Introduction
Switching HUB Series
Chapter 1 Introduction
Cables and Connectors
This section provides you with useful Fast Ethernet, hub and
switching technology background.
Fast Ethernet supports category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)
cable and category 5 shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable.
Fast Ethernet Technology
These cables use the same RJ-45 connector as used with
10BASE-T cables wired in the same configuration.
In July 1993, the Fast Ethernet Alliance was formed by a group of
networking companies with the goal of drafting the 802.3u
100BaseT specifications of the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE). This group recognized that existing
applications and the flood of new multimedia, groupware, imaging,
and database products could easily overwhelm a traditional
10BaseT Ethernet. In order to ensure a cost effective, simple
migration from 10BaseT Ethernet to 100BaseT Fast Ethernet, the
group determined to maintain the Ethernet transmission protocol
Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection (CSMA/CD),
support popular cabling schemes and to maintain the upper-layer
protocols and software that already ran on LAN workstations.
Because it is compatible with all other 10Mbps Ethernet
environments and uses your company’s existing investment in
hardware, software, and personnel training, Fast Ethernet
technology is regarded as being the inevitable market dominator.
This means that you can now start to make a cost effective,
incremental migration to Fast Ethernet and rest assured that the
future will offer a vast array of low cost products to keep pace with
your growing LAN needs.
Topology
Star topology is the fundamental structure of a Fast Ethernet LAN.
A single collision domain LAN is sufficient for users with a small
number of end stations and servers.
Within a single collision domain LAN, you can use one class I
repeater hub or two class II repeater hubs to connect your end
stations and servers. You can use stackable hubs to increase the
total number ports within each collision domain.
A switch is used to create other collision domains within your
overall LAN. These collision domains are actually separate LANs
within your overall LAN.
A switch allows all of these collision domains to communicate with
each other.
A switched line is a separate collision domain that allows you to
use one class I repeater hub or two class II repeater hubs to
connect your end stations and servers. You can use stackable
hubs to increase the total number ports within each collision
domain.
1-2
LED Indicators
Chapter 6
LED Indicators & Dip Switch setting
The Switching HUB front panel display provides monitoring and
diagnosis with simplicity and precision.
•
10 / 100Mbps. This LED indicator is green when the
corresponding port is connected to a 100Mbps device. This
LED indicator is not lit when the corresponding port is
connected to a 10Mbps device.
•
Link / Activity. This LED indicator is green when there is a
connection secured to a device (a link) to the corresponding
port. The LED indicator blinks when there is a transmission
or receiving of data (activity) taking place at the corresponding
port.
•
Duplex Mode / Collision. This LED indicator is yellow when
the corresponding port is operating in Full Duplex mode.
When the corresponding port is operating in Half Duplex, the
LED indicator is not lit. When collisions are occurring at the
corresponding port, the LED indicator blinks.
Please take a few moments to familiarize yourself with these
indicators.
Unit Status Indicator
A green Power LED indicates that the unit is turned on.
Port Status Indicators
There are three LED indicators for each of the RJ-45 LAN
connection ports. If there is no connection to a port, the
corresponding LED indicators are not lit.
Switching HUB Series
Dip Switch setting
16 ports Switch Hub
The Switching HUB also provides one 4 pin configuration dip
switch at rear panel. It can set operating mode for port 13 to port
16.
The following Table lists the ports' operating modes based on
the DIP switch position.
Figure 6-1.
Switching HUB 2400 LED indicators.
SW
OFF
ON
PORT 13
1
Auto
Full
PORT 14
2
Auto
Full
PORT 15
3
Auto
Full
PORT 16
4
Auto
Full
Table: DIP switch functions for 16 ports Switch Hub
6-2
LED Indicators
Switching HUB Series
Note: The dip switch is OFF(default) when you set switch to
the up position and it is ON when you set switch to the
bottom position.
24 ports Switch Hub
The Switching HUB also provides one 5 pin configuration dip
switch at rear panel. It can set and operating mode for port 20 to
port 24 and MII port.
The fifth DIP switch could set the full or half duplex in
accordance with the transceiver
The following Table lists the ports' operating modes based on
the DIP switch position.
PORT 21 PORT 22 PORT 23 PORT 24
SW
OFF
ON
1
Auto
Full
2
Auto
Full
3
Auto
Full
4
Auto
Full
PORT
12(MII)
5
Full
Half
Table: DIP switch functions for 24 ports Switch Hub
Note: The dip switch is OFF (default) when you set switch to
the up position and it is ON when you set switch to the
bottom position.
6-3
External Components
Chapter 5 External Components
This chapter introduces the rear and front panels of your
Switching HUB.
Switching HUB Rear Panel
The rear panel of your Switching HUB holds the AC power
connector, power switch, DIP switch and MII port.
Figure 5-1.
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Switching HUB Series
MII Port. This connector is used for external transceiver. If
you use the external transceiver, the eighth or twelfth
(depending on model) UTP port is disabled automatically.
Switching HUB Front Panel
The front panel of your Switching HUB contains the power and
port LED indicators and the 10/100Mbps N-Way Switch ports for
your LAN shielded RJ-45 connectors.
Figure 5-2.
The Switching HUB 2400 front panel.
Figure 5-3.
The Switching HUB 1600 front panel.
Rear panel of the Switching HUB.
AC Power Connector. This is a recessed three-pronged
male port that receives the power cord. The female end of
the power cord is inserted here. The male end is to be
plugged into an AC power supply. The Switching HUB
supports input voltages from 100 VAC to 240 VAC at 50 Hz to
60 Hz. The Switching HUB will automatically adjust to power
supply provided.
Power Switch. This switch turns your Switching HUB on and
off. To turn on, flip the switch to the “ON” or “1” position. To
turn off, flip the switch to “OFF” or “0” position.
•
LED Indicators. These LED monitor the 10/100M, link/activity
and full duplex/collision status per port.
•
STP Port. The Switching HUB provides 24/16 MDI-X shielded
RJ-45 jack to link 10/100Base-TX node.
•
MDI Port. This connector is used to link a HUB or Switching
without crossover cable.
DIP Switch. This switch sets the UTP port of Switching HUB
to full duplex mode.
5-2
Planning Your Network
Chapter 4
Switching HUB Series
using Class II hubs.
Planning Your Network
Network Planning
Before you install your Switching HUB, you should review the
guidelines for setting up Ethernet networks. Further, you should
plan how to organize your network to take maximum advantage
of its switching capabilities.
10Base-T Ethernet Network Guidelines
The maximum length of a 10Base-T cable segment is 328
feet (100 meters).
The maximum number of nodes on a 10Base-T segment is
one (1) for regular 10Base-T.
The recommended cable type is EIA/TIA Category 3 or
higher.
The maximum network diameter is 1,640 feet (500 meters)
for Ethernet networks.
The maximum number of segments between any two nodes
in the network is five.
The maximum number of hubs or repeaters between any two
nodes in the network is four.
100Base-TX Ethernet Network Guidelines
The maximum length of a 100Base-TX cable segment is 328
feet (100 meters).
The maximum number of hubs on a 100Base-TX segment
one if using Class I hubs and two if using Class II hubs.
The recommended cable type is EIA/TIA Category 5
untwisted-pair.
The maximum network diameter is 656 feet (200 meters)
when using Class I hubs and 672.5 feet (205 meters) when
Using a switch, such as a Switching HUB, can expand network
topologies and enhance network performance.
Each port on a switch connects to a separate network with its
own collision domain. Separating networks with these switches
allows you to expand 10Base-T networks past the four hub limit
and expand 100Base-TX networks past the one or two hub limit.
These switches also filter incoming traffic. On standard hubs and
repeaters, any data received on a port is forwarded to all of the
other ports. On switches, data received on one port is forwarded
only to the port of the destination device, and if the traffic is local,
the data is not forwarded at all. Also, switches can forward
multiple data transaction at once.
To expand your network topology or enhance network
performance, use the Max Switch as collapsed backbone or to
increase file server performance, to segment large networks, to
interconnect 10Mbps networks with 100Mbps networks, or to
overcome the limitations of 10Base-T and 100Base-TX networks.
Expanded Networks
You can expand your 10Base-T or 100Base-TX network beyond
its hub limit by adding one of the Switching HUBs.
10Base-T Networks
10Base-T Networks are limited to four hubs between any two
4-2
Switching HUB Series
Planning Your Network
nodes. By adding your Switching HUB to a network, you can
Planning Your Network
Switching HUB Series
two hubs to the Switching HUB. Then you'll have one network
with two collision domains.
divide that network into segments with their own collision domains.
In other words, you can connect one 10Base-T network with four
hubs to your Switching HUB. Then you can connect another
10Base-T network with four hubs to your Switching HUB. Then,
you'll have one network with two collision domains, allowing four
hubs on each port.
Figure 4-2. Expanding your 100Base-TX network (Class I)
Collapsed Backbone Link
Traditionally, bridges and routers have used to link local area
networks into one interconnected network. But these devices
involve difficult management and long traffic delays.
Figure 4-1. Expanding your 10Base-T Network
100Base-TX Networks
The hub limit of a 100Base-TX network depends on the class of
hub in the network. With a Class I hub, the network is limited to
one hub. With a Class II hub, the network is limited to two hubs.
However, you can expand your 100Base-TX network that
includes either class of hub by adding a Switching HUB. With the
Switching HUB added to your 100Base-TX network, you can
separate that network into individual segments with their own
collision domains. In other words, you can connect one
100Base-T network with one or two hubs to the Switching HUB,
and you can connect another 100Base-TX network with one or
4-3
The Switching HUBes are multiport bridges with short delays and
easy setup and maintenance, making them ideal for backbone
links. Also, the Built-in filtering on these hubs will decease
network traffic, while the multiple ports communicating
simultaneously will increase network performance.
One or more of your hub's 100Mbps ports can be used as
high-speed backbone link to other hubs serving as collapsed
backbones.
4-4
Switching HUB Series
Planning Your Network
Planning Your Network
Switching HUB Series
the performance of another workgroup.
Figure 4-4. Fileserver Link
Figure 4-3. Switching HUB 10/100 Hub in a collapsed backbone
link
Fileserver Link
With a fileserver link, you can increase file server performance by
increasing the Hub's bandwidth between one or more fileservers
and the workgroups they serve.
Connecting servers through 100Base-TX ports increases
performance to the clients, even through the clients are on
10Base-T segments.
Because multiple 10Base-T devices can access the file server at
the same time through a 100Base-TX connection, performance
increases to beyond the performance of standard 10Base-T or
100Base-TX hubs. Operating the Switching HUB at full duplex
further increases performance
If you connect 10Mbps workgroup hubs to the 10Mbps ports on
the Switching HUB, traffic in one workgroup will not interfere with
4-5
4-6
Switching HUB Series
Planning Your Network
Planning Your Network
network.
Multi-port Bridge With High-Bandwidth Backbone
With a Switching HUB, you can divide large network to ease
congestion, and connect 10Base-T networks to 100Base-TX
networks for more flexibility. Adding your Switching HUB to a
large network creates more segments in that network. Then the
Switching HUB's built-in filtering separates a segment's local
traffic from network traffic, reducing the amount of network traffic
and easing congestion.
Figure 4-5. Used as a Multiport Bridge
Using your hub, you can also connect 10Base-T networks and
100Base-TX networks together for more flexibility in your network
topology. As in the graphic above, the Switching HUB could
connect through one port to a 10Base-T network, and through
another port, connect to a 100Base-TX port, creating one
4-7
4-8
Switching HUB Series
Setting Up Your Switching HUB
Series
Chapter 3
Switching HUB
Setting Up Your Switching HUB
Desktop Installation
This chapter provides you with environmental, unpacking and
setup instructions.
The surface where you put your Switching HUB should be clean,
smooth, level and sturdy.
Environment
Place your Switching HUB in a well-ventilated room.
•
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•
•
•
Room temperature 00C to 450C (320F to 1130F).
Relative humidity 10% to 90% (non-condensing)
Allow air circulation around fan vents to prevent overheating.
Do not place the unit where water might get on or into it.
Do not touch any electrical contacts or push any objects into
the unit through the vents.
Remember, this equipment generates, uses, and can radiate
radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with this user’s guide, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications.
Make sure there is enough clearance around the Switching HUB
to allow attachment of cables, power cord and allow air
circulation.
Attaching Mounting Feet
1. Make sure mounting surface on the bottom of the Switching
HUB is grease and dust free.
2. Remove adhesive backing from rubber mounting feet.
3. Press adhesive to mounting nodes.
Unpacking Your Switching HUB
Carefully open the box and remove the contents. You will find the
following items:
•
•
•
•
•
•
One Switching HUB
One AC power cord
Four adhesive rubber desktop mounting feet
Two rack mounting brackets
Eight screws for rack mounting brackets
This User’s guide
Figure 3-1.
Attaching the rubber mounting feet.
Rack Installation
You can use an EIA standard size (19-inch) equipment rack to
mount your Switching HUB.
If any of the package contents are missing or damaged, contact
your Switching HUB dealer immediately.
3-2
Switching HUB Series
HUB
Setting Up Your Switching
Setting Up Your Switching HUB
Series
Switching HUB
Installation
Power Failure
1. Use the screws provided to attach rack-mounting brackets to
the sides of the Switching HUB.
2. Using the screws provided with the equipment rack, mount the
Switching HUB into the rack.
In the event of an AC power failure, your Switching HUB should
be turned off. When power is restored, you may turn the
Switching HUB back on.
To prevent costly equipment damage and downtime, please
consider the full line of uninterruptable power supply (UPS) units.
MDI Port
Figure 3-2.
Rack mounting the Switching HUB.
The Switching HUB provides 1 MDI port to link a HUB or
Switching without crossover cable.
Powering the Switching HUB
The Switching HUB can use AC power sources from 100 to 240
VAC and 50 to 60 Hz. When you plug the power cord in, it will
automatically adjust to the AC power provided.
Your Switching HUB may be turned on with or without LAN cables
connected.
Turning the Power On
1. Visually inspect the power cord. If there is any damage, do
not use it. Contact your dealer for a replacement.
2. Plug the female end of the cord into the rear of your Switching
HUB.
3. Plug the male into an AC power source.
4. Flip the power switch, located at the rear of the unit next to the
AC power connector, to the “ON” or “1” position.
5. The Power LED indicator will turn to red.
3-3
DIP Switch
The Switching HUB provides 4 UTP ports to be fixed 10/100M full
duplex mode by DIP switch setting. It is used to link the node that
is full duplex but not provide auto-negotiation function.
MII Port
The Switching HUB provides a MII port to plug different media
type such as 100Base-FX. It allows connection any MII
transceiver to expand your network. If you plug the transceiver
into the MII port, the eighth (16 ports Switch Hub) or twelfth (24
ports Switch Hub) UTP port will be disabled automatically. The
fifth DIP switch (Base Switch 2400 only) could set the full or half
duplex in accordance with the transceiver. The Base Switch 1600
automatically detects the transceiver’s operation mode (full or half
duplex).
Note : The transceiver address can not be set from 80H to 87H.
3-4
About Your Switching HUB
Chapter 2 About Your Switching HUB
The Switching HUB will provide you with the flexibility and
manageability you need as you incrementally migrate your
network to Fast Ethernet. This switch hub provides you with 24
or 16 (depending on model) switched N-Way 10/100Mbps
RJ-45 Ethernet ports.
The Switching HUB will automatically detect the speed of the
device that you plug into it to allow you to use both 10 and
100Mbps devices on the same hub without having to replace
any network infrastructure. The 10Mbps bandwidth will
accommodate 10Mbps workgroup hubs while simultaneously
providing the 100Mbps bandwidth needed to accommodate
multimedia applications and power desktop users.
The Switching HUB features a store-and-forward switching
scheme. This allows the switch to auto-learn and store source
addresses on a MAC address table. The switch provides a
dynamic memory sharing in/out buffer to ensure fast, error free
packet storage and forwarding.
Expand Your Network Topology
Overcome Network Design Limitations
Each port on the Switching HUB creates a separate segment
with its own collision domain within your network. This allows
you to overcome the four-hub limit of 10BASE-T networks and
the two-hub limit of 100BASE-TX networks.
The Switching HUB also allows you to bridge 10BASE-T
segments with 100BASE-TX segments.
Switching HUB Series
Built-in filtering detects and sends a packet only to its
destination collision domain. If the destination is within the
same segment, the Switching HUB sends it back into the
segment to its destination without forwarding it to the rest of
the network. This effectively reduces traffic on the overall
network and eases congestion.
Create Collapsed Backbone Links
You can use your Switching HUB to create collapsed backbone
links that were traditionally accomplished using bridges and
routers. The problem with bridges and routers is that they
cause long traffic delays and are difficult to manage. The
Switching HUB offers built-in packet filtering which decreases
network traffic and the multi-port bridges offer short delays.
You can also use one or more of your switch hub’s ports as a
high-speed backbone link to other hubs serving as collapsed
backbones.
Create Fileserver Links
The Switching HUB will allow you to increase your file server
performance by increasing the bandwidth between one or
more fileservers and the workgroups they serve. Because the
Switching HUB creates separate segments with their own
collision domains, traffic in one workgroup will not interfere with
the performance of another workgroup.
The N-Way auto-negotiation between 10BASE-T/100BASE-TX
and full/half duplex modes ensures the fastest connection
possible. This allows multiple 10BASE-T devices to access the
file server at the same time through a 100BASE-TX connection,
which increases performance to beyond the performance of
standard 10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX hubs.
2-2
Switching HUB Series
About Your Switching HUB
About Your Switching HUB
Easy Plug & Play Installation
Features
The Switching HUB is quick and simple to install. It is both
10BASE-T Ethernet and 100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet standard
compatible that allows you to seamlessly integrates your
10Mbps legacy devices with your powerful new 100Mbps Fast
Ethernet devices. The Switching HUB automatically senses the
speed of the devices that you attach to it and routes the traffic
to the appropriate bus.
•
•
The Switching HUB features N-Way auto-negotiation that
ensures that all of your network connections will operate at the
highest possible transfer rate.
•
This hub is protocol independent which eliminates the need for
software to install the unit or maintain your network.
•
Information at a Glance
The Switching HUB front panel display provides monitoring
and diagnosis with simplicity and precision. For each port, the
LED configuration provides you with information on the status
of your link activity, whether the port is operating in Full or Half
Duplex mode, collision indication and whether the port is
operating at 10Mbps or 100Mbps.
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2-3
2-4
Switching HUB Series
Conforms to IEEE 802.3 & 802.3u standards
Interface:
Switching HUB 2400:
24 ports 10/100Mbps N-Way Switch (using shielded
RJ-45 connector)
Switching HUB 1600:
16 ports 10/100Mbps N-Way Switch (using shielded
RJ-45 connector)
Dynamic memory sharing In/Out buffer:
Switching HUB 2400:
512Kbytes dynamic memory sharing
Switching HUB 1600:
1Mbytes dynamic memory sharing
MAC address table:
Switching HUB 2400:
2K MAC address entry
Switching HUB 1600:
1K MAC address entry
N-Way auto-negotiation application
Store-and-Forward technology
Plug & Play configuration auto-learns network configuration
Supports both half and full duplex modes
1 MDI port for up-link
1 MII port for 100Base-FX transceiver
4 UTP port can be fixed to full duplex mode by DIP switch
LED indicators for power, 10Mbps / 100Mbps, link / activity
and full duplex / collision
Internal switch power supply
Rack or desktop mountable
Switching HUB Series
About Your Switching HUB
Technical Specification
Standards Compliance IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T Ethernet,
IEEE 802.3u 100BASE-TX Ethernet
ANSI/IEEE standard 802.3 N-Way
auto-negotiation
Max Forwarding Rate 14,880 pps/10BASE-T port,
148,800 pps/100BASE-TX port
Max Filtering Rate
14,880 pps/10BASE-T port,
148,800 pps/100BASE-TX port
LED Indicators
Per Port
10 / 100Mbps, Link / Activity, Duplex
mode / Collision
Per Unit
Power
Network Cables
2-pair UTP Category 3, 4, 5 cable
Dimensions
428mm x 225mm x 43mm (L x W x H)
Environment
Temperature
Humidity
Power Supply
EMI
Safety
00 C to 450 C (320 F to 1130 F) standard
operating temperature
10% to 90% (Non-condensing)
Input rate: 100 ~ 240 (±10%) VAC
Automatic adjustment, 50~60(±3) Hz
Internal universal power supply
FCC Class A
CE CISPR 22
CUL
CNS
TUV
2-5
Switching HUB Series
Introduction
You can also dedicate a separate collision domain to heavily used
servers or end stations with large bandwidth needs.
Network Diameter
The network diameter is the total length of cable between two end
stations within the same collision domain.
Because of the high speed of Fast Ethernet and adherence to the
EIA/TIA 568 wiring rules, the maximum diameter of a Fast
Ethernet collision domain is 205 meters.
Introduction
Switching HUB Series
Class II Fast Ethernet Hubs
Class II hubs are used when all media within the collision domain
is the same (all TX, for example).
The hub receives line data from any port and directly repeats it to
all other ports.
A maximum of two Class II hubs can be used within one collision
domain.
Stackable Class II Fast Ethernet Hubs
The maximum 10BaseT Ethernet collision domain diameter is 500
meters.
You can increase the port density within a collision domain by
using stackable Class II hubs.
Fast Ethernet Hub Technology
When hubs are stacked, they function as one hub.
Consequently, you can have up to two stacks of Class II hubs
within one collision domain.
Class I Fast Ethernet Hubs
Class I hubs must be used when connecting differing network
media such as two wire-pair 100BASE-TX media with four
wire-pair 100BASE-T4 media within the same collision domain.
The stacked hubs receive line data from any port and directly
repeat it to all other ports within the stack.
Dual-Speed Ethernet Hub Technology
The hub receives line data from any port, translates it into digital a
signal, retranslates the signal back into the appropriate line data
and repeats it to all other ports.
If a Class I hub is used in a collision domain, no other hubs may
be used within that collision domain.
1-3
Dual-Speed Ethernet hubs are an indispensable step in the
migration of your existing 10Mbps Ethernet to 100Mbps Fast
Ethernet.
Dual-Speed Ethernet hubs accommodate both 10Mbps Ethernet
and 100Mbps Fast Ethernet on the same LAN.
1-4
Switching HUB Series
Introduction
A Dual-Speed Ethernet hub contains two separate repeaters
within the same unit: one 10Mbps repeater and 100Mbps
repeater.
The unit automatically detects the speed of the signal and routes
it to the corresponding repeater. The repeater then sends the
signal to all other ports using that signal speed.
Introduction
Switching HUB Series
be increased without the need to invest in new media
infrastructure.
By creating separate collision domains and communicating
between them, a switch allows you to overcome the two-hub limit
of Fast Ethernet topology.
You can also use a switch to dedicate a full 100Mbps line to
power workstation users and servers.
Dual-Speed Ethernet Hub with Built-in Bridge Module
A dual-speed Ethernet hub with bridging capabilities retains the
structure of a regular dual-speed hub with the addition of an
embedded bridge module. This allows your 10Mbps devices and
100Mbps devices to seamlessly exchange data
Switches with bridging technology are ideal for facilitating data
transfer between your 10Mbps legacy devices and your new
100Mbps devices.
Switching Technology
Switches have lower latencies than the previous generation of
network bridges, use your existing network and don’t require the
use of software to install.
A switch is used to communicate between, and create separate
collision domains.
These factors make switches the best solution for most of your
LAN congestion problems.
A switch creates a separate collision domain by dedicating a full
100Mbps line through each port. This allows you to use one
class I repeater hub or two class II repeater hubs to connect your
end stations and servers within that domain. You can use
stackable hubs to increase the total number ports within each
collision domain.
A switch uses store and forwarding technology to transfer data
between collision domains at the MAC address level of the
Ethernet protocol. This means that data is transferred only to the
data’s destination collision domain. The data is not transferred
to other collision domains, which allows your total LAN capacity to
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1-6
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