and station-battery generator. The unit will support 4
phone connections per port rated at 1 REN each. Note that each eXmux will only support up
to 2 FXS Interface Units, for a total of 32 phone connections at the above rating.
Click to go to Configuration 7.10.2.
EXMUX 3500/3501
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System Description
Digital Loopback
This mode will turn around data received from the TDM over IP converters and transmit them
back to the far end. The near end phone will still receive the signal from the far end. This is
done in the digital section of the IU.
Terminal
Equipment
RX
TX
X
Terminal
Equipment
RX
FXS Voice Interface at near
end configured for remote
loopback
TX
Near End
Far End
Figure 3-11. eXmux FXS Loopback Mode
3.8.4 Audio Interfaces
3.8.4.1 Two
Wire Audio Interface
The eXmux 2-Wire Audio Interface is an 4-port E & M voice frequency interface that will
accept 4-channels as input and digitize them; each channel will occupy one 64 kbps time slot.
Table 3-14. Two Wire Audio Interface
Connector
Ports per
Interface
Type
Interface Unit
2-Wire Audio
RJ-45
4
The 2W Audio Interface Unit provides four ports and occupies one location in the rear of the
eXmux.
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System Description
3.8.4.1.1 Functional Overview
The eXmux 2-Wire Audio Interface provides high-quality voice characteristics and allows
E & M signaling of type I, II, III and V. The interface has extended-range input and output
signal level settings to facilitate interfaces to most two-wire applications. Each port can be
configured for the following parameters:

Selectable Type I, II, III or V signaling.

TX and RX Levels.

Test Tone (TX and RX).

Forced Busy Setting (Forced Off-Hook).

2-Wire FXS/FXO Signaling Mode.

Loopback (Local or Remote).
The Two-Wire IU provides up to 4 connection ports for 2-wire audio channels. The Unit
contains interfacing and conditioning circuits as well as analog-to-digital converters for
transmission of the audio signal over an Ethernet link. The Interface Unit provides an on-board
station-battery generator and interface circuits for transmission of selectable-type E and M
signaling, associated with the audio channels.
Click to go to Configuration 7.10.3
3.8.4.2 Four
Wire Audio Interface
The eXmux 4-Wire Audio Interface is an 8-port E & M voice frequency interface that will
accept 8-channels as input and digitize them; each channel will occupy one 64 kbps time slot.
Table 3-15. Four Wire Audio Interface
Connector
Ports per
Interface
Type
Interface Unit
4-Wire Audio
RJ-45
8
The 4W Audio Interface Unit provides eight ports and occupies one location in the rear of the
eXmux.
3.8.4.2.1 Functional Overview
The eXmux 4-Wire Audio Interface provides high-quality voice characteristics and allows
E & M signaling of type I, II, III and V. The interface has extended-range input and output
signal level settings to facilitate interfaces to most four-wire applications. Each port can be
configured for the following parameters:

Selectable Type I, II, III or V signaling.

TX and RX Levels.

Test Tone (TX and RX).
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System Description

Forced Busy Setting (Forced Off-Hook).

4-Wire FXS/FXO Signaling Mode.

Loopback (Local or Remote).
The Four-Wire IU provides up to 8 connection ports for 4-wire audio channels. The Unit
contains interfacing and conditioning circuits as well as analog-to-digital converters for
transmission of the audio signal over an Ethernet link. The Interface Unit provides an on-board
station-battery generator and interface circuits for transmission of selectable-type E and M
signaling, associated with the audio channels.
3.8.4.2.2 TX Bridged Mode for eXmux Four-Wire Module
TX Bridging mode for 4 wire audio interface units is supported by systems featuring system
software version 6.1.7992, VNMS version 6.1.1 or higher and Actel version 10 or higher. For
these modules the “TX Bridging” setting is available under the General Tab.
Operation: In TX Bridging Mode the local audio signal connected to an even-numbered port is
bridged to the neighboring odd-numbered port for transmission over packet network. When
Bridging mode is enabled Port 2 bridges to port 1, port 4 bridges to 3, port 6 to 5, and 8 to 7. In
this mode no local connection is made to odd-numbered ports.
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System Description
The bridged local audio signal is transmitted to both remote locations mapped to the two
bridged ports. The received signal path is not affected by TX Bridging Mode. Signal arriving
from remote location mapped to Port 1 is available locally at Port 1. Signal arriving from
remote location mapped to Port 2 is available locally at Port 2, etc.
Note: Signaling is not affected by bridge mode setting.
Port 2
Digital
Section
Port 2
Analog
Section
Port 1
Digital
Section
TX Bridging Mode
Port 1
Analog
Section
Four-Wire IU
Audio
Signal
Click to go to Configuration 7.10.4
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System Description
3.8.4.3 E
& M Signaling for Two or Four Wire Audio Interfaces
The interface supports four types of E&M Signaling as shown below.
R
P
M
M
-48V
Battery
Detector
R
Ground
Detector
-48V
E
E
Trunk Circuit
EXMUX 4W
Audio Module
Type I
Interface
Figure 3-12. E&M Signaling, Type I
Type I signaling is a two-wire scheme, normally encountered in electromechanical switching
systems. The trunk circuit M lead provides the ground (on hook) and the battery –48V (off
hook) toward the eXmux 4W Audio Interface. The signaling from the Audio Interface to the
trunk circuit is on the E lead with open circuit (on hook) and ground (off hook).
P
SB
SB
M
M
SG
SG
-48V
Battery
Detector
R
-48V
Ground
Detector
E
E
EXMUX 4W
Audio Module
Trunk Circuit
Type II
Interface
Figure 3-13. E&M Signaling, Type II
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System Description
Type II signaling is a four-wire scheme, normally encountered in electronic switching systems.
An on hook (idle) condition is indicated by open circuits on both E and M leads and a closure
for off-hook (busy).
SB
SB
P
M
98
M
-48V
Battery
Detector
38
Ferrod
Sensor
SG
-48V
SG
EXMUX 4W
Audio Module
R
Ground
Detector
E
E
Trunk Circuit
Type III
Interface
Figure 3-14. E&M Signaling, Type III
Type III signaling is a partially looped four-wire scheme. It provides better protection against
interference, and is used with electronic switching systems. An on hook (idle) condition is
indicated by an open circuit on the E lead and ground on the M lead. Signaling over the M lead
is the same as type I, except that battery and ground for M lead signaling are provided to the
trunk circuit over the MB and EB leads. A distinction of the Type III interface is that three
conductors are used for M lead signaling.
P
M
M
Ground
Detector
-48V
EXMUX 4W
Audio Module
-48V
Ground
Detector
R
E
E
Trunk Circuit
Type V
Interface
Figure 3-15. E&M Signaling, Type V
Type V signaling is a two-wire scheme normally encountered outside North America. The trunk
circuit M lead provides the ground (off-hook), and an open (on-hook) toward the eXmux Audio
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System Description
Interface. The signaling from the Audio Interface to the trunk circuit is on the E lead with open
circuit (on-hook) and ground (off-hook).
3.8.4.4 Four
Wire Audio Interface, Typical Applications
Shown below are two typical applications employing the 2 or 4W Audio Interface in the
eXmux.
EXMUX 3500
EXMUX 3500
Ethernet Network
Typical Audio Teleprotection
Scheme using the 4W Audio
Customer Interface
GARD 8000
GARD 8000
EXMUX 3500
EXMUX 3500
Ethernet Network
4W SCADA Application
4W Modem
(SCADA Master)
4W Modem
(RTU)
Figure 3-16. Typical Applications using the eXmux Four Wire Audio Interface
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System Description
3.8.4.5 eXmux
Two and Four Wire Audio Interface Loopback Configurations
Terminal
Equipment
TX
RX
Terminal
Equipment
Audio Interface at near end
configured for local loopback
Near End
TX RX
Far End
Terminal
Equipment
TX
RX
Terminal
Equipment
Audio Interface at near end
configured for remote loopback
Near End
TX RX
Far End
Figure 3-17. 2-4W Audio Interface Loopback Configurations
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System Description
3.9 The eXmux TPS System
TDM over IP
High Speed Link
TPS System
Interface Unit
(P/N 109165)
eXmux
3500
Custom
Interface Cable
P/N104375
Solid State or
Relay Outputs
Opto-isolated
Inputs
I/O Module
(See table below)
Figure 3-18. RFL 3500 TPS System Constituent Parts
The system consists of an Interface Unit (IU) in the eXmux and a separate (1U high) I/O
Module. Typically the I/O module is located below the eXmux in a rack mounted
configuration. A custom RFL cable connects the I/O Module to the Interface Unit; the IU has
two ports for an additional I/O Module as required.
This system provides end to end teleprotection utilizing TDM over IP and T1/E1. The TPS
system is compatible with the IMUX 2000 Multiplexer and will interface seamlessly with the
IMUX 2000 Transfer Trip Module.
Interface
TPS
I/O Module Part Number
Table 3-16. TPS System IU
Connector Type
Ports per Interface Unit
2 – For connection to the I/O Module(s)
Proprietary protocol and power supply connection.
DB-9 (Female)
Table 3-17. eXmux TPS I/O Module Part Numbers
Description
109180-1
Solid State Output Unit with Screw Block Terminal
109180-2
Relay Output Unit with Screw Block Terminal
109180-3
Solid State Output Unit with Compression Block Terminal
109180-4
Relay Output Unit with Compression Block Terminal
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3.9.1 Functional Overview
The system provides four bidirectional transfer trip commands, point to point between two
eXmux units or between one eXmux and an IMUX 2000 MTS unit. The system has four
function inputs and four function outputs; additionally there are two inputs for controlling the
logic and two outputs for alarm indication. The bidirectional transfer trip commands set
through VNMS are as follows:
Function
Description
Trip Hold
This is a timer function which extends the length of time that a trip output is activated after
a valid trip condition clears. For this function to engage, a valid trip condition must exist
long enough to satisfy the pre-trip timer. The length of time is programmable independently
for each function.
Input Debounce
This is a timer function which requires that a trip input be present for a certain length of time
before a trip command is transmitted.
Alarm
Timer
This is a timer function which requires that an alarm condition exists for a certain length of time
before an alarm output is generated. The length of time is programmable by the user.
Pre-trip
Timer
This is a security timer function. It requires that a trip be present at the receiver for a certain
length of time before an output is generated. The length of time is programmable independently
for each function.
3.9.2 Ping Pong Testing
Round trip delay can be measured by the unit. The measurement is run continuously and an
alarm is generated if the round trip delay exceeds a user preset value. The frequency of the ping
pong test is selectable by the user; the resolution of the test is 1 millisecond and the accuracy is
1 millisecond each way
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System Description
Transfer Trip, TPS
eXmux
eXmux
Transfer
Trip (MTS)
IU
Power and Comms.
I/O Module
I/O Module
IP
IP
Transfer
Trip (MTS)
IU
I/O Module
4 Inputs
TDM/IP High Speed Link
4 Outputs
GARD or similar
protective relay
device
GARD or similar
protective relay
device
Existing Transfer
Trip Module
Transfer Trip, IMUX Integration
eXmux
Transfer
Trip (MTS)
IU
IP
IP
IMUX
eXmux
T1/E1
IU
T1
I/O
Power and Comms.
I/O Module
I/O Module
GARD or similar
protective relay
device
4 Inputs
4 Outputs
GARD or similar
protective relay
device
TDM/IP High Speed Link
Direct T1 connection
Transfer Trip, IMUX Integration
eXmux
T1
Transfer
Trip (MTS)
IU
Power and Comms.
I/O Module
IMUX
I/O
I/O Module
GARD or similar
protective relay
device
4 Inputs
4 Outputs
GARD or similar
protective relay
device
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3.9.3 Trip Times
The following table gives trip times in milliseconds when utilizing the eXmux TPS System.
Also shown are trip times when using the eXmux TPS with other RFL Multiplexers. Note that
these values are exclusive of channel delay.
TX
RX
Table 3-18. Trip Times
eXmux Pre-Trip
Timer
IMUX Pre-Trip
Timer
Trip Time
eXmux TPS
eXmux TPS
1ms
N/A
8ms
eXmux TPS
IMUX MTS (E1)
N/A
3ms
8ms
IMUX MTS (E1)
eXmux TPS
1ms
N/A
8ms
eXmux TPS
IMUX MTS (T1)
N/A
3ms
8ms
IMUX MTS (T1)
eXmux TPS
1ms
N/A
10ms

The IMUX MTS pre-trip timer configured for 3ms equals 3 message acceptance.

The eXmux TPS pre-trip timer configured for 1ms is equivalent to IMUX MTS 3 message
acceptance.
When Relay Outputs are employed trip times will increase by 4ms.

The above table is based on the “est. delay” in the bundle settings screen for the TPS bundle
to be 3000µs; changing this setting will affect trip times. (See Section 7.12.3)
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System Description
3.9.4 I/O Module, Configuration
The I/O Module is arranged with the Main I/O Circuit Board (Discrete I/O Base Module) and
two smaller input and output circuit boards that plug onto the top of the Main I/O Board. The
Output Unit can be supplied as a Solid State Unit or as a Relay Output Unit. Power for the I/O
Module is supplied through a RFL custom cable that connects to the Transfer Trip IU in the rear
of the eXmux. The following table lists the various configurations that can be ordered for the
I/O Module.
Part Number
Description
109180-1
Solid State Output Unit with Screw Block Terminal
109180-2
Relay Output Unit with Screw Block Terminal
109180-3
Solid State Output Unit with Compression Block Terminal
109180-4
Relay Output Unit with Compression Block Terminal
I/O Module Configuration, Main
Circuit Board Removed, Top View
Front
Solid State Output
Unit or Relay Output
Unit
1
4
Output Major/
Minor Alarm
12 13
Output
Functions
Input Unit
1617
Auxiliary
Input
24
Input
Functions
Rear
Rear Connector for
Interface Cable to
eXmux
Figure 3-19. I/O Module, Main Circuit Board
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System Description
3.9.4.1 Input
Unit
Terminals 17 through 24 are assigned for customer inputs with terminal 13 through 16 reserved
for programmable logic (Aux. Function). The Input Unit which is installed on top of the I/O
Main Board has jumper settings for four different voltage inputs. Section 4.6.1.1 gives details
on removing the I/O Module and setting jumpers for the correct input voltage.
3.9.4.2 Solid
State Output Unit
Terminals 5 through 12 are assigned for customer outputs with terminal 1 through 4 reserved
for alarm indication. The Solid State output units contacts are always Form A (normally open.)
3.9.4.3 Relay
Output Unit
The Relay Output Unit has four relay outputs. The contacts can be Form A (normally open) or
Form B (normally closed.) Switches on the Relay Output Unit will set the contacts to either
Form A or Form B. Section 4.6.1.2 gives details on removing the I/O Module and setting the
switches for either Form A or Form B.
3.9.4.4 Programmable
Logic
The following limited number of parameters are supported:
Function
Description
Input Inversion
Each input can be optionally inverted
Output Inversion
Each output can be optionally inverted
Input Activation (debounce)
The rising edge of each input can be delayed in 1ms increments up to
32ms
Output Activation Delay (pretrip)
The closure of each output can be delayed in 1ms increments up to 32ms
Output Release Delay (trip hold)
The closure of each output can be held active in 1ms increments up to
255ms
Output Hold in Event of Comms
Loss
Each output can be optionally held closed if comms is lost
Directional Comparison Blocking
Mode
Directional comparison blocking using start and stop inputs can be
selected
Unblocking
Each output can be set to close for 150ms after 20ms of lost
communication
Trip Input Disable
One of the two extra inputs can be programmed to disable trip inputs
Trip Output Disable
One of the two extra inputs can be programmed to disable trip outputs
Input Or-ing
The first two functions can be set to operate if either of two inputs (one
normal and one of the spare inputs) operates
Input And-ing
The first two functions can be set to operate only if both of two inputs (one
normal and one of the spare inputs) operates
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System Description
3.9.5 I/O Module Front Panel Controls and Indicators
The I/O Module Front Panel has various LED lights that indicate the status of the unit; in
addition there is a Toggle Switch that will disable trip outputs as required.
Figure 3-20. I/O Module, Front Panel
3.10 Integrated Ethernet Switch
Built into the eXmux is a Managed Ethernet Switch, this switch supervises data traffic flowing
between external Ethernet ports. The switch can be configured to connect external network
devices or network segments to the eXmux; additionally a local Ethernet network can be
configured to connect to a wide area network. Two ports are available for GE (WAN)
connections and four ports are available for LAN connections. Unlike a network hub, which rebroadcasts network traffic to all devices, the Ethernet Switch is capable of inspecting data
packets, determining the source and destination device of the packet, and forwarding it
appropriately. Each data packet is sent to the device or segment it was intended for, thus
conserving network bandwidth.
3.10.1 Ethernet Port Access
The position of the Ethernet Switch ports is fixed as shown below. The switch can have four
possible factory installed connectors:

Electrical – RJ-45

Optical – SC (LAN ports only)

Optical – ST (LAN ports only)

Optical – LC (WAN ports only)
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System Description
3500/3501
Ethernet Switch
Port Access
Figure 3-21. Ethernet Switch Port Access (3500)
3500M/3501M
Ethernet Switch
Port Access
Figure 3-22. Ethernet Switch Port Access (3500M/3501M)

On the access side (LAN), the Ethernet ports can be factory configured to have either a
4-port 10/100 Base-TX electrical connection (RJ-45) or a 4-port 100 Base-FX with
either ST or SC connectors, or a combination of the two and two FX, ST or FC
connectors. Distances of up to 2 km (1.24 mi) are possible.
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System Description

On the network side (GE), the Ethernet ports will always have a 2-port electrical
connector (RJ-45) with optional SFP cages to convert to a fiber connector that can be
either 100 Base-FX or 1000 Base-FX fiber with type LC connector. The following
distance options are possible.
3500/3500M
Connector type
Distances
Multi-mode
Single-mode
100 Base-FX
2 km (1.24 mi)
10 km (6.21 mi)
40 km (24.8 mi)
80 km (49.7 mi)
-
1000 Base-FX
550 m (0.34 mi)
10 km (6.21 mi)
40 km (24.8 mi)
80 km (49.7 mi)
120 km (74.5 mi)
10 km (6.21 mi)
20 km (12.42 mi)
3501/3501M
Distances – Single Mode
Connector type
1000 Base-FX
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120 km (74.5 mi)
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System Description
3.10.1.1 Ethernet
FE and GE ports
High Speed (GE)
Network Side
Ethernet Interface
Can have 2-ports of
RJ-45 Electrical
Connectors or 2-ports
of LC type fiber
connectors
Access (FE) Ethernet Interface
4-RJ-45 Electrical Connectors
shown, can also have 4-Fiber ST or
SC Connectors or a combination of
above
The Ethernet GE (WAN) Side is
normally equipped with RJ-45
connectors and SFP cages.
8
7
6 5 4 3 2 1
RX- RX+ TX+
TXFigure 3-23. FE and GE Ports (typical)
Section 8 in this Instruction Manual gives precise details on the configuration options available
for the Integrated Ethernet Switch.
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System Description
3.11 Power Supplies (3500/3501/3500M/3501M)
The eXmux power supply(ies) provide an isolated power source for the eXmux circuitry, with
surge suppression and voltage conversion. The specifications below apply to both the nonmodular and modular eXmux models, information specific to the 3500M/3501M follows this
table.
Table 3-19. eXmux Power Supply Specifications
Power Supply Assembly Number
Specification
109150 Non-Modular
109350 Modular
Input Voltage
Range
Fuse
Protection
109120 Non-Modular
109320 Modular
109125 Non-Modular
109325 Modular
109135 Non-Modular
109335 Modular
19-29 Vdc
38-150 Vdc/100130 Vac
(50 or 60Hz)
200-300 Vdc
200-265 Vac
5A Max
3A Max
1A Max
1A Max
Max. Output
Power
Dielectric
Withstand
Operating
Temperature
Humidity
75 W (Continuous)
2500 Vdc (input to output, input to chassis)
-30º C (-22º F) to +65º C (+149º F) (Convection Cooling Only)
90% RH Non Condensing at 40º C (104º F)
3.11.1 3500M/3501M Power Supplies
The modular 3500M/3501M power supplies differ from the non-modular units in that they have
external fuses and their own power switches allowing safe removal of the power supply.
Shown below is the location of the fuse and power switch. A redundant power supply is shown
in this example.
Power switch
shown in the OFF
position
Main Power Supply
Redundant Power Supply
I
O
I
O
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
External fuse
Figure 3-24. 3500M/3501M Power Supplies
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System Description
3.12 Service Telephone
A service telephone connection is provided on the front and rear of the eXmux. This dedicated
voice channel provides personnel engaged in equipment maintenance or system testing with a
convenient link to other personnel on the network. This is particularly useful when working in
remote locations.
Service Telephone Connection
RJ-11
Figure 3-25. Service Telephone Connection
Click to go to Configuration 7.14
3.13 User Access USB Port
The user can connect to the eXmux via USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports on either the front or
rear of the unit, only one port can be utilized at a time. A laptop or PC computer is used to setup IP address and password information before configuring the unit. The eXmux uses a “B”
type connector. Click to go to Accessing the eXmux through the USB Ports
User Access USB Port
Figure 3-26. User Access USB Ports
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System Description
The USB port is used to set initial user access and
IP address information. All other communication is
through the Ethernet ports.
Figure 3-27. Connecting to a Laptop through the USB port
3.14 T1/E1 Built in Port
The T1/E1 port shown below on the rear of the eXmux is a permanent RJ-48C connection
permitting the connection of external equipment for timing and other auxiliary functions.
Supports full T1/E1 capabilities like the T1/E1 Interface Unit, refer to 3.3.1.2.
T1/E1 External Connection
RJ-48C
Figure 3-28. External Connection,T1/E1
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System Description
For example, existing RFL IMUX T1/E1 units can be inter-connected over the Ethernet as
shown below.
EXMUX 3500
EXMUX 3500
Ethernet Network
IMUX 2000
Intelligent Multiplexer
Communication between
T1/E1 multiplexers over
the Ethernet
IMUX 2000
Intelligent Multiplexer
Figure 3-29. Typical Application using the rear T1/E1 port
Click to go to Configuration 7.7.4.
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System Description
3.15 Additional Network schemes
Shown below is a sample network configuration showing the flexibility of communication
protocols possible with the eXmux.
IP Phone
IED
Protection Relay
Ethernet
RS-232
C.37.94
GigE
Ethernet
RTU
RS-232
RS-422
Protection Relay
RS-232
T1
T1/E1 Multiplexer
SCADA
Master
Figure 3-30. Sample Network Configuration
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System Description
3.16 Typical DS0 Grooming Application
Grooming function
on Motherboard
initiated through
VNMS
eXmux
FXS
4
FXS
eXmux
FXS
5
Ethernet
3
Customer Equipment
T1
T1
MUX
2
FXS
T1
1
High speed WAN Network link
eXmux
Timeslots corresponding to ports 1 thru
5 are combined into a single T1 port for
processing through another multiplexer
FXS
MUX
FXO
FXO
FXO
FXO
FXO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
eXmux
Figure 3-31. DS0 Grooming Application
The diagram above shows a typical application of the eXmux DS0 Grooming feature. The
drawing illustrates how an existing T1 multiplexer supporting Office and Remote Station voice
links can be integrated into a high speed Ethernet network. An eXmux at the Near End
facilitates the integration of Ethernet packets, so that port based timeslots can be combined into
a single port for processing in a T1/E1 multiplexer. Note that the port numbering shown here is
for illustrative purposes only and would not match a real world scenario.
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System Description
This Page
Intentionally
Left Blank
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Installation
Section 4. Installation
4.1 Introduction
This section contains installation instructions for the eXmux and the eXmux 3500M/3501M
Hot Swap Option including unpacking, mounting, and wiring. If the equipment is to be stored
for an extended period before being installed, precautions to prevent corrosion must be taken.
This is especially important in humid climates.
WARNING!
Follow all of your company’s policies and procedures regarding the installation of AC powered
or DC powered equipment. If there is a conflict between any procedure in this section and your
company’s safety rules, then your company’s safety rules must take priority.
Installation can be broken down into the following steps:
1. Unpacking and inspecting the equipment.
2. Mounting the equipment.
3. Ensuring correct ventilation.
4. User Interface connections.
5. Alarm Relay connections.
6. Checking the power supply input voltage.
7. Grounding the equipment.
8. Connecting and applying input power.
4.2 Unpacking
The eXmux 3500/3501/3500M/3501M may be supplied as an individual chassis or it may be
connected with other chassis’s or assemblies as part of a system. Following are instructions for
mounting the eXmux.
4.3 Mounting the Equipment
After unpacking and inspecting the equipment it must be securely mounted following the
procedures listed below. Procedures are included for individual chassis’s, interconnected
chassis’s and chassis’s mounted on shipping rails. Use the procedure that matches your
equipment.
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4.3.1 Mounting Individual Chassis’s (3500/3501)
The eXmux 3500/3501 is a 3U high unit designed to fit in a standard 19 inch rack conforming
to EIA standards. The mounting brackets can be placed in three different positions, the unit can
also be wall mounted or reverse mounted in a rack, mounting dimensions are shown below.
Note: Mounting hardware is not provided by RFL.
10.80
(27.4)
17.25
(43.8)
2.25
(5.7)
5.22
(13.26)
Inches
(cm)
18.312
(46.5)
Mounting
Brackets(Ears)
shown in forward
position
Front of unit
Brackets flush with
front of unit
2.475
(6.3)
4.475
(11.4)
Hole positions for
Bracket Mounting
Figure 4-1. Mounting Individual Chassis’s (3500/3501)
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4.3.2 Mounting Individual Chassis’s in the Modular eXmux (3500M/3501M)
The eXmux 3500M/3501M is a 5U high unit designed to fit in a standard 19 inch rack
conforming to EIA standards, mounting dimensions are shown below. Note: Mounting
hardware is not provided by RFL.
10.80
(27.4)
17.25
(43.8)
5.75
(14.6)
8.72
(22.1)
Inches
(cm)
18.312
(46.5)
Figure 4-2. Mounting Individual Chassis’s (3500M/3501M)
4.3.3 Interconnected Chassis Installed in Rack or Cabinet
CAUTION
Any installation using an enclosed cabinet with a swing-out rack must be securely fastened to
the floor. This will prevent the cabinet from falling forward when the rack is moved outward.
Systems mounted in racks or cabinets at the factory are to be placed in position and then bolted
to the floor or wall, as appropriate, to secure the equipment in place. The type of hardware used
will depend upon the surface to which the rack or cabinet is being mounted; therefore mounting
hardware is not supplied with this type of installation.
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4.3.4 Interconnected Chassis Mounted on Shipping Rails
Sometimes equipment to be installed in a rack or cabinet at the customer’s site is mounted on
shipping rails at the factory for shipment. To remove the shipping rails and mount the
equipment proceed as follows:
1. Place the equipment as close to the front of the rack or cabinet as possible. With the
rear panels of the equipment facing the rack or cabinet.
2. Remove all the screws securing the equipment to the shipping rails.
3. Slide the equipment into the rack or cabinet.
4. Install and tighten the screws to all the panels to secure the equipment in place.
4.4 Ventilation
The specified operating temperature of the eXmux is -30C to +65C
(-22F to +149F). Operation at higher temperatures may affect system reliability and
performance. Systems installed in enclosed cabinets should be well ventilated. A full 1U of
chassis space must be left open above the installed eXmux.
The following sub-section will show the pin-outs for the various Legacy Interface Units,
note that the illustrations are for a non-modular 3U eXmux unit. The 3500M/3501M
Modular unit has the connectors turned 90º; the pin designations are the same.
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4.5 Interface Connections (Pin-Outs)
4.5.1 Data Interfaces
4.5.1.1 Synchronous
Data Interface
DB-25 Female DCE Pinout
Signal Ground
Not Used
Not Used
CTS (A) (Clear to Send A)
RT (B) (Receive Timing B)
RTS (A) (Request to Send A)
Not Used
RD (A) (Receive Data A)
SD (A) (Send Data A)
TT (B) (Transmit Timing B)
ST (B) (Send Timing B)
CTS (B) (Clear to Send B)
Chassis Ground
13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14
SD (B) (Send Data B)
Not Used
TT (A) (Transmit Timing A)
ST (A) (Send Timing A)
RD (B) (Receive Data B)
Signal Ground
RT (A) (Receive Timing A)
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
RTS (B) (Request to Send B)
DB-25 Female DTE Pinout
non-standard
Signal Ground
Not Used
Not Used
CTS (A) (Clear to Send A)
RT (B) (Receive Timing B)
RTS (A) (Request to Send A)
Not Used
ST (B) (Send Timing B)
RD (A) (Receive Data A)
SD (A) (Send Data A)
Not Used
CTS (B) (Clear to Send B)
Chassis Ground
13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
25 24 23 22 21 2019 18 17 16 15 14
SD (B) (Send Data B)
Not Used
ST (A) (Send Timing A)
Not Used
RD (B) (Receive Data B)
Signal Ground
RT (A) (Receive Timing A)
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
Not Used
RTS (B) (Request to Send B)
Figure 4-3. Synchronous Data Connector
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4.5.1.2 T1/E1
Interface Unit
An RJ-48C or DB-15 Male connector can be selected as required by the user. The built-in
T1/E1 port on the rear of the eXmux uses the same pin-outs as the RJ-48C connector shown
below.
T1/E1
DB-15
Male
RJ-48C
RD Not Used
Not Used
SD -
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8
7
6 5 4 3 2 1
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Chassis Ground
RD -
Chassis Ground
RD+
Not Used
Not Used
SD+
SD+
Not Used
Not Used
RD+
SD -
Figure 4=4. T1/E1 Interface unit Connections
4.5.1.3 G.703
Co-Directional Interface
TX Data A
Not Used
RX Data A
Not Used
DB-15
Female
DCE Pinout
Chassis Ground
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
RX Data B
Not Used
Not Used
TX Data B
Figure 4-5. G.703 Co-Directional Connector
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4.5.1.4 C37.94
Optical Interface
TX
1
RX
TX
3
RX
TX
4
RX
C37.94
TX
2
RX
Figure 4-6. C37.94 Optical Connectors
Note: The fiber heads are shown with their protective covers removed; always install the covers
when the interface is not in use.
4.5.1.5 Asynchronous
Data Interface (RS-232)
TX Data
DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
RX Data
CD (Carrier Detect)
Signal Ground
5 4 3 2 1
DB-9
Female
DCE Pinout
9 8 7 6
DSR (Data Set Ready)
Not Used
CTS (Clear to Send)
RTS (Request to Send)
Figure 4-7. Asynchronous Data Connector
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4.5.1.6 Asynchronous
RS-485 Interface Unit
RS-485 5-Position Terminal Block
Male Connector
1
2
+
-
3
4
5
+
-
4W RX
4W TX
2W TX/RX
Figure 4-8. Asynchronous RS-485 Connections
Note: When installing RS-485 wires carefully remove the male compression block from its
socket, paying attention not to damage the pins. Install the wires according to the
diagram above, and then reinstall the compression block back into its socket.
4.5.1.7 Serial
Server Interface Unit
The Serial Server uses a DB-9 Female connector for both RS-232 and RS-485 operating modes.
The pinouts are shown below.
TX Data
DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
RX Data
CD (Carrier Detect)
Signal Ground
5 4 3 2 1
DB-9
Female
RS-232
(DCE)
PORT 1
PORT 3
SERIAL SERVER
PORT 2
PORT 4
9 8 7 6
DSR (Data Set Ready)
Not Used
CTS (Clear to Send)
RTS (Request to Send)
TX +
Not Used
RX + (4W)
Signal Ground
Not Used
5 4 3 2 1
DB-9
Female
RS-485 (4W)
9 8 7 6
Not Used
RX -
Not Used
TX - (4W)
Figure 4-9. Asynchronous Serial Server Connections
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4.5.2 Voice and Audio Interfaces
4.5.2.1 Two
Wire FXO and FXS Interface
RING
TIP
6 5 4 3 2 1
Figure 4-10. RJ-11 Telephone Jack (Typical)
4.5.2.2 Two
and Four Wire Audio Interface
RJ-45 (2-Wire Audio E&M)
RJ-45 (4-Wire Audio E&M)
Note: Pins that are
not used should not
be connected.
8
7
8
6 5 4 3 2 1
7
Tip Out
Signal Battery
Signal Battery
M-Lead
Signal Ground
Tip
M-Lead
Signal Ground
E-Lead
Tip In
Ring
6 5 4 3 2 1
Ring Out
E-Lead
Ring In
Figure 4-11. RJ-45 Connector for E & M Signaling
4.6 eXmux TPS System Installation
Follow section 4.3 to mount your eXmux unit(s). Systems can be mounted in racks or cabinets
at the factory and shipped to the customer or they can be installed on site in a standard 19” rack
conforming to EIA standards. The I/O unit typically mounts directly below the eXmux and is
1U high. Mounting Ears are provided for the I/O unit, but not hardware to mount the unit to the
rack.
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A special RFL supplied cable connects the I/O unit to the Interface Unit located in the eXmux
chassis. This cable carries data between the eXmux IU and The I/O unit and also supplies
power to the I/O unit from the eXmux; the DB-9 connection in the eXmux IU is Female while
the connector in the I/O unit is Male. Shown below is the eXmux TPS Interface Unit.
CAUTION
Ports 1 and 2 on the Interface Unit are for connection to the TPS I/O Unit only.
Primary connection
to I/O unit
Pin 1
PORT 1
Pin 9
PORT 2
Connect port 1 and 2
to TPS I/O Units
TPS
INTERFACE
UNIT
Secondary connection for
another I/O unit if required
Figure 4-12. DB-9 Custom Connector for TPS I/O unit
If a second I/O unit is connected to the eXmux, the eXmux will detect this and power will
automatically be supplied to the second I/O unit; there are no jumpers to set.
4.6.1 eXmux TPS I/O Unit Jumper/Switch Settings
The I/O Module is easily accessed by removing 4-screws on the rear of the I/O unit and sliding
the circuit board out.
CAUTION
Before removing the I/O Module from the I/O unit ensure that the Interface Cable is
disconnected and that NO Input or Output wires are connected.
CAUTION
This equipment contains static sensitive devices. Persons working on this equipment must
observe electro static discharge (ESD) precautions before opening the unit or working on the
rear of the chassis. As a minimum you must do the following: Use anti-static devices such as
wrist straps and floor mats.
Remove these
screws
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
MAJOR MINOR OUT4 OUT3 OUT2 OUT1 AUX2 AUX1
+ - + - + - + - + - +
IN4
IN3
IN2
Remove these
screws
IN1
- + - + - + - + - + - + -
INTERFACE
Connect to eXmux
TPS Interface Unit
1
2
3 4 5
6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
109180-X TPS I/O UNIT
Figure 4-13. I/O Module, Removing Circuit Board
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The whole rear unit is mounted on board sliders; once the screws are removed the I/O Module
will easily slide out.
4.6.1.1 Setting
Jumpers on the Input Unit
The Input Unit located on top of the I/O Module can accommodate four different DC input
voltages as shown below. The input voltages can be changed by the user to match their
equipment.
J7
Input Unit
500805
J12 J11 J10 J9
J8
J7
24V
48V
250V
125V
Jumper Setting
(typical)
with 48V
selected
Main Circuit
Board
1314
Auxiliary
Input
23 24
Input
Functions
Figure 4-14. Jumpers on the Input Unit
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4.6.1.2 Setting
Switches on the Relay Output Unit
If the Relay Output option is installed the relays can be set for either Form A (normally open)
or Form B (normally closed). Remove the I/O Module as shown in section 4.6.1 and set the
Relay Switches as required.
Switch Setting (typical)
FORM
A
Relay Output Unit
500815
SW1
FORM
B
SW1
Output Major/
Minor Alarm
5 6
SW2
SW3
SW4
1 2
Slide the switch to move
from Form A (normally
open) to Form B
(normally closed)
1112
Output
Functions
Figure 4-15. Jumpers on the Output Unit
Note: No switch settings are required if the solid state output option is installed.
4.6.2 Grounding the I/O Module
Grounding is accomplished by connecting a 6 AWG wire, or larger between the protective earth
stud shown below and the rack ground. The grounding wire should be kept as short and straight
as possible, to keep its resistance and inductance to a minimum.
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
INTERFACE
109180-X TPS I/O UNIT
Figure 4-16. Grounding the I/O Module
WARNING!
The TPS I/O Unit must be properly grounded before attempting to connect input power.
Improper ground connections may result in system malfunctions, equipment damage, or
electrical shock.
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4.6.3 I/O Module Terminal Block Connections
Before connecting the input and output wires ensure that these wires are disconnected at their
source and that the Interface Cable to the eXmux is disconnected.
The terminal block on the rear of the I/O Module is normally a conventional screw type barrier
block. RFL recommends that wires be terminated in ring lugs as an additional safety
precaution. The I/O Module can also be supplied with a compression block terminal. When a
compression block is used, strip back and connect the leads from the external equipment to the
connections on the compression block. When installing, expose no more than 0.2” (5mm) of
bare wire. Twist the wires to prevent strands from escaping and use care when inserting the
wires into the connector. Inspect the wires prior to energizing to ensure no wires have escaped
Make connections as required.
MAJOR MINOR OUT4 OUT3 OUT2 OUT1 AUX2 AUX1
IN4
IN3
IN2
IN1
+ - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + -
INTERFACE
Connect to TPS
Interface Unit
1
2
3 4 5
6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
109180-X TPS I/O UNIT
Figure 4-17. I/O Unit Terminal Block Connections
CAUTION
Hazardous voltages may exist on the input and output terminals. It is the responsibility of the
installer to restrict access to this terminal block to prevent accidental contact.
4.7 Data and Power Connections
The following section will give instructions on making data and power connections to the
eXmux 3500/3501 and 3500M/3501M.
4.7.1 Customer Interface Connections
The eXmux customer interface will be configured at the factory, therefore each units
connections will vary. Connections can be made from external equipment directly to the rear of
the unit. Connect the voice, audio, optical, Synchronous or Asynchronous connectors
(depending on your configuration) as shown in the following figure.
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3500/3501
Customer Interfaces
Figure 4-18. Low Speed Customer Interfaces (Typical 3500)
3500M/3501M
Customer Interfaces
Figure 4-19. Low Speed Customer Interfaces (Typical 3500M/3501M)
Connect the high speed GE (WAN) Ethernet connections and low speed FE (LAN) optical
Ethernet connections as applicable, (See below).
Note: The position of the Ethernet ports is fixed and will not vary between units.
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3500/3501
High Speed Network Side (GE)
Low Speed Side (FE)
Figure 4-20. Ethernet Connections (Typical 3500)
3500M/3501M
High Speed Network Side (GE)
Low Speed Side (FE)
Figure 4-21. Ethernet Connections (Typical 3500M/3501M)
When connecting fiber optic cables, make sure the connectors are properly aligned before
tightening and then fully tighten them.
4.7.2 Alarm Relay Connections
The alarm relays on the unit will respond to alarm and alert conditions, the functionality can be
programmed by the user as required and connected to their plant monitoring system. Under
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normal operating conditions when the eXmux is turned on the relays are energized, in an alarm
or alert state the relays will be in the de-energized position.
NOTE
All relay contacts are labeled in the de-energized position.
The relays are SPDT (Form C) located at the rear bottom right of the unit as shown below.
CAUTION
Hazardous voltages may exist on the alarm and power input terminals. It is the responsibility of
the installer to restrict access to these terminal blocks to prevent accidental contact.
3500M/3501M
3500/3501
MAJO
R
MINOR
N
O
N
C
C
N
O
N
C
C
Figure 4-22. Alarm Relay Connections
The terminal blocks on the rear of the eXmux are conventional screw type barrier blocks. RFL
recommends that wires be terminated in ring lugs as an additional safety precaution. Make
connections to the Major and Minor Alarms as required.
4.7.3 Checking the Power Supply Input Voltage (3500/3501)
Before proceeding with the connection of the ground wire and power wires, ensure that the
eXmux is equipped with a power supply designed to operate at the available input supply
voltage. The unit has labels located below the power ON/OFF switches on the 3500/3501 nonmodular eXmux that indicate which power supply(ies) were installed in the unit before leaving
the factory. Note that units are shipped with two switches installed.
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If a redundant power supply is not installed on your unit, no label will be present under
the redundant power supply switch as shown below. Main and redundant power supplies do
not have to be the same.
3500/3501
REDUNDANT
MAIN
O
I
O
I
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
Label for a standard power
supply is shown
Figure 4-23. Location of Power Supply Label (3500)
RFL recommends that if power supplies need to be changed in the field, it should only be done
by qualified RFL Service Engineers.
4.7.4 Checking the Power Supply Input Voltage (3500M/3501M)
Before proceeding with the connection of the ground wire and power wires, ensure that the
eXmux 3500M/3501M is equipped with a power supply designed to operate at the available
input supply voltage. The unit has labels located below the fuse on the power supply that
indicate which power supply(ies) were installed in the unit before leaving the factory. Main and
redundant power supplies do not have to be the same.
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3500M/3501M
Main Power Supply
Redundant Power Supply
I
O
I
O
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
38-150 V Label for a standard power
50/60 Hz 3A MAX supply is shown
Figure 4-24. Location of Power Supply Label (3500M/3501M)
4.7.5 Grounding the Equipment
WARNING!
The eXmux 3500/3501/3500M/3501M chassis must be properly grounded as described below
before attempting to connect input power. Improper ground connections may result in system
malfunctions, equipment damage, or electrical shock.
Grounding is accomplished by connecting a 6 AWG wire, or larger between the protective earth
stud shown below and the rack ground. The grounding wire should be kept as short and straight
as possible, to keep its resistance and inductance to a minimum.
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3500/3501
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
Figure 4-25. Location of Chassis Protective Earth Terminal (3500)
3500M/3501M
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
Figure 4-26. Location of Chassis Protective Earth Terminal (3500M/3501M)
4.7.6 Connecting and applying Input Power
Before proceeding with the connection of power to the eXmux 3500/3500M ensure that the
main and redundant power switches on the rear of the unit are in the “OFF” position as shown
in the illustration on the next page, and that the power wires to be installed are disconnected at
their source.
WARNING!
Individual double pole disconnects must be installed between the building or station battery
supply and the eXmux power supply(ies). This must be done for both the main and redundant
supply.
CAUTION
Before attempting to apply input power to the eXmux, make sure that its power supply(ies) will
operate at the available input supply voltage. If an incorrect power supply is installed,
component damage may result.
After all the connections have been made to the eXmux, the input power connections can be
made to the main and redundant power supply(ies) as required. Input power connections can be
either (24 Vdc, 48-125 Vdc, 250 Vdc) from a station battery, or 120 Vac depending on which
power supplies are installed in the unit. Make the required connections as shown in the
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illustration below. Station battery positive goes to the “+” terminal and station battery negative
goes to the “-” terminal. If ac input power is used connections are made to the “+” and “-”
terminals and the polarity markings can be ignored.
3500/3501
Main Power Supply
On-Off Switch
Redundant Power Supply
On-Off Switch
MAIN
RDNT
+ - + Figure 4-27. Connecting Input Power (3500/3501)
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3500M/3501M
Main Power Supply
On-Off Switch
Redundant Power Supply
On-Off Switch
Rear View of
Modular eXmux
(3500M)
MAIN
RDNT
+ - + Figure 4-28. Connecting Input Power (3500M/3501M)
Before connecting the power at its source and switching on the eXmux, check the following:
1. Is the unit grounded correctly?
2. Is the polarity of the input power correct?
3. Is the unit ventilated correctly as described in section 4.4?
The eXmux may now have power applied. The LED indicators will show as follows:

The power supply(ies) will show a green indication.

The Ethernet port status – Connected ports will blink.

During the reboot process the Major Alarm will blink until the reboot process is
completed. (A few minutes).

The EXmux will be in Minor Alarm until the default password is changed for Network
Access. (See 7.2.3)
Go to Section 7 for details on communicating with the unit and configuring your network.
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This Page
Intentionally
Left Blank
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Module Replacement (3500M/3501M Only)
Section 5. Module Replacement
(3500M/3501M Only)
5.1 Overview of Module Replacement
The Customer Interface Units in the eXmux 3500M/3501M can be replaced without powering
down, allowing the node to stay on-line The following section will describe the various
scenarios that are possible when removing and replacing these modules. This section will also
describe the replacement of the Ethernet Switch and Power Supplies.
5.1.1 VNMS Considerations
RFL’s unique graphical user interface VNMS functions with the same dialogs in the nonmodular (3500) and modular (3500M/3501M) units. However, because the Interface Units are
mounted vertically in a 5U chassis, the initial node view displayed to the user will be different
in the 3500M/3501M. Additionally the 3500M/3501M slot state color indication has been
expanded to cover various new states unique to the 3500M/3501M’s modular “Hot Swap”
design.
5.1.2 Related Command Definitions
The table below explains various terms and commands used in the following Interface Unit
handling descriptions:
Clear Slot Command (VNMS)
3500M/3501M Only
Will totally remove settings from the affected IU. It will
also clear the Inventory Mis-Match Alarm (if set) and the
“Suppress Alarm from this Slot” command (if set).
See Scenario 4
Suppress Alarm from this Slot (VNMS)
3500M/3501M Only
Used to suppress the Inventory Mis-Match Alarm, is
cleared once an identical type IU is inserted.
See Scenario 3
Inventory Mis-Match Alarm
Is active when the expected IU type does not match the
installed IU type. Is cleared when the user clicks on the
IU graphic in VNMS. This is an acknowledgement that
the installed IU is correct (meets the user’s
expectations). Can also be cleared globally.
See Section 7.4 for global command.
CAUTION
This equipment contains static sensitive devices. Persons working on this equipment must
observe electro static discharge (ESD) precautions before working on the rear of the chassis.
As a minimum you must do the following: Use anti-static devices such as wrist straps and floor
mats.
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5.2 Interface Unit Removal and Replacement
The Interface Units are removed from the rear of the eXmux 3500M/3501M as described in the
following steps. Live voltages are present at the terminal block at the bottom right of the unit.
Do not remove the protective cover from the terminal block and keep any tools and other
equipment away from this area.
CAUTION
Dangerous voltages may be present at the terminal blocks on the eXmux 3500M/3501M.
Restrict access to this area during Interface Unit replacement.
1. Disconnect the Interface Unit to be removed from its external equipment.
2. The Interface Units are easily removed by turning the latch screw(s) to the left
(counter –clockwise) as shown below and sliding the unit out.
3. When removing a double wide unit (an IU that uses two slots), it is important to turn both
latch screws simultaneously. Turn both latch screws all the way until the IU connector
releases from the motherboard.
Double wide IU
Turn both latch
screws all the way
out until the IU
releases from its
connector
Carefully remove
the IU
VNMS Handling
The following example is for a failed Interface Unit replacement. For a full explanation
of “Interface Unit States” see 5.2.1.
It should be noted that when an IU is removed it may take up to 20 seconds for the
chassis to respond. When a Serial Server or TPS unit is removed it can be up to 60
seconds for a response from the chassis. When the chassis recognizes the removed IU,
the corresponding LED indicator on the front of the unit will be off. RFL recommends
that the user wait for a response before inserting a replacement IU.
Once an IU is removed VNMS will show that slot as grey or blue, depending whether
alarm suppression is on or off. If alarm suppression is off, typically a minor alarm is
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displayed. The alarm may be suppressed by right clicking on the empty slot and
selecting “Suppress inventory mismatch alarm for this card.” The alarm may also be
suppressed before any IUs are removed.
Note it is possible under certain conditions for an IU to be in major alarm, for example,
loss of master clock. See section 10.6.1 for a list of alarms and how they are generated.
Right click to view
drop-down menu
4. Insert the replacement Interface Unit. Care should be taken when connecting IUs to the
mother board in the eXmux 3500M/3501M. It is possible to damage the connecting
pins if excessive force is used.
5. Ensure that the IU is fully seated and secure by turning the latch screw(s) to the right
(clockwise) and tightening down.
6. Reconnect the external equipment.
VNMS Handling
VNMS will initially show the slot as grey or blue until the new IU is detected. Once the
IU is detected the slot will show green, which is the normal healthy state. Note if an
existing fault is present in the inserted IU, a major or minor alarm may still be present.
The following table lists the various Interface Unit states that are possible in the eXmux
3500M/3501M with their corresponding Inventory Mismatch Alarm behavior and
VNMS slot color indication.
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5.2.1 Interface Unit – Handling States Cross Reference
The following sub-section gives the various states that are possible for the Customer Interface
Units in the eXmux 3500M/3501M. Each scenario is followed by a cross-reference table
showing changes in VNMS and alarm states dependent on IU status.
Scenario 1: An IU is inserted in a blank slot (The slot has never been used).
State
Initial State
(before insertion)
Insert IU
Suppress Alarm
Setting (yes/no)
IU Slot VNMS
color display
Inventory Mismatch Alarm
No
Blank slot
Yes
Blue
No
Brown
Active
Yes
Green
Not Active
Settings
changes
Not active
Default settings
Scenario 2: An IU is removed and the same type IU is inserted (this would be a
common scenario for a failed IU).
State
Initial State
(before removal)
IU removed
Install same type IU
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Suppress Alarm
Setting (yes/no)
IU Slot VNMS
color display
Inventory Mismatch Alarm
No
Can be:
Red/yellow/green
Depending on
previous condition
of IU
Yes
Blue
Not active
No
Grey
Active
Yes
Blue
Not active
Suppress state
cleared
Can be:
Red/orange/green
Not active
5-4
Settings
changes
Original settings
and mapping
are retained
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Scenario 3: An IU is removed and a different type IU is inserted.
CAUTION
When inserting a different IU type the original mapping to the IU is deleted and cannot be
recovered.
State
Initial State
(before removal)
IU removed
Different IU is
installed
Suppress Alarm
Setting (yes/no)
IU Slot VNMS
color display
Inventory Mismatch Alarm
No
Can be:
Red/orange/green
Depending on
previous condition
of IU
Yes
Blue
Not active
No
Grey
Active
Yes
Blue
Not active
Suppress state
cleared
Can be:
Red/orange/green
See note 1
Active
Not active
Settings
changes
Revert to
default settings
with no
mapping
Note 1. If Suppress Alarm is ON Inventory Mis-Match alarm is not active.
Scenario 4: An existing IU is removed and the slot information is cleared.
State
Initial State
(before removal)
IU removed
VNMS clear card
command
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Suppress Alarm
Setting (yes/no)
IU Slot VNMS
color display
Inventory Mismatch Alarm
No
Can be:
Red/orange/green
Depending on
previous condition
of IU
Yes
Blue
Not active
No
Grey
Active
Yes
Blue
Not active
Suppress state
cleared
Blank slot
Not active
5-5
Settings
changes
N/A
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Right click to view
drop-down menu
5.3 Ethernet Switch Replacement
The Ethernet Switch is removed in a similar manner as the Interface Units with two latch
screws being used, one at each side of the switch. Live voltages are present at the terminal
block directly below the switch. Do not remove the protective cover from the terminal block
and keep any tools and other equipment away from this area.
CAUTION
Dangerous voltages may be present at the terminal blocks on the eXmux 3500M/3501M.
Restrict access to this area during Ethernet Switch replacement.
CAUTION
Disconnecting and removing the Ethernet Switch from the eXmux will cause the node to be
down.
The Ethernet Switch is removed from the rear of the eXmux 3500M/3501M as described in the
steps below:
For a full explanation of “Ethernet Switch States” see 5.3.1.
1. Disconnect the applicable high speed and low speed connectors from the Ethernet Switch.
If the eXmux was not in an alarm condition, removing the connectors may cause an alarm
depending on user defined settings.
2. Turn both latch screws to the left (counter –clockwise) to unlock the Ethernet Switch and
carefully slide the unit out as shown below.
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Turn both latch screw simultaneously
until the Ethernet Switch releases from
the motherboard
Carefully slide the Ethernet Switch out
3. Once the Ethernet Switch is removed VNMS will show the node as being off-line.
4. Insert the replacement Ethernet Switch. Care should be taken when connecting to the
mother board in the eXmux 3500M/3501M. It is possible to damage the connecting pins if
excessive force is used.
5. Ensure that the Ethernet Switch is fully seated and secure by turning the latch screws to the
right (clockwise) and tightening down.
7. Reconnect the Ethernet Switch connectors.
5.3.1 Ethernet Switch – Handling States Cross Reference
The following sub-section gives the various states that are possible for the Ethernet Switch in
the eXmux 3500M/3501M. Each scenario is followed by a cross-reference table showing
changes in VNMS and inventory mismatch alarm states dependant on Ethernet Switch status.
The Inventory Mis-Match Alarm is based on the expected Ethernet Switch firmware contained
in the eXmux software build.
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Scenario 1: A failed Ethernet Switch is replaced with a switch having the same
hardware and software.
State
Initial State
(before removal)
Remove Switch
Insert new switch
Node VNMS state
Can be:
Red/orange/green
Inventory Mis-match
Alarm
Settings changes
Depending on previous
condition of switch
Grey
(Off-line)
N/A
Can be:
Red/yellow/green
Original settings are
retained
Not active
Scenario 2: An Ethernet Switch is removed and replaced with a switch having
different software.
State
Initial State
(before removal)
Remove switch
Insert new switch
with different
software
Go to settings in
VNMS
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Node VNMS state
Can be:
Red/orange/green
Inventory Mis-match
Alarm
Settings changes
Depending on previous
condition of switch
Grey
(Off-line)
N/A
yellow
Active
Can be:
Red/orange/green
Not active
5-8
User intervention required
to re-configure the switch
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5.4 Power supply Replacement
The power supply in the 3500M/3501M can be removed for service. If a redundant supply is
present the node will continue to function while the supply is being replaced. Live voltages are
present at the terminal block at the bottom right of the unit. Do not remove the protective cover
from the terminal block and keep any tools and other equipment away from this area.
CAUTION
Dangerous voltages may be present at the terminal blocks on the eXmux 3500M/3501M.
Restrict access to this area during Power Supply replacement.
CAUTION
Ensure that the power switch is in the OFF position in the power supply being removed.
The Power Supply is removed from the rear of the eXmux 3500M/3501M as described in the
steps below:
1.
Place the power switch to the OFF position in the power supply being removed, and
remove the power supply by raising a securing clip in the center of the supply and with the
help of the pull ring carefully slide the unit out.
Using the pull ring
3 carefully remove
the power supply
1
Ensure that
the power
switch is in
the OFF
position
2
2.
Raise the
lever
Ensure that the replacement power supply matches the failed unit and will operate at the
available input supply voltage. A label next to the fuse on the replacement unit will
indicate supply voltage and fuse rating.
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Main Power Supply
Redundant Power Supply
I
O
I
O
Pull Ring
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
38-150 V Label for a standard power
50/60 Hz 3A MAX supply is shown
CAUTION
The power switch MUST be in the OFF position in the replacement power supply. This is
essential to limit in-rush current. Component damage may occur if the replacement power
supply has the power switch in the ON position.
3. Carefully insert the replacement supply into its slot, care should be taken when
connecting to the mother board in the eXmux 3500M/3501M. It is possible to damage
the connecting pins if excessive force is used.
4. Ensure that the securing clip on the replacement supply is in the down position.
5. Place the power switch to the ON position.
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5.4.1 Power Supply – Handling States cross reference
The 3500M/3501M modular eXmux can have various power supply situations and alarm states.
The following table gives a cross reference between the supply status and the eXmux alarm and
VNMS indicators.
State
Node P/S LED
Indicator
eXmux Major/Minor
Alarm Indication
Node View Status
Single Power Supply
Normal Function
Power Supply Failure
Green
No Illumination
Green
Orange/Red/LED Off
Orange/Red/LED Off
Orange/Red/Gray*
Redundant Power Supply Present
Normal Function
Power Supply Failure
Green
No Illumination
Green
Orange/Red/LED Off
Orange/Red/LED Off
Orange/Red/Gray*
*Note
In VNMS an empty slot will display on the node view as a gray box, indicating no power
supply is present.
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5.4.2 Power Supply – Fuse Replacement
1. Place the ON/OFF switch in the power supply having a blown fuse to the OFF position.
2. Power supply fuse replacement is accomplished by removing the panel mounted fuse
from the front of the power supply as shown below. Ensure that the replacement fuse
matches the rating on the label next to the fuse.
Main Power Supply
Redundant Power Supply
I
O
I
O
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
Insert a flat bladed screwdriver
and turn to the left
3. When inserting the replacement fuse, turn to the right and lock down.
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Section 6. System User Interface
6.1 Overview
The eXmux can be configured at the factory and the end users unique network topology
created. This configuration will be shipped to the customer on a CD and installed at his
location. Optionally, the end user can configure their network on site using RFL’s Visual
Network Management Software (VNMS) utilizing a Windows based computer.
6.1.1 eXmux Visual Network Management Software
This software has been created by RFL to allow the end user to easily set-up and configure his
network. The software features a graphical interface with user friendly drop down screens and
an activation key code for enhanced security. The network layout screens are viewable in list
format, allowing up to 998 nodes in a single file. Network nodes and connections are easily setup and configured. The software will:

Allow the user communication with any eXmux unit in the network.

Allow the user access to any interface unit located on any eXmux in the network.

Show the user a graphical picture of the network from any node in the network.

Allow the user access to any configuration information on any node in the network.

Allow customization of the software for specific requirements.

Allow the user to change interface unit parameters in real time.

Allow the user to perform network troubleshooting.
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6.2 MAC Address Information
RFL will assign unique MAC (Medium Access Control Address) numbers to each eXmux unit
shipped. This information is located on a label on the rear bottom left of the chassis as shown
below. eXmux 3500/3501 is shown in the first image and eXmux 3500M/3501M in the second.
PROC - XX : XX : XX : XX : XX : XX
TDM 1 - XX : XX : XX : XX : XX : XX
TDM 2 - XX : XX : XX : XX : XX : XX
MAC Addresses supplied by
RFL at time of order
PROC - XX : XX : XX : XX : XX : XX
TDM 1 - XX : XX : XX : XX : XX : XX
TDM 2 - XX : XX : XX : XX : XX : XX
MAC Addresses supplied by
RFL at time of order
Figure 6-1. Location of MAC Address Label
The Integrated Ethernet Switch will insert the unique “MAC” addresses into each message it
sends out. The port on the Ethernet Switch used for a given MAC address is automatically
learned when a frame is received from that address. Once an address is learned, the Ethernet
Switch will route messages to only the appropriate port.
6.3 Installing the EXMUX 3500 VNMS
The VNMS software can be installed on your computer by inserting the supplied CD.
Alternately, the software can be downloaded from the RFL website. Before proceeding take a
moment to review the information below.
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6.3.1 Computer and Operating System Restrictions

The eXmux Visual NMS is compatible with Windows 7® and Windows 10®
Operating Systems; currently certain changes must be made to file locations after the
VNMS software is installed when using these operating systems. These changes are
described in Section Error! Reference source not found..

An Intel Pentium D (dual core) 2.5 GHz or higher processor computer is
recommended with a minimum of 1 gigabyte of RAM. 2 gigabytes of RAM is
recommended.

RFL recommends that a high resolution screen be used for optimal VNMS viewing.
6.3.2 SNMP Communication

The eXmux supports up to ten separate VNMS stations simultaneously accessing the
eXmux unit. However, RFL recommends that only one VNMS station be operating
when the “Autodiscover Network” function is used.
6.3.3 Network Files

Network files (XML extension in the Data Folder) created in VNMS versions lower
than 1.0.0 are not compatible with this release version of VNMS. A new network
file needs to be created by running “Autodiscover Network” from the Network pull
down menu. It is always advisable to save copies of your network files
(data\*.XML) prior to upgrading VNMS.
Following are directions for loading the VNMS software.
6.3.4 Loading the VNMS Software (Initial Installation)
NOTE: In Windows 10 you must run VNMS installation with administrator privileges.
1. Insert the CD into the CD ROM drive of your computer or run the downloaded file.
2. In most cases, a setup window will appear on the screen. Click Install.
If the window does not appear, do the following:
a. From the Start Menu, select run.
b. Type the following in the run window command line: D:\setup
Note: If your computer does not use ‘D’ for the CD ROM drive, substitute the
correct letter here.
c. Click OK.
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3. Click on ‘Next’ to continue with the setup.
NOTE: In Windows 10 click “Run” in the “Unknown Publisher” dialog to proceed.
4. From this point on the software will prompt you to enter information it requires to
complete the installation.
5. For Windows7 and Windows10 users, at the “Installation Folder” dialog, the path for
the installation of the VNMS software needs to change. The procedure to do this is
described below.
a. Click “Change” and enter the path “C:/Users/Public/Documents/Exmux 3500
Visual NMS” in the “Where would you like Visual NMS Installed.” field.
b. Click Next.
6. When the installation is complete the following icons will appear on your desktop,
clicking an icon will display its full description.
Shortcut to launch the terminal
program to allow IP programming
through the user access “Exmux
USB" port
Shortcut to the Visual Network
Management Software (VNMS)
Shortcut to the EXmux
Upgrader
Installing VNMS over a previous version
The VNMS software is now installed on your computer. Below are instructions for upgrading
VNMS over a previous version.
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1. Uninstall the previous version of the Visual NMS
NOTE: Uninstalling the previous version is recommended but not required.
2. Click “yes” if asked to run a program from an Unknown Publisher.
3. To Uninstall EXmux VNMS, simply click “Next” and complete the precess.
The ‘EXmux VNMS Uninstaller’ dialog will be displayed.
4. Click “Finish” when uninstall completes.
Note: Before VNMS can be used the original activation key code may need to be
entered. Call RFL Customer Service at 973.334.3100 for key code information if
necessary.
The following sub-section will show you how to connect to the eXmux through a USB port in
order to set IP Address information and other limited settings.
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6.4 Accessing the EXMUX through the USB Ports
VNMS communicates with the eXmux via one of the Ethernet ports, however before this can be
done the IP addresses must be set using the USB interface. Connections are possible on the
front and rear of the eXmux.

To access the USB ports on the eXmux with a laptop computer, a USB cable is required
with a type “B” connector at the eXmux end; this is not supplied by RFL. Note only one
computer can be connected at one time to either the front or rear of the eXmux.

Currently RFL supplies a USB Driver for Windows7 (32 and 64 bit) operating system
users. The driver can be downloaded from the RFL website or supplied on a CD or other
electronic media. Once the driver software is copied to your computer follow the steps on
the next page to configure the driver.
3500/3501
Typically a type "A"
connector is used at the
laptop
Use a type "B"
connector at the EXMUX
Figure 6-2. USB Port Access 3500/3501
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3500M/3501M
Typically a type "A"
connector is used at the
laptop
Use a type "B"
connector at the EXMUX
Figure 6-3. USB Port Access 3500M/3501M
6.5 Installing and Running the USB User Access Utility
After the USB cable is connected to the eXmux and also to the user’s computer, the following
Windows dialog boxes will appear. It is recommended that the user follow the steps on the
following pages to install the USB utility. Note that the example screens shown are for the
Windows7® and Windows10® (64 bit). Other Windows operating systems will be similar.
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6.5.1 USB Utility Running on Windows7
After a USB cable is connected to an eXmux and the user’s computer go to the “Start” menu
and follow the steps below. Note; there are two parts to this configuration process. The USB
Interface and the USB Serial Port, both parts MUST be completed to correctly configure the USB
Driver.
Select the
"Hardware" tab
Double click on
"Exmux 3500 USB
Interface"
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1. Configuring the USB Interface:
With the “Hardware” tab selected proceed as follows.
Select
Select "Update
Driver"
Select
Ensure this
box is
checked
Browse to where the Driver Software is
located on your computer
Select "Browse my computer
for driver software"
Select the USB Driver
and click "Next"
Select "Install this driver
software anyway
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Click “Close” a confirmation window will appear as shown on the following.
Select the "Hardware" tab
Click "Close"
Note: Both the "USB Serial Port" and the "RFL Serial
Converter" should display. If they do not, return to the
"Devices and Printers" dialog as shown below and double click
on "Exmux 3500 USB Interface"
Double click
Now proceed to the following page to configure the USB Serial Port.
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2. Configuring the USB Serial Port:
With the “Hardware” tab selected proceed as follows.
Select
Select "Update
Driver"
Select
Ensure this
box is
checked
Browse to where the Driver
Software is located
Select the USB Driver and click
"Next"
Select "Browse my computer
for driver software"
Select "Install this driver
software anyway"
The USB Interface has been successfully installed. Double click the “exmux 3500 User Access
USB” icon on your desktop; a dialog box will appear as shown on Section 6.5.3.
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6.5.2 Working with the USB User Access Utility
The USB Interface has been successfully installed. Double click the “exmux 3500 User Access
USB” icon on your computers desktop. Note; the following CLI Interface is applicable for
system software version 6.0 and up.
The following dialog box will appear. Hit “Enter” to get a prompt
Enter the default login (note case sensitive): admin
Hit Enter
Enter the default password: Admin_Passwd1
Note on versions of the VNMS software (before 4.0) the default password was admin_passwd
Hit Enter
The following dialog box will appear. This is the main menu for the USB utility.
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With “System Settings” selected hit enter to access the following sub-menu. This menu will
allow you to change the default admin password. RFL recommends that this is done after initial
login.
6.5.2.1 Changing
the Default Password
Using the arrow keys navigate down to “Admin Password” and hit Enter. RFL recommends
that you change the password after initial logon; if the password is not changed the eXmux
will show a minor alarm state. The password must be between 10 and 32 characters in length
and MUST contain a character from each of the following 4-sets.
Upper case letters (A through Z)
Lower case letters (a through z)
Numeric digits (0 through 9)
Special characters (~ @ % ^ _ - + = { } [ ] . ?)
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6.5.2.2 Network
Settings
Initial IP address information is normally pre-configured at the factory, but can be changed by
the user if required. Network Settings must be selected to set/change IP address information.
The “Network Settings” screen is shown below; this menu has 21 items which are listed on the
following page.
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There are 21 items listed on the Network Settings CLI menu. A description of their function is
shown in the table below. Certain settings in the eXmux 3500 CLI require a system reboot. The
user will be prompted when this is required. All of the following settings can be accessed
through the VNMS software with the exception of the Node ID.
Number
Item
Default
1
Management IP
Address
192.168.35.100
2
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
3
Gateway
192.168.35.1
4
Multicast IP
Address
224.192.16.2
7
8
TDM Engine 1
IP Address
TDM Engine 2
IP Address
TDM Netmask
TDM Gateway
9
Node ID
5
6
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
System Dual
Path Mode
Path B
Management IP
Address
Path B Subnet
Mask
Path B Gateway
TDM Dual Path
Mode
Path B TDM
Engine 1 IP
Address
Path B TDM
Engine 2 IP
Address
Path B TDM
Netmask
Path B TDM
Gateway
eXmux MAC
Address
TDM Engine 1
MAC Address
TDM Engine 2
MAC Address
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October 2017
Description
The primary IP address used by VNMS to communicate with
the eXmux.
Used by the IP protocol to create a subnet address. The subnet
mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the client machine. It is
matched with the IP address of a packet to determine which
network segment the packet is destined for.
A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to
another network. A node or stopping point can be either a
gateway node or a host (end-point) node.
A multicast address, also called a group address, is a single IP
address for a set of hosts that are joined in a multicasting
group.
192.168.35.101
The IP address for TDM Engine 1
192.168.35.102
The IP address for TDM Engine 2
0
The TDM Netmask address.
The TDM Gateway address.
The Node ID can be set between 1 and 999. The Node ID can
also be assigned automatically by the VNMS software. The
Node ID will not be visible if left at 0. Can only be changed
using the CLI.
-
Enable dual path mode for management (yes-no)
-
The Management IP address for Path B.
(With System Dual Path Mode Enabled)
-
The Subnet Mask IP address for Path B.
(With System Dual Path Mode Enabled)
The Gateway IP address for Path B.
(With System Dual Path Mode Enabled)
Enable dual path for TDM data (yes-no)
(With System Dual Path Mode Enabled)
-
The IP address for TDM Engine 1 for Path B.
(With System Dual Path Mode Enabled)
-
The IP address for TDM Engine 2 for Path B.
(With System Dual Path Mode Enabled)
-
The IP address for the Path B TDM Netmask.
(With System Dual Path Mode Enabled)
The IP address for the Path B Gateway.
(With System Dual Path Mode Enabled)
NA
Read only, also provided on label.
NA
Read only, also provided on label.
NA
Read only, also provided on label.
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6.5.2.3 Entering
IP Address Information
Enter IP address information as required. Be aware that when entering “Path B” IP address
information “Dual Path Mode” must be enabled and Unicasting used.
The Node ID can be set between 1 and 999. The Node ID can also be assigned automatically
by the VNMS software.
After setting the required address information press ‘M’ to return to the main
menu then click System Settings and “Reboot” so that the changes take effect.
6.5.2.4 Additional
CLI Screen Information
The RFL Command Line Interface contains extensive diagnostic tools and status information
normally not accessed via the VNMS by the user. Shown below are the sub-menus from the
“Main Menu.”
2: Switch Settings
Ethernet Switch settings can be changed here and all Ethernet Switch statistics can be
cleared.
Switch settings for the 3500 are shows below.
Switch settings for the 3500 are shows below.
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3: System Status
Will show the status of the nodes immediate environment including all connected nodes in
the network as shown in the Neighbor Discovery Table.
Note: The PT4P log file has been added to version 6.1 and later for to those accessible via
the CLI (for debugging purposes)
4: Switch Status
Will give an overview of the Ethernet Switch Status. VLAN Status will show all VLAN
information including whether port force is enabled and the port type. RSTP/MSTP Status
will show pertinent RSTP/MSTP information including port priority and cost.
NOTE: In Version 6.0 the Switch Status menu options are not available for the new Switch
(ESS-2020).
The USB Interface has been successfully installed. Double click the “exmux 3500 User Access
USB” icon on your computers desktop. Note; the following CLI Interface is applicable for
system software version 6.0 and up.
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The following dialog box will appear. Hit “Enter” to get a prompt
Enter the default login (note case sensitive): admin
Hit Enter
Enter the default password: Admin_Passwd1
Note on versions of the VNMS software (before 4.0) the default password was admin_passwd
Hit Enter
The following dialog box will appear. This is the main menu for the USB utility.
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With “System Settings” selected hit enter to access the following sub-menu. This menu will
allow you to change the default admin password. RFL recommends that this is done after initial
login.
6.5.3 Preparing for VNMS Access
For “First Time” VNMS software access an “Activation Key Code” supplied by RFL must be
entered.
Disconnect the USB cable from the front or rear of the eXmux and connect an Ethernet cable
from your PC or Laptop computer to any of the FE/GE (LAN/WAN) ports on the eXmux
Ethernet Switch. The Ethernet Switch is located on the rear of the eXmux unit as shown below.
3500/3501
Location of Ethernet Switch
Rear view of eXmux
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3500M/3501M
Location of Ethernet Switch
Rear view of eXmux
Go to the Section 7 to enter the Activation Key Code and configure your network.
Once the Activation Key Code is entered, the USB Utility can be accessed at any time, either
from the desktop icon or through the VNMS software as shown below.
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6.6 System Recovery/Debug Port
On rare occasions, if power or a network connection is lost during a system software upgrade
the eXmux may not be able to recover. Effective with VNMS software release 2.5.0 a System
Recovery Port has been added at the rear of the 3500 and 3500M/3501M as shown below.
3500/3501
LAN 1
System Recovery
Debug Port
R
T
No serviceable
parts inside
3500M/3501M
MAIN
T1/E1
+
-
RDNT
+
-
System Recovery
Debug Port
Normally this port is used by RFL service personnel for debugging; system recovery and log
dump operations.
A cable can be provided by RFL that will connect from the above port to an RS-232
(female DB9) port on the end user’s computer. Contact the RFL Service Department
Customer.Service@RFLelect.com or by phone at 973.334.3100 to get detailed procedures on
system recovery.
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This Page
Intentionally
Left Blank
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Section 7. Configuration
7.1 Introduction to Opening an Existing or Configuring a New Network
The following section will guide the user through all the steps required to set up and configure a
network. Tool Tips are provided with the VNMS software, sliding the cursor over a setting or
status indicator will display a description of its function.
7.2 Getting Started
7.2.1 Configuring your PC/Laptop for Static IP
In a situation where both the eXmux and the user’s PC are connected to the same network
configuring for “Static IP” is not required as the computer will get IP address information from
the DHCP server. If this is not the case your computer MUST be configured for “Static IP.”
Before entering the Key Code note the following:
1. From the ‘Start’ menu select ‘Control Panel’ > ‘Network and Sharing.’
NOTE: if the Control Panel uses the ‘Category’ view access ‘Network and Sharing’
from the ‘Network and Internet’ button.
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2. Click on the ‘Local Area Connection’. This opens Local Area Connection Status.
3. Select the ‘Properties’ button. This opens the “Local Are Connections Properties”
dialog.
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4. Click the ‘Properties’ button, the following dialog box will open.
1 Check this button
2
Add IP
information here
This information
can be ignored
3 Check OK
7.2.2 First time log on and Activation Key Code
New users of the eXmux will receive an activation key code from RFL. Once the activation
key code is entered and the network established, it is a good idea to change the VNMS user ID
and password for security. (See 7.2.3)
Double click the “Exmux 3500 VNMS” icon on your desktop.
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The following dialog box will appear.
Enter the activation key code received from RFL. If you have not received a key code call RFL
Customer Service at 973.334.3100. Check the “Done” button. Note that the Activation Key Code
is valid on a per customer basis.
The following dialog box will appear. Type “control” into the User ID field and “password”
into the Password field and check the “Log In” button. Note, this login occurs only the first
time VNMS is installed.
Type: control
Type: password
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7.2.3 Managing User Levels –Setting Authorities in VNMS
From the pull down menus select “File” > “Manage VNMS Users”
The user ID and password can be changed in the following dialog box. There are three levels of
“Users” that can be set; multiple users can also be added.
Change the User ID and
Password as required
Click to add a
new user
Will jump to next user
The "User type" can be set to the following:
Administrator: Able to perform all functions of the VNMS
Maintenance: Able to perform limited functions of the VNMS
Monitor:
Can only monitor the system. No changes allowed
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7.2.4 Node Access Management
The preceding sub-section gave details of security options when using the VNMS software.
Each node in the system is also password protected. The system administrator can modify user
accounts or add and delete users as required. To change a password globally or on selected
nodes select “Tools” > “Change Password on All Nodes” from the pull down menu.
Enter new password
information
Check this box to have
the new password
applied globally or select
individual nodes
Check "Apply" once
changes are made
To add or delete users select “Tools” > “Manage User Accounts on All Nodes” from the pull
down menu.
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Selected by node
Use the drop-down to
change permissions for
this specific user
Check to add user to all nodes or
those selected
Add user and password
as required
Will turn green when
accepted
Select permission group
See Note 1.
Check “Apply” when
complete
Note 1.
There are three levels of access available:
Admin: Able to perform all functions.
Read/Write: Can read and write but not add new users.
Read Only: Can read only.
Note 2.
System operation will be smoother when users have the same password for each
node. RFL recommends that this be implemented.
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To delete users:
Have the “By User” tab selected and highlight the user(s) to be deleted.
Selected by user
highlighted user
Use the drop-down to
change permissions for
this specific node
Select to delete the
highlighted user
7.2.5 Opening an Existing Network
Connect your PC or laptop to one of the Ethernet ports on the eXmux and double click the
“Exmux 3500 VNMS” shortcut icon on your desktop. Refer to Section 6.5.3 if the IP address
has to be changed.
Check "Open an existing network."
Hit return or click OK
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The following folder will open. Click “Bay Hill” to open the network.
data
We recommend that you save all files in the “data” subdirectory and not in the main directory.
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7.2.6 Auto-discover a new Network
After connecting a laptop or PC to one of the Ethernet ports on the eXmux, the user will
typically employ the “Auto-discover Network” function from the first dialog box as shown
below, to start a new network from scratch or to access an existing network. For example if
settings have to be changed on a specific node or if additional nodes have to be added to the
network. You can also select the “Auto-discover” feature from the pull down menu at any time.
Check the "Create a new network" box and ensure that
the "Auto-discover" box is checked, then check OK
The following dialog box will open:
A default Network name is inserted. Change this to the
new Network name and then check OK or hit "Return."
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The Network name is
automatically inserted
Add any pertinent information for
reference regarding the network
Select either Multicast or Unicast
and the Neighbor Network Group ID
Check to remove nodes from list
Check the "Discover" button
once node addressing has
been set
Add the IP address of one
of the nodes in the Network,
then check "Add to List."
(See note 1.)
Note 1.
It is only necessary to add the IP address of one node in the Network being discovered. The
system will auto discover the remaining nodes.
Using the above dialog box nodes can be added or removed from the network.
Once the “Discover” button is checked the system will start searching for nodes in the network.
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Each node is password protected. As the system searches for a node it will display the “Gather
credentials for node” dialog box before each node that it finds. Check “Reuse these credentials
for rest of nodes” to speed up the process, if the same credentials are used for all nodes. Then
check the “Submit” button.
See note 2.
The default is:
admin
(See note 3.)
The default is:
Admin_Passwd1
(See note 3.)
See note 1.
Nodes may be skipped
Note 1.
Check this box if the same username and password is used for each node, doing this
will speed up the process.
Note 2.
Checking this box will update the user’s files. For example if the system
administrator is away from the network and in an emergency a nodes IP address is
changed, checking this box will automatically update his files to match the current
configuration. This is used ONLY for an existing network file and is not applicable
for new network files running “Autodiscover.”
Note 3.
Valid user names are between 8 and 32 characters and can contain any upper or
lower case letters, numeric digits and the following special characters:
~@%^_-+={}[].?
After initial logon the “Password” should be changed or the eXmux will show a
minor alarm. The password must be between 10 and 32 characters in length and
MUST contain a character from each of the following 4-sets.
Upper case letters (A through Z)
Lower case letters (a through z)
Numeric digits (0 through 9)
Special characters (~ @ % ^ _ - + = { } [ ] . ?)
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The system will auto discover all specified nodes and will also discover nodes connected to the
network that were not specified. This may take a few minutes or longer, depending on the size
of the network.
During this process a number of dialog boxes are displayed, typically the default setting will be
used.
Unspecified nodes are listed, typically these will
be added to the network, check OK to continue
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Normally this will not be
changed, check OK to
continue
A graphical representation of the network is displayed; double clicking on a node will bring up
its configuration page.
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Note: If user right clicks on the Network Layout view and selects Network Information, the
Neighbor Discovery Protocol and Group can be shown below.
Please see Section 7.6 to configure the Customer Interfaces.
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7.2.7 Creating a new Network (Manual Method – Off-Line)
Connect your PC or laptop to the eXmux through one of the Ethernet ports and double click the
“Exmux 3500 VNMS” shortcut icon on your desktop.
Check "Create a new network"
Ensure that "Auto-discover"
is un-checked
Check OK
Name the Network or use
the default
You can now go to 7.2.8 to add nodes to the network.
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7.2.8 Adding and configuring a Node (Manual Method – Off-Line)
Right click in this area to
bring up the menu, click
"Add node."
The network name is
displayed in the title bar
Ensure that this box is unchecked.
If checked existing interface unit
parameters will be imported
Enter the IP address
A graphical representation of the node appears with the following dialog box.
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Highlight to display at right,
normally enter the highest version
Enter the version of the system
software of the target node
Click OK, the screen below will be displayed
Double click to configure
the seven customer
interfaces on the rear of
the eXmux
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7.3 Viewing a Network
A new or existing network can be viewed at any time as shown below. This is purely a
graphical representation of the network and is not to be confused with Interface Mapping
which is described later in this section. Clicking the “Table View” will display the network
in tabular form.
From the "Network" pull-down menu select
"Network View", a graphical view of the
network will appear as shown below.
Click "Table View" to
display the network in a
tabular view.
In the example above eight nodes are shown connected in a network; each node is displayed
with its node number, name, IP address and current state. The following is an example tabular
view showing the various node states that are possible.
The node is "Offline" a
connection to the node could
not be established (Gray
background)
The node is "Forced Offline."
In this state its inventory can
be changed or configured
(Gray background)
The node is "Online".
The node is "Online" and in Minor
Alarm (Orange background). A
Major Alarm has a (Red
background).
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7.3.1 Connecting Nodes
Lines can be drawn on the network view to represent network layout. Up to 8 links (color
coded) are possible from any node. When in “Online” mode, each node in the network is green,
orange, or red, based on its alarm status and will automatically be updated.
Right click on the node to
bring up the menu shown.
then click "Add line."
Left click the node
that has to be
joined. A line will
appear between the
nodes
Right click on the line
to change its color
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7.3.2 Window Feature
Effective with VNMS software version 2.5.0 “Window” has been added to the pull-down menu
as shown below.
All windows currently
active are displayed
When multiple windows are displayed within the application it is possible to lose track of which
dialog screens are open. The pull-down menu shown will list all windows that are currently
active on the users desktop. Clicking a listed hidden window will bring that dialog screen to the
front. Use the shortcut key CTRL+F1 to cycle through the listed windows.
7.4 System Configuration
In order to access the eXmux system information dialog screens the “Node” view must be
displayed. Right clicking while in the background will display the menu at left below.
“Chassis Settings and Status” may also be accessed from the drop-down menu as shown at
right.
OR
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7.4.1 System Configuration Overview
Although in most cases the eXmux units are factory configured to suit each customer’s unique
network requirements, certain important system setting may need to be changed, such as
network addresses and clock settings. Important status situations are also displayed on the right
side of this dialog box. Below is the dialog box with the “General” tab clicked in the
Configuration section and the “System” tab clicked in the Status section. Each tabs function is
described in the following sub-section.
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
9
The Node name
can be changed
here
Will configure the
main and redundant
power supplies to
either a major or
minor alarm or none
Various system
revision levels are
displayed here
DS0 Grooming
See Note 2.
Main Board
(Motherboard)
hardware and
firmware revision
levels
Check to clear all
SOE records for this
node
Check to clear the Inventory Mismatch Alarm. Also
sets the expected inventory to the current inventory
Check to reboot the node
See Note 1.
For Partition Info See 7.4.1.1
Note 1. Checking this box and then checking “Write” at the bottom of the dialog box will cause
a remote reboot of the eXmux.
CAUTION
During the reboot process some system services are not available.
Note 2. The DS0 Grooming Capability is only displayed while the eXmux is “Online.”
There are two settings available; “Autodetect” and “Force-disable.” The default setting
Autodetect will find the DS0 Grooming capability based on the eXmux main board revision
level. Revision 109020-1-C or above will have DS0 Grooming enabled.
Forced-disable will disable DS0 Grooming. This is used when there is a need to add new boards
to an existing network containing older boards. Normally for RFL use only.
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7.4.1.1 Partition
Info
The following dialog will give standby partition information.
Note: Partition info only applies to dash 2 Main boards, which have the ability to be upgraded
while in service.
Active Partition:
The systems active partition
Standby SW version:
The system software version in
the active partition
Standby SW build number:
The system software build in
the active partition
Return to previous screen
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7.4.2 System Dialogs – Configuration Tabs
7.4.2.1 TDM
(1)
This tab gives settings for TDM Engine 1 and 2 including alarms, IP addresses and timing
settings.
TDM Alarm Settings
See 7.4.2.1.2
TDM over IP address
information for engine 1 and 2
This is the Netmask
for the network
carrying all traffic
from both TDM
engines
This is the Gateway for
the network carrying all
traffic from both TDM
engines
Pull-down will select (enable) redundant/
alternant path for hitless switching
TDM VLAN
See 7.4.2.1.5
Path B IP
Addresses
See 7.4.2.1.3
Selects either “Unicast” or “Multicast.”
Note “Bundle Timing” will be grayed out
until “Unicast” is selected
Timing Priority
See Note 1.
Timing Source:
When configured or elected to be the "Master
Timing Source" this menu selects which source
of local timing to use.
Internal - Uses the local crystal
T1/E1 Framer - Uses the recovered clock from
the T1/E1 port
Bundle – Can be used but only when “Timing
Select” is in Unicast Mode (version 5.0 or higher).
Bundle Timing
See 7.4.2.1.4
Note 1.Following are the options for “Timing Priority.”
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In a network where all eXmux nodes are at VNMS and System software 5.0 or higher the
following choices are displayed on the pull-down menu:
Timing Priority
Action
Auto
The software will select which timing is the master or
resolve the master from the available timing sources.
Master 1 through 9
The user can select the available timing starting with
the desired quality timing source first, set as priority 1.
Then select additional timing sources in descending
level of priority. The system will default to Master2
etc. If Master1 is not available.
Slave Only
This should be selected if the eXmux unit cannot be a
provider of the timing bundle.
7.4.2.1.1 Unicast TDM Timing Mode
Slave Operation
A slave eXmux by default will not have a TDM timing source in Unicast mode. The unit will
be in major alarm.
Elected Master
An elected master can receive TDM timing either by using its internal clock, the onboard
framer or through a TDM data bundle. If the elected master is setup to receive TDM timing via
a TDM data bundle and the bundle does not exist or is not working properly, the elected master
will go into major alarm and the timing source will switch to internal.
Timing using an external T1/E1 source:
Proper TDM timing synchronization is critical to prevent TDM data loss. Customers can derive
TDM timing from the physical T1/E1 signal being input in the onboard T1/E1 framer for this
purpose. It is best practice to deploy both a Main and a Backup Master node if using a physical
T1/E1 signal for TDM timing synchronization. The node with the highest Timing Priority
(master1) becomes the Elected Master in the network and the source for TDM timing. The
Main Master must be programmed with Timing Priority master1. The Backup Master must be
programmed with Timing Priority master2. A physical T1 must be connected to both the Main
and Backup Master nodes. The Timing Source must be set to T1E1framer. The active Master
node will use the T1/E1 signal to provide TDM timing to the rest of the network.
A Unicast Timing Bundle source and TDM bundle must be setup on both the Master and
Backup Master nodes. The TDM bundle must exist between the Main and Backup Master node
using the specified Unicast Timing Bundle source. In the event that the T1/E1 timing source is
not present, the unit will derive timing from the TDM bundle.
Note: For TDM timing refer to section 7.4.3.2
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T1/E1
status
Description
Good


Timing Source= clkfromframer
The T1/E1 signal is healthy so the timing is being provided by the signal
Bad


Timing Source = clkfrominternalcrystal or aclkfrombundle
The change in timing source may cause an election to occur forcing another node
to become timing master.
The following is an example of how Unicast timing works when using an external timing
source for the Main #10 and Backup Elected Master #20:
#10
State
EM
#10 Pri #10 T1
Status
#20
State
Master1
S2EM Master2
Good
#20 Pri
#20 T1 Status
Good
Outcome


S2EM Master1
Bad
EM
Master2
Good


Node #10 is providing the TDM
timing via the onboard T1/E1
framer.
Node #20 is receiving timing via
data bundle.
Node #10 is receiving timing via
data bundle.
Node #20 is providing the TDM
timing via the onboard T1/E1
framer.
EM
Master1
Bad
S2EM Master2
Bad


Node #10 is providing the TDM
timing via the internal clock.
Node #20 is receiving timing via
data bundle.
Set Timing Priority in the Network
1. Set the Elected Master Timing Priority to master1 .
2. Set the Backup Elected Master Timing Priority to master2.
3. Set all other nodes Timing Priority to auto or slaveOnly.
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Setup the Unicast Timing Bundle Source and Bundle for the Master and Backup Elected
Master
1. Setup a Unicast Timing Bundle Source Priority 1 on the Elected Master.
2. Setup a Unicast Timing Bundle Source Priority 1 on the Backup Elected Master.
3. Create a Bundle between the Elected Master and Backup Elected Master. The same
bundle will be used for timing.
Setup the Timing Source for the Master and Backup Elected Master
1. Set the TDM Timing Source to t1e1framer on the Elected Master.
2. Connect the T1/E1 line to the Elected Master internal T1/E1 Framer port
3. Set the TDM Timing Source to t1e1framer on the Backup Elected Master.
4. Connect the T1/E1 line to the Backup Elected Master internal T1/E1 Framer port.
Verify Timing Behavior
1. Verify that the Elected Master Timing Source status is clkfromframer.
2. Verify that the Backup Elected Master Timing Source status is aclkfrombundle.
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7.4.2.1.2 TDM Alarm Settings
The following dialogs can be used to set alarm levels for the TDM over IP engines and bundles.
Note “Bundle Alarms 2” is not shown but is identical to “Bundle Alarm 1.”
The following alarms for
engine1, engine 2 and
the clocking function
can be set to none,
minor or major alarm
Check this box to clear all
TDM over IP statistics
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The following alarms for
engine 1 bundle alarms
can be set to none,
minor or major alarm
Click to return to
previous screen
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7.4.2.1.3 Path B IP Addresses
Listed below are the alternate IP addresses for the TDM engines, netmask and gateway.
TDM engine 1 and 2 alternate IP
address. If units timing role is
slave, this is set to the timing
bundle’s multicast IP
Path B netmask for the network
carrying all the traffic from both
TDM engines
Path B gateway for the network
carrying all the traffic from both
TDM engines
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7.4.2.1.4 Bundle Timing
This is the configuration for the Unicast TDM Timing. Priority 1 enabled below.
Can be set to slot 1
through 7 or Framer
The port used for timing within
the pertinent interface unit slot,
port 1 through 7 can be
selected
Note:
1. Make sure the selected IU and port are available.
2. In Unicast mode only, when selecting the “Unicast Timing Bundle Source”, if the built-in
T1/E1 Framer or a slot with T1/E1 IU is selected as the source, a maximum of 16 bundles can
be created for that Framer or that T1/E1 IU. Otherwise, for all other Framers or T1/E1 IUs, a
maximum of 15 bundles can be created.
3. In Unicast mode only, when selecting the Port for “Unicast Timing Bundle Source”, if the
framer or a slot with T1/E1 is selected, “Port0” must be selected and the Bundle set to receive
the timing must be on Timeslot 1 on the T1/E1 stream.
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7.4.2.1.5 TDM VLAN
These are the VLAN settings for all TDM traffic. This feature enables VLAN tagging on the
TDM bundle. Once enabled any packet destined for Path A or Path B will be tagged.
To set-up QoS priority on a per circuit (bundle) basis see Section 7.12.3
(QoS Priority Override).
Enable to configure
VLAN for TDM data
Priority class for QoS (0 – 7)
7 being highest. Selected by
site network engineer
Path A VLAN ID (1 - 4096)
Path B VLAN ID (1 - 4096)
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7.4.2.2 Network
(2)
This dialog box will allow the user to change management IP address information for the
network and alternate path (path B). The user can also set neighbor discovery parameters.
SNMP trap destination information can also be accessed here.
Multicast IP Address:
The Multicast IP address used for auto
discovery, and for system wide timing
Master to all Slaves. Grayed out if HubSpoke or Unicast is selected
Neighbor Discovery Protocol:
Pull-down menu to select
Multicast, Hub-Spoke or Unicast
See Note 1
Neighbor Discovery Group:
Network group ID that defines the local
network around this node. Master
nodes in the network group can
discover other network groups. Grayed
out if Multicast is selected
Unicast Neighbor Discovery IP
See 7.4.2.2.4
Auto Discovery Packet Rate:
This number determines the time
in seconds at which the neighbors
advertisements are sent for auto
discovery
Network address information
is displayed here
Neighbor Drop Threshold:
If no advertisements are
received from the neighbor
before this threshold value,
then the neighbor is no longer
reachable
Time to Live:
The “Time to Live” value set in
all the multicasts that are sent
over the topologies multicast
address
Community to which
the destination
address belongs
SNMP version for
the trap
Trap Destination Entries
See 7.4.2.2.2
Permanent Flag
Click to Delete
Mgmt Path B IP Address
See 7.4.2.2.3
Pull-down to enable
Management Path B
IP Address
Trap destination
address
Click to add a new row
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Neighbor Discovery Protocol:
Mode
Action
Multicast
All nodes send multicast messages and elect a master.
Hub-Spoke
Only a designated master sends out multicast messages.
The other nodes send a unicast reply.
Unicast
All slave nodes will unicast their neighbor discovery
packet to the elected timing master node. Likewise, the
elected timing master node will unicast the neighbor
discovery packet back to the slave. The elected timing
master node will also unicast its neighbor discovery
information back to the slave units.
7.4.2.2.1 Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor discovery is a RFL proprietary protocol that is used to exchange information between
eXmux units. It contains information such as timing source; card inventory, status, and IP
address data. Neighbor Discovery packets contain the information required to create circuits
between eXmux units, this ensures that a common TDM timing source is being utilized.
Multicast Mode:
In multicast mode the eXmux units multicast their neighbor discovery packets, and the elected
master multicasts the TDM timing.
Unicast Mode:
In Unicast mode the eXmux units send their neighbor discovery packets to the IP address of the
elected group master. The elected master creates a list of all the slave units. The elected master
will then send a neighbor topology message to all the slaves in the neighbor group, this message
contains a list of node IDs and timestamp data for all of the neighbor discovery packets. The
slaves will request the missing or out of date neighbor discovery packets from the elected
master by analyzing the data in the neighbor topology message. The elected master will then
fulfill the neighbor discovery packet requests.
7.4.2.2.2 Trap Destination Entries
Clicking this button will reveal the “Trap Destination Entries” list. This list can be used to
verify if your PC is listed to receive SNMP traps. The dialog can be used to add or remove PCs
from the list. RFL recommends that no more than five PCs are included in the list. To enable a
new Trap Destination IP Address while in File Settings; click the “Add Rows” button and enter
the new address, host name and version. Then “Write” the node to the new trap configuration.
To remove a PC, just use the “X” button on the existing address line, and then click the tables
“Write” button. The Permanent Flag field is set to 'on' when a user manually adds an IP Address
to the trap destination table. These flags keep the destination IP address in the table when the
table is automatically brought down to ten records. PC IP addresses are automatically added
when VNMS is started
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7.4.2.2.3 Management Path B IP Addresses
This dialog will give IP management settings for the auxiliary path B.
The second (path B) management IP
address
The path B subnet mask IP address
The path B gateway IP address
Path B Routing Table:
When clicked, this will show routes to other
nodes on path B. The path B routing table is
populated by the neighbor discovery process.
This table is read-only, except that some routes
may need to be deleted if the eXmux node is
repositioned within the eXmux network
7.4.2.2.4 Unicast Neighbor Discovery IP
The following is used in Unicast mode to give master and auxiliary node IP addresses.
IP address of master nodes 1 through 4
within the eXmux local network group
IP address of auxiliary nodes 1 through 4
in an external eXmux network
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7.4.2.3 Clocks
(3)
This dialogs function is to obtain real time clock data.
Time:
System Real Time Clock. The
format is: Year-Month-Day
and Hour-Minute-Second
Clock Options:
Following are the “Clock Options.” (Effective with VNMS
4.1)
Freerunning, the software will select the units RTC, note
this option cannot be updated by an external source.
NTP, selects Network Time Protocol for the clocking
synchronization.
PTPSlave, designates the node as a PTP slave.
PTPMaster, designates the node as a PTP master. When
this is set the “Use PC for Time” box must be checked.
NTPtoPTP, the NTP server will transmits clocking to the
PTP slaves.
When configuring a network for PTP each node should be
assigned as a Slave with one node left as Master
Check this box if you have
a DNS Server to resolve
NTP server name
Enable to give a
minor alarm when
NTP is out of sync
The name of the Network
Time Protocol (NTP) server
from which the eXmux
receives its RTC time
Enable when setting
node to PTP Master
DNS Server IP:
The IP address of the Domain Name Server
(DNS) which will be used to resolve the NTP
server IP from the defined server name
NTP Server IP:
The IP address of the NTP Server
(Grayed out if “Resolve NTP with DNS” is checked)
This dialog box is used to obtain current
time information for the eXmux and is not to
be confused with Time Synchronization
7.4.2.4 Diagnostics
(4)
Will enable or disable diagnostic mode (for factory use only).
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7.4.2.5 Auto
IP (5)
Address information specific to Serial Server and TPS applications is displayed here.
Typically factory assigned.
IP addr range start:
In the range of Serial Server Ports per node,
this is the starting IP address
See Note 1.
IP addr range end:
In the range of Serial Server Ports per node, this is
the ending IP address
See Note 1.
Netmask for IP range:
Netmask for all the Serial Server ports subnet
Gateway for IP range:
Default Gateway for all Serial Server ports
SS VLAN ID:
VLAN on which all Serial Server traffic is carried.
This should only be configured when the user wants
to have Serial Server traffic on a separate VLAN
Mcast group mask:
Reserved multicast group that will be used by all
Serial Server ports that are configured for point to
multipoint configuration
See Note 2.
IP Address Range: The system dialog below will allow the user to specify a range of IP
addresses that can be dynamically allocated to Serial Server and TPS interface Unit ports. It is
important that this range be unique within the network so that no other Serial Server port shares
an IP address.
Netmask for IP range: The netmask must be chosen so that all Serial Server or TPS addresses
allocated throughout the network are reachable.
Gateway for IP range: The Gateway IP address is the address of the router that connects this
network to another network.
Mcast group mask: The bottom bite (octet) of the multicast address is reserved for the Group
ID (See Serial Server Port Connections 7.8.3).
Note 1.
When given, this IP address range will allow the system to automatically assign IP addresses
for each Serial Server port in the eXmux. The maximum number of IP addresses needed per
Serial Server is 5.
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CAUTION
Ensure that the IP range does not overlap any other eXmux IP address in the network.
Note 2.
This Multicast Group Mask must be the same for all eXmux Serial Server units in the network.
The first octant ‘232’ should never be changed; the last octant should always be ‘0’.
7.4.3 System Dialogs – Status Tabs
7.4.3.1 Engines
(6)
Displays active TDM over IP Engine alarms for discarded frames, Ethernet packets, and CPU
packets, also displays the current TDM over IP engine revision levels.
7.4.3.2 TDM
Timing (7)
This dialog box has two functions:
 Displays information on the neighbor node.
 Gives pertinent timing information.
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For detail see the following.
Timing Quality:
Will indicate the timing recovery state
Idle
Invalid
Acquisition
Track1 - Tracking level 1
Track2 - Tracking level 2
recfromuo - Recovering from over/under
run
recdisabled - Recovery disabled
See Note 1. below
Timing Role:
Will indicate the role of this unit in
system wide timing, indicates the
following:
NM - No Master
CM - Configured Master
EM - Elected Master
S2EM - Slave to Configured Master
S2EM - Slave to Elected Master
This dialog will indicate
the state of the TDM
unicast timing source
for timing priority 1
through 4
Alarm active
when timing
synchronization
problem is
detected
Timing Priority:
The current timing master
priority. Determined by the
health of the timing source. If
T1/E1 timing is not good, then
the priority reverts to “Auto” so
that a node with the next
higher priority can provide
timing
Timing Source:
Indicates the timing source for this unit
clkfrominternalcrystal -Using timing
from internal crystal
clkfromframer - Using recovered
timing from T1/E1 port
aclkfrombundle - Using timing
acquired from master node
This table gives details of the
neighbor nodes (partial details shown)
Note 1.
When a single eXmux unit is not trying to acquire a clock source, Idle will be displayed.
Acquisition will be displayed when the system is determining a clock source. This can happen
quickly before the final status is displayed.
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7.4.3.3 TDM
Status (8)
This dialog box gives extensive status information on the TDM over IP Engines.
7.4.3.4 Alarms
(9)
Will display various system and TDM over IP alarms as shown below.
Management Alarms
See 7.4.3.4.1
The system major and
minor alarm state
The main and redundant power
supply status
Green – Installed and
functional
Amber – Power supply problem
Dark Gray – Not installed
Alarm is active when the
user changes a critical
configuration and does
not restart the node
Alarm is active when the
expected inventory differs
from the current inventory
TDM over IP manager is in major
or minor alarm because of
generic errors
{
{
TDM over IP manager is in major
or minor alarm because of
generic bundle errors
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Real Time Clock Alarms
See 7.4.3.4.2
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7.4.3.4.1 Management Alarms
Active when the default
password is still in use
Only active when debug mode is
on. Can be suppressed by uboot
variable
Green when standby partition is
available
{
Active when management Path A
or Path B is not accessible
7.4.3.4.2 Real Time Clock Alarms
The number of NTP
sync. failures since the
last successful sync.
or reboot
Active when the NTP sync. Failure alarm is
enabled, and either fails after a reboot or has
three consecutive failures since the last
successful sync
Slave sync packets Received
in the last 15 seconds
Slave follow-up packets
received in the last 15
seconds
Slave delay request packets
sent in the last 15 seconds
(eXmux to eXmux mode only)
Slave delay response packets
received in the last 15 seconds
(eXmux to eXmux mode only)
Master sync packets sent in
the last 15 seconds
Master follow-up packets sent
in the last 15 seconds
Master delay request packets
received in the last 15 seconds
(eXmux to eXmux mode only)
Master delay response packets
sent in the last 15 seconds
(eXmux to eXmux mode only)
Active if PTP master clock is
undetected
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7.5 VNMS System and User Preferences
7.5.1 System Preferences
Effective with VNMS Software Release 2.5.0, certain T1/E1 global settings and other major
settings can be enabled from the System Preferences menu as shown below. An “Advanced”
button can be clicked allowing the user control over a variety of automated background
functions such as “memory garbage collection” and “drop dead” timeouts.
Note that individual ports can still be configured for T1/E1 or Passthru/Groomed at the
Interface Units configuration page.
Check if DSO
Grooming is used in
your network
If your network security
requirements make a
login screen unnecessary
check here
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Check if TDM
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7.5.2 User Preferences
Effective with VNMS release 2.5.0, certain automated VNMS user functions can be set as
shown below.
Note:
Check when diagnostics are
required. Default is unchecked
Click the OK box when the settings have been changed.
7.6 Configuring the Customer Interfaces (IU’s)
The screen shown below will display once a node is double clicked. This unique graphical
interface will enable the user to easily set-up and configure a wide range of legacy interfaces. If
an eXmux is connected to your computer or you open an existing eXmux file the diagram
below will be automatically populated with Interface Units, otherwise you will need to add
Interface Units as required. Right click on the interface(s) that need to be set-up.
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3500/3501
Chassis
status is
displayed
here
Right click any
of the seven
interfaces to
configure
3500M/3501M
Chassis status
is displayed
here
Redundant
Power Supply
not Installed
Right click any
of the seven
interfaces to
configure
Main Power
Supply
Installed and
healthy
Ethernet
Switch
Installed and
healthy
Redundant
Power Supply
installed
Section 5 in this manual gives a complete description of module replacement in the
3500M/3501M with various IU scenarios described. The table below shows a quick cross
reference between IU action and VNMS display.
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Table 7-1. Interface Unit Slot Indicators for the eXmux 3500M/3501M
Action
Alarm
Suppression
Yes/No
Inventory Mis-Match
Alarm
VNMS Slot Display
No
Based on previous
conditions
Can be: Red/yellow/green
Yes
Inactive
Blue
No
Active
Grey
Yes
Inactive
Blue
Same IU Inserted
N/A
Inactive
Can be: Red/yellow/green
Different IU Inserted
N/A
Active
Can be: Red/yellow/green
IU Inserted in Cleared Slot
N/A
Active
Brown
Cleared IU Command
N/A
Inactive
Empty Slot
Idle
IU Removed
A node can have three possible states, only one of which can be used to change the Interface
Units Inventory.
Online
Table 7-2. Node States
Active connection is established with current Alarm Status
(PC is connected to eXmux).
Offline
A connection could not be established.
Forced Offline
No attempt to connect to the eXmux (Used to configure the eXmux
chassis).
Following is the drop down menu (accessed by right-clicking in the background) when on-line.
The node must be forced “Offline” in order to add or remove the Interface Units. Click “Force
node offline.”
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Again right click in the Interface Unit that needs to be configured. The following drop down
menu will appear, click “Add Interface Unit.”
From the menu select the
required Interface Unit
Will show pertinent
software information for
the card, typically Actel
and/or PIC versions
Selectable version,
typically used for
saving settings for
demonstration
purposes
Click OK to add
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The software
automatically inserts the
correct interface
Double click to configure
the interface
Each type of Interface Unit will have its own set of configuration dialog boxes. Moving the
cursor over the Setting or Status Indicator will display a “Tooltip” message describing its
function.
Shown below is a typical example message when the cursor is moved over the Interface Mode
Setting for Port 1 on the Synchronous Multi-Protocol Interface Unit.
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7.6.1 VNMS Alarm and Status Indicators
Typically, when configuring the Interface Units the VNMS dialog will display configuration
setting information on the left of the screen while alarm and status information is displayed on
the right. The following table shows the alarm and status indicator colors with their
corresponding meaning.
Table 6-3. VNMS Alarm and Status Indicators
Alarm Conditions
Red
Orange
Grey
Minor Alarm or User
Defined.
Major Alarm.
Normal or No Activity.
Data Transfer on a Port
Green
Data Transfer.
Grey
No Activity.
Will show if the card is in
Major or Minor Alarm
Typical Alarm and Status Indicators
Will be green when data
transfer is occuring on port
Alarm indication for port
7.7 Data Interface Configurations
The following sections will show the various VNMS Interface Unit Dialogs with call-outs
giving a brief description of each function. For clarity, not all function and status situations are
shown. Following is the Synchronous Multi-Protocol Interface Unit.
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7.7.1 Synchronous Multi-Protocol Interface (RS-422/530, V.35, X.21)
It is important to note that the Synchronous
Multi-Protocol Interface Unit always
occupies 2 locations in the rear of the
EXMUX. In this example Interface 1 and 2.
Both IU's need to be configured.
Following is the Synchronous Multi-Protocol IU configuration page with the “General Tab”
clicked.
Note
The Synchronous Multi-Protocol IU will support RS-422/530, X.21 or V.35 interface protocols,
therefore the protocol desired should be set in the “General Tab” before proceeding to set each
ports configuration. The other Interface units do not have a choice of protocols; therefore there
is no General Tab to configure on the configuration side of the dialog.
Typically configuration settings are entered on the left side of the dialog box while status is
displayed on the right.
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Shown below is the configuration dialog for the Synchronous Multi-Protocol, Four-Port Data
Interface with the “General Tab” clicked in both the Configuration and Status dialogs.
Clicking the
loopback tab will
bring up the
loopback dialog
FIRST, select the
interface protocol:
either RS-422/530,
X.21, V.35 or NOT
USED
Loopback can be set to
None, Remote or Local
for selective ports
SECOND, select this
tab to set the
Bandwidth for each port
(see note 1 and the
following page)
By clicking this tab user
information can be entered
to a maximum of 250
characters
Red indicates a
master clock
problem
Typically the configuration
section is on the left . The
right side of the screen
Red indicates a timeslot
shows the status of the
problem between ports 1 and 2.
interface
Phase Lock
Loop status:
either Lock or
Failed
Clicking the tab will
indicate whether the IU is
in major or minor alarm
After reading a newly
configured IU, click to make the
settings the same as the values
read from the field unit
Note 1. Each of the two ports bandwidth can be set, see the following page for a full
explanation of the Bandwidth feature.
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The dialog below simplifies the bandwidth allocation process. By clicking the Bandwidth tab,
the following dialog box is displayed. Once bandwidth is allocated for a specific port that port
is enabled, if no bandwidth is allocated then the port is not enabled. There is a maximum
combined data rate of 1920 kbps (30 timeslots).
For port configuration
and status indication see
the following page
Sets the number of timeslots used for this port.
The selected number of timeslots will reduce the
available bandwidth for the other port in the
Synchronous Multi-protocol Interface Unit
Note, as timeslots
are allocated the
number used and
the number
remaining will be
displayed
The data rate is
displayed, in this
example for 6-timeslots
Bandwidth slider, will
indicate the
bandwidth usage,
user adjustable
Check for 56 kbps, the
default is 64 kbps for one
timeslot
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The following gives configuration options for each port. Clicking the Port Tab will display the
following configuration dialog.
Click to initiate
Handshake Delay
Green indicates data transfer
on the port, if no activity
Select the Interface Mode,
indicator will be gray
either DCE or DTE
Sets the polarity for these
functions to either
"Normal or "Inverted"
Orange indicates that loopback
mode is active. When grey
loopback is not active
Will show the baud rate when
connected to an eXmux, shows
"Invalid" when not connected
When red, send and
Indicates the
receive clock timing is not number of timeslots
present (DTE mode only) in use on this port
Remember to configure the second Interface Unit (Interface 2 in this example), if the ports are
required for communication.
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7.7.2 G.703
Shown below is the configuration dialog for the G.703, Four-Port Data Interface. This interface
allows the enabling of Octet Timing.
Checking the port tab
will bring up various
status situations for
that port.
Green indicates data
transfer on the port, if no
activity indicator will be gray
Indicates lock status between
local system timing and
receiver interface
Indicates octet timing problem
(if enabled)
Loss of G.703 signal
Select which ports are to be
used - then enable that port
Set loopback for the
port to None, Local
or Remote
Check to select
Octet Timing
Sets the Polarity of the RX
and TX data, either Normal
or Inverted
Red indicates a loss of
clock synchronization
The remaining ports are configured as required.
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7.7.3 C37.94 Short Haul Fiber (Single and Multimode)
Shown below is the configuration dialog for the C37.94, Four-Port Data Interface.
Checking the port tab will
bring up various status
situations for that port
Indicates a Timeslot
problem between the
given ports
Green indicates data transfer on the
port, if no activity indicator will be grey.
Indicates lock status between local
system timing and receiver interface
Indicates receiver loss of sync. (LOS)
Indicates status of remote C37.94
receiver connected to local port
Select this tab FIRST to set the
number of timeslots used for each port
(see note 1 and the following page.)
Single Mode Fiber will be designated
C37.94S(4 Port C37.94 Sync)
Select the Port Tab to
set other parameters
for that port.
Sets the Polarity of the RX
and TX data, either Normal
or Inverted
Sets the Loopback Mode for testing,
either None, Remote or Local
After reading a newly configured IU, click
to make the settings the same as the
values read from the field unit
System Master Alarm
Clock Alarm
Note: Each of the four ports bandwidth can be set, see the following for a full explanation of
the Bandwidth feature.
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Click the Bandwidth tab to display the following dialog box. Once bandwidth is allocated for a
specific port that port is enabled; if no bandwidth is allocated then the port is not enabled.
There is a maximum combined data rate of 1920 kbps (30 timeslots).
Note, as timeslots are
allocated the number used
and the number remaining
will be displayed
Sets the number of timeslots used for this port.
The selected number of timeslots will reduce
the available bandwidth for the other three
ports in the C37.94 Interface Unit.
Bandwidth slider, will
indicate the banwidth
usage,user adjustable
No timeslots are allocated
for Port 4, therefore Port 4
is NOT enabled
Data rate is
displayed, in this
example for
3-timeslots
Note:
Restrictions for use of the C37.94 Interface Unit in Slot 7.
When the C37.94 Interface Unit is installed in Slot 7, ports 1 and 2 are limited to 6 time-slots
each and port 3 is limited to 12 time-slots. Port 4 cannot be used.
7.7.4 T1/E1 Interface Unit and Built in T1/E1 Port Configuration
Shown below is the dialog for the customer T1/E1 Interface Unit; there is also a built in T1/E1
port on the rear of the eXmux that utilizes the same dialog. The T1/E1 Interface Unit and the
built-in T1/E1 port offer the same functionality, allowing for the connection of external T1/E1
equipment. Additionally the built-in T1/E1 port can function as a source for external timing
used by the eXmux node. See section 7.4 for System Configuration. General Parameters and
T1/E1 parameters can be set by the user. Shown below is the configuration dialog for the
T1/E1 Interface Unit with the General Tab selected.
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Check to enable
the T1/E1 port
For information on this tab
see the following page
For information
on this tab see
below
Check to enable DS0 Grooming or
Pass Through for this eXmux chassis
See Note 3
See Note 4
Set the Framer type
to E1 or T1
See Note 2.
Reset Counters if
required
Sets the Loopback
mode to either:
Local or Remote.
See Note 1.
Set the clock TX
source:
Synchronous,
Asynchronous,
Internal Oscillator.
See Note 5.
T1/E1 Tab
See Note 6. for
additional
setting details
Set the T1 frame
mode to SF or ESF
Set the T1 zero code
to AMI or B8ZS
Set the E1
frame mode to
CCS or CAS
Set the E1 zero code
to AMI or HDB3
Enable E1 CRC4 Frame Formatting
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Clicking these
buttons will allow
timeslots to be
assigned as shown
below
Enables Robbed Bit
Signaling (RBS) for the
corresponding time slot
See Note 7.
Click "Return" to go
back to the dialog
above
Note 1.
Loopback:
 Local – Loops the local incoming T1/E1 signal at the port back to the output at that port.
 Remote – Loops the T1/E1 stream arriving from the remote eXmux (far end) back to the
far end.
Note 2.
Threshold of T1/E1 framer: For minor alarms: all the error counters are set for 10 in one
second. That is 10 multiframes out of sync, 10 CRC failures, or 10 bipolar violations. If using
the framer as a timing source, the eXmux does not switch timing source for these minor
alarms. The eXmux switches for a framer major alarm (loss of sync, which is set to 2 out of 6
frame bits in error).
Note 3.
Port T1/E1 Mode: In E1 mode there are 32 timeslots operating at 2.048 MHz. In T1 mode
there are 24 timeslots operating at 1.544 MHz.
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Note 4.
Port T1/E1 Mode: Each T1/E1 Interface Unit can be configured to accept DS0 Grooming or
Pass Thru mode. Each T1/E1 IU must have “Grooming” selected first if mapping between
individual or consecutive timeslots is required.
 Pass Thru Mode allows transmission of a complete T1/E1 stream, using any transmit
timing method. See Note 5. for details on clock selection
 The Grooming Mode offers the capability of mapping timeslots; however, in that mode
the interface must have the “System Clock” selected (See Note 5). “Through Clock” or
“Internal Clock” timing is not possible. DS0 Grooming is effective with VNMS version
2.0.0 or higher.
 The Grooming Mode must not be used for the transmission of a complete T1/E1 stream.
The operation of the grooming engine, even with all timeslots enabled, could modify
timing or signaling relationships between timeslots and possibly adversely affect the
contents of the complete T1/E1 stream. Only the Pass Thru mode is guaranteed to
transmit a full-bandwidth payload without any modifications.
Note 5.
Counters: This dialog box will display a number of T1/E1 performance counters such as
Line/Path Code Violations, Multi Frames that are out of sync and accumulated Line/Path Code
Violations. Errored Seconds (the number of seconds since the last counter reset) are also
shown.
Note 6.
TX Clock Source:
This is the timing source used by the framer to generate the T1/E1 data stream outputted by the
eXmux unit. Below is a description of each setting.
 System Clock: Checking this setting selects the common clock used by other
interface modules within the same eXmux chassis. (The system clock is configured
in Section 7.4.2). The system clock may not necessarily be related to the timing of
the T1/E1 strea m coming from the far end; this selection should be used only at one
point throughout the T1/E1 link as a source of timing for the whole link.
Note: System Clock is the only valid selection for Groomed Mode.
 Through Clock: Checking this setting selects a clock acquired from the other end
of the link over a TDM over IP connection. This is equivalent to using a clock
embedded in the T1/E1 stream entering the eXmux unit on the other side of the link.
 Internal Clock: Checking this setting selects an oscillator inside the eXmux chassis
which is independent of the system clock. The internal clock selection should only
be used at one point throughout the whole T1/E1 link as a source of timing for the
whole link.
It is recommended that the complete, non-groomed (i.e. using Pass-Thru) T1/E1 link have only
one source of timing. That source of timing could be one of the eXmux units set to “System
Clock” or “Internal Clock,” or it could be terminal equipment in internal timing mode. Other
T1/E1 eXmux units should be set to “Through Clock” for that T1/E1 stream and other terminal
equipment should use loop/through timing.
In eXmux nodes with multiple T1/E1 interface modules, the T1/E1 streams are independent.
Timing selection for one unit has no relation to the other units.
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Clock Mapping for T1/E1 Interface Units
eXmux
RX Clock
To Far
End
From Far
End
T1/E1 In
RX Data
Ethernet
Switch
TDM
over IP
T1/E1 IU
TX Data
Through Clock
*System
Clock
T1/E1 Out
TX Clock
MUX
**Internal
Clock (Oscillator)
* System Clock distributed to all IU's, source selected by chassis configuration
** Internal Clock independent from system clock
Note: Only System Clock selection is valid for the Groomed Mode in the T1/E1 I.U.
Figure 6-4. Clock Selection
Note 7. T1/E1 Tab:
 E1 Frame Mode: Can set timeslot 16 for signaling bits (CAS) or as another data
channel (CCS).
 T1 Frame Mode: The SF setting is a super-frame consisting of 12 frames. ESF is
an extended super-frame consisting of 24 frames with CRC6 error checking. FDL is
not supported.
 E1/T1 Zero Code: Can be set to AMI or HDB3 in E1 and AMI or B8ZS in T1
mode.
 E1 CRC4 Enable: Will enable CRC4 framing in E1 mode. Failures in CRC4 error
checking cause path code violations.
Note 8.
RBS Signaling: Only enable RBS for those timeslots that actually require signaling. The
insertion of signaling bits will affect the performance of the channels that require all payload
bits to be transmitted, such as non-voice data channels.
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7.7.5 Asynchronous Interface Configurations (RS-232)
Shown below is the configuration dialog for the Asynchronous, Eight-Port Data Interface.
Checking the port tab
will bring up various
status situations for
that port
Green indicates data transfer
on the port, if no activity
indicator will be gray
Green indicates V.110
Framer is functioning, grey
indicates no activity
See note 1.
V.110 Framer alarm is active
Sets the number of bits
per character, including
start, data, parity and
stop bits. 9, 10 and 11
can be set with various
configurations. See note
2. on page 46
Clicking this tab allows
configuration information
to be entered to a
maximum of 250
characters
Select which ports are
to be used - then
enable that port
Selects whether
or not the DTR
(Data Terminal
Ready) input pin
should be used to
initiate the
transmit framing
pattern
Selects whether or not the
RTS (Request to Send) input
pin should be used to initiate
data transfer
Used to set the Asynchronous baud rate of
Sets the Loopback mode for
System Master Clock
the port. Available options are: 38400,
testing. the options are:
problem
19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200, 600
None, Local and Remote
Note 1. CD (Carrier Detect ) is driven active when the IU is receiving a valid V.110 frame
from the TDM.
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7.7.6 Asynchronous RS-485 Interface Unit
Shown below is the configuration dialog for the Asynchronous, Four-Port RS-485 Data
Interface.
Checking the port tab
Green indicates data transfer on the
will bring up various
status situations for port, if no activity indicator will be gray
that port
Green indicates V.110 Framer is
functioning, grey indicates no activity
See note 1.
V.110 Framer alarm is active
Used to set the Asynchronous
baud rate of the port. Available
options are: 38400, 19200, 9600,
4800, 2400, 1200, 600
Clicking this tab allows
configuration information to
be entered to a maximum of
250 characters
Select which
ports are to be
used - then
enable that port
Select 2 or 4wire operation
Check to enable
termination resistance
for TX-input
Check to enable
termination
resistance for RXoutput
Check to enable
data inversion for
RX data
Sets the Loopback mode for
testing. the options are:
None, Local and Remote
Sets the number of bits per character, including
start, data, parity and stop bits. 9, 10 and 11 can
be set with various configurations.
See note 2
System Master
Clock problem
Note 1. CD (Carrier Detect ) is driven active when the IU is receiving a valid V.110 frame from
the TDM.
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Note 2. An explanation of character length settings is shown below:
S - 7 - 2 : 11
Parity
Data Stop
Bits Bits
Character
Length
eXmux
Character
Length
Options
Data Bits
Parity
(none = 0 bits,
all others = 1 bit)
Start bits
Stop Bits
Character length
N-7-1:9
7
None
1
1
9
E-7-1:10
7
Even
1
1
10
O-7-1:10
7
Odd
1
1
10
M-7-1:10
7
Mark
1
1
10
S-7-1:10
7
Space
1
1
10
N-7-2:10
7
None
1
2
10
E-7-2:11
7
Even
1
2
11
O-7-2:11
7
Odd
1
2
11
M-7-2:11
7
Mark
1
2
11
S-7-2-11
7
Space
1
2
11
N-8-1:10
8
None
1
1
10
E-8-1:11
8
Even
1
1
11
O-8-1:11
8
Odd
1
1
11
M-8-1:11
8
Mark
1
1
11
S-8-1:11
8
Space
1
1
11
N-8-2:11
8
None
1
2
11
When programming the Async. IU or the RS-485 IU for any SEL Mirrored Bit Relay, the
Character Length must be set to “9”.
7.8 Serial Server Interface Unit Configuration
The RFL Serial Server Interface Unit is configured using VNMS software, however because
there is no TDM over IP conversion the configuration differs slightly from other Interface
Units.
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DTE
Low Speed
RS-232
SSRV
Low Speed
RS-232
DCE
DCE
GE
High Speed Ethernet
GE
eXmux
SSRV
DTE
IED
eXmux
Handshaking*
and flow control
Handshaking*
and flow control
*Will control data flow throughout the link.
Not applicable when the DNP protocol is used
Note. Serial Server below 4.0 is not compatible with VNMS 4.2 and above for point-to-point
configuration.
The graphical representation of the IU is shown below; double click within the IU to configure.
For Port Mapping see Section 7.8.3
Double click to configure
the interface
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The first Serial Server dialog box to display will have the General Tab active. Port
configuration is done on the left of the screen while the ports status is displayed on the right.
Configuration
section
Port tabs
Port tabs
Status
section
External IP address,
Netmask for the External IP,
and default Gateway used
to reach this Serial Server
Module. Necessary for
performing upgrades and
troubleshooting
Serial Server
address override
See Note 1.
Check to restart the
Serial Server
Module
See Note 2.
Note 1.
Typically the IP address is dynamically allocated in the System Configuration section. See 7.4
Auto IP tab.
If the IP address is dynamically set (default) the box is unchecked. Check this box to set the
status to Static and override the above, and then enter the required IP address.
CAUTION
Ensure that the IP address entered is outside the range of addresses specified in the System
Configuration section.
Note 2.
Checking this box will restart the Serial Server Processor. Use only if newly configured Serial
Server links do not initialize; normally not required.
CAUTION
Checking this box may cause loss of data on established links.
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7.8.1 Port Configurations
Clicking the SSrv P1 tab will display the following dialog box. Each port has clickable options
for port parameters, interface, IP information, and connection type. The configuration dialogs
are described on the following pages, beginning with the dialog below. Note, for multipoint
configurations these settings can be done via the Multipoint Group Configuration (See 7.8.3)
Unique name to allow access
to each Serial Server Port
Check to
enable this
port
Click to set port parameters
1 such as baud rate and RS-232
handshaking
2
3
Click to set interface options
such as RS-232, RS-485 or
RS-485 termination.
Loopback is also set here.
Click to set IP port address
information
4 Click to set port connection
types such as PC-Client,
also sets the port role such
as master or remote. RSA
Public Key encryption and
DNP3 is also entered here.
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7.8.1.1 Serial
Server, Port Parameters (1)
Check to select
global settings
See Note 1.
Sets the baud rate for the port,
between 0.3 and 38.4Kbps
Sets the data bit for the port,
between 5 and 9
Sets parity for the port to
either none, even or odd
Sets the stop bit to either 1 or
2 for the port
Sets handshaking mode to
either None, RTS/CTS or
XON/XOFF
Check to support
DSR output
See Note 2.
Click to return to the previous
dialog, common for all Serial
Server dialogs in this section
Note 1.
If “Global Settings” is checked for this port the remaining settings will be grayed out.
Note 2.
Will enable pin 6 for DSR output. Checking this box will not enable handshaking.
Enabling pin 6 will supply negative voltage (up to -9.8 Vdc), while disabling pin 6 supplies
positive voltage (up to +9.8 Vdc). All Serial Server output pins supply no current when the port
is disabled and may not supply any signal until the port is configured for point to point,
multipoint, or PC Client communications.
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Serial Server, Port Interface
Set to RS-232 or RS-485
interface
See Note 1.
Enables termination on the
RS-485 TX and RX wire
Loopback Mode: Set to
either none, local or remote
See Note 2.
Note 1.
If RS-232 is selected “RS-485 Termination” is grayed out.
Note 2.
Local: Loops the customer IED data back to itself.
Remote: Loops the far end customer IED data back to itself.
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7.8.1.2 Serial
Server, Port IP (3)
The ports IP address can be
configured by the user (FORCED)
or can be assigned (AUTO)
Network mask for the ports IP
subnet. If the IP assignment type
is AUTO it will be the netmask
configured at the node level for all
the Serial Server modules
Port IP information
assigned by the system
Check to override the
automatic assignment of
IP address information
See Note 1.
Default gateway for the ports IP
subnet. If the IP assignment type
is AUTO then it will be the
gateway configured at the node
level for all Serial Server modules
Note 1.
Typically the IP address is dynamically allocated in the System Configuration section.
See 7.4 Auto IP tab. If the IP address is dynamically set (default) the box is unchecked and
“Dynamic” is displayed. Check this box to set the status to “Static” and override the above, and
then enter the required IP address, Netmask and Gateway.
CAUTION
Ensure that the IP address entered is outside the range of addresses specified in the System
Configuration section.
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7.8.1.3 Serial
Server, Port Connections (4)
This dialog box sets the role for the port.
PC Client: Check to reserve this port for PC-Client
connections. See 7.8.1.5 for PC Client setup
Client Security Level
selection
See Note 1.
RSA Public Key
See Note 2.
Role: For multipoint this can
be either Master or Remote.
For PC - Client and DNP3
applications this MUST be set
to Server
See Note 3.
Click to enable
DNP3 Server
connection
IP address selection for
DNP3 transfer mode
See the following
page
Only used in multipoint
applications to resolve a
multicast address to which
this port belongs
Note 1.
In Telnet or Raw Socket mode the PC Client sends unencrypted data, therefore this box and the
Public Key box below are grayed out. In SSH mode the data is encrypted at all times.
Note2.
RSA Public Key of the SSH client on the PC that will be using a secured connection to the
Serial Server port using PC-Client mode. Contact your system administrator for RSA key
assignment, once assigned cut and paste the Public Key here.
Note 3. Role Selection
None – No port is selected.
Master – In multipoint applications select if this is a Master port.
Remote – In multipoint applications select if this is a Remote port.
Server – In PC – Client applications this port will be the Server and should always be set to
Server when DNP3 is selected.
In PC – Client mode, any PC connected to the network can be connected remotely to a Serial
Server port. Point to point mode connects one Serial Server port to another Serial Server port.
Currently for each multipoint group, masters and remotes cannot be both connected to the same
Serial Server module. Installations requiring co-located masters and remotes must use different
Serial Server modules in the same eXmux chassis. the terminal software should be configured
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for telnet or SSH, and configured for the port's IP address. The TCP port should be configured
for "3500" + (port number) i.e. "35001" for port 1.
7.8.1.4 DNP3
Configuration
When the Serial Server communicates with a DNP3 Master Computer, the protocol used and
Master Address of the computer must be set. Up to three DNP3 computers can be supported. A
serial server port can provide an IP to RS-485 interface for remote units. Up to three masters
can be specified.
Sets the transmission link
to either TCP/IP or UDP/IP
Sets the IP address of the
DNP3 Master Computer, up to
3-Master Computers can be
supported
Sets the IP address port
number of the Master
Computer
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7.8.1.5 Serial
Server PC Client Setup
1. On the computer, which is being used to access any SSRV port in PC client mode, open
"My Computer" (Windows Explorer) and go to the "C" drive. Create a new directory
called "pcc" in the "C:\" root directory.
1
2. Open another "My Computer" window, and navigate to the "Program Files\eXmux 3500
Visual NMS\pcc_tunnel" directory (for Windows 7 or higher, this would be "Program
Files (x86)\eXmux 3500 Visual NMS\pcc_tunnel".
2
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Note: This setup is run using an application named “Putty”. There are several other
terminal applications available that can be used. PuTTY is an SSH and telnet client,
developed originally by Simon Tatham for the Windows platform. PuTTY is open
source software that is available with source code and is developed and supported by a
group of volunteers.
3. Copy the "plink.exe", "putty.exe", "puttygen.exe", and "tunnel.bat" files into "c:\pcc"
directory.
3
4. From the "C:\pcc" directory, run "puttygen.exe" application.
4
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Note 1: The “puttygen” executable can also be double clicked.
Note 2: Per the application's instructions, you will have to randomly move the cursor over the
screen, in order to finish.
5. In the "Putty Key Generator" application, go to the "Parameters" section and select
"SSH-2 RSA", for the type of key. Enter in "1024" for the number of bits.
6. Click the "Generate" button. After a couple of minutes the key generation is completed
7. In the "Putty key generator" application, click the "Save private key" button. Save the
private key as "C:\pcc\Px_key.ppk", where "x" is the port number.
6
5
7
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8. In VNMS, open the Card View for the selected Serial Server. Open the tab for the
selected port, and click on the port connection button.
8
9. Enable the port for PC Client, set PCC Mode for "SSH".
10. In the "Putty Key Generator" application, right-click on the Public key displayed in the
Key window and click on "select all", then right-click on the selected text and select
"copy". In VNMS, click on the "PCC Pub Key" text box and type "Ctrl + v" (paste).
11. Change the port role to "Server".
12. Finally click the "Write" button.
9
10
12
11
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13. From the start menu (make sure that the “Run” menu option is enabled).
13
14. Now run the "tunnel.bat" application from "C:\pcc" directory with the following
parameters:
tunnel.bat <key file name> <IP address of SSRV port configured for PC Client
mode> <SSRV port number>
Example: " C:\pcc\tunnel.bat P3_key.ppk 10.2.70.203 3"
14
Note: If the "tunnel.bat" application is executed for the first time, it may ask if the
finger print for the server is OK or to store the settings, Press "y" to declare it as OK.
15. Run the "putty.exe" application, select connection type as "Telnet" and put in Host
Name as "localhost".
16. Enter port as "35000" – (SSRV port number) i.e. "34997" for port 3).
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17. Click the "Open" button, to securely connect to the SSRV port.
16
15
17
Note: If you want to connect to a PC client port on another PC, perform steps 1, 2, and 3 on the
other PC, install a copy the key files to the "C:\pcc" directory, then run steps 10, 11, and 12.
7.8.2 Serial Server, Status
Status indicators will show link and alarm status for each port connection. The Serial Server
follows the normal VNMS status and alarm convention.
Alarm Conditions
Red
Orange
Major Alarm.
Minor Alarm.
Grey
Normal or No Activity.
Data Transfer on a Port
Green
Data Transfer.
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No Activity.
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Checking the “SSrvP1S” tab will bring up the dialog shown below. The following pages show
the additional tabs and buttons 1 thru 4. The figure shows Port 1; information for ports 2
through 4 are the same.
1
Indicates whether the port is enabled, normally
follows the port enabled setting. However, this
status may indicate disabled even when the
port is enabled if an invalid setting is detected
or a local hardware failure has occurred
2
Indicates the active
port connection type
3
4
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7.8.2.1 Serial
Server Status General Tab (1)
The following dialog will give the revision and version levels of the ECB and software installed
in the Serial Server module.
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7.8.2.2 Serial
Server Alarm Status (2)
The following dialog will indicate alarm status in the Serial Server module.
Hardware Failure
Examples of Minor Alarms are:
Link alarm or general IP alarm
FPGA communication failure
(also major alarm)
This will indicate that a problem exists
with the IP address settings
(either port address or module address)
Certain VNMS settings require
that the Serial Server be
rebooted (also minor alarm)
Revision levels in the eXmux
and Serial Server are not
compatable (also major alarm)
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7.8.2.3 Serial
Server Port Alarms (3)
The following dialog will show alarms status for Serial Server ports.
Port link connection
alarm
See caution below
Port IP address
alarm
Indicates whether
local or remote
loopback is active
}
Clicking this button
will display alarm
status for port 1
when the DNP3
agent is enabled
Indicates alarm
status of serial
buffer overrun
CAUTION
The Serial Server link status alarm indicates point-to-point network connectivity issues.
However, network connection problems are not detected by the multipoint protocol or when
using PC-Client.
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7.8.2.4 Serial
Server Port Activity (4)
The following dialog will show TX/RX activity and signal status on the Serial Server ports.
Indicates RX data
(output from the
eXmux port) and TX
data (input to the
eXmux port) activity
}
}
Indicates the status
of the RTS and
CTS signals on the
port
7.8.3 Serial Server Port Connections
When connecting between ports that use the Serial Server Interface Unit, connections in the
“Mapping View” are only shown graphically for point to point connections, point to multipoint
and multipoint to multipoint can only be viewed in tabular form. It should also be noted that in
multipoint applications handshaking is not possible. To configure ports for point to point
applications select “Mapping View” from the “Network” drop-down menu as shown below and
proceed to map the ports as described in Section 7.12.
Note. Serial Server below 4.0 is not compatible with VNMS 4.2 and above for point-to-point
configuration.
Select "Mapping View" for
point to point applications
only and map as described
in Section 6.12
For all other Serial Server applications select “Serial Server Multipoint Configuration” from the
drop-down menu.
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Select "Serial Server Multipoint
Configuration" for all other
Serial Server applications and
proceed as shown below
The following dialog box has options for global Port setting in Multipoint Serial Server
applications. Ports can also be added to or removed from Multipoint Groups. Once all the
settings are complete click “Write this Group” to write the changes to the network.
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
3
11
12
10
“Multipoint Groups” should be set first followed by “Group Global Port Settings”; setting
details are listed below:
Multipoint Group: In this section you can add a Multipoint Group.
1. Group ID #: An existing group can be selected or a new group added. The “-“ are groups
that may be added to the multipoint group.
2. Add Group: Once the new group ID number is written in the box above, click to add the
group. The group must have ports attached to be saved.
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If you want to globally set Serial Server port parameters, set them now as described below.
*
Group Global Port Settings: In this section global communication settings can be configured
for the listed Multipoint groups.
3. Baud Rate, Data Bits, Parity and Stop Bits: Select the required values from the drop-down
menus, handshaking cannot be set in multipoint applications.
Multipoint Group Ports Listing: In this section you can add or remove a Serial Server port.
To add a port select node, then select its IU slot and finally select the port.
4. Node: A drop-down listing of nodes that have available Serial Server ports.
5. IU Slot: A drop-down listing of IU Slots for the previously selected node which have
available slots.
6. Port #: A drop-down listing of available ports based on the previously selected node and IU
slots.
7. Add Port: Click to add the previously selected port as either “Master” or “Remote.”
8. Master Ports: Listed here are all the “Master Ports” within the selected group or available
ports if no group is selected, the status of the port is as follows:
Forced Offline
The node has been “Forced Offline” in the main VNMS window.
Offline
The port cannot be contacted.
OK
Fully configured.
Uncfgd
Actual port program settings do not match VNMS file settings.
Conflict
Actual port settings are such that the port may not operate correctly
in the selected group.
9. Remove Selected Master Ports : Click to remove the selected master ports.
10. Remote Ports: Listed here are all the “Remote Ports” within the selected group or available
ports if no group is selected, the status of the port is as follows:
Forced Offline
The node has been “Forced Offline” in the main VNMS window.
Offline
The port cannot be contacted.
OK
Fully configured.
Uncfgd
Actual port program settings do not match VNMS file settings.
Conflict
Actual port settings are such that the port may not operate correctly
in the selected group.
11. Remove Selected Remote Ports: Click to remove the selected remote ports.
12. Write this Group: Once all the settings have been assigned click “Write this Group” to
save the displayed group configuration.
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NOTE
The Serial Server Circuits MUST be configured and mapped completely before testing a local
or remote Serial Server loopback.
7.8.3.1 Mouse
Over a Serial Server Port
When using the Serial Server Interface Unit in the eXmux sliding the cursor over a mapped port
in the node view will display the following information. This differs from other IU’s described
in Section 6.11.
Mouse Over a Serial Server mapped port
(point to point applications)
Mouse Over a Serial Server mapped port
(multipoint applications)
Multipoint
Group #: 3
Role: Master
7.8.3.2 Un-Mapping
a Serial Server Port (Point to Point Only)
When in mapping view a Serial Server port (point to point only) may be removed from your
network. Right click on the port that is to be un-mapped and select “Delete this Connection” as
shown below.
For removing multipoint ports please refer to Section 7.8.3.
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7.9 TPS System Configuration
The TPS System is configured through VNMS, all setting, status and SOE recovery is through
this software. Communication is a single 64kb/s DSO. Interface Units can be mapped to
another eXmux or any DSO on a T1/E1 output for connection to an IMUX MTS unit. The IU
has its own IP address for downloading new system code and for network based real time clock
recovery. The system will accept NTP/SNTP or IEEE 1588 network time signals and will
maintain 1500 SOE records, each time stamped with 1ms accuracy.
The VNMS dialog boxes in the TPS System follow the same graphical conventions as other
Interface Units in the eXmux. Mapping to an IMUX MTS unit is achieved by utilizing the
Grooming feature in VNMS.
A graphical representation of the IU is shown below.
Double click to configure the
interface
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The first TPS System dialog box to display will have the General Tab active. Port Function and
Clock configuration is done on the left of the screen while alarm and status information is
displayed on the right.
Configuration section
Status section
Port tabs
Port tabs
See the following
page
External IP address,
Netmask for the External
IP, and default Gateway
used to reach this TPS IU
Module. Necessary for
performing upgrades and
troubleshooting
Triggers "Restart" of
the TPS Module
See Note 2.
When checked the TPS
SOE file will be cleared
Check to override automatic
assignment of an IP address
See Note 1.
Will indicate whether the configured
clock source is locked to the
network or free-running (unlocked)
Check to
display PTP
Statistics
Note 1.
Typically the IP address is dynamically allocated by the eXmux using values set in the “Auto
IP” tab in section of the System Configuration Section. This box should be checked to override
the automatic assignment of an IP address. The status is “Default” or “Dynamic” if the IP
address has been auto-assigned. The status will be “Static” if this box is checked and the user
enters the desired IP address.
CAUTION
Ensure that the IP address entered is outside the range of addresses specified in the System
Configuration section (auto-assigned IP addresses).
Note 2.
Checking this box will restart the TPS Module Processor. Use only if newly configured TPS
links do not initialize; normally not required.
CAUTION
Checking this box may cause loss of data on established links.
7.9.1 Clock Settings
There are two clock settings available for the TPS Interface Unit: When NTP (Network Time
Protocol) is selected the NTP client will use the same settings as the eXmux chassis.
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_System_Dialogs_– Section 7.4.2.3 PTP (Precision Time Protocol) conforms to IEEE 1588 V2
2008 and is a message based protocol that specifies how real-time clocks in a distributed system
synchronize with each other. PTP creates master-slave hierarchy to synchronize the clocks in
the system.
Selects either NTP
or PTP
When PTP is selected the user
can select either an "end to
end" or peer to peer setting to
match your PTP Master Clock
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7.9.2 Port Function Configuration
Four Functions are supported on both ports. Clicking the TPS P1 tab will display the following
dialog box where the initial setup for the port and port functions 1 through 4 can be selected.
The configuration dialogs are described on the next page.
Unique name to allow access
to either TPS IU Port
Check to
enable
this port
1
2
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Click for the TPS setup for
port 1, including, TX/RX
address, alarm timer, mode,
ping-pong and auxiliary
function settings
Click to set the parameters
for functions 1 through 4 on
port 1. Settings include:
Input/output trip delay,
comms loss delay, input/
output polarity and keying
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7.9.2.1 Port
Setup (1)
Clicking the “Port 1 Port Setup” box will display the following dialog. Note that the “TPS P1”
tab changes to “TPSP1_Setup”, clicking “Return will bring the user back to the previous screen.
Sets the TX/RX address for the port
See Note 1.
When an alarm exists, this setting will
specify the length of time the alarm
can exist before an alarm output is
generated
Sets the frequency of the ping-pong
(round trip delay test) in ms
Sets the upper limit of the pingpong (round trip delay test) in ms. If
the limit is exceeded an alarm is
generated
Sets the port mode to "Normal" or "DCB"
See Note 2.
Sets whether aux. input 1 will be ANDed,
ORed or non-functional (disabled) with
function input 1.
See Note 3.
Sets whether aux. input 2 will be ANDed,
ORed or non-functional (disabled) with
function input 2.
See Note 3.
Note 1. Valid Range of TPS Transmit and Receive Addresses.
The eXmux TPS system is designed to provide compatibility with all RFL TDM equipment. To
achieve this, only the addresses shown below are allowed:
Allowed TX and RX
Address Range for the
eXmux TPS
0-7
16-23
32-39
48-55
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Interoperability with RFL IMUX 2000 Multiplexers.
The eXmux TPS data format is compatible with RFL IMUX Transfer-Trip (MTS) Modules.
When properly groomed into a T1/E1 connection the teleprotection functions can be transmitted
between the eXmux TPS and the IMUX DS-TT (MTS) module.
For the purpose of determining compatible TX and RX Addresses, the eXmux TPS is
equivalent to the IMUX MTS module with Actel version 5 (SW2000TTTR5). Note 5 on page
22 of the DS-TT (MTS) Data Sheet provides more details on interfacing with various revisions
of the MTS Module.
Note 2.
Setting to DCB will enable Directional Comparison Blocking for this port using start and stop
inputs. In this mode the functionality of the TPS module is transformed into that of a single
function carrier system as shown below.
Inputs can be
inverted if
necessary
Input 1 (start)
TX Function 1
Input 2 (stop)
Output 1 (block)
RX Function 1
Output 2 (block)
Software settings will allow optional inversion of the start and stop inputs (Section 7.9.2.2).
The start input will cause function 1 trip to be sent if the stop input is not active. When function
1 is sent, the block outputs (outputs 1 and 2) are made active. If function 1 is received the
output also goes active.
Note 3.
ANDed:
The first 2-functions can be set to operate only if both of the two inputs (one normal and one of
the spare inputs) operates.
ORed:
The first 2-functions can be set to operate if either of the two inputs (one normal and one of the
spare inputs) operates.
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7.9.2.2 Function
Setup (2)
Clicking “Port 1 Function 1” will display the following dialog; settings for the remaining
port/function buttons will be the same.
Input activation (debounce) can be
delayed in 1ms increments up to
32ms
The closure of each output (pretrip)
can be delayed in 1ms increments
up to 32ms to enhance security
The closure of each output (trip
hold) can be held active in 1ms
increments up to 255ms after the
input is de-activated
Comms loss can be set to
"Release" or "Hold". Release will
open the output on Comms loss
while Hold will keep the output
closed if Comms is lost
The input and output polarity can be
optionally inverted
Either of the two extra inputs can be
programmed to disable trip inputs,
default is "Enable"
Either of the two extra inputs can be
programmed to disable trip outputs,
default is "Enable"
7.9.3 TPS System Status
Status indicators will show link and alarm status for each port connection. The TPS System
follows the normal VNMS status and alarm convention.
Alarm Conditions
Red
Orange
Major Alarm.
Minor Alarm.
Grey
Normal or No Activity.
Data Transfer on a Port
Green
Data Transfer.
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No Activity.
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Shown below is the Status side of the first dialog box with the “General” tab selected. This
screen will show various installed hardware and software revision levels. The following pages
show the dialogs for tabs marked 1 through 3.
Clicking this tab will show
whether major, minor or
hardware TPS alarms are active
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7.9.3.1 Port
Status (1)
Below is the Status Dialog with the “P1 Stat” tab clicked.
Will indicate whether the port is
enabled
See Note 1.
Will give the delay time in ms for
ping-pong (round trip delay test)
before an alarm is generated
Disable Switch status on I/O
module
Will show if major or minor
alarms are active on the port
Address test failure alarm
CRC check, failure is indicated
Alarm will be active if ping-pong
upper limit is exceeded (see
"Port 1 Ping Pong Value" above
Will indicate loss of connection
to the TPS I/O
Note 1.
Normally indicates whether the port is enabled, this will follow the port enable setting.
However, this status may indicate disabled even when the port is enabled if an invalid setting is
detected or a local hardware failure has occurred.
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7.9.3.2 Port
In Status (2)
Below is the Status Dialog with the “P1 In” tab clicked.
Function 1 and 2 are active. When
the the Auxiliary Inputs are not
being used, this will be the same as
the Function 1 or 2 input. When the
Auxiliary input is being used this will
be the resolved value.
Function 3 and 4 Input active
Auxiliary Input 1 and 2 are
active
7.9.3.3 Port
Out Status (3)
Below is the Status Dialog with the “P1 Out” tab clicked
Will indicate which
output functions are
active on the port
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7.9.4 Mapping for the TPS System
Section 7.12 of this manual gives instructions on mapping nodes. When mapping to an IMUX
TPS Module the “Grooming” feature in the eXmux VNMS may be utilized to map between any
TPS port and a DSO timeslot on the IMUX Transfer Trip Card, section 7.12.4.
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7.10 Telephone and Audio Interface Unit Configuration
7.10.1 FXO Two Wire (8-Port) configuration
The status of each port can be
displayed by clicking its tab
Indicates ON or OFF Hook
Indicates whether the 1kHz
test tone is active
Indicates whether
loopback is active
Select which ports are to be
used - then enable that port
Will indicate whether the
IU is in major or minor
alarm
Set the TX and RX
level in dBm
Red indicates a loss of master
clock synchronization
For functional testing, check
the required test(s)
The FXS Two Wire IU is configured in a similar manner, for details see the following.
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7.10.2 FXS Two Wire (4-Port) Configuration
Below is the FXS configuration page with “Port 1” and the General tab clicked.
Select which ports are to be
used - then enable that port
Select the TX
and RX
level in dBm
Red indicates a loss of clock
synchronization
Check to enable
Automatic Ring
Down (ARD)
Select the ring
voltage, Vtip to Vring
(40, 45, 53 or
63Vrms)
Select the Loop
Current, 20 or
41mA
Check to select
DC Offset if
required
The status of each port can be
displayed by clicking its tab
Indicates ON
or OFF Hook
Check to enable
TX Test Tone
Check to enable
RX Test Tone
Check if Loopback is
required
Vrms
Indicates whether
loopback is active
Indicates whether the
phone is in shutdown
mode caused by
protective circuitry
Indicates whether the
test tone is active
Table 6-4. Nominal Ringing Voltage, Vtip to Vring
Optional Vdc Offset
Frequency
Max REN @ ≤ 100ft (30 meters)
40
+30
20 Hz ± 1%
5
45
+20
20 Hz ± 1%
5
53
+10
20 Hz ± 1%
5
63
NA
20 Hz ± 1%
3.2
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7.10.3 Two Wire Audio (4-Port) Interface Configuration
Below is the Two Wire Audio configuration page with “Port 1” checked. The following page
gives details of General and Port Status indicators located on the right side of the dialog and not
shown here.
µ/A-Law,
See note 1
Check to enable the port
Set to the peak TX level,
which is the level coming
from the customer
equipment.
See note 2.
Sets the desired RX output level
to the customer equipment
Sets the type of signaling
interface for the port.
See note 3.
Check to enable
RX and TX test
tone
Check to select "Force Busy"
See note 6.
Selects the compatibility mode for
communications to an FXO or FXS
module at the far end.
See note 4.
Select either local or remote loopback as required
See note 5.
Note 1.
The default setting is A-Law for E1 systems, however if T1 is required check which ports need
to be enabled for μ-Law.
Note2.
Several manufacturers specify the output level of their equipment as an average level. The
setting MUST be the peak output level. Examples of equipment that specify an average output
level are multitone and modem devices, where there may be a difference of up to 10dB between
average and peak levels.
Note 3.
Check to select the signaling type, either Type I and III, Type II, Type V or none.
See Section 3.8.4.3 for details on “Signaling Types.”
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Note 4.
Compatibility modes are as follows:
Normal - for normal 2-wire operation.
FXS - to emulate an FXS and work with an FXO at the far end.
FXO - to emulate an FXO and work with an FXS at the far end. The FXS at the far end will
need to be in ARD (Automatic Ring Down) mode.
Note 5.
Loopback options are:
Local – loops the customer equipment data back to itself.
Remote – loops the data from the network back to the remote end.
Below is the Status Section of the 2-Wire dialog with the “General Tab” clicked
Click to show major and minor alarm
indicators for the IU
Important revision and
version information for the IU
Will indicate the absence of the
system master clock to the
interface unit
See Note 1.
Note 1.
A missing clock may be a symptom of a local hardware failure. If this occurs, the Interface
Unit will route its local clock to the TDM bus.
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Following is the Status dialog with Port 1 clicked.
Will indicate if M-Lead signal is
active from the customer
equipment towards the remote end
Will indicate if the E-Lead signal is
active from the remote end towards
the customer equipment
Indicates that the M-Lead signal to
the remote end has been forced into
an active state
Indicates that the 1 kHz test tone is
active in the TX path from the
customer equipment
Indicates that the 1 kHz test tone is
active in the RX path towards the
customer equipment
Indicates the current state of the
remote loopback
Indicates the current state of the
local loopback
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7.10.4 Four Wire (8-Port) Audio Interface Configuration
General Tab. The default encoding method is A-Law.
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Below is the Four Wire Audio configuration page with “Port 1” checked.
The status of each port can be
displayed by clicking its tab
Green indicates M-Lead signal active from
customer equipment to remote end
Green indicates E-Lead signal active from
customer equipment to remote end
Green indicates M-Lead signal forced active
Indicates whether the 1kHz
test tone is active
Indicates whether remote or
local loopback is active
Select which ports are to be
used - then enable that port
Select the TX and
RX level in dBm
Set the signaling
mode, either
Type - V
Type - II
Type - I & III
(see note 3)
Select s the compatibility
mode for communications
to an FXO or FXS module
at the far end
(see note 2)
Check to select RX
and TX Test Tone
Check to select "Force Busy"
(see note 1)
Select either local or
remote loopback if
required
Red indicates a loss of master
clock synchronization
Note 1. Checking “Force Busy” will force an off-hook condition for audio transmission.
Note 2.Compatibility modes are as follows:
Normal - for normal 4-wire operation.
FXS - to emulate an FXS and work with an FXO at the far end.
FXO - to emulate an FXO and work with an FXS at the far end. The FXS at the far end will
need to be in ARD (Automatic Ring Down) mode.
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Note 3. For details on “Signaling Types” see Section 3.8.4.3 Check for Type V, Type II or Type
I or III.
7.11 Ethernet Switch Configuration
In most cases the default settings for the Ethernet Switch will be used, the complex nature of
Ethernet Switch Configuration is covered in the next section of this manual. Although the
integrated Ethernet Switch FE ports in the eXmux may be configured with fiber ports, VNMS
will always display the Ethernet ports with RJ-45 connectors.
On the Network (GE) side, two ports of either Electrical or two ports of LC type fiber
connectors are factory configured and no further configuration is required.
Users can access the Ethernet ports for changing VLAN settings etc. Section 8 has Ethernet
setup.
Clicking the LAN ports will bring
up a configuration page
*
7.12 Interface Mapping
It is easy to map the Interface Units using VNMS. The software allows nodes to be linked
graphically right in the mapping view. Two nodes are displayed and can be mapped by simply
drawing lines between the ports that need to be linked. This information is then written to the
connected eXmux units. Note that it is recommended that the nodes be fully configured before
mapping.
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Actual Settings and File Settings:
The mapping views can be displayed as either “Actual Settings” or “File Settings.” When using
the mapping dialog, this is indicated in the top right corner of the dialog box as shown below.

Actual Settings – When “On-Line” actual settings are dynamic in nature and can be
changed and updated on the network at will.

File Settings – In this mode file settings can be entered and stored on the users PC
or laptop when “Off-Line” or written to the network when “On-Line.”
Convenient buttons at the bottom left of the dialog box allow the user to toggle between Actual
and File settings. Note that “File Settings” is the default.
*
Select either File or
Actual Settings
By clicking this button the File Settings
are replaced by the Actual Settings
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Following are step-for-step instructions for Interface Mapping in the “Actual Settings” mode.
1
From the pull-down menus select
"Network > Mapping View"
The following dialog box will allow the user to select two nodes that require mapping. All the
nodes that have been configured are listed in the pull-down menus, select the nodes to map.
2
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Both nodes are displayed in the dialog box, one above the other.
Right click on the port
number being connected
within the IU being
mapped and left click
"Map this port."
3
4
5
The port will have a
flashing grey box when
selected.
Shown below is an example of the mapping dialog for the 3500M/3501M. Nodes are mapped
in exactly the same way as the 3500/3501 non-modular eXmux, proceed to step 6 below.
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6
First node
Left click the port to be connected
inside the second node IU. A line
connects the ports and both ports
display a blue box
Second node
Once mapping additions or changes are made a confirmation box will appear, check as
appropriate in actual settings or after hitting write in file settings.
Check this box to
bypass confirmation
screen for additional
mapping
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Ports that are mapped to a node not shown in the mapping view will have a yellow box; double
click inside this box to bring the connected node to the mapping view (see below). Note that the
software will not allow illegal port connections. Sometimes the mapping view can become very
crowded with lines. A checkbox is provided at the bottom of the dialog box which can be unchecked to remove the lines from the view; the nodes listed are still mapped however,
remember to re-check this box before mapping additional nodes. Likewise the “Auto update”
checkbox can be un-checked to speed up mapping. Sliding the cursor over a port will indicate
mapping information as shown in the following.
Un-check to clear
"Mapping View" of lines
To speed up the mapping process
on multiple ports un-check this box,
the default setting is checked.
Yellow box indicates mapped to node not
shown in current mapping view, double click
inside box to bring to mapping view
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Below is an explanation of port border colors.
Color
Flashing Blue
Solid Blue
Solid Yellow
Violet
Table 6-5. Interface Port Border Color
Meaning
Port currently being mapped
Port mapped to node on screen
Port mapped to node not currently on screen
Connected to a port within the same node
7.12.1 Mouse Over Port
Sliding the cursor over a mapped port will display the following information.
Mouse Over a mapped port
The port number on the
other node
The Interface Unit type on the
other node
The Interface Unit location on
the other node
The name of the node that the
port is mapped to
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Sliding the cursor over an un-mapped port will bring up the following information.
Mouse Over an unmapped port
7.12.2 Un-Mapping a Port
When mapping between interface ports the term ‘Bundle” is used to describe the subset of a
DS1 (DS0’s). This is treated as an entity with its own signaling delta channel. Timeslots can
be associated with bundles in T1/E1 DS0 Grooming Mode; when in “DS0 Grooming” a
maximum of 16 bundles per Interface Unit can be used. Right click on the port that is to be unmapped and select “Delete this bundle” as shown below.
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The port will be un-mapped after writing. Selecting “Check for invalid bundles and
connections” will display the following screen if any invalid bundles are found.
Invalid bundles will be displayed with a choice of actions.
7.12.3 Bundle Settings and Status
The “Bundle settings and status” dialog provides an interface to adjust bundle settings, and
view bundle status, statistics and alarms. Select “Bundle settings and status” as shown below.
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The circuit latency and bandwidth requirements can be adjusted in the advanced tab settings to
meet the desired application requirements.
Est. delay:
Average delay required to accommodate
network Packet Delay Variations (PVD)
See Note 2.
1
2
3
4
5
Pertinent IU
information is
displayed here
Max. Jitter Buf:
Maximum delay allowed
before data is lost
See Note 2.
Frames Per Packet:
(FPP) changes
bandwidth and latency
requirements for this
circuit
See Note 4.
Redundancy Path:
Sets the redundant path to
“Path A”, “Path B” or both
See Note 1.
CAS Mode:
“Hardware CAS” must be selected for
voice circuits with signaling. “No CAS”
must be selected for FPP other than 16
See Note 3.
QoS Priority Override button:
When set for priority 0 through 7 will
override the default priority and allow
the user to adjust the QoS priority on a
per circuit (bundle) basis
Note 1.
This setting is only available when “Hitless Switching” is enabled. Select “Both” for hitless
switching. For a non-redundant circuit path select either “Path A” or “Path B.”
Note 2.
A Jitter Buffer will temporarily store arriving packets in order to minimize delay variations;
packets that arrive too late are discarded. It is possible to misconfigure a Jitter Buffer to be
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either too large or too small. Recommended jitter buffer delay should be 2 times the estimated
delay.
Note 3.
CAS Mode
When a TDM bundle is created between two points in the VNMS mapping page, the default
setting is “Hardware CAS” enabled. When “Hardware CAS” is enabled, CAS can only be
used if FPP is set to 16. Voice bundles with signaling and E1 bundles are the only type of
circuits where “HardwareCAS” is required. All other bundles can be set to “NoCAS” which
allows the user to modify FPP.
Note 4.
Frames per Packet Feature
Decreasing this value will decrease latency but will increase the bandwidth required.
Increasing this value will decrease the bandwidth but increase latency. For non-critical data the
FPP can be set as high as 256 to conserve bandwidth. For real-time mission-critical data the
FPP can be set as low as 3 to minimize latency.
Note: The range of FPP values is from 3 to 256.
Below is an example table that illustrates the relationship between FPP, latency and bandwidth,
the table also shows the correct cross referenced jitter buffer setting, measured using a
synchronous card for a single DS0.
Table 6-6. TDM over IP Bundle, Bandwidth and Latency
Inherent
interface
card
process
delay (ms)
Packet
delay
(ms)
3
4
8
1
1
1
0.375
0.5
1
1000
1000
1000
2000
2000
2000
2.375
2.5
4
1370
1030
530
16
32
64
128
256
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
8
16
32
2000
4000
15000
20000
35000
4000
8000
30000
40000
70000
5
9
24
37
68
270
170
120
100
80
Frames per
packet
Estimated
Jitter
Buffer
Delay (µs)
Max. Jitter
Buffer
Delay (µs)
Min. Back to
back latency
(ms)
IP bandwidth
requirements
per bundle
(kbps)
CAUTION
A bundle must be modified in the same way at both adjoining ends. FPP must have the same
value at each end.
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1. Status:
Identifier for the bundle
Number between 0-63
assigned to the bundle
An error condition that occurred
during the creation/deletion of
this bundle
State of the bundle
Alarm is raised if traffic stops over
bundle. Minimum Jitter Buffer level
of 127500 and maximum Jitter
Buffer level of 0 is an indication for
Comms failure
Minimum and maximum Jitter
Buffer levels in units of 500µs
2. TX Errors:
Alarm is ON because of a mismatch
in the start of a frame or multiframe
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3. RX Errors:
ON when packet is discarded due to a mismatch
between RX packet length and configuration
ON when packets are received with
Lbit modify indication (M-bit set)
ON when packets are received with
remote fail indication (R-bit-set)
ON when packets are received with
local fail indication (L-bit-set)
ON when packets are received with
incorrect sequence number and
could not be inserted into Jitter
Buffer due to lack of space
ON when packets are discarded
because they are duplicated or were
received too late to be inserted into
the Jitter Buffer
ON when underrun has occured in
Jitter Buffer
ON when overrun has occured in
Jitter Buffer
ON when bundle has recovered
from overrun
ON when Jitter
Buffer is reset
ON when bundle gets reset by the Jitter Buffer monitoring
mechanism, due to a problem in the delay mechanism
4. Statistics:
Various bundle
statistics are
displayed
5. Alarm: Will show the Major and Minor alarm status for the bundle.
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7.12.4 DS0 Grooming
When mapping between ports as described in Section 7.12, DS0 Grooming can be selected for
the T1/E1 Interface Unit; this is effective with VNMS software release 2.0.0 or higher.
It is possible to map an entire port or individual timeslots (DS0’s) when selecting a T1/E1 port
for mapping. The T1/E1 Interface Unit will support DS0 Grooming when configured in System
TX Clock Mode ONLY. When operating in E1 mode, the groomed T1/E1 port must be
configured for CAS Framing. DS0 Grooming will allow mapping between multiple
consecutive DS0’s and any IU port that is capable of supporting multiple DS0’s; for example
the Synchronous and C37.94 IU’s.
The configuration settings are accessed through the Interface Port Mapping Dialogs as shown
below.
Right click while the
cursor is over the port
being mapped to
access the DS0
Grooming menu. Then
select "Map DS0
(Grooming)."
Note 1:
T1/E1 Interface units should be fully configured before mapping.
Note 2:
When mapping using the built-in T1/E1 Framer or the T1/E1 IUs, the maximum number of
bundles that can created for each is 16.
Note 3:
Please note that if the eXmux unit is configured for Unicast mode, a maximum of 15 bundles
can be created for the built-in T1/E1 Framer or T1/E1 IUs. If the Framer or the T1/E1 IU is
selected as the “Unicast Timing Bundle Source”, a maximum of 16 bundles can be created for
that Framer or T1/E1 IU.
The T1/E1 interface that is built into the eXmux can also support DS0 Grooming, the dialogs
will be the same. The eXmux Motherboard in the units being mapped must be 109023-1, Rev 3
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or higher to support DS0 Grooming. To check the Motherboard hardware level select “Chassis
Settings and Status” from the “Node” drop-down menu. (See 7.4.1)
DS0 Grooming will allow:

Mapping between any interface units that use DS0 timeslots for their traffic. Interface
units that do not utilize DS0’s, such as the Serial Server Interface Unit, which directly
connects to the network, cannot provide DS0 Grooming.

Mapping between units in the same or in other nodes.

Mapping between any single DS0 and any other DS0 on the network – as well as
mapping between multiple consecutive DS0’s and any other set of consecutive DS0’s,
subject to the requirement that the quantity of DS0’s must match.
Exception: FXO Interface Units cannot be mapped to each other, since their payloads
are incompatible for connection.


As a special case of mapping, DS0 Grooming allows loopback of a single DS0.

Mapped interface units must use the system clock in order to be groomed. This is the
general configuration for most types of IU’s; at this time only T1/E1 interface units
allow other clock sources and thus must be selected for system clock.
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Below is the configuration for an IU that is configured for T1 with 24 DS0’s shown. If E1 is
selected 30 DS0’s will be available.
Once the DS0's have been selected and
written to the card, check to return to the
Port Mapping Screen
Node 500 shown with 4-timeslots (DS0's)
mapped to 4-ports on the Interface Unit in slot
6 in Node 200 below
Note:
In E1 - CAS mode, DS0 16 is reserved for signaling and cannot be used. CCS cannot be used
when Grooming is selected.
See Section 7.7.4 for T1/E1 Interface Unit configuration.
In the above example a built-in T1/E1 port has 4-DSO’s mapped to a second node’s FXS
Interface Unit located in slot 6.
Individual or multiple timeslots (DS0’s) can be selected; when selected they will have a
flashing blue border, once mapped they will show a solid blue border. DS0’s mapped to ports
not shown in the node view will have a solid yellow border, this follows the convention for port
mapping described in Section 7.12
CAUTION
In E1 mode, the Interface Unit must be configured for CAS Framing. While DS0
Grooming is employed CCS cannot be used, since DS0 16 is always reserved for
signaling by the grooming engine.
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7.12.4.1 Selecting
a Single DS0
Right click on a DS0 to select a single DS0; then select “Map this DS0.”
Multiple DS0’s
Right click on the starting DS0 (in this case DS0 1) and select “Map multiple DS0’s.” A dialog
will appear allowing the user to select the number of consecutive DS0’s, in the example below
4 are selected.
7.12.4.2 Selecting
When selecting multiple
DS0's they will be
highlighted in the dialog
Note
When selecting multiple DS0’s in E1 mode DS0 16 cannot be selected since the IU port is set
for CAS; therefore if DS0 14 is selected and the number of DS0’s is 4, DS0 14, 15, 17 and 18
will be selected.
7.13 Hitless Switching
7.13.1 Concept and Implementation:
When connected in a ring network topology, the eXmux has the ability to self-heal and recover
from a single network break without losing any TDM over IP traffic.
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CAUTION
Do not mix the two eXmux types in one Hitless Ring.
Hitless Ring networks must be either eXmux 3500 (MSTP) or eXmux 3501 (PVST) models.
The configuration process is the same for eXmux 3500 and eXmux 3501 but the protocols
prevent them working together in the same ring..
The TDM over IP engines in an eXmux unit can be configured such that they send all the TDM
traffic twice around an Ethernet ring topology. Two VLAN’s are created; copy 1 on VLAN ‘A’
and copy 2 on VLAN ‘B.’ MSTP is then used to construct MSTI’s (Multiple Spanning Tree
Instances in the 3500. In the 3501 series, PVST protocol is used to carry the VLAN-A traffic in
a clockwise direction around the ring and the VLAN-B traffic in an counter clockwise direction
around the ring.
Under normal operating conditions when there is no physical break in the network, the
destination TDM over IP engine will receive two copies of every packet. The TDM over IP
engine receives the packet that arrives first and discards the second packet. When there is a
single physical break in the ring the destination TDM over IP engine will receive only one copy
of the packet, either in the clockwise or counter clockwise direction.
CAUTION
Management VLAN MUST be programmed prior to enabling Hitless Switching, if using the
Management VLAN feature.
7.13.2 Steps to activate Hitless Feature
While Hitless Switching is disabled you modify the parameters and write them by clicking the
“Write Configuration” button. Once it is confirmed that all the nodes have the hitless
configuration, the network can be switched back into “Hitless” mode by using the radio button
at the top of the dialog. This is very important when adding or removing nodes from the
network.
CAUTION
Once Hitless Switching settings have been written to an eXmux node, the parameters within the
Ethernet Switch card view will be changed. This is because the system auto-configures the
instances needed to implement Hitless Switching.
These setting will be automatically captured by VNMS.
7.13.3 Example of Hitless Switching Network
Note:
“Hitless Switching” can only be implemented in a ring configuration.
The network in the following example has ports connected in a ring configuration and non-ring
configuration; this matches the dialog box example that follows. See Section 8 in this manual
for detailed information on configuring the Ethernet Switch.
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Node ID:3
6
Node ID:2
5
10.56.27.30
5
6
10.56.27.20
10.56.27.40
6
"Hitless" Ring Ports
6
5
Node ID:1
10.56.27.100
10.56.27.10
1
Node ID:4
5
6
External
Network
Node ID:11
5
10.56.27.110
1
Node ID:10
5
6
Non-Ring Ports
6
10.56.27.120
5
6
10.56.27.130
Node ID:12
Node ID:13
5 6
10.56.27.150
Node ID:15
5
6
10.56.27.140
Node ID:14
7.13.3.1 Example
of Setting up a Network with Hitless and non-Hitless Nodes
Hitless Switching network configuration settings are accessed from the “Network” pull-down
menu as shown below.
Before Hitless can be implemented, all physical interconnections between exmux3501 nodes
must be known and mapped in Hitless table first. See the following figure for an example.
Perform the following steps:
1. Verify Hitless Switching is “Disabled”.
2. Setup nodes in the Hitless ring on the side marked “Hitless Ping Ports”
3. Setup the remaining Nodes in the right side marked “Non-Ring Ports”.
4. Select the “Write Configuration” button at the bottom of the page.
The “Actual match file settings” column should show “WORKING” for all nodes after a
few seconds. “WORKING” indicates the configuration is being uploaded.
Wait for all nodes to display “YES” in the column before moving to next step.
5. Select the “Enabled” Button at the Top of page “Hitless Recovery Protocol” .
6. Click on “Write Enable”.
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The “Actual match file settings” should once again show “WORKING”. Wait for all
nodes to display “YES” before exiting Hitless Utility.
VLAN reserved for "Hitless"
(every "Hitless" node will
have two VLAN's).
See Note 1.
5
Check to enable
Hitless Switching
1
Verify Hitless
Switching is disabled
6
Click to write the
“Hitless” configuration
See Note 4.
Node
connected to
external
network
Setup each node
Ring Node to
Ring Node next
Check to add node in path A
in hitless ring
which the spur
to "Hitless" topology
See Note 2.
connects
ring. Do not check if
2
Ring node next
not part of "Hitless"
3
in path B
topology ring.
Setup Nodes that
are not part of the
"Hitless" ring.
See Note 3.
Click to write the
configuration
4
Hitless Switching setup should be complete. To verify Hitless VLANS installed, the user can
view the SWITCH configuration. There should be a range of VLANS labeled
NodeX_apath_vlan & mpath_vlan.
There will be two VLANS per Node for the ring. Also, the GE and FE ports for 5, 6, 9, 10
should be configured as Trunk with the associated allowed VLAN ranges.
Note 1.
Two separate virtual networks are created going around the ring in opposite directions.
Note 2.
In a Hitless Configuration traffic will circulate around the Ring in opposite directions, the ports
are associated with their neighbor node in the dialog above for direction ‘A’ and ‘B.’ In the
table below each row represents one eXmux in the Hitless Ring.
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The direction ‘A’ column in the table below describes the topology of the ring (which port is
connected to which node) in the ‘A’ direction. In this configuration each eXmux uses port 5 of
its Ethernet Switch to send ‘A’ direction packets to its neighbor node. Port 6 is used to send ‘B’
direction traffic.
Node
ID
Table 6-7. Hitless Switching Port Connections
Direction ‘A’
Direction ‘B’
Node IP Address
Port # and Connected node
Port # and Connected node
1
10.56.27.10
5 to Node ID: 2
6 to Node ID: 11
2
10.56.27.20
5 to Node ID: 3
6 to Node ID: 1
3
10.56.27.30
5 to Node ID: 4
6 to Node ID: 2
4
10.56.27.40
5 to Node ID: 10
6 to Node ID: 3
10
10.56.27.100
5 to Node ID: 11
6 to Node ID: 4
11
10.56.27.110
5 to Node ID: 1
6 to Node ID: 10
Note 3.
Non-Ring ports can have the following settings selectable from the drop-down menu
Table 6-8. Hitless Switching, Non-Ring port selection
No Connection
None
3500
Connected to another eXmux3500 Node
Out
Connected to an outside network
Note 4.
Once the “Hitless” configuration has been written any additional changes will require that the
“Hitless Recovery Protocol” be disabled before proceeding.
7.13.4 Summary of Hitless Switching Features
Summary 3500/3500M:

Each node in the ring topology requires two dedicated VLAN’s. Each VLAN will
transmit one copy of the TDM traffic converted to Ethernet.

Each node requires two MSTI instances. One to steer traffic in a clockwise direction
and one to steer traffic in a counter clockwise direction around the ring.

Path costs and priorities for MSTI instance n-1 where ‘n’ is the node number should be
configured such that the spanning tree break for MSTI n-1 happens on the adjacent node
that is to the right of n-1. This will ensure that MSTI n-1 will carry traffic in a
clockwise direction.

Path costs and priorities for MSTI instance n-2 where ‘n’ is the node number should be
configured such that the spanning tree break for MSTI n-2 happens on the adjacent node
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that is to the left of n-2. This will ensure that MSTI n-2 will carry traffic in a counter
clockwise direction.

It is important to note that VLAN A-n and B-n associated with MSTI n-1 and MSTI n-2
on node-n are used only for transmitting the TDM traffic. The packet classifier on the
TDM engines are configured such that they receive the packets based on the layer 3 (IP)
address.

VLAN’s in “Hitless Switching” are not used for broadcast segregation, they are used
together with MSTI’s to steer packets in a clockwise or counter clockwise direction
around the ring.
Summary 3501/3501M:

Each node in the ring topology requires two dedicated VLAN’s. Each VLAN will
transmit one copy of the TDM traffic converted to Ethernet.

VLAN’s in “Hitless Switching” are not used for broadcast segregation, they are used to
steer packets in a clockwise or counter clockwise direction around the ring.
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7.14 Service Telephone Configuration
In order to use the service telephone feature of the eXmux the service channel needs to be
enabled as shown below. Under normal operating conditions the default values need not be
changed. The status of the service phone channel can also be viewed on the configuration page.
Double click on the SVC Tel.
graphic or right click on SVC
Tel in the "Node View" to
bring up the dropdown menu
Click to bring up the
configuration screen shown
below
Auto protection shutdown
See Note 1.
Service Channel minor alarm
Select the TX and RX
level in dBm
Select the ring voltage,
(40, 45, 53 or 63Vrms)
Click to enable the
Service Channel
Node extension
See Note 2
Enable DC Offset
if required
Select the Loop
Current, 20 or 41mA
Indicates whether the phone
is On or Off-hook
Note 1.
The channel must be disabled and enabled or the eXmux must be rebooted to come out of this
alarm.
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Note 2.
A three digit extension can be entered for use when dialing the node. Note, when using less
than three digits enter leading zeros which must be dialed to form three digits.
7.15 System Global Settings
Various settings can be accessed and changed globally, thus speeding up the configuration
process. For example when changes are made to a node and these changes require a system
reboot for the changes to take effect. If critical configurations are changed and the node was
not rebooted, these changes would not be enabled. Access the “System Global Settings” dialog
as shown below.
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The software will monitor the network and display its condition. Note, when a node requires a
reboot it would be in a minor alarm state. The following is a similar dialog that will monitor
Management VLANs, this is effective with VNMS release 4.1.
Additional nodes can be
selected by the user
Nodes that require a reboot
will be indicated in red
Blue Indicates reboot in
process
Click to reboot selected
nodes
7.15.1 Setting/Changing Management VLANs
Ethernet network security can be enhanced by using Management VLANs. A “Write” will be
required if the “Management VLAN” or “Port Settings” are changed.
CAUTION
Careful coordination must be employed when changing or updating a networks Management
VLAN. This involves writing all nodes followed by rebooting all nodes. All nodes in the
network should be updated in unison to avoid possible system disruption; partially rebooting
the network may make some nodes unavailable.
CAUTION
Hitless Switching MUST be disabled prior to writing the Management VLAN.
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If the ports are changed in the “New Ports Setting” box the “Ports” will be indicated in red and
a “Write” will be required.
The management VLAN can be changed
here. The value is ignored when the
management VLAN ID is set to “1”
Will be red if port settings
are changed
Current ports in the
management VLAN
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Click to write the
management VLAN
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7.15.2 Trap Destination
The following dialog can be used to globally configure trap destinations. Effective with VNMS
release 6.0.
Additional destination IP
address for eXmux traps
See Note 2.
Check this box to select
all nodes
Shows whether the trap destination is
present in the “Trap Destination Table”
Connection
status of the
node
See Note 1
Click to validate the
destination address for
eXmux traps
Click to write the trap
destination (if changed)
Check to select
individual nodes
Click to delete selected
trap destinations
Note 1.
If the node has been forced off-line then no information has been retrieved and the node cannot
be rebooted. Offline means that the last attempt to contact the node was unsuccessful.
Note 2.
An additional IP address may be added. This destination could be a server or similar device.
7.15.3 Ping Test
This test will verify connectivity between the eXmux and the target device of the traps (trap
destination). The local PC is reachable by the eXmux nodes if the connection state is “Online.”
(Effective with VNMS release 6.0).
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Connection status of the node
See Note 1
Additional IP address can be
added
Check to select
all nodes
Will run a reverse ping test on
all checked nodes
See Note 2.
Will indicate whether IP
address is reachable by the
eXmux node
Note 1.
If the node has been forced off-line then no information has been retrieved and the node cannot
be rebooted. Offline means that the last attempt to contact the node was unsuccessful.
Note 2.
Running this test will tell if the selected IP address(es) are reachable by the eXmux nodes.
Please note that the destination may not allow ping tests due to firewall restrictions.
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7.16 Retrieving and Sending Reports
Various reports and logs can be retrieved from the eXmux. These reports can be sent to a
printer or saved in various formats on your laptop or PC. Note that in some cases, depending
on individual printer settings, the Mapping Report may have data that is not printed in the
default portrait mode, to resolve this print in the landscape mode.
Selecting “Network Inventory” will result in the following dialog box.
Select which
output option is
required
Checking “Screens (w/ print option)” will result in the following report being displayed.
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All eXmux units in the network are displayed with pertinent inventory information.
Selecting “Network IP Addresses” will result in the following dialog box.
All eXmux units in the network are displayed with pertinent IP address information (partial
screen shown).
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When “Retrieve Active Network Alarms” is checked the following table is displayed with all
active alarms in the network. Individual nodes can be selected from the drop down menu
Checking “Current Event Log” will display a history of SOE’s in the right section of the dialog
as shown below.
The Current Event Log should be saved
to another location periodically and
"Reset SOE's for all Nodes" checked to
stop the log from becoming too large.
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Checking “Sequence of Events (SOE)/User Access Log” will display the screen below. This
screen will indicate who has logged onto the network. The user can select the entire network or
a single node sorted by node number/name or date/time.
The following section contains all SOEs issued by the eXmux, listed by event type. This list
has been simplified to allow the user to easily identify the event, whether a trap was sent and if
a major or minor alarm has been issued.
7.16.1 eXmux SNMP Trap/SOE List
Note an SOE is logged with every event.
Event
Type
Trap
Sent
System
Alarm
IU
Alarm
1
Yes
No
No
2
Yes
No
No
3
No
No
No
4
No
No
No
5
Yes
Minor
No
6
Yes
Major
No
7
Yes
Minor
Minor
8
Yes
Major
Major
9
No
No
No
10
Yes
No
No
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October 2017
Description
Trap Name
A user has tried and failed to log into the
system.
A user has successfully logged into the
system.
This SOE is logged when the system is
shutting down.
This SOE is logged when the system is
restarted.
Minor alarm has been generated or
cleared by the system.
Major alarm has been generated or cleared
by the system.
Minor alarm has been generated or cleared
by the board.
Major alarm has been generated or cleared
by the board.
The board is configured.
The board configuration failed.
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loginError
loginSuccess
systemShutdown
systemRestart
systemMinorAlarm
systemMajorAlarm
boardMinorAlarm
boardMajorAlarm
boardConfigured
boardConfigFailure
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Event
Type
Trap
Sent
System
Alarm
IU
Alarm
11
Yes
No
No
12
Yes
No
No
13
Yes
No
No
14
Yes
No
No
15
Yes
No
No
16
Yes
Major
No
17
Yes
Minor
No
18
Yes
Major
No
19
Yes
Minor
No
20
Yes
Minor
No
21
Yes
Major
No
22
Yes
No
No
23
Yes
Minor
No
24
No
No
No
25
No
No
No
26
No
No
No
27
No
No
No
28
No
No
No
29
No
No
No
30
No
No
No
31
No
No
No
32
Yes
Minor
No
33
Yes
Minor
No
34
Yes
No
No
35
Yes
No
No
36
Yes
No
No
37
Yes
No
No
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October 2017
Description
Trap Name
The port state has been changed.
Failed to create TDM link.
Failed to Initialize the TDM related switch
cfg
Major alarm generated or cleared due to
TDM bundle errors.
Minor alarm generated or cleared due to
TDM bundle errors.
Major alarm generated or cleared due to
TDM general errors.
Minor alarm generated or cleared due to
TDM general errors.
Major alarm gen or cleared due to overall
TDM bundle errors.
Minor alarm gen or cleared due to overall
TDM bundle errors.
Minor alarm has been generated or cleared
by the framer.
Major alarm has been generated or cleared
by the framer.
slic Power Alarm Active
The admin password is the default.
Configuration Change.
portStateChange
Board Manager: Write to Card failed when
verifying the value written to the card.
Board Manager: Reading the Card Settings
from the Database failed.
Board Manager: Reading the Card Status
failed.
Board Manager: Writing the Card Status to
the Database failed.
Board Manager: Writing the Slot Status to
the Database failed.
The Clear Button was held for 20 seconds
causing the Configuration to be set to the
default values.
The Clear Button was held for 5 or more
seconds causing the password to be reset
to the default value.
Main power supply status error.
Redundant power supply status error.
The link entered the up or down state on FE
port1.
The link entered the up or down state on FE
port2.
The link entered the up or down state on FE
port3.
The link entered the up or down state on FE
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tdmoipLinkCreateFailure
tdmoipSwitchInitFailure
tdmoipBndlInMajorAlarm
tdmoipBndlInMinorAlarm
tdmoipGenericMajorAlarm
tdmoipGenericMinorAlarm
tdmoipoverallBndlMajorAlarm
tdmoipoverallBndlMinorAlarm
framerMinorAlarm
framerMajorAlarm
slicPowerAlarmActive
adminPasswdDefault
configChange
boardMngrSettingWriteError
boardMngrSettingSqlReadError
boardMngrStatusReadError
boardMngrStatusSqlWriteError
boardMngrStatusSlotSqlWriteError
configurationResetBySwitch
adminPasswdResetBySwitch
powerMainStatusError
powerRdntStatusError
linkUpDownPort1
linkUpDownPort2
linkUpDownPort3
linkUpDownPort4
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Event
Type
Trap
Sent
System
Alarm
IU
Alarm
Description
Trap Name
port4.
The link entered the up or down state on GE
port5.
The link entered the up or down state on GE
port6.
The link entered the up or down state on
port7.
The link entered the up or down state on
cpu port8.
The link entered the up or down state on
TDM engine2 port.
The link entered the up or down state on
TDM engine1 port.
Minor alarm 2 has been generated or
cleared by the board.
Major alarm 2 has been generated or
cleared by the board.
Minor alarm has been generated or cleared
by the service channel.
Major alarm has been generated or cleared
by the service channel.
This SOE is logged when the database is
restored from a backup
The database experienced an error when
updating the database.
38
Yes
Minor
No
39
Yes
Minor
No
40
Yes
No
No
41
No
No
No
42
Yes
Major
No
43
Yes
Major
No
44
Yes
Minor
Minor
45
Yes
Major
Major
46
Yes
Minor
No
47
Yes
Major
No
48
No
No
No
49
No
No
No
50
Yes
Minor
Minor
Board Manager detected a mismatch in the
inventory during bootup
inventoryMismatchAlarm
51
No
No
No
This SOE is logged when the system is
restarted by defined reasons.
systemRestartReason
52
Yes
Minor
No
Minor alarm has been generated or cleared
by ntp sync.
ntpSyncFailAlarm
53
No
No
No
This SOE is recorded to show when NTP
sync succeeded and failed.
ntpSyncIndication
54
No
No
No
This SOE records any push button related
activities
pushbuttonPressed
55
No
Minor
No
One of the critical parameters which needs
reboot has changed.
criticalConfigChangedAlarm
56
No
No
No
57
Yes
N0
No
58
Yes
Minor
Minor
59
Yes
Minor
Minor
60
Yes
Minor
Minor
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This SOE records system software and
main board revision info.
This SOE records the Tdmoip Clock Source
Changing from internal to T1/E1 or viceversa.
This SOE records serial server Port Link
Alarm.
This SOE records serial server port buffer
overrun alarm.
This SOE records serial server port network
buffer overrun alarm.
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linkUpDownPort5
linkUpDownPort6
linkUpDownPort7
linkUpDownPort8
linkUpDownTdmE2
linkUpDownTdmE1
boardMinor2Alarm
boardMajor2Alarm
slicMinorAlarm
slicMajorAlarm
restoredBackupDatabase
updateDatabaseError
systemSWHWversion
tdmoipClockSourceSwitch
ssrvPortLinkAlarm
ssrvPortSerialBufferOverrun
ssrvPortNetworkBufferOverrun
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Event
Type
Trap
Sent
System
Alarm
IU
Alarm
61
Yes
Major
Major
62
Yes
Minor
Minor
63
Yes
Minor
Minor
64
Yes
Minor
Minor
65
No
No
No
66
No
No
No
67
Yes
Minor
Minor
68
Yes
Minor
Minor
69
Yes
Minor
Minor
70
Yes
Minor
Minor
71
Yes
Major
Major
72
Yes
Major
Major
73
Yes
No
No
74
Yes
No
No
75
Yes
No
No
76
Yes
No
No
77
Yes
No
No
78
Yes
No
No
79
Yes
Minor
Minor
80
No
No
No
81
No
No
No
82
Yes
Minor
No
83
Yes
Minor
No
84
Yes
Minor
Minor
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Description
Trap Name
This SOE records serial server hardware
alarm.
This SOE records serial server Ip Address
Errors.
This SOE records serial server port local
loopback alarm.
This SOE records serial server port remote
loopback alarm.
This SOE records the event when a NBR
becomes unreachable
This SOE records the event when we are
not getting adv from a NBR for a period
greater than 2/3 threshold limits
This SOE records serial server Port Master
1 Link Alarm.
This SOE records serial server Port Master
2 Link Alarm.
This SOE records serial server Port Master
3 Link Alarm.
Minor alarm has been generated or cleared
by the teleprotection system card.
Major alarm has been generated or cleared
by the teleprotection system card.
Hardware alarm has been generated or
cleared by the teleprotection system card.
This SOE records the event when a card is
removed from a slot.
This SOE records the event when a card is
inserted into a slot.
This SOE records the event when a card
settings are cleared.
This SOE records the event when an
ethernet switch is inserted.
This SOE records the event when an
ethernet switch is removed.
This SOE records the event when an
ethernet switch needs to be upgraded.
Switch Manager detects a switch Inventory
Mismatch Alarm.
This SOE records the event when a NBR
becomes unreachable
This SOE records the event when we are
not getting adv from a NBR for a period
greater than 2/3 threshold limit
Main power supply status change.
Redundant power supply status change.
This SOE records serial server minor
alarms.
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ssrvHardwareAlarm
ssrvPortIpAlarm
ssrvPortLocalLoopbackAlarm
ssrvPortRemoteLoopbackAlarm
nbrNotReachableAlarm
nbrNotRespondingAlarm
ssrvPortMaster1LinkAlarm
ssrvPortMaster2LinkAlarm
ssrvPortMaster3LinkAlarm
tpsMinorAlarm
tpsMajorAlarm
tpsHardwareAlarm
slotRemoveCard
slotInsertCard
slotClearSettings
ethSwitchInsert
ethSwitchRemove
ethSwitchUpgradeRequest
ethSwitchInventoryMismatchAlarm
nbrNotReachableAlarmV4
nbrNotRespondingAlarmV4
powerMainStatusErrorV4
powerRdntStatusErrorV4
ssrvMinorAlarm
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Configuration
Event
Type
Trap
Sent
System
Alarm
IU
Alarm
85
Yes
Minor
No
86
Yes
Minor
No
87
Yes
Minor
No
88
Yes
Minor
No
89
Yes
Minor
No
90
Yes
Minor
No
91
Yes
Minor
No
92
Yes
No
No
93
Yes
No
No
94
Yes
Minor
No
95
No
No
No
96
No
Minor
No
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Description
Trap Name
This SOE records the event when ethernet
port 1 is administavely enabled or disabled.
This SOE records the event when ethernet
port 2 is administavely enabled or disabled.
This SOE records the event when ethernet
port 3 is administavely enabled or disabled.
This SOE records the event when ethernet
port 4 is administavely enabled or disabled.
This SOE records the event when ethernet
port 5 is administavely enabled or disabled.
This SOE records the event when ethernet
port 6 is administavely enabled or disabled.
This SOE records the event when ethernet
port 7 is administavely enabled or disabled.
Major alarm generated or cleared due to
TDM bundle errors (version 4.1 and later)
Minor alarm generated or cleared due to
TDM bundle errors (version 4.1 and later)
Minor alarm has been generated or cleared
by ptp sync.
This SOE is recorded to show when PTP
sync succeeded and failed
Minor alarm generated or cleard due to
debug mode on/off , no alarm if supressed
in uboot
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ifAdminStatusPort1
ifAdminStatusPort2
ifAdminStatusPort3
ifAdminStatusPort4
ifAdminStatusPort5
ifAdminStatusPort6
ifAdminStatusPort7
tdmoipBndlInMajorAlarmLong
tdmoipBndlInMinorAlarmLong
ptpSyncFailAlarm
ptpSyncIndication
diagnosticModeAlarm
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7.16.2 TPS Sequence of Events
The eXmux TPS System generates its own SOE records which are stored in the SOE database
on the TPS Card. There is non-volatile storage for up to 1500 SOEs.
Selecting “TPS Sequence of Events” will result in the following dialog.
Use this button to move individual
nodes to the SOE retrieval side
Use this button to move all listed nodes to
the SOE retrieval side
Nodes that will report
SOEs
Lists all nodes
supporting TPS
with their slot
location
Selected nodes may
be moved back to
the left dialog box,
either individually or
as a group
The dialog box above will allow the selection of specific nodes for TPS SOE reporting. All
TPS supported nodes will be listed in the left screen with the TPS IU slot location. Highlight
the required nodes and using the “move” arrows transfer to the right screen for SOE reporting.
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Configuration
Specific start and stop dates for reporting can be selected as shown below.
Select the required start and end dates. Once all the parameters have been set in the dialog
check the “OK” button to return the SOE report as shown on the following.
The record number will start at one
and keep incrementing until the field
rolls over. When the SOEs are
reset, the record will return to one
The Index is used by the
handling software to index
where the record is located in
storage
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The event type corresponds to
events when the TPS has a
major, minor alarm etc.
The TPS board has its own very
accurate time stamp
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The description is a string that defines the
SOE, it will always start with the slot number
and IU type
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Configuration
7.16.2.1 TPS
System SOE Record Handling
The following status changes in the TPS System will generate an SOE record.
Status
Table 6-9. TPS System, SOE Records
Cause
Major Alarm
CRC failure or address failure
Minor Alarm
Excessive channel delay and/or setting the disable switch
CRC Failure Alarm
Generated in addition to the major alarm to explain the alarm
Address Failure Alarm
Generated in addition to the major alarm to explain the alarm
Channel Delay Alarm
Generated in addition to the minor alarm to explain the alarm
Disable Switch Alarm
Generated in addition to the minor alarm to explain the alarm
Active/Inactive Status Change
Generated whenever a port is read as active or inactive in the port status,
generally through a setting change
Changes to Input/Output Points
There are 6-inputs (trip and auxiliary) and 4-outputs (trip). An SOE is
generated to report each and every I/O state change
7.16.3 MAC Address Report
Selecting “MAC Address Report” as shown below will allow the user access to the
“Forwarding Data Base” and “MAC Address” lists for a specific node.
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Configuration
Click “MAC Address Report” the following dialog will appear.
Sort by forwarding
data base or
physical port
Check to select by
specific forwarding
port or data base
Check to select by a
specific MAC address
Check to select by the
first 3 octants of a
MAC address
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Configuration
Forwarding Data Base (FDB)
This is a list of MAC addresses specific to how Ethernet Switching is handled. The FDB table
is a layer 2 device used to store MAC addresses that have been learned, and from which ports
these MAC addresses were learned on. The following page shows a sample MAC address
report.
B
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Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
Section 8. Configuration and Status Settings
for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
The eXmux VNMS software will allow the user many options for setting parameters through
the Ethernet ports. This will allow the system administrator control over his network,
controlling such functions as Flow Control, Fault Detection and Message Prioritizing.
8.1 Integrated Ethernet Switch Redundancy Protocol
The Integrated Ethernet Switch supports RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) and MSTP
(Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) technology. These are OSI layer-2 protocols which ensure a
loop free topology for any bridged LAN. Simply put, a spanning tree is created within a mesh
network of connected Ethernet switches; this allows the inclusion within a network design of
spare (redundant) links. If an active link fails automatic backup paths are provided without the
danger of bridged loops, or the need for manual enabling/disabling of these backup links.
In an unmanaged Ethernet network there can be only one path between any two ports on the
network. If there is more than one path from one switch to another a broadcast message (and in
some cases other messages) sent by the network will be forwarded until it completes a loop by
returning on the second path. Since the Ethernet switches forward all broadcasts and do not
keep track of the messages they have sent, the returning message will be sent around the loop
again and again. A single message circulating forever around a loop at high speed is clearly not
a good thing, so no loops are allowed. Below is an example of a typical RSTP network with a
backup path activated.
End Stations
E
E
R Root Port
E
Active Path
B Backup Port
Root
Bridge
Backup Path
(Blocked)
E Edge Port
End Stations
Path Failure
End Stations
E
E
E
Designated
Bridge
Backup path
activated after root
path failure
R
E
R
B
B
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8-1
E
E
Designated
Bridge
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Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
In the previous illustration, the root ports are those connected directly to the root bridge. In a
managed Ethernet network these ports are described as having the lowest port cost (only one
hop). The paths that must go through another bridge (managed Ethernet switch) have a higher
port cost (two hops) and are designated as backup ports. The ports connected directly to an end
station (device) are described as edge ports, these ports will be ignored by RSTP.
8.2 Ethernet Network Message Types
The following information is not required to configure the eXmux, but is useful in
understanding an Ethernet network.

Unicasting. In simple terms, communicating from one device to another. Point to
point communication.

Broadcasting. In a network, sending the same message from one device to all
devices in the network. Broadcast messages are used for many reasons, including
acknowledging receipt of information.

Multicasting is a means of sending messages to multiple devices without
broadcasting the data to all devices or sending it individually to each device.
Addresses 224.0.0.0 to 239.225.225.225 are designated as multicast addresses. A
detailed description of Multicasting is beyond the scope of this manual.
See Section 7.4.2 for setting Multicast Threshold Parameters.
8.3 Ethernet Switch Configuration – Model 3500/3500M
Clicking on the Ethernet Switch as shown will bring up the following dialog box. The dialog
boxes for Ethernet Options are similar in layout to the other eXmux VNMS configuration
pages. The following pages will tabulate and describe the various options available.
Additional Identification Information:
Please note that the model 3500/3500M Ethernet Switch had no identification marking. If your
unit is marked with either of the following part numbers 109335-4 (Modular Unit) or 109380
(Non-Modular Unit) you have a new version Ethernet Switch (E2020) installed, please go to
Section 8.4.
3500
3500M
Clicking within the Ethernet Switch will
bring up a configuration page
Clicking within the Ethernet Switch will
bring up a configuration page
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Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
Shown below is the first dialog box presented when configuring the RFL Managed Ethernet
Switch. Each tabs configuration is described in the following sub-sections which are hyperlinked to the call-out number.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12
8.3.1 Alarm Settings (1)
Each Ethernet port can be configured for “Link Loss Alarm” and “Admin Status Alarm” as
shown below.
Each Ethernet
port can be
configured to
either Major,
Minor or None
for its alarm
state
Click to configure ports 1 through 7
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Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
The “Link Loss Alarm” dialog is shown above: the “Admin Status Alarm” is configured in a
similar way.
8.3.1.1 Ports
Inactivity Status Alarm
Port inactivity can be monitored and alarms can be set for each Ethernet port as per a globally
set non-active period.
Set the time
before inactivity
generates an
alarm. From 10
and 60.
Each Ethernet
port can be
configured to
either Major,
Minor or None
for its alarm
state
8.3.2 Ports (2)
Clicking the Port Tab will allow configuration of various port features, including Port Mirroring
and Port Security.
1
2
3
4
5
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Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
Ports
1. Port Settings: The majority of the features in the following dialog box can be
either enabled or disabled for each port.
Displays the actual
port setting
Click to change the
settings
Port Auto Negotiation: All copper and gigabit fiber ports in the managed Ethernet switch are
capable of auto-negotiation, such that the fastest bandwidth is selected. Choose enable to set
auto-negotiation for selected ports. Note, All fiber ports are fixed speed only.
Note: It is recommended to disable auto-negotiation on all uplink ports connecting to a switch
or router and set them for fixed port and duplex.
Port Rate Limit: When enabled, broadcast and multicast packets are rate limited on the
corresponding port.
Poorly configured applications and devices or malicious users can flood your network with
broadcast packets that are forwarded to all ports and can quickly consume most of a network’s
bandwidth. The managed Ethernet switch provides some protection from such “broadcast
storms” by allowing you to limit the rate at which these messages are accepted by the switch.
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For each port, you may choose to limit the rate of broadcast and multicast messages accepted.
Messages over the preset limit will be discarded. The limits are applied based on priority
according to the following table.
Priority
Background
Normal
Expedited
Urgent
Limit
10% of link capacity
20% of link capacity
40% of link capacity
80% of link capacity
Port Forward Unknown: Enables or disables the forwarding of packets with unicast MAC
addresses, that are not yet learned by the switch to this port. Use caution when disabling , since
the switch will not forward the packet unless it is first learned using ARP for example.
Port SFP Speed: The speed of the SFP ports can be set in the File Settings to either 100 or
1000 Mbps.
Port Mirroring
Port mirroring allows a designated port in the Ethernet Switch to receive mirrored data from
any number of other ports in the Switch. This port can then be used to externally monitor
activity within the switch.
2. Monitor Port: This will set the port to receive the mirrored data.
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3. Port Mirroring Settings: Select the ports to be to be monitored and their traffic
direction. (See the following page).
NEVER change this
number
Select the
mirrored ports
(source ports to
be monitored)
Set the traffic
direction of the
mirrored port
Port Security
Allows the user to set MAC Based security on any given port in the Ethernet Switch. Enable
security on the port and then set the MAC address.
4. Port Settings: The user can enable or disable a given port for MAC based security.
5. MAC Address Settings: Lists the port number, MAC address and port name of the
secure port.
8.3.3 VLAN(3)
Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a mechanism for controlling message traffic flow.
Messages can be forced to be sent only to specific areas of a network thus eliminating
messaging clutter.
VLAN: General disscussion
VLANs can segregate traffic flowing through a switch to improve bandwidth utilization or
security. Segregation is done based on membership in a group of ports (port-based VLANs) or
on IEEE 802.1Q tags which include a VLAN ID (tag-based VLANs). The example below is
for illustrative purposes only and does not apply to the eXmux which only has 6-ports.
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A port-based VLAN limits traffic coming in a port to the group of ports to which that port
belongs. For example, if ports 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 were placed in a port-based VLAN, broadcast
frames coming in port 3 would be sent to ports 1, 5, 7, and 9 (which are members of port 3's
VLAN) but not to ports 2, 4, 6, and 8 (which are not members).
A port may be a member of two port-based VLANs though results of this configuration are not
always desirable or easily predictable. When initializing port-based VLANs the switch
configures each port to be able to send data to all ports in all the port-based VLANs in which it
is a member. For example, if one VLAN had ports 1-5 and another had ports 5-9, traffic from
port 1-4 could go to ports 1-5, traffic from ports 6-9 could go to ports 5-9, and traffic from port
5 could go to all ports.
A tag-based VLAN limits traffic based on the VLAN ID in a 'tag' associated with the frame.
VLAN tags may be explicitly placed in frames by applications or switching equipment, or
implicitly assigned to frames based on the switch port where they arrive.
VLAN IDs are 12-bits long providing 4096 possible IDs but several values are reserved:
0
Indicates that the tag is not being used for VLAN routing but only to
carry priority information.
1
Used for switch configuration and management.
4095 Not allowed by the 802.1Q standard.
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
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1. Port Based VLAN: Are used to route frames. VLAN ID’s are ignored. At least
one port based VLAN must exist for this setting to be enabled.
2. Tag Based VLAN: All routing is done by VLAN ID, port based VLAN’s are
ignored. At least one tag based VLAN must exist for this setting to be enabled.
Note: Only enable Port or Tag Based VLAN’s, do not enable both.
3. Management VLAN ID: This ID identifies the individual VLANs you create on
your network. The VLAN ID must be specified in the range from 2 to 4094.
There are three reserved VLAN IDs (that should not be used):
VLAN ID of 0 is used to identify frames whose tags carry only priority information.
VLAN ID of 1 is normally used for switch configuration and management
VLAN ID of 4095 is not allowed by the 802.1Q standard.
The Management VLAN ID identifies the VLAN used for VNMS communications
with the network and inter-network automatic discovery of the nodes (neighbor
discovery). The VLAN is normally 1, but can be changed to segregate management
traffic from data traffic and other non-eXmux traffic that may be in the network.
Note: The management VLAN must be the same for all nodes in the network. It is
recommended that the System Global Setting dialog be used to change all of the
nodes at the same time. See Section 7.15
4. Ethernet Core Type: Specify the Ethertype for double-tagged ("Q-in-Q") frames
exiting ports of type Core as specified in IEEE 802.1Q. Normal VLAN tagging uses
Ethernet 33024 (0 x 8100)
5. VLAN Management VLAN: This area will display the Ethernet Switch base port
configuration, port1-10. Not all of these ports are configurable in the eXmux, see
(7) below.
6. Number of Port or Tag based VLAN’s defined: Increased or decreased when port
or tag based VLAN’s are added or subtracted.
7. VLAN’s: Clicking this button will allow the user to add, remove, or configure
VLAN’s in his particular network.
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a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
a.
VLAN Name: A name for the VLAN, can be 1-32 characters. Used for
display only.
b.
VLAN ID: This ID identifies the individual VLAN’s created in your network.
For tag based VLAN’s the ID in the tag.
c.
VLAN Type: The VLAN type, can be either port based or tag. Make sure to
define the VLAN ID before selecting tag based.
d.
VLAN Ports: The list of ports receiving packets directed to this VLAN, port
numbers are separated by a space.
e.
VLAN FID: The FDB ID of this VLAN. Filtering ID allows multiple VLAN’s
to be grouped. Port based VLAN (0), tag based VLAN (1-190) for user defined
VLAN’s. Values (191-254) are reserved for VLAN’s created for
“Hitless Switching.”
f.
VLAN MSTI: Associated MSTI instance. Port based VLAN or tag based
VLAN with RSTP (0).
g.
Click to delete an individual VLAN.
h.
Click this button to add a new template for an additional VLAN.
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8. VLAN Port Settings: Clicking this button will allow the user management over
each ports VLAN settings.
a
b
c
d
In the dialog box above the “File Setting” tab has been clicked and the “Vlan Port Type” drop
down menu has been actuated.
a.
VLAN Port Number: The selected ports included in this VLAN.
CAUTION
When working with tag-based VLAN’s, ports included in a VLAN may lead to other network
devices (which require tags to properly route data) or to end devices, which cannot process
VLAN tags. Use the VLAN button (f) to configure the appropriate type for each port.
b.
VLAN Port PVID: This is the port's default VLAN ID. It is applied to frames
which arrive at the port without a VLAN tag or with a priority-only VLAN tag
(one which contains the special VLAN ID 0). Set the desired PVID to make
sure your untagged packets for the port get forwarded to other ports in the
desired VLAN.
CAUTION
Switch management and configuration is only possible through the port if the PVID is set to 1
(the default). Setting the PVID to another value prevents the switch from being
managed/configured via that port (unless the system you are using to configure the switch can
explicitly tag frames for VLAN 1, the management VLAN).
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c.
Vlan Port Force: When enabled the PVID is forced on all frames coming in
this port regardless of any existing tag.
d.
Vlan Port Type: This setting controls how IEEE tags are handled in out-going
data:

Transparent maintains any tag that may have been present in a frame
when it entered the switch.

Edge removes tags from all out-going frames.

Network adds a tag if none is present. The value of the tag is the queue
number times two (six for queue 3, etc.)

Core All frames exiting this port will be tagged, in some cases doubletagged (stacked).
8.3.3.1 Writing
VLAN Settings to the eXmux (Step for Step)
1. With VNMS running go to the “Node View” of the eXmux chassis requiring
configuration.
2. To access the “Switch Settings” double click within the graphic as shown below.
Double click within the Switch
Graphic
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3. The “Switch Settings” dialog will appear, click the VLAN tab.
Click the VLAN tab
4. In the next dialog click the VLAN button.
Click the
VLAN button
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5. The VLAN Settings dialog will appear, click the “File Settings” tab and then click the
“Add Rows” button.
First click the “File Settings”
tab
Click to delete rows
Then click the “Add Row”
button
6. Following is a description of the settings and values to be added:
VLAN Name – Any name can be entered (without spaces).
VLAN Number – If there is currently no VLAN configured use “1” or use the next
available number. Not to be confused with VLAN ID.
VLAN ID – Type a unique number to be used as the ID, any number can be used from
2 – 4094. Note that by default Hitless settings use a VLAN offset of 1000. When
enabling “Hitless Switching” the eXmux will start using VLAN IDs after 1000,
counting up for its MSTIs. This can be changed by going to the “Hitless Settings” and
changing the VLAN offset.
VLAN Type – The choices are “Tag” or “Port” based VLANs. RFL recommends that
for most applications Tag based VLANs be used.
VLAN Ports – Type the port numbers (separated by a space) of the Switch Ports to be
included in the VLAN.
VLAN FID and VLAN MSTI – RFL recommends that for most applications “0” be
entered for both settings. VLAN MSTI is only used when MSTP is employed as the
redundancy protocol. For advanced applications contact RFL for assistance.
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Below is a completed dialog.
7. After all the VLANs have been set, click the “Write” button.
8. After “Write” is completed click the “Actual Settings” tab to verify that all settings have
been written correctly. Note, it can take up to 15 seconds for the table to update with
the new values.
9. Close the “VLAN Settings” dialog.
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10. In the “Switch Settings” dialog, change the “Tag Based VLAN” to “Enabled.”
Change Tag Based
VLAN to “Enabled”
11. Click “Write” to enable the Tag Based VLANs.
Additional notes:
When using standard Tag Based VLANs you can go to “VLAN Port Settings” to configure
additional VLAN settings depending on requirements. The following settings can be
changed.
PVID – This is the port’s default VLAN ID. It is applied to all frames coming into the
port without any VLAN tag or with a priority VLAN tag of 0. PVID is not used if the
VLAN mode is port based.
Force – When this is enabled, the PVID is forced to all frames coming into the port
regardless if the they are tagged or untagged.
Type – This controls how tags are handled on frames exiting the port. Below are the
settings:
Network – All frames exiting this port will be tagged. If no tag was
present when the frame entered the switch, the source port’s PVID will be
used. Use this setting for ports connected to other managed switches or
any VLAN aware device.
Edge – No frames exiting this port will be tagged. Use this setting for
ports connected to end devices such as PCs.
Transparent – Frames will be forwarded unchanged.
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Core – All frames exiting this port will be tagged, in some cases doubletagged.
8.3.4 RSTP(4)
RSTP: General disscussion
The Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) allows you to have an Ethernet network with
redundant connections, so if one path between two points on the network fails, another path can
be used to deliver messages. If one link or switch fails, another link or switch can take over
transparently to prevent unnecessary down time. So why not just physically connect each of the
switches in your network in various loop configurations such that there are always at least two
paths going to and from each switch? A good idea, but it creates broadcast loops that will bring
a network to its knees very quickly.
In an unmanaged Ethernet network there can be only one path between any two ports on the
network. If there is more than one path from one switch to another a broadcast message (and in
some cases other messages) sent by the network will be forwarded until it completes a loop by
returning on the second path. Since the switches forward all broadcasts and do not keep track of
the messages they have sent, the returning message will be sent around the loop again and
again. A single message circulating forever around a loop at high speed is clearly not a good
thing, so no loops are allowed.
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The limitations of having only one path are even simpler to see. If the one and only path fails
for any reason, such as a broken cable or power failure at one of the switches, there are no paths
left and no network traffic can get through. We need a way to add alternate paths without
creating loops. Thus the use of Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, a loop prevention protocol, is
used such that switches can communicate with each other to discover and prevent loops.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1. RSTP Protocol: Sets the Redundancy Protocol used. Selecting STP,RSTP or
MSTP will allow redundant links between switches so that those links can keep the
network connected even when a primary link fails.

None. The switch will not manage redundant network connections. All ports
will forward network traffic just as an unmanaged switch would.

STP. If STP is selected only the original STP format messages will be
generated. Selecting STP reduces the chances of network packets being
duplicated or delivered out of order, but at the expense of much longer
reconfiguration times. STP is an older version of the protocol.

RSTP. RSTP should normally be selected. RSTP is compatible with switches
that only implement plain STP.

MSTP. MSTP must always be selected if “Hitless Switching” is enabled.
2. RSTP Priority (Bridge Priority): Bridge priority is important since it is used to
determine the root bridge. The priority ranges from 0 to 61440 (default 32768) and
must be a multiple of 4096. Lower numbers indicate a better priority; the switch
with the lowest priority number will be selected as the root bridge.
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There are two ways to select a root bridge (switch). The first is by default, leaving
all the bridge priority settings the same at the default of 32768. The second way is to
customize priority settings of each bridge. When leaving the bridge priority setting
at the default on all of the switches, the switches select the managed switch with the
lowest MAC address. This may be adequate for networks with light or evenly
distributed traffic.
Customizing the bridge priority settings allows the network to select a root bridge
that gives the best network performance. The goal is generally to have the network
traffic pass through the network as directly as possible, so the root should be central
in the network. If most messages are between one central server and several clients
the root should probably be a switch near the server, so messages do not take a long
path to the root and another long path back to the server.
Once you decide which switch should be the root, it should be given the best
(numerically lowest) bridge priority number in the network.
3. RSTP Mma (Max Age): For STP/RSTP/MSTP the max age indicates the
maximum time (in seconds) that the switch can wait for configuration messages
from other managed switches. max age can range from 6 to 40 seconds (20 seconds
default). If that time expires, the switch assumes that it is no longer connected to the
root of the network. If a link goes down in a way that the switch can detect as loss
of link it does not wait before reconfiguring the network.
CAUTION
Assign all switches in an STP/RSTP/MSTP network the same Max Age.
4. RSTP Hello Time: Configuration messages (BPDU’s –Bridge Protocol Data Units)
are either sent periodically to other bridges based on a time period labeled hello
time. Hello time can be set from a range of 1 to 10 seconds (6 seconds default).
Decreasing the hello time gives faster recovery times, while increasing the hello
time interval decreases the overhead involved.
CAUTION
Assign all switches in an STP/RSTP/MSTP network the same Hello Time.
5. RSTP Fwd Delay: The forward delay is a time (in seconds) used by all switches in
the network. The forward delay can be set from a range of 4 to 30 seconds (15
seconds default). This value is controlled by the root bridge and is used as a timeout
value to allow ports to begin forwarding traffic after network topology changes. If a
port is not configured as an edge port and RSTP cannot negotiate the link status a
port must wait twice the forward delay before forwarding network traffic. In a
properly configured network using RSTP or MSTP (not STP) this setting has very
little effect. For STP networks setting the time too short may allow temporary loops
when the network structure changes (switches turn on or off or links are added or
broken). A longer time will prevent temporary loops, but network traffic will be
disrupted for a longer time.
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The default value for the forward delay is 15 seconds. If you change this setting, the
switch will not allow a value unless it satisfies the following formula:
2 × (forward delay – 1.0 seconds) ≥ max message age
CAUTION
Assign all switches in an STP/RSTP/MSTP network the same Fwd Delay.
Note
Max Age, Hello Time and Forward Delay.
These parameters define various aspects of how the RSTP operates. It is recommended
that you leave these parameters at the default values for all the managed switches in
your network.
6. RSTP Tx Limit: The transmission limit controls the maximum number of BPDU’s
which may be sent in one second. The transmission limit can range from 1 to 10
messages/second (6 messages/second default). Increasing Transmission limit can
speed convergence of the network but at the cost of configuration messages using a
larger share of the available network bandwidth.
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7. Port Settings: Click this button to optimize your networks redundancy and
maximize its reliability by specifying spanning tree protocol parameters for each
port on the eXmux Ethernet Switch. Below is the dialog box with the “File Settings”
tab clicked.
a
b
c
d
e
a. RSTP Port Exclude. Normally all ports should be included in determining the
Spanning Tree network topology, either as a normal port or an edge port. It is
possible to completely exclude a port, so that it will always forward network traffic
and will never generate or respond to network messages for RSTP/MSTP or STP.
Excluding a port is an advanced option that should be used only if absolutely
necessary.
b. RSTP Port Priority. If the switch has more than one port that provides a path to
the root bridge and they have the same root path cost, the selection of which port to
use is based on the port priority. The port with the best (numerically lowest) priority
will be used. If the port priority is the same, the switch will use lowest numbered
port. The port priority can range from 0 to 240 seconds (128 second default).
c. RSTP Path Cost. As with any network, there is an associated cost to go from a
source location to a destination location. For RSTP, the root path cost is calculated
based on the bandwidth available for that particular connection to the root bridge.
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The port with the lowest cost for delivering messages to the root is used to pass
traffic toward the root.
The path cost can be assigned automatically based on the port speed, using the IEEE
standard values of 200,000 for 100Mbps links and 2,000,000 for 10Mbps links, or
the value can be specified in the range 1 to 200,000,000. Path costs are set to a fixed
value by default.
d. RSTP Port Type. A port that connects to other switches in the network may be part
of a loop. To ensure such loops do not occur, the switch will not put a port in the
Forwarding state until enough time has passed for the spanning tree to stabilize
(twice the forwarding delay, 30 seconds by default). However, if a port connects
directly to a single device at the edge of the network, it may safely be put in a
Forwarding state almost immediately. The port Type controls the switch's
assumptions about what is connected to the port. The following types are possible:

Network – The port will always wait a safe time before going to the Forwarding
state.

Edge – The port will initially be assumed to be a direct connection to a single
device but will change to being a Network port if any BPDU’s are received.
Thereafter, it will always wait a safe time before going to Forwarding whenever
a link is reestablished on the port.
e. RSTP Point to Point. A port is part of a point-to-point network segment when
there can be no more than one other network port connected to it. RSTP can decide
whether it is safe to forward network traffic very quickly on point-to-point links to
other managed switches, otherwise the port must wait many seconds (30 seconds by
default, twice the forward delay) before forwarding network traffic. When set to
Auto, full-duplex links are assumed to be point-to-point, half-duplex ports are not.
This setting can be forced true or false if the automatic determination would be
wrong.
In conclusion:
The preceding description can be daunting. However in most cases, where all you want is a
simple ring of switches, all you have to do is enable RSTP. Just leave all the RSTP parameters
at their factory defaults and the switches in the ring will automatically determine the best
primary and backup pathways.
8.3.5 MSTP (5)
MSTP: General disscussion
Although RSTP provides a fast convergent time, it still does not solve a problem inherent in
STP: All VLAN’s within a LAN must share the same spanning tree. To solve this problem,
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) creates a loop free topology in networks with
multiple spanning tree regions.
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This protocol configures a separate spanning tree for each VLAN group and blocks all but one
of the possible alternate paths within each spanning tree.
MSTP allows the formation of MST regions that can run multiple MST instances (MSTI’s).
Multiple regions and other STP bridges are interconnected using one single common spanning
tree. Each instance can be assigned a number of configured VLAN’s. Frames (packets)
assigned to these VLAN’s operate in this spanning tree instance whenever they are in the MST
region. MSTP is fully compatible with RSTP without any configuration changes.
An MSTP region can support up to 64 MSTI’s and each instance can support anywhere from 1
through 4094 VLAN’s.
1
2
3
4
5
1.
MSTP Region Name: The region name (can be up to 32 characters).
2.
MSTP Config Rev: The MSTP configuration revision (integer 0-65535).
3.
MSTP Max Hops: The MSTP Max Hop setting (integer in the range 6-60).
Number of Hops vs. Recovery Time
The diagram below shows a typical redundant ring network with 6 managed switches
and 5 hops between stations.
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The overall recovery time when there is a network segment failure is dependent on the
number of hops. The recovery time is typically less than 50ms per hop. Therefore, in the
diagram below of a typical ring with 6 managed switches the overall recovery time
would be less than 250ms (5 hops x <50ms).
3
Switch
Switch
4
2
Typical Redundant Ring Network
with 6 Managed Switches
(Recovery time < 250ms)
Switch
5 "hops" between
A and B
1
Switch
5
Switch
Switch
A
B
Typical Redundant Ring with 5 "hops" between A and B
4.
MSTIs: The MSTP instance table containing actual and file settings for the MSTI
Name, Number, ID and Bridge Priority.
5.
Ports: The MSTI port list containing actual and file settings for MSTI ID’s, Port
Priority and Port Cost for Ports 1 through 10.
Note
The above two settings are generated by the eXmux when configured. It is important not to
change these settings when configuring a network for “Hitless Switching.”
8.3.6 QoS (6)
Quality of Service (QoS) allows prioritized messages.
QoS: General disscussion
Without enabling special handling, a network provides a “best effort” service to all applications.
This means that there are no assurances regarding the Quality of Service for any particular
application because all packets are treated equally at each switch or router. However, certain
applications require a deterministic response from the network to assure proper operation.
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Numerous mechanisms exist to help assure reliable and timely network communication. The
managed switch supports two common means of prioritizing messages: IP header and 802.1p
user priorities.
The IP header is present in all frames and contains a priority field, which defaults to 0 and may
be set as high as 255. This field is sometimes referred to as the Type of Service (TOS) field, or
the Differentiated Services (DS or DiffServ) field.
Applications may add IEEE 802.1p tags, which contain a priority field that may be set from 0 to
7. Each value has a traffic type associated with it. For example, a tag of 5 is prescribed for
video data.
The Ethernet Switch provides four priority queues for expediting outbound data. The 256 IP
priorities and the 7 IEEE priorities are mapped into these ports in a way that optimizes
throughput of high priority data.
1
2
3
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1.
QOS Schedule: When choosing how to handle lower priority data, the switch can
use strict or fair scheduling. This choice affects all queues on all ports.
Strict:
With strict scheduling, all data in the highest priority queue will be sent
before any lower priority data, then all data from the second highest
priority, and so on. This assures that high-priority data always gets
through as quickly as possible.
Fair:
With fair scheduling, a round-robin algorithm is used, weighted so that
more high-priority than low-priority data gets through Specifically, the
switch will send eight frames from the urgent queue, then four from the
expedited queue, two from the normal queue, and one from the
background queue, then start over with the urgent queue. This assures
that the lower priority queues will not be starved.
2.
QOS: Checking this button will display the following dialog box.
a
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a. Check to enable either IEEE 802.1p tags or IP headers.
IEEE 802.1p tags This setting controls whether the switch will honor IEEE tags if
present in frames. When enabled, tagged data will be routed to an
outbound priority queue based on the configure tag mapping. Disable
this setting to ignore IEEE tags on all in-coming frames.
IP headers
This setting controls whether the switch will honor priority fields in
the IP header. When enabled – and not overridden by an
IEEE tag – data will be routed to an outbound priority queue based on
IPv4 Type of Service or IPv6 Traffic Class. The priority queue will
be the IP priority field value divided by 64. Disable this setting to
ignore IP priority fields.
b. Check to enable the preference for above. This setting controls which
priority mark – IEEE tag or IP header – takes precedence if both are present
and enabled. It has no effect if either Tags or IP is disabled.
c. Each of the 8 IEEE tag priority values can be assigned to one of the four
output priority queues:
 Background (0)
 Normal (1)
 Expedited (2)
 Urgent (3)
3. QOS Tags: Checking this button will display the following dialog box.
a
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a. Tag Number: Assign a Tag Number here.
b. Tag Priority: Each of the eight IEEE tag priority values can be assigned to
one of the four Output Priority Queues (See d).
c. Traffic Type: Each type can be given a priority (0 to 7) as follows.
Type
Description
Best Effort (0)
The lowest priority
Background (1)
Slightly higher than best effort
Spare (2)
The normal traffic priority
Excellent Effort (3)
For business critical use
Controlled Load (4)
Streaming Multimedia
Video (5)
Interactive video media (less than 100ms latency and jitter)
Voice (6)
Interactive voice media (less than 10ms latency and jitter)
Network Control Layer (7)
Reserved traffic (the lowest latency and jitter)
d. Output Priority Queue:




Background (0)
Normal (1)
Expedited (2)
Urgent (3)
8.3.7 IGMP (7)
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) allows hosts and routers to work together to
optimize forwarding of multicast traffic on a network. Without IGMP, all multicast packets
must be forwarded to all network segments. With IGMP, multicast traffic is only forwarded to
network segments, which connect interested hosts.
IGMP: General disscussion
IGMPv1 provides a basic mechanism for hosts and routers to communicate information about
multicast groups. Routers send Query messages and hosts respond with group membership
Report messages.
IGMPv2 adds a maximum response time to the Query and adds a Leave message to the
protocol. IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 should not coexist on the same network. Also, IGMPv2
routers are expected to perform IGMPv1 protocols on segments where IGMPv1 hosts are
found.
An IGMP snooping switch performs many of the functions of an IGMP router. In passive
mode, such a switch processes IGMP protocol messages sent by hosts and routers to configure
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efficient forwarding of multicast traffic. In active mode, a switch will also send its own queries
to speed network convergence.
Periodically, routers and IGMP snooping switches in active mode send an IGMP Query on each
attached network. (The query interval is generally around 1-2 minutes.) A host that wishes to
be a member of a group sets a timer for a short, random delay when it sees the Query. If it sees
a Report from another host before its timer expires, it cancels the timer and takes no further
action until another Query is seen. If no other Report is seen, a Report is sent when the timer
expires. The router or switch uses the Report to configure multicast forwarding.
The router or switch keeps track of how long it has been since the last Report on each port for
each group. When the group expires, the router or switch stops forwarding multicast data to
that port. Since the query interval is less than the expiration time, data for active groups
continues to be forwarded without interruption.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1. Mode: This setting controls how the switch handles IGMP messages to determine
how to forward multicast traffic.

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
Snoop causes the switch to listen to IGMP messages and configure forwarding
of multicast messages accordingly.

Router causes the switch to act as an IGMP router, sending queries when
needed and configuring multicast forwarding according to IGMP membership
reports.
2. Mspp (Multicast Suppression): This feature can intelligently suppress multicast
packets that no host has requested with IGMP.

None. Multicast packets will be sent to all ports unless IGMP is enabled and
one or more clients have sent IGMP report requests.

IP. Multicast packets corresponding to IP multicast groups (with MAC
addresses starting 01:00:5e) will be suppressed unless one or more clients have
sent IGMP Report messages. Multicast packets with other addresses (any other
packet with a MAC address starting 01) will be sent to all ports.

All. Multicast packets with reserved multicast addresses (01:80:c2:00:00:0x
where x is 0..f) will be sent to all ports. All other multicast packets will be
suppressed unless one or more clients have sent IGMP Report messages.
3. Version: This setting controls the highest IGMP version that the switch will use.
All IGMP routers and snooping switches on a network should be configured for the
same IGMP version. Select version 1, 2 or 3 as appropriate for your installation.
4. Robustness: This setting specifies how many queries may be lost without
impacting forwarding as the switch tries to find IGMP hosts.
5. Qinterval (Query Interval): This setting specifies how often the switch will send
IGMP queries.
6. Qresponse (Query Response Interval): This setting specifies the maximum time
for hosts to respond to IGMP queries. (For IGMPv1, this is fixed at 10 seconds).
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7. Port Settings: Generally, the switch will dynamically learn which ports have IGMP
routers attached to them by listening for IGMP Query messages. Under some
circumstances, it is necessary to statically configure ports as leading to IGMP
routers. Force the switch to forward IGMP messages to a specific port by choosing
Static as the router type. Clicking the “Port Settings” button will allow the
following settings:
a
b
c
a. Port Number: The Port Number.
b. Port Exclude: A port may be excluded from IGMP processing. IGMP
queries and reports received on an excluded port are ignored so devices
reached via the excluded port cannot join multicast groups filtered by the
switch. IGMP queries and reports will not be forwarded to the excluded port
so IGMP routers reached via the excluded port will not know of
memberships for devices reached by other ports.
c. Port Router: Set to “Static Router” for the switch to assume there is an
IGMP router on this port even if no IGMP Query messages are received.
The benefits of enabling IGMP
Take an already established control network that has an Ethernet device sending multicast data
to several other Ethernet devices. Between the source of the multicast data, and the destination
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Ethernet devices that are interested in the multicast data, multicast packets might pass through a
number of switches or routers.
To make this control network more efficient, the switches or routers should know how to
handle the flow of multicast data by means of IGMP. Switches or routers that are not capable
of supporting IGMP will not know what to do with the multicast data and forward multicast
data out all ports. This will slow down the network.
8.3.8 Ethernet (8)
The following dialog boxes will allow the user to clear specific ports of statistics. Statistics for
the IEEE 802.1d group of networking protocols found in Section 8.3.11 and statistics for the
IEEE 802.3 group of networking protocols found in Section 8.3.10 can be cleared on a port for
port basis.
The user can select to
clear ports of 'dot3'
statistics
The user can select to
clear ports of 'dot1d'
statistics
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Clearing port statistics typical:
Check the required box
to clear statistics for
that port
8.3.9 Switch Alarm Tab (9)
The tab is shown below.
1
2
3
4
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1. Link State Alarm: Clicking this button will display the alarm link loss state of
the switch port; details are shown below.
This dialog will indicate if the “Link Lost Alarm” is active on these ports.
2. Admin Status Alarm: Clicking this button will display the Admin Status
Alarm state of the switch ports; as shown below.
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3. Inactivity Status: Clicking this button will indicate if any ports have been
inactive beyond the set period.
4. Link State Alarm (TDM): Clicking this button will indicate if the link is lost
on the TDM engine ports 1 and 2.
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8.3.10 General Tab (10)
The tab is shown below.
Currently this tab will show the “Switch Software Version” being used on the Ethernet
Switch.
8.3.11 Ethernet Statistics Tab (11)
The tab is shown below.
1
2
3
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The dialogs are shown on the following pages.
1. Switch Interface Status: Clicking this button will display basic port interface
information; details are shown on the following page.
a
b
c
a. Port #: Indicates the port number of the switch as listed below.
Port number
Description
1 to 6
These ports are for connection to external equipment.
The ports listed below are internal to the Ethernet Switch.
7
Expansion port.
8
Management CPU
9
TDM over IP Engine 1
10
TDM over IP Engine 2
65
Switch CPU
b. ifSpeed: Indicates the speed of the connection on a connected port in bits per
second.
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c. Link: Indicates whether the port is connected:
up = Connected
down = Not Connected
2. Ethernet Statistics: Indicates Ethernet Statistics as shown in the following
dialog box.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
a. Drop Events: Total number of events in which packets were dropped due to
lack of resources. This is not necessarily the number of packets dropped, just
the number of times this condition is detected.
b. RX Bytes: Total number of octets of data (including those in bad packets)
received on the network, excluding framing bits but including FCS (Frame
Check Sequence) octets.
c. RX Packets: Total number of packets received, including error packets.
d. RX Broadcasts: The total number of good packets received directed to the
broadcast address.
e. RX Multicasts: The total number of good packets received directed to the
multicast address, this number does not include packets directed to the
broadcast address.
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Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
f. CRC Alignment Errors: Packets received that have a length between 64
and1518 octets (excluding frame bits but including FCS octets) inclusive, but
were not an integral number of octets in length or had a bad FCS.
g. Undersized Packets: Total number of packets received that were less
than64 octets long and were otherwise well framed.
h. Oversized Packets: Total number of packets received that were longer than
1518 octets and were otherwise well formed.
i. Fragments: Total number of packets received that were not an integral
number of octets in length or had a bad FCS, and were less than 64 octets in
length.
j. Jabbers: Total number of packets received that were longer than 1518
octets in length or had a bad FCS.
k. Collisions: The best estimate of the number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
l. 64 Bytes: Total number of packets (including error packets) that were 64
octets in length.
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The following columns are as above but in incremental bytes.
3. Dot3 Statistics: Displays performance statistics for Ether-like devices as
shown in the following dialog box.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
a. Single Collisions: A count of frames that are involved in a single collision
and are subsequently transmitted successfully.
b. Multiple Collisions: A count of frames that are involved in more than one
collision and are subsequently transmitted successfully.
c. SQE Test Errors: A count of the number of times that a SQE (Signal
Quality Error) test error is received on a particular interface.
d. Deferred TX: A count of the frames for which the first transmission attempt
on a particular interface is delayed because the medium is busy. This does
not include frames involved in collisions. Note that this counter does not
increment when the interface is operating in full duplex mode.
e. Late Collisions: The number of times that a collision is detected on a
particular interface, later than one time-slot into the transmission.
f. Excessive Collisions: A count of frames for which a transmission on a
particular interface fails due to excessive collisions. Note that this counter
does not increment when the interface is operating in full duplex mode.
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Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
g. MAC Transmit Errors: A count of frames for which transmission on a
particular interface fails due to an internal MAC sub-layer transmit error.
h. Carrier Sense Errors: The number of times that the carrier sense condition
was lost or never asserted when attempting to transmit a frame on a
particular interface. The count represented by this instance is incremented
once per transmission attempt, even if the carrier sense condition fluctuates
during a transmission attempt.
i. Frame Too Long: A count of frames received on a particular interface that
exceed the permitted frame size.
j. Stats Internal MAC Receive Errors: A count of frames for which
reception on a particular interface fails due to an internal MAC sub-layer
receive error.
k. Symbol Errors: For an interface operating at 100Mb/s, the number of times
there was an invalid data symbol when the valid carrier was present.
For an interface operating at half duplex mode at 1000Mb/s, the number of
times the receiving media is non-idle for a period of time equal to or greater
than slotTime, and during which there was at least one occurrence of an
event that causes the PHY to indicate “Data Reception Error” or “Carrier
Extend Error” on the GMII.
For an interface operating at full duplex at 1000Mb/s, the number of times
the receiving media is non-idle for a period equal to or greater than
mainframeSize, and during which there was at least one occurrence of an
event that causes the PHY to indicate “ Data Reception Error” on the GMII.
l. Duplex: The current mode of operation of the MAC entity, “unknown”
indicates that the current mode of the entity could not be determined.
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8.3.12 dot1d – Spanning Tree Protocol (12)
1
2
3
4
1. dot1dStpStatus1: Clicking this button will display the bridge’s state with respect to
the spanning tree protocol as shown below. (Part 1 of 2)
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
a. Protocol Specification: Indicates the version of the spanning tree protocol
being run.
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b. Priority: The writable portion of the bridge ID (the first two octets of the
eight octets long bridge ID). The other six octets are given by the value of
the dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.
c. Time Since Topology Change: The time (in hundredths of a second) since
a topology change was detected by the bridge entity.
d. Topology Changes: The number of topology changes detected by this
bridge since the management entity was last reset or initialized.
e. Designated Root: The bridge identifier of the root of the spanning tree, as
determined by the spanning tree protocol, as executed by the node. This
value is used as the root identifier parameter in all configuration bridge
PDUs originated by this node.
f. Root Cost: The cost of the path to the root as seen from this bridge.
g. Root Port: The port number that offers the lowest cost path from the bridge
to the root bridge.
h. Maximum Age: The maximum age of spanning tree protocol information
learned from the network on any port before it is discarded.
2. dot1dStpStatus2: Clicking this button will display the bridge’s state with respect to
the spanning tree protocol as shown on the following page. (Part 2 of 2)
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
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i. Hello Time: The time between each transmission of configuration bridge
PDUs by this node on any port when it is the root of the spanning tree, or
trying to become so, in units of hundredths of a second.
j. Hold Time: This time value is the interval length during which no more
than two bridge PDUs are transmitted by this node, in units of hundredths of
a second.
k. Forward Delay: This time value controls how fast a port changes its
spanning state when moving toward the forwarding state, measured in units
of hundredths of a second.
l. Bridge Maximum Age: The value that all bridges use for maximum age
when the bridge is acting as the root.
m. Bridge Hello Time: The value that all bridges use for hello time when the
bridge is acting as the root.
n. Bridge Forward Delay: The value that all bridges use for forward delay
when the bridge is acting as the root.
o. Version: The version of the spanning tree protocol the bridge is currently
running.
p. Tx Hold Count: The value used by the port transmit state machine to limit
the maximum transmission rate.
3. dot1dStpPortStatus: Clicking this button will show a table that displays port
specific information for the spanning tree protocol, as shown below.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
a. Port Priority: The value of the priority field that is contained in the first (in
network byte order) octet of the (two octet long) port ID. The other octet of
the port ID is given by the value of dot1dStpPort.
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b. Port State: The current state of the port as defined by the spanning tree
protocol. This state controls what action a port takes on reception of a frame.
c. Port Enable: Shows whether a port is enabled or disabled.
d. Port Path Cost: The contribution of this port to the path cost of all paths
toward the spanning tree root.
e. Port Designated Root: The unique bridge identifier of the bridge recorded
as root in the configuration bridge BPDUs, transmitted by the designated
bridge for the segment to which the port is attached.
f. Port Designated Cost: The path cost of the designated port of the segment
connected to this port. This value is compared to the root path cost field in
received bride PDUs.
g. Port Designated Bridge: The bridge identifier that this port considers to be
the designated bridge for the segment of this port.
h. Port Designated Port: The port identifier of the port on the designated
bridge for the segment of this port.
i. Port Forward Transitions: The number of times the port has transitioned
from the learning state to the forwarding state.
4. dot1dStpExtPortStatus: Clicking this button will show a list of rapid spanning
tree information maintained by each port, as shown below.
a
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a. Ext Port: The port number for the port for which this entry contains STP
management information.
b. Port Protocol Migration: When operating in RSTP (version 2) mode,
writing TRUE(1) to this object forces this port to transmit RSTP BPDUs.
Any other operation on this object has no effect and it always returns
FALSE(2) when read.
c. Port Admin Edge Port: The administrative value of the edge port
parameter. A value of TRUE(1) indicates that the port is an edge port and a
value of FALSE(2) indicates that the port is a non-edge port.
d. Port Operational Edge Port: The operational value of the edge port
parameter. The object is initialized to the value of
dot1dStpPortAdminEdgePort and is set FALSE on the reception of BPDU.
e. Port Admin Point To Point: The administrative point to point status of the
LAN segment attached to this port.
f. Port Operational Point To Point: The operational point to point status of
the LAN segment attached to this port. It indicates whether a port is
considered to have a point to point connection or not. The value is
determined by management or by auto-detection, as described in the
dot1dStpPortAdminPointToPoint object.
g. Port Admin Path Cost: The administratively assigned value for the
contribution of this port to the path cost of paths towards the spanning tree
root.
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Configuration and Status Settings for the eXmux Managed Ethernet Switch
8.4 Ethernet Switch Configuration – Model 3501/3501M
Clicking on the Ethernet Switch as shown will bring up the following dialog box. The dialog
boxes for Ethernet Options are similar in layout to the other eXmux VNMS configuration
pages.
3501M
3501
Clicking within the Ethernet
Switch will bring up a
configuration page
Clicking within the Ethernet
Switch will bring up a
configuration page
The following pages will tabulate and describe the various options available when using the
model 3501/3501M Ethernet Switch. The following configuration screens are somewhat
different in nature than those used to configure the 3500/3500M Ethernet switch. Please note
the following:
Gigabit Port Considerations: Special configuration is required for inter-connection of gigabit
ports 5 and 6 between the model 3500/3500M and 3501/3501M Ethernet Switches. See Section
8.5 for interoperability between 3500/3500M and 3501/3501M eXmux units used in the same
network.
Hitless Switching: This feature will not function if both model 3500/3500M and model
3501/3501M switches are present in the same network.
Additional Identification: eXmux units using the model 3501/3501M switch can be identified
as follows:
3501M Modular units by Part No. 109335-4 on the switch
3501 Non-modular units by Part No. 109380 on the switch
Terminology: The model 3501/3501M switch uses different terminology than the 3500/3500M
when describing the port type (primarily used in VLAN applications).
3500/3500M Switch Terminology
3501/3501M Switch Terminology
Network
Edge
Transparent
Trunk
Access
Non-applicable
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Shown below is the first dialog box presented when configuring the RFL Managed Ethernet
Switch. Each tabs configuration is described in the following sub-sections which are hyperlinked to the call-out number.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
8.4.1 Alarm Settings (1)
Each Ethernet port can be configured for “Link Loss Alarm,” “Admin Status Alarm” and “Port
Inactivity Status Alarm.”
Each Ethernet
port can be
configured to
either Major,
Minor or None
for its alarm
state. The
Admin Status
Alarm is
configured in a
similar way.
Click to configure
ports 1 through 7
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8.4.2 Ports (2)
Clicking the Port Tab will allow configuration of various port features, including Port
Mirroring.
1
2
3
4
5
Ports
1. Port Settings: Click this button to access the port settings dialog as shown on the
following page.
a
b
Click to
change the
settings
c
d
e
Click to
display the
actual port
settings
a.
Port Number: The port number.
b.
Port Enable: Each port can be enabled or disabled.
c.
Port Name: Can be up to 15 characters in length.
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d.
Port Speed: Configures the operating speed of the port. For fast Ethernet ports
1 - 4 this can be set to Auto, 10 or 100mbps. For GE ports 5 and 6 this can be
set to Auto, 10, 100 or 1000. When set to “Auto” the port will auto-negotiate,
such that the fastest bandwidth is selected. Note, 100mbps fiber ports are
fixed speed only.
e.
Port Duplex: Will configure the Duplex operation as follows:
Auto – Enables auto duplexing operation.
Full – Forces full duplex operation.
Half – Forces half duplex operation.
Note: It is recommended to disable auto-negotiation on all uplink ports connecting to a switch
or router and set them for fixed port and duplex.
Port Mirroring
2. Port Mirroring Settings: Click this button to access the port mirroring dialog as shown
below. Port mirroring allows a designated port in the Ethernet Switch to receive mirrored
data from another port in the Switch. This port can then be used to externally monitor
activity within the switch. Note the source port cannot be the destination port.
a
b
c
d
a. Destination Port: This will set the port to receive the mirrored data.
b. Source Port: Selects the port to be to be monitored.
c. Source Direction: The source ports traffic direction can be set to transmit, receive
or both.
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d. Port Monitoring Mode: Select to enable the selected port to be monitored.
Port Security
3. Port Security Settings: Click this button to access the port security dialog where blocking
of unknown addresses can be enabled on selected ports as shown on the following page.
Port numbers are fixed
and cannot be changed
Click to enable port
security on this port
Click to enable
blocking of unknown
multicast addresses
Click to enable
blocking of unknown
unicast addresses
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4. Mac Address Settings: Click this button to add trusted Mac addresses to a specific port
on the Ethernet Switch. Insure that the “File Settings” tab is clicked, then click the “Add
Row” button first to enter port and Mac address details.
Add a secure Mac
address on this port
Click to select port
Click to delete row
Click to add row first
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Port Storm Control
5. Port Storm Control Settings: Storm control prevents traffic on a FE (which includes the
eXmux GE ports) from being disrupted by a broadcast, multicast or unicast storm on a port.
A storm occurs when packets flood the LAN creating excessive traffic and degrading the
network performance. Storm control uses rising and falling thresholds to block and then
restore the forwarding of broadcast, multicast and unicast packets. You can also set the
switch to shut down the port when the rising threshold is reached.
The port numbers
are fixed
Can be set to “None”
or “Shutdown”
Rising and falling thresholds expressed as a percentage of
bandwidth usage (for example 0.01% 4000* 0.01 = 40%)
The above screen shows a setting where the feature is effectively turned off. This is because
utilization will have to go over 100% to trigger storm control.
8.4.3 VLAN(3)
Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a mechanism for controlling message traffic flow.
Messages can be forced to be sent only to specific areas of a network thus eliminating
messaging clutter.
VLAN: General disscussion
VLANs can segregate traffic flowing through a switch to improve bandwidth utilization or
security. Segregation is done based on membership in a group of ports (port-based VLANs) or
on IEEE 802.1Q tags which include a VLAN ID (tag-based VLANs). The example below is
for illustrative purposes only and does not apply to the eXmux which only has 6-ports.
A port-based VLAN limits traffic coming in a port to the group of ports to which that port
belongs. For example, if ports 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 were placed in a port-based VLAN, broadcast
frames coming in port 3 would be sent to ports 1, 5, 7, and 9 (which are members of port 3's
VLAN) but not to ports 2, 4, 6, and 8 (which are not members).
A port may be a member of two port-based VLANs though results of this configuration are not
always desirable or easily predictable. When initializing port-based VLANs the switch
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configures each port to be able to send data to all ports in all the port-based VLANs in which it
is a member. For example, if one VLAN had ports 1-5 and another had ports 5-9, traffic from
port 1-4 could go to ports 1-5, traffic from ports 6-9 could go to ports 5-9, and traffic from port
5 could go to all ports.
A tag-based VLAN limits traffic based on the VLAN ID in a 'tag' associated with the frame.
VLAN tags may be explicitly placed in frames by applications or switching equipment, or
implicitly assigned to frames based on the switch port where they arrive.
VLAN IDs are 12-bits long providing 4096 possible IDs but several values are reserved:
0
1
4095
1002
through
1005
Indicates that the tag is not being used for VLAN routing but only
to carry priority information.
Used for switch configuration and management.
Not allowed by the 802.1Q standard.
Additionally reserved by the firmware.
1
2
3
4
1. Number of Tag based VLANs: Increased or decreased when tag based VLANs are
added or subtracted.
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2. Management VLAN Config: Clicking this button will reveal the following dialog
that allows identification of individual VLANs on your network.
a
b
Note: The above screen is for reference only.
a.
Management VLAN ID: This ID identifies the individual VLANs you create
on your network. The VLAN ID must be specified in the range from 1 to 4094.
There are five reserved VLAN IDs (that should not be used):
VLAN ID of 1 (default) is normally used for switch configuration and
management.
VLAN ID 1002 through 1005 is reserved by the firmware.
The Management VLAN ID identifies the VLAN used for VNMS
communications with the network and inter-network automatic discovery of
the nodes (neighbor discovery). The VLAN is normally 1, but can be changed
to segregate management traffic from data traffic and other non-eXmux traffic
that may be in the network.
Note: The management VLAN ID must be the same for all nodes in the network. Use
the System Global Setting dialog to ensure all nodes get updated at the same
time. See Section 7.15
b.
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VLAN Management VLAN: This area will display the Ethernet Switch base
port configuration, port1-10. Not all of these ports are configurable in the
eXmux, see (3) below.
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3. VLAN’s: Clicking this button will allow the user to add, remove, or configure
VLAN’s in his particular network.
a
b
c
d
e
Note: When adding or removing VLANs when in “Hitless” mode. Be careful not to
remove or modify VLANs generated by the hitless mode.
a.
VLAN Name: A name for the VLAN, can be 1-32 characters. Used for
display only.
b. VLAN ID: This ID identifies the individual VLAN’s created in your network.
For tag based VLAN’s the ID in the tag.
c. VLAN MSTI: Associated MSTI instance. Port based VLAN or tag based
VLAN with RSTP (0).
d. Click to delete an individual VLAN.
e. Click this button to add a new template for an additional VLAN.
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4. VLAN Port Settings: Clicking this button will allow the user management over
each port’s VLAN settings.
a
a.
b
c
d
e
Port Number: The selected ports included in this VLAN.
CAUTION
When working with tag-based VLAN’s, ports included in a VLAN may lead to other network
devices (which require tags to properly route data) or to end devices, which cannot process
VLAN tags.
b.
PVID: This is the port's default VLAN ID. It is applied to frames which arrive
at the port without a VLAN tag or with a priority-only VLAN tag (one which
contains the special VLAN ID 0). Set the desired PVID to make sure your
untagged packets for the port get forwarded to other ports in the desired VLAN.
CAUTION
Switch management and configuration is only possible through the port if the PVID is set to 1
(the default). Setting the PVID to another value prevents the switch from being
managed/configured via that port (unless the system you are using to configure the switch can
explicitly tag frames for VLAN 1, the management VLAN).
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c.
Vlan Port Type: This setting controls how IEEE tags are handled in out-going
data:

Auto: The port will be automatically configured for either an end device
or trunk traffic (see below).

Access: This is a port that is part of only one VLAN, normally for an
end device. An access port connection can understand only standard
Ethernet Frames. Switches remove any VLAN information from the
frame before it is sent to the end device.

Trunk: A trunk port can carry multiple VLAN traffic and is normally
used to connect Ethernet switches to each other, or to connect switches to
routers.
d.
Allowed Vlan Range: VLAN ID range when the interface is in trunking
mode. The range is 1 to 4094, except for VLANs reserved for internal use.
Use a hyphen (-) to separate the beginning and ending IDs. Use a comma (,) to
separate indivdual IDs.
e.
Native Vlan: A native VLAN is the only VLAN not tagged in a trunk, in other
words native VLAN frames are transmitted unchanged. By default the native
VLAN ID is VLAN 1.
8.4.3.1 Writing
VLAN Settings to the eXmux (Step for Step)
1. With VNMS running go to the “Node View” of the eXmux chassis requiring
configuration.
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2. To access the “Switch Settings” double click within the graphic as shown below.
Right click within the Switch
Graphic and Select Menu Entry
Double click within
or the Ports Graphic
3. The “Switch Settings” dialog will appear, click the VLAN tab.
Click the VLAN tab
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4. In the next dialog click the VLAN button.
Click the VLANs
button
5. The VLAN Settings dialog will appear, click the “File Settings” tab and then click the
“Add Row” button.
First click the
“File Settings” tab
Click to
delete row
Then click the
“Add Row” button
6. Following is a description of the settings and values to be added:
VLAN Name – Any name can be entered (without spaces).
VLAN Number – If there is currently no VLAN configured use “1” or use the next
available number. Not to be confused with VLAN ID.
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VLAN ID – Type a unique number to be used as the ID, any number can be used from
2 – 4094. Note that by default Hitless settings use a VLAN offset of 1000. When
enabling “Hitless Switching” the eXmux will start using VLAN IDs after 1000,
counting up for its MSTIs. This can be changed by going to the “Hitless Settings” and
changing the VLAN offset.
VLAN MSTI – RFL recommends that for most applications “0” be entered . VLAN
MSTI is only used when MSTP is employed as the redundancy protocol. For advanced
applications contact RFL for assistance.
Below is a completed dialog.
7. After all the VLANs have been set, click the “Write” button.
8. After “Write” is completed click the “Actual Settings” tab to verify that all settings have
been written correctly. Note it can take up to 15 seconds for the table to update with the
new values.
9. Close the “VLAN Settings” dialog.
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Additional notes:
When using standard Tag Based VLANs you can go to “VLAN Port Settings” to configure
additional VLAN settings depending on requirements. The following settings can be
changed.
PVID – This is the port’s default VLAN ID. It is applied to all frames coming into the
port without any VLAN tag or with a priority VLAN tag of 0.
Vlan Port Type – This controls how tags are handled on frames exiting the port.
Below are the settings:
Auto – The port will be automatically configured for either an access
device or trunk traffic (see below).
Access – This is a port that is part of only one VLAN, normally for an
end device. An access port connection can understand only standard
Ethernet Frames. Switches remove any VLAN information from the
frame before it is sent to the end device.
Trunk – A trunk port can carry multiple VLAN traffic and is normally
used to connect Ethernet switches to each other, or to connect switches to
routers.
8.4.4 RSTP(4)
RSTP: General disscussion
The Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) allows you to have an Ethernet network with
redundant connections, so if one path between two points on the network fails, another path can
be used to deliver messages. If one link or switch fails, another link or switch can take over
transparently to prevent unnecessary down time. So why not just physically connect each of the
switches in your network in various loop configurations such that there are always at least two
paths going to and from each switch? A good idea, but it creates broadcast loops that will bring
a network to its knees very quickly.
In an unmanaged Ethernet network there can be only one path between any two ports on the
network. If there is more than one path from one switch to another a broadcast message (and in
some cases other messages) sent by the network will be forwarded until it completes a loop by
returning on the second path. Since the switches forward all broadcasts and do not keep track of
the messages they have sent, the returning message will be sent around the loop again and
again. A single message circulating forever around a loop at high speed is clearly not a good
thing, so no loops are allowed.
The limitations of having only one path are even simpler to see. If the one and only path fails
for any reason, such as a broken cable or power failure at one of the switches, there are no paths
left and no network traffic can get through. We need a way to add alternate paths without
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creating loops. Thus the use of Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, a loop prevention protocol, is
used such that switches can communicate with each other to discover and prevent loops.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1. RSTP Protocol: Sets the Redundancy Protocol used. Selecting PVST, Rapid
PVST or MST will allow redundant links between switches so that those links can
keep the network connected even when a primary link fails.

PVST (Per VLAN Spanning Tree). Runs the spanning tree algorithm (STP)
on each VLAN in the switch.

Rapid PVST. This will run RSTP on each VLAN in the switch. Note, there is a
limit of 128 VLANs per switch.

MST (MSTP). Runs RSTP on groups of VLANs by creating MSTIs that
incorporate a grope of VLANs.
2. RSTP Priority (Bridge Priority): Bridge priority is important since it is used to
determine the root bridge. The priority ranges from 0 to 61440 (default 32768) and
must be a multiple of 4096. Lower numbers indicate a better priority; the switch
with the lowest priority number will be selected as the root bridge.
There are two ways to select a root bridge (switch). The first is by default, leaving
all the bridge priority settings the same at the default of 32768. The second way is to
customize priority settings of each bridge. When leaving the bridge priority setting
at the default on all of the switches, the switches select the managed switch with the
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lowest MAC address. This may be adequate for networks with light or evenly
distributed traffic.
Customizing the bridge priority settings allows the network to select a root bridge
that gives the best network performance. The goal is generally to have the network
traffic pass through the network as directly as possible, so the root should be central
in the network. If most messages are between one central server and several clients
the root should probably be a switch near the server, so messages do not take a long
path to the root and another long path back to the server.
Once you decide which switch should be the root, it should be given the best
(numerically lowest) bridge priority number in the network.
3. RSTP Mma (Max Age): For PVST/Rapid PVST/MSTP the max age indicates the
maximum time (in seconds) that the switch can wait for configuration messages
from other managed switches. max age can range from 6 to 40 seconds (20 seconds
default). If that time expires, the switch assumes that it is no longer connected to the
root of the network. If a link goes down in a way that the switch can detect as loss
of link it does not wait before reconfiguring the network.
CAUTION
Assign all switches in a PVST/Rapid PVST/MSTP network the same Max Age.
4. RSTP Hello Time: Configuration messages (BPDU’s –Bridge Protocol Data Units)
are sent periodically to other bridges based on a time period labeled hello time.
Hello time can be set from a range of 1 to 10 seconds (6 seconds default).
Decreasing the hello time gives faster recovery times, while increasing the hello
time interval decreases the overhead involved.
CAUTION
Assign all switches in a PVST/Rapid PVST/MSTP network the same Hello Time.
5. RSTP Fwd Delay: The forward delay is a time (in seconds) used by all switches in
the network. The forward delay can be set from a range of 4 to 30 seconds (15
seconds default). This value is controlled by the root bridge and is used as a timeout
value to allow ports to begin forwarding traffic after network topology changes. If a
port is not configured as an access port and RSTP cannot negotiate the link status a
port must wait twice the forward delay before forwarding network traffic. In a
properly configured network using RSTP or MSTP this setting has very little effect.
The default value for the forward delay is 15 seconds. If you change this setting, the
switch will not allow a value unless it satisfies the following formula:
2 × (forward delay – 1.0 seconds) ≥ max message age
CAUTION
Assign all switches in an PVST/Rapid PVST/MSTP network the same Fwd Delay.
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Note
Max Age, Hello Time and Forward Delay.
These parameters define various aspects of how the RSTP operates. It is recommended
that you leave these parameters at the default values for all the managed switches in
your network.
6. RSTP Tx Limit: The transmission limit controls the maximum number of BPDU’s
which may be sent in one second. The transmission limit can range from 1 to 10
messages/second (6 messages/second default). Increasing Transmission limit can
speed convergence of the network but at the cost of available network bandwidth.
7. Port Settings: Click this button to optimize your networks redundancy and
maximize its reliability by specifying spanning tree protocol parameters for each
port on the eXmux Ethernet Switch. Following is the dialog box with the “File
Settings” tab clicked.
These
numbers
should never
be changed
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
a. RSTP Port Priority. If the switch has more than one port that provides a path to
the root bridge and they have the same root path cost, the selection of which port to
use is based on the port priority. The port with the best (numerically lowest) priority
will be used. If the port priority is the same, the switch will use lowest numbered
port. The port priority can range from 0 to 240 seconds (128 second default).
b. RSTP Port Cost. As with any network, there is an associated cost to go from a
source location to a destination location. For RSTP, the root path cost is calculated
based on the bandwidth available for that particular connection to the root bridge.
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The port with the lowest cost for delivering messages to the root is used to pass
traffic toward the root.
The port cost can be assigned automatically based on the port speed, using the IEEE
standard values of 200,000 for 100Mbps links and 2,000,000 for 10Mbps links, or
the value can be specified in the range 1 to 200,000,000. Path costs are set to a fixed
value by default.
c. RSTP Port Link Type.

Point2Point – A port is part of a point-to-point network segment when there can
be no more than one other network port connected to it. RSTP can decide
whether it is safe to forward network traffic very quickly on point-to-point links
to other managed switches, otherwise the port must wait many seconds (30
seconds by default, twice the forward delay) before forwarding network traffic.
When set to Auto, full-duplex links are assumed to be point-to-point, half-duplex
ports are not.

Shared – The switch learns the link type from the port duplex mode: a fullduplex port is considered to have a point to point connection; a half-duplex port
is considered to have a shared connection. You can override the default setting
that is controlled by the duplex setting by changing thee spanning tree link type.
d. RSTP Port Portfast – immediately brings a port configured as an access or trunk
port to the forwarding state from a blocking state, by bypassing the listening and
learning states. You can use Portfast on interfaces connected to a single
workstation or server, to allow these devices to immediately connect to the network.
Great caution should be used when using the trunk setting.
e. RSTP Port Bpdu Filter – This command prevents the port from sending or
receiving BPDUs.
CAUTION
Enabling BPDU filtering on a port is the same as disabling spanning tree on it and can
result in spanning tree loops.
f. RSTP Port Bpdu Guard – Can be set to accept BPDUs on this port. When this
port is in “Portfast” mode, you will disable Bpdu Guard to allow the port to remain
operational even when connected to another switch. When the port receives a
BPDU, it is put in the error disabled state.
g. RSTP Port Guard – Changes the ports spanning tree guard state. The choices are:
none, loop and root.
In conclusion:
The preceding description can be daunting. However in most cases, where all you want is a
simple ring of switches, all you have to do is enable RSTP. Just leave all the RSTP parameters
at their factory defaults and the switches in the ring will automatically determine the best
primary and backup pathways.
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8.4.5 MSTP (5)
MSTP: General disscussion
Although RSTP provides a fast convergent time, it still does not solve a problem inherent in
STP: All VLAN’s within a LAN must share the same spanning tree. To solve this problem,
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) creates a loop free topology in networks with
multiple spanning tree regions.
This protocol configures a separate spanning tree for each VLAN group and blocks all but one
of the possible alternate paths within each spanning tree.
MSTP allows the formation of MST regions that can run multiple MST instances (MSTI’s).
Multiple regions and other STP bridges are interconnected using one single common spanning
tree. Each instance can be assigned a number of configured VLAN’s. Frames (packets)
assigned to these VLAN’s operate in this spanning tree instance when ever they are in the MST
region. MSTP is fully compatible with RSTP without any configuration changes.
An MSTP region can support up to 64 MSTI’s and each instance can support anywhere from 1
through 4094 VLAN’s.
1
2
3
4
5
1.
MSTP Region Name: The region name (can be up to 32 characters).
2.
MSTP Config Rev: The MSTP configuration revision (integer 0-65535).
3.
MSTP Max Hops: The MSTP Max Hop setting (integer in the range 6-60).
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Number of Hops vs. Recovery Time
The diagram below shows a typical redundant ring network with 6 managed switches
and 5 hops between stations.
The overall recovery time when there is a network segment failure is dependent on the
number of hops. The recovery time is typically less than 50ms per hop. Therefore, in the
diagram below of a typical ring with 6 managed switches the overall recovery time
would be less than 250ms (5 hops x <50ms).
3
Switch
Switch
4
2
Switch
1
Typical Redundant Ring Network
with 6 Managed Switches
(Recovery time < 250ms)
5 "hops" between
A and B
Switch
5
Switch
Switch
A
B
Typical Redundant Ring with 5 "hops" between A and B
4.
MSTIs: The MSTP instance table containing actual and file settings for the MSTI
Name, Number, ID and Bridge Priority.
5.
Ports: The MSTI port list containing actual and file settings for MSTI ID’s, Port
Priority and Port Cost for Ports 1 through 10.
Note
The above two settings are generated by the eXmux when configured. It is important not to
change these settings when configuring a network for “Hitless Switching.”
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8.4.6 QoS (6)
Quality of Service (QoS) allows prioritized messages.
QoS: General disscussion
Without enabling special handling, a network provides a “best effort” service to all applications.
This means that there are no assurances regarding the Quality of Service for any particular
application because all packets are treated equally at each switch or router. However, certain
applications require a deterministic response from the network to assure proper operation.
Numerous mechanisms exist to help assure reliable and timely network communication. The
managed switch supports two common means of prioritizing messages: IP header and 802.1p
user priorities.
The IP header is present in all frames and contains a priority field, which defaults to 0 and may
be set as high as 255. This field is sometimes referred to as the Type of Service (TOS) field, or
the Differentiated Services (DS or DiffServ) field.
Applications may add IEEE 802.1p tags, which contain a priority field that may be set from 0 to
7. Each value has a traffic class associated with it.
The Ethernet Switch provides four priority queues for expediting outbound data. The 256 IP
priorities and the 7 IEEE priorities are mapped into these ports in a way that optimizes
throughput of high priority data.
1
2
3
4
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1.
QOS Mode: A global setting that will enable or disable QoS in the switch. By
default QoS is disabled.
2.
QOS Ports: The QoS Ports dialog is shown in the following.
a
b
c
d
e
a. QoS Port Numbers: These numbers should never be changed.
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b. QoS CoS (Class of Service): The user can assign a priority from 0 to 7 with
7 being the highest priority. This is a method of differentiating traffic types.
Unlike QoS traffic management, CoS does not guarantee a level of service in
terms of bandwidth and delivery times. The default CoS priority table is
shown below.
CoS
Output Priority Queue
0
1
2
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
3
3
4 (Highest)
1 (Lowest)
4 (Highest)
4 (Highest)
c. QoS CoS Override: Local override of incoming network packets to protect
the QoS plan for the rest of the network.
d. QoS Trust: This will set the output priority queue by service type. The
following can be set.

None: Packets are unmodified. What is tagged stays tagged.

CoS: Uses the 802.1p standard as shown in (b) above.

DSCP (Differentiated Service Code Point): DSCP is a field in an IP
packet that enables different levels of service to be assigned to network
traffic. This is achieved by marking each packet with a DSCP code and
appropriating to it the corresponding level of service. DSCP works with
routers that only support IP Precedence.
QoS enabled programs request a specific service type for a traffic flow
through the generic QoS API interface. DSCP is a 6-bit field carrying
the default values that are displayed in the following table with the
equivalent IP Precedence and IEEE 802.1p values.
Service Type
DSCP
General Traffic
Controlled Load
0
24 (18 hex)
0
3
0
3
Guaranteed
Network Control
40 (28 hex)
48 (30 hex)
5
6
5
7

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IP Precedence
IEEE 802.1p (CoS)
IP Precedence: At its simplest, the higher the value of the IP
Precedence field, the higher the priority of the IP packet.
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e. QoS Trust Device: Select from the following list to allow that device to pass
data through the switch.




Cisco Phone
CTS (Cisco TrustSec)
IP Camera
Media Player
3. CoS-to-DSCP Map: The following dialog is used to map CoS values to DSCP
values when configuring the switch.
a
b
a. CoS: The CoS level of service (fixed).
b. DSCP: Map to the required DSCP value.
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4. DSCP-to-CoS Map: This dialog (not shown) is used to map DSCP values to CoS
values when configuring the switch.
8.4.7 IGMP (7)
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) allows hosts and routers to work together to
optimize forwarding of multicast traffic on a network. Without IGMP, all multicast packets
must be forwarded to all network segments. With IGMP, multicast traffic is only forwarded to
network segments, which connect interested hosts.
IGMP: General disscussion
IGMPv1 provides a basic mechanism for hosts and routers to communicate information about
multicast groups. Routers send Query messages and hosts respond with group membership
Report messages.
IGMPv2 adds a maximum response time to the Query and adds a Leave message to the
protocol. IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 should not coexist on the same network. Also, IGMPv2
routers are expected to perform IGMPv1 protocols on segments where IGMPv1 hosts are
found.
An IGMP snooping switch performs many of the functions of an IGMP router. In passive
mode, such a switch processes IGMP protocol messages sent by hosts and routers to configure
efficient forwarding of multicast traffic. In active mode, a switch will also send its own queries
to speed network convergence.
Periodically, routers and IGMP snooping switches in active mode send an IGMP Query on each
attached network. (The query interval is generally around 1-2 minutes.) A host that wishes to
be a member of a group sets a timer for a short, random delay when it sees the Query. If it sees
a Report from another host before its timer expires, it cancels the timer and takes no further
action until another Query is seen. If no other Report is seen, a Report is sent when the timer
expires. The router or switch uses the Report to configure multicast forwarding.
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The router or switch keeps track of how long it has been since the last Report on each port for
each group. When the group expires, the router or switch stops forwarding multicast data to
that port. Since the query interval is less than the expiration time, data for active groups
continues to be forwarded without interruption.
1
2
3
4
5
++
1. Mode: This setting controls how the switch handles IGMP messages to determine
how to forward multicast traffic.

Disabled causes the switch to ignore IGMP messages. All multicast traffic will
be sent to all ports.

Snoop causes the switch to listen to IGMP messages and configure forwarding
of multicast messages accordingly.
2. Version: This setting controls the highest IGMP version that the switch will use.
All IGMP routers and snooping switches on a network should be configured for the
same IGMP version. Select version 1 or 2 as appropriate for your installation.
3. Qinterval (Query Interval): This setting specifies how often the switch will send
IGMP queries (1-18000sec).
4. Qresponse (Query Response Interval): This setting specifies the maximum time
for hosts to respond to IGMP queries. (1-25sec).
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5. Port Settings: Generally, the switch will dynamically learn which ports have IGMP
routes attached to them by listening for IGMP Query messages. Under some
circumstances, it is necessary to manually configure ports as leading to IGMP
routes.
a
b
a. Port Number: The port to be excluded from IGMP, note the port numbers
are fixed.
b. Port Exclude: A port may be excluded from IGMP processing. IGMP
queries and reports received on an excluded port are ignored so devices
reached via the excluded port cannot join multicast groups filtered by the
switch. IGMP queries and reports will not be forwarded to the excluded port
so IGMP routes reached via the excluded port will not know of
memberships.
The benefits of enabling IGMP
Take an already established control network that has an Ethernet device sending multicast data
to several other Ethernet devices. Between the source of the multicast data, and the destination
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Ethernet devices that are interested in the multicast data, multicast packets might pass through a
number of switches or routers.
To make this control network more efficient, the switches or routers should know how to
handle the flow of multicast data by means of IGMP. Switches or routers that are not capable
of supporting IGMP will not know what to do with the multicast data and forward multicast
data out all ports. This will slow down the network.
8.4.8 Switch – General (8)
The following dialog box will allow the user to clear specific ports of statistics. Statistics for
the IEEE 802.1d group of networking protocols found in Section 8.3.11 and statistics for the
IEEE 802.3 group of networking protocols found in Section 8.3.10 can be cleared on a port to
port basis. An IP address can also be assigned for remote switch access through the switch CLI,
for advanced users only. Remember to write any changes to make them permanent.
Check this box to
reboot the Ethernet
Switch
The user can select to
clear ports of ‘dot3’
statistics
The user can select to
clear ports of ‘dot1d’
statistics
An IP address can be
assigned by the user for
remote switch management
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Clearing Port
Statistics Typical
Check the required box to
clear statistics for that port
8.4.9 Switch Alarm Tab (9)
The tab is shown below.
1
2
3
4
Inactivity Status Alarm applies only for the eXmux 3500.
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1. Port Link Alarm: Clicking this button will display the alarm link loss state of the
switch port; details are shown below.
This dialog will indicate if the “Link Lost Alarm” is active on these ports.
2. Admin Status Alarm: Clicking this button will display the Admin Status
Alarm state of the switch ports; as shown below.
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3. TDM Link Alarms: Clicking this button will indicate if the link is lost on the
TDM engine ports 1 and 2.
4. General State Alarms: Clicking this button will indicate whether the switch
configuration matches the configuration in the eXmux.
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8.4.10 General Tab (10)
Currently this tab will show the switch firmware version and switch model installed in the
eXmux.
Current switch
firmware version
Switch model used
in this eXmux
8.4.11 Ethernet Statistics Tab (11)
The tab is shown below.
1
2
3
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The dialogs are shown on the following pages.
1. Switch Interface Status: Clicking this button will display basic port interface
information; details are shown below.
a
b
c
d
a. Port #: This is an internal reference number reported by the Ethernet
Switch. See the following page for a cross-reference to eXmux usage.
Internal
Port
number
Interface Description
eXmux Usage
1
Vlan 1
Vertual Interface to the Switch
10001 to
10004
FastEthernet1/1
through
FastEthernet1/4
FE ports 1 through 4
10277 and
10278
GigabitEthernet1/1 and
GigabitEthernet1/2
GE ports 5 and 6
The ports listed below are internal to the Ethernet Switch.
10005
FastEthernet1/5
Management CPU
10006
FastEthernet1/6
TDM over IP Engine 1
10007
FastEthernet1/7
Serial Server/TPS Uplink Port
10008
FastEthernet1/8
TDM over IP Engine 2
10501
Null0
Switch CPU
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b. ifDescription: This is a description of the ports function as assigned by the
Ethernet Switch.
c. ifSpeed: Indicates the speed of the connection on a connected port in bits per
second.
d. Link: Indicates whether the port is connected:
up = Connected
down = Not Connected
2. Ethernet Statistics: Indicates Ethernet Statistics as shown in the following dialog
box.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
a. Drop Events: Total number of events in which packets were dropped due to
lack of resources. This is not necessarily the number of packets dropped, just
the number of times this condition is detected.
b. RX Bytes: Total number of octets of data (including those in bad packets)
received on the network, excluding framing bits but including FCS (Frame
Check Sequence) octets.
c. RX Packets: Total number of packets received, including error packets.
d. RX Broadcasts: The total number of good packets received directed to the
broadcast address.
e. RX Multicasts: The total number of good packets received directed to the
multicast address, this number does not include packets directed to the
broadcast address.
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f. CRC Alignment Errors: Packets received that have a length between 64
and1518 octets (excluding frame bits but including FCS octets) inclusive, but
were not an integral number of octets in length or had a bad FCS.
g. Undersized Packets: Total number of packets received that were less
than64 octets long and were otherwise well framed.
h. Oversized Packets: Total number of packets received that were longer than
1518 octets and were otherwise well formed.
i. Fragments: Total number of packets received that were not an integral
number of octets in length or had a bad FCS, and were less than 64 octets in
length.
j. Jabbers: Total number of packets received that were longer than 1518
octets in length or had a bad FCS.
k. Collisions: The best estimate of the number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
l. 64 Bytes: Total number of packets (including error packets) that were 64
octets in length.
The following columns are as above but in incremental bytes.
3. Dot3 Statistics: Displays performance statistics for Ether-like devices as shown in
the following dialog box.
a
b
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a. Single Collisions: A count of frames that are involved in a single collision
and are subsequently transmitted successfully.
b. Multiple Collisions: A count of frames that are involved in more than one
collision and are subsequently transmitted successfully.
c. SQE Test Errors: A count of the number of times that a SQE (Signal
Quality Error) test error is received on a particular interface.
d. Deferred TX: A count of the frames for which the first transmission attempt
on a particular interface is delayed because the medium is busy. This does
not include frames involved in collisions. Note that this counter does not
increment when the interface is operating in full duplex mode.
e. Late Collisions: The number of times that a collision is detected on a
particular interface, later than one time-slot into the transmission.
f. Excessive Collisions: A count of frames for which a transmission on a
particular interface fails due to excessive collisions. Note that this counter
does not increment when the interface is operating in full duplex mode.
g. MAC Transmit Errors: A count of frames for which transmission on a
particular interface fails due to an internal MAC sub-layer transmit error.
h. Carrier Sense Errors: The number of times that the carrier sense condition
was lost or never asserted when attempting to transmit a frame on a
particular interface. The count represented by this instance is incremented
once per transmission attempt, even if the carrier sense condition fluctuates
during a transmission attempt.
i. Frame Too Long: A count of frames received on a particular interface that
exceed the permitted frame size.
j. Stats Internal MAC Receive Errors: A count of frames for which
reception on a particular interface fails due to an internal MAC sub-layer
receive error.
k. Symbol Errors: For an interface operating at 100Mb/s, the number of times
there was an invalid data symbol when the valid carrier was present.
For an interface operating at half duplex mode at 1000Mb/s, the number of
times the receiving media is non-idle for a period of time equal too or
greater than slotTime, and during which there was at least one occurrence of
an event that causes the PHY to indicate “Data Reception Error” or “Carrier
Extend Error” on the GMII.
For an interface operating at full duplex at 1000Mb/s, the number of times
the receiving media is non-idle for a period equal too or greater than
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mainframeSize, and during which there was at least one occurrence of an
event that causes the PHY to indicate “ Data Reception Error” on the GMII.
l. Duplex: The current mode of operation of the MAC entity, “unknown”
indicates that the current mode of the entity could not be determined.
8.4.12 dot1d – Spanning Tree Protocol (12)
1
2
3
dot1dStpExtPortStatus is available in eXmux 3500 models.
1. dot1dStpStatus1: Clicking this button will display the bridge’s state with respect to
the spanning tree protocol as shown below. (Part 1 of 2)
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
a. Protocol Specification: Indicates the version of the spanning tree protocol
being run.
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b. Priority: The writable portion of the bridge ID (the first two octets of the
eight octets long bridge ID). The other six octets are given by the value of
the dot1dBaseBridgeAddress.
c. Time Since Topology Change: The time (in hundredths of a second) since
a topology change was detected by the bridge entity.
d. Topology Changes: The number of topology changes detected by this
bridge since the management entity was last reset or initialized.
e. Designated Root: The bridge identifier of the root of the spanning tree, as
determined by the spanning tree protocol, as executed by the node. This
value is used as the root identifier parameter in all configuration bridge
PDUs originated by this node.
f. Root Cost: The cost of the path to the root as seen from this bridge.
g. Root Port: The port number that offers the lowest cost path from the bridge
to the root bridge.
h. Maximum Age: The maximum age of spanning tree protocol information
learned from the network on any port before it is discarded.
2. dot1dStpStatus2: Clicking this button will display the bridge’s state with respect to
the spanning tree protocol as shown on the following page. (Part 2 of 2)
i
j
k
l
m
n
i. Hello Time: The time between each transmission of configuration bridge
PDUs by this node on any port when it is the root of the spanning tree, or
trying to become so, in units of hundredths of a second.
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j. Hold Time: This time value is the interval length during which no more
than two bridge PDUs are transmitted by this node, in units of hundredths of
a second.
k. Forward Delay: This time value controls how fast a port changes its
spanning state when moving toward the forwarding state, measured in units
of hundredths of a second.
l. Bridge Maximum Age: The value that all bridges use for maximum age
when the bridge is acting as the root.
m. Bridge Hello Time: The value that all bridges use for hello time when the
bridge is acting as the root.
n. Bridge Forward Delay: The value that all bridges use for forward delay
when the bridge is acting as the root.
3. dot1dStpPortStatus: Clicking this button will show a table that displays port
specific information for the spanning tree protocol, as shown below.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
a. Port Priority: The value of the priority field that is contained in the first (in
network byte order) octet of the (two octet long) port ID. The other octet of
the port ID is given by the value of dot1dStpPort.
b. Port State: The current state of the port as defined by the spanning tree
protocol. This state controls what action a port takes on reception of a frame.
c. Port Enable: Shows whether a port is enabled or disabled.
d. Port Path Cost: The contribution of this port to the path cost of all paths
toward the spanning tree root.
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e. Port Designated Root: The unique bridge identifier of the bridge recorded
as root in the configuration bridge BPDUs, transmitted by the designated
bridge for the segment to which the port is attached.
f. Port Designated Cost: The path cost of the designated port of the segment
connected to this port. This value is compared to the root path cost field in
received bride PDUs.
g. Port Designated Bridge: The bridge identifier that this port considers to be
the designated bridge for the segment of this port.
h. Port Designated Port: The port identifier of the port on the designated
bridge for the segment of this port.
i. Port Forward Transitions: The number of times the port has transitioned
from the learning state to the forwarding state.
8.5 3500/3501 Interoperability
Interoperability allows using both the eXmux 3500/3500M and the eXmux 3501/3501M in the
same network. Customers with both models will be able to use RFL’s 3501/3501M alongside
their existing eXmux 3500/3500M Nodes. The Example below in Figure 8.1 shows a standard
ring topology connecting the Gig ports 5 and 6 respectively.
eXmux 3501
E2020
5
6
5
6
eXmux
3500
5
6
5
Figure 8.1
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8.5.1 Interoperability: General Discussion
Both the 3500 and 3501 models have basic communication functions out of the box and VNMS
will work when used with the eXmux by default. Both models can be connected to each other in
four different ways as shown in figures 8.2 - 8.5 however one of the setups configurations will
require changes to the embedded switch settings.
8.5.2 3500/3501 Interoperability Configurations
8.5.2.1 Interoperability
configuration 1 is a Gigabit to Gigabit setup
Connection on either side between GE5/GE6 or WAN5/WAN6
FE1 FE2 FE3 FE4 GE5 GE6
LAN1 LAN2 LAN3 LAN4 WAN5 WAN6
3501
3500
Figure 8.2
Interoperability configuration 1 as shown in figure 8.2 depicts a connection between a 3500 and
3501 models using the Gigabit ports. (3500: WAN5 or WAN6 / 3501: GE5 or GE6). This setup
requires no changes to the default switch configuration on either model.
Note: The default settings in VNMS are as follows: The eXmux 3501 has ports 5 & 6
hardcoded to “trunk”. The eXmux 3500 is also set to “network”, accepting trunking.
CAUTION
When using SFP modules, it is recommended that both ends of the link have the same part
number.
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8.5.2.2 Interoperability
configuration 2 is a Gigabit to Fast Ethernet setup
Connection on 3501 ports GE5 or GE6
to ports LAN1 – LAN4 on a 3500
LAN1 LAN2 LAN3 LAN4 WAN5 WAN6
FE1 FE2 FE3 FE4 GE5 GE6
3501
3500
Figure 8.3
Interoperability configuration 2 as shown in Figure 8.3 depicts a connection between 3500 and
3501 models using Gigabit ports (GE5 or GE6) on the 3501 and Fast Ethernet ports (LAN 1
thru LAN 4) on the 3500. This setup requires no changes to the default switch configuration on
either model.
Note: This connection setup will establish a Trunk link to the 3501 on its gigabit ports.
8.5.2.3 Interoperability
configuration 3 is a Fast Ethernet to Fast Ethernet setup
Connection on either side between Fast Ethernet ports 1 – 4
LAN1 LAN2 LAN3 LAN4 WAN5 WAN6
FE1 FE2 FE3 FE4 GE5 GE6
3501
3500
Figure 8.4
Interoperability configuration 3 as shown in figure 8.4 depicts a connection between 3500 and
3501 models using the Fast Ethernet ports on the 3501 (FE1 thru FE4) and Fast Ethernet ports
(LAN 1 thru LAN 4) on the 3500. This configuration is operable but not recommended for a
ring or backbone topology, the link is restricted to 100 megabits only. This setup requires no
changes to the default switch configuration on either model.
Note: By default the 3500 has ports 1-4 set to "edge" similar to 3501’s “switchport mode
access”, so trunking will NOT be established in this scenario.
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8.5.2.4 Interoperability
configuration 4 is a Fast Ethernet to Gigabit setup
Connection on 3501 ports FE1 - FE4
to ports WAN5 or WAN6 on a 3500
FE1 FE2 FE3 FE4 GE5 GE6
LAN1 LAN2 LAN3 LAN4 WAN5 WAN6
3501
3500
Figure 8.5
Interoperability configuration 4 as shown in figure 8.5 depicts a connection between 3500
Gigabit ports (WAN5 or WAN6) and 3501 Fast Ethernet ports (FE1 thru FE4). This setup
REQUIRES changes to the default switch configuration setting on only one eXmux model not
both.
NOTE: The following steps must be performed from one and only one of the following eXmux
units to setup Interoperability when using the configuration in Figure 8.5.
Configuring the 3501:
1. Double Click on the 3501
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2. Double Click the switch (GE or FE Port)
3. Select Tab for VLAN
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4. Click on VLAN PORT SETTINGS
5. The “ACTUAL SETTINGS” tab will be highlighted.
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6. Tab over to FILE SETTINGS
7. By default Port Number 4 Type will be set to “auto” from the dropdown menu change
this to “access”.
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8. Click WRITE, to save changes to the eXmux configuration.
Note; after 30 seconds the link becomes active.
9. Select YES to Confirm you want to write all changes for the VLAN port settings to this
node.
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Configuring the 3500:
1. Double Click on the 3500
2. Double Click the switch (WAN or LAN Port)
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3. Select Tab for VLAN
4. Click on VLAN Port Settings
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5. The Actual Settings tab will be high-lighted, tab over the File Settings.
6. By default, Port Number 5 Type will be set to Network, from the drop
down menu change this to EDGE as shown below.
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7. Click WRITE to save changes to the eXmux configuration. Note; after 30
seconds the link becomes active.
8. Select YES to Confirm you want to Write all changes for the VLAN port
settings to this node.
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Start-Up (Commissioning)
Section 9. Start-Up (Commissioning)
9.1 Initial Start-Up
This can be divided into two basic types of system:
1. A new system. (Refer to 9.1.1)
This consists of a number of eXmux units configured to exchange information between
each other. All nodes must be visible to each other by having the same Multicast IP
Address managed through one network file.
2. An existing system with additions. (Refer to 9.1.2)
Additions to an existing system will consist of one or more eXmux units configured to
exchange information between each other and the existing nodes. The added node(s)
Multicast IP address must match the existing nodes Multicast IP address.
Review the sub-sections below to identify start-up and commissioning procedures for your
system.
9.1.1 A New System
This can be basically divided into the following types:
1. A complete preconfigured system with factory IP addresses. (Refer to 9.1.1.1)
This will be the most common system supplied.
This is a system where each eXmux is completely configured. All the required settings
are factory set, including mapping between Interface Unit ports. The following settings
need to be changed in each unit:





Management IP address
Subnet Mask and Gateway
Both TDM over IP Engine IP addresses
Multicast IP address
Main and Redundant VLAN ID
2. A complete preconfigured system with customer supplied IP addresses.
(Refer to 9.1.1.2)
This is a plug and play system where all settings have been completely configured for
each unit, including mapping between Interface Unit ports with all IP address and
VLAN ID information preconfigured.
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3. A non-configured system. (Refer to 9.1.1.3)
This is a system where each eXmux is configured with factory default settings but no
Interface Unit port mapping. Each eXmux will require complete unit programming
including the following settings.





Management IP address
Subnet Mask and Gateway
Both TDM over IP Engine IP addresses
Multicast IP address
Main and Redundant VLAN ID
The following sub-sections will give step for step procedures for the commissioning of
the various new system scenarios.
9.1.1.1 Complete
Preconfigured System with Factory Supplied IP Addresses
This will be the most common system supplied.
1. Before turning on the power to each unit verify the following:
a. Verify that the input power ring terminals are tight and connected correctly for both
Main and Redundant power supplies (if installed).
b. Verify that the power supply(ies) installed in each eXmux unit will operate at the
input supply voltage.
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
Typical eXmux Power Supply Label
c. Verify that each eXmux unit is grounded correctly to the protective earth stud as
shown and also to the rack ground.
3500/3501
3500M/3501M
!
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
MAJOR
!
MAIN
+
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
-
RDNT
+
-
Rear of EXMUX
Rear of EXMUX
d. Verify that the fiber connectors to the Ethernet ports (if installed) and Interface
unit(s), if installed are aligned correctly and tight.
2. Turn power on to each eXmux unit.
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3. For each unit, connect a USB cable between your computer and the eXmux “User
Access USB” port.
a. Run the “eXmux 3500 USB User Access Utility” program from the eXmux 3500
Visual NMS Program Folder.
b. Hit “Enter” to get prompt.
c. Login using the default login; “admin” and default password; “admin_passwd.”
Note, case sensitive.
d. Change the Admin password; otherwise the unit will be in Minor Alarm.
e. Change the following as per customer requirements:

f.
IP Management Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway and Multicast IP
Address.
Reboot the eXmux.
4. Run the eXmux VNMS program.
a. Enter “control” for the User ID and “password” for the password.
b. Open the network file that was shipped with the system.
5. Select “Change IP Address to match node” option and enter the new IP Address.
Ensure box is checked
Enter new IP address
Enter "admin"
Enter newly changed
password
a. Enter the provided Admin user ID and newly changed password.
b. Repeat these steps for each node to authenticate each node.
6. Verify communications to all nodes by using the Service Telephone.
7. Verify Interface Unit functionality.
8. Verify System Functionality.
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9.1.1.2 Complete
Preconfigured System with Customer Supplied IP Addresses
1. Repeat step 1. from 8.1.1.1:
2. Turn power on to each eXmux unit.
3. Verify communications to all nodes by using the Service Telephone.
4. Verify Interface Unit Functionality.
5. Verify System Functionality.
6. For network visibility proceed as follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Run the VNMS program.
Enter “control” for the User ID and “password” for the password.
Open the network file that was shipped with the system.
For unit authentication log on using Username “admin” and Password
“Admin_Passwd1.”
e. Change each units default password to a user defined password, otherwise the
units will be in Minor Alarm.
9.1.1.3 A
Non-Configured System
1. Repeat step 1. from 8.1.1.1:
2. Turn power on to each eXmux unit.
3. For each unit, connect a USB cable between your computer and the eXmux “User
Access USB” port.
a. Run the “eXmux 3500 USB User Access Utility” program from the eXmux
Visual NMS Program Folder.
b. Hit “Enter” to get prompt.
c. Login using the default login; “admin” and default password;
“Admin_Passwd1.” Note, case sensitive.
d. Change the Admin password; otherwise the unit will be in Minor Alarm.
e. Change the following as per customer requirements:

IP Management Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway and Multicast IP
Address.
f. Reboot the eXmux.
4. Run the eXmux VNMS program.
a. Enter “control” for the User ID and “password” for the password.
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b. Create a new network file and run “Auto-discover new network.”
Check "Create a
new network"
Ensure this box
is checked
Hit "OK"
Name the network
Hit "OK"
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c. Enter the IP address of one of the nodes in the network, check add to list and hit
the “Discover” button. (It is not necessary to add more than one IP address. The
VNMS software will automatically discover all nodes within the same Multicast
IP address.)
Add IP address of
known node
Check "Add to List"
Check "Discover"
d. The “Gather credentials for node” dialog box appears.
Type:
admin
Type:
Admin_Passwd1
Check this
box
Check
"Submit"
e. VNMS will automatically discover all the other eXmux nodes in the network.
5.
Configure the TDM over IP Engines IP addresses, subnet mask and gateway.
6.
Verify communication to all nodes by using the Service Telephone.
a. Configure the “Hitless” parameters as required. See Section 7.13.
7.
Configure all Interface units and mapping as required.
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8.
Verify Interface Unit functionality.
9.
Verify System functionality.
9.1.2 Adding an eXmux to an Existing System
This can be basically divided into the following types:
1. Addition of a complete preconfigured eXmux with factory supplied IP addresses.
(Refer to 9.1.2.1)
This will consist of one or more new eXmux units being added to an existing system.
The new units will be completely configured with all the required settings except for
mapping of Interface Units.
The following settings need to be changed in each new eXmux unit:





Management IP address
Subnet Mask and Gateway
Both TDM over IP Engine IP addresses
Multicast IP address
Main and Redundant VLAN ID
2. Addition of a complete preconfigured eXmux with customer supplied IP addresses.
(Refer to 9.1.2.2)
This will consist of one or more new eXmux units being added to an existing system.
The new units will be completely configured with all the required settings. (including
all IP addresses) except for mapping of Interface Units.
3. Adding a non-configured eXmux to an existing system. (Refer to 9.1.2.3)
This will consist of one or more new eXmux units being added to an existing system.
The new units will be configured with factory default settings. Each new eXmux will
require complete unit programming including the following settings.





Management IP address
Subnet Mask and Gateway
Both TDM over IP Engine IP addresses
Multicast IP address
Main and Redundant VLAN ID
The following sub-sections will give step for step procedures when commissioning
additions to an existing system.
4. Replacing an existing eXmux “Cloning” to an existing system. (Refer to 9.1.2.4)
This will consist of one or more new eXmux units being replaced in an existing system.
The replacement units can be completely configured with all the required settings for a
swap of a Non-working replacement eXmux unit.
The following settings need to be changed in each new eXmux unit:
o Management IP address
o Subnet Mask
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
9.1.2.1 Adding
Gateway
Multicast IP Address
TDM Eng1 IP Address
TDM Eng2 IP Address
TDM Netmask
TDM Gateway
Node ID
a Complete Preconfigured eXmux with Factory Supplied IP Addresses.
1. Before turning on the power to each new unit verify the following:
a.
b.
Verify that the input power ring terminals are tight and connected correctly for
both Main and Redundant power supplies (if installed).
Verify that the power supply(ies) installed in each eXmux unit will operate at the
input supply voltage.
38-150 V
50/60 Hz 3A MAX
Typical eXmux Power Supply Label
c.
Verify that each eXmux unit is grounded correctly to the protective earth stud as
shown and also to the rack ground.
3500/3501
3500M/3501M
!
MAJOR
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
!
+
Chassis Protective
Earth Terminal
RDNT
MAIN
-
+
Rear of EXMUX
Rear of EXMUX
d.
Verify that the fiber connectors to the Ethernet ports (if installed) and Interface
unit(s), if installed are aligned correctly and tight.
2. Turn power on to each eXmux unit.
3. For each new unit, connect a USB cable between your computer and the eXmux “User
Access USB” port.
a.
b.
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Run the “eXmux 3500 USB User Access Utility” program from the eXmux
Visual NMS Program Folder.
Insert the curser in the dialog box and hit “Enter” to get prompt.
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c.
d.
e.
f.
Login using the default login; “admin” and default password;
“Admin_Passwd1.” Note, case sensitive.
Change the Admin password; otherwise the unit will be in Minor Alarm.
Change the following as per customer requirements:
 IP Management Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway and Multicast IP
Address.
Reboot the eXmux.
4. Run the eXmux VNMS program.
a. Enter “control” for the User ID and “password” for the password.
b. Open the existing network file.
5. VNMS will automatically detect the new nodes – add them to the network as shown.
Click this button
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6. Check OK, the following dialog box will appear
Enter "admin"
Enter "Newly changed
password"
7. Verify communication to each node by using the Service Telephone.
8. Configure all appropriate cards including the Interface Units and port mapping as
required.
 Configure the “Hitless” parameters as required. See Section 7.13
9. Verify Interface Unit functionality.
10. Verify system functionality.
9.1.2.2 Adding
a Preconfigured eXmux with Customer Supplied IP Addresses.
1. Repeat step 1. from 8.1.2.1:
2. Turn the power on to each new unit.
3. Run the eXmux 3500 VNMS program.
a. Enter “control” for the User ID and “password” for the password.
b. Open the existing network file.
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4. VNMS will automatically detect the new nodes – add them to the network as shown.
Click this button
5. Check OK, the following dialog box will appear
Enter "Admin"
Enter
"Admin_Passwd1"
5. Change the default Admin password for each new node (See Section 7.2.3); otherwise the
units will be in Minor Alarm.
6. Verify communication to all nodes by using the Service Telephone.
7. Configure the Interface unit port mapping.

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Configure the “Hitless” parameters as required. See Section 7.13
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8. Verify the Interface Unit functionality.
9. Verify system functionality.
9.1.2.3 Adding
a Non-configured eXmux to an Existing System.
1. Repeat step 1. from 9.1.2.1:
2. Turn the power on to each new unit.
3. For each new unit, connect a USB cable between your computer and the eXmux “User
Access USB” port.
a. Run the “eXmux 3500 USB User Access Utility” program from the eXmux 3500
VNMS Program Folder.
b. Insert the curser in the dialog box and hit “Enter” to get prompt.
c. Login using the default login; “admin” and default password;
“Admin_Passwd1.” Note, case sensitive.
d. Change the Admin password; otherwise the unit will be in Minor Alarm.
e. Change the following as per customer requirements:

IP Management Address, Subnet Mask, Gateway and Multicast IP
Address.
f. Reboot the eXmux.
4. Run the eXmux VNMS program.
a. Enter “control” for the User ID and “password” for the password.
b. Open the existing network file.
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5. VNMS will automatically detect the new nodes – add them to the network as shown.
Click this button
6. Check OK, the following dialog box will appear
Enter "admin"
Enter "Newly created
password"
7. Verify communication to all nodes by using the Service Telephone.
8. Configure interface unit port mapping.

Configure the “Hitless” parameters as required. See Section 7.13
9. Verify Interface Unit functionality.
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10. Verify system functionality.
9.1.2.4 Replacing
an existing eXmux to an existing system “Cloning”
Note: You must have a recent (up to date) Network file before starting this process.
1. Save the current network settings in VNMS to a known file name.
2. Make a list of the following Network Settings for the eXmux to be replaced:
 Management IP address
 Subnet Mask
 Gateway
 Multicast IP Address
 TDM Eng1 IP Address
 TDM Eng2 IP Address
 TDM Netmask
 TDM Gateway
 Node ID
3. Close VNMS
4. Power down the original eXmux, and physically remove it from the network.
5. Install the replacement eXmux, but do not connect it to the network.
6. If the replacement eXmux is not already set to “Factory default”, Please call main
number to assist with reset.
7. With the replacement eXmux still disconnected from the network, connect one end of a
USB cable to a PC and the other end to the User Access USB port of the replacement
node.
8. On the PC, open the “eXmux 3500 User Access USB” software.
9. Login with default user ID “admin” and Password “Admin_Passwd1”.
10. Refer to steps in section 6.5.3 to restore the admin password to match the one used to
access the network.
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11. Configure the replacement node with the same network settings of the node to be
cloned. Under the Network Settings menu, change the settings under headings 1 thru 9
to match the network settings of the node to be cloned.
12. When finished, reboot the eXmux, disconnect the USB cable, and connect this
replacement unit to the network.
13. Open VNMS and load the saved network file as shown below.
14. Enter your credentials to bring the network online.
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15. The following screen should appear, showing information about the replacement
eXmux.
16. Select “Replace the existing node with the newly discovered node” as shown above and
click OK.
17. After VNMS finishes loading the network, open the Node view for the replacement
eXmux, right click on the node and select “write node”.
18. When prompted to restart Node, click “OK”.
19. When the eXmux finished booting up, go to chassis settings and status. Wait for 5
seconds.
20. Click "Update File Settings with Actual" (This will update MAC address settings of the
node in VNMS with its correct values).
21. Clear the inventory mismatch alarm by checking the box "Clear Inventory Mismatch"
and then click "Write".
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22. To verify that “Cloning” was successful, go to the “Reports” menu option, and open the
“Network Settings Differences” and “Mapping Report”. Verify that there are no
differences on the replacement eXmux between the file settings and Actual settings, and
correct if necessary.
23. The process is now complete.
9.1.2.5 Replacing
an eXmux when the replacement Exmux has a different switch
Note1: You must have a recent (up to date) Network file before starting this process.
Note2: New switch will have default values. Any VLANS or switch settings made on the
Exmux with the old switch will have to be re-programmed manually.
1. Save the current network settings in VNMS to a known file name.
2. Make a list of the following Network Settings for the eXmux to be replaced:
 Management IP address
 Subnet Mask
 Gateway
 Multicast IP Address
 TDM Eng1 IP Address
 TDM Eng2 IP Address
 TDM Netmask
 TDM Gateway
 Node ID
3. Close VNMS.
4. Power down the original eXmux, and physically remove it from the network.
5. Install the replacement eXmux, but do not connect it to the network.
6. If the replacement eXmux is not already set to “Factory default”, Please call main
number to assist with reset. 973-334-3100
7. With the replacement eXmux still disconnected from the network, connect one end of a
USB cable to a PC and the other end to the User Access USB port of the replacement
node.
8. On the PC, open the “eXmux 3500 User Access USB” software.
9. Login with default user ID “admin” and Password “Admin_Passwd1”.
10. Refer to steps in section 6.5.3 to restore the admin password to match the one used to
access the network.
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11. Configure the replacement node with the same network settings of the node to be
cloned. Under the Network Settings menu, change the settings under headings 1 thru 9
to match the network settings of the node to be cloned.
12. When finished, reboot the eXmux, disconnect the USB cable, and connect this
replacement unit to the network.
13. Open VNMS and load the saved network file as shown below.
14. When Prompted to enter credentials, choose "Skip Remaining Nodes"
15. In "Network View", double click on the Node being replaced with an Exmux having a
different switch
16. In Node View of the Exmux, right click on the switch and choose "change switch type"
17. From the pop-up menu, choose the switch the replacement Exmux will have; eg: E2020.
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18. Go back to Network View, right click on any space and choose "Switch Network to
Online"
19. Next, Enter your credentials to bring the network online.
20. The following screen should appear, showing information about the replacement
eXmux.
21. Select “Replace the existing node with the newly discovered node” as shown above and
click OK.
22. After VNMS finishes loading the network, open the Node view for the replacement
eXmux, right click on the node and select “write node”.
9.2 Path Redundancy
The eXmux can be configured to use Path Redundancy.
Path Redundancy is available for the following features:


Management/Neighbor Discovery
TDM Pseudo-Wire Circuits
Path Redundancy is achieved by using a Path A and Path B IP address for the TDM Engines
and Management IP Addresses.
The following rules apply:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The Path A and Path B IP addresses must exist on a separate network.
A router must exist at each site.
The router must be configured to switch based on network address.
A single Ethernet connection must be used to connect the eXmux to the router.
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Example IP Configuration:
Network
Field
Example IP
Example
VLAN
Mgmt.
Path Redundancy
Enabled
3
Path A
Management IP
192.10.50.10
Path A
Management Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Path A
Management Gateway
192.10.50.1
Path A
TDM Engine 1 IP
192.10.50.11
50
Path A
TDM Engine 2 IP
192.10.50.12
50
Path A
TDM Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Path A
TDM Gateway
192.10.50.1
Path B
Management IP
200.10.50.10
Path B
Management Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Path B
Management Gateway
200.10.50.1
Path B
TDM Engine 1 IP
200.10.50.11
60
Path B
TDM Engine 2 IP
200.10.50.12
60
Path B
TDM Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Path B
TDM Gateway
200.10.50.1
3
9.3 eXmux Static Route Builder
The VNMS can communicate with a node through either a Path A or Path B network if the
node Path redundancy feature is enabled. In a routed network, static routed paths need to be
created on the VNMS PC so that the Windows Network Layer knows how to direct the VNMS
traffic to the proper network. The eXmux Static Route Builder tool simplifies the creation and
destruction of these persistent routed paths. Administrative Privileges are required to use the
tool and to build and remove static routes. Once the persistent static routes have been
established, the VNMS can communicate with the eXmux nodes either through the Path A or
Path B network, depending on the node’s network availability.
The VNMS initially communicates with a node using its’ Path A IP Address. In the event that
the node is unresponsive through Path A network, the VNMS will communicate with the node
using the Node’s Path B IP Address. The node management traffic will continue to flow to the
node’s Path B IP Address until either the VNMS is closed, or the node’s Path B network goes
down.
9.3.1 Static Routes in Windows
Static Routes tell the Windows Network Layer how to reach an IP Address in a routed network.
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The following example tells the Windows Network Layer that to reach 10.4.1.X IP Addresses,
the packets need to be sent to the Gateway IP Address: 192.168.0. The Gateway IP Address is
the IP Address of the router who knows how to reach 10.4.1.X IP Addresses.
Example: route add –p 10.4.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.1
The Gateway IP Address needs to match the IP Address of the local router. The routed paths
are site specific and need to be established prior to connecting to the eXmux network.
9.4 eXmux Static Route Tool
The eXmux Static Route Tool Builder uses an Excel spreadsheet as an input into the tool. The
spreadsheet contains all the network data for a single eXmux network.
9.4.1 Spreadsheet Format
The Excel spreadsheet contains the following columns:
Field
Description
Node ID/Node Name
A human readable description to identify the node site.
Path A IP Address
The eXmux node Management Path A IP Address.
Path A Netmask
The eXmux node Management Path A Netmask.
Path A Gateway
The eXmux node Management Path A Gateway IP Address.
Path B IP Address
The eXmux node Management Path B IP Address.
Path B Netmask
The eXmux node Management Path B Netmask.
Path B Gateway
The eXmux node Management Path B Gateway IP Address.
Below is an Excel spreadsheet example of a 4 node eXmux network, which utilizes the Path
Redundancy feature.
Each node has a set of Path A data (IP Address, Netmask, Gateway) and Path B data.
9.4.2 Invoking the eXmux Static Route Builder
Note: This tool is separate and is used to add IP Addresses for Path Redundancy.
Prior to running the VNMS, the static routes must be built using the tool.
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1. Click the eXmux Static Route Builder icon to launch the tool.
2. Press the Browse button to launch the Find File dialog.
3. Select the Route Excel file.
4. Press Open to load the Excel Spreadsheet data into the tool.
5. Select the Current Location from the Current Location pull down menu.
6. Select the Action from the Action pull down menu.
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7. Press Submit to perform the Action.
8. The Action will fail if the user does not have Administrative Privileges.
The static routes created by the eXmux Static Route Builder tool are persistent and will be
loaded during the PC bootup process. The tool will only need to be used when the PC changes
locations or a new node is brought into the network. Since each location uses a different
gateway, the old routes will need to be removed prior to adding the new location’s routes.
9.5 Unicast TDM Timing and Neighbor Discovery Set-Up
The following is specific to Unicast (point to point) communications.
9.5.1 Unicast TDM Timing
Any TDM data bundle can be used to retrieve TDM timing.
Receiving TDM Timing through a TDM packet is a 2 step process.
1. Set Physical Slot and Port to receive the TDM timing
2. Draw a bundle from the Timing Source (Elected Master) to the designated physical slot
and port.
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Rules and Design Considerations
1. There can only be one timing source per slot.
2. It is recommended that a designated Backup Elected Master is used in an eXmux
network using Unicast Mode.
3. It is recommended to have a backup timing source for the Backup Elected Master.
Configuration Steps:
Configure Path A IP Address
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
1. Press TDM IP Addresses.
2. Configure TDM Engines for Path A.

Engine 1 IP Addr

Engine 2 IP Addr

Subnet Mask

Gateway
Configure Path B IP Address (If using Path Redudancy)
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
1. Press TDM IP Addresses.
2. Set Redundant Option Mode to enable.
3. Press Path B IP Addresses
4. Configure TDM Engines for Path B.
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
Engine 1 IP Addr (B)

Engine 2 IP Addr (B)
Subnet Mask (B)
Gateway (B)


Configure TDM Timing Elected Master (Internal)
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
1. Press TDM Timing.
2. Set Timing Select to Unicast.
3. Set Timing Priroity to Master1
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4. Set Timing Source to Internal.
Configure TDM Timing Elected Master (Framer)
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
1. Press TDM Timing.
2. Set Timing Select to Unicast.
3. Set Timing Priority to Master1
4. Set Timing Source to Framer.
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Configure TDM Timing Elected Master (Bundle)
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
1. Press TDM Timing.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Set Timing Select to Unicast.
Set Timing Priority to Master1
Set Timing Source to Bundle.
Press Bundle Timing.
Set Priority 1 IU Slot to the designated slot to receive timing from a bundle.
Set Priority 1 IU Port to the designated port of the slot to receive timing from a data
bundle.
8. Create a TDM data bundle from the Timing master (from another network) to the Slot:
Port combination. (See Section 7.12 for mapping)
Ensure that the
port is available on
the unit
Configure TDM Timing Slave
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
1. Press TDM Timing.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Set Timing Select to Unicast.
Set Timing Priroity to slaveOnly.
Press Bundle Timing.
Set Priority 1 IU Slot to the designated slot to receive timing from a bundle.
6. Set Priority 1 IU Port to the designated port of the slot to receive timing from a data
bundle.
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7. Create a TDM data bundle from the Timing master to the Slot: Port combination.
(See Section 7.12 for mapping)
Grayed out when
Slave Only selected
Ensure that the port is
available on the unit
Verify TDM Timing
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM Timing
1. Analyze Timing Quality and verify that it reads: acquisition, track1, or track2

acquisition: Detected TDM Timing source, beginning synchronization.

track 1: TDM Timing source is good and is becoming locked.
track 2: TDM Timing source is locked.
All other states imply error.


2. Press Unicast Timing
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3. Analyze status.


Current Timing Source displays where we are receiving the TDM Timing
The Priority Timing IU Sources should match your configuration.
Should match
your
configuration
Group Master IP Addresses
The Group Master IP Addresses are the IP Addresses of the designated Elected Master and
Backup Elected Master (if utilized).
Path Redundancy
If Redundant Option Mode is enabled, the Group Master IP Addresses for the Path B Elected
Master and Path B Backup Elected Master needs to be populated.
Configuration Steps:
Configure Path B Management IP Address if Utilizing Path Redundancy
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > Network
1. Set Redundant Option Mode to enable.
2. Populate Path B IP Addresses



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IP Address
Subnet Mask
Gateway
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3. Return to main tab.
Configure Neighbor Discovery Mode and Group
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > Network
1. Press Neighbor Discovery button
2. Set Neighbor Discovery Protocol to Unicast
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3. Set the Neighbor Discovery Group to the required number.
Configure Neighbor Discovery Group Masters
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > Network
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press Neighbor Discovery button
Press Unicast Neighbor Disc IP
Populate Group Master IP 1 (Elected Master)
Populate Group Master IP 2 ( Backup #1 Master)
Populate Group Master IP 3 ( Backup #2 Master)
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6. Populate Group Master IP 4 ( Backup #3 Master)
9.6 Unicast Neighbor Discovery
9.6.1 Circuits Across Networks: External Group IP Entries
Network Group ID
Each eXmux belongs to a Neighbor Discovery Group (0-10000), which is considered their home
network.
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Unicast Autodiscovery with External Nodes
In unicast mode a node can create TDM circuits to nodes in its’ own group as well as specified
external Nodes. A node can be connected to nodes in another group by using the External
Group IP feature. When Autodiscovery is done in a unicast network, the user must supply the
IP Address of the node and the home group. Autodiscovery will add all the nodes in the
homegroup and the defined external nodes. The user will only be able to see the TDM Bundles
of an external node in mapping view with circuits that reside in the home network.
RFL Electronics
Node 22
Node 12
Node 21
Node 23
Node 11
NETWORK B
Node 13
NETWORK A
GROUP 5
GROUP 6
Network
Node 20
Node 10
Relaying
Channel
Relaying
Channel
Creating relaying channel between to External Groups
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Adding External Nodes (Refer to 9.5. Unicast TDM Timing)
Example1: Connect Node 10 to Node 20
Network A:
Node
Priority/
Neighbor Table
ID/MgmtIP
State
(Node Ids)
Master1
10,11,12,13,20
Group Master IP
1. 172.20.1.10
(10)172.20.1.10
Group ID
5
External Group IP
1. 172.20.1.20
2. 172.20.1.11
(EM)
3. 0.0.0.0
4. 0.0.0.0
1. 172.20.1.10
(11)172.20.1.11
Master2
10,11,12,13, 23
5
2. 172.20.1.11
(S2M)
3. 0.0.0.0
4. 0.0.0.0
1. 172.20.1.10
(12)172.20.1.12
Auto
10,11,12,13
5
2. 172.20.1.11
(S2M)
3. 0.0.0.0
4. 0.0.0.0
1. 172.20.1.10
(13)172.20.1.13
Auto
10,11,12,13
5
2. 172.20.1.11
(S2M)
3. 0.0.0.0
4. 0.0.0.0
1. 172.20.1.20
(23)172.20.1.23
Auto
20,21,22,23,11
6
2. 172.20.1.21
(S2M)
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Network B:
Node
Priority/
Neighbor Table
ID/MgmtIP
State
(Node Ids)
Group Master IP
1. 172.20.1.20
(20)172.20.1.20
Master1
20, 21, 22, 23,10
Group ID External Group IP
6
172.20.1.10
2. 172.20.1.21
(EM)
3. 0.0.0.0
4. 0.0.0.0
1. 172.20.1.20
(21)172.20.1.21
Master2
20, 21, 22, 23
6
2. 172.20.1.21
(S2M)
3. 0.0.0.0
4. 0.0.0.0
1. 172.20.1.20
(22)172.20.1.22
Auto
20, 21, 22, 23
6
2. 172.20.1.21
(S2M)
3. 0.0.0.0
4. 0.0.0.0
1. 172.20.1.10
(23)172.20.1.23
Auto
20, 21, 22, 23
6
2. 172.20.1.11
(S2M)
3. 0.0.0.0
4. 0.0.0.0
1. 172.20.1.10
(11)172.20.1.11
(S2M)
10, 11, 12, 13, 23
5
2. 172.20.1.11
9.7 Provisioning for TDM Timing
1. Provision Neighbor Discovery Group Master IP Address.
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > Network
a. Press Neighbor Discovery button
b. Press the Unicast Neighbor Discovery IP button
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c. Populate the Group Master IP addresses 1 through 4
If utilizing a Backup Elected Master provision its Group Master IP Address.
Set the Physical Location Slot and the Port to receive the TDM Timing source.
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
a. Press TDM Timing button
b. Press the Bundle Timing Button
c. Select the Unicast Timing Bundle Source (IU Slot and Port)
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2. Create a bundle to that Slot and Port.
(See Section 7.12 for mapping)
Provisioning Steps for Elected Master (Internal Timing)
1. Provision Neighbor Discovery Group Master IP Address.
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > Network
a. Press Neighbor Discovery button
b. Press the Unicast Neighbor Discovery IP button
c. Populate the Group Master IP addresses 1 through 4


Include your own IP Address.
If utilizing a Backup Elected Master provision its Group Master IP Address.
Provisioning Steps for Elected Master (Framer)
1. Provision Neighbor Discovery Group Master IP Address.
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > Network
a. Press Neighbor Discovery button
b. Press the Unicast Neighbor Discovery IP button
c. Populate the Group Master IP addresses 1 through 4

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
If utilizing a Backup Elected Master provision its Group Master IP Address.
2. Set Timing Source to Framer.
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
a. Press TDM Timing button
b. Set the Timing Source to T1E1 Framer
3. Connect Framer. Connect external timing source to T1/E1 port.
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Provisioning Steps for Elected Master (Bundle)
1. Provision Neighbor Discovery Group Master IP Address.
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > Network
a. Press Neighbor Discovery button
b. Press the Unicast Neighbor Discovery IP button
c. Populate the Group Master IP addresses 1 through 4

If utilizing a Backup Elected Master provision its Group Master IP Address.
2. Set Timing Source to Bundle
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
a. Press TDM Timing button
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b. Set the Timing Source to Bundle
3. Set the Physical Location Slot and Port to receive the TDM Timing source.
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
a. Press TDM Timing button
b. Press the Bundle Timing Button
c. Select the Unicast Timing Bundle Source (IU Slot and Port)
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4. Create a bundle to that Slot and Port.
(See Section 7.12 for mapping)
9.8 TDM VLAN Tagging
In bandwidth limited environments data loss can become problematic. QOS and VLAN
Tagging can be utilized to ensure that critical data is given a higher priority in the network. All
networking equipment must be configured properly to honor the QOS field in the VLAN tag.
TDM Pseudo-Wire
Ethernet Ports 9 and Ports 10 are connected to the two TDM pseudo-wire engines. It is
imperative that any VLAN created will carry both of these ports.
Network Ports
The VLAN on the network port also needs to be configured correctly to carry the TDM traffic.
Setting VLAN Port (3500/3500M)
Switch > VLAN
1. Press VLAN Port Settings button.
2. Set Ports 9 and 10 to the following:
o PVID: 1
o
Force: disabled
o Type: transparent
3. Set the port connected to the network (typically 5 and 6):
o PVID: 1
o Force: disabled
o Type:
 Set to Transparent: If using Path Redundancy using RSTP or Edge
device using RSTP.
 Set to Network: If using Ring Configuration using RSTP.
4. Write the settings.
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5. Close the view.
The port numbers should
NEVER be changed
Create VLANs (3500/3500M)
Switch > VLAN
1. Press VLANs button.
2. Create Path A VLAN ID. Include Ports 9, 10, and the port(s) connected to the network.
3. Create Path B VLAN ID. Include Ports 9, 10, and the port(s) connected to the network if
required.
4. Write the settings.
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5. Close View
Ensure that the entered port numbers
are separated by a space
Set to tag
Setting VLAN Port (3501/3501M)
Switch > VLAN
1. Press VLAN Port Settings button.
2. Set Ports 9 and 10 to the following:
o
PVID: 1
o Type: Trunk
3. Set the port connected to the network (typically 5 and 6):
o PVID: 1
o Type: Trunk
4. Write the settings.
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5. Close the view.
Create VLANs (3501/3501M) Switch > VLAN
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press VLANs button.
Create VLAN for Path A with an ID. Of 12
Create VLAN for Path B with an ID. Of 13
Write the settings.
Close View.
Set QoS Tags Switch > QOS
1. Press the QOS Tags button
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2. Set Tag Priority to 4 and Output Priority Queue to urgent.
3. Close View
Set QoS Queue
Switch > QOS
1. Press the QOS button
2. Set Ports 9 and 10 to the following:
o QOS Use Tags: enabled
o QOS Use IP: enabled
o QOS Preference: tag
o QOS Default Priority: urgent
3. Set network port to the following:
o QOS Use Tags: enabled
o QOS Use IP: enabled
o
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o
QOS Default Priority: normal
Set TDM Engine VLANs
Node > Chassis Settings and Status > TDM
1. Press the TDM VLAN button
2. Set the following:
o Set VLAN Mode to enable
o QOS Tag Priority: 4
o Path A VLAN ID
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o
Path B VLAN ID
9.9 Using the RFL System Software Upgrade Utility
RFL provides an upgrade utility that easily upgrades a complete network of eXmux units to the
current System Software level.
9.9.1 Overview
The Upgrade Utility can only be activated when the Network is on-line.
The eXmux System Software Upgrade Utility can be accessed either directly through the
VNMS software or through the program files on your computer. Note that when accessing
through the VNMS software the whole network can be upgraded in one step.
Serial Server and TPS Interface Units must be upgraded first if included with your
network.
Note: In-service upgrade is supported on exmux with a dash 2 mainboard. Upgrade in service
capability was added with VNMS and System Software version 5.0 and above.
RFL now provides the ability to have a backup image of the system software. The new software
will swap the configuration into a standby partition. This greatly lessens the downtime when
upgrading takes place. See 9.9.3 and 9.9.4 for details of the various scenarios encountered
when using the Upgrade Utility.
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9.9.2 Upgrading through the VNMS Software
1. With VNMS running, “Open” your network and select “Upgrade all nodes” from the
“Tools” drop down menu as shown below.
2. A brief message will appear “Opening Upgrade Utility.”
3. The Upgrade Utility will be displayed as shown on the following page.
Check to upload the
specified software version to
Check this box to swap the active
the standby partition
partition from the current to the
standby and reboot the system
System software
version in standby
Changes to “Upgrade
partition
Successful” when installed
See Note 1 below
Current installed System
Software version
Click to refresh the
individual node
Click to enter the
Serial Server or TPS
Upgrade Utility
Click to refresh all
nodes in the network
Current (latest) system Browse for an older
software version
software version if
available
required
Click to upgrade the
checked eXmux units with
new system software
Note 1. Drop-down menu options:
Configuration.
Action
Use Current:
The node will use the current configuration after swap
and reboot.
Use Standby
The node will use the configuration in the standby
partition after swap and reboot.
Reset to Default:
The node will have its configuration values cleared and
revert to the default values.
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4. If your network has Serial Server or TPS Interface Units that require updating proceed
with the following steps, otherwise skip to step 8.
To upgrade the Serial Server Interface Unit(s) proceed as follows:
5. Once the dialog box shown above is displayed click the “Upgrade SSrv” button. The
following dialog will display.
Node IP address and slot location of
the Serial Server unit being updated
Click to refresh the selected
Serial Server information
Current (latest) Serial Server
software version available
Check to upgrade this
Serial Server unit
See Step 6.
If this box is checked the unit will be
fully upgraded, including FPGA and
low level software. Check only if
recommended by RFL customer
support
Browse for
another version
Check to upgrade all the
checked Serial Server
units in the network
6. When the upgrade button is clicked, the upgrade process is started. Various “Upgrade
State” messages will display. After “Upgrade Successful” is displayed the network will
come back on-line and the “Update from” heading will display the new version of the
Serial Server software.
Note the following:
 If the reboot box is checked the Interface Unit will automatically reboot at the end of
the upgrade. This is only necessary if the eXmux unit itself is not being upgraded.
 When upgrading Serial Server units the node IP address is displayed together with
the slot location of the Serial Server unit being upgraded.
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To upgrade the TPS unit proceed as follows:
7. From the main dialog click the “Upgrade TPS” button. The following dialog will
display.
Click to refresh the selected
TPS information
Node IP address and slot location of
the TPS units being updated
Check to upgrade this
TPS unit
Current (latest) TPS
software version
available
If this box is checked the unit will be
fully upgraded, including FPGA and
low level software. Check only if
recommended by RFL customer
support
See Step 8.
Browse for
another
version
Check to upgrade all the
checked TPS units in the
network
8. When the upgrade button is clicked, the upgrade process is started. Various “Upgrade
State” messages will display. After “Upgrade Successful” is displayed the network will
come back on-line and the “Update from” heading will display the new version of the TPS
software.
Note the following:
 If the reboot box is checked the Interface Unit will automatically reboot at the end of
the upgrade. This is only necessary if the eXmux unit itself is not being upgraded.
 When upgrading TPS units the node IP address is displayed together with the slot
location of the TPS unit being upgraded.
To upgrade the eXmux network proceed as follows:
9. Note that all the nodes in the network are displayed. Uncheck the nodes that do not require
upgrading. Connection status is also shown.
10. For version 5.0 and above System Software RFL provides many options for the user when
employing the upgrade utility. See 9.9.3 and 9.9.4 for details of the various scenarios
encountered when using the Upgrade Utility.
It should be noted that IP address information and passwords are retained when eXmux
units are re-configured making access possible.
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11. To verify the system software and hardware version of the motherboard proceed as shown
below.
Go to Node > Chassis Settings and Status > System
Verify the System Software version.
To verify the hardware revision press the “Hw Version” button.
System Software version
ECB system main
circuit board
revision number
Base number for
eXmux main board
assembly (109020-2)
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12. By clicking the “Browse” button older versions of the “System Software” are displayed in a
standard Windows dialog as shown on the following page. This is useful if there is a need
to revert to a previous System Software version.
Typically the files will follow the Linux extension format for zipped files
(tar.gz). A typical path would be C:\Exmux3500 Visual NMS\upgrade_packs
13. Once the “Execute Upload/Upgrade” button is checked the following message is displayed.
14. Click OK to continue.
15. Initial reboot is displayed followed by various “Upgrade State” messages, this process can
take up to 20-minutes. After “Upgrade Successful” is displayed the network will come back
on-line and the new operating and standby (if installed) versions will be displayed in the
utility dialog.
See below for various upgrade scenarios…..
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9.9.3 Upgrading Scenarios for Software versions 5.0 and up
eXmux Upgrade to a Higher than 5.0 Version Software
Operating
Standby
Desired Actions
Version
Version
Scenario
1
2
5.x
5.x
Empty or 5.y
Empty or 5.y
Upload unit to version 5.z
Upgrade unit to version 5.z
3
5.x
Empty or 5.y
Upgrade unit to version 5.z
Keep unit configuration
Reset unit to default
configuration
Scenario 1:
Operating
Version
Standby
Version
5.x
Empty or 5.y
Desired Actions
Upload unit to version 5.z
Customer has a main board with operating version 5.0 and above and no standby version.
Customer wants to upload a version greater than 5.0 to the standby partition for future upgrade.
Check “Upload” Box.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
VNMS provides confirmation screen before executing upload/upgrade.
Note: If Upgrade/Upload is attempted and fails, a Minor alarm will occur. To clear the alarm,
perform upgrade/upload until successful or the user will need to be reboot the unit.
Scenario 2:
Operating
Version
Standby
Version
5.x
Empty or 5.y
Desired Actions
Upgrade unit to version 5.z
Keep unit configuration
Customer has a main board with operating version 5.0 and no standby version. Customer wants to
upload a version greater than 5.0 to the standby partition and then reboot and swap that version into
the active partition.
Check “Upload” box.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
Wait 4 to 5 minutes for the nodes progress bar to finish.
Uncheck the “Upload Box”
Check “Swap and Reboot” box.
Check “Use Current” from the pull-down menu.
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Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
The Upgrade Utility will provide a confirmation message after the Upload/Upgrade activity is
completed.
“Upgrade is Successful” will display next to the progress bar.
Additionally, notice that the “version” numbers for the operating and standby versions will change.
Scenario 3:
Operating
Version
Standby
Version
5.x
Empty or 5.y
Desired Actions
Upgrade unit to version 5.z
Reset unit to default
configuration
Customer has a main board with operating version 5.0 and no standby version. Customer wants to
upload a version greater than 5.0 to the standby partition and then reboot and swap that version into
the active partition, resetting the configuration to the default values.
Check “Upload” box.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
Wait 4 to 5 minutes for the nodes progress bar to finish.
Uncheck the “Upload Box”
Check “Swap and Reboot” box.
Check “Reset to Default” from the pull-down menu.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
The Upgrade Utility will provide a confirmation message after the Upload/Upgrade activity is
completed.
“Upgrade is Successful” will display next to the progress bar.
Additionally, notice that the “version” numbers for the operating and standby versions will change.
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9.9.4 Upgrading Scenarios for Software Versions below 5.0
Scenario
eXmux Upgrade to a Lower than 5.0 Version Software
Operating
Standby
Desired Actions
Version
Version
4
5
5.x in sector 2
5.x in sector 2
Empty or 5.y
Empty or 5.y
Upload to version <5.x
Upgrade to version <5.x
6
5.x in sector 2
Empty or 5.y
Upgrade to version <5.x
7
5.x in sector 1
Empty or 5.y
Upgrade to version <5.x
Keep unit configuration
8
5.x in sector 1
Empty or 5.y
Upgrade to version <5.x
Reset unit to default
configuration
Keep unit configuration
Reset unit to default
configuration
Scenario 4:
Operating
Version
Standby
Version
5.x in sector 2
Empty or 5.y
Desired Actions
Upload to version <5.x
Customer has a main board with operating version 5.0 in the standby partition. Customer wants to
upload a version less than 5.0 to the standby partition.
Check “Upload” Box.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
The Upgrade Utility will provide a confirmation message after the Upload/Upgrade activity is
completed.
Scenario 5:
Operating
Version
Standby
Version
5.x in sector 2
Empty or 5.y
Desired Actions
Upgrade to version <5.x
Keep unit configuration
Customer has a main board with operating version 5.0. Customer wants to upload a version less
than 5.0.
Check “Upload” box.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
Wait 4 to 5 minutes for the nodes progress bar to finish.
Uncheck the “Upload Box”
Check “Swap and Reboot” box.
Check “Use Current” from the pull-down menu.
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Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
The Upgrade Utility will provide a confirmation message after the Upload/Upgrade activity is
completed.
“Upgrade is Successful” will display next to the progress bar.
Additionally, notice that the “version” numbers for the operating and standby versions will change.
Scenario 6:
Operating
Version
Standby
Version
5.x in sector 2
Empty or 5.y
Desired Actions
Upgrade to version <5.x
Reset unit to default
configuration
Customer has a main board with operating version 5.0 in the standby partition. Customer wants to
upload a version less than 5.0 and reset the current configuration to default
Check “Upload” box.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
Wait 4 to 5 minutes for the nodes progress bar to finish.
Uncheck the “Upload Box”
Check “Swap and Reboot” box.
Check “Reset to Default” from the pull-down menu.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
The Upgrade Utility will provide a confirmation message after the Upload/Upgrade activity is
completed.
“Upgrade is Successful” will display next to the progress bar.
Additionally, notice that the “version” numbers for the operating and standby versions will change.
Scenario 7:
Operating
Version
Standby
Version
5.x in sector 1
5.y
Desired Actions
Upgrade to version <5.x
Keep unit configuration
Customer has a main board with operating version 5.0 and a higher version in the standby partition.
Customer wants to downgrade to a version less than 5.0 but is currently operating in sector 1.
Note: “Use Standby” grayed out when using a version less than 5.0
Customer selects “Browse” and chooses an older version.
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Start-Up (Commissioning)
Check “Upload” box. To upload the downgraded version.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
Uncheck the “Upload Box”
Check “Swap and Reboot” box. (Use Current. Is the default)
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
VNMS provides a warning screen (Process will take 10-20 minutes with an outage for each node
you want to downgrade to a version below 5.0) before running the upgrade utility.
Scenario 8:
Operating
Version
Standby
Version
5.x in sector 1
5.y
Desired Actions
Upgrade to version <5.x
Reset unit to default
configuration
Customer has a main board with operating version 5.0 and a higher version in the standby partition.
Customer wants to downgrade to a version less than 5.0 but is currently operating in sector 1.
Note:
“Use Standby” grayed out when using a version less than 5.0
Customer selects “Browse” and chooses an older version.
Check “Upload” box. To upload the downgraded version.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
Uncheck the “Upload Box”
Check “Swap and Reboot” box.
Check “Reset to Default” from the pull-down menu.
Click “Execute Upload/Upgrade”
VNMS provides a warning screen (Process will take 10-20 minutes with an outage for each node
you want to downgrade to a version below 5.0) before running the upgrade utility.
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Start-Up (Commissioning)
9.9.5 Upgrading through the Program Files
1. From the “Start” menu on your laptop select
“Programs > Exmux 3500 Visual NMS > eXmux 3500 Upgrader.”
Click to activate the
utility
2. The following dialog box will appear. When adding IP address information the box will
expand for additional IP addresses. If the “Use common admin password” box is unchecked the “admin password” at the top of the dialog box will not be grayed out.
Enter the IP address of
the node that requires a
System Software upgrade
As addresses are added
additional boxes open
If all the nodes in the
network that have to be
upgraded have the same
password, check this box
and enter the password
Click "Continue" to access the
Upgrade Utility
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3. Following is the System Software Upgrade Utility dialog with only one node selected.
When the “Refresh Button” is clicked the software checks for the currently installed
System Software version and connection status. The currently installed System
Software version is displayed under the “Upgrade from” heading.
Check to upload the
specified software
Current installed
version to the standby
System Software
partition
version
Click to refresh the
System software
individual node
version in standby
partition
Click to enter the
Serial Server or TPS
Upgrade Utility
Click to refresh all
nodes in the network
Current (latest)
system software
version available
Check this box to swap
the active partition from
the current to the standby
and reboot the system
See Note 1 below
Browse for an older
software version if
required
Changes to “Upgrade
Successful” when
installed
Click to upgrade the
checked eXmux units
with new system
software
4. For version 5.0 and above System Software RFL provides many options for the user when
employing the upgrade utility. See 9.9.3 and 9.9.4 for details.
It should be noted that IP address information and passwords are retained when eXmux
units are re-configured making access possible.
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Start-Up (Commissioning)
5. By clicking the “Browse” button older versions of the “System Software” are displayed in a
standard Windows dialog as shown below. This is useful if there is a need to revert to a
previous System Software version.
Typically the files will follow the Linux extension format for zipped files
(tar.gz). A typical path would be C:\Exmux3500 Visual NMS\upgrade_packs
6. Once the “Execute Upload/Upgrade” button is checked the following message is
displayed.
7. Click OK to continue.
8. Initial reboot is displayed followed by various “Upgrade State” messages, this process
can take up to 20-minutes. After “Upgrade Successful” is displayed the network will
come back on-line and the new operating and standby (if installed) versions will be
displayed in the utility dialog.
9.10 Decommissioning
1. If the eXmux is to be decommissioned, the application in which it is used must be
disabled. This is important when protection signaling is used.
2. Switch off the main and redundant power supplies on the eXmux.
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Start-Up (Commissioning)
3. Turn off the power supply to the eXmux at its source and disconnect the main and
redundant power supply (if installed) cables at the eXmux terminal block.
4. Disconnect the external wiring to the eXmux according to the respective wiring lists and
diagrams to avoid disconnecting other equipment by mistake.
5. If a complete cabinet has to be removed it must be supported so that it cannot fall over
when the anchoring bolts are undone. If no support is available the cabinet should be
carefully laid down horizontally.
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Start-Up (Commissioning)
This Page
Intentionally
Left Blank
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Troubleshooting Guide
Section 10. Troubleshooting Guide
10.1 Introduction
The eXmux is intended to be serviced only by a qualified RFL Service Engineer; however RFL
realizes that in many cases its equipment may be installed in very remote locations. Therefore
to minimize downtime the following section will provide a very basic approach to answering
some problems sometimes encountered. This section is intended to minimize the number of
service calls placed, not as a replacement for RFL trained personnel.
Troubleshooting can be broken down into the following three types:
1. Setup Errors.
2. Network Problems.
3. Equipment Problems.
The basic objective of any troubleshooting guide is to determine the type and location of a
problem. Once this is accomplished, taking one of the following actions will usually restore the
eXmux to operation.
1. For setup problems, verify and re-configure the unit or units that were not setup
correctly.
2. For public network problems, work with your local or inter-exchange carrier to correct
the situation. For private network problems, consult the network manager.
3. For equipment problems, contact RFL by phone at 973.334.3100 or by e-mail at
Customer.Service@RFLelect.com
Following is an inter-active troubleshooting guide to assist the user in identifying possible
problems with the eXmux. Clicking the “Home” icon will return the user to this page.
10.2 Troubleshooting Main Menu
For issues with the FE/GE (LAN/WAN) connections
10.3
For issues with the Interface Units
10.4
For issues with the Service Channel
10.5
For issues with the Alarms
10.6
For issues with the VNMS Software
10.7
For TDM Issues here
11
For other issues
11.6.2
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.3 FE/GE (LAN/WAN) Connections Issues
For Hardware Connection issues
10.3.1
For Setting issues
10.3.2
For Status issues
10.3.3
For LAN Traffic Issues
10.3.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.3.1 Hardware Connection issues
For more information on copper connections –10.3.1.1
For more information on fiber connections –10.3.1.2
Back to FE/GE Issues – 10.3
Troubleshooting Guide
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.3.1.1 Copper
Connection Issues
High Speed (GE) Network
Side Ethernet Interface
Must be Cat 5e
(with all 4 pairs run) for
1000mb/s
Access (FE) Ethernet Interface
4-RJ-45 Electrical Connectors
shown, can also have 4-Fiber ST or
SC Connectors or a combination of
above
The Ethernet GE Side is normally
equipped with RJ-45 connectors
and SFP cages.
8
7
6 5 4 3 2 1
RX- RX+ TX+
TX-
Back to FE/GE Issues – 10.3
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.3.1.2 Fiber
Connection Issues
SFP Fiber transceivers are
installed in cages here
Ensure that the remote SFP
transceivers match the local
unit with regard to:
Speed (100 or 1000 mb/s)*
Mode (Single or Multi)
and that the fiber optic losses
are within specification.
*When using 100 mb/s SFP,
the eXmux switch port speed
must be changed.
Back to FE/GE Issues – 10.3
Troubleshooting Guide
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.3.2 Settings Issues

By right clicking on the symbolic representation of the switch in VNMS node view, the
switch settings can be accessed.

Switch settings are discussed in detail in Section 8
Back to FE/GE Issues – 10.3
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.3.3 Status Issues

By right clicking on the symbolic representation of the switch in VNMS node view, the
switch status can be accessed.

All typical managed layer two switch statistics are available.
Back to FE/GE Issues – 10.3
Troubleshooting Guide
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.3.4 FE (LAN) Traffic Issues

The 4 FE ports on the eXmux are provided to allow the user to connect other devices to
the GE ports as needed.

They are fully functional layer two switch ports connected to the GE ports as well as
each other.

The switch settings and statistics can be used to diagnose any connection problems.

The FE ports are 10/100 base-T with auto-negotiation and auto MDI.

The switch ports support RSTP to prevent loops.
Back to FE/GE Issues – 10.3
Troubleshooting Guide
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.4 Interface Units Issues
For Sync Interface Unit issues
10.4.1
For Async Interface Unit issues
10.4.2
For G.703 Interface Unit issues
10.4.3
For C37.94 Interface Unit issues
10.4.4
For 4 Wire Interface Unit issues
10.4.5
For FXO Interface Unit issues
10.4.6
For FXS Interface Unit issues
10.4.7
Troubleshooting Guide
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.4.1 Sync Interface Unit Issues
For more information on Settings and Status go to section 7.7.1 of users manual.
Typical sync module communications problem solutions:

First ensure that modules on both ends are enabled, mapped, and data rates set to match.

Ensure that all alarms associated with these modules and nodes are cleared.
To determine what can cause an alarm – Click Here

Most remaining problems with synchronous module communications are caused by
clocking methods, source, and alignment.

Confirm that modules are set correctly for DCE or DTE mode to match the end
equipment.

Confirm pin-outs of cables, many older cables do not bring both clocks to the end
equipment.

Confirm that if the sync module is used in DTE mode, the end equipment is DCE and is
synchronized externally to the eXmux timing.

Confirm the proper polarity of the clocks is observed. Improper polarity can cause
problems that may not be immediately apparent but may occur over time or varied
network conditions. It is important that each device shifts its data out on the opposite
edge when the other device is inputting it. Details on this are in the manual.

With long cables, as the data rate gets higher it may be necessary to invert the polarity
of the transmit clock at the DCE end to account for propagation delay in the cable. The
goal is that when observed at the DCE, the data into the DCE does not change at the
same time the data is sampled.
Back to Interface Unit Issues – 10.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.4.2 Async Interface Unit Issues
For more information on Settings and Status go to section 7.7.5 of users manual.
Typical Async module communications problem solutions:

First ensure that modules on both ends are enabled, mapped, and data rates set to match.

Ensure that all alarms associated with these modules and nodes are cleared.
To determine what can cause an alarm – Click Here

Most remaining problems with asynchronous module communications are caused by
improper cabling or handshaking.

Confirm that the handshaking of the end device matches the settings on the port.

Confirm that the cabling is correct for the end device.
Back to Interface Unit Issues – 10.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.4.3 G.703 Interface Unit Issues
For more information on Settings and Status go to section 7.7.2 of users manual.
Typical G.703 module communications problem solutions:

First ensure that modules on both ends are enabled and mapped.

Ensure that all alarms associated with these modules and nodes are cleared.
To determine what can cause an alarm – Click Here

Most remaining problems with G.703 synchronous module communications are caused
by clocking methods, cabling, and termination.

Confirm that Octet timing is enabled if necessary.

Confirm that the proper cabling connections are made and that the proper pairs are
twisted.

Confirm that the proper termination is in place and that the differential signal levels are
correct.
Back to Interface Unit Issues – 10.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.4.4 C37.94 Interface Unit Issues
For more information on Settings and Status go to section 7.7.3 of users manual.
Typical C37.94 module communications problem solutions:

First ensure that modules on both ends are enabled, mapped, and data rates set to match.

Ensure that all alarms associated with these modules and nodes are cleared.
To determine what can cause an alarm – Click Here

Most remaining problems with C37.94 module communications are caused by data rate
settings or fiber issues.

Confirm that the number of timeslots (n) have the same setting on both ends of the link
and on the end equipment.

Confirm that the fiber type is multimode.

Confirm that the fiber optic levels are within specification.
Back to Interface Unit Issues – 10.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.4.5 4-Wire Interface Unit Issues
For more information on Settings and Status go to Section 7.10.4 of users manual.
Typical 4-Wire module communications problem solutions:

First ensure that modules on both ends are enabled and mapped.

Ensure that all alarms associated with these modules and nodes are cleared.
To determine what can cause an alarm – Click Here

Most remaining problems with 4-wire communications are audio or signaling related.

Signaling can be type I, II, III, or V. Confirm that the proper signaling method is
selected and contacts wired appropriately. Manual section 3.8.4.3 covers this in great
detail.

Confirm that audio levels are correct for the intended attached device. Some devices are
very sensitive to proper levels.

Confirm that the maximum level possible (without clipping is used) at each interface to
obtain the maximum SNR and minimize a/d – d/a effects.

Ensure that the maximum frequency of the signal content does not exceed the rating of
the interface to avoid aliasing effects.

Use loopbacks to determine where the audio signal is being affected.
Back to Interface Unit Issues – 10.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.4.6 FXO Interface Unit Issues
For more information on Settings and Status go to section 7.10.1 of users manual.
Typical FXO module communications problem solutions:

First ensure that modules on both ends are enabled and mapped.

Ensure that all alarms associated with these modules and nodes are cleared.
To determine what can cause an alarm – Click Here

Most remaining problems with FXO communications are related to starting or are audio
level related.

The eXmux supports only Loop Start. Ground Start systems will require an external
converter. Contact RFL for more information on available converters.

Confirm that audio levels are correct for the intended attached telephone network.
Some networks will provide very poor signal quality with improper levels.
Back to Interface Unit Issues – 10.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.4.7 FXS Interface Unit Issues
For more information on Settings and Status go to section 7.10.2 of users manual.
Typical FXS module communications problem solutions:

First ensure that modules on both ends are enabled and mapped.

Ensure that all alarms associated with these modules and nodes are cleared.
To determine what can cause an alarm – Click Here

Most remaining problems with FXS communications are related to ringing or are audio
level related.

Ensure that the ringer equivalence ratings do not exceed the specified limit.

Ensure that ring voltage, loop current, and DC offset are set correctly for the telephone
device being used. 64V ring voltage, 0V DC offset, and 20 mA of loop current will
work with most devices.

Ensure the loop current is set correctly to allow detection of the off hook conditions
reliably.
Back to Interface Unit Issues – 10.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.5 Service Channel Issues
Typical service telephone communications problem solutions:

First ensure that modules on all units are enabled, and have unique 3 digit extensions
set.

Ensure that ring voltage, loop current, and DC offset are set correctly for the telephone
handset being used. 64V ring voltage, 0V DC offset, and 20 mA of loop current will
work with most telephones.

Confirm that the service channel on all units have no alarms and are not in protection
shutdown.

Protection shutdown indicates that the port has shutdown to protect itself against excess
voltages and currents. These can be generated internally and externally. Correct any
external problems and reset the system. If the problem persists, contact RFL.
Troubleshooting Guide
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.6 Alarm Issues
To Determine What Can Cause an Alarm –
10.6.1
Alarm Contact Issues –
10.6.2
Alarm LED Issues –
10.6.3
NMS Alarm Issues –
10.6.4
Troubleshooting Guide
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.6.1 To Determine What Can Cause an Alarm
The following chart will show the alarm source.
For more details on each alarm, use VNMS and hover over the alarm in the Interface Unit status
page. This will cause a tooltip to be displayed with more information.
Back to Alarm Issues – 10.6
Troubleshooting Guide
INTERFACE UNIT
Data Interfaces:
MAJOR ALARM
MINOR ALARM
X
4-Port Sync. Multi-Protocol IU
Master Clock Not Detected
X
Loop-Back(s) Enabled
X
Interface Clock Not Detected (DTE ONLY)
X
Overlapping Timeslots
X
PLL Failure
X
Inventory Mismatch
X
4-Port G.703 IU
Master Clock Not Detected
X
Loop-Back(s) Enabled
X
RX Loss of Signal
X
Octet Timing Not Detected
X
Inventory Mismatch
X
4-Port C37.94 IU
Master Clock Not Detected
X
Loop-Back(s) Enabled
X
Local IU RX failure
X
Overlapping Timeslots
X
Remote IU RX failure
X
Inventory Mismatch
X
8-Port Async. IU
HOW IS ALARM GENERATED
Master Clock Not Detected
X
Loop-Back(s) Enabled
X
V.110 Frame Not Detected (or Invalid State)
X
Inventory Mismatch
Telephone and Audio Interfaces:
X
8-Port FXO Telephone IU
Master Clock Not Detected
X
Loop-Back(s) Enabled
X
TX or RX Test Tone Active
X
Inventory Mismatch
X
4-Port FXS Telephone IU
Master Clock Not Detected
X
Loop-Back(s) Enabled
X
TX or RX Test Tone Enabled
X
SLIC Shutdown (In Protection Mode)
X
Inventory Mismatch
Continued……….
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Troubleshooting Guide
Telephone and Audio Interfaces:
MAJOR ALARM
MINOR ALARM
X
8-Port 4-Wire Audio IU
HOW IS ALARM GENERATED
Master Clock Not Detected
X
Loop-Back(s) Enabled
X
TX or RX Test Tone Enabled
X
Force-Busy-Signaling Enabled
X
Inventory Mismatch
The eXmux TPS System (Port Based):
X
CRC, address or hardware failure
X
I/O fault (usually means the connection between
the I/O box and the TPS IU is faulty)
X
TPS needs new software
TPS System
X
Ping Pong Alarm. Excessive channel delay
(exceeds the programmed set-point)
X
Toggle switch on I/O box set to OFF
X
Inventory Mismatch
X
Reboot required
Serial Server:
X
Serial Server needs new software
X
Serial Server
Hardware Failure (FPGA Communication Failure)
X
Reboot required
X
Link Alarm. Network connectivity issues
(Point-to-point only)
X
General IP Failure. A problem exists with IP
address settings, either port or module
addresses.
X
Local port in loopback
X
Remote port in loopback
X
Buffer Overrun. Active when pre-set level of
internal buffer is exceeded
X
A DNP3 alarm is active
X
Inventory Mismatch
Continued…..
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Troubleshooting Guide
The following alarms will show as eXmux Unit Alarms
MAJOR
ALARM
MINOR
ALARM
OPERATOR
SETTABLE*
X
T1/E1 IU
Framer Manager
Loss of frame or carrier
X
Counters being non-zero
X
Active loopback
X
Inventory Mismatch
X
Major 1 alarm detected by Interface Unit(s)
X
Minor 1 alarm detected by Interface Unit(s)
X
Major 2 alarm detected by Interface Unit(s)
X
Minor 2 alarm detected by Interface Unit(s)
X
Main Board
Major alarm detected by Framer Manager
X
Minor alarm detected by Framer Manager
X
The admin password is the default
X
Last upgrade of standby partition failed
X
Path A/B failure
X
Data Base access is locked
X
Diagnostic mode active
X
NTP alarm (if enabled)
X
PTP alarm (if enabled)
X
Critical configuration change
X
Power Supply
HOW IS ALARM GENERATED
Bundle alarms (TDM alarms)
X
Power Supply Switch is OFF/fuse good
X
Power Supply Switch is ON/fuse blown**
X
Input voltage is either below or above operating
parameters and the power supply has shut down
for protection.
*User configurable (none-major-minor)
** For fuse replacement on the Modular eXmux only see 5.4.2
The following alarms will show as Ethernet Switch Alarms
MAJOR
ALARM
MINOR
ALARM
OPERATOR
SETTABLE*
Configuration mismatch between
Switch and eXmux database
X
X
Ethernet
Ethernet port not receiving packets
Ethernet Switch
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HOW IS ALARM GENERATED
10-21
X
TDM link alarms (engine 1)
X
TDM link alarms (engine 2)
X
Port inactivity status*
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Troubleshooting Guide
10.6.2 Alarm Contact Issues
The alarm relays on the unit will respond to alarm and alert conditions, the functionality can be
programmed by the user as required and connected to their plant monitoring system. Under
normal operating conditions when the eXmux is turned on the relays are energized, in an alarm
or alert state the relays will be in the de-energized position.
NOTE
All relay contacts are labeled in the de-energized position.
The relays are SPDT (Form C) located at the rear bottom right of the unit.
The terminal blocks on the rear of the eXmux are conventional screw type barrier blocks. RFL
recommends that wires be terminated in ring lugs as an additional safety precaution. Make
connections to the Major and Minor Alarms as required.
Back to Alarm Issues –10.6
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.6.3 Alarm LED Issues
Major and Minor Alarms will be displayed through the LED indicators on the front and rear of
the unit. Note that the Interface Unit Alarms only display on the front of the eXmux.
Front View
Interface Unit Status:
EXMUX Status:
No Illumination - Unit Functioning Normally
Orange - Unit in Minor Alarm
Red - Unit in Major Alarm
No Illumination - No Interface Unit Installed
Green - IU Installed and Functioning Normally
Orange - IU in Minor Alarm
Red - IU in Major Alarm
Rear View
EXMUX Status:
No Illumination - Unit Functioning Normally
Orange - Unit in Minor Alarm
Red - Unit in Major Alarm
Back to Alarm Issues – 10.6
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.6.4 NMS Alarm Issues
In the VNMS alarms are represented in several different screens.

In Network view each node will change color to represent its alarm state. (Green for no
alarm, yellow for minor alarm only and Red for major alarm or major and minor alarm).

In Node view each interface unit will change color to represent its alarm state. (Green
for no alarm, yellow for minor alarm only and Red for major alarm or major and minor
alarm). In addition, the symbolic representation of the chassis alarm LED’s will
indicate the alarm state of that node. The representations of the service telephone and
T1/E1 ports will change color as well.

From the reports menu, a list of all active alarms in the entire network can be retrieved.
Back to Alarm Issues – 10.6
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.7 Network Management Software Issues
Installation issues -
10.7.1
Startup issues -
10.7.2
Communications Issues -
10.7.3
Other Issues -
11.6.2
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.7.1 NMS Installation issues
The VNMS software can be installed on your computer by inserting the supplied CD or
downloaded from the RFL website.
7. Insert the CD into the CD ROM drive of your computer or run the downloaded file.
8. In most cases, a setup window will appear on the screen.
If the window does not appear, do the following:
d. From the Start Menu, select run.
e. Type the following in the run window command line: D:\setup
Note: If your computer does not use ‘D’ for the CD ROM drive, substitute the
correct letter here.
f. Click OK.
9. Click on ‘Next’ to continue with the setup.
10. From this point on the software will prompt you to enter information it requires to
complete the installation. When the installation is complete the following icons will
appear on your desktop, clicking an icon will display its full description.
Shortcut to the Visual Network
Management Software (VNMS)
Shortcut to launch the terminal program
to allow IP programming through the
"User Access USB" port
Back to NMS Issues –10.7
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.7.2 NMS Startup issues
First time log on and Activation Key Code
New users of the eXmux will receive an activation key code from RFL. Once the activation
key code is entered and the network established, it is a good idea to change the VNMS user ID
and password for security. (See 7.2.2)
Double click the “Exmux 3500 VNMS” icon on your desktop.
The following dialog box will appear.
Enter the activation key code received from RFL. If you have not received a key code call RFL
Customer Service at 973.334.3100. Check the “Done” button.
Note: This login occurs only for the first installation on a new computer.
The following dialog box will appear. Type “control” into the User ID field and “password”
into the Password field and check the “Log In” button.
Type: control
Type: password
Managing User Levels –Setting Authorities in VNMS
From the pull down menus select “File” > “Manage Users”
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The user ID and password can be changed in the following dialog box. There are three levels of
“Users” that can be set; multiple users can also be added.
Change the User ID and
Password as required
Click to add a
new user
The "User type" can be set to the following:
Administrator: Able to perform all functions of the VNMS
Maintenance: Able to perform limited functions of the VNMS
Monitor:
Can only monitor the system. No changes allowed
Will jump to next user
Back to NMS Issues – 10.7
Troubleshooting Guide
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10.7.3 NMS Communications Issues
Section 7.2 of the instruction manual contains details on how to connect to field units. This
section should be reviewed in the event there are difficulties communicating with the units.
Typically other communication problems are network related. Using the PING command to
ensure that the PC can access the desired field units is recommended.
Back to NMS Issues – 10.7
Troubleshooting Guide
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Intentionally
Left Blank
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Trouble Shooting a TDM Circuit Outage
Section 11. Trouble Shooting a TDM Circuit
Outage
The eXmux software contains many tools, which can be used to determine the root cause of a
TDM circuit or network connectivity failure.
 TDM Bundle Status
 TDM Timing Status
 Neighbor Discovery Table
 Sequence of Events
 Ethernet Port Mirroring
 Developer Logs
The Bundle Status, TDM Timing Status, Neighbor Discovery Table, Sequence of Events, and
Ethernet Port Mirroring configuration can be accessed through the VNMS.
The Developer Logs can be accessed through the CLI either locally (USB) or remotely utilizing
Putty.
Feature
TDM Bundle Status
Description
The circuit receive and transmit statistics can be used to determine if
data is being received at both ends.
TDM Timing Status
The data can be used to determine if the node is synchronized with
the timing source.
Neighbor
Discovery The data can be used to determine if the node has visibility of remote
Table
nodes.
Sequence of Events
The sequence of events can be used to determine the root cause of an
outage.
Ethernet Port Mirroring Ethernet Port Mirroring allows a customer to capture network traffic
using Wireshark. It can be used to determine if packets are making
their way to the eXmux Ethernet switch or being lost in transit.
Developer Logs
1. tdmoip_mngr.log: The TDM Manager application handles
the TDM circuit configuration and status.
2. service_mngr.log: The Service Manager application handles
Neighbor Discovery, timing role, and clocking.
3. board_mngr.log: The board manager application handles card
configuration and status.
11.1 TDM Bundle Status
The TDM Bundle Status and Statistics can be used to determine if the TDM circuit is working
correctly. In most cases if a TDM circuit is not working correctly, the node and bundle will be
in Major Alarm.
TDM Bundle Default Alarm Operation:
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



The node and TDM circuit will go into alarm if the circuit endpoint is not receiving data
from the remote connection.
The node and TDM circuit will not go into alarm if the data it is transmitting is not
being received by the remote end.
The node and TDM circuit will go into alarm if there is no TDM timing.
The node and TDM circuit will go into alarm if the receiving jitter buffer is not large
enough to accommodate for the network latency.
11.1.1 Resetting TDM Statistics
Before troubleshooting TDM circuits, it is advisable to clear the TDM Statistics on both sides
of the circuit.
1. Go to the Chassis View of the node with the problematic circuit.
2. Right mouse click to bring up the menu.
3. Select “Chassis settings and status” option.
4. Left mouse click on the “Chassis settings and status” option to bring up the dialog.
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5. Left mouse click on the Chassis Settings TDM tab.
6. Left mouse click on the TDM Alarm Settings button to bring up the TDM Alarm
Settings.
7. Left mouse click on the “TDM Statistics: Clear All statistics” checkbox to populate the
checkbox.
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8. Left mouse click on the Write button to clear the TDM statistics.
9. Repeat this step on the other side of the problematic connection.
11.1.2 Mapping View
The bundle status and statistics can be accessed from the circuit in the Mapping View.
1. Go to the Network menu on the Network menu bar.
2. Select Mapping View using the mouse.
3. Left mouse click on Mapping View.
The Bundle Settings and Status parameters are from the perspective of the node. The user may
need to see the status and statistics from both ends of the connection to troubleshoot the issue.
Once in Mapping View:
1. Select the 2 eXmux nodes, which have the problematic circuit.
2. Hover on the port to be diagnosed.
3. Right mouse click to bring up the TDM circuit menu options.
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4. Select the “Bundle settings and status” option.
5. Left mouse click on the “Bundle settings and status” option.
6. The Bundle Settings and Status window will appear.
The Statistics tab on the Bundle Settings and Status window contains a number of parameters,
which can be used to determine if connectivity exists between the endpoints. The parameters
are updated every 10-15 seconds.
1. Go to the Bundle Settings and Status window.
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2. Left mouse click on the Statistics tab on the Bundle Settings and Status window to bring
up the statistics.
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The “Num Eth pkts transmitted” and” Num Eth pkts received” are important parameters for
diagnosing if a circuit is working properly. These parameter values should be constantly
updated. The table below provides more information on the individual statistics parameters and
how to use them for diagnostic reasons.
Field
Num Eth pkts
transmitted
Num Eth pkts
received
Num Eth pkts lost
Num Eth pkts
discarded
Num Eth pkts
reordered
Num of underrun
events
Num of jump events
Description
The number of packets being transmitted should continue to grow if the
circuit is working properly.
The number of packets being received should continue to grow. If the
value is not changing there is a problem.
Some of the possible error conditions include:
 The remote node is not online or is inaccessible.
 The remote node is transmitting data, but the packets are being
lost in the network.
 The remote node is not transmitting data.
Packet loss is normal in any network. If this value is increasing
quickly, then there might be a problem with the network.
The number of packets discarded should not be increasing quickly
unless the path redundancy feature or hitless switching feature is being
used.
The number of Ethernet packets reordered may increase if the jitter
buffer is too large.
The number of underrun events will increase if the jitter buffer is not
large enough to accommodate for the network latency.
The number of jump events will increase if the jitter buffer is not large
enough to accommodate for the network latency.
The TDM circuit statistics should be verified on both sides of the circuit connection to properly
diagnose the issue.
11.2 TDM Timing and Neighbor Discovery Table
Accurate TDM Timing is required in order for the TDM circuits to operate correctly. If TDM
Timing does not exist, it could be for the following reasons:
1. The TDM timing master is not online or accessible.
2. The TDM timing bundle is being lost in the network.
The Neighbor Discovery and Timing status can be found on the chassis view.
1. Right mouse click on the chassis view and select: “Chassis settings and status”.
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2. Left mouse click to bring up the view
The left half of the Chassis settings and status screen are the settings. The right half of the
Chassis settings and status screen is the status.
11.2.1 TDM Timing
Left mouse click the TDMTiming tab on the status screen to bring up the current timing.
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The Timing Role states the node’s current role in the eXmux network.
Field
EM
S2EM
INIT/NM
Brief Description
Elected Master
Slave to Elected
Master
No Master
Description
Main provider of timing in the eXmux network group.
Receives timing from the Elected Master.
Not receiving timing.
The Timing Quality status can be used to determine if a slave node’s timing is synchronized
with the Elected Master. Acquisition, Track1, and Track2 indicate that the node’s timing is
healthy.
Field
Brief Description
Description
Idle
No Clock
Node timing is not synchronized. The Elected master
may use this status if it is using its’ own internal timing
source.
Invalid
Bad Clock
Indicates that there are some issues with receiving
timing from the timing source.
Acquisition Acquiring Timing
Acquiring timing from the timing source.
Track1
Locked Timing
Timing is locked with the timing source.
Track2
Synchronized Timing Timing is completely synchronized with the timing
source.
recfromuo Recovery from
Indicates that there are some issues with receiving
underrun or overrun
timing from the timing source.
recdisabled Recovery disabled
Indicates that there are some issues with receiving
timing from the timing source. The Elected master
may use this status if it is using its’ own internal timing
source.
11.2.2 Multicast Timing
The only information for multicast timing is on the TDMTiming tab. Unicast Timing if utilized
may require further analysis to determine if it is working correctly.
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11.2.3 Unicast Timing
The Unicast Timing Status can be useful to determine if the Timing Sources are healthy if
utilizing Unicast Timing. Left mouse click on the Unicast Timing button to retrieve the view.
The Unicast Timing view will provide the current timing source as well as all the possible
timing sources configured on the unit. It is important to verify that these results match up with
the configured Unicast Timing sources.
Note: If the timing quality is Idle and the timing source is configured, it is important to
troubleshoot the issue further.
1. Verify that the timing source is reachable by looking at the Neighbor Discovery table.
2. Verify that the TDM Bundle exists on that Timing Source Slot Port combination.
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11.2.4 Neighbor Discovery
Left click on the Neighbor Discovery button to bring up the Neighbor Discovery table.
The Neighbor Discovery table contains a wealth of information. It is populated by utilizing the
RFL proprietary internode communication protocol called Neighbor Discovery. Network
connectivity must exist in order for this table to be populated.
The Neighbor Discovery table contains the data required to create circuits between eXmux units and
ensure that a common TDM timing source is being utilized.
All the network nodes known by the current eXmux node are stored in the Neighbor Discovery
table. A TDM circuit between two nodes can only exist if the Neighbor Discovery table on both
ends of the circuit contains the required node.
The Neighbor Discovery table can be useful for isolating connectivity and timing issues. If
there is no Elected Master in the node’s network group, then TDM timing may not operate
correctly.
11.2.5 Neighbor Discovery: Unicast Mode
There can only be one Elected Master per Neighbor Group, but it is possible to have more than
one Elected Master in a Neighbor Discovery table if the External Group IP addresses are
populated in the Unicast Neighbor Discovery IP Address table.
11.2.6 Neighbor Discovery: Troubleshooting
If the Neighbor Discovery table is empty, the eXmux has lost visibility of the remote nodes.
The following methods can be used to troubleshoot connectivity:
1. Ping tests between nodes utilizing the System IP Address.
2. Mirror Ethernet Network Traffic to an unused port for Wireshark analysis to ensure that
traffic is reaching the node.
3. Sequence of Events to determine the root cause of the failure.
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4. Collect developer logs: service_mngr.log or tdmoip_mngr.log so that the RFL team can
provide insight.
11.3 Sequence of Events
The Sequence of Events provides a global view of the network operation during an event. In
most cases the Sequence of Events data is sufficient for determining the root cause of the
outage. The developer logs can provide more insight to the RFL Software Development, Test,
and Customer Support teams if the data in the Sequence of Events is insufficient.
Note: For more information on Sequence of events refer to Section 7.16 Retrieving and
Sending Reports
11.4 Ethernet Port Mirroring
Mirroring Ethernet traffic to another port can be useful for determining if the network traffic is
reaching the node.
Note: Wireshark can be used to capture the Ethernet data for further analysis.
To setup Ethernet Port Mirroring on the eXmux, open the node view on VNMS.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Right mouse click on the Ethernet switch.
Highlight the Switch settings and status.
Left mouse click.
Select the Ports setting tab on the Switch view.
The monitor port is the port which will be connected to the computer running Wireshark. The
default Monitor port is set to 1, but it can be changed to any available port. If making an
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adjustment, left mouse click on the write button to have the settings take effect. After setting up
the Monitor port, left mouse click the Port Mirror Settings button to select the Ethernet port,
which requires scanning.
1. Change to the File Settings tab.
2. Select the port to monitor.
3. Set the port direction on that port to both to monitor both ingress and egress traffic.
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4. Left mouse click on write to make the settings take effect.
11.5 Putty
Putty is free terminal emulator that can provide telnet, SSH, Serial access. The eXmux can be
accessed via a SSH session or Serial.
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11.5.1 Putty Setup
Open up Putty SSH Session
1. Left click on Window on the Category navigation menu to pull up Window options.
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2. Change Lines of scrollback in the window from 200 to 2000000.
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3. Left mouse click Session option on the Category navigation menu.
4. Specify the host name and IP address on the line.
 Format: yyyyyy@X.X.X.X
 yyyyy: User name
 X.X.X.X: IP Address of the chassis
 Use admin as the user name.
5. Left mouse click on the Open button to start a session.
11.5.2 Additional Putty Tips
Right mouse click on the putty window will bring up the command options. The most useful
commands are:
 Copy All to Clipboard: Copies data in the putty window to a buffer.
 Clear Scrollback: Clear the entire putty window.
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
New Session: Start a new putty session.
11.5.3 Saving Putty Data
1. Right mouse click on the putty window.
2. Select Copy All to Clipboard.
3. Open Notepad.
4. Right mouse click on the text area and select Paste.
5. Save the text document. Include the node name in the filename.
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6. Email to RFL technical support.
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11.6 Diagnostics
The developer logs can be accessed from the CLI menu.
1. Select System Status from the Main Menu.
2. Press Enter.
3. Select Application Logs from the System Status menu.
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4. Press Enter.
5. Select the log of interest.
6. Press Enter.
7. Press Enter until you receive END OF FILE message.
8. Press Q to quit.
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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11.6.1 NMS Other Issues
The user manual contains basic information on how to operate VNMS.
Most settings in the VNMS are accompanied by tool tips. Tool tips are accessed by hovering
the cursor over the desired setting.
Back to Diagnostics – 11.6
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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11.6.2 Other Issues
For Power Supply issues 11.6.2.1
For USB Connection issues 11.6.2.2
For T1/E1 issues 11.6.2.3
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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11.6.2.1 Power
Supply Issues
No Power Present.
Is Either Power Supply LED illuminated?
Yes (Click Here)
No (Click Here)
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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One or more LED’s illuminated
Is either LED red?
Yes (Click Here)
No (Click Here)
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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Is one LED green and one off?
Yes (Click Here)
No (Click Here)
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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Are both LED’s green?
Yes (Click Here)
No (Click Here)
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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Neither LED illuminated
Neither power supply is receiving power. Check voltage at the terminal blocks and
power switch position. If voltage is within range and switches are on, contact RFL for
repair.
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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LED on front panel RED
The cause is the input voltage below rated input, switch in wrong position, fuse failure, or
power supply failure. If voltage is present on terminal blocks and switch is on, contact RFL for
repair.
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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LED on front panel not illuminated.
If one supply LED is illuminated and one is not, the supply associated with the off LED is not
installed.
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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One LED on front panel is GREEN, the other is off.
One supply is working normally and the other one is not installed.
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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Both LED’s on front panel are GREEN.
Both supplies are working normally.
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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11.6.2.2 USB
Connection Issues
Cannot connect eXmux to PC – This is typically a result of one of the following:
The cable is defective.
RFL USB Utility Software is not installed correctly.
The unit is defective.
Try another USB compliant cable. If this does not help, reinstall the RFL software. If this does
not help, contact RFL for repair.
To access the USB ports on the eXmux with a laptop computer, a USB cable is required with a
type “B” connector at the eXmux end. Note only one computer can be connected at one time to
either the front or rear of the eXmux.
See section 6.5 of the eXmux instruction manual for details on installing the USB
Communication Utility.
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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11.6.2.3 T1/E1
Issues
For more information on configuring the T1/E1 port go to section 7.7.4 of the instruction
manual.
Typical T1/.E1 communications problem solutions:

First ensure that ports on both ends are enabled and mapped.

Ensure that all alarms associated with these modules and nodes are cleared.
To determine what can cause an alarm – Section 10.6

Ensure that the port settings are the same on both ends and that they match the external
equipment.

Ensure that the clocking of the T1/E1 port is correct.
o Through timing is a setting for a T1/E1 port, used when external equipment on
one end is the source of timing and the equipment on the other end is looped.
o System timing can be used where the external equipment on both ends is loop
timed. This is akin to the conventional internal timing seen on TDM
multiplexers.
o The eXmux Internal timing setting is typically only used in debugging.

Ensure the pin-out of the cabling is correct and the proper pairs are twisted.
Back to Other Issues – 11.6.2
For other troubleshooting issues see Section 10
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Section 12. Technical Data
12.1 Electrical Specifications
12.1.1 Data Interfaces
Synchronous Data
Multi-Protocol Interface Unit
RS422 and X.21 protocols:
5Vp-p Max. output level, open circuit (differential).
2.5Vp-p – 3.3Vp-p output level, across 100 Ω termination (differential).
3.0V common mode
200mVp-p minimum input sensitivity.
All inputs and outputs are EIA-422/V.11 compatible.
Support of 56Kbps, and N x 64Kbps with N = 1-31.
Supports source and recovery of timing.
V.35 protocol:
0.44Vp-p – 0.66Vp-p output level, across 100 Ω termination (differential).
200mVp-p minimum input sensitivity.
All inputs and outputs are V.35 compatible.
Support of 56Kbps, and N x 64Kbps with N = 1-31.
Supports source and recovery of timing.
G.703 Interface Unit
5Vp-p Max. output level, open circuit (differential).
0.9V – 1.1V peak output level, across 120 Ω termination (differential).
100mVpeak maximum “space” output.
TDM Interface Information:
Number of TDM Interfaces
(2.048 Mbps buses):
1
Signal Interconnection:
Co-directional
Handshaking:
None
Cable Length
50-meters (164ft) maximum at 64Kbps.
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Synchronous Data Continued……
C37.94 Optical Interface Unit
Maximum speed:
Up to N = 12 for a combined rate of 1984Kbps
Connector type:
ST optical (short haul fiber)
Connector mode:
Multimode and singlemode
Number of TDM Interfaces
(2.048 Mbps buses):
1
Cable length:
Multimode: Up to 2km (1.2 miles)
Singlemode: Up to 10km (6.2 miles)
T1/E1 Data
T1 Applications
Output rate:
1.544 Mbps ±30ppm when internally timed
Input rate:
1.544 Mbps ±200ppm not looped or thru timed
1.544 Mbps ±130ppm looped or thru timed
Timing:
Source (INT), Recovery (LOOP) and THRU
Interface Impedance:
100 Ω
Supported Line Codes:
B8ZS or AMI
Supported Formats:
ESF or SF
Interface conforms to ANSI T1.403
E1 Applications
Input/Output rate:
2.048 Mbps ±50ppm
Timing:
Source (INT), Recovery (LOOP) and THRU
Interface Impedance:
120 Ω
Supported Line Codes:
HDB3 or AMI
Supported Formats:
CRC4 or SF
Interface conforms to ITU G.703
TDM Interface Information TBA
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Asynchronous Data
RS-232 Interface Unit
Maximum input:
Maximum input threshold
(low):
Maximum input threshold
(high):
Maximum transmitter
output:
TDM Interface Information:
Number of TDM Interfaces
(2.048 Mbps buses):
Signal interconnection:
Handshaking:
+/- 25V
0.6V
2.4V
+/- 5.0V (into 3000 Ω)
1
(Not applicable to Serial Server)
RS-232
RTS/CTS, DSR/DTR, CD
RS-485 Interface Unit
Output level:
1.5Vp-p – 5Vp-p with RLoad = 54 Ω
Input Sensitivity:
200mVp-p minimum
HI-Z output or “Mark” for 4-wire no-data condition
120 Ω terminations for input and output
TDM Interface Information:
Number of TDM Interfaces
(2.048 Mbps buses):
Signal interconnection:
1
(Not applicable to Serial Server)
RS-485
12.1.2 Telephone/Audio Interfaces
Two Wire FXO
FXO Network Specifications:
Off-Hook AC impedance:
600 Ω
Network Type:
Loop-Start
Longitudinal DC Resistance
On-Hook:
≥ 10 M Ω @ 100 Vdc applied, Tip to Ring.
(Leakage current is less than 10 μA @ 100
Vdc)
≥ 10 M Ω @ 150 Vdc applied, Tip/Ring to
Earth
Loop Current Off-Hook:
15 to 80 mA
Ring Voltage Threshold:
25 Vrms @ 20 Hz
Metallic DC Resistance
On-Hook:
TDM Interface Information:
Number of TDM Interfaces
(2.048 Mbps buses):
1
Timeslot Usage:
Timeslot 1 thru 8 corresponds to Port 1 thru 8
respectively
Audio PCM Format:
A-Law
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Ringing and Off-Hook processed in parallel to
the audio PCM data
Signaling:
Two Wire FXS
Signal Levels:
Nominal System Gain:
0 dB
TX & RX Level Adjust:
+/- 9.5 dBm
Maximum Signal Level:
3.14 dBm
Frequency Response:
300 to 3000 Hz:
+0.3 to -0.6 dB
3000 to 3300 Hz:
+0.0 to -1.5 dB
Idle Channel Noise:
Less than 15 dBrnco
Impulse Noise Threshold Level: (Maximum Counts Per 30-minute Interval)
41 dBrnco:
10.0 counts
51 dBrnco:
1.0 counts
58 dBrnco:
0.1 counts
Return Loss
ERL:
> 24 dB
SRL Lo:
> 20 dB
SRL Hi:
> 20 dB
600 Ω standard
Nominal Impedance:
Tracking:
(gain deviation for a 1004-Hz input)
+3 to -37 dBm0:
0.5 dB maximum
-37 to -50 dBm0:
1.0 dB maximum
-50 to -60 dBm0:
2.0 dB maximum
Peak-To-Average Ratio (PAR):
Greater Than 94
Nominal Off-Hook Detection
Threshold:
4.75 kΩ
Nominal Ringing Voltage:
Vrms
Optional Vdc Offset
Frequency
MAX REN @ < 100 ft.
40.5
+30
20 Hz +/- 1%
5
45
+20
20 Hz +/- 1%
5
53
+10
20 Hz +/- 1%
5
63.5
N/A
20 Hz +/- 1%
3.2
Automatic Ring Down (ARD):
Requires same interfaces on both ends of
circuit. Ring 1.5 seconds on, 4.5 seconds off,
with a ringback of dual tone 440 Hz and 480
Hz.
TDM Interface Information:
Number of TDM Interfaces
(2.048 Mbps buses):
1
Timeslot Usage:
Timeslot 1 thru 4 corresponds to port 1 thru 4
respectively.
Audio PCM:
A-Law only
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Glossary and Index
Signaling:
Ringing and Off-Hook processed in parallel to
the audio PCM data
Two Wire E & M
Signaling:
Types I, II, III and V
Frequency Response:
300 to 3000 Hz
+0.5 to -1.0 dB
3000 to 3300 Hz
+0.5 to -1.5 dB
Less Than 23 dBrncO (3k – filter)
Idle Channel Noise:
Signal-To-Noise:
1004 Hz Input, 0/0 dB:
Greater Than 36 dB
Signal Levels:
Nominal System Gain:
0 dB
TX Level Adjust:
-20 to +5 dB in 0.5 dB steps
RX Level Adjust:
-20 to +10 dB in 0.5 dB steps
Input Signal Level:
Max +5 dBm, nominal -16 dBm
Output Signal Level:
Max +10 dBm, +7 dBm nominal
Audio Interface:
Line Impedance:
600Ω
M Lead Input:
Input Current:
Limited to 3.5 mA regardless of voltage
Busy (Type I):
-20 to -60 Volts relative to earth ground
Busy (Type II):
Contact closure to M return lead (SB)
Busy (Type III):
Contact closure to M return lead (SB),
(SB tied to SG)
Busy (Type V):
Contact closure to Earth Ground
Idle:
Open to Ground
E Lead Output:
Busy (Type II):
Less than 50 Ω’s to Earth ground
Busy (Type I, III, V):
Less than 50 Ω’s E return lead (SG)
Idle:
Open
TDM Interface Information:
Number of TDM Interfaces
(2.048 Mbps buses):
1
Audio PCM Format:
A and µ-Law.
Signaling:
Processed in parallel to the Audio PCM data.
Timeslot Usage:
Timeslot 1 through 4 assigned to Ports as per
the table below.
EXMUX 3500/3501
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Port
Timeslot
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
Common settings for port 1&2, 3&4
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Four Wire E & M
Signaling:
Types I, II, III and V
Frequency Response:
300 to 3000 Hz
+0.5 to -1.0 dB
3000 to 3300 Hz
+0.5 to -1.5 dB
Idle Channel Noise:
Less Than 23 dBrncO, C Message Weighting
Signal-To-Noise:
1004 Hz Input, 0/0 dB:
Greater Than 33 dB
Signal Levels:
Nominal System Gain:
+23 dB
TX Level Adjust:
-20 to +5 dB in 0.5 dB steps
RX Level Adjust:
-20 to +10 dB in 0.5 dB steps
Input Signal Level:
Max +5 dBm, nominal -16 dBm
Output Signal Level:
Max +10 dBm, +7 dBm nominal
Audio Interface:
Input Impedance:
600Ω
Output Impedance:
600Ω
M Lead Input:
Input Current:
Limited to 3.5 mA regardless of voltage
Busy (Type I):
-20 to -60 Volts relative to earth ground
Busy (Type II):
Contact closure to M return lead (SB)
Busy (Type III):
Contact closure to M return lead (SB),
(SB tied to SG)
Busy (Type V):
Contact closure to Earth Ground
Idle:
Open to Ground
E Lead Output:
Busy (Type II):
Less than 50 Ω’s to Earth ground
Busy (Type I, III, V):
Less than 50 Ω’s E return lead (SG)
Idle:
Open
TDM Interface Information:
Number of TDM Interfaces
(2.048 Mbps buses):
1
Audio PCM Format:
A and µ-Law.
Signaling:
Processed in parallel to the Audio PCM data.
Timeslot Usage:
Timeslot 1 through 8 assigned to Ports as per
the table below.
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Port
1
2
3
Timeslot
1
3
2
4
4
5
6
7
5
7
6
Common settings for port 1&3,
2&4, 5&7,6&8.
Note: Port and Timeslot Numbers
do not match
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Glossary and Index
8
8
12.1.3 The eXmux 3500 TPS System
I/O Module
Optically Isolated Inputs
Quantity:
Jumper selectable input
voltage:
4 – Trip Inputs (2 – auxiliary inputs)
24/48/125/250Vdc
Rating
No Operation
Operates
Max Input Voltage
24V
<14V
>19V
36V
48V
<28V
>38V
68V
125V
<70V
>95V
150V
250V
<140V
>189V
300V
Input current:
Maximum pulse width:
Minimum 1.5mA
0.03ms, additional debounce time set with logic
timer settings
Solid State Outputs
Quantity:
Open-circuit voltage:
4
Maximum 1A continuous, 2A for 1-minute, or
10A for 100ms
300Vdc maximum
Pick-up time:
<1ms
Output current:
Relay Outputs
Quantity:
4
Relay pick-up time:
4ms
Output current:
6A continuous
Surge:
30A for 200ms
Alarm Contacts
Quantity:
2
Contacts:
SPDT (Form C)
Rating:
100mA, 300Vdc resistive load
Physical Construction
Width:
19 inch rack mount (48cm)
Depth:
10in (25.4cm) maximum
Height:
1 RU, 1.75in (4.4cm)
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12.1.4 Available Optical Ethernet Interfaces (SFP 3500/3500M)
100 Mb/s
Distance
TX Output
Min
(dBm)
TX Output
Max (dBm)
RX
Sensitivity
(dBm)
RX
Overload
(dBm)
System
Margin
(dB)
1310 nm – MM LED
2 Km (1.24 mi)
-20
-15
-30
-14
10
1310 nm – SM Laser
10 Km (6.21 mi)
-15
-8
-23
-8
8
1310 nm – SM Laser
40 Km (24.8 mi)
-5
0
-34
-10
29
1550 nm – SM Laser
80 Km (49.7 mi)
-5
0
-34
-10
29
850 nm – MM Laser
550 m (0.34 mi)
-9.5
-3
-17
0
7.5
1310 nm – SM Laser
10 Km (6.21 mi)
-9.5
-3
-19
-3
9.5
1310 nm – SM Laser
40 Km (24.8 mi)
-3
+3
-22
-9
19
1550 nm – SM Laser
80 Km (49.7 mi)
0
+5
-22
-3
22
1550 nm – SM Laser
120 Km (74.5 mi)
+1
+5
-35
-8
36
1000 Mb/s
12.1.5 Available Optical Ethernet Interfaces (SFP – 3501/3501M)
1000 Mb/s
Distance
TX Output
Min
(dBm)
TX Output
Max (dBm)
RX
Sensitivity
(dBm)
RX
Overload
(dBm)
System
Margin
(dB)
1310 nm – SM Laser
10 Km (6.21 mi)
-9.5
-3
-21
-3
11.5
1310 nm – SM Laser
20 Km (12.42 mi)
-8
-3
-23
-3
15
1550 nm – SM Laser
60 Km (37 mi)
0
+5
-23
-3
23
1550 nm – SM Laser
80 Km (49.7 mi)
0
+5
-23
-3
23
1550 nm – SM Laser
120 Km (74.5 mi)
0
+5
-32
-8
32
12.1.6 Power Supply
Input Voltage Range:
Low Range Power Supply
Voltage:
19-29Vdc
Mid Range Power Supply
Voltage:
38-150 Vdc, 100-130 Vac 50/60 Hz
High Range Power Supply
Voltage:
200-300 Vdc, 200-265 Vac
Output Voltages:
+3.3V at 11A
+15V at 2A
-15V at 1A
Operating Temperature:
EXMUX 3500/3501
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-30 C (-22 F) to +65 C (+149 F),
convection cooling only
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Glossary and Index
Operating Humidity:
90% RH Non Condensing at 40 C (104 F)
Total Regulation (Line plus load)
10 – 90% load:
3.3V output:
+5% to -2%
+15V output:
±7.5%
-15V output:
±7.5%
Minimum Load:
3.3V at 1.5A
Maximum Output Power:
75W Continuous
12.2 Environmental and Safety Compliances
12.2.1 System and Chassis
EN 60950: 2002 Safety of information technology equipment
EN 60825-2: 2004 Safety of laser products — Part 2
EN 55022: 1998 Information technology equipment – Radio disturbance
characteristics – Limits and methods of measurement
EN 55024: 1998 Information technology equipment – Immunity characteristics –
Limits and methods of measurement
IEC 61850-3 Environmental standard
EN 61000-4-2 (8/15 KV ESD) (front of chassis)
EN 61000-4-3 / EN 61000-6-4 – Radiated RFI immunity.
EN 61000-4-6 / EN 61000-6-2 – Conducted RFI immunity
ANSI C37.90.2 – EMI Withstand
ANSI C37.90.3 – (ESD Withstand, front of chassis)
IEEE P1613 – (Environmental, ESD, RFI, Shock & Vibration)
12.2.2 Power Supply and Alarm Contacts
EN 61000-4-4 / ANSI P1613 / ANSI C37.90.1 (4 KV EFT)
EN 61000-4-5 (Surge withstand)
EN 60255-5 / ANSI P1613 (5 KV Impulse)
EN 60255-5 / ANSI P1613 (2.8 KV High Pot)
EN 60255-22-1 (Damped Oscillatory Disturbance)
ANSI C37.90.1 / ANSI P1613 (Oscillatory)
IEC 60834-1 (Power supply disturbance tests)
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12.2.3 Synchronous Data Ports – All Common Mode Using Capacitive Clamp
and Shielded Cable
EN 61000-4-4 / ANSI P1613 / ANSI C37.90.1 (4 KV EFT)
EN 60255-5 (5 KV Impulse)
EN 60255-22-1 (2.5 KV, 1 MHz Damped Oscillatory)
ANSI C37.90.1 / ANSI P1613 – (2.5 KV Oscillatory)
12.2.4 Four Wire Audio Ports, T1/E1 Built in Port
EN 61000-4-2 / ANSI C37.90.3 / ANSI P1613 (8/15 KV ESD)
EN 60255-5 / EN 60834-1 / ANSI P1613 (0.72 KV High Pot, common mode)
12.2.5 VF Ports. Async Ports
EN 61000-4-2 / ANSI C37.90.3 / ANSI P1613 (8/15 KV ESD)
12.2.6 User Interface Ports
EN 61000-4-2 / ANSI C37.90.3 / ANSI P1613 (8/15 KV ESD)
12.2.7 Disposal
When disposing of the equipment, it should be done in strict accordance with all local and
national regulations for the disposal of electrical and electronic equipment. The printed circuit
boards should be separated for recycling.
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Glossary and Index
Section 13. Glossary and Index
13.1 Glossary
ANSI
American National Standards Institute.
ARD
Automatic Ring Down. A private line connecting a telephone in one location with a distant
telephone with automatic two-way signaling. The automatic two-way signaling causes the
station phone at one end to ring when the phone at the other end goes off-hook.
BPDU
Bridge Protocol Data Units
CAS
Channel Associated Signaling.
CCS
Common Channel Signaling.
CD
Carrier Detect.
CODEC CODer – DECoder. Converts voice signals from analog to digital acceptable in modern PBX
and digital transmission systems.
CoS
Class of Service (Used with QoS in Ethernet networks).
CPU
Central Processing Unit.
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check. A method for checking the integrity of a block of data.
CTS
Clear to Send.
DAA
Data Access Arrangement. An older device used before the FCC registration program.
dBm
Decibel Ratio of Watts. The output power of a signal referenced to an input signal of 1mW.
DCE
Data Communications Equipment. Resolves issues of interface between Data Terminal
Equipment (DTE) and a transmission circuit.
DCB
Directional Comparison Blocking
DNP3
A protocol for the transmission of data from point A to point B using serial communications.
DNP3 provides the rules for substation computers and master station computers to
communicate data and control commands.
DNS
Domain Name Server. Translates domain names into IP addresses.
DS0
Digital Signal level 0 or 64 Kbps. Equal to one voice conversion digitized under PCM.
DSR
Data Set Ready
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DSCP
Differentiated Service Code Point. A field in an IP packet that allows different levels of service
to be assigned to network traffic.
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment. A terminal device in the data world, at the terminal end of a data
transmission, DTE comprises the transmit and receive equipment.
DTR
Data Terminal Ready.
E&M
An arrangement in telephony that uses separate leads called the ‘E’ lead and the ‘M’ lead, for
signaling and supervisory purposes.
FDB
Filtering Data Base, used in VLAN configuration.
FDB
Forwarding Data Base.
ESD
Electro Static Discharge.
FDA
Federal Drug Administration.
FE
Fast Ethernet
Fiber Optic Connectors:
LC – Snap-on high density connector.
SC – Snap-on Datacom type connector.
ST – Straight tip, bayonet type connector.
FPGA
Field Programmable Gate Array.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. FTP is best known as an internet tool for accessing file archives around
the world that are linked to the internet.
FX
Foreign Exchange. A central office trunk that has access to a distant central office.
FXO
Foreign Exchange Office.
FXS
Foreign Exchange Station.
Gateway IP
The IP address of the device used to bring two networks together.
GE
Gigabit Ethernet. Ethernet running at one thousand million bits per second.
IEEE 802.3
The primary standard for Ethernet.
IGMP
Internet Group Management Protocol.
IP
Internet Protocol.
IU
Interface Unit.
LAN
Local Area Network
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LED
Light Emitting Diode
LL
Local Loop.
MAC Address
Medium Access Control Address. Unique Ethernet numbers assigned to each unit as
defined by IEEE 802.3.
MSTP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol.
MSTI
Multiple Spanning Tree Instance
NTP
Network Time Protocol. Systems on the internet that have the same time relative to
Greenwich Mean Time.
OPX
Off-premise extension. An extension or phone terminating at a location other than the location
of the PBX.
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
OSI Layer – 2 Protocol
Open System Interconnection. A reference model developed by the International Organization
for Standards. Layer 2 is the data link layer concerned with procedures and protocols for
operating communication lines. Examples are: FR – Frame Relay and PPP – Point to Point
Protocol.
PCM
Pulse Code Modulation. The most common method of encoding an analog voice signal into a
digital bit stream.
PDV
Path Delay Value.
PDU
Protocol Data Unit. A generic “packet” comprising payload and protocol-specific control
information, typically contained in a header.
PIC
Primary Interchange Carrier.
PPP
Point to Point Protocol.
PVID
Port VLAN ID. Default VLAN ID assigned to frames coming to the port (non-Cisco world)
PVST
Per VLAN Spanning Tree.
QoS
Quality of Service. Prioritizing messages in an Ethernet network.
RBS
Robbed Bit Signaling
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference
RSTP
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RTS
Request to Send.
RTU
Remote Terminal Unit.
SCB
Serial Control Bus.
SFP
Small Form Factor pluggable transceiver, hot-pluggable transceiver for optical fiber.
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Glossary and Index
SLIC
Subscriber Line Interface Circuit. A device that interfaces between the Subscriber Line and
Multiplexer.
SNMP3 Simple Network Management Protocol – Version 3. SNMP is used in network management
systems to monitor network attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative
attention.
SSH
Secure Shell. A protocol for encryption and authentication used by network administrators.
STP
Spanning Tree Protocol. Will prevent loops in a bridged network, but still allow for redundant
connections as a safe guard against single points of hardware failure.
Subnet
A subnet is the part of the network that shares the same part of an IP address. For security
reasons, a network can be divided into many subnets by using a subnet mask. On an IP
network, only devices with the same subnet ID can communicate with each other.
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is the most complete and accepted
networking protocol available.
TDM
Time Division Multiplexer. Sending multiple channels on a single transmission facility by
connecting bit streams one at a time at regular intervals.
TDM over IP Time Division Multiplexer over Internet Protocol.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol. A simplified version of FTP
Traps
A method of configuring a Managed Ethernet Switch to send fault information in the network to
specific locations.
TTL
Time to Live. Used in IP protocols.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol. Part of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite.
USB
Universal Serial Bus.
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network. A mechanism for controlling message traffic flow.
VNMS
Visual Network Management Software.
WAN
Wide Area Network.
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Glossary and Index
13.2 Index
Telephone and Audio · 7-95
TPS System · 7-84
Function Setup · 7-90
Port Function · 7-87
Port Setup · 7-88
Status · 7-90
Connecting Nodes · 7-20
Connections
Alarm Relay · 4-15
Data and Power · 4-13
Input Power · 4-19, 4-20, 4-21
Customer Interface Units
Detailed Descriptions · 3-13
Customer Interface Units, List of · 3-12
Customer Interfaces
2-Wire Audio · 3-26
3500 Layout · 3-10
3500M Layout · 3-11
4W Audio · 3-27
Typical Applications · 3-32
Asynchronous · 3-18
RS-485 · 3-18
Audio · 3-26
C37.94 · 3-17
Data · 3-13
G.703 · 3-16
Synchronous · 3-13
T1/E1 · 3-14
Telephone · 3-23
2W FXO · 3-23
2W FXS · 3-24
A
Activation Key Code · 7-3, 10-27
Alarm Relay Connections · 4-16
Application Notes · 14-1
Async Character Length Formats · 7-61
B
Bandwidth Tab · 7-50
Bundles
Deleting · 7-109
Settings and Status · 7-110
C
CLI
Network Settings · 6-14
Clocks
T1/E1 Interface Unit · 7-57
Compliances · 12-9
Four Wire Audio Ports · 12-10
Power Supply and Alarm Contacts · 12-9
Synchronous Data Ports · 12-10
System and Chassis · 12-9
Configuring a Network · 7-1
2-Wire Audio · 7-97
4-Wire Audio · 7-100
Adding Nodes · 7-17
Asyn RS-485 · 7-60
Asynchronous Interface · 7-59
C37.94 · 7-53
Customer Interfaces · 7-42
Data Interfaces · 7-47
Ethernet Switch · 7-102
First Time Log-on · 7-3, 10-27
FXO · 7-95
FXS · 7-96
G.703 · 7-52
Getting Started · 7-1
Static IP Configuration · 7-1
Manually · 7-16
Node States · 7-44
Serial Server · 7-61
DNP3 · 7-69
DNP3 Selection · 7-68
Port Connections · 7-68
Port Interface · 7-66, 7-70
Port IP · 7-67
Port Parameters · 7-65
Status · 7-75
Setting Authorities · 7-5, 10-27
Synchronous Interface · 7-48
T1/E1 Interface · 7-54
EXMUX 3500/3501
October 2017
D
Decommissioning · 9-60
Desktop Icons · 6-5
DS0 Grooming · 3-16
DTE and DCE · 3-14
E
E & M Signaling · 3-30
Effectivity · 8
Ethernet Message Types · 8-2
Ethernet Switch · 3-40, 8-1
Configuration – Old Switch · 8-2
Port Access · 3-40
Redundancy · 8-1
Ethernet Switch Configuration – New Switch · 8-47
Alarm Settings · 8-48
Alarm Tab · 8-77
Ethernet Statistics · 8-80
General · 8-76
General Tab · 8-80
IGMP · 8-73
13-5
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
(c)2017 Hubbell Incorporated
Glossary and Index
MSTP · 8-67
Port Mirroring · 8-50
Port Settings · 8-49
QOS · 8-69
RSTP · 8-62
STP Statistics · 8-85
VLAN's · 8-53
Management VLAN ID · 8-55
Ethernet Switch Configuration – Old Switch
Alarm Settings · 8-3
Alarm Tab · 8-33
Ethernet Statistics · 8-36
Ethernet Tab · 8-32
General Tab · 8-36
IGMP · 8-28
MSTP · 8-22
Port Mirroring · 8-6
Port Security · 8-7
Port Settings · 8-4
QOS · 8-24
STP Statistics · 8-42
VLAN's · 8-7
Management VLAN ID · 8-9
Port Based · 8-9
Tag Based · 8-9
Ethernet Switch Configuration – RSTP
RSTP · 8-17
eXmux over T1 Communications Network · 3-4
Yellow Box · 7-107
Interoperability · 8-88
Configurations · 8-89
General · 8-89
L
LED's · 3-6
Customer Interface Status · 3-9
Ethernet Switch Port Status · 3-8
Loopback
4W Audio · 3-33
M
MAC Address Label · 6-1
Major Components · 1-2
Management VLAN ID · 8-9, 8-55
Mapping · 7-102
DS0 Grooming · 7-115
Interface Port Boarder Color · 7-108
Port Serial Server · 7-80
Selecting a Single DS0 · 7-118
Selecting Multiple DS0's · 7-118
Un-Mapping a Port · 7-109
Un-mapping, Serial Server port · 7-83
Module Replacement (3500M) · 5-1
Ethernet Switch · 5-6
Overview · 5-1
Power Supplies · 5-9
Mounting the Equipment · 4-1
F
FCC Statement · 7
Firewall Information · 3-2
Frames per Packet Feature · 7-112
Fuse Replacement (3500M)
Power Supply · 5-12
N
Network
Auto-discover · 7-10
Network Application · 3-3
Nominal Ringing Voltage · 7-96
G
Gather credentials for node · 7-12
Glossary · 13-1
Grounding · 4-18
O
H
Hitless Switching · 7-118
Opening an Existing Network · 7-8
Ordering Information · 11
Overview of Product · 1-1
I
P
Input Voltage
Check · 4-16, 4-17
Installation · 4-1
Interface Mapping · 7-102
Actual and File Settings · 7-103
Clearing Lines · 7-107
Mouse Over Mapped Port · 7-108
Password - Changing Default · 6-13
Passwords
Node Access · 7-6
VNMS · 7-5, 10-28
Path Redundancy · 9-19
Pin-Outs · 4-5
Asynchronous
EXMUX 3500/3501
October 2017
13-6
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
(c)2017 Hubbell Incorporated
Glossary and Index
Serial Server · 4-8
Asynchronous Data · 4-7
C37.94 · 4-7
G.703 · 4-6
RS-485 · 4-8
Synchronous Data · 4-5
T1/E1 · 4-6
TPS I/O Module · 4-13
Voice and Audio · 4-9
Power Supplies · 3-44
Preferences
System · 7-41
Alarms - Status · 7-39
Auto IP · 7-36
Clocks · 7-35
DS0 Grooming · 7-22
Neighbor Discovery · 7-33
Network · 7-24, 7-32
Status Tabs · 7-37
TDM · 7-24
TDM Alarm Settings · 7-28
Trap Destination Entries · 7-33
System Description · 3-1
Key Features · 3-5
Typical Applications · 3-1
System Recovery Port · 6-21
System User Interface · 6-1
R
Reboot all Nodes · 7-125
Removing IUs (3500M)
Handling States · 5-4
IU Removal and Replacement · 5-2
Retrieving and Sending Reports · 7-130
Revision Record · 9
T
T1/E1 Port · 3-46
Table of Contents · 5
TDM Timing
Provisioning · 9-35
TDM VLAN Tagging Non-Hitless · 9-41
Technical Data · 12-1
Timing
TDM - Status · 7-37
TDM - Unicast · 7-25
TPS - SOEs · 7-138
TPS System · 3-34
I/O Module
Front Panel · 3-40
Jumper/Switch Settings · 4-9
I/O Module Configuration · 3-38
Installation · 4-9
Jumper Switch Settings · 4-10
Ping-Pong Testing · 3-35
Relay Output, Switch Settings · 4-12
Terminal Block Connections · 4-13
Troubleshooting
Alarms · 10-18
Connections · 10-2
Interface Units · 10-9
Main Menu · 10-1
Other Issues · 11-23
Power Supply · 11-24
Service Channel · 10-17
VNMS · 10-25
Troubleshooting Guide · 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5, 106, 10-7, 10-8, 10-9, 10-10, 10-11, 10-12, 10-13, 10-14,
10-15, 10-16, 10-17, 10-18, 10-19, 10-22, 10-23, 1024, 10-25, 10-26, 10-28, 10-29
S
Safety Instructions · 2-1
Safety Summery · 2-2
Serial Server · 3-19
DNP3 · 3-22
Protocols · 3-20
Topologies · 3-21
Service Phone · 3-45
Service Telephone Configuration · 7-124
Setting Management VLANs · 7-126
Short Haul Fiber, Characteristics · 3-17
SNMP Trap - SOE List · 7-133
Specifications · 12-1
Asynchronous Data · 12-3
RS-485 · 12-3
Data Interfaces · 12-1
C37.94 · 12-2
G.703 · 12-1
Sync Data · 12-1
T1/E1 · 12-2
Power Supply · 12-8
SFP (3500-3500M) · 12-8
SFP (3501-3501M) · 12-8
Telephone/Audio Interfaces · 12-3
Four Wire E&M · 12-5, 12-6
Two Wire FXO · 12-3
Two Wire FXS · 12-4
TPS System – I/O Module · 12-7
Start-Up · 9-1
A New System · 9-1
Non Configured · 9-4
Preconfigured with Customer IP Addresses · 9-4
Preconfigured with Factory IP Addresses · 9-2
An Existing System · 9-7
Initial Start-Up · 9-1
System Configuration · 7-21
EXMUX 3500/3501
October 2017
U
Unicast
Neighbor Discovery · 9-32
TDM Timing · 9-23
Unpacking · 4-1
Upgrade Utility
13-7
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
(c)2017 Hubbell Incorporated
Glossary and Index
Viewing a Network · 7-19
VLAN Tagging - TDM · 9-41
VNMS · 6-1
Accessing through the USB Ports · 6-6
Alarm and Status Indicators · 7-47
Installing · 6-2
Loading · 6-3
System Restrictions · 6-2
Through the Program Files · 9-58
Upgrading Scenarios · 9-53
Upgrade Utility -System Software · 9-47
USB Ports · 3-45
USB Utility · 6-7
Entering IP Address · 6-16
Preparing for VNMS Access · 6-19
Running · 6-12
Using the manual · 3
W
V
Warranty · 2
Window Feature · 7-21
Ventilation · 4-4
EXMUX 3500/3501
October 2017
13-8
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
(c)2017 Hubbell Incorporated
Glossary and Index
Section 14. Application Notes
This section contains application notes, which are intended to assist the user in configuring their
eXmux unit(s).
Application
Note
Title
No. of
Pages
Revision
Date
3500-001
RFL 9300 Current Differential Relay over the RFL eXmux 3500 IP
Access Multiplexer
2
6/10
3500-002
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)
2
7/10
3500-003
Internetworking with L2 Switch
2
7/10
3500-004
QoS (Quality of Service)
2
7/10
3500-005
Digital RFL 9745 Teleprotection Channel over the RFL eXmux 3500
IP Access Multiplexer
2
7/10
3500-006
Audio RFL 9745 Teleprotection Channel over the RFL eXmux 3500
IP Access Multiplexer
2
7/11
3500-007
Schweitzer Mirrored Bit over the RFL eXmux 3500 IP Access
Multiplexer
2
7/10
3500-008
SEL 311L Current Differential Relay over the RFL eXmux 3500 IP
Access Multiplexer
2
6/10
3500-009
Cyber Security
2
7/10
3500-010
GE L90 Current Differential Relay over the RFL eXmux 3500 IP
Access Multiplexer
2
9/10
3500-011
eXmux 3500 in a different Network Segment
2
9/10
3500-012
DSO Grooming with the RFL eXmux 3500 IP Access Multiplexer
2
1/11
3500-013
RFL GARD 8000 Digital Channel over the RFL eXmux 3500 IP
Access Multiplexer
2
7/11
3500-014
RFL GARD 8000 T1/E1 Channel over the RFL eXmux 3500 IP
Access Multiplexer
2
7/11
3500-015
RFL GARD 8000 Audio Channel over the RFL eXmux 3500 IP
Access Multiplexer
2
12/11
3500-016
Siemens SIPROTEC 7SD610 87L Relay over the RFL eXmux 3500
IP Access Multiplexer
2
1/12
3500-017
T1/E1 Communications over the eXmux 3500 IP Access Multiplexer
2
1/11
3500-019
eXmux 3500 over Direct Fiber Backbone Network
2
1/12
3500-020
Remote Access Serial communications – Serial Server (eXmux
3500 IP Access Multiplexer)
2
1/11
3500-021
Interoperability section added
11
3/16
3500-022
TX Bridged mode added, Troubleshooting section added for TDM
circuit outage
22
6/16
EXMUX 3500/3501
October 2017
14-1
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
(c)2017 Hubbell Incorporated
Glossary and Index
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October 2017
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(c)2017 Hubbell Incorporated
Glossary and Index
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October 2017
14-3
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
(c)2017 Hubbell Incorporated
Glossary and Index
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
353 Powerville Road ● Boonton Twp., NJ 07005-9151 USA
Tel: 973.334.3100 ● Fax: 973.334.3863
Email: Customer.Service@RFLelect.com ● www.rflelect.com
EXMUX 3500/3501
October 2017
14-4
Hubbell Power Systems, Inc. – RFL® Products
(c)2017 Hubbell Incorporated
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