I-3 Accessing Web Page of VigorSwitch

VigorSwitch P1280
PoE Gigabit Ports Web Smart Switch
User’s Guide
Version: 1.1
Firmware Version: V2.0.0
(For future update, please visit DrayTek web site)
Date: October 13, 2017
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VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Copyrights
© All rights reserved. This publication contains information that is protected by copyright. No part may be
reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language without
written permission from the copyright holders.
Trademarks
The following trademarks are used in this document:

Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.

Windows, Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8, 10 and Explorer are trademarks of Microsoft Corp.

Apple and Mac OS are registered trademarks of Apple Inc.

Other products may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers.
Caution
Circuit devices are sensitive to static electricity, which can damage their delicate electronics. Dry weather
conditions or walking across a carpeted floor may cause you to acquire a static electrical charge.
To protect your device, always:

Touch the metal chassis of your computer to ground the static electrical charge before you pick up the circuit
device.

Pick up the device by holding it on the left and right edges only.
Warranty
We warrant to the original end user (purchaser) that the device will be free from any defects in workmanship or
materials for a period of one (1) year from the date of purchase from the dealer. Please keep your purchase
receipt in a safe place as it serves as proof of date of purchase. During the warranty period, and upon proof of
purchase, should the product have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, we will, at
our discretion, repair or replace the defective products or components, without charge for either parts or labor,
to whatever extent we deem necessary tore-store the product to proper operating condition. Any replacement
will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent product of equal value, and will be offered solely
at our discretion. This warranty will not apply if the product is modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an
act of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions. The warranty does not cover the bundled or licensed
software of other vendors. Defects which do not significantly affect the usability of the product will not be
covered by the warranty. We reserve the right to revise the manual and online documentation and to make
changes from time to time in the contents hereof without obligation to notify any person of such revision or
changes.
Be a Registered Owner
Web registration is preferred. You can register your Vigor router via http://www.DrayTek.com.
Firmware & Tools Updates
Due to the continuous evolution of DrayTek technology, all routers will be regularly upgraded. Please consult the
DrayTek web site for more information on newest firmware, tools and documents.
More update, please visit www.draytek.com.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
Part I Introduction ..............................................................................................................1
I-1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 2
I-1-1 Key Features ....................................................................................................................... 2
I-1-2 Specifications ...................................................................................................................... 3
I-1-3 Packing List ......................................................................................................................... 4
I-1-4 LED Indicators and Connectors .......................................................................................... 4
I-2 Installation ..................................................................................................................................... 6
I-2-1 Typical Applications............................................................................................................. 6
I-2-2 Installing Network Cables.................................................................................................... 9
I-2-3 Configuring the Management Agent of Switch.................................................................. 10
I-2-4 Managing VigorSwitch P1280 through Ethernet Port........................................................ 10
I-2-5 IP Address Assignment ..................................................................................................... 10
I-3 Accessing Web Page of VigorSwitch .......................................................................................... 14
I-4 Dashboard................................................................................................................................... 15
I-5 Status .......................................................................................................................................... 16
I-5-1 Port Bandwidth Utilization ................................................................................................. 16
I-5-2 LLDP Statistics .................................................................................................................. 17
Part II Switch LAN ............................................................................................................19
II-1 General Setup ............................................................................................................................ 20
II-1-1 IP Address ........................................................................................................................ 20
II-1-2 IPv6 Address .................................................................................................................... 21
II-1-3 Management VLAN .......................................................................................................... 22
II-2 Port Setting ................................................................................................................................ 23
II-3 Mirror.......................................................................................................................................... 25
II-4 Link Aggregation ........................................................................................................................ 26
II-4-1 LAG Setting ...................................................................................................................... 26
II-4-2 LAG Management ............................................................................................................ 27
II-4-3 LAG Port Setting............................................................................................................... 28
II-4-4 LACP Setting .................................................................................................................... 29
II-4-5 LACP Port Setting ............................................................................................................ 30
II-5 VLAN Management.................................................................................................................... 31
II-5-1 Create VLAN .................................................................................................................... 31
II-5-2 Interface Settings.............................................................................................................. 32
II-5-3 Voice VLAN ...................................................................................................................... 33
II-5-3-1 Properties .................................................................................33
II-5-3-2 Telephony OUI Setting ..................................................................35
II-5-3-3 Port Setting ...............................................................................36
II-6 EEE ............................................................................................................................................ 37
II-7 Multicast ..................................................................................................................................... 38
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VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-7-1 Properties ......................................................................................................................... 38
II-7-2 IGMP Snooping ................................................................................................................ 39
II-7-2-1 IGMP Setting ..............................................................................39
II-7-2-2 IGMP Querier Setting....................................................................41
II-7-2-3 IGMP Static Group .......................................................................42
II-7-2-4 IGMP Group Table........................................................................43
II-7-2-5 IGMP Router Table.......................................................................44
II-8 Jumbo Frame ............................................................................................................................. 45
II-9 STP ............................................................................................................................................ 46
II-9-1 Properties ......................................................................................................................... 46
II-9-2 Port Setting....................................................................................................................... 47
II-9-3 Bridge Setting ................................................................................................................... 48
II-9-4 Port Advanced Setting...................................................................................................... 49
II-9-5 Statistics ........................................................................................................................... 50
II-10 MAC Address Table.................................................................................................................. 51
II-10-1 Static MAC Setting ......................................................................................................... 51
II-10-2 Dynamic Address Setting ............................................................................................... 52
II-10-3 Dynamic Learned ........................................................................................................... 52
Part III Security.................................................................................................................55
III-1 Storm Control ............................................................................................................................ 56
III-1-1 Properties ........................................................................................................................ 56
III-1-2 Port Setting...................................................................................................................... 57
III-2 DoS ........................................................................................................................................... 58
III-2-1 Properties ........................................................................................................................ 58
III-2-2 DoS Port Setting.............................................................................................................. 60
Part IV QoS Configuration...............................................................................................61
IV-1 General ..................................................................................................................................... 62
IV-1-1 Properties........................................................................................................................ 62
IV-1-1-1 QoS General Setting ....................................................................62
IV-1-1-2 Trust Ports ...............................................................................63
IV-1-2 Port Settings.................................................................................................................... 64
IV-1-3 Queue Settings ............................................................................................................... 65
IV-1-4 CoS Mapping .................................................................................................................. 66
IV-1-5 DSCP Mapping ............................................................................................................... 67
IV-1-6 IP Precedence Mapping.................................................................................................. 68
IV-2 Bandwidth ................................................................................................................................. 69
IV-2-1 Ingress Rate Limit ........................................................................................................... 69
IV-2-2 Egress Shaping Rate ...................................................................................................... 70
IV-2-3 Egress Shaping Per Queue ............................................................................................ 71
Part V PoE Configuration ................................................................................................73
V-1 Properties................................................................................................................................... 74
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
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V-2 Status ......................................................................................................................................... 75
V-3 Device Check............................................................................................................................. 76
V-4 Schedule .................................................................................................................................... 77
V-4-1 Schedule Profile ............................................................................................................... 77
V-4-2 Port Scheduling................................................................................................................ 78
Part VI System Maintenance ...........................................................................................79
VI-1 LLDP......................................................................................................................................... 80
VI-1-1 Properties........................................................................................................................ 80
VI-1-2 LLDP Port Setting ........................................................................................................... 81
VI-1-3 LLDP Local Device.......................................................................................................... 82
VI-1-4 LLDP Remote Device...................................................................................................... 83
VI-1-5 LLDP Overloading........................................................................................................... 84
VI-2 SNMP ....................................................................................................................................... 85
VI-2-1 Properties........................................................................................................................ 86
VI-2-2 SNMP Community........................................................................................................... 87
VI-2-3 SNMP Trap Host ............................................................................................................. 88
VI-3 Access Manager ....................................................................................................................... 89
VI-4 Time and Date .......................................................................................................................... 90
VI-4-1 System Time Zone .......................................................................................................... 90
VI-4-2 Time ................................................................................................................................ 91
VI-5 Backup Manager....................................................................................................................... 92
VI-6 Upgrade Manager..................................................................................................................... 93
VI-7 Account Manager...................................................................................................................... 94
VI-8 Factory Default ......................................................................................................................... 95
VI-9 Reboot Switch........................................................................................................................... 96
Part VII Diagnostics .........................................................................................................97
VII-1 Cable Diagnostics.................................................................................................................... 98
VII-2 Ping Test .................................................................................................................................. 99
VII-3 SysLog................................................................................................................................... 100
VII-3-1 SysLog Explorer........................................................................................................... 100
VII-3-2 SysLog Settings ........................................................................................................... 101
VII-3-2-1 SysLog Service......................................................................... 101
VII-3-2-2 Local SysLog ........................................................................... 102
VII-3-2-3 Remote SysLog ........................................................................ 103
Appendix: Reference .....................................................................................................104
A-1 What’s the Ethernet ................................................................................................................. 104
A-2 Media Access Control (MAC) .................................................................................................. 107
A-3 Flow Control.............................................................................................................................. 111
Index ............................................................................................................................... 114
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VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Part I Introduction
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
1
I-1 Introduction
24 ports + 4 Combo UTP/SFP ports, PoE Gigabit Ports Web Smart Switch is a standard switch
that meets all IEEE 802.3/u/x/z Gigabit, Fast Ethernet specifications. The switch has 24
10/100/1000Mbps TP ports. It supports telnet, http, https, SSH and SNMP interface for switch
management. The network administrator can logon the switch to monitor, configure and
control each port’s activity. In addition, the switch implements the QoS (Quality of Service),
VLAN, and Trunking. It is suitable for office application.
Vigor switch supports IEEE 802.3az, Energy-Efficient Ethernet, and provides power saving
feature. It can efficiently save the switch power with auto detect the client idle and cable
length to provide different power.
1000Mbps SFP Fiber port fully complies with all IEEE 802.3z and 1000Base-SX/LX standards.
I-1-1 Key Features
Below shows key features of this device:
QoS
The switch offers powerful QoS function. This function supports 802.1p VLAN tag priority and
DSCP on Layer 3 of network framework.
VLAN
Support Port-based VLAN and IEEE802.1Q Tag VLAN. Support 24 active VLANs and VLAN ID
1~4094.
Port Trunking
Allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a Link Aggregation Group by the
static setting.
Power Saving
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VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
The Power saving using the IEEE 802.3az, Energy-Efficient Ethernet to detect the client idle
and cable length automatically and provides the different power. It could efficient to save
the switch power and reduce the power consumption.
I-1-2 Specifications
The VigorSwitch P1280, a standalone off-the-shelf switch, provides the comprehensive
features listed below for users to perform system network administration and efficiently and
securely serve your network.
Hardware

24 10/100/1000Mbps Auto-negotiation Gigabit Ethernet TP ports with PoE+

Jumbo frame support 9KB

4 UTP/SFP Combo Ethernet Ports

Programmable classifier for QoS (Layer 2/Layer 3)

8K MAC address and support VLAN ID(1~4094)

Per-port shaping, policing, and Broadcast Storm Control

Power Saving with IEEE 802.3az, Energy-Efficient Ethernet

Full-duplex flow control (IEEE802.3x) and half-duplex backpressure

Extensive front-panel diagnostic LEDs; Power, System, PoE fail and PoE/link activity

Hardware reset button for resetting configuration to factory default by pressing over 5
seconds
Management

Supports per port traffic monitoring counters

Supports a snapshot of the system Information when you login

Supports port mirror function

Supports the static trunk function

Supports 802.1Q VLAN

Supports user management and limits three users to login

Maximal packet length can be up to 9600 bytes for jumbo frame application

Supports Broadcasting Suppression to avoid network suspended or crashed

Supports to send the trap event while monitored events happened

Supports default configuration which can be restored to overwrite the current
configuration which is working on via Web UI and Reset button of the switch

Supports on-line plug/unplug SFP modules

Supports Quality of Service (QoS) for real time applications based on the
taken from Layer 2 to Layer 3

Built-in web-based management and CLI management, providing a more convenient UI
for the user
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
information
3
I-1-3 Packing List
Before you start installing the switch, verify that the package contains the following:

VigorSwitch P1280

AC Power Cord

Quick Start Guide

Rubber feet

Rack mount kit
Please notify your sales representative immediately if any of the aforementioned items is
missing or damaged.
I-1-4 LED Indicators and Connectors
Before you use the Vigor device, please get acquainted with the LED indicators and
connectors first. There are 8 Ethernet ports and SFP ports on the front panel of the switch.
LED display area, locating on the front panel, contains an ACT, Power LED and ports working
status of the switch.
Combo Port
LED Explanation
SFP LNK/ACT
RJ45 LNK/ACT Port 1 to Port 24 / PoE for Port 1 to Port 24
LED
Color
Explanation
PoE /Max
On (Green)
Connected over the PoE maximum power budget.
Off
Connected within the PoE maximum power
budget.
SYS
PWR
PoE 1~24
RJ 45
LNK/ACT
4
On (Green)
The switch finishes system booting and the system
is ready.
Blinking (Green)
The switch is powered on and starts system
booting.
Off
The power is off or the system is not ready /
malfunctioning.
On (Green)
The device is powered on and running normally.
Off
The device is not ready or is failed.
On (Green)
The port is supplied with PoE power.
Off
No PoE power is supplied on the port.
On (Green)
The device is connected with 1000Mbps.
On (Amber)
The device is connected with 10/100Mbps.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Port 1 ~ 24
Combo for
Port 25 ~ 28
(RJ 45
LNK/ACT)
SFP LNK/ACT
Blinking
The system is sending or receiving data through
the port.
Off
The port is disconnected or the link is failed.
On (Green)
The device is connected with 1000Mbps.
On (Amber)
The device is connected with 10/100Mbps.
Blinking
The system is sending or receiving data through
the port.
Off
The port is disconnected or the link is failed.
On (Green)
The device is connected with 1000Mbps.
On (Amber)
The device is connected with 10/100Mpps.
Blinking
The system is sending or receiving data through
the port.
Off
The port is disconnected or the link is failed.
Connector Explanation
Interface
Description
RJ 45 LNK/ACT Port 1 ~ 24
PoE for Port 1 ~ 24
Port 1 to Port 24 can be used for Ethernet
connection and PoE connection, depending on the
device connected.
Power inlet for AC input (100~240V/AC, 50/60Hz).
Power Output
--
IEEE 802.3af Max. 15.4W Output Supported;
IEEE 802.3at Max. 30W Output Supported
PoE Power Budget
--
340 Watts (Max)
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
5
I-2 Installation
I-2-1 Typical Applications
The VigorSwitch implements 24 Gigabit Ethernet TP ports with auto MDIX and four slots for
the removable module supporting comprehensive fiber types of connection, including LC and
BiDi-LC SFP modules. The switch is suitable for the following applications:
Case 1: All switch ports are in the same local area network.
Every port can access each other. (*The switch image is sample only.)
If VLAN is enabled and configured, each node in the network that can communicate each
other directly is bounded in the same VLAN area.
Here VLAN area is defined by what VLAN you are using. The switch supports both port-based
VLAN and tag-based VLAN. They are different in practical deployment, especially in physical
location. The following diagram shows how it works and what the difference they are.
Case 2: Port-based VLAN -1 (*The switch image is sample only.)

6
The same VLAN members could not be in different switches.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide

Every VLAN members could not access VLAN members each other.

The switch manager has to assign different names for each VLAN groups at one switch.
Case 3: Port-based VLAN - 2

VLAN1 members could not access VLAN2, VLAN3 and VLAN4 members.

VLAN2 members could not access VLAN1 and VLAN3 members, but they could access
VLAN4 members.

VLAN3 members could not access VLAN1, VLAN2 and VLAN4.

VLAN4 members could not access VLAN1 and VLAN3 members, but they could access
VLAN2 members.
Case 4: The same VLAN members can be at different switches with the same VID
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
7
Case 5: Desktop Installation
1.
Install the switch on a level surface that can support the weight of the unit and the
relevant components.
2.
Plug the switch with the female end of the provided power cord and plug the male end
to the power outlet.
Case 6: Rack-mount Installation
The switch may be standalone, or mounted in a rack. Rack mounting facilitate to an orderly
installation when you are going to install series of networking devices.
Procedures to Rack-mount the switch:
1.
Disconnect all the cables from the switch before continuing.
2.
Place the unit the right way up on a hard, flat surface with the front facing you.
3.
Locate a mounting bracket over the mounting holes on one side of the unit.
4.
Insert the screws and fully tighten with a suitable screwdriver.
5.
Repeat the two previous steps for the other side of the unit.
6.
Insert the unit into the rack and secure with suitable screws.
7.
Reconnect all the cables.
Case 7: Central Site/Remote site application is used in carrier or ISP
Case 8: Peer-to-peer application is used in two remote offices
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VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Case 9: Office network
I-2-2 Installing Network Cables
Crossover or straight-through cable: All the ports on the switch support Auto-MDI/MDI-X
functionality. Both straight-through or crossover cables can be used as the media to connect
the switch with PCs as well as other devices like switches, hubs or router.
Category 3, 4, 5 or 5e, 6 UTP/STP cable: To make a valid connection and obtain the optimal
performance, an appropriate cable that corresponds to different transmitting/receiving
speed is required. To choose a suitable cable, please refer to the following table.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
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Media
10/100/1000
Mbps copper
Speed
Wiring
10 Mbps
Category 3,4,5 UTP/STP
100Mbps
Category 5 UTP/STP
1000 Mbps
Category 5e, 6 UTP/STP
I-2-3 Configuring the Management Agent of Switch
Users can monitor and configure the switch through the following procedures.
Configuring the Management Agent of VigorSwitch P1280 through the Ethernet Port.
There are several ways to configure and monitor the switch through Ethernet port, includes
Web-UI and SNMP.
I-2-4 Managing VigorSwitch P1280 through Ethernet Port
Before start using the switch, the IP address setting of the switch should be done, then
perform the following steps:
1. Set up a physical path between the configured the switch and a PC by a qualified UTP Cat.
5e cable with RJ-45 connector.
Note: If PC directly connects to the switch, you have to setup the same subnet mask
between them. But, subnet mask may be different for the PC in the remote site. Please
refer to the above figure about the Web Smart Switch default IP address information.
2. After configuring correct IP address on your PC, open your web browser and access
switch's IP address.
Default system account is "admin", with password "admin" in default. Switch IP address is
"192.168.1.224" by default with DHCP client enabled.
I-2-5 IP Address Assignment
For IP address configuration, there are three parameters needed to be filled in. They are IP
address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway and DNS.
IP address:
The address of the network device in the network is used for internetworking communication.
Its address structure looks is shown below. It is “classful” because it is split into predefined
address classes or categories.
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VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Each class has its own network range between the network identifier and host identifier in the
32 bits address. Each IP address comprises two parts: network identifier (address) and host
identifier (address). The former indicates the network where the addressed host resides, and
the latter indicates the individual host in the network which the address of host refers to. And
the host identifier must be unique in the same LAN. Here the term of IP address we used is
version 4, known as IPv4.
Network identifier
Host identifier
32 bits
With the classful addressing, it divides IP address into three classes, class A, class B and class
C. The rest of IP addresses are for multicast and broadcast. The bit length of the network
prefix is the same as that of the subnet mask and is denoted as IP address/X, for example,
192.168.1.0/24. Each class has its address range described below.
Class A:
Address is less than 126.255.255.255. There are a total of 126 networks can be defined
because the address 0.0.0.0 is reserved for default route and 127.0.0.0/8 is reserved for
loopback function.
Class B:
IP address range between 128.0.0.0 and 191.255.255.255. Each class B network has a 16-bit
network prefix followed 16-bit host address. There are 16,384 (2^14)/16 networks able to be
defined with a maximum of 65534 (2^16 –2) hosts per network.
Class C:
IP address range between 192.0.0.0 and 223.255.255.255. Each class C network has a 24-bit
network prefix followed 8-bit host address. There are 2,097,152 (2^21)/24 networks able to
be defined with a maximum of 254 (2^8 –2) hosts per network.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
11
Class D and E:
Class D is a class with first 4 MSB (Most significance bit) set to 1-1-1-0 and is used for IP
Multicast. See also RFC 1112. Class E is a class with first 4 MSB set to 1-1-1-1 and is used for IP
broadcast.
According to IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), there are three specific IP address
blocks reserved and able to be used for extending internal network. We call it Private IP
address and list below:
Class A
10.0.0.0 --- 10.255.255.255
Class B
172.16.0.0 --- 172.31.255.255
Class C
192.168.0.0 --- 192.168.255.255
Please refer to RFC 1597 and RFC 1466 for more information.
Subnet mask:
It means the sub-division of a class-based network or a CIDR block. The subnet is used to
determine how to split an IP address to the network prefix and the host address in bitwise
basis. It is designed to utilize IP address more efficiently and ease to manage IP network.
For a class B network, 128.1.2.3, it may have a subnet mask 255.255.0.0 in default, in which
the first two bytes is with all 1s. This means more than 60 thousands of nodes in flat IP
address will be at the same network. It’s too large to manage practically. Now if we divide it
into smaller network by extending network prefix from 16 bits to, say 24 bits, that’s using its
third byte to subnet this class B network. Now it has a subnet mask 255.255.255.0, in which
each bit of the first three bytes is 1. It’s now clear that the first two bytes is used to identify
the class B network, the third byte is used to identify the subnet within this class B network
and, of course, the last byte is the host number.
Not all IP address is available in the sub-netted network. Two special addresses are reserved.
They are the addresses with all zero’s and all one’s host number. For example, an IP address
128.1.2.128, what IP address reserved will be looked like? All 0s mean the network itself, and
all 1s mean IP broadcast.
In this diagram, you can see the subnet mask with 25-bit long, 255.255.255.128, contains 126
members in the sub-netted network. Another is that the length of network prefix equals the
number of the bit with 1s in that subnet mask. With this, you can easily count the number of
IP addresses matched. The following table shows the result.
Prefix Length
/32
12
No. of IP matched No. of Addressable IP
1
-
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
/31
2
-
/30
4
2
/29
8
6
/28
16
14
/27
32
30
/26
64
62
/25
128
126
/24
256
254
/23
512
510
/22
1024
1022
/21
2048
2046
/20
4096
4094
/19
8192
8190
/18
16384
16382
/17
32768
32766
/16
65536
65534
According to the scheme above, a subnet mask 255.255.255.0 will partition a network with
the class C. It means there will have a maximum of 254 effective nodes existed in this
sub-netted network and is considered a physical network in an autonomous network. So it
owns a network IP address which may looks like 168.1.2.0.
With the subnet mask, a bigger network can be cut into small pieces of network. If we want to
have more than two independent networks in a worknet, a partition to the network must be
performed. In this case, subnet mask must be applied.
For different network applications, the subnet mask may look like 255.255.255.240. This
means it is a small network accommodating a maximum of 15 nodes in the network.
For assigning an IP address to the switch, you just have to check what the IP address of the
network will be connected with the switch. Use the same network address and append your
host address to it.

First, IP Address: as shown above, enter “192.168.1.224”, for instance. For sure, an
IP address such as 192.168.1.x must be set on your PC.

Second, Subnet Mask: as shown above, enter “255.255.255.0”. Choose a subnet mask
suitable for your network.
Note: The DHCP Setting is enabled in default. Therefore, if a DHCP server presented on
network connected to the switch, check before accessing your switch is essential.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
13
I-3 Accessing Web Page of VigorSwitch
1.
Open any browser (e.g., Firefox) and type “192.168.1.224” as URL.
2.
Please type “admin/admin” as the Username/Password and click Login.
3.
Now, the Main Screen will appear.
Info
14
The DHCP Setting is enabled in default. Therefore, if a DHCP server presented on
network connected to VigorSwitch, checking before accessing VigorSwitch is
essential.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
I-4 Dashboard
Click Dashboard from the main menu on the left side of the main page.
A web page with default selections will be displayed on the screen. Refer to the following
figure:
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
15
I-5 Status
I-5-1 Port Bandwidth Utilization
This page offers the traffic statistics inlcuding data information and data of interframe gap
for each port (GE1 to GE28). In which, data of interframe gap can be displayed or hidden by
choose Enable / Disable for IFG.
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VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
I-5-2 LLDP Statistics
This page offers the statistics of LLDP packets (in, out and error) of each port (GE1 to GE28).
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
17
This page is left blank.
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VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Part II Switch LAN
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
19
II-1 General Setup
General setup is used to configure settings for the switch network interface and offers how
the switch connects to a remote server to get services.
II-1-1 IP Address
Use the IP Address screen to configure the switch IP address and the default gateway device.
The gateway field specifies the IP address of the gateway (next hop) for outgoing traffic.
The switch needs an IP address for it to be managed over the network. The factory default IP
address is 192.168.1.224. The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP
address. The factory default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
Info
If VigorSwitch has connected to Vigor router, it will use the IP address obtained from
the DHCP server on Vigor router. Thus, the user must type the assigned IP as URL for
accessing into the web user interface of VigorSwitch. If not, 192.168.1.224 shall be
the default IP.
Available settings are explained as follows:
20
Item
Description
Mode
Select the mode of network connection.
Static- Use static IPv4 address.
DHCP – Use DHCP provisioned IP address and Gateway if
feasible.
IP Address
It is available when Static is selected as Mode.
Enter the IP address of your switch in dotted decimal notation
for example 192.168.1.224. If static mode is enabled, enter IP
address in this field.
Subnet Mask
It is available when Static is selected as Mode.
Enter the IP subnet mask of your switch in dotted decimal
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
notation for example 255.255.255.0. If static mode is enabled,
enter subnet mask in this field.
Gateway
It is available when Static is selected as Mode.
Enter the IP address of the gateway in dotted decimal
notation. If static mode is enabled, enter gateway address in
this field.
DNS Server 1
It is available when Static is selected as Mode.
If static mode is enabled, enter primary DNS server address in
this field.
DNS Server 2
It is available when Static is selected as Mode.
If static mode is enabled, enter secondary DNS server address
in this field.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
II-1-2 IPv6 Address
Use the IPv6 Address screen to configure the switch IPv6 address and the default gateway
device. The gateway field specifies the IPv6 address of the gateway (next hop) for outgoing
traffic.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Auto Configuration
Enable - Check it to let switch automatically configure IPv6
address.
IPv6 Address
It is available when Auto Configuration is Disable.
Enter the IPv6 address of your switch. If auto configuration
mode is disabled, enter IPv6 address in this field.
Link Local Address
It is available when Auto Configuration is Disable.
Type
Gateway
It is available when Auto Configuration is Disable.
Enter the IPv6 address of the router as your default IPv6
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
21
gateway to access IPv6 Internet or other IPv6 network.
DHCPv6 Client
Enable this feature if there is a DHCPv6 server on your network
for assigning IPv6 Address, instead of using Router
Advertisement.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
II-1-3 Management VLAN
This page allows users to change the VLAN ID of management access. Management access
protocols such as http, https, SNMP and etc., are only accessible from the VLAN specified as
management VLAN.
Available settings are explained as follows:
22
Item
Description
Management VLAN
Select the VLAN ID as management VLAN. You can create
additional VLAN profiles by Switch LAN>>VLAN
management>> Create VLAN.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-2 Port Setting
Port Setting is used to configure settings for the switch ports, trunk, Layer 2 protocols and
other switch features.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Ports
Use the drop down list to selelct one or more LAN port(s).
Enable State
Enable –Click it to enable the port.
Disable – Click it to disable the port.
Speed
Port speed capabilities:

Auto: Auto speed with all capabilities.

Auto-10M: Auto speed with 10M ability only.

Auto-100M: Auto speed with 100M ability only.

Auto-1000M: Auto speed with 1000M ability only.

Auto-10/100M: Auto speed with 10/100M ability.

10M: Force speed with 10M ability.

100M: Force speed with 100M ability.

1000M: Force speed with 1000M ability.
Selecting Auto (auto-negotiation) allows one port to negotiate
with a peer port automatically to obtain the connection speed
and duplex mode that both ends support. When
auto-negotiation is turned on, a port on the switch negotiates
with the peer automatically to determine the connection
speed and duplex mode. If the peer port does not support
auto-negotiation or turns off this feature, the switch
determines the connection speed by detecting the signal on
the cable and using half duplex mode. When the switch’s
auto-negotiation is turned off, a port uses the pre-configured
speed and duplex mode when making a connection, thus
requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer port
are the same in order to connect.
For SFP fiber module, you might need to manually configure
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
23
the speed to match fiber module speed.
24
Duplex
Port duplex capabilities:

Auto: Auto duplex with all capabilities.

Half: Auto speed with 10/100M ability only.

Full: Auto speed with 10/100/1000M ability only.
Flow Control
A concentration of traffic on a port decreases port bandwidth
and overflows buffer memory causing packet discards and
frame losses. Flow Control is used to regulate transmission of
signals to match the bandwidth of the receiving port. The
switch uses IEEE802.3x flow control in full duplex mode and
backpressure flow control in half duplex mode. IEEE802.3x
flow control is used in full duplex mode to send a pause signal
to the sending port, causing it to temporarily stop sending
signals when the receiving port memory buffers fill. Back
Pressure flow control is typically used in half duplex mode to
send a "collision" signal to the sending port (mimicking a state
of packet collision) causing the sending port to temporarily
stop sending signals and resend later.
Enable – Click it to enable such function.
Disable – Click it to disable such function.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-3 Mirror
This section provides ability to mirror packets coming in or going out on any port to a
destination port. Through the packet duplication in the destination port, this feature is
convinent for system administrator to monitor / understand the traffic operation.
Session ID 1 to 4 can be enabled simultaneously and operate independently.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Session ID
Select the session ID (profile 1 to 4) of mirror operation you
wish to configure.
Monitor Session State
Enable – Enable specified mirror session.
Disable - Disable specified mirror session.
Destination Port
Specify the port where you wish to observe the mirrored
packets.
Allow Operation as
Normal Port
Enable – The destination port is able to function as a port
connecting to network, communicating with other network
devices.
Disable - Only observe the mirrored packets.
Sniff Ports (RX) / (TX)
Select the port(s) which you wish to mirror the traffic, Rx for
mirror the packets into the port, Tx for mirror the packets
going out from the port.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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25
II-4 Link Aggregation
LAG means Link Aggregation Group which groups some physical ports together to make a
single high-bandwidth data path. Thus it can implement traffic load sharing among the
member ports in a group to enhance the connection reliability.
II-4-1 LAG Setting
This page allows to configure Load Balance Algorithm for Link Aggregation.
Available settings are explained as follows:
26
Item
Description
Load Balance Algorithm
Select your Load balance algorithm.
MAC address - Aggregated group will balance the traffic based
on different MAC addresses. Therefore, the packets from
different MAC addresses will be sent to different links.
IP/Mac Address - Aggregated group will balance the traffic
based on MAC addresses and IP addresses. Therefore, the
packets from same MAC addresses but different IP addresses
will be sent to different links.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-4-2 LAG Management
There are eight LAG profiles allowed to group different physical ports (GE1 to GE28). The
system will assign certain port(s) as Active Member and Standby Member according to the GE
selections.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Description
Display the port description.
Port Type
Display the type of the LAG.
Link Status
Display LAG port link status.
Active Member
Display active member ports of the LAG.
Standby Member
Display inactive or candidate member ports of the LAG.
Modify
It is used to edit the name, type and port number for each link
aggregation profile.
Name- Enter a string as LAG name.
Type – Use the drop down menu to specify the type for LAG.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide

Static- The static aggregated port sends packets over
active member without detecting or negotiating with
remote aggregated port.

LACP- The LACP aggregated ports place member into
active only after negotiated with remote aggregated port
for best reliability.
27
II-4-3 LAG Port Setting
This page defines port setting for each LAG profile (LAG1 to LAG8), including data speed and
enabling/disabling the flow control.
Available settings are explained as follows:
28
Item
Description
LAG
Use the drop down list to selelct one or more LAG profiles.
Enable
Enable –Click it to enable the profile.
Disable – Click it to disable the profile.
Speed
Port speed capabilities:

Auto: Auto speed with all capabilities.

Auto-10M: Auto speed with 10M ability only.

Auto-100M: Auto speed with 100M ability only.

Auto-1000M: Auto speed with 1000M ability only.

Auto-10/100M: Auto speed with 10/100M ability.

10M: Force speed with 10M ability.

100M: Force speed with 100M ability.

1000M: Force speed with 1000M ability.
Selecting Auto (auto-negotiation) allows one port to negotiate
with a peer port automatically to obtain the connection speed
and duplex mode that both ends support. When
auto-negotiation is turned on, a port on the switch negotiates
with the peer automatically to determine the connection
speed and duplex mode. If the peer port does not support
auto-negotiation or turns off this feature, the switch
determines the connection speed by detecting the signal on
the cable and using half duplex mode. When the switch’s
auto-negotiation is turned off, a port uses the pre-configured
speed and duplex mode when making a connection, thus
requiring you to make sure that the settings of the peer port
are the same in order to connect.
For SFP fiber module, you might need to manually configure
the speed to match fiber module speed.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Flow Control
A concentration of traffic on a port decreases port bandwidth
and overflows buffer memory causing packet discards and
frame losses. Flow Control is used to regulate transmission of
signals to match the bandwidth of the receiving port. The
switch uses IEEE802.3x flow control in full duplex mode and
backpressure flow control in half duplex mode. IEEE802.3x
flow control is used in full duplex mode to send a pause signal
to the sending port, causing it to temporarily stop sending
signals when the receiving port memory buffers fill. Back
Pressure flow control is typically used in half duplex mode to
send a "collision" signal to the sending port (mimicking a state
of packet collision) causing the sending port to temporarily
stop sending signals and resend later.
Enable – Click it to enable such function.
Disable – Click it to disable such function.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
II-4-4 LACP Setting
This page is used to enable or disable the LACP function.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
LACP
Enable – Click it to enable such function.
Disable – Click it to disable the function.
System Priority
The priority is used to determine which switch (local or
remote) on the LAG connection is able to decide LACP
activities. The lower the number is, the higher the priority for
Vigorwitch will be. Therefore, the switch with the highest
system priority (e.g., 1) can make decisions about which ports
actively participate in LAG at a given time.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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29
II-4-5 LACP Port Setting
This section provides few detailed configuration regarding to Ports under LACP protocol.
Available settings are explained as follows:
30
Item
Description
Ports
Use the drop down list to specify LAN Port.
Priority
Enter a port priority number for the port.
Timeout
The timeout option decides how local switch of LAG
connection determines connection to be lost. Switch would
also notify the remote switch about this setting value, so that
remote switch can send LACP PDU in correct timing.
Long - LACP PDU will be sent every 30 seconds. If port member
is not seen over 90 seconds, it will cause port member
timeout.
Short - LACP PDU will be sent per second. If port member is
not seen over 3 seconds, it will cause port member timeout.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-5 VLAN Management
A virtual local area network, virtual LAN or VLAN, is a group of hosts with a common set of
requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the same broadcast domain,
regardless of their physical location. A VLAN has the same attributes as a physical local area
network (LAN), but it allows for end stations to be grouped together even if they are not
located on the same network switch. VLAN membership can be configured through software
instead of physically relocating devices or connections.
II-5-1 Create VLAN
This page allows a user to add, edit or delete VLAN settings.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Add / Del
Select which action to perform, add VLANs or delete VLANs.
Add – Create a new VLAN profile.
Delete – Delete an existed VLAN profile.
VLAN List
Enter the number as VLAN ID to be created or deleted. If you
want to create / delete multiple VLAN profiles, simply enter
multiple VLAN ID separated by comma, and/or range of VLAN
ID using hyphen.
VLAN Name Prefix
Enter the prefix you wish to add followed by VLAN ID as VLAN
name. Leave it empty for using default "VLAN".
After clicking Apply, you will see:
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31
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Modify
- Modify the name of the selected VLAN ID.
New Name - Type a name for such VLAN profile.
OK - Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Cancel - Close the page and return to previous page.
- Delete the selected VALN ID.
II-5-2 Interface Settings
This page allows a user to configure interface setting related to VLAN.
Available settings are explained as follows:
32
Item
Description
Port Select
Select LAN ports to configure VLAN Settings.
Interface VLAN Mode
Select the VLAN mode of the interface.
Hybrid – Support all functions as defined in IEEE
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
802.1Qspecification.
Access – Accepts only untagged frames and join an untagged
VLAN.
Trunk - An untagged member of one VLAN at most, and is a
tagged member of zero or more VLANs.
PVID
A PVID (Port VLAN ID) is a tag that adds to incoming untagged
frames received on a port so that the frames are forwarded to
the VLAN group that the tag defines.
For port under Access Mode, VLAN ID provided as PVID would
automatically be selected as the untagged VLAN.
Accepted Type
Specify the acceptable-frame-type of the specified interfaces.
It’s only available with Hybrid mode.
All - Accept frames regardless it's tagged with 802.1q or not.
Tag Only - Accept frames only with 802.1q tagged.
Untag Only - Accept frames untagged.
Ingress Filtering
Enable the ingress filtering to filter out any packets not belong
to any VLAN members of this port. It is enabled automatically
while operating in Access and Trunk mode.
Enabled – Click it to enable the function.
Disabled - Click it to disable the function.
Tagged VLAN
Specify the VLAN profile tagged in the VLAN.
Untagged VLAN
Specify the VLAN profile untagged in the VLAN.
Forbidden VLAN
Specify the VLAN profile forbidden in the VLAN.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
II-5-3 Voice VLAN
With such feature, a VLAN will be created temporarily and when the specified OUI device
delivers protocol packets related to “VoIP”, VigorSwitch will guide these packets into the
specified Voice LAN with specified priorioty tag to speed up the packet transmission. Such
voice VLAN is only active inside VigorSwitch for packet transmission. After these packets
leave VigorSwitch, the Voice VLAN tag will be removed immediately.
II-5-3-1 Properties
This page allows a user to configure global and per interface setting of voice VLAN.
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33
Available settings are explained as follows:
34
Item
Description
Voice VLAN State
Enabled – Click it to enable Voice VLAN.
Disabled - Click it to disable Voice VLAN.
Voice VLAN Id
Check the box of Enable first and then select Voice VLAN ID
profile.
Remark CoS/802.1p
Click Enabled / Disabled to enable or disable 1p remarking. If
enabled, qualified packets will be remarked by this value.
Remark Value
Specify the number of packets to be remarked.
Specify the CoS/802.1p number you wish ingress VoIP packets
be tagged with, so that QoS can prioritize it correctly.
Aging Time
Select value of aging time (30~65536 min).
Default is 1440 minutes. A voice VLAN entry will be age out
after this time if without any packet pass through.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-5-3-2 Telephony OUI Setting
This page allows a user to add, edit or delete OUI MAC addresses. Default has 8 pre-defined
OUI MAC.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
OUI Address
Type OUI address.
Description
Enter a description of the specified MAC address to the voice
VLAN OUI table.
Add
Click it to create a new voice OUI based on the settings
configured above.
Edit
Click Edit for one entry to modify OUI setting for voice VLAN.
Delete
Click it to remove the selected OUI entry.
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35
II-5-3-3 Port Setting
This page allows a user to specify LAN port(s) as Voice LAN port.
Available settings are explained as follows:
36
Item
Description
Port
Use the drop down list to specify one or more LAN ports.
State
Enabled – Click it to enable the port settings for Voice LAN.
Disabled – Click it to disable the port settings for Voice LAN.
Cos Mode
If Remark CoS/802.1p is enabled in Voice VLAN>>Properties,
settings in this page shall be applied. Otherwise, this option
will not take effect.
All - Once this port is identified as Voice VLAN by frame with
matched OUI, remark CoS/802.1p shall tag for all ingress
frame regardless of remarked frame matched with
pre-configured OUI or not.
Src (Source) - Once this port is identified as Voice VLAN by
frame with matched OUI, remark CoS/802.1p shall tag for only
the matched ingress frame with pre-configured OUI.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Edit
Click Edit for one entry to modify port settings (State, Cos
Mode) for voice VLAN.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-6 EEE
This page allows a user to enable or disable port EEE (Energy Efficient Ethernet) function.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Port
Select one or multiple ports to configure (GE1 to GE28).
Enable
Enable –Click it to enable the EEE function.
Disable - Click it to disable the EEE function.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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37
II-7 Multicast
IP multicast is a technique for one-to-many communication over an IP infrastructure in a
network.
To avoid the incoming data broadcasting to all GE ports, multicast is useful to transfer the
data/message to specified GE ports for IGMP snooping. When VigorSwitch receives a message
“subscribed” by the client, it must decide to transfer the data to specified GE ports according
to the location of the client (subscribed member).
II-7-1 Properties
For the multicast packets, this page allows the administrator to choose actions for processing
the unknown muliticast packets and for handling known packets with MAC address, IP address
and VLAN ID.
Available settings are explained as follows:
38
Item
Description
Unknown Multicast
Action
Select an action for switch to handle with unknown multicast
packet.
Drop: Drop the unknown multicast data.
Flood: Flood the unknown multicast data.
Forward to Router port: Forward the unknown multicast data
to router port.
IPv4 Forward Method
Set the IPv4 multicast forward method.
Dst. MAC & VID: Forward using destination multicast MAC
address and VLAN IDs.
Dst. IP & VID: Forward using destination multicast IP address
and VLAN ID.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-7-2 IGMP Snooping
IGMP snooping is the process of listening to Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
network traffic. The feature allows a network switch to listen in on the IGMP conversation
between hosts and routers. By listening to these conversations the switch maintains a map of
which links need which IP multicast streams. Multicasts may be filtered from the links which
do not need them and thus controls which ports receive specific multicast traffic.
II-7-2-1 IGMP Setting
This page allows you to enable/disable IGMP function, select snooping version, and
enable/disable snooping report suppression.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
IGMP Snooping State
Enable – Click it to set enabling IGMP function.
Disable - Click it to disable IGMP function.
IGMP Snooping Version
Set the IGMP snooping version.
v2 - Only support process IGMP v2 packet.
v3 - Support v3 basic and v2.
IGMP Snoopign Report
Suppression
Click Enable to allow the switch to handle IGMP reports
between router and host, suppressing bandwidth used by
IGMP.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Edit
Click it to modify IGMP settings for selected VLAN profile.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
39
IGMP Snooping State –Choose Enable to enable IGMP snooping
function.
Router Ports Auto Learn – Set the enabling status of IGMP
router port learning. Choose Enable to learn router port by
IGMP query.
Query Robustness – Set a number which allows tuning for the
expected packet loss on a subnet.
Query Interval – Set the interval of querier send general
query.
Query Response Interval – It specifies the maximum allowed
time before sending a responding report in units of 1/10
second.
Last Member Query Counter – After quering for specified
times (defined here) and still not receiving any response from
the subscribed member, VigorSwitch will stop transmitting
data to the related GE port(s).
Last Member Query Interval – The maximum time interval
between counting each member query message with no
responses from any subscribed member.
Immediate Leave – Leave the multicast group immediately on
the port & VLAN where leave message is sent from, regardless
there is still a subscribed member or not. Click Enable to
enable Fastleave function.
OK - Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Cancel - Close the page and return to previous page.
40
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-7-2-2 IGMP Querier Setting
This page allows a user to configure querier settings on specific VLAN of IGMP Snooping.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
VLAN ID
Use the drop down list to specify a VLAN profile as IGMP
Snooping querier.
Querier State
Enable – Click Enable to set the enabling status of IGMP
Querier on the chosen VLAN profile.
Disable – Click it to disable the function.
Querier Version
Set the query version of IGMP Querier Election on the chosen
VLANs.
v2: Querier version 2.
v3: Querier version 3.
Note: For maximum compatibility, it is suggested to use
querier version lower than IGMP snooping version, for there is
possibile network mixed with IGMP v2/v3 client and v2 query
message is widerly understandable for those clients.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
41
II-7-2-3 IGMP Static Group
The IGMP static group is allowed to assign a VLAN/port as a specific IPv4 multicast member.
Every IPv4 multicast stream that belongs to the specified group IP address will be forwarded
to the specified port/VLAN member.
Available settings are explained as follows:
42
Item
Description
VLAN ID
Use the drop down list to specify a VLAN profile as IGMP Static
Group.
Group IP Address
Specify the IPv4 multicast address you wish to assign for the
static group (defined in VLAN ID).
Member Ports
Specify the port(s) that static group with given IPv4 multicast
address shall include.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-7-2-4 IGMP Group Table
This page shows currently known and dynamically learned by IGMP snooping or shows the
assigned IPv4 multicast address group in operation.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
VLAN ID
Display the VLAN of this multicast group belongs to.
Group IP Address
Display the multicast address of this multicast group.
Member Ports
Display the port(s) where subscribing member of this multicast
group belongs to.
Type
Display if it is dynamically learned or statically assigned.
Life(sec.)
Display the life time of this multicast member left if no
membership report sent again.
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43
II-7-2-5 IGMP Router Table
This page shows the IGMP querier router known to this switch.
Available settings are explained as follows:
44
Item
Description
VLAN ID
Display the VLAN profile that the IGMP querier belongs to.
Port
Display the uplink ports where querier router exists.
Expire Time (sec.)
Display the time before querier is considered no longer
existed.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-8 Jumbo Frame
This page allows a user to configure switch port jumbo frame settings.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Jumbo Frame (Bytes)
Enter Jumbo frame size. The valid range is 1526 bytes – 9216
bytes.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
45
II-9 STP
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that ensures a loop-free topology for
any bridged Ethernet local area network.
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) are frames that contain information about the Spanning
Tree Protocol (STP). Switches send BPDUs using a unique MAC address from its origin port and
a multicast address as destination MAC (01:80:C2:00:00:00, or 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CD for Per
VLAN Spanning Tree).
For STP algorithms to function, the switches need to share information about themselves and
their connections. What they share are bridge protocol data units (BPDUs).
BPDUs are sent out as multicast frames to which only other layer 2 switches or bridges are
listening. If any loops (multiple possible paths between switches) are found in the network
topology, the switches will co-operate to disable a port or ports to ensure that there are no
loops; that is, from one device to any other device in the layer 2 network, only one path can
be taken.
II-9-1 Properties
This page allows a user to configure and display STP property configuration.
Available settings are explained as follows:
46
Item
Description
STP Mode
Set the operating mode of Spanning Tree (STP).
Disabled – Disable the STP operation.
STP - Enable the Spanning Tree (STP) operation.
RSTP - Enable the Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP) operation.
BPDU Forward
Specify the BPDU forward method when the STP is disabled.
Filtering - Filter the BPDU when STP is disabled.
Flooding - Flood the BPDU when STP is disabled.
PathCost Method
Specify the path cost method.
Long - Specifies that the default port path costs are within the
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
range: 1~200,000,000.
Short - Specifies that the default port path costs are within
the range: 1~65,535.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
II-9-2 Port Setting
This page allows the user to configure and display STP port settings.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Ports
Use the drop down to specify the interface ID or the list of
interface IDs.
Path Cost (0=Auto)
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame on to a LAN
through that port. It is recommended to assign this value
according to the speed of the bridge. The slower the media,
the higher the cost. Entering 0 means the switch will
automatically assign a value.
Edge Port
In the edge mode, the interface would be put into the
Forwarding state immediately upon link up. If the edge mode
is enabled for the interface and there are BPDUs received on
the interface, the loop might be occurred in the short time
before the STP state change.
Yes – Enable the function.
No – Disable the function.
P2P MAC
Yes – It means the STP of link type on this port is full-duplex
and directly connect to another switch or host.
No - It means the STP of link type on this port is “not”
full-duplex and “does not” directly connect to another switch
or host.
Migrate
Yes – Check it to force the specified port to send one RSTP
BPDU (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Bridge Protocol Data
Unit).
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47
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
After clicking it, the settings configured above will be shown
on the table below.
Admin Enable
YES – Such port is managed by VigorSwitch.
Edit
Click it to modify the settings for the selected GE port.
II-9-3 Bridge Setting
This page allows you to configure required information to negotiate with other VigorSwitch
for determining the bridge switch.
Available settings are explained as follows:
48
Item
Description
Priority
Specify the bridge priority. The valid range is from 0 to 61440,
and the value should be the multiple of 4096. It ensures the
probability that the switch is selected as the root bridge, and
the lower value has the higher priority for the switch to be
selected as the root bridge of the topology.
Forward Delay
Specify the STP forward delay time, which is the amount of
time that a port remains in the Listening and Learning states
before it enters the Forwarding state. Its valid range is from 4
to 10 seconds.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Max Age
Specify the time interval in seconds for a switch to wait the
configuration messages, without attempting to redefine its
own configuration.
Tx Hold Count
Specify the tx-hold-count used to limit the maximum numbers
of packets transmission per second. The valid range is from 1
to 10.
Hello Time
Specify the STP hello time in second to broadcast its hello
message to other bridge by Designated Ports. Its valid range is
from 1 to 10 seconds.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
II-9-4 Port Advanced Setting
This page allows user to edit general setting of STP CIST port and browser CIST port status.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Port
Display the interface number for GE and LAG.
Indentifier(Priority/ID)
Display the spanning tree port identifier.
Path Cost Conf/Oper
Display current path cost of given port.
Designated Root Bridge
Display the identifier of designated root bridge.
Root Path Cost
Display the operational root path cost.
Designated Bridge
Display the identifier of next bridge on this port.
Edge Port Conf/Oper
Display if this port is configured as Edge of STP network, for
speed up link up.
P2P MAC Conf/Oper
Display if this port is configured as point to point link to
another switch or host.
Port Role
Display current port role on the specified port. The possible
values will be: “Disabled”, “Root”, “Designated”,
“Alternative”, and “Backup”.
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49
Port State
Display current port state on the specified port. The possible
values will be: “Disabled”, “Discarding”, “Learning”, and
“Forwarding”.
Edit
Click it to modify the settings for the selected GE port / LAG
port.
II-9-5 Statistics
This page displays STP statistics.
Available settings are explained as follows:
50
Item
Description
Port
Display the port number (GE / LAG).
Configure BPDUs Rx.
Display the counts of the received CONFIG BPDU.
TCN BPDUs Rx.
Display the counts of the received TCN BPDU.
Configure BPDUs Tx.
Display the counts of the transmitted CONFIG BPDU.
TCN BPDUs Rx
Display the counts of the transmitted TCN BPDU.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
II-10 MAC Address Table
This section allows user to view the dynamic MAC address entries in the MAC table, change
related setting, and assign MAC address into MAC table.
II-10-1 Static MAC Setting
This section allows user to manually assign MAC address into MAC table. The configuration
result will be displayed on the table listed on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address that will be forwarded.
VLAN
This is the VLAN group to which the MAC address belongs.
Port
Select the port where received frame of matched destination
MAC address will be forwarded to.
Add
Click it to add any port into the static MAC table.
Delete
Click it to remove the selected port from the static MAC table.
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51
II-10-2 Dynamic Address Setting
This page allows a user to configure aging time for dynamic MAC address.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Aging Time
Enter the Dynamic MAC address aging out value (5-32767
seconds).
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
II-10-3 Dynamic Learned
This page displays the MAC address and port number automatically learned by VigorSwitch.
Available settings are explained as follows:
52
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Item
Description
MAC Address
Display the MAC address that will be forwarded.
VLAN
Display the VLAN group to which the MAC address belongs.
Type
Display whether the MAC address is Dynamic (learned by the
Switch) or Static Unicast (manually entered in the Static MAC
Forwarding screen).
Port
Display the port to which this MAC address belongs.
Add to Static
Click this button to add any port into the static MAC table.
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53
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54
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Part III Security
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55
III-1 Storm Control
Storm Control helps to suppress possible broadcast, unknown multicast or unknown unicast
storm by applying a rate limit on those packets.
III-1-1 Properties
This page allows a user to configure general settings for Storm Control.
Available settings are explained as follows:
56
Item
Description
Storm Control Mode
Select the mode of storm control.
Packet/sec – Storm control rate will be calculated by
packet-based.
Kbits/sec - Storm control rate will be calculated by
octet-based.
Preamble & Inter Frame
Gap
Select the rate calculation with/without preamble & IFG (20
bytes).
Excluded – Exclude preamble & IFG (20 bytes) when count
ingress storm control rate.
Included - Include preamble & IFG (20 bytes) when count
ingress storm control rate.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
III-1-2 Port Setting
This page is used to configure port settings for Storm Control. The configuration result for
each port will be displayed on the table listed on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Ports
Use the drop down list to select the port profile (GE1 to GE28)
or profiles.
Storm Control
Disable – Disable the storm control configuration for the
selected port profile.
Enable – Enable the storm control configuration for the
selected port profile.
Limiting Rate
Check the box(es) to enable strom control rate limited for
Broadcast, Unknown Multicast and/or Unknow Unicast packet.
Broadcast – Specify the storm control rate for Broadcast
packet. Value of storm control rate, Unit: Kbps (Kbits
per-second). The range is from 16 to 1000000.
Unknown Multicast – Specify the storm control rate for
unknown multicast packet. Value of storm control rate, Unit:
Kbps (Kbits per-second). The range is from 16 to 1000000.
Unknown Unicast - Specify the storm control rate for
unknown multicast packet. Value of storm control rate, Unit:
Kbps (Kbits per-second). The range is from 16 to 1000000.
Action
Select the state of setting.
Drop – Packets exceed storm control rate will be dropped.
Shutdown - Port exceeds storm control rate will be shutdown.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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57
III-2 DoS
A Denial of Service (DoS) attack is a hacker attempt to make a device unavailable to its users.
DoS attacks saturate the device with external communication requests, so that it cannot
respond to legitimate traffic. These attacks usually lead to a device CPU overload.
The DoS protection feature is a set of predefined rules that protect the network from
malicious attacks. The DoS Security Suite Setting enables activating the security suite.
III-2-1 Properties
This page allows a user to configure DoS setting to enable/disable DoS function for global
setting.
Available settings are explained as follows:
58
Item
Description
Dst MAC=Src MAC
Drop the packets if the destination MAC address is equal to the
source MAC address.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
LAND
Drop the packets if the source IP address is equal to the
destination IP address.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
UDP Blat
Drop the packets if the UDP source port equals to the UDP
destination port.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
TCP Blat
Drop the packages if the TCP source port is equal to the TCP
destination port.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Enabled - Enable the item function.
Ping of Death
Avoid ping of death attack.
Ping packets that length are larger than 65535 bytes.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
IPv6 Min Fragments
Check the minimum size of IPv6 fragments, and drop the
packets smaller than the minimum size. The valid range is
from 0 to 65535 bytes, and default value is 1240 bytes.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
ICMP Fragments
Drop the fragmented ICMP packets.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
IPv4 Ping Max Size
Determine the IPv4 PING packet with the length.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.-
IPv6 Ping Max Size
Determine the IPv6 PING packet with the length.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
Ping Max Size Setting
Determine the IPv4/IPv6 PING packet with the length. Specify
the maximum size of the ICMPv4/ICMPv6 ping packets. The
valid range is from 0 to 65535 bytes, and the default value is
512 bytes.
Smurf Attack
Avoid smurf attack. The length range of the netmask is from 0
to 323 bytes, and default length is 0 byte.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
TCP Min Hdr Size
Check the minimum TCP header and drops the TCP packets
with the header smaller than the minimum size. The length
range is from 0 to 31 bytes, and default length is 20 bytes.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
TCP-SYN (SPORT<1024)
Drop SYN packets with sport less than 1024.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
Null Scan Attack
Drop the packets with NULL scan.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
X-mas Scan Attack
Drop the packets if the sequence number is zero, and the FIN,
URG and PSH bits are set.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
TCP SYN-FIN Attack
Drop the packets with SYN and FIN bits set.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.-
TCP SYN-RST Attack
Drop the packets with SYN and RST bits set.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
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59
Enabled - Enable the item function.
TCP Fragment (Offset=1)
Drop the fragmented ICMP packets.
Disabled – Disable the item function.
Enabled - Enable the item function.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
III-2-2 DoS Port Setting
This page allows a user to configure and display the state of DoS protection for interfaces.
The configuration result for each port will be displayed on the table listed on the lower side
of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
60
Item
Description
Port
Use the drop down list to select the port profile (GE1 to GE28)
or profiles.
DoS Protection
Disabled – Disable the function of DoS Protection.
Enabled - Enable the function of DoS Protection.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Part IV QoS Configuration
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61
IV-1 General
QoS (Quality of Service) functions to provide different quality of service for various network
applications and requirements and optimize the bandwidth resource distribution so as to
provide a network service experience of a better quality.
IV-1-1 Properties
IV-1-1-1 QoS General Setting
This page is used to specify Ingress Trust Mode for basic QoS mode.
Available settings are explained as follows:
62
Item
Description
QoS Mode
Disable –Disable the function of QoS mode.
Basic – Enable the function of QoS mode.
Ingress Trust Mode
Select the QoS operation mode.
CoS/802.1p –Traffic is mapped to queues based on the CoS
field in the VLAN tag, or based on the per-port default CoS
value if there is no VLAN tag on the incoming packet.
DSCP – All IP traffic is mapped to queues based on the DSCP
field in the IP header. If traffic is not IP traffic, it is mapped to
the lowest priority queue.
CoS/802.1p-DSCP – All IP traffic is mapped to queues based on
the DSCP field in the IP header. If traffic is not IP but has VLAN
tag, mapped to queues based on the CoS value in the VLAN
tag.
IP Precedence - All IP traffic is mapped to queues based on
the DSCP field in the IP header. If traffic is not IP but has VLAN
tag, mapped to queues based on the CoS value in the VLAN
tag.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
IV-1-1-2 Trust Ports
This page is used to enable the trust mode of basic QoS on each port. Port that is trust
disabled will be sent with lowest priority queue. The configuration result for each port will be
displayed on the table listed on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Ports
Use the drop down list to select the port profile (GE1 to GE28)
or profiles.
Trust
Click Enable to make traffic follow the trust mode in general
setting.
Enable - Traffic will follow trust mode in general setting.
Disable – No QoS service for this port.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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63
IV-1-2 Port Settings
This page is used to configure port settings for QoS. The configuration result for each port will
be displayed on the table listed on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Ports
Use the drop down list to select the port profile (GE1 to GE28)
or profiles.
Ingress Default CoS
Specify the default CoS priority value for those ingress frames
without given trust QoS tag (802.1q/DSCP/IP Precedence,
depending on configuration).
Engress Remarking
64
Remark CoS
Disable – Disable CoS remarking function for outgoing packets.
Enable - Egress traffic will be marked with CoS value
according to the Queue to CoS mapping table.
Remark DSCP/IP
Precedence
Disable – Disable DSCP/IP Precedence remarking function for
outgoing packets.
DSCP – Egress traffic will be marked with DSCP value according
to the Queue to DSCP mapping table.
IP Precedence - Egress traffic will be marked with IP
Precedence value according to the Queue to IP Precedence
mapping table.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
IV-1-3 Queue Settings
VigorSwitch supports multiple queues for each interface. The higher numbered queue
represents the higher priority. The following lists the types of supported priority queue:

Strict Priority (SP) - Egress traffic from the higher priority queue will be transmitted first,
lower priority queue shall wait until all traffic in SP queue is transmitted.

Weighted Round Robin (WRR) - The number of packets sent from the queue is
proportional to the weight of the queue.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Queue
There are eight queue ID numbers allowed to be configured.
Schedule
Strict Priority – Click it to set queue to strict priority type.
WRR – Click it to set queue to Weight round robin type.
Weight
If the queue type is WRR, set the queue weight for the queue.
% of WRR Bandwidth
Display the percentage of traffic which can be sent by current
queue compared to total WRR queues.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Strict Priority Queue
Number
Display the number of queues using Strict Priority method.
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65
IV-1-4 CoS Mapping
This section allows user to configure how ingress frames with CoS/802.1p tag map to QoS
queues, and QoS queues to CoS/802.1p on egress frames.
Actual effectiveness is based on how QoS is configured in previous QoS section. This page
provides settings for user to configure mapping only.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
CoS to Queue Mapping (for Ingress) – Settings for incoming packets.
Class of Service
Display the class of service value (0 to 7).
Queue
Define the queue ID (level 1 to 8) for different class of service
values.
Queue to CoS Mapping (for Egress Remarking) – Settings for outgoing packets.
66
Queue
Display the queue ID (level 1 to 8) for different class of service
values.
Class of Service
Define the class of service value (0 to 7).
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
IV-1-5 DSCP Mapping
This section allows user to configure how ingress packets with DSCP tag map to QoS queues,
and QoS queues to DSCP on egress packets.
Actual effectiveness is based on how QoS is configured in previous QoS section. This page
provides settings for user to configure mapping only.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
DSCP to Queue Mapping (for Ingress) – Settings for the incoming packets.
DSCP
Display the DSCP value (0 to 7).
Queue
Define the queue ID (level 1 to 8) for different DSCP values.
Queue to DSCP Mapping (for Egress Remarking) - Settings for outgoing packets.
Queue
Display the queue ID (level 1 to 8) for different DSCP values.
DSCP
Define the DSCP value (0 to 7).
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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67
IV-1-6 IP Precedence Mapping
This section allows user to configure how ingress packets with IP Precedence tag map to QoS
queues, and QoS queues to IP Precedence on egress packets.
Actual effectiveness is based on how QoS is configured in previous QoS section. This page
provides settings for user to configure mapping only.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
IP Precedence to Queue Mapping (for Ingress) - Settings for the incoming packets..
IP Precedence
Display the IP Precedence value (0 to 7).
Queue
Define the queue ID (level 1 to 8) for different IP Precedence
values.
Queue to IP Precedence Mapping (for Egress Remarking) - Settings for outgoing packets.
68
Queue
Display the queue ID (level 1 to 8) for different IP Precedence
values.
IP Precedence
Define the IP Precedence value (0 to 7).
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
IV-2 Bandwidth
Use the bandwidth setting pages to define values that determine how much traffic the switch
can receive and send on specific port or queue.
IV-2-1 Ingress Rate Limit
This page allows a user to configure ingress port rate limit. The ingress rate limit is the
number of bits per second that can be received from the ingress interface. Excess bandwidth
above this limit is discarded. The configuration result for each port will be displayed on the
table listed on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Ingress Rate Limit
Ports
Use the drop down list to select the port profile (GE1 to GE28)
or profiles.
State
Disable – Disable ingress bandwidth control.
Enable - Enable ingress bandwidth control.
Rate (Kbps)
Enter the rate value,<16-1000000>,unit:16 Kbps.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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69
IV-2-2 Egress Shaping Rate
This page allows a user to configure egress port rate limit. The egress rate limit is the number
of bits per second that can be received from the egress interface. Excess bandwidth above
this limit is discarded.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Egress Shapping Rate
70
Ports
Use the drop down list to select the port profile (GE1 to GE28)
or profiles.
State
Disable – Disable egress bandwidth control.
Enable - Enable egress bandwidth control.
CIR (Kbps)
Enter the rate value,<16-1000000>,unit:16 Kbps.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
IV-2-3 Egress Shaping Per Queue
This page allows user to configure the maximum egress bandwidth not only by port but also by
specific QoS queues. The configuration result for each port will be displayed on the table
listed on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Egress Shapping Per Queue
Port
Use the drop down list to select the port profile (GE1 to GE28)
or profiles.
Queue
Use the drop down list to select queue number for the
selected GE port.
State
Disable – Disable egress bandwidth control.
Enable - Enable egress bandwidth control.
CIR (Kbps)
Enter the rate value,<16-1000000>,unit:16 Kbps.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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71
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72
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Part V PoE Configuration
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73
V-1 Properties
This page allows a user to configure general settings for PoE and configure priority of each
port for supplying PoE power. While maximum power budget is reached, power will be served
starting with critical priority.
If the priority setting for all GE ports is configured as the same value (e.g., High); then, GE1
will have the highest priority to obtain PoE power in actual operation.
Available settings are explained as follows:
74
Item
Description
PoE Mode
Disable – Disable the PoE function.
Auto – Provides plug and play PoE function. PoE schedule and
Power Limit are disabled in this mode.
Manual – Before using PoE>>Schedule, set Manual as PoE
mode.
Ports
Use the drop down list to select the port (GE1 to GE28) or
ports for applying PoE configuration.
Enable
Enable – Make the selected ports be applied with PoE mode.
Disable – Make the selected ports be not applied with PoE
mode.
Priority
Select Priority for PoE device.
Low –Set PoE device to low priority connection.
High –Set PoE device to high priority connection.
Critical - Set PoE device to highest priority connection.
Power Limit
This setting is available when Manual is selected as PoE Mode.
Enter the value as the maximum limit of power given to each
physical port.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
V-2 Status
This page displays the current PoE status (configured in Properties, Device Check and
Schedule) for each PoE port.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Refresh
Click it to refresh the status page.
PoE Mode
Display the PoE Mode (Manual, Auto or Disable) selected for
the LAN port.
Power Budget(W)
Display the maximum power this switch can supply over PoE.
Consuming Power(W)
Display current power being consumed by all devices over PoE.
Remaining Power(W)
Display remaining power that can be supplied to additional
devices over PoE.
Power Cycle
Apply – If PoE device connects to VigorSwitch, such button will
be avaible for you to manually perform the cold boot for the
PoE device by cycling the power supply.
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75
V-3 Device Check
This page is used to configure device check of PoE PD devices. It can be applied to PoE PD
devices connected directly, check ping echo status, and forcely reboot the device when
meeting the preset health condition.
The configuration result for each port will be displayed on the table listed on the lower side
of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
76
Item
Description
Port
Use the drop down list to select the port (GE1 to GE24) or
ports for device check.
Enable
Disable – No PoE function for the selected GE port.
Enable – PoE function will be enabled for the selected GE port.
Ping IP Address
Enter the IP address of the PoE device for check.
Interval Time (sec.)
The ping check will be performed every 10, 30, 60 or 120
seconds for the selected port (PoE device).
Retry Time
The system will perform the ping check the selected port (PoE
device) for 1, 3 or 5 times.
Failure Action
Specify the action performed for PoE device when there is no
number of retry time of echo from given IP address.
Power Cycle – Forcely reboot the device by cycling the power
given to PoE device.
Power Off – The PoE divice will be powered off.
Nothing – Log this event only, no action is taken on PoE
device.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
V-4 Schedule
V-4-1 Schedule Profile
This page allows users to configure maximum 15 PoE schedule rules.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Schedule Index
Use the drop down list to choose one schedule profile.
Enable
Disable – The selected schedule profile will not take action but
be saved for future use.
Enable – The selected schedule profile will take action as
configured.
Description
Enter a brief comment for such schedule.
Start Date
Specify the starting date of the schedule by choosing from a
drop down calendar.
Start Time
Specify the starting time of the schedule by using the drop
down list to specify the starting time (hours and minutes).
Duration Time
Define the time duration (hours and minutes).
Action
Specify which action should perform during the period of the
schedule.
Power On – PoE connection is always on.
Power Off - PoE connection is always down.
How Often
Specify how often the schedule will be applied.
Once – The schedule will be applied just once.
Weekdays – Specify which days in one week should perform
the schedule.
Monthly, on date – Specify the day in a month as the starting
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
77
point.
Cycle duration (days) - The period of cycle duration is
between 1 day and 31 days. For example, 7 means the whole
cycle is 7 days; 20 means the whole cycle is 20 days. When the
time is up, the PoE device will be turned on of off
automatically.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
V-4-2 Port Scheduling
This page is used to specify the PoE port for applying the schedule. The configuration result
for each port will be displayed on the table listed on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
78
Item
Description
Ports
Select the port or ports for applying the schedule.
Schedule Index
Use the drop down list to choose the schedule profile (from 1
to 15). After clicking Apply, the selected port(s) will be
applied with the specified schedule.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
Part VI System Maintenance
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79
VI-1 LLDP
LLDP is a one-way protocol; there are no request/response sequences. Information is
advertised by stations implementing the transmit function, and is received and processed by
stations implementing the receive function. The LLDP category contains LLDP and LLDP-MED
pages.
VI-1-1 Properties
This page allows a user to set general settings for LLDP.
Available settings are explained as follows:
80
Item
Description
LLDP State
Enable – Enable LLDP protocol on this switch.
Disable – Disable LLDP protocol on this switch.
Transmission Interval
Select the interval at which frames are transmitted. The
default is 30 seconds, and the valid range is 5–32768seconds.
Holdtime Multiplier
Select the multiplier on the transmit interval to assign to TTL
(range 2–10, default = 4).
Reinitialization Delay
Select the delay before a re-initialization (range 1–10 seconds,
default = 2).
Transmit Delay
Select the delay after an LLDP frame is sent (range 1–8192
seconds, default = 3).
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VI-1-2 LLDP Port Setting
This page allows a user to select specified port or all ports to configure LLDP state.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Ports
Use the drop down list to select the port (GE1 to GE28) or
ports for device check.
State
Disable – Disable the transmission of LLDP PDUs.
TX&RX – Transmit and receive LLDP PDUs both.
TX Only – Transmit LLDP PDUs only.
RX Only - Receive LLDP PDUs only.
Optional TLVs
Within data communication protocols, optional information
may be encoded as a type-length-value or TLV element inside
a protocol. TLV is also known as tag-length value.
The type and length are fixed in size (typically 1-4 bytes),
and the value field is of variable size.
Select the LLDP optional TLVs to be carried (multiple selection
is allowed).
Available items include System Name, Port Description,
System Description, System Capability, 802.3 MAC-PHY, 802.3
Link Aggregation, 802.3 Maximum Frame Size, Management
Address and 802.1 PVID.
VLAN
Select the VLAN ID number to be performed (multiple
selections are allowed).
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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VI-1-3 LLDP Local Device
This page displays information for LLDP Local Device.
Available settings are explained as follows:
82
Item
Description
Device Summary
Display a summary of the LLDP information for this switch.
Chassis ID Subtype - Display the type of chassis ID, such as the
MAC address.
Chassis ID - Display Identifier of chassis. Where the chassis ID
subtype is a MAC address, the MAC address of the switch is
displayed.
System Name - Display model name of switch.
System Description - Display description of switch.
Capabilities Supported - Display the primary functions of the
device, such as Bridge, WLAN AP, or Router.
Capabilities Enabled - Primary enabled functions of the
device.
Port ID Subtype - Display the type of the port identifier that is
shown.
Port Details
Display detailed information of the selected GE port.
Detail - Click it to review the detailed information contained
in TLVs sent out from each interface, containing MAC/PHY,
802.3, 802.3 Link Aggregation, 802.1 VLAN and Protocol for
each LAN port (GE1 to GE28).
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VI-1-4 LLDP Remote Device
This page is used to view the information sent from neighboring devices by LLDP protocol.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Local Port
Display the number of the local port to which the neighbor is
connected.
Chassis ID Subtype
Display the type of chassis ID (for example, MAC address).
Chassis ID
Display the identifier of the 802 LAN neighboring device’s
chassis.
Port ID Subtype
Display the type of port identifier.
Port ID
Display the number of port identifier.
System Name
Display the name of the switch.
Time to Live
Display the time interval in seconds after which the
information for remote device will be deleted.
Details
Display detailed information contained in TLVs sent out from
neighboring devices.
Delete
Click it to remove information of the selected port.
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VI-1-5 LLDP Overloading
This page allows user to review current size, overall size of LLDP packet and whether it is to
exceed maximum allowed size of single LLDP packet.
Available settings are explained as follows:
84
Item
Description
Port
Display the name of the port.
Total(Bytes)
Display the total number of bytes of LLDP information in each
packet.
Left to Send(By..)
Display the total number of available bytes left for additional
LLDP information in each packet.
Status
Display if LLDP TLVs has overloaded the PDU maximum size or
not.
Mandatory TLVs
Display how many bytes used by mandatory TLVs.
802.3 TLVs
Display how many bytes used by 802.3 TLVs.
Optional TLVs
Displays how many bytes used by optional TLVs.
802.1 TLVs
Displays how many bytes used by 802.1 TLVs.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VI-2 SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an "Internet-standard protocol for managing
devices on IP networks". Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches,
servers, workstations, printers, modem racks and more.
SNMP is used mostly in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices
for conditions that warrant administrative attention.
SNMP is a component of the Internet Protocol Suite as defined by the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). It consists of a set of standards for network management, including an
application layer protocol, a database schema, and a set of data objects.
An SNMP-managed network consists of three key components:
 Managed device
 Agent - software which runs on managed devices
 Network management station (NMS) - software which runs on the manager
A managed device is a network node that implements an SNMP interface that allows
unidirectional (read-only) or bidirectional (read and write) access to node-specific
information. Managed devices exchange node-specific information with the NMSs. Sometimes
called network elements, the managed devices can be any type of device, including, but not
limited to, routers, access servers, switches, bridges, hubs, IP telephones, IP video cameras,
computer hosts, and printers.
An agent is a network-management software module that resides on a managed device. An
agent has local knowledge of management information and translates that information to or
from an SNMP-specific form.
A network management station (NMS) executes applications that monitor and control
managed devices. NMSs provide the bulk of the processing and memory resources required for
network management. One or more NMSs may exist on any managed network.
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85
VI-2-1 Properties
This page allows a user to enable the function of SNMP for VigorSwitch.
Available settings are explained as follows:
86
Item
Description
State
Enable – Enable the function of SNMP.
Disable – Disable the function of SNMP.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VI-2-2 SNMP Community
This page allows a user to add/remove multiple communities of SNMP.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Community Name
Enter a name as community name. The maximum length of the
text is limited to 23 characters.
Access Right
Read Only – It allows unidirectional access to node-specific
information.
Read & Write - It allows bidirectional access to node-specific
information.
Add
Click it to add a new community.
Action
Delete – Remove the selectd community strings.
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87
VI-2-3 SNMP Trap Host
This page allows user to register where the SNMP agent should send trap to when triggered.
Available settings are explained as follows:
88
Item
Description
IP Address
Enter IPv4 address to receive the trap notification.
Community Name
Use the drop down list to select one existed community name
for notification.
Version
Specify SNMP notification version.
v1 or v2c – Specify the SNMP Version 1 notification or SNMP
Version 2 notification.
Add
Click it to add a new community.
Action
Delete – Remove the selected community strings.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VI-3 Access Manager
This page allows users to control availability of management services such as HTTP, HTTPS,
Telent and SSH.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
HTTP Service
HTTP is the acronym of HyperText Transfer Protocol.
Enabled –Click it to enable HTTP service.
HTTPS Service
HTTPS is the acronym of Hypertext Transfer Protocol over
Secure Socket Layer.
Enabled - Click it to enable HTTPS service.
Telnet Service
Telnet is the TCP/IP standard protocol for remote terminal
service. TELNET allows a user at one site to interact with a
remote timesharing system at another site as if the user’s
keyboard and display connected directly to the remote
machine.
Disabled – Click it for not accessing telnet service.
Enabled – Click it to access telnet service.
SSH Service
Enabled – Enable SSH service.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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VI-4 Time and Date
VI-4-1 System Time Zone
This page allows a user to specify where the time of VigorSwitch should be inquired from.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
System Time Zone Setting
90
Time Zone
Use the drop down menu to select a time zone that
VigorSwitch is located.
Daylight Saving Time
Select the mode of daylight saving time.
Disable –Disable daylight saving time.
Recurring - Using recurring mode of daylight saving time.
Non-Recurring – Using non-recurring mode of daylight saving
time.
USA –Using daylight saving time in the United States that starts
on the second Sunday of March and ends on the first Sunday of
November.
European - Using daylight saving time in the Europe that starts
on the last Sunday.
Daylight Saving Time
Offse
It is available when Recurring is selected as Daylight Saving
Time.
Specify the adjust offset of daylight saving time.
Recurring From / To
It is available when Recurring is selected as Daylight Saving
Time.
From - Specify the starting time of recurring daylight saving
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
time.
To - Specify the ending time of recurring daylight saving time.
Non-recurring From / To
It is available when Non-Recurring is selected as Daylight
Saving Time.
From - Specify the starting time of non-recurring daylight
saving time.
To - Specify the ending time of recurring daylight saving time.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
System Time Zone
Informations
Display the status of system time zone.
VI-4-2 Time
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Manual Time
Specify static time (year, month, day, hours, miniutes and
seconds) manually.
Enable SNTP
Enable – Click it to enable SNTP time server.
Disable – Click to disable the time server.
SNTP/NTP Server
Address
Enter the web site of the time server or the IP address of the
server.
Server Port
Enter the port number use by the time server.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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91
VI-5 Backup Manager
Backup Manager allows a user to backup the firmware image or configuration file on the
switch to remote TFTP server or host file system through HTTP protocol.
Available settings are explained as follows:
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Item
Description
Backup Method
Select Backup method.
TFTP - Using TFTP to backup firmware.
HTTP - Using WEB browser to ubackup firmware.
Server IP
It is available when TFTP is selected as Backup Method.
Enter the IPv4/IPv6 address for the TFTP server.
Backup Type
Configuration – Make a backup copy for the configurations for
VigorSwitch.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VI-6 Upgrade Manager
Backup Manager allows a user to upgrade the firmware image or configuration file on the
switch to remote TFTP server or host file system through HTTP protocol.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Upgrade Method
Select Upgrade method:
TFTP - Using TFTP to upgrade firmware.
HTTP - Using WEB browser to upgrade firmware.
Server IP
It is available when TFTP is selected as Upgrade Method.
Enter the IPv4/IPv6 address for the TFTP server.
File Name
It is available when TFTP is selected as Upgrade Method.
Enter the firmware image or configuration file name on the
TFTP server.
File/Path
It is available when HTTP is selected as Upgrade Method.
Choose the firmware file located in your computer.
Upgrade Type
It is available when TFTP is selected as Upgrade Method.
Image – Click it to upgrade the firmware image.
Configuration – Click ito to upgrade the configurations for
VigorSwitch.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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93
VI-7 Account Manager
This page allows a user to add or delete local user on switch database for authentication. The
configuration result for each port will be displayed on the table listed on the lower side of this
web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
94
Item
Description
User Name
Enter a username for new account.
If you want to modify an existed user account, simply enter
the same string in this field. Then, modify the password and
choose privilege level. After clicking Apply, the existed user
name will be modified with different values.
Password
Enter a password for new account.
Retype Password
Retype password to make sure the password is exactly you
typed before in “Password” field.
Privilege Level
Use the drop down list to select privilege level (Admin/User)
for new account.
Admin - Allow to change switch settings.
User - See switch settings only. Not allow to change it.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Delete
Remove the selected account.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VI-8 Factory Default
Click Apply to return to factory default settings for VigorSwitch.
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95
VI-9 Reboot Switch
Click Apply to reboot VigorSwitch with current settings.
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Part VII Diagnostics
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VII-1 Cable Diagnostics
After finished copper test, the results will be shown on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
98
Item
Description
Port
Use the drop down list to select the port (GE1 to GE28) or
ports for performing cable diagnostics.
Start
Perform the copper test action.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VII-2 Ping Test
After finished the ping test, the results will be shown on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Protocol
Choose IPv4/IPv6 to specify IP address for sending ping to
check if network path is ok.
Host
Enter the IP address of SNMP server based on the protocol
selected above.
Count
It means how many times to send ping request packet.
Enter a number between 1 and 5 as the count and the default
configuration is 4.
Interval(sec)
Define the interval to perform ping action. For example, “1”
means the ping action will be performed per second.
Start
Perform ping action.
Stop
Terminate ping action.
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99
VII-3 SysLog
VII-3-1 SysLog Explorer
After clicking View, the results will be shown on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
100
Item
Description
Source
Volatile Memory – Explore the logs contained in volatile
memory (also known as RAM).
Non-Volatile Memory - Explore the logs contained in
non-volatile memory (also known as Flash).
Severity
Select severity (emerg, alert, crit, error, warning, notice, info
and debug) of log messages which you wish to filter out for
review.
Category
Select the categories (related features) of logs you wish to
review.
Category contains AAA, ACL, AUTHMGR, CABLE_DIAG, DAI,
DHCP_SNOOPING, GVRP, IGMP_SNOOPING, IPSG, L2, LLDP,
Mac-based VLAN, Mirror, MLD_SNOOPING, Platform, PM, Port,
PORT_SECURITY, QoS, Rate, SNMP, STP, Security suite,
System, Surveillance VLAN, Trunk, UDLD and VLAN.
View
Click it to display logs based on the settings configured above.
Refresh
Click it to refresh the log.
Clear All
Clear it to remove all logs displayed in this page.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VII-3-2 SysLog Settings
VII-3-2-1 SysLog Service
This page allows user to enable system logging into local syslog and specific remote syslog
server for storage.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
SysLog Service
Enable – Click it to activate function of syslog.
Disable – Click it to inactivate the function.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
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101
VII-3-2-2 Local SysLog
This page allows user to enable logging into volatile memory or non-volatile memory.
Available settings are explained as follows:
102
Item
Description
Source
Volatile Memory – Select the volatile memory for saving local
log. Volatile memory does not hold the log after reboot or
power off.
Non-Volatile Memory - Select the non-volatile memory for
saving.
If you want to modify Volatile Memory / Non-Volatile
Memory, select Volatile Memory / Non-Volatile Memory in
this field. Then, use the drop down list of severity to specify
type of log message. After clicking Apply, the Volatile
Memory / Non-Volatile Memory will be modified with new
configured severity level.
Severity
Select severity (emerg, alert, crit, error, warning, notice, info
and debug) of log messages which will be stored.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Delete
Remove all logs displayed in this page.
VigorSwitch P1280 User’s Guide
VII-3-2-3 Remote SysLog
This page allows user to enable system logging into specific remote syslog server for storage.
After clicking Apply, the results will be shown on the lower side of this web page.
Available settings are explained as follows:
Item
Description
Server Address
Enter the IP address of Syslog server.
Server Port
Specify the port that syslog should be sent to.
Severity
Select severity (emerg, alert, crit, error, warning, notice, info
and debug) of log messages which will be stored.
Facility
One device supports multiple facilities (represented with
facility ID, local0 to local7) of remote Syslog server. For each
facility ID contains different syslog server configuration,
please choose a facility ID for such Syslog server.
Apply
Save the settings or changes to the switch.
Delete
Remove specific remote syslog entry.
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103
Appendix: Reference
This chapter will tell you the basic concept of features to manage this switch and how they
work.
A-1 What’s the Ethernet
Ethernet originated and was implemented at Xerox in Palo Alto, CA in 1973 and was
successfully commercialized by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), Intel and Xerox (DIX) in
1980. In 1992, Grand Junction Networks unveiled a new high speed Ethernet with the same
characteristic of the original Ethernet but operated at 100Mbps, called Fast Ethernet now.
This means Fast Ethernet inherits the same frame format, CSMA/CD, software interface. In
1998, Gigabit Ethernet was rolled out and provided 1000Mbps. Now 10G/s Ethernet is under
approving. Although these Ethernet have different speed, they still use the same basic
functions. So they are compatible in software and can connect each other almost without
limitation. The transmission media may be the only problem.
In the above figure, we can see that Ethernet locates at the Data Link layer and Physical layer
and comprises three portions, including logical link control (LLC), media access control (MAC),
and physical layer. The first two comprises Data link layer, which performs splitting data into
frame for transmitting, receiving acknowledge frame, error checking and re-transmitting
when not received correctly as well as provides an error-free channel upward to network
layer.
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This above diagram shows the Ethernet architecture, LLC sub-layer and MAC sub-layer, which
are responded to the Data Link layer, and transceivers, which are responded to the Physical
layer in OSI model. In this section, we are mainly describing the MAC sub-layer.
Logical Link Control (LLC)
Data link layer is composed of both the sub-layers of MAC and MAC-client. Here MAC client
may be logical link control or bridge relay entity.
Logical link control supports the interface between the Ethernet MAC and upper layers in the
protocol stack, usually Network layer, which is nothing to do with the nature of the LAN. So it
can operate over other different LAN technology such as Token Ring, FDDI and so on. Likewise,
for the interface to the MAC layer, LLC defines the services with the interface independent of
the medium access technology and with some of the nature of the medium itself.
The table above is the format of LLC PDU. It comprises four fields, DSAP, SSAP, Control and
Information. The DSAP address field identifies the one or more service access points, in which
the I/G bit indicates it is individual or group address. If all bit of DSAP is 1s, it’s a global
address. The SSAP address field identifies the specific services indicated by C/R bit (command
or response). The DSAP and SSAP pair with some reserved values indicates some well-known
services listed in the table below.
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105
LLC type 1 connectionless service, LLC type 2 connection-oriented service and LLC type 3
acknowledge connectionless service are three types of LLC frame for all classes of service. In
Fig 3-2, it shows the format of Service Access Point (SAP). Please refer to IEEE802.2 for more
details.
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A-2 Media Access Control (MAC)
MAC Addressing
Because LAN is composed of many nodes, for the data exchanged among these nodes, each
node must have its own unique address to identify who should send the data or should receive
the data. In OSI model, each layer provides its own mean to identify the unique address in
some form, for example, IP address in network layer.
The MAC is belonged to Data Link Layer (Layer 2), the address is defined to be a 48-bit long
and locally unique address. Since this type of address is applied only to the Ethernet LAN
media access control (MAC), they are referred to as MAC addresses.
The first three bytes are Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) code assigned by IEEE. The
last three bytes are the serial number assigned by the vendor of the network device. All these
six bytes are stored in a non-volatile memory in the device. Their format is as the following
table and normally written in the form as aa-bb-cc-dd-ee-ff, a 12 hexadecimal digits
separated by hyphens, in which the aa-bb-cc is the OUI code and the dd-ee-ff is the serial
number assigned by manufacturer.
Bit 47
Bit 0
1st byte
2nd byte
3rd byte
4th byte
5th byte
OUI code
6th byte
Serial number
The first bit of the first byte in the Destination address (DA) determines the address to be a
Unicast (0) or Multicast frame (1), known as I/G bit indicating individual (0) or group (1). So
the 48-bit address space is divided into two portions, Unicast and Multicast. The second bit is
for global-unique (0) or locally-unique address. The former is assigned by the device
manufacturer, and the later is usually assigned by the administrator. In practice,
global-unique addresses are always applied.
A unicast address is identified with a single network interface. With this nature of MAC
address, a frame transmitted can exactly be received by the target an interface the
destination MAC points to.
A multicast address is identified with a group of network devices or network interfaces. In
Ethernet, a many-to-many connectivity in the LANs is provided. It provides a mean to send a
frame to many network devices at a time. When all bit of DA is 1s, it is a broadcast, which
means all network device except the sender itself can receive the frame and response.
Ethernet Frame Format
There are two major forms of Ethernet frame, type encapsulation and length encapsulation,
both of which are categorized as four frame formats 802.3/802.2 SNAP, 802.3/802.2,
Ethernet II and Netware 802.3 RAW. We will introduce the basic Ethernet frame format
defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard required for all MAC implementations. It contains seven
fields explained below.
PRE
SFD
DA
SA
Type/Length
7
7
6
6
2
Data
Pad bit if any
46-1500
FCS
4
Preamble (PRE) - The PRE is 7-byte long with alternating pattern of ones and zeros used to
tell the receiving node that a frame is coming, and to synchronize the physical receiver with
the incoming bit stream. The preamble pattern is:
10101010 10101010 10101010 10101010 10101010 10101010 10101010
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107
Start-of-frame delimiter (SFD) - The SFD is one-byte long with alternating pattern of ones
and zeros, ending with two consecutive 1-bits. It immediately follows the preamble and uses
the last two consecutive 1s bit to indicate that the next bit is the start of the data packet and
the left-most bit in the left-most byte of the destination address. The SFD pattern is
10101011.
Destination address (DA) - The DA field is used to identify which network device(s) should
receive the packet. It is a unique address. Please see the section of MAC addressing.
Source addresses (SA) - The SA field indicates the source node. The SA is always an individual
address and the left-most bit in the SA field is always 0.
Length/Type - This field indicates either the number of the data bytes contained in the data
field of the frame, or the Ethernet type of data. If the value of first two bytes is less than or
equal to 1500 in decimal, the number of bytes in the data field is equal to the Length/Type
value, i.e. this field acts as Length indicator at this moment. When this field acts as Length,
the frame has optional fields for 802.3/802.2 SNAP encapsulation, 802.3/802.2 encapsulation
and Netware 802.3 RAW encapsulation. Each of them has different fields following the Length
field.
If the Length/Type value is greater than 1500, it means the Length/Type acts as Type.
Different type value means the frames with different protocols running over Ethernet being
sent or received.
For example,
0x0800
IP datagram
0x0806
ARP
0x0835
RARP
0x8137
IPX datagram
0x86DD
IPv6
Data - Less than or equal to 1500 bytes and greater or equal to 46 bytes. If data is less than 46
bytes, the MAC will automatically extend the padding bits and have the payload be equal to
46 bytes. The length of data field must equal the value of the Length field when the
Length/Type acts as Length.
Frame check sequence (FCS) - This field contains a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC)
value, and is a check sum computed with DA, SA, through the end of the data field with the
following polynomial.
It is created by the sending MAC and recalculated by the receiving MAC to check if the packet
is damaged or not.
How does a MAC work?
The MAC sub-layer has two primary jobs to do:
1. Receiving and transmitting data. When receiving data, it parses frame to detect error;
when transmitting data, it performs frame assembly.
2. Performing Media access control. It prepares the initiation jobs for a frame transmission
and makes recovery from transmission failure.
Frame transmission
As Ethernet adopted Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD), it detects
if there is any carrier signal from another network device running over the physical medium
when a frame is ready for transmission. This is referred to as sensing carrier, also “Listen”. If
there is signal on the medium, the MAC defers the traffic to avoid a transmission collision and
waits for a random period of time, called backoff time, then sends the traffic again.
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After the frame is assembled, when transmitting the frame, the preamble (PRE) bytes are
inserted and sent first, then the next, Start of frame Delimiter (SFD), DA, SA and through the
data field and FCS field in turn. The followings summarize what a MAC does before
transmitting a frame.
1. MAC will assemble the frame. First, the preamble and Start-of-Frame delimiter will be
put in the fields of PRE and SFD, followed DA, SA, tag ID if tagged VLAN is applied,
Ethertype or the value of the data length, and payload data field, and finally put the FCS
data in order into the responded fields.
2. Listen if there is any traffic running over the medium. If yes, wait.
3. If the medium is quiet, and no longer senses any carrier, the MAC waits for a period of
time, i.e. inter-frame gap time to have the MAC ready with enough time and then start
transmitting the frame.
4. During the transmission, MAC keeps monitoring the status of the medium. If no collision
happens until the end of the frame, it transmits successfully. If there is a collision
happened, the MAC will send the patterned jamming bit to guarantee the collision event
propagated to all involved network devices, then wait for a random period of time, i.e.
backoff time. When backoff time expires, the MAC goes back to the beginning state and
attempts to transmit again. After a collision happens, MAC increases the transmission
attempts. If the count of the transmission attempt reaches 16 times, the frame in MAC’s
queue will be discarded.
Ethernet MAC transmits frames in half-duplex and full-duplex ways. In halfduplex operation
mode, the MAC can either transmit or receive frame at a moment, but cannot do both jobs at
the same time.
As the transmission of a MAC frame with the half-duplex operation exists only in the same
collision domain, the carrier signal needs to spend time to travel to reach the targeted device.
For two most-distant devices in the same collision domain, when one sends the frame first,
and the second sends the frame, in worstcase, just before the frame from the first device
arrives. The collision happens and will be detected by the second device immediately.
Because of the medium delay, this corrupted signal needs to spend some time to propagate
back to the first device. The maximum time to detect a collision is approximately twice the
signal propagation time between the two most-distant devices. This maximum time is
traded-off by the collision recovery time and the diameter of the LAN.
In the original 802.3 specification, Ethernet operates in half duplex only. Under this condition,
when in 10Mbps LAN, it’s 2500 meters, in 100Mbps LAN, it’s approximately 200 meters and in
1000Mbps, 200 meters. According to the theory, it should be 20 meters. But it’s not practical,
so the LAN diameter is kept by using to increase the minimum frame size with a
variable-length non-data extension bit field which is removed at the receiving MAC. The
following tables are the frame format suitable for 10M, 100M and 1000M Ethernet, and some
parameter values that shall be applied to all of these three types of Ethernet.
Actually, the practice Gigabit Ethernet chips do not feature this so far. They all have their
chips supported full-duplex mode only, as well as all network vendors’ devices. So this
criterion should not exist at the present time and in the future. The switch’s Gigabit module
supports only full-duplex mode.
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109
Parameter
value/LAN
10Base
100Base
1000Base
Max. collision
domain DTE to
DTE
100 meters
100 meters for UTP
412 meters for fiber
100 meters for UTP
316 meters for fiber
Max. collision
domain with
repeater
2500 meters
205 meters
200 meters
Slot time
512 bit times
512 bit times
512 bit times
Interframe Gap
9.6us
0.96us
0.096us
AttemptLimit
16
16
16
BackoffLimit
10
10
10
JamSize
32 bits
32 bits
32 bits
MaxFrameSize
1518
1518
1518
MinFrameSize
64
64
64
BurstLimit
Not applicable
Not applicable
65536 bits
In full-duplex operation mode, both transmitting and receiving frames are processed
simultaneously. This doubles the total bandwidth. Full duplex is much easier than half duplex
because it does not involve media contention, collision, retransmission schedule, padding bits
for short frame. The rest functions follow the specification of IEEE802.3. For example, it must
meet the requirement of minimum inter-frame gap between successive frames and frame
format the same as that in the half-duplex operation.
Because no collision will happen in full-duplex operation, for sure, there is no mechanism to
tell all the involved devices. What will it be if receiving device is busy and a frame is coming
at the same time? Can it use “backpressure” to tell the source device? A function flow control
is introduced in the full-duplex operation.
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A-3 Flow Control
Flow control is a mechanism to tell the source device stopping sending frame for a specified
period of time designated by target device until the PAUSE time expires. This is accomplished
by sending a PAUSE frame from target device to source device. When the target is not busy
and the PAUSE time is expired, it will send another PAUSE frame with zero time-to-wait to
source device. After the source device receives the PAUSE frame, it will again transmit
frames immediately. PAUSE frame is identical in the form of the MAC frame with a pause-time
value and with a special destination MAC address 01-80-C2-00-00-01. As per the specification,
PAUSE operation can not be used to inhibit the transmission of MAC control frame.
Normally, in 10Mbps and 100Mbps Ethernet, only symmetric flow control is supported.
However, some switches (e.g. 24-Port GbE Web Smart Switch) support not only symmetric but
asymmetric flow controls for the special application. In Gigabit Ethernet, both symmetric
flow control and asymmetric flow control are supported. Asymmetric flow control only allows
transmitting PAUSE frame in one way from one side, the other side is not but
receipt-and-discard the flow control information. Symmetric flow control allows both two
ports to transmit PASUE frames each other simultaneously.
Inter-frame Gap time
After the end of a transmission, if a network node is ready to transmit data out and if there is
no carrier signal on the medium at that time, the device will wait for a period of time known
as an inter-frame gap time to have the medium clear and stabilized as well as to have the jobs
ready, such as adjusting buffer counter, updating counter and so on, in the receiver site.
Once the inter-frame gap time expires after the de-assertion of carrier sense, the MAC
transmits data. In IEEE802.3 specification, this is 96-bit time or more.
Collision
Collision happens only in half-duplex operation. When two or more network nodes transmit
frames at approximately the same time, a collision always occurs and interferes with each
other. This results the carrier signal distorted and undiscriminated. MAC can afford detecting,
through the physical layer, the distortion of the carrier signal. When a collision is detected
during a frame transmission, the transmission will not stop immediately but, instead,
continues transmitting until the rest bits specified by jamSize are completely transmitted.
This guarantees the duration of collision is enough to have all involved devices able to detect
the collision. This is referred to as Jamming. After jamming pattern is sent, MAC stops
transmitting the rest data queued in the buffer and waits for a random period of time, known
as backoff time with the following formula. When backoff time expires, the device goes back
to the state of attempting to transmit frame. The backoff time is determined by the formula
below. When the times of collision is increased, the backoff time is getting long until the
collision times excess 16. If this happens, the frame will be discarded and backoff time will
also be reset.
Frame Reception
In essence, the frame reception is the same in both operations of half duplex and full duplex,
except that full-duplex operation uses two buffers to transmit and receive the frame
independently. The receiving node always “listens” if there is traffic running over the
medium when it is not receiving a frame. When a frame destined for the target device comes,
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111
the receiver of the target device begins receiving the bit stream, and looks for the PRE
(Preamble) pattern and Start-of-Frame Delimiter (SFD) that indicates the next bit is the
starting point of the MAC frame until all bit of the frame is received.
For a received frame, the MAC will check:
1. If it is less than one slotTime in length, i.e. short packet, and if yes, it will be discarded
by MAC because, by definition, the valid frame must be longer than the slotTime. If the
length of the frame is less than one slotTime, it means there may be a collision happened
somewhere or an interface malfunctioned in the LAN. When detecting the case, the MAC
drops the packet and goes back to the ready state.
2. If the DA of the received frame exactly matches the physical address that the receiving
MAC owns or the multicast address designated to recognize. If not, discards it and the
MAC passes the frame to its client and goes back to the ready state.
3. If the frame is too long. If yes, throws it away and reports frame Too Long.
4. If the FCS of the received frame is valid. If not, for 10M and 100M Ethernet, discards the
frame. For Gigabit Ethernet or higher speed Ethernet, MAC has to check one more field,
i.e. extra bit field, if FCS is invalid. If there is any extra bits existed, which must meet the
specification of IEEE802.3. When both FCS and extra bits are valid, the received frame
will be accepted, otherwise discards the received frame and reports frameCheckError if
no extra bits appended or alignmentError if extra bits appended.
5. If the length/type is valid. If not, discards the packet and reports lengthError.
6. If all five procedures above are ok, then the MAC treats the frame as good and
de-assembles the frame.
What if a VLAN tagging is applied?
VLAN tagging is a 4-byte long data immediately following the MAC source address. When
tagged VLAN is applied, the Ethernet frame structure will have a little change shown as
follows.
Only two fields, VLAN ID and Tag control information are different in comparison with the
basic Ethernet frame. The rest fields are the same.
The first two bytes is VLAN type ID with the value of 0x8100 indicating the received frame is
tagged VLAN and the next two bytes are Tag Control Information (TCI) used to provide user
priority and VLAN ID, which are explained respectively in the following table.
Bits 15-13
User Priority 7-0, 0 is lowest priority
Bit 12
CFI (Canonical Format Indicator)
1: RIF field is present in the tag header
0: No RIF field is present
Bits 11-0
VID (VLAN Identifier)
0x000: Null VID. No VID is present and only user priority is
present.
0x001: Default VID
0xFFF: Reserved
Note: RIF is used in Token Ring network to provide source routing and comprises two fields,
Routing Control and Route Descriptor.
When MAC parses the received frame and finds a reserved special value 0x8100 at the location
of the Length/Type field of the normal non-VLAN frame, it will interpret the received frame
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as a tagged VLAN frame. If this happens in a switch, the MAC will forward it, according to its
priority and egress rule, to all the ports that is associated with that VID. If it happens in a
network interface card, MAC will deprive of the tag header and process it in the same way as
a basic normal frame. For a VLAN-enabled LAN, all involved devices must be equipped with
VLAN optional function.
At operating speeds above 100 Mbps, the slotTime employed at slower speeds is inadequate
to accommodate network topologies of the desired physical extent. Carrier Extension
provides a means by which the slotTime can be increased to a sufficient value for the desired
topologies, without increasing the minFrameSize parameter, as this would have deleterious
effects. Nondata bits, referred to as extension bits, are appended to frames that are less than
slotTime bits in length so that the resulting transmission is at least one slotTime in duration.
Carrier Extension can be performed only if the underlying physical layer is capable of sending
and receiving symbols that are readily distinguished from data symbols, as is the case in most
physical layers that use a block encoding/decoding scheme.
The maximum length of the extension is equal to the quantity (slotTime - minFrameSize). The
MAC continues to monitor the medium for collisions while it is transmitting extension bits,
and it will treat any collision that occurs after the threshold (slotTime) as a late collision.
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113
Index
A
Account Manager, 93
L
License Agreement, 23
B
License Information, 25, 26, 31, 37, 38, 45, 46, 51
Limiting Rate, 56
Backup Manager, 91
P
Bandwidth, 68
C
PoE Configuration, 72
Preamble, 55
CoS Mapping, 65
D
Properties, 57
Q
Dashboard, 15, 16
QoS Configuration, 60
Diagnostics, 96
S
DoS, 57
DoS Port Setting, 59
Security, 54
DoS Protection, 59
SNMP, 84
E
SNMP Community, 86
Storm Control, 56
Egress Shaping Per Queue, 70
Storm Control, 55
Egress Shaping Rate, 69
F
Factory Default, 94
Stric Priority Queue, 64
System Configuration, 19
System Maintenance, 78
G
General, 61
U
Upgrade Manager, 92
General Setup, 20
W
I
Ingress Rate Limit, 68
Weight, 64
WRR Bandwidth, 64
Installation for VigorAPM, 6
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