R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Power Sensors
User Manual
(;ÛÊA2)
User Manual
1177.6017.02 ─ 03
This manual describes the following average power sensors from Rohde & Schwarz:
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R&S®NRP6A (1424.6796.02)
●
R&S®NRP6AN (1424.6809.02)
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R&S®NRP18A (1424.6815.02)
●
R&S®NRP18AN (1424.6821.02)
© 2017 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
Email: info@rohde-schwarz.com
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of their owners.
Throughout this manual, products from Rohde & Schwarz are indicated without the ® symbol, for example R&S®NRP18AN is abbreviated as R&S NRP18AN.
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully
complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must
observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these
safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any purpose other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and, in some cases, a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore
essential that only skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be
allowed to use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this
will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions
and the product documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories. For product-specific
information, see the data sheet and the product documentation.
Safety labels on products
The following safety labels are used on products to warn against risks and dangers.
Symbol
Meaning
Notice, general danger location
Symbol
Meaning
ON/OFF Power
Observe product documentation
Caution when handling heavy equipment
Standby indication
Danger of electric shock
Direct current (DC)
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Basic Safety Instructions
Symbol
Meaning
Symbol
Meaning
Caution ! Hot surface
Alternating current (AC)
Protective conductor terminal
To identify any terminal which is intended for
connection to an external conductor for
protection against electric shock in case of a
fault, or the terminal of a protective earth
Direct/alternating current (DC/AC)
Earth (Ground)
Class II Equipment
to identify equipment meeting the safety
requirements specified for Class II equipment
(device protected by double or reinforced
insulation)
Frame or chassis Ground terminal
EU labeling for batteries and accumulators
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 1.
Be careful when handling electrostatic sensitive
devices
EU labeling for separate collection of electrical
and electronic devices
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 2.
Warning! Laser radiation
For additional information, see section
"Operation", item 7.
Signal words and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Indicates information considered important, but not hazard-related, e.g.
messages relating to property damage.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These signal words are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic
areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the signal words described here
are always used only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The
use of signal words in connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation
and in personal injury or material damage.
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Basic Safety Instructions
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, use only
indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level, max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency,
overvoltage category 2, pollution degree 2.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
even death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
even death.
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the mains-supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with a protective conductor contact and protective conductor.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective conductor either in the feed line or in the product itself is not
permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension cords
or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are
safe to use.
4. If there is no power switch for disconnecting the product from the mains, or if the power switch is not
suitable for this purpose, use the plug of the connecting cable to disconnect the product from the
mains. In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and accessible at all
times. For example, if the power plug is the disconnecting device, the length of the connecting cable
must not exceed 3 m. Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing disconnection
from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into racks or systems,
the disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cables on a regular basis to
ensure that they are in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and
carefully laying the power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fuse-protected with max. 16 A (higher
fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket provided for this purpose. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fuse protection, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be
taken to avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC 60950-1 / EN 60950-1 or IEC 61010-1 / EN 61010-1 standards that
apply in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the protective conductor terminal
on site and the product's protective conductor must be made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fuse-protected in such a way that anyone who has access to the
product, as well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1). Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal/Environmental protection",
item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. Laser products are given warning labels that are standardized according to their laser class. Lasers
can cause biological harm due to the properties of their radiation and due to their extremely
concentrated electromagnetic power. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a
Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no other settings or functions may be used as described in the
product documentation. The objective is to prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
8. EMC classes (in line with EN 55011/CISPR 11, and analogously with EN 55022/CISPR 22,
EN 55032/CISPR 32)
 Class A equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in all environments except residential environments and environments
that are directly connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Note: Class A equipment is intended for use in an industrial environment. This equipment may
cause radio disturbances in residential environments, due to possible conducted as well as
radiated disturbances. In this case, the operator may be required to take appropriate measures to
eliminate these disturbances.
 Class B equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in residential environments and environments that are directly
connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, protective conductor test,
insulation resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure
the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
5. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
6. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
7. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
8. Follow the transport stipulations of the carrier (IATA-DGR, IMDG-Code, ADR, RID) when returning
lithium batteries to Rohde & Schwarz subsidiaries.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
Waste disposal/Environmental protection
1. Specially marked equipment has a battery or accumulator that must not be disposed of with unsorted
municipal waste, but must be collected separately. It may only be disposed of at a suitable collection
point or via a Rohde & Schwarz customer service center.
2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment must not be disposed of with unsorted municipal waste, but
must be collected separately.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept and takes full responsibility for
take-back obligations and disposal obligations for manufacturers within the EU. Contact your
Rohde & Schwarz customer service center for environmentally responsible disposal of the product.
3. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
4. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
For additional information about environmental protection, visit the Rohde & Schwarz website.
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
¡Es imprescindible leer y cumplir las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad.
Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá
atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas
informaciones de seguridad.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios. Los datos específicos del producto figuran en la hoja de datos y en la
documentación del producto.
Señalización de seguridad de los productos
Las siguientes señales de seguridad se utilizan en los productos para advertir sobre riesgos y peligros.
Símbolo
Significado
Aviso: punto de peligro general
Observar la documentación del producto
Símbolo
Significado
Tensión de alimentación de PUESTA EN
MARCHA / PARADA
Atención en el manejo de dispositivos de peso
elevado
Indicación de estado de espera (standby)
Peligro de choque eléctrico
Corriente continua (DC)
Advertencia: superficie caliente
Corriente alterna (AC)
Conexión a conductor de protección
Corriente continua / Corriente alterna (DC/AC)
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Símbolo
Significado
Símbolo
Significado
Conexión a tierra
El aparato está protegido en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble (reforzado)
Conexión a masa
Distintivo de la UE para baterías y
acumuladores
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 1.
Aviso: Cuidado en el manejo de dispositivos
sensibles a la electrostática (ESD)
Distintivo de la UE para la eliminación por
separado de dispositivos eléctricos y
electrónicos
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 2.
Advertencia: rayo láser
Más información en la sección
"Funcionamiento", punto 7.
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, causa lesiones
graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones leves o moderadas.
Indica información que se considera importante, pero no en relación
con situaciones de peligro; p. ej., avisos sobre posibles daños
materiales.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal. Categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, índice de suciedad 2.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, se pueden
causar lesiones o, en determinadas circunstancias, incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, o bien si el
interruptor existente no resulta apropiado para la desconexión de la red, el enchufe del cable de
conexión se deberá considerar como un dispositivo de desconexión.
El dispositivo de desconexión se debe poder alcanzar fácilmente y debe estar siempre bien accesible.
Si, p. ej., el enchufe de conexión a la red es el dispositivo de desconexión, la longitud del cable de
conexión no debe superar 3 m).
Los interruptores selectores o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si se
1171.0000.42 - 09
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
integran productos sin interruptor en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el interruptor en el
nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión U eff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
1171.0000.42 - 09
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados ―los llamados
alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel)―. Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen
reacciones alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la
conjuntiva o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las
causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. Los productos con láser están provistos de indicaciones de advertencia normalizadas en función de la
clase de láser del que se trate. Los rayos láser pueden provocar daños de tipo biológico a causa de
las propiedades de su radiación y debido a su concentración extrema de potencia electromagnética.
En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
8. Clases de compatibilidad electromagnética (conforme a EN 55011 / CISPR 11; y en analogía con EN
55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
 Aparato de clase A:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en todos los entornos excepto en los residenciales y en aquellos
conectados directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a
edificios residenciales.
Nota: Los aparatos de clase A están destinados al uso en entornos industriales. Estos aparatos
1171.0000.42 - 09
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales

pueden causar perturbaciones radioeléctricas en entornos residenciales debido a posibles
perturbaciones guiadas o radiadas. En este caso, se le podrá solicitar al operador que tome las
medidas adecuadas para eliminar estas perturbaciones.
Aparato de clase B:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en entornos residenciales, así como en aquellos conectados
directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a edificios
residenciales.
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
5. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
6. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
7. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
1171.0000.42 - 09
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
8. En caso de devolver baterías de litio a las filiales de Rohde & Schwarz, debe cumplirse las
normativas sobre los modos de transporte (IATA-DGR, código IMDG, ADR, RID).
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente
1. Los dispositivos marcados contienen una batería o un acumulador que no se debe desechar con los
residuos domésticos sin clasificar, sino que debe ser recogido por separado. La eliminación se debe
efectuar exclusivamente a través de un punto de recogida apropiado o del servicio de atención al
cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
2. Los dispositivos eléctricos usados no se deben desechar con los residuos domésticos sin clasificar,
sino que deben ser recogidos por separado.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ha elaborado un concepto de eliminación de residuos y asume
plenamente los deberes de recogida y eliminación para los fabricantes dentro de la UE. Para
desechar el producto de manera respetuosa con el medio ambiente, diríjase a su servicio de atención
al cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
3. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
4. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
Se puede encontrar más información sobre la protección del medio ambiente en la página web de
Rohde & Schwarz.
1171.0000.42 - 09
Page 14
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
customer.support@rsa.rohde-schwarz.com
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
customersupport.la@rohde-schwarz.com
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
customersupport.asia@rohde-schwarz.com
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
customersupport.china@rohde-schwarz.com
1171.0200.22-06.00
R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Contents
Contents
1 Preface.................................................................................................... 7
1.1
For Your Safety............................................................................................................. 7
1.2
Documentation Overview............................................................................................. 7
1.2.1
Getting Started Manual................................................................................................... 7
1.2.2
User Manuals.................................................................................................................. 7
1.2.3
Tutorials.......................................................................................................................... 8
1.2.4
Instrument Security Procedures......................................................................................8
1.2.5
Basic Safety Instructions.................................................................................................8
1.2.6
Data Sheets and Brochures............................................................................................ 8
1.2.7
Release Notes and Open Source Acknowledgment (OSA)............................................ 8
1.2.8
Application Notes, Application Cards, White Papers, etc................................................8
1.3
Typographical Conventions.........................................................................................9
2 Key Features.........................................................................................10
3 Getting Started..................................................................................... 11
3.1
Preparing for Use........................................................................................................ 11
3.1.1
EMI Suppression...........................................................................................................12
3.1.2
Unpacking and Checking the Power Sensor.................................................................12
3.1.3
R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors Tour......................................................................... 12
3.1.4
Connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors.........................................................16
3.1.5
Disconnecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors ................................................... 17
3.2
Connecting to a PC..................................................................................................... 17
3.2.1
Using a Simple USB Connection.................................................................................. 17
3.2.2
Using an R&S NRP‑Z5 Sensor Hub..............................................................................18
3.2.3
Using a LAN Connection...............................................................................................20
3.2.3.1
Connecting an R&S NRP LAN Power Sensor and a PC.............................................. 20
3.2.3.2
Establishing a Connection to the Network.................................................................... 23
3.2.3.3
Assigning the IP Address.............................................................................................. 23
3.2.3.4
Using Hostnames..........................................................................................................23
3.3
Operating Concepts....................................................................................................24
3.3.1
R&S NRP Toolkit...........................................................................................................25
3.3.1.1
System Requirements...................................................................................................25
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
3
R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Contents
3.3.1.2
R&S NRP Toolkit for Windows......................................................................................25
3.3.1.3
Installing the R&S NRP Toolkit on a Windows PC........................................................26
3.3.1.4
Performing a Firmware Update..................................................................................... 26
3.3.2
R&S NRPV....................................................................................................................27
3.3.3
R&S Power Viewer Plus................................................................................................29
3.3.4
Browser-Based User Interface...................................................................................... 31
3.3.5
R&S NRP2.................................................................................................................... 32
3.4
Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols................................................................ 34
3.4.1
USB Interface................................................................................................................35
3.4.2
Ethernet Interface..........................................................................................................36
3.4.2.1
VISA Resource Strings................................................................................................. 36
3.4.2.2
VXI-11 Protocol............................................................................................................. 38
3.4.2.3
HiSLIP Protocol.............................................................................................................38
3.4.2.4
Socket Communication................................................................................................. 38
4 Browser-Based User Interface............................................................40
4.1
Main Dialog of the Web User Interface .....................................................................40
4.1.1
Setting the Unit..............................................................................................................41
4.2
Common Settings....................................................................................................... 42
4.3
Continuous Average Settings....................................................................................43
4.4
Sensor Settings...........................................................................................................44
4.5
Averaging Settings..................................................................................................... 46
4.6
Trigger Settings...........................................................................................................48
4.7
System Settings.......................................................................................................... 49
5 R&S NRP Toolkit Program Modules...................................................52
5.1
S-Parameters............................................................................................................... 52
5.1.1
The S-Parameters Tool GUI Interface.......................................................................... 53
5.1.2
Performing Configuration Tasks....................................................................................56
5.1.3
Structure of S2P and Uncertainty Data Files ............................................................... 61
5.2
Firmware Update......................................................................................................... 63
5.2.1
Installation of New Firmware.........................................................................................63
5.2.2
Hardware and Software Requirements......................................................................... 63
5.2.3
Preparation....................................................................................................................64
5.2.4
Updating the Application Firmware............................................................................... 64
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
4
R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Contents
6 Replacing an R&S NRP-Zxx with an R&S NRPxxA(N)...................... 68
6.1
Most Important Differences........................................................................................68
6.2
Prerequisites............................................................................................................... 68
7 Remote Control Commands................................................................70
7.1
Conventions used in SCPI Command Descriptions................................................ 70
7.2
Notations......................................................................................................................70
7.3
Configuring the General Functions of the NRP Power Sensor...............................72
7.3.1
Common Commands.................................................................................................... 72
7.3.2
Configuring the System.................................................................................................75
7.3.3
Selecting a Measurement Path..................................................................................... 87
7.3.4
Setting the Power Unit.................................................................................................. 87
7.3.5
Setting the Result Format............................................................................................. 88
7.4
Selecting a Measurement Mode and Retrieving Results.........................................89
7.5
Configuring the Measurement Modes.......................................................................90
7.5.1
Configuring a Continuous Average Measurement........................................................ 91
7.6
Configuring Basic Measurement Parameters.......................................................... 93
7.6.1
Configuring Auto Averaging.......................................................................................... 93
7.6.2
Setting the Frequency................................................................................................... 96
7.6.3
Configuring Corrections................................................................................................ 97
7.6.4
Configuring the S-Gamma Parameters.........................................................................99
7.7
Configuring the Trigger............................................................................................ 100
7.8
Using the Status Register........................................................................................ 110
7.8.1
General Status Register Commands.......................................................................... 110
7.8.2
Reading Out the CONDition Part................................................................................ 111
7.8.3
Reading Out the EVENt Part.......................................................................................111
7.8.4
Controlling the ENABle Part........................................................................................112
7.8.5
Controlling the Negative Transition Part..................................................................... 112
7.8.6
Controlling the Positive Transition Part....................................................................... 113
7.9
Testing the Power Sensor........................................................................................ 113
7.10
Calibrating/Zeroing the Power Sensor ...................................................................114
8 Performing Measurement Tasks - Programming Examples.......... 116
8.1
Performing the Simplest Measurement.................................................................. 116
8.2
Performing the Fastest Measurement in Continuous Average Mode.................. 116
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
5
R&S®NRPxxA(N)
8.3
Contents
Performing a Buffered Continuous Average Measurement.................................. 118
Annex.................................................................................................. 121
A Remote Control Basics......................................................................121
A.1
SCPI Command Structure........................................................................................ 121
A.1.1
Syntax for Common Commands................................................................................. 121
A.1.2
Syntax for Device-Specific Commands.......................................................................121
A.1.3
SCPI Parameters........................................................................................................ 123
A.1.4
Overview of Syntax Elements..................................................................................... 125
A.1.5
Structure of a command line....................................................................................... 126
A.1.6
Responses to Queries.................................................................................................126
A.2
Status Reporting System......................................................................................... 127
A.2.1
Hierarchy of the Status Registers............................................................................... 127
A.2.2
Structure of a SCPI Status Register............................................................................129
A.2.3
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)................................130
A.2.4
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)...................................................... 131
A.2.5
Device Status Register................................................................................................132
A.2.6
Questionable Status Register..................................................................................... 133
A.2.6.1
Questionable Power Status Register.......................................................................... 133
A.2.6.2
Questionable Calibration Status Register................................................................... 134
A.2.7
Standard Event Status and Enable Register (ESR, ESE)...........................................134
A.2.8
Operation Status Register...........................................................................................135
A.2.8.1
Operation Calibrating Status Register.........................................................................137
A.2.8.2
Operation Measuring Status Register......................................................................... 138
A.2.8.3
Operation Trigger Status Register.............................................................................. 138
A.2.8.4
Operation Sense Status Register................................................................................139
A.2.8.5
Operation Lower Limit Fail Status Register.................................................................139
A.2.8.6
Operation Upper Limit Fail Status Register.................................................................140
List of Commands..............................................................................141
Index....................................................................................................145
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
6
R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Preface
Documentation Overview
1 Preface
This chapter provides safety related information, an overview of the user documentation and the conventions used in the documentation.
1.1 For Your Safety
The R&S NRPxxA(N) is designated for use in industrial, administrative, and laboratory
environments. Use the R&S NRPxxA(N) only for its designated purpose. Observe the
safety and usage instructions documented in the user manual, as well as operating
conditions and performance limits stated in the data sheet.
The product documentation helps you to use the R&S NRPxxA(N) safely and efficiently. Keep the product documentation in a safe place and pass it on to the subsequent users.
Safety information is part of the product documentation. It warns you about the potential dangers and gives instructions how to prevent personal injury or damage caused
by dangerous situations. Safety information is provided as follows:
●
In the "Basic Safety Instructions", safety issues are grouped according to subjects.
For example, one subject is electrical safety. The "Basic Safety Instructions" are
delivered with the R&S NRPxxA(N) in different languages in print.
●
Throughout the documentation, safety instructions are provided when you need to
take care during setup or operation. Always read the safety instructions carefully.
Make sure to comply fully with them. Do not take risks and do not underestimate
the potential danger of small details such as a damaged power cable.
1.2 Documentation Overview
This section provides an overview of the R&S NRPxxA(N) user documentation. Unless
specified otherwise, you find the documents on the R&S NRPxxA(N) product page at:
www.rohde-schwarz.com/product/nrp-a-an
1.2.1 Getting Started Manual
Introduces the R&S NRPxxA(N) and describes how to set up and start working with the
product. Includes basic operations and general information, e.g. safety instructions,
etc. A printed version is delivered with the power sensor.
1.2.2 User Manuals
Contains the description of all instrument modes and functions. It also provides an
introduction to remote control, a complete description of the remote control commands
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
7
R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Preface
Documentation Overview
with programming examples, and information on maintenance and interfaces. Includes
the contents of the getting started manual.
1.2.3 Tutorials
Tutorials offer guided examples and demonstrations on operating the R&S
NRPxxA(N). They are provided on the product page of the internet.
1.2.4 Instrument Security Procedures
Deals with security issues when working with the R&S NRPxxA(N) in secure areas. It
is available for download on the Internet.
1.2.5 Basic Safety Instructions
Contains safety instructions, operating conditions and further important information.
The printed document is delivered with the instrument.
1.2.6 Data Sheets and Brochures
The data sheet contains the technical specifications of the R&S NRPxxA(N). It also
lists the firmware applications and their order numbers, and optional accessories.
The brochure provides an overview of the instrument and deals with the specific characteristics.
See www.rohde-schwarz.com/brochure-datasheet/nrp-a-an
1.2.7 Release Notes and Open Source Acknowledgment (OSA)
The release notes list new features, improvements and known issues of the current
firmware version, and describe the firmware installation.
The open source acknowledgment document provides verbatim license texts of the
used open source software.
See www.rohde-schwarz.com/firmware/nrp-a-an
1.2.8 Application Notes, Application Cards, White Papers, etc.
These documents deal with special applications or background information on particular topics.
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Preface
Typographical Conventions
1.3 Typographical Conventions
The following text markers are used throughout this documentation:
Convention
Description
"Graphical user interface elements"
All names of graphical user interface elements on the screen, such as
dialog boxes, menus, options, buttons, and softkeys are enclosed by
quotation marks.
KEYS
Key names are written in capital letters.
File names, commands,
program code
File names, commands, coding samples and screen output are distinguished by their font.
Input
Input to be entered by the user is displayed in italics.
Links
Links that you can click are displayed in blue font.
"References"
References to other parts of the documentation are enclosed by quotation marks.
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Key Features
2 Key Features
The average power sensors R&S NRPxxA and R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensors
are members of the R&S NRP series power sensors from Rohde & Schwarz. All these
RF power sensors provide a USB high-speed interface that constitutes both the communication port and the power supply connection. Also, the R&S NRPxxAN LAN power
sensors, the so called network sensors, are equipped with a Gigabit Ethernet interface
with Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) power supply.
The R&S NRP series power sensors are compatible with the R&S NRP‑Z power sensors in both the interface (USB) and a common command subset. This compatibility
makes the replacement of the old power sensors with the new ones easy.
For a detailed specification, refer to the data sheet.
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Preparing for Use
3 Getting Started
This section contains the information you have received as a printed book together
with your instrument. The information is provided again to enable you to search
throughout the complete description. If you are already familiar with the described topics, proceed to the next chapter.
3.1 Preparing for Use
This section describes the basic steps to be taken when setting up the R&S
NRPxxA(N) power sensors for the first time.
Risk of injury due to disregarding safety information
Observe the information on appropriate operating conditions provided in the data sheet
to prevent personal injury or damage to the power sensor. Read and observe the basic
safety instructions provided with the power sensor, in addition to the safety instructions
in the following sections. In particular, do not open the casing of the power sensor.
Risk of electrostatic discharge
Protect the work area against electrostatic discharge to avoid damage to electronic
components in the modules. For details, refer to the general safety instructions.
Risk of instrument damage due to inappropriate operating conditions
An unsuitable operating site or test setup can damage the power sensor and to connected devices. Before switching on the power sensor, observe the information on
appropriate operating conditions provided in the data sheet. In particular, ensure the
following:
●
The power sensor is dry and shows no sign of condensation.
●
The power sensor is connected as described in the following sections.
●
The ambient temperature does not exceed the range specified in the data sheet.
●
Signal levels at the input connectors are all within the specified ranges.
●
Signal outputs are correctly connected and are not overloaded.
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Preparing for Use
3.1.1 EMI Suppression
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the measurement results.
To suppress generated electromagnetic interference:
●
Use suitable shielded cables of high quality. For example, use double-shielded RF
cables.
●
Always terminate open cable ends.
●
Note the EMC classification in the data sheet.
3.1.2 Unpacking and Checking the Power Sensor
Check the equipment for completeness using the delivery note and the accessory lists
for the various items. Check the power sensor for any damage. If there is damage,
immediately contact the carrier who delivered the instrument. Make sure not to discard
the box and packing material.
Packing material and transportation
Always make sure that sufficient mechanical and electrostatic protection is provided
when transporting the power sensors.
3.1.3 R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors Tour
This chapter provides an overview of the available connectors and LEDs of the R&S
NRPxxA(N) power sensors.
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Preparing for Use
1
T
AR
SM
1
NS
SE
OR
CH
TE
NO
G
LO
Y
NR
T
AR
SM
P
SE
NS
OR
TE
CH
3
NO
LO
GY
:
IN T: m
OU
ST
HO ACE
RF
TE
TR
I/ ic Ω
log
V
5 V 50 5.3
or into ax.
m
3V 2V
in.
IG
2
Po
E
0
8
IN
7
P
4
NR
2
5
6
2
4
3
Figure 3-1: The R&S NRP power sensors
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
RF connector
Trigger I/O connector
Host interface connector
Status LED
LAN connector
LAN Reset button
Power over Ethernet status LED
Network status LED
RF connector
For maximum measurement accuracy, the RF connectors must be tightened using a
torque wrench with a specific nominal torque. The required nominal torque and the
type of connector of the sensors and of the connected attenuators are shown in the following table.
Table 3-1: RF connectors of the power sensors
Power sensor
Matching female connector
Male connector
Tightening torque
R&S NRP6A
R&S NRP6AN
N
N
1.36 Nm (12'' lbs)
R&S NRP18A
R&S NRP18AN
Trigger I/O connector
The Trigger I/O is a connector of SMB type.
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Preparing for Use
It is used as an input for signals if the trigger source parameter is set to EXTernal2. It
is used as an output for trigger signals if the sensor is operated in the trigger master
mode. For more details, see the user manual.
Host interface
The host interface connector is used for establishing a connection between the power
sensors and a USB host or a supported Rohde & Schwarz instrument. For this purpose, an external cable is needed. Two types of cables are available:
●
R&S NRP‑ZKU cable with a USB connector, for connecting the power sensor to a
USB host device (R&S order number 1419.0658.xx).
●
R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable with a push-pull type connector, for connecting the power
sensor to the R&S NRP2 or other Rohde & Schwarz products with the round connector (R&S order number 1419.0664.xx).
These cables can be obtained in different lengths up to 5 meters.
Status LED
The Status LED gives information about the state of the power sensor. The following
states are defined:
Indication
State
White
Idle state. The sensor performs no measurement and is ready for use.
Flashing white
Firmware update is in progress
Slow flashing white
Sanitizing in progress
Yellow
Wait for trigger state
Green
Measuring state
Turquoise blue
Zeroing is in progress
Slow flashing red
A static error. You can query the type of the error with
SYSTem:SERRor?
Fast flashing red
A critical static error. You can query the type of the error with
SYSTem:SERRor?
Note: If this state occurs after a firmware update, the update was not
successful. Perform the firmware update again.
LAN
Available only for the R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensors.
An RJ-45 connector is used to connect the Ethernet interface of the power sensors to a
Local Area Network (LAN).
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Preparing for Use
Ethernet interface requires PoE (Power over Ethernet)
When using the Ethernet interface of the power sensors, the electrical power has to be
provided by Power over Ethernet (PoE). In this case, it is not possible to provide the
power supply via the USB connector instead.
Risk of sensor damage
Use only PoE power sourcing equipment (PSE) according to IEEE standards 802.3af
or IEEE 802.3at.
Otherwise your power sensor can get damaged.
LAN reset button
The LAN Reset button is used for resetting the Ethernet connection parameters of the
power sensor to their default values.
Power over Ethernet status LED
Available only for the R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensors.
The power status LED shows whether the sensor is correctly powered over PoE or not.
●
Green indicates that the sensor is powered over PoE and can be operated via the
Ethernet interface.
●
No light indicates that PoE power is not present.
Network status LED
Available only for the R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensors.
The network status LED shows whether the LAN connection to the network is established properly or not.
●
Green indicates that the power sensor is correctly connected to the network and
has been assigned a valid IP address, either manually or via DHCP.
●
Red indicates that there is either an erroneous connection or the sensor has not
been assigned a valid IP address.
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Preparing for Use
3.1.4 Connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors
Risk of overloading the sensor
Using a power sensor at a level above its upper measuring limit can damage the sensor head. To avoid this risk, make sure not to exceed the test limit.
The test limits specified on the type label are valid only for the supplied attenuator. For
operation without attenuator, lower test limits apply, as specified in the data sheet.
Risk of damage to the center pin of the RF connector
When connecting the power sensor, always rotate only the hex nut of the RF connector. Do not rotate the sensor itself to avoid damage to the center pin of the connector.
To connect the RF connector of the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors
1. Ensure that the RF connector of your DUT is compatible with the RF connector of
the power sensor or attenuator.
Refer to Table 3-1 to find out what kind of RF connector your sensor or attenuator
has and the recommended nominal torque.
2. Insert the RF connector of the attenuator straight into the RF output of your DUT.
Do not tilt it.
NRP
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
3. Tighten the RF connector manually.
4. To ensure maximum measurement accuracy, tighten the RF connector using a torque wrench with the recommended nominal torque.
To connect a cable to the host interface of the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors
You can use an R&S NRP‑ZKU cable or R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable.
1. Insert the screw-lock cable connector into the host interface connector of the power
sensor.
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Connecting to a PC
2. Tighten the union nut manually.
3.1.5 Disconnecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors
Risk of damage to the center pin of the RF connector
When disconnecting the power sensor, always rotate only the hex nut of the RF connector. Do not rotate the sensor itself to avoid damage to the center pin of the connector.
To disconnect the RF connector of the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors
► Carefully loosen the union nut at the front of the RF connector of the sensor and
remove the sensor.
To disconnect the host interface of the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors
► Loosen the union nut of the screw-lock cable connector and remove the cable.
3.2 Connecting to a PC
There are different possibilities for connecting a power sensor to a PC, which can differ
depending on the type of power sensor and available accessories.
The following chapter gives an overview of the possible setups and what equipment is
needed for each of them.
3.2.1 Using a Simple USB Connection
All R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors can be connected to a PC by a USB interface and
controlled by a supported software or a remote program.
Required equipment
●
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
●
R&S NRP‑ZKU cable
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Connecting to a PC
Setup
6
1
2
3
4
NRP
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
5
Figure 3-2: Setup with an R&S NRP‑ZKU cable
1
2
3
4
5
6
=
=
=
=
=
=
Signal source
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
Host Interface connector
R&S NRP‑ZKU cable
USB connector
PC with installed VISA driver or R&S NRP Toolkit
Incorrectly connecting/disconnecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors can damage
the power sensors or lead to erroneous results.
Ensure that you connect/disconnect your power sensors as described in Chapter 3.1.4,
"Connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors", on page 16.
1. Connect the cables as shown in Figure 3-2 :
a) Connect the R&S NRP‑ZKU cable to the power sensor.
b) Connect the R&S NRP‑ZKU cable to the computer.
c) Connect the power sensor to the signal source.
2. On the computer, start a software application to view the measurement results.
See Chapter 3.3, "Operating Concepts", on page 24.
3.2.2 Using an R&S NRP‑Z5 Sensor Hub
The R&S NRP‑Z5 sensor hub (high-speed USB 2.0) can host up to four R&S
NRPxxA(N) power sensors and provides simultaneous external triggering to all connected sensors.
Required equipment
●
1 to 4 R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors
●
1 R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable per sensor
●
R&S NRP‑Z5 sensor hub with external power supply unit and USB cable
●
BNC cables to connect the trigger input and trigger output signals (optional)
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Connecting to a PC
Setup
4
6
9
10
TTL /CMOS
TTL /CMOS
17
7
3
8
5
2
16
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
1
NRP
15
11
12
13
14
Figure 3-3: Setup with an R&S NRP-Z5 sensor hub
1
2
3
4
5
6
7, 8
9
10
11-14
15
16
17
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
R&S NRP‑Z5 sensor hub
External power supply unit (supplied)
Power cable (supplied)
AC power supply
USB cable (supplied)
PC with USB host interface
BNC cable (optional, not supplied)
Trigger source (optional)
Triggered device (optional)
R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable
Host Interface connector
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
Signal source
Incorrectly connecting/disconnecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors can damage
the power sensors or lead to erroneous results.
Ensure that you connect/disconnect your power sensors as described in Chapter 3.1.4,
"Connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors", on page 16.
1. Connect the cables as shown in Figure 3-3:
a) Connect the R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable to the power sensor.
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Connecting to a PC
b) Connect the power sensors to the R&S NRP‑Z5 sensor hub. You can connect
up to four sensors.
c) Connect the R&S NRP‑Z5 to the computer.
d) Connect the power sensors to the signal source.
e) Connect the delivered external power supply unit to the R&S NRP‑Z5 and to an
AC supply connector.
f) Connect the trigger input of the R&S NRP‑Z5 with a BNC cable to the trigger
source (optional).
g) Connect the trigger output of the R&S NRP‑Z5 with a BNC cable to the trigger
device (optional).
2. On the computer, start a software application to view the measurement results.
See Chapter 3.3, "Operating Concepts", on page 24.
3.2.3 Using a LAN Connection
Requires power sensors with networking capabilities, the R&S NRP LAN power sensors.
This section describes how to connect the sensor to a LAN network and configure the
LAN interface for establishing a connection.
3.2.3.1
Connecting an R&S NRP LAN Power Sensor and a PC
There are different ways to connect the R&S NRP LAN power sensor to a PC according to the available equipment:
Setup with a PoE Ethernet switch
1
2
7
HOST
INTERFACE
NRP
TRIG2
I/0
IN:
3 V or 5 V logic
OUT: min. 2 V into 50 Ω
max. 5.3 V
4
PoE
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
3
6
5
Ethernet Switch
(PoE)
Figure 3-4: Setup with a PoE Ethernet switch
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Connecting to a PC
1
2
3
4, 6
5
7
=
=
=
=
=
=
Signal source
R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensor
RJ-45 Ethernet connector
RJ-45 Ethernet cable
Ethernet switch supporting PoE power delivery, e.g. R&S NRP-ZAP1
PC
1. Connect the RF connector of the sensor to the DUT.
2. NOTICE! Risk of sensor damage. Use only PoE power sourcing equipment (PSE)
according to IEEE standards 802.3af or IEEE 802.3at.
Otherwise your power sensor can get damaged.
Connect the RJ-45 Ethernet connector of the sensor to an Ethernet switch that
supports PoE power delivery.
3. Connect the PC to the Ethernet switch.
4. Establish a connection between the power sensor and the network.
See Chapter 3.2.3.2, "Establishing a Connection to the Network", on page 23.
Setup with a PoE injector and a Non-PoE Ethernet switch
2
1
10
HOST
INTERFACE
NRP
TRIG2
I/0
IN:
3 V or 5 V logic
OUT: min. 2 V into 50 Ω
max. 5.3 V
PoE
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
3
4
5
6
9
7
PoE Injector
8
Non-PoE
Ethernet Switch
Figure 3-5: Setup with a PoE injector and a Non-PoE Ethernet switch
1
2
3
4, 7,9
5
6
8
10
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Signal source
R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensor
RJ-45 Ethernet connector
RJ-45 Ethernet cable
PoE injector
AC supply
Non-PoE Ethernet switch
PC
1. Connect the RF connector of the sensor to the DUT.
2. NOTICE! Risk of sensor damage. Use only PoE power sourcing equipment (PSE)
according to IEEE standards 802.3af or IEEE 802.3at.
Otherwise your power sensor can get damaged.
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Connecting to a PC
Connect the RJ-45 Ethernet connector of the sensor to the output of the PoE injector.
3. Connect the PoE injector to a power supply.
4. Connect the input of the PoE injector to the Non-PoE Ethernet switch.
5. Connect the PC to the Non-PoE Ethernet switch.
6. Establish a connection between the power sensor and the network.
See Chapter 3.2.3.2, "Establishing a Connection to the Network", on page 23.
Setup with a PoE injector
1
2
8
HOST
INTERFACE
NRP
TRIG2
I/0
IN:
3 V or 5 V logic
OUT: min. 2 V into 50 Ω
max. 5.3 V
PoE
3
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
4
7
5
6
PoE Injector
Figure 3-6: Setup with a PoE injector
1
2
3
4, 7
5
6
8
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Signal source
R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensor
RJ-45 Ethernet connector
RJ-45 Ethernet cable
PoE injector
AC supply
PC
1. Connect the RF connector of the sensor to the DUT.
2. NOTICE! Risk of sensor damage. Use only PoE power sourcing equipment (PSE)
according to IEEE standards 802.3af or IEEE 802.3at.
Otherwise your power sensor can get damaged.
Connect the RJ-45 Ethernet connector of the sensor to the output of the PoE injector.
3. Connect the PoE injector to a power supply.
4. Connect the PC to the input of the PoE injector.
5. Establish a network connection between the power sensor and the PC.
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Connecting to a PC
3.2.3.2
Establishing a Connection to the Network
There are two methods to establish a network connection to an R&S NRP LAN power
sensor:
●
A non-dedicated network (Ethernet) connection from the sensor to an existing network
●
A dedicated network connection (Point-to-point connection) between the LAN sensor and a single computer
In both cases, the host name can be used (see Chapter 3.2.3.4, "Using Hostnames",
on page 23) or an IP address that has to be assigned to the LAN sensor and the
computer, see Chapter 3.2.3.3, "Assigning the IP Address", on page 23.
To set up a network Ethernet connection
► Connect the power sensor to the network or to a single PC.
By default, the sensor is configured to use dynamic TCP/IP configuration and to
obtain the address information automatically.
3.2.3.3
Assigning the IP Address
Depending on the network capabilities, the TCP/IP address information for the LAN
sensor can be obtained in different ways:
●
If the network supports dynamic TCP/IP configuration using the Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP), the address information can be assigned automatically.
●
If the network does not support DHCP, the R&S NRP LAN power sensor tries to
obtain the IP address via the Zeroconf (APIA) protocol. If this attempt does not succeed or if the instrument is set to use alternate TCP/IP configuration, the IP
address must be set manually.
For a description on how to set the IP address manually, refer to the user manual.
Use hostnames to identify the sensor
In networks using a DHCP server, it is recommended that you address the sensor by
its unambiguous hostnames, see Chapter 3.2.3.4, "Using Hostnames", on page 23.
A hostname is a unique identifier of the power sensor that remains permanent as long
as it is not explicitly changed. Hence, you can address a power sensor by the same
identification, irrespectively if a network or a point-to-point connection is used.
3.2.3.4
Using Hostnames
In a LAN that uses a domain name system (DNS) server, each connected PC or instrument can be accessed via an unambiguous hostname instead of an IP address. The
DNS server translates the hostname to the IP address. Using the hostname is especially useful when a DHCP server is used, as a new IP address can be assigned each
time the instrument is restarted.
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Operating Concepts
Each power sensor is delivered with a default hostname assigned. You can change the
default hostname.
The default hostname follows the syntax:
<device name>-<serial number>, where:
●
<device name> is the short name of your sensor.
For example, the <device name> of R&S NRP18AN is nrp18an.
●
<serial number> is the individual serial number of the power sensor. The serial
number can be found at the rear side of the sensor. It is the third part of the device
ID printed on the bar code sticker Figure 3-7.
Figure 3-7: Serial number of the R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensors
Example:
The default hostname of an R&S NRP18AN with a serial number 101441 is
nrp18an-101441.
Networks without DHCP Server
In a network without DHCP server, the connected devices can obtain their IP
addresses via a so-called Zeroconf method. The R&S NRP LAN power sensors all
support Zeroconf address allocation. To make this work properly, use hostnames from
the so-called link-local top-level domains. You accomplish this by appending .local to
the hostname.
Example:
A power sensor has the specified hostname of:
nrp6an-101441
If used together with a Zeroconf, refer to it as:
nrp6an-101441.local
3.3 Operating Concepts
For operating the power sensor, you can choose from various possibilities.
Alternative to the methods of access described in this chapter, you can use remote
control:
●
Chapter A, "Remote Control Basics", on page 121
●
Chapter 3.4, "Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols", on page 34
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Operating Concepts
●
●
●
●
●
R&S NRP Toolkit.....................................................................................................25
R&S NRPV..............................................................................................................27
R&S Power Viewer Plus..........................................................................................29
Browser-Based User Interface................................................................................ 31
R&S NRP2.............................................................................................................. 32
3.3.1 R&S NRP Toolkit
Before you start using the power sensors with a software solution, it is recommended
install the R&S NRP Toolkit.
The R&S NRP Toolkit is the basic software package that supplies low-level drivers and
tools for all power sensors. It is provided on your documentation CD-ROM and on the
Rohde & Schwarz website. The components of the R&S NRP Toolkit depends on your
operating system.
3.3.1.1
System Requirements
Hardware requirements:
●
Desktop PC or laptop, or an Intel-based Apple Mac
●
USB interface
●
R&S NRP‑ZKU cable or R&S NRP‑Z5 sensor hub and an R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable
Supported operating systems:
●
Microsoft Windows Vista 32/64-bit
●
Microsoft Windows 7 32/64-bit
●
Microsoft Windows 8/ 8.1 32/64-bit
●
Microsoft Windows 10 32/64-bit
●
Microsoft Windows XP 32-bit is available on request only.
R&S NRP Toolkit versions for Linux distributions and MacOSX are also available on
request. To obtain an R&S NRP Toolkit for an operating system other than Microsoft
Windows, contact the Rohde & Schwarz customer support:
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com
3.3.1.2
R&S NRP Toolkit for Windows
The R&S NRP Toolkit installer for Windows-based systems contains the following components. Obligatory components are indicated.
●
USB driver (obligatory)
●
High level dynamic link library (NrpControl2) (obligatory)
●
R&S NRP Toolkit SDK
●
S-Parameter tool
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Getting Started
Operating Concepts
Program modules for loading an S-parameter table into the power sensor
3.3.1.3
●
R&S NRP‑Z uncertainty calculator and its PDF manual
●
VxI plug&play with programming examples
For installation, enable "NRP-Toolkit-SDK" during the installation of the R&S NRP
Toolkit.
●
Terminal (NrpTerm): low-level communication program for sending commands to
the power sensor
●
Firmware update (PureFW)
●
Nrp Version Collector
Tool for displaying version information of all installed, power measurement-relevant
software packages.
Installing the R&S NRP Toolkit on a Windows PC
1. Start the R&S NRP Toolkit installer.
2. In the "Choose Components" dialog, select the components you want to install and
accept the license terms to continue with the installation
3. Click "Next" and complete the installation process.
3.3.1.4
Performing a Firmware Update
Use the firmware update program (PureFW) to load new firmware for the power sensors. It is part of the R&S NRP Toolkit that is supplied on a CD-ROM together with the
power sensors.
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For further details, refer to Chapter 5.2, " Firmware Update", on page 63.
3.3.2 R&S NRPV
The R&S NRPV enables you to measure power in all available measurement modes.
Also, you can use up to four power sensors simultaneously.
The R&S NRPV is provided on your documentation CD-ROM and on the Rohde &
Schwarz website as a separate standalone installation package.
Required equipment
●
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
●
R&S NRP‑ZKU cable or an R&S NRP‑Z5 sensor hub and an R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable
to connect the sensor to the computer
●
Windows PC with installed:
–
R&S NRP Toolkit V 4.10 or higher
–
R&S NRPV version 3.2 or higher (refer to the operating manual of the R&S
NRPV for a description of the installation process)
Setup
Figure 3-8: Setup with an R&S NRPV
1
2
3
4
5
6
=
=
=
=
=
=
Signal source
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
Host Interface connector
R&S NRP‑ZKU cable
USB connector
PC with installed R&S NRPV
Incorrectly connecting/disconnecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors can damage
the power sensors or lead to erroneous results.
Ensure that you connect/disconnect your power sensors as described in Chapter 3.1.4,
"Connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors", on page 16.
Starting a measurement
1. Connect the power sensor to the PC as shown in Figure 3-8.
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For a detailed description, refer to Chapter 3.2.1, "Using a Simple USB Connection", on page 17.
2. Start the R&S NRPV.
3. Execute zeroing:
Note: Turn off all measurement signals before zeroing. An active measurement
signal during zeroing causes an error.
a) Switch off the measurement signal.
b) Select "Zero > Select > A" (channel short name).
Zeroing takes several seconds. During zeroing, a message shows the progress. After completion, the message reports either success or an error ("Success" / "Failed").
4. Switch on the test signal of the signal source.
5. To start a continuous measurement, select "Measure > Continuous".
The "Continuous" measurement window appears. It shows the measurement
results numerically, and the control panel for accessing further dialogs with parameters for measurement, evaluation and display.
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For a detailed description on how to measure in this setup, refer to the operating manual of the R&S NRPV.
3.3.3 R&S Power Viewer Plus
The R&S Power Viewer Plus is software that simplifies many measurement tasks. It is
provided on your documentation CD-ROM and on the Rohde & Schwarz website as a
separate standalone installation package.
Required equipment
●
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
●
R&S NRP‑ZKU cable or an R&S NRP‑Z5 sensor hub and an R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable
to connect the sensor to the computer
●
PC with installed:
–
R&S NRP Toolkit V 4.10 or higher
–
R&S Power Viewer Plus version 9.2 or higher (refer to the operating manual of
the R&S Power Viewer Plus for a description of the installation process)
Setup
Figure 3-9: Setup with the R&S Power Viewer Plus
1
2
3
4
5
6
=
=
=
=
=
=
Signal source
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
Host Interface connector
R&S NRP‑ZKU cable
USB connector
PC with installed R&S Power Viewer Plus
Incorrectly connecting/disconnecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors can damage
the power sensors or lead to erroneous results.
Ensure that you connect/disconnect your power sensors as described in Chapter 3.1.4,
"Connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors", on page 16.
Starting a measurement
1. Connect the cables as shown in Figure 3-9.
For a detailed description, refer to Chapter 3.2.1, "Using a Simple USB Connection", on page 17.
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2. Start the R&S Power Viewer Plus.
3. Execute zeroing:
Note: Turn off all measurement power signals before zeroing. An active measurement signal during zeroing causes an error.
a) Switch off the measurement signal.
b) Select "Sensor > Zero (Signal off) ".
4. Switch on the test signal of the signal source.
5. For a continuous average measurement, select "Measurement > Continuous".
The "Continuous" measurement window appears. It shows the measurement
results numerically and some parameters that can be configured.
6. To start the measurement press "Measurement > Start".
The measurement result is shown in the "Continuous" measurement window.
For a detailed description of how to measure in this setup, refer to the operating manual of your R&S Power Viewer Plus. The manual is installed automatically during the
installation of the R&S Power Viewer Plus.
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3.3.4 Browser-Based User Interface
Requires power sensors with networking capabilities, the R&S NRP LAN power sensors.
With the integrated, browser-based graphical user interface of the R&S NRPxxAN LAN
power sensors you can easily configure the most common settings and measure in the
provided measurement modes.
There is no installation required. The web user interface can be used with all devices
and operating systems, including tablets and smart phones that are connected to the
same network.
Required equipment
●
R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensor
●
LAN cables
●
PoE Ethernet switch or a non-PoE Ethernet switch and a PoE injector
●
Device with a supported web browser installed:
–
Mozilla Firefox 33 or later
–
Google Chrome 36 or later
–
Microsoft Internet Explorer 10 or later
–
Safari 5.1 or later
Setup
1
2
7
HOST
INTERFACE
NRP
TRIG2
I/0
IN:
3 V or 5 V logic
OUT: min. 2 V into 50 Ω
max. 5.3 V
4
PoE
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
3
6
5
Ethernet Switch
(PoE)
Figure 3-10: Setup with the web user interface
1
2
3
4, 6
5
7
=
=
=
=
=
=
Signal source
R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensor
RJ-45 Ethernet connector
RJ-45 Ethernet cable
Ethernet switch supporting PoE power delivery
PC with a supported web browser installed
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Incorrectly connecting/disconnecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors can damage
the power sensors or lead to erroneous results.
Ensure that you connect/disconnect your power sensors as described in Chapter 3.1.4,
"Connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors", on page 16.
Starting a measurement
1. Connect the cables as shown in Figure 3-10.
For a detailed description, refer to Chapter 3.2.3, "Using a LAN Connection",
on page 20.
2. Open a supported web browser.
3. Enter the instrument name or the IP address of the sensor you want to connect to.
For details on how to find out the IP address or hostname refer to Chapter 3.2.3.3,
"Assigning the IP Address", on page 23 and Chapter 3.2.3.4, "Using Hostnames",
on page 23.
The main dialog of the web user interface opens.
4. Select the "Continuous Average" tab and perform any necessary changes.
5. Press "Measurement > ON" to start the measurement.
For a detailed description of the web user interface, refer to Chapter 4, "BrowserBased User Interface", on page 40.
3.3.5 R&S NRP2
With the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors and an R&S NRP2, you can measure power
with up to four power sensors simultaneously. All sensor-dependent measurement
functions can be used and the results can be displayed in parallel.
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Required equipment
●
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
●
R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable to connect the sensor to the R&S NRP2
●
R&S NRP2 base unit with FW version 7.11 or higher
Setup
6
1
2
3
4
5
NRP
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
Figure 3-11: Setup with an R&S NRP2 base unit
1
2
3
4
5
6
=
=
=
=
=
=
Signal source
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
Host Interface connector
R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable
Sensor input connector of the R&S NRP2
R&S NRP2 base unit
Incorrectly connecting/disconnecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors can damage
the power sensors or lead to erroneous results.
Ensure that you connect/disconnect your power sensors as described in Chapter 3.1.4,
"Connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) Power Sensors", on page 16.
Starting a measurement
1. Connect the cables as shown in Figure 3-11:
a) Connect the R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable to the host interface connector of the sensor.
b) Connect the R&S NRP‑ZK6 cable to a sensor input connector of the R&S
NRP2.
c) Connect the RF connector of the power sensor to the signal source.
2. Preset the R&S NRP2.
a) Press the (PRE)SET hardkey.
The "File" menu appears.
b) Press the (PRE)SET hardkey again or press the "Preset" softkey.
All parameters are set to their defaults, even when in inactive operating modes.
3. Execute zeroing:
Note: Turn off all measurement signals before zeroing. An active measurement
signal during zeroing causes an error.
a) Switch off the power of the signal source.
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b) Press the ZERO hardkey of the R&S NRP2.
The "Zero" dialog box is displayed.
c) Press the ZERO hardkey again to perform zeroing of all connected sensor
channels ("Zero (All)") or press the appropriate softkey to select a specific sensor for zeroing.
4. Press the FREQ hardkey and enter the carrier frequency of the applied signal if the
specified measurement accuracy is to be reached.
5. Switch on the signal source.
The result window indicates the result (in dBm) obtained with sensor A.
6. If necessary, perform further settings.
For a detailed description of how to measure in this setup, refer to the operating manual of your R&S NRP2.
3.4 Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols
Use remote control to integrate the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors into custom automatic test equipment (ATE) systems. The latest version of the available instrument
drivers is part of the R&S NRP Toolkit SDK under Windows.
The power sensors support different interfaces for remote control depending on the
type of sensor. The USB power sensors are always connected to the controlling PC via
USB, while R&S NRPxxAN LAN power sensors can be accessed via USB or Ethernet.
The following protocols are supported for each interface:
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Table 3-2: Remote control interfaces and protocols
Interface
Supported by
Protocols, VISA*) address string and Library
USB
All
●
power
Ethernet
sensors
●
R&S NRP LAN
power sensors
●
●
●
USBTMC
USB::<vendor ID>::<product ID>::<serial number>[::INSTR]
VISA
NRP legacy protocol
VXI-11
TCPIP::host address[::LAN device name][::INSTR]
VISA
HiSLIP High-Speed LAN Instrument Protocol (IVI-6.1)
TCPIP::host address::hislip0[::INSTR]
VISA
Socket communication (LAN Ethernet)
TCPIP::host address[::LAN device name]::<port>::SOCKET
(*) VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to communicate with instruments. A VISA
installation on the controller is a prerequisite for remote control over LAN (when using VXI-11 or HiSLIP protocol) and USBTMC
interfaces.
3.4.1 USB Interface
For remote control using USB connection, the PC and the power sensors must be connected via the USB interface. A USB connection requires the VISA library to be installed. VISA detects and configures the R&S power sensors automatically when the USB
connection is established. Apart from the USBTMC driver (which comes with the installation of the R&S NRP Toolkit), you do not have to install a separate driver.
USB Test & Measurement Class Specification (USBTMC) is a protocol that is built on
top of USB for communication with USB devices. It defines class code information of
the sensor, that identifies its functionality to load the respective device driver. Using
VISA library, it supports service request, triggers and other operations that are commonly found in GPIB devices.
Besides USBTMC, the NRP legacy protocol is available to ensure the compatibility of
the R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors with the R&S NRP‑Z series of power sensors. The
usage of this protocol is not recommended for new applications.
The resource string represents an addressing scheme that is used to establish a communication session with the sensor. It is based on the sensor address and some instrument- and vendor-specific information.
USB Resource String
The syntax of the used USB resource string is:
USB::<vendor ID>::<product ID>::<serial number>[::INSTR]
where:
●
<vendor ID> is the vendor ID for Rohde & Schwarz (0x0AAD)
●
<product ID> is the product ID for the Rohde & Schwarz sensor
●
<serial number> is the individual serial number on the rear of the sensor
Table 3-3 gives an overview of the USB product IDs.
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Table 3-3: USB product IDs
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor
USB product ID
R&S NRP6A
0x0178
R&S NRP6AN
0x0179
R&S NRP18A
0x014E
R&S NRP18AN
0x014F
Example:
USB::0x0AAD::0x0178::100001
0x0AAD is the vendor ID for Rohde & Schwarz.
0x0178 is the product ID for the R&S NRP6A power sensor.
100001 is the serial number of the particular power sensor.
3.4.2 Ethernet Interface
The Ethernet interface of the R&S NRP LAN power sensors allows you to integrate
them in a local area network (LAN).
For remote control via a network, the PC and the power sensor must be connected via
the Ethernet interface to a common network with TCP/IP network protocol. The TCP/IP
network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured on the power
sensor. Software for device control and the VISA program library must be installed on
the PC.
3.4.2.1
VISA Resource Strings
The VISA resource string is required to establish a communication session between
the controller and the power sensor in a LAN. The resource string is a unique identifier,
composed of the specific IP address of the sensor and some network and VISA-specific keywords.
TCPIP::<IP address or hostname>[::<LAN device name>][::INSTR]
●
TCPIP designates the network protocol used
●
<IP address or hostname> is the IP address or host name of the device
●
[::<LAN device name>] defines the protocol and the instance number of a subinstrument:
●
[::INSTR] indicates the power sensors resource class (optional)
The IP address or hostname is used by the programs to identify and control the sensor. While the hostname is determined by settings in the sensor, the IP address is
assigned by a DHCP server when the sensor requests one. Alternatively the IP
address is determined with a procedure called Zeroconf.
You can also assign a LAN device name which defines the protocol characteristics of
the connection. See the description of the VISA resource string below for the corre-
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sponding interface protocols. The string of the LAN device name is emphasized in italics.
HiSLIP
TCPIP::<IP address or hostname>::hislip0[::INSTR]
●
hislip0 is the HiSLIP device name, designates that the interface protocol HiSLIP is
used (mandatory)
hislip0 is composed of [::HiSLIP device name[,HiSLIP port]] and must be assigned.
For details of the HiSLIP protocol, refer to Chapter 3.4.2.3, "HiSLIP Protocol",
on page 38 .
VXI-11
TCPIP::<IP address or hostname>[::inst0][::INSTR]
●
inst0 is the LAN device name, indicating that the VXI-11 protocol is used (optional)
inst0 currently selects the VXI-11 protocol by default and can be omitted.
For details of the VXI-11 protocol, refer to Chapter 3.4.2.2, "VXI-11 Protocol",
on page 38 .
Socket Communication
TCPIP::<IP address or hostname>::port::SOCKET
●
port determines the used port number
●
SOCKET indicates the raw network socket resource class
Socket communication requires the specification of the port (commonly referred to as
port number) and of "SOCKET" to complete the VISA resource string with the associated protocol used.
The registered port for socket communication is port 5025.
For details of the socket communication, refer to Chapter 3.4.2.4, "Socket Communication", on page 38.
Example:
A power sensor has the IP address 10.111.11.20; the valid resource string using
VXI-11 protocol is:
TCPIP::10.111.11.20::INSTR
The DNS host name is nrp6an-100001; the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::nrp6an-100001::hislip0 (HiSLIP)
TCPIP::nrp6an-100001::inst0 (VXI-11)
A raw socket connection can be established using:
TCPIP::10.111.11.20::5025::SOCKET
TCPIP::nrp6an-100001::5025::SOCKET
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3.4.2.2
VXI-11 Protocol
The VXI-11 standard is based on the ONC RPC (Open Network Computing Remote
Procedure Call) protocol which in turn relies on TCP/IP as the network/transport layer.
The TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured.
TCP/IP ensures connection-oriented communication, where the order of the
exchanged messages is adhered to and interrupted links are identified. With this protocol, messages cannot be lost.
3.4.2.3
HiSLIP Protocol
The HiSLIP (high-speed LAN instrument protocol) is the successor protocol for VXI-11
for TCP-based instruments specified by the IVI foundation. The protocol uses two TCP
sockets for a single connection - the first for fast data transfer, the second one for nonsequential control commands (e.g. Device Clear or SRQ).
HiSLIP has the following characteristics:
●
High performance as with raw socket network connections
●
Compatible IEEE 488.2 support for Message Exchange Protocol, Device Clear,
Serial Poll, Remote/Local, Trigger, and Service Request
●
Uses a single IANA registered port (4880), which simplifies the configuration of firewalls
●
Supports simultaneous access of multiple users by providing versatile locking
mechanisms
●
Usable for IPv6 or IPv4 networks
The HiSLIP data is sent to the device using the "fire and forget" method with immediate
return. Opposed to VXI-11, where each operation is blocked until a VXI-11 device
handshake returns. Thus, a successful return of a VISA operation such as viWrite()
does not guarantee that the sensor has finished (or even started) executing the
requested command. It just indicates that the command has been delivered to the
TCP/IP buffers.
For more information see also the application note at:
http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/appnote/1MA208.
3.4.2.4
Socket Communication
An alternative way for remote control of the software is to establish a simple TCP/IP
connection to the device using the standard network drivers of your operating system.
The so-called "socket" on Linux, "winsock" on Windows. The socket communication,
also referred to as "raw Ethernet communication", does not necessarily require a VISA
installation on the remote controller side.
Socket connections are established on a specially defined port. The socket address is
a combination of the IP address or hostname of the sensor and the number of the port
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configured for remote control. The power sensors use port number 5025 for this purpose.
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Main Dialog of the Web User Interface
4 Browser-Based User Interface
The web user interface is an alternative way to operate the R&S NRPxxAN LAN power
sensors.
This chapter provides a description of the parameters used for setting a power measurement with the web user interface.
For a detailed description of how to connect the sensor to a device and start the web
user interface, refer to Chapter 3.3.4, "Browser-Based User Interface", on page 31.
4.1 Main Dialog of the Web User Interface
Figure 4-1: Explanation of the web user interface
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
Common settings
Parameters
Result
Measurement tabs
Settings tabs
The web user interface is divided in several sections:
●
Common settings include parameters used in all measurement modes.
●
"Measurement" tabs include the available measurement modes.
●
"Settings" tabs include parameters for general sensor configuration.
●
"Parameters" pane displays the content according to the selected tab. Contains all
parameters that can be set for the selected measurement type or setting.
●
"Result" pane displays the measurement result for the selected measurement
mode. It can display only a value or a graph, according to the selected measurement mode.
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Main Dialog of the Web User Interface
For detailed information on specific settings, refer to the following chapters.
4.1.1 Setting the Unit
The unit for the different parameters can be set by typing the corresponding letter after
the entered value.
Figure 4-2: Parameter
1 = Parameter name
2 = Value
3 = Unit
The following abbreviations are available:
Unit
Keyboard Key
Decibel
d
Hertz
h
Second
s
Volt
v
Watt
w
Unit Multiples
Keyboard Key
Giga
g
Mega
m
Kilo
k
milli
m
micro
u
nano
n
Example:
For setting the unit to 1 GHz, type 1g.
For certain units, it is possible to select a different representation, depending on the
requirements. For example, for the representation of the "Trigger Level" you can
choose Watt, dBm or dBµV. To change the unit, you must once specify the desired
value together with the full new unit.
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Common Settings
Example:
To change the representation of a "Trigger Level" of 100µW into dBm, type -10dbm in
the "Trigger Level" field. Then all future entries of solely numbers represent the value
in dBm. If you enter -15 in the field, the "Trigger Level" value is set to -15.00 dBm.
If you want to revert the value to Watt, enter 50uW to set a value of 50.00 µW and
changes the unit for the further numeric entries.
4.2 Common Settings
The following parameters set common sensor settings that are available for all measurement modes.
System Status
Confirms that there is a connection between the sensor and the remote PC and that
the sensor is recognized by the software.
The presentation of this symbolic LED mirrors the physical LED of the sensor.
Measurement
Switches the measurement on and off.
Remote command:
INITiate:CONTinuous on page 103
Frequency
Sets the carrier frequency of the applied signal. This value is used for frequencyresponse correction of the measurement result.
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]FREQuency on page 96
Offset State
Activates/deactivates the usage of the level offset.
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:OFFSet:STATe on page 98
Offset
Adds a fixed level offset in dB to account for external losses.
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:OFFSet on page 98
S-Parameter
Selects the mode used for the S-parameters. S-parameters are used to compensate
for a component (attenuator, directional coupler) connected ahead of the sensor.
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Continuous Average Settings
Averaging Mode
Sets the automatic averaging filter mode.
"manual"
Auto averaging is turned off. A fixed filter value is used, that can be
set in the field next to the "Averaging Mode"
"auto 1dB/ auto 0.1dB/ auto 0.01dB /auto 0.001dB "
Uses an automatic averaging filter with the respective resolution
index.
"noise content" Predefines the compliance to an exactly defined noise component.
You can set this value in the field next to the "Averaging Mode".
4.3 Continuous Average Settings
The following parameters set a continuous average measurement.
For a detailed description of the continuous average mode and its remote commands,
refer to Chapter 7.5.1, "Configuring a Continuous Average Measurement",
on page 91.
Aperture Time
Sets the aperture time, the width of the sampling windows.
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]APERture on page 92
Duty Cycle
Sets the duty cycle, the percentage of one period during which the signal is active, for
pulse modulated signals. When the duty cycle is set, the sensor calculates the signal
pulse power from its value and the average power.
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Sensor Settings
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:DCYCle:STATe on page 97
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:DCYCle on page 97
Smoothing
Activates the smoothing filter, a steep-cut off digital lowpass filter. The filter reduces
result fluctuations caused by modulation.
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]SMOothing:STATe on page 93
4.4 Sensor Settings
The following parameters optimize the measurement results for specific measurement
requirements.
On the "Sensor tab", you can make settings for the optimization of your measurement
results according to the specific measurement requirements.
Range
Selects which path of the sensor is used for the measurement.
Γ Correction
Enables the use of the complex reflection coefficient of the signal source (Γsource) The
Γsource coefficient is defined with "Magnitude" and "Phase".
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:CORRection:STATe on page 99
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Sensor Settings
Magnitude
Sets the magnitude of the complex reflection coefficient of the source (Γsource).
A value of 0.0 corresponds to an ideal matched source and a value of 1.0 to total
reflection.
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:MAGNitude on page 100
Phase
Sets the phase angle of the complex reflection coefficient of the source (Γsource).
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:PHASe on page 100
Zero Calibration
Performs zeroing using the signal at the sensor input.
The sensor must be disconnected from all power sources.
Remote command:
CALibration:ZERO:AUTO on page 115
Diagnostics
Triggers a selftest of the sensor.
Note: Do not apply a signal to the sensor while the selftest is running. If the selftest is
carried out with a signal being present, error messages can erroneously be output for
the test steps Offset Voltages and/or Noise Voltages.
The results of the selftest are shown in a dialog, which appears after the test is completed.
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Averaging Settings
Remote command:
TEST:SENSor? on page 113
4.5 Averaging Settings
On the "Averaging" tab, you can define the settings for automatic averaging. The settings in this dialog only apply for the following measurements:
●
Continuous average
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Averaging Settings
Averaging Mode
Sets the automatic averaging filter mode.
"manual"
Auto averaging is turned off. A fixed filter value is used, that can be
set in the field next to the "Averaging Mode"
"auto 1dB/ auto 0.1dB/ auto 0.01dB /auto 0.001dB "
Uses an automatic averaging filter with the respective resolution
index.
"noise content" Predefines the compliance to an exactly defined noise component.
You can set this value in the field next to the "Averaging Mode".
Filter Terminal Control
Sets the terminal control mode, defining how the measurement results are output.
When a new measured value is shifted to the FIR filter, a new average value is available at the filter output. It is obtained from the new measured value and the other values
stored in the filter.
"Repeating"
The filter does not output a result before it is settled. Depending on
the filter depth, this setting can cause slower update rates.
This mode is recommended for automatic systems.
"Moving"
The averaging filter provides intermediate results while is it setting,
thus leading to faster update rates and a visible settlement.
This mode is recommended for manual measurements.
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:TCONtrol on page 96
Auto Measurement Time
Available only when "Averaging Mode" is set to "noise content".
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Trigger Settings
Sets an upper limit for the settling time of the auto-averaging filter, thus limiting the
length of the filter.
Remote command:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:MTIMe on page 94
4.6 Trigger Settings
On the "Trigger" tab, you can define the conditions that have to be fulfilled for a measurement to be triggered.
Trigger Source
Selects the trigger source.
Remote command:
TRIGger:SOURce on page 108
Trigger Slope
Sets the polarity of the active slope of the trigger signal that is externally or internally
applied.
"Positive"
The rising edge of the trigger signal is used for triggering.
"Negative"
The falling edge of the trigger signal is used for triggering.
Remote command:
TRIGger:SLOPe on page 108
Trigger Level
Sets the trigger threshold for internal triggering derived from the test signal.
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System Settings
Remote command:
TRIGger:LEVel on page 107
Trigger Delay
Sets the delay between the trigger event and the beginning of the actual measurement.
Remote command:
TRIGger:DELay on page 104
Holdoff
Sets the hold off time, a period after a trigger event within which all further trigger
events are ignored.
Remote command:
TRIGger:HOLDoff on page 106
Dropout
With a positive (negative) trigger slope, the dropout time is the minimum time for which
the signal must be below (above) the power level defined by "Trigger Level".
Remote command:
TRIGger:DTIMe on page 105
Hysteresis
Sets the hysteresis in dB.
Setting the trigger hysteresis to a value other than 0 dB prevents another trigger from
occurring until the following happens:
● At a positive trigger slope, the measurement level has fallen below the trigger
threshold by at least the set value.
● At a positive trigger slope, the measurement level has risen above the trigger
threshold by at least the set value.
Remote command:
TRIGger:HYSTeresis on page 106
4.7 System Settings
On the "System" tab, you can configure the settings of the general network environment and specific identification parameters of the instrument in the network.
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System Settings
IP Address
Sets the IP address of the sensor.
Remote command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress on page 78
Subnet Mask
Sets the subnet mask.
The subnet mask consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Every block contains 3 numbers in maximum.
Remote command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:SUBNet:MASK on page 79
Gateway
Sets the address of the default gateway, that means the router that is used to forward
traffic to destinations beyond the local network. This router is on the same network as
the instrument.
Remote command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:GATeway on page 78
DHCP
Selects the mode for assigning the IP address.
"Auto"
Assigns the IP address automatically, provided the network supports
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).
"Static"
Enables assigning the IP address manually.
Remote command:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:MODE on page 78
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System Settings
Sensor Name
Sets the sensor name. This name appears in the "Common settings " of the web user
interface.
As long as you do not explicitly specify the sensor name, the sensor name defaults to
the hostname.
Remote command:
SYSTem[:SENSor]:NAME on page 86
Apply Network Settings
After you have made the required network settings changes, you can apply them to the
sensor by pressing the "Apply Network Settings" button.
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S-Parameters
5 R&S NRP Toolkit Program Modules
In this chapter, some applications that are part of the R&S NRP Toolkit are described.
5.1 S-Parameters
For more information on the fundamentals of the S-parameters and for application
example see also 1GP70: Using S-Parameters with R&S®NRP-Z Power Sensors.
S-parameter correction compensates for the losses and reflections introduced by a
component – such as an attenuator, directional coupler, or matching pad – that is
attached to a power sensor. Using S-parameters instead of a fixed offset increases
measurement accuracy by accounting for the interaction between the sensor and the
component. This shifts the reference plane of the sensor from its RF connector to the
input of the device that is being applied externally.
All R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensors enable compensating for the influence of any twoport device between the signal source and the sensor input. As a result, the software
can calculate the power that the signal source actually delivers. Examples of such twoport devices include attenuators, matching pads, minimum-loss pads and waveguide
adapters. One precondition for such compensation is that you provide a complete set
of S-parameter data for the two-port device in the frequency range required by the
application.
The S-parameters of the attenuator delivered with the R&S NRPxxA(N) have been
measured by Rohde & Schwarz. The results of the factory calibration, including an Sparameter table that matches the delivered attenuator, are stored in the factory calibration data set of the sensor. If you use this attenuator, its effect on the measurement is
compensated arithmetically.
For maximum measurement sensitivity, you can operate the R&S NRPxxA(N) without
an attenuator. In this case, you must disable the S-parameter correction, either each
time after it has been put into operation or permanently via the S-parameters tool.
Alternatively, you can replace the delivered attenuator with any other two-port device.
In this case, you must measure the S-parameters of the two-port and load them into
the sensor. In the user calibration data set of the sensor, you can keep the S-parameters of several two-port devices separate from those of the delivered attenuator. The
sensor can apply the sets of S-parameters individually, depending on which S-parameter device you select as the active device. Make sure that the S-parameter settings (i.e.
selected S-parameter device, S-parameter correction switched on or off) always match
the hardware configuration that is actually being used.
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NRP
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
2
S
P
1
Figure 5-1: Operation with two-port between signal source and sensor input
5.1.1 The S-Parameters Tool GUI Interface
To start the S-Parameters Tool:
► Select "Start Menu > NRP Toolkit > S-Parameter Update Multi".
The "S-Parameters" dialog opens.
The S-Parameters Tool interface can be divided into several sections:
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●
Menu bar containing the following submenus:
–
"File"
This submenu provides options for loading and saving calibration data files.
–
"Sensor"
This submenu provides options for loading and saving calibration data directly
from or to the sensor.
–
"Device"
This submenu provides options for editing the table of s-parameter devices.
–
"Options"
This submenu provides options to edit user data, change remote control timeouts, and display calibration data as plain text.
Click "User Data..." to open the "User Data" dialog. Here you can enter the
name of the calibration laboratory and the calibration engineer that is stored in
the calibration data set if changes are made.
Click "Remote..." to open the "Remote Control Settings" dialog. It is normally
not necessary to change timeouts.
Click "Show Cal. Data" to display the content of the calibration data set that has
been loaded either from a file of directly from a sensor as a plain text. You can
copy the text output to the clipboard by clicking "Copy to Clipboard."
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●
"Global Flags"
In this section you can select how the sensor behaves regarding s-parameter corrections:
–
"S-Parameter Correction ON by Default": If this option is enabled, the s-parameter correction is activated automatically when the sensor is started.
–
"S-Parameter Correction State Locked": If this option is enabled, the state that
is selected with "S-Parameter Correction ON by Default" is locked and cannot
be changed through the SCPI command
SENSe:CORRection:SPDevice:STATe or manually through the R&S NRP2
base unit.
–
"S-Parameter Device Locked": If this option is enabled, the s-parameter device
that is selected as the default device in the table of s-parameter devices is
locked and cannot be changed through the SCPI command
SENSe:CORRection:SPDevice:SELect or manually through the R&S
NRP2 base unit.
The default s-parameter device is the s-parameter device that is selected when
the sensor is started.
–
"Use Flags in Factory Cal. Data Set": Available only for the latest R&S power
sensors. These sensors feature two different calibration data sets - a factory
calibration data set that contains all factory calibration data and a user calibration data set that contains the s-parameter devices loaded by the user.
Note: You must uncheck this option when you have added s-parameter devices and configured the global flags. Otherwise, it may not be possible to acti-
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vate s-parameter correction because the flags in the factory calibration data set
prevent it.
●
"Device Table"
Shows a list of all s-parameter devices that are available in the calibration data set.
If you double-click on a device, a dialog is opened that allows to import, export, and
edit s-parameter data.
5.1.2 Performing Configuration Tasks
In this chapter different configuration tasks that can be performed with the power sensors and the "S-Parameter Update Multi" tool are described.
Loading a calibration data set from a power sensor
We presume that the sensor is connected to the computer and there is a connection
established.
1. Open the "S-Parameter Update Multi" program.
2. Select "Sensor > Load Calibration Data...".
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The "Upload Calibration Data" dialog opens. It shows a list of the available sensors.
Note: If you cannot find your sensor in the list (for example because of reconnecting the sensor), you can reload the list by clicking the "Rebuild List" button.
3. Click the "Upload" button to load calibration data from the sensor.
After the upload is finished, the "OK" button is enabled. Press "OK" to apply the
changes.
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If you want to discard the changes, you can close the dialog by pressing "Cancel".
After a successful upload, the name and serial number is shown in the name of the
main dialog.
4. It is recommended to make a backup of the calibration data set before making any
changes.
To create a backup, click "File > Save Calibration Data...".
A window opens where you can select where you want to save the calibration data.
Changing the S-parameter data
1. Select "File> Import S2P".
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2. In the window, select the file you want to import and confirm with "Open".
The data from the selected file is loaded in the device table.
All uncertainties are set to zero.
3. If needed, load uncertainty data. See "Loading an uncertainty parameter file"
on page 59.
4. Check the entries in the "S-Parameter Device Mnemonic", "Lower Power Limit/W"
and "Upper Power Limit/W" fields and change them if required. For example, the
lower and upper power limits are deduced from the power limits of the sensor itself
and the minimum attenuation of the s-parameter device. If the "Upper Power
Limit/W" entry is higher than the power dissipation rating of the attenuator, it should
be reduced accordingly.
5. Click "OK" to apply the changes or "Cancel" to discard them.
Loading an uncertainty parameter file
1. Select "File > Import uncertainties...".
2. In the "Select S2P file" dialog, select the file you want to import and confirm with
"Open".
The data from the selected file is loaded in the device table.
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Saving the calibration data to the sensor
1. Select "Sensor > Save Calibration Data ...".
The following dialog appears:
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2. Confirm that the correct sensor was selected by pressing "Download".
After a successful transfer of the data to the sensor, a dialog pops up to confirm it.
The sensor can be used with the new s-parameter data.
5.1.3 Structure of S2P and Uncertainty Data Files
Structure of S2P measurement data files
S2P files are human-readable text files that contain header information as well as the
complex S-parameters of the device under test in columns. This chapter briefly
describes the format of the S2P file.
An S2P measurement data file has the following structure (square brackets indicate
that the enclosed content is optional):
●
Option line
The option line has the format #[<frequency unit>][<parameter>][<format>][<R n>],
where:
–
#
Identifies the option line.
–
<frequency unit>
Possible values are Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz. If a frequency unit is not specified,
GHz is implicitly assumed.
–
<parameter> For S-parameter files. If a parameter is not specified, S is implicitly assumed.
–
<format>
Possible values are MA (linear magnitude and phase in degree), DB (magnitude in dB, phase in degree) or RI (real and imaginary part). If a format is not
specified, MA is implicitly assumed.
–
<R n>
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R is optional and followed by the reference impedance in Ω. If no entry is
made, R50 is implicitly assumed.
The option line therefore reads:
# [HZ | KHZ | MHZ | GHZ] [S] [MA | DB | RI] [R 50].
●
●
Measurement frequencies
The measurement frequencies are listed in ascending order and are specified as
follows:
fi s11( fi) s21( fi) s12 ( fi) s22 ( fi)
where fi is the i-th frequency and sjk( fi) is the display format as specified in the
option line:
–
| sjk( fi)| arg sjk( fi)
Display format for linear magnitude and phase in degree (MA)
–
20.lg| sjk( fi)| arg sjk( fi)
Display format for magnitude in dB and phase in degree (DB)
–
Re| sjk( fi)| Im| sjk( fi)|
Display format for real and imaginary part (RI)
Comments
Any line starting with an exclamation mark (!) is interpreted as a comment line.
Structure of uncertainty data files
An uncertainty data file has the following structure (square brackets indicate that the
enclosed content is optional):
●
Option line
The option line has the format #[<frequency unit>]<parameter>[<format>][<R n>],
where:
–
#
Identifies the option line.
–
<frequency unit>
Possible values are Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz. If a frequency unit is not specified,
GHz is implicitly assumed.
–
<parameter>
U must be specified for uncertainty data files. If a parameter is not specified, S
is implicitly assumed and as a result an error message is triggered.
–
<format>
This value is ignored in uncertainty measurement files. The entry is therefore
irrelevant.
–
<R n>
R is optional and followed by the reference impedance in Ω. If no entry is
made, R50 is implicitly assumed.
The option line therefore reads:
# [HZ | KHZ | MHZ | GHZ] U [MA | DB | RI] [R 50].
●
Measurement frequencies
The measurement frequencies are listed in ascending order and are specified as
follows:
fi unc[s11( fi)] unc[s21( fi)] unc[s12 ( fi)] unc[s22 ( fi)]
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where fi is the i-th frequency and unc[ sjk( fi)] is the uncertainty of the s-parameters
that is forwarded as follows:
●
–
As extended absolute uncertainty ( k = 2 ) for the magnitude of reflection
parameters s11 and s22
–
As extended uncertainties ( k = 2 ) in dB for the magnitude of transmission
parameters s21 and s12
Comments
Any line starting with an exclamation mark (!) is interpreted as a comment line.
5.2 Firmware Update
5.2.1 Installation of New Firmware
Use the Firmware Update program (PureFW) to load new firmware for the power sensors. It is part of the R&S NRP Toolkit that is supplied on a CD-ROM together with the
power sensors.
The most recent firmware versions can be downloaded from the Rohde & Schwarz
homepage on the Internet, since the CD-ROM accompanying the power sensors contains the firmware status at the time of delivery.
5.2.2 Hardware and Software Requirements
The system requirements to perform a firmware update are as follows:
●
PC with free USB port
●
NRP-ZKU interface cable
●
Operating system Microsoft Windows 7, Microsoft Windows 8 or Microsoft Windows 10
●
VISA software must be installed on your PC.
●
The R&S NRP Toolkit software must be installed on your PC (includes Firmware
Update program).
●
A Rohde & Schwarz update file (*.rsu) for the sensor must be available.
The latest firmware update files are available on the Rohde & Schwarz product website:
https://www.rohde-schwarz.com/en/firmware/nrp_a_an/
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5.2.3 Preparation
1. Make sure a recent VISA software is installed. Firmware update with PureFW can
only be performed with the device recognized as a VISA device.
2. Connect the power sensor to the PC using an NRP-ZKU interface cable.
Shortly afterwards, the PC should have identified the new USB hardware.
If no recent VISA software is installed, one of two possible things will happen:
1. R&S NRP Toolkit is installed.
The driver assigned to the sensor will be the legacy driver. You will not find the
sensor in the list of sensors provided by PureFW!
⇒ Install valid VISA software.
2. R&S NRP Toolkit is not installed.
Windows will try in vain to find a USB driver for the power sensor. If this happens,
the sensor is highlighted by a yellow exclamation mark in the Windows device
manager.
⇒ Abort the installation process and install a recent VISA software.
5.2.4 Updating the Application Firmware
To perform a firmware update:
1. Start the Firmware Update program (PureFW) via "Start menu > NRP-Toolkit >
Firmware Update". The following window should appear:
The program automatically starts scanning for R&S NRP power sensors. When the
scan is completed, all recognized power sensors are listed in the "Device" dropdown control.
2. If the sensor you want to update is not listed in the "Device" dropdown control, perform one of the following:
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a) Press "Rescan" to search for attached sensors.
b) Check whether all necessary drivers are installed on the computer.
For example, if VISA library is not installed on the computer, no VISA power
sensor will be accessible.
3. In the "Device" line select the sensor you want to update.
The "Hostname or IP Address" field is not used during this procedure and should
therefore be left empty.
4. In the "Firmware" field enter the full path and file name of the update file or press
the ellipsis button to browse the file system for it. New firmware for the R&S NRP
power sensors generally has an *.rsu (Rohde & Schwarz Update) extension.
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5. Click on the "Update" button to download the new firmware and program it into the
flash memory of the sensor.
During the update process the progress is shown through a progress bar. The
update sequence may take a couple of minutes, depending on the sensor model
and the size of the selected file.
6. Check if the update was successful. This is the case if the firmware version in the
"Identification" field is the same as the one you loaded in the "Firmware" field.
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Potential damage to the firmware of the device
Disconnecting the power supply while an update is in progress may lead to missing or
faulty firmware.
Special care must be taken on not disconnecting the power supply while the update is
in progress. Interrupting the power supply during the firmware update will most likely
lead to an unusable device which needs to be sent in for maintenance.
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Replacing an R&S NRP-Zxx with an R&S NRPxxA(N)
Prerequisites
6 Replacing an R&S NRP-Zxx with an R&S
NRPxxA(N)
The new R&S NRPxxA(N) sensors are compatible with the R&S NRP-Zxx series of
power sensors.
New power sensor
Replaces this sensor
R&S NRP6A/R&S NRP6AN - USB connected
R&S NRP-Z91
R&S NRP18A/R&S NRP18AN - USB connected
x
To use the new power sensors, it can be required to update the drivers. For PC-based
software applications (R&S NRPV and R&S Power Viewer Plus), install latest R&S
NRP Toolkit (V 4.10 or higher).
For using the sensors with R&S NRP2, signal generators, spectrum analyzers or other
Rohde & Schwarz instruments, install the latest firmware version.
6.1 Most Important Differences
The new and the old sensors are compatible as far as possible. However, there are
some differences:
●
The state of the sensors is indicated by an LED, see "Status LED" on page 14.
●
After connecting the R&S NRPxxA(N) sensors, the first measurement can be available after 7 seconds (R&S NRP-Zxx: 4 seconds).
6.2 Prerequisites
R&S NRP Toolkit
Install the R&S NRP Toolkit V 4.10 or higher, see Chapter 3.3.1, "R&S NRP Toolkit",
on page 25.
The new version of the R&S NRP Toolkit is compatible with both the R&S NRP-Zxx
and the R&S NRPxxA(N) so that its installation does not affect the usage of the
R&S NRP‑Z power sensors.
After the new version of the R&S NRP Toolkit is installed, you can connect the R&S
NRPxxA(N) power sensor to the computer and use it with Rohde & Schwarz software
applications or your own programs.
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Prerequisites
Software applications and firmware
Software/firmware
Prerequisites
R&S NRPV
See the release notes and the manual of the R&S NRPV.
R&S Power Viewer Plus
See the release notes and the manual of the R&S Power Viewer
Plus.
R&S NRP2
Install firmware version 7.11 or higher.
R&S signal generators, spectrum
analyzers or other instruments
Install the latest firmware version (released December 2014 or later).
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Remote Control Commands
Notations
7 Remote Control Commands
In the following sections, all commands implemented in the sensor are listed according
to the command system and then described in detail. For the most part, the notation
used complies with SCPI specifications.
7.1 Conventions used in SCPI Command Descriptions
Note the following conventions used in the remote command descriptions:
●
Command usage
If not specified otherwise, commands can be used both for setting and for querying
parameters.
If a command can be used for setting or querying only, or if it initiates an event, the
usage is stated explicitly.
●
Parameter usage
If not specified otherwise, a parameter can be used to set a value and it is the
result of a query.
Parameters required only for setting are indicated as Setting parameters.
Parameters required only to refine a query are indicated as Query parameters.
Parameters that are only returned as the result of a query are indicated as Return
values.
●
Conformity
Commands that are taken from the SCPI standard are indicated as SCPI confirmed. All commands used by the R&S NRPxxA(N) follow the SCPI syntax rules.
●
Asynchronous commands
A command which does not automatically finish executing before the next command starts executing (overlapping command) is indicated as an Asynchronous
command.
●
Reset values (*RST)
Default parameter values that are used directly after resetting the instrument (*RST
command) are indicated as *RST values, if available.
●
Default unit
This is the unit used for numeric values if no other unit is provided with the parameter.
7.2 Notations
For a detailed description of SCPI notations, see Chapter A, "Remote Control Basics",
on page 121.
Numeric suffixes <n>
If a command can be applied to multiple instances of an object, e.g. specific sensors,
the required instances can be specified by a suffix added to the command. Numeric
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Notations
suffixes are indicated by angular brackets (<1...4>, <n>, <I>) and are replaced by a
single value in the command. Entries without a suffix are interpreted as having the suffix 1.
Optional keywords [ ]
Some command systems permit certain keywords to be inserted into the header or
omitted. These keywords are marked by square brackets in the description. The instrument must recognize the long command to comply with the SCPI standard. Some commands are considerably shortened by these optional mnemonics.
Therefore, not only is there a short and a long form for the commands (distinguished
here by uppercase and lowercase letters) but also a short form which is created by
omitting optional keywords.
Example:
Command [SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]SMOothing:STATe 1 can be written as:
SENSe1:POWer:AVG:SMOothing:STATe 1
SENS:POW:AVG:SMO:STAT 1
SENSe:POWer:SMOothing:STATe 1
SENSe:SMOothing:STATe 1
SMOothing:STATe 1
SMO:STAT 1
Parameters
Parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several parameters are specified in a command, they are separated by a comma (,). For a description
of the parameter types, refer to Chapter A.1.3, "SCPI Parameters", on page 123.
Example:
Definition: [SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:NSRatio <nsr>
Command: AVER:COUN:AUTO:NSR 0.01
Special characters | and { }
|
A vertical bar in parameter definitions indicates alternative possibilities in the sense of
"or". The effect of the command differs, depending on which parameter is used.
Example:
Definition: INITiate:CONTinuous ON | OFF
Command INITiate:CONTinuous ON starts the measurements
Command INITiate:CONTinuous OFF stops the measurements
{}
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Parameters in braces may be included in the command once, several times or not at all.
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7.3 Configuring the General Functions of the NRP Power
Sensor
7.3.1 Common Commands
The common commands are taken from the IEEE 488.2 (IEC 625–2) standard. The
headers of these commands consist of an asterisk * followed by three letters.
*CLS...............................................................................................................................72
*ESE...............................................................................................................................72
*ESR?.............................................................................................................................73
*IDN?..............................................................................................................................73
*IST?.............................................................................................................................. 73
*OPC.............................................................................................................................. 73
*OPT?.............................................................................................................................74
*PRE.............................................................................................................................. 74
*RCL...............................................................................................................................74
*RST...............................................................................................................................74
*SAV...............................................................................................................................74
*SRE.............................................................................................................................. 75
*STB?.............................................................................................................................75
*TRG.............................................................................................................................. 75
*TST?............................................................................................................................. 75
*WAI...............................................................................................................................75
*CLS
CLear Status
Resets the:
●
Status byte (STB)
●
Standard event register (ESR)
●
EVENt part of the QUEStionable and the OPERation register
●
Error/event queue
The command does not alter the ENABle and TRANsition parts of the registers.
Usage:
Event
*ESE <register>
Event Status Enable
Sets the event status enable register to the specified value. The query returns the contents of the event status enable register in decimal form.
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Parameters:
<register>
Range:
*RST:
0 to 255
0
*ESR?
Event Status Read query
Returns the contents of the event status register in decimal form (0 to 255) and subsequently sets the register to zero.
Usage:
Query only
*IDN?
IDeNtification query
Returns a string with information on the sensor's identity (device identification code). In
addition, the version number of the installed firmware is indicated.
Usage:
Query only
*IST?
Individual STatus query
Returns the current value of the IST flag in decimal form. The IST flag is the status bit
which is sent during a parallel poll.
Usage:
Query only
*OPC
OPeration Complete
Sets bit 0 in the event status register when all preceding commands have been executed. This bit can be used to initiate a service request. *OPC must be sent at the end of
a program message.
The query form returns a "1" when all previous commands have been processed. It is
important that the read timeout is set sufficiently long.
Since *OPC? waits until all previous commands are executed, "1" is returned in all
cases.
*OPC? basically functions like the *WAI command, but *WAI does not return a
response.
*OPC? is preferred to *WAI because with *OPC?, the execution of commands can be
queried from a controller program before new commands are sent. This prevents overflow of the input queue when too many commands are sent that cannot be executed.
Unlike *WAI, *OPC? must be sent at the end of a program message.
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*OPT?
OPTion identification query
Returns a comma-separated list of installed options.
Usage:
Query only
*PRE <register>
Parallel poll Register Enable
Sets the parallel poll enable register to the specified value or queries the current value.
Parameters:
<register>
Range:
*RST:
0 to 255
0
*RCL <number>
ReCaLl
Calls the device state which has been stored with the *SAV command under the specified number.
Setting parameters:
<number>
Range:
*RST:
Usage:
0 to 9
0
Setting only
*RST
ReSeT
Sets the sensor to the default state, i.e. the default settings for all parameters are loaded. The command corresponds to the command SYSTem:PRESet.
Usage:
Event
*SAV <number>
SAVe
Stores the current device state under the specified number. The storage numbers 0 to
9 are available.
Setting parameters:
<number>
Range:
*RST:
Usage:
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0 to 9
0
Setting only
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*SRE <register>
Service Request Enable
Sets the service request enable register to the specified value. This command determines under which conditions a service request is triggered.
Parameters:
<register>
Range:
*RST:
0 to 255
0
*STB?
STatus Byte query
Returns the contents of the status byte in decimal form.
Usage:
Query only
*TRG
TRiGger
Triggers a measurement. This command is only valid if the power sensor is in the
WAIT_FOR_TRIGGER state and the trigger source is set to BUS
See (TRIGger:SOURce BUS).
Usage:
Event
*TST?
self TeST query
Triggers a self test of the instrument and outputs an error code in decimal form. 0 indicates that no errors have occurred.
Usage:
Query only
*WAI
WAIt to continue
Prevents the execution of the subsequent commands until all preceding commands
have been executed and all signals have settled.
Usage:
Event
7.3.2 Configuring the System
The SYSTem subsystem contains a series of commands for general functions which do
not directly affect the measurement.
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SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:RESTart....................................................................... 76
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:RESet.......................................................................... 76
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:STATus?...................................................................... 77
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork[:COMMon]:DOMain....................................................... 77
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork[:COMMon]:HOSTname.................................................. 77
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress.................................................................... 78
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:GATeway..................................................... 78
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:INFO?.......................................................... 78
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:MODE..........................................................78
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:SUBNet:MASK..............................................79
SYSTem:DFPRint?.......................................................................................................... 79
SYSTem:ERRor:ALL?...................................................................................................... 79
SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL?............................................................................................ 79
SYSTem:ERRor:CODE[:NEXT]?....................................................................................... 79
SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt?..................................................................................................80
SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?..................................................................................................80
SYSTem:FEATures?........................................................................................................ 80
SYSTem:FWUPdate.........................................................................................................80
SYSTem:FWUPdate:STATus?.......................................................................................... 82
SYSTem:HELP:HEADers?................................................................................................82
SYSTem:HELP:SYNTax?................................................................................................. 82
SYSTem:HELP:SYNTax:ALL?...........................................................................................82
SYSTem:INFO?...............................................................................................................82
SYSTem:INITialize...........................................................................................................83
SYSTem:LANGuage........................................................................................................ 83
SYSTem:LED:COLor........................................................................................................83
SYSTem:LED:MODE....................................................................................................... 84
SYSTem:LIMits?.............................................................................................................. 84
SYSTem:MINPower?....................................................................................................... 84
SYSTem:PRESet.............................................................................................................85
SYSTem:REBoot............................................................................................................. 85
SYSTem:SERRor?...........................................................................................................85
SYSTem:SERRor:LIST:ALL?............................................................................................ 85
SYSTem:SERRor:LIST[:NEXT]?........................................................................................85
SYSTem:TLEVels?.......................................................................................................... 86
SYSTem:TRANsaction:BEGin........................................................................................... 86
SYSTem:TRANsaction:END..............................................................................................86
SYSTem[:SENSor]:NAME.................................................................................................86
SYSTem:VERSion?......................................................................................................... 87
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:RESTart
Restarts the network connection to the instrument, i.e. terminates the connection and
sets it up again.
Usage:
Event
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:RESet
Resets the LAN network settings to the default values.
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Usage:
Event
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:STATus?
Queries the network configuration state.
Example:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:STATus?
Response: UP
The network is active.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork[:COMMon]:DOMain <domain>
Sets the domain of the network.
Parameters:
<domain>
Example:
:SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:COMMon:DOMain
ABC.DE
Sets the domain of the network to ABC.DE.
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork[:COMMon]:HOSTname <hostname>
Sets the individual host name of the power sensor.
In a LAN that uses a DNS server (Domain Name System server), each instrument connected in the LAN can be accessed via an unambiguous host name, instead of the IP
address. The DNS server translates the host name to the IP address. This is especially
useful when a DHCP server is used, as a new IP address may be assigned each time
the instrument is restarted.
The sensor performs the change of the hostname immediately after the command is
sent. For this purpose the sensor restarts its connection to the network. During this
time that may take several seconds the sensor cannot be addressed. After the restart
the sensor can be addressed only through the newly set hostname.
Note: It is recommended that you do not change the default host name in order to
avoid problems with the network connection. However, if you change the host name be
sure to use a unique name.
Parameters:
<hostname>
Example:
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SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:COMMon:HOST
'powersensor-2nd-floor'
Sets the hostname to powersensor-2nd-floor.
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SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress <ipaddress>
Sets the IP address of the sensor, if SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:
MODE is set to STATic.
Parameters:
<ipaddress>
Example:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress
'192.168.10.29'
Sets the IP address of the sensor to 192.168.10.29.
Manual operation:
See "IP Address" on page 50
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:GATeway <gateway>
Sets the IP address of the default gateway, if SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:
IPADdress:MODE is set to STATic.
Parameters:
<gateway>
Example:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:GATeway
'192.168.10.254'
Sets the IP address of the default gateway to
192.168.10.254.
Manual operation:
See "Gateway" on page 50
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:INFO?
Queries the network status information.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:MODE <mode>
Selects if the IP address is assigned automatically or manually.
Parameters:
<mode>
AUTO | STATic
AUTO
Assigns the IP address automatically, provided the network supports DHCP.
STATic
Enables assigning the IP address manually.
*RST:
AUTO
Example:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:MODE AUTO
The IP address is assigned automatically.
Manual operation:
See "DHCP" on page 50
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SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:SUBNet:MASK <netmask>
Sets the subnet mask, if SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:MODE is set
to STATic.
Parameters:
<netmask>
Example:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:SUBNet:
MASK '255.255.255.0'
Sets the subnet mask to 255.255.255.0 .
Manual operation:
See "Subnet Mask" on page 50
SYSTem:DFPRint?
Reads the footprint file of the sensor.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:ERRor:ALL?
Queries all unread entries in the error/event queue and removes them from the queue.
The response is a comma-separated list of error numbers and a short description of
the error in the first in first out order.
Positive error numbers are instrument-dependent. Negative error numbers are
reserved by the SCPI standard.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL?
Queries all unread entries in the error/event queue and removes them from the queue.
Only the error numbers are returned and not the entire error text.
Example:
SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL?
Queries all entries in the error queue.
Response: 0
No errors have occurred since the error queue was last read out.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:ERRor:CODE[:NEXT]?
Queries the oldest entry in the error queue and then deletes it. Only the error number
is returned and not the entire error text.
Example:
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SYSTem:ERRor:CODE
Queries the oldest entry in the error queue.
Response: 0
No errors have occurred since the error queue was last read out.
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Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt?
Queries the number of entries in the error queue.
Example:
SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt
Queries the number of entries in the error queue.
Response: 1
One error has occurred since the error queue was last read out.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?
Queries the error/event queue for the oldest item and removes it from the queue. The
response consists of an error number and a short description of the error.
Positive error numbers are instrument-dependent. Negative error numbers are
reserved by the SCPI standard.
Example:
SYSTem:ERRor?
Queries the oldest entry in the error queue.
Response: 0, 'no error'
No errors have occurred since the error queue was last read out.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:FEATures? [<GrpNr>]
Queries a list of system features.
Query parameters:
<GrpNr>
Range:
Usage:
Query only
1 to 20
SYSTem:FWUPdate <fwudata>
This command is used to load new operating firmware into the device.
Rohde & Schwarz provides new firmware in form of *.rsu files. An *.rsu file often
can be downloaded from the Rohde & Schwarz web sites or can be supplied by the
customer support or the product marketing. The *.rsu file is usually packed in a *zip
archive that must be extracted before.
There is a dedicated program from Rohde & Schwarz for loading new firmware into an
R&S NRPxxA(N) power sensor. The program is called PureFW and is part of the R&S
NRP Toolkit.
If you want to integrate a firmware update function in their own application, use the
SYSTem:FWUPdate command. The parameter of this command is a "Definite Length
Arbitrary Block Data" containing the direct copy of the binary *.rsu file.
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A "Definite Length Datablock" has a well-defined format. It consists of:
●
A '#' sign.
●
A single digit indicating the length of the number which represents the size of the
binary file.
●
The binary data.
●
An appended delimiter (LF, 0x0a).
Example:
If you want to put new firmware into an R&S NRP18AN, you first need an update file,
e.g. nrp6an_FW_15.02.12.01.rsu.
Lets assume that this file has a size of 10242884 bytes.
To send the file to the sensor for updating the firmware, your application has to assemble a memory block containing:
●
The command.
●
The "Definite Length Block" header.
●
The contents of the *.rsu file.
●
A trailing delimiter (0x0a = Linefeed.
First, have a look at the size of the binary data; it is 10242884 in this case. This number has 8 digits. Now you have all the information to assemble everything:
●
The SYST:FWUP command
●
A blank as a separator
●
The '#' sign
●
The '8' for the length of the file size
●
The '10242884' specifying the size of the file
●
....... (the contents of the *.rsu file).....
●
0x0a as a delimiter
In this example, you would write exactly 10242905 bytes to the sensor (for example via
a 'viWrite()' function).
The result sums up from the values of the above list to:
9 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 8 + 10242884 + 1= 10242905
In a (pseudo) string notation, it is:
SYST:FWUP #810242884.........(file content)........ <LF> ,
Where <LF> is a single 0x0a character and ........(file content)........ is
the direct byte-by-byte contents of the *.rsu file.
Setting parameters:
<fwudata>
<block_data>
Usage:
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Setting only
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SYSTem:FWUPdate:STATus?
While a firmware update is in progress, the LED of the sensors flashes in bright white
color. As soon as the firmware update is over you can read the result of the update
with the SYST:FWUP:STAT? command.
The result of the query is a readable string.
Example:
SYSTem:FWUPdate:STATus?
Response: "Success"
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:HELP:HEADers? [<Item>]
Returns a list of all SCPI commands supported by the sensor.
Query parameters:
<Item>
<block_data>
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:HELP:SYNTax? [<Item>]
Returns the relevant parameter information for the specified SCPI.
Query parameters:
<Item>
Example:
SYSTem:HELP:SYNTax? 'sens:aver:coun'
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:HELP:SYNTax:ALL?
Returns a block data with all SCPIs and the relevant parameter infos for each SCPI.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:INFO? [<Item>]
Returns information about the system.
SYSTem:INFO?<string_value> is used to query a specific information item. If
called without parameters, the command returns all available information in the form of
a list of strings separated by commas.
<string_value> can have the following values:
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●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Manufacturer
Type
Stock Number
Serial
SW Build
MAC Address
Hostname
IP Address
Domain
Subnetmask
Gateway
Mode
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Status
Sensor Name
Technology
Function
MinPower
MaxPower
MinFreq
MaxFreq
Resolution
Impedance
Coupling
Uptime
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Cal. Misc.
Cal. Abs.
Cal. Refl.
Cal. Temp.
Cal. Lin.
Cal. S-Para.
Cal. S-Para. (User)
SPD Mnemonic
Cal. Due Date
Certificate No
TestLimit
TestLimit pd
Query parameters:
<Item>
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:INITialize
Sets the sensor to the standard state, i.e. the default settings for all test parameters
are loaded in the same way as with *RST. The sensor then outputs a complete list of
all supported commands and parameters. With the command, the remote-control software can automatically adapt to the features of different types of sensors with different
functionality.
Usage:
Event
SYSTem:LANGuage <language>
Selects an emulation of a different command set.
Parameters:
<language>
SCPI
*RST:
SCPI
SYSTem:LED:COLor <color>
Sets the color and the flash code of the system status LED, if the operating mode of
the LED is set to USER (SYSTem:LED:MODE USER).
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Parameters:
<color>
Hexadecimal code described as
0x0krrggbb
with
k = 0: steady on; k = 1: slowly flashing; k = 2: fast flashing
rr = red
gg = green
bb = blue
In NRP legacy communication, the parameter is a standard decimal number, representing the corresponding hexadecimal code.
Range:
*RST:
Example:
0x00 to 0x02FFFFFF
0x00A0A0A0
SYSTem:LED:MODE USER
Sets the system status LED operating mode to user.
SYSTem:LED:MODE 0x01a00000
The LED flashes slowly in red.
SYSTem:LED:MODE SENSor
Sets the system status LED operating mode back to the sensor
internal settings.
SYSTem:LED:MODE <mode>
Selects whether the color of the system status LED is controlled by the firmware of the
sensor internally or through the user settings.
For more information, see SYSTem:LED:COLor.
Parameters:
<mode>
USER | SENSor
*RST:
SENSor
SYSTem:LIMits? [<GrpNr>]
Queries the limits of the sensors parameters.
Query parameters:
<GrpNr>
Range:
Usage:
Query only
1 to 20
SYSTem:MINPower?
Yields the lower power measurement limit. This value may change if
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:STATe is set to ON. The lower measurement limit may refer to the sensor or to the combination of a sensor and the components connected ahead of it.
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This query can be used to determine a useful resolution for the result display near the
lower measurement limit.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:PRESet <preset>
Triggers a sensor reset.
The command essentially corresponds to the command *RST, with the exception that
the settings of the commands INITiate:CONTinuous and
SENSe:AVERage:TCONtrol are persistently hold.
Parameters:
<preset>
<block_data>
SYSTem:REBoot
Reboots the power sensor.
Usage:
Event
SYSTem:SERRor?
Returns the next static error (if any). Static errors are generally more severe than normal error conditions, which can be queried with SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?. While normal errors result from, for example, unknown commands or syntax errors and generally
affect a single parameter or setting, the static errors, as a rule, prevent the execution of
normal measurements.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:SERRor:LIST:ALL?
Returns a list of all static errors that have occurred but have already been resolved.
For example, an overload of a short duration.
Example:
SYSTem:SERRor:LIST:ALL?
Response: 0,"reported at uptime:2942; notice;
auto-averaging exceeded maximum time;
Notification",0,"removed at uptime:2944;
notice; auto-averaging exceeded maximum time;
Notification".
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:SERRor:LIST[:NEXT]?
Queries the list of all static errors that have occurred but have already been resolved
for the oldest item and removes it from the queue. The response consists of an error
number and a short description of the error.
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Example:
SYSTem:SERRor:LIST?
Response: 0,"reported at uptime:2942; notice;
auto-averaging exceeded maximum time;
Notification"
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:TLEVels?
Queries the possible power test levels of the sensor.
Usage:
Query only
SYSTem:TRANsaction:BEGin
Starts a series of settings.
Usage:
Event
SYSTem:TRANsaction:END
Ends a series of settings.
Usage:
Event
SYSTem[:SENSor]:NAME <sensorname>
Sets a name of the sensors according to the users requirements. The name specified
by "new-name" is displayed on the WebGUI of the network sensors.
The sensor name given here is independent from the hostname of the sensor. However, if the sensor name is not yet specified it defaults to the hostname.
Example:
SYSTem:SENSe:NAME "InputModule-X5"
results in a display as shown in Figure 7-1.
Figure 7-1: Sensor Name
Parameters:
<sensorname>
Manual operation:
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See "Sensor Name" on page 51
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SYSTem:VERSion?
Queries the SCPI version the sensor's command set complies with.
Example:
SYSTem:VERSion?
Queries the SCPI version.
Response: 1999.0
The sensor complies with the SCPI version from 1999.
Usage:
Query only
7.3.3 Selecting a Measurement Path
The RANGe subsystem contains command for selection of a measurement path.
[SENSe<Sensor>:]RANGe <range>
Selects manually the active measurement path.
Parameters:
<range>
Range:
*RST:
0 to 2
2
[SENSe<Sensor>:]RANGe:AUTO <state>
Enables automatic measurement path selection.
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
ON
[SENSe<Sensor>:]RANGe:CLEVel <level>
Shifts the transition point between paths downward.
Parameters:
<level>
Range:
*RST:
-20.00 to 0.00
0.00
7.3.4 Setting the Power Unit
The UNIT subsystem contains command for setting up the power unit.
UNIT:POWer <unit>
Sets the output unit for the measured power values.
Parameters:
<unit>
DBM | W | DBUV
*RST:
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7.3.5 Setting the Result Format
The FORMat subsystem sets the format of numeric data (measured values) that is
exchanged between the remote control computer and the power sensors if high-level
measurement commands are used.
FORMat:BORDer.............................................................................................................88
FORMat:SREGister..........................................................................................................88
FORMat[:DATA]...............................................................................................................88
FORMat:BORDer <border>
Selects the order of bytes in 64-bit binary data.
Parameters:
<border>
NORMal | SWAPped
NORMal
The 1st byte is the most significant byte (MSB), the 8th byte the
least significant byte (LSB).
This format fulfills the "Big Endian" (the big end comes first) convention.
SWAPped
The 1st byte is the LSB, the 8th byte the MSB.
This fulfills the "Little Endian" convention.
*RST:
NORMal
FORMat:SREGister <sregister>
Specifies which format is used for the return value of *STB?.
Parameters:
<sregister>
ASCii | HEXadecimal | OCTal | BINary
*RST:
ASCii
FORMat[:DATA] <data>
Specifies whether numeric data is sent as block data in binary form (REAL) or as character strings in plain text (ASCII).
Parameters:
<data>
ASCii | REAL
*RST:
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Selecting a Measurement Mode and Retrieving Results
7.4 Selecting a Measurement Mode and Retrieving
Results
► Before starting a measurement, select the measurement mode using:
[SENSe<Sensor>:]FUNCtion
The following modes are available:
●
Continuous average ("POWer:AVG"): After a trigger event, the power is integrated
over a time interval.
See also Chapter 7.5.1, "Configuring a Continuous Average Measurement",
on page 91.
After performing the measurement, you can query the measurement results with the
correspondent FETCh command.
[SENSe<Sensor>:]FUNCtion.............................................................................................89
FETCh?.......................................................................................................................... 89
FETCh<Sensor>:ARRay[:POWer][:AVG]?.......................................................................... 89
CALCulate:FEED............................................................................................................. 90
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AUXiliary..............................................................................................90
[SENSe<Sensor>:]FUNCtion <function>
Sets the measurement mode.
Parameters:
<function>
"POWer:AVG"
Continuous Average
After a trigger event, the power is integrated over a time interval
(averaging) set with [SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:
]APERture.
*RST:
"POWer:AVG"
FETCh?
Queries the last valid measurement result.
FETCh<Sensor>:ARRay[:POWer][:AVG]?
Queries the last valid measurement result of a measurement with enabled data buffer
mode.
Usage:
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CALCulate:FEED <mode>
When measurement data is requested from the sensor by means of the FETCh? command, the sensor returns data of a measurand which was configured before. By default
this is generally the average power. However the sensor can also output data of different measurands.
In order to configure which measurand the FETCh? command will send, the
CALCulate:FEED command needs to be used before a measurement is initiated.
Depending on the measurement mode the following settings are possible:
SENS:FUNC
Possible CALC:FEED
Meaning
"POWer:AVG"
"POWer:AVERage"
Average value
"POWer:PEAK"
Peak value
"POWer:RANDom"
Randomly selected value from the
measurement interval
Parameters:
<mode>
*RST:
"POWer:AVERage"
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AUXiliary <mode>
Activates the measurement of additional measured values that are determined
together with the main measured value.
Parameters:
<mode>
NONE | MINMax | RNDMax
NONE
No additional values are measured.
MINMax
By averaging the measured values in the sensor, extreme values are lost.
RNDMax
In contrast to MINMax, instead of the Min value the value of a
randomly selected sample is returned. All evaluations occur
using these values instead of the average values.
*RST:
NONE
7.5 Configuring the Measurement Modes
In the following chapter the settings needed for configuring a measurement mode are
described.
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7.5.1 Configuring a Continuous Average Measurement
The Continuous Average mode measures the signal average power asynchronously
within definable time intervals (sampling windows). The aperture (width of the sampling
windows) can be defined.
Reducing noise and zero offset
The continuous average measurement can be performed with chopper stabilization to
obtain more accurate results with reduced noise and zero offset. When chopper stabilization is used a single measurement is performed over two sampling windows, the
polarity of the detector output signal being reversed for the second window. By taking
the difference of the output signals, the effect of the video path on noise and zero drift
is minimized.
The smoothing filter can further reduce result fluctuations caused by modulation. But
when activated it increases the inherent noise of the sensor by approx. 20%, so it
should remain deactivated if it is not required.
Configuring continuous average measurements of modulated signals
When performing continuous average measurements of modulated signals the measurement may show fluctuation due to the modulation. In this case it is useful to adapt
the size of the sampling window exactly to the modulation period, which yields an optimally stable display. If the modulation period varies or is not precisely known, the
smoothing function should also be activated.
With smoothing activated, the selected sampling window has to be 5 to 9 times larger
than the modulation period for the fluctuations caused by modulation to be sufficiently
reduced.
As a comparison, if you deactivate the smoothing filter 300 to 3000 periods are
required to obtain the same effect.
With smoothing deactivated, the sampling values are considered equivalent and averaged in a sampling window, which yields an integrating behavior of the measuring
instrument. Optimum suppression of variations in the result is obtained when the size
of the sampling window is exactly adapted to the modulation period. Otherwise, the
modulation can have a considerable influence, even if the sampling window is much
larger than the modulation period. The behavior can be considerably improved by subjecting sampling values to weighting (raised-von-Hann window), which corresponds to
video filtering. This is exactly what happens with activated smoothing.
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]APERture......................................................................92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:CLEar...............................................................92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:COUNt?............................................................92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:DATA?............................................................. 92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:SIZE.................................................................92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:STATe..............................................................92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]FAST............................................................................93
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]SMOothing:STATe.........................................................93
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[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]APERture <integration_time>
Sets the aperture, sampling window (time interval) for the continuous average mode.
Defines the length of the unsynchronized time interval used to measure the average
signal power.
Parameters:
<integration_time>
Manual operation:
Range:
*RST:
10.0e-6 to 2.00
0.02
See "Aperture Time" on page 43
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:CLEar
Clears the contents of the continuous average result buffer.
Usage:
Event
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:COUNt?
Queries the number of results that is currently stored in the continuous average result
buffer.
Usage:
Query only
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:DATA?
Queries the results of the continuous average result buffer and returns them even if the
buffer is not full.
In contrast the FETCh? command returns a result only if the buffer is full.
Usage:
Query only
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:SIZE <count>
Sets the buffer size for the buffered continuous average mode. This mode is activated
with [SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:STATe.
Parameters:
<count>
Example:
Range:
*RST:
1 to 8192
1
See Chapter 8.3, "Performing a Buffered Continuous Average
Measurement", on page 118.
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:STATe <state>
Activates/deactivates the buffered continuous average mode. When the buffer mode is
activated, all results generated by trigger events are collected in the sensor until the
buffer is filled.
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You can set the size of the buffer with [SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:
]BUFFer:SIZE.
Parameters:
<state>
Example:
*RST:
OFF
See Chapter 8.3, "Performing a Buffered Continuous Average
Measurement", on page 118.
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]FAST <state>
Enables a fast unchopped Continuous Average measurement.
Parameters:
<state>
Example:
*RST:
OFF
See Chapter 8, "Performing Measurement Tasks - Programming
Examples", on page 116.
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]SMOothing:STATe <state>
Activates/deactivates the smoothing filter, a steep-edge digital lowpass filter. The filter
reduces result fluctuations caused by modulation, if the aperture time cannot be
exactly adjusted to the modulation period.
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
Manual operation:
See "Smoothing" on page 44
OFF
7.6 Configuring Basic Measurement Parameters
The following section describes the settings common for several measurement modes.
7.6.1 Configuring Auto Averaging
This chapter includes the commands referring to automatic averaging for measurements in the continuous average mode.
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt................................................................................. 94
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO....................................................................... 94
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:MTIMe............................................................ 94
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:NSRatio.......................................................... 94
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:RESolution...................................................... 95
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:RESet.................................................................................. 95
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:TYPE.............................................................. 95
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:TCONtrol.............................................................................. 96
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage[:STATe]................................................................................96
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[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt <count>
Sets the filter length i.e. the number of readings to be averaged for one measured
value. The higher the count the lower the noise and the longer it takes to obtain a measured value.
Parameters:
<count>
Range:
*RST:
1 to 65536
4
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO <state>
Sets the mode for determining the average count. Average count is often also called
averaging factor, but it designates the same thing, i.e the number of measured values
that have to be averaged for forming the measurement result.
Parameters:
<state>
ON
Auto averaging: the averaging factor is continuously determined
and set depending on the level of power and other parameters.
OFF
Fixed filter: the previous, automatically determined averaging
factor is used.
ONCE
An averaging factor is determined by the filter automatic function
under the current measurement conditions and is then used in
the fixed filter mode.
*RST:
ON
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:MTIMe <maximum_time>
Sets an upper limit for the settling time of the auto-averaging filter if
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:TYPE is set to NSRatio. Thus it limits
the length of the filter.
Parameters:
<maximum_time>
Manual operation:
Range:
*RST:
0.01 to 999.99
4.00
See "Auto Measurement Time" on page 47
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:NSRatio <nsr>
Sets the maximum noise ratio in the measurement result.
This value is only taken into account for the Auto Averaging calculation when
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO ON and [SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:
COUNt:AUTO:TYPE NSR are set.
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Parameters:
<nsr>
Range:
*RST:
100.000e-6 to 1.00
0.01
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:RESolution <resolution>
Defines the number of significant places for linear units and the number of decimal places for logarithmic units which should be free of noise in the measurement result.
The setting is only taken into account, if [SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO
ON and [SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:TYPE RES are set.
Parameters:
<resolution>
Range:
*RST:
1 to 4
3
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:RESet
Initializes the averaging filter. This is useful if a high averaging factor is set in the
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:TCONtrol MOVing filter mode and if the power to be
measured has significantly decreased since the previous measurement, e.g. by several
powers of ten. In this case, previous measurement results still contained in the averaging filter strongly affect the settling of the display. As a result, the advantage of the
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:TCONtrol MOVing filter mode, i.e. the ability to detect
trends in the measurement result while the measurement is still in progress, is lost.
The SENSe:AVERage:RESet command solves this problem by deleting all previous
measurement results that the averaging filter contains. After initialization, the filter
length gradually increases from 1 to its nominal value set with [SENSe<Sensor>:
]AVERage:COUNt, so that trends in the measurement result become quickly apparent.
However, this procedure does not shorten the measurement time required in order for
the averaging filter to settle completely.
Usage:
Event
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:TYPE <type>
Sets the automatic averaging filter mode.
Parameters:
<type>
RESolution | NSRatio
RESolution
The usual mode for the power sensors.
NSRatio
Predefines the compliance to an exactly defined noise component.
*RST:
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[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:TCONtrol <mode>
Sets the terminal control mode, defining how the measurement results are output.
As soon as a new measured value is shifted to the FIR filter, a new average value is
available at the filter output. It is obtained from the new measured value and the other
values stored in the filter.
Parameters:
<mode>
MOVing | REPeat
MOVing
Each new average value is output as a measurement result.
This mode is suitable for measurements, where tendencies in
the result have to be recognized during the measurement procedure.
REPeat
A new result is output after the FIR filter has been filled with new
measured values.
This mode is suitable for measurements, where no redundant
information has to be output.
*RST:
Manual operation:
REPeat
See "Filter Terminal Control" on page 47
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage[:STATe] <state>
Switches the averaging filter on and off for the Continuous Average mode.
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
ON
7.6.2 Setting the Frequency
The frequency of the signal to be measured is not automatically determined. For achieving better accuracy, the carrier frequency of the applied signal must be set.
[SENSe<Sensor>:]FREQuency......................................................................................... 96
[SENSe<Sensor>:]FREQuency <frequency>
Transfers the carrier frequency of the RF signal to be measured. This frequency is
used for the frequency-response correction of the measurement result.
The center frequency is set for broadband signals, e.g. spread-spectrum signals, multicarrier signals.
Parameters:
<frequency>
Manual operation:
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Range:
*RST:
0.0 to 110.0e9
50.0e6
See "Frequency" on page 42
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7.6.3 Configuring Corrections
It is possible to set some parameters that compensate for a change of the measured
signal due to fixed external influences.
Corrections of the following parameters are available:
●
Duty cycle: sets the duty cycle, the percentage of one period during which the signal is active, when pulse-modulated signals are corrected. The duty cycle is only
evaluated in the Continuous Average mode.
●
Offset: accounts for external losses by adding a fixed level offset in dB.
The attenuation of an attenuator located ahead of the sensor (or the coupling
attenuation of a directional coupler) is taken into account with a positive offset, i.e.
the sensor calculates the power at the input of the attenuator or the directional coupler. A negative offset can be used to correct the influence of an amplifier connected ahead.
●
S-Parameters: used to compensate for a component (attenuator, directional coupler) connected ahead of the sensor by means of its S-parameter data set.
Using S-parameters instead of a fixed offset allows more precise measurements,
because the interaction between the sensor and the component can be taken into
account.
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:DCYCle............................................................................ 97
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:DCYCle:STATe................................................................. 97
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:OFFSet............................................................................ 98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:OFFSet:STATe................................................................. 98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:LIST?................................................................ 98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:SELect.............................................................. 98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:STATe...............................................................98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:DCYCle <duty_cycle>
Effective only in the Continuous average mode.
Sets the duty cycle as a percentage when pulse-modulated signals are corrected. With
the correction activated, the sensor calculates pulse power from the duty cycle and the
average power.
Parameters:
<duty_cycle>
Manual operation:
Range:
*RST:
0.001 to 100.00
1.00
See "Duty Cycle" on page 43
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:DCYCle:STATe <state>
Switches the duty cycle correction for the measured value on and off.
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
Manual operation:
See "Duty Cycle" on page 43
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[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:OFFSet <offset>
Sets a fixed offset in dB which is used to correct the measured value.
Parameters:
<offset>
Manual operation:
Range:
*RST:
-200.00 to 200.00
0
See "Offset" on page 42
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:OFFSet:STATe <state>
Switches the offset correction on and off.
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
Manual operation:
See "Offset State" on page 42
OFF
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:LIST?
Queries the list of the S-parameter data sets that have been loaded to the power sensor. The result of the query indicates the consecutive number and mnemonic of each
data set.
Usage:
Query only
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:SELect <num>
Selects a loaded data set for S-parameter correction.
Parameters:
<num>
Range:
*RST:
1 to 1999
1
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:STATe <state>
Switches the S-parameter correction on and off and activates the S-parameter data
set, selected with [SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:SELect.
Parameters:
<state>
Example:
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OFF
CORRection:SPDevice:SELect 1
Selects a S-parameter correction data set.
CORRection:SPDevice:STATe ON
Activates the S-parameter correction.
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7.6.4 Configuring the S-Gamma Parameters
Using the complex reflection coefficient you can determine the power P delivered by
the signal source with considerably greater accuracy.
See also Chapter 5.1, "S-Parameters", on page 52.
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:CORRection:STATe...............................................................99
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:MAGNitude......................................................................... 100
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:PHASe............................................................................... 100
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:CORRection:STATe <state>
Activates/deactivates the use of the complex reflection coefficient for the correction of
interactions between the power sensor and the signal source. This makes it possible to
determine the power P delivered by the signal source with considerably greater accuracy.
The coefficient of the signal source Γsource is defined with the commands
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:MAGNitude and [SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:PHASe.
The complex reflection coefficient Γsensor of the sensor, which is also required for the
correction, is prestored in the calibration data memory for many frequencies.
P
NRP
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
Gsensor
Gsource
Figure 7-2: Correction of interactions between the power sensor and the signal source
If the gamma correction is made in connection with an s-parameter correction (setting
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:STATe ON), the interaction of the signal source with the s-parameter device on the one hand and the input of the power
sensor on the other hand (depending on the magnitude of the term s12s21) is corrected.
The interaction between the complex reflection coefficient Γsensor of the power sensor
and the parameter s22 is always taken into account when the s-parameter correction is
activated - independent of the gamma correction in connection with the signal source.
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P
1
G
~ s11  ( s12 s21  s11s22 ) sensor
S2
NRP
SMART SENSOR TECHNOLOGY
Gsource
Figure 7-3: Correction of interactions between the power sensor, the signal source, and the sparameter device
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
Manual operation:
See "Γ Correction" on page 44
OFF
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:MAGNitude <magnitude>
Sets the magnitude of the complex reflection coefficient of the source (Γsource). A value
of 0.0 corresponds to an ideal matched source and a value of 1.0 to total reflection.
Parameters:
<magnitude>
Manual operation:
Range:
*RST:
0.0 to 1.0
0.0
See "Magnitude" on page 45
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:PHASe <phase>
Sets the phase angle of the complex reflection coefficient of the source (Γsource).
Parameters:
<phase>
Manual operation:
Range:
*RST:
-360.0 to 360.0
0.0
See "Phase" on page 45
7.7 Configuring the Trigger
In a basic continuous measurement, the measurement is started immediately after the
start command. However, sometimes you want the measurement to start only when a
specific condition is fulfilled, for example a signal level is exceeded, or in certain time
intervals. For these cases you can define a trigger for the measurement.
Trigger state system
The power sensor manages a trigger state system to define the exact start and stop
time of a measurement and the sequence of a measurement cycle. Four different
device states are defined:
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●
IDLE: the power sensor performs no measurement. After a sensor is powered on it
is automatically set to IDLE state.
●
INITIATED: this is an internal temporary state which is passed while the trigger
state system changes from MEASURING back to WAIT_FOR_TRG in continuous
measurements (I. e. in INITiate:CONTinuous ON state). It has no visible implication.
●
WAIT_FOR_TRG: the power sensor waits for a trigger event.
The source for this event is set via TRIGger:SOURce. When the event defined in
this way occurs, the sensor enters the MEASURING state.
●
MEASURING: the power sensor is measuring data. It remains in this state and
exits it immediately after completion of the measurement.
TRIG:SOUR
BUS
INT
EXT
TRIG:IMM
TRIG:IMM or
Trigger signal
*TRG, GET
or TRIG:IMM
MEASURING
HOLD
IMM
WAIT_FOR_TRG
ABORT
INIT:CONT?
ON
OFF
INITIATED
IDLE
INIT:IMM
INIT:CONT ON
?
*RST, PowerOn
Figure 7-4: Overview of basic relationships in the trigger state system
Trigger measurement mode
Before a trigger can be executed the power sensor state has to be set to a state
WAIT_FOR_TRG with the relevant INITiate command. Depending on the required
number of measurement cycles the following modes are available:
●
CONTinuous: in this mode, a new measurement cycle is automatically started after
the previous one has been terminated.
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●
IMMediate: starts a single measurement cycle. Each sending of the INITiate[:
IMMediate] command initiates one result.
Trigger condition settings
The possible trigger conditions and the execution of a trigger depend on the selected
trigger source.
When the signal power exceeds (TRIGger:SLOPe POS) or falls below (TRIGger:
SLOPe NEG) a reference level set by TRIGger:LEVel, the measurement is started
after the time which has been set with TRIGger:DELay.
In TRIGger:SOURce EXT, waiting for a trigger event can be skipped by issuing a
TRIGger:IMMediate command.
ABORt.......................................................................................................................... 102
INITiate:CONTinuous..................................................................................................... 103
INITiate[:IMMediate]....................................................................................................... 103
TRIGger:ATRigger:DELay...............................................................................................103
TRIGger:ATRigger:EXECuted?....................................................................................... 104
TRIGger:ATRigger:STATe.............................................................................................. 104
TRIGger:COUNt............................................................................................................ 104
TRIGger:DELay............................................................................................................. 104
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO................................................................................................... 105
TRIGger:DTIMe............................................................................................................. 105
TRIGger:EXTernal<2...2>:IMPedance.............................................................................. 106
TRIGger:HOLDoff.......................................................................................................... 106
TRIGger:HYSTeresis......................................................................................................106
TRIGger:IMMediate........................................................................................................107
TRIGger:LEVel.............................................................................................................. 107
TRIGger:MASTer:PORT................................................................................................. 107
TRIGger:MASTer:STATe................................................................................................ 108
TRIGger:SLOPe............................................................................................................ 108
TRIGger:SOURce.......................................................................................................... 108
TRIGger:SYNC:PORT.................................................................................................... 109
TRIGger:SYNC:STATe................................................................................................... 109
ABORt
Immediately interrupts the current measurement. If the measurement has been started
as a single measurement (INITiate[:IMMediate]) the sensor goes to IDLE state.
However, if a continuous measurement is in progress (INITiate:CONTinuous ON),
the trigger system of the sensor advances to WAIT_FOR_TRG and if the trigger condition is met a new measurement is immediately started.
Usage:
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INITiate:CONTinuous <state>
Activates/deactivates the continuous measurement mode. In continuous measurement
mode the sensor does not reach the IDLE state after a measurement has been completed, but immediately executes another measurement cycle. This is commonly called
the free-running mode although each measurement cycle is still depending on the trigger conditions.
Parameters:
<state>
ON
Measurements are performed continuously. If a measurement is
completed, the sensor does not return to IDLE state but goes to
WAIT_FOR_TRG state again.
OFF
Ends the continuous measurement mode and sets the sensor to
IDLE.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See Chapter 8.3, "Performing a Buffered Continuous Average
Measurement", on page 118.
Manual operation:
See "Measurement" on page 42
INITiate[:IMMediate]
Starts a single measurement cycle. The sensor first changes from the IDLE state to the
WAIT_FOR_TRIGGER state and begins the measurement as soon as the trigger condition is fulfilled. Depending on the number of trigger events that are required, e.g. for
averaging, the WAIT_FOR_TRIGGER state can be entered several times. Once the
entire measurement is completed, a measurement result is available and the sensor
enters the IDLE state again.
The command should only be used after the continuous measurement mode has been
switched off with the (INITiate:CONTinuous OFF).
Example:
See Chapter 8.3, "Performing a Buffered Continuous Average
Measurement", on page 118.
Usage:
Event
TRIGger:ATRigger:DELay <delay>
If TRIGger:ATRigger:STATe is set to ON, sets the delay between the artificial trigger
event and the beginning of the actual measurement
Parameters:
<delay>
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Range:
*RST:
0.1 to 5.0
0.3
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TRIGger:ATRigger:EXECuted?
Returns the number of measurements which were triggered automatically when
TRIGger:ATRigger:STATe is set to ON.
In normal scalar measurements this number can only be 0 or 1. However, if a buffered
measurement was executed this number indicates how many results in the returned
array of measurement data were executed without a real trigger event.
Usage:
Query only
TRIGger:ATRigger:STATe <state>
If the state is ON an artificial trigger is generated if the delay time set with TRIGger:
ATRigger:DELay has elapsed after the start of measurement and no trigger event
has occurred.
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger:COUNt <count>
Sets the number of measurement cycles to be performed when the measurement is
started with INITiate[:IMMediate]. This number equals the number of results
which can be obtained from the sensor after a single INITiate[:IMMediate]. As
long as the defined number of measurements are not yet executed the sensors automatically initiates another measurement internally as soon as the current result is available.
TRIGger:COUNt is usable in particular in conjunction with buffered measurements, for
example, to fill a buffer with a predefined size with measurements which have been
triggered externally or by means of *TRG without the overhead of sending multiple
measurement starts (INITiate[:IMMediate]).
Parameters:
<count>
Example:
Range:
*RST:
1 to 8192
1
See Chapter 8.3, "Performing a Buffered Continuous Average
Measurement", on page 118.
TRIGger:DELay <delay>
Sets the delay between the trigger event and the beginning of the actual measurement
(integration).
Parameters:
<delay>
Manual operation:
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Range:
-5.0 to 10.0
*RST:
0.0
Default unit: s
See "Trigger Delay" on page 49
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Configuring the Trigger
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO <state>
If TRIG:DEL:AUTO ON is selected, a measurement is not started until the sensor has
settled. For this purpose the delay value is automatically determined.
The automatically determined delay is ignored if a longer period is set with TRIGger:
DELay .
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger:DTIMe <dropout_time>
Sets the drop-out time in seconds.
With a positive (negative) trigger slope, the dropout time is the minimum time for which
the signal must be below (above) the power level defined by TRIGger:LEVel and
TRIGger:HYSTeresis before triggering can occur again. As with the Holdoff parameter, unwanted trigger events can be excluded. The set dropout time only affects the
INTernal trigger source.
The dropout time parameter is useful when dealing with, for example, GSM signals
with several active slots Figure 7-5. When performing a measurement in sync with the
signal, a trigger event is to be produced at A, but not at B or C.
As the RF power between the slots is below the threshold defined by TRIGger:LEVel
and TRIGger:HYSTeresis, the trigger hysteresis alone cannot prevent triggering at
B or at C. Therefore the dropout time parameter is selected to be greater than the time
elapsed between points D and B and between E and C, but less than the time elapsed
between F and A. This ensures that triggering takes place at A.
Figure 7-5: Significance of the drop-out time parameter
As the mechanism associated with the dropout time parameter is reactivated whenever
the trigger threshold is crossed, unambiguous triggering can also be obtained for many
complex signals. By contrast, all triggering is suppressed during the hold-off time. For
the example described, this would mean that although stable triggering conditions
could be obtained with a suitable hold-off time (regular triggering at the same point), it
would not be possible to set exclusive triggering at A.
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Configuring the Trigger
Parameters:
<dropout_time>
Manual operation:
Range:
0.00 to 10.00
*RST:
0.00
Default unit: s
See "Dropout" on page 49
TRIGger:EXTernal<2...2>:IMPedance <impedance>
Sets termination resistance of the second external trigger input (EXTernal2). You can
select between HIGH (~ 10 kOhm) and LOW (50 Ohm) to fit the impedance of the trigger source and thus minimize reflections on the trigger signals.
Suffix:
<2...2>
.
2...2
Parameters:
<impedance>
HIGH | LOW
*RST:
HIGH
TRIGger:HOLDoff <holdoff>
Sets the hold off time in seconds, a period after a trigger event within which all further
trigger events are ignored, see Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-6: Effect of the trigger hold off time
Parameters:
<holdoff>
Manual operation:
Range:
*RST:
0.00 to 10.00
0.00
See "Holdoff" on page 49
TRIGger:HYSTeresis <hysteresis>
Sets the hysteresis, the magnitude (in dB) the trigger level of the signal must fall below
the trigger threshold on a rising slope or rise above the trigger threshold on a falling
slope before another trigger event occurs. Thus, this command can be used to eliminate the effects of noise in the signal on the edge detector of the trigger system.
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Configuring the Trigger
Parameters:
<hysteresis>
Manual operation:
Range:
0.00 to 10.00
*RST:
0.00
Default unit: DB
See "Hysteresis" on page 49
TRIGger:IMMediate
Triggers a generic trigger event that causes the sensor to immediately exit the
WAIT_FOR_TRIGGER state irrespective of the trigger source and the trigger delay
and start the measurement. The command is the only means of starting a measurement when the trigger source is set to HOLD. Only one measurement cycle is executed irrespective of the averaging factor.
Usage:
Event
TRIGger:LEVel <level>
Sets the trigger threshold for internal triggering derived from the test signal (in W).
This setting is effective only if TRIGger:SOURce INTernal.
If an S-parameter device is active and/or if a mounted component with a global offset
in front of the sensor is considered, the currently effective trigger threshold and a trigger threshold to be input are referenced to the appropriately shifted sensor data. When
the S-parameter device and/or the offset correction are switched off, then the trigger
threshold and its input limits are adjusted as necessary.
Parameters:
<level>
Manual operation:
Range:
1.0e-7 to 200.0e-3
*RST:
1.0e-6
Default unit: Watts
See "Trigger Level" on page 48
TRIGger:MASTer:PORT <master_port>
Selects the external connection where the sensor outputs its own trigger event in case
it is trigger master. See TRIGger:MASTer:STATe for more information.
The sensor can output its trigger event either on the EXTernal<1> or EXTernal2
port when it is the trigger master. If the trigger master is to be triggered externally by
itself, its trigger source must be configured to the other external port respectively, i.e:
TRIGger:MASTer:PORT
EXT1
TRIGger:SOURce
EXT2
TRIGger:MASTer:STATe ON
or
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Configuring the Trigger
TRIGger:MASTer:PORT
EXT2
TRIGger:SOURce
EXT1
TRIGger:MASTer:STATe ON
Parameters:
<master_port>
EXT1 | EXTernal1 | EXT2 | EXTernal2
*RST:
EXT1
TRIGger:MASTer:STATe <state>
Activates/deactivates the trigger master mode of the sensor. In this state the sensor
can output a digital trigger signal in sync with its own trigger event.
When the trigger master state is ON the user must select on which external port the
sensor should output its trigger event. See TRIGger:MASTer:PORT command for
selecting this.
A sensor which is trigger master is typically set to internal triggering, but this is not a
requirement. The trigger master sensor may very well be triggered externally also,
because the sensor has got two external trigger connections. However, if external triggering is desired for the trigger master sensor, the external trigger input must be the
"other" one as the trigger master output port (EXTernal1 vs. EXTernal2)
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger:SLOPe <slope>
Available only if TRIGger:SOURce is set to INTernal or EXTernal.
Determines whether the rising (POSitive) or the falling (NEGative) edge of the
envelope power (with internal triggering) or increasing voltage (with external triggering)
is used for triggering.
Parameters:
<slope>
POSitive | NEGative
*RST:
Manual operation:
POSitive
See "Trigger Slope" on page 48
TRIGger:SOURce <source>
Selects the source for the trigger event detector.
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Configuring the Trigger
Parameters:
<source>
HOLD | IMMediate | INTernal | BUS | EXTernal | EXT1 |
EXTernal1 | EXT2 | EXTernal2
BUS
Triggering is started with the commands *TRG or TRIGger:
IMMediate, where TRIGger:IMMediate shortens the measurement. In this case, the other trigger settings are meaningless.
EXTernal
Triggering is initiated via the hardware trigger bus, e.g via the
base unit. Waiting for a trigger event can be skipped by
TRIGger:IMMediate.
EXT, EXT1, EXTernal and EXTernal1 denote the same, an
external trigger applied through the round 8 pin connector.
EXT2 and EXTernal2 refer to external triggering initiated by the
dedicated SMB type connector, TRIG2 I/O, in the rear of the
sensor.
HOLD
A triggering is started with the command TRIGger:IMMediate.
IMMediate
No waiting for an event occurs.
INTernal
Triggering is started by the measurement signal.
When this signal exceeds (TRIGger:SLOPe POS) or drops
below (TRIGger:SLOPe NEG) the power set by TRIGger:
LEVel, the measurement is started after the time set by
TRIGger:DELay. Similar to TRIGger:SOURce EXT, waiting for
a trigger event can also be skipped by TRIGger:IMMediate.
*RST:
Manual operation:
IMMediate
See "Trigger Source" on page 48
TRIGger:SYNC:PORT <sync_port>
Selects the external connection for the sensor's sync output. See TRIGger:SYNC:
STATe for more information.
Parameters:
<sync_port>
EXT1 | EXTernal1 | EXT2 | EXTernal2
*RST:
EXT1
TRIGger:SYNC:STATe <state>
If set to ON, the command blocks the external trigger bus as long as the sensor
remains in the measurement state. It is usually used in combination with the command
TRIGger:MASTer:STATe and makes certain, that a new measurement will only be
started after all sensors have completed their last measurement.
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Using the Status Register
It must be ensured that the number of repetitions is the same for all the sensors
involved in the measurement. Otherwise, the trigger bus will be blocked by any sensor
that has completed its measurements before the others and has returned to the IDLE
state.
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
OFF
7.8 Using the Status Register
For more information on the contents of the status registers see:
●
Chapter A.2.3, "Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)",
on page 130
●
Chapter A.2.5, "Device Status Register", on page 132
●
Chapter A.2.6.1, "Questionable Power Status Register", on page 133
●
Chapter A.2.6.2, "Questionable Calibration Status Register", on page 134
●
Chapter A.2.7, "Standard Event Status and Enable Register (ESR, ESE)",
on page 134
●
Chapter A.2.8.1, "Operation Calibrating Status Register", on page 137
●
Chapter A.2.8.2, "Operation Measuring Status Register", on page 138
●
Chapter A.2.8.3, "Operation Trigger Status Register", on page 138
●
Chapter A.2.8.4, "Operation Sense Status Register", on page 139
●
Chapter A.2.8.5, "Operation Lower Limit Fail Status Register", on page 139
●
Chapter A.2.8.6, "Operation Upper Limit Fail Status Register", on page 140
●
●
●
●
●
●
General Status Register Commands.................................................................... 110
Reading Out the CONDition Part.......................................................................... 111
Reading Out the EVENt Part.................................................................................111
Controlling the ENABle Part..................................................................................112
Controlling the Negative Transition Part............................................................... 112
Controlling the Positive Transition Part................................................................. 113
7.8.1 General Status Register Commands
STATus:PRESet............................................................................................................ 110
STATus:QUEue[:NEXT]?................................................................................................111
STATus:PRESet
Resets the edge detectors and ENABle parts of all registers to a defined value.
Usage:
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Event
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Remote Control Commands
Using the Status Register
STATus:QUEue[:NEXT]?
Queries the most recent error queue entry and deletes it.
Positive error numbers indicate sensor specific errors, negative error numbers are
error messages defined by SCPI. If the error queue is empty, the error number 0, "No
error", is returned.
Usage:
Query only
7.8.2 Reading Out the CONDition Part
For more information on the CONDition part see Chapter A.2.2, "Structure of a SCPI
Status Register", on page 129.
STATus:DEVice:CONDition?
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:CONDition?
STATus:OPERation:CONDition?
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:CONDition?
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:CONDition?
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:CONDition?
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:CONDition?
STATus:OPERation:ULFail:CONDition?
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:CONDition?
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:CONDition?
These commands read out the CONDition section of the status register.
The commands do not delete the contents of the CONDition section.
Usage:
Query only
7.8.3 Reading Out the EVENt Part
For more information on the EVENt part see Chapter A.2.2, "Structure of a SCPI Status Register", on page 129.
STATus:DEVice[:EVENt]?
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
STATus:OPERation[:EVENt]?
STATus:OPERation:LLFail[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
STATus:OPERation:SENSe[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
STATus:OPERation:ULFail[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
These commands read out the EVENt section of the status register.
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Using the Status Register
At the same time, the commands delete the contents of the EVENt section.
Usage:
Query only
7.8.4 Controlling the ENABle Part
For more information on the ENABLe part see Chapter A.2.2, "Structure of a SCPI Status Register", on page 129.
STATus:DEVice:ENABle <value>
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:ENABle <value>
STATus:OPERation:ENABle <value>
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:ENABle <value>
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:ENABle <value>
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:ENABle <value>
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:ENABle <value>
STATus:OPERation:ULFail:ENABle <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:ENABle <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:ENABle <value>
These commands control the ENABle part of a register.
The ENABle part allows true conditions in the EVENt part of the status register to be
reported in the summary bit. If a bit is 1 in the enable register and its associated event
bit transitions to true, a positive transition will occur in the summary bit reported to the
next higher level.
Parameters:
<value>
*RST:
0
7.8.5 Controlling the Negative Transition Part
For more information on the negative transition part see Chapter A.2.2, "Structure of a
SCPI Status Register", on page 129.
STATus:DEVice:NTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:NTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:NTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:NTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:NTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:NTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:NTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:ULFail:NTRansition <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:NTRansition <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:NTRansition <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:NTRansition <value>
These commands control the Negative TRansition part of a register.
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Testing the Power Sensor
Setting a bit causes a 1 to 0 transition in the corresponding bit of the associated register. The transition also writes a 1 into the associated bit of the corresponding EVENt
register.
Parameters:
<value>
*RST:
0
7.8.6 Controlling the Positive Transition Part
For more information on the positive transition part see Chapter A.2.2, "Structure of a
SCPI Status Register", on page 129.
STATus:DEVice:PTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:PTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:PTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:PTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:PTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:PTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:PTRansition <value>
STATus:OPERation:ULFail:PTRansition <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:PTRansition <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:PTRansition <value>
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:PTRansition <value>
These commands control the Positive TRansition part of a register.
Setting a bit causes a 0 to 1 transition in the corresponding bit of the associated register. The transition also writes a 1 into the associated bit of the corresponding EVENt
register.
Parameters:
<value>
*RST:
65535
7.9 Testing the Power Sensor
The selftest allows a test of the internal circuitry of the sensor.
TEST:SENSor?..............................................................................................................113
TEST:SENSor? [<Item>]
Triggers a selftest of the sensor. In contrast to *TST?, this command yields detailed
information, which is useful for troubleshooting.
Note: No signal may be applied to the sensor while the selftest is running. If the selftest is carried out with a signal being present, error messages may erroneously be output for the test steps Offset Voltages and/or Noise Voltages.
Query parameters:
<Item>
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Calibrating/Zeroing the Power Sensor
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Diagnostics" on page 45
7.10 Calibrating/Zeroing the Power Sensor
Zeroing removes offset voltages from the analog circuitry of the sensors, so that there
are only low powers displayed when there is no power applied. The zeroing process
may take more than 8 seconds to complete .
Zeroing is recommended if:
●
The temperature has varied by more than 5 K.
●
The sensor has been replaced.
●
No zeroing was performed in the last 24 hours.
●
Signals of very low power are to be measured, for instance, if the expected measured value is less than 10 dB above the lower measurement range limit.
Turn off all test signals before zeroing. An active test signal during zeroing causes an
error.
CALibration:DATA..........................................................................................................114
CALibration:DATA:LENGth?............................................................................................114
CALibration:USER:DATA................................................................................................114
CALibration:USER:DATA:LENGth?..................................................................................115
CALibration:ZERO:AUTO................................................................................................115
CALibration:DATA <caldata>
Writes a binary calibration data set in the memory of the sensor.
Parameters:
<caldata>
<block_data>
CALibration:DATA:LENGth?
Queries the length in bytes of the calibration data set currently stored in the flash memory. Programs that read out the calibration data set can use this information to determine the capacity of the buffer memory required.
Usage:
Query only
CALibration:USER:DATA <caldata>
Accesses the user calibration data block.
Parameters:
<caldata>
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Calibrating/Zeroing the Power Sensor
CALibration:USER:DATA:LENGth?
Queries the length of the user calibration data block.
Usage:
Query only
CALibration:ZERO:AUTO <state>
Performs zeroing using the signal at the sensor input. The sensor must be disconnected from all power sources.
The setting command accepts only the parameter ONCE; OFF and ON are ignored.
The query returns the value ON if a calibration is in progress, otherwise the value OFF.
Parameters:
<state>
*RST:
Manual operation:
See "Zero Calibration" on page 45
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Performing Measurement Tasks - Programming Examples
Performing the Fastest Measurement in Continuous Average Mode
8 Performing Measurement Tasks - Programming Examples
Programming example for performing measurement tasks with the power sensors are
given in the following chapter.
8.1 Performing the Simplest Measurement
The simplest way to obtain a result is to use the following sequence of commands:
*RST
INITiate
FETCh?
The *RST sets the Continuous Average mode.
INITiate initiates the measurement.
After *RST, the trigger system is set to TRIGger:SOURce IMMediate so that the
trigger system state changes to MEASURING via INITIATED and WAIT_FOR_TRG.
After the measurement has been completed, FETCh? delivers the result to the output
queue from which it can be fetched.
8.2 Performing the Fastest Measurement in Continuous
Average Mode
The fastest way to obtain results for different continuous measurements is described in
this chapter.
Fastest Measurement for Continuous Measurements
*RST
//Set the aperture time to 10 us
SENSe:POWer:AVG:APERture 10e-6
//Set the averaging filter length to 1
SENSe:AVERage:COUNt 1
//Disable auto averaging
SENSe:AVERage:COUNt:AUTO OFF
//Enable the fast unchopped continuous average measurement
SENSe:POWer:AVG:FAST ON
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Performing the Fastest Measurement in Continuous Average Mode
//Set the buffer size and enable the buffer
SENSe:BUFFer:SIZE 8192
SENSe:BUFFer:STATe ON
//Set the data format to real
FORMat:DATA REAL
//Initiate a continuous measurement
INITiate:CONTinuous ON
//Set a suitable sleep time.
//In order to achieve the maximum measurement speed,
//the buffer level should never reach the buffer size.
//But, the results should also not be fetched too fast.
//Therefore a sleep time between two consecutive
//SENS:POW:AVG:BUFF:DATA? queries is meaningful.
//Since the sensor reaches approximately 50000 measurements per second in this setup,
//50...80 ms is a suitable sleep time.
//Then you'll get 2500...4000 measurements per SENS:POW:AVG:BUFF:DATA?
//
query
(--sleep 60 ms--).
//Fetch available results
SENS:POW:AVG:BUFF:DATA?
Stop the continuous measurement.
INITiate:CONTinuous OFF
Fastest Measurement for Counting Pulses
*RST
//Select the internal trigger source and set the trigger level
TRIG:SOUR INT
TRIG:LEV 0.0001
//Disable auto averaging
SENSe:AVERage:COUNt:AUTO OFF
//Enable the fast unchopped continuous average measurement
SENSe:POWer:AVG:FAST ON
//Set the aperture time
SENSe:POWer:AVG:APERture 10e-6
//Disable the averaging filter
SENSe:AVERage:STATE OFF
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Performing a Buffered Continuous Average Measurement
//Set the buffer size and enable the buffer for continuous average results
SENSe:BUFFer:SIZE 8192
SENSe:BUFFer:STAT ON
//Initiate a continuous measurement
INITiate:CONTinuous ON
//Fetch the number of results that is currently stored
//in the buffer after the measurement is done
SENSe:POWer:AVG:BUFFer:COUNt?
8.3 Performing a Buffered Continuous Average Measurement
This example, written in pseudo code, shows how to setup and execute a buffered
continuous average measurement.
//Select whether using
//
'BUS Trigger'
// or 'EXT Trigger'
bool
--> true
--> false
bUseBUSTrigger = true;
// Use the first NRP series sensor which is found
if ( VI_SUCCESS == SENSOR.openFirstNrpSensor( "USB?::0X0AAD::?*::INSTR" ) )
{
//Start with a clean state
SENSOR.write( "*RST" );
// Auto Averaging OFF and set Average Count = 4
SENSOR.write( "SENS:AVER:COUN:AUTO OFF" );
SENSOR.write( "SENS:AVER:COUN 4" );
// Select the trigger source
if ( bUseBUSTrigger )
{
// We want to use '*TRG' to trigger a single physical measurement
SENSOR.write( "TRIG:SOUR BUS" );
}
else
{
// We get trigger pulses on the external input (SMB-type connector)
SENSOR.write( "TRIG:SOUR EXT2" );
}
// Auto-Trigger OFF
SENSOR.write( "TRIG:ATR:STAT OFF" );
// Configure a buffered measurement
// Buffer size is randomly selected to 17
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Performing a Buffered Continuous Average Measurement
SENSOR.write( "SENS:BUFF:SIZE 17" );
SENSOR.write( "SENS:BUFF:STAT ON" );
SENSOR.write( "TRIG:COUN 17" );
// Read out all errors / Clear error queue
SENSOR.query( "SYST:ERR:ALL?", szBuf, sizeof( szBuf ) );
printf( szBuf );
// Start a 'single' buffered measurement
// Since 17 trigger-counts have been configured,
// the 'single' buffered measurement, which becomes
// initiated by INIT:IMM, is not over until
// 17 physical measurements have been triggered
SENSOR.write( "INIT:IMM" );
// The end of a physical measurement can be recognized
// by a transistion to 'NOT MEASURING' which is a
// negative transistion on bit 1
SENSOR.write( "STAT:OPER:MEAS:NTR 2" );
SENSOR.write( "STAT:OPER:MEAS:PTR 0" );
// Collect 17 physical measurements
for ( int i = 0; i < 17; i++ )
{
// As a pre-condition: clear the event register by reading it
int iDummy;
SENSOR.query( "STAT:OPER:MEAS:EVEN?", &iDummy );
// Trigger a single physical measurement; either by '*TRG'
// command or by an externally supplied pulse on the SMB-type connector
if ( bUseBUSTrigger )
SENSOR.write( "*TRG" );
// Wait until the measurement is done
int iMeasEvent = 0;
while ( iMeasEvent != 2 )
{
SENSOR.query( "STAT:OPER:MEAS:EVEN?", &iMeasEvent );
iMeasEvent &= 2;
}
printf( "Triggered!\n" );
}
// All 17 physical measurement have been executed.
// That means, buffer is full and can be read
SENSOR.query( "FETCH?", szBuf, sizeof( szBuf ) );
printf( szBuf );
}
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Performing a Buffered Continuous Average Measurement
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Annex
A Remote Control Basics
A.1 SCPI Command Structure
SCPI commands - messages - are used for remote control. Commands that are not
taken from the SCPI standard follow the SCPI syntax rules. The power sensor supports the SCPI version 1999. The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and
aims at the standardization of device-specific commands, error handling and the status
registers.
SCPI commands consist of a so-called header and, usually, one or more parameters.
The header and the parameters are separated by a "white space" (ASCII code 0 to 9,
11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The headers can consist of several mnemonics (keywords). Queries are formed by appending a question mark directly to the header.
The commands can be either device-specific or device-independent (common commands). Common and device-specific commands differ in their syntax.
A.1.1 Syntax for Common Commands
Common (=device-independent) commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk (*) and possibly one or more parameters.
Examples:
*RST
RESET
Resets the instrument.
*ESE
EVENT STATUS ENABLE
Sets the bits of the event status enable
registers.
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY
Queries the contents of the event status
register.
*IDN?
IDENTIFICATION QUERY
Queries the instrument identification
string.
A.1.2 Syntax for Device-Specific Commands
Long and short form
The mnemonics feature a long form and a short form. The short form is marked by
upper case letters, the long form corresponds to the complete word. Either the short
form or the long form can be entered; other abbreviations are not permitted.
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Example:
INITiate:CONTinuous is equivalent to INIT:CONT.
Case-insensitivity
Upper case and lower case notation only serves to distinguish the two forms in the
manual, the instrument itself is case-insensitive.
Numeric suffixes
If a command can be applied to multiple instances of an object, e.g. specific channels
or sources, the required instances can be specified by a suffix added to the command.
Numeric suffixes are indicated by angular brackets (<1...4>, <n>, <i>) and are replaced
by a single value in the command. Entries without a suffix are interpreted as having the
suffix 1.
Different numbering in remote control
For remote control, the suffix can differ from the number of the corresponding selection
used in manual operation. SCPI prescribes that suffix counting starts with 1. Suffix 1 is
the default state and used when no specific suffix is specified.
Some standards define a fixed numbering, starting with 0. If the numbering differs in
manual operation and remote control, it is indicated for the corresponding command.
Optional mnemonics
Some command systems permit certain mnemonics to be inserted into the header or
omitted. These mnemonics are marked by square brackets in the description. The
instrument must recognize the long command to comply with the SCPI standard. Some
commands are considerably shortened by these optional mnemonics.
Example:
Definition: INITiate[:IMMediate]
Command: INIT:IMM is equivalent to INIT
Parameters
Parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several parameters are specified in a command, they are separated by a comma (,).
For a description of the parameter types, refer to Chapter A.1.3, "SCPI Parameters",
on page 123.
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Special characters
|
Parameters
A vertical stroke in parameter definitions indicates alternative possibilities in the sense of "or". The
effect of the command differs, depending on which parameter is used.
[]
Mnemonics in square brackets are optional and can be inserted into the header or omitted.
Example: INITiate[:IMMediate]
INIT:IMM is equivalent to INIT
{}
Parameters in curly brackets are optional and can be inserted once or several times, or omitted.
A.1.3 SCPI Parameters
Many commands are supplemented by a parameter or a list of parameters. The
parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space" (ASCII code 0 to 9,
11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). Allowed parameters are:
●
Numeric values
●
Special numeric values
●
Boolean parameters
●
Text
●
Character strings
●
Block data
The parameters required for each command and the allowed range of values are
specified in the command description.
Numeric values
Numeric values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent.
Values exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down. The mantissa can comprise up to 255 characters, the exponent must lie inside the value range
-32000 to 32000. The exponent is introduced by an "E" or "e". Entry of the exponent
alone is not allowed. In the case of physical quantities, the unit can be entered.
Allowed unit prefixes are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ are also allowed), K
(kilo), M (milli), U (micro) and N (nano). If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Units
For physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Allowed unit prefixes are:
●
G (giga)
●
MA (mega), MOHM, MHZ
●
K (kilo)
●
M (milli)
●
U (micro)
●
N (nano)
If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
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Some settings allow relative values to be stated in percent. According to SCPI, this unit
is represented by the PCT string.
Special numeric values
The texts listed below are interpreted as special numeric values. In the case of a
query, the numeric value is provided.
●
MIN/MAX
MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value.
●
DEF
DEFault denotes a preset value which has been stored in the non variable memory. This value conforms to the default setting, as it is called by the *RST command.
●
UP/DOWN
UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numeric value by one step. The step width can
be specified via an allocated step command for each parameter which can be set
via UP, DOWN.
●
INF/NINF
INFinity, Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the numeric values 9.9E37
or -9.9E37, respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as instrument responses.
●
NAN
Not A Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as a instrument response. This value is not defined. Possible causes are the division by zero,
the subtraction of infinite from infinite and the representation of missing values.
Boolean Parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The "ON" state (logically true) is represented by "ON" or a numeric value 1. The "OFF" state (logically untrue) is represented by
"OFF" or the numeric value 0. The numeric values are provided as the response for a
query.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:AVERage:COUNt:AUTO ON
Query: SENSe:AVERage:COUNt:AUTO?
Response: 1
Text parameters
Text parameters observe the syntactic rules for mnemonics, i.e. they can be entered
using a short or long form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the
header by a white space. In the case of a query, the short form of the text is provided.
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Example:
Setting command: TRIGger:SLOPe POSitive
Query: TRIG:SLOP?
Response: POS
Character strings
Strings must always be entered in quotation marks (' or ").
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:FUNCtion "POWer:AVG"
Query: SENS:FUNC?
Response: "POWer:AVG"
Block data
Block data is a format which is suitable for the transmission of large amounts of data. A
command using a block data parameter has the following structure:
Example:
SYSTem:HELP:SYNTax:ALL?
Response: #45168xxxxxxxx
The ASCII character # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many
of the following digits describe the length of the data block. In the example the 4 following digits indicate the length to be 5168 bytes. The data bytes follow. During the transmission of these data bytes all end or other control signs are ignored until all bytes are
transmitted.
#0 specifies a data block of indefinite length. The use of the indefinite format requires a
NL^END message to terminate the data block. This format is useful when the length of
the transmission is not known or if speed or other considerations prevent segmentation
of the data into blocks of definite length.
A.1.4 Overview of Syntax Elements
The following table provides an overview of the syntax elements:
:
The colon separates the mnemonics of a command. In a command line the separating semicolon marks the uppermost command level.
;
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not alter the path.
,
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
?
The question mark forms a query.
*
The asterisk marks a common command.
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'
"
#
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it (both single and double quotation marks are
possible).
The hash symbol introduces binary, octal, hexadecimal and block data.
●
Binary: #B10110
●
Octal: #O7612
●
Hexa: #HF3A7
●
Block: #21312
A "white space" (ASCII-Code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank) separates the header from the
parameters.
A.1.5 Structure of a command line
A command line can consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by one of the
following:
●
a <New Line>
●
a <New Line> with EOI
●
an EOI together with the last data byte
Several commands in a command line must be separated by a semicolon ";". If the
next command belongs to a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a
colon.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels
in common, the command line can be abbreviated. To this end, the second command
after the semicolon starts with the level that lies below the common levels. The colon
following the semicolon must be omitted in this case.
Example:
TRIG:LEV 0.1mW;TRIG:DEL 3E-3
This command line contains two commands. Both commands are part of the TRIG
command system, i.e. they have one level in common.
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level
below TRIG. The colon after the semicolon is omitted. The abbreviated form of the
command line reads as follows:
TRIG:LEV 0.1E-3;DEL 3E-3
A new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
TRIG:LEV 0.1E-3
TRIG:DEL 3E-3
A.1.6 Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It is
formed by adding a question mark to the associated setting command. According to
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SCPI, the responses to queries are partly subject to stricter rules than in standard
IEEE 488.2.
●
The requested parameter is transmitted without a header.
Example: TRIG:SOUR?, Response: INT
●
Maximum values, minimum values and all other quantities that are requested via a
special text parameter are returned as numeric values.
●
Numeric values are output without a unit. Physical quantities are referred to the
basic units or to the units set using the Unit command. The response 3.5E9 for
example stands for 3.5 GHz.
●
Truth values (Boolean values) are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
Example:
Setting command: SENS:AVER:COUN:AUTO ON
Query: SENS:AVER:COUN:AUTO?
Response: 1
●
Text (character data) is returned in a short form.
Example:
Setting command: TRIGger:SOURce INTernal
Query: TRIG:SOUR?
Response: INT
A.2 Status Reporting System
The status reporting system stores all information on the current operating state of the
power sensor, and on errors which have occurred. This information is stored in the status registers and in the error queue. You can query both with the commands of the
STATus subsystem.
A.2.1 Hierarchy of the Status Registers
Fig.A-1 shows the hierarchical structure of information in the status registers.
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Figure A-1: Graphical overview of the status registers hierarchy
The highest level is formed by the Status Byte Register (STB) and the associated Service Request Enable (SRE) register.
The STB receives its information from the Standard Event Status Register (ESR) and
the associated Standard Event Status Enable (ESE) Register, as well as from the
SCPI-defined Operation Status Register, and the Questionable Status Register, which
contain detailed information on the device, and from the Device Status Register.
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A.2.2 Structure of a SCPI Status Register
Each SCPI register consists of five 16-bit registers which have different functions (see
Figure A-2). The individual bits are independent of each other, i.e. each hardware status is assigned a bit number which is the same for all five registers. Bit 15 (the mostsignificant bit) is set to zero in all registers. This prevents problems some controllers
have with the processing of unsigned integers.
Figure A-2: Standard SCPI status register
Description of the five status register parts
The five parts of a SCPI register have different properties and functions:
●
CONDition
The CONDition part is written into directly by the hardware or the sum bit of the
next lower register. Its contents reflect the current instrument status. This register
part can only be read, but not written into or cleared. Its contents are not affected
by reading.
●
PTRansition / NTRansition
The two transition register parts define which state transition of the CONDition
part (none, 0 to 1, 1 to 0 or both) is stored in the EVENt part.
The Positive-TRansition part acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the
CONDition part is changed from 0 to 1, the associated PTR bit decides whether
the EVENt bit is set to 1.
–
PTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
–
PTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read as required. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
The Negative-TRansition part also acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the
CONDition part is changed from 1 to 0, the associated NTR bit decides whether
the EVENt bit is set to 1.
–
NTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
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–
NTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read as required. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
●
EVENt
The EVENt part indicates whether an event has occurred since the last reading, it
is the "memory" of the condition part. It only indicates events passed on by the
transition filters. It is permanently updated by the instrument.
This part can only be read by the user. Reading the register clears it. This part is
often equated with the entire register.
●
ENABle
The ENABle part determines whether the associated EVENt bit contributes to the
sum bit (see below). Each bit of the EVENt part is "ANDed" with the associated
ENABle bit (symbol '&'). The results of all logical operations of this part are passed
on to the sum bit via an "OR" function (symbol '+').
ENABle bit = 0: the associated EVENt bit does not contribute to the sum bit
ENABle bit = 1: if the associated EVENt bit is "1", the sum bit is set to "1" as well.
This part can be written into and read by the user as required. Its contents are not
affected by reading.
Sum bit
The sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for each register. The result
is then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the higher-order register.
The instrument automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event
can lead to a service request throughout all levels of the hierarchy.
A.2.3 Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)
The STB is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It gives a rough overview of the sensors
status, collecting information from the lower-level registers. It is comparable with the
CONDition register of a SCPI defined register and is at the highest level of the SCPI
hierarchy. Its special feature is that bit 6 acts as the summary bit of all other bits of the
Status Byte Register.
The status byte is read by the query *STB? or a serial poll. The SRE is associated with
the STB. The function of the SRE corresponds to that of the ENABle register of the
SCPI registers. Each bit of the STB is assigned a bit in the SRE. Bit 6 of the SRE is
ignored. If a bit is set in the SRE and the associated bit in the STB changes from 0 to
1, a service request (SRQ) is generated on the IEC/IEEE bus, which triggers an interrupt in the controller configured for this purpose, and can be further processed by the
controller.
The SRE can be set by the command *SRE and read by the query *SRE?.
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Table A-1: Meaning of bits used in the status byte
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Device Status Register summary bit
Depending on the configuration of the sensors status register, this bit is set when a sensor
is connected or disconnected or when an error has occurred in a sensor
2
Error Queue not empty
The bit is set if the error queue has an entry. If this bit is enabled by the SRE, each entry of
the error queue generates a service request. An error can thus be recognized and specified
in detail by querying the error queue. The query yields a conclusive error message. This
procedure is recommended since it considerably reduces the problems of IEC/IEEE-bus
control.
3
Questionable Status Register summary bit
This bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the QUEStionable Status Register and the associated
ENABLe bit is set to 1. A set bit denotes a questionable device status which can be specified in greater detail by querying the QUEStionable Status Register.
4
MAV-Bit (Message available)
This bit is set if a readable message is in the output queue. This bit may be used to automate reading of data from the sensor into the controller.
5
ESB: Standard Event Status Register summary bit
This bit is set if one of the bits in the Standard Event Status Register is set and enabled in
the Event Status Enable Register. Setting this bit denotes a serious error which can be
specified in greater detail by querying the Standard Event Status Register.
6
MSS: Master-Status summary bit
This bit is set if the sensor triggers a service request. This is the case if one of the other bits
of this register is set together with its enable bit in the Service Request Enable register
SRE.
7
Operation Status Register summary bit
This bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the Operation Status Register and the associated
ENABLe bit is set to 1. A set bit denotes that an action is being performed by the sensor.
Information on the type of action can be obtained by querying the Operation Status Register.
A.2.4 IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)
Similar to the SRQ, the IST flag combines the complete status information in a single
bit. It can be queried by a parallel poll (see ) or by the *IST? command.
The Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE) determines which bits of the STB affect the
IST flag. The bits of the STB are ANDed with the corresponding bits of the PPE; bit 6 is
also used - in contrast to the SRE. The IST flag is obtained by ORing all results
together.
The PPE can be set by the *PRE command and read by the*PRE? query.
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A.2.5 Device Status Register
This register contains information on the state of the static errors, that can be queried
with the command SYSTem:SERRor?.
Also, bit 7 gives information on the current operating state of the NRP legacy interface.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:DEVice:CONDition?
●
STATus:DEVice[:EVENt]?
Table A-2: Meaning of bits used in the Device Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Sum of SERR bits
The sum/combination of SERR bits 1 to 4.
1
SERR measurement not possible
Static error (SERR) exists; certain parameter settings could lead to a situation where subsequent measurements are not possible
2
SERR erroneous results
Static error exists; the measurement result is possibly incorrect.
3
SERR warning
A static error exists therefore the Status LED of the power sensor is blinking slowly in red.
4
SERR critical
A critical static error exists therefore the Status LED of the power sensor is blinking fast in
red.
5 to 6
Not used
7
Legacy Locked state
The power sensor is locked in the NRP Legacy mode. Via the SCPI channels (USBTMC or
TCP/IP) only the usage of query commands is possible, and no setting commands.
The NRP legacy interface takes precedence over all other command channels as soon as
the first setting command is sent via this interface. Then this bit is set to 1 and all other
channels can subsequently only execute query commands. If a setting command is sent via
a different channel anyhow, the sensor raises an error:
-200,"Execution error; sensor in LEGACY mode"
To leave this operating mode the NRP legacy channel needs to be closed, i. e. the application which opened the NRP legacy channel should be closed, or should at least close the
connection to the sensor.
8
Reference-PLL locked state
This bit signals whether the PLL for the clock reference is synchronized. The bit is useful
when selecting an external clock source.
The following states are possible:
●
Internal clock (SYSTem:CLOCk:SOURce INT) :
–
1 (always)
●
External clock (SYSTem:CLOCk:SOURce EXT) :
–
1 if the sensor was able to synchronize with external clock
–
0 if the sensor could not synchronize with external clock
9 to 15
Not used
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A.2.6 Questionable Status Register
This register contains information on questionable sensor states. Such states may
occur when the sensor is not operated in compliance with its specifications.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?
●
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
Table A-3: Meaning of bits used in the Questionable Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0 to 2
Not used
3
Questionable Power Status Register summary bit
Corresponds to the summary bit of the Questionable Power Status Register.
4 to 7
Not used
8
Questionable Calibration Status Register summary bit
Corresponds to the summary bit of the Questionable Calibration Status Register.
9
POST Failure
The built-in test of the R&S NRPxxA(N) carried out automatically upon power-up has
generated an error.
10 to 15
A.2.6.1
Not used
Questionable Power Status Register
The CONDition register contains information whether the measured power values are
questionable.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:CONDition?
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●
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
Table A-4: Meaning of bits used in the Questionable Power Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Sensor Power
The measurement data of the sensor is corrupt.
2 to 4
Not used
5
Sensor please zero
The zero correction for the sensor is no longer correct and should be repeated.
6 to 15
A.2.6.2
Not used
Questionable Calibration Status Register
The EVENt register and the CONDition register contain information whether the zero
offset of a sensor is still valid.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:CONDition?
●
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
Table A-5: Meaning of bits used in the Questionable Calibration Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Sensor Calibration
Zeroing of the sensor was not successful.
2 to 15
Not used
A.2.7 Standard Event Status and Enable Register (ESR, ESE)
The ESR is already defined in the IEEE 488.2 standard. It is comparable to the EVENt
register of an SCPI register. The Standard Event Status Register can be read out by
the query *ESR.
The ESE forms the associated ENABle register. It can be set and read out with the
command/query *ESE.
Table A-6: Meaning of bits used in the Standard Event Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Operation Complete
When the *OPC command is received, this bit is set if all previous commands have been
executed.
1
Not used
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Bit No.
Meaning
2
Query Error
This bit is set in either of the two following cases: the controller wants to read data from the
sensor but has not sent a query, or it sends new commands to the sensor before it
retrieves existing requested data. A frequent cause is a faulty query which cannot be executed.
3
Device dependent Error
This bit is set if a sensor dependent error occurs. An error message with a number
between -300 and -399 or a positive error number denoting the error in greater detail is
entered in the error queue.
4
Execution Error
This bit is set if the syntax of a received command is correct but the command cannot be
executed due to various marginal conditions. An error message with a number between
-200 and -300 denoting the error in greater detail is entered in the error queue.
5
Command Error
This bit is set if an undefined command or a command with incorrect syntax is received. An
error message with a number between -100 and -200 denoting the error in greater detail is
entered in the error queue.
6
User Request
This bit is set when the sensor is switched over to manual control.
7
Power On
This bit is set when the sensor is switched on.
A.2.8 Operation Status Register
The CONDition register contains information on the operations currently being performed by the sensor, while the EVENt register contains information on the operations
performed by the sensor since the last readout of the register.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:OPERation:CONDition?
●
STATus:OPERation[:EVENt]?
Table A-7: Meaning of bits used in the Operation Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Operation Calibrating Status Register summary bit
This bit is set if the sensor is being calibrated.
1 to 3
Not used
4
Operation Measuring Status Register summary bit
This bit is set if the sensor is performing a measurement.
5
Operation Trigger Status Register summary bit
This bit is set if the sensor is in the WAIT_FOR_TRG state, i.e. waiting for a trigger event.
6
Not used
7 to 9
Not used
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Bit No.
Meaning
10
Operation Sense Status Register summary bit
This bit is set if a sensor is initialized.
11
Operation Lower Limit Fail Status Register
This bit is set if a displayed value has dropped below a lower limit value.
12
Operation Upper Limit Fail Status Register
This bit is set if a displayed value has exceeded an upper limit value.
13 to 14
Not used
15
Bit 15 will never be used.
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A.2.8.1
Operation Calibrating Status Register
The CONDition register contains information about whether a sensor is currently
being calibrated and, depending on the configuration of the transition register. The
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EVENt register indicates whether a calibration was started or completed since the last
readout of this register.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:CONDition?
●
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
Table A-8: Meaning of bits used in the Operation Calibrating Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Sensor calibrating
The sensor is being calibrated
5 to 15
A.2.8.2
Not used
Operation Measuring Status Register
The CONDition register contains information about whether a measurement is being
performed by a sensor and, depending on the configuration of the transition register.
The EVENt register indicates whether a measurement was started or completed since
the last readout of this register.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:CONDition?
●
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
Table A-9: Meaning of bits used in the Operation Measuring Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Sensor measuring
The sensor is performing a measurement.
5 to 15
A.2.8.3
Not used
Operation Trigger Status Register
The CONDition register contains information about whether a sensor is currently in
the WAIT_FOR_TRG state, i.e. expecting a trigger event and, depending on the configuration of the transition register. TheEVENt register indicates whether the
WAIT_FOR_TRG state was entered or quit by a sensor since the last readout of the
register.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:CONDition?
●
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
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Status Reporting System
Table A-10: Meaning of bits used in the Operation Trigger Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Sensor waiting for trigger
The sensor is in the WAIT_FOR_TRG state and is waiting for a trigger event that will
change it to the MEASURING state.
5 to 15
A.2.8.4
Not used
Operation Sense Status Register
The CONDition register contains information about whether a sensor is currently
being initialized and, depending on the configuration of the transition register. The
EVENt register indicates whether a sensor initialization was started or completed since
the last readout of this register.
This status is assumed by a sensor if one of the following conditions is met:
●
The supply voltage is switched on (power up)
●
The sensor was just connected
●
A reset was performed (*RST or SYSTem:PRESet)
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:CONDition?
●
STATus:OPERation:SENSe[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
Table A-11: Meaning of bits used in the Operation Sense Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Sensor initializing
The sensor is being initialized.
5 to 15
A.2.8.5
Not used
Operation Lower Limit Fail Status Register
The CONDition register contains information about whether a displayed value is currently below a configured lower limit. The EVENt register indicates whether a measured value dropped below a limit value since the last readout of the Operation Lower
Limit Fail Status Register. Details of the behavior are defined by the transition register.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:CONDition?
●
STATus:OPERation:LLFail[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
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Status Reporting System
Table A-12: Meaning of bits used in the Operation Lower Limit Fail Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Lower Limit Fail
The measured value drops below the lower limit value.
5 to 15
A.2.8.6
Not used
Operation Upper Limit Fail Status Register
The CONDition register contains information about whether a displayed value is currently above a configured upper limit. The EVENt register indicates whether a limit
value was exceeded since the last readout of the Operation Upper Limit Fail Status
Register.
The register can be read by the queries:
●
STATus:OPERation:ULFail:CONDition?
●
STATus:OPERation:ULFail[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?
Table A-13: Meaning of bits used in the Operation Lower Limit Fail Status Register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Upper Limit Fail
The measured value exceeds the upper limit value.
5 to 15
Not used
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List of Commands
List of Commands
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]APERture................................................................................................. 92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:CLEar......................................................................................... 92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:COUNt?...................................................................................... 92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:DATA?........................................................................................ 92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:SIZE............................................................................................92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]BUFFer:STATe........................................................................................ 92
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]FAST........................................................................................................ 93
[SENSe<Sensor>:][POWer:][AVG:]SMOothing:STATe................................................................................... 93
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AUXiliary............................................................................................................................90
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt.............................................................................................................. 94
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO................................................................................................... 94
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:MTIMe....................................................................................... 94
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:NSRatio.....................................................................................94
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:RESolution................................................................................ 95
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO:TYPE.........................................................................................95
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:RESet............................................................................................................... 95
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage:TCONtrol...........................................................................................................96
[SENSe<Sensor>:]AVERage[:STATe].............................................................................................................96
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:DCYCle........................................................................................................ 97
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:DCYCle:STATe............................................................................................ 97
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:OFFSet.........................................................................................................98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:OFFSet:STATe.............................................................................................98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:LIST?........................................................................................... 98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:SELect......................................................................................... 98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]CORRection:SPDevice:STATe......................................................................................... 98
[SENSe<Sensor>:]FREQuency.......................................................................................................................96
[SENSe<Sensor>:]FUNCtion...........................................................................................................................89
[SENSe<Sensor>:]RANGe.............................................................................................................................. 87
[SENSe<Sensor>:]RANGe:AUTO................................................................................................................... 87
[SENSe<Sensor>:]RANGe:CLEVel.................................................................................................................87
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:CORRection:STATe..........................................................................................99
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:MAGNitude..................................................................................................... 100
[SENSe<Sensor>:]SGAMma:PHASe............................................................................................................ 100
*CLS.................................................................................................................................................................72
*ESE................................................................................................................................................................ 72
*ESR?.............................................................................................................................................................. 73
*IDN?............................................................................................................................................................... 73
*IST?................................................................................................................................................................73
*OPC................................................................................................................................................................73
*OPT?.............................................................................................................................................................. 74
*PRE................................................................................................................................................................ 74
*RCL................................................................................................................................................................ 74
*RST................................................................................................................................................................ 74
*SAV................................................................................................................................................................ 74
*SRE................................................................................................................................................................ 75
*STB?...............................................................................................................................................................75
*TRG................................................................................................................................................................75
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*TST?...............................................................................................................................................................75
*WAI.................................................................................................................................................................75
ABORt............................................................................................................................................................102
CALCulate:FEED.............................................................................................................................................90
CALibration:DATA..........................................................................................................................................114
CALibration:DATA:LENGth?..........................................................................................................................114
CALibration:USER:DATA...............................................................................................................................114
CALibration:USER:DATA:LENGth?...............................................................................................................115
CALibration:ZERO:AUTO.............................................................................................................................. 115
FETCh?............................................................................................................................................................89
FETCh<Sensor>:ARRay[:POWer][:AVG]?...................................................................................................... 89
FORMat:BORDer.............................................................................................................................................88
FORMat:SREGister......................................................................................................................................... 88
FORMat[:DATA]...............................................................................................................................................88
INITiate:CONTinuous.....................................................................................................................................103
INITiate[:IMMediate].......................................................................................................................................103
STATus:DEVice:CONDition?.........................................................................................................................111
STATus:DEVice:ENABle............................................................................................................................... 112
STATus:DEVice:NTRansition........................................................................................................................ 112
STATus:DEVice:PTRansition........................................................................................................................ 113
STATus:DEVice[:EVENt]?............................................................................................................................. 111
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:CONDition?............................................................................................... 111
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:ENABle......................................................................................................112
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:NTRansition.............................................................................................. 112
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating:PTRansition...............................................................................................113
STATus:OPERation:CALibrating[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?................................................................................ 111
STATus:OPERation:CONDition?...................................................................................................................111
STATus:OPERation:ENABle......................................................................................................................... 112
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:CONDition?........................................................................................................ 111
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:ENABle...............................................................................................................112
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:NTRansition....................................................................................................... 112
STATus:OPERation:LLFail:PTRansition........................................................................................................113
STATus:OPERation:LLFail[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?......................................................................................... 111
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:CONDition?................................................................................................111
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:ENABle...................................................................................................... 112
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:NTRansition............................................................................................... 112
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring:PTRansition............................................................................................... 113
STATus:OPERation:MEASuring[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?................................................................................. 111
STATus:OPERation:NTRansition.................................................................................................................. 112
STATus:OPERation:PTRansition.................................................................................................................. 113
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:CONDition?...................................................................................................... 111
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:ENABle.............................................................................................................112
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:NTRansition..................................................................................................... 112
STATus:OPERation:SENSe:PTRansition......................................................................................................113
STATus:OPERation:SENSe[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?....................................................................................... 111
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:CONDition?.................................................................................................... 111
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:ENABle...........................................................................................................112
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:NTRansition................................................................................................... 112
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger:PTRansition....................................................................................................113
STATus:OPERation:TRIGger[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?..................................................................................... 111
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STATus:OPERation:ULFail:CONDition?....................................................................................................... 111
STATus:OPERation:ULFail:ENABle.............................................................................................................. 112
STATus:OPERation:ULFail:NTRansition.......................................................................................................112
STATus:OPERation:ULFail:PTRansition....................................................................................................... 113
STATus:OPERation:ULFail[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?.........................................................................................111
STATus:OPERation[:EVENt]?....................................................................................................................... 111
STATus:PRESet............................................................................................................................................ 110
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:CONDition?.......................................................................................... 111
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:ENABle.................................................................................................112
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:NTRansition..........................................................................................112
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration:PTRansition..........................................................................................113
STATus:QUEStionable:CALibration[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?............................................................................111
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?.............................................................................................................. 111
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle.....................................................................................................................112
STATus:QUEStionable:NTRansition............................................................................................................. 112
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:CONDition?................................................................................................. 111
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:ENABle........................................................................................................112
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:NTRansition.................................................................................................112
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:PTRansition.................................................................................................113
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer[:SUMMary][:EVENt]?...................................................................................111
STATus:QUEStionable:PTRansition..............................................................................................................113
STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?.................................................................................................................. 111
STATus:QUEue[:NEXT]?...............................................................................................................................111
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress................................................................................................78
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:GATeway............................................................................... 78
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:INFO?.................................................................................... 78
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:MODE.................................................................................... 78
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:IPADdress:SUBNet:MASK.......................................................................79
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:RESet.......................................................................................................76
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:RESTart................................................................................................... 76
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork:STATus?.................................................................................................. 77
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork[:COMMon]:DOMain................................................................................. 77
SYSTem:COMMunicate:NETWork[:COMMon]:HOSTname............................................................................77
SYSTem:DFPRint?..........................................................................................................................................79
SYSTem:ERRor:ALL?..................................................................................................................................... 79
SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL?.......................................................................................................................... 79
SYSTem:ERRor:CODE[:NEXT]?.....................................................................................................................79
SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt?................................................................................................................................ 80
SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?................................................................................................................................ 80
SYSTem:FEATures?....................................................................................................................................... 80
SYSTem:FWUPdate........................................................................................................................................80
SYSTem:FWUPdate:STATus?........................................................................................................................ 82
SYSTem:HELP:HEADers?.............................................................................................................................. 82
SYSTem:HELP:SYNTax:ALL?........................................................................................................................ 82
SYSTem:HELP:SYNTax?................................................................................................................................82
SYSTem:INFO?...............................................................................................................................................82
SYSTem:INITialize...........................................................................................................................................83
SYSTem:LANGuage........................................................................................................................................83
SYSTem:LED:COLor.......................................................................................................................................83
SYSTem:LED:MODE.......................................................................................................................................84
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SYSTem:LIMits?..............................................................................................................................................84
SYSTem:MINPower?.......................................................................................................................................84
SYSTem:PRESet.............................................................................................................................................85
SYSTem:REBoot............................................................................................................................................. 85
SYSTem:SERRor:LIST:ALL?.......................................................................................................................... 85
SYSTem:SERRor:LIST[:NEXT]?..................................................................................................................... 85
SYSTem:SERRor?.......................................................................................................................................... 85
SYSTem:TLEVels?..........................................................................................................................................86
SYSTem:TRANsaction:BEGin......................................................................................................................... 86
SYSTem:TRANsaction:END............................................................................................................................86
SYSTem:VERSion?.........................................................................................................................................87
SYSTem[:SENSor]:NAME............................................................................................................................... 86
TEST:SENSor?..............................................................................................................................................113
TRIGger:ATRigger:DELay............................................................................................................................. 103
TRIGger:ATRigger:EXECuted?..................................................................................................................... 104
TRIGger:ATRigger:STATe.............................................................................................................................104
TRIGger:COUNt.............................................................................................................................................104
TRIGger:DELay............................................................................................................................................. 104
TRIGger:DELay:AUTO.................................................................................................................................. 105
TRIGger:DTIMe............................................................................................................................................. 105
TRIGger:EXTernal<2...2>:IMPedance...........................................................................................................106
TRIGger:HOLDoff.......................................................................................................................................... 106
TRIGger:HYSTeresis.....................................................................................................................................106
TRIGger:IMMediate....................................................................................................................................... 107
TRIGger:LEVel...............................................................................................................................................107
TRIGger:MASTer:PORT................................................................................................................................ 107
TRIGger:MASTer:STATe...............................................................................................................................108
TRIGger:SLOPe.............................................................................................................................................108
TRIGger:SOURce..........................................................................................................................................108
TRIGger:SYNC:PORT................................................................................................................................... 109
TRIGger:SYNC:STATe..................................................................................................................................109
UNIT:POWer....................................................................................................................................................87
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R&S®NRPxxA(N)
Index
Index
A
H
Application cards ................................................................. 8
Application notes ................................................................. 8
HiSLIP
Protocol ....................................................................... 38
Resource string ........................................................... 37
Hostname .......................................................................... 23
B
Basic measurement parameters
Remote control commands ......................................... 93
Boolean parameters ........................................................ 124
Brochures ............................................................................ 8
Browser-based user interface ..................................... 31, 40
Button
LAN reset .................................................................... 15
C
Case-sensitivity
SCPI ......................................................................... 122
Checking the delivery ........................................................ 12
Commands
Command line structure ............................................ 126
Common commands
Syntax ....................................................................... 121
CONDition ....................................................................... 129
Connecting
Host interface .............................................................. 16
RF ............................................................................... 16
To a PC ....................................................................... 17
Connector
Host interface .............................................................. 14
LAN ............................................................................. 14
Overview ..................................................................... 12
RF ............................................................................... 13
Trigger I/O ................................................................... 13
D
Data sheets ......................................................................... 8
Disconnecting
Host interface .............................................................. 17
RF ............................................................................... 17
Documentation overview ..................................................... 7
E
EMI suppression ............................................................... 12
ENABle ............................................................................129
Ethernet interface
Remote control ........................................................... 36
EVENt ............................................................................. 129
F
Firmware update ............................................................... 26
G
Getting started ..................................................................... 7
User Manual 1177.6017.02 ─ 03
I
Instrument security procedures ........................................... 8
Interface
Overview ..................................................................... 12
IP Address ......................................................................... 23
K
Keywords
optional ....................................................................... 71
L
LAN connection ................................................................. 20
LAN reset button ............................................................... 15
LED
Network status ............................................................ 15
Power status ............................................................... 15
Status .......................................................................... 14
M
Mnemonics ...................................................................... 121
N
Network status LED .......................................................... 15
NTRansition .................................................................... 129
O
Open source acknowledgment (OSA) ................................. 8
Operating concepts ........................................................... 24
Browser-based user interface ..................................... 31
R&S NRP Toolkit ........................................................ 25
R&S NRP2 .................................................................. 32
R&S NRPV ................................................................. 27
R&S Power Viewer Plus ............................................. 29
P
Parameters
Block data ................................................................. 125
Special numeric values ............................................. 124
String ........................................................................ 125
Text ........................................................................... 125
PC
Connection types ........................................................ 17
LAN connection .......................................................... 20
Simple USB connection .............................................. 17
USB sensor hub .......................................................... 18
Power status LED ............................................................. 15
Preparing for use ...............................................................11
Protocol
HiSLIP ......................................................................... 38
VXI-11 ......................................................................... 38
145
R&S®NRPxxA(N)
PTRansition ..................................................................... 129
Q
Queries ............................................................................ 127
R
R&S NRP Toolkit ............................................................... 25
Components for Windows-based systems ................. 25
Installation under Windows ......................................... 26
System requirements .................................................. 25
R&S NRP‑Z5 ..................................................................... 18
R&S NRP2 ........................................................................ 32
R&S NRPV ........................................................................ 27
R&S Power Viewer Plus .................................................... 29
Release notes ..................................................................... 8
Remote control
Ethernet interface ....................................................... 36
HiSLIP protocol ........................................................... 38
Interfaces .................................................................... 34
Protocols ..................................................................... 34
Socket communication ................................................ 38
USB interface .............................................................. 35
VISA resource strings ................................................. 36
VXI-11 protocol ........................................................... 38
Remote control commands
Basic measurement parameters ................................. 93
Resource string
HiSLIP ......................................................................... 37
Socket ......................................................................... 37
VISA ............................................................................ 36
VXI-11 ......................................................................... 37
RF connector ..................................................................... 13
Index
USB interface
Remote control ........................................................... 35
USB product ID ................................................................. 36
USB resource string .......................................................... 35
USB sensor hub ................................................................ 18
User manual ........................................................................ 7
V
VISA
Resource string ........................................................... 36
VXI-11
Protocol ....................................................................... 38
Resource string ........................................................... 37
W
White papers ....................................................................... 8
S
Safety information ............................................................... 7
Safety instructions ............................................................... 8
SCPI
Parameters ............................................................... 123
Syntax ....................................................................... 121
Security procedures ............................................................ 8
Socket
Communication ........................................................... 38
Resource string ........................................................... 37
Special characters
SCPI ........................................................................... 71
Status LED ........................................................................ 14
Status registers
CONDition ................................................................. 129
ENABle ..................................................................... 129
EVENt ....................................................................... 129
NTRansition .............................................................. 129
PTRansition .............................................................. 129
Suffixes ..................................................................... 71, 122
T
Trigger I/O connector ........................................................ 13
Tutorials .............................................................................. 8
U
Units ................................................................................ 123
Unpacking the delivery ...................................................... 12
USB connection ................................................................ 17
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