1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
1997 TRANSFER CASES
Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
DESCRIPTION & OPERATION
The Borg-Warner 44-06 is available in both Mechanical Shift On the Fly (MSOF) and Electronic Shift On the
Fly (ESOF) versions. Both types utilize an internal electromagnetic multi-disc clutch assembly to shift transfer
case from 2WD High to 4WD High. Transfer case operation (2H to 4H and 4H to 4L) is conducted either by a
manually operated lever or electric motor that move internal shift forks. See Fig. 1 .
Once the shift lever (MSOF) is moved to 4H position or mode switch is turned (ESOF) to 4H position, the
Generic Electronic Module (GEM) energizes internal clutch to lock transfer case. Shifting between 2H and 4H
can be done at speeds up to 55 MPH, but vehicle must be stopped with brake pedal applied and transmission in
neutral to be shifted between 4H and 4L.
MODULE LOCATION
Generic Electronic Module (GEM) is mounted on fuse block below left Side of dash panel.
INPUT DEVICES
Brake On/Off (BOO) Switch
The PCM receives a signal from the BOO switch when the brake switch is operated. The GEM and PCM are
linked by a communication network. When shifting into or out of LOW range, the GEM requires brake pedal to
be depressed.
Clutch Pedal Position (CPP) Switch
The PCM receives a signal from the CPP switch when the clutch pedal is depressed. The GEM and PCM are
linked by a communication network. When shifting into or out of LOW range, the GEM requires clutch pedal to
be depressed.
4WD Mode Switch
Instrument panel mounted switch sends input signal to GEM pertaining to commanded transfer case range.
Throttle Position (TP) Sensor
The TP sensor is a potentiometer mounted to the engine throttle body. The PCM receives a signal from TP
sensor relaying throttle plate position. The GEM and PCM are linked by a communication network. Signal is
used by the GEM to control A4WD clutch.
Transmission Range (TR) Switch
The TR sensor is a digital type. The PCM monitors a series of step down resistors in TR sensor that act as a
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
voltage divider. The voltage signal corresponds with position of transaxle range selector lever. The GEM and
PCM are linked by a communication network. The TR sensor also contains neutral/start and backup light
circuits. Malfunction of TR sensor or non-confirmation of transmission being in neutral may cause transfer case
not to shift. Improper transmission shifting or shift selection and no engine cranking may also result.
Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS)
The VSS is a magnetic pickup that sends output speed signal to the PCM. The GEM and PCM are linked by a
communication network. When shifting into or out of LOW range, the GEM requires vehicle speed to be less
than 3 MPH.
OUTPUT DEVICES
Transfer Case Clutch Relay
Pulse width modulated signal operated relay that operates internal electromagnetic clutch.
4WD Shift Motor Relay
Actuates electric shift motor mounted to transfer case. Shift motor drives a rotary cam which moves mode fork
and range fork inside transfer case.
4WD/2WD Vacuum Solenoids
Both solenoids are attached to upper RH side of engine compartment dash panel. Solenoids alternately route
vacuum to vacuum motor which engages/disengages center axle disconnect collar in front axle assembly. See
Fig. 1 .
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 1: 4WD Front Axle Vacuum Diagram
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
SELF-DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM
PRELIMINARY INSPECTION
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
NOTE:
GEM must be reprogrammed upon replacement. Refer to New Generation Star
(NGS) tester screen to program tire size and axle ratio.
1. Verify customer complaint by operating 4WD system. Visually inspect for damage to switches, fuse,
wiring harness, wiring connections, vacuum connections, indicator lights, and light circuits.
2. Inspect 16-pin Data Link Connector (DLC) pins for damage. The DLC is located below driver's side of
instrument panel, to the right of steering column. If pins are okay, go to next step. If pins are damaged,
repair as necessary and proceed to next step.
3. If concern is still present after performing inspection, connect New Generation Star (NGS) tester to DLC.
Select vehicle to be tested from NGS tester menu. If NGS tester does not communicate with vehicle,
ensure program card is properly installed. Check NGS tester cable connections and ensure ignition is on.
If NGS tester still does not communicate with vehicle, see MODULE COMMUNICATIONS
NETWORK article in the ACCESSORIES & ELECTRICAL section. If NGS tester communicates with
vehicle, go to DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE SEQUENCE .
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE SEQUENCE
1. Ensure transmission is in Park. Ensure all controls and switches are in the OFF position. Connect New
Generation Star (NGS) scan tester to DLC.
2. Ensure all doors, hood and trunk are fully closed. Perform proper hook-up procedure and vehicle
selection for scan tester. See EQUIPMENT HOOK-UP .
NOTE:
DO NOT touch any handle or switch that may produce a module input
unless instructed to do so by the scan tester.
3. Retrieve continuous Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) from GEM. See RETRIEVING DIAGNOSTIC
TROUBLE CODES . Record all continuous DTCs.
4. Clear continuous DTCs from GEM. See CLEARING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES .
5. Perform On-Demand Self-Test on GEM. See ON-DEMAND SELF-TEST . Record all DTCs obtained
when performing On-Demand Self-Test. If no DTCs were obtained when retrieving continuous DTCs or
performing On-Demand Self-Test, problem is not related to GEM or module communications network.
Continue diagnosis by symptom. See SYMPTOM TESTING .
6. If DTCs were obtained when retrieving continuous DTCs or performing On-Demand Self-Test, proceed
to DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) DEFINITIONS table for DTC identification and
reference for proper DTC testing procedure.
NOTE:
When performing specified test procedures, technician may be instructed to
retrieve Parameter Identification (PID) information on a specified component.
For information on retrieving PID, see RETRIEVING PARAMETER
IDENTIFICATION (PID) INFORMATION.
EQUIPMENT HOOK-UP
NOTE:
Manufacturer recommends using New Generation Star (NGS) scan tester for
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
diagnosis of module communications network.
1. Ensure ignition switch is in OFF position. Select proper program card for scan tester for vehicle
application. With scan tester facing away from you, insert program card into slot on scan tester. Ensure
program card is properly inserted into scan tester or scan tester will not operate.
2. Connect scan tester to the 16-pin Data Link Connector (DLC). The DLC is located below driver's side of
instrument panel, to the right of steering column.
3. Turn ignition switch to ON position. Scan tester automatically performs a initialization test. Initialization
test checks the scan tester memory and verifies that vehicle interface module matches program card for
scan tester. If an error message is now displayed on scan tester, refer to scan tester operators manual for
system messages.
4. The menu item VEHICLE AND ENGINE SELECTION should be highlighted on scan tester. Press
trigger to select VEHICLE AND ENGINE SELECTION.
5. Rotate dial on scan tester to menu item SELECT NEW VEHICLE MODEL AND YEAR. Press trigger to
select VEHICLE AND ENGINE SELECTION. Select model year, vehicle and engine size by rotating
dial to highlight the selection, then press trigger to select. If selected vehicle is not displayed, repeat this
step.
RETRIEVING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
NOTE:
Procedure may be used for retrieving continuous Diagnostic Trouble Codes
(DTCs).
1. Connect New Generation Star (NGS) scan tester to Data Link Connector (DLC) and perform proper
hook-up procedure. See EQUIPMENT HOOK-UP .
NOTE:
If instructed to retrieve Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) from a specified
test procedure, ensure ignition switch is in proper position as listed in test
procedure. GEM requires ignition switch to be in ON position or test will
fail.
2. Turn ignition switch to ON position unless otherwise instructed by specified test procedure. Rotate dial
on scan tester to DIAGNOSTIC DATA LINK menu and press trigger.
3. Rotate dial on scan tester to highlight the desired module you wish to access. Ensure DIAGNOSTIC
TEST MODES is highlighted and press trigger.
4. Rotate dial on scan tester to highlight RETRIEVE/CLEAR CONTINUOUS DTC and press trigger. Press
button No. 3 to start.
5. Record all Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) that are displayed for GEM. Proceed to DIAGNOSTIC
TROUBLE CODE (DTC) DEFINITIONS table for DTC identification and reference for proper DTC
testing procedure.
ON-DEMAND SELF-TEST
NOTE:
On-Demand Self-Test may be used to verify operation of a selected module.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
1. Connect New Generation Star (NGS) scan tester on Data Link Connector (DLC) and perform proper
hook-up procedure. See EQUIPMENT HOOK-UP .
NOTE:
If instructed to perform On-Demand Self-Test from a specified test
procedure, ensure ignition switch is in proper position as listed in test
procedure. GEM requires ignition switch to be in ON position or the test
will fail.
2. Turn ignition switch to ON position unless otherwise instructed by specified test procedure. Rotate dial
on scan tester to DIAGNOSTIC DATA LINK menu and press trigger.
3. Rotate dial on scan tester to highlight the desired module to be tested and press trigger. Ensure
DIAGNOSTIC TEST MODES is highlighted and press trigger.
4. Rotate dial on scan tester to highlight ON-DEMAND SELF-TEST and press trigger. Press button No. 3
to start the test. Prepare vehicle for entry condition as specified for each module. Press trigger. Record
any Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) that are displayed.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE (DTC) DEFINITIONS
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE INDEX (ESOF MODELS)
(1)
DTC
B1342
Description
GEM/CTM Defective
P0500
P1804
VSS Signal Circuit
4WD High Indicator Open/Short
To GND
4WD High Indicator Short To
Power
4WD Low Indicator Open/Short
To GND
4WD Low Indicator Short To
Power
4WD Mode Select Switch
Open/Short To GND
4WD Mode Select Switch Short
To Power
Neutral Safety Switch Short To
GND
T/C LO To HI Shift Relay
Open/Short To GND
T/C LO To HI Shift Relay Coil
Short To Power
4WD Clutch Relay Open/Short To
GND
4WD Clutch Relay Short To
P1806
P1808
P1810
P1812
P1815
P1819
P1820
P1822
P1824
P1826
Test
(2)
B
C
C
C
C
A
A
B
A
A
E
E
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Power
T/C HI To LO Shift Relay
Open/Short To GND
P1830
T/C HI To LO Shift Relay Coil
Short To Power
P1832
T/C 4WD Solenoid Short To
Ground
P1834
T/C 4WD Solenoid Short To
Voltage
P1838
T/C Shift Motor Circuit Failure
P1846
T/C Contact Plate "A" Open
Circuit
P1850
T/C Contact Plate "B" Open
Circuit
P1854
T/C Contact Plate "C" Open
Circuit
P1858
T/C Contact Plate "D" Open
Circuit
P1866
T/C System Concern
P1867
T/C Contact Plate General Circuit
Failure
P1876
T/C 2WD Solenoid Short To
Ground
P1877
T/C 2WD Solenoid Short To
Voltage
P1891
T/C Contact Plate Ground Return
Open Circuit
(1) See test listed in appropriate TESTING section.
P1828
(2)
A
A
C
C
N/A
A
A
A
A
A
A
C
C
A
Clear codes and retest system. If DTC B1342 is still present, replace GEM.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODE INDEX (MSOF MODELS)
(1)
DTC
B1342
Description
GEM/CTM Defective
P1804
4WD High Indicator Open/Short
To GND
4WD High Indicator Short To
Power
4WD Low Indicator Open/Short
To GND
4WD Low Indicator Short To
Power
Neutral Safety Switch Short To
P1806
P1808
P1810
P1819
Test
(2)
J
J
C
C
B
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
GND
T/C LO To HI Shift Relay
Open/Short To GND
P1822
T/C LO To HI Shift Relay Coil
Short To Power
P1824
4WD Clutch Relay Open/Short To
GND
P1826
4WD Clutch Relay Short To
Power
P1828
T/C HI To LO Shift Relay
Open/Short To GND
P1830
T/C HI To LO Shift Relay Coil
Short To Power
P1832
T/C 4WD Solenoid Short To
Ground
P1834
T/C 4WD Solenoid Short To
Voltage
P1838
T/C Shift Motor Circuit Failure
P1866
T/C System Concern
P1876
T/C 2WD Solenoid Short To
Ground
P1877
T/C 2WD Solenoid Short To
Voltage
(1) See test listed in appropriate TESTING section.
P1820
(2)
A
A
G
G
A
A
H
H
N/A
A
H
H
Clear codes and retest system. If DTC B1342 is still present, replace GEM.
CLEARING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
1. Connect New Generation Star (NGS) scan tester on Data Link Connector (DLC) and perform proper
hook-up procedure. See EQUIPMENT HOOK-UP .
2. Turn ignition switch to ON position unless otherwise instructed by specified test procedure. Rotate dial
on scan tester to DIAGNOSTIC DATA LINK menu and press trigger.
3. Rotate dial on scan tester to highlight the desired module you wish to access. Ensure DIAGNOSTIC
TEST MODES is highlighted and press trigger.
4. Rotate dial on scan tester to highlight RETRIEVE/CLEAR CONTINUOUS DTC and press trigger. Press
button No. 3 to start.
5. To clear an individual DTC from a selected module, rotate dial on scan tool to highlight the DTC to be
cleared. Press button No. 8. This will clear only that DTC from that module.
6. To clear all DTCs from a selected module, press button No. 7. This clears all DTCs from that module.
After DTCs are cleared from ABS control module, turn ignition switch to OFF position and then back to
the RUN position.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
RETRIEVING PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION (PID) INFORMATION
NOTE:
This procedure may be used to verify operation of inputs and outputs for a
selected module.
1. Connect New Generation Star (NGS) scan tester on Data Link Connector (DLC) and perform proper
hook-up procedure. See EQUIPMENT HOOK-UP .
NOTE:
If instructed to retrieve PID from a specified test procedure, ensure
ignition switch is in proper position as listed in test procedure. GEM
requires ignition switch to be in ON position or the test will fail.
2. Turn ignition switch to ON position unless otherwise instructed by specified test procedure. Rotate dial
on scan tester to DIAGNOSTIC DATA LINK menu and press trigger.
3. Rotate dial on scan tester to highlight the desired module you wish to access and press trigger. Rotate dial
on scan tester to PID/DATA MONITOR AND RECORD and press trigger.
4. Rotate dial on scan tester to highlight the PID acronyms you wish to view and press trigger. Repeat this
procedure until all desired PIDs are selected. When all PID acronyms have been selected, press 7 button
to view all selected PIDs.
TESTING
TEST A: VEHICLE DOES NOT SHIFT BETWEEN 2WD & 4WD HIGH MODES PROPERLY
NOTE:
For GEM connector number identification, see GEM CONNECTOR
IDENTIFICATION table. Also see appropriate wiring diagram in WIRING
DIAGRAMS .
GEM CONNECTOR IDENTIFICATION
Connector No.
C239
C240
C241
C267
NOTE:
Description
26-Pin
16-Pin
22-Pin
18-Pin
Steps 1-3 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring diagrams, see
POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS article in the
WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
1. Check Voltage At Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) - Turn ignition off. Using voltmeter, measure voltage at
terminal No. 1 on fuse junction panel fuse No. 15. If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to next step. If voltage
is greater than 10 volts, go to step 4).
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) me
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) and power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, replace fuse. Clear DTCs and retest system. If fuse
blows again, inspect circuit for short to ground.
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Fig. 2: Locating Fuse Junction Panel, GEM & Relays
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 3: Checking Circuit 1052 For Voltage
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
4. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Connect NGS tester.
Depress clutch pedal (if applicable). Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification
(PID) Ignition Switch Status (IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF and
ACC positions. If values agree, go to next step. If values do not agree, see STEERING COLUMN
SWITCHES article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
In next step, if DTC B1342 is retrieved, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
5. Retrieve DTCs - Retrieve and document continuous DTCs. Clear continuous DTCs. Retrieve on-demand
DTCs. If DTCs are recorded, go to appropriate step(s). See DTC/TEST OR STEP (ESOF MODELS)
table. If no DTCs are retrieved, go to next step.
DTC/TEST OR STEP (ESOF MODELS)
DTC Go To TEST/STEP
P1804
D
P1806
D
P1808
D
P1810
D
P1812
A/8
P1815
A/8
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
P1820
P1822
P1824
P1826
P1828
P1830
P1832
P1834
P1846
P1850
P1854
P1858
P1866
P1867
P1876
P1877
P1891
A/24
A/24
E
E
A/24
A/24
C
C
A/41
A/41
A/41
A/41
A/41
A/41
C
C
A/41
6. Check 4H Indicator Light - Using scan tool, toggle active command HIGH LAMP on, then off. If
indicator light operates correctly, go to next step. If indicator light does not operate correctly, go to TEST
D.
7. Check 4L Indicator Light - Using scan tool, toggle active command LOW LAMP on, then off. If
indicator light operates correctly, go to next step. If indicator light does not operate correctly, go to TEST
D.
8. Monitor Mode Switch PID 4WDSGEM (2L) - Turn ignition to RUN position. Rotate 4WD mode
switch to 2L position while monitoring PID 4WDSGEM. If scan tool display matches mode switch
position, go to next step. If scan tool display does not match mode switch position, go to step 11).
9. Monitor Mode Switch PID 4WDSGEM (4H) - Rotate 4WD mode switch to 4H position while
monitoring PID 4WDSGEM. If scan tool display matches mode switch position, go to next step. If scan
tool display does not match mode switch position, go to step 11).
10. Monitor Mode Switch PID 4WDSGEM (4L) - Rotate 4WD mode switch to 4L position while
monitoring PID 4WDSGEM. If scan tool display matches mode switch position, go to step 18). If scan
tool display does not match mode switch position, go to next step.
11. Check Mode Switch - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 4WD mode switch connector. Using external
ohmmeter, measure and record resistance between terminals No. 2 and 3 (center terminals) on mode
switch connector while moving mode switch through each position. See MODE SWITCH
RESISTANCE SPECIFICATIONS table. If resistance is within specification, go to next step. If
resistance is not as specified, replace mode switch. Clear DTCs and retest system.
MODE SWITCH RESISTANCE SPECIFICATIONS
Switch Position
Ohms
2H
3705-4095
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
4H
4L
1050-1150
340-380
12. Check Circuit 780 (Dark Blue Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 4WD mode switch
connector. Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Dark Blue wire
between terminal No. 3 on mode switch harness connector and terminal No. 8 on GEM 22-pin harness
connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
repair open in Dark Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Fig. 4: Identifying GEM 22-Pin Harness Connector Terminals
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
13. Check Circuit 780 (Dark Blue Wire) For Short To Ground - Using ohmmeter, measure resistance
between ground and terminal No. 8 (Dark Blue wire) on 22-pin GEM harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If
resistance is more than 10 k/ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Dark Blue
wire for short to ground. Clear DTCs and retest system.
14. Check Circuit 780 (Dark Blue Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition to RUN position (engine
off). Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 8 (Dark Blue wire) on 22-pin
GEM harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If any voltage is indicated, repair short in Dark Blue wire. Clear
DTCs and retest system. If no voltage is present, go to next step.
15. Check Circuit 682 (Dark Blue Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 4WD mode switch
connector. Disconnect GEM 26-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Dark Blue wire
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
between terminal No. 2 on mode switch harness connector and terminal No. 21 on GEM 26-pin harness
connector. See Fig. 5 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
repair open in Dark Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Fig. 5: Identifying GEM 26-Pin Connector Terminals
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
16. Check Circuit 682 (Dark Blue Wire) For Short To Ground - Using ohmmeter, measure resistance
between ground and terminal No. 2 (Dark Blue wire) on mode switch harness connector. If resistance is
more than 10 k/ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Dark Blue wire for short to
ground. Clear DTCs and retest system.
17. Check Circuit 682 (Dark Blue Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition to RUN position (engine
off). Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 2 on mode switch harness
connector. If any voltage is indicated, repair short in Dark Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system. If no
voltage is present, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
18. Check Front Axle Engagement - Start vehicle. Using scan tool, set active commands AXLE ENGG to
ON and AXLE DSCN to OFF. Drive vehicle short distance. Raise and support vehicle with engine
running. Spin one front tire. Opposite tire should spin in reverse direction. If axle is working correctly,
exit active command mode and go to next step. If axle is not working correctly, lower vehicle and go to
TEST C .
19. Check Front Drive Shaft Engagement - Place 4WD mode switch in 4H position. Verify front and rear
drive shafts are spinning. If front and rear drive shafts are locked together, go to next step. If front and
rear drive shafts are not locked together, go to step 22).
NOTE:
When 4WD is disengaged, front drive shaft may spin due to viscous drag
in transfer case, especially if cold.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
20. Check Front Drive Shaft Disengagement - Place 4WD mode switch in 2H position. If rear drive shaft is
only being driven, go to next step. If front drive shaft is also being driven, go to step 22).
21. Check Front Axle Disengagement - Using scan tool, set active commands AXLE ENGG to OFF and
AXLE DSCN to ON. Spin one front tire. Opposite front tire should not spin. If front axle is disengaged,
the 4WD system is functioning correctly. If front axle is engaged, go to TEST C .
22. Monitor PIDS MTR_CCW & MTR_CW - Monitor GEM PIDs MTR_CCW and MTR_CW. Toggle
active command CW/CCW on. If PIDs MTR_CCW and MTR_CW indicate ON, go to next step. If PIDs
MTR_CCW and MTR_CW indicate ON-B-, go to step 28).
23. Monitor PIDS MTR_CCW & MTR_CW - Monitor GEM PIDs MTR_CCW and MTR_CW. Toggle
active command CW/CCW off. If PIDs MTR_CCW and MTR_CW indicate OFF, go to step 31). If PIDs
MTR_CCW and MTR_CW indicate OFFO-G, go to next step.
24. Check Voltage At Transfer Case Shift Relay Coil Circuit 704 (Dark Green/Light Green Wire) Turn ignition off. Disconnect transfer case shift relay connector. See Fig. 2 . On ESOF models, measure
voltage between ground and terminal No. 5 on shift relay harness connector. See Fig. 6 . On MSOF
models, measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 3 on shift relay harness connector. If voltage
is 10 volts or less on all models, repair open Dark Green/Light Green wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
If voltage is greater than 10 volts on ESOF models, go to next step. If voltage is greater than 10 volts on
MSOF models, remove electric clutch relay. See Fig. 2 . Test relay. See ELECTRIC CLUTCH
RELAY TEST table. Replace as needed. If relay is okay, replace electric clutch in transfer case.
ELECTRIC CLUTCH RELAY TEST
Terminals
No. (1)
Continuity
No Voltage Applied
1&2
Yes
3&4
Yes
3&5
No
Voltage Applied (2)
3&5
(1) See Fig. 16 .
(2)
Yes
Apply battery voltage to terminals No. 1
and 2.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 6: Transfer Case Shift Relay Harness Connector Terminals
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
25. Check Circuit 781 (Orange/Light Blue Wire) For Open - Disconnect GEM 22-Pin connector. See Fig.
2 . Using ohmmeter, measure resistance of Orange/Light Blue wire between terminal No. 9 on shift relay
harness connector and terminal No. 17 on GEM harness connector. See Fig. 3 and Fig. 5 . If resistance is
less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Orange/Light Blue wire.
Clear DTCs and retest system.
26. Check Circuit 782 (Brown/White Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of Brown/White wire between
terminal No. 8 on shift relay harness connector and terminal No. 16 on GEM harness connector. See Fig.
3 and Fig. 5 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair
open Brown/White wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
27. Check Circuits 781 (Orange/Light Blue Wire) & 782 Brown/White Wire) For Short To Ground Measure resistance between ground and terminals No. 8 and 9 on shift relay harness connector. See Fig.
6 . If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms for both circuits, go to next step. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or
less for either circuit, repair Orange/Light Blue wire or Brown/White wire for short to ground. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
28. Check Circuit 782 (Brown/White Wire) For Short To Power - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect
GEM 22-Pin connector and transfer case shift relay connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
position. Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 8 on shift relay harness connector. See Fig.
6 . If voltage is not present, go to next step. If voltage is present, repair Brown/White wire for short to
voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system.
29. Check Circuit 781 (Orange/Light Blue Wire) For Short To Power - Measure voltage between ground
and terminal No. 9 on shift relay harness connector. See Fig. 6 . If voltage is not present, go to next step.
If voltage is present, repair Orange/Light Blue wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system.
30. Check Transfer Case Shift Relay Coils - Turn ignition off. Using ohmmeter, measure resistance
between terminal No. 5 and terminals No. 8 and 9 on transfer case shift relay connector. If resistance
measured for both circuits is 60-160 ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance
measured for both circuits is not 60-160 ohms, replace transfer case shift motor relay. Clear DTCs and
retest system.
31. Check Voltage To Transfer Case Shift Motor - Turn ignition off. Disconnect transfer case 16-pin
connector. Turn ignition to RUN position. Using scan tool, set active command CW/CCW to ON. Using
DVOM, measure voltage between ground and terminals No. 14 and 15 on 16-pin harness connector. See
Fig. 7 . If voltage is more than 10 volts, go to step 33). If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to next step.
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 7: Identifying Transfer Case 16-Pin Harness Connector Terminals
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
32. Check Voltage To Transfer Case Shift Relay Circuit 704 Switch Side - Turn ignition off. Disconnect
transfer case shift relay. See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 3 (Dark
Green/Light Green wire) on shift relay harness connector. See Fig. 6 . If voltage is more than 10 volts, go
to step 35). If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Dark Green/Light Green wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
33. Check Voltage To Transfer Case Shift Motor - Turn ignition to RUN position. Using scan tool, set
active command CW/CCW to OFF. Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground and terminals No.
14 and 15 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltages are 10 volts or less, go to
step 35). If voltages are more than 10 volts, go to next step.
34. Check Circuits 777 (Yellow Wire) & 778 (Orange Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition off.
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
Disconnect transfer case 16-pin connector transfer case shift relay. Turn ignition to RUN position.
Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 14 and 15 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector.
See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present on either circuit, repair Yellow or Orange wire for short to voltage. Clear
DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present on both circuits, go to next step.
Check Circuits 777 (Yellow Wire) & 778 (Orange Wire) For Open Through Transfer Case Relay Set active command CW/CCW to OFF. Using ohmmeter, measure resistance between ground and
terminals No. 14 and 15 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If resistance for both
circuits is less than 5 ohms, connect 16-pin connector and go to step 39). If resistance is 5 ohms or greater
for either circuit, go to step 38).
Check Circuit 777 (Yellow Wire) For Open - Measure resistance between terminal No. 15 on transfer
case 16-pin harness connector and terminal No. 7 on shift relay harness connector. See Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 .
If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Yellow
wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 778 (Orange Wire) For Open - Ensure ignition is off. Measure resistance between
terminal No. 14 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector and terminal No. 10 on shift relay harness
connector. See Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace transfer case shift relay. Clear
DTCs and retest system. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Orange wire. Clear DTCs and
retest system.
Check Ground To Transfer Case Shift Relay - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect transfer case shift
relay. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 1 (Black wire) on shift relay
harness connector. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Black wire (circuit 57). Clear DTCs and
retest system. If resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace transfer case shift relay. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
Check Contact Plate Switches - Clear DTCs. Turn ignition off. Turn ignition to RUN position. Monitor
GEM PIDs PLATE_A, PLATE_B, PLATE_C, PLATE_D. Place 4WD mode switch in 2H position.
Record PIDs. Place shift lever in "N" position. Depress brake pedal. Move mode switch to 4H position.
Record PIDs. See 4WD MODE SWITCH PID OUTPUT table. If PIDs recorded match table, transfer
case may have internal problem. Repair as needed. Clear DTCs and retest system. If PIDs recorded do not
match table, go to next step.
4WD MODE SWITCH PID OUTPUT
CONTACT PLATE
2H
4H
PLATE_A
CLOSED OPEN
PLATE_B
OPEN CLOSED
PLATE_C
CLOSED CLOSED
PLATE_D
CLOSED OPEN
40. Monitor PID PLATE_A For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect transfer case 16-pin connector. Turn
ignition to RUN position. Monitor GEM PID PLATE_A. If scan tool displays OPEN, go to next step. If
scan tool does not display OPEN, go to step 42).
41. Check Contact Plate Switch "A" Circuit 771 (Purple/Yellow Wire) - Connect jumper wire across
terminals No. 5 and 10 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. PID should display CLOSED. If
PLATE_A PID is as specified, go to step 47). If PLATE_A PID is not as specified, go to step 43).
42. Check Circuit 771 (Purple/Yellow Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 5 on transfer
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace GEM. Clear
DTCs and retest system. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Pink/Yellow wire for short to ground.
Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 771 (Purple/Yellow Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of Pink/Yellow wire between
terminal No. 21 on GEM connector and terminal No. 5 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See
Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
repair open Pink/Yellow wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 771 (Purple/Yellow Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground
and terminal No. 5 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present, repair
Pink/Yellow wire for short to voltage. If voltage is not present, go to next step.
Check Circuit 762 (Yellow/White Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition off. Disconnect transfer
case 16-pin connector. Turn ignition to RUN position. Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground
and terminal No. 12 on GEM harness connector. See Fig. 5 . If voltage is present, repair Yellow/White
wire for short to voltage. If voltage is not present, go to next step.
Check Circuit 762 (Yellow/White Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Measure resistance of
Yellow/White wire between terminal No. 12 on GEM connector and terminal No. 10 on transfer case 16pin harness connector. See Fig. 3 and Fig. 6 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If
resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Yellow/White wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Contact Plate Switch "B" Circuit 770 (White Wire) - Turn ignition to RUN position. Monitor
GEM PID PLATE_B. PID should be OPEN. Connect jumper wire across terminals No. 1 and 10. PID
should change to CLOSED. If PLATE_B PIDs are as specified, remove jumper wire and go to step 51). If
PLATE_B PIDs are not as specified, go to next step.
Check Circuit 770 (White Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin
harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 1 on transfer case
16-pin harness connector. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair White wire for short to ground. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
Check Circuit 770 (White Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of White wire between terminal No.
20 on GEM connector and terminal No. 1 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 and Fig.
7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open White
wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 770 (White Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin
harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground and
terminal No. 1 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present, repair White
wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, replace GEM. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
Check Contact Plate Switch "C" Circuit 764 (Brown/White Wire) - Turn ignition to RUN position.
Monitor GEM PID PLATE_C. PID should be OPEN. Connect jumper wire across terminals No. 9 and
10. PID should change to CLOSED. If PLATE_C PIDs are as specified, go to step 55). If PLATE_C
PIDs are not as specified, go to next step.
Check Circuit 764 (Brown/White Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 9 on transfer
case 16-pin harness connector. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and
retest system. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Brown/White wire for short to ground. Clear DTCs
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
and retest system.
Check Circuit 764 (Brown/White Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of Brown/White wire between
terminal No. 19 on GEM connector and terminal No. 9 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See
Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
repair open Brown/White wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 764 (Brown/White Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground
and terminal No. 9 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present, repair
Brown/White wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, replace
GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Contact Plate Switch "D" Circuit 763 (Orange/White Wire) - Turn ignition to RUN position.
Monitor GEM PID PLATE_D. PID should be OPEN. Connect jumper wire across terminals No. 10 and
13. PID should change to CLOSED. If PLATE_D PIDs are as specified, replace transfer case shift motor.
See TRANSFER CASE - BORG/WARNER 44-06 article in the POWERTRAIN section. If PLATE_D
PIDs are not as specified, go to next step.
Check Circuit 763 (Orange/White Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 13 on transfer
case 16-pin harness connector. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and
retest system. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Orange/White wire for short to ground. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 763 (Orange/White Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of Orange/White wire
between terminal No. 18 on GEM connector and terminal No. 13 on transfer case 16-pin harness
connector. See Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms
or greater, repair open Orange/White wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 763 (Orange/White Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground
and terminal No. 13 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present, repair
Orange/White wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, replace
GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
TEST B: VEHICLE DOES NOT SHIFT BETWEEN 4WD HIGH TO 4WD LOW PROPERLY, SHIFTS
PROPERLY BETWEEN 2WD TO 4WD HIGH, 4WD HIGH TO 2WD
NOTE:
For GEM connector number identification, see GEM CONNECTOR
IDENTIFICATION table. Also see appropriate wiring diagram in WIRING
DIAGRAMS .
GEM CONNECTOR IDENTIFICATION
Connector No.
C239
C240
C241
C267
Description
26-Pin
16-Pin
22-Pin
18-Pin
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
NOTE:
Steps 1-3 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring diagrams, see
POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS article in the
WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
1. Check Voltage At Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) - Turn ignition off. Using voltmeter, measure voltage at
terminal No. 1 on fuse junction panel fuse No. 15. If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to next step. If voltage
is greater than 10 volts, go to step 4).
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) and power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, replace fuse. Clear DTCs and retest system. If fuse
blows again, inspect circuit for short to ground.
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
4. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Connect NGS tester.
Depress clutch pedal (if applicable). Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification
(PID) Ignition Switch Status (IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF and
ACC positions. If values agree, go to next step. If values do not agree, see appropriate STEERING
COLUMN SWITCHES article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
In next step, if DTC B1342 is retrieved, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
5. Retrieve DTCs
Retrieve and document continuous DTCs. Clear continuous DTCs. Retrieve on-demand DTCs. If DTCs
are recorded, go to appropriate step(s). See DTC/TEST OR STEP table. If no DTCs are retrieved, go to
next step.
DTC/TEST OR STEP
DTC Go To TEST/STEP
P0500
B/27
P1483
B/20
P1485
B/20
P1804
D
P1806
D
P1808
D
P1810
D
P1812
B/8
P1815
B/8
P1820
B/24
P1822
B/24
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
P1824
P1826
P1828
P1830
P1832
P1834
P1846
P1850
P1854
P1858
P1866
P1867
P1876
P1877
P1891
E
E
A
A
C
C
B/31
A/31
A/31
A/31
A
A
C
C
B/41
6. Check 4H Indicator Light - Using scan tool, toggle active command HIGH LAMP on, then off. If
indicator light operates correctly, go to next step. If indicator light does not operate correctly, go to TEST
D.
7. Check 4L Indicator Light - Using scan tool, toggle active command LOW LAMP on, then off. If
indicator light operates correctly, go to next step. If indicator light does not operate correctly, go to TEST
D.
8. Monitor Mode Switch PID 4WDSGEM (2L) - Turn ignition to RUN position. Rotate 4WD mode
switch to 2L position while monitoring PID 4WDSGEM. If scan tool display matches mode switch
position, go to next step. If scan tool display does not match mode switch position, go to step 11).
9. Monitor Mode Switch PID 4WDSGEM (4H) - Rotate 4WD mode switch to 4H position while
monitoring PID 4WDSGEM. If scan tool display matches mode switch position, go to next step. If scan
tool display does not match mode switch position, go to step 11).
10. Monitor Mode Switch PID 4WDSGEM (4L) - Rotate 4WD mode switch to 4L position while
monitoring PID 4WDSGEM. If scan tool display matches mode switch position, go to step 18). If scan
tool display does not match mode switch position, go to next step.
11. Check Mode Switch - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 4WD mode switch connector. Using external
ohmmeter, measure and record resistance between terminals No. 2 and 3 (center terminals) on mode
switch connector while moving mode switch through each position. See MODE SWITCH
RESISTANCE SPECIFICATIONS table. If resistance is within specification, go to next step. If
resistance is not as specified, replace mode switch. Clear DTCs and retest system.
MODE SWITCH RESISTANCE SPECIFICATIONS
Switch Position
Ohms
2H
3705-4095
4H
1050-1150
4L
340-380
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
12. Check Circuit 780 (Dark Blue Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 4WD mode switch
connector. Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Dark Blue wire
between terminal No. 3 on mode switch harness connector and terminal No. 8 on GEM 22-pin harness
connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
repair open in Dark Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
13. Check Circuit 780 (Dark Blue Wire) For Short To Ground - Using ohmmeter, measure resistance
between ground and terminal No. 8 (Dark Blue wire) on 22-pin GEM harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If
resistance is more than 10 k/ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Dark Blue
wire for short to ground. Clear DTCs and retest system.
14. Check Circuit 780 (Dark Blue Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition to RUN position (engine
off). Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 8 (Dark Blue wire) on 22-pin
GEM harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If any voltage is indicated, repair short in Dark Blue wire. Clear
DTCs and retest system. If no voltage is present, go to next step.
15. Check Circuit 682 (Dark Blue Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 4WD mode switch
connector. Disconnect GEM 26-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Dark Blue wire
between terminal No. 2 on mode switch harness connector and terminal No. 21 on GEM 26-pin harness
connector. See Fig. 5 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
repair open in Dark Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
16. Check Circuit 682 (Dark Blue Wire) For Short To Ground - Using ohmmeter, measure resistance
between ground and terminal No. 2 (Dark Blue wire) on mode switch harness connector. If resistance is
more than 10 k/ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Dark Blue wire for short to
ground. Clear DTCs and retest system.
17. Check Circuit 682 (Dark Blue Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition to RUN position (engine
off). Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 2 on mode switch harness
connector. If any voltage is indicated, repair short in Dark Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system. If no
voltage is present, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
18. Check Brake Pedal Position (BPP) Switch - While monitoring PID BOO_GEM, depress brake pedal. If
PID displayed is ON, go to step 21). If PID is not displayed ON, go to next step.
19. Check Voltage To Brake Pedal Position (BPP) Switch - Disconnect BPP switch connector. Using
DVOM, measure voltage between ground and Light Green/Red wire terminal on BPP switch harness
connector. If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Light Green/Red wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
If voltage is more than 10 volts, go to next step.
20. Check Brake Pedal Position (BPP) Switch - While monitoring PID BOO_GEM, connect jumper wire
across specified BPP harness connector terminals. If PID displayed is ON, replace BPP switch. Clear
DTCs and retest system. If PID is not displayed ON, repair open Light Green wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If problem remains, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
21. Check Clutch Interlock - Turn ignition to RUN position. Monitor GEM PIN CLTCHSW. On A/T
equipped vehicles, place shift lever in park, then neutral. On M/T equipped vehicles, depress clutch pedal.
Scan tool should display ACTIVE. Place shift lever in any other position, or release clutch pedal. Scan
tool should display NOT_ACT. If scan tool display is as specified, go to next step. If scan tool display is
not as specified, inspect Transmission Range (TR) sensor and applicable circuits. See AUTO TRANS
DIAGNOSIS article in the AUTOMATIC TRANS DIAGNOSIS section. Repair as needed. If TR sensor
and applicable circuits are okay, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
22. Check TR Sensor - While monitoring PID NTRL_SW, place shift lever in neutral. Scan tool should
display, NTRL. Move shift lever to any other position. Scan tool should not display NTRL. If scan tool
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
display is not as specified, go to next step. If scan tool display is as specified, go to step 26).
23. Check Digital TR Sensor Ground - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect digital TR sensor connector.
Using ohmmeter, measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 7 (Black wire) on TR sensor
harness connector. See Fig. 8 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or
greater, repair open Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Fig. 8: Identifying Digital TR Sensor Harness Connector Terminals
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
24. Check Digital TR Sensor - While monitoring GEM PID NTRL_SW, connect jumper wire between
terminals No. 7 (Black wire) and No. 8 (Red/White wire) on TR sensor harness connector. See Fig. 8 .
Turn ignition to RUN position. Scan tool should display NTRL. Remove jumper wire. Scan tool should
not display NTRL. If scan tool display is not as specified, repair open Red/White wire (circuit 463). Clear
DTCs and retest system. If problem is still present, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system. If scan
tool display is as specified, replace digital TR sensor. Clear DTCs and retest system.
25. Check Vehicle Speed Signal - Monitor GEM PID VSS_GEM while driving vehicle 0-55 MPH. If PID
values matches speedometer reading, go to step 28). If PID values do not match speedometer reading, go
to next step.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
26. Check Circuit 676 (Pink/Orange Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect VSS connector and
fuse junction panel connector C242. Using ohmmeter, measure resistance of Pink/Orange wire between
VSS harness connector and terminal No. 9 on fuse junction panel harness connector. See Fig. 9 and Fig.
10 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open
Pink/Orange wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Fig. 9: Checking Continuity Of VSS Circuit 676
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 10: Checking Continuity Of VSS Circuit 679
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
27. Check Circuit 679 (Gray/Black Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect VSS connector and
fuse junction panel connector C243. Using ohmmeter, measure resistance of Gray/Black wire between
VSS harness connector and terminal No. 21 on fuse junction panel harness connector. See Fig. 9 and Fig.
10 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open
Gray/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
28. Check Continuity Of Internal Fuse Junction Panel Circuit 676 - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect
GEM from fuse junction panel 18-pin connector. See Fig. 11 . Measure resistance between terminal No. 9
on fuse junction panel harness connector C242 and terminal No. 10 on GEM harness connector. See Fig.
11 thru Fig. 13 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 11: Identifying GEM 18-Pin Harness Connector Terminals
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
Fig. 12: Checking Continuity Of Fuse Junction Panel Internal Circuit 676
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
Fig. 13: Checking Continuity Of Fuse Junction Panel Internal Circuit 679
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
29. Check Continuity Of Internal Fuse Junction Panel Circuit 676 - Measure resistance between terminal
No. 21 on fuse junction panel harness connector C242 and terminal No. 18 on GEM harness connector.
See Fig. 11 thru Fig. 13 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or
greater, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
30. Check Contact Plate Switches - Using scan tool, clear DTCs. Turn ignition off. Turn ignition to RUN
position. Monitor GEM PIDs PLATE_A, PLATE_B, PLATE_C, PLATE_D. Place 4WD mode switch in
4H position. Record PIDs. Move mode switch to 4L position. Records PIDs. See 4WD MODE
SWITCH PID OUTPUT table. If PIDs recorded match table, transfer case may have internal problem.
Repair as needed. Clear DTCs and retest system. If PIDs recorded do not match table, go to next step.
4WD MODE SWITCH PID OUTPUT
Contact Plate Auto/4WD High 4WD Low
PLATE_A
CLOSED
OPEN
PLATE_B
OPEN
CLOSED
PLATE_C
CLOSED
OPEN
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
PLATE_D
CLOSED
CLOSED
31. Monitor PID PLATE_A For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect transfer case 16-pin connector. Turn
ignition to RUN position. Monitor GEM PID PLATE_A. If scan tool displays OPEN, go to next step. If
scan tool does not display OPEN, go to step 33).
32. Check Contact Plate Switch "A" Circuit 771 (Pink/Yellow Wire) - Connect jumper wire across
terminals No. 5 and 10 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. PID should display CLOSED. If
PLATE_A PID is as specified, go to step 38). If PLATE_A PID is not as specified, go to step 34).
33. Check Circuit 771 (Pink/Yellow Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 21 on GEM
harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and
retest system. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Pink/Yellow wire for short to ground. Clear DTCs
and retest system.
34. Check Circuit 771 (Pink/Yellow Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of Pink/Yellow wire between
terminal No. 21 on GEM connector and terminal No. 5 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See
Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
repair open Pink/Yellow wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
35. Check Circuit 771 (Pink/Yellow Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground and
terminal No. 5 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present, repair
Pink/Yellow wire for short to voltage. If voltage is not present, go to next step.
36. Check Circuit 762 (Yellow/White Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition off. Disconnect transfer
case 16-pin connector. Turn ignition to RUN position. Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground
and terminal No. 12 on GEM 22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If voltage is present, repair
Yellow/White wire for short to voltage. If voltage is not present, go to next step.
37. Check Circuit 762 (Yellow/White Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Measure resistance of
Yellow/White wire between terminal No. 12 on GEM 22-pin connector and terminal No. 10 on transfer
case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If
resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Yellow/White wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
38. Check Contact Plate Switch "B" Circuit 770 (White Wire) - Turn ignition to RUN position. Monitor
GEM PID PLATE_B. PID should be OPEN. Connect jumper wire across terminals No. 1 and 10. PID
should change to CLOSED. If PLATE_B PIDs are as specified, go to step 43). If PLATE_B PIDs are not
as specified, go to step 41).
39. Check Circuit 770 (White Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin
harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 20 on GEM harness
connector. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system. If
resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair White wire for short to ground. Clear DTCs and retest system.
40. Check Circuit 770 (White Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of White wire between terminal No.
20 on GEM connector and terminal No. 1 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 and Fig.
7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open White
wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
41. Check Circuit 770 (White Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin
harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground and
terminal No. 1 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present, repair White
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, replace GEM. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
Check Contact Plate Switch "C" Circuit 764 (Brown/White Wire) - Turn ignition to RUN position.
Monitor GEM PID PLATE_C. PID should be OPEN. Connect jumper wire across terminals No. 9 and
10. PID should change to CLOSED. If PLATE_C PIDs are as specified, go to step 46). If PLATE_C
PIDs are not as specified, go to step 45).
Check Circuit 764 (Brown/White Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 19 on GEM
22-pin harness connector. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Brown/White wire for short to ground. Clear DTCs and
retest system.
Check Circuit 764 (Brown/White Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of Brown/White wire between
terminal No. 19 on GEM connector and terminal No. 9 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See
Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater,
repair open Brown/White wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 764 (Brown/White Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground
and terminal No. 9 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present, repair
Brown/White wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, replace
GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Contact Plate Switch "D" Circuit 763 (Orange/White Wire) - Turn ignition to RUN position.
Monitor GEM PID PLATE_D. PID should be OPEN. Connect jumper wire across terminals No. 10 and
13. PID should change to CLOSED. If PLATE_D PIDs are as specified, replace transfer case shift motor.
See Borg-Warner 44-06 overhaul article. If PLATE_D PIDs are not as specified, go to step 48).
Check Circuit 763 (Orange/White Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 18 on GEM
harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and
retest system. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Orange/White wire for short to ground. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 763 (Orange/White Wire) For Open - Measure resistance of Orange/White wire
between terminal No. 18 on GEM connector and terminal No. 13 on transfer case 16-pin harness
connector. See Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms
or greater, repair open Orange/White wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 763 (Orange/White Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground
and terminal No. 13 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector. See Fig. 7 . If voltage is present, repair
Orange/White wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, replace
GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
TEST C: FRONT AXLE NOT ENGAGING OR DISENGAGING PROPERLY
NOTE:
Steps 1-3 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring diagrams, see
POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS article in the
WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
1. Check Voltage At Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) - Turn ignition off. Using voltmeter, measure voltage at
terminal No. 1 on fuse junction panel fuse No. 15. If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to next step. If voltage
is greater than 10 volts, go to step 4).
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) and power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, replace fuse. Clear DTCs and retest system. If fuse
blows again, inspect circuit for short to ground.
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
4. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Depress clutch if applicable.
Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification (PID) Ignition Switch Status
(IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF, ACC positions. If values agree
go to next step. If values do not agree, see STEERING COLUMN SWITCHES article in the
ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
In next step, if DTC B1342 is retrieved, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
5. Retrieve DTCs - Retrieve and document continuous DTCs. Clear continuous DTCs. Retrieve on-demand
DTCs. If DTCs are recorded, go to appropriate step(s). See DTC/TEST OR STEP table. If no DTCs are
retrieved, go to next step.
DTC/TEST OR STEP
DTC Go To TEST/STEP
P1804
D
P1806
D
P1808
D
P1810
D
P1812
A
P1815
A
P1820
A
P1822
A
P1824
E
P1826
E
P1828
A
P1830
A
P1832
C/12
P1834
C/12
P1838
A
P1846
A Or B
P1850
A Or B
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
P1854
P1858
P1866
P1867
P1876
P1877
P1891
A Or B
A Or B
A
A
C/12
C/12
A Or B
6. Check 4H Indicator Light - Using scan tool, toggle active command HIGH LAMP on, then off. If
indicator light operates correctly, go to next step. If indicator light does not operate correctly, go to TEST
D.
7. Check 4L Indicator Light - Using scan tool, toggle active command LOW LAMP on, then off. If
indicator light operates correctly, go to next step. If indicator light does not operate correctly, go to TEST
D.
8. Check Front Axle Engagement - Start engine. Using scan tool, toggle active command AXLE ENGG to
on and AXLE DSCN to off. Raise and support vehicle with engine running. Spin one front tire. Opposite
front tire should spin in reverse direction. If axle disconnect is operating correctly, exit active command
mode. Go to next step. If axle disconnect is not operating correctly, go to step 12).
9. Check Front Drive Shaft Engagement - Place mode switch in 4H position and drive short distance.
Raise and support vehicle. If front and rear drive shafts spin, go to next step. If front and rear drive shafts
do not spin, go to TEST A .
NOTE:
When 4WD is disengaged, front drive shaft may spin due to viscous drag
in transfer case, especially if cold.
10. Check Front Drive Shaft Disengagement - Place 4WD mode switch in 2H position. If rear drive shaft is
only being driven, go to next step. If front drive shaft is also being driven, go to TEST A .
11. Check Front Axle Disengagement - Using scan tool, set active commands AXLE ENGG to OFF and
AXLE DSCN to ON. Active commands AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN are located in 4-Wheel
Electronic Shift active command menu. Spin one front tire. Opposite front tire should not spin. If front
axle is disengaged, the 4WD system is functioning correctly. If front axle is engaged, go to next step.
12. Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoid Circuits - Using scan tool, monitor PIDs 4WDSOL and
2WDSOL. Set active command AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN to ON. If PIDs 4WDSOL and
2WDSOL indicates ON, go to next step. If PIDs indicate ON-B-, go to step 14).
13. Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoids - Using scan tool, monitor PIDs 4WDSOL and 2WDSOL. Set
active command AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN to OFF. If PIDs 4WDSOL and 2WDSOL indicate
OFF, go to step 23). If PIDs indicate OFFO-G, go to step 16).
14. Check Circuits 145 (Gray/Black Wire) & 605 (Red Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition off.
Disconnect 2WD and 4WD vacuum solenoid harness connectors. Solenoids are mounted to right inner
fender. See Fig. 14 . Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position.
Using DVOM, measure and record voltage between ground and terminal No. 1 (Red wire) on 4WD
vacuum solenoid harness connector. Measure and record voltage between ground and terminal No. 1
(Gray/Black wire) on 2WD vacuum solenoid harness connector. If voltage is not present on both circuits,
reconnect all harness connectors and go to next step. If voltage is present on either circuit, repair suspect
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1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
circuit for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 14: Locating 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoids
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
15. Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoid PIDs - Using scan tool, monitor PIDs 4WDSOL and 2WDSOL.
Set active command AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN to ON. If PIDs 4WDSOL and 2WDSOL indicate
ON-B-, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system. If PID 4WDSOL and/or 2WDSOL do not indicate
ON-B-, replace suspect solenoid. Clear DTCs and retest system.
16. Check Circuit 294 (White/Light Blue Wire) For Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 2WD and
4WD vacuum solenoid harness connectors. Solenoids are mounted to right inner fender. See Fig. 14 .
Turn ignition to RUN position. Using DVOM, measure and record voltage between ground and terminal
No. 2 (White/Light Blue wire) on 4WD vacuum solenoid harness connector. Measure and record voltage
between ground and terminal No. 2 (White/Light Blue wire) on 2WD vacuum solenoid harness
connector. If voltage is greater than 10 volts on both circuits, go to next step. If voltage is 10 volts or less
on either circuit, repair open circuit. Clear DTCs and retest system.
17. Check 2WD & 4WD Vacuum Solenoids - Using ohmmeter, measure resistance between terminals No.
1 and 2 on each vacuum solenoid. If resistance measured is 50-100 ohms for each solenoid, go to next
step. If resistance is not 50-100 ohms for either solenoid, replace suspect solenoid. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
18. Check Circuit 145 (Gray/Black Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin
connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Gray/Black wire between terminal No. 2 on GEM harness
connector and terminal No. 1 on 2WD vacuum solenoid harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is
less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Gray/Black wire. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
19. Check Circuit 605 (Red Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See
Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Red wire between terminal No. 7 on GEM harness connector and terminal
No. 1 on 4WD vacuum solenoid harness connector. If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If
resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Red wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
20. Check Circuit 145 (Gray/Black Wire) For Short To Ground - Measure resistance between ground and
terminal No. 2 on GEM 22-pin harness connector. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Gray/Black
wire. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, go to next step.
21. Check Circuit 605 (Red Wire) For Short To Ground - Measure resistance between ground and
terminal No. 7 on GEM 22-pin harness connector. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Red wire.
Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, go to next step.
22. Check Vacuum Signal At Solenoids - Start and run engine at idle. Using vacuum gauge, measure
vacuum at solenoid feed line. If vacuum is approximately 20 In. Hg, go to next step. If vacuum is less
than 20 In. Hg, repair suspect vacuum feed line. Clear DTCs and retest system.
23. Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoids Closed Condition - Turn ignition off. Disconnect solenoid
vacuum lines. Connect vacuum pump to feed line connection on each solenoid. See Fig. 15 . Turn
ignition to RUN position. Monitor PIDs 2WDSOL and 4WDSOL. Toggle active command AXLE ENGG
and AXLE DSCN to OFF. Apply vacuum and verify vacuum solenoids are closed. If solenoids hold
vacuum, release vacuum and go to next step. If solenoids do not hold vacuum, replace suspect vacuum
solenoid. Clear DTCs and retest system.
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 15: Applying Vacuum To Vacuum Solenoid
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
24. Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoids Open Condition - Turn ignition off. Disconnect solenoid
vacuum lines. Connect vacuum pump to feed line connection on each solenoid. Turn ignition to RUN
position. Monitor PIDs 2WDSOL and 4WDSOL. Toggle active command AXLE ENGG and AXLE
DSCN to ON. Apply vacuum and verify vacuum solenoids are open. If solenoids hold vacuum, replace
suspect vacuum solenoid. Clear DTCs and retest system. If solenoids do not hold vacuum, go to next step.
25. Check Vacuum Lines To Front Axle Actuator - Inspect vacuum lines to front axle actuator. See Fig.
14 . If vacuum hoses are okay, go to next step. If vacuum lines are damaged or disconnected, repair as
needed. Clear DTCs and retest system.
26. Check Front Axle Vacuum Actuator - Disconnect linkage from vacuum actuator. Reconnect all harness
connectors and vacuum lines. Start and idle engine. Toggle active command AXLE ENGG to ON and
AXLE DSCN to OFF. If vacuum actuator moves to engaged position, go to next step. If vacuum actuator
does not move to engaged position, replace vacuum actuator. Clear DTCs and retest system. Clear DTCs
and retest system.
27. Check Front Axle Vacuum Actuator - Toggle active command AXLE ENGG to OFF and AXLE
DSCN to ON. If vacuum actuator move to disengaged position, inspect and repair front axle locking
mechanism. If vacuum actuator does not move to disengaged position, replace vacuum actuator. Clear
DTCs and retest system. Clear DTCs and retest system.
TEST D: 4WD LO &/OR 4WD HI INDICATOR LIGHT NOT OPERATING PROPERLY
NOTE:
Steps 1-3 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring diagrams, see
POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS article in the
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
1. Check Voltage At Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) - Turn ignition off. Using voltmeter, measure voltage at
terminal No. 1 on fuse junction panel fuse No. 15. If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to next step. If voltage
is greater than 10 volts, go to step 4).
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) and power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, replace fuse. Clear DTCs and retest system. If fuse
blows again, inspect circuit for short to ground.
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
4. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Connect NGS tester.
Depress clutch pedal (if applicable). Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification
(PID) Ignition Switch Status (IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF and
ACC positions. If values agree, go to next step. If values do not agree, see STEERING COLUMN
SWITCHES article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
In next step, if DTC B1342 is retrieved, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
5. Retrieve DTCs - Retrieve and document continuous DTCs. Clear continuous DTCs. Retrieve on-demand
DTCs. If DTCs are recorded, go to appropriate step(s). See DTC/TEST OR STEP table. If no DTCs are
retrieved, go to next step.
DTC/TEST OR STEP
DTC Go To TEST/STEP
P1804
D/6
P1806
D/6
P1808
D/6
P1810
D/6
P1812
A
P1815
A
P1820
A
P1822
A
P1824
E
P1826
E
P1828
A
P1830
A
P1832
C
P1834
C
P1838
A
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
P1846
P1850
P1854
P1858
P1866
P1867
P1876
P1877
P1891
A Or B
A Or B
A Or B
A Or B
A
A
C
C
A Or B
6. Check 4WD System Indicator Lights - Using scan tool, monitor PIDs 4WDHIGH and 4WDLOW. Set
active command HIGH LAMP and LOW LAMP to ON, then OFF. If scan tool displays ON-B-, go to
step 9). If scan tool displays OFFO-G and indicator light is continually illuminated, go to next step. If
scan tool displays OFFO-G and indicator light is not illuminated, see appropriate INSTRUMENT
PANELS article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
7. Check GEM For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig. 2 .
Turn ignition switch to RUN position. If indicator lights are illuminated, go to next step. If indicator
lights are not illuminated, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
8. Check Circuits 210 (Light Blue Wire) and 975 (Brown/Yellow Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn
ignition off. Disconnect instrument cluster harness connectors. Measure resistance between ground and
terminals No. 9 and 10 on GEM 22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less,
repair Light Blue wire and/or Brown/Yellow wire for short to ground. Clear DTCs and retest system. If
resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace or repair instrument cluster. Clear DTCs and retest system.
9. Check Circuits 210 (Light Blue Wire) and 975 (Brown/Yellow Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn
ignition off. Disconnect instrument cluster harness connectors. Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See
Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminals No. 9 and 10 on GEM 22-pin harness connector.
See Fig. 4 . If voltage is present, repair Light Blue wire and/or Brown/Yellow wire for short to voltage.
Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, go to next step.
10. Check 4WD System Indicator Lights - Using scan tool, monitor PIDs 4WDHIGH and 4WDLOW. Set
active command HIGH LAMP and LOW LAMP to ON. If scan tool displays ON-B-, replace GEM. Clear
DTCs and retest system. If scan tool does not display ON-B-, repair or replace instrument panel, see
appropriate INSTRUMENT PANELS article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
TEST E: 4WD HIGH DOES NOT ENGAGE AT SPEED PROPERLY (DRIVELINE DOES NOT
SYNCHRONIZE PROPERLY) BUT DOES ENGAGE AT REST
1. Retrieve DTCs - Retrieve and document continuous DTCs. Clear continuous DTCs. Retrieve on-demand
DTCs. If DTCs are recorded, go to appropriate step(s). See DTC/TEST OR STEP table. If no DTCs are
retrieved, go to next step.
DTC/TEST OR STEP
DTC Go To TEST/STEP
P1804
D
P1806
D
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
P1808
P1810
P1812
P1815
P1820
P1822
P1824
P1826
P1828
P1830
P1832
P1834
P1838
P1846
P1850
P1854
P1858
P1866
P1867
P1876
P1877
P1891
D
D
A
A
A
A
E/4
E/4
A
A
C
C
A
A Or B
A Or B
A Or B
A Or B
A
A
C
C
A Or B
2. Check Front Axle Engagement - Start engine. Using scan tool, toggle active command AXLE ENGG to
ON and AXLE DSCN to OFF. Raise and support vehicle with engine running. Spin one front tire.
Opposite front tire should spin in reverse direction. If axle disconnect is operating correctly, exit active
command mode. Go to next step. If axle disconnect is not operating correctly, go to TEST C .
3. Check Front Axle Disengagement - Using scan tool, set active commands AXLE ENGG to OFF and
AXLE DSCN to ON. Active commands AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN are located in 4-Wheel
Electronic Shift active command menu. Spin one front tire. Opposite front tire should not spin. If front
axle is disengaged, the 4WD system is functioning correctly. If front axle is engaged, go to TEST C .
4. Check Electric Clutch Relay Coil Circuit Energized - Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Using
scan tool, monitor GEM PID 4WDELCL. Trigger active command SHFT CLCH to ON. If GEM PID
4WDELCL indicates ON---, go to step 7). If GEM PID 4WDELCL indicates ON-B-, go to next step.
5. Check Electric Clutch Relay - Turn ignition off. Disconnect electric clutch relay. Relay is located in
RPO relay block. See Fig. 2 . Test relay. See ELECTRIC CLUTCH RELAY TEST table. If relay is
okay, go to next step. If relay is not okay, replace relay. Clear DTCs and retest system.
ELECTRIC CLUTCH RELAY TEST
Terminals
No. (1)
Continuity
No Voltage Applied
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
1&2
3&4
3&5
Voltage Applied (2)
3&5
(1) See Fig. 16 .
(2)
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Apply battery voltage to terminals No. 1
and 2.
6. Check Circuit 976 (Orange Wire) For Short To Power - Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig.
2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 2 on relay
connector. See Fig. 16 . If voltage is present, repair circuit 976 for short to voltage. If no voltage is
present, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Fig. 16: Identifying Electric Clutch Relay Terminals
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
7. Check Electric Clutch Relay Coil Circuit De-Energized - Using scan tool, monitor GEM PID
4WDDELCL. Trigger active command SHFT CLCH to OFF. If GEM PID 4WDDELCL indicates OFF--, go to step 12). If GEM PID 4WDDELCL indicates OFFO-G, go to next step.
8. Check Voltage To Electric Clutch Relay Coil Circuit 294 White/Light Blue Wire) - Turn ignition off.
Disconnect electric clutch relay. Relay is located in RPO relay block. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition switch to
RUN position. Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 1 on relay connector. See Fig. 16 . If
voltage is 10 volts or less, check fuse No. 23 in fuse junction panel. Replace as needed. If fuse is okay,
repair open circuit 294. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is more than 10 volts, go to next step.
9. Check Electric Clutch Relay - Turn ignition off. Disconnect electric clutch relay. Relay is located in
RPO relay block. See Fig. 2 . Test relay. See ELECTRIC CLUTCH RELAY TEST table. If relay is
okay, go to next step. If relay is not okay, replace relay. Clear DTCs and retest system.
10. Check Circuit 976 (Orange Wire) For Short To Ground - Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See
Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 2 on relay connector. See Fig. 16 . If
resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair circuit 976 for short to ground. If resistance is greater than 10
k/ohms, go to next step.
11. Check Circuit 976 (Orange Wire) For Open - Measure resistance between terminal No. 14 on GEM
22-pin harness connector and terminal No. 2 on electric clutch relay connector. See Fig. 4 and Fig. 16 . If
resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is 5 ohms or
greater, repair open Orange wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
12. Check Circuit 779 (Brown Wire) For Voltage Energized - Turn ignition off. Disconnect transfer case
16-pin connector. Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Using scan tool, set active command SHFT
CLCH to ON. Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 16 on transfer case 16pin harness connector. See Fig. 6 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to step 15). If voltage is more than 10
volts, go to next step.
13. Check Circuit 779 (Brown Wire) For Voltage De-Energized - Set active command SHFT CLCH to
OFF. Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 16 on transfer case 16-pin harness connector.
See Fig. 6 . If voltage is zero volts, go to step 17). If voltage is not zero volts, go to next step.
14. Check Circuit 779 (Brown Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect electric clutch
relay and T/C shift relay. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Measure voltage between
ground and terminal No. 5 on relay connector. See Fig. 16 . If voltage is present, repair circuit 779 for
short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, replace electric clutch relay.
Clear DTCs and retest system.
15. Check Circuit 704 (Dark Green/Light Green Wire) For Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect
electric clutch relay and T/C shift relay. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Measure
voltage between ground and terminal No. 3 on relay connector. See Fig. 16 . If voltage is 10 volts or less,
check fuse No. 17 in power distribution box. Replace as needed. If fuse is okay, repair open circuit 704.
Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is more than 10 volts, go to next step.
16. Check Circuit 779 (Brown Wire) For Open - Measure resistance between terminal No. 16 on transfer
case 16-pin harness connector and terminal No. 5 on electric clutch relay connector. See Fig. 6 and Fig.
16 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace relay. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is 5 ohms
or greater, repair open Brown wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
17. Check Transfer Case Synchronization - Raise and support vehicle. Remove front drive shaft. Place
4WD mode switch in 2H position. Start and idle engine. Place shift lever in "D" position. Rotate rear tires
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
at 20-25 MPH. Place 4WD mode switch in 4H position. If transfer case front output shaft rotates, verify
complaint. See SYMPTOM TESTING . If transfer case front output shaft does not rotate, inspect
transfer case for internal problem. See TRANSFER CASE - BORG/WARNER 44-06 article in the
POWERTRAIN section. Repair as needed. Clear DTCs and retest system.
TEST F: NO COMMUNICATION WITH GEM
1. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Connect NGS tester.
Depress clutch pedal (if applicable). Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification
(PID) Ignition Switch Status (IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF and
ACC positions. If values agree, go to next step. If values do not agree, see appropriate STEERING
COLUMN SWITCHES article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
Steps 2, 3, 5 and 6 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring
diagrams, see POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING
DIAGRAMS article in the WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) and power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, go to step 5).
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
4. Check Fuse Junction Panel For Voltage - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect GEM from fuse junction
panel. Connect fuse junction panel connector C243. Measure voltage between ground and terminals No. 4
and 16 on GEM 18-pin junction block connector. See Fig. 11 . If voltage is more than 10 volts for both
circuits, go to step 8). If voltage is 10 volts or less for either circuit, replace fuse junction panel. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
5. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp)
GEM Disconnected - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM from fuse junction panel. Inspect fuse junction
panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) and power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both fuses are okay, go to
step 7). If fuse No. 22 is blown, go to step 6). If fuse No. 15 is blown, go to step 10).
6. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Short To Ground - Disconnect fuse junction panel
connector C243. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction
panel harness connector. See Fig. 3 . If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Tan/Black wire for short to
ground. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace fuse junction panel.
Clear DTCs and retest system.
7. Check Fuse Junction Panel For Voltage - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect GEM from fuse junction
panel. Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243. See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between terminal No.
11 on fuse junction panel connector C243 and terminals No. 4 and 16 on GEM 18-pin junction block
connector. See Fig. 11 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms for both circuits, go to step 8). If resistance is 5
ohms or greater for either circuit, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
8. Check Circuit 875 (Black/Light Blue Wire) For Continuity To Ground - Ensure ignition is off.
Disconnect GEM 26-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 26
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
on GEM harness connector. See Fig. 5 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5
ohms or greater, repair open Black/Light Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
9. Check Circuit 875 (Black/Light Blue Wire) For Open - Measure resistance between ground and
terminal No. 14 on GEM harness connector. If resistance is less than 5 ohms, see appropriate MODULE
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section. If
resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Black/Light Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
10. Check Fuse Junction Panel For Short To Ground - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect GEM from fuse
junction panel. Measure resistance between ground and terminals No. 4 on GEM 18-pin junction block
connector. See Fig. 11 . If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, see appropriate MODULE
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section. If
resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
TEST G: 4WD HIGH DOES NOT ENGAGE AT SPEED PROPERLY (DRIVELINE DOES NOT
SYNCHRONIZE PROPERLY) BUT DOES ENGAGE AT REST
NOTE:
For GEM connector number identification, see GEM CONNECTOR
IDENTIFICATION table. Also see appropriate wiring diagram in WIRING
DIAGRAMS .
GEM CONNECTOR IDENTIFICATION
Connector No.
C239
C240
C241
C267
NOTE:
Description
26-Pin
16-Pin
22-Pin
18-Pin
Steps 1-3 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring diagrams, see
POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS article in the
WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
1. Check Voltage At Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) - Turn ignition off. Using voltmeter, measure voltage at
terminal No. 1 on fuse junction panel fuse No. 15. If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to next step. If voltage
is greater than 10 volts, go to step 4).
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) & power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, replace fuse. Clear DTCs and retest system. If fuse
blows again, inspect circuit for short to ground.
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
4. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Connect NGS tester.
Depress clutch pedal (if applicable). Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification
(PID) Ignition Switch Status (IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF and
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
ACC positions. If values agree, go to next step. If values do not agree, see appropriate STEERING
COLUMN SWITCHES article in the ACCESSORIES/ SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
In next step, if DTC B1342 is retrieved, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
5. Retrieve DTCs - Retrieve and document continuous DTCs. Clear continuous DTCs. Retrieve on-demand
DTCs. If DTCs are recorded, go to appropriate step(s). See DTC/TEST OR STEP (ESOF MODELS)
table. If no DTCs are retrieved, go to next step.
DTC/TEST OR STEP (ESOF MODELS)
DTC Go To TEST/STEP
P1804
J
P1806
J
P1824
G/11
P1826
G/11
P1832
H
P1834
H
P1876
H
P1877
H
6. Check 4WD Indicator Lights - Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Place 4WD shift lever in 2H
position. Both indicator lights should be off. Place 4WD shift lever in 4H position. 4WD indicator light
should be illuminated. Place 4WD shift lever in 4L position. 4WD indicator light should remain
illuminated and low range indicator light should illuminate. If indicator lights operate as specified, go to
step 8). If 4H indicator light does not operate as specified, go to next step. If 4L light does not operate as
specified, go to TEST J .
7. Check 4WD Indicator Light Initial Operation - Turn ignition off. Start and idle engine. If 4WD
indicator light illuminates for 2 seconds after starting vehicle, go to step 25). If 4WD indicator light does
not illuminate for 2 seconds after starting vehicle, go to TEST J .
8. Check Front Axle Engagement - Start vehicle. Using scan tool, set active commands AXLE ENGG to
ON and AXLE DSCN to OFF. Drive vehicle short distance. Raise and support vehicle with engine
running. Spin one front tire. Opposite tire should spin in reverse direction. If axle is working correctly,
exit active command mode and go to next step. If axle is not working correctly, lower vehicle and go to
TEST H .
9. Check Front Drive Shaft Engagement - Place 4WD shift lever in 4H position. Verify front and rear
drive shafts are spinning. If front and rear drive shafts are locked together, go to next step. If front and
rear drive shafts are not locked together, inspect transfer case for mechanical malfunction.
NOTE:
When 4WD is disengaged, front drive shaft may spin due to viscous drag
in transfer case, especially if cold.
10. Check Front Drive Shaft Disengagement - Place transmission shift lever in "P" position. Place 4WD
shift lever in 2H position. Shift transmission into "D". If rear drive shaft is only being driven, go to next
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
step. If front drive shaft is also being driven, inspect transfer case for mechanical malfunction.
Check Front Axle Disengagement - Using scan tool, set active commands AXLE ENGG to OFF and
AXLE DSCN to ON. Ensure transmission is in neutral. Spin one front tire. Opposite front tire should not
spin. If front axle is disengaged, go to next step. If front axle is engaged, go to TEST H .
Check Electric Clutch Relay Coil Circuit Energized - Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Using
scan tool, monitor GEM PID 4WDELCL. Trigger active command SHFT CLCH to ON. If GEM PID
4WDELCL indicates ON---, go to next step. If GEM PID 4WDELCL indicates ON-B-, go to next step
18).
Check Electric Clutch Relay Coil Circuit De-Energized - Using scan tool, monitor GEM PID
4WDELCL. Trigger active command SHFT CLCH to OFF. If GEM PID 4WDELCL indicates OFF---,
go to step 20). If GEM PID 4WDELCL indicates OFFO-G, go to next step.
Check Voltage To Electric Clutch Relay Coil Circuit 294 White/Light Blue Wire) - Turn ignition off.
Disconnect electric clutch relay. Relay is located in RPO relay block. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition switch to
RUN position. Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 1 on relay connector. See Fig. 16 . If
voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open circuit 294. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is more than
10 volts, go to next step.
Check Electric Clutch Relay - Turn ignition off. Disconnect electric clutch relay. Relay is located in
RPO relay block. See Fig. 2 . Test relay. See ELECTRIC CLUTCH RELAY TEST table. If relay is
okay, go to next step. If relay is not okay, replace relay. Clear DTCs and retest system.
ELECTRIC CLUTCH RELAY TEST
Terminals
No. (1)
Continuity
No Voltage Applied
1&2
Yes
3&4
Yes
3&5
No
Voltage Applied (2)
3&5
(1) See Fig. 16 .
(2)
Yes
Apply battery voltage to terminals No. 1
and 2.
16. Check Circuit 976 (Orange Wire) For Short To Ground - Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See
Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 2 on relay connector. See Fig. 16 . If
resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair circuit 976 for short to ground. If resistance is greater than 10
k/ohms, go to next step.
17. Check Circuit 976 (Orange Wire) For Open - Measure resistance between terminal No. 14 on GEM
22-pin harness connector and terminal No. 2 on electric clutch relay connector. See Fig. 4 and Fig. 16 . If
resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is 5 ohms or
greater, repair open Orange wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
18. Check Electric Clutch Relay - Turn ignition off. Disconnect electric clutch relay. Relay is located in
RPO relay block. See Fig. 2 . Test relay. See ELECTRIC CLUTCH RELAY TEST table. If relay is
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
okay, go to next step. If relay is not okay, replace relay. Clear DTCs and retest system.
19. Check Circuit 976 (Orange Wire) For Short To Power - Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig.
2 . Turn ignition to RUN position. Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 14 on GEM harness
connector. See Fig. 4 . If voltage is present, repair circuit Orange wire for short to voltage. If no voltage is
present, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
20. Check Circuit 779 (Brown Wire) For Voltage Energized - Turn ignition off. Disconnect transfer case
4-pin connector. Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Using scan tool, set active command SHFT
CLCH to ON. Using DVOM, measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 1 on transfer case 4-pin
harness connector. See Fig. 17 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to step 23). If voltage is more than 10
volts, go to next step.
Fig. 17: Identifying MSOF Transfer Case 4-Pin Harness Connector
Courtesy of FORD MOTOR CO.
21. Check Circuit 779 (Brown Wire) For Voltage De-Energized - Set active command SHFT CLCH to
OFF. Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 1 on transfer case 4-pin harness connector. See
Fig. 17 . If voltage is zero volts, go to step 29). If voltage is not zero volts, go to next step.
22. Check Circuit 779 (Brown Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect electric clutch
relay. See Fig. 2 . Disconnect transfer case 4-pin connector. Turn ignition switch to RUN position.
Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 1 on 4-pin harness connector. See Fig. 17 . If voltage
is present, repair Brown wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present,
replace electric clutch relay. Clear DTCs and retest system.
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
23. Check Circuit 704 (Dark Green/Light Green Wire) For Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect
electric clutch relay. See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 3 on relay connector.
See Fig. 16 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, check fuse No. 17 in power distribution box. Replace as
needed. If fuse is okay, repair open circuit 704. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is more than 10
volts, go to next step.
24. Check Circuit 779 (Brown Wire) For Open - Measure resistance between terminal No. 1 on transfer
case 4-pin harness connector and terminal No. 5 on electric clutch relay connector. See Fig. 16 and Fig.
17 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace relay. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is 5 ohms
or greater, repair open Brown wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
25. Check Circuit 783 (Gray Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin
connector. See Fig. 2 . Place transfer case shift lever in 2H position. Measure resistance between ground
and terminal No. 3 on GEM harness connector. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, go to step 27). If
resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, go to next step.
26. Check HI/LO Indicator Switch (Circuit 783) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect
indicator switch connector on front of transfer case. Measure resistance between ground and terminal No.
3 on GEM 22-pin harness connector. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace indicator switch.
Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Gray wire for short to ground.
Clear DTCs and retest system.
27. Check Circuit 783 (Gray Wire) For Open - Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 3 on
GEM 22-pin harness connector. If resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, go to next step.
28. Check Circuit 783 (Gray Wire) For Open HI/LO Indicator Switch Disconnected - Turn ignition off.
Disconnect indicator switch connector on front of transfer case. Measure resistance of Gray wire between
terminal No. 2 on indicator switch harness connector and terminal No. 3 on GEM 22-pin harness
connector. If resistance is less than 5 ohms, replace indicator switch. Clear DTCs and retest system. If
resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Gray wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
29. Check Transfer Case Synchronization - Raise and support vehicle. Remove front drive shaft. Place
shift lever in 2H position. Start and idle engine. Place shift lever in "D" position. Rotate rear tires at 20-25
MPH. Place shift lever in 4H position. If transfer case front output shaft rotates, verify complaint. See
SYMPTOM TESTING . If transfer case front output shaft does not rotate, inspect transfer case for
internal problem. See Borg-Warner 44-06 overhaul article. Repair as needed. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
TEST H: FRONT AXLE IS NOT ENGAGING PROPERLY (TRANSFER CASE MOTOR
MOVEMENT OKAY)
NOTE:
Steps 1-3 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring diagrams, see
POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS article in the
WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
1. Check Voltage At Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) - Turn ignition off. Using voltmeter, measure voltage at
terminal No. 1 on fuse junction panel fuse No. 15. If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to next step. If voltage
is greater than 10 volts, go to step 4).
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) & power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
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fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, replace fuse. Clear DTCs and retest system. If fuse
blows again, inspect circuit for short to ground.
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
4. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Connect NGS tester.
Depress clutch pedal (if applicable). Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification
(PID) Ignition Switch Status (IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF and
ACC positions. If values agree, go to next step. If values do not agree, see appropriate STEERING
COLUMN SWITCHES article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
In next step, if DTC B1342 is retrieved, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
5. Retrieve DTCs - Retrieve and document continuous DTCs. Clear continuous DTCs. Retrieve on-demand
DTCs. If DTCs are recorded, go to appropriate step(s). See DTC/TEST & STEP table. If no DTCs are
retrieved, go to next step.
DTC/TEST & STEP
DTC Go To TEST/STEP
P1804
J
P1806
J
P1824
J
P1826
J
P1832
H/11
P1834
H/11
P1876
H/11
P1877
H/11
6. Check 4WD Indicator Lights - Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Place 4WD shift lever in 2H
position. Both indicator lights should be off. Place 4WD shift lever in 4H position. 4WD indicator light
should be illuminated. Place 4WD shift lever in 4L position. 4WD indicator light should remain
illuminated and low range indicator light should illuminate. If indicator lights operate as specified, go to
step 8). If 4L or 4H indicator light does not operate as specified, go to next step.
7. Check 4WD Indicator Light Initial Operation - Turn ignition off. Start and idle engine. If 4WD
indicator light illuminates for 2 seconds after starting vehicle, go to step 25). If 4WD indicator light does
not illuminate for 2 seconds after starting vehicle, go to TEST J .
8. Check Front Axle Engagement - Start engine. Using scan tool, toggle active command AXLE ENGG to
on and AXLE DSCN to off. Raise and support vehicle with engine running. Spin one front tire. Opposite
front tire should spin in reverse direction. If axle disconnect is operating correctly, exit active command
mode. Go to next step. If axle disconnect is not operating correctly, go to step 12).
9. Check Front Drive Shaft Engagement - Place mode switch in 4H position and drive short distance.
Raise and support vehicle. If front and rear drive shafts spin, go to next step. If front and rear drive shafts
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do not spin, inspect transfer case for internal malfunction. See Borg-Warner 44-06 overhaul article.
NOTE:
When 4WD is disengaged, front drive shaft may spin due to viscous drag
in transfer case, especially if cold.
10. Check Front Drive Shaft Disengagement - Place 4WD mode switch in 2H position. If rear drive shaft is
only being driven, go to next step. If front drive shaft is also being driven, inspect transfer case for
internal malfunction. See TRANSFER CASE - BORG/WARNER 44-06 article in the POWERTRAIN
section.
11. Check Front Axle Disengagement - Using scan tool, set active commands AXLE ENGG to OFF and
AXLE DSCN to ON. Active commands AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN are located in 4-Wheel
Electronic Shift active command menu. Spin one front tire. Opposite front tire should not spin. If front
axle is disengaged, the 4WD system is functioning correctly. If front axle is engaged, go to next step.
12. Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoid Circuits - Using scan tool, monitor PIDs 4WDSOL and
2WDSOL. Set active command AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN to ON. If PIDs 4WDSOL and
2WDSOL indicates ON, go to next step. If PIDs indicate ON-B-, go to step 14).
13. Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoids - Using scan tool, monitor PIDs 4WDSOL and 2WDSOL. Set
active command AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN to OFF. If PIDs 4WDSOL and 2WDSOL indicate
OFF, go to step 23). If PIDs indicate OFFO-G, go to step 16).
14. Check Circuits 145 (Gray/Black Wire) & 605 (Red Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition off.
Disconnect 2WD and 4WD vacuum solenoid harness connectors. Solenoids are mounted to right inner
fender. See Fig. 14 . Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Turn ignition to RUN position.
Using DVOM, measure and record voltage between ground and terminal No. 1 (Red wire) on 4WD
vacuum solenoid harness connector. Measure and record voltage between ground and terminal No. 1
(Gray/Black wire) on 2WD vacuum solenoid harness connector. If voltage is not present on both circuits,
reconnect all harness connectors and go to next step. If voltage is present on either circuit, repair suspect
circuit for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system.
15. Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoid PIDs - Using scan tool, monitor PIDs 4WDSOL and 2WDSOL.
Set active command AXLE ENGG and AXLE DSCN to ON. If PIDs 4WDSOL and 2WDSOL indicate
ON-B-, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system. If PID 4WDSOL and/or 2WDSOL do not indicate
ON-B-, replace suspect solenoid. Clear DTCs and retest system.
16. Check Circuit 294 (White/Light Blue Wire) For Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 2WD and
4WD vacuum solenoid harness connectors. Solenoids are mounted to right inner fender. See Fig. 14 .
Turn ignition to RUN position. Using DVOM, measure and record voltage between ground and terminal
No. 2 (White/Light Blue wire) on 4WD vacuum solenoid harness connector. Measure and record voltage
between ground and terminal No. 2 (White/Light Blue wire) on 2WD vacuum solenoid harness
connector. If voltage is greater than 10 volts on both circuits, go to next step. If voltage is 10 volts or less
on either circuit, repair open circuit. Clear DTCs and retest system.
17. Check 2WD & 4WD Vacuum Solenoids - Using ohmmeter, measure resistance between terminals No.
1 and 2 on each vacuum solenoid. If resistance measured is 50-100 ohms for each solenoid, go to next
step. If resistance is not 50-100 ohms for either solenoid, replace suspect solenoid. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
18. Check Circuit 145 (Gray/Black Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin
connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Gray/Black wire between terminal No. 2 on GEM harness
connector and terminal No. 1 on 2WD vacuum solenoid harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is
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19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Gray/Black wire. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 605 (Red Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See
Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Red wire between terminal No. 7 on GEM harness connector and terminal
No. 1 on 4WD vacuum solenoid harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to
next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Red wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 145 (Gray/Black Wire) For Short To Ground - Measure resistance between ground and
terminal No. 2 on GEM 22-pin harness connector. If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Gray/Black
wire. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, go to next step.
Check Circuit 605 (Red Wire) For Short To Ground - Measure resistance between ground and
terminal No. 7 on GEM 22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair
Red wire. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, go to next step.
Check Vacuum Signal At Solenoids - Start and run engine at idle. Using vacuum gauge, measure
vacuum at solenoid feed line. If vacuum is approximately 20 In. Hg, go to next step. If vacuum is less
than 20 In. Hg, repair suspect vacuum feed line. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoids Closed Condition - Turn ignition off. Disconnect solenoid
vacuum lines. Connect vacuum pump to feed line connection on each solenoid. See Fig. 15 . Turn
ignition to RUN position. Monitor PIDs 2WDSOL and 4WDSOL. Toggle active command AXLE ENGG
and AXLE DSCN to OFF. Apply vacuum and verify vacuum solenoids are closed. If solenoids hold
vacuum, release vacuum and go to next step. If solenoids do not hold vacuum, replace suspect vacuum
solenoid. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check 4WD & 2WD Vacuum Solenoids Open Condition - Turn ignition off. Disconnect solenoid
vacuum lines. Connect vacuum pump to feed line connection on each solenoid. Turn ignition to RUN
position. Monitor PIDs 2WDSOL and 4WDSOL. Toggle active command AXLE ENGG and AXLE
DSCN to ON. Apply vacuum and verify vacuum solenoids are open. If solenoids hold vacuum, replace
suspect vacuum solenoid. Clear DTCs and retest system. If solenoids do not hold vacuum, go to next step.
Check Vacuum Lines To Front Axle Actuator - Inspect vacuum lines to front axle actuator. See Fig.
14 . If vacuum hoses are okay, go to next step. If vacuum lines are damaged or disconnected, repair as
needed. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Front Axle Vacuum Actuator - Disconnect linkage from vacuum actuator. Reconnect all harness
connectors and vacuum lines. Start and idle engine. Toggle active command AXLE ENGG to ON and
AXLE DSCN to OFF. If vacuum actuator moves to engaged position, inspect front axle for mechanical
malfunction. See DRIVE AXLE article in the POWERTRAIN section. If vacuum actuator does not
move to engaged position, replace vacuum actuator. Clear DTCs and retest system.Clear DTCs and retest
system.
Check Front Axle Vacuum Actuator - Toggle active command AXLE ENGG to OFF and AXLE
DSCN to ON. If vacuum actuator move to disengaged position, inspect and repair front axle locking
mechanism. If vacuum actuator does not move to disengaged position, replace vacuum actuator. Clear
DTCs and retest system. Clear DTCs and retest system.
TEST J: 4WD LO INDICATOR LIGHT NOT OPERATING PROPERLY
NOTE:
Steps 1-3 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring diagrams, see
POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS article in the
WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
1. Check Voltage At Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) - Turn ignition off. Using voltmeter, measure voltage at
terminal No. 1 on fuse junction panel fuse No. 15. If voltage is 10 volts or less, go to next step. If voltage
is greater than 10 volts, go to step 4).
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) & power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, replace fuse. Clear DTCs and retest system. If fuse
blows again, inspect circuit for short to ground.
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
4. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Connect NGS tester.
Depress clutch pedal (if applicable). Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification
(PID) Ignition Switch Status (IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF and
ACC positions. If values agree, go to next step. If values do not agree, see appropriate STEERING
COLUMN SWITCHES article in the ACCESSORIES/ SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
In next step, if DTC B1342 is retrieved, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest
system.
5. Retrieve DTCs - Retrieve and document continuous DTCs. Clear continuous DTCs. Retrieve on-demand
DTCs. If DTCs are recorded, go to appropriate step(s). See DTC/TEST & STEP table. If no DTCs are
retrieved, go to next step.
DTC/TEST & STEP
DTC Go To TEST/STEP
P1804
J/6
P1806
J/6
P1824
G
P1826
G
P1828
A
P1832
H
P1834
H
P1876
H
P1877
H
6. Check 4WD Indicator Lights - Turn ignition switch to RUN position. Place 4WD shift lever in 2H
position. Both indicator lights should be off. Place 4WD shift lever in 4H position. 4WD indicator light
should be illuminated. Place 4WD shift lever in 4L position. 4WD indicator light should remain
illuminated and low range indicator light should illuminate. If indicator lights operate as specified,
indicator lights are operating correctly. If 4L indicator light does not operate as specified, go to step 12).
If 4H indicator light does not operate as specified, go to next step.
7. Check 4WD System Indicator Lights - Using scan tool, monitor PID 4WDHIGH. Set active command
HIGH LAMP to ON, then OFF. If scan tool displays ON-B-, go to step 10). If scan tool displays OFFO-G
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
and indicator light is continually illuminated, go to next step. If scan tool displays OFFO-G and indicator
light is not illuminated, see INSTRUMENT PANELS article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY
EQUIPMENT section.
Check GEM For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig. 2 .
Turn ignition switch to ON position. If 4H indicator light is illuminated, go to next step. If 4H indicator
light is not illuminated, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 210 (Light Blue Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect instrument
cluster harness connectors. Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 9 on GEM 22-pin
harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Light Blue wire for short to
ground. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace or repair
instrument cluster. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 210 (Light Blue Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect instrument
cluster harness connectors. Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between
ground and terminals No. 9 on GEM 22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If voltage is present, repair
Light Blue wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, go to next
step.
Check 4WD System Indicator Lights - Using scan tool, monitor PID 4WDHIGH. Set active command
HIGH LAMP to ON. If scan tool displays ON-B-, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system. If scan
tool does not display ON-B-, repair or replace instrument panel, see INSTRUMENT PANELS article in
the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check 4WD Indicator Switch - Turn ignition off. Disconnect 4WD indicator switch connector on front
of transfer case. Measure resistance between left terminal on switch connector and ground. Move shift
lever through all positions. Resistance should be greater than 10 k/ohms in 2H and 4H positions, and less
than 5 ohms in 4L position. If resistances are as specified, go to next step. If resistance is not as specified,
replace switch. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Instrument Cluster 4WD LOW INDICATOR LIGHT - Disconnect GEM 22-pin connector.
See Fig. 2 . Connect jumper wire between ground and terminal No. 10 (Black/Yellow wire) on GEM
harness connector. Turn ignition to RUN position. If 4WD low indicator light illuminated, go to next
step. If 4WD low indicator light is not illuminated, see INSTRUMENT PANELS article in the
ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 975 (Brown/Yellow Wire) For Short To Ground - Turn ignition off. Disconnect
instrument cluster harness connectors. Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 10 on GEM
22-pin harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Brown/Yellow wire for
short to ground. Clear DTCs and retest system. If resistance is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace or repair
instrument cluster. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 975 (Brown/Yellow Wire) For Short To Voltage - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM
22-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 10 on GEM 22-pin
harness connector. See Fig. 4 . If voltage is present, repair Brown/Yellow wire for short to voltage. Clear
DTCs and retest system. If voltage is not present, go to next step.
Check Circuit 784 (Light Blue/Black Wire) For Open - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM 26-pin
connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance of Light Blue/Black wire between terminal No. 2 on 4WD
indicator switch harness connector and terminal No. 16 on GEM harness connector. See Fig. 5 . If
resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Light
Blue/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
Check Circuit 784 (Light Blue/Black Wire) For Short To Power - Turn ignition to RUN position.
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 16 (Light Blue/Black wire) on GEM harness
connector. See Fig. 5 . If voltage is present, repair Light Blue/Black wire for short to voltage. Clear DTCs
and retest system. If voltage is not present, replace GEM. Clear DTCs and retest system.
TEST K: NO COMMUNICATION WITH GEM
1. Check Ignition States; Monitor GEM PID IGN_GEM - Turn ignition off. Connect NGS tester.
Depress clutch pedal (if applicable). Monitor Generic Electronic Module (GEM) Parameter Identification
(PID) Ignition Switch Status (IGN_GEM) while turning ignition switch through START, RUN, OFF and
ACC positions. If values agree, go to next step. If values do not agree, see appropriate STEERING
COLUMN SWITCHES article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section.
NOTE:
Steps 2-3 pertain to power supply circuits. For applicable wiring diagrams,
see POWER DISTRIBUTION section in SYSTEM WIRING DIAGRAMS article
in the WIRING DIAGRAMS section.
2. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp) Inspect fuse junction panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) and power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both
fuses are okay, go to next step. If either fuse is blown, replace fuse. Clear DTCs and retest system. If fuse
blows again, inspect circuit for short to ground.
3. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Voltage - Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243.
See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction panel harness
connector. See Fig. 3 . If voltage is 10 volts or less, repair open Tan/Black wire. Clear DTCs and retest
system. If voltage is greater than 10 volts, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
4. Check Fuse Junction Panel For Voltage - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect GEM from fuse junction
panel. Connect fuse junction panel connector C243. Measure voltage between ground and terminals No. 4
and 16 on GEM 18-pin junction block connector. See Fig. 11 . If voltage is more than 10 volts for both
circuits, go to step 8). If voltage is 10 volts or less for either circuit, replace fuse junction panel. Clear
DTCs and retest system.
5. Check Fuse Junction Panel Fuse No. 15 (5-Amp) & Power Distribution Box Fuse No. 22 (50-Amp)
GEM Disconnected - Turn ignition off. Disconnect GEM from fuse junction panel. Inspect fuse junction
panel fuse No. 15 (5-amp) & power distribution box fuse No. 22 (50-amp). If both fuses are okay, go to
step 7). If fuse No. 22 is blown, go to step 6). If fuse No. 15 is blown, go to step 10).
6. Check Circuit 1052 (Tan/Black Wire) For Short To Ground - Disconnect fuse junction panel
connector C243. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 11 on fuse junction
panel harness connector. See Fig. 3 . If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, repair Tan/Black wire for short to
ground. Clear DTCs and retest system. If voltage is greater than 10 k/ohms, replace fuse junction panel.
Clear DTCs and retest system.
7. Check Fuse Junction Panel For Voltage - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect GEM from fuse junction
panel. Disconnect fuse junction panel connector C243. See Fig. 2 . Measure voltage between terminal No.
11 on fuse junction panel connector C243 and terminals No. 4 and 16 on GEM 18-pin junction block
connector. See Fig. 11 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms for both circuits, go to next step. If resistance is 5
ohms or greater for either circuit, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
8. Check Circuit 875 (Black/Light Blue Wire) For Continuity To Ground - Ensure ignition is off.
Disconnect GEM 26-pin connector. See Fig. 2 . Measure resistance between ground and terminal No. 26
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1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
on GEM harness connector. See Fig. 5 . If resistance is less than 5 ohms, go to next step. If resistance is 5
ohms or greater, repair open Black/Light Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
9. Check Circuit 875 (Black/Light Blue Wire) For Open - Measure resistance between ground and
terminal No. 14 on GEM harness connector. If resistance is less than 5 ohms, see appropriate MODULE
COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section. If
resistance is 5 ohms or greater, repair open Black/Light Blue wire. Clear DTCs and retest system.
10. Check Fuse Junction Panel For Short To Ground - Ensure ignition is off. Disconnect GEM from fuse
junction panel. Measure resistance between ground and terminals No. 4 on GEM 18-pin junction block
connector. See Fig. 11 . If resistance is 10 k/ohms or less, see MODULE COMMUNICATIONS
NETWORK article in the ACCESSORIES/SAFETY EQUIPMENT section. If resistance is greater than
10 k/ohms, replace fuse junction panel. Clear DTCs and retest system.
SYMPTOM TESTING
ESOF MODELS
Vehicle Does Not Shift Between 2WD & 4WD High Modes Properly
Possible causes: 4WD mode switch, 4WD clutch relay, contact plate sensors, T/C shift motor, transfer case
and/or GEM. Go to TEST A under TESTING.
Vehicle Does Not Shift Between 4WD High To 4WD Low Properly,
Shifts Properly Between 2WD To 4WD High, 4WD High To 2WD
Possible causes: 4WD mode switch, vehicle speed sensor, BOO switch, transfer case, TR sensor and/or GEM.
Go to TEST B under TESTING.
Front Axle Not Engaging Or Disengaging Properly
Possible causes: 4WD solenoid, 2WD solenoid, vacuum motor, vacuum lines, front differential and/or GEM.
Go to TEST C under TESTING.
4WD LO &/Or 4WD HI Indicator Light Not Operating Properly
Possible causes: light bulb, TR sensor and/or GEM. Go to TEST D under TESTING.
4WD HI Does Not Engage At Speed Properly (Driveline Does Not
Synchronize Properly) But Does Engage At Rest
Possible causes: ESOF clutch relay, internal clutch, hub release spring and/or wiring harness. Go to TEST E
under TESTING.
No Communication With GEM
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Possible causes: Fuses, harness and/or GEM. Go to TEST F under TESTING.
MSOF MODELS
4WD High Does Not Engage At Speed Properly (Driveline Does
Not Synchronize Properly) But Does Engage At Rest
Possible causes: MSOF switch, MSOF clutch relay, internal clutch, harness and/or GEM. Go to TEST G under
TESTING.
Front Axle Is Not Engaging Properly
Possible causes: 2WD and/or 4WD solenoids, GEM and/or harness. Go to TEST H under TESTING.
4WD Low Indicator Light Not Operating Properly
Possible causes: Fuses, harness, MSOF switch, TR sensor and/or GEM. Go to TEST J under TESTING.
No Communication With GEM
Possible causes: Fuses, harness and/or GEM. Go to TEST K under TESTING.
WIRING DIAGRAMS
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 18: MSOF Wiring Diagram
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
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© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
1997 Ford Pickup F150
1997 TRANSFER CASES Borg-Warner 44-06 Electronic Controls
Fig. 19: ESOF Wiring Diagram
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