MES3500 Series
Layer 2 Management Switch
Version 4.00
Edition 1, 04/2014
Quick Start Guide
User’s Guide
Default Login Details
LAN IP Address
http://192.168.1.1
User Name
www.zyxel.com
Password
admin
1234
Copyright © 2014 ZyXEL Communications Corporation
IMPORTANT!
READ CAREFULLY BEFORE USE.
KEEP THIS GUIDE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.
Screenshots and graphics in this book may differ slightly from your product due to differences in
your product firmware or your computer operating system. Every effort has been made to ensure
that the information in this manual is accurate.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide shows how to connect the Switch and access the Web Configurator.
• CLI Reference Guide
The CLI Reference Guide explains how to use the Command-Line Interface (CLI) and CLI
commands to configure the Switch.
Note: It is recommended you use the Web Configurator to configure the Switch.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Click the help icon in any screen for help in configuring that screen and supplementary
information.
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
2
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
User’s Guide .......................................................................................................................................16
Getting to Know Your Switch ...................................................................................................................17
Hardware Installation and Connection ....................................................................................................21
Hardware Overview .................................................................................................................................24
The Web Configurator .............................................................................................................................33
Initial Setup Example ..............................................................................................................................41
Tutorials ..................................................................................................................................................45
Technical Reference ..........................................................................................................................70
System Status and Port Statistics ...........................................................................................................71
Basic Setting ..........................................................................................................................................76
VLAN .......................................................................................................................................................87
Static MAC Forward Setup ....................................................................................................................103
Static Multicast Forward Setup ..............................................................................................................105
Filtering .................................................................................................................................................108
Spanning Tree Protocol ......................................................................................................................... 110
Bandwidth Control .................................................................................................................................129
Broadcast Storm Control .......................................................................................................................131
Mirroring ................................................................................................................................................133
Link Aggregation ...................................................................................................................................135
Port Authentication ................................................................................................................................142
Port Security ..........................................................................................................................................150
Classifier ...............................................................................................................................................152
Policy Rule ...........................................................................................................................................158
Queuing Method ....................................................................................................................................163
VLAN Stacking ......................................................................................................................................166
Multicast ................................................................................................................................................173
AAA .......................................................................................................................................................187
IP Source Guard ...................................................................................................................................200
Loop Guard ...........................................................................................................................................219
VLAN Mapping ......................................................................................................................................222
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ...................................................................................................................225
sFlow .....................................................................................................................................................229
PPPoE ...................................................................................................................................................233
Error Disable .........................................................................................................................................241
Private VLAN .........................................................................................................................................245
Static Route ...........................................................................................................................................247
Differentiated Services ..........................................................................................................................250
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Contents Overview
DHCP ....................................................................................................................................................258
Maintenance ..........................................................................................................................................266
Access Control ......................................................................................................................................272
Diagnostic .............................................................................................................................................294
Syslog ...................................................................................................................................................295
Cluster Management .............................................................................................................................298
MAC Table .............................................................................................................................................304
ARP Table .............................................................................................................................................307
Configure Clone ....................................................................................................................................309
Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................................... 311
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Contents Overview ..............................................................................................................................3
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................5
Part I: User’s Guide ......................................................................................... 16
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your Switch.............................................................................................................17
1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................17
1.1.1 Backbone Application ..............................................................................................................17
1.1.2 Bridging Example ....................................................................................................................18
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example ....................................................................................18
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples ..............................................................................19
1.1.5 IPv6 Support ............................................................................................................................20
1.2 Ways to Manage the Switch ..............................................................................................................20
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Switch ...............................................................................................20
Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and Connection .............................................................................................21
2.1 Installation Scenarios ........................................................................................................................21
2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure ........................................................................................................21
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack ........................................................................................................21
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements ................................................................................21
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch .......................................................................22
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack ...............................................................................................22
Chapter 3
Hardware Overview ............................................................................................................................24
3.1 Front Panel .......................................................................................................................................24
3.1.1 Console Port ............................................................................................................................26
3.1.2 Ethernet Ports .........................................................................................................................26
3.1.3 Transceiver Slots .....................................................................................................................27
3.1.4 Power Connector .....................................................................................................................28
3.1.5 Signal Slot ...............................................................................................................................29
3.2 LEDs ................................................................................................................................................31
Chapter 4
The Web Configurator ........................................................................................................................33
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Table of Contents
4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................33
4.2 System Login
.................................................................................................................................33
4.3 The Web Configurator Layout .........................................................................................................34
4.3.1 Change Your Password
........................................................................................................37
4.4 Saving Your Configuration ................................................................................................................38
4.5 Switch Lockout ................................................................................................................................38
4.6 Resetting the Switch
......................................................................................................................39
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File .................................................................................................39
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator ..............................................................................................40
4.8 Help ..................................................................................................................................................40
Chapter 5
Initial Setup Example..........................................................................................................................41
5.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................41
5.1.1 Creating a VLAN ......................................................................................................................41
5.1.2 Setting Port VID .......................................................................................................................42
5.2 Configuring Switch Management IP Address ....................................................................................43
Chapter 6
Tutorials ...............................................................................................................................................45
6.1 How to Use DHCP Snooping on the Switch ......................................................................................45
6.2 How to Use DHCP Relay on the Switch ............................................................................................48
6.2.1 DHCP Relay Tutorial Introduction ............................................................................................48
6.2.2 Creating a VLAN ......................................................................................................................49
6.2.3 Configuring DHCP Relay .........................................................................................................51
6.2.4 Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................52
6.3 How to Use PPPoE IA on the Switch ................................................................................................52
6.3.1 Configuring Switch A ...............................................................................................................53
6.3.2 Configuring Switch B ...............................................................................................................55
6.4 How to Use Error Disable and Recovery on the Switch ....................................................................58
6.5 How to Set Up a Guest VLAN ...........................................................................................................60
6.5.1 Creating a Guest VLAN ...........................................................................................................60
6.5.2 Enabling IEEE 802.1x Port Authentication ..............................................................................63
6.5.3 Enabling Guest VLAN ..............................................................................................................64
6.6 How to Do Port Isolation in a VLAN ..................................................................................................65
6.6.1 Creating a VLAN ......................................................................................................................66
6.6.2 Creating a Private VLAN Rule .................................................................................................68
Part II: Technical Reference............................................................................ 70
Chapter 7
System Status and Port Statistics.....................................................................................................71
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Table of Contents
7.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................71
7.2 Port Status Summary
...................................................................................................................71
7.2.1 Status: Port Details
.............................................................................................................72
Chapter 8
Basic Setting ......................................................................................................................................76
8.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................76
8.2 System Information
8.3 General Setup
........................................................................................................................76
...............................................................................................................................77
8.4 Introduction to VLANs ......................................................................................................................79
8.4.1 Smart Isolation .........................................................................................................................80
8.5 Switch Setup
..................................................................................................................................81
8.6 IP Setup ...........................................................................................................................................83
8.6.1 Management IP Addresses .....................................................................................................83
8.7 Port Setup ........................................................................................................................................85
Chapter 9
VLAN ....................................................................................................................................................87
9.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
...............................................................................87
9.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames .............................................................................87
9.2 Automatic VLAN Registration ...........................................................................................................88
9.2.1 GARP ......................................................................................................................................88
9.2.2 GVRP ......................................................................................................................................88
9.3 Port VLAN Trunking .........................................................................................................................89
9.4 Select the VLAN Type ......................................................................................................................89
9.5 Static VLAN .......................................................................................................................................89
9.5.1 VLAN Status ...........................................................................................................................90
9.5.2 VLAN Details ...........................................................................................................................90
9.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN
......................................................................................................91
9.5.4 Configure VLAN Port Settings
.............................................................................................93
9.6 Subnet Based VLANs ......................................................................................................................94
9.7 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN ....................................................................................................95
9.8 Protocol Based VLANs .....................................................................................................................96
9.9 Configuring Protocol Based VLAN ..................................................................................................97
9.10 Create an IP-based VLAN Example ................................................................................................98
9.11 Port-based VLAN Setup
..............................................................................................................99
9.11.1 Configure a Port-based VLAN ............................................................................................100
Chapter 10
Static MAC Forward Setup...............................................................................................................103
10.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................103
10.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
.........................................................................................103
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Table of Contents
Chapter 11
Static Multicast Forward Setup .......................................................................................................105
11.1 Static Multicast Forwarding Overview ...........................................................................................105
11.2 Configuring Static Multicast Forwarding ........................................................................................106
Chapter 12
Filtering..............................................................................................................................................108
12.1 Configure a Filtering Rule
...........................................................................................................108
Chapter 13
Spanning Tree Protocol.................................................................................................................... 110
13.1 STP/RSTP Overview ................................................................................................................... 110
13.1.1 STP Terminology ................................................................................................................ 110
13.1.2 How STP Works ................................................................................................................. 111
13.1.3 STP Port States .................................................................................................................. 111
13.1.4 Multiple RSTP .................................................................................................................... 111
13.1.5 Multiple STP ........................................................................................................................ 112
13.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen ......................................................................................... 115
13.3 Spanning Tree Configuration ....................................................................................................... 115
13.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
13.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
................................................................................... 116
........................................................................................ 118
13.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
13.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
13.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
..................................................................... 119
........................................................................121
................................................................................122
13.8.1 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Port Configuration ...........................................................125
13.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status
..................................................................................126
Chapter 14
Bandwidth Control............................................................................................................................129
14.1 Bandwidth Control Overview .......................................................................................................129
14.1.1 CIR and PIR ........................................................................................................................129
14.2 Bandwidth Control Setup ..............................................................................................................129
Chapter 15
Broadcast Storm Control .................................................................................................................131
15.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup ....................................................................................................131
Chapter 16
Mirroring ............................................................................................................................................133
16.1 Port Mirroring Setup .....................................................................................................................133
Chapter 17
Link Aggregation ..............................................................................................................................135
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Table of Contents
17.1 Link Aggregation Overview ..........................................................................................................135
17.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation ...........................................................................................................135
17.2.1 Link Aggregation ID ............................................................................................................136
17.3 Link Aggregation Status ...............................................................................................................136
17.4 Link Aggregation Setting ..............................................................................................................137
17.5 Link Aggregation Control Protocol
.............................................................................................139
17.6 Static Trunking Example ...............................................................................................................140
Chapter 18
Port Authentication ..........................................................................................................................142
18.1 Port Authentication Overview .......................................................................................................142
18.1.1 IEEE 802.1x Authentication .................................................................................................142
18.1.2 MAC Authentication .............................................................................................................143
18.2 Port Authentication Configuration .................................................................................................144
18.2.1 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
.........................................................................................144
18.2.2 Guest VLAN ........................................................................................................................146
18.2.3 Activate MAC Authentication ..............................................................................................148
Chapter 19
Port Security .....................................................................................................................................150
19.1 About Port Security .......................................................................................................................150
19.2 Port Security Setup .......................................................................................................................150
Chapter 20
Classifier............................................................................................................................................152
20.1 About the Classifier and QoS ........................................................................................................152
20.2 Configuring the Classifier .............................................................................................................152
20.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration ................................................................................155
20.4 Classifier Example ........................................................................................................................156
Chapter 21
Policy Rule .......................................................................................................................................158
21.1 Policy Rules Overview .................................................................................................................158
21.1.1 DiffServ ................................................................................................................................158
21.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ..............................................................................................158
21.2 Configuring Policy Rules ...............................................................................................................158
21.3 Viewing and Editing Policy Configuration ......................................................................................160
21.4 Policy Example ..............................................................................................................................161
Chapter 22
Queuing Method ...............................................................................................................................163
22.1 Queuing Method Overview ...........................................................................................................163
22.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing .......................................................................................................163
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Table of Contents
22.1.2 Weighted Fair Queuing ........................................................................................................163
22.1.3 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) .........................................................................164
22.2 Configuring Queuing .....................................................................................................................164
Chapter 23
VLAN Stacking ..................................................................................................................................166
23.1 VLAN Stacking Overview .............................................................................................................166
23.1.1 VLAN Stacking Example ......................................................................................................166
23.2 VLAN Stacking Port Roles ............................................................................................................167
23.3 VLAN Tag Format ..........................................................................................................................167
23.3.1 Frame Format ......................................................................................................................168
23.4 Configuring VLAN Stacking ...........................................................................................................168
23.4.1 Port-based Q-in-Q ...............................................................................................................170
23.4.2 Selective Q-in-Q .................................................................................................................170
Chapter 24
Multicast ............................................................................................................................................173
24.1 Multicast Overview .......................................................................................................................173
24.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses ........................................................................................................173
24.1.2 IGMP Filtering ......................................................................................................................173
24.1.3 IGMP Snooping ..................................................................................................................173
24.1.4 IGMP Snooping and VLANs ................................................................................................174
24.2 Multicast Status ............................................................................................................................174
24.3 Multicast Setting ...........................................................................................................................174
24.4 IGMP Snooping VLAN .................................................................................................................177
24.5 IGMP Filtering Profile ...................................................................................................................179
24.6 MVR Overview .............................................................................................................................180
24.6.1 Types of MVR Ports .............................................................................................................180
24.6.2 MVR Modes .........................................................................................................................181
24.6.3 How MVR Works .................................................................................................................181
24.7 General MVR Configuration ..........................................................................................................181
24.8 MVR Group Configuration ............................................................................................................183
24.8.1 MVR Configuration Example ...............................................................................................184
Chapter 25
AAA ....................................................................................................................................................187
25.1 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) ....................................................................187
25.1.1 Local User Accounts ............................................................................................................187
25.1.2 RADIUS and TACACS+ ......................................................................................................188
25.2 AAA Screens .................................................................................................................................188
25.2.1 RADIUS Server Setup .......................................................................................................188
25.2.2 TACACS+ Server Setup
..................................................................................................190
25.2.3 AAA Setup ...........................................................................................................................192
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Table of Contents
25.2.4 Vendor Specific Attribute .....................................................................................................195
25.2.5 Tunnel Protocol Attribute .....................................................................................................196
25.3 Supported RADIUS Attributes .......................................................................................................196
25.3.1 Attributes Used for Authentication .......................................................................................197
25.3.2 Attributes Used for Accounting ............................................................................................197
Chapter 26
IP Source Guard................................................................................................................................200
26.1 IP Source Guard Overview ...........................................................................................................200
26.1.1 DHCP Snooping Overview ..................................................................................................200
26.1.2 ARP Inspection Overview ....................................................................................................202
26.2 IP Source Guard ...........................................................................................................................204
26.3 IP Source Guard Static Binding .....................................................................................................204
26.4 DHCP Snooping ............................................................................................................................205
26.5 DHCP Snooping Configure ...........................................................................................................208
26.5.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure ..........................................................................................210
26.5.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure ....................................................................................... 211
26.6 ARP Inspection Status ..................................................................................................................212
26.6.1 ARP Inspection VLAN Status ..............................................................................................213
26.6.2 ARP Inspection Log Status ..................................................................................................214
26.7 ARP Inspection Configure .............................................................................................................215
26.7.1 ARP Inspection Port Configure ............................................................................................216
26.7.2 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure .........................................................................................217
Chapter 27
Loop Guard .......................................................................................................................................219
27.1 Loop Guard Overview ..................................................................................................................219
27.2 Loop Guard Setup .........................................................................................................................221
Chapter 28
VLAN Mapping ..................................................................................................................................222
28.1 VLAN Mapping Overview .............................................................................................................222
28.1.1 VLAN Mapping Example .....................................................................................................222
28.2 Enabling VLAN Mapping ...............................................................................................................222
28.3 Configuring VLAN Mapping ...........................................................................................................223
Chapter 29
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling..............................................................................................................225
29.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Overview ..........................................................................................225
29.1.1 Layer-2 Protocol Tunneling Mode ........................................................................................226
29.2 Configuring Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling ........................................................................................226
Chapter 30
sFlow..................................................................................................................................................229
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Table of Contents
30.1 sFlow Overview .............................................................................................................................229
30.2 sFlow Port Configuration ...............................................................................................................229
30.2.1 sFlow Collector Configuration ..............................................................................................231
Chapter 31
PPPoE ................................................................................................................................................233
31.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Overview ..........................................................................................233
31.1.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Tag Format ..............................................................................233
31.1.2 Sub-Option Format ..............................................................................................................233
31.1.3 Port State .............................................................................................................................234
31.2 The PPPoE Screen .......................................................................................................................235
31.3 PPPoE Intermediate Agent ..........................................................................................................235
31.3.1 PPPoE IA Per-Port .............................................................................................................237
31.3.2 PPPoE IA Per-Port Per-VLAN ............................................................................................238
31.3.3 PPPoE IA for VLAN ............................................................................................................240
Chapter 32
Error Disable .....................................................................................................................................241
32.1 CPU Protection Overview .............................................................................................................241
32.2 Error-Disable Recovery Overview .................................................................................................241
32.3 The Error Disable Screen ..............................................................................................................241
32.4 CPU Protection Configuration ......................................................................................................242
32.5 Error-Disable Detect Configuration ..............................................................................................243
32.6 Error-Disable Recovery Configuration .........................................................................................244
Chapter 33
Private VLAN .....................................................................................................................................245
33.1 Private VLAN Overview ................................................................................................................245
33.2 Configuring Private VLAN .............................................................................................................245
Chapter 34
Static Route .......................................................................................................................................247
34.1 Static Routing Overview ................................................................................................................247
34.2 Configuring Static Routing .............................................................................................................247
Chapter 35
Differentiated Services.....................................................................................................................250
35.1 DiffServ Overview ........................................................................................................................250
35.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ..............................................................................................250
35.1.2 DiffServ Network Example ..................................................................................................250
35.2 Two Rate Three Color Marker Traffic Policing ..............................................................................251
35.2.1 TRTCM-Color-blind Mode ....................................................................................................252
35.2.2 TRTCM-Color-aware Mode .................................................................................................252
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Table of Contents
35.3 Activating DiffServ ........................................................................................................................252
35.3.1 Configuring 2-Rate 3 Color Marker Settings .......................................................................253
35.3.2 Configuring DSCP Profiles .................................................................................................255
35.4 DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1p Priority Settings
......................................................................................256
35.4.1 Configuring DSCP Settings .................................................................................................256
Chapter 36
DHCP..................................................................................................................................................258
36.1 DHCP Overview ...........................................................................................................................258
36.1.1 DHCP Modes ......................................................................................................................258
36.1.2 DHCP Configuration Options ...............................................................................................258
36.2 DHCP Status .................................................................................................................................258
36.2.1 Option 82 Profile ..................................................................................................................259
36.3 DHCP Relay .................................................................................................................................260
36.3.1 DHCP Relay Agent Information ...........................................................................................261
36.3.2 Configuring DHCP Global Relay .........................................................................................261
36.3.3 Global DHCP Relay Configuration Example .......................................................................262
36.4 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings
.............................................................................................263
36.4.1 Example: DHCP Relay for Two VLANs ...............................................................................264
Chapter 37
Maintenance ......................................................................................................................................266
37.1 The Maintenance Screen ............................................................................................................266
37.2 Load Factory Default ....................................................................................................................267
37.3 Save Configuration ........................................................................................................................267
37.4 Reboot System ..............................................................................................................................267
37.5 Firmware Upgrade
.....................................................................................................................268
37.6 Restore a Configuration File
......................................................................................................268
37.7 Backup a Configuration File
.......................................................................................................269
37.8 FTP Command Line ......................................................................................................................269
37.8.1 Filename Conventions ........................................................................................................270
37.8.2 FTP Command Line Procedure ..........................................................................................270
37.8.3 GUI-based FTP Clients ........................................................................................................271
37.8.4 FTP Restrictions .................................................................................................................271
Chapter 38
Access Control .................................................................................................................................272
38.1 Access Control Overview
..........................................................................................................272
38.2 The Access Control Main Screen ..................................................................................................272
38.3 About SNMP
...............................................................................................................................272
38.3.1 SNMP v3 and Security ........................................................................................................273
38.3.2 Supported MIBs ..................................................................................................................274
38.3.3 SNMP Traps ........................................................................................................................274
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Table of Contents
38.3.4 Configuring SNMP ..............................................................................................................278
38.3.5 Configuring SNMP Trap Group
.........................................................................................280
38.3.6 Enabling/Disabling Sending of SNMP Traps on a Port ........................................................281
38.3.7 Configuring SNMP User
38.4 Setting Up Login Accounts
...................................................................................................282
........................................................................................................284
38.5 SSH Overview ...............................................................................................................................285
38.6 How SSH works ............................................................................................................................285
38.7 SSH Implementation on the Switch ...............................................................................................286
38.7.1 Requirements for Using SSH ...............................................................................................287
38.8 Introduction to HTTPS ...................................................................................................................287
38.9 HTTPS Example ...........................................................................................................................288
38.9.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages ..................................................................................288
38.9.2 Mozilla Firefox Warning Messages ......................................................................................289
38.9.3 The Main Screen .................................................................................................................291
38.10 Service Port Access Control
38.11 Remote Management
....................................................................................................291
.............................................................................................................292
Chapter 39
Diagnostic .........................................................................................................................................294
39.1 Diagnostic ....................................................................................................................................294
Chapter 40
Syslog ................................................................................................................................................295
40.1 Syslog Overview ...........................................................................................................................295
40.2 Syslog Setup ................................................................................................................................295
40.3 Syslog Server Setup ....................................................................................................................296
Chapter 41
Cluster Management ........................................................................................................................298
41.1 Cluster Management Status Overview .........................................................................................298
41.2 Cluster Management Status .........................................................................................................299
41.2.1 Cluster Member Switch Management ................................................................................300
41.3 Clustering Management Configuration ........................................................................................301
Chapter 42
MAC Table .........................................................................................................................................304
42.1 MAC Table Overview ....................................................................................................................304
42.2 Viewing the MAC Table ................................................................................................................305
Chapter 43
ARP Table ..........................................................................................................................................307
43.1 ARP Table Overview ....................................................................................................................307
43.1.1 How ARP Works ..................................................................................................................307
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Table of Contents
43.2 The ARP Table Screen .................................................................................................................307
Chapter 44
Configure Clone................................................................................................................................309
44.1 Configure Clone ...........................................................................................................................309
Chapter 45
Troubleshooting................................................................................................................................ 311
45.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs .................................................................................... 311
45.2 Switch Access and Login ..............................................................................................................312
45.3 Switch Configuration .....................................................................................................................314
Appendix A Common Services ........................................................................................................315
Appendix B Legal Information..........................................................................................................318
Index ..................................................................................................................................................321
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
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P ART I
User’s Guide
16
C HAPT ER
1
Getting to Know Your Switch
This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the Switch.
1.1 Introduction
The Switch is a layer-2 standalone Ethernet switch. The Switch has two or four GbE dual personality
interfaces with each interface comprising one mini-GBIC slot and one 100/1000 Mbps RJ-45 port,
with either port or slot active at a time.
This User’s Guide covers the following models: MES3500-24, MES3500-24F, and MES3500-10.
Table 1 Switch Comparison Table
PORT/SWITCH DETAILS
MES3500-24
MES3500-24F
MES3500-10
8 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Ports
24 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Ports
24 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet SFP Slots
4 Dual Personality Interfaces
2 Dual Personality Interfaces
With its built-in web configurator, managing and configuring the Switch is easy. In addition, the
Switch can also be managed via Telnet, any terminal emulator program on the console port, or
third-party SNMP management.
This section shows a few examples of using the Switch in various network environments.
1.1.1 Backbone Application
The Switch is an ideal solution for small networks where rapid growth can be expected in the near
future. The Switch can be used standalone for a group of heavy traffic users. You can connect
computers and servers directly to the Switch’s port or connect other switches to the Switch.
In this example, all computers can share high-speed applications on the server. To expand the
network, simply add more networking devices such as switches, routers, computers, print servers
etc.
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
Figure 1 Backbone Application
1.1.2 Bridging Example
In this example, the Switch connects different company departments (RD and Sales) to the
corporate backbone. It can alleviate bandwidth contention and eliminate server and network
bottlenecks. All users that need high bandwidth can connect to high-speed department servers via
the Switch. You can provide a super-fast uplink connection by using a Gigabit Ethernet/mini-GBIC
port on the Switch.
Moreover, the Switch eases supervision and maintenance by allowing network managers to
centralize multiple servers at a single location.
Figure 2 Bridging Application
1.1.3 High Performance Switching Example
The Switch is ideal for connecting two networks that need high bandwidth. In the following
example, use trunking to connect these two networks.
Switching to higher-speed LANs such as ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode) is not feasible for
most people due to the expense of replacing all existing Ethernet cables and adapter cards,
restructuring your network and complex maintenance. The Switch can provide the same bandwidth
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
18
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
as ATM at much lower cost while still being able to use existing adapters and switches. Moreover,
the current LAN structure can be retained as all ports can freely communicate with each other.
Figure 3 High Performance Switched Workgroup Application
1.1.4 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Application Examples
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple logical
networks. Stations on a logical network belong to one group. A station can belong to more than one
group. With VLAN, a station cannot directly talk to or hear from stations that are not in the same
group(s) unless such traffic first goes through a router.
For more information on VLANs, refer to Chapter 9 on page 87.
1.1.4.1 Tag-based VLAN Example
Ports in the same VLAN group share the same frame broadcast domain thus increase network
performance through reduced broadcast traffic. VLAN groups can be modified at any time by
adding, moving or changing ports without any re-cabling.
Shared resources such as a server can be used by all ports in the same VLAN as the server. In the
following figure only ports that need access to the server need to be part of VLAN 1. Ports can
belong to other VLAN groups too.
Figure 4 Shared Server Using VLAN Example
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your Switch
1.1.5 IPv6 Support
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), is designed to enhance IP address size and features. The
increase in IPv6 address size to 128 bits (from the 32-bit IPv4 address) allows up to 3.4 x 1038 IP
addresses. At the time of writing, the Switch supports the following features.
• Static address assignment and stateless auto-configuration
• Neighbor Discovery Protocol (a protocol used to discover other IPv6 devices in a network)
• Remote Management using ping SNMP, telnet, HTTP and FTP services
• ICMPv6 to report errors encountered in packet processing and perform diagnostic functions, such
as "ping”
• IPv4/IPv6 dual stack; the Switch can run IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time
• DHCPv6 client and relay
• Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) snooping and proxy
For more information on IPv6, refer to the CLI Reference Guide.
1.2 Ways to Manage the Switch
Use any of the following methods to manage the Switch.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the Switch using a
(supported) web browser. See Chapter 4 on page 33.
• Command Line Interface. Line commands offer an alternative to the web configurator and in
some cases are necessary to configure advanced features. See the CLI Reference Guide.
• FTP. Use FTP for firmware upgrades and configuration backup/restore. See Section 37.8 on page
269.
• SNMP. The Switch can be monitored by an SNMP manager. See Section 38.3 on page 272.
• Cluster Management. Cluster Management allows you to manage multiple switches through one
switch, called the cluster manager. See Chapter 41 on page 298.
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Switch
Do the following things regularly to make the Switch more secure and to manage the Switch more
effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of different
types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an earlier
working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even crashes. If you
forget your password, you will have to reset the Switch to its factory default settings. If you
backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the Switch. You
could simply restore your last configuration.
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2
Hardware Installation and Connection
This chapter shows you how to install and connect the Switch.
2.1 Installation Scenarios
The Switch can be placed on a desktop or rack-mounted on a standard EIA rack. Use the rubber
feet in a desktop installation and the brackets in a rack-mounted installation.
Note: For proper ventilation, allow at least 4 inches (10 cm) of clearance at the front and
3.4 inches (8 cm) at the back of the Switch. This is especially important for
enclosed rack installations.
2.2 Desktop Installation Procedure
1
Make sure the Switch is clean and dry.
2
Set the Switch on a smooth, level surface strong enough to support the weight of the Switch and
the connected cables. Make sure there is a power outlet nearby.
3
Make sure there is enough clearance around the Switch to allow air circulation and the attachment
of cables and the power cord.
2.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
The Switch can be mounted on an EIA standard size, 19-inch rack or in a wiring closet with other
equipment. Follow the steps below to mount your Switch on a standard EIA rack using a rackmounting kit.
2.3.1 Rack-mounted Installation Requirements
• Two mounting brackets.
• Eight M3 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
• Four M5 flat head screws and a #2 Philips screwdriver.
Failure to use the proper screws may damage the unit.
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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
2.3.1.1 Precautions
• Make sure the rack will safely support the combined weight of all the equipment it contains.
• Make sure the position of the Switch does not make the rack unstable or top-heavy. Take all
necessary precautions to anchor the rack securely before installing the unit.
2.3.2 Attaching the Mounting Brackets to the Switch
1
Position a mounting bracket on one side of the Switch, lining up the four screw holes on the bracket
with the screw holes on the side of the Switch.
Figure 5 Attaching the Mounting Brackets
2
Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M3 flat head screws through the mounting bracket holes
into the Switch.
3
Repeat steps 1 and 2 to install the second mounting bracket on the other side of the Switch.
4
You may now mount the Switch on a rack. Proceed to the next section.
2.3.3 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
1
Position a mounting bracket (that is already attached to the Switch) on one side of the rack, lining
up the two screw holes on the bracket with the screw holes on the side of the rack.
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Chapter 2 Hardware Installation and Connection
Figure 6 Mounting the Switch on a Rack
2
Using a #2 Philips screwdriver, install the M5 flat head screws through the mounting bracket holes
into the rack.
3
Repeat steps 1 and 2 to attach the second mounting bracket on the other side of the rack.
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3
Hardware Overview
This chapter describes the front panel and rear panel of the Switch and shows you how to make the
hardware connections.
3.1 Front Panel
The following figure shows the front panel of the Switch.
Figure 7 MES3500-24 Front Panel: AC Model
Dual Personality Interfaces
LEDs
Console Port
Signal slot
Fast Ethernet Ports
Power Connection
Figure 8 MES3500-24 Front Panel: DC Model
Power Switch
Dual Personality Interfaces
LEDs
Power Connection
Console Port
Signal slot
Fast Ethernet Ports
Figure 9 MES3500-24F Front Panel: AC Model
Dual Personality Interfaces
LEDs
Power Connection
Console Port
Fast SFP Slots
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Signal slot
Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Figure 10 MES3500-24F Front Panel: DC Model
Dual Personality Interfaces
Power Switch
Console Port
LEDs
Signal slot
Power Connection
Fast SFP Slots
Figure 11 MES3500-10 Front Panel
Dual Personality Interfaces
LEDs
Power Connection
Console Port
Signal slot
Fast Ethernet Ports
The following table describes the port labels on the front panel.
Table 2 Front Panel Connections
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Power Switch
This is for DC model only. After you connect the DC power properly (see Section 3.1.4.2 on
page 29.), put the power switch in the ON position to turn on the Switch.
Power
Connection
Connect an appropriate power supply to this port.
24 or 8 10/100
Mbps RJ-45
Fast Ethernet
Ports
(MES3500-24)
Connect these ports to a computer, a hub, an Ethernet switch or router.
24 100 Mbps
Fast SFP Slots
(MES3500-24F)
Use transceivers in these slots for fiber-optic or copper connections to a computer, a hub, a
switch or router.
Four or Two
Dual Personality
Interfaces
Each interface has one 1000BASE-T RJ-45 port and one Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP)
slot (also called a mini-GBIC slot), with one port or transceiver active at a time.
•
Four 100/1000 Mbps RJ-45 Ports:
Connect these ports to high-bandwidth backbone network Ethernet switches using
1000BASE-T compatible Category 5/5e/6 copper cables.
•
Four Mini-GBIC Slots:
Use mini-GBIC transceivers in these slots for connections to backbone Ethernet
switches.
Console Port
The console port is for local configuration of the Switch.
Signal slot
Connect the signal input pins to signal output terminals on other pieces of equipment.
Connect the signal output pins to a signal input terminal on another piece of equipment.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
3.1.1 Console Port
For local management, you can use a computer with terminal emulation software configured to the
following parameters:
• VT100
• Terminal emulation
• 9600 bps
• No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
• No flow control
Connect the male 9-pin end of the console cable to the console port of the Switch. Connect the
female end to a serial port (COM1, COM2 or other COM port) of your computer.
3.1.2 Ethernet Ports
The Switch has 24 10/100 Mbps auto-negotiating, auto-crossover Ethernet ports. In 10/100 Mbps
Fast Ethernet, the speed can be 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps and the duplex mode can be half duplex or
full duplex.
An auto-negotiating port can detect and adjust to the optimum Ethernet speed (10/100 Mbps) and
duplex mode (full duplex or half duplex) of the connected device.
An auto-crossover (auto-MDI/MDI-X) port automatically works with a straight-through or crossover
Ethernet cable.
The Switch has four 1000Base-T Ethernet ports, which are paired with a mini-GBIC slot to create a
dual personality interface. The Switch uses up to one connection for each mini-GBIC and 1000BaseT Ethernet pair. The mini-GBIC slots have priority over the Gigabit ports. This means that if a miniGBIC slot and the corresponding GbE port are connected at the same time, the GbE port will be
disabled.
When auto-negotiation is turned on, an Ethernet port negotiates with the peer automatically to
determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer Ethernet port does not support autonegotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by detecting the
signal on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switch’s auto-negotiation is turned off,
an Ethernet port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when making a connection, thus
requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer Ethernet port are the same in order to
connect.
3.1.2.1 Default Ethernet Negotiation Settings
The factory default negotiation settings for the Gigabit ports on the Switch are:
• Speed: Auto
• Duplex: Auto
• Flow control: Off
• Link Aggregation: Disabled
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
3.1.2.2 Auto-crossover
All ports are auto-crossover, that is auto-MDIX ports (Media Dependent Interface Crossover), so
you may use either a straight-through Ethernet cable or crossover Ethernet cable for all Gigabit port
connections. Auto-crossover ports automatically sense whether they need to function as crossover
or straight ports, so crossover cables can connect both computers and switches/hubs.
3.1.3 Transceiver Slots
These are slots for mini-GBIC (Gigabit Interface Converter) transceivers or 100 Mbps Small Formfactor Pluggable (SFP) transceivers. A transceiver is a single unit that houses a transmitter and a
receiver. The Switch does not come with transceivers. You must use transceivers that comply with
the SFP Transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA). See the SFF committee’s INF-8074i
specification Rev 1.0 for details.
You can change transceivers while the Switch is operating. You can use different transceivers to
connect to Ethernet switches with different types of fiber-optic or even copper cable connectors.
To avoid possible eye injury, do not look into an operating fiber-optic
module’s connectors.
• Type: SFP connection interface
• Connection speed: 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps) or 1 Megabit per second (Mbps)
3.1.3.1 Transceiver Installation
Use the following steps to install a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1
Insert the transceiver into the slot with the exposed section of PCB board facing down.
2
Press the transceiver firmly until it clicks into place.
3
The Switch automatically detects the installed transceiver. Check the LEDs to verify that it is
functioning properly.
4
Close the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
5
Connect the fiber optic cables to the transceiver.
Figure 12 Transceiver Installation Example
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Figure 13 Connecting the Fiber Optic Cables
3.1.3.2 Transceiver Removal
Use the following steps to remove a mini-GBIC transceiver (SFP module).
1
Remove the fiber optic cables from the transceiver.
2
Open the transceiver’s latch (latch styles vary).
3
Pull the transceiver out of the slot.
Figure 14 Removing the Fiber Optic Cables
Figure 15 Opening the Transceiver’s Latch Example
Figure 16 Transceiver Removal Example
3.1.4 Power Connector
Make sure you are using the correct power source as shown on the panel and that no objects
obstruct the airflow of the fans.
Use the following procedures to connect the Switch to a power source after you have installed it.
Note: Check the power supply requirements on the panel, and make sure you are using
an appropriate power source.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Keep the power supply switch and the Switch’s power switch in the OFF
position until you come to the procedure for turning on the power.
Use only power wires of the required diameter for connecting the Switch to a power supply.
3.1.4.1 AC Power Connection
Connect the female end of the power cord to the power socket of your Switch. Connect the other
end of the cord to a power outlet.
3.1.4.2 DC Power Connection
The Switch uses a single ETB series terminal block plug with four pins which allows you to connect
up to two separate power supplies. If one power supply fails the system can operate on the
remaining power supply. Use two wires to connect to a single terminal pair, one wire for the positive
terminal and one wire for the negative terminal.
Note: The current rating of the power wires must be greater than 20 Amps. The power
supply to which the Switch connects must have a built-in circuit breaker or switch
to toggle the power.
Note: When installing the power wire, push it wire firmly into the terminal as deep as
possible and make sure that no exposed (bare) wire can be seen or touched.
Exposed power wire is dangerous. Use extreme care when connecting a
DC power source to the device.
To connect a power supply:
1
Use a screwdriver to loosen the terminal block captive screws.
2
Connect one end of a power wire to the Switch’s RTN (return) pin and tighten the captive screw.
3
Connect the other end of the power wire to the positive terminal on the power supply.
4
Connect one end of a power wire to the Switch’s -48V (input) pin and tighten the captive screw.
5
Connect the other end of the power wire to the negative terminal on the power supply.
6
Insert the terminal block plug in the Switch’s terminal block header.
3.1.5 Signal Slot
The Signal slot (fitted with the signal connector) allows you to connect devices to the Switch, such
as sensors or other ZyXEL switches which support the external alarm feature. This feature is in
addition to the system alarm, which detects abnormal temperatures, and voltage levels on the
Switch.
Your Switch can respond to an external signal in four ways.
• The ALM LED shows an alert.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
• The Signal slot can send an external alarm on to another device. By daisy-chaining the signal
sensor cables from one Switch to another ZyXEL switch which supports this feature, the external
alarm alert (but not the system alarm) is received on each Switch.
• The Switch can be configured to send an SNMP trap to the SNMP server. See Section 38.3 on
page 272 for more information on using SNMP.
• The Switch can be configured to create an error log of the alarm. See Section 40.1 on page 295
for more information on using the system log.
3.1.5.1 Connect a Sensor to the Signal Slot
This section shows you how to connect an external sensor device to the Switch.
1
Use a connector to connect wires of the correct gauge (18 AWG or larger) to the sensor’s signal
output pins. Check the sensor’s documentation to identify its two signal output pins.
2
Connect these two wires to any one of the following pairs of signal input pins on the Switch’s Signal
connector--(4,5) (6,7) (8,9) (10,11). The pin numbers run from the right side of the connector to
the left.
2a
2b
2c
3
Connect each of the sensor’s two signal output wires to the Signal connector by depressing
the spring clip corresponding to the pin you are connecting to.
Insert the wire and release the spring clip.
Repeat the process for the sensor’s other signal output wire. A total of four sensors may be
connected to the Signal connector in this way using the remaining signal input pins.
Insert the alarm connector into the Signal slot.
Figure 17 Connecting a Sensor to the Signal Slot
Door Open
Sensor
Spring
Clip
Signal
Connector
11 10 9
8
7
6
5
Signal Input Pins
(Dry contact,
normal open only)
4
4
3
2
1
Signal
Output
Pins
To connect an output devicel, repeat the previous steps but this time connect to either pins (1,2) or
(2,3) on the Signal connector.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
You can also daisy-chain the external alarm to another ZyXEL Switch which supports the external
alarm feature. If daisy-chaining to a ZyXEL switch that is a different model, check your switch’s
documentation for the correct pin assignments.
1
Use wires of the correct gauge to connect either of the signal output pin pairs (1-normal close, 2common) or (2-common, 3-normal open) on the Signal connector to the input signal pin pairs of
an Signal connector on another ZyXEL Switch.
2
When daisy-chaining further Switches ensure that the signal output pins you use are the same as
those you used when connecting to the first switch, as shown in the diagram below.
Figure 18 Daisy-chaining an External Alarm Sensor to Other Switches of the Same Model
11 10
.........
3
2 1
11 10
.........
3
2 1
11 10
.........
3
2 1
Pin Assignments
3.2 LEDs
After you connect the power to the Switch, view the LEDs to ensure proper functioning of the
Switch and as an aid in troubleshooting.
Table 3 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
PWR
Green
On
The system is turned on.
Off
The system is off.
SYS
Green
On
The system is on and functioning properly.
Blinking
The system is rebooting and performing self-diagnostic tests.
Off
The power is off or the system is not ready/malfunctioning.
ALM
Red
On
A hardware failure is detected, or an external alarm is active.
Off
The system is functioning normally.
10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Ports (MES3500-24 & MES3500-10)
1 ~ 24
Green
1~8
Amber
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 10 Mbps Ethernet
network.
on
The link to a 10 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 100 Mbps Ethernet
network.
On
The link to a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to an Ethernet network is down.
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Chapter 3 Hardware Overview
Table 3 LED Descriptions (continued)
LED
COLOR
STATUS
DESCRIPTION
100 Mbps Fast SFP Ports (MES3500-24F)
1 ~ 24
Amber
On
The port has a successfule connection.
Off
No Ethernet device is connected to this port.
Blinking
This port is receiving or transmitting data.
On
The link to this port is up.
Off
The link to this port is down.
Blinking
This port is receiving or transmitting data.
Mini-GBIC Slots
LNK
ACT
Green
Green
1000Base-T Ethernet Ports (in Dual Personality Interface)
LNK/ACT
Green
Amber
FDX
Amber
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 1000 Mbps Ethernet
network.
On
The link to a 1000 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Blinking
The system is transmitting/receiving to/from a 10 Mbps or a 100 Mbps
Ethernet network.
On
The link to a 10 Mbps or a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is up.
Off
The link to an Ethernet network is down.
On
The Gigabit port is negotiating in full-duplex mode.
Off
The Gigabit port is negotiating in half-duplex mode.
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The Web Configurator
This section introduces the configuration and functions of the web configurator.
4.1 Introduction
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy Switch setup and
management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and later or Firefox 2.0 and later
versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by default in
Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScript (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
4.2 System Login
1
Start your web browser.
2
Type “http://” and the IP address of the Switch (for example, the default management IP address is
192.168.1.1) in the Location or Address field. Press [ENTER].
3
The login screen appears. The default username is admin and associated default password is
1234. The date and time display as shown if you have not configured a time server nor manually
entered a time and date in the General Setup screen.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Figure 19 Web Configurator: Login
4
Click OK to view the first web configurator screen.
4.3 The Web Configurator Layout
The Status screen is the first screen that displays when you access the web configurator. This guide
uses the MES3500-24 screens as an example. The screens may vary slightly for different models.
The following figure shows the navigating components of a web configurator screen.
Figure 20 The Web Configurator Layout
B C DE
A
A - Click the menu items to open submenu links, and then click on a submenu link to open the
screen in the main window.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
B, C, D, E - These are quick links which allow you to perform certain tasks no matter which screen
you are currently working in.
B - Click this link to save your configuration into the Switch’s nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile
memory is saved in the configuration file from which the Switch booted from and it stays the same
even if the Switch’s power is turned off. See Section 37.3 on page 267 for information on saving
your settings to a specific configuration file.
C - Click this link to go to the status page of the Switch.
D - Click this link to log out of the web configurator.
E - Click this link to display web help pages. The help pages provide descriptions for all of the
configuration screens.
In the navigation panel, click a main link to reveal a list of submenu links.
Table 4 Navigation Panel Sub-links Overview
BASIC SETTING
ADVANCED
APPLICATION
IP APPLICATION
MANAGEMENT
The following table describes the links in the navigation panel.
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links
LINK
DESCRIPTION
Basic Settings
System Info
This link takes you to a screen that displays general system and hardware monitoring
information.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
General Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure general identification information
and time settings for the Switch.
Switch Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can set up global Switch parameters such as
VLAN type, MAC address learning, GARP and priority queues.
IP Setup
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the management IP address,
subnet mask (necessary for Switch management) and DNS (domain name server).
Port Setup
This link takes you to screens where you can configure speed, flow control and priority
settings for individual Switch ports.
Advanced Application
VLAN
This link takes you to screens where you can configure port-based or 802.1Q VLAN
(depending on what you configured in the Switch Setup menu). You can also configure a
protocol based VLAN or a subnet based VLAN in these screens.
Static MAC
Forwarding
This link takes you to screens where you can configure static MAC addresses for a port.
These static MAC addresses do not age out.
Static Multicast
Forwarding
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static multicast MAC addresses
for port(s). These static multicast MAC addresses do not age out.
Filtering
This link takes you to a screen to set up filtering rules.
Spanning Tree
Protocol
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the RSTP/MRSTP/MSTP to prevent
network loops.
Bandwidth Control
This link takes you to screens where you can cap the maximum bandwidth allowed on a
port.
Broadcast Storm
Control
This link takes you to a screen to set up broadcast filters.
Mirroring
This link takes you to screens where you can copy traffic from one port or ports to
another port in order that you can examine the traffic from the first port without
interference.
Link Aggregation
This link takes you to screen where you can logically aggregate physical links to form one
logical, higher-bandwidth link.
Port
Authentication
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure IEEE 802.1x port authentication
as well as MAC authentication for clients communicating via the Switch.
Port Security
This link takes you to a screen where you can activate MAC address learning and set the
maximum number of MAC addresses to learn on a port.
Classifier
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to group packets
based on the specified criteria.
Policy Rule
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure the Switch to perform special
treatment on the grouped packets.
Queuing Method
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure queuing with associated queue
weights for each port.
VLAN Stacking
This link takes you to screens where you can activate and configure VLAN stacking.
Multicast
This link takes you to screen where you can configure various multicast features, IGMP
snooping and create multicast VLANs.
AAA
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure authentication, authorization and
accounting services via external servers. The external servers can be either RADIUS
(Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) or TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller
Access-Control System Plus).
IP Source Guard
This link takes you to screens where you can configure filtering of unauthorized DHCP and
ARP packets in your network.
Loop Guard
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure protection against network loops
that occur on the edge of your network.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Table 5 Navigation Panel Links (continued)
LINK
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Mapping
This link takes you to screens where you can configure VLAN mapping settings on the
Switch.
Layer 2 Protocol
Tunneling
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure L2PT (Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling)
settings on the Switch.
sFlow
This link takes you to screens where you can configure sFlow settings on the Switch.
PPPoE
This link takes you to screens where you can configure how the Switch gives a PPPoE
termination server additional subscriber information that the server can use to identify
and authenticate a PPPoE client.
Errdisable
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure CPU protection and error disable
recovery.
Private VLAN
This link takes you to a screen where you can block traffic between ports in a VLAN on the
Switch.
IP Application
Static Routing
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure static routes. A static route
defines how the Switch should forward traffic by configuring the TCP/IP parameters
manually.
DiffServ
This link takes you to screens where you can enable DiffServ, configure marking rules and
set DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mappings.
DHCP
This link takes you to screens where you can configure the DHCP settings.
Management
Maintenance
This link takes you to screens where you can perform firmware and configuration file
maintenance as well as reboot the system.
Access Control
This link takes you to screens where you can change the system login password and
configure SNMP and remote management.
Diagnostic
This link takes you to screens where you can view system logs and can test port(s).
Syslog
This link takes you to screens where you can setup system logs and a system log server.
Cluster
Management
This link takes you to a screen where you can configure clustering management and view
its status.
MAC Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC address and VLAN ID of a
device attached to a port. You can also view what kind of MAC address it is.
ARP Table
This link takes you to a screen where you can view the MAC address – IP address
resolution table.
Configure Clone
This link takes you to a screen where you can copy attributes of one port to (an)other
port(s).
4.3.1 Change Your Password
After you log in for the first time, it is recommended you change the default administrator
password. Click Management > Access Control > Logins to display the next screen.
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Chapter 4 The Web Configurator
Figure 21 Change Administrator Login Password
4.4 Saving Your Configuration
When you are done modifying the settings in a screen, click Apply to save your changes back to
the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost when the Switch’s power is turned
off.
Click the Save link in the upper right hand corner of the web configurator to save your
configuration to nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile memory refers to the Switch’s storage that
remains even if the Switch’s power is turned off.
Note: Use the Save link when you are done with a configuration session.
4.5 Switch Lockout
You could block yourself (and all others) from using in-band-management (managing through the
data ports) if you do one of the following:
1
Delete the management VLAN (default is VLAN 1).
2
Delete all port-based VLANs with the CPU port as a member. The “CPU port” is the management
port of the Switch.
3
Filter all traffic to the CPU port.
4
Disable all ports.
5
Misconfigure the text configuration file.
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6
Forget the password and/or IP address.
7
Prevent all services from accessing the Switch.
8
Change a service port number but forget it.
Note: Be careful not to lock yourself and others out of the Switch. If you do lock yourself
out, try using out-of-band management (via the management port) to configure
the Switch.
4.6 Resetting the Switch
If you lock yourself (and others) from the Switch or forget the administrator password, you will
need to reload the factory-default configuration file or reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
4.6.1 Reload the Configuration File
Uploading the factory-default configuration file replaces the current configuration file with the
factory-default configuration file. This means that you will lose all previous configurations and the
speed of the console port will be reset to the default of 9600bps with 8 data bit, no parity, one stop
bit and flow control set to none. The password will also be reset to “1234” and the IP address to
192.168.1.1.
To upload the configuration file, do the following:
1
Connect to the console port using a computer with terminal emulation software. See Section 3.1 on
page 24 for details.
2
Disconnect and reconnect the Switch’s power to begin a session. When you reconnect the Switch’s
power, you will see the initial screen.
3
When you see the message “Press any key to enter Debug Mode within 3 seconds ...” press
any key to enter debug mode.
4
Type atlc after the “Enter Debug Mode” message.
5
Wait for the “Starting XMODEM upload” message before activating XMODEM upload on your
terminal.
6
After a configuration file upload, type atgo to restart the Switch.
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Figure 22 Resetting the Switch: Via the Console Port
Bootbase Version: V1.00 | 11/02/2011 11:09:37
RAM: Size = 65536 Kbytes
DRAM POST: Testing: 65536K
OK
DRAM Test SUCCESS !
ZyNOS Version: MES3500-24_4.00(AABB.0)b1 | 11/04/2011 17:32:28
Press any key to enter debug mode within 3 seconds.
............................................................
Enter Debug Mode
ras> atlc
Starting XMODEM upload (CRC mode)....
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
Total 393216 bytes received.
Erasing..
................................................................
OK
ras> atgo
The Switch is now reinitialized with a default configuration file including the default password of
“1234”.
4.7 Logging Out of the Web Configurator
Click Logout in a screen to exit the web configurator. You have to log in with your password again
after you log out. This is recommended after you finish a management session for security reasons.
Figure 23 Web Configurator: Logout Screen
4.8 Help
The web configurator’s online help has descriptions of individual screens and some supplementary
information.
Click the Help link from a web configurator screen to view an online help description of that screen.
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Initial Setup Example
This chapter shows how to set up the Switch for an example network.
5.1 Overview
The following lists the configuration steps for the initial setup:
• Create a VLAN
• Set port VLAN ID
• Configure the Switch IP management address
5.1.1 Creating a VLAN
VLANs confine broadcast frames to the VLAN group in which the port(s) belongs. You can do this
with port-based VLAN or tagged static VLAN with fixed port members.
In this example, you want to configure port 1 as a member of VLAN 2.
Figure 24 Initial Setup Network Example: VLAN
1
Click Advanced Application > VLAN in the navigation panel and click the Static VLAN link.
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2
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE,
enter a descriptive name in the Name field
and enter 2 in the VLAN Group ID field for
the VLAN2 network.
Note: The VLAN Group ID field in this screen and the VID field in the IP Setup screen
refer to the same VLAN ID.
3
Since the VLAN2 network is connected to port 1 on the Switch, select Fixed to configure port 1 to
be a permanent member of the VLAN only.
4
To ensure that VLAN-unaware devices (such as computers and hubs) can receive frames properly,
clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending.
5
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
5.1.2 Setting Port VID
Use PVID to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that port so that the frames are
forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
In the example network, configure 2 as the port VID on port 1 so that any untagged frames
received on that port get sent to VLAN 2.
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Figure 25 Initial Setup Network Example: Port VID
1
Click Advanced Applications >
VLAN in the navigation panel. Then
click the VLAN Port Setting link.
2
Enter 2 in the PVID field for port 1
and click Apply to save your changes
back to the run-time memory.
Settings in the run-time memory are
lost when the Switch’s power is
turned off.
5.2 Configuring Switch
Management IP Address
The default management IP address of the Switch is 192.168.1.1. You can configure another IP
address in a different subnet for management purposes. The following figure shows an example.
Figure 26 Initial Setup Example: Management IP Address
1
Connect your computer to the Switch’s port which is not in VLAN 2.
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2
Open your web browser and enter 192.168.1.1 (the default management IP address) in the address
bar to access the web configurator. See Section 4.2 on page 33 for more information.
3
Click Basic Setting > IP Setup in the
navigation panel.
4
Configure the related fields in the IP
Setup screen.
5
For the VLAN2 network, enter
192.168.2.1 as the IP address and
255.255.255.0 as the subnet mask.
6
In the VID field, enter the ID of the VLAN
group to which you want this
management IP address to belong. This is
the same as the VLAN ID you configure in
the Static VLAN screen.
7
Click Add to save your changes back to
the run-time memory. Settings in the
run-time memory are lost when the
Switch’s power is turned off.
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Tutorials
This chapter provides some examples of using the web configurator to set up and use the Switch.
The tutorials include:
• How to Use DHCP Snooping on the Switch
• How to Use DHCP Relay on the Switch
• How to Use PPPoE IA on the Switch
• How to Use Error Disable and Recovery on the Switch
• How to Set Up a Guest VLAN
• How to Do Port Isolation in a VLAN
6.1 How to Use DHCP Snooping on the Switch
You only want DHCP server A connected to port 5 to assign IP addresses to all devices in VLAN 100.
Create a VLAN containing ports 5, 6 and 7. Connect a computer (M) to the Switch’s port which is
not in VLAN 100.
M
VLAN 100
C
B
A
Note: For related information about DHCP snooping, see Section 26.1 on page 200.
The settings in this tutorial are as the following.
Table 6 Settings in this Tutorial
1
HOST
PORT
CONNECTED
VLAN
PVID
DHCP SNOOPING PORT
TRUSTED
DHCP Server (A)
5
1 and 100
100
Yes
DHCP Client (B)
6
1 and 100
100
No
DHCP Client (C)
7
1 and 100
100
No
Access the Switch through http://192.168.1.1. Log into the Switch by entering the username
(default: admin) and password (default: 1234).
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2
Go to Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN, and create a VLAN with ID of 100. Add
ports 5, 6 and 7 in the VLAN by selecting Fixed in the Control field as shown.
Deselect Tx Tagging because you don’t want outgoing traffic to contain this VLAN tag.
Click Add.
3
Go to Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting, and set the PVID of the ports 5, 6
and 7 to 100. This tags untagged incoming frames on ports 5, 6 and 7 with the tag 100.
4
Go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP snooping > Configure, activate and
specify VLAN 100 as the DHCP VLAN as shown. Click Apply.
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5
Click the Port link at the top right corner.
6
The DHCP Snooping Port Configure screen appears.
Select Trusted in the Server Trusted state field for port 5 because the DHCP server is connected
to port 5. Keep ports 6 and 7 Untrusted because they are connected to DHCP clients. Click Apply.
7
Go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP snooping > Configure > VLAN,
show VLAN 100 by entering 100 in the Start VID and End VID fields and click Apply. Then select
Yes in the Enabled field of the VLAN 100 entry shown at the bottom section of the screen.
If you want to add more information in the DHCP request packets such as source VLAN ID or
system name, you can also select the Option82 and Information fields in the entry. See Section
26.1.1.3 on page 202.
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8
Click Save at the top right corner of the web configurator to save
the configuration permanently.
9
Connect your DHCP server to port 5 and a computer (as DHCP client) to either port 6 or 7. The
computer should be able to get an IP address from the DHCP server. If you put the DHCP server on
port 6 or 7, the computer will not able to get an IP address.
10 To check if DHCP snooping works, go to Advanced Application > IP Source Guard, you should
see an IP assignment with the type dhcp-snooping as shown.
You can also telnet or log into the Switch’s console. Use the command “show dhcp snooping
binding” to see the DHCP snooping binding table as shown next.
sysname# show dhcp snooping binding
MacAddress
IpAddress
----------------- --------------00:02:00:00:00:1c
10.10.1.16
Total number of bindings: 1
Lease
-----------6d23h59m20s
Type
------------dhcp-snooping
VLAN
---100
Port
----7
6.2 How to Use DHCP Relay on the Switch
This tutorial describes how to configure your Switch to forward DHCP client requests to a specific
DHCP server. The DHCP server can then assign a specific IP address based on the information in the
DHCP requests.
6.2.1 DHCP Relay Tutorial Introduction
In this example, you have configured your DHCP server (192.168.2.3) and want to have it assign a
specific IP address (say 172.16.1.18) and gateway information to DHCP client A based on the
system name, VLAN ID and port number in the DHCP request. Client A connects to the Switch’s
port 2 in VLAN 102.
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DHCP Server
192.168.2.3
Port 2
PVID=102
A
VLAN 102
172.16.1.18
6.2.2 Creating a VLAN
Follow the steps below to configure port 2 as a member of VLAN 102.
1
Access the web configurator through the Switch’s port which is not in VLAN 102.
2
Go to Basic Setting > Switch Setup and set the VLAN type to 802.1Q. Click Apply to save the
settings to the run-time memory.
3
Click Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN.
4
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a descriptive name (VALN 102 for example) in
the Name field and enter 102 in the VLAN Group ID field.
5
Select Fixed to configure port 2 to be a permanent member of this VLAN.
6
Clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending.
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7
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
8
Click the VLAN Status link in the Static VLAN screen and then the VLAN Port Setting link in the
VLAN Status screen.
9
Enter 102 in the PVID field for port 2 to add a tag to incoming untagged frames received on that
port so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
10 Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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11 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
6.2.3 Configuring DHCP Relay
Follow the steps below to enable DHCP relay on the Switch and allow the Switch to add relay agent
information (such as the VLAN ID) to DHCP requests.
1
Click IP Application > DHCP and then the Global link to open the DHCP Relay screen.
2
Select the Active check box.
3
Enter the DHCP server’s IP address (192.168.2.3 in this example) in the Remote DHCP Server 1
field.
4
Select the Option 82 and the Information check boxes.
5
Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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6
Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
7
The DHCP server can then assign a specific IP address based on the DHCP request.
6.2.4 Troubleshooting
Check the client A’s IP address. If it did not receive the IP address 172.16.1.18, make sure:
1
Client A is connected to the Switch’s port 2 in VLAN 102.
2
You configured the correct VLAN ID, port number and system name for DHCP relay on both the
DHCP server and the Switch.
3
You clicked the Save link on the Switch to have your settings take effect.
6.3 How to Use PPPoE IA on the Switch
You want to configure PPPoE Intermediate Agent on the Switch (A) to pass a subscriber’s
information to a PPPoE server (S). There is another switch (B) between switch A and server S.
Switch B is connected to switch A. In this way, PPPoE server S can identify subscriber C and may
apply different settings to it.
B
S
Port 12 - Trusted
A
Port 11 - Trusted
C
Port 12 - Trusted
Port 5 - Untrusted
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Note: For related information about PPPoE IA, see Section 31.3 on page 235.
The settings in this tutorial are as follows:
Table 7 Settings in this Tutorial
SWITCH PORT CONNECTED
VLAN
CIRCUIT-ID
REMOTE-ID
PPPOE IA PORT TRUSTED
A
Port 5 (to C)
1
userC
00134900000A
Untrusted
Port 12 (to B)
1
N/A
N/A
Trusted
Port 11 (to A)
1
N/A
N/A
Trusted
Port 12 (to S)
1
N/A
N/A
Trusted
B
6.3.1 Configuring Switch A
1
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent. Select Active then click Apply.
Click Port on the top of the screen.
2
Select Untrusted for port 5 and enter userC as Circuit-id and 00134900000A as Remote-id.
Select Trusted for port 12 and then leave the other fields empty. Click Apply.
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Then Click Intermediate Agent on the top of the screen.
3
The Intermediate Agent screen appears. Click VLAN on the top of the screen.
4
Enter 1 for both Start VID and End VID since both the Switch and PPPoE server are in VLAN 1 in
this example. Click Apply.
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5
Then select Yes to enable PPPoE IA in VLAN 1 and also select Circuit-id and Remote-id to allow
the Switch to add these two strings to frames tagged with VLAN 1 and pass to the PPPoE server.
Click Apply.
6.3.2 Configuring Switch B
The example uses another MES3500-24/24F as switch B.
1
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent. Select Active then click Apply.
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Click Port on the top of the screen.
2
Select Trusted for ports 11 and 12 and then click Apply.
Then Click Intermediate Agent on the top of the screen.
3
The Intermediate Agent screen appears. Click VLAN on the top of the screen.
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4
Enter 1 for both Start VID and End VID. Click Apply.
5
Then select Yes to enable PPPoE IA in VLAN 1 and also select Circuit-id and Remote-id to allow
the Switch to add these two strings to frames tagged with VLAN 1 and pass to the PPPoE server.
Click Apply.
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The settings are completed now. If you miss some settings above, subscriber C could not
successfully receive an IP address assigned by the PPPoE Server. If this happens, make sure you
follow the steps exactly in this tutorial.
6.4 How to Use Error Disable and Recovery on the Switch
This tutorial shows you how to shut down a port when:
• there is a loop occurred
or
• too many ARP requests (over 100 packets per second) received on a port
You also want the Switch to wait for a period of time (10 minutes) before resuming the port
automatically, after the problem(s) are gone. Loop guard and Errdiable features are helpful for this
demand.
Note: Refer to Section 27.2 on page 221 and Section 32.3 on page 241 for more
information about Loop Guard and Errdiable.
To configure the settings:
1
First, click Advanced Application > Loop Guard. Select the Active option in the first section to
enable loop guard on the Switch. Then select the Active option of the first entry (port *) to enable
loop guard for all ports. Click Apply.
2
Click Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU Protection, select ARP as the reason, enter
100 as the rate limit (packets per second) for the first entry (port *) to apply the setting to all
ports. Then click Apply.
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3
Click Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect, select Active for cause ARP
and inactive-port as the mode. Then click Apply.
4
Click Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Recovery, select Active and Timer
Status for loopguard and ARP entries. Also enter 180 (180 seconds = 3 minutes) in the Interval
field for both entries. Then click Apply.
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6.5 How to Set Up a Guest VLAN
All ports on the Switch are in VLAN 1 by default. Say you enable IEEE 802.1x authentication on
ports 1 to 8. Clients that connect to these ports should provide the correct user name and password
in order to access the ports. You want to assign clients that connect to ports 1, 2 or 3 to a guest
VLAN (200 for example) before they can authenticate with the authentication server. In this guest
VLAN, clients can surf the Internet through the default gateway attached to port 10, but are not
allowed to access other network resources, such as the mail server or local data base.
VLAN 1
Guest VLAN 200
Ports 1, 2, 3 and 10
Internet
6.5.1 Creating a Guest VLAN
Follow the steps below to configure port 1, 2, 3 and 10 as a member of VLAN 200.
1
Access the web configurator through the Switch’s port which is not in VLAN 200.
2
Go to Basic Setting > Switch Setup and set the VLAN type to 802.1Q. Click Apply to save the
settings to the run-time memory.
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3
Click Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN.
4
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a descriptive name (VLAN 200 for example) in
the Name field and enter 200 in the VLAN Group ID field.
5
Select Fixed to configure ports 1, 2, 3 and 10 to be permanent members of this VLAN.
6
Clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending frames out
of these ports.
7
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
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8
Click the VLAN Status link in the Static VLAN screen and then the VLAN Port Setting link in the
VLAN Status screen.
9
Enter 200 in the PVID field for ports 1, 2, 3 and 10 to add a tag to incoming untagged frames
received on these ports so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
10 Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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11 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
6.5.2 Enabling IEEE 802.1x Port Authentication
Follow the steps below to enable port authentication to validate access to ports 1~8 to clients based
on a RADIUS server.
1
Click Advanced Application > Port Authentication and then the Click Here link for 802.1x.
2
Select the first Active checkbox to enable 802.1x authentication on the Switch.
Select the Active checkboxes for ports 1 to 8 to turn on 802.1x authentication on the selected
ports.
Click Apply.
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6.5.3 Enabling Guest VLAN
1
Click the Guest Vlan link in the 802.1x screen.
2
Select Active and enter the guest VLAN ID (200 in this example) on ports 1, 2 and 3. The Switch
puts unauthenticated clients in the specified guest VLAN.
Set Host-mode to Multi-Secure to have the Switch authenticate each client that connects to one
of these ports, and specify the maximum number of clients that the Switch will authenticate on
each of these port (5 in this example).
Click Apply.
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3
Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
Clients that attach to port 1, 2 or 3 and fail to authenticate with the RADIUS server now should be
in VLAN 200 and can access the Internet, but cannot communicate with devices in VLAN 1.
6.6 How to Do Port Isolation in a VLAN
You want to prevent communications between ports in a VLAN but still allow them to access the
Internet or network resources through the uplink port in the same VLAN. You use private VLAN to
do port isolation in a VLAN instead of assigning each port to a separate VLAN and creating a
different IP routing domain for each individual port.
Internet
In this example, you put ports 2 to 4 and 25 in VLAN 123 and create a private VLAN rule for VLAN
123 to block traffic between ports 2, 3 and 4.
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6.6.1 Creating a VLAN
Follow the steps below to configure port 2, 3, 4 and 25 as a member of VLAN 123.
1
Access the web configurator through the Switch’s port which is not in VLAN 123.
2
Go to Basic Setting > Switch Setup and set the VLAN type to 802.1Q. Click Apply to save the
settings to the run-time memory.
3
Click Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN.
4
In the Static VLAN screen, select ACTIVE, enter a descriptive name (VLAN 123 for example) in
the Name field and enter 123 in the VLAN Group ID field.
5
Select Fixed to configure ports 2, 3, 4 and 25 to be permanent members of this VLAN.
6
Clear the TX Tagging check box to set the Switch to remove VLAN tags before sending frames out
of these ports.
7
Click Add to save the settings to the run-time memory. Settings in the run-time memory are lost
when the Switch’s power is turned off.
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8
Click the VLAN Status link in the Static VLAN screen and then the VLAN Port Setting link in the
VLAN Status screen.
9
Enter 123 in the PVID field for ports 2, 3, 4 and 25 to add a tag to incoming untagged frames
received on these ports so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
10 Click Apply to save your changes back to the run-time memory.
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11 Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
6.6.2 Creating a Private VLAN Rule
Follow the steps below to configure private VLAN for VLAN 123.
1
Click Advanced Application > Private VLAN.
2
In the Private VLAN screen, select Active.
Enter a descriptive name (PrivateVLAN123 for example) in the Name field and enter 123 in the
VLAN ID field.
Click Add.
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3
Click the Save link in the upper right corner of the web configurator to save your configuration
permanently.
Ports 2, 3 and 4 in this VLAN will be added to the isolated port list automatically and cannot send
traffic to each other.
From port 2, 3, or 4, you should be able to access the device that attachs to port 25, such as a
server or default gateway.
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7
System Status and Port Statistics
This chapter describes the system status (web configurator home page) and port details screens.
7.1 Overview
The home screen of the web configurator displays a port statistical summary with links to each port
showing statistical details.
7.2 Port Status Summary
To view the port statistics, click Status in all web configurator screens to display the Status screen
as shown next.
Figure 27 Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This identifies the Ethernet port. Click a port number to display the Port Details screen
(refer to Figure 28 on page 73).
Name
This is the name you assigned to this port in the Basic Setting > Port Setup screen.
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Table 8 Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M for
1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half). It also shows the cable type
(Copper or Fiber) for the combo ports.
This field displays Down if the port is not connected to any device.
State
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port (see
Section 13.1 on page 110 for more information).
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it displays
STOP.
LACP
This fields displays whether LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) has been enabled on
the port.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port.
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port.
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time
This field shows the total amount of time in hours, minutes and seconds the port has been
up.
Clear Counter
Enter a port number and then click Clear Counter to erase the recorded statistical
information for that port, or select Any to clear statistics for all ports.
7.2.1 Status: Port Details
Click a number in the Port column in the Status screen to display individual port statistics. Use this
screen to check status and detailed performance data about an individual port on the Switch.
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Figure 28 Status > Port Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9 Status: Port Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Info
Port NO.
This field displays the port number you are viewing.
Name
This field displays the name of the port.
Link
This field displays the speed (either 10M for 10Mbps, 100M for 100Mbps or 1000M for
1000Mbps) and the duplex (F for full duplex or H for half duplex). It also shows the cable
type (Copper or Fiber).
This field displays Down if the port is not connected to any device.
Status
If STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) is enabled, this field displays the STP state of the port (see
Section 13.1 on page 110 for more information).
If STP is disabled, this field displays FORWARDING if the link is up, otherwise, it displays
STOP.
LACP
This field shows if LACP is enabled on this port or not.
TxPkts
This field shows the number of transmitted frames on this port
RxPkts
This field shows the number of received frames on this port
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Table 9 Status: Port Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Errors
This field shows the number of received errors on this port.
Tx KB/s
This field shows the number kilobytes per second transmitted on this port.
Rx KB/s
This field shows the number of kilobytes per second received on this port.
Up Time
This field shows the total amount of time the connection has been up.
Tx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets transmitted.
Unicast
This field shows the number of good unicast packets transmitted.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets transmitted.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets transmitted.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets transmitted.
Rx Packet
The following fields display detailed information about packets received.
Unicast
This field shows the number of good unicast packets received.
Multicast
This field shows the number of good multicast packets received.
Broadcast
This field shows the number of good broadcast packets received.
Pause
This field shows the number of 802.3x Pause packets received.
TX Collision
The following fields display information on collisions while transmitting.
Single
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission is inhibited by
exactly one collision.
Multiple
This is a count of successfully transmitted packets for which transmission was inhibited by
more than one collision.
Excessive
This is a count of packets for which transmission failed due to excessive collisions. Excessive
collision is defined as the number of maximum collisions before the retransmission count is
reset.
Late
This is the number of times a late collision is detected, that is, after 512 bits of the packets
have already been transmitted.
Error Packet
RX CRC
The following fields display detailed information about packets received that were in error.
This field shows the number of packets received with CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check) error(s).
Length
This field shows the number of packets received with a length that was out of range.
Runt
This field shows the number of packets received that were too short (shorter than 64 octets),
including the ones with CRC errors.
Distribution
64
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64 octets
in length.
65-127
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
65 and 127 octets in length.
128-255
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
128 and 255 octets in length.
256-511
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
256 and 511 octets in length.
512-1023
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
512 and 1023 octets in length.
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Table 9 Status: Port Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
1024-1518
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
1024 and 1518 octets in length.
Giant
This field shows the number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between
1519 octets and the maximum frame size.
The maximum frame size varies depending on your switch model.
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Basic Setting
This chapter describes how to configure the System Info, General Setup, Switch Setup, IP
Setup and Port Setup screens.
8.1 Overview
The System Info screen displays general Switch information (such as firmware version number)
and hardware polling information (such as temperatures). The General Setup screen allows you to
configure general Switch identification information. The General Setup screen also allows you to
set the system time manually or get the current time and date from an external server when you
turn on your Switch. The real time is then displayed in the Switch logs. The Switch Setup screen
allows you to set up and configure global Switch features. The IP Setup screen allows you to
configure a Switch IP address in each routing domain, subnet mask(s) and DNS (domain name
server) for management purposes. The Port Setup screen allows you to enable or disable a port on
the Switch and configure the port settings, such as the speed and duplex mode.
8.2 System Information
In the navigation panel, click Basic Setting > System Info to display the screen as shown. You
can check the firmware version number and monitor the Switch temperature and voltage in this
screen.
Figure 29 Basic Setting > System Info
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 Basic Setting > System Info
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the Switch for identification purposes.
Product Model
This field displays the model number of the Switch.
ZyNOS F/W
Version
This field displays the version number of the Switch 's current firmware including the date
created.
Ethernet
Address
This field refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) address of the Switch.
Hardware Monitor
Temperature
Unit
The Switch has temperature sensors that are capable of detecting and reporting if the
temperature rises above the threshold. You may choose the temperature unit (Centigrade or
Fahrenheit) in this field.
Temperature
BOARD, MAC and PHY refer to the location of the temperature sensors on the Switch
printed circuit board.
Current
This shows the current temperature at this sensor.
MAX
This field displays the maximum temperature measured at this sensor.
MIN
This field displays the minimum temperature measured at this sensor.
Threshold
This field displays the upper temperature limit at this sensor.
Status
This field displays Normal for temperatures below the threshold and Error for those above.
Voltage(V)
The power supply for each voltage has a sensor that is capable of detecting and reporting if
the voltage falls out of the tolerance range.
Current
This is the current voltage reading.
MAX
This field displays the maximum voltage measured at this point.
MIN
This field displays the minimum voltage measured at this point.
Threshold
This field displays the percentage tolerance of the voltage with which the Switch still works.
Status
Normal indicates that the voltage is within an acceptable operating range at this point;
otherwise Error is displayed.
8.3 General Setup
Use this screen to configure general settings such as the system name and time. Click Basic
Setting > General Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 30 Basic Setting > General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 Basic Setting > General Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name consists of up to 64
printable characters; spaces are allowed.
Location
Enter the geographic location of your Switch. You can use up to 32 printable ASCII
characters; spaces are allowed.
Contact Person's
Name
Enter the name of the person in charge of this Switch. You can use up to 32 printable
ASCII characters; spaces are allowed.
Use Time Server
when Bootup
Enter the time service protocol that your timeserver uses. Not all time servers support all
protocols, so you may have to use trial and error to find a protocol that works. The main
differences between them are the time format.
When you select the Daytime (RFC 867) format, the Switch displays the day, month,
year and time with no time zone adjustment. When you use this format it is recommended
that you use a Daytime timeserver within your geographical time zone.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of seconds
since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
None is the default value. Enter the time manually. Each time you turn on the Switch, the
time and date will be reset to 1970-1-1 0:0.
Time Server
Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your timeserver. You can enter up to three time
server addresses. The Switch tries to synchronize with the first server. If the
synchronization fails, then the Switch goes through the rest of the list in order.
The Switch attempts to connect to the timeserver for up to 60 seconds. If you specify a
timeserver that is unreachable, then this screen will appear locked for 60 seconds. Please
wait.
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Table 11 Basic Setting > General Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Time
This field displays the time you open this menu (or refresh the menu).
New Time
(hh:min:ss)
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format. The new time then appears in the
Current Time field after you click Apply.
Current Date
This field displays the date you open this menu.
New Date (yyyymm-dd)
Enter the new date in year, month and day format. The new date then appears in the
Current Date field after you click Apply.
Time Zone
Select the time difference between UTC (Universal Time Coordinated, formerly known as
GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and your time zone from the drop-down list box.
Daylight Saving
Time
Daylight saving is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries set their
clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.
Select this option if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected Daylight
Saving Time. The time is displayed in the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second Sunday of
March. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M.
local time. So in the United States you would select Second, Sunday, March and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March. All of the
time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at the same moment
(1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, March
and the last field depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select
2:00 because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected Daylight
Saving Time. The time field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of November. Each
time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in
the United States you would select First, Sunday, November and 2:00.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of October. All of the
time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1
A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, October
and the last field depends on your time zone. In Germany for instance, you would select
2:00 because Germany's time zone is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.4 Introduction to VLANs
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple logical
networks. Devices on a logical network belong to one group. A device can belong to more than one
group. With VLAN, a device cannot directly talk to or hear from devices that are not in the same
group(s); the traffic must first go through a router.
In MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) applications, VLAN is vital in providing isolation and security among the
subscribers. When properly configured, VLAN prevents one subscriber from accessing the network
resources of another on the same LAN, thus a user will not see the printers and hard disks of
another user in the same building.
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VLAN also increases network performance by limiting broadcasts to a smaller and more
manageable logical broadcast domain. In traditional switched environments, all broadcast packets
go to each and every individual port. With VLAN, all broadcasts are confined to a specific broadcast
domain.
Note: VLAN is unidirectional; it only governs outgoing traffic.
See Chapter 9 on page 87 for information on port-based and 802.1Q tagged VLANs.
8.4.1 Smart Isolation
To block traffic between two specific ports within the Switch, you can use port isolation or private
VLAN (see Chapter 33 on page 245 for more information). However, it does not work across
multiple switches. For example, broadcast traffic from isolated ports on a switch (say B) can be
forwarded to all ports on other switches (A and C), including the isolated ports.
A
B
Isolated ports: 2~6
Root port: 7
Designated port: 8
C
Smart isolation allows you to prevent isolated ports on different switches from transmitting traffic
to each other. After you enable RSTP/MRSTP and smart isolation on the Switch, the designated
port(s) will be added to the isolated port list. In the following example, switch A is the root bridge.
Switch B’s root port 7 connects to switch A and switch B’s designated port 8 connects to switch C.
Traffic from isolated ports on switch B can only be sent through non-isolated port 1 or root port 7 to
switch A. This prevents isolated ports on switch B sending traffic through designated port 8 to
switch C. Traffic received on designated port 8 from switch C will not be forwarded to any other
isolated ports on switch B.
A
B
Before Smart Isolation:
Isolated ports: 2~6
Root port: 7
Designated port: 8
After Smart Isolation:
Isolated ports: 2~6, 8
Root port: 7
Designated port: 8
C
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You should enable RSTP or MRSTP before you can use smart isolation on the Switch. If the network
topology changes, the Switch automatically updates the isolated port list with the latest designated
port information.
Note: The uplink port connected to the Internet should be the root port. Otherwise, with
smart isolation enabled, the isolated ports cannot access the Internet.
8.5 Switch Setup
Click Basic Setting > Switch Setup in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown. The
VLAN setup screens change depending on whether you choose 802.1Q or Port Based in the VLAN
Type field in this screen. Refer to the chapter on VLAN.
Figure 31 Basic Setting > Switch Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Basic Setting > Switch Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Choose 802.1Q or Port Based. The VLAN Setup screen changes depending on whether
you choose 802.1Q VLAN type or Port Based VLAN type in this screen. See Chapter 9 on
page 87 for more information.
Smart Isolation
Select Active to enable smart isolation on the Switch. The designated port(s) then
becomes the isolated port. Smart isolation allows you to prevent isolated ports on
different switches from transmitting traffic to each other.
Note: To use smart isolation, you should have configured 802.1Q VLAN port isolation or
private VLAN and (M)RSTP on the Switch. Smart isolation does not work with MSTP
and/or port-based VLAN.
MAC Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing traffic broadcasts. For MAC address learning to
occur on a port, the port must be active.
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Table 12 Basic Setting > Switch Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Aging Time
Enter a time from 10 to 3000 seconds. This is how long all dynamically learned MAC
addresses remain in the MAC address table before they age out (and must be relearned).
GARP Timer: Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join message
using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All message terminates all
registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values. See the chapter on VLAN setup for more
background information.
Join Timer
Join Timer sets the duration of the Join Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each port
has a Join Period timer. The allowed Join Time range is between 100 and 65535
milliseconds; the default is 200 milliseconds. See the chapter on VLAN setup for more
background information.
Leave Timer
Leave Time sets the duration of the Leave Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds. Each
port has a single Leave Period timer. Leave Time must be two times larger than Join
Timer; the default is 600 milliseconds.
Leave All Timer
Leave All Timer sets the duration of the Leave All Period timer for GVRP in milliseconds.
Each port has a single Leave All Period timer. Leave All Timer must be larger than Leave
Timer.
Priority Queue Assignment
IEEE 802.1p defines up to eight separate traffic types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame that contains
bits to define class of service. Frames without an explicit priority tag are given the default priority of the
ingress port. Use the next fields to configure the priority level-to-physical queue mapping.
The Switch has eight physical queues that you can map to the 8 priority levels. On the Switch, traffic assigned
to higher index queues gets through faster while traffic in lower index queues is dropped if the network is
congested.
Priority Level (The following descriptions are based on the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d standard
(which incorporates the 802.1p).
Level 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration messages.
Level 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the variations in
delay).
Level 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to jitter.
Level 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA (Systems Network
Architecture) transactions.
Level 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would include important
business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Level 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk transfers that are
allowed but that should not affect other applications and users.
Level 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields.
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8.6 IP Setup
Use the IP Setup screen to configure the Switch IP address, default gateway device, the default
domain name server and the management VLAN ID. The default gateway specifies the IP address of
the default gateway (next hop) for outgoing traffic.
8.6.1 Management IP Addresses
The Switch needs an IP address for it to be managed over the network. The factory default in-band
IP address is 192.168.1.1. The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address.
The factory default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
You can configure up to 64 IP addresses which are used to access and manage the Switch from the
ports belonging to the pre-defined VLAN(s).
Note: You must configure a VLAN first.
Figure 32 Basic Setting > IP Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 Basic Setting > IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Domain Name
Server
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP
address and vice versa. Enter a domain name server IP address in order to be able to
use a domain name instead of an IP address.
Default Management IP Address
DHCP Client
Select this option if you have a DHCP server that can assign the Switch an IP address,
subnet mask, a default gateway IP address and a domain name server IP address
automatically.
Static IP Address
Select this option if you don’t have a DHCP server or if you wish to assign static IP
address information to the Switch. You need to fill in the following fields when you
select this option.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
192.168.1.1.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask of your Switch in dotted decimal notation for example
255.255.255.0.
Default Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation, for
example 192.168.1.254.
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number associated with the Switch IP address. This is the
VLAN ID of the CPU and is used for management only. The default is "1". All ports, by
default, are fixed members of this "management VLAN" in order to manage the device
from any port. If a port is not a member of this VLAN, then users on that port cannot
access the device. To access the Switch make sure the port that you are connected to is
a member of Management VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring the fields again.
Management IP Addresses
You can create up to 64 IP addresses, which are used to access and manage the Switch from the ports
belonging to the pre-defined VLAN(s). You must configure a VLAN first.
IP Address
Enter the IP address for managing the Switch by the members of the VLAN specified in
the VID field below.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
VID
Type the VLAN group identification number.
Default Gateway
Enter the IP address of the default outgoing gateway in dotted decimal notation.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry to the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses
power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the
non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Default Gateway
This field displays the IP address of the default gateway.
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Table 13 Basic Setting > IP Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Check the management IP addresses that you want to remove in the Delete column,
then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected check boxes in the Delete column.
8.7 Port Setup
Use this screen to configure Switch port settings. Click Basic Setting > Port Setup in the
navigation panel to display the configuration screen.
Figure 33 Basic Setting > Port Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Basic Setting > Port Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the port index number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable a port. The factory default for all ports is enabled. A port must
be enabled for data transmission to occur.
Name
Enter a descriptive name that identifies this port. You can enter up to 64 alpha-numerical
characters.
Note: Due to space limitation, the port name may be truncated in some web configurator
screens.
Type
This field displays 10/100M for Fast Ethernet connections and 10/100/1000M for Gigabit
connections.
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Table 14 Basic Setting > Port Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Speed/Duplex
Select the speed and the duplex mode of the Ethernet connection on this port. Choices are
Auto, 10M/Half Duplex, 10M/Full Duplex, 100M/Half Duplex, 100M/Full Duplex and
1000M/Full Duplex (Gigabit connections only).
Selecting Auto (auto-negotiation) allows one port to negotiate with a peer port automatically
to obtain the connection speed and duplex mode that both ends support. When autonegotiation is turned on, a port on the Switch negotiates with the peer automatically to
determine the connection speed and duplex mode. If the peer port does not support autonegotiation or turns off this feature, the Switch determines the connection speed by
detecting the signal on the cable and using half duplex mode. When the Switch’s autonegotiation is turned off, a port uses the pre-configured speed and duplex mode when
making a connection, thus requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer port are
the same in order to connect.
Flow Control
A concentration of traffic on a port decreases port bandwidth and overflows buffer memory
causing packet discards and frame losses. Flow Control is used to regulate transmission of
signals to match the bandwidth of the receiving port.
The Switch uses IEEE802.3x flow control in full duplex mode and backpressure flow control in
half duplex mode.
IEEE802.3x flow control is used in full duplex mode to send a pause signal to the sending
port, causing it to temporarily stop sending signals when the receiving port memory buffers
fill.
Back Pressure flow control is typically used in half duplex mode to send a "collision" signal to
the sending port (mimicking a state of packet collision) causing the sending port to
temporarily stop sending signals and resend later. Select Flow Control to enable it.
802.1p
Priority
This priority value is added to incoming frames without a (802.1p) priority queue tag. See
Priority Queue Assignment in Table 12 on page 81 for more information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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VLAN
The type of screen you see here depends on the VLAN Type you selected in the Switch Setup
screen. This chapter shows you how to configure 802.1Q tagged and port-based VLANs. 9.1 Introduction to IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLANs
A tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the VLAN membership
of a frame across bridges - they are not confined to the switch on which they were created. The
VLANs can be created statically by hand or dynamically through GVRP. The VLAN ID associates a
frame with a specific VLAN and provides the information that switches need to process the frame
across the network. A tagged frame is four bytes longer than an untagged frame and contains two
bytes for the TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier, residing within the type/length field of the Ethernet
frame) and two bytes for the TCI (Tag Control Information, starting after the source address field of
the Ethernet frame).
The CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) is a single-bit flag, always set to zero for Ethernet switches. If
a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be forwarded as
it is to an untagged port. The remaining twelve bits define the VLAN ID, giving a possible maximum
number of 4,096 VLANs. Note that user priority and VLAN ID are independent of each other. A
frame with VID (VLAN Identifier) of null (0) is called a priority frame, meaning that only the priority
level is significant and the default VID of the ingress port is given as the VID of the frame. Of the
4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to identify priority frames and the value 4095 (FFF) is
reserved, so the maximum possible number of VLAN configurations is 4,094.
TPID
User Priority
CFI
VLAN ID
2 Bytes
3 Bits
1 Bit
12 bits
9.1.1 Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames
Each port on the Switch is capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To forward a frame from
an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware switch, the Switch first decides where
to forward the frame and then strips off the VLAN tag. To forward a frame from an 802.1Q VLANunaware switch to an 802.1Q VLAN-aware switch, the Switch first decides where to forward the
frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port's default VID. The default PVID is
VLAN 1 for all ports, but this can be changed.
A broadcast frame (or a multicast frame for a multicast group that is known by the system) is
duplicated only on ports that are members of the VID (except the ingress port itself), thus confining
the broadcast to a specific domain.
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9.2 Automatic VLAN Registration
GARP and GVRP are the protocols used to automatically register VLAN membership across switches.
9.2.1 GARP
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) allows network switches to register and de-register
attribute values with other GARP participants within a bridged LAN. GARP is a protocol that provides
a generic mechanism for protocols that serve a more specific application, for example, GVRP.
9.2.1.1 GARP Timers
Switches join VLANs by making a declaration. A declaration is made by issuing a Join message
using GARP. Declarations are withdrawn by issuing a Leave message. A Leave All message
terminates all registrations. GARP timers set declaration timeout values.
9.2.2 GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for switches to
register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network. Enable this function to permit VLAN
groups beyond the local Switch.
Please refer to the following table for common IEEE 802.1Q VLAN terminology.
Table 15 IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Terminology
VLAN PARAMETER TERM
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Type
Permanent VLAN
This is a static VLAN created manually.
Dynamic VLAN
This is a VLAN configured by a GVRP registration/deregistration
process.
Registration Fixed
Fixed registration ports are permanent VLAN members.
Registration
Forbidden
Ports with registration forbidden are forbidden to join the
specified VLAN.
Normal Registration
Ports dynamically join a VLAN using GVRP.
Tagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN tag all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Untagged
Ports belonging to the specified VLAN don't tag all outgoing
frames transmitted.
Port VID
This is the VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames that this port
received.
Acceptable Frame
Type
You may choose to accept both tagged and untagged incoming
frames, just tagged incoming frames or just untagged incoming
frames on a port.
Ingress filtering
If set, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs that do not
have this port as a member.
VLAN Administrative
Control
VLAN Tag Control
VLAN Port
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9.3 Port VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on a port to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to pass
through that port. This is useful if you want to set up VLAN groups on end devices without having to
configure the same VLAN groups on intermediary devices.
The following figure describes VLAN Trunking. Suppose you want to create VLAN groups 1 and 2
(V1 and V2) on devices A and B. Without VLAN Trunking, you must configure VLAN groups 1 and
2 on all intermediary switches C, D and E; otherwise they will drop frames with unknown VLAN
group tags. However, with VLAN Trunking enabled on a port(s) in each intermediary switch you
only need to create VLAN groups in the end devices (A and B). C, D and E automatically allow
frames with VLAN group tags 1 and 2 (VLAN groups that are unknown to those switches) to pass
through their VLAN trunking port(s).
Figure 34 Port VLAN Trunking
9.4 Select the VLAN Type
Select a VLAN type in the Basic Setting > Switch Setup screen.
Figure 35 Switch Setup: Select VLAN Type
9.5 Static VLAN
Use a static VLAN to decide whether an incoming frame on a port should be
• sent to a VLAN group as normal depending on its VLAN tag.
• sent to a group whether it has a VLAN tag or not.
• blocked from a VLAN group regardless of its VLAN tag.
You can also tag all outgoing frames (that were previously untagged) from a port with the specified
VID.
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9.5.1 VLAN Status
See Section 9.1 on page 87 for more information on Static VLAN. Click Advanced Application >
VLAN from the navigation panel to display the VLAN Status screen as shown next.
Figure 36 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Advanced Application > VLAN: VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Search
by VID
Enter an existing VLAN ID number(s) (separated by a comma) and click Search to display
only the specified VLAN(s) in the list below.
Leave this field blank and click Search to display all VLANs configured on the Switch.
The Number of
VLAN
This is the number of VLANs configured on the Switch.
The Number of
Search Results
This is the number of VLANs that match the searching criteria and display in the list below.
Index
This is the VLAN index number. Click on an index number to view more VLAN details.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN screen.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a static VLAN
was set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch; dynamic - using GVRP, static added as a permanent entry or other - added in another way such as via Multicast VLAN
Registration (MVR).
Change Pages
Click Previous or Next to show the previous/next screen if all status information cannot be
seen in one screen.
This field displays only when you use the Search button to look for certain VLANs.
9.5.2 VLAN Details
Use this screen to view detailed port settings and status of the VLAN group. See Section 9.1 on
page 87 for more information on static VLAN. Click on an index number in the VLAN Status screen
to display VLAN details.
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Figure 37 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Detail
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Status
Click this to go to the VLAN Status screen.
VID
This is the VLAN identification number that was configured in the Static VLAN screen.
Port Number
This column displays the ports that are participating in a VLAN. A tagged port is marked as
T, an untagged port is marked as U and ports not participating in a VLAN are marked as “–“.
Elapsed Time
This field shows how long it has been since a normal VLAN was registered or a static VLAN
was set up.
Status
This field shows how this VLAN was added to the Switch; dynamic - using GVRP, static added as a permanent entry or other - added in another way such as via Multicast VLAN
Registration (MVR).
9.5.3 Configure a Static VLAN
Use this screen to configure and view 802.1Q VLAN parameters for the Switch. See Section 9.1 on
page 87 for more information on static VLAN. To configure a static VLAN, click Static VLAN in the
VLAN Status screen to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 38 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 18 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ACTIVE
Select this check box to activate the VLAN settings.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the VLAN group for identification purposes. This name consists
of up to 64 printable characters; spaces are allowed.
VLAN Group ID
Enter the VLAN ID for this static entry; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Control
Select Normal for the port to dynamically join this VLAN group using GVRP. This is the
default selection.
Select Fixed for the port to be a permanent member of this VLAN group.
Select Forbidden if you want to prohibit the port from joining this VLAN group.
Tagging
Select TX Tagging if you want the port to tag all outgoing frames transmitted with this
VLAN Group ID.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Table 18 Advanced Application > VLAN > Static VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clear
Click Clear to start configuring the screen again.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group. Click the number to edit the VLAN
settings.
Active
This field indicates whether the VLAN settings are enabled (Yes) or disabled (No).
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
9.5.4 Configure VLAN Port Settings
Use the VLAN Port Setting screen to configure the static VLAN (IEEE 802.1Q) settings on a port.
See Section 9.1 on page 87 for more information on static VLAN. Click the VLAN Port Setting link
in the VLAN Status screen.
Figure 39 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
GVRP
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) is a registration protocol that defines a way for
switches to register necessary VLAN members on ports across the network.
Select this check box to permit VLAN groups beyond the local Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Ingress Check
If this check box is selected for a port, the Switch discards incoming frames for VLANs
that do not include this port in its member set.
Clear this check box to disable ingress filtering.
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Table 19 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PVID
A PVID (Port VLAN ID) is a tag that adds to incoming untagged frames received on a port
so that the frames are forwarded to the VLAN group that the tag defines.
Enter a number between 1and 4094 as the port VLAN ID.
GVRP
Select this check box to allow GVRP on this port.
Acceptable Frame
Type
Specify the type of frames allowed on a port. Choices are All, Tag Only and Untag Only.
Select All from the drop-down list box to accept all untagged or tagged frames on this
port. This is the default setting.
Select Tag Only to accept only tagged frames on this port. All untagged frames will be
dropped.
Select Untag Only to accept only untagged frames on this port. All tagged frames will be
dropped.
VLAN Trunking
Enable VLAN Trunking on ports connected to other switches or routers (but not ports
directly connected to end users) to allow frames belonging to unknown VLAN groups to
pass through the Switch.
Isolation
Select this to allows this port to communicate only with the CPU management port and
the ports on which the isolation feature is not enabled.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.6 Subnet Based VLANs
Subnet based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the source IP subnet you
specify. When a frame is received on a port, the Switch checks if a tag is added already and the IP
subnet it came from. The untagged packets from the same IP subnet are then placed in the same
subnet based VLAN. One advantage of using subnet based VLANs is that priority can be assigned to
traffic from the same IP subnet.
For example, an ISP (Internet Service Provider) may divide different types of services it provides to
customers into different IP subnets. Traffic for voice services is designated for IP subnet
172.16.1.0/24, video for 192.168.1.0/24 and data for 10.1.1.0/24. The Switch can then be
configured to group incoming traffic based on the source IP subnet of incoming frames.
You can then configure a subnet based VLAN with priority 6 and VID of 100 for traffic received from
IP subnet 172.16.1.0/24 (voice services). You can also have a subnet based VLAN with priority 5
and VID of 200 for traffic received from IP subnet 192.168.1.0/24 (video services). Lastly, you can
configure VLAN with priority 3 and VID of 300 for traffic received from IP subnet 10.1.1.0/24 (data
services). All untagged incoming frames will be classified based on their source IP subnet and
prioritized accordingly. That is, video services receive the highest priority and data the lowest.
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Figure 40 Subnet Based VLAN Application Example
Tagged Frames
Internet
Untagged
Frames
172.16.1.0/24
VID = 100
192.168.1.0/24
VID = 200
10.1.1.0/24
VID = 300
9.7 Configuring Subnet Based VLAN
Click Subnet Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to display the configuration screen as
shown.
Note: Subnet based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.
Figure 41 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Subnet Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this subnet based VLANs on the Switch.
DHCP-Vlan
Override
When DHCP snooping is enabled DHCP clients can renew their IP address through the DHCP
VLAN or via another DHCP server on the subnet based VLAN.
Select this checkbox to force the DHCP clients in this IP subnet to obtain their IP addresses
through the DHCP VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Active
Check this box to activate the IP subnet VLAN you are creating or editing.
Name
Enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters to identify this subnet based VLAN.
IP
Enter the IP address of the subnet for which you want to configure this subnet based VLAN.
Mask-Bits
Enter the bit number of the subnet mask. To find the bit number, convert the subnet mask
to binary format and add all the 1’s together. Take “255.255.255.0” for example. 255
converts to eight 1s in binary. There are three 255s, so add three eights together and you
get the bit number (24).
VID
Enter the ID of a VLAN with which the untagged frames from the IP subnet specified in this
subnet based VLAN are tagged. This must be an existing VLAN which you defined in the
Advanced Applications > VLAN screens.
Priority
Select the priority level that the Switch assigns to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This is the index number identifying this subnet based VLAN. Click on any of these numbers
to edit an existing subnet based VLAN.
Active
This field shows whether the subnet based VLAN is active or not.
Name
This field shows the name the subnet based VLAN.
IP
This field shows the IP address of the subnet for this subnet based VLAN.
Mask-Bits
This field shows the subnet mask in bit number format for this subnet based VLAN.
VID
This field shows the VLAN ID of the frames which belong to this subnet based VLAN.
Priority
This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this subnet based
VLAN.
Delete
Click this to delete the subnet based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.8 Protocol Based VLANs
Protocol based VLANs allow you to group traffic into logical VLANs based on the protocol you
specify. When an upstream frame is received on a port (configured for a protocol based VLAN), the
Switch checks if a tag is added already and its protocol. The untagged packets of the same protocol
are then placed in the same protocol based VLAN. One advantage of using protocol based VLANs is
that priority can be assigned to traffic of the same protocol.
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Note: Protocol based VLAN applies to un-tagged packets and is applicable only when you
use IEEE 802.1Q tagged VLAN.
For example, ports 1, 2, 3 and 4 belong to static VLAN 100, and ports 4, 5, 6, 7 belong to static
VLAN 120. You can configure a protocol based VLAN A with priority 3 for ARP traffic received on port
1, 2 and 3. You can also have a protocol based VLAN B with priority 2 for Apple Talk traffic received
on port 6 and 7. All upstream ARP traffic from port 1, 2 and 3 will be grouped together, and all
upstream Apple Talk traffic from port 6 and 7 will be in another group and have higher priority than
ARP traffic when they go through the uplink port to a backbone switch C.
Figure 42 Protocol Based VLAN Application Example
9.9 Configuring Protocol Based VLAN
Click Protocol Based VLAN in the VLAN Port Setting screen to display the configuration screen
as shown.
Figure 43 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Protocol Based VLAN
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 Advanced Application > VLAN > VLAN Port Setting > Protocol Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this protocol based VLAN.
Port
Type a port number to be included in this protocol based VLAN.
This port must belong to a static VLAN in order to participate in a protocol based VLAN. See
Chapter 9 on page 87 for more details on setting up VLANs.
Name
Enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters to identify this protocol based VLAN.
Ethernet-type
Use the drop down list box to select a predefined protocol to be included in this protocol
based VLAN or select Others and type the protocol number in hexadecimal notation. For
example, the IP protocol in hexadecimal notation is 0800, and Novell IPX protocol is 8137.
Note: Protocols in the hexadecimal number range of 0x0000 to 0x05ff are not allowed to be
used for protocol based VLANs.
VID
Enter the ID of a VLAN to which the port belongs. This must be an existing VLAN which you
defined in the Advanced Applications > VLAN screens.
Priority
Select the priority level that the Switch will assign to frames belonging to this VLAN.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This is the index number identifying this protocol based VLAN. Click on any of these
numbers to edit an existing protocol based VLAN.
Active
This field shows whether the protocol based VLAN is active or not.
Port
This field shows which port belongs to this protocol based VLAN.
Name
This field shows the name the protocol based VLAN.
Ethernet-type
This field shows which Ethernet protocol is part of this protocol based VLAN.
VID
This field shows the VLAN ID of the port.
Priority
This field shows the priority which is assigned to frames belonging to this protocol based
VLAN.
Delete
Click this to delete the protocol based VLANs which you marked for deletion.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.10 Create an IP-based VLAN Example
This example shows you how to create an IP VLAN which includes ports 1, 4 and 8. Follow these
steps using the screen below:
1
Activate this protocol based VLAN.
2
Type the port number you want to include in this protocol based VLAN. Type 1.
3
Give this protocol-based VLAN a descriptive name. Type IP-VLAN.
4
Select the protocol. Leave the default value IP.
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5
Type the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN. In our example we already created a static VLAN with an ID
of 5. Type 5.
6
Leave the priority set to 0 and click Add.
Figure 44 Protocol Based VLAN Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
To add more ports to this protocol based VLAN.
1
Click the index number of the protocol based VLAN entry. Click 1
2
Change the value in the Port field to the next port you want to add.
3
Click Add.
9.11 Port-based VLAN Setup
Port-based VLANs are VLANs where the packet forwarding decision is based on the destination MAC
address and its associated port.
Port-based VLANs require allowed outgoing ports to be defined for each port. Therefore, if you wish
to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, for example, between conference rooms in a
hotel, you must define the egress (an egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through which
a data packet leaves) for both ports.
Port-based VLANs are specific only to the Switch on which they were created.
Note: When you activate port-based VLAN, the Switch uses a default VLAN ID of 1. You
cannot change it.
Note: In screens (such as IP Setup and Filtering) that require a VID, you must enter 1
as the VID.
The port-based VLAN setup screen is shown next. The CPU management port forms a VLAN with all
Ethernet ports.
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9.11.1 Configure a Port-based VLAN
Select Port Based as the VLAN Type in the Switch Setup screen and then click VLAN from the
navigation panel to display the following screen. Select either All Connected or Port Isolated
from the drop-down list depending on your VLAN and VLAN security requirements. If VLAN
members need to communicate directly with each other, then select All Connected. Select Port
Isolated if you want to restrict users from communicating directly. Click Apply to save your
settings.
The following screen shows users on a port-based, all-connected VLAN configuration.
Figure 45 Advanced Application > VLAN > Port Based VLAN Setup (All Connected)
The following screen shows users on a port-based, port-isolated VLAN configuration.
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Figure 46 Advanced Application > VLAN: Port Based VLAN Setup (Port Isolation)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 Advanced Application > VLAN: Port Based VLAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Setting
Wizard
Choose All connected or Port isolation.
All connected means all ports can communicate with each other, that is, there are no virtual
LANs. All incoming and outgoing ports are selected. This option is the most flexible but also the
least secure.
Port isolation means that each port can only communicate with the CPU management port and
cannot communicate with each other. All incoming ports are selected while only the CPU
outgoing port is selected. This option is the most limiting but also the most secure.
After you make your selection, click Apply (top right of screen) to display the screens as
mentioned above. You can still customize these settings by adding/deleting incoming or outgoing
ports, but you must also click Apply at the bottom of the screen.
Incoming
These are the ingress ports; an ingress port is an incoming port, that is, a port through which a
data packet enters. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, you must
define the ingress port for both ports. The numbers in the top row denote the incoming port for
the corresponding port listed on the left (its outgoing port). CPU refers to the Switch
management port. By default it forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN
with a particular port then the Switch cannot be managed from that port.
Outgoing
These are the egress ports. An egress port is an outgoing port, that is, a port through which a
data packet leaves. If you wish to allow two subscriber ports to talk to each other, you must
define the egress port for both ports. CPU refers to the Switch management port. By default it
forms a VLAN with all Ethernet ports. If it does not form a VLAN with a particular port then the
Switch cannot be managed from that port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Static MAC Forward Setup
Use these screens to configure static MAC address forwarding.
10.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure forwarding rules based on MAC addresses of devices on
your network.
10.2 Configuring Static MAC Forwarding
A static MAC address is an address that has been manually entered in the MAC address table. Static
MAC addresses do not age out. When you set up static MAC address rules, you are setting static
MAC addresses for a port. This may reduce the need for broadcasting.
Static MAC address forwarding together with port security allows only computers in the MAC
address table on a port to access the Switch. See Chapter 19 on page 150 for more information on
port security.
Click Advanced Applications > Static MAC Forwarding in the navigation panel to display the
configuration screen as shown.
Figure 47 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 Advanced Application > Static MAC Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC address forwarding
rule.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address in valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.
Note: Static MAC addresses do not age out.
VID
Enter the VLAN identification number.
Port
Enter the port where the MAC address entered in the previous field will be automatically
forwarded.
Add
Click Add to save your rule to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this rule if it
is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
Click an index number to modify a static MAC address rule for a port.
Active
This field displays whether this static MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or not
(No). You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for this static MAC
address-forwarding rule.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address that will be forwarded and the VLAN identification
number to which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Port
This field displays the port where the MAC address shown in the next field will be forwarded.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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11
Static Multicast Forward Setup
Use these screens to configure static multicast address forwarding.
11.1 Static Multicast Forwarding Overview
A multicast MAC address is the MAC address of a member of a multicast group. A static multicast
address is a multicast MAC address that has been manually entered in the multicast table. Static
multicast addresses do not age out. Static multicast forwarding allows you (the administrator) to
forward multicast frames to a member without the member having to join the group first.
If a multicast group has no members, then the switch will either flood the multicast frames to all
ports or drop them. You can configure this in the Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast
Setting screen (see Section 24.3 on page 174). Figure 48 shows such unknown multicast frames
flooded to all ports. With static multicast forwarding, you can forward these multicasts to port(s)
within a VLAN group. Figure 49 shows frames being forwarded to devices connected to port 3.
Figure 50 shows frames being forwarded to ports 2 and 3 within VLAN group 4.
Figure 48 No Static Multicast Forwarding
Figure 49 Static Multicast Forwarding to A Single Port
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Figure 50 Static Multicast Forwarding to Multiple Ports
11.2 Configuring Static Multicast Forwarding
Use this screen to configure rules to forward specific multicast frames, such as streaming or control
frames, to specific port(s).
Click Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding to display the configuration screen
as shown.
Figure 51 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule without
deleting it by clearing this check box.
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this static multicast MAC
address forwarding rule. This is for identification only.
MAC Address
Enter a multicast MAC address which identifies the multicast group. The last binary bit of the
first octet pair in a multicast MAC address must be 1. For example, the first octet pair
00000001 is 01 and 00000011 is 03 in hexadecimal, so 01:00:5e:00:00:0A and
03:00:5e:00:00:27 are valid multicast MAC addresses.
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Table 24 Advanced Application > Static Multicast Forwarding (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
You can forward frames with matching destination MAC address to port(s) within a VLAN
group. Enter the ID that identifies the VLAN group here. If you don’t have a specific target
VLAN, enter 1.
Port
Enter the port(s) where frames with destination MAC address that matched the entry above
are forwarded. You can enter multiple ports separated by (no space) comma (,) or hyphen (). For example, enter “3-5” for ports 3, 4, and 5. Enter “3,5,7” for ports 3, 5, and 7.
Add
Click Add to save your rule to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses this rule if it is
turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Clear
Click Clear to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
Click an index number to modify a static multicast MAC address rule for port(s).
Active
This field displays whether a static multicast MAC address forwarding rule is active (Yes) or
not (No). You may temporarily deactivate a rule without deleting it.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for identification purposes for a static multicast MAC
address-forwarding rule.
MAC Address
This field displays the multicast MAC address that identifies a multicast group.
VID
This field displays the ID number of a VLAN group to which frames containing the specified
multicast MAC address will be forwarded.
Port
This field displays the port(s) within a identified VLAN group to which frames containing the
specified multicast MAC address will be forwarded.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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12
Filtering
This chapter discusses MAC address port filtering.
12.1 Configure a Filtering Rule
Configure the Switch to filter traffic based on the traffic’s source, destination MAC addresses and/or
VLAN group (ID).
Click Advanced Application > Filtering in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown
next.
Figure 52 Advanced Application > Filtering
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 25 Advanced Application > FIltering
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Make sure to select this check box to activate your rule. You may temporarily deactivate a rule
without deleting it by deselecting this check box.
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this rule. This is for
identification only.
Action
Select Discard source to drop frames from the source MAC address (specified in the MAC
field). The Switch can still send frames to the MAC address.
Select Discard destination to drop frames to the destination MAC address (specified in the
MAC address). The Switch can still receive frames originating from the MAC address.
Select Discard source and Discard destination to block traffic to/from the MAC address
specified in the MAC field.
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Table 25 Advanced Application > FIltering (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC
Type a MAC address in a valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs.
VID
Type the VLAN group identification number.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to change the settings.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purposes only.
MAC
Address
This field displays the source/destination MAC address with the VLAN identification number to
which the MAC address belongs.
VID
This field displays the VLAN group identification number.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.
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C HAPTER
13
Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch supports Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) as defined in the following standards.
• IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
• IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
The Switch also allows you to set up multiple STP configurations (or trees). Ports can then be
assigned to the trees.
13.1 STP/RSTP Overview
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. It allows a Switch to interact with other (R)STP-compliant switches in your network to
ensure that only one path exists between any two stations on the network.
The Switch uses IEEE 802.1w RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) that allows faster convergence
of the spanning tree than STP (while also being backwards compatible with STP-only aware
bridges). In RSTP, topology change information is directly propagated throughout the network from
the device that generates the topology change. In STP, a longer delay is required as the device that
causes a topology change first notifies the root bridge and then the root bridge notifies the
network. Both RSTP and STP flush unwanted learned addresses from the filtering database. In
RSTP, the port states are Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
Note: In this user’s guide, “STP” refers to both STP and RSTP.
13.1.1 STP Terminology
The root bridge is the base of the spanning tree.
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame onto a LAN through that port. The recommended cost
is assigned according to the speed of the link to which a port is attached. The slower the media, the
higher the cost.
Table 26 STP Path Costs
LINK SPEED
RECOMMENDED
VALUE
RECOMMENDED
RANGE
ALLOWED
RANGE
Path Cost
4Mbps
250
100 to 1000
1 to 65535
Path Cost
10Mbps
100
50 to 600
1 to 65535
Path Cost
16Mbps
62
40 to 400
1 to 65535
Path Cost
100Mbps
19
10 to 60
1 to 65535
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Table 26 STP Path Costs
LINK SPEED
RECOMMENDED
VALUE
RECOMMENDED
RANGE
ALLOWED
RANGE
Path Cost
1Gbps
4
3 to 10
1 to 65535
Path Cost
10Gbps
2
1 to 5
1 to 65535
On each bridge, the bridge communicates with the root through the root port. The root port is the
port on this Switch with the lowest path cost to the root (the root path cost). If there is no root
port, then this Switch has been accepted as the root bridge of the spanning tree network.
For each LAN segment, a designated bridge is selected. This bridge has the lowest cost to the root
among the bridges connected to the LAN.
13.1.2 How STP Works
After a bridge determines the lowest cost-spanning tree with STP, it enables the root port and the
ports that are the designated ports for connected LANs, and disables all other ports that participate
in STP. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between enabled ports, eliminating any
possible network loops.
STP-aware switches exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the bridged
LAN topology changes, a new spanning tree is constructed.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs (Bridge
Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello BPDU after a
predefined interval (Max Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the root bridge is down. This
bridge then initiates negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to re-establish a
valid network topology.
13.1.3 STP Port States
STP assigns five port states to eliminate packet looping. A bridge port is not allowed to go directly
from blocking state to forwarding state so as to eliminate transient loops.
Table 27 STP Port States
PORT STATE
DESCRIPTION
Disabled
STP is disabled (default).
Blocking
Only configuration and management BPDUs are received and processed.
Listening
All BPDUs are received and processed.
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Learning
All BPDUs are received and processed. Information frames are submitted to the learning
process but not forwarded.
Forwarding
All BPDUs are received and processed. All information frames are received and forwarded.
13.1.4 Multiple RSTP
MRSTP (Multiple RSTP) is ZyXEL’s proprietary feature that is compatible with RSTP and STP. With
MRSTP, you can have more than one spanning tree on your Switch and assign port(s) to each tree.
Each spanning tree operates independently with its own bridge information.
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In the following example, there are two RSTP instances (MRSTP 1 and MRSTP2) on switch A.
Figure 53 MRSTP Network Example
To set up MRSTP, activate MRSTP on the Switch and specify which port(s) belong to which spanning
tree.
Note: Each port can belong to one STP tree only.
13.1.5 Multiple STP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s) is backwards compatible with STP/RSTP and
addresses the limitations of existing spanning tree protocols (STP and RSTP) in networks to include
the following features:
• One Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) that represents the entire network’s
connectivity.
• Grouping of multiple bridges (or switching devices) into regions that appear as one single bridge
on the network.
• A VLAN can be mapped to a specific Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTI allows
multiple VLANs to use the same spanning tree.
• Load-balancing is possible as traffic from different VLANs can use distinct paths in a region.
13.1.5.1 MSTP Network Example
The following figure shows a network example where two VLANs are configured on the two
switches. If the switches are using STP or RSTP, the link for VLAN 2 will be blocked as STP and RSTP
allow only one link in the network and block the redundant link.
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Figure 54 STP/RSTP Network Example
A
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
B
With MSTP, VLANs 1 and 2 are mapped to different spanning trees in the network. Thus traffic from
the two VLANs travel on different paths. The following figure shows the network example using
MSTP.
Figure 55 MSTP Network Example
A
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
B
13.1.5.2 MST Region
An MST region is a logical grouping of multiple network devices that appears as a single device to
the rest of the network. Each MSTP-enabled device can only belong to one MST region. When
BPDUs enter an MST region, external path cost (of paths outside this region) is increased by one.
Internal path cost (of paths within this region) is increased by one when BPDUs traverse the region.
Devices that belong to the same MST region are configured to have the same MSTP configuration
identification settings. These include the following parameters:
• Name of the MST region
• Revision level as the unique number for the MST region
• VLAN-to-MST Instance mapping
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13.1.5.3 MST Instance
An MST Instance (MSTI) is a spanning tree instance. VLANs can be configured to run on a specific
MSTI. Each created MSTI is identified by a unique number (known as an MST ID) known internally
to a region. Thus an MSTI does not span across MST regions.
The following figure shows an example where there are two MST regions. Regions 1 and 2 have 2
spanning tree instances.
Figure 56 MSTIs in Different Regions
13.1.5.4 Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST)
A CIST represents the connectivity of the entire network and it is equivalent to a spanning tree in
an STP/RSTP. The CIST is the default MST instance (MSTID 0). Any VLANs that are not members of
an MST instance are members of the CIST. In an MSTP-enabled network, there is only one CIST
that runs between MST regions and single spanning tree devices. A network may contain multiple
MST regions and other network segments running RSTP.
Figure 57 MSTP and Legacy RSTP Network Example
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13.2 Spanning Tree Protocol Status Screen
The Spanning Tree Protocol status screen changes depending on what standard you choose to
implement on your network. Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol to see the
screen as shown.
Figure 58 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol
This screen differs depending on which STP mode (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) you configure on the
Switch. This screen is described in detail in the section that follows the configuration section for
each STP mode. Click Configuration to activate one of the STP standards on the Switch.
13.3 Spanning Tree Configuration
Use the Spanning Tree Configuration screen to activate one of the STP modes on the Switch.
Click Configuration in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol.
Figure 59 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Spanning Tree
Mode
You can activate one of the STP modes on the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Select Rapid Spanning Tree, Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree or Multiple Spanning
Tree. See Section 13.1 on page 110 for background information on STP.
13.4 Configure Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Use this screen to configure RSTP settings, see Section 13.1 on page 110 for more information on
RSTP. Click RSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.
Figure 60 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the RSTP Status screen (see Figure 61 on page 118).
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP. Clear this checkbox to disable RSTP.
Note: You must also activate Rapid Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application >
Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable RSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port. The
switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all
switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become
the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time, Max Age
and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive
BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last
BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root
port is selected from among the switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range
is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for
conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate RSTP on this port.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding
state immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port
is configured as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge Protocol Data
Unit (BPDU).
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in a
switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range is
between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
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Table 29 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > RSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the
media, the higher the cost - see Table 26 on page 110 for more information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.5 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 13.1 on page 110 for more information on RSTP.
Note: This screen is only available after you activate RSTP on the Switch.
Figure 61 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click RSTP to
edit RSTP settings on the Switch.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this
Switch. This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority plus the MAC
address. This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time (second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
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Table 30 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: RSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
listening to learning to forwarding). See Section 13.1.3 on page 111 for information on
port states.
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch
must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology Changed
Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
13.6 Configure Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MRSTP, click MRSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol
screen. See Section 13.1 on page 110 for more information on MRSTP.
Figure 62 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
Click Status to display the MRSTP Status screen (see Figure 61 on page 118).
Tree
This is a read-only index number of the STP trees.
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Table 31 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate an STP tree. Clear this checkbox to disable an STP tree.
Note: You must also activate Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application
> Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable MRSTP on the Switch.
Bridge Priority
Bridge priority is used in determining the root switch, root port and designated port. The
switch with the highest priority (lowest numeric value) becomes the STP root switch. If all
switches have the same priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address will then become
the root switch. Select a value from the drop-down list box.
The lower the numeric value you assign, the higher the priority for this bridge.
Bridge Priority determines the root bridge, which in turn determines Hello Time, Max Age
and Forwarding Delay.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
Max Age
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive
BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last
BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root
port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range
is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for
conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise,
temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds.
As a general rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to activate STP on this port.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding
state immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port
is configured as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge Protocol Data
Unit (BPDU).
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in
the Switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range
is between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended that you assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower
the media, the higher the cost - see Table 26 on page 110 for more information.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration this port should participate in.
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Table 31 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MRSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.7 Multiple Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 13.1 on page 110 for more information on MRSTP.
Note: This screen is only available after you activate MRSTP on the Switch.
Figure 63 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MRSTP to
edit MRSTP settings on the Switch.
Tree
Select which STP tree configuration you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this Switch.
This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message. The root bridge determines Hello Time, Max Age and Forwarding Delay.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a configuration
message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
listening to learning to forwarding).
Note: The listening state does not exist in RSTP.
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Table 32 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MRSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Topology Changed
Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
13.8 Configure Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
To configure MSTP, click MSTP in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol screen.
See Section 13.1.5 on page 112 for more information on MSTP.
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Figure 64 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
Click Port to display the MSTP Port Configuration screen (see Figure 65 on page 126).
Status
Click Status to display the MSTP Status screen (see Figure 66 on page 127).
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Table 33 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate MSTP on the Switch. Clear this checkbox to disable MSTP
on the Switch.
Note: You must also activate Multiple Spanning Tree in the Advanced Application >
Spanning Tree Protocol > Configuration screen to enable MSTP on the Switch.
Hello Time
This is the time interval in seconds between BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units)
configuration message generations by the root switch. The allowed range is 1 to 10
seconds.
MaxAge
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a BPDU before
attempting to reconfigure. All switch ports (except for designated ports) should receive
BPDUs at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STP information (provided in the last
BPDU) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root
port is selected from among the Switch ports attached to the network. The allowed range
is 6 to 40 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch will wait before changing states. This
delay is required because every switch must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for
conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise,
temporary data loops might result. The allowed range is 4 to 30 seconds. As a general
rule:
Note: 2 * (Forward Delay - 1) >= Max Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)
Maximum hops
Enter the number of hops (between 1 and 255) in an MSTP region before the BPDU is
discarded and the port information is aged.
Configuration
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 characters) of an MST region.
Revision Number
Enter a number to identify a region’s configuration. Devices must have the same revision
number to belong to the same region.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance
Use this section to configure MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance) settings.
Instance
Enter the number you want to use to identify this MST instance on the Switch. The Switch
supports instance numbers 0-64.
Bridge Priority
Set the priority of the Switch for the specific spanning tree instance. The lower the
number, the more likely the Switch will be chosen as the root bridge within the spanning
tree instance.
Enter priority values between 0 and 61440 in increments of 4096 (thus valid values are
4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152,
53248, 57344 and 61440).
VLAN Range
Enter the start of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or remove from the VLAN range
edit area in the Start field. Enter the end of the VLAN ID range that you want to add or
remove from the VLAN range edit area in the End field.
Next click:
•
•
•
Add - to add this range of VLAN(s) to be mapped to the MST instance.
Remove - to remove this range of VLAN(s) from being mapped to the MST instance.
Clear - to remove all VLAN(s) from being mapped to this MST instance.
Enabled VLAN(s)
This field displays which VLAN(s) are mapped to this MST instance.
Port
This field displays the port number.
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Table 33 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to add this port to the MST instance.
Priority
Configure the priority for each port here.
Priority decides which port should be disabled when more than one port forms a loop in
the Switch. Ports with a higher priority numeric value are disabled first. The allowed range
is between 0 and 255 and the default value is 128.
Path Cost
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN through that port. It is
recommended to assign this value according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the
media, the higher the cost - see Table 26 on page 110 for more information.
Add
Click Add to save this MST instance to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
this change if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Instance
This field displays the ID of an MST instance.
VLAN
This field displays the VID (or VID ranges) to which the MST instance is mapped.
Active Port
This field display the ports configured to participate in the MST instance.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.8.1 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Port Configuration
To configure MSTP ports, click Port in the Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol >
MSTP screen.
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Figure 65 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > MSTP > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Edge
Select this check box to configure a port as an edge port when it is directly attached to a
computer. An edge port changes its initial STP port state from blocking state to forwarding state
immediately without going through listening and learning states right after the port is configured
as an edge port or when its link status changes.
Note: An edge port becomes a non-edge port as soon as it receives a Bridge Protocol Data Unit
(BPDU).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.9 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Status
Click Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol in the navigation panel to display the
status screen as shown next. See Section 13.1.5 on page 112 for more information on MSTP.
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Note: This screen is only available after you activate MSTP on the Switch.
Figure 66 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Click Configuration to specify which STP mode you want to activate. Click MSTP to edit
MSTP settings on the Switch.
CST
This section describes the Common Spanning Tree settings.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the spanning tree (the root bridge). Our Bridge is this Switch.
This Switch may also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Hello Time
(second)
This is the time interval (in seconds) at which the root switch transmits a configuration
message.
Max Age (second)
This is the maximum time (in seconds) a switch can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forwarding Delay
(second)
This is the time (in seconds) the root switch will wait before changing states (that is,
listening to learning to forwarding).
Cost to Bridge
This is the path cost from the root port on this Switch to the root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Configuration
Name
This field displays the configuration name for this MST region.
Revision Number
This field displays the revision number for this MST region.
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Table 35 Advanced Application > Spanning Tree Protocol > Status: MSTP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
Digest
A configuration digest is generated from the VLAN-MSTI mapping information.
Topology Changed
Times
This is the number of times the spanning tree has been reconfigured.
Time Since Last
Change
This is the time since the spanning tree was last reconfigured.
Instance:
These fields display the MSTI to VLAN mapping. In other words, which VLANs run on each
spanning tree instance.
Instance
This field displays the MSTI ID.
VLAN
This field displays which VLANs are mapped to an MSTI.
MSTI
Select the MST instance settings you want to view.
Bridge
Root refers to the base of the MST instance. Our Bridge is this Switch. This Switch may
also be the root bridge.
Bridge ID
This is the unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of bridge priority plus MAC address.
This ID is the same for Root and Our Bridge if the Switch is the root switch.
Internal Cost
This is the path cost from the root port in this MST instance to the regional root switch.
Port ID
This is the priority and number of the port on the Switch through which this Switch must
communicate with the root of the MST instance.
This field displays the 16-octet signature that is included in an MSTP BPDU. This field
displays the digest when MSTP is activated on the system.
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14
Bandwidth Control
This chapter shows you how you can cap the maximum bandwidth using the Bandwidth Control
screen.
14.1 Bandwidth Control Overview
Bandwidth control means defining a maximum allowable bandwidth for incoming and/or out-going
traffic flows on a port.
14.1.1 CIR and PIR
The Committed Information Rate (CIR) is the guaranteed bandwidth for the incoming traffic flow on
a port. The Peak Information Rate (PIR) is the maximum bandwidth allowed for the incoming traffic
flow on a port when there is no network congestion.
The CIR and PIR should be set for all ports that use the same uplink bandwidth. If the CIR is
reached, packets are sent at the rate up to the PIR. When network congestion occurs, packets
through the ingress port exceeding the CIR will be marked for drop.
Note: The CIR should be less than the PIR.
Note: The sum of CIRs cannot be greater than or equal to the uplink bandwidth.
14.2 Bandwidth Control Setup
Click Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control in the navigation panel to bring up the screen
as shown next.
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Figure 67 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 36 Advanced Application > Bandwidth Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable bandwidth control on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Ingress Rate
Active
Select this check box to activate commit rate limits on this port.
Commit
Rate
Specify the guaranteed bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the incoming
traffic flow on a port. The commit rate should be less than the peak rate. The sum of commit
rates cannot be greater than or equal to the uplink bandwidth.
Active
Select this check box to activate peak rate limits on this port.
Peak Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the incoming traffic
flow on a port.
Active
Select this check box to activate egress rate limits on this port.
Egress Rate
Specify the maximum bandwidth allowed in kilobits per second (Kbps) for the out-going traffic
flow on a port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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15
Broadcast Storm Control
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the broadcast storm control feature.
15.1 Broadcast Storm Control Setup
Broadcast storm control limits the number of broadcast, multicast and destination lookup failure
(DLF) packets the Switch receives per second on the ports. When the maximum number of
allowable broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets is reached per second, the subsequent packets
are discarded. Enable this feature to reduce broadcast, multicast and/or DLF packets in your
network. You can specify limits for each packet type on each port.
Click Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown next.
Figure 68 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 Advanced Application > Broadcast Storm Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable traffic storm control on the Switch. Clear this check box to
disable this feature.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Broadcast (pkt/
s)
Select this option and specify how many broadcast packets the port receives per second.
Multicast (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many multicast packets the port receives per second.
DLF (pkt/s)
Select this option and specify how many destination lookup failure (DLF) packets the port
receives per second.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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16
Mirroring
This chapter discusses port mirroring setup screens.
16.1 Port Mirroring Setup
Port mirroring allows you to copy a traffic flow to a monitor port (the port you copy the traffic to) in
order that you can examine the traffic from the monitor port without interference.
Click Advanced Application > Mirroring in the navigation panel to display the Mirroring screen.
Use this screen to select a monitor port and specify the traffic flow to be copied to the monitor port.
Figure 69 Advanced Application > Mirroring
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 Advanced Application > Mirroring
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate port mirroring on the Switch. Clear this check box to disable the
feature.
Monitor
Port
The monitor port is the port you copy the traffic to in order to examine it in more detail without
interfering with the traffic flow on the original port(s). Type the port number of the monitor port.
Port
This field displays the port number.
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Table 38 Advanced Application > Mirroring (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Mirrored
Select this option to mirror the traffic on a port.
Direction
Specify the direction of the traffic to mirror by selecting from the drop-down list box. Choices are
Egress (outgoing), Ingress (incoming) and Both.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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17
Link Aggregation
This chapter shows you how to logically aggregate physical links to form one logical, higherbandwidth link.
17.1 Link Aggregation Overview
Link aggregation (trunking) is the grouping of physical ports into one logical higher-capacity link.
You may want to trunk ports if for example, it is cheaper to use multiple lower-speed links than to
under-utilize a high-speed, but more costly, single-port link.
However, the more ports you aggregate then the fewer available ports you have. A trunk group is
one logical link containing multiple ports.
The beginning port of each trunk group must be physically connected to form a trunk group.
The Switch supports both static and dynamic link aggregation.
Note: In a properly planned network, it is recommended to implement static link
aggregation only. This ensures increased network stability and control over the
trunk groups on your Switch.
See Section 17.6 on page 140 for a static port trunking example.
17.2 Dynamic Link Aggregation
The Switch adheres to the IEEE 802.3ad standard for static and dynamic (LACP) port trunking.
The Switch supports the link aggregation IEEE802.3ad standard. This standard describes the Link
Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), which is a protocol that dynamically creates and manages
trunk groups.
When you enable LACP link aggregation on a port, the port can automatically negotiate with the
ports at the remote end of a link to establish trunk groups. LACP also allows port redundancy, that
is, if an operational port fails, then one of the “standby” ports become operational without user
intervention. Please note that:
• You must connect all ports point-to-point to the same Ethernet switch and configure the ports for
LACP trunking.
• LACP only works on full-duplex links.
• All ports in the same trunk group must have the same media type, speed, duplex mode and flow
control settings.
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Configure trunk groups or LACP before you connect the Ethernet switch to avoid causing network
topology loops.
17.2.1 Link Aggregation ID
LACP aggregation ID consists of the following information1:
Table 39 Link Aggregation ID: Local Switch
SYSTEM
PRIORITY
MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY PORT NUMBER
0000
00-00-00-00-00-00
0000
00
0000
Table 40 Link Aggregation ID: Peer Switch
SYSTEM
PRIORITY
MAC ADDRESS
KEY
PORT PRIORITY PORT NUMBER
0000
00-00-00-00-00-00
0000
00
0000
17.3 Link Aggregation Status
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation in the navigation panel. The Link Aggregation
Status screen displays by default. See Section 17.1 on page 135 for more information.
Figure 70 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group ID
This field displays the group ID to identify a trunk group, that is, one logical link containing
multiple ports.
Enabled Port
These are the ports you have configured in the Link Aggregation screen to be in the trunk
group.
The port number(s) displays only when this trunk group is activated and there is a port
belonging to this group.
Synchronized
Ports
1.
These are the ports that are currently transmitting data as one logical link in this trunk
group.
Port Priority and Port Number are 0 as it is the aggregator ID for the trunk group, not the individual port.
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Table 41 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Aggregator ID
Link Aggregator ID consists of the following: system priority, MAC address, key, port priority
and port number. Refer to Section 17.2.1 on page 136 for more information on this field.
The ID displays only when there is a port belonging to this trunk group and LACP is also
enabled for this group.
Criteria
This shows the outgoing traffic distribution algorithm used in this trunk group. Packets from
the same source and/or to the same destination are sent over the same link within the
trunk.
src-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s source MAC address.
dst-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s destination MAC
address.
src-dst-mac means the Switch distributes traffic based on a combination of the packet’s
source and destination MAC addresses.
src-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s source IP address.
dst-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on the packet’s destination IP address.
src-dst-ip means the Switch distributes traffic based on a combination of the packet’s
source and destination IP addresses.
Status
This field displays how these ports were added to the trunk group. It displays:
•
•
Static - if the ports are configured as static members of a trunk group.
LACP - if the ports are configured to join a trunk group via LACP.
17.4 Link Aggregation Setting
Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting to display the
screen shown next. See Section 17.1 on page 135 for more information on link aggregation.
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Figure 71 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Link
Aggregation
Setting
This is the only screen you need to configure to enable static link aggregation.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing multiple
ports.
Active
Select this option to activate a trunk group.
Criteria
Select the outgoing traffic distribution type. Packets from the same source and/or to the same
destination are sent over the same link within the trunk. By default, the Switch uses the srcdst-mac distribution type. If the Switch is behind a router, the packet’s destination or source
MAC address will be changed. In this case, set the Switch to distribute traffic based on its IP
address to make sure port trunking can work properly.
Select src-mac to distribute traffic based on the packet’s source MAC address.
Select dst-mac to distribute traffic based on the packet’s destination MAC address.
Select src-dst-mac to distribute traffic based on a combination of the packet’s source and
destination MAC addresses.
Select src-ip to distribute traffic based on the packet’s source IP address.
Select dst-ip to distribute traffic based on the packet’s destination IP address.
Select src-dst-ip to distribute traffic based on a combination of the packet’s source and
destination IP addresses.
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Table 42 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number.
Group
Select the trunk group to which a port belongs.
Note: When you enable the port security feature on the Switch and configure port security
settings for a port, you cannot include the port in an active trunk group.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
17.5 Link Aggregation Control Protocol
Click in the Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP to
display the screen shown next. See Section 17.2 on page 135 for more information on dynamic link
aggregation.
Figure 72 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link Aggregation Setting > LACP
LABEL
Link Aggregation
Control Protocol
DESCRIPTION
Note: Do not configure this screen unless you want to enable dynamic link aggregation.
Active
Select this checkbox to enable Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).
System Priority
LACP system priority is a number between 1 and 65,535. The switch with the lowest
system priority (and lowest port number if system priority is the same) becomes the LACP
“server”. The LACP “server” controls the operation of LACP setup. Enter a number to set
the priority of an active port using Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). The smaller
the number, the higher the priority level.
Group ID
The field identifies the link aggregation group, that is, one logical link containing multiple
ports.
LACP Active
Select this option to enable LACP for a trunk.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
LACP Timeout
Timeout is the time interval between the individual port exchanges of LACP packets in
order to check that the peer port in the trunk group is still up. If a port does not respond
after three tries, then it is deemed to be “down” and is removed from the trunk. Set a
short timeout (one second) for busy trunked links to ensure that disabled ports are
removed from the trunk group as soon as possible.
Select either 1 second or 30 seconds.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
17.6 Static Trunking Example
This example shows you how to create a static port trunk group for ports 2-5.
1
Make your physical connections - make sure that the ports that you want to belong to the trunk
group are connected to the same destination. The following figure shows ports 2-5 on switch A
connected to switch B.
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Figure 73 Trunking Example - Physical Connections
B
A
2
Configure static trunking - Click Advanced Application > Link Aggregation > Link
Aggregation Setting. In this screen activate trunk group T1, select the traffic distribution
algorithm used by this group and select the ports that should belong to this group as shown in the
figure below. Click Apply when you are done.
Figure 74 Trunking Example - Configuration Screen
EXAMPLE
Your trunk group 1 (T1) configuration is now complete.
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18
Port Authentication
This chapter describes the IEEE 802.1x and MAC authentication methods.
18.1 Port Authentication Overview
Port authentication is a way to validate access to ports on the Switch to clients based on an external
server (authentication server). The Switch supports the following methods for port authentication:
• IEEE 802.1x2 - An authentication server validates access to a port based on a username and
password provided by the user.
• MAC - An authentication server validates access to a port based on the MAC address and
password of the client.
Both types of authentication use the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC
2138, 2139) protocol to validate users. See Section 25.1.2 on page 188 for more information on
configuring your RADIUS server settings.
Note: If you enable IEEE 802.1x authentication and MAC authentication on the same
port, the Switch performs IEEE 802.1x authentication first. If a user fails to
authenticate via the IEEE 802.1x method, then access to the port is denied.
18.1.1 IEEE 802.1x Authentication
The following figure illustrates how a client connecting to an IEEE 802.1x authentication enabled
port goes through a validation process. The Switch prompts the client for login information in the
form of a user name and password after the client responds to its identity request. When the client
provides the login credentials, the Switch sends an authentication request to a RADIUS server. The
RADIUS server validates whether this client is allowed access to the port.
2.
At the time of writing, IEEE 802.1x is not supported by all operating systems. See your operating system documentation. If
your operating system does not support 802.1x, then you may need to install 802.1x client software.
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Chapter 18 Port Authentication
Figure 75 IEEE 802.1x Authentication Process
1
New Connection
2
Identity Request
3
4
Login Credentials
Authentication Request
5
6
Access Challenge
Challenge Request
7
8
Challenge Response
Access Request
9
Authentication Reply
Session Granted/Denied
18.1.2 MAC Authentication
MAC authentication works in a very similar way to IEEE 802.1x authentication. The main difference
is that the Switch does not prompt the client for login credentials. The login credentials are based
on the source MAC address of the client connecting to a port on the Switch along with a password
configured specifically for MAC authentication on the Switch.
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Figure 76 MAC Authentication Process
1
New Connection
2
Authentication Request
3
Authentication Reply
Session Granted/Denied
18.2 Port Authentication Configuration
To enable port authentication, first activate the port authentication method(s) you want to use
(both on the Switch and the port(s)), then configure the RADIUS server settings in the AAA >
Radius Server Setup screen.
To activate a port authentication method, click Advanced Application > Port Authentication in
the navigation panel. Select a port authentication method in the screen that appears.
Figure 77 Advanced Application > Port Authentication
18.2.1 Activate IEEE 802.1x Security
Use this screen to activate IEEE 802.1x security. In the Port Authentication screen click 802.1x
to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 78 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit 802.1x authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable 802.1x authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each
port.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this checkbox to permit 802.1x authentication on this port. You must first allow
802.1x authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Max-Req
Specify the number of times the Switch tries to authenticate client(s) before sending
unresponsive ports to the Guest VLAN.
This is set to 2 by default. That is, the Switch attempts to authenticate a client twice. If the
client does not respond to the first authentication request, the Switch tries again. If the
client still does not respond to the second request, the Switch sends the client to the Guest
VLAN. The client needs to send a new request to be authenticated by the Switch again.
Reauth
Specify if a subscriber has to periodically re-enter his or her username and password to
stay connected to the port.
Reauth-period
Specify the length of time required to pass before a client has to re-enter his or her
username and password to stay connected to the port.
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Table 44 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Quiet-period
Specify the number of seconds the port remains in the HELD state and rejects further
authentication requests from the connected client after a failed authentication exchange.
Tx-period
Specify the number of seconds the Switch waits for client’s response before re-sending an
identity request to the client.
Supp-Timeout
Specify the number of seconds the Switch waits for client’s response to a challenge request
before sending another request.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
18.2.2 Guest VLAN
When 802.1x port authentication is enabled on the Switch and its ports, clients that do not have the
correct credentials are blocked from using the port(s). You can configure your Switch to have one
VLAN that acts as a guest VLAN. If you enable the guest VLAN (102 in the example) on a port (2 in
the example), the user (A in the example) that is not IEEE 802.1x capable or fails to enter the
correct username and password can still access the port, but traffic from the user is forwarded to
the guest VLAN. That is, unauthenticated users can have access to limited network resources in the
same guest VLAN, such as the Internet. The rights granted to the Guest VLAN depends on how the
network administrator configures switches or routers with the guest network feature.
Figure 79 Guest VLAN Example
VLAN 100
VLAN 102
Internet
2
A
Use this screen to enable and assign a guest VLAN to a port. In the Port Authentication >
802.1x screen click Guest Vlan to display the configuration screen as shown.
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Figure 80 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this checkbox to enable the guest VLAN feature on this port.
Clients that fail authentication are placed in the guest VLAN and can receive limited
services.
Guest Vlan
A guest VLAN is a pre-configured VLAN on the Switch that allows non-authenticated users
to access limited network resources through the Switch. You must also enable IEEE 802.1x
authentication on the Switch and the associated ports. Enter the number that identifies the
guest VLAN.
Host-mode
Specify how the Switch authenticates users when more than one user connect to the port
(using a hub).
Make sure this is a VLAN recognized in your network.
Select Multi-Host to authenticate only the first user that connects to this port. If the first
user enters the correct credential, any other users are allowed to access the port without
authentication. If the first user fails to enter the correct credential, they are all put in the
guest VLAN. Once the first user who did authentication logs out or disconnects from the
port, rest of the users are blocked until a user does the authentication process again.
Select Multi-Secure to authenticate each user that connects to this port.
Multi-Secure
Num
If you set Host-mode to Multi-Secure, specify the maximum number of users (between
1 and 5) that the Switch will authenticate on this port.
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Table 45 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > 802.1x > Guest VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
18.2.3 Activate MAC Authentication
Use this screen to activate MAC authentication. In the Port Authentication screen click MAC
Authentication to display the configuration screen as shown.
Figure 81 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 46 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to permit MAC authentication on the Switch.
Note: You must first enable MAC authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each
port.
Name Prefix
Type the prefix that is appended to all MAC addresses sent to the RADIUS server for
authentication. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.
If you leave this field blank, then only the MAC address of the client is forwarded to the
RADIUS server.
Password
Type the password the Switch sends along with the MAC address of a client for
authentication with the RADIUS server. You can enter up to 32 printable ASCII characters.
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Table 46 Advanced Application > Port Authentication > MAC Authentication (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Timeout
Specify the amount of time before the Switch allows a client MAC address that fails
authentication to try and authenticate again. Maximum time is 3000 seconds.
When a client fails MAC authentication, its MAC address is learned by the MAC address
table with a status of denied. The timeout period you specify here is the time the MAC
address entry stays in the MAC address table until it is cleared. If you specify 0 for the
timeout value, then this entry will not be deleted from the MAC address table.
Note: If the Aging Time in the Switch Setup screen is set to a lower value, then it
supersedes this setting. See Section 8.5 on page 81.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this checkbox to permit MAC authentication on this port. You must first allow MAC
authentication on the Switch before configuring it on each port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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19
Port Security
This chapter shows you how to set up port security.
19.1 About Port Security
Port security allows only packets with dynamically learned MAC addresses and/or configured static
MAC addresses to pass through a port on the Switch. The Switch can learn up to 16K MAC
addresses in total with no limit on individual ports other than the sum cannot exceed 16K.
For maximum port security, enable this feature, disable MAC address learning and configure static
MAC address(es) for a port. It is not recommended you disable port security together with MAC
address learning as this will result in many broadcasts. By default, MAC address learning is still
enabled even though the port security is not activated.
19.2 Port Security Setup
Click Advanced Application > Port Security in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
Figure 82 Advanced Application > Port Security
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Advanced Application > Port Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port List
Enter the number of the port(s) (separated by a comma) on which you want to enable port
security and disable MAC address learning. After you click MAC freeze, all previously
learned MAC addresses on the specified port(s) will become static MAC addresses and
display in the Static MAC Forwarding screen.
MAC freeze
Click MAC freeze to have the Switch automatically select the Active check boxes and clear
the Address Learning check boxes only for the ports specified in the Port list.
Active
Select this option to enable port security on the Switch.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some of the settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable the port security feature on this port. The Switch forwards
packets whose MAC address(es) is in the MAC address table on this port. Packets with no
matching MAC address(es) are dropped.
Clear this check box to disable the port security feature. The Switch forwards all packets on
this port.
Address
Learning
MAC address learning reduces outgoing broadcast traffic. For MAC address learning to occur
on a port, the port itself must be active with address learning enabled.
Limited Number
of Learned MAC
Address
Use this field to limit the number of (dynamic) MAC addresses that may be learned on a
port. For example, if you set this field to "5" on port 2, then only the devices with these five
learned MAC addresses may access port 2 at any one time. A sixth device must wait until
one of the five learned MAC addresses ages out. MAC address aging out time can be set in
the Switch Setup screen. The valid range is from “0” to “16384”. “0” means this feature is
disabled.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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20
Classifier
This chapter introduces and shows you how to configure the packet classifier on the Switch.
20.1 About the Classifier and QoS
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and
the networking methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is
equally likely to be dropped when the network is congested. This can cause a reduction in network
performance and make the network inadequate for time-critical application such as video-ondemand.
A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source address,
destination address, source port number, destination port number or incoming port number. For
example, you can configure a classifier to select traffic from the same protocol port (such as Telnet)
to form a flow.
Configure QoS on the Switch to group and prioritize application traffic and fine-tune network
performance. Setting up QoS involves two separate steps:
1
Configure classifiers to sort traffic into different flows.
2
Configure policy rules to define actions to be performed for a classified traffic flow (refer to Chapter
21 on page 158 to configure policy rules).
20.2 Configuring the Classifier
Use the Classifier screen to define the classifiers. After you define the classifier, you can specify
actions (or policy) to act upon the traffic that matches the rules. To configure policy rules, refer to
Chapter 21 on page 158.
Click Advanced Application > Classifier in the navigation panel to display the configuration
screen as shown.
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Figure 83 Advanced Application > Classifier
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 48 Advanced Application > Classifier
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Layer 2
Specify the fields below to configure a layer-2 classifier.
VLAN
Select Any to classify traffic from any VLAN or select the second option and specify the source
VLAN ID in the field provided.
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Table 48 Advanced Application > Classifier (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Priority
Select Any to classify traffic from any priority level or select the second option and specify a
priority level in the field provided.
Ethernet
Type
Select an Ethernet type or select Other and enter the Ethernet type number in hexadecimal
value. Refer to Table 50 on page 156 for information.
Source
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a source, select MAC/Mask to enter the source MAC address of the packet in valid
MAC address format (six hexadecimal character pairs) and type the mask for the specified MAC
address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address should match.
Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to 00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to
ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria. If you
leave the Mask field blank, the Switch automatically sets the mask to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
Port
Type the port number to which the rule should be applied. You may choose one port only or all
ports (Any).
Destination
MAC
Address
Select Any to apply the rule to all MAC addresses.
To specify a destination, select MAC/Mask to enter the destination MAC address of the packet in
valid MAC address format (six hexadecimal character pairs) and type the mask for the specified
MAC address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address should match.
Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to 00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to
ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria. If you
leave the Mask field blank, the Switch automatically sets the mask to ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.
Layer 3
Specify the fields below to configure a layer-3 classifier.
DSCP/ToS
Select DSCP and Any to classify traffic from any DSCP or select a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point)
number between 0 and 63 in the field provided.
Select ToS and Any to classify traffic from any ToS or select an IP Precedence (the first 3 bits of
of the 8-bit ToS field) value in the first field next to the ToS option and a Type of Service (the last
5 bits of the 8-bit ToS field) value in the second field.
IP
Protocol
Select an IP protocol type or select Other and enter the protocol number in decimal value. Refer
to Table 51 on page 156 for more information.
You may select Establish Only for TCP protocol type. This means that the Switch will pick out
the packets that are sent to establish TCP connections.
Source
IP
Address/
Address
Prefix
Socket
Number
Enter a source IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before you configure the socket
numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second option
and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number.
Destination
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Table 48 Advanced Application > Classifier (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP
Address/
Address
Prefix
Enter a destination IP address in dotted decimal notation.
Socket
Number
Specify the address prefix by entering the number of ones in the subnet mask.
Note: You must select either UDP or TCP in the IP Protocol field before you configure the socket
numbers.
Select Any to apply the rule to all TCP/UDP protocol port numbers or select the second option
and enter a TCP/UDP protocol port number.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the Switch’s
run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
20.3 Viewing and Editing Classifier Configuration
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the bottom
of the Classifier screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index field.
Note: When two rules conflict with each other, a higher layer rule has priority over a lower
layer rule.
Figure 84 Advanced Application > Classifier: Summary Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 Classifier: Summary Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule
Usage
This field displays how many rules have been configured on the Switch.
Index
This field displays the index number of the rule. Click an index number to edit the rule.
Active
This field displays Yes when the rule is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this rule. This is for identification purposes only.
Rule
This field displays a summary of the classifier rule’s settings.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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The following table shows some other common Ethernet types and the corresponding protocol
number.
Table 50 Common Ethernet Types and Protocol Number
ETHERNET TYPE
PROTOCOL NUMBER
IP ETHII
0800
X.75 Internet
0801
NBS Internet
0802
ECMA Internet
0803
Chaosnet
0804
X.25 Level 3
0805
XNS Compat
0807
Banyan Systems
0BAD
BBN Simnet
5208
IBM SNA
80D5
AppleTalk AARP
80F3
Some of the most common IP ports are:
Table 51 Common IP Ports
PORT NUMBER
PORT NAME
21
FTP
23
Telnet
25
SMTP
53
DNS
80
HTTP
110
POP3
20.4 Classifier Example
The following screen shows an example of configuring a classifier that identifies all traffic from MAC
address 00:50:ba:ad:4f:81 on port 2.
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Figure 85 Classifier: Example
EXAMPLE
After you have configured a classifier, you can configure a policy to define action(s) on the classified
traffic flow. See Chapter 21 on page 158 for information on configuring a policy rule.
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21
Policy Rule
This chapter shows you how to configure policy rules.
21.1 Policy Rules Overview
A classifier distinguishes traffic into flows based on the configured criteria (refer to Chapter 20 on
page 152 for more information). A policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the requested
treatment in the network.
21.1.1 DiffServ
DiffServ (Differentiated Services) is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they
receive specific per-hop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on
the application types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs)
indicating the level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network
devices to handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to
negotiate paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have
to request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
21.1.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (TOS) field
in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field which can define
up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that non-DiffServ
compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
DSCP (6 bits)
Unused (2 bits)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet
gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic can be
marked for different kinds of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to the DSCP
values and the configured policies.
21.2 Configuring Policy Rules
You must first configure a classifier in the Classifier screen. Refer to Section 20.2 on page 152 for
more information.
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Click Advanced Applications > Policy Rule in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
Figure 86 Advanced Application > Policy Rule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 Advanced Application > Policy Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable the policy.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the active classifier(s) you configure in the Classifier screen.
Select the classifier(s) to which this policy rule applies. To select more than one classifier,
press [SHIFT] and select the choices at the same time.
Parameters
Set the fields below for this policy. You only have to set the field(s) that is related to the action(s) you
configure in the Action field.
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Table 52 Advanced Application > Policy Rule (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Egress Port
Type the number of an outgoing port.
Priority
Specify a priority level.
DSCP
Specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63.
TOS
Specify the type of service (TOS) priority level.
Rate Limit
Bandwidth
You can configure the desired bandwidth available to a traffic flow.
Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 1 and 1000000.
Action
Specify the action(s) the Switch takes on the associated classified traffic flow.
Forwarding
Select No change to forward the packets.
Select Discard the packet to drop the packets.
Select Do not drop the matching frame previously marked for dropping to retain the
frames that were marked to be dropped before.
Priority
Select No change to keep the priority setting of the frames.
Select Set the packet’s 802.1p priority and send the packet to priority queue to
replace the packet’s 802.1p priority field with the value you set in the Priority field. Then put
the packets in the designated queue.
Select Replace the 802.1p priority field with the IP TOS value and send the packet
to priority queue to replace the packet’s 802.1p priority field with the value you set in the
TOS field. Then put the packets in the designated queue.
Diffserv
Select No change to keep the TOS and/or DSCP fields in the packets.
Select Set the packet’s TOS field to set the TOS field with the value you configure in the
TOS field.
Select Set the Diffserv Codepoint field in the frame to set the DSCP field with the value
you configure in the DSCP field.
Outgoing
Select Send the packet to the egress port to send the packet to the egress port.
Rate Limit
Select Enable to activate bandwidth limitation on the traffic flow(s).
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power,
so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile
memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
21.3 Viewing and Editing Policy Configuration
To view a summary of the classifier configuration, scroll down to the summary table at the bottom
of the Policy screen. To change the settings of a rule, click a number in the Index field.
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Figure 87 Advanced Application > Policy Rule: Summary Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 Policy: Summary Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule Usage
This field displays how many rules have been configured on the Switch.
Index
This field displays the policy index number. Click an index number to edit the policy.
Active
This field displays Yes when policy is activated and No when is it deactivated.
Name
This field displays the name you have assigned to this policy.
Classifier(s)
This field displays the name(s) of the classifier to which this policy applies.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
21.4 Policy Example
The figure below shows an example Policy screen where you configure a policy to limit bandwidth
on a traffic flow classified using the Example classifier (refer to Section 20.4 on page 156).
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Figure 88 Policy Example
EXAMPLE
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22
Queuing Method
This chapter introduces the queuing methods supported.
22.1 Queuing Method Overview
Queuing is used to help solve performance degradation when there is network congestion. Use the
Queuing Method screen to configure queuing algorithms for outgoing traffic. See also Priority
Queue Assignment in Switch Setup and 802.1p Priority in Port Setup for related information.
Queuing algorithms allow switches to maintain separate queues for packets from each individual
source or flow and prevent a source from monopolizing the bandwidth.
22.1.1 Strictly Priority Queuing
Strictly Priority Queuing (SPQ) services queues based on priority only. As traffic comes into the
Switch, traffic on the highest priority queue, Q7 is transmitted first. When that queue empties,
traffic on the next highest-priority queue, Q6 is transmitted until Q6 empties, and then traffic is
transmitted on Q5 and so on. If higher priority queues never empty, then traffic on lower priority
queues never gets sent. SP does not automatically adapt to changing network requirements.
22.1.2 Weighted Fair Queuing
Weighted Fair Queuing is used to guarantee each queue's minimum bandwidth based on its
bandwidth weight (the number you configure in the Weight field) when there is traffic congestion.
WFQ is activated only when a port has more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights
get more guaranteed bandwidth than queues with smaller weights. By default, the weight for Q0 is
1, for Q1 is 2, for Q2 is 3, and so on.
The weights range from 1 to 15 and the actual guaranteed bandwidth is calculated as follows:
2(Weight -1) x 10 KB
If the weight setting is 5, the actual quantum guaranteed to the associated queue would be as
follows:
24 x 10KB = 160 KB
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22.1.3 Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR)
Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis and is activated only when a port has
more traffic than it can handle. A queue is a given an amount of bandwidth irrespective of the
incoming traffic on that port. This queue then moves to the back of the list. The next queue is given
an equal amount of bandwidth, and then moves to the end of the list; and so on, depending on the
number of queues being used. This works in a looping fashion until a queue is empty.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) uses the same algorithm as round robin scheduling, but
services queues based on their priority and queue weight (the number you configure in the queue
Weight field) rather than a fixed amount of bandwidth. WRR is activated only when a port has
more traffic than it can handle. Queues with larger weights get more service than queues with
smaller weights. This queuing mechanism is highly efficient in that it divides any available
bandwidth across the different traffic queues and returns to queues that have not yet emptied.
22.2 Configuring Queuing
Click Advanced Application > Queuing Method in the navigation panel.
Figure 89 Advanced Application > Queuing Method
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 Advanced Application > Queuing Method
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This label shows the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to
set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Method
Select SPQ (Strictly Priority Queuing), WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing) or WRR (Weighted Round
Robin).
Strictly Priority services queues based on priority only. When the highest priority queue empties,
traffic on the next highest-priority queue begins. Q7 has the highest priority and Q0 the lowest.
Weighted Fair Queuing is used to guarantee each queue's minimum bandwidth based on their
bandwidth weight (the number you configure in the Weight field). Queues with larger weights
get more guaranteed bandwidth than queues with smaller weights.
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling services queues on a rotating basis based on their queue
weight (the number you configure in the queue Weight field). Queues with larger weights get
more service than queues with smaller weights.
Weight
Q0-Q7
HybridSPQ
LowestQueue
When you select WFQ or WRR enter the queue weight here. Bandwidth is divided across the
different traffic queues according to their weights.
This field is applicable only when you select WFQ or WRR.
Select a queue (Q0 to Q7) to have the Switch use SPQ to service the subsequent queue(s) after
and including the specified queue. For example, if you select Q5, the Switch services traffic on
Q5, Q6 and Q7 using SPQ.
Select None to always use WFQ or WRR.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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23
VLAN Stacking
This chapter shows you how to configure VLAN stacking on your Switch. See the chapter on VLANs
for more background information on Virtual LAN.
23.1 VLAN Stacking Overview
A service provider can use VLAN stacking to allow it to distinguish multiple customers VLANs, even
those with the same (customer-assigned) VLAN ID, within its network.
Use VLAN stacking to add an outer VLAN tag to the inner IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames that enter the
network. By tagging the tagged frames (“double-tagged” frames), the service provider can manage
up to 4,094 VLAN groups with each group containing up to 4,094 customer VLANs. This allows a
service provider to provide different service, based on specific VLANs, for many different
customers.
A service provider’s customers may require a range of VLANs to handle multiple applications. A
service provider’s customers can assign their own inner VLAN tags on ports for these applications.
The service provider can assign an outer VLAN tag for each customer. Therefore, there is no VLAN
tag overlap among customers, so traffic from different customers is kept separate.
23.1.1 VLAN Stacking Example
In the following example figure, both A and B are Service Provider’s Network (SPN) customers with
VPN tunnels between their head offices and branch offices respectively. Both have an identical VLAN
tag for their VLAN group. The service provider can separate these two VLANs within its network by
adding tag 37 to distinguish customer A and tag 48 to distinguish customer B at edge device 1 and
then stripping those tags at edge device 2 as the data frames leave the network.
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Figure 90 VLAN Stacking Example
23.2 VLAN Stacking Port Roles
Each port can have three VLAN stacking “roles”, Normal, Access Port and Tunnel Port (the latter
is for Gigabit ports only).
• Select Normal for “regular” (non-VLAN stacking) IEEE 802.1Q frame switching.
• Select Access Port for ingress ports on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN
stacking example figure). The incoming frame is treated as "untagged", so a second VLAN tag
(outer VLAN tag) can be added.
Note: Static VLAN Tx Tagging MUST be disabled on a port where you choose Normal or
Access Port.
• Select Tunnel Port (available for Gigabit ports only) for egress ports at the edge of the service
provider's network. All VLANs belonging to a customer can be aggregated into a single service
provider's VLAN (using the outer VLAN tag defined by the Service Provider’s (SP) VLAN ID
(VID)).
Note: Static VLAN Tx Tagging MUST be enabled on a port where you choose Tunnel
Port.
23.3 VLAN Tag Format
A VLAN tag (service provider VLAN stacking or customer IEEE 802.1Q) consists of the following
three fields.
Table 55 VLAN Tag Format
Type
Priority
VID
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Type is a standard Ethernet type code identifying the frame and indicates that whether the frame
carries IEEE 802.1Q tag information. SP TPID (Service Provider Tag Protocol Identifier) is the
service provider VLAN stacking tag type. Many vendors use 0x8100 or 0x9100.
TPID (Tag Protocol Identifier) is the customer IEEE 802.1Q tag.
• If the VLAN stacking port role is Access Port, then the Switch adds the SP TPID tag to all
incoming frames on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN stacking example
figure).
• If the VLAN stacking port role is Tunnel Port, then the Switch only adds the SP TPID tag to all
incoming frames on the service provider's edge devices (1 and 2 in the VLAN stacking example
figure) that have an SP TPID different to the one configured on the Switch. (If an incoming
frame’s SP TPID is the same as the one configured on the Switch, then the Switch will not add
the tag.)
Priority refers to the IEEE 802.1p standard that allows the service provider to prioritize traffic
based on the class of service (CoS) the customer has paid for.
• On the Switch, configure priority level of the inner IEEE 802.1Q tag in the Port Setup screen.
• "0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
VID is the VLAN ID. SP VID is the VID for the second (service provider’s) VLAN tag.
23.3.1 Frame Format
The frame format for an untagged Ethernet frame, a single-tagged 802.1Q frame (customer) and a
“double-tagged” 802.1Q frame (service provider) is shown next.
Configure the fields as highlighted in the Switch VLAN Stacking screen.
Table 56 Single and Double Tagged 802.11Q Frame Format
DA
SA
SPTPID
DA
SA
Len/Etype
Data
FCS
Untagged
Ethernet frame
DA
SA
TPID
Priority
VID
Len/Etype
Data
FCS
IEEE 802.1Q
customer
tagged frame
Priority
VID
TPID
Priority
VID
Len/Etype
Data
FCS
Double-tagged
frame
Table 57 802.1Q Frame
DA
Destination Address
Priority
802.1p Priority
SA
Source Address
Len/Etype
Length and type of Ethernet frame
(SP)TPID
(Service Provider) Tag Protocol IDentifier
Data
Frame data
VID
VLAN ID
FCS
Frame Check Sequence
23.4 Configuring VLAN Stacking
Click Advanced Applications > VLAN Stacking to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 91 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this checkbox to enable VLAN stacking on the Switch.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Role
Select Normal to have the Switch ignore frames received (or transmitted) on this port with VLAN
stacking tags. Anything you configure in SPVID and Priority of the Port-based QinQ or the
Selective QinQ screen are ignored.
Select Access Port to have the Switch add the SP TPID tag to all incoming frames received on
this port. Select Access Port for ingress ports at the edge of the service provider's network.
Select Tunnel Port (available for Gigabit ports only) for egress ports at the edge of the service
provider's network. Select Tunnel Port to have the Switch add the Tunnel TPID tag to all
outgoing frames sent on this port.
In order to support VLAN stacking on a port, the port must be able to allow frames of 1526 Bytes
(1522 Bytes + 4 Bytes for the second tag) to pass through it.
Tunnel
TPID
TPID is a standard Ethernet type code identifying the frame and indicates whether the frame
carries IEEE 802.1Q tag information. Enter a four-digit hexadecimal number from 0000 to FFFF
that the Switch adds in the outer VLAN tag of the frames sent on the tunnel port(s). The Switch
also uses this to check if the received frames are double-tagged.
The value of this field is 0x8100 as defined in IEEE 802.1Q. If the Switch needs to communicate
with other vendors’ devices, they should use the same TPID.
Note: You can define up to four different tunnel TPIDs (including 8100) in this screen at a time.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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23.4.1 Port-based Q-in-Q
Port-based Q-in-Q lets the Switch treat all frames received on the same port as the same VLAN
flows and add the same outer VLAN tag to them, even they have different customer VLAN IDs.
Click Port-based QinQ in the Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking screen to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 92 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Port-based QinQ
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Port-based QinQ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
SPVID
SPVID is the service provider’s VLAN ID (the outer VLAN tag). Enter the service provider ID (from
1 to 4094) for frames received on this port. See Chapter 9 on page 87 for more background
information on VLAN ID.
Priority
Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the service provider’s priority level that adds to the
frames received on this port.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
23.4.2 Selective Q-in-Q
Selective Q-in-Q is VLAN-based. It allows the Switch to add different outer VLAN tags to the
incoming frames received on one port according to their inner VLAN tags.
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Note: Selective Q-in-Q rules are only applied to single-tagged frames received on the
access ports. If the incoming frames are untagged or single-tagged but received on
a tunnel port or cannot match any selective Q-in-Q rules, the Switch applies the
port-based Q-in-Q rules to them.
Click Selective QinQ in the Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking screen to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 93 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 60 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Port
The port number identifies the port you are configuring.
CVID
Enter a customer VLAN ID (the inner VLAN tag) from 1 to 4094. This is the VLAN tag carried in the
packets from the subscribers.
SPVID
SPVID is the service provider’s VLAN ID (the outer VLAN tag). Enter the service provider ID (from
1 to 4094) for frames received on this port. See Chapter 9 on page 87 for more background
information on VLAN ID.
Priority
Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the service provider’s priority level that adds to the
frames received on this port.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Index
This is the number of the selective VLAN stacking rule.
Active
This shows whether this rule is activated or not.
Name
This is the descriptive name for this rule.
Port
This is the port number to which this rule is applied.
CVID
This is the customer VLAN ID in the incoming packets.
SPVID
This is the service provider’s VLAN ID that adds to the packets from the subscribers.
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Table 60 Advanced Application > VLAN Stacking > Selective QinQ (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Priority
This is the service provider’s priority level in the packets.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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C HAPTER
24
Multicast
This chapter shows you how to configure various multicast features.
24.1 Multicast Overview
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender to 1 recipient)
or Broadcast (1 sender to everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to just a group
of hosts on the network.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. Refer to RFC 1112, RFC 2236
and RFC 3376 for information on IGMP versions 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
24.1.1 IP Multicast Addresses
In IPv4, a multicast address allows a device to send packets to a specific group of hosts (multicast
group) in a different subnetwork. A multicast IP address represents a traffic receiving group, not
individual receiving devices. IP addresses in the Class D range (224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255) are
used for IP multicasting. Certain IP multicast numbers are reserved by IANA for special purposes
(see the IANA website for more information).
24.1.2 IGMP Filtering
With the IGMP filtering feature, you can control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a port can join.
This allows you to control the distribution of multicast services (such as content information
distribution) based on service plans and types of subscription.
You can set the Switch to filter the multicast group join reports on a per-port basis by configuring
an IGMP filtering profile and associating the profile to a port.
24.1.3 IGMP Snooping
The Switch can passively snoop on IGMP packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches
and IP multicast hosts to learn the IP multicast group membership. It checks IGMP packets passing
through it, picks out the group registration information, and configures multicasting accordingly.
IGMP snooping allows the Switch to learn multicast groups without you having to manually
configure them.
The Switch forwards multicast traffic destined for multicast groups (that it has learned from IGMP
snooping or that you have manually configured) to ports that are members of that group. IGMP
snooping generates no additional network traffic, allowing you to significantly reduce multicast
traffic passing through your Switch.
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24.1.4 IGMP Snooping and VLANs
The Switch can perform IGMP snooping on up to 16 VLANs. You can configure the Switch to
automatically learn multicast group membership of any VLANs. The Switch then performs IGMP
snooping on the first 16 VLANs that send IGMP packets. This is referred to as auto mode.
Alternatively, you can specify the VLANs that IGMP snooping should be performed on. This is
referred to as fixed mode. In fixed mode the Switch does not learn multicast group membership of
any VLANs other than those explicitly added as an IGMP snooping VLAN.
24.2 Multicast Status
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast to display the screen as shown. This screen shows the
multicast group information. See Section 24.1 on page 173 for more information on multicasting.
Figure 94 Advanced Application > Multicast
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 Multicast Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
VID
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Port
This field displays the port number that belongs to the multicast group.
Multicast Group
This field displays IP multicast group addresses.
24.3 Multicast Setting
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast Setting link to display the screen as
shown. See Section 24.1 on page 173 for more information on multicasting.
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Figure 95 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 62 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IGMP Snooping
Use these settings to configure IGMP Snooping.
Active
Select Active to enable IGMP Snooping to forward group multicast traffic only to ports
that are members of that group.
Querier
Select this option to allow the Switch to send IGMP General Query messages to the VLANs
with the multicast hosts attached.
Host Timeout
Specify the time (from 1 to 16 711 450) in seconds that elapses before the Switch
removes an IGMP group membership entry if it does not receive report messages from
the port.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) to which the Switch changes the priority in outgoing IGMP
control packets. Otherwise, select No-Change to not replace the priority.
IGMP Filtering
Select Active to enable IGMP filtering to control which IGMP groups a subscriber on a
port can join.
Note: If you enable IGMP filtering, you must create and assign IGMP filtering profiles for the
ports that you want to allow to join multicast groups.
Unknown
Multicast Frame
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives an unknown multicast frame.
Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all ports.
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Table 62 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
Multicast Group
The IP address range of 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255 are reserved for multicasting on the
local network only. For example, 224.0.0.1 is for all hosts on a local network segment and
224.0.0.9 is used to send RIP routing information to all RIP v2 routers on the same
network segment. A multicast router will not forward a packet with the destination IP
address within this range to other networks. See the IANA web site for more information.
The layer-2 multicast MAC addresses used by Cisco layer-2 protocols,
01:00:0C:CC:CC:CC and 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CD, are also included in this group.
Specify the action to perform when the Switch receives a frame with a reserved multicast
address. Select Drop to discard the frame(s). Select Flooding to send the frame(s) to all
ports.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Immed. Leave
Select this option to set the Switch to remove this port from the multicast tree when an
IGMP version 2 leave message is received on this port.
Select this option if there is only one host connected to this port.
Normal Leave
Enter an IGMP normal leave timeout value (from 200 to 6,348,800) in miliseconds. Select
this option to have the Switch use this timeout to update the forwarding table for the
port.
In normal leave mode, when the Switch receives an IGMP leave message from a host on
a port, the Switch waits for IGMP reports after the multicast router sends out an IGMP
Group-Specific Query (GSQ) message to determine whether other hosts connected to the
port should remain in the specific multicast group.
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing an
IGMP snooping membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received on this port
from a host.
Note: The timeout value for each IGMP report will be halved automatically by the Switch
because the robustness variable value (the number of query messages) is set to two
by default to cover the possibility of an IGMP GSQ being missed by IGMP host(s) or
an IGMP report being missed by the multicast router(s) due to network congestion.
Fast Leave
Enter an IGMP fast leave timeout value (from 200 to 6,348,800) in miliseconds. Select
this option to have the Switch use this timeout to update the forwarding table for the
port.
In fast leave mode, right after receiving an IGMP leave message from a host on a port,
the Switch sends out an IGMP Group-Specific Query (GSQ) message to determine
whether other hosts connected to the port should remain in the specific multicast group.
This helps speed up the leave process.
This defines how many seconds the Switch waits for an IGMP report before removing an
IGMP snooping membership entry when an IGMP leave message is received on this port
from a host.
Group Limited
Select this option to limit the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join.
Max Group Num.
Enter the number of multicast groups this port is allowed to join. Once a port is registered
in the specified number of multicast groups, any new IGMP join report frame(s) is
dropped on this port.
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Table 62 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Throttling
IGMP throttling controls how the Switch deals with the IGMP reports when the maximum
number of the IGMP groups a port can join is reached.
Select Deny to drop any new IGMP join report received on this port until an existing
multicast forwarding table entry is aged out.
Select Replace to replace an existing entry in the multicast forwarding table with the new
IGMP report(s) received on this port.
IGMP Filtering
Profile
Select the name of the IGMP filtering profile to use for this port. Otherwise, select
Default to prohibit the port from joining any multicast group.
You can create IGMP filtering profiles in the Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP
Filtering Profile screen.
IGMP Querier
Mode
The Switch treats an IGMP query port as being connected to an IGMP multicast router (or
server). The Switch forwards IGMP join or leave packets to an IGMP query port.
Select Auto to have the Switch use the port as an IGMP query port if the port receives
IGMP query packets.
Select Fixed to have the Switch always use the port as an IGMP query port. Select this
when you connect an IGMP multicast server to the port.
Select Edge to stop the Switch from using the port as an IGMP query port. The Switch will
not keep any record of an IGMP router being connected to this port. The Switch does not
forward IGMP join or leave packets to this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
24.4 IGMP Snooping VLAN
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast in the navigation panel. Click the Multicast Setting
link and then the IGMP Snooping VLAN link to display the screen as shown. See Section 24.1.4
on page 174 for more information on IGMP Snooping VLAN.
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Figure 96 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 63 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
Select auto to have the Switch learn multicast group membership information of any
VLANs automatically.
Select fixed to have the Switch only learn multicast group membership information of the
VLAN(s) that you specify below.
In either auto or fixed mode, the Switch can learn up to 16 VLANs (including up to five
VLANs you configured in the MVR screen). For example, if you have configured one
multicast VLAN in the MVR screen, you can only specify up to 15 VLANs in this screen.
The Switch drops any IGMP control messages which do not belong to these 16 VLANs.
Note: You must also enable IGMP snooping in the Multicast Setting screen first.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
Use this section of the screen to add VLANs upon which the Switch is to perform IGMP
snooping.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of the VLAN for identification purposes.
VID
Enter the ID of a static VLAN; the valid range is between 1 and 4094.
Note: You cannot configure the same VLAN ID as in the MVR screen.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses
power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the nonvolatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields.
Index
This is the number of the IGMP snooping VLAN entry in the table.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this VLAN group.
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Table 63 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Snooping VLAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column, then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
24.5 IGMP Filtering Profile
An IGMP filtering profile specifies a range of multicast groups that clients connected to the Switch
are able to join. A profile contains a range of multicast IP addresses which you want clients to be
able to join. Profiles are assigned to ports (in the Multicast Setting screen). Clients connected to
those ports are then able to join the multicast groups specified in the profile. Each port can be
assigned a single profile. A profile can be assigned to multiple ports.
Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile link to
display the screen as shown.
Figure 97 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 64 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes.
To configure additional rule(s) for a profile that you have already added, enter the profile
name and specify a different IP multicast address range.
Start Address
Type the starting multicast IP address for a range of multicast IP addresses that you want
to belong to the IGMP filter profile.
End Address
Type the ending multicast IP address for a range of IP addresses that you want to belong
to the IGMP filter profile.
If you want to add a single multicast IP address, enter it in both the Start Address and
End Address fields.
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Table 64 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > IGMP Filtering Profile (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add
Click Add to save the profile to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile.
Start Address
This field displays the start of the multicast address range.
End Address
This field displays the end of the multicast address range.
Delete
To delete the profile(s) and all the accompanying rules, select the profile(s) that you want
to remove in the Delete Profile column, then click the Delete button.
To delete a rule(s) from a profile, select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete
Rule column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete Profile/Delete Rule check boxes.
24.6 MVR Overview
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is designed for applications (such as Media-on-Demand (MoD))
that use multicast traffic across an Ethernet ring-based service provider network.
MVR allows one single multicast VLAN to be shared among different subscriber VLANs on the
network. While isolated in different subscriber VLANs, connected devices can subscribe to and
unsubscribe from the multicast stream in the multicast VLAN. This improves bandwidth utilization
with reduced multicast traffic in the subscriber VLANs and simplifies multicast group management.
MVR only responds to IGMP join and leave control messages from multicast groups that are
configured under MVR. Join and leave reports from other multicast groups are managed by IGMP
snooping.
The following figure shows a network example. The subscriber VLAN (1, 2 and 3) information is
hidden from the streaming media server, S. In addition, the multicast VLAN information is only
visible to the Switch and S.
Figure 98 MVR Network Example
VLAN 1
Multicast VLAN
S
VLAN 2
VLAN 3
24.6.1 Types of MVR Ports
In MVR, a source port is a port on the Switch that can send and receive multicast traffic in a
multicast VLAN while a receiver port can only receive multicast traffic. Once configured, the Switch
maintains a forwarding table that matches the multicast stream to the associated multicast group.
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24.6.2 MVR Modes
You can set your Switch to operate in either dynamic or compatible mode.
In dynamic mode, the Switch sends IGMP leave and join reports to the other multicast devices
(such as multicast routers or servers) in the multicast VLAN. This allows the multicast devices to
update the multicast forwarding table to forward or not forward multicast traffic to the receiver
ports.
In compatible mode, the Switch does not send any IGMP reports. In this case, you must manually
configure the forwarding settings on the multicast devices in the multicast VLAN.
24.6.3 How MVR Works
The following figure shows a multicast television example where a subscriber device (such as a
computer) in VLAN 1 receives multicast traffic from the streaming media server, S, via the Switch.
Multiple subscriber devices can connect through a port configured as the receiver on the Switch.
When the subscriber selects a television channel, computer A sends an IGMP report to the Switch
to join the appropriate multicast group. If the IGMP report matches one of the configured MVR
multicast group addresses on the Switch, an entry is created in the forwarding table on the Switch.
This maps the subscriber VLAN to the list of forwarding destinations for the specified multicast
traffic.
When the subscriber changes the channel or turns off the computer, an IGMP leave message is sent
to the Switch to leave the multicast group. The Switch sends a query to VLAN 1 on the receiver port
(in this case, an uplink port on the Switch). If there is another subscriber device connected to this
port in the same subscriber VLAN, the receiving port will still be on the list of forwarding destination
for the multicast traffic. Otherwise, the Switch removes the receiver port from the forwarding table.
Figure 99 MVR Multicast Television Example
VLAN 1
Multicast VLAN
S
A
24.7 General MVR Configuration
Use the MVR screen to create multicast VLANs and select the receiver port(s) and a source port for
each multicast VLAN. Click Advanced Applications > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR link
to display the screen as shown next.
Note: You can create up to five multicast VLANs and up to 256 multicast rules on the
Switch.
Note: Your Switch automatically creates a static VLAN (with the same VID) when you
create a multicast VLAN in this screen.
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Figure 100 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR
The following table describes the related labels in this screen.
Table 65 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable MVR to allow one single multicast VLAN to be shared
among different subscriber VLANs on the network.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Multicast VLAN
ID
Enter the VLAN ID (1 to 4094) of the multicast VLAN.
802.1p Priority
Select a priority level (0-7) with which the Switch replaces the priority in outgoing IGMP
control packets (belonging to this multicast VLAN).
Mode
Specify the MVR mode on the Switch. Choices are Dynamic and Compatible.
Select Dynamic to send IGMP reports to all MVR source ports in the multicast VLAN.
Select Compatible to set the Switch not to send IGMP reports.
Port
This field displays the port number on the Switch.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row
first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Source Port
Select this option to set this port as the MVR source port that sends and receives multicast
traffic. All source ports must belong to a single multicast VLAN.
Receiver Port
Select this option to set this port as a receiver port that only receives multicast traffic.
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Table 65 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
None
Select this option to set the port not to participate in MVR. No MVR multicast traffic is sent
or received on this port.
Tagging
Select this checkbox if you want the port to tag the VLAN ID in all outgoing frames
transmitted.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
VLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Active
This field displays whether the multicast group is enabled or not.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Mode
This field displays the MVR mode.
Source Port
This field displays the source port number(s).
Receiver Port
This field displays the receiver port number(s).
802.1p
This field displays the priority level.
Delete
To delete a multicast VLAN(s), select the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete
column, then click the Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
24.8 MVR Group Configuration
All source ports and receiver ports belonging to a multicast group can receive multicast data sent to
this multicast group.
Configure MVR IP multicast group address(es) in the Group Configuration screen. Click Group
Configuration in the MVR screen.
Note: A port can belong to more than one multicast VLAN. However, IP multicast group
addresses in different multicast VLANs cannot overlap.
Figure 101 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR: Group Configuration
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 66 Advanced Application > Multicast > Multicast Setting > MVR: Group Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast
VLAN ID
Select a multicast VLAN ID (that you configured in the MVR screen) from the drop-down list
box.
Name
Enter a descriptive name for identification purposes.
Start Address
Enter the starting IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal notation.
Refer to Section 24.1.1 on page 173 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
End Address
Enter the ending IP multicast address of the multicast group in dotted decimal notation.
Enter the same IP address as the Start Address field if you want to configure only one IP
address for a multicast group.
Refer to Section 24.1.1 on page 173 for more information on IP multicast addresses.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
MVLAN
This field displays the multicast VLAN ID.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this setting.
Start Address
This field displays the starting IP address of the multicast group.
End Address
This field displays the ending IP address of the multicast group.
Delete
Select Delete All or Delete Group and click Delete to remove the selected entry(ies) from
the table.
Cancel
Select Cancel to clear the checkbox(es) in the table.
24.8.1 MVR Configuration Example
The following figure shows a network example where ports 1, 2 and 3 on the Switch belong to VLAN
1. In addition, port 7 belongs to the multicast group with VID 200 to receive multicast traffic (the
News and Movie channels) from the remote streaming media server, S. Computers A, B and C in
VLAN 1 are able to receive the traffic.
Figure 102 MVR Configuration Example
VLAN 1
A
B
Multicast VID 200
1
2
3
News: 224.1.4.10 ~ 224.1.4.50
Movie: 230.1.2.50 ~230.1.2.60
7
S
C
To configure the MVR settings on the Switch, create a multicast group in the MVR screen and set
the receiver and source ports.
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Figure 103 MVR Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
To set the Switch to forward the multicast group traffic to the subscribers, configure multicast group
settings in the Group Configuration screen. The following figure shows an example where two
multicast groups (News and Movie) are configured for the multicast VLAN 200.
Figure 104 MVR Group Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
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Figure 105 MVR Group Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
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25
AAA
This chapter describes how to configure authentication, authorization and accounting settings on
the Switch.
25.1 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)
Authentication is the process of determining who a user is and validating access to the Switch. The
Switch can authenticate users who try to log in based on user accounts configured on the Switch
itself. The Switch can also use an external authentication server to authenticate a large number of
users.
Authorization is the process of determining what a user is allowed to do. Different user accounts
may have higher or lower privilege levels associated with them. For example, user A may have the
right to create new login accounts on the Switch but user B cannot. The Switch can authorize users
based on user accounts configured on the Switch itself or it can use an external server to authorize
a large number of users.
Accounting is the process of recording what a user is doing. The Switch can use an external server
to track when users log in, log out, execute commands and so on. Accounting can also record
system related actions such as boot up and shut down times of the Switch.
The external servers that perform authentication, authorization and accounting functions are known
as AAA servers. The Switch supports RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service, see
Section 25.1.2 on page 188) and TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System
Plus, see Section 25.1.2 on page 188) as external authentication, authorization and accounting
servers.
Figure 106 AAA Server
Client
AAA Server
25.1.1 Local User Accounts
By storing user profiles locally on the Switch, your Switch is able to authenticate and authorize
users without interacting with a network AAA server. However, there is a limit on the number of
users you may authenticate in this way (See Chapter 38 on page 272).
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25.1.2 RADIUS and TACACS+
RADIUS and TACACS+ are security protocols used to authenticate users by means of an external
server instead of (or in addition to) an internal device user database that is limited to the memory
capacity of the device. In essence, RADIUS and TACACS+ authentication both allow you to validate
an unlimited number of users from a central location.
The following table describes some key differences between RADIUS and TACACS+.
Table 67 RADIUS vs TACACS+
RADIUS
TACACS+
Transport
Protocol
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Encryption
Encrypts the password sent for
authentication.
All communication between the client (the
Switch) and the TACACS server is
encrypted.
25.2 AAA Screens
The AAA screens allow you to enable authentication, authorization, accounting or all of them on the
Switch. First, configure your authentication and accounting server settings (RADIUS, TACACS+ or
both) and then set up the authentication priority, activate authorization and configure accounting
settings.
Click Advanced Application > AAA in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Figure 107 Advanced Application > AAA
25.2.1 RADIUS Server Setup
Use this screen to configure your RADIUS server settings. See Section 25.1.2 on page 188 for more
information on RADIUS servers and Section 25.3 on page 196 for RADIUS attributes utilized by the
authentication and accounting features on the Switch. Click on the RADIUS Server Setup link in
the AAA screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 108 Advanced Application > AAA > RADIUS Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 Advanced Application > AAA > RADIUS Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Server
Use this section to configure your RADIUS authentication settings.
Mode
This field only applies if you configure multiple RADIUS servers.
Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured RADIUS
server, if the RADIUS server does not respond then the Switch tries to authenticate with the
second RADIUS server.
Select round-robin to alternate between the RADIUS servers that it sends authentication
requests to.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication request
response from the RADIUS server.
If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two RADIUS
servers then the timeout value is divided between the two RADIUS servers. For example, if
you set the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch waits for a response from the first
RADIUS server for 15 seconds and then tries the second RADIUS server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external RADIUS server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port
The default port of a RADIUS server for authentication is 1812. You need not change this
value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external RADIUS server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This key must
be the same on the external RADIUS server and the Switch.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you
type.
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Table 68 Advanced Application > AAA > RADIUS Server Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS server entry from the Switch. This
entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Accounting
Server
Use this section to configure your RADIUS accounting server settings.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting request
response from the RADIUS accounting server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a RADIUS accounting server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external RADIUS accounting server in dotted decimal notation.
UDP Port
The default port of a RADIUS accounting server for accounting is 1813. You need not change
this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external RADIUS accounting server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network.
This key must be the same on the external RADIUS accounting server and the Switch.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you
type.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing RADIUS accounting server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
25.2.2 TACACS+ Server Setup
Use this screen to configure your TACACS+ server settings. See Section 25.1.2 on page 188 for
more information on TACACS+ servers. Click on the TACACS+ Server Setup link in the
Authentication and Accounting screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 109 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 69 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Server
Use this section to configure your TACACS+ authentication settings.
Mode
This field is only valid if you configure multiple TACACS+ servers.
Select index-priority and the Switch tries to authenticate with the first configured TACACS+
server, if the TACACS+ server does not respond then the Switch tries to authenticate with the
second TACACS+ server.
Select round-robin to alternate between the TACACS+ servers that it sends authentication
requests to.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an authentication request
response from the TACACS+ server.
If you are using index-priority for your authentication and you are using two TACACS+
servers then the timeout value is divided between the two TACACS+ servers. For example, if
you set the timeout value to 30 seconds, then the Switch waits for a response from the first
TACACS+ server for 15 seconds and then tries the second TACACS+ server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external TACACS+ server in dotted decimal notation.
TCP Port
The default port of a TACACS+ server for authentication is 49. You need not change this
value unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external TACACS+ server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network. This key
must be the same on the external TACACS+ server and the Switch.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you
type.
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Table 69 Advanced Application > AAA > TACACS+ Server Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ server entry from the Switch. This
entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Accounting
Server
Use this section to configure your TACACS+ accounting settings.
Timeout
Specify the amount of time in seconds that the Switch waits for an accounting request
response from the TACACS+ server.
Index
This is a read-only number representing a TACACS+ accounting server entry.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of an external TACACS+ accounting server in dotted decimal notation.
TCP Port
The default port of a TACACS+ accounting server is 49. You need not change this value
unless your network administrator instructs you to do so.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between the
external TACACS+ accounting server and the Switch. This key is not sent over the network.
This key must be the same on the external TACACS+ accounting server and the Switch.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you
type.
Delete
Check this box if you want to remove an existing TACACS+ accounting server entry from the
Switch. This entry is deleted when you click Apply.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
25.2.3 AAA Setup
Use this screen to configure authentication, authorization and accounting settings on the Switch.
Click on the AAA Setup link in the AAA screen to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 110 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Use this section to specify the methods used to authenticate users accessing the Switch.
Privilege Enable
These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third) to
authenticate access privilege level for administrator accounts (users for Switch
management).
Configure the access privilege of accounts via commands (see the Ethernet Switch CLI
Reference Guide) for local authentication. The TACACS+ and RADIUS are external
servers. Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate the access privilege
level of administrators. The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them
(first Method 1, then Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in
the Method 1 field. If you want the Switch to check other sources for access privilege level
specify them in Method 2 and Method 3 fields.
Select local to have the Switch check the access privilege configured for local
authentication.
Select radius or tacacs+ to have the Switch check the access privilege via the external
servers.
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Table 70 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Login
These fields specify which database the Switch should use (first, second and third) to
authenticate administrator accounts (users for Switch management).
Configure the local user accounts in the Access Control > Logins screen. The TACACS+
and RADIUS are external servers. Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set
up the corresponding database correctly first.
You can specify up to three methods for the Switch to authenticate administrator accounts.
The Switch checks the methods in the order you configure them (first Method 1, then
Method 2 and finally Method 3). You must configure the settings in the Method 1 field. If
you want the Switch to check other sources for administrator accounts, specify them in
Method 2 and Method 3 fields.
Select local to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured in the Access
Control > Logins screen.
Select radius to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via the
RADIUS Server.
Select tacacs+ to have the Switch check the administrator accounts configured via the
TACACS+ Server.
Authorization
Use this section to configure authorization settings on the Switch.
Type
Set whether the Switch provides the following services to a user.
•
•
Exec: Allow an administrator which logs in the Switch through Telnet or SSH to have
different access privilege level assigned via the external server.
Dot1x: Allow an IEEE 802.1x client to have different bandwidth limit or VLAN ID
assigned via the external server.
Active
Select this to activate authorization for a specified event types.
Method
Select whether you want to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for authorization of specific types of
events.
RADIUS is the only method for IEEE 802.1x authorization.
Accounting
Use this section to configure accounting settings on the Switch.
Update Period
This is the amount of time in minutes before the Switch sends an update to the accounting
server. This is only valid if you select the start-stop option for the Exec or Dot1x entries.
Type
The Switch supports the following types of events to be sent to the accounting server(s):
•
•
•
•
System - Configure the Switch to send information when the following system events
occur: system boots up, system shuts down, system accounting is enabled, system
accounting is disabled
Exec - Configure the Switch to send information when an administrator logs in and logs
out via the console port, telnet or SSH.
Dot1x - Configure the Switch to send information when an IEEE 802.1x client begins a
session (authenticates via the Switch), ends a session as well as interim updates of a
session.
Commands - Configure the Switch to send information when commands of specified
privilege level and higher are executed on the Switch.
Active
Select this to activate accounting for a specified event types.
Broadcast
Select this to have the Switch send accounting information to all configured accounting
servers at the same time.
If you don’t select this and you have two accounting servers set up, then the Switch sends
information to the first accounting server and if it doesn’t get a response from the
accounting server then it tries the second accounting server.
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Table 70 Advanced Application > AAA > AAA Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
The Switch supports two modes of recording login events. Select:
•
•
Method
start-stop - to have the Switch send information to the accounting server when a user
begins a session, during a user’s session (if it lasts past the Update Period), and when
a user ends a session.
stop-only - to have the Switch send information to the accounting server only when a
user ends a session.
Select whether you want to use RADIUS or TACACS+ for accounting of specific types of
events.
TACACS+ is the only method for recording Commands type of event.
Privilege
This field is only configurable for Commands type of event. Select the threshold command
privilege level for which the Switch should send accounting information. The Switch will
send accounting information when commands at the level you specify and higher are
executed on the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
25.2.4 Vendor Specific Attribute
RFC 2865 standard specifies a method for sending vendor-specific information between a RADIUS
server and a network access device (for example, the Switch). A company can create Vendor
Specific Attributes (VSAs) to expand the functionality of a RADIUS server.
The Switch supports VSAs that allow you to perform the following actions based on user
authentication:
• Limit bandwidth on incoming or outgoing traffic for the port the user connects to.
• Assign account privilege levels (see the CLI Reference Guide for more information on account
privilege levels) for the authenticated user.
The VSAs are composed of the following:
• Vendor-ID: An identification number assigned to the company by the IANA (Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority). ZyXEL’s vendor ID is 890.
• Vendor-Type: A vendor specified attribute, identifying the setting you want to modify.
• Vendor-data: A value you want to assign to the setting.
Note: Refer to the documentation that comes with your RADIUS server on how to
configure VSAs for users authenticating via the RADIUS server.
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The following table describes the VSAs supported on the Switch. Note that these attributes only
work when you enable authorization (see Section 25.2.3 on page 192).
Table 71 Supported VSAs
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
Ingress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890
Vendor-Type = 1
Vendor-data = ingress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
Egress Bandwidth
Assignment
Vendor-Id = 890
Vendor-Type = 2
Vendor-data = egress rate (Kbps in decimal format)
Privilege Assignment
Vendor-ID = 890
Vendor-Type = 3
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
or
Vendor-ID = 9 (CISCO)
Vendor-Type = 1 (CISCO-AVPAIR)
Vendor-Data = "shell:priv-lvl=N"
where
N is a privilege level (from 0 to 14).
Note: If you set the privilege level of a login account differently on the RADIUS server(s)
and the Switch, the user is assigned a privilege level from the database (RADIUS
or local) the Switch uses first for user authentication.
25.2.5 Tunnel Protocol Attribute
You can configure tunnel protocol attributes on the RADIUS server (refer to your RADIUS server
documentation) to assign a port on the Switch to a VLAN based on IEEE 802.1x authentication. The
port VLAN settings are fixed and untagged. This will also set the port’s VID. The following table
describes the values you need to configure. Note that these attributes only work when you enable
authorization (see Section 25.2.3 on page 192).
Table 72 Supported Tunnel Protocol Attribute
FUNCTION
ATTRIBUTE
VLAN Assignment
Tunnel-Type = VLAN(13)
Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802(6)
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = VLAN ID
Note: You must also create a VLAN with the specified VID on the Switch.
Note: The bolded values in this table are fixed values as defined in RFC 3580.
25.3 Supported RADIUS Attributes
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) attributes are data used to define specific
authentication, and accounting elements in a user profile, which is stored on the RADIUS server.
This section lists the RADIUS attributes supported by the Switch.
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Refer to RFC 2865 for more information about RADIUS attributes used for authentication. Refer to
RFC 2866 and RFC 2869 for RADIUS attributes used for accounting.
This section lists the attributes used by authentication and accounting functions on the Switch. In
cases where the attribute has a specific format associated with it, the format is specified.
25.3.1 Attributes Used for Authentication
The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when
performing authentication.
25.3.1.1 Attributes Used for Authenticating Privilege Access
User-Name
- the format of the User-Name attribute is $enab#$, where # is the privilege level (1-14)
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
25.3.1.2 Attributes Used to Login Users
User-Name
User-Password
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
25.3.1.3 Attributes Used by the IEEE 802.1x Authentication
User-Name
NAS-Identifier
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Port
NAS-Port-Type
- This value is set to Ethernet(15) on the Switch.
Calling-Station-Id
Frame-MTU
EAP-Message
State
Message-Authenticator
25.3.2 Attributes Used for Accounting
The following sections list the attributes sent from the Switch to the RADIUS server when
performing authentication.
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25.3.2.1 Attributes Used for Accounting System Events
NAS-IP-Address
NAS-Identifier
Acct-Status-Type
Acct-Session-ID
- The format of Acct-Session-Id is date+time+8-digit sequential number, for example,
2007041917210300000001. (date: 2007/04/19, time: 17:21:03, serial number: 00000001)
Acct-Delay-Time
25.3.2.2 Attributes Used for Accounting Exec Events
The attributes are listed in the following table along with the time that they are sent (the difference
between Console and Telnet/SSH Exec events is that the Telnet/SSH events utilize the CallingStation-Id attribute):
Table 73 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name



NAS-Identifier



NAS-IP-Address



Service-Type



Acct-Status-Type



Acct-Delay-Time



Acct-Session-Id



Acct-Authentic





Acct-Session-Time
Acct-Terminate-Cause

Table 74 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Telnet/SSH
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name



NAS-Identifier



NAS-IP-Address



Service-Type



Calling-Station-Id



Acct-Status-Type



Acct-Delay-Time



Acct-Session-Id



Acct-Authentic





Acct-Session-Time
Acct-Terminate-Cause

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25.3.2.3 Attributes Used for Accounting IEEE 802.1x Events
The attributes are listed in the following table along with the time of the session they are sent:
Table 75 RADIUS Attributes - Exec Events via Console
ATTRIBUTE
START
INTERIM-UPDATE
STOP
User-Name



NAS-IP-Address



NAS-Port



Class



Called-Station-Id



Calling-Station-Id



NAS-Identifier



NAS-Port-Type



Acct-Status-Type



Acct-Delay-Time



Acct-Session-Id



Acct-Authentic



Acct-Input-Octets


Acct-Output-Octets


Acct-Session-Time


Acct-Input-Packets


Acct-Output-Packets


Acct-Terminate-Cause

Acct-Input-Gigawords


Acct-Output-Gigawords


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26
IP Source Guard
Use IP source guard to filter unauthorized DHCP and ARP packets in your network.
26.1 IP Source Guard Overview
IP source guard uses a binding table to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized DHCP and
ARP packets in your network. A binding contains these key attributes:
• MAC address
• VLAN ID
• IP address
• Port number
When the Switch receives a DHCP or ARP packet, it looks up the appropriate MAC address, VLAN ID,
IP address, and port number in the binding table. If there is a binding, the Switch forwards the
packet. If there is not a binding, the Switch discards the packet.
The Switch builds the binding table by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic bindings) and from
information provided manually by administrators (static bindings).
IP source guard consists of the following features:
• Static bindings. Use this to create static bindings in the binding table.
• DHCP snooping. Use this to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the
binding table dynamically.
• ARP inspection. Use this to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network.
If you want to use dynamic bindings to filter unauthorized ARP packets (typical implementation),
you have to enable DHCP snooping before you enable ARP inspection.
26.1.1 DHCP Snooping Overview
Use DHCP snooping to filter unauthorized DHCP packets on the network and to build the binding
table dynamically. This can prevent clients from getting IP addresses from unauthorized DHCP
servers.
26.1.1.1 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for DHCP snooping. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for ARP inspection. You can also specify the maximum
number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or untrusted) can receive each second.
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Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches. The Switch discards DHCP packets
from trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high. The Switch learns
dynamic bindings from trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and there are
no trusted ports.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers. The Switch discards DHCP packets from untrusted
ports in the following situations:
• The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).
• The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the current
bindings.
• The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and source port do not
match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
26.1.1.2 DHCP Snooping Database
The Switch stores the binding table in volatile memory. If the Switch restarts, it loads static
bindings from permanent memory but loses the dynamic bindings, in which case the devices in the
network have to send DHCP requests again. As a result, it is recommended you configure the DHCP
snooping database.
The DHCP snooping database maintains the dynamic bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP
inspection in a file on an external TFTP server. If you set up the DHCP snooping database, the
Switch can reload the dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database after the Switch
restarts.
You can configure the name and location of the file on the external TFTP server. The file has the
following format:
Figure 111 DHCP Snooping Database File Format
<initial-checksum>
TYPE DHCP-SNOOPING
VERSION 1
BEGIN
<binding-1> <checksum-1>
<binding-2> <checksum-1-2>
...
...
<binding-n> <checksum-1-2-..-n>
END
The <initial-checksum> helps distinguish between the bindings in the latest update and the
bindings from previous updates. Each binding consists of 72 bytes, a space, and another checksum
that is used to validate the binding when it is read. If the calculated checksum is not equal to the
checksum in the file, that binding and all others after it are ignored.
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26.1.1.3 DHCP Relay Option 82 Information
The Switch can add information to DHCP requests that it does not discard. This provides the DHCP
server more information about the source of the requests. The Switch can add the following
information:
• Slot ID (1 byte), port ID (1 byte), and source VLAN ID (2 bytes)
• System name (up to 32 bytes)
This information is stored in an Agent Information field in the option 82 field of the DHCP headers of
client DHCP request frames. See Chapter 36 on page 258 for more information about DHCP relay
option 82.
When the DHCP server responds, the Switch removes the information in the Agent Information field
before forwarding the response to the original source.
You can configure this setting for each source VLAN. This setting is independent of the DHCP relay
settings (Chapter 36 on page 258).
26.1.1.4 Configuring DHCP Snooping
Follow these steps to configure DHCP snooping on the Switch.
1
Enable DHCP snooping on the Switch.
2
Enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN, and configure DHCP relay option 82.
3
Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of DHCP packets that
each port can receive per second.
4
Configure static bindings.
26.1.2 ARP Inspection Overview
Use ARP inspection to filter unauthorized ARP packets on the network. This can prevent many kinds
of man-in-the-middle attacks, such as the one in the following example.
Figure 112 Example: Man-in-the-middle Attack
A
B
X
In this example, computer B tries to establish a connection with computer A. Computer X is in the
same broadcast domain as computer A and intercepts the ARP request for computer A. Then,
computer X does the following things:
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• It pretends to be computer A and responds to computer B.
• It pretends to be computer B and sends a message to computer A.
As a result, all the communication between computer A and computer B passes through computer
X. Computer X can read and alter the information passed between them.
26.1.2.1 ARP Inspection and MAC Address Filters
When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet, it automatically creates a MAC address
filter to block traffic from the source MAC address and source VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP
packet. You can configure how long the MAC address filter remains in the Switch.
These MAC address filters are different than regular MAC address filters (Chapter 12 on page 108).
• They are stored only in volatile memory.
• They do not use the same space in memory that regular MAC address filters use.
• They appear only in the ARP Inspection screens and commands, not in the MAC Address
Filter screens and commands.
26.1.2.2 Trusted vs. Untrusted Ports
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for ARP inspection. This setting is
independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for DHCP snooping. You can also specify the maximum
rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on untrusted ports.
The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.
The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:
• The sender’s information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current bindings.
• The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high.
26.1.2.3 Syslog
The Switch can send syslog messages to the specified syslog server (Chapter 40 on page 295)
when it forwards or discards ARP packets. The Switch can consolidate log messages and send log
messages in batches to make this mechanism more efficient.
26.1.2.4 Configuring ARP Inspection
Follow these steps to configure ARP inspection on the Switch.
1
Configure DHCP snooping. See Section 26.1.1.4 on page 202.
Note: It is recommended you enable DHCP snooping at least one day before you enable
ARP inspection so that the Switch has enough time to build the binding table.
2
Enable ARP inspection on each VLAN.
3
Configure trusted and untrusted ports, and specify the maximum number of ARP packets that each
port can receive per second.
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26.2 IP Source Guard
Use this screen to look at the current bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Bindings are
used by DHCP snooping and ARP inspection to distinguish between authorized and unauthorized
packets in the network. The Switch learns the bindings by snooping DHCP packets (dynamic
bindings) and from information provided manually by administrators (static bindings). To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard.
Figure 113 IP Source Guard
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 IP Source Guard
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
Lease
This field displays how many days, hours, minutes, and seconds the binding is valid; for
example, 2d3h4m5s means the binding is still valid for 2 days, 3 hours, 4 minutes and 5
seconds. This field displays infinity if the binding is always valid (for example, a static
binding).
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.
dhcp-snooping: This binding was learned by snooping DHCP packets.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to
all ports.
26.3 IP Source Guard Static Binding
Use this screen to manage static bindings for DHCP snooping and ARP inspection. Static bindings
are uniquely identified by the MAC address and VLAN ID. Each MAC address and VLAN ID can only
be in one static binding. If you try to create a static binding with the same MAC address and VLAN
ID as an existing static binding, the new static binding replaces the original one. To open this
screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > Static Binding.
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Figure 114 IP Source Guard Static Binding
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 77 IP Source Guard Static Binding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
Enter the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
VLAN
Enter the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
Specify the port(s) in the binding. If this binding has one port, select the first radio button
and enter the port number in the field to the right. If this binding applies to all ports, select
Any.
Add
Click this to create the specified static binding or to update an existing one.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values above based on the last selected static binding or, if not
applicable, to clear the fields above.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each binding.
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the binding.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address assigned to the MAC address in the binding.
Lease
This field displays how long the binding is valid.
Type
This field displays how the Switch learned the binding.
static: This binding was learned from information provided manually by an administrator.
VLAN
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the binding.
Port
This field displays the port number in the binding. If this field is blank, the binding applies to
all ports.
Delete
Select this, and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Cancel
Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
26.4 DHCP Snooping
Use this screen to look at various statistics about the DHCP snooping database. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping.
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Figure 115 DHCP Snooping
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 DHCP Snooping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Database Status
This section displays the current settings for the DHCP snooping database. You can
configure them in the DHCP Snooping Configure screen. See Section 26.5 on page
208.
Agent URL
This field displays the location of the DHCP snooping database.
Write delay timer
This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific
update in the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Abort timer
This field displays how long (in seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP
snooping database after the current bindings change.
This section displays information about the current update and the next update of the
DHCP snooping database.
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Table 78 DHCP Snooping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Agent running
This field displays the status of the current update or access of the DHCP snooping
database.
none: The Switch is not accessing the DHCP snooping database.
read: The Switch is loading dynamic bindings from the DHCP snooping database.
write: The Switch is updating the DHCP snooping database.
Delay timer expiry
This field displays how much longer (in seconds) the Switch tries to complete the
current update before it gives up. It displays Not Running if the Switch is not
updating the DHCP snooping database right now.
Abort timer expiry
This field displays when (in seconds) the Switch is going to update the DHCP
snooping database again. It displays Not Running if the current bindings have not
changed since the last update.
This section displays information about the last time the Switch updated the DHCP
snooping database.
Last succeeded time
This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
successfully.
Last failed time
This field displays the last time the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
unsuccessfully.
Last failed reason
This field displays the reason the Switch updated the DHCP snooping database
unsuccessfully.
This section displays historical information about the number of times the Switch
successfully or unsuccessfully read or updated the DHCP snooping database.
Total attempts
This field displays the number of times the Switch has tried to access the DHCP
snooping database for any reason.
Startup failures
This field displays the number of times the Switch could not create or read the DHCP
snooping database when the Switch started up or a new URL is configured for the
DHCP snooping database.
Successful transfers
This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from or updated the
bindings in the DHCP snooping database successfully.
Failed transfers
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read bindings from
or update the bindings in the DHCP snooping database.
Successful reads
This field displays the number of times the Switch read bindings from the DHCP
snooping database successfully.
Failed reads
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to read bindings from
the DHCP snooping database.
Successful writes
This field displays the number of times the Switch updated the bindings in the DHCP
snooping database successfully.
Failed writes
This field displays the number of times the Switch was unable to update the bindings
in the DHCP snooping database.
Database detail
First successful access This field displays the first time the Switch accessed the DHCP snooping database for
any reason.
Last ignored bindings
counters
This section displays the number of times and the reasons the Switch ignored
bindings the last time it read bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can clear
these counters by restarting the Switch or using CLI commands. See the Ethernet
Switch CLI Reference Guide.
Binding collisions
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the Switch
already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
Invalid interfaces
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the port
number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
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Table 78 DHCP Snooping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Parse failures
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the Switch was
unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding database.
Expired leases
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the lease time
had already expired.
Unsupported vlans
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch ignored because the VLAN ID
does not exist anymore.
Last ignored time
This field displays the last time the Switch ignored any bindings for any reason from
the DHCP binding database.
Total ignored bindings
counters
This section displays the reasons the Switch has ignored bindings any time it read
bindings from the DHCP binding database. You can clear these counters by restarting
the Switch or using CLI commands. See the Ethernet Switch CLI Reference Guide.
Binding collisions
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the Switch
already had a binding with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
Invalid interfaces
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the port
number was a trusted interface or does not exist anymore.
Parse failures
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the Switch
was unable to understand the binding in the DHCP binding database.
Expired leases
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the lease
time had already expired.
Unsupported vlans
This field displays the number of bindings the Switch has ignored because the VLAN
ID does not exist anymore.
26.5 DHCP Snooping Configure
Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch (not on specific VLAN), specify the VLAN
where the default DHCP server is located, and configure the DHCP snooping database. The DHCP
snooping database stores the current bindings on a secure, external TFTP server so that they are
still available after a restart. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard
> DHCP Snooping > Configure.
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Figure 116 DHCP Snooping Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 79 DHCP Snooping Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable DHCP snooping on the Switch. You still have to enable DHCP
snooping on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and there are
no trusted ports.
DHCP Vlan
Select a VLAN ID if you want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to DHCP servers on a
specific VLAN.
Note: You have to enable DHCP snooping on the DHCP VLAN too.
You can enable Option82 in the DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure screen (Section
26.5.2 on page 211) to help the DHCP servers distinguish between DHCP requests from
different VLAN.
Select Disable if you do not want the Switch to forward DHCP packets to a specific
VLAN.
Database
If Timeout interval is greater than Write delay interval, it is possible that the next
update is scheduled to occur before the current update has finished successfully or
timed out. In this case, the Switch waits to start the next update until it completes the
current one.
Agent URL
Enter the location of the DHCP snooping database. The location should be expressed
like this: tftp://{domain name or IP address}/directory, if applicable/file
name; for example, tftp://192.168.10.1/database.txt.
Timeout interval
Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch tries to complete a specific update in
the DHCP snooping database before it gives up.
Write delay
interval
Enter how long (10-65535 seconds) the Switch waits to update the DHCP snooping
database the first time the current bindings change after an update. Once the next
update is scheduled, additional changes in current bindings are automatically included
in the next update.
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Table 79 DHCP Snooping Configure (continued)
LABEL
Renew DHCP
Snooping URL
DESCRIPTION
Enter the location of a DHCP snooping database, and click Renew if you want the
Switch to load it. You can use this to load dynamic bindings from a different DHCP
snooping database than the one specified in Agent URL.
When the Switch loads dynamic bindings from a DHCP snooping database, it does not
discard the current dynamic bindings first. If there is a conflict, the Switch keeps the
dynamic binding in volatile memory and updates the Binding collisions counter in the
DHCP Snooping screen (Section 26.4 on page 205).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.5.1 DHCP Snooping Port Configure
Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for DHCP snooping.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and there are
no trusted ports.
You can also specify the maximum number for DHCP packets that each port (trusted or untrusted)
can receive each second. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard >
DHCP Snooping > Configure > Port.
Figure 117 DHCP Snooping Port Configure
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 DHCP Snooping Port Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all
of the ports.
Server Trusted
state
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
Trusted ports are connected to DHCP servers or other switches, and the Switch discards
DHCP packets from trusted ports only if the rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers, and the Switch discards DHCP packets from
untrusted ports in the following situations:
•
•
•
•
The packet is a DHCP server packet (for example, OFFER, ACK, or NACK).
The source MAC address and source IP address in the packet do not match any of the
current bindings.
The packet is a RELEASE or DECLINE packet, and the source MAC address and source
port do not match any of the current bindings.
The rate at which DHCP packets arrive is too high.
Rate (pps)
Specify the maximum number for DHCP packets (1-2048) that the Switch receives from each
port each second. The Switch discards any additional DHCP packets. Enter 0 to disable this
limit, which is recommended for trusted ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.5.2 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
Use this screen to enable DHCP snooping on each VLAN and to specify whether or not the Switch
adds DHCP relay agent option 82 information (Chapter 36 on page 258) to DHCP requests that the
Switch relays to a DHCP server for each VLAN. To open this screen, click Advanced Application >
IP Source Guard > DHCP Snooping > Configure > VLAN.
Figure 118 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 81 DHCP Snooping VLAN Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the
* VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled
Select Yes to enable DHCP snooping on the VLAN. You still have to enable DHCP snooping on
the Switch and specify trusted ports.
Note: The Switch will drop all DHCP requests if you enable DHCP snooping and there are no
trusted ports.
Option 82
Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports in the specified
VLAN(s). The Switch adds the information (such as slot number, port number, VLAN ID and/or
system name) specified in the profile to DHCP requests that it broadcasts to the DHCP VLAN, if
specified, or VLAN.
You can specify the DHCP VLAN in the DHCP Snooping Configure screen (see Section 26.5
on page 208) and the DHCP option 82 profile in IP Application > DHCP > Option 82 Profile
(see Section 36.2.1 on page 259).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.6 ARP Inspection Status
Use this screen to look at the current list of MAC address filters that were created because the
Switch identified an unauthorized ARP packet. When the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP
packet, it automatically creates a MAC address filter to block traffic from the source MAC address
and source VLAN ID of the unauthorized ARP packet. To open this screen, click Advanced
Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection.
Figure 119 ARP Inspection Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 82 ARP Inspection Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Total number
of filters
This field displays the current number of MAC address filters that were created because the
Switch identified unauthorized ARP packets.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each MAC address filter.
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Table 82 ARP Inspection Status (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
This field displays the source MAC address in the MAC address filter.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID in the MAC address filter.
Port
This field displays the source port of the discarded ARP packet.
Expiry (sec)
This field displays how long (in seconds) the MAC address filter remains in the Switch. You
can also delete the record manually (Delete).
Reason
This field displays the reason the ARP packet was discarded.
MAC+VLAN: The MAC address and VLAN ID were not in the binding table.
IP: The MAC address and VLAN ID were in the binding table, but the IP address was not
valid.
Port: The MAC address, VLAN ID, and IP address were in the binding table, but the port
number was not valid.
Delete
Select this and click Delete to remove the specified entry.
Delete
Click this to remove the selected entries.
Cancel
Click this to clear the Delete check boxes above.
26.6.1 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
Use this screen to look at various statistics about ARP packets in each VLAN. To open this screen,
click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection > VLAN Status.
Figure 120 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 83 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
range
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to look at in the section below.
Enabled VLAN
Select this to look at all the VLANs on which ARP inspection is enabled in the section below.
Selected VLAN
Select this to look at all the VLANs in a specific range in the section below. Then, enter the
lowest VLAN ID (Start VID) and the highest VLAN ID (End VID) you want to look at.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above.
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Table 83 ARP Inspection VLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Received
This field displays the total number of ARP packets received from the VLAN since the Switch
last restarted.
Request
This field displays the total number of ARP Request packets received from the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
Reply
This field displays the total number of ARP Reply packets received from the VLAN since the
Switch last restarted.
Forwarded
This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch forwarded for the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
Dropped
This field displays the total number of ARP packets the Switch discarded for the VLAN since
the Switch last restarted.
26.6.2 ARP Inspection Log Status
Use this screen to look at log messages that were generated by ARP packets and that have not
been sent to the syslog server yet. To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source
Guard > ARP Inspection > Log Status.
Figure 121 ARP Inspection Log Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 ARP Inspection Log Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clearing log status table
Click Apply to remove all the log messages that were generated by ARP packets
and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet.
Total number of logs
This field displays the number of log messages that were generated by ARP
packets and that have not been sent to the syslog server yet. If one or more log
messages are dropped due to unavailable buffer, there is an entry called overflow
with the current number of dropped log messages.
Index
This field displays a sequential number for each log message.
Port
This field displays the source port of the ARP packet.
VID
This field displays the source VLAN ID of the ARP packet.
Sender Mac
This field displays the source MAC address of the ARP packet.
Sender IP
This field displays the source IP address of the ARP packet.
Num Pkts
This field displays the number of ARP packets that were consolidated into this log
message. The Switch consolidates identical log messages generated by ARP
packets in the log consolidation interval into one log message. You can configure
this interval in the ARP Inspection Configure screen. See Section 26.7 on page
215.
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Table 84 ARP Inspection Log Status (continued)
LABEL
Reason
DESCRIPTION
This field displays the reason the log message was generated.
dhcp deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a dynamic binding
with the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
static deny: An ARP packet was discarded because it violated a static binding with
the same MAC address and VLAN ID.
deny: An ARP packet was discarded because there were no bindings with the same
MAC address and VLAN ID.
dhcp permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a dynamic
binding.
static permit: An ARP packet was forwarded because it matched a static binding.
In the ARP Inspection VLAN Configure screen, you can configure the Switch to
generate log messages when ARP packets are discarded or forwarded based on the
VLAN ID of the ARP packet. See Section 26.7.2 on page 217.
Time
This field displays when the log message was generated.
26.7 ARP Inspection Configure
Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You can also configure the length of time
the Switch stores records of discarded ARP packets and global settings for the ARP inspection log.
To open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection >
Configure.
Figure 122 ARP Inspection Configure
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 85 ARP Inspection Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable ARP inspection on the Switch. You still have to enable ARP
inspection on specific VLAN and specify trusted ports.
Filter Aging Time
Filter aging time
This setting has no effect on existing MAC address filters.
Enter how long (1-2147483647 seconds) the MAC address filter remains in the Switch
after the Switch identifies an unauthorized ARP packet. The Switch automatically
deletes the MAC address filter afterwards. Type 0 if you want the MAC address filter to
be permanent.
Log Profile
Log buffer size
Enter the maximum number (1-1024) of log messages that were generated by ARP
packets and have not been sent to the syslog server yet. Make sure this number is
appropriate for the specified Syslog rate and Log interval.
If the number of log messages in the Switch exceeds this number, the Switch stops
recording log messages and simply starts counting the number of entries that were
dropped due to unavailable buffer. Click Clearing log status table in the ARP
Inspection Log Status screen to clear the log and reset this counter. See Section
26.6.2 on page 214.
Syslog rate
Type the maximum number of syslog messages the Switch can send to the syslog
server in one batch. This number is expressed as a rate because the batch frequency is
determined by the Log Interval. You must configure the syslog server (Chapter 40 on
page 295) to use this. Enter 0 if you do not want the Switch to send log messages
generated by ARP packets to the syslog server.
The relationship between Syslog rate and Log interval is illustrated in the following
examples:
•
•
Log interval
4 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 1: the Switch
sends 4 syslog messages every second.
6 invalid ARP packets per second, Syslog rate is 5, Log interval is 2: the Switch
sends 5 syslog messages every 2 seconds.
Type how often (1-86400 seconds) the Switch sends a batch of syslog messages to the
syslog server. Enter 0 if you want the Switch to send syslog messages immediately. See
Syslog rate for an example of the relationship between Syslog rate and Log
interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.7.1 ARP Inspection Port Configure
Use this screen to specify whether ports are trusted or untrusted ports for ARP inspection. You can
also specify the maximum rate at which the Switch receives ARP packets on each untrusted port. To
open this screen, click Advanced Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection >
Configure > Port.
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Figure 123 ARP Inspection Port Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 86 ARP Inspection Port Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number. If you configure the * port, the settings are applied to all
of the ports.
Trusted State
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
The Switch does not discard ARP packets on trusted ports for any reason.
The Switch discards ARP packets on untrusted ports in the following situations:
•
•
The sender’s information in the ARP packet does not match any of the current bindings.
The rate at which ARP packets arrive is too high. You can specify the maximum rate at
which ARP packets can arrive on untrusted ports.
Limit
Rate and Burst Interval settings have no effect on trusted ports.
Rate (pps)
Specify the maximum rate (1-2048 packets per second) at which the Switch receives ARP
packets from each port. The Switch discards any additional ARP packets. Enter 0 to disable
this limit.
Burst interval
(seconds)
The burst interval is the length of time over which the rate of ARP packets is monitored for
each port. For example, if the Rate is 15 pps and the burst interval is 1 second, then the
Switch accepts a maximum of 15 ARP packets in every one-second interval. If the burst
interval is 5 seconds, then the Switch accepts a maximum of 75 ARP packets in every fivesecond interval.
Enter the length (1-15 seconds) of the burst interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
26.7.2 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
Use this screen to enable ARP inspection on each VLAN and to specify when the Switch generates
log messages for receiving ARP packets from each VLAN. To open this screen, click Advanced
Application > IP Source Guard > ARP Inspection > Configure > VLAN.
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Figure 124 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 87 ARP Inspection VLAN Configure
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to manage in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to manage in the section below.
Apply
Click this to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the *
VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
Enabled
Select Yes to enable ARP inspection on the VLAN. Select No to disable ARP inspection on the
VLAN.
Log
Specify when the Switch generates log messages for receiving ARP packets from the VLAN.
None: The Switch does not generate any log messages when it receives an ARP packet from the
VLAN.
Deny: The Switch generates log messages when it discards an ARP packet from the VLAN.
Permit: The Switch generates log messages when it forwards an ARP packet from the VLAN.
All: The Switch generates log messages every time it receives an ARP packet from the VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click this to reset the values in this screen to their last-saved values.
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Loop Guard
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to guard against loops on the edge of your
network.
27.1 Loop Guard Overview
Loop guard allows you to configure the Switch to shut down a port if it detects that packets sent out
on that port loop back to the Switch. While you can use Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to prevent
loops in the core of your network. STP cannot prevent loops that occur on the edge of your
network.
Figure 125 Loop Guard vs STP
STP
Loop Guard
Loop guard is designed to handle loop problems on the edge of your network. This can occur when
a port is connected to a Switch that is in a loop state. Loop state occurs as a result of human error.
It happens when two ports on a switch are connected with the same cable. When a switch in loop
state sends out broadcast messages the messages loop back to the switch and are re-broadcast
again and again causing a broadcast storm.
If a switch (not in loop state) connects to a switch in loop state, then it will be affected by the
switch in loop state in the following way:
• It will receive broadcast messages sent out from the switch in loop state.
• It will receive its own broadcast messages that it sends out as they loop back. It will then rebroadcast those messages again.
The following figure shows port N on switch A connected to switch B. Switch B is in loop state.
When broadcast or multicast packets leave port N and reach switch B, they are sent back to port N
on A as they are rebroadcast from B.
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Figure 126 Switch in Loop State
B
A
N
The loop guard feature checks to see if a loop guard enabled port is connected to a switch in loop
state. This is accomplished by periodically sending a probe packet and seeing if the packet returns
on the same port. If this is the case, the Switch will shut down the port connected to the switch in
loop state.
The following figure shows a loop guard enabled port N on switch A sending a probe packet P to
switch B. Since switch B is in loop state, the probe packet P returns to port N on A. The Switch
then shuts down port N to ensure that the rest of the network is not affected by the switch in loop
state.
Figure 127 Loop Guard - Probe Packet
B
A
P
P
N
The Switch also shuts down port N if the probe packet returns to switch A on any other port. In
other words loop guard also protects against standard network loops. The following figure
illustrates three switches forming a loop. A sample path of the loop guard probe packet is also
shown. In this example, the probe packet is sent from port N and returns on another port. As long
as loop guard is enabled on port N. The Switch will shut down port N if it detects that the probe
packet has returned to the Switch.
Figure 128 Loop Guard - Network Loop
N
P
P
P
A
Note: After resolving the loop problem on your network you can re-activate the disabled
port via the web configurator (see Section 8.7 on page 85) or via commands (see
the Ethernet Switch CLI Reference Guide).
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27.2 Loop Guard Setup
Click Advanced Application > Loop Guard in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
Note: The loop guard feature can not be enabled on the ports that have Spanning Tree
Protocol (RSTP, MRSTP or MSTP) enabled.
Figure 129 Advanced Application > Loop Guard
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 88 Advanced Application > Loop Guard
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable loop guard on the Switch.
The Switch generates syslog, internal log messages as well as SNMP traps when it shuts down a
port via the loop guard feature.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable the loop guard feature on this port. The Switch sends probe packets
from this port to check if the Switch it is connected to is in loop state. If the Switch that this port is
connected is in loop state the Switch will shut down this port.
Clear this check box to disable the loop guard feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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VLAN Mapping
This chapter shows you how to configure VLAN mapping on the Switch.
28.1 VLAN Mapping Overview
With VLAN mapping enabled, the Switch can map the VLAN ID and priority level of packets received
from a private network to those used in the service provider’s network.
The Switch checks incoming traffic from the switch ports (non-management ports) against the
VLAN mapping table first, the MAC learning table and then the VLAN table before forwarding them
through the Gigabit uplink port. When VLAN mapping is enabled, the Switch forwards the tagged
packets according to its VLAN tag that do not match an entry in the VLAN mapping table. If the
incoming packets are untagged, the Switch adds a PVID based on the VLAN setting.
Note: You can not enable VLAN mapping and VLAN stacking at the same time.
28.1.1 VLAN Mapping Example
In the following example figure, packets that carry VLAN ID 12 and are received on port 3 match a
pre-configured VLAN mapping rule. The Switch translates the VLAN ID from 12 into 123 before
forwarding the packets. Any packets carrying a VLAN tag other than 12 (such as 10) and received
on port 3 will be forwarded in the individual VLAN network respectively (such as VLAN 10).
Figure 130 VLAN mapping example
123
10
Service Provider
Network
Port 3
12
10
28.2 Enabling VLAN Mapping
Click Advanced Application and then VLAN Mapping in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.
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Figure 131 VLAN Mapping
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 89 VLAN Mapping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable VLAN mapping on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this check box to enable the VLAN mapping feature on this port. Clear this check box to
disable the VLAN mapping feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
28.3 Configuring VLAN Mapping
Click the VLAN Mapping Configure link in the VLAN Mapping screen to display the screen as
shown. Use this screen to enable and edit the VLAN mapping rule(s).
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Figure 132 VLAN Mapping Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 90 VLAN Mapping Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to activate this rule.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Port
Type a port to be included in this rule.
VID
Enter a VLAN ID from 1 to 4094. This is the VLAN tag carried in the packets and will be
translated into the VID you specified in the Translated VID field.
Translated VID
Enter a VLAN ID (from 1 to 4094) into which the customer VID carried in the packets will be
translated.
Priority
Select a priority level (from 0 to 7). This is the priority level that replaces the customer
priority level in the tagged packets or adds to the untagged packets.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power,
so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile
memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Index
This is the number of the VLAN mapping entry in the table.
Active
This shows whether this entry is activated or not.
Name
This is the descriptive name for this rule.
Port
This is the port number to which this rule is applied.
VID
This is the customer VLAN ID in the incoming packets.
Translated VID
This is the VLAN ID that replaces the customer VLAN ID in the tagged packets.
Priority
This is the priority level that replaces the customer priority level in the tagged packets.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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29
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
This chapter shows you how to configure layer-2 protocol tunneling on the Switch.
29.1 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Overview
Layer-2 protocol tunneling (L2PT) is used on the service provider's edge devices. L2PT allows edge
switches (1 and 2 in the following figure) to tunnel layer-2 STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), CDP
(Cisco Discovery Protocol) and VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) packets between customer switches
(A, B and C in the following figure) connected through the service provider’s network. The edge
switch encapsulates layer-2 protocol packets with a specific MAC address before sending them
across the service provider’s network to other edge switches.
Figure 133 Layer-2 Protocol Tunneling Network Scenario
A
CDP
C
Service Provider's
Network
STP
1
STP
2
CDP
VTP
VTP
B
In the following example, if you enable L2PT for STP, you can have switches A, B, C and D in the
same spanning tree, even though switch A is not directly connected to switches B, C and D.
Topology change information can be propagated throughout the service provider’s network.
To emulate a point-to-point topology between two customer switches at different sites, such as A
and B, you can enable protocol tunneling on edge switches 1 and 2 for PAgP (Port Aggregation
Protocol), LACP or UDLD (UniDirectional Link Detection).
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Figure 134 L2PT Network Example
B
A
STP
STP
STP
1
D
Service Provider's
Network
2
C
29.1.1 Layer-2 Protocol Tunneling Mode
Each port can have two layer-2 protocol tunneling modes, Access and Tunnel.
• The Access port is an ingress port on the service provider's edge device (1 or 2 in Figure 134 on
page 226) and connected to a customer switch (A or B). Incoming layer-2 protocol packets
received on an access port are encapsulated and forwarded to the tunnel ports.
• The Tunnel port is an egress port at the edge of the service provider's network and connected to
another service provider’s switch. Incoming encapsulated layer-2 protocol packets received on a
tunnel port are decapsulated and sent to an access port.
29.2 Configuring Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
Click Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling in the navigation panel to display the
screen as shown.
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Figure 135 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 91 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable layer-2 protocol tunneling on the Switch.
Destination
MAC Address
Specify an MAC address with which the Switch uses to encapsulate the layer-2 protocol
packets by replacing the destination MAC address in the packets.
Note: The MAC address can be either a unicast MAC address or multicast MAC address. If
you use a unicast MAC address, make sure the MAC address does not exist in the
address table of a switch on the service provider’s network.
Note: All the edge switches in the service provider’s network should be set to use the same
MAC address for encapsulation.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
CDP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) packets so that
other Cisco devices can be discovered through the service provider’s network.
STP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) packets so that
STP can run properly across the service provider’s network and spanning trees can be set up
based on bridge information from all (local and remote) networks.
VTP
Select this option to have the Switch tunnel VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) packets so that all
customer switches can use consistent VLAN configuration through the service provider’s
network.
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Table 91 Advanced Application > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Point to Point
The Switch supports PAgP (Port Aggregation Protocol), LACP (Link Aggregation Control
Protocol) and UDLD (UniDirectional Link Detection) tunneling for a point-to-point topology.
Both PAgP and UDLD are Cisco’s proprietary data link layer protocols. PAgP is similar to
LACP and used to set up a logical aggregation of Ethernet ports automatically. UDLD is to
determine the link’s physical status and detect a unidirectional link.
PAGP
Select this option to have the Switch send PAgP packets to a peer to automatically negotiate
and build a logical port aggregation.
LACP
Select this option to have the Switch send LACP packets to a peer to dynamically creates
and manages trunk groups.
UDLD
Select this option to have the Switch send UDLD packets to a peer’s port it connected to
monitor the physical status of a link.
Mode
Select Access to have the Switch encapsulate the incoming layer-2 protocol packets and
forward them to the tunnel port(s). Select Access for ingress ports at the edge of the
service provider's network.
Note: You can enable L2PT services for STP, LACP, VTP, CDP, UDLD, and PAGP on the
access port(s) only.
Select Tunnel for egress ports at the edge of the service provider's network. The Switch
decapsulates the encapsulated layer-2 protocol packets received on a tunnel port by
changing the destination MAC address to the original one, and then forward them to an
access port. If the service(s) is not enabled on an access port, the protocol packets are
dropped.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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30
sFlow
This chapter shows you how to configure sFlow to have the Switch monitor traffic in a network and
send information to an sFlow collector for analysis.
30.1 sFlow Overview
sFlow (RFC 3176) is a standard technology for monitoring switched networks. An sFlow agent
embedded on a switch or router gets sample data and packet statistics from traffic forwarded
through its ports. The sFlow agent then creates sFlow data and sends it to an sFlow collector. The
sFlow collector is a server that collects and analyzes sFlow datagram. An sFlow datagram includes
packet header, input and output interface, sampling process parameters and forwarding
information.
sFlow minimizes impact on CPU load of the Switch as it analyzes sample data only. sFlow can
continuously monitor network traffic and create reports for network performance analysis and
troubleshooting. For example, you can use it to know which IP address or which type of traffic
caused network congestion.
Figure 136 sFlow Application
sFlow Agent
sFlow Collector
30.2 sFlow Port Configuration
Click Advanced Application > sFlow in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 137 Advanced Application > sFlow
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 92 Advanced Application > sFlow
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to enable the sFlow agent on the Switch.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this to allow the Switch to monitor traffic on this port and generate and send sFlow
datagram to the specified collector.
Sample-rate
Enter a number (N) from 256 to 65535. The Switch captures every one out of N packets for
this port and creates sFlow datagram.
poll-interval
Specify a time interval (from 20 to 120 in seconds) the Switch waits before sending the
sFlow datagram and packet counters for this port to the collector.
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Table 92 Advanced Application > sFlow (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Collector
Address
Enter the IP address of the sFlow collector.
Note: You must have the sFlow collector already configured in the sFlow > Collector screen.
The sFlow collector does not need to be in the same subnet as the Switch, but it must
be accessible from the Switch.
Note: Configure UDP port 6343 (the default) on a NAT router to allow port forwarding if the
collector is behind a NAT router. Configure a firewall rule for UDP port 6343 (the default)
to allow incoming traffic if the collector is behind a firewall.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
30.2.1 sFlow Collector Configuration
Click the Collector link in the sFlow screen to display the screen as shown. You can configure up
to four sFlow collectors in this screen. You may want to configure more than one collector if the
traffic load to be monitored is more than one collector can manage.
Figure 138 Advanced Application > sFlow > Collector
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 93 Advanced Application > sFlow > Collector
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Collector
Address
Enter the IP address of the sFlow collector.
UDP Port
Enter a UDP port number the Switch uses to send sFlow datagram to the collector. If you change
the port here, make sure you change it on the collector, too. The default port is 6343.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes
if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
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Table 93 Advanced Application > sFlow > Collector (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of this entry.
Collector
Address
This field displays IP address of the sFlow collector.
UDP Port
This field displays port number the Switch uses to send sFlow datagram to the collector.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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31
PPPoE
This chapter describes how the Switch gives a PPPoE termination server additional information that
the server can use to identify and authenticate a PPPoE client.
31.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Overview
A PPPoE Intermediate Agent (PPPoE IA) is deployed between a PPPoE server and PPPoE clients. It
helps the PPPoE server identify and authenticate clients by adding subscriber line specific
information to PPPoE discovery packets from clients on a per-port or per-port-per-VLAN basis
before forwarding them to the PPPoE server.
PPPoE Client
PPPoE Server
PPPoE IA
31.1.1 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Tag Format
If the PPPoE Intermediate Agent is enabled, the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to PADI (PPPoE
Active Discovery Initialization) and PADR (PPPoE Active Discovery Request) packets from PPPoE
clients. This tag is defined in RFC 2516 and has the following format for this feature.
Table 94 PPPoE Intermediate Agent Vendor-specific Tag Format
Tag_Type
Tag_Len
Value
i1
i2
(0x0105)
The Tag_Type is 0x0105 for vendor-specific tags, as defined in RFC 2516. The Tag_Len indicates the
length of Value, i1 and i2. The Value is the 32-bit number 0x00000DE9, which stands for the “ADSL
Forum” IANA entry. i1 and i2 are PPPoE intermediate agent sub-options, which contain additional
information about the PPPoE client.
31.1.2 Sub-Option Format
There are two types of sub-option: “Agent Circuit ID Sub-option” and “Agent Remote ID Suboption”. They have the following formats.
Table 95 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: User-defined String
SubOpt
Length
Value
0x01
N
String
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(63 bytes)
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Table 96 PPPoE IA Remote ID Sub-option Format
SubOpt
Length
Value
0x02
N
MAC Address or String
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(63 bytes)
The 1 in the first field identifies this as an Agent Circuit ID sub-option and 2 identifies this as an
Agent Remote ID sub-option. The next field specifies the length of the field. The Switch takes the
Circuit ID string you manually configure for a VLAN on a port as the highest priority and the Circuit
ID string for a port as the second priority. In addition, the Switch puts the PPPoE client’s MAC
address into the Agent Remote ID Sub-option if you do not specify any user-defined string.
31.1.2.1 Flexible Circuit ID Syntax with Identifier String and Variables
If you do not configure a Circuit ID string for a VLAN on a specific port or for a specific port, the
Switch adds the user-defined identifier string and variables into the Agent Circuit ID Sub-option.
The variables can be the slot ID of the PPPoE client, the port number of the PPPoE client and/or the
VLAN ID on the PPPoE packet.
The identifier-string, slot ID, port number and VLAN ID are separated from each other by a pound
key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,), forward slash (/) or space. An Agent Circuit ID Suboption example is “Switch/07/0123” and indicates the PPPoE packets come from a PPPoE client
which is connected to the Switch’s port 7 and belong to VLAN 123.
Table 97 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: Using Identifier String and Variables
SubOpt
Length
0x01
N
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
Value
Identifier
String
delimiter
Slot ID
delimiter
Port No
delimiter
VLAN ID
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
(2 byte)
(1 byte)
(4 bytes)
(53 byte)
31.1.2.2 WT-101 Default Circuit ID Syntax
If you do not configure a Circuit ID string for a specific VLAN on a port or for a specific port, and
disable the flexible Circuit ID syntax in the PPPoE > Intermediate Agent screen, the Switch
automatically generates a Circuit ID string according to the default Circuit ID syntax which is
defined in the DSL Forum Working Text (WT)-101. The default access node identifier is the host
name of the PPPoE intermediate agent and the eth indicates “Ethernet”.
Table 98 PPPoE IA Circuit ID Sub-option Format: Defined in WT-101
SubOpt
Length
0x01
N
(1 byte)
(1 byte)
Value
Access
Node
Identifier
Space
eth
Space
(1
byte)
(3
byte)
(1
byte)
(20 byte)
Slot
ID
(1
byte)
/
Port No
:
(1
byte)
(2
byte)
(1
byte)
VLAN
ID
(4
bytes)
31.1.3 Port State
Every port is either a trusted port or an untrusted port for the PPPoE intermediate agent. This
setting is independent of the trusted/untrusted setting for DHCP snooping or ARP inspection. You
can also specify the agent sub-options (circuit ID and remote ID) that the Switch adds to PADI and
PADR packets from PPPoE clients.
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Trusted ports are connected to PPPoE servers.
• If a PADO (PPPoE Active Discovery Offer), PADS (PPPoE Active Discovery Session-confirmation),
or PADT (PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate) packet is sent from a PPPoE server and received on
a trusted port, the Switch forwards it to all other ports.
• If a PADI or PADR packet is sent from a PPPoE client but received on a trusted port, the Switch
forwards it to other trusted port(s).
Note: The Switch will drop all PPPoE discovery packets if you enable the PPPoE
intermediate agent and there are no trusted ports.
Untrusted ports are connected to subscribers.
• If a PADI, PADR, or PADT packet is sent from a PPPoE client and received on an untrusted port,
the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to the packet and then forwards it to the trusted port(s).
• The Switch discards PADO and PADS packets which are sent from a PPPoE server but received on
an untrusted port.
31.2 The PPPoE Screen
Use this screen to configure the PPPoE Intermediate Agent on the Switch.
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
Click Click Here to go to the Intermediate Agent screen.
Figure 139 Advanced Application > PPPoE Intermediate Agent
31.3 PPPoE Intermediate Agent
Use this screen to configure the Switch to give a PPPoE termination server additional subscriber
information that the server can use to identify and authenticate a PPPoE client.
Click Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent in the navigation panel to display
the screen as shown.
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Figure 140 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 99 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable the PPPoE intermediate agent globally on the Switch.
access-nodeidentifier
Enter up to 20 ASCII characters to identify the PPPoE intermediate agent. Hyphens (-) and
spaces are also allowed. The default is the Switch’s host name.
circuit-id
Use this section to configure the Circuit ID field in the PADI and PADR packets.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific port or for a specific VLAN on a port has priority
over this.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific port (in the Advanced Application > PPPoE >
Intermediate Agent > Port screen) or for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced
Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has priority over
this. That means, if you also want to configure PPPoE IA Per-Port or Per-Port Per-VLAN
setting, leave the fields here empty and configure circuit-id and remote-id in the Per-Port or
Per-Port Per-VLAN screen.
Active
Select this option to have the Switch add the user-defined identifier string and variables
(specified in the option field) to PADI or PADR packets from PPPoE clients.
If you leave this option unselected and do not configure any Circuit ID string (using CLI
commands) on the Switch, the Switch will use the string specified in the access-nodeidentifier field.
hostname
Select this option to have the Switch add the Switch’s host name to PADI or PADR packets
from PPPoE clients.
identifierstring
Specify a string that the Switch adds in the Agent Circuit ID sub-option. You can enter up to
53 ASCII characters. Spaces are allowed.
option
Select the variables that you want the Switch to generate and add in the Agent Circuit ID
sub-option. The variable options include s, p, v, sp, sv, pv and spv which indicate slot,
port, vlan or combinations of slot-port, slot-VLAN, port-VLAN and slot-port-VLAN
respectively. The Switch enters a zero into the PADI and PADR packets for the slot value.
delimiter
Select a delimiter to separate the identifier-string, slot ID, port number and/or VLAN ID
from each other. You can use a pound key (#), semi-colon (;), period (.), comma (,),
forward slash (/) or space.
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Table 99 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
31.3.1 PPPoE IA Per-Port
Use this screen to specify whether individual ports are trusted or untrusted ports and have the
Switch add extra information to PPPoE discovery packets from PPPoE clients on a per-port basis.
Note: The Switch will drop all PPPoE packets if you enable the PPPoE Intermediate Agent
on the Switch and there are no trusted ports.
Click the Port link in the Intermediate Agent screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 141 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 100 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 100 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Trusted
State
Select whether this port is a trusted port (Trusted) or an untrusted port (Untrusted).
Trusted ports are uplink ports connected to PPPoE servers.
•
•
If a PADO (PPPoE Active Discovery Offer), PADS (PPPoE Active Discovery Sessionconfirmation), or PADT (PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate) packet is sent from a PPPoE
server and received on a trusted port, the Switch forwards it to all other ports.
If a PADI or PADR packet is sent from a PPPoE client but received on a trusted port, the
Switch forwards it to other trusted port(s).
Untrusted ports are downlink ports connected to subscribers.
•
•
Circuit-id
If a PADI, PADR, or PADT packet is sent from a PPPoE client and received on an
untrusted port, the Switch adds a vendor-specific tag to the packet and then forwards it
to the trusted port(s).
The Switch discards PADO and PADS packets which are sent from a PPPoE server but
received on an untrusted port.
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Circuit ID
sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets received on this port. Spaces are allowed.
The Circuit ID you configure for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced Application >
PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has the highest priority.
Remote-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Remote ID
sub-option for PPPoE discovery packets received on this port. Spaces are allowed.
If you do not specify a string here or in the Remote-id field for a VLAN on a port, the
Switch automatically uses the PPPoE client’s MAC address.
The Remote ID you configure for a specific VLAN on a port (in the Advanced Application >
PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN screen) has the highest priority.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
31.3.2 PPPoE IA Per-Port Per-VLAN
Use this screen to configure PPPoE IA settings that apply to a specific VLAN on a port.
Click the VLAN link in the Intermediate Agent > Port screen to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 142 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 101 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > Port > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show Port
Enter a port number to show the PPPoE Intermediate Agent settings for the specified
VLAN(s) on the port.
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to configure in the section below.
Start VID
End VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
Apply
Click Apply to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
Port
This field displays the port number specified above.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure
the * VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all VLANs. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a VLAN-by-VLAN basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the VLANs as soon as you make them.
Circuit-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Circuit ID
sub-option for this VLAN on the specified port. Spaces are allowed.
Remote-id
Enter a string of up to 63 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the Agent Remote ID
sub-option for this VLAN on the specified port. Spaces are allowed.
The Circuit ID you configure here has the highest priority.
If you do not specify a string here or in the Remote-id field for a specific port, the Switch
automatically uses the PPPoE client’s MAC address.
The Remote ID you configure here has the highest priority.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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31.3.3 PPPoE IA for VLAN
Use this screen to set whether the PPPoE Intermediate Agent is enabled on a VLAN and whether the
Switch appends the Circuit ID and/or Remote ID to PPPoE discovery packets from a specific VLAN.
Click the VLAN link in the Intermediate Agent screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 143 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 102 Advanced Application > PPPoE > Intermediate Agent > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Show VLAN
Use this section to specify the VLANs you want to configure in the section below.
Start VID
Enter the lowest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
End VID
Enter the highest VLAN ID you want to configure in the section below.
Apply
Click Apply to display the specified range of VLANs in the section below.
VID
This field displays the VLAN ID of each VLAN in the range specified above. If you configure the
* VLAN, the settings are applied to all VLANs.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all VLANs. Use this row first and then make
adjustments on a VLAN-by-VLAN basis.
Enabled
Select this option to turn on the PPPoE Intermediate Agent on a VLAN.
Circuit-id
Select this option to make the Circuit ID settings for a specific VLAN take effect.
Remote-id
Select this option to make the Remote ID settings for a specific VLAN take effect.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the VLANs as soon as you make them.
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32
Error Disable
This chapter shows you how to configure the rate limit for control packets on a port, and set the
Switch to take an action (such as to shut down a port or stop sending packets) on a port when the
Switch detects a pre-configured error. It also shows you how to configure the Switch to
automatically undo the action after the error is gone.
32.1 CPU Protection Overview
Switches exchange protocol control packets in a network to get the latest networking information.
If a switch receives large numbers of control packets, such as ARP, BPDU or IGMP packets, which
are to be processed by the CPU, the CPU may become overloaded and be unable to handle regular
tasks properly.
The CPU protection feature allows you to limit the rate of ARP, BPDU and IGMP packets to be
delivered to the CPU on a port. This enhances the CPU efficiency and protects against potential DoS
attacks or errors from other network(s). You then can choose to drop control packets that exceed
the specified rate limit or disable a port on which the packets are received.
32.2 Error-Disable Recovery Overview
Some features, such as loop guard or CPU protection, allow the Switch to shut down a port or
discard specific packets on a port when an error is detected on the port. For example, if the Switch
detects that packets sent out the port(s) loop back to the Switch, the Switch can shut down the
port(s) automatically. After that, you need to enable the port(s) or allow the packets on a port
manually via the web configurator or the commands. With error-disable recovery, you can set the
disabled port(s) to become active or start receiving the packets again after the time interval you
specify.
32.3 The Error Disable Screen
Use this screen to configure error disable related settings. Click Advanced Application >
Errdisable in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
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Figure 144
Advanced Application > Errdisable
32.4 CPU Protection Configuration
Use this screen to limit the maximum number of control packets (ARP, BPDU and/or IGMP) that the
Switch can receive or transmit on a port. Click the Click Here link next to CPU protection in the
Advanced Application > Errdisable screen to display the screen as shown.
Note: After you configure this screen, make sure you also enable error detection for the
specific control packets in the Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable
Detect screen.
Figure 145 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 103 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Reason
Select the type of control packet you want to configure here.
Port
This field displays the port number.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all ports. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each port if necessary.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 103 Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rate Limit (pkt/
s)
Enter a number from 0 to 256 to specify how many control packets this port can receive or
transmit per second.
0 means no rate limit.
You can configure the action that the Switch takes when the limit is exceeded. See Section
32.5 on page 243 for detailed information.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
32.5 Error-Disable Detect Configuration
Use screen to have the Switch detect whether the control packets exceed the rate limit configured
for a port and configure the action to take once the limit is exceeded. Click the Click Here link next
to Errdisable Detect link in the Advanced Application > Errdisable screen to display the
screen as shown.
Figure 146 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 104 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cause
This field displays the types of control packet that may cause CPU overload.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all entries. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each entry if necessary.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the entries as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this option to have the Switch detect if the configured rate limit for a specific control
packet is exceeded and take the action selected below.
Mode
Select the action that the Switch takes when the number of control packets exceed the rate
limit on a port, set in the Advanced Application > Errdisable > CPU protection screen.
•
•
•
inactive-port - The Switch disables the port on which the control packets are received.
inactive-reason - The Switch drops all the specified control packets on the port.
rate-limitation - The Switch drops the additional control packets the port has to handle
in every one second.
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Table 104 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Detect (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
32.6 Error-Disable Recovery Configuration
Use this screen to to configure the Switch to automatically undo an action after the error is gone.
Click the Click Here link next to Errdisable Recovery in the Advanced Application >
Errdisable screen to display the screen as shown.
Figure 147 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Recovery
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 105 Advanced Application > Errdisable > Errdisable Recovery
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to turn on the error-disable recovery function on the Switch.
Reason
This field displays the supported features that allow the Switch to shut down a port or
discard packets on a port according to the feature requirements and what action you
configure.
*
Use this row to make the setting the same for all entries. Use this row first and then make
adjustments to each entry if necessary.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the entries as soon as you make them.
Timer Status
Select this option to allow the Switch to wait for the specified time interval to activate a port
or allow specific packets on a port, after the error was gone. Deselect this option to turn off
this rule.
Interval
Enter the number of seconds (from 30 to 2592000) for the time interval.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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33
Private VLAN
This chapter shows you how to configure the Switch to prevent communications between ports in a
VLAN.
33.1 Private VLAN Overview
Private VLAN allows you to do port isolation within a VLAN in a simple way. If you enable a private
VLAN rule for a VLAN on the Switch, the Switch automatically adds all ports (except the uplink
port(s)) in this VLAN to the isolated port list and blocks traffic between the isolated ports. The
uplink ports (25 to 28 on the MES3500-24(F) or 9 to 10 on the MES3500-10) are always in the
promiscuous port list. A promiscuous port can communicate with any port in the same VLAN. An
isolated port can communicate with the promiscuous port(s) only.
Note: You can have up to one private VLAN rule for each VLAN.
In the following example, ports 1, 2, 3 and 25 belong to VLAN 123. You configure and enable
private VLAN for VLAN 123 on the Switch. Then ports 1, 2 and/or 3 cannot send traffic to each
other, but they all can talk to the uplink port 25.
Figure 148 Private VLAN Example
2
3
25
VLAN 123
Isolated ports: 1 ~ 3
Promiscuous port: 25
Note: Make sure you keep at least one port in the promiscuous port list for a VLAN with
private VLAN enabled. Otherwise, this VLAN is blocked from the whole network.
33.2 Configuring Private VLAN
Click Advanced Application > Private VLAN in the navigation panel to display the screen as
shown.
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Figure 149 Advanced Application > Private VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 106 Advanced Application > Private VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Check this box to enable private VLAN in a VLAN.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
VLAN ID
Enter a VLAN ID from 1 to 4094. This is the VLAN to which this rule applies.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the Switch’s
run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the
Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you
are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to clear the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of the rule.
Active
This shows whether this rule is activated or not.
Name
This is the descriptive name for this rule.
VLAN
This is the VLAN to which this rule is applied.
Delete
Check the rule(s) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the Delete
button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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34
Static Route
This chapter shows you how to configure static routes.
34.1 Static Routing Overview
The Switch uses IP for communication with management computers, for example using HTTP,
Telnet, SSH, or SNMP. Use IP static routes to have the Switch respond to remote management
stations that are not reachable through the default gateway. The Switch can also use static routes
to send data to a server or device that is not reachable through the default gateway, for example
when sending SNMP traps or using ping to test IP connectivity.
This figure shows a Telnet session coming in from network N1. The Switch sends reply traffic to
default gateway R1 which routes it back to the manager’s computer. The Switch needs a static
route to tell it to use router R2 to send traffic to an SNMP trap server on network N2.
Figure 150 Static Routing Overview
N1
N2
SNMP
Telnet
R1
R2
34.2 Configuring Static Routing
Click IP Application > Static Routing in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 151 IP Application > Static Routing
The following table describes the related labels you use to create a static route.
Table 107 IP Application > Static Routing
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Name
Enter a descriptive name (up to 10 printable ASCII characters) for identification purposes.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask for this destination. Routing is always based on network number. If
you need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the
subnet mask field to force the network number to be identical to the host ID.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your Switch
that will forward the packet to the destination. The gateway must be a router on the same
segment as your Switch.
Metric
The metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses hop
count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected networks.
Enter a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need not be precise,
but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Add
Click Add to insert a new static route to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to set the above fields back to the factory defaults.
Index
This field displays the index number of the route. Click a number to edit the static route
entry.
Active
This field displays Yes when the static route is activated and No when it is deactivated.
Name
This field displays the descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purposes
only.
Destination
Address
This field displays the IP network address of the final destination.
Subnet Mask
This field displays the subnet mask for this destination.
Gateway
Address
This field displays the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of
your Switch that will forward the packet to the destination.
Metric
This field displays the cost of transmission for routing purposes.
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Table 107 IP Application > Static Routing (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
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35
Differentiated Services
This chapter shows you how to configure Differentiated Services (DiffServ) on the Switch.
35.1 DiffServ Overview
Quality of Service (QoS) is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the
flow are given the same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different priorities to
different packet types.
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific per-hop
treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application types
and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the level of
service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to handle the
packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate paths or remember
state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to request a particular service
or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
35.1.1 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service (ToS) field in
the IP header. The DS field contains a 6-bit DSCP field which can define up to 64 service levels and
the remaining 2 bits are defined as currently unused (CU). The following figure illustrates the DS
field.
Figure 152 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP (6 bits)
CU (2 bits)
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that non-DiffServ
compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
The DSCP value determines the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each packet gets as it is forwarded
across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule different kinds of traffic can be marked for
different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated according to the DSCP values and
the configured policies.
35.1.2 DiffServ Network Example
The following figure depicts a DiffServ network consisting of a group of directly connected DiffServcompliant network devices. The boundary node (A in Figure 153) in a DiffServ network classifies
(marks with a DSCP value) the incoming packets into different traffic flows (Platinum, Gold,
Silver, Bronze) based on the configured marking rules. A network administrator can then apply
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various traffic policies to the traffic flows. An example traffic policy, is to give higher drop
precedence to one traffic flow over others. In our example, packets in the Bronze traffic flow are
more likely to be dropped when congestion occurs than the packets in the Platinum traffic flow as
they move across the DiffServ network.
Figure 153 DiffServ Network
A
P G S B
P - Platinum
G - Gold
S - Silver
B - Bronze
S G P P
S G P P
S
B
B
35.2 Two Rate Three Color Marker Traffic Policing
Traffic policing is the limiting of the input or output transmission rate of a class of traffic on the
basis of user-defined criteria. Traffic policing methods measure traffic flows against user-defined
criteria and identify it as either conforming, exceeding or violating the criteria.
Two Rate Three Color Marker (TRTCM, defined in RFC 2698) is a type of traffic policing that
identifies packets by comparing them to two user-defined rates: the Committed Information Rate
(CIR) and the Peak Information Rate (PIR). The CIR specifies the average rate at which packets are
admitted to the network. The PIR is greater than or equal to the CIR. CIR and PIR values are based
on the guaranteed and maximum bandwidth respectively as negotiated between a service provider
and client.
Two Rate Three Color Marker evaluates incoming packets and marks them with one of three colors
which refer to packet loss priority levels. High packet loss priority level is referred to as red,
medium is referred to as yellow and low is referred to as green. After TRTCM is configured and
DiffServ is enabled the following actions are performed on the colored packets:
• Red (high loss priority level) packets are dropped.
• Yellow (medium loss priority level) packets are dropped if there is congestion on the network.
• Green (low loss priority level) packets are forwarded.
TRTCM operates in one of two modes: color-blind or color-aware. In color-blind mode, packets are
marked based on evaluating against the PIR and CIR regardless of if they have previously been
marked or not. In the color-aware mode, packets are marked based on both existing color and
evaluation against the PIR and CIR. If the packets do not match any of colors, then the packets
proceed unchanged.
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35.2.1 TRTCM-Color-blind Mode
All packets are evaluated against the PIR. If a packet exceeds the PIR it is marked red. Otherwise it
is evaluated against the CIR. If it exceeds the CIR then it is marked yellow. Finally, if it is below the
CIR then it is marked green.
Figure 154 TRTCM-Color-blind Mode
Exceed NO
CIR?
Exceed NO
PIR?
Low Packet
Loss
YES
YES
High Packet
Loss
Medium Packet
Loss
35.2.2 TRTCM-Color-aware Mode
In color-aware mode the evaluation of the packets uses the existing packet loss priority. TRTCM can
increase a packet loss priority of a packet but it cannot decrease it. Packets that have been
previously marked red or yellow can only be marked with an equal or higher packet loss priority.
Packets marked red (high packet loss priority) continue to be red without evaluation against the PIR
or CIR. Packets marked yellow can only be marked red or remain yellow so they are only evaluated
against the PIR. Only the packets marked green are first evaluated against the PIR and then if they
don’t exceed the PIR level are they evaluated against the CIR.
Figure 155 TRTCM-Color-aware Mode
NO
Red?
YES
High Packet
Loss
NO
Exceed NO
PIR?
Yellow?
YES
YES
High Packet
Loss
Medium Packet
Loss
Exceed NO Low Packet
Loss
CIR?
YES
Medium Packet
Loss
35.3 Activating DiffServ
Activate DiffServ to apply marking rules or IEEE 802.1p priority mapping on the selected port(s).
Click IP Application > DiffServ in the navigation panel to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 156 IP Application > DiffServ
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 108 IP Application > DiffServ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable DiffServ on the Switch.
Port
This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first
to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select Active to enable DiffServ on the port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
35.3.1 Configuring 2-Rate 3 Color Marker Settings
Use this screen to configure TRTCM settings. Click the 2-rate 3 Color Marker link in the DiffServ
screen to display the screen as shown next.
Note: You cannot enable both TRTCM and Bandwidth Control at the same time.
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Figure 157 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 109 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this to activate TRTCM (Two Rate Three Color Marker) on the Switch. The Switch evaluates
and marks the packets based on the TRTCM settings.
Note: You must also activate DiffServ on the Switch and the individual ports for the Switch to drop
red (high loss priority) colored packets.
Mode
Select color-blind to have the Switch treat all incoming packets as uncolored. All incoming
packets are evaluated against the CIR and PIR.
Select color-aware to treat the packets as marked by some preceding entity. Incoming packets
are evaluated based on their existing color. Incoming packets that are not marked proceed
through the Switch.
Port
This field displays the index number of a port on the Switch.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some settings the same for all ports. Use this row first to set
the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
Active
Select this to activate TRTCM on the port.
Commit
Rate
Specify the Commit Information Rate (CIR) for this port.
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Table 109 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Peak
Rate
Specify the Peak Information Rate (PIR) for this port.
DSCP
Select the DSCP profile that you want to apply to packets on this port. In a DSCP profile you can
specify the DSCP values to assign to packets based on the color they are marked via TRTCM.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
35.3.2 Configuring DSCP Profiles
Use this screen to configure DSCP profiles. Click the DSCP Profile link in the 2-Rate 3 Color
Marker screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 158 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker > DSCP Profile
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 110 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker > DSCP Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Profile
Name
Type a descriptive name (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) for this profile. This is for
identification only.
Green
Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with low packet loss priority.
Yellow
Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with medium packet loss priority.
Red
Specify the DSCP value to use for packets with high packet loss priority.
Add
Click Add to insert a new DSCP profile to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the above fields to your previous configuration.
Profile
Name
This field displays the name of the DSCP priofile. Click the name to edit the profile settings.
Green
This field displays the DSCP value to use for packets with low packet loss priority in this profile.
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Table 110 IP Application > DiffServ > 2-rate 3 Color Marker > DSCP Profile (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Yellow
This field displays the DSCP value to use for packets with medium packet loss priority in this
profile.
Red
This field displays the DSCP value to use for packets with high packet loss priority in this profile.
Delete
Profile
Select the profile(s) that you want to remove.
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected profile(s) from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
35.4 DSCP-to-IEEE 802.1p Priority Settings
You can configure the DSCP to IEEE 802.1p mapping to allow the Switch to prioritize all traffic
based on the incoming DSCP value according to the DiffServ to IEEE 802.1p mapping table.
The following table shows the default DSCP-to-IEEE802.1p mapping.
Table 111 Default DSCP-IEEE 802.1p Mapping
DSCP VALUE
0–7
8 – 15
16 – 23
24 – 31
32 – 39
40 – 47
48 – 55
56 – 63
IEEE 802.1p
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
35.4.1 Configuring DSCP Settings
To change the DSCP-IEEE 802.1p mapping click the DSCP Setting link in the DiffServ screen to
display the screen as shown next.
Figure 159 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 112 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
0 … 63
This is the DSCP classification identification number.
To set the IEEE 802.1p priority mapping, select the priority level from the drop-down list box.
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Table 112 IP Application > DiffServ > DSCP Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save
your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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36
DHCP
This chapter shows you how to configure the DHCP feature.
36.1 DHCP Overview
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual computers
to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the Switch as a DHCP
server or a DHCP relay agent. When configured as a server, the Switch provides the TCP/IP
configuration for the clients. If you configure the Switch as a relay agent, then the Switch forwards
DHCP requests to DHCP server on your network. If you don’t configure the Switch as a DHCP server
or relay agent then you must have a DHCP server in the broadcast domain of the client computers
or else the client computers must be configured manually.
36.1.1 DHCP Modes
If there is already a DHCP server on your network, then you can configure the Switch as a DHCP
relay agent. When the Switch receives a request from a computer on your network, it contacts the
DHCP server for the necessary IP information, and then relays the assigned information back to the
computer.
36.1.2 DHCP Configuration Options
The DHCP configuration on the Switch is divided into Global and VLAN screens. The screen you
should use for configuration depends on the DHCP services you want to offer the DHCP clients on
your network. Choose the configuration screen based on the following criteria:
• Global: The Switch forwards all DHCP requests to the same DHCP server.
• VLAN: The Switch is configured on a VLAN by VLAN basis. The Switch can be configured to relay
DHCP requests to different DHCP servers for clients in different VLAN.
36.2 DHCP Status
Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel. The DHCP Status screen displays.
Figure 160 IP Application > DHCP Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 113 IP Application > DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Relay Mode
This field displays:
•
•
•
None: if the Switch is not configured as a DHCP relay agent.
Global: if the Switch is configured as a DHCP relay agent only.
VLAN: followed by a VLAN ID or multiple VLAN IDs if it is configured as a relay agent for
specific VLAN(s).
36.2.1 Option 82 Profile
Use this screen to create DHCPv4 option 82 profiles. Click IP Application > DHCP in the
navigation panel and click the Option 82 Profile link to display the screen as shown.
Figure 161 IP Application > DHCP > Option 82 Profile
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 114 IP Application > DHCP > Option 82 Profile
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the profile for identification purposes. You can use up to 32
ASCII characters. Spaces are allowed.
Circuit-ID
Use this section to configure the Circuit ID sub-option to include information that is specific
to the relay agent (the Switch).
Enable
Select this option to have the Switch add the Circuit ID sub-option to client DHCP requests
that it relays to a DHCP server.
slot-port
Select this option to have the Switch add the number of port that the DHCP client is
connected to.
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Table 114 IP Application > DHCP > Option 82 Profile (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
vlan
Select this option to have the Switch add the ID of VLAN which the port belongs to.
hostname
This is the system name you configure in the Basic Setting > General Setup screen.
Select this option for the Switch to add the system name to the client DHCP requests that it
relays to a DHCP server.
string
Remote-ID
Enter a string of up to 64 ASCII characters that the Switch adds into the client DHCP
requests. Spaces are allowed.
Use this section to configure the Remote ID sub-option to include information that identifies
the relay agent (the Switch).
Enable
Select this option to have the Switch append the Remote ID sub-option to the option 82 field
of DHCP requests.
mac
Select this option to have the Switch add its MAC address to the client DHCP requests that it
relays to a DHCP server.
string
Enter a string of up to 64 ASCII characters for the remote ID information in this field.
Spaces are allowed.
Add
Click this to create a new entry or to update an existing one.
This saves your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if
it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your
changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to their last saved values.
Profile Name
This field displays the descriptive name of the profile. Click the name to change the settings.
Circuit-ID
Enable
This field displays whether the Circuit ID sub-option is added to client DHCP requests.
Field
This field displays the information that is included in the Circuit ID sub-option.
Remote-ID
Enable
This field displays whether the Remote ID sub-option is added to client DHCP requests.
Field
This field displays the information that is included in the Remote ID sub-option.
Delete
Check the entry(ies) that you want to remove in the Delete column and then click the
Delete button.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the selected checkbox(es) in the Delete column.
36.3 DHCP Relay
Configure DHCP relay on the Switch if the DHCP clients and the DHCP server are not in the same
broadcast domain. During the initial IP address leasing, the Switch helps to relay network
information (such as the IP address and subnet mask) between a DHCP client and a DHCP server.
Once the DHCP client obtains an IP address and can connect to the network, network information
renewal is done between the DHCP client and the DHCP server without the help of the Switch.
The Switch can be configured as a global DHCP relay. This means that the Switch forwards all DHCP
requests from all domains to the same DHCP server. You can also configure the Switch to relay
DHCP information based on the VLAN membership of the DHCP clients.
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36.3.1 DHCP Relay Agent Information
The Switch can add information about the source of client DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP
server by adding Relay Agent Information. This helps provide authentication about the source of
the requests. The DHCP server can then provide an IP address based on this information. Please
refer to RFC 3046 for more details.
The DHCP Relay Agent Information feature adds an Agent Information field to the Option 82
field. The Option 82 field is in the DHCP headers of client DHCP request frames that the Switch
relays to a DHCP server.
Relay Agent Information can include the System Name of the Switch if you select this option.
You can change the System Name in Basic Settings > General Setup.
The following describes the DHCP relay information that the Switch sends to the DHCP server:
Table 115 Relay Agent Information
FIELD LABELS
DESCRIPTION
Slot ID
(1 byte) This value is always 0 for stand-alone switches.
Port ID
(1 byte) This is the port that the DHCP client is connected to.
VLAN ID
(2 bytes) This is the VLAN that the port belongs to.
Information
(up to 64 bytes) This optional, read-only field is set according to system name set in Basic
Settings > General Setup.
36.3.2 Configuring DHCP Global Relay
Configure global DHCP relay in the DHCP Relay screen. Click IP Application > DHCP in the
navigation panel and click the Global link to display the screen as shown.
Figure 162 IP Application > DHCP > Global
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 116 IP Application > DHCP > Global
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable DHCP relay.
Remote DHCP
Server 1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
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Table 116 IP Application > DHCP > Global (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Option 82
Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCPv4 option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports. The Switch
adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the profile to DHCP
requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
36.3.3 Global DHCP Relay Configuration Example
The follow figure shows a network example where the Switch is used to relay DHCP requests for the
VLAN1 and VLAN2 domains. There is only one DHCP server that services the DHCP clients in both
domains.
Figure 163 Global DHCP Relay Network Example
DHCP Server:
192.168.1.100
VLAN2
VLAN1
Configure the DHCP Relay screen as shown. Make sure you select a DHCP option 82 profile
(default1 in this example) to set the Switch to send additional information (such as the VLAN ID)
together with the DHCP requests to the DHCP server. This allows the DHCP server to assign the
appropriate IP address according to the VLAN ID.
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Figure 164 DHCP Relay Configuration Example
EXAMPLE
36.4 Configuring DHCP VLAN Settings
Use this screen to configure your DHCP settings based on the VLAN domain of the DHCP clients.
Click IP Application > DHCP in the navigation panel, then click the VLAN link In the DHCP
Status screen that displays.
Note: You must set up a management IP address for each VLAN that you want to
configure DHCP settings for on the Switch. See Section 8.6 on page 83 for
information on how to set up management IP addresses for VLANs.
Figure 165 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 117 IP Application > DHCP > VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
VID
Enter the ID number of the VLAN to which these DHCP settings apply.
Remote DHCP
Server 1 .. 3
Enter the IP address of a DHCP server in dotted decimal notation.
Option 82
Profile
Select a pre-defined DHCP option 82 profile that the Switch applies to all ports in this VLAN.
The Switch adds the Circuit ID sub-option and/or Remote ID sub-option specified in the
profile to DHCP requests that it relays to a DHCP server.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click this to clear the fields above.
Rule Usage
This field displays how many rules have been configured on the Switch.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group to which this DHCP settings apply.
Type
This field displays the DHCP mode (Relay).
DHCP Status
For DHCP relay configuration, this field displays the first remote DHCP server IP address.
Delete
Select the configuration entries you want to remove and click Delete to remove them.
Cancel
Click Cancel to clear the Delete check boxes.
36.4.1 Example: DHCP Relay for Two VLANs
The following example displays two VLANs (VIDs 1 and 2) for a campus network. Two DHCP servers
are installed to serve each VLAN. The system is set up to forward DHCP requests from the
dormitory rooms (VLAN 1) to the DHCP server with an IP address of 192.168.1.100. Requests from
the academic buildings (VLAN 2) are sent to the other DHCP server with an IP address of
172.16.10.100.
Figure 166 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs
DHCP: 192.168.1.100
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
DHCP: 172.16.10.100
For the example network, configure the VLAN Setting screen as shown.
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Figure 167 DHCP Relay for Two VLANs Configuration Example
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Maintenance
This chapter explains how to configure the screens that let you maintain the firmware and
configuration files.
37.1 The Maintenance Screen
Use this screen to manage firmware and your configuration files. Click Management >
Maintenance in the navigation panel to open the following screen.
Figure 168 Management > Maintenance
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 118 Management > Maintenance
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
This field displays which configuration (Configuration 1 or Configuration 2) is currently
operating on the Switch.
Firmware
Upgrade
Click Click Here to go to the Firmware Upgrade screen.
Restore
Configuration
Click Click Here to go to the Restore Configuration screen.
Backup
Configuration
Click Click Here to go to the Backup Configuration screen.
Load Factory
Default
Click Click Here to reset the configuration to the factory default settings.
Save
Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Reboot
System
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Click Config 1 to reboot the system and load Configuration 1 on the Switch.
Click Config 2 to reboot the system and load Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Note: Make sure to click the Save button in any screen to save your settings to the current
configuration on the Switch.
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37.2 Load Factory Default
Follow the steps below to reset the Switch back to the factory defaults.
1
2
In the Maintenance screen, click the Click Here button next to Load Factory Default to clear all
Switch configuration information you configured and return to the factory defaults.
Click OK to reset all Switch configurations to the factory defaults.
Figure 169 Load Factory Default: Start
3
In the web configurator, click the Save button in the top of the screen to make the changes take
effect. If you want to access the Switch web configurator again, you may need to change the IP
address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default Switch IP address
(192.168.1.1).
37.3 Save Configuration
Click Config 1 to save the current configuration settings permanently to Configuration 1 on the
Switch.
Click Config 2 to save the current configuration settings to Configuration 2 on the Switch.
Alternatively, click Save on the top right-hand corner in any screen to save the configuration
changes to the current configuration.
Note: Clicking the Apply or Add button does NOT save the changes permanently. All
unsaved changes are erased after you reboot the Switch.
37.4 Reboot System
Reboot System allows you to restart the Switch without physically turning the power off. It also
allows you to load configuration one (Config 1) or configuration two (Config 2) when you reboot.
Follow the steps below to reboot the Switch.
1
In the Maintenance screen, click the Config 1 button next to Reboot System to reboot and load
configuration one. The following screen displays.
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Figure 170 Reboot System: Confirmation
2
Click OK again and then wait for the Switch to restart. This takes up to two minutes. This does not
affect the Switch’s configuration.
Click Config 2 and follow steps 1 to 2 to reboot and load configuration two on the Switch.
37.5 Firmware Upgrade
Make sure you have downloaded (and unzipped) the correct model firmware and version to your
computer before uploading to the device.
Firmware is uploaded to the current image. See Section 37.8 on page 269 for more information
about images and uploading firmware to a different image.
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong
model firmware may damage your device.
Click Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade to view the screen as shown next.
Figure 171 Management > Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
Type the path and file name of the firmware file you wish to upload to the Switch in the File Path
text box or click Browse to locate it. Select the Rebooting check box if you want to reboot the
Switch and apply the new firmware immediately. (Firmware upgrades are only applied after a
reboot). Click Upgrade to load the new firmware.
After the firmware upgrade process is complete, see the System Info screen to verify your current
firmware version number.
37.6 Restore a Configuration File
Restore a previously saved configuration from your computer to the Switch using the Restore
Configuration screen.
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Figure 172 Management > Maintenance > Restore Configuration
Type the path and file name of the configuration file you wish to restore in the File Path text box or
click Browse to locate it. After you have specified the file, click Restore. "config" is the name of
the configuration file on the Switch, so your backup configuration file is automatically renamed
when you restore using this screen.
37.7 Backup a Configuration File
Backing up your Switch configurations allows you to create various “snap shots” of your device from
which you may restore at a later date.
Back up your current Switch configuration to a computer using the Backup Configuration screen.
Figure 173 Management > Maintenance > Backup Configuration
Follow the steps below to back up the current Switch configuration to your computer in this screen.
1
Click Backup.
2
Click Save to display the Save As screen.
3
Choose a location to save the file on your computer from the Save in drop-down list box and type
a descriptive name for it in the File name list box. Click Save to save the configuration file to your
computer.
37.8 FTP Command Line
This section shows some examples of uploading to or downloading files from the Switch using FTP
commands. First, understand the filename conventions.
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37.8.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (also known as the romfile or ROM) contains the factory default settings in the
screens such as password, Switch setup, IP Setup, and so on. Once you have customized the
Switch’s settings, they can be saved back to your computer under a filename of your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the system
firmware and has a “bin” filename extension.
Table 119 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL
NAME
EXTERNAL
NAME
Configuration File
config
*.cfg
This is the configuration filename on the Switch.
Uploading the config file replaces the specified
configuration file system, including your Switch
configurations, system-related data (including the
default password), the error log and the trace log.
Firmware
ras-0
*.bin
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS firmware on the
Switch. ras-0 is image 1; ras-1 is image 2.
ras-1
DESCRIPTION
You can store up to two images, or firmware files of the same device model, on the Switch. Only
one image is used at a time.
• Run the boot image <1|2> command to specify which image is updated when firmware is loaded
using the web configurator and to specify which image is loaded when the Switch starts up.
• You can also use FTP commands to upload firmware to any image.
The Switch supports dual firmware images, ras-0 and ras-1. You can switch from one to the other
by using the boot image <index> command, where <index> is 1 (ras-0) or 2 (ras-1). See the CLI
Reference Guide for more information about using commands. The system does not reboot after it
switches from one image to the other.
37.8.1.1 Example FTP Commands
ftp> put firmware.bin ras-0
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file "firmware.bin" to the Switch.
ftp> get config config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to a file called “config.cfg” on your
computer.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the source,
you will need to rename them as the Switch only recognizes “config”, “ras-0”, and “ras-1”. Be sure
you keep unaltered copies of all files for later use.
Be sure to upload the correct model firmware as uploading the wrong
model firmware may damage your device.
37.8.2 FTP Command Line Procedure
1
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
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2
Enter open, followed by a space and the IP address of your Switch.
3
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
5
Enter bin to set transfer mode to binary.
6
Use put to transfer files from the computer to the Switch, for example, put firmware.bin ras-0
transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the Switch and renames it to “ras-0”.
Similarly, put config.cfg config transfers the configuration file on your computer (config.cfg) to
the Switch and renames it to “config”. Likewise get config config.cfg transfers the configuration
file on the Switch to your computer and renames it to “config.cfg”. See Table 119 on page 270 for
more information on filename conventions.
7
Enter quit to exit the ftp prompt.
37.8.3 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP clients.
General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server for
anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or service
administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode. Configuration and
firmware files should be transferred in binary mode.
Initial Remote
Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
37.8.4 FTP Restrictions
FTP will not work when:
• FTP service is disabled in the Service Access Control screen.
• The IP address(es) in the Remote Management screen does not match the client IP address. If
it does not match, the Switch will disconnect the FTP session immediately.
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38
Access Control
This chapter describes how to control access to the Switch.
38.1 Access Control Overview
A console port and FTP are allowed one session each, Telnet and SSH share nine sessions, up to five
Web sessions (five different user names and passwords) and/or limitless SNMP access control
sessions are allowed.
Table 120 Access Control Overview
Console Port
SSH
Telnet
One session
Share up to nine
sessions
FTP
Web
SNMP
One session
Up to five accounts
No limit
A console port access control session and Telnet access control session cannot coexist when multilogin is disabled. See the CLI Reference Guide for more information on disabling multi-login.
38.2 The Access Control Main Screen
Click Management > Access Control in the navigation panel to display the main screen as
shown.
Figure 174 Management > Access Control
38.3 About SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol used to manage and
monitor TCP/IP-based devices. SNMP is used to exchange management information between the
network management system (NMS) and a network element (NE). A manager station can manage
and monitor the Switch through the network via SNMP version one (SNMPv1), SNMP version 2c or
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SNMP version 3. The next figure illustrates an SNMP management operation. SNMP is only available
if TCP/IP is configured.
Figure 175 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main components: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed switch (the Switch). An
agent translates the local management information from the managed switch into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators perform
network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor managed
devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a switch. Examples of variables include number of packets
received, node port status and so on. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection of
managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of accessing
these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol operations:
Table 121 SNMP Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Get
Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
GetNext
Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an agent.
In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an agent, it
initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
Set
Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
Trap
Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
38.3.1 SNMP v3 and Security
SNMP v3 enhances security for SNMP management. SNMP managers can be required to
authenticate with agents before conducting SNMP management sessions.
Security can be further enhanced by encrypting the SNMP messages sent from the managers.
Encryption protects the contents of the SNMP messages. When the contents of the SNMP messages
are encrypted, only the intended recipients can read them.
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38.3.2 Supported MIBs
MIBs let administrators collect statistics and monitor status and performance.
The Switch supports the following MIBs:
• SNMP MIB II (RFC 1213)
• RFC 1157 SNMP v1
• RFC 1493 Bridge MIBs
• RFC 1643 Ethernet MIBs
• RFC 1155 SMI
• RFC 2674 SNMPv2, SNMPv2c
• RFC 1757 RMON
• SNMPv2, SNMPv2c or later version, compliant with RFC 2011 SNMPv2 MIB for IP, RFC 2012
SNMPv2 MIB for TCP, RFC 2013 SNMPv2 MIB for UDP
38.3.3 SNMP Traps
The Switch sends traps to an SNMP manager when an event occurs. The following tables outline the
SNMP traps by category.
An OID (Object ID) that begins with “1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8” is defined in private MIBs. Otherwise,
it is a standard MIB OID.
The OIDs beginning with “1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68” are specific to the MES3500-24 switch.
The OIDs beginning with “1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57” are specific to the MES3500-24F switch.
The OIDs beginning with “1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80” are specific to the MES3500-10 switch.
Table 122 SNMP System Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
coldstart
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
This trap is sent when the Switch is turned
on.
warmstart
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
This trap is sent when the Switch restarts.
temperature
TemperatureEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
This trap is sent when the temperature goes
above or below the normal operating range.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
TemperatureEventClear
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
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This trap is sent when the temperature
returns to the normal operating range.
Chapter 38 Access Control
Table 122 SNMP System Traps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
voltage
VoltageEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
This trap is sent when the voltage goes
above or below the normal operating range.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
VoltageEventClear
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
This trap is sent when the voltage returns to
the normal operating range.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
reset
UncontrolledResetEventO
n
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
This trap is sent when the Switch
automatically resets.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
ControlledResetEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
This trap is sent when the Switch resets by
an administrator through a management
interface.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
timesync
RebootEvent
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.0.1
This trap is sent when the Switch reboots by
an administrator through a management
interface.
RTCNotUpdatedEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
This trap is sent when the Switch fails to get
the time and date from a time server.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
RTCNotUpdatedEventClea
r
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
This trap is sent when the Switch gets the
time and date from a time server.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
intrusionlock
IntrusionLockEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
This trap is sent when intrusion lock occurs
on a port.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
loopguard
LoopguardEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
This trap is sent when loopguard shuts down
a port.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
errdisable
errdisableDetectTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.130.4.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.130.4.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.130.4.1
errdisableRecoveryTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.130.4.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.130.4.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.130.4.2
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This trap is sent when an error is detected
on a port, such as a loop occurs or the rate
limit for specific control packets is
exceeded.
This trap is sent when the Switch ceases the
action taken on a port, such as shutting
down the port or discarding packets on the
port, after the specified recovery interval.
Chapter 38 Access Control
Table 122 SNMP System Traps (continued)
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
externalalar
m
ExternalAlarmEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
This trap is sent when the external alarm is
received.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
ExternalAlarmEventClear
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
This trap is sent when the external alarm
stops sending an alert.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
dyinggasp
DyingGaspEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
The trap is sent when the device power goes
below the normal value.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
Table 123 SNMP Interface Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
linkup
linkUp
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is
up.
LinkDownEventClear
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is
up.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
linkdown
linkDown
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is
down.
LinkDownEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is
down.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
lldp
LLDPRemoteTopologyChange
1.0.8802.1.1.2.0.0.1
This trap is sent when the LLDP (Link Layer
Discovery Protocol) remote topology
changes.
transceiver
-ddmi
transceiverddmiEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
This trap is sent when one of the device
operating parameters (such as transceiver
temperature, laser bias current,
transmitted optical power, received optical
power and transceiver supply voltage) is
above or below a factory set normal range.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
transceiverddmiEventClear
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
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This trap is sent when all device operating
parameters return to the normal operating
range.
Chapter 38 Access Control
Table 124 AAA Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
authentication
authenticationFailure
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
This trap is sent when authentication
fails due to incorrect user name and/or
password.
AuthenticationFailureEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
This trap is sent when authentication
fails due to incorrect user name and/or
password.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
RADIUSNotReachableEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the RADIUS
server.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
RADIUSNotReachableEventCle
ar
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
This trap is sent when the RADIUS
server can be reached.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
accounting
RADIUSNotReachableEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
This trap is sent when there is no
response message from the RADIUS
accounting server.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
RADIUSNotReachableEventCle
ar
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
This trap is sent when the RADIUS
accounting server can be reached.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
Table 125 SNMP IP Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
ping
pingProbeFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.1
This trap is sent when a single ping probe fails.
pingTestFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.2
This trap is sent when a ping test (consisting of a series
of ping probes) fails.
pingTestCompleted
1.3.6.1.2.1.80.0.3
This trap is sent when a ping test is completed.
traceRoutePathChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.1
This trap is sent when a path to a target changes.
traceRouteTestFailed
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.2
This trap is sent when a traceroute test fails.
traceRouteTestCompleted
1.3.6.1.2.1.81.0.3
This trap is sent when a traceroute test is completed.
traceroute
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Table 126 SNMP Switch Traps
OPTION
OBJECT LABEL
OBJECT ID
DESCRIPTION
stp
STPNewRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
This trap is sent when the STP root switch
changes.
MRSTPNewRoot
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.36.2.1
This trap is sent when the MRSTP root switch
changes.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.36.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.36.2.1
MSTPNewRoot
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.107.70.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.107.70.1
This trap is sent when the MSTP root switch
changes.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.107.70.1
STPTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
This trap is sent when the STP topology
changes.
MRSTPTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.36.2.2
This trap is sent when the MRSTP topology
changes.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.36.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.36.2.2
MSTPTopologyChange
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.107.70.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.107.70.2
This trap is sent when the MSTP root switch
changes.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.107.70.2
mactable
MacTableFullEventOn
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.1
This trap is sent when more than 99% of the
MAC table is used.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.1
MacTableFullEventClear
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.68.27.2.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.57.27.2.2
This trap is sent when less than 95% of the
MAC table is used.
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.8.80.27.2.2
rmon
cfm
RmonRisingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
This trap is sent when a variable goes over
the RMON "rising" threshold.
RmonFallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
This trap is sent when the variable falls
below the RMON "falling" threshold.
dot1agCfmFaultAlarm
1.3.111.2.802.1.1.8.0.1
The trap is sent when the Switch detects a
connectivity fault.
38.3.4 Configuring SNMP
Click Management > Access Control > SNMP to view the screen as shown. Use this screen to
configure your SNMP settings.
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Figure 176 Management > Access Control > SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 127 Management > Access Control > SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General Setting
Use this section to specify the SNMP version and community (password) values.
Version
Select the SNMP version for the Switch. The SNMP version on the Switch must match the
version on the SNMP manager. Choose SNMP version 2c (v2c), SNMP version 3 (v3) or
both (v3v2c).
Note: SNMP version 2c is backwards compatible with SNMP version 1.
Get Community
Enter the Get Community string, which is the password for the incoming Get- and
GetNext- requests from the management station.
The Get Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Set Community
Enter the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set- requests from the
management station.
The Set Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Trap Community
Enter the Trap Community string, which is the password sent with each trap to the
SNMP manager.
The Trap Community string is only used by SNMP managers using SNMP version 2c or
lower.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Trap Destination
Use this section to configure where to send SNMP traps from the Switch.
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Table 127 Management > Access Control > SNMP (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Version
Specify the version of the SNMP trap messages.
IP
Enter the IP addresses of up to four managers to send your SNMP traps to.
Port
Enter the port number upon which the manager listens for SNMP traps.
Username
Enter the username to be sent to the SNMP manager along with the SNMP v3 trap.
Note: This username must match an existing account on the Switch (configured in the
Management > Access Control > SNMP > User screen).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
38.3.5 Configuring SNMP Trap Group
Click Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group to view the screen as shown. Use
the Trap Group screen to specify the types of SNMP traps that should be sent to each SNMP
manager.
Figure 177 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 128 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Trap Destination
IP
Select one of your configured trap destination IP addresses. These are the IP addresses of
the SNMP managers. You must first configure a trap destination IP address in the SNMP
Setting screen.
Use the rest of the screen to select which traps the Switch sends to that SNMP manager.
Type
Select the categories of SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP manager.
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Table 128 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Options
Select the individual SNMP traps that the Switch is to send to the SNMP station. See
Section 38.3.3 on page 274 for individual trap descriptions.
The traps are grouped by category. Selecting a category automatically selects all of the
category’s traps. Clear the check boxes for individual traps that you do not want the Switch
to send to the SNMP station. Clearing a category’s check box automatically clears all of the
category’s trap check boxes (the Switch only sends traps from selected categories).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
38.3.6 Enabling/Disabling Sending of SNMP Traps on a Port
From the SNMP > Trap Group screen, click Port to view the screen as shown. Use this screen to
set whether a trap received on the port(s) would be sent to the SNMP manager.
Figure 178 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 129 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Option
Select the trap type you want to configure here.
Port
This field displays a port number.
*
Settings in this row apply to all ports.
Use this row only if you want to make some of the settings the same for all ports. Use this
row first to set the common settings and then make adjustments on a port-by-port basis.
Note: Changes in this row are copied to all the ports as soon as you make them.
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Table 129 Management > Access Control > SNMP > Trap Group > Port (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable the sending of SNMP traps on this port. The Switch sends
the related traps received on this port to the SNMP manager.
Clear this check box to disable the sending of SNMP traps on this port.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation
panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
38.3.7 Configuring SNMP User
From the SNMP screen, click User to view the screen as shown. Use the User screen to create
SNMP users for authentication with managers using SNMP v3 and associate them to SNMP groups.
An SNMP user is an SNMP manager.
Figure 179 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 130 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User
LABEL
User
Information
Username
DESCRIPTION
Note: Use the username and password of the login accounts you specify in this screen to
create accounts on the SNMP v3 manager.
Specify the username of a login account on the Switch.
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Table 130 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select whether you want to implement authentication and/or encryption for SNMP
communication from this user. Choose:
•
•
•
noauth -to use the username as the password string to send to the SNMP manager.
This is equivalent to the Get, Set and Trap Community in SNMP v2c. This is the lowest
security level.
auth - to implement an authentication algorithm for SNMP messages sent by this user.
priv - to implement authentication and encryption for SNMP messages sent by this
user. This is the highest security level.
Note: The settings on the SNMP manager must be set at the same security level or higher
than the security level settings on the Switch.
Authentication
Password
Select an authentication algorithm. MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure Hash
Algorithm) are hash algorithms used to authenticate SNMP data. SHA authentication is
generally considered stronger than MD5, but is slower.
Enter the password of up to 32 ASCII characters for SNMP user authentication.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Privacy
Specify the encryption method for SNMP communication from this user. You can choose one
of the following:
•
•
Password
DES - Data Encryption Standard is a widely used (but breakable) method of data
encryption. It applies a 56-bit key to each 64-bit block of data.
AES - Advanced Encryption Standard is another method for data encryption that also
uses a secret key. AES applies a 128-bit key to 128-bit blocks of data.
Enter the password of up to 32 ASCII characters for encrypting SNMP packets.
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character
you type.
Group
SNMP v3 adopts the concept of View-based Access Control Model (VACM) group. SNMP
managers in one group are assigned common access rights to MIBs. Specify in which SNMP
group this user is.
admin - Members of this group can perform all types of system configuration, including the
management of administrator accounts.
readwrite - Members of this group have read and write rights, meaning that the user can
create and edit the MIBs on the Switch, except the user account and AAA configuration.
readonly - Members of this group have read rights only, meaning the user can collect
information from the Switch.
Add
Click Add to insert the entry in the summary table below and save your changes to the
Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these changes if it is turned off or loses power,
so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile
memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to reset the fields to your previous configuration.
Clear
Click Clear to reset the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is a read-only number identifying a login account on the Switch. Click on an index
number to view more details and edit an existing account.
Username
This field displays the username of a login account on the Switch.
Security
Level
This field displays whether you want to implement authentication and/or encryption for
SNMP communication with this user.
Authenticati
on
This field displays the authentication algorithm used for SNMP communication with this
user.
Privacy
This field displays the encryption method used for SNMP communication with this user.
Group
This field displays the SNMP group to which this user belongs.
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Table 130 Management > Access Control > SNMP > User (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Click Delete to remove the selected entry from the summary table.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
38.4 Setting Up Login Accounts
Up to five people (one administrator and four non-administrators) may access the Switch via web
configurator at any one time.
• An administrator is someone who can both view and configure Switch changes. The username for
the Administrator is always admin. The default administrator password is 1234.
Note: It is highly recommended that you change the default administrator password
(1234).
•
A non-administrator (username is something other than admin) is someone who can view but
not configure Switch settings.
Click Management > Access Control > Logins to view the screen as shown next.
Figure 180 Management > Access Control > Logins
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 131 Management > Access Control > Logins
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Administrator
This is the default administrator account with the “admin” user name. You cannot change the default
administrator user name. Only the administrator has read/write access.
Old Password
Type the existing system password (1234 is the default password when shipped).
New Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to
confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation
Edit Logins
You may configure passwords for up to four users. These users have read-only access. You can give users
higher privileges via the CLI. For more information on assigning privileges see the Ethernet Switch CLI
Reference Guide.
User Name
Set a user name (up to 32 ASCII characters long).
Password
Enter your new system password.
Retype to
confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses
these changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top
navigation panel to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done
configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
38.5 SSH Overview
Unlike Telnet or FTP, which transmit data in clear text, SSH (Secure Shell) is a secure
communication protocol that combines authentication and data encryption to provide secure
encrypted communication between two hosts over an unsecured network.
Figure 181 SSH Communication Example
38.6 How SSH works
The following table summarizes how a secure connection is established between two remote hosts.
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Figure 182 How SSH Works
1
Host Identification
The SSH client sends a connection request to the SSH server. The server identifies itself with a host
key. The client encrypts a randomly generated session key with the host key and server key and
sends the result back to the server.
The client automatically saves any new server public keys. In subsequent connections, the server
public key is checked against the saved version on the client computer.
2
Encryption Method
Once the identification is verified, both the client and server must agree on the type of encryption
method to use.
3
Authentication and Data Transmission
After the identification is verified and data encryption activated, a secure tunnel is established
between the client and the server. The client then sends its authentication information (user name
and password) to the server to log in to the server.
38.7 SSH Implementation on the Switch
Your Switch supports SSH version 2 using RSA authentication and three encryption methods (DES,
3DES and Blowfish). The SSH server is implemented on the Switch for remote management and file
transfer on port 22. Only one SSH connection is allowed at a time.
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38.7.1 Requirements for Using SSH
You must install an SSH client program on a client computer (Windows or Linux operating system)
that is used to connect to the Switch over SSH.
38.8 Introduction to HTTPS
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a web protocol
that encrypts and decrypts web pages. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) is an application-level protocol
that enables secure transactions of data by ensuring confidentiality (an unauthorized party cannot
read the transferred data), authentication (one party can identify the other party) and data
integrity (you know if data has been changed).
It relies upon certificates, public keys, and private keys.
HTTPS on the Switch is used so that you may securely access the Switch using the web
configurator. The SSL protocol specifies that the SSL server (the Switch) must always authenticate
itself to the SSL client (the computer which requests the HTTPS connection with the Switch),
whereas the SSL client only should authenticate itself when the SSL server requires it to do so.
Authenticating client certificates is optional and if selected means the SSL-client must send the
Switch a certificate. You must apply for a certificate for the browser from a CA that is a trusted CA
on the Switch.
Please refer to the following figure.
1
HTTPS connection requests from an SSL-aware web browser go to port 443 (by default) on the
Switch’s WS (web server).
2
HTTP connection requests from a web browser go to port 80 (by default) on the Switch’s WS (web
server).
Figure 183 HTTPS Implementation
Note: If you disable HTTP in the Service Access Control screen, then the Switch blocks
all HTTP connection attempts.
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38.9 HTTPS Example
If you haven’t changed the default HTTPS port on the Switch, then in your browser enter “https://
Switch IP Address/” as the web site address where “Switch IP Address” is the IP address or domain
name of the Switch you wish to access.
38.9.1 Internet Explorer Warning Messages
38.9.1.1 Internet Explorer 6
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a Windows dialog box pops up asking if you
trust the server certificate.
You see the following Security Alert screen in Internet Explorer. Select Yes to proceed to the web
configurator login screen; if you select No, then web configurator access is blocked.
Figure 184 Security Alert Dialog Box (Internet Explorer 6)
example
38.9.1.2 Internet Explorer 7 or 8
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a screen with the message "There is a
problem with this website's security certificate." may display. If that is the case, click Continue to
this website (not recommended) to proceed to the web configurator login screen.
Figure 185 Security Certificate Warning (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)
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After you log in, you will see the red address bar with the message Certificate Error. Click on
Certificate Error next to the address bar and click View certificates.
Figure 186 Certificate Error (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)
EXAMPLE
Click Install Certificate... and follow the on-screen instructions to install the certificate in your
browser.
Figure 187 Certificate (Internet Explorer 7 or 8)
38.9.2 Mozilla Firefox Warning Messages
When you attempt to access the Switch HTTPS server, a This Connection is Unstructed screen
may display. If that is the case, click I Understand the Risks and then the Add Exception...
button.
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Figure 188 Security Alert (Mozilla Firefox)
Confirm the HTTPS server URL matches. Click Confirm Security Exception to proceed to the web
configurator login screen.
Figure 189 Security Alert (Mozilla Firefox)
EXAMPLE
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38.9.3 The Main Screen
After you accept the certificate and enter the login username and password, the Switch main screen
appears. The lock displayed in the bottom right of the browser status bar (in Internet Explorer 6 or
Mozilla Firefox) or next to the address bar (in Internet Explorer 7 or 8) denotes a secure
connection.
Figure 190 Example: Lock Denoting a Secure Connection
EXAMPLE
38.10 Service Port Access Control
Service Access Control allows you to decide what services you may use to access the Switch. You
may also change the default service port and configure “trusted computer(s)” for each service in
the Remote Management screen (discussed later). Click Management > Access Control >
Service Access Control to view the screen as shown.
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Figure 191 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 132 Management > Access Control > Service Access Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Services
Services you may use to access the Switch are listed here.
Active
Select this option for the corresponding services that you want to allow to access the Switch.
Service Port
For Telnet, SSH, FTP, HTTP or HTTPS services, you may change the default service port by
typing the new port number in the Server Port field. If you change the default port number
then you will have to let people (who wish to use the service) know the new port number for
that service.
Timeout
Type how many minutes (from 1 to 255) a management session can be left idle before the
session times out. After it times out you have to log in with your password again. Very long idle
timeouts may have security risks.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
38.11 Remote Management
Click Management > Access Control > Remote Management to view the screen as shown
next.
You can specify a group of one or more “trusted computers” from which an administrator may use a
service to manage the Switch. Click Access Control to return to the Access Control screen.
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Figure 192 Management > Access Control > Remote Management
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 133 Management > Access Control > Remote Management
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Entry
This is the client set index number. A “client set” is a group of one or more “trusted
computers” from which an administrator may use a service to manage the Switch.
Active
Select this check box to activate this secured client set. Clear the check box if you wish to
temporarily disable the set without deleting it.
Start Address
Configure the IP address range of trusted computers from which you can manage this
Switch.
End Address
The Switch checks if the client IP address of a computer requesting a service or protocol
matches the range set here. The Switch immediately disconnects the session if it does not
match.
Telnet/FTP/
HTTP/ICMP/
SNMP/SSH/
HTTPS
Select services that may be used for managing the Switch from the specified trusted
computers.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Diagnostic
This chapter explains the Diagnostic screen.
39.1 Diagnostic
Click Management > Diagnostic in the navigation panel to open this screen. Use this screen to
check system logs, ping IP addresses or perform port tests.
Figure 193 Management > Diagnostic
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 134 Management > Diagnostic
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Log
Click Display to display a log of events in the multi-line text box.
Click Clear to empty the text box and reset the syslog entry.
IP Ping
Type the IP address of a device that you want to ping in order to test a connection.
Click Ping to have the Switch ping the IP address (in the field to the left).
Ethernet Port Test
Enter a port number and click Port Test to perform an internal loopback test.
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Syslog
This chapter explains the syslog screens.
40.1 Syslog Overview
The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an IP network to
syslog servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled device can generate a syslog
message and send it to a syslog server.
Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and system log related
information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a facility and severity level. The syslog
facility identifies a file in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for
details. The following table describes the syslog severity levels.
Table 135 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
0
Emergency: The system is unusable.
1
Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2
Critical: The system condition is critical.
3
Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4
Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
5
Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
6
Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7
Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.
40.2 Syslog Setup
Click Management > Syslog in the navigation panel to display this screen. The syslog feature
sends logs to an external syslog server. Use this screen to configure the device’s system logging
settings.
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Figure 194 Management > Syslog
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 136 Management > Syslog
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Syslog
Select Active to turn on syslog (system logging) and then configure the syslog setting
Logging Type
This column displays the names of the categories of logs that the device can generate.
Active
Select this option to set the device to generate logs for the corresponding category.
Facility
The log facility allows you to send logs to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
documentation of your syslog program for more details.
Privilege
Select a command privilege level. The Switch will only generate logs for commands that have
a privilege level greater than or equal to the specified privilege level.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
40.3 Syslog Server Setup
Click Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup to view the screen as shown next. Use this
screen to configure a list of external syslog servers.
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Figure 195 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 137 Management > Syslog > Syslog Server Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to have the device send logs to this syslog server. Clear the check
box if you want to create a syslog server entry but not have the device send logs to it (you
can edit the entry later).
Server Address
Enter the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level
Select the severity level(s) of the logs that you want the device to send to this syslog
server. The lower the number, the more critical the logs are.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel
to save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Clear
Click Clear to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the index number of a syslog server entry. Click this number to edit the entry.
Active
This field displays Yes if the device is to send logs to the syslog server. No displays if the
device is not to send logs to the syslog server.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of the syslog server.
Log Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this syslog
server.
Delete
Select an entry’s Delete check box and click Delete to remove the entry.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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Cluster Management
This chapter introduces cluster management.
41.1 Cluster Management Status Overview
Cluster Management allows you to manage switches through one Switch, called the cluster
manager. The switches must be directly connected and be in the same VLAN group so as to be able
to communicate with one another.
Table 138 ZyXEL Clustering Management Specifications
Maximum number of cluster
members
24
Cluster Member Models
Must be compatible with ZyXEL cluster management
implementation.
Cluster Manager
The switch through which you manage the cluster
member switches.
Cluster Members
The switches being managed by the cluster manager
switch.
In the following example, switch A in the basement is the cluster manager and the other switches
on the upper floors of the building are cluster members.
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Figure 196 Clustering Application Example
41.2 Cluster Management Status
Click Management > Cluster Management in the navigation panel to display the following
screen.
Note: A cluster can only have one manager.
Figure 197 Management > Cluster Management: Status
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 139 Management > Cluster Management: Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This field displays the role of this Switch within the cluster.
Manager
Member (you see this if you access this screen in the cluster member switch directly and
not via the cluster manager)
None (neither a manager nor a member of a cluster)
Manager
This field displays the cluster manager switch’s hardware MAC address.
The Number of
Member
This field displays the number of switches that make up this cluster. The following fields
describe the cluster member switches.
Index
You can manage cluster member switches via the cluster manager switch. Each number in
the Index column is a hyperlink leading to the cluster member switch’s web configurator
(see Figure 198 on page 300).
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This field displays the model name.
Status
This field displays:
Online (the cluster member switch is accessible)
Error (for example the cluster member switch password was changed or the switch was set
as the manager and so left the member list, etc.)
Offline (the switch is disconnected - Offline shows approximately 1.5 minutes after the link
between cluster member and manager goes down)
41.2.1 Cluster Member Switch Management
Go to the Clustering Management Status screen of the cluster manager switch and then select
an Index hyperlink from the list of members to go to that cluster member switch's web
configurator home page. This cluster member web configurator home page and the home page that
you'd see if you accessed it directly are different.
Figure 198 Cluster Management: Cluster Member Web Configurator Screen
example
example
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41.2.1.1 Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
You can use FTP to upload firmware to a cluster member switch through the cluster manager switch
as shown in the following example.
Figure 199 Example: Uploading Firmware to a Cluster Member Switch
C:\>ftp 192.168.1.1
Connected to 192.168.1.1.
220 Switch FTP version 1.0 ready at Thu Jan 1 00:58:46 1970
User (192.168.0.1:(none)): admin
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> ls
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for LIST
--w--w--w1 owner
group
3082906 Jul 01 12:00 ras-0
--w--w--w1 owner
group
3082906 Jul 01 12:00 ras-1
-rw-rw-rw1 owner
group
8388608 Jul 01 12:00 config
226 File sent OK
ftp: 297 bytes received in 0.00Seconds 297000.00Kbytes/sec.
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put 400AABB0B1.bin ras-0
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras-0
226 File received OK
ftp: 262144 bytes sent in 0.63Seconds 415.44Kbytes/sec.
ftp>
The following table explains some of the FTP parameters.
Table 140 FTP Upload to Cluster Member Example
FTP PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
User
Enter “admin”.
Password
The web configurator password default is 1234.
ls
Enter this command to list the name of cluster member switch’s firmware and
configuration file.
400AABB0B1.bin
This is the name of the firmware file you want to upload to the cluster member
switch.
ras-0
This is the cluster member switch’s firmware name as seen in the cluster
manager switch.
config
This is the cluster member switch’s configuration file name as seen in the
cluster manager switch.
41.3 Clustering Management Configuration
Use this screen to configure clustering management. Click Management > Cluster Management
> Configuration to display the next screen.
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Figure 200 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 141 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Clustering
Manager
Active
Select Active to have this Switch become the cluster manager switch. A cluster can only have
one manager. Other (directly connected) switches that are set to be cluster managers will not
be visible in the Clustering Candidates list. If a switch that was previously a cluster member
is later set to become a cluster manager, then its Status is displayed as Error in the Cluster
Management Status screen and a warning icon (
) appears in the member summary list
below.
Name
Type a name to identify the Clustering Manager. You may use up to 32 printable characters
(spaces are allowed).
VID
This is the VLAN ID and is only applicable if the Switch is set to 802.1Q VLAN. All switches
must be directly connected and in the same VLAN group to belong to the same cluster.
Switches that are not in the same VLAN group are not visible in the Clustering Candidates
list. This field is ignored if the Clustering Manager is using Port-based VLAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
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Table 141 Management > Cluster Management > Configuration (continued)
LABEL
Cancel
Clustering
Candidate
DESCRIPTION
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
The following fields relate to the switches that are potential cluster members.
List
A list of suitable candidates found by auto-discovery is shown here. The switches must be
directly connected. Directly connected switches that are set to be cluster managers will not be
visible in the Clustering Candidate list. Switches that are not in the same management
VLAN group will not be visible in the Clustering Candidate list.
Password
Each cluster member’s password is its web configurator password. Select a member in the
Clustering Candidate list and then enter its web configurator password. If that switch
administrator changes the web configurator password afterwards, then it cannot be managed
from the Cluster Manager. Its Status is displayed as Error in the Cluster Management
Status screen and a warning icon (
) appears in the member summary list below.
If multiple devices have the same password then hold [SHIFT] and click those switches to
select them. Then enter their common web configurator password.
Add
Click Add to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Refresh
Click Refresh to perform auto-discovery again to list potential cluster members.
The next summary table shows the information for the clustering members configured.
Index
This is the index number of a cluster member switch.
MacAddr
This is the cluster member switch’s hardware MAC address.
Name
This is the cluster member switch’s System Name.
Model
This is the cluster member switch’s model name.
Remove
Select this checkbox and then click the Remove button to remove a cluster member switch
from the cluster.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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MAC Table
This chapter introduces the MAC Table screen.
42.1 MAC Table Overview
The MAC Table screen (a MAC table is also known as a filtering database) shows how frames are
forwarded or filtered across the Switch’s ports. It shows what device MAC address, belonging to
what VLAN group (if any) is forwarded to which port(s) and whether the MAC address is dynamic
(learned by the Switch) or static (manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
The Switch uses the MAC table to determine how to forward frames. See the following figure.
1
The Switch examines a received frame and learns the port on which this source MAC address came.
2
The Switch checks to see if the frame's destination MAC address matches a source MAC address
already learned in the MAC table.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, then it forwards the frame to
that port.
• If the Switch has not already learned the port for this MAC address, then the frame is flooded to
all ports. Too much port flooding leads to network congestion.
• If the Switch has already learned the port for this MAC address, but the destination port is the
same as the port it came in on, then it filters the frame.
Figure 201 MAC Table Flowchart
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42.2 Viewing the MAC Table
Click Management > MAC Table in the navigation panel to display the following screen.
Figure 202 Management > MAC Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 142 Management > MAC Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Condition
Select one of the buttons and click Search to only display the data which matches the
criteria you specified.
Select All to display any entry in the MAC table of the Switch.
Select Static to display the MAC entries manually configured on the Switch.
Select MAC and enter a MAC address in the field provided to display a specified MAC entry.
Select VID and enter a VLAN ID in the field provided to display the MAC entries belonging to
the specified VLAN.
Select Port and enter a port number in the field provided to display the MAC addresses
which are forwarded on the specified port.
Sort by
Define how the Switch displays and arranges the data in the summary table below.
Select MAC to display and arrange the data according to MAC address.
Select VID to display and arrange the data according to VLAN group.
Select PORT to display and arrange the data according to port number.
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Table 142 Management > MAC Table (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Transfer Type
Select Dynamic to MAC forwarding and click the Transfer button to change all
dynamically learned MAC address entries in the summary table below into static entries.
They also display in the Static MAC Forwarding screen.
Select Dynamic to MAC filtering and click the Transfer button to change all dynamically
learned MAC address entries in the summary table below into MAC filtering entries. These
entries will then display only in the Filtering screen and the default filtering action is
Discard source.
Cancel
Click Cancel to change the fields back to their last saved values.
Index
This is the incoming frame index number.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device from which this incoming frame came.
VID
This is the VLAN group to which this frame belongs.
Port
This is the port where the above MAC address is forwarded.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static
(manually entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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ARP Table
This chapter introduces ARP Table.
43.1 ARP Table Overview
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP
address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access Control or MAC address, on
the local area network.
An IP (version 4) address is 32 bits long. In an Ethernet LAN, MAC addresses are 48 bits long. The
ARP Table maintains an association between each MAC address and its corresponding IP address.
43.1.1 How ARP Works
When an incoming packet destined for a host device on a local area network arrives at the Switch,
the Switch's ARP program looks in the ARP Table and, if it finds the address, sends it to the device.
If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts the request to all the devices on the LAN.
The Switch fills in its own MAC and IP address in the sender address fields, and puts the known IP
address of the target in the target IP address field. In addition, the Switch puts all ones in the
target MAC field (FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF is the Ethernet broadcast address). The replying device (which is
either the IP address of the device being sought or the router that knows the way) replaces the
broadcast address with the target's MAC address, swaps the sender and target pairs, and unicasts
the answer directly back to the requesting machine. ARP updates the ARP Table for future reference
and then sends the packet to the MAC address that replied.
43.2 The ARP Table Screen
Click Management > ARP Table in the navigation panel to open the following screen. Use the ARP
table to view IP-to-MAC address mapping(s) and remove specific dynamic ARP entries.
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Figure 203 Management > ARP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 143 Management > ARP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Condition
Specify how you want the Switch to remove ARP entries when you click Flush.
Select All to remove all of the dynamic entries from the ARP table.
Select IP Address and enter an IP address to remove the dynamic entries learned with the
specified IP address.
Select Port and enter a port number to remove the dynamic entries learned on the specified
port.
Flush
Click Flush to remove the ARP entries according to the condition you specified.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return the fields to the factory defaults.
Index
This is the ARP table entry number.
IP Address
This is the learned IP address of a device connected to a Switch port with the corresponding
MAC address below.
MAC Address
This is the MAC address of the device with the corresponding IP address above.
VID
This field displays the VLAN to which the device belongs.
Port
This field displays the port to which the device connects. CPU means this learned IP address
is the Switch’s management IP address.
Type
This shows whether the MAC address is dynamic (learned by the Switch) or static (manually
entered in the Static MAC Forwarding screen).
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Configure Clone
This chapter shows you how you can copy the settings of one port onto other ports.
44.1 Configure Clone
Cloning allows you to copy the basic and advanced settings from a source port to a destination port
or ports. Click Management > Configure Clone to open the following screen.
Figure 204 Management > Configure Clone
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 144 Management > Configure Clone
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source/
Destination
Enter the source port under the Source label. This port’s attributes are copied.
Port
Enter the destination port or ports under the Destination label. These are the ports which
are going to have the same attributes as the source port. You can enter individual ports
separated by a comma or a range of ports by using a dash.
Example:
•
•
2, 4, 6 indicates that ports 2, 4 and 6 are the destination ports.
2-6 indicates that ports 2 through 6 are the destination ports.
Basic Setting
Select which port settings (you configured in the Basic Setting menus) should be copied to
the destination port(s).
Advanced
Application
Select which port settings (you configured in the Advanced Application menus) should be
copied to the destination ports.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes to the Switch’s run-time memory. The Switch loses these
changes if it is turned off or loses power, so use the Save link on the top navigation panel to
save your changes to the non-volatile memory when you are done configuring.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
310
C HAPTER
45
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential
problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• Switch Access and Login
• Switch Configuration
45.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
The Switch does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1
Make sure the Switch is turned on (in DC models or if the DC power supply is connected in AC/DC
models).
2
Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the Switch.
3
Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the Switch and plugged in to an appropriate
power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
4
Turn the Switch off and on (in DC models or if the DC power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
5
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch (in AC models or if the AC
power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
6
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
The ALM LED is on.
1
Turn the Switch off and on (in DC models or if the DC power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
2
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch (in AC models or if the AC
power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
3
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
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Chapter 45 Troubleshooting
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 3.2 on page 31.
2
Check the hardware connections. See Section 3.1 on page 24.
3
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
4
Turn the Switch off and on (in DC models or if the DC power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
5
Disconnect and re-connect the power adaptor or cord to the Switch (in AC models or if the AC
power supply is connected in AC/DC models).
6
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
45.2 Switch Access and Login
I forgot the IP address for the Switch.
1
The default management IP address is 192.168.1.1.
2
Use the console port to log in to the Switch.
3
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page
39.
I forgot the username and/or password.
1
The default username is admin and the default password is 1234.
2
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page
39.
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1
Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default management IP address is 192.168.1.1.
• If you changed the IP address, use the new IP address.
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Chapter 45 Troubleshooting
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting suggestions for I
forgot the IP address for the Switch.
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See Section
3.2 on page 31.
3
Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScripts and Java
enabled.
4
Make sure your computer is in the same subnet as the Switch. (If you know that there are routers
between your computer and the Switch, skip this step.)
5
Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the Switch with the default IP address.
See Section 4.6 on page 39.
6
If the problem continues, contact the vendor, or try one of the advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Try to access the Switch using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access the Switch,
check the remote management settings to find out why the Switch does not respond to HTTP.
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the Switch.
1
Make sure you have entered the user name and password correctly. The default user name is
admin, and the default password is 1234. These fields are case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps
Lock] is not on.
2
You may have exceeded the maximum number of concurrent Telnet sessions. Close other Telnet
session(s) or try connecting again later.
Check that you have enabled logins for HTTP or Telnet. If you have configured a secured client IP
address, your computer’s IP address must match it. Refer to the chapter on access control for
details.
3
Disconnect and re-connect the cord to the Switch.
4
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 4.6 on page
39.
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
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Chapter 45 Troubleshooting
I cannot see some of Advanced Application submenus at the bottom of the navigation
panel.
The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels. Adjust the value in your computer and
then you should see the rest of Advanced Application submenus at the bottom of the navigation
panel.
There is unauthorized access to my Switch via telnet, HTTP and SSH.
Click the Display button in the System Log field in the Management > Diagnostic screen to
check for unauthorized access to your Switch. To avoid unauthorized access, configure the secured
client setting in the Management > Access Control > Remote Management screen for telnet,
HTTP and SSH (see Section 38.11 on page 292). Computers not belonging to the secured client set
cannot get permission to access the Switch.
45.3 Switch Configuration
I lost my configuration settings after I restart the Switch.
Make sure you save your configuration into the Switch’s
nonvolatile memory each time you make changes. Click Save
at the top right corner of the web configurator to save the
configuration permanently. See also Section 37.3 on page 267 for more information about how to
save your configuration.
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
314
A PPENDIX
A
Common Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated protocols and port
numbers. For a comprehensive list of port numbers, ICMP type/code numbers and services, visit
the IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority) web site.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or create a
different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/UDP, then the service
uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is User-Defined, the Port(s) is the IP
protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further information
about port numbers.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service or the situations
in which this service is used.
Table 145 Commonly Used Services
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH (IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM/New-ICQ
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service. It is also
used as a listening port by ICQ.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP
7648
UDP
24032
A popular videoconferencing solution from
White Pines Software.
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that matches
web names (for example www.zyxel.com) to IP
numbers.
ESP (IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security
Protocol) tunneling protocol uses this service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related command
that can be used to find out if a user is logged
on.
FTP
TCP
20
TCP
21
File Transfer Program, a program to enable fast
transfer of files, including large files that may
not be possible by e-mail.
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
H.323
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
315
Appendix A Common Services
Table 145 Commonly Used Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/server
protocol for the world wide web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often used in
e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is often
used for diagnostic or routing purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IGMP (MULTICAST)
User-Defined
2
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is used when
sending packets to a specific group of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm is used
for key distribution and management.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat program.
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger service uses
this protocol.
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/server
distributed file service that provides
transparent file sharing for network
environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is the
delivery mechanism for the USENET
newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that sends
out ICMP echo requests to test whether or not
a remote host is reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a client
computer get e-mail from a POP3 server
through a temporary connection (TCP/IP or
other).
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables
secure transfer of data over public networks.
This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL (GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that enables real
time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media control)
Protocol (RTSP) is a remote control for
multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP
TCP
115
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
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316
Appendix A Common Services
Table 145 Commonly Used Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the messageexchange standard for the Internet. SMTP
enables you to move messages from one email server to another.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an interface to
access data on many different types of
database systems, including mainframes,
midrange systems, UNIX systems and network
servers.
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs to a
UNIX server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal Access
Controller Access Control System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation
protocol common on the Internet and in UNIX
environments. It operates over TCP/IP
networks. Its primary function is to allow users
to log into remote host systems.
TFTP
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet file
transfer protocol similar to FTP, but uses the
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) rather than TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol).
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
Another videoconferencing solution.
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
317
A PPENDIX
B
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, translated into
any language, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or software described herein. Neither does it
convey any license under its patent rights nor the patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any
products described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this
publication are used for identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operations.
FCC Warning
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital switch, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These
limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a commercial environment. This device generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications. Operation of this device in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case
the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
CE Mark Warning:
This is a class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to
take adequate measures.
Taiwanese BSMI (Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection) A Warning:
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user's authority to operate the
equipment.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT
APPAREIL À LASER DE CLASS 1
PRODUCT COMPLIES WITH 21 CFR 1040.10 AND 1040.11.
PRODUIT CONFORME SELON 21 CFR 1040.10 ET 1040.11.
Viewing Certifications
Go to http://www.zyxel.com to view this product’s documentation and certifications.
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
318
Appendix B Legal Information
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects in material or workmanship for a specific
period (the Warranty Period) from the date of purchase. The Warranty Period varies by region. Check with your vendor and/or the
authorized ZyXEL local distributor for details about the Warranty Period of this product. During the warranty period, and upon proof of
purchase, should the product have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or
replace the defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it shall deem necessary to
restore the product or components to proper operating condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally
equivalent product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty shall not apply if the product has
been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other
warranties, express or implied, including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact your vendor. You may also refer to the warranty policy for the region in which you bought
the device at http://www.zyxel.com/web/support_warranty_info.php.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at
www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
Open Source Licenses
This product contains in part some free software distributed under GPL license terms and/or GPL like licenses. Open source licenses are
provided with the firmware package. You can download the latest firmware at www.zyxel.com. To obtain the source code covered under
those Licenses, please contact support@zyxel.com.tw to get it.
Safety Warnings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming pool.
Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
Do NOT store things on the device.
Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY
qualified service personnel should service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device. Connect it to the right supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in North
America or 230V AC in Europe).
Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the product where anyone can walk on the power
adaptor or cord.
Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause electrocution.
If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the device and the power source.
Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a new one.
Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your device.
The PoE (Power over Ethernet) devices that supply or receive power and their connected Ethernet cables must all be completely
indoors.
Fan Module Warning! Use the fan module handle when pulling out or pushing in the fan module. Be careful not to put fingers or objects
inside the fan module.
This product is for indoor use only (utilisation intérieure exclusivement).
Your product is marked with this symbol, which is known as the WEEE mark. WEEE stands for Waste Electronics
and Electrical Equipment. It means that used electrical and electronic products should not be mixed with general
waste. Used electrical and electronic equipment should be treated separately.
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
319
Appendix B Legal Information
Environmental Product Declaration
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
320
Index
Index
auto-crossover 27
Numbers
automatic VLAN registration 88
802.1P priority 86
B
A
back up, configuration file 269
basic settings 76
access control
limitations 272
login account 284
remote management 292
service port 291
SNMP 272
basic setup tutorial 45
binding 200
binding table 200
building 200
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) 111
accounting
setup 192
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) 111
address learning, MAC 95, 97
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 307, 309, 310
C
administrator password 285
age 124
CDP 227
aggregator ID 137, 139
certifications
notices 318
viewing 318
aging time 82
applications
backbone 17
bridging 18
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN 19
switched workgroup 18
CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) 87
changing the password 37
Cisco Discovery Protocol, see CDP
ARP
how it works 307
table 307
CIST 114
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) 307
classifier 152, 155
and QoS 152
editing 155
example 156
overview 152
setup 152, 155
viewing 155
CIST (Common and Internal Spanning Tree) 112
Class of Service (CoS) 250
ARP inspection 200, 202
and MAC filter 203
configuring 203
syslog messages 203
trusted ports 203
authentication
and RADIUS 188
setup 192
CLI
Reference Guide 2
authorization
privilege levels 195
setup 192
cloning a port See port cloning 310
cluster management 298
and switch passwords 303
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
321
Index
cluster manager 298, 302
cluster member 298, 303
cluster member firmware upgrade 301
network example 298
setup 301
specification 298
status 299
switch models 298
VID 302
web configurator 300
DHCP snooping 45, 200
configuring 202
DHCP relay option 82 202
trusted ports 201
untrusted ports 201
DHCP snooping database 201
diagnostics 294
Ethernet port test 294
ping 294
system log 294
cluster manager 298
Differentiated Service (DiffServ) 250
cluster member 298
DiffServ 250
activate 252
and TRTCM 254
DS field 250
DSCP 250
network example 250
PHB 250
Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) 112
Common and Internal Spanning Tree, See
CIST 114
configuration 248
change running config 267
file names 270
configuration file 39
backup 269
restore 39, 268
saving 267
disclaimer 318
configuration, saving 38
DS (Differentiated Services) 250
console port 26
copyright 318
DSCP
service level 250
what it does 250
CPU management port 99
DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) 250
CPU protection
configuration 242
overview 241
dynamic link aggregation 135
documentation
related 2
double-tagged frames 166
copying port settings, See port cloning 310
current date 79
E
current time 79
egress port 102
Error Disable 58
D
error disable detect 243
daylight saving time 79
error disable recovery
configuration 244
overview 241
default Ethernet settings 26
DHCP 258
configuration options 258
modes 258
relay agent 258
relay example 264
setup 263
Ethernet broadcast address 307
Ethernet port test 294
external authentication server 188
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) 258
DHCP relay option 82 202
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
322
Index
F
H
FCC interference statement 318
hardware installation 21
file transfer using FTP
command example 270
hardware monitor 77
filename convention, configuration 270
hello time 124
filtering 108
rules 108
hops 124
hardware overview 24
HTTPS 287
certificates 287
implementation 287
public keys, private keys 287
filtering database, MAC table 304
firmware 77
upgrade 268, 301
HTTPS example 288
flow control 86
back pressure 86
IEEE802.3x 86
forwarding
delay 124
I
frames
tagged 94
untagged 94
IEEE 802.1p, priority 82
IEEE 802.1x
activate 144, 148, 190
reauthentication 145
front panel 24
FTP 269
file transfer procedure 270
restrictions over WAN 271
IEEE 802.1x, port authentication 142
IGMP
version 173
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) 173
IGMP filtering 173
profile 179
profiles 175
G
GARP 88
GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) 88
GARP terminology 88
GARP timer 82, 88
IGMP leave timeout
fast 176
mormal 176
general setup 77
IGMP snooping 173
MVR 180
getting help 40
IGMP throttling 177
Gigabit ports 26
ingress port 102
GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) 79
installation
desktop 21
precautions 22
rack-mounting 21
transceivers 27
Guide
CLI Reference 2
Quick Start 2
GVRP 88, 93, 94
and port assignment 94
installation scenarios 21
Internet Protocol version 6, see IPv6
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) 88
introduction 17
IP address 84
IP interface 83
IP setup 83
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
323
Index
IP source guard 200
ARP inspection 200, 202
DHCP snooping 200
static bindings 200
non-administrator 284
login accounts 284
configuring via web configurator 284
multiple 284
number of 284
IP subnet mask 84
IPv6 20
Neighbor Discovery Protocol 20
ping 20
login password 285
L
loop guard, vs STP 219
loop guard 219
how it works 220
port shut down 220
probe packet 220
L2PT 225
access port 226
CDP 225
configuration 226
encapsulation 225
LACP 225
MAC address 225
mode 226
overview 225
PAgP 225
point to point 225
STP 225
tunnel port 226
UDLD 225
VTP 225
M
MAC (Media Access Control) 77
MAC address 77, 307
maximum number per port 151
MAC address learning 81, 95, 97, 103, 151
specify limit 151
MAC authentication 143
aging time 149
MAC filter
and ARP inspection 203
MAC freeze 151
MAC table 304
display criteria 305
how it works 304
sorting criteria 305
transfer type 306
viewing 305
LACP 135, 228
system priority 140
timeout 140
Layer 2 protocol tunneling, see L2PT
LEDs 31
maintenance 266
configuration backup 269
current configuration 266
firmware 268
main screen 266
restoring configuration 268
limit MAC address learning 151
Link Aggregate Control Protocol (LACP) 135
link aggregation 135
dynamic 135
ID information 136
setup 137, 139
status 136
traffic distribution algorithm 137
traffic distribution type 138
Management Information Base (MIB) 273
management port 102
managing the device
good habits 20
using FTP. See FTP. 20
using Telnet. See command interface. 20
using the command interface. See command
interface. 20
lockout 38
log 294
login 33
password 37
login account
Administrator 284
man-in-the-middle attacks 202
max
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
324
Index
age 124
hops 124
Multiple STP, see MSTP 112
MDIX (Media Dependent Interface Crossover) 27
Metric 248
MIB
and SNMP 273
supported MIBs 274
MVR 180
configuration 181
group configuration 183
network example 180
MVR (Multicast VLAN Registration) 180
MIB (Management Information Base) 273
mirroring ports 133
N
monitor port 133
mounting brackets 22
network applications 17
MST Instance, See MSTI 114
network management system (NMS) 272
MST region 113
NTP (RFC-1305) 78
MSTI 114
MST ID 114
MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance) 112
O
MSTP 110, 112
bridge ID 127, 128
configuration 122, 125
configuration digest 128
forwarding delay 124
Hello Time 127
hello time 124
Max Age 127
max age 124
max hops 124
MST region 113
network example 112
path cost 125
port priority 125
revision level 124
other documentation 2
P
PAGP 228
password 37
administrator 285
PHB (Per-Hop Behavior) 250
ping, test connection 294
policy 159, 161
and classifier 159
and DiffServ 158
configuration 159
example 161
overview 158
rules 158
viewing 160
MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) 110
MTU (Multi-Tenant Unit) 79
multicast 173
802.1 priority 175
and IGMP 173
IGMP throttling 177
IP addresses 173
overview 173
setup 174, 175
policy configuration 161
Port Aggregation Protocol, see PAgP
port authentication 142
and RADIUS 188
IEEE802.1x 144, 148, 190
MAC authentication 143
multicast group 179
multicast VLAN 183
Multiple Spanning Tree Instance, See MSTI 112
port based VLAN type 81
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol 111
port cloning 309, 310
advanced settings 309, 310
basic settings 309, 310
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, See MSTP. 110
Multiple STP 111
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
325
Index
port details 72
isolate traffic 96
priority 96, 98
port isolation 102
PVID 87, 94
port mirroring 133
direction 134
egress 134
ingress 134
PVID (Priority Frame) 87
port redundancy 135
Q
port security 150
address learning 151
limit MAC address learning 151
MAC address learning 150
overview 150
setup 150, 221, 226
QoS
and classifier 152
queue weight 164
queuing 163
SPQ 164
WRR 164
port setup 85
port status 71
queuing method 163, 165
port VLAN trunking 89
Quick Start Guide 2
port-based VLAN 99
all connected 102
port isolation 102
settings wizard 102
R
ports
“standby” 135
diagnostics 294
mirroring 133
speed/duplex 86
rack-mounting 21
power module
current rating 29
power wire 29
RADIUS 188
advantages 188
and authentication 188
Network example 187
server 188
settings 188
setup 188
power status 77
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, See RSTP. 110
power voltage 77
reboot
load configuration 267
power connector 28
power wires 29
reboot system 267
PPPoE IA 52
trusted ports 235
untrusted ports 235
Reference Guide, CLI 2
priority level 82
registration
product 319
priority, queue assignment 82
related documentation 2
private VLAN 245
configuration 245
isolated port 245
overview 245
promiscuous port 245
remote management 292
service 293
trusted computers 293
product registration 319
restoring configuration 39, 268
protocol based VLAN 96
and IEEE 802.1Q tagging 96
example 98
hexadecimal notation for protocols 96, 98
RFC 3164 295
resetting 39, 267
to factory default settings 267
Round Robin Scheduling 164
RSTP 110
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
326
Index
static bindings 200
S
static MAC address 103
save configuration 38, 267
static MAC forwarding 95, 97, 103
service access control 291
service port 292
static multicast address 105
sFlow 229
collector 231
configuration 229
datagram 229
overview 229
poll interval 230
sample rate 230
UDP port 231
Static route
Setup 247
static multicast forwarding 105
static routes 248
static trunking example 140
Static VLAN 91
static VLAN
control 92
tagging 92
sFlow agent 229
status 71
link aggregation 136
port 71
port details 72
power 77
STP 118, 121, 126
VLAN 90
sFlow collector 229
Simple Network Management Protocol, see
SNMP 272
Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) 27
SNMP 272
agent 273
and MIB 273
and security 273
authentication 283
communities 279
management model 273
manager 273
MIB 274
network components 273
object variables 273
protocol operations 273
security 283
setup 278, 280
users 282
version 3 273
versions supported 272
STP 110, 227
bridge ID 118, 121
bridge priority 117, 120
configuration 116, 119, 122
designated bridge 111
forwarding delay 117, 120
Hello BPDU 111
Hello Time 117, 118, 120, 121
how it works 111
Max Age 117, 118, 120, 121
path cost 110, 118, 120
port priority 117, 120
port state 111
root port 111
status 118, 121, 126
terminology 110
vs loop guard 219
SNMP traps 274
setup 280
supported 274, 276, 278
subnet based VLANs 94
and DHCP VLAN 96
and priority 94
configuration 95
Spanning Tree Protocol, See STP. 110
SPQ (Strict Priority Queuing) 164
SSH
encryption methods 286
how it works 285
implementation 286
switch lockout 38
switch reset 39
switch setup 81
SSH (Secure Shell) Secure Shell, See SSH 285
syslog 203, 295
protocol 295
server setup 296
SSL (Secure Socket Layer) 287
standby ports 135
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
327
Index
settings 295
setup 295
severity levels 295
DHCP snooping 45
Error Disable 58
PPPoE IA 52
system information 76
Two Rate Three Color Marker (TRTCM) 251
system log 294
Type of Service (ToS) 250
system reboot 267
U
T
UDLD 228
TACACS+ 188
setup 190
UniDirectional Link Detection, see UDLD
tagged VLAN 87
untrusted ports
ARP inspection 203
DHCP snooping 201
PPPoE IA 235
temperature indicator 77
user profiles 187
TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller AccessControl System Plus) 187
terminal emulation 26
time
current 79
time zone 79
V
Time (RFC-868) 78
Vendor Specific Attribute See VSA
time server 78
ventilation 21
time service protocol 78
format 78
trademarks 318
VID 87, 90, 91, 168
number of possible VIDs 87
priority frame 87
transceiver MultiSource Agreement (MSA) 27
VID (VLAN Identifier) 87
transceivers 27
installation 27
removal 28
VLAN 79, 87
acceptable frame type 94
automatic registration 88
ID 87
ingress filtering 93
introduction 79
number of VLANs 90
port number 91
port settings 93
port-based VLAN 99
port-based, all connected 102
port-based, isolation 102
port-based, wizard 102
static VLAN 91
status 90, 91
tagged 87
trunking 89, 94
type 81, 89
traps
destination 279
TRTCM
and bandwidth control 253
and DiffServ 254
color-aware mode 252
color-blind mode 252
setup 253
trunk group 135
trunking 135
example 140
trusted ports
ARP inspection 203
DHCP snooping 201
PPPoE IA 235
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) 79
Tunnel Protocol Attribute, and RADIUS 196
VLAN ID 84
tutorials 45
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
328
Index
VLAN mapping 222
activating 222
configuration 223
example 222
priority level 222
tagged 222
traffic flow 222
untagged 222
VLAN ID 222
VLAN stacking 166, 168
configuration 168
example 166
frame format 168
port roles 167, 169
port-based Q-in-Q 170
priority 168
selective Q-in-Q 170
VLAN Trunking Protocol, see VTP
VLAN, protocol based, See protocol based VLAN
VLAN, subnet based, See subnet based VLANs 94
VSA 195
VT100 26
VTP 227
W
warranty 319
note 319
web configurator 33
getting help 40
layout 34
login 33
logout 40
navigation panel 35
weight, queuing 164
Weighted Round Robin Scheduling (WRR) 164
WRR (Weighted Round Robin Scheduling) 164
Z
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) 270
MES3500 Series User’s Guide
329
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