AERODYNAMICS AND AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS

Aerodynamics - Page 28
Aviation Seminars
AERODYNAMICS AND AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS
Definitions
Forces Acting On The Aircraft (Cont)
Angle of attack is the angle between the wing chord line and
flight, or climbing or descending at a constant rate (unaccelerated flight). Thrust is equal to drag whenever your
airspeed is constant.
Angle Of Attack And Stalling Speeds
An airplane can be stalled at any airspeed and in any flight
attitude.
the direction of the relative wind. It changes as your flight
path changes.
Chord line is the line between the leading and the trailing
edge of the airfoil.
Relative wind is the direction of the airflow with respect to
the wing. It is also the direction opposite and parallel to the
flight path.
Forces Acting On The Aircraft
Lift is the difference in pressure between the upper (lower
The angle of attack at which an airplane stalls will always
remain the same.
An airplane will spin only after having been stalled. During a
spin to the left, both wings remain stalled, but the right wing
is less stalled than the left wing.
Load Factor
Load factor is the actual load on the wings at any time
divided by the weight of the airplane. Increased Load factor
in turns, for example, will cause an airplane to stall at a
higher airspeed.
The amount of excess load that can be imposed on the wing
of an airplane depends upon the speed of the airplane.
Functions Of The Flight Controls
pressure) and lower (higher pressure area) wing surfaces.
Drag is the rearward force of wind resistance.
Thrust is the forward acting force, produced by the propeller.
Lift equals weight whenever you are in straight and level
Ailerons roll the airplane about the longitudinal axis to
change the bank. The airplane turns because of the
horizontal component of lift.
Elevators pitch the airplane about the lateral axis to change
the angle of attack.
Aerodynamics - Page 29
Aviation Seminars
Flight Controls (Cont)
Rudder controls yaw about the vertical axis, not to turn the
airplane, but to overcome adverse yaw produced by the
depressed aileron on the high wing.
Wing flaps increase drag to increase the angle of descent
and allow steeper approaches to a landing without
increasing airspeed.
The most dangerous wind while taxiing in a nose-wheel
equipped airplane is a quartering tailwind.
Air Density
Stability
Longitudinal stability (the nose pitching up or
down) is determined by location of the center of gravity with
respect to the center of lift.
An airplane said to be inherently stable will require less effort
to control.
An airplane (except T-tail) will pitch nosedown when power
is reduced because the downwash on the elevator from the
propeller slipstream is reduced and elevator effectiveness is
reduced.
AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE OPERATION
‘P’ Factor And Torque
At high angles of attack, the descending propeller blade has
a greater angle of attack than the ascending blade, thus it
pulls more and yaws the airplane to the left.
The most torque and P-factor are experienced at high
angles of attack, high power settings, and low airspeeds.
Engine Operation
High temperatures, high elevations, high humidity, and low
atmospheric pressure all result in lower air density and
decreased performance.
Air that is less dense (higher density altitude) will give you
less performance because:
- the wings produce less lift;
- the engine produces less power;
- the propeller exerts less force.
Regardless of altitude and air density, the indicated airspeed
at which an airplane stalls and your indicated speed on
landing approach will remain the same.
Ground Effect
Ground effect is the result of interference of the earth with
airflow patterns about an airplane, and will be realized when
you are less than the wingspan above the surface. It causes
a decrease in induced drag.
Ground effect allows you to become airborne before
reaching recommended takeoff speed. Any excess speed on
landing may cause considerable floating.
The first action after starting an aircraft engine should be to
adjust for proper RPM and check for desired indications on
the engine gauges.
When starting an engine by hand, have a competent pilot at
the controls in the cockpit.
Dual ignition, in addition to providing an increased safety
factor, also provides improved engine performance.
A constant speed propeller permits the pilot to select the
blade angle for the most efficient performance. The throttle
controls power output as registered on the manifold pressure
gauge and the propeller control regulates blade angle to
provide a constant RPM. Avoid high manifold pressure
setting with low RPM.
Engine cooling is caused by airflow and is especially
dependent on the circulation of lubricating oil.
Overheating can be caused by:
- lower than specified fuel octane/rating,
-too high power setting,
- climbing at an excessive rate of climb and
insufficient airspeed,
- mixture set too lean, and
- oil level being too low;
Aerodynamics - Page 30
Aviation Seminars
Engine Operation (Cont)
Higher temperatures will cause loss of power, excessive oil
consumption and possible engine damage.
Detonation occurs when the unburned charge (fuel) in the
cylinders explodes instead of burning evenly. If you suspect
that the engine is detonating during climb-out, lower the
nose to increase airspeed.
Preignition is the uncontrolled firing of the fuel/air charge in
advance of normal spark ignition.
While at a high altitude airport and while checking your
magnetos, if you notice a roughness in the engine that gets
worse when you check carburetor heat, check the results
obtained with a leaner mixture setting.
Carb ice reduces the amount of air coming into the
carburetor. The indication for an airplane with fixed pitch
propeller is the loss of RPM.
When you apply carb heat there will be a drop in RPM. If
there is no carb ice, the RPM will remain there. If carb ice is
present when you apply carb heat, the RPM will drop then
rise as the ice melts.
Carburetor heat reduces the density of the air by heating it,
and this makes the mixture richer. It decreases engine
output and increases operating temperatures.
Float-type carburetor systems, in comparison to fuel
injection systems are considered to be more susceptible to
evaporative icing.
Fuel
Emergencies And Miscellaneous Information
Use the correct octane of fuel specified for your aircraft. If
the correct octane is not available, a higher octane will not
be harmful unless used for a long time.
Perform a walk-around inspection of the aircraft before each
flight.
Make sure there is no water or contamination in the fuel by:
- draining the fuel sumps and the fuel strainer before
each flight, and
- filling the tanks after completion of a flight to minimize
the possibility of condensation of water on the inner
walls of partially filled tanks.
Use a written checklist to ensure that all items are checked
in a logical sequence.
Do not run the fuel tanks dry because the engine-driven fuel
pump or electric fuel boost pump may draw air into the fuel
system and cause vapor lock.
If you lose power immediately after takeoff, immediately
establish the proper gliding attitude and airspeed.
If an aircraft has been stored an extended period of time,
check for damage or obstructions caused by animals, birds
or insects.
Float-type carburetor operation is based on the difference in
air pressure at the venturi throat and the air inlet.
Fuel (Cont)
The main purpose of the fuel/air mixture control is to
decrease the fuel flow to compensate for decreased air
density at higher altitudes.
As you climb out to a higher altitude, if no adjustment is
made to the mixture, your mixture will become richer.
Induction Icing
Carburetor icing is caused by sudden cooling of the air as it
expands in the venturi of the carburetor.
Carburetor icing will most likely occur with temperatures
between 20 and 70 degrees F with high relative humidity.
3201. H911
The four forces acting on an airplane in flight are
A) lift, weight, thrust, and drag.
B) lift, weight, gravity, and thrust.
C) lift, gravity, power, and friction.
NOTE: CORRECT ANSWER IS IN BOLD ITALIC
Aerodynamics - Page 31
Aviation Seminars
3202. H911
When are the four forces that act on an airplane in
equilibrium?
A) During unaccelerated flight.
B) When the aircraft is accelerating.
C) When the aircraft is at rest on the ground.
3211. H917
What determines the longitudinal stability of an airplane?
A) The location of the CG with respect to the center of lift.
B) The effectiveness of the horizontal stabilizer, rudder, and
rudder trim tab.
C) The relationship of thrust and lift to weight and drag.
3203. H300
(Refer to figure 1.) The acute angle A is the angle of
A) incidence.
B) attack.
C) dihedral.
3212. H917
What causes an airplane (except a T-tail) to pitch nosedown
when power is reduced and controls are not adjusted?
A) The CG shifts forward when thrust and drag are reduced.
B) The downwash on the elevators from the propeller
slipstream is reduced and elevator effectiveness is reduced.
C) When thrust is reduced to less than weight, lift is also
reduced and the wings can no longer support the weight.
3204. H911
The term 'angle of attack' is defined as the angle
A) between the wing chord line and the relative wind.
B) between the airplane's climb angle and the horizon.
C) formed by the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the
chord line of the wing.
3205. H912
What is the relationship of lift, drag, thrust, and weight when
the airplane is in straight-and-level flight?
A) Lift equals weight and thrust equals drag.
B) Lift, drag, and weight equal thrust.
C) Lift and weight equal thrust and drag.
3213. H915
What is the purpose of the rudder on an airplane?
A) To control yaw.
B) To control overbanking tendency.
C) To control roll.
3207. H920
In what flight condition is torque effect the greatest in a
single-engine airplane?
A) Low airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.
B) Low airspeed, low power, low angle of attack.
C) High airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.
3208. H920
The left turning tendency of an airplane caused by P-factor
is the result of the
A) clockwise rotation of the engine and the propeller turning
the airplane counter-clockwise.
B) propeller blade descending on the right, producing more
thrust than the ascending blade on the left.
C) gyroscopic forces applied to the rotating propeller blades
acting 90° in advance of the point the force was applied.
3209. H920
When does P-factor cause the airplane to yaw to the left?
A) When at low angles of attack.
B) When at high angles of attack.
C) When at high airspeeds.
3210. H917
An airplane said to be inherently stable will
A) be difficult to stall.
B) require less effort to control.
C) not spin.
NOTE: CORRECT ANSWER IS IN BOLD ITALIC
3214. H921
(Refer to figure 2.) If an airplane weighs 2,300 pounds, what
approximate weight would the airplane structure be required
to support during a 60° banked turn while maintaining
altitude?
A) 2,300 pounds.
B) 3,400 pounds.
C) 4,600 pounds.
Aerodynamics - Page 32
Aviation Seminars
3215. H921
(Refer to figure 2.) If an airplane weighs 3,300 pounds, what
approximate weigh would the airplane structure be required
to support during a 30° banked turn while maintaining
altitude?
A) 1,200 Pounds
B) 3,100 Pounds
C) 3,960 Pounds
3216. H921
(Refer to figure 2.) If an airplane weighs 4,500 pounds, what
approximate weigh would the airplane structure be required
to support during a 45° banked turn while maintaining
altitude?
A) 4,500 Pounds
B) 6,750 Pounds
C) 7,200 Pounds
3217. H921
The amount of excess load that can be imposed on the wing
of an airplane depends upon the
A) position of the CG.
B) speed of the airplane.
C) abruptness at which the load is applied.
3218. H303
Which basic flight maneuver increases the load factor on an
airplane as compared to straight-and-level flight?
A) Climbs.
B) Turns.
C) Stalls.
3219. H926
One of the main functions of flaps during approach and
landing is to
A) decrease the angle of descent without increasing the
airspeed.
B) permit a touchdown at a higher indicated airspeed.
C) increase the angle of descent without increasing the
airspeed.
3220.
What is one purpose of wing flaps?
A) To enable the pilot to make steeper approaches to a
landing without increasing the airspeed
B) To relieve the pilot of maintaining continuous pressure on
the controls.
C) To decrease wing area to vary the lift.
3221. H928
Excessively high engine temperatures will
A) cause damage to heat-conducting hoses and warping of
the cylinder cooling fins.
B) cause loss of power, excessive oil consumption, and
possible permanent internal engine damage.
C) not appreciably affect an aircraft engine.
3222. H928
If the engine oil temperature and cylinder head temperature
gauges have exceeded their normal operating range, the
pilot may have been operating with
A) the mixture set too rich.
B) higher-than-normal oil pressure.
C) too much power and with the mixture set too lean.
3223. H928
One purpose of the dual ignition system on an aircraft
engine is to provide for
A) improved engine performance.
B) uniform heat distribution.
C) balanced cylinder head pressure.
3224. H928
On aircraft equipped with fuel pumps, when is the auxiliary
electric driven pump used?
A) All the time to aid the engine-driven fuel pump.
B) In the event engine-driven fuel pump fails.
C) Constantly except in starting the engine.
3225. H927
The operating principle of float-type carburetors is based on
the
A) automatic metering of air at the venturi as the aircraft
gains altitude.
B) difference in air pressure at the venturi throat and the air
inlet.
C) increase in air velocity in the throat of a venturi causing
an increase in air pressure.
3226. H928
The basic purpose of adjusting the fuel/air mixture at altitude
is to
A) decrease the amount of fuel in the mixture in order to
compensate for increased air density.
B) decrease the fuel flow in order to compensate for
decreased air density.
C) increase the amount of fuel in the mixture to compensate
for the decrease in pressure and density of the air.
3227. H928
During the run-up at a high-elevation airport, a pilot notes a
slight engine roughness that is not affected by the magneto
check but grows worse during the carburetor heat check.
Under these circumstances, what would be the most logical
initial action?
A) Check the results obtained with a leaner setting of the
mixture.
B) Taxi back to the flight line for a maintenance check.
C) Reduce manifold pressure to control detonation.
NOTE: CORRECT ANSWER IS IN BOLD ITALIC
Aerodynamics - Page 33
Aviation Seminars
3228. H927
While cruising at 9,500 feet MSL, the fuel/air mixture is
properly adjusted. What will occur if a descent to 4,500 feet
MSL is made without readjusting the mixture?
A) The fuel/air mixture may become excessively lean.
B) There will be more fuel in the cylinders than is needed for
normal combustion, and the excess fuel will absorb heat and
cool the engine.
C) The excessively rich mixture will create higher cylinder
head temperatures and may cause detonation.
3229. H927
Which condition is most favorable to the development of
carburetor icing?
A) Any temperature below freezing and a relative humidity of
less than 50 percent.
B) Temperature between 32 and 50 °F and low humidity.
C) Temperature between 20 and 70 °F and high humidity.
3230. H927
The possibility of carburetor icing exists even when the
ambient air temperature is as
A) high as 70 °F and the relative humidity is high
B) high as 95 °F and there is visible moisture
C) low as 0 °F and the relative humidity is high
3231. H927
If an aircraft is equipped with a fixed-pitch propeller and a
float-type carburetor, the first indication of carburetor ice
would most likely be
A) a drop in oil temperature and cylinder head temperature.
B) engine roughness.
C) loss of RPM.
3235. H928
The presence of carburetor ice in an aircraft equipped with a
fixed-pitch propeller can be verified by applying carburetor
heat and noting
A) an increase in RPM and then a gradual decrease in RPM.
B) a decrease in RPM and then a constant RPM indication.
C) a decrease in RPM and then a gradual increase in RPM.
3236. H307
With regard to carburetor ice, float-type carburetor systems
in comparison to fuel injection systems are generally
considered to be
A) more susceptible to icing.
B) equally susceptible to icing.
C) susceptible to icing only when visible moisture is present.
3237. H928
If the grade of fuel used in an aircraft engine is lower than
specified for the engine, it will most likely cause
A) a mixture of fuel and air that is not uniform in all cylinders.
B) lower cylinder head temperatures.
C) detonation.
3238. H928
Detonation occurs in a reciprocating aircraft engine when
A) the spark plugs are fouled or shorted out or the wiring is
defective.
B) hot spots in the combustion chamber ignite the fuel/air
mixture in advance of normal ignition.
C) the unburned charge in the cylinders explodes instead of
burning normally.
3232. H927
Applying carburetor heat will
A) result in more air going through the carburetor.
B) enrich the fuel/air mixture.
C) not affect the fuel/air mixture.
3239. H928
If a pilot suspects that the engine (with a fixed-pitch
propeller) is detonating during climb-out after takeoff, the
initial corrective action to take would be to
A) lean the mixture.
B) lower the nose slightly to increase airspeed.
C) apply carburetor heat.
3233. H927
What change occurs in the fuel/air mixture when carburetor
heat is applied?
A) A decrease in RPM results from the lean mixture.
B) The fuel/air mixture becomes richer.
C) The fuel/air mixture becomes leaner.
3240. H928
The uncontrolled firing of the fuel/air charge in advance of
normal spark ignition is known as
A) combustion.
B) pre-ignition.
C) detonation.
3234. H927
Generally speaking, the use of carburetor heat tends to
A) decrease engine performance.
B) increase engine performance.
C) have no effect on engine performance.
3241. H928
Which would most likely cause the cylinder head
temperature and engine oil temperature gauges to exceed
their normal operating ranges?
A) Using fuel that has a lower-than-specified fuel rating.
B) Using fuel that has a higher-than-specified fuel rating.
C) Operating with higher-than-normal oil pressure.
NOTE: CORRECT ANSWER IS IN BOLD ITALIC
Aerodynamics - Page 34
Aviation Seminars
3242. H927
What type fuel can be substituted for an aircraft if the
recommended octane is not available?
A) The next higher octane aviation gas.
B) The next lower octane aviation gas.
C) Unleaded automotive gas of the same octane rating.
3243. H927
Filling the fuel tanks after the last flight of the day is
considered a good operating procedure because this will
A) force any existing water to the top of the tank away from
the fuel lines to the engine.
B) prevent expansion of the fuel by eliminating airspace in
the tanks.
C) prevent moisture condensation by eliminating airspace in
the tanks.
3301. H911
What force makes an airplane turn?
A) The horizontal component of lift.
B) The vertical component of lift.
C) Centrifugal force.
3302. H516
When taxiing with strong quartering tailwinds, which aileron
positions should be used?
A) Aileron down on the downwind side.
B) Ailerons neutral.
C) Aileron down on the side from which the wind is blowing.
3244. H928
For internal cooling, reciprocating aircraft engines are
especially dependent on
A) a properly functioning thermostat.
B) air flowing over the exhaust manifold.
C) the circulation of lubricating oil.
3245. H928
An abnormally high engine oil temperature indication may be
caused by
A) the oil level being too low.
B) operating with a too high viscosity oil.
C) operating with an excessively rich mixture.
3246. H928
What effect does high density altitude, as compared to low
density altitude, have on propeller efficiency and why?
A) Efficiency is increased due to less friction on the propeller
blades.
B) Efficiency is reduced because the propeller exerts less
force at high density altitudes than at low density altitudes.
C) Efficiency is reduced due to the increased force of the
propeller in the thinner air.
3263. H312
As altitude increases, the indicated airspeed at which a
given airplane stalls in a particular configuration will
A) decrease as the true airspeed decreases.
B) decrease as the true airspeed increases.
C) remain the same regardless of altitude.
3290. H317
Which combination of atmospheric conditions will reduce
aircraft takeoff and climb performance?
A) Low temperature, low relative humidity, and low density
altitude.
B) High temperature, low relative humidity, and low density
altitude.
C) High temperature, high relative humidity, and high density
altitude.
3303.
Which aileron positions should a pilot generally use when
taxiing in strong quartering headwinds.
A) Aileron up on the side from which the wind is blowing.
B) Aileron down on the side from which the wind is blowing.
C) Ailerons Neutral.
3304.
Which wind condition would be most critical when taxiing a
nosewheel equipped high-wing airplane.
A) Quartering tailwind.
B) Direct crosswind.
C) Quartering heading..
3305. H516
(Refer to figure 9, area A.) How should the flight controls be
held while taxiing a tricycle-gear equipped airplane into a left
quartering headwind?
A) Left aileron up, elevator neutral.
B) Left aileron down, elevator neutral.
C) Left aileron up, elevator down.
NOTE: CORRECT ANSWER IS IN BOLD ITALIC
Aerodynamics - Page 35
Aviation Seminars
3306.
(Refer to figure 9, area B.) How should the flight controls be
held while taxiing a tailwheel airplane into a right quartering
headwind?
A) Right aileron up, elevator up.
B) Right aileron down, elevator neutral.
C) Right aileron up, elevator down.
3313.
Float caused by the phenomenon ground effect will be most
realized during an approach to land when at
A) less than the length of the wingspan above the surface.
B) twice the length of the wingspan above the surface
C) a higher-than-normal angle of attack.
3307.
(Refer to figure 9, area C.) How should the flight controls be
held while taxiing a tailwheel airplane with a left quartering
tailwind?
A) Left aileron up, elevator neutral.
B) Left aileron down, elevator neutral.
C) Left aileron up, elevator down.
3314.
What must a pilot be aware of as a result of ground effect?
A) Wingtip vortices increase creating wake turbulence
problems for arriving and departing aircraft.
B) Induced drag decreases; therefore, any excess speed at
the point of flare may cause considerable floating.
C) A full stall landing will require less up elevator deflection
than would a full stall when done free of ground effect.
3308.
(Refer to figure 9, area C) How should the flight control be
held while taxiing tricycle-gear equipped airplane with a left
quartering tailwind?
A) Left aileron up, elevator neutral.
B) Left aileron down, elevator down.
C) Left aileron up, elevator down.
3315.
Ground effect is most likely to result in which problem?
A) Settling to the surface abruptly during landing.
B) Becoming airborne before reaching recommended takeoff
speed.
C) Inability to get airborne even though airspeed is sufficient
for normal takeoff needs.
3309. H540
In what flight condition must an aircraft be placed in order to
spin?
A) Partially stalled with one wing low.
B) In a steep diving spiral.
C) Stalled.
3316. H921
During an approach to a stall, an increased load factor will
cause the airplane to
A) stall at a higher airspeed.
B) have a tendency to spin.
C) be more difficult to control.
3310. H540
During a spin to the left, which wing(s) is/are stalled?
A) Both wings are stalled.
B) Neither wing is stalled.
C) Only the left wing is stalled.
3317. H702
Angle of attack is defined as the angle between the chord
line of an airfoil and the
A) direction of the relative wind.
B) pitch angle of an airfoil.
C) rotor plane of rotation.
3311. H919
The angle of attack at which an airplane wing stalls will
A) increase if the CG is moved forward.
B) change with an increase in gross weight.
C) remain the same regardless of gross weight.
3312. H945
What is ground effect?
A) The result of the interference of the surface of the Earth
with the airflow patterns about an airplane.
B) The result of an alteration in airflow patterns increasing
induced drag about the wings of an airplane.
C) The result of the disruption of the airflow patterns about
the wings of an airplane to the point where the wings will no
longer support the airplane in flight.
3651. H928
What action can a pilot take to aid in cooling an engine that
is overheating during a climb?
A) Reduce rate of climb and increase airspeed.
B) Reduce climb speed and increase RPM.
C) Increase climb speed and increase RPM.
3652. H928
What is one procedure to aid in cooling an engine that is
overheating?
A) Enrichen the fuel mixture.
B) Increase the RPM.
C) Reduce the airspeed.
NOTE: CORRECT ANSWER IS IN BOLD ITALIC
Aerodynamics - Page 36
Aviation Seminars
3653. H928
How is engine operation controlled on an engine equipped
with a constant-speed propeller?
A) The throttle controls power output as registered on the
manifold pressure gauge and the propeller control regulates
engine RPM.
B) The throttle controls power output as registered on the
manifold pressure gauge and the propeller control regulates
a constant blade angle.
C) The throttle controls engine RPM as registered on the
tachometer and the mixture control regulates the power
output.
3654. H928
What is an advantage of a constant-speed propeller?
A) Permits the pilot to select and maintain a desired cruising
speed.
B) Permits the pilot to select the blade angle for the most
efficient performance.
C) Provides a smoother operation with stable RPM and
eliminates vibrations.
3655. H928
A precaution for the operation of an engine equipped with a
constant-speed propeller is to
A) avoid high RPM settings with high manifold pressure.
B) avoid high manifold pressure settings with low RPM.
C) always use a rich mixture with high RPM settings.
3656. H928
What should be the first action after starting an aircraft
engine?
A) Adjust for proper RPM and check for desired indications
on the engine gauges.
B) Place the magneto or ignition switch momentarily in the
OFF position to check for proper grounding.
C) Test each brake and the parking brake.
3657. H309
Should it become necessary to handprop an airplane
engine, it is extremely important that a competent pilot
A) call 'contact' before touching the propeller.
B) be at the controls in the cockpit.
C) be in the cockpit and call out all commands.
3658. H937
In regard to preflighting an aircraft, what is the minimum
expected of a pilot prior to every flight?
A) Drain fuel from each quick drain.
B) Perform a walk-around inspection of the aircraft.
C) Check the required documents aboard the aircraft.
3659. H937
Why is the use of a written checklist recommended for
preflight inspection and engine start?
A) To ensure that all necessary items are checked in a
logical sequence.
B) For memorizing the procedures in an orderly sequence.
C) To install confidence in the passengers.
3660.
What special check should be made on an aircraft during
preflight after it has been stored an extended period of time?
A) ELT batteries and operation.
B) Condensation in the fuel tanks.
C) Damage or obstructions caused by animals, birds or
insects.
3308-1 H557 PVT NEW QUESTION
To minimize the side loads placed on the landing gear
during touchdown, the pilot should keep the
A) direction of motion of the aircraft parallel to the runway.
B) longitudinal axis of the aircraft parallel to the direction of
its motion.
C) downwind wing lowered sufficiently to eliminate the
tendency for the aircraft to drift.
2005.766. H545 PVT NEW QUESTION
(Refer to figure 63.) In flying the rectangular course, when
would the aircraft be turned less than 90°?
A) Corners 1 and 4.
B) Corners 1 and 2.
C) Corners 2 and 4.
772. H545 PVT
(Refer to figure 67.) While practicing S-turns, a consistently
smaller half-circle is made on one side of the road than on
the other, and this turn is not completed before crossing the
road or reference line. This would most likely occur in turn
A) 1-2-3 because the bank is decreased too rapidly during
the latter part of the turn.
B) 4-5-6 because the bank is increased too rapidly during
the early part of the turn.
C) 4-5-6 because the bank is increased too slowly during the
latter part of the turn.
2005.805. H583 PVT NEW QUESTION
When executing an emergency approach to land in a singleengine airplane, it is important to maintain a constant glide
speed because variations in glide speed
A) increase the chances of shock cooling the engine.
B) increase the airplane’s rate of descent and decrease
gliding distance.
C) nullify all attempts at accuracy in judgment of gliding
distance and landing spot.
NOTE: CORRECT ANSWER IS IN BOLD ITALIC
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