HP FlexFabric 7900 Switch Series

HP FlexFabric 7900 Switch Series
Layer 2—LAN Switching
Configuration Guide
Part number: 5998-6182
Software version: Release 2117 and Release 2118
Document version: 6W100-20140805
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Contents
Configuring Ethernet interfaces ··································································································································· 1 Configuring a management Ethernet interface ·············································································································· 1 Ethernet interface naming conventions ··························································································································· 1 Configuring common Ethernet interface settings ··········································································································· 1 Splitting a 40-GE interface and combining 10-GE breakout interfaces ····························································· 2 Configuring basic settings of an Ethernet interface or Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface······································· 3 Configuring the link mode of an Ethernet interface ······························································································ 5 Configuring jumbo frame support ·························································································································· 6 Configuring physical state change suppression on an Ethernet interface·························································· 6 Configuring generic flow control on an Ethernet interface ·················································································· 7 Configuring PFC on an Ethernet interface ············································································································· 8 Configuring a Layer 2 Ethernet interface ···················································································································· 10 Configuring storm suppression ···························································································································· 10 Configuring storm control on an Ethernet interface ··························································································· 10 Displaying and maintaining an Ethernet interface ····································································································· 12 Configuring loopback, null, and inloopback interfaces ·························································································· 13 Configuring a loopback interface ································································································································ 13 Configuring a null interface ·········································································································································· 14 Configuring an inloopback interface ··························································································································· 14 Displaying and maintaining loopback, null, and inloopback interfaces ································································· 14 Bulk configuring interfaces ········································································································································ 16 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ···················································································································· 16 Configuration procedure ··············································································································································· 16 Displaying and maintaining bulk interface configuration·························································································· 17 Configuring the MAC address table ························································································································ 18 Overview········································································································································································· 18 How a MAC address entry is created ················································································································ 18 Types of MAC address entries ····························································································································· 19 Configuring the MAC address table configuration task list ······················································································ 19 Configuring MAC address entries································································································································ 20 Configuration guidelines ······································································································································ 20 Adding or modifying a static or dynamic MAC address entry globally ························································· 20 Adding or modifying a static or dynamic MAC address entry on an interface ············································· 20 Adding or modifying a blackhole MAC address entry ····················································································· 21 Adding or modifying a multiport unicast MAC address entry ········································································· 21 Disabling MAC address learning ································································································································· 23 Disabling global MAC address learning ············································································································ 23 Disabling MAC address learning on interfaces ································································································· 23 Configuring the aging timer for dynamic MAC address entries ··············································································· 24 Enabling MAC address synchronization ····················································································································· 25 Displaying and maintaining the MAC address table ································································································· 26 MAC address table configuration example ················································································································ 27 Network requirements ··········································································································································· 27 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 27 Verifying the configuration ··································································································································· 27 Configuring MAC Information ·································································································································· 28 Enabling MAC Information ··········································································································································· 28 i
Configuring the MAC Information mode ····················································································································· 28 Configuring the MAC change notification interval ···································································································· 29 Configuring the MAC Information queue length ········································································································ 29 MAC Information configuration example ···················································································································· 29 Network requirements ··········································································································································· 29 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ··········································································································· 30 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 30 Configuring Ethernet link aggregation ····················································································································· 32 Basic concepts ································································································································································ 32 Aggregation group, member port, and aggregate interface ··········································································· 32 Aggregation states of member ports in an aggregation group ······································································· 32 Operational key ···················································································································································· 33 Configuration types ··············································································································································· 33 Link aggregation modes ······································································································································· 34 Aggregating links in static mode ·································································································································· 34 Choosing a reference port ··································································································································· 34 Setting the aggregation state of each member port ·························································································· 34 Aggregating links in dynamic mode ···························································································································· 35 LACP ······································································································································································· 35 How dynamic link aggregation works ················································································································ 36 Edge aggregate interface ············································································································································· 39 Load sharing criteria for link aggregation groups······································································································ 39 Ethernet link aggregation configuration task list ········································································································· 39 Configuring an aggregation group ····························································································································· 40 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ··········································································································· 40 Configuring a static aggregation group ············································································································· 41 Configuring a dynamic aggregation group ······································································································· 42 Configuring an aggregate interface ···························································································································· 44 Configuring the description of an aggregate interface ····················································································· 44 Specifying ignored VLANs on a Layer 2 aggregate interface ········································································· 44 Setting the minimum and maximum numbers of Selected ports for an aggregation group ·························· 45 Configuring the expected bandwidth of an aggregate interface ···································································· 46 Configuring an edge aggregate interface·········································································································· 46 Shutting down an aggregate interface ··············································································································· 47 Restoring the default settings for an aggregate interface ················································································· 47 Configuring load sharing for link aggregation groups ······························································································ 48 Configuring load sharing criteria for link aggregation groups ········································································ 48 Enabling local-first load sharing for link aggregation ······················································································· 48 Displaying and maintaining Ethernet link aggregation ····························································································· 49 Ethernet link aggregation configuration examples ····································································································· 50 Layer 2 static aggregation configuration example ···························································································· 50 Layer 2 dynamic aggregation configuration example ······················································································ 52 Layer 2 aggregation load sharing configuration example ··············································································· 53 Layer 3 static aggregation configuration example ···························································································· 56 Layer 3 dynamic aggregation configuration example ······················································································ 57 Layer 3 edge aggregate interface configuration example ··············································································· 58 Configuring port isolation·········································································································································· 61 Assigning ports to an isolation group ·························································································································· 61 Displaying and maintaining port isolation ·················································································································· 61 Port isolation configuration example···························································································································· 62 Network requirements ··········································································································································· 62 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 62 Verifying the configuration ··································································································································· 62 ii
Configuring spanning tree protocols ························································································································ 64 STP ··················································································································································································· 64 STP protocol packets ············································································································································· 64 Basic concepts in STP············································································································································ 65 Calculation process of the STP algorithm ··········································································································· 66 RSTP ················································································································································································· 71 MSTP················································································································································································ 71 MSTP features ························································································································································ 71 MSTP basic concepts ············································································································································ 71 How MSTP works ·················································································································································· 75 MSTP implementation on devices ························································································································ 76 Protocols and standards ················································································································································ 76 Spanning tree configuration task lists ·························································································································· 76 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ··········································································································· 76 STP configuration task list ····································································································································· 77 RSTP configuration task list ··································································································································· 77 MSTP configuration task list ································································································································· 78 Setting the spanning tree mode ···································································································································· 79 Configuring an MST region ·········································································································································· 79 Configuring the root bridge or a secondary root bridge ·························································································· 80 Configuring the current device as the root bridge of a specific spanning tree ·············································· 81 Configuring the current device as a secondary root bridge of a specific spanning tree ······························ 81 Configuring the device priority ····································································································································· 81 Configuring the maximum hops of an MST region ···································································································· 82 Configuring the network diameter of a switched network························································································· 82 Configuring spanning tree timers ································································································································· 83 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ··········································································································· 83 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 83 Configuring the timeout factor ······································································································································ 84 Configuring the BPDU transmission rate ······················································································································ 84 Configuring edge ports ················································································································································· 85 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ··········································································································· 85 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 85 Configuring path costs of ports ···································································································································· 85 Specifying a standard for the device to use when it calculates the default path cost ··································· 86 Configuring path costs of ports ···························································································································· 87 Configuration example ········································································································································· 88 Configuring the port priority ········································································································································· 88 Configuring the port link type ······································································································································· 88 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ··········································································································· 89 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 89 Configuring the mode a port uses to recognize and send MSTP packets ······························································· 89 Enabling outputting port state transition information·································································································· 90 Enabling the spanning tree feature ······························································································································ 90 Performing mCheck ························································································································································ 91 Performing mCheck globally ································································································································ 91 Performing mCheck in interface view ················································································································· 91 Configuring Digest Snooping ······································································································································· 92 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ··········································································································· 92 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 92 Digest Snooping configuration example············································································································· 93 Configuring No Agreement Check ······························································································································ 94 Configuration prerequisites ·································································································································· 95 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 95 iii
No Agreement Check configuration example···································································································· 95 Configuring protection functions ·································································································································· 96 Enabling BPDU guard ··········································································································································· 96 Enabling root guard ·············································································································································· 96 Enabling loop guard ············································································································································· 97 Configuring port role restriction ··························································································································· 98 Configuring TC-BPDU transmission restriction ···································································································· 98 Enabling TC-BPDU guard······································································································································ 99 Displaying and maintaining the spanning tree ··········································································································· 99 Spanning tree configuration example························································································································ 100 Network requirements ········································································································································· 100 Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 101 Verifying the configuration ································································································································· 102 Configuring loop detection····································································································································· 105 Overview······································································································································································· 105 Loop detection mechanism ································································································································· 105 Loop detection interval ········································································································································ 106 Loop protection actions ······································································································································· 106 Port status auto recovery ····································································································································· 106 Loop detection configuration task list ························································································································· 107 Enabling loop detection ·············································································································································· 107 Enabling loop detection globally ······················································································································· 107 Enabling loop detection on a port ····················································································································· 107 Configuring the loop protection action ······················································································································ 108 Configuring the global loop protection action ································································································· 108 Configuring the loop protection action on a Layer 2 Ethernet interface ······················································· 108 Configuring the loop protection action on a Layer 2 aggregate interface ··················································· 108 Setting the loop detection interval ······························································································································ 109 Displaying and maintaining loop detection ·············································································································· 109 Loop detection configuration example······················································································································· 109 Network requirements ········································································································································· 109 Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 110 Verifying the configuration ································································································································· 111 Configuring VLANs ················································································································································· 112 Overview······································································································································································· 112 VLAN frame encapsulation ································································································································ 112 Protocols and standards ····································································································································· 113 Configuring basic VLAN settings································································································································ 113 Configuring basic settings of a VLAN interface ······································································································· 114 Reserving VLAN interface resources ·························································································································· 115 Configuration restrictions and guidelines ········································································································· 115 Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 116 Configuring port-based VLANs ··································································································································· 116 Introduction to port-based VLAN ······················································································································· 116 Assigning an access port to a VLAN ················································································································ 117 Assigning a trunk port to a VLAN······················································································································ 118 Assigning a hybrid port to a VLAN ··················································································································· 119 Displaying and maintaining VLANs ··························································································································· 120 Port-based VLAN configuration example··················································································································· 121 Network requirements ········································································································································· 121 Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 121 Verifying the configuration ································································································································· 122 iv
Configuring LLDP ····················································································································································· 123 Overview······································································································································································· 123 Basic concepts ····················································································································································· 123 Work mechanism ················································································································································ 128 Protocols and standards ····································································································································· 129 LLDP configuration task list ·········································································································································· 129 Performing basic LLDP configuration ·························································································································· 130 Enabling LLDP ······················································································································································ 130 Configuring the LLDP bridge mode···················································································································· 130 Setting the LLDP operating mode ······················································································································· 131 Setting the LLDP re-initialization delay ·············································································································· 131 Enabling LLDP polling·········································································································································· 131 Configuring the advertisable TLVs ····················································································································· 132 Configuring the management address and its encoding format ···································································· 134 Setting other LLDP parameters ···························································································································· 135 Setting an encapsulation format for LLDP frames ····························································································· 136 Configuring CDP compatibility ··································································································································· 136 Configuration prerequisites ································································································································ 137 Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 137 Configuring LLDP trapping and LLDP-MED trapping ································································································ 137 Displaying and maintaining LLDP ······························································································································· 138 LLDP configuration example ········································································································································ 139 Network requirements ········································································································································· 139 Configuration procedure ···································································································································· 139 Verifying the configuration ································································································································· 140 Support and other resources ·································································································································· 144 Contacting HP ······························································································································································ 144 Subscription service ············································································································································ 144 Related information ······················································································································································ 144 Documents ···························································································································································· 144 Websites······························································································································································· 144 Conventions ·································································································································································· 145 Index ········································································································································································ 147 v
Configuring Ethernet interfaces
The switch series supports Ethernet interfaces, management Ethernet interfaces, and Console interfaces.
For the interface types and the number of interfaces supported by a switch model, see the installation
guide.
This document describes how to configure management Ethernet interfaces and Ethernet interfaces.
Configuring a management Ethernet interface
A management interface uses an RJ-45 connector. You can connect the interface to a PC for software
loading and system debugging.
To configure a management Ethernet interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter management
Ethernet interface view.
interface M-GigabitEthernet
interface-number
N/A
3.
(Optional.) Set the
interface description.
description text
The default setting is
M-GigabitEthernet0/0/0 Interface.
4.
(Optional.) Shut down
the interface.
shutdown
By default, the management Ethernet
interface is up.
Ethernet interface naming conventions
For a switch in an IRF fabric, its Ethernet interfaces are numbered in the format of interface type
A/B/C/D; for a switch not in any IRF fabric, its Ethernet interfaces are numbered in the format of
interface type B/C/D, where the following definitions apply:
•
A—Number of the switch in an IRF fabric.
•
B—Slot number of the card in the switch.
•
C—Sub-slot number on a card.
•
D—Number of an interface on a card.
Configuring common Ethernet interface settings
This section describes the settings common to Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces and Layer 3 Ethernet
interfaces/subinterfaces. You can set an Ethernet port as a Layer 3 interface by using the port link-mode
route command. For more information, see "Configuring the link mode of an Ethernet interface." For
more information about the settings specific to Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces, see "Configuring a Layer 2
Ethernet interface."
1
Splitting a 40-GE interface and combining 10-GE breakout
interfaces
Splitting a 40-GE interface into four 10-GE breakout interfaces
You can use a 40-GE interface as a single interface. To improve port density, reduce costs, and improve
network flexibility, you can also split a 40-GE interface into four 10-GE breakout interfaces.
For example, you can split a 40-GE interface FortyGigE 1/0/16 into four 10-GE breakout interfaces
Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/16:1 through Ten-GigabitEthernet 1/0/16:4.
To split a 40-GE interface into four 10-GE breakout interfaces:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter 40-GE interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
By default, a 40-GE interface is not
split and operates as a single
interface.
• The 10-GE breakout interfaces
3.
Split the 40-GE interface into
four 10-GE breakout
interfaces.
using tengige
split from a 40-GE interface
support the same configuration
and attributes as common 10-GE
interfaces, except that they are
numbered differently.
• A 40-GE interface split into four
10-GE breakout interfaces must
use a dedicated 1-to-4 cable or a
1-to-4 fiber and transceiver
modules.
4.
Reboot the card that houses
the interface.
After creating the four 10-GE
breakout interfaces, the system
removes the 40-GE interface.
N/A
Combining four 10-GE breakout interfaces into a 40-GE interface
If you need higher bandwidth, you can combine the four 10-GE breakout interfaces into a 40-GE
interface.
To combine four 10-GE breakout interfaces into a 40-GE interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter the view of any 10-GE
breakout interface split from a
40-GE interface.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
2
Step
3.
4.
Command
Remarks
By default, a 40-GE interface is not
split and operates as a single
interface.
Combine the four 10-GE
breakout interfaces into a
40-GE interface.
using fortygige
Reboot the card that houses
the interface.
N/A
After you combine the four 10-GE
breakout interfaces, use a
dedicated 1-to-1 cable or a 40-GE
transceiver module and fiber.
After creating the 40-GE interface,
the system removes the four 10-GE
breakout interfaces.
Configuring basic settings of an Ethernet interface or Layer 3
Ethernet subinterface
Configuring an Ethernet interface
You can set an Ethernet interface to operate in one of the following duplex modes:
•
Full-duplex mode (full)—Interfaces can send and receive packets simultaneously.
•
Half-duplex mode (half)—Interfaces cannot send and receive packets simultaneously.
•
Autonegotiation mode (auto)—Interfaces negotiate a duplex mode with their peers.
You can set the speed of an Ethernet interface or enable it to automatically negotiate a speed with its
peer.
To configure an Ethernet interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Ethernet interface
view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Set the interface
description.
description text
The default setting is in the format of
interface-name Interface. For example,
FortyGigE1/0/1 Interface.
4.
Set the duplex mode of
the Ethernet interface.
duplex { auto | full }
The default setting is auto for Ethernet
interfaces.
The default setting is auto for Ethernet
interfaces.
5.
Set the port speed.
speed { 1000 | 10000 | 40000
| auto }
6.
Configure the expected
bandwidth of the
interface.
bandwidth bandwidth-value
3
Support for the keywords varies with
interface types. For more information, see
Layer 2—LAN Switching Command
Reference.
By default, the expected bandwidth (in
kbps) is the interface baud rate divided by
1000.
Step
7.
8.
Command
Remarks
Restore the default
settings for the Ethernet
interface.
default
N/A
Bring up the Ethernet
interface.
undo shutdown
By default, Ethernet interfaces are in up
state.
Configuring a Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface
Each of the Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces use one VLAN interface resource. Use the
reserve-vlan-interface command to reserve VLAN interface resources for Layer 3 interfaces and
subinterfaces before you create them. Otherwise, the Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces might not be
created. For example, before creating four Layer 3 subinterfaces on a Layer 3 interface, you must reserve
five VLAN interface resources by using the reserve-vlan-interface command.
VLAN interfaces cannot be created if their interface resources have been reserved. Select the VLAN
interfaces of unused VLANs rather than used VLANs for resource reservation. To simplify management
and configuration, HP recommends that you reserve VLAN interface resources as follows:
•
Bulk reserve resources of VLAN interfaces that are numbered in consecutive order.
•
Reserve resources of VLAN interfaces whose VLAN IDs are in the range of 3000 to 3500
preferentially.
Before creating a Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface, do not reserve a resource for the VLAN interface whose
interface number matches the subinterface number. After you reserve a VLAN interface resource, do not
create a Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface whose subinterface number is the VLAN interface number. A Layer
3 Ethernet subinterface uses the VLAN interface resource in processing tagged packets whose VLAN ID
matches the subinterface number.
After the software upgrades to support this feature, examine whether Layer 3 interfaces and
subinterfaces exist when you create Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces for the first time.
•
If Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces exist, reserve VLAN interfaces resources for both the existing
and new Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces.
•
If no Layer 3 interfaces or subinterfaces exist, reserve VLAN interfaces resources only for new Layer
3 interfaces and subinterfaces.
For more information about reserving VLAN interface resources, see "Configuring VLAN."
To configure a Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create an Ethernet
subinterface and enter
subinterface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number.subnumber
N/A
3.
Set the description for the
Ethernet subinterface.
description text
The default setting is interface-name
Interface. For example,
FortyGigE1/0/1.1 Interface.
4.
Restore the default settings
for the Ethernet
subinterface.
default
N/A
4
Step
5.
6.
Command
Remarks
Set the expected
bandwidth for the
Ethernet subinterface.
bandwidth bandwidth-value
By default, the expected bandwidth
(in kbps) is the interface baud rate
divided by 1000.
Bring up the Ethernet
subinterface.
undo shutdown
By default, Ethernet subinterfaces are
in up state.
Configuring the link mode of an Ethernet interface
CAUTION:
After you change the link mode of an Ethernet interface, all commands (except the shutdown command)
on the Ethernet interface are restored to their defaults in the new link mode.
Each of the Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces use one VLAN interface resource. Before configuring an
Ethernet interface to operate in route mode, use the reserve-vlan-interface command to reserve a VLAN
interface resource for the interface. Otherwise, the operation might fail. For example, before configuring
four Layer 2 interfaces to operate in route mode, you must reserve four VLAN interface resources by using
the reserve-vlan-interface command.
VLAN interfaces cannot be created if their interface resources have been reserved. Select the VLAN
interfaces of unused VLANs rather than used VLANs for resource reservation. To simplify management
and configuration, HP recommends that you reserve VLAN interface resources as follows:
•
Bulk reserve resources of VLAN interfaces that are numbered in consecutive order.
•
Reserve resources of VLAN interfaces whose VLAN IDs are in the range of 3000 to 3500
preferentially.
After the software upgrades to support this feature, examine whether Layer 3 interfaces and
subinterfaces exist when you create Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces for the first time.
•
If Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces exist, reserve VLAN interfaces resources for both the existing
and new Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces.
•
If no Layer 3 interfaces or subinterfaces exist, reserve VLAN interfaces resources only for new Layer
3 interfaces and subinterfaces.
For more information about reserving VLAN interface resources, see "Configuring VLAN."
On the switch, Ethernet interfaces can operate either as Layer 2 or Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces (you can
set the link mode to bridge or route).
To change the link mode of an Ethernet interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Ethernet interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Change the link mode of the
Ethernet interface.
port link-mode { bridge | route }
By default, an Ethernet interface
operates in bridge mode.
5
Configuring jumbo frame support
An Ethernet interface might receive some frames larger than the standard Ethernet frame size (called
"jumbo frames") during high-throughput data exchanges, such as file transfers. When the Ethernet
interface is configured to deny jumbo frames, the Ethernet interface discards jumbo frames without
further processing. When the Ethernet interface is configured with jumbo frame support, the Ethernet
interface processes jumbo frames within the specified length.
To configure jumbo frame support in interface view:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Ethernet interface
view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure jumbo frame
support.
jumboframe enable [ value ]
By default, the device allows jumbo
frames within 12288 bytes to pass
through Ethernet interfaces.
If you set the value argument multiple
times, the most recent configuration
takes effect.
Configuring physical state change suppression on an Ethernet
interface
The physical link state of an Ethernet interface is either up or down. Each time the physical link of a port
goes up or comes down, the interface immediately reports the change to the CPU. The CPU then notifies
the upper-layer protocol modules (such as routing and forwarding modules) of the change for guiding
packet forwarding, and automatically generates traps and logs, informing the user to take
corresponding actions.
To prevent frequent physical link flapping from affecting system performance, configure physical state
change suppression to suppress the reporting of physical link state changes. The system reports physical
layer changes only when the suppression interval expires.
To configure physical state change suppression on an Ethernet interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Ethernet
interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
6
Step
Command
Remarks
By default, each time the physical link of a port
comes down, the interface immediately reports the
change to the CPU.
3.
Set the link-down
event suppression
interval.
When this command is configured:
link-delay delay-time
• The link-down event is not reported to the CPU
until the interface is still down when the
suppression interval (delay-time) expires.
• The link-up event is immediately reported when
the interface goes up.
By default, each time the physical link of a port
goes up, the interface immediately reports the
change to the CPU.
4.
Set the link-up event
suppression interval.
link-delay [ msec ]
delay-time mode up
When this command is configured:
• The link-up event is not reported to the CPU until
the interface is still up when the suppression
interval (delay-time) expires.
• The link-down event is immediately reported.
5.
Set the link-updown
event suppression
interval.
link-delay [ msec ]
delay-time mode updown
By default, each time the physical link of a port
goes up or comes down, the interface immediately
reports the change to the CPU.
When this command is configured, the link-up or
link-down event is not reported to the CPU until the
interface is still up or down when the suppression
interval (delay-time) expires.
The link-delay command and the link-delay mode command overwrite each other, and whichever is
configured last takes effect.
Do not configure physical state change suppression on a port with MSTP enabled.
Configuring generic flow control on an Ethernet interface
To avoid packet drops on a link, you can enable generic flow control at both ends of the link. When
traffic congestion occurs at the receiving end, the receiving end sends a flow control (Pause) frame to ask
the sending end to suspend sending packets.
•
With TxRx mode generic flow control enabled, an interface can both send and receive flow control
frames. When congestion occurs, the interface sends a flow control frame to its peer. When the
interface receives a flow control frame from the peer, it suspends sending packets.
•
With Rx flow mode generic control enabled, an interface can receive flow control frames, but it
cannot send flow control frames. When the interface receives a flow control frame from its peer, it
suspends sending packets to the peer. When congestion occurs, the interface cannot send flow
control frames to the peer.
As shown in Figure 1, when both Port A and Port B forward packets at the rate of 1000 Mbps, Port C will
be congested. To avoid packet loss, enable flow control on Port A and Port B.
7
Figure 1 Flow control on ports
When TxRx mode generic flow control is enabled on Port B and Rx mode generic flow control is enabled
on Port A:
•
When Port C is congested, Switch B buffers the packet. When the buffered packets reach a specific
size, Switch B learns that the traffic forwarded from Port B to Port C is too heavy and exceeds the
forwarding capability of Port C. In this case, Port B with TxRx mode generic flow control enabled
sends generic pause frames to Port A and tells Port A to suspend sending packets.
•
When Port A receives the generic pause frames, Port A suspends sending packets to Port B for a
certain period, which is carried in the generic pause frames. Port B sends generic pause frames to
Port A until congestion is removed.
To handle unidirectional traffic congestion on a link, configure the flow-control receive enable command
at one end and the flow-control command at the other end. To enable both ends of a link to handle traffic
congestion, configure the flow-control command at both ends.
To enable generic flow control on an Ethernet interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Ethernet interface
view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
• Enable TxRx mode generic
3.
Enable generic flow control.
flow control:
flow-control
• Enable Rx mode generic flow
By default, generic flow control is
disabled on an Ethernet interface.
control:
flow-control receive enable
Configuring PFC on an Ethernet interface
PFC performs flow control based on 802.1p priorities. With PFC enabled, an interface requires its peer
to suspend sending packets with the specified 802.1p priorities when congestion occurs. By decreasing
the transmission rate, PFC helps avoid packet loss.
You can enable PFC for the specified 802.1p priorities at the two ends of a link. When network
congestion occurs, the local device checks the PFC status for the 802.1p priority carried in each arriving
packet. The device processes the packet depending on the PFC status as follows:
•
If PFC is enabled for the 802.1p priority, the local device accepts the packet and sends a PFC pause
frame to the peer. The peer stops sending packets carrying this 802.1p priority for an interval as
specified in the PFC pause frame. This process is repeated until the congestion is removed.
•
If PFC is disabled for the 802.1p priority, the local port drops the packet.
To configure PFC on an Ethernet interface:
8
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Ethernet interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Enable PFC on the interface
through automatic negotiation
or forcibly.
priority-flow-control { auto |
enable }
By default, PFC is disabled.
Enable PFC for specific
802.1p priorities.
priority-flow-control no-drop
dot1p dot1p-list
By default, PFC is disabled for all
802.1p priorities.
4.
When you configure PFC, follow these guidelines:
•
To perform PFC on a network port of an IRF member device, configure PFC on both the network port
and the IRF physical ports. For information about IRF, see IRF configuration Guide.
•
To ensure correct operations of IRF and other protocols, HP recommends not enabling PFC for
802.1p priorities 0, 6, and 7.
•
Perform the same PFC configuration on all ports that traffic travels through.
•
A port can receive PFC pause frames whether or not PFC is enabled on the port. However, only a
port with PFC enabled can process PFC pause frames. To make PFC take effect, make sure PFC is
enabled on both the local end and the peer end.
The relationship between the PFC function and the generic flow control function is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 The relationship between the PFC function and the generic flow control function
flow-control
Unconfigurable
priority-flo
w-control
enable
Configured
priority-flow-contr
ol no-drop dot1p
Remarks
Configured
You cannot enable flow control by using the
flow-control command on a port where PFC is
enabled and PFC is enabled for the specified
802.1p priority values.
• On a port configured with the flow-control
command, you can enable PFC, but you
cannot enable PFC for specific 802.1p
priorities.
Configured
Configurable
Unconfigurable
9
• Enabling both generic flow control and PFC on
a port disables the port from sending common
or PFC pause frames to inform the peer of
congestion conditions. However, the port can
still handle common and PFC pause frames
from the peer.
Configuring a Layer 2 Ethernet interface
Configuring storm suppression
You can use the storm suppression function to limit the size of a particular type of traffic (broadcast,
multicast, or unknown unicast traffic) on an interface. When the broadcast, multicast, or unknown unicast
traffic on the interface exceeds this threshold, the system discards packets until the traffic drops below this
threshold.
Any of the storm-constrain, broadcast-suppression, multicast-suppression, and unicast-suppression
commands can suppress storm on a port. The broadcast-suppression, multicast-suppression, and
unicast-suppression commands suppress traffic in hardware, and have less impact on device
performance than the storm-constrain command, which performs suppression in software.
Configuration guidelines
For the same type of traffic, do not configure the storm constrain command together with any of the
broadcast-suppression, multicast-suppression, and unicast-suppression commands. Otherwise, the
traffic suppression result is not determined. For more information about the storm-constrain command,
see "Configuring storm control on an Ethernet interface."
Configuration procedure
To set storm suppression thresholds on one or multiple Ethernet interfaces:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Ethernet interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Enable broadcast suppression
and set the broadcast
suppression threshold.
broadcast-suppression { ratio |
pps max-pps | kbps max-kbps }
By default, broadcast traffic is
allowed to pass through an
interface.
4.
Enable multicast suppression
and set the multicast
suppression threshold.
multicast-suppression { ratio | pps
max-pps | kbps max-kbps }
By default, multicast traffic is
allowed to pass through an
interface.
5.
Enable unknown unicast
suppression and set the
unknown unicast suppression
threshold.
unicast-suppression { ratio | pps
max-pps | kbps max-kbps }
By default, unknown unicast traffic
is allowed to pass through an
interface.
Configuring storm control on an Ethernet interface
About storm control
Storm control compares broadcast, multicast, and unknown unicast traffic regularly with their respective
traffic thresholds on an Ethernet interface. For each type of traffic, storm control provides a lower
threshold and a higher threshold.
For management purposes, you can configure the interface to output threshold event traps and log
messages when monitored traffic exceeds the upper threshold or falls below the lower threshold from the
upper threshold.
10
Depending on your configuration, when a particular type of traffic exceeds its upper threshold, the
interface does either of the following:
•
Blocks this type of traffic, while forwarding other types of traffic—Even though the interface does
not forward the blocked traffic, it still counts the traffic. When the blocked traffic drops below the
lower threshold, the port begins to forward the traffic.
•
Shuts down automatically—The interface shuts down automatically and stops forwarding any
traffic. When the blocked traffic is detected dropping below the lower threshold, the port does not
forward the traffic. To bring up the interface, use the undo shutdown command or disable the storm
control function.
Any of the storm-constrain, broadcast-suppression, multicast-suppression, and unicast-suppression
commands can suppress storm on a port. The broadcast-suppression, multicast-suppression, and
unicast-suppression commands suppress traffic in hardware, and have less impact on device
performance than the storm-constrain command, which performs suppression in software.
Storm control uses a complete polling cycle to collect traffic data, and analyzes the data in the next cycle.
An interface takes one to two polling intervals to take a storm control action.
Configuration guidelines
For the same type of traffic, do not configure the storm constrain command together with any of the
broadcast-suppression, multicast-suppression, and unicast-suppression commands. Otherwise, the
traffic suppression result is not determined. For more information about the broadcast-suppression,
multicast-suppression, and unicast-suppression commands, see "Configuring storm suppression."
Configuration procedure
To configure storm control on an Ethernet interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
1.
Enter system view.
2.
(Optional.) Set the traffic
polling interval of the storm
control module.
storm-constrain interval seconds
3.
Enter Ethernet interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
4.
(Optional.) Enable storm
control, and set the lower and
upper thresholds for
broadcast, multicast, or
unknown unicast traffic.
storm-constrain { broadcast |
multicast | unicast } { pps | kbps |
ratio } max-pps-values
min-pps-values
By default, storm control is
disabled.
5.
Set the control action to take
when monitored traffic
exceeds the upper threshold.
storm-constrain control { block |
shutdown }
By default, storm control is
disabled.
6.
(Optional.) Enable the
interface to log storm control
threshold events.
storm-constrain enable log
By default, the interface outputs log
messages when monitored traffic
exceeds the upper threshold or
falls below the lower threshold
from the upper threshold.
The default setting is 10 seconds.
11
For network stability, use the
default or set a higher traffic
polling interval (10 seconds).
Step
7.
(Optional.) Enable the
interface to send storm control
threshold event traps.
Command
Remarks
storm-constrain enable trap
By default, the interface sends
traps when monitored traffic
exceeds the upper threshold or
drops below the lower threshold
from the upper threshold.
Displaying and maintaining an Ethernet interface
Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.
Task
Command
Display interface traffic statistics.
display counters { inbound | outbound } interface [ interface-type
[ interface-number ] ]
Display traffic rate statistics of interfaces in
up state over the last sampling interval.
display counters rate { inbound | outbound } interface
[ interface-type [ interface-number ] ]
Display the operational and status
information of the specified interface or all
interfaces.
display interface [ interface-type [ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber ] ]
Display summary information about the
specified interface or all interfaces.
display interface [ interface-type [ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber ] ] brief [ description ]
Display information about dropped
packets on the specified interface or all
interfaces.
display packet-drop { interface [ interface-type
[ interface-number ] ] | summary }
Display information about storm control
on the specified interface or all interfaces.
display storm-constrain [ broadcast | multicast | unicast ]
[ interface interface-type interface-number ]
Display the Ethernet module statistics.
display ethernet statistics
Clear the interface statistics.
reset counters interface [ interface-type [ interface-number ] ]
Clear the statistics of dropped packets on
the specified interfaces.
reset packet-drop interface [ interface-type [ interface-number ] ]
Clear the Ethernet module statistics.
reset ethernet statistics
12
Configuring loopback, null, and inloopback
interfaces
This chapter describes how to configure a loopback interface, a null interface, and an inloopback
interface.
Configuring a loopback interface
A loopback interface is a virtual interface. The physical layer state of a loopback interface is always up
unless the loopback interface is manually shut down. Because of this benefit, loopback interfaces are
widely used in the following scenarios:
Configuring a loopback interface address as the source address of the IP packets that the device
generates—Because loopback interface addresses are stable unicast addresses, they are usually
used as device identifications.
•
{
{
When you configure a rule on an authentication or security server to permit or deny packets that
a device generates, you can simplify the rule by configuring it to permit or deny packets
carrying the loopback interface address that identifies the device.
When you use a loopback interface address as the source address of IP packets, make sure the
route from the loopback interface to the peer is reachable by performing routing configuration.
All data packets sent to the loopback interface are considered packets sent to the device itself,
so the device does not forward these packets.
Using a loopback interface in dynamic routing protocols—With no router ID configured for a
dynamic routing protocol, the system selects the highest loopback interface IP address as the router
ID. In BGP, to avoid interruption of BGP sessions due to physical port failure, you can use a
loopback interface as the source interface of BGP packets.
•
To configure a loopback interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create a loopback interface
and enter loopback interface
view.
interface loopback
interface-number
N/A
3.
Set the interface description.
description text
The default setting is interface name
Interface (for example, LoopBack1
Interface).
4.
Configure the expected
bandwidth of the loopback
interface.
bandwidth bandwidth-value
By default, the expected bandwidth
of a loopback interface is 0 kbps.
5.
Restore the default settings for
the loopback interface.
default
N/A
6.
Bring up the loopback
interface.
undo shutdown
By default, a loopback interface is up.
13
Configuring a null interface
A null interface is a virtual interface and is always up, but you cannot use it to forward data packets or
configure it with an IP address or link layer protocol. The null interface provides a simpler way to filter
packets than ACL. You can filter undesired traffic by transmitting it to a null interface instead of applying
an ACL. For example, if you specify a null interface as the next hop of a static route to a specific network
segment, any packets routed to the network segment are dropped.
To configure a null interface:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
Interface Null 0 is the default null
interface on the device and cannot
be manually created or removed.
2.
Enter null interface view.
interface null 0
3.
Set the interface description.
description text
The default setting is NULL0 Interface.
4.
Restore the default settings for
the null interface.
default
N/A
Only one null interface, Null 0, is
supported on the device. The null
interface number is always 0.
Configuring an inloopback interface
An inloopback interface is a virtual interface created by the system, which cannot be configured or
deleted. The physical layer and link layer protocol states of an inloopback interface are always up. All
IP packets sent to an inloopback interface are considered packets sent to the device itself and are not
forwarded.
Displaying and maintaining loopback, null, and
inloopback interfaces
Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.
Task
Command
display interface [ loopback ] [ brief [ down ] ]
Display information about the specified or all
loopback interfaces.
display interface [ loopback [ interface-number ] ] [ brief
[ description ] ]
Display information about the null interface.
display interface [ null [ 0 ] ] [ brief [ description ] ]
Display information about the inloopback
interface.
display interface [ inloopback [ 0 ] ] [ brief [ description ] ]
Clear the statistics on the specified or all loopback
interfaces.
reset counters interface loopback [ interface-number ]
Clear the statistics on the null interface.
reset counters interface [ null [ 0 ] ]
14
Task
Command
Clear the statistics on the inloopback interface.
reset counters interface
15
Bulk configuring interfaces
You can enter interface range view to bulk configure multiple interfaces with the same feature instead of
configuring them one by one. For example, you can execute the shutdown command in interface range
view to shut down a range of interfaces.
If a command fails to take effect on the first interface in an interface range, the command does not take
effect on all the other member interfaces. Failure to apply a command on a member interface except for
the first interface does not affect the application of the command on the other member interfaces.
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you bulk configure interfaces in interface range view, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
In interface range view, only the commands supported by the first interface are available. The first
interface is specified with the interface range command.
•
You cannot enter the view of some interfaces by using the interface interface-type interface-number
command. Do not configure any of these interfaces as the first interface in the interface range.
•
Do not assign both an aggregate interface and any of its member interfaces to an interface range.
Some commands, after being executed on both an aggregate interface and its member interfaces,
can break up the aggregation.
•
No limit is set on the maximum number of interfaces in an interface range. The more interfaces in
an interface range, the longer the command execution time.
•
The maximum number of interface range names is only limited by the system resources. To
guarantee bulk interface configuration performance, HP recommends that you configure fewer than
1000 interface range names.
Configuration procedure
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• interface range { interface-type
2.
3.
interface-number [ to
interface-type
interface-number ] } &<1-5>
Enter interface range
view.
• interface range name name
By using the interface range name
command, you assign a name to an
interface range and can specify this
name rather than the interface range to
enter the interface range view.
(Optional.) Display
commands available for
the first interface in the
interface range.
Enter a question mark (?) at the
interface range prompt.
N/A
[ interface { interface-type
interface-number [ to
interface-type
interface-number ] } &<1-5> ]
16
Step
4.
5.
Command
Remarks
Use available
commands to configure
the interfaces.
Available commands vary by
interface.
N/A
(Optional.) Verify the
configuration.
display this
N/A
Displaying and maintaining bulk interface
configuration
Execute display commands in any view.
Task
Command
Display information about interface ranges configured
through the interface range name command.
display interface range [ name name ]
17
Configuring the MAC address table
Overview
An Ethernet device uses a MAC address table to forward frames. A MAC address entry includes a
destination MAC address, an outgoing interface, and a VLAN ID. When the device receives a frame, it
uses the destination MAC address of the frame to look for a match in the MAC address table.
•
The device forwards the frame out of the outgoing interface in the matching entry if a match is
found.
•
The device floods the frame to all interfaces in the VLAN of the frame if no match is found.
How a MAC address entry is created
The entries in the MAC address table include entries automatically learned by the device and entries
manually added.
MAC address learning
The device can automatically populate its MAC address table by learning the source MAC addresses of
incoming frames on each interface.
When a frame arrives at an interface (for example, port A), the device performs the following tasks:
1.
Checks the source MAC address (for example, MAC-SOURCE) of the frame.
2.
Looks up the source MAC address in the MAC address table.
3.
{
The device updates the entry if an entry is found.
{
The device adds an entry for MAC-SOURCE and port A if no entry is found.
When the device receives a frame destined for MAC-SOURCE after learning this source MAC
address, the device finds the MAC-SOURCE entry in the MAC address table and forwards the
frame out of Port A.
The device performs the learning process each time it receives a frame with an unknown source MAC
address until the MAC address table is fully populated.
Manually configuring MAC address entries
Dynamic MAC address learning does not distinguish between illegitimate and legitimate frames, which
can invite security hazards. When Host A is connected to port A, a MAC address entry will be learned
for the MAC address of Host A (for example, MAC A). When an illegal user sends frames with MAC A
as the source MAC address to port B, the device performs the following tasks:
1.
Learns a new MAC address entry with port B as the outgoing interface and overwrites the old entry
for MAC A.
2.
Forwards frames destined for MAC A out of port B to the illegal user.
As a result, the illegal user obtains the data of Host A. To improve the security for Host A, manually
configure a static entry to bind Host A to port A. Then, the frames destined for Host A are always sent out
of port A. Other hosts using the forged MAC address of Host A cannot obtain the frames destined for
Host A.
18
Types of MAC address entries
A MAC address table can contain the following types of entries:
•
Static entries—A static entry is manually added to forward frames with a specific destination MAC
address out of the associated interface, and it never ages out. A static entry has higher priority than
a dynamically learned one.
•
Dynamic entries—A dynamic entry can be manually configured or dynamically learned to forward
frames with a specific destination MAC address out of the associated interface. A dynamic entry
might age out. A manually configured dynamic entry has the same priority as a dynamically
learned one.
•
Blackhole entries—A blackhole entry is manually configured and never ages out. A blackhole entry
is configured for filtering out frames with a specific destination MAC address. For example, to block
all frames destined for a specific user for security concerns, you can configure the MAC address of
this user as a blackhole MAC address entry.
•
Multiport unicast entries—A Multiport unicast entry is manually added to send frames with a
specific unicast destination MAC address out of multiple ports, and it never ages out. A multiport
unicast entry has higher priority than a dynamically learned one.
A static, blackhole, or multiport unicast MAC address entry can overwrite a dynamic MAC address entry,
but not vice versa.
Configuring the MAC address table configuration
task list
The configuration tasks discussed in the following sections can be performed in any order.
This document covers only the configuration of unicast MAC address entries, including static, dynamic,
blackhole, and multiport unicast MAC address entries. For information about configuring static multicast
MAC address entries, see IP Multicast Configuration Guide.
To configure the MAC address table, perform the following tasks:
Tasks at a glance
(Optional.) Configuring MAC address entries
•
•
•
•
Adding or modifying a static or dynamic MAC address entry globally
Adding or modifying a static or dynamic MAC address entry on an interface
Adding or modifying a blackhole MAC address entry
Adding or modifying a multiport unicast MAC address entry
(Optional.) Disabling MAC address learning
(Optional.) Configuring the aging timer for dynamic MAC address entries
(Optional.) Enabling MAC address synchronization
19
Configuring MAC address entries
Configuration guidelines
•
You cannot add a dynamic MAC address entry if a learned entry already exists with a different
outgoing interface for the MAC address.
•
The manually configured static, blackhole, and multiport unicast MAC address entries cannot
survive a reboot if you do not save the configuration. The manually configured dynamic MAC
address entries, however, are lost upon reboot whether or not you save the configuration.
A frame whose source MAC address matches different types of MAC address entries is differently
processed.
Type
Description
Static MAC address entry
• Discards the frame received on a different interface from that in the entry.
• Forwards the frame received on the same interface as that in the entry.
• Learns the MAC address (for example, MAC A) of the frame, adds a dynamic
Multiport unicast MAC
address entry
MAC address entry for MAC A, and forwards the frame.
• Forwards the frames destined for MAC A based on the multiport unicast MAC
address entry.
• Learns the MAC address of the frame received on a different interface from
Dynamic MAC address
entry
that in the entry and overwrites the original entry.
• Forwards the frame received on the same interface as that in the entry and
updates the aging timer for the entry.
Adding or modifying a static or dynamic MAC address entry
globally
Step
Command
Remarks
N/A
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
2.
Add or modify a
static or dynamic
MAC address
entry.
mac-address { dynamic | static } mac-address
interface interface-type interface-number vlan
vlan-id
By default, no MAC address
entry is configured globally.
Make sure you have created
the VLAN and assigned the
interface to the VLAN.
Adding or modifying a static or dynamic MAC address entry
on an interface
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
20
Step
Command
Remarks
• Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface
2.
Enter interface view.
view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
N/A
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
3.
Add or modify a static or
dynamic MAC address entry.
mac-address { dynamic | static }
mac-address vlan vlan-id
By default, no MAC address entry
is configured on an interface.
Make sure you have created the
VLAN and assigned the interface
to the VLAN.
Adding or modifying a blackhole MAC address entry
Step
1.
2.
Enter system view.
Add or modify a blackhole
MAC address entry.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
mac-address blackhole
mac-address vlan vlan-id
By default, no blackhole MAC
address entry is configured.
Make sure you have created the
VLAN.
Adding or modifying a multiport unicast MAC address entry
You can configure a multiport unicast MAC address entry to associate a unicast destination MAC
address with multiple ports, so that the frame with a destination MAC address matching the entry is
forwarded out of multiple ports.
For example, in NLB unicast mode, all servers within the cluster uses the cluster's MAC address as their
own address, and frames destined for the cluster are forwarded to every server. In this case, you can
configure a multiport unicast MAC address entry on the device connected to the server group. Then, the
device forwards the frame destined for the server group through all ports connected to the servers within
the cluster.
21
Figure 2 NLB cluster
Device
NLB cluster
You can configure a multiport unicast MAC address entry globally or on an interface.
Configuring a multiport unicast MAC address entry globally
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
By default, no multiport unicast
MAC address entry is configured
globally.
2.
Add or modify a multiport
unicast MAC address entry.
mac-address multiport
mac-address interface interface-list
vlan vlan-id
Make sure you have created the
VLAN and assigned the interface
to the VLAN.
Do not configure an interface as
the output interface of a multiport
unicast MAC address entry if the
interface receives frames destined
for the multiport unicast MAC
address. Otherwise, the frames are
flooded in the VLAN to which they
belong.
Configuring a multiport unicast MAC address entry on an interface
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface
2.
Enter interface view.
view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
22
N/A
Step
Command
Remarks
By default, no multiport unicast
MAC address entry is configured
on an interface.
3.
Add the interface to a
multiport unicast MAC
address entry.
mac-address multiport
mac-address vlan vlan-id
Make sure you have created the
VLAN and assigned the interface
to the VLAN.
Do not configure an interface as
the output interface of a multiport
unicast MAC address entry if the
interface receives frames destined
for the multiport unicast MAC
address. Otherwise, the frames are
flooded in the VLAN to which they
belong.
Disabling MAC address learning
MAC address learning is enabled by default. To prevent the MAC address table from being saturated
when the device is experiencing attacks, disable MAC address learning. For example, you can disable
MAC address learning to prevent the device from being attacked by a large amount of frames with
different source MAC addresses.
When MAC address learning is disabled, the learned dynamic MAC addresses remain valid until they
age out.
Disabling global MAC address learning
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Disable global MAC address
learning.
undo mac-address mac-learning
enable
By default, global MAC address
learning is enabled.
Disabling global MAC address learning disables MAC address learning on all interfaces.
Disabling MAC address learning on interfaces
When global MAC address learning is enabled, you can disable MAC address learning on a single
interface.
To disable MAC address learning on an interface:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
23
Step
Command
Remarks
• Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface
2.
Enter interface view.
view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate interface
N/A
view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
3.
Disable MAC address
learning on the interface.
undo mac-address mac-learning
enable
By default, MAC address
learning on the interface is
enabled.
Configuring the aging timer for dynamic MAC
address entries
For security and efficient use of table space, the MAC address table uses an aging timer for each
dynamic MAC address entry. If a dynamic MAC address entry is not updated before the aging timer
expires, the device deletes the entry. This aging mechanism ensures that the MAC address table can
promptly update to accommodate latest network topology changes.
A stable network requires a longer aging interval, and an unstable network requires a shorter aging
interval.
An aging interval that is too long might cause the MAC address table to retain outdated entries. As a
result, the MAC address table resources might be exhausted, and the MAC address table might fail to
update to accommodate the latest network changes.
An interval that is too short might result in removal of valid entries, which would cause unnecessary
floods and possibly affect the device performance.
To reduce floods on a stable network, set a long aging timer or disable the timer to prevent dynamic
entries from unnecessarily aging out. Reducing floods improves the network performance. Reducing
flooding also improves the security because it reduces the chances for a data frame to reach unintended
destinations.
To configure the aging timer for dynamic MAC address entries:
Step
1.
2.
Enter system view.
Configure the aging timer for
dynamic MAC address
entries.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
mac-address timer { aging seconds
| no-aging }
24
By default, the aging timer for
dynamic MAC address entries is
300 seconds.
The no-aging keyword disables the
aging timer.
Enabling MAC address synchronization
To avoid unnecessary floods and improve forwarding speed, make sure all cards have the same MAC
address table. After you enable MAC address synchronization, each card advertises learned MAC
address entries to other cards. (In standalone mode.)
To avoid unnecessary floods and improve forwarding speed, make sure all cards have the same MAC
address table. After you enable MAC address synchronization, each card advertises learned MAC
address entries to other cards of all member devices. (In IRF mode.)
As shown in Figure 3:
•
Device A and Device B form an IRF fabric enabled with MAC address synchronization.
•
Device A and Device B connect to AP C and AP D, respectively.
When Client A associates with AP C, Device A learns a MAC address entry for Client A and advertises
it to Device B.
Figure 3 MAC address tables of devices when Client A accesses AP C
When Client A roams to AP D, Device B learns a MAC address entry for Client A. Device B advertises
it to Device A to ensure service continuity for Client A, as shown in Figure 4.
25
Figure 4 MAC address tables of devices when Client A roams to AP D
To enable MAC address synchronization:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enable MAC address
synchronization.
mac-address mac-roaming enable
By default, MAC address
synchronization is disabled.
Displaying and maintaining the MAC address table
Execute display commands in any view.
Task
Command
Display MAC address table
information.
display mac-address [ mac-address [ vlan vlan-id ] | [ [ dynamic |
static ] [ interface interface-type interface-number ] | blackhole |
multiport ] [ vlan vlan-id ] [ count ] ]
Display the aging timer for dynamic
MAC address entries.
display mac-address aging-time
Display the system or interface MAC
address learning state.
display mac-address mac-learning [ interface interface-type
interface-number ]
Display MAC address statistics.
display mac-address statistics
26
MAC address table configuration example
Network requirements
On a network:
•
Host A at 000f-e235-dc71 is connected to interface FortyGigE 1/0/1 of Device and belongs to
VLAN 1.
•
Host B at 000f-e235-abcd, which behaved suspiciously on the network, also belongs to VLAN 1.
Configure the MAC address table as follows:
•
To prevent MAC address spoofing, add a static entry for Host A in the MAC address table of
Device.
•
To drop all frames destined for Host B, add a blackhole MAC address entry for the host.
•
Set the aging timer to 500 seconds for dynamic MAC address entries.
Configuration procedure
# Add a static MAC address entry for MAC address 000f-e235-dc71 on FortyGigE 1/0/1 that belongs
to VLAN 1.
<Device> system-view
[Device] mac-address static 000f-e235-dc71 interface fortygige 1/0/1 vlan 1
# Add a blackhole MAC address entry for MAC address 000f-e235-abcd that belongs to VLAN 1.
[Device] mac-address blackhole 000f-e235-abcd vlan 1
# Set the aging timer to 500 seconds for dynamic MAC address entries.
[Device] mac-address timer aging 500
Verifying the configuration
# Display the static MAC address entries for interface FortyGigE 1/0/1.
[Device] display mac-address static interface fortygige 1/0/1
MAC Address
VLAN ID
State
Port/NickName
000f-e235-dc71
1
Static
FGE1/0/1
Aging
N
# Display the blackhole MAC address entries.
[Device] display mac-address blackhole
MAC Address
VLAN ID
State
Port/NickName
Aging
000f-e235-abcd
1
Blackhole
N/A
N
# Display the aging time of dynamic MAC address entries.
[Device] display mac-address aging-time
MAC address aging time: 500s.
27
Configuring MAC Information
The MAC Information feature can generate syslog messages or SNMP notifications when MAC address
entries are learned or deleted. You can use these messages to monitor users leaving or joining the
network and analyze network traffic.
The MAC Information feature buffers the MAC change syslog messages or SNMP notifications in a
queue. The device overwrites the oldest MAC address change written into the queue with the most recent
MAC address change when the following conditions exist:
•
The MAC change notification interval does not expire.
•
The queue has been exhausted.
To send a syslog message or SNMP notification immediately after it is created, set the queue length to
zero.
The device does not write MAC address change information or send MAC address change messages for
blackhole MAC addresses, static MAC addresses, multiport unicast MAC addresses, multicast MAC
addresses, and local MAC addresses except for dynamic MAC addresses.
Enabling MAC Information
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enable MAC Information
globally.
mac-address information enable
By default, MAC Information is
globally disabled.
3.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet
interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
4.
Enable MAC Information on
the interface.
mac-address information enable
{ added | deleted }
By default, MAC Information is
disabled on an interface.
Make sure you have enabled
MAC Information globally before
you enable it on the interface.
Configuring the MAC Information mode
The following MAC Information modes are available for sending MAC address changes:
•
Syslog—The device sends syslog messages to notify MAC address changes. In this mode, the
device sends syslog messages to the information center, which then outputs them to the monitoring
terminal. For more information about information center, see Network Management and
Monitoring Configuration Guide.
•
Trap—The device sends SNMP notifications to notify MAC address changes. In this mode, the
device sends SNMP notifications to the NMS. For more information about SNMP, see Network
Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.
To configure the MAC Information mode:
28
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure the MAC
Information mode.
mac-address information mode
{ syslog | trap }
The default setting is trap.
Configuring the MAC change notification interval
To prevent syslog messages or SNMP notifications from being sent too frequently, you can set the MAC
change notification interval to a larger value.
To set the MAC change notification interval:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Set the MAC change
notification interval.
mac-address information interval
interval-time
The default setting is 1 second.
Configuring the MAC Information queue length
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure the MAC
Information queue length.
mac-address information
queue-length value
The default setting is 50.
MAC Information configuration example
Network requirements
Enable MAC Information on interface FortyGigE 1/0/1 on Device in Figure 5 to send MAC address
changes in syslog messages to the log host, Host B, through interface FortyGigE 1/0/2.
29
Figure 5 Network diagram
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you edit the file /etc/syslog.conf, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
Comments must be on a separate line and must begin with a pound sign (#).
•
No redundant spaces are allowed after the file name.
•
The logging facility name and the severity level specified in the /etc/syslog.conf file must be the
same as those configured on the device. Otherwise, the log information might not be output
correctly to the log host. The logging facility name and the severity level are configured by using the
info-center loghost and info-center source commands.
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Device to send syslog messages to Host B:
# Enable the information center.
<Device> system-view
[Device] info-center enable
# Specify the log host 192.168.1.2/24 and specify local4 as the logging facility.
[Device] info-center loghost 192.168.1.2 facility local4
# Disable log output to the log host.
[Device] info-center source default loghost deny
To avoid output of unnecessary information, disable all modules from outputting logs to the
specified destination (loghost, in this example) before you configure an output rule.
# Configure an output rule to output to the log host MAC address logs that have a severity level of
at least informational.
[Device] info-center source mac loghost level informational
2.
Configure the log host, Host B:
Configure Solaris as follows. Configure other UNIX operating systems in the same way Solaris is
configured.
a. Log in to the log host as a root user.
b. Create a subdirectory named Device in directory /var/log/, and then create file info.log in the
Device directory to save logs from Device.
30
# mkdir /var/log/Device
# touch /var/log/Device/info.log
c. Edit the file syslog.conf in directory /etc/ and add the following contents:
# Device configuration messages
local4.info /var/log/Device/info.log
In this configuration, local4 is the name of the logging facility that the log host uses to receive
logs, and info is the informational level. The UNIX system records the log information that has
a severity level of at least informational to the file /var/log/Device/info.log.
d. Display the process ID of syslogd, kill the syslogd process, and then restart syslogd using the –r
option to make the new configuration take effect.
# ps -ae | grep syslogd
147
# kill -HUP 147
# syslogd -r &
Now, the device can output MAC address logs to the log host, which stores the logs to the
specified file.
3.
Enable MAC Information on Device:
# Enable MAC Information globally.
[Device] mac-address information enable
# Configure the MAC Information mode as syslog.
[Device] mac-address information mode syslog
# Enable MAC Information on interface FortyGigE 1/0/1 to enable the interface to record MAC
address change information when the interface performs either of the following tasks:
{
Learns a new MAC address.
{
Deletes an existing MAC address.
[Device] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/1] mac-address information enable added
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/1] mac-address information enable deleted
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
# Set the MAC Information queue length to 100.
[Device] mac-address information queue-length 100
# Set the MAC change notification interval to 20 seconds.
[Device] mac-address information interval 20
31
Configuring Ethernet link aggregation
Ethernet link aggregation bundles multiple physical Ethernet links into one logical link, called an
aggregate link. Link aggregation has the following benefits:
•
Increased bandwidth beyond the limits of any single link. In an aggregate link, traffic is distributed
across the member ports.
•
Improved link reliability. The member ports dynamically back up one another. When a member
port fails, its traffic is automatically switched to other member ports.
As shown in Figure 6, Device A and Device B are connected by three physical Ethernet links. These
physical Ethernet links are combined into an aggregate link called link aggregation 1. The bandwidth of
this aggregate link can be as high as the total bandwidth of the three physical Ethernet links. At the same
time, the three Ethernet links back up one another. When a physical Ethernet link fails, the traffic
previously carried on the failed link is switched to the other two links.
Figure 6 Ethernet link aggregation diagram
Basic concepts
Aggregation group, member port, and aggregate interface
Link bundling is implemented through interface bundling. An aggregation group is a group of Ethernet
interfaces bundled together, which are called member ports of the aggregation group. For each
aggregation group, a logical interface (called an aggregate interface), is created.
Aggregate interfaces include Layer 2 aggregate interfaces and Layer 3 aggregate interfaces. On a
Layer 3 aggregate interface, you can create subinterfaces.
When you create an aggregate interface, the device automatically creates an aggregation group of the
same type and number as the aggregate interface. For example, when you create aggregate interface
1, aggregation group 1 is created.
You can assign Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces only to a Layer 2 aggregation group, and Layer 3 Ethernet
interfaces only to a Layer 3 aggregation group.
The port rate of an aggregate interface equals the total rate of its Selected member ports. Its duplex
mode is the same as that of the selected member ports. For more information about the states of member
ports in an aggregation group, see "Aggregation states of member ports in an aggregation group."
Aggregation states of member ports in an aggregation group
A member port in an aggregation group can be in any of the following aggregation states:
•
Selected—A Selected port can forward traffic.
32
•
Unselected—An Unselected port cannot forward traffic.
•
Individual—An Individual port can forward traffic as a normal physical port. A port is placed in the
Individual state when the following conditions exist:
{
The corresponding aggregate interface is configured as an edge aggregate interface.
{
The port has not received LACPDUs from its peer port.
Operational key
When aggregating ports, the system automatically assigns each port an operational key based on port
information, such as port rate and duplex mode. Any change to this information triggers a recalculation
of the operational key.
In an aggregation group, all Selected ports are assigned the same operational key.
Configuration types
Every configuration setting on a port might affect its aggregation state. Port configurations include the
following types:
•
Attribute configurations—To become a Selected port, a member port must have the same attribute
configurations as the aggregate interface. Table 2 describes the attribute configurations.
Attribute configurations made on an aggregate interface are automatically synchronized to all
member ports. These configurations are retained on the member ports even after the aggregate
interface is removed.
Any attribute configuration change might affect the aggregation state of link aggregation member
ports and running services. To make sure that you are aware of the risk, the system displays a
warning message every time you attempt to change an attribute configuration setting on a member
port.
Table 2 Attribute configurations
Feature
Considerations
Port isolation
Indicates whether the port has joined an isolation group, and the isolation group
to which the port belongs.
VLAN attribute configurations include:
VLAN
•
•
•
•
•
Permitted VLAN IDs.
PVID.
Link type (trunk, hybrid, or access).
Operating mode (promiscuous, trunk promiscuous, host).
VLAN tagging mode.
For information about VLAN, see "Configuring VLANs."
•
Protocol configurations—As opposed to attribute configurations, protocol configurations do not
affect the aggregation state of the member ports. MAC address learning and spanning tree settings
are examples of protocol configurations.
NOTE:
The protocol configuration for a member port is effective only when the member port leaves the
aggregation group.
33
Link aggregation modes
Link aggregation has dynamic and static modes:
•
Static aggregation mode—Aggregation is stable. The aggregation state of the member ports are
not affected by the peer ports.
•
Dynamic aggregation mode—The peering system automatically maintains the aggregation state of
the member ports, thus reducing the workload of administrators.
An aggregation group in static mode is called a "static aggregation group" and an aggregation group
in dynamic mode is called a "dynamic aggregation group."
Aggregating links in static mode
Choosing a reference port
When setting the aggregation state of the ports in an aggregation group, the system automatically picks
a member port as the reference port. A Selected port must have the same operational key and attribute
configurations as the reference port.
The system chooses a reference port from the member ports that are in up state with the same attribute
configurations as the aggregate interface.
The candidate ports are sorted in the following order:
1.
Highest port priority
2.
Full duplex/high speed
3.
Full duplex/low speed
4.
Half duplex/high speed
5.
Half duplex/low speed
The candidate port at the top is chosen as the reference port. If two ports have the same port priority,
duplex mode, and speed, the original Selected port is chosen. If more than one such original Selected
port exists, the one with the lower port number is chosen.
Setting the aggregation state of each member port
After a static aggregation group has reached the limit on Selected ports, any port that joins the group is
placed in Unselected state to avoid traffic interruption on the existing Selected ports.
34
Figure 7 Setting the aggregation state of a member port in a static aggregation group
To configure the maximum number of Selected ports in a static aggregation group, see "Setting the
minimum and maximum numbers of Selected ports for an aggregation group."
To ensure stable aggregation state and service continuity, do not change the operational key or attribute
configurations on any member port. If you need to make this change, make sure you understand its
impact on the live network. Any operational key or attribute configuration change might affect the
aggregation state of link aggregation member ports and ongoing traffic.
Aggregating links in dynamic mode
Dynamic aggregation mode is implemented through IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol
(LACP).
LACP
LACP uses LACPDUs to exchange aggregation information between LACP-enabled devices.
Each member port in an LACP-enabled aggregation group exchanges information with its peer. When a
member port receives an LACPDU, it compares the received information with information received on the
35
other member ports. In this way, the two systems reach an agreement on which ports are placed in
Selected state.
LACP functions
LACP offers basic LACP functions and extended LACP functions, as described in Table 3.
Table 3 Basic and extended LACP functions
Category
Description
Basic LACP functions
Implemented through the basic LACPDU fields, including the system LACP priority,
system MAC address, port priority, port number, and operational key.
Extended LACP
functions
Implemented by extending the LACPDU with new TLV fields. This is how the LACP
MAD mechanism of the IRF feature is implemented. it can participate in LACP MAD
as either an IRF member device or an intermediate device.
For more information about IRF and the LACP MAD mechanism, see IRF
Configuration Guide.
LACP priorities
LACP priorities include system LACP priority and port priority, as described in Table 4. The smaller the
priority value, the higher the priority.
Table 4 LACP priorities
Type
Description
Used by two peer devices (or systems) to determine which one is superior in link
aggregation.
System LACP priority
Port priority
In dynamic link aggregation, the system that has higher system LACP priority sets the
Selected state of member ports on its side, after which the system that has lower priority
sets port state accordingly.
Determines the likelihood of a member port to be selected on a system. The higher port
priority, the higher the likelihood of selection.
LACP timeout interval
The LACP timeout interval specifies how long a member port waits to receive LACPDUs from the peer port.
If a local member port fails to receive LACPDUs from the peer within the LACP timeout interval, the
member port assumes that the peer port has failed.
The LACP timeout interval also determines the LACPDU sending rate of the peer. You can configure the
LACP timeout interval as the short timeout interval (3 seconds) or the long timeout interval (90 seconds).
If you configure the short timeout interval, the peer sends LACPDUs fast (one LACPDU per second); if you
configure the long timeout interval, the peer sends LACPDUs slowly (one LACPDU every 30 seconds).
How dynamic link aggregation works
Choosing a reference port
The system chooses a reference port from the member ports that are in up state and have the same
attribute configurations as the aggregate interface. A Selected port must have the same operational key
and attribute configurations as the reference port.
36
The local system (the actor) and the remote system (the partner) negotiate a reference port by using the
following workflow:
1.
The systems compare their system IDs. (A system ID contains the system LACP priority and the
system MAC address.) The lower the LACP priority, the smaller the system ID. If LACP priority
values are the same, the two systems compare their MAC addresses. The lower the MAC address,
the smaller the system ID.
2.
The system with the smaller system ID chooses the port with the smallest port ID as the reference
port. (A port ID contains a port priority and a port number.) The port with the lower priority value
is chosen. If two ports have the same aggregation priority, the system compares their port numbers.
The port with the smaller port number and the same attribute configurations as the aggregate
interface becomes the reference port.
Setting the aggregation state of each member port
After the reference port is chosen, the system with the lower system ID sets the state of each member port
in the dynamic aggregation group on its side as shown in Figure 8.
37
Figure 8 Setting the state of a member port in a dynamic aggregation group
Meanwhile, the system with the higher system ID, being aware of the aggregation state changes on the
remote system, sets the aggregation state of local member ports the same as their peer ports.
When you aggregate interfaces in dynamic mode, follow these guidelines:
•
To configure the maximum number of Selected ports in a dynamic aggregation group, see "Setting
the minimum and maximum numbers of Selected ports for an aggregation group."
•
A dynamic link aggregation group preferably sets full-duplex ports as the Selected ports, and will
set one, and only one, half-duplex port as a Selected port when none of the full-duplex ports can be
selected or only half-duplex ports exist in the group.
•
To ensure stable aggregation and service continuity, do not change the operational key or attribute
configurations on any member port.
38
•
In a dynamic aggregation group, when the aggregation state of a local port changes, the
aggregation state of the peer port also changes.
•
A port that joins a dynamic aggregation group after the Selected port limit has been reached is
placed in Selected state if it is more eligible to be selected than a current member port.
Edge aggregate interface
You can configure the aggregate interface connecting an LACP-enabled device to an LACP-enabled
server as an edge aggregate interface. During the server reboot process, the device cannot receive
LACPDUs from the server (the peer system). This feature enables the aggregation member ports on the
device to forward packets from the server during the server reboot process.
Without this feature, the member ports on the device are placed in the Unselected state, and the ports
discard packets from the server during the server reboot process.
An edge aggregate interface takes effect only when it is configured on an aggregate interface
corresponding to a dynamic aggregation group.
After the server reboot, the device can receive LACPDUs from the server. Then, link aggregation between
the device and the server operates correctly.
Load sharing criteria for link aggregation groups
In a link aggregation group, traffic may be load-shared across the selected member ports based on a set
of criteria, depending on your configuration.
You can choose one of the following criteria or any combination of the criteria for load sharing:
•
•
Per-flow load sharing—Classifies traffic flows and forwards packets of the same flow on the same
link by the following criteria, or any combination:
{
Source or destination MAC address.
{
Source or destination port number.
{
Ingress port.
{
Source or destination IP address.
Packet type-based load sharing—Automatically chooses link-aggregation load sharing criteria
based on packet types (Layer 2 or IPv4 for example).
Ethernet link aggregation configuration task list
Tasks at a glance
(Required.) Configuring an aggregation group:
• Configuring a static aggregation group
• Configuring a dynamic aggregation group
39
Tasks at a glance
(Optional.) Configuring an aggregate interface:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Configuring the description of an aggregate interface
Specifying ignored VLANs on a Layer 2 aggregate interface
Setting the minimum and maximum numbers of Selected ports for an aggregation group
Configuring the expected bandwidth of an aggregate interface
Configuring an edge aggregate interface
Shutting down an aggregate interface
Restoring the default settings for an aggregate interface
(Optional.) Configuring load balancing for link aggregation group:
• Configuring load sharing criteria for link aggregation groups
• Enabling local-first load sharing for link aggregation
Configuring an aggregation group
This section explains how to configure an aggregation group.
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you configure an aggregation group, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
Deleting an aggregate interface also deletes its aggregation group and causes all member ports to
leave the aggregation group.
•
You must configure the same aggregation mode on the two ends of an aggregate link.
•
Before creating a Layer 3 aggregate interface or subinterface, use the reserve-vlan-interface
command to reserve enough VLAN interface resources. If not enough VLAN interface resources are
reserved, the system fails to create the Layer 3 aggregate interface or subinterface.
Before creating a Layer 3 aggregate interface, reserve a VLAN interface resource for each of the
following interfaces:
{
Layer 3 aggregate interface.
{
Member ports in the corresponding Layer 3 aggregation group.
For example, before creating a Layer 3 aggregation group containing three member ports,
reserve four VLAN interface resources. The Layer 3 aggregate interface uses one VLAN interface
resource and each of the member ports uses one VLAN interface resource.
Before creating Layer 3 aggregate subinterfaces on a Layer 3 aggregate interface, reserve a
VLAN interface resource for each of the following interface:
{
Layer 3 aggregate interface.
{
Member ports in the corresponding Layer 3 aggregation group.
{
Layer 3 aggregate subinterfaces.
For example, before creating four Layer 3 aggregate subinterfaces on a Layer 3 aggregate
interface whose corresponding aggregation group has two member ports, reserve seven VLAN
interface resources. The aggregate interface uses one VLAN interface resource. Each of the
member ports and aggregate subinterfaces uses one VLAN interface resource.
40
Before creating a Layer 3 aggregate subinterface, do not reserve a resource for the VLAN
interface whose interface number matches the subinterface number. After you reserve a VLAN
interface resource, do not create a Layer 3 aggregate subinterface whose subinterface number is
the VLAN interface number. A Layer 3 aggregate subinterface uses the VLAN interface resource in
processing tagged packets whose VLAN ID matches the subinterface number.
For more information about reserving VLAN interface resources, see "Configuring VLANs."
Reserve VLAN interface resources of unused VLANs because VLAN interfaces cannot be created if
their interface resources are reserved. To simplify management and configuration, HP recommends
that you reserve VLAN interface resources as follows:
•
{
{
Bulk reserve resources of VLAN interfaces that are numbered in consecutive order.
Preferentially reserve resources of VLAN interfaces whose VLAN IDs are in the range of 3000
to 3500.
The software version can upgrade to support reserving VLAN interface resources. Then, examine
whether Layer 3 aggregate interfaces and subinterfaces exist when you create Layer 3 aggregate
interfaces and subinterfaces for the first time.
•
{
{
If Layer 3 aggregate interfaces and subinterfaces exist, reserve VLAN interface resources for
both the existing and new Layer 3 aggregate interfaces and subinterfaces.
If no Layer 3 aggregate interfaces or subinterfaces exist, reserve VLAN interface resources only
for new Layer 3 aggregate interfaces and subinterfaces.
Configuring a static aggregation group
To guarantee a successful static aggregation, make sure the ports at both ends of each link are in the
same aggregation state.
Avoid assigning ports to a static aggregation group where the limit on Selected ports has been reached.
New member ports in the static aggregation group will be placed in the Unselected state to avoid traffic
interruption on the current Selected ports. However, a device reboot can cause the aggregation state of
member ports to change.
Configuring a Layer 2 static aggregation group
Step
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
1.
Enter system view.
2.
Create a Layer 2 aggregate
interface and enter Layer 2
aggregate interface view.
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
When you create a Layer 2
aggregate interface, the system
automatically creates a Layer 2
static aggregation group
numbered the same.
3.
Exit to system view.
quit
N/A
4.
Assign an interface to the
specified Layer 2 aggregation
group.
a. Enter Layer 2 Ethernet
interface view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
b. Assign the interface to the
specified Layer 2
aggregation group:
port link-aggregation
group number
41
Repeat these two sub-steps to
assign more Layer 2 Ethernet
interfaces to the aggregation
group.
Configuring a Layer 3 static aggregation group
Step
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
1.
Enter system view.
2.
Create a Layer 3 aggregate
interface and enter Layer 3
aggregate interface view.
interface route-aggregation
interface-number
When you create a Layer 3
aggregate interface, the system
automatically creates a Layer 3
static aggregation group
numbered the same.
3.
Exit to system view.
quit
N/A
4.
a. Enter Layer 3 Ethernet
interface view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
Assign an interface to the
specified Layer 3 aggregation
group.
b. Assign the interface to the
specified Layer 3
aggregation group:
port link-aggregation
group number
Repeat these two substeps to
assign more Layer 3 Ethernet
interfaces to the aggregation
group.
Configuring a dynamic aggregation group
To guarantee a successful dynamic aggregation, make sure the peer ports of the ports aggregated at
one end are also aggregated. The two ends can automatically negotiate the aggregation state of each
member port.
Configuring a Layer 2 dynamic aggregation group
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
By default, the system LACP priority
is 32768.
Changing the system LACP priority
might affect the aggregation state
of the ports in a dynamic
aggregation group.
2.
Set the system LACP priority.
3.
Create a Layer 2 aggregate
interface and enter Layer 2
aggregate interface view.
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
When you create a Layer 2
aggregate interface, the system
automatically creates a Layer 2
static aggregation group
numbered the same.
4.
Configure the aggregation
group to operate in dynamic
aggregation mode.
link-aggregation mode dynamic
By default, an aggregation group
operates in static aggregation
mode.
Exit to system view.
quit
N/A
5.
lacp system-priority system-priority
42
Step
6.
Command
a. Enter Layer 2 Ethernet
interface view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
Assign an interface to the
specified Layer 2 aggregation
group.
7.
Configure the port priority for
the interface.
8.
Configure the short LACP
timeout interval (3 seconds)
on the interface.
b. Assign the interface to the
specified Layer 2
aggregation group:
port link-aggregation
group number
Remarks
Repeat these two sub-steps to
assign more Layer 2 Ethernet
interfaces to the aggregation
group.
link-aggregation port-priority
port-priority
The default setting is 32768.
lacp period short
By default, the long LACP timeout
interval (90 seconds) is adopted by
the interface. The peer sends
LACPDUs slowly.
Configuring a Layer 3 dynamic aggregation group
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
By default, the system LACP priority
is 32768.
Changing the system LACP priority
might affect the aggregation states
of the ports in the dynamic
aggregation group.
2.
Set the system LACP priority.
3.
Create a Layer 3 aggregate
interface and enter Layer 3
aggregate interface view.
interface route-aggregation
interface-number
When you create a Layer 3
aggregate interface, the system
automatically creates a Layer 3
static aggregation group
numbered the same.
4.
Configure the aggregation
group to operate in dynamic
mode.
link-aggregation mode dynamic
By default, an aggregation group
operates in static mode.
Exit to system view.
quit
N/A
5.
6.
7.
Assign an interface to the
specified Layer 3 aggregation
group.
Configure the port priority for
the interface.
lacp system-priority system-priority
a. Enter Layer 3 Ethernet
interface view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
b. Assign the interface to the
specified Layer 3
aggregation group:
port link-aggregation
group number
link-aggregation port-priority
port-priority
43
Repeat these two substeps to
assign more Layer 3 Ethernet
interfaces to the aggregation
group.
The default setting is 32768.
Step
8.
Configure the short LACP
timeout interval (3 seconds)
on the interface.
Command
Remarks
lacp period short
By default, the long LACP timeout
interval (90 seconds) is adopted by
the interface.
Configuring an aggregate interface
In addition to the configurations in this section, most of the configurations that can be performed on Layer
2 or Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces can also be performed on Layer 2 or Layer 3 aggregate interfaces.
Configuring the description of an aggregate interface
You can configure the description of an aggregate interface for administration purposes such as
describing the purpose of the interface.
To configure the description of an aggregate interface:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate interface
2.
3.
view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
Enter aggregate
interface or subinterface
view.
• Enter Layer 3 aggregate interface
N/A
Configure the
description of the
aggregate interface or
subinterface.
description text
By default, the description of an
interface is in the format of
interface-name Interface.
or subinterface view:
interface route-aggregation
{ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
Specifying ignored VLANs on a Layer 2 aggregate interface
By default, to become Selected ports, the member ports must have the same VLAN permit state and
VLAN tagging mode as the corresponding Layer 2 aggregate interface.
The system ignores the permit state and tagging mode of an ignored VLAN when choosing Selected
ports.
To configure ignored VLANs on a Layer 2 aggregate interface:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
44
Step
Command
Remarks
2.
Enter Layer 2 aggregate
interface view.
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure ignored VLANs.
link-aggregation ignore vlan
vlan-id-list
By default, a Layer 2 aggregate
interface does not ignore any
VLANs.
Setting the minimum and maximum numbers of Selected ports
for an aggregation group
IMPORTANT:
The minimum and maximum number of Selected ports must be the same for the local and peer
aggregation groups.
The bandwidth of an aggregate link increases as the number of selected member ports increases. To
avoid congestion caused by insufficient Selected ports on an aggregate link, you can set the minimum
number of Selected ports required for bringing up the specific aggregate interface.
This minimum threshold setting affects the aggregation state of both aggregation member ports and the
aggregate interface:
•
When the number of member ports eligible to be selected is smaller than the minimum threshold,
all member ports change to the Unselected state and the link of the aggregate interface goes down.
•
When the minimum threshold is reached, the eligible member ports change to the Selected state,
and the link of the aggregate interface goes up.
The maximum number of Selected ports allowed in an aggregation group is limited by either the
configured maximum number or hardware capability, whichever value is smaller.
You can configure backup between two ports by assigning two ports to an aggregation group and
configuring the maximum number of Selected ports allowed in the aggregation group as 1. In this way,
only one Selected port is allowed in the aggregation group at any point in time, while the Unselected
port serves as a backup port.
To set the minimum and maximum numbers of Selected ports for an aggregation group:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
2.
Enter aggregate interface
view.
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
• Enter Layer 3 aggregate
N/A
interface view:
interface route-aggregation
interface-number
3.
Set the minimum number of
Selected ports for the
aggregation group.
link-aggregation selected-port
minimum number
45
By default, the minimum number of
Selected ports for the aggregation
group is not specified.
Step
4.
Set the maximum number of
Selected ports for the
aggregation group.
Command
Remarks
link-aggregation selected-port
maximum number
By default, the maximum number of
Selected ports for an aggregation
group is 16.
Configuring the expected bandwidth of an aggregate interface
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
2.
3.
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
Enter aggregate interface or
subinterface view.
• Enter Layer 3 aggregate
N/A
Configure the expected
bandwidth of the interface.
bandwidth bandwidth-value
By default, the expected
bandwidth (in kbps) is the interface
baud rate divided by 1000.
interface /subinterface view:
interface route-aggregation
{ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
Configuring an edge aggregate interface
This configuration takes effect on only the aggregate interface corresponding to a dynamic aggregation
group.
To configure an edge aggregate interface:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
2.
Enter aggregate interface
view.
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
• Enter Layer 3 aggregate
N/A
interface view:
interface route-aggregation
interface-number
3.
Configure the aggregate
interface as an edge
aggregate interface.
lacp edge-port
46
By default, an aggregate interface
does not operate as an edge
aggregate interface.
Shutting down an aggregate interface
Make sure no member port in an aggregation group is configured with the loopback command when
you shut down the aggregate interface. Similarly, a port configured with the loopback command cannot
be assigned to an aggregate interface already shut down. For more information about the loopback
command, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Command Reference.
Shutting down or bringing up an aggregate interface affects the aggregation state and link state of ports
in the corresponding aggregation group in the following ways:
•
When an aggregate interface is shut down, all Selected ports in the corresponding aggregation
group become unselected and their link state becomes down.
•
When an aggregate interface is brought up, the aggregation state of ports in the corresponding
aggregation group is recalculated.
To shut down an aggregate interface:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
2.
3.
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
Enter aggregate interface or
subinterface view.
• Enter Layer 3 aggregate
N/A
Shut down the aggregate
interface.
shutdown
By default, aggregate interfaces
are up.
interface or subinterface view:
interface route-aggregation
{ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
Restoring the default settings for an aggregate interface
You can return all configurations on an aggregate interface to default settings.
To restore the default settings for an aggregate interface:
Step
1.
Command
Enter system view.
system-view
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation interface-number
2.
Enter aggregate interface or subinterface view.
3.
Restore the default settings for the aggregate
interface.
47
• Enter Layer 3 aggregate interface or subinterface
view:
interface route-aggregation { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
default
Configuring load sharing for link aggregation
groups
This section explains how to configure load sharing criteria for link aggregation groups and how to
enable local-first load sharing for link aggregation.
Configuring load sharing criteria for link aggregation groups
You can configure global load sharing criteria, which take effect on all link aggregation groups.
To configure the global link-aggregation load sharing criteria:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure the global
link-aggregation load
sharing criteria.
link-aggregation global load-sharing
mode { destination-ip | destination-mac
| destination-port | ingress-port |
source-ip | source-mac | source-port } *
By default, the system
automatically chooses
link-aggregation load sharing
criteria based on packet types.
In system view, the switch supports the following load sharing criteria and combinations:
•
Source IP address.
•
Destination IP address.
•
Source MAC address.
•
Destination MAC address.
•
Source IP address and destination IP address.
•
Source IP address and source port.
•
Destination IP address and destination port.
•
Source IP address, source port, destination IP address, and destination port.
•
Any combination of ingress port, source MAC address, and destination MAC address.
Enabling local-first load sharing for link aggregation
Use the local-first load sharing mechanism in a multi-device link aggregation scenario to distribute traffic
preferentially across member ports on the ingress card or device rather than all member ports.
When you aggregate ports on different member devices in an IRF fabric, you can use local-first load
sharing to reduce traffic on IRF links, as shown in Figure 9. For more information about IRF, see IRF
Configuration Guide.
48
Figure 9 Load sharing for multi-switch link aggregation in an IRF fabric
The egress port for a traffic flow is an
aggregate interface that has Selected
ports on different IRF member switches
Yes
Any Selected ports on the
ingress switch?
No
Local-first load sharing
mechanism enabled?
No
Yes
Packets are load shared only
across the Selected ports on the
ingress switch
Packets are load shared across
all Selected ports
To enable local-first load sharing for link aggregation:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enable local-first load sharing
for link aggregation.
link-aggregation load-sharing
mode local-first
By default, local-first load sharing
for link aggregation is enabled.
NOTE:
Local-first load sharing for link aggregation takes effect on only known unicast packets.
Displaying and maintaining Ethernet link
aggregation
Execute display commands in any view and reset commands in user view.
Task
Display information for an aggregate interface
or multiple aggregate interfaces.
Command
display interface [ bridge-aggregation| route-aggregation ]
[ brief [ down | description ] ]
display interface { bridge-aggregation |
route-aggregation } interface-number [ brief [ description ] ]
Display the local system ID.
display lacp system-id
Display the global or group-specific
link-aggregation load sharing criteria.
display link-aggregation load-sharing mode [ interface
[ { bridge-aggregation | route-aggregation }
interface-number ] ]
49
Task
Command
Display detailed link aggregation information
for link aggregation member ports.
display link-aggregation member-port [ interface-list ]
Display summary information about all
aggregation groups.
display link-aggregation summary
Display detailed information about the specified
aggregation groups.
display link-aggregation verbose [ { bridge-aggregation |
route-aggregation } [ interface-number ] ]
Clear LACP statistics for the specified link
aggregation member ports.
reset lacp statistics [ interface interface-list ]
Clear statistics for the specified aggregate
interfaces.
reset counters interface [ { bridge-aggregation |
route-aggregation } [ interface-number ] ]
Ethernet link aggregation configuration examples
Layer 2 static aggregation configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 10, configure a Layer 2 static aggregation group on both Device A and Device B, and
enable VLAN 10 at one end of the aggregate link to communicate with VLAN 10 at the other end, and
VLAN 20 at one end to communicate with VLAN 20 at the other end.
Figure 10 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Device A:
# Create VLAN 10, and assign port FortyGigE 1/0/4 to VLAN 10.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] vlan 10
[DeviceA-vlan10] port fortygige 1/0/4
[DeviceA-vlan10] quit
# Create VLAN 20, and assign port FortyGigE 1/0/5 to VLAN 20.
[DeviceA] vlan 20
50
[DeviceA-vlan20] port fortygige 1/0/5
[DeviceA-vlan20] quit
# Create Layer 2 aggregate interface Bridge-Aggregation 1.
[DeviceA] interface bridge-aggregation 1
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] quit
# Assign ports FortyGigE 1/0/1 through FortyGigE 1/0/3 to link aggregation group 1.
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/3
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] quit
# Configure Layer 2 aggregate interface Bridge-Aggregation 1 as a trunk port and assign it to
VLANs 10 and 20.
[DeviceA] interface bridge-aggregation 1
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] port link-type trunk
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] port trunk permit vlan 10 20
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] quit
2.
Configure Device B in the same way Device A is configured.
Verifying the configuration
# Display detailed information about all aggregation groups on Device A.
[DeviceA] display link-aggregation verbose
Loadsharing Type: Shar -- Loadsharing, NonS -- Non-Loadsharing
Port Status: S -- Selected, U -- Unselected, I -- Individual
Flags:
A -- LACP_Activity, B -- LACP_Timeout, C -- Aggregation,
D -- Synchronization, E -- Collecting, F -- Distributing,
G -- Defaulted, H -- Expired
Aggregate Interface: Bridge-Aggregation1
Aggregation Mode: Static
Loadsharing Type: Shar
Port
Status
Priority Oper-Key
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
S
32768
1
FGE1/0/2
S
32768
1
FGE1/0/3
S
32768
1
The output shows that link aggregation group 1 is a Layer 2 static aggregation group and it contains
three Selected ports.
51
Layer 2 dynamic aggregation configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 11, configure a Layer 2 dynamic aggregation group on both Device A and Device B,
enable VLAN 10 at one end of the aggregate link to communicate with VLAN 10 at the other end, and
VLAN 20 at one end to communicate with VLAN 20 at the other end.
Figure 11 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Device A:
# Create VLAN 10, and assign the port FortyGigE 1/0/4 to VLAN 10.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] vlan 10
[DeviceA-vlan10] port fortygige 1/0/4
[DeviceA-vlan10] quit
# Create VLAN 20, and assign the port FortyGigE 1/0/5 to VLAN 20.
[DeviceA] vlan 20
[DeviceA-vlan20] port fortygige 1/0/5
[DeviceA-vlan20] quit
# Create Layer 2 aggregate interface Bridge-Aggregation 1, and configure the link aggregation
mode as dynamic.
[DeviceA] interface bridge-aggregation 1
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] link-aggregation mode dynamic
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] quit
# Assign ports FortyGigE 1/0/1 through FortyGigE 1/0/3 to link aggregation group 1.
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/3
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] port link-aggregation group 1
52
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] quit
# Configure Layer 2 aggregate interface Bridge-Aggregation 1 as a trunk port and assign it to
VLANs 10 and 20.
[DeviceA] interface bridge-aggregation 1
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] port link-type trunk
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] port trunk permit vlan 10 20
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] quit
2.
Configure Device B in the same way Device A is configured.
Verifying the configuration
# Display detailed information about all aggregation groups on Device A.
[DeviceA] display link-aggregation verbose
Loadsharing Type: Shar -- Loadsharing, NonS -- Non-Loadsharing
Port Status: S -- Selected, U -- Unselected, I -- Individual
Flags:
A -- LACP_Activity, B -- LACP_Timeout, C -- Aggregation,
D -- Synchronization, E -- Collecting, F -- Distributing,
G -- Defaulted, H -- Expired
Aggregate Interface: Bridge-Aggregation1
Aggregation Mode: Dynamic
Loadsharing Type: Shar
System ID: 0x8000, 000f-e267-6c6a
Local:
Port
Status
Priority Oper-Key
Flag
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
S
32768
1
{ACDEF}
FGE1/0/2
S
32768
1
{ACDEF}
FGE1/0/3
S
32768
1
{ACDEF}
Remote:
Actor
Partner Priority Oper-Key
SystemID
Flag
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
1
32768
1
0x8000, 000f-e267-57ad {ACDEF}
FGE1/0/2
2
32768
1
0x8000, 000f-e267-57ad {ACDEF}
FGE1/0/3
3
32768
1
0x8000, 000f-e267-57ad {ACDEF}
The output shows that link aggregation group 1 is a Layer 2 dynamic aggregation group and it contains
three Selected ports.
Layer 2 aggregation load sharing configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 12:
•
Configure two Layer 2 static aggregation groups (1 and 2) on Device A and Device B respectively,
and enable VLAN 10 at one end of the aggregate link to communicate with VLAN 10 at the other
end, and VLAN 20 at one end to communicate with VLAN 20 at the other end.
•
Configure the global load sharing criterion as the source MAC addresses of packets to load-share
traffic across aggregation group member ports.
53
Figure 12 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Device A:
# Create VLAN 10, and assign the port FortyGigE 1/0/5 to VLAN 10.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] vlan 10
[DeviceA-vlan10] port fortygige 1/0/5
[DeviceA-vlan10] quit
# Create VLAN 20, and assign the port FortyGigE 1/0/6 to VLAN 20.
[DeviceA] vlan 20
[DeviceA-vlan20] port fortygige 1/0/6
[DeviceA-vlan20] quit
# Create Layer 2 aggregate interface Bridge-Aggregation 1.
[DeviceA] interface bridge-aggregation 1
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] quit
# Assign ports FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 to link aggregation group 1.
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
# Configure Layer 2 aggregate interface Bridge-Aggregation 1 as a trunk port and assign it to
VLAN 10.
[DeviceA] interface bridge-aggregation 1
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] port link-type trunk
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] port trunk permit vlan 10
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation1] quit
# Create Layer 2 aggregate interface Bridge-Aggregation 2.
[DeviceA] interface bridge-aggregation 2
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation2] quit
# Assign ports FortyGigE 1/0/3 and FortyGigE 1/0/4 to link aggregation group 2.
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/3
54
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] port link-aggregation group 2
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/4
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/4] port link-aggregation group 2
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/4] quit
# Configure Layer 2 aggregate interface Bridge-Aggregation 2 as a trunk port and assign it to
VLAN 20.
[DeviceA] interface bridge-aggregation 2
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation2] port link-type trunk
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation2] port trunk permit vlan 20
[DeviceA-Bridge-Aggregation2] quit
# Configure the source MAC address as the global link-aggregation load sharing criterion.
[DeviceA] link-aggregation global load-sharing mode source-mac
2.
Configure Device B in the same way Device A is configured.
Verifying the configuration
# Display detailed information about all aggregation groups on Device A.
[DeviceA] display link-aggregation verbose
Loadsharing Type: Shar -- Loadsharing, NonS -- Non-Loadsharing
Port Status: S -- Selected, U -- Unselected, I -- Individual
Flags:
A -- LACP_Activity, B -- LACP_Timeout, C -- Aggregation,
D -- Synchronization, E -- Collecting, F -- Distributing,
G -- Defaulted, H -- Expired
Aggregate Interface: Bridge-Aggregation1
Aggregation Mode: Static
Loadsharing Type: Shar
Port
Status
Priority Oper-Key
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
S
32768
1
FGE1/0/2
S
32768
1
Aggregate Interface: Bridge-Aggregation2
Aggregation Mode: Static
Loadsharing Type: Shar
Port
Status
Priority Oper-Key
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/3
S
32768
2
FGE1/0/4
S
32768
2
The output shows that link aggregation groups 1 and 2 are both load-shared Layer 2 static aggregation
groups and each contains two Selected ports.
# Display all the group-specific load sharing criteria on Device A.
[DeviceA] display link-aggregation load-sharing mode interface
Bridge-Aggregation1 Load-Sharing Mode:
source-mac address
55
Bridge-Aggregation2 Load-Sharing Mode:
source-mac address
The output shows that the load sharing criteria for both link aggregation group 1 and link aggregation
group 2 are the source MAC addresses of packets.
Layer 3 static aggregation configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 13:
•
Reserve four VLAN interface resources before creating a Layer 3 aggregate interface.
•
Configure a Layer 3 static aggregation group on both Device A and Device B.
•
Configure IP addresses and subnet masks for the corresponding Layer 3 aggregate interfaces.
Figure 13 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Device A:
# Reserve VLAN interface resources of VLANs 3000 to 3500. For more information about
reserving VLAN interface resources, see "Configuring VLANs."
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] reserve-vlan-interface 3000 to 3500
# Create Layer 3 aggregate interface Route-Aggregation 1, and configure an IP address and
subnet mask for the aggregate interface.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] interface route-aggregation 1
[DeviceA-Route-Aggregation1] ip address 192.168.1.1 24
[DeviceA-Route-Aggregation1] quit
# Assign Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces FortyGigE 1/0/1 through FortyGigE 1/0/3 to aggregation
group 1.
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/3
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] quit
2.
Configure Device B in the same way Device A is configured.
Verifying the configuration
# Display detailed information about all aggregation groups on Device A.
56
[DeviceA] display link-aggregation verbose
Loadsharing Type: Shar -- Loadsharing, NonS -- Non-Loadsharing
Port Status: S -- Selected, U -- Unselected, I -- Individual
Flags:
A -- LACP_Activity, B -- LACP_Timeout, C -- Aggregation,
D -- Synchronization, E -- Collecting, F -- Distributing,
G -- Defaulted, H -- Expired
Aggregate Interface: Route-Aggregation1
Aggregation Mode: Static
Loadsharing Type: Shar
Port
Status
Priority Oper-Key
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
S
32768
1
FGE1/0/2
S
32768
1
FGE1/0/3
S
32768
1
The output shows that link aggregation group 1 is a non-load-shared Layer 3 static aggregation group
that contains three Selected ports.
Layer 3 dynamic aggregation configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 14:
•
Reserve four VLAN interface resources before creating a Layer 3 aggregate interface.
•
Configure a Layer 3 dynamic aggregation group on both Device A and Device B.
•
Configure IP addresses and subnet masks for the corresponding Layer 3 aggregate interfaces.
Figure 14 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Device A:
# Reserve VLAN interface resources of VLANs 3000 to 3500. For more information about
reserving VLAN interface resources, see "Configuring VLANs."
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] reserve-vlan-interface 3000 to 3500
# Create Layer 3 aggregate interface Route-Aggregation 1.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] interface route-aggregation 1
# Configure the link aggregation mode as dynamic.
[DeviceA-Route-Aggregation1] link-aggregation mode dynamic
# Configure an IP address and subnet mask for Route-Aggregation 1.
[DeviceA-Route-Aggregation1] ip address 192.168.1.1 24
[DeviceA-Route-Aggregation1] quit
57
# Assign Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces FortyGigE 1/0/1 through FortyGigE 1/0/3 to aggregation
group 1.
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/3
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] port link-aggregation group 1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] quit
2.
Configure Device B in the same way Device A is configured.
Verifying the configuration
# Display detailed information about all aggregation groups on Device A.
[DeviceA] display link-aggregation verbose
Loadsharing Type: Shar -- Loadsharing, NonS -- Non-Loadsharing
Port Status: S -- Selected, U -- Unselected, I -- Individual
Flags:
A -- LACP_Activity, B -- LACP_Timeout, C -- Aggregation,
D -- Synchronization, E -- Collecting, F -- Distributing,
G -- Defaulted, H -- Expired
Aggregate Interface: Route-Aggregation1
Aggregation Mode: Dynamic
Loadsharing Type: Shar
System ID: 0x8000, 000f-e267-6c6a
Local:
Port
Status
Priority Oper-Key
Flag
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
S
32768
1
{ACDEF}
FGE1/0/2
S
32768
1
{ACDEF}
FGE1/0/3
S
32768
1
{ACDEF}
Remote:
Actor
Partner Priority Oper-Key
SystemID
Flag
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
1
32768
1
0x8000, 000f-e267-57ad {ACDEF}
FGE1/0/2
2
32768
1
0x8000, 000f-e267-57ad {ACDEF}
FGE1/0/3
3
32768
1
0x8000, 000f-e267-57ad {ACDEF}
The output shows that:
•
Link aggregation group 1 is a non-load-shared Layer 3 dynamic aggregation group.
•
The aggregation group contains three Selected ports.
Layer 3 edge aggregate interface configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 15, the device and the server are the two ends of a dynamic aggregate link. The
server starts a reboot. FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 must forward packets correctly during the
58
server's reboot process. To meet this requirement, configure Layer 3 aggregate interface
Route-Aggregation 1 on the device as an edge aggregate interface.
Reserve three VLAN interface resources before creating the Layer 3 aggregate interface.
Figure 15 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure the device:
# Reserve VLAN interface resources of VLANs 3000 to 3500. For more information about
reserving VLAN interface resources, see "Configuring VLANs."
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] reserve-vlan-interface 3000 to 3500
# Create Layer 3 aggregate interface Route-Aggregation 1, configure the link aggregation mode
as dynamic.
<Device> system-view
[Device] interface route-aggregation 1
[Device-Route-Aggregation1] link-aggregation mode dynamic
# Configure an IP address and subnet mask for Layer 3 aggregate interface Route-Aggregation 1.
[Device-Route-Aggregation1] ip address 192.168.1.1 24
# Configure Layer 3 aggregate interface Route-Aggregation 1 as an edge aggregate interface.
[Device-Route-Aggregation1] lacp edge-port
[Device-Route-Aggregation1] quit
# Assign Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 to aggregation
group 1.
[Device] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-aggregation group 1
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[Device] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-aggregation group 1
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
2.
Configure the server as required. (Details not shown.)
Verifying the configuration
# Display detailed information about all aggregation groups on the device during the server's reboot
process.
[Device] display link-aggregation verbose
Loadsharing Type: Shar -- Loadsharing, NonS -- Non-Loadsharing
Port Status: S -- Selected, U -- Unselected, I -- Individual
Flags:
A -- LACP_Activity, B -- LACP_Timeout, C -- Aggregation,
D -- Synchronization, E -- Collecting, F -- Distributing,
G -- Defaulted, H -- Expired
59
Aggregate Interface: Route-Aggregation1
Aggregation Mode: Dynamic
Loadsharing Type: NonS
System ID: 0x8000, 000f-e267-6c6a
Local:
Port
Status
Priority Oper-Key
Flag
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
I
32768
1
{AG}
FGE1/0/2
I
32768
1
{AG}
Remote:
Actor
Partner Priority Oper-Key
SystemID
Flag
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------FGE1/0/1
0
32768
0
0x8000, 0000-0000-0000 {DEF}
FGE1/0/2
0
32768
0
0x8000, 0000-0000-0000 {DEF}
The output shows that FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 are in Individual state when they receive
no LACPDUs from the server. Both FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 can forward packets, which
ensures zero packet loss.
60
Configuring port isolation
The port isolation feature isolates Layer 2 traffic for data privacy and security without using VLANs. You
can also use this feature to isolate the hosts in a VLAN from one another.
You can manually create isolation groups on the switch, but only the isolation group numbered 1 is valid.
The number of ports assigned to an isolation group is not limited.
Within the same VLAN, ports in an isolation group can communicate with those outside the isolation
group at Layer 2.
Assigning ports to an isolation group
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create an isolation
group.
port-isolate group group-number
For this switch series, only the isolation
group numbered 1 is valid.
• The configuration in Layer 2 Ethernet
interface view applies only to the
interface.
• Enter Layer 2 Ethernet
3.
Enter interface view.
interface view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
4.
Assign ports to the
specified isolation
group.
port-isolate enable group
group-number
• The configuration in Layer 2 aggregate
interface view applies to the Layer 2
aggregate interface and its
aggregation member ports. If the
device fails to apply the configuration
to the aggregate interface, it does not
assign any aggregation member port
to the isolation group. If the failure
occurs on an aggregation member
port, the device skips the port and
continues to assign other aggregation
member ports to the isolation group.
No ports are assigned to an isolation
group by default.
For this switch series, you can assign ports
to only isolation group 1.
Displaying and maintaining port isolation
Execute display commands in any view.
Task
Command
Display isolation group information
display port-isolate group [ group-number ] [ | { begin |
exclude | include } regular-expression ]
61
Port isolation configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 16, LAN users Host A, Host B, and Host C are connected to FortyGigE 1/0/1,
FortyGigE 1/0/2, and FortyGigE 1/0/3 on the device, respectively. The device connects to the Internet
through FortyGigE 1/0/4.
Configure the device to provide Internet access for the hosts, and isolate them from one another at Layer
2.
Figure 16 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
# Create isolation group 1.
<Device> system-view
[Device] port-isolate group 1
# Assign FortyGigE 1/0/1, FortyGigE 1/0/2, and FortyGigE 1/0/3 to isolation group 1.
[Device] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/1] port-isolate enable group 1
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[Device] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/2] port-isolate enable group 1
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
[Device] interface fortygige 1/0/3
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/3] port-isolate enable group 1
Verifying the configuration
# Display information about isolation group 1.
[Device-FortyGigE1/0/3] display port-isolate group 1
Port isolation group information:
62
Group ID: 1
Group members:
FortyGigE1/0/1
FortyGigE1/0/2
FortyGigE1/0/3
63
Configuring spanning tree protocols
Spanning tree protocols eliminate loops in a physical link-redundant network by selectively blocking
redundant links and putting them in a standby state.
The recent versions of STP include the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and the Multiple Spanning
Tree Protocol (MSTP).
STP
STP was developed based on the 802.1d standard of IEEE to eliminate loops at the data link layer in a
LAN. Networks often have redundant links as backups in case of failures, but loops are a very serious
problem. Devices running STP detect loops in the network by exchanging information with one another,
and eliminate loops by selectively blocking certain ports to prune the loop structure into a loop-free tree
structure. This avoids proliferation and infinite cycling of packets that would occur in a loop network.
In the narrow sense, STP refers to IEEE 802.1d STP. In the broad sense, STP refers to the IEEE 802.1d STP
and various enhanced spanning tree protocols derived from that protocol.
STP protocol packets
STP uses bridge protocol data units (BPDUs), also known as configuration messages, as its protocol
packets. This chapter uses BPDUs to represent all types of spanning tree protocol packets.
STP-enabled network devices exchange BPDUs to establish a spanning tree. BPDUs contain sufficient
information for the network devices to complete spanning tree calculation.
STP uses the following types of BPDUs:
•
Configuration BPDUs—Used by the network devices to calculate a spanning tree and maintain the
spanning tree topology.
•
Topology change notification (TCN) BPDUs—Notify network devices of network topology changes.
Configuration BPDUs contain sufficient information for the network devices to complete spanning tree
calculation. Important fields in a configuration BPDU include the following:
•
Root bridge ID—Consisting of the priority and MAC address of the root bridge.
•
Root path cost—Cost of the path to the root bridge denoted by the root identifier from the
transmitting bridge.
•
Designated bridge ID—Consisting of the priority and MAC address of the designated bridge.
•
Designated port ID—Consisting of the priority and global port number of the designated port.
•
Message age—Age of the configuration BPDU while it propagates in the network.
•
Max age—Maximum age of the configuration BPDU stored on the switch.
•
Hello time—Configuration BPDU transmission interval.
•
Forward delay—Delay that STP bridges use to transit port state.
64
Basic concepts in STP
Root bridge
A tree network must have a root bridge. The entire network contains only one root bridge, and all the
other bridges in the network are called "leaf nodes". The root bridge is not permanent, but can change
with changes of the network topology.
Upon initialization of a network, each device generates and periodically sends configuration BPDUs,
with itself as the root bridge. After network convergence, only the root bridge generates and periodically
sends configuration BPDUs. The other devices only forward the BPDUs.
Root port
On a non-root bridge, the port nearest to the root bridge is the root port. The root port communicates with
the root bridge. Each non-root bridge has only one root port. The root bridge has no root port.
Designated bridge and designated port
Classification
Designated bridge
Designated port
For a device
Device directly connected with the local
device and responsible for forwarding BPDUs
to the local device
Port through which the designated
bridge forwards BPDUs to this device
For a LAN
Device responsible for forwarding BPDUs to
this LAN segment
Port through which the designated
bridge forwards BPDUs to this LAN
segment
As shown in Figure 17, Device B and Device C are directly connected to a LAN. If Device A forwards
BPDUs to Device B through port A1, the designated bridge for Device B is Device A, and the designated
port of Device B is port A1 on Device A. If Device B forwards BPDUs to the LAN, the designated bridge
for the LAN is Device B, and the designated port for the LAN is port B2 on Device B.
Figure 17 Designated bridges and designated ports
Device A
Port A1
Port A2
Device B
Device C
Port B1
Port C1
Port B2
Port C2
LAN
Path cost
Path cost is a reference value used for link selection in STP. STP calculates path costs to select the most
robust links and block redundant links that are less robust, to prune the network into a loop-free tree.
65
Calculation process of the STP algorithm
The spanning tree calculation process described in the following sections is a simplified process for
example only.
Calculation process
The STP algorithm uses the following calculation process:
1.
Network initialization.
Upon initialization of a device, each port generates a BPDU with the port as the designated port,
the device as the root bridge, 0 as the root path cost, and the device ID as the designated bridge
ID.
2.
Root bridge selection.
Initially, each STP-enabled device on the network assumes itself to be the root bridge, with its own
device ID as the root bridge ID. By exchanging configuration BPDUs, the devices compare their
root bridge IDs to elect the device with the smallest root bridge ID as the root bridge.
3.
Root port and designated ports selection on the non-root bridges.
Step
Description
1
A non-root–bridge device regards the port on which it received the optimum configuration
BPDU as the root port. Table 5 describes how the optimum configuration BPDU is selected.
Based on the configuration BPDU and the path cost of the root port, the device calculates a
designated port configuration BPDU for each of the other ports.
• The root bridge ID is replaced with that of the configuration BPDU of the root port.
• The root path cost is replaced with that of the configuration BPDU of the root port plus the
2
path cost of the root port.
• The designated bridge ID is replaced with the ID of this device.
• The designated port ID is replaced with the ID of this port.
The device compares the calculated configuration BPDU with the configuration BPDU on the
port whose port role will be determined, and acts depending on the result of the comparison:
• If the calculated configuration BPDU is superior, the device considers this port as the
designated port, replaces the configuration BPDU on the port with the calculated
configuration BPDU, and periodically sends the calculated configuration BPDU.
3
• If the configuration BPDU on the port is superior, the device blocks this port without
updating its configuration BPDU. The blocked port can receive BPDUs, but cannot send
BPDUs or forward data traffic.
When the network topology is stable, only the root port and designated ports forward user traffic.
Other ports are all in the blocked state to receive BPDUs but not to forward BPDUs or user traffic.
Table 5 Selecting the optimum configuration BPDU
Step
Actions
Upon receiving a configuration BPDU on a port, the device compares the priority of the
received configuration BPDU with that of the configuration BPDU generated by the port, and:
1
• If the former priority is lower, the device discards the received configuration BPDU and
keeps the configuration BPDU the port generated.
• If the former priority is higher, the device replaces the content of the configuration BPDU
generated by the port with the content of the received configuration BPDU.
66
Step
Actions
2
The device compares the configuration BPDUs of all the ports and chooses the optimum
configuration BPDU.
The following are the principles of configuration BPDU comparison:
a. The configuration BPDU with the lowest root bridge ID has the highest priority.
b. If configuration BPDUs have the same root bridge ID, their root path costs are compared. For
example, the root path cost in a configuration BPDU plus the path cost of a receiving port is S.
The configuration BPDU with the smallest S value has the highest priority.
c. If all configuration BPDUs have the same root bridge ID and S value, their designated bridge
IDs, designated port IDs, and the IDs of the receiving ports are compared in sequence. The
configuration BPDU that contains a smaller designated bridge ID, designated port ID, or
receiving port ID is selected.
A tree-shape topology forms when the root bridge, root ports, and designated ports are selected.
Example of STP calculation
Figure 18 provides an example showing how the STP algorithm works.
Figure 18 The STP algorithm
Device A
Priority = 0
Port A1
Port A2
Port B1
Port C1
Port B2
Port C2
Path cost = 4
Device B
Priority = 1
Device C
Priority = 2
As shown in Figure 18, the priority values of Device A, Device B, and Device C are 0, 1, and 2, and the
path costs of links among the three devices are 5, 10, and 4, respectively.
1.
Device state initialization.
In Table 6, each configuration BPDU contains the following fields: root bridge ID, root path cost,
designated bridge ID, and designated port ID.
Table 6 Initial state of each device
Device
Device A
Device B
Port name
Configuration BPDU on the
port
Port A1
{0, 0, 0, Port A1}
Port A2
{0, 0, 0, Port A2}
Port B1
{1, 0, 1, Port B1}
67
Device
Device C
2.
Port name
Configuration BPDU on the
port
Port B2
{1, 0, 1, Port B2}
Port C1
{2, 0, 2, Port C1}
Port C2
{2, 0, 2, Port C2}
Configuration BPDUs comparison on each device.
In Table 7, each configuration BPDU contains the following fields: root bridge ID, root path cost,
designated bridge ID, and designated port ID.
Table 7 Comparison process and result on each device
Device
Configuration BPDU on
ports after comparison
Comparison process
• Port A1 receives the configuration BPDU of Port B1 {1, 0,
1, Port B1}, finds that its existing configuration BPDU {0, 0,
0, Port A1} is superior to the received configuration BPDU,
and discards the received one.
• Port A2 receives the configuration BPDU of Port C1 {2, 0,
Device A
2, Port C1}, finds that its existing configuration BPDU {0,
0, 0, Port A2} is superior to the received configuration
BPDU, and discards the received one.
• Device A finds that it is both the root bridge and
• Port A1: {0, 0, 0, Port
A1}
• Port A2: {0, 0, 0, Port
A2}
designated bridge in the configuration BPDUs of all its
ports, and considers itself as the root bridge. It does not
change the configuration BPDU of any port and starts to
periodically send configuration BPDUs.
• Port B1 receives the configuration BPDU of Port A1 {0, 0,
0, Port A1}, finds that the received configuration BPDU is
superior to its existing configuration BPDU {1, 0, 1, Port
B1}, and updates its configuration BPDU.
• Port B1: {0, 0, 0, Port
• Port B2 receives the configuration BPDU of Port C2 {2, 0,
• Port B2: {1, 0, 1, Port
2, Port C2}, finds that its existing configuration BPDU {1,
0, 1, Port B2} is superior to the received configuration
BPDU, and discards the received one.
A1}
B2}
• Device B compares the configuration BPDUs of all its
Device B
ports, decides that the configuration BPDU of Port B1 is the
optimum, and selects Port B1 as the root port with the
configuration BPDU unchanged.
• Based on the configuration BPDU and path cost of the root
port, Device B calculates a designated port configuration
BPDU for Port B2 {0, 5, 1, Port B2}, and compares it with
the existing configuration BPDU of Port B2 {1, 0, 1, Port
B2}. Device B finds that the calculated one is superior,
decides that Port B2 is the designated port, replaces the
configuration BPDU on Port B2 with the calculated one,
and periodically sends the calculated configuration
BPDU.
68
• Root port (Port B1): {0,
0, 0, Port A1}
• Designated port (Port
B2): {0, 5, 1, Port B2}
Device
Configuration BPDU on
ports after comparison
Comparison process
• Port C1 receives the configuration BPDU of Port A2 {0, 0,
0, Port A2}, finds that the received configuration BPDU is
superior to its existing configuration BPDU {2, 0, 2, Port
C1}, and updates its configuration BPDU.
• Port C2 receives the original configuration BPDU of Port
B2 {1, 0, 1, Port B2}, finds that the received configuration
BPDU is superior to the existing configuration BPDU {2, 0,
2, Port C2}, and updates its configuration BPDU.
• Port C1: {0, 0, 0, Port
A2}
• Port C2: {1, 0, 1, Port
B2}
• Device C compares the configuration BPDUs of all its
ports, decides that the configuration BPDU of Port C1 is
the optimum, and selects Port C1 as the root port with the
configuration BPDU unchanged.
• Based on the configuration BPDU and path cost of the root
port, Device C calculates the configuration BPDU of Port
C2 {0, 10, 2, Port C2}, and compares it with the existing
configuration BPDU of Port C2 {1, 0, 1, Port B2}. Device C
finds that the calculated configuration BPDU is superior to
the existing one, selects Port C2 as the designated port,
and replaces the configuration BPDU of Port C2 with the
calculated one.
• Root port (Port C1): {0,
0, 0, Port A2}
• Designated port (Port
C2): {0, 10, 2, Port C2}
• Port C2 receives the updated configuration BPDU of Port
Device C
B2 {0, 5, 1, Port B2}, finds that the received configuration
BPDU is superior to its existing configuration BPDU {0, 10,
2, Port C2}, and updates its configuration BPDU.
• Port C1: {0, 0, 0, Port
• Port C1 receives a periodic configuration BPDU {0, 0, 0,
• Port C2: {0, 5, 1, Port
Port A2} from Port A2, finds that it is the same as the
existing configuration BPDU, and discards the received
one.
A2}
B2}
• Device C finds that the root path cost of Port C1 (10) (root
path cost of the received configuration BPDU (0) plus path
cost of Port C1 (10)) is larger than that of Port C2 (9) (root
path cost of the received configuration BPDU (5) plus path
cost of Port C2 (4)), decides that the configuration BPDU of
Port C2 is the optimum, and selects Port C2 as the root
port with the configuration BPDU unchanged.
• Based on the configuration BPDU and path cost of the root
port, Device C calculates a designated port configuration
BPDU for Port C1 {0, 9, 2, Port C1} and compares it with
the existing configuration BPDU of Port C1 {0, 0, 0, Port
A2}. Device C finds that the existing configuration BPDU is
superior to the calculated one and blocks Port C1 with the
configuration BPDU unchanged. Then Port C1 does not
forward data until a new event triggers a spanning tree
calculation process, for example, the link between Device
B and Device C is down.
• Blocked port (Port C1):
{0, 0, 0, Port A2}
• Root port (Port C2): {0,
5, 1, Port B2}
After the comparison processes described in Table 7, a spanning tree with Device A as the root bridge
is established, and the topology is shown in Figure 19.
69
Figure 19 The final calculated spanning tree
The configuration BPDU forwarding mechanism of STP
The configuration BPDUs of STP are forwarded according to these guidelines:
•
Upon network initiation, every device regards itself as the root bridge, generates configuration
BPDUs with itself as the root, and sends the configuration BPDUs at a regular hello interval.
•
If the root port received a configuration BPDU and the received configuration BPDU is superior to
the configuration BPDU of the port, the device increases the message age carried in the
configuration BPDU following a certain rule and starts a timer to time the configuration BPDU while
sending this configuration BPDU through the designated port.
•
If the configuration BPDU received on a designated port has a lower priority than the configuration
BPDU of the local port, the port immediately sends its own configuration BPDU in response.
•
If a path becomes faulty, the root port on this path no longer receives new configuration BPDUs and
the old configuration BPDUs will be discarded due to timeout. The device generates a configuration
BPDU with itself as the root and sends the BPDUs and TCN BPDUs. This triggers a new spanning
tree calculation process to establish a new path to restore the network connectivity.
However, the newly calculated configuration BPDU cannot be propagated throughout the network
immediately, so the old root ports and designated ports that have not detected the topology change
continue forwarding data along the old path. If the new root ports and designated ports begin to
forward data as soon as they are elected, a temporary loop might occur.
STP timers
The most important timing parameters in STP calculation are forward delay, hello time, and max age.
•
Forward delay—Forward delay is the delay time for port state transition.
A path failure can cause spanning tree re-calculation to adapt the spanning tree structure to the
change. However, the resulting new configuration BPDU cannot propagate throughout the
network immediately. If the newly elected root ports and designated ports start to forward data
immediately, a temporary loop will likely occur.
For this reason, as a mechanism for state transition in STP, the newly elected root ports or
designated ports require twice the forward delay time before they transit to the forwarding state to
make sure the new configuration BPDU has propagated throughout the network.
•
Hello time—The device sends hello packets at the hello time interval to the neighboring devices to
make sure the paths are fault-free.
•
Max age—The device uses the max age to determine whether a stored configuration BPDU has
expired and discards it if the max age is exceeded.
70
RSTP
RSTP achieves rapid network convergence by allowing a newly elected root port or designated port to
enter the forwarding state much faster than STP.
If the old root port on the device has stopped forwarding data and the upstream designated port has
started forwarding data, a newly elected RSTP root port rapidly enters the forwarding state.
A newly elected RSTP designated port rapidly enters the forwarding state if it is an edge port (a port that
directly connects to a user terminal rather than to another network device or a shared LAN segment) or
it connects to a point-to-point link. Edge ports directly enter the forwarding state. Connecting to a
point-to-point link, a designated port enters the forwarding state immediately after the device receives a
handshake response from the directly connected device.
MSTP
MSTP overcomes the following STP and RSTP limitations:
•
STP limitations—STP does not support rapid state transition of ports. A newly elected port must wait
twice the forward delay time before it transits to the forwarding state, even if it connects to a
point-to-point link or is an edge port.
•
RSTP limitations—Although RSTP enables faster network convergence than STP, RSTP fails to
provide load balancing among VLANs. As with STP, all RSTP bridges in a LAN share one spanning
tree and forward packets from all VLANs along this spanning tree.
MSTP features
Developed based on IEEE 802.1s, MSTP overcomes the limitations of STP and RSTP. In addition to
supporting rapid network convergence, it provides a better load sharing mechanism for redundant links
by allowing data flows of different VLANs to be forwarded along separate paths.
MSTP provides the following features:
•
MSTP divides a switched network into multiple regions, each of which contains multiple spanning
trees that are independent of one another.
•
MSTP supports mapping VLANs to spanning tree instances by means of a VLAN-to-instance
mapping table. MSTP can reduce communication overheads and resource usage by mapping
multiple VLANs to one instance.
•
MSTP prunes a loop network into a loop-free tree, which avoids proliferation and endless cycling of
packets in a loop network. In addition, it supports load balancing of VLAN data by providing
multiple redundant paths for data forwarding.
•
MSTP is compatible with STP and RSTP.
MSTP basic concepts
Figure 20 shows a switched network that comprises four MST regions, each MST region comprising four
MSTP devices. Figure 21 shows the networking topology of MST region 3.
71
Figure 20 Basic concepts in MSTP
VLAN 1
MSTI 1
MSTI 2
VLAN 2
MSTI 0
Other VLANs
VLAN 1
MSTI 1
MSTI 2
VLAN 2
MSTI 0
Other VLANs
MST region 1
MST region 4
MST region 2
MST region 3
VLAN 1
MSTI 1
MSTI 2
VLAN 2
MSTI 0
Other VLANs
CST
VLAN 1
MSTI 1
MSTI 2
VLAN 2&3
MSTI 0
Other VLANs
To MST region 2
Figure 21 Network diagram and topology of MST region 3
MST region
A multiple spanning tree region (MST region) consists of multiple devices in a switched network and the
network segments among them. All these devices have the following characteristics:
•
A spanning tree protocol enabled
•
Same region name
72
•
Same VLAN-to-instance mapping configuration
•
Same MSTP revision level
•
Physically linked together
Multiple MST regions can exist in a switched network. You can assign multiple devices to the same MST
region. In Figure 20, the switched network comprises four MST regions, MST region 1 through MST
region 4, and all devices in each MST region have the same MST region configuration.
MSTI
MSTP can generate multiple independent spanning trees in an MST region, and each spanning tree is
mapped to the specific VLANs. Each spanning tree is referred to as a "multiple spanning tree instance
(MSTI)".
In Figure 21, MST region 3 comprises three MSTIs, MSTI 1, MSTI 2, and MSTI 0.
VLAN-to-instance mapping table
As an attribute of an MST region, the VLAN-to-instance mapping table describes the mapping
relationships between VLANs and MSTIs.
In Figure 21, the VLAN-to-instance mapping table of MST region 3 is: VLAN 1 to MSTI 1, VLAN 2 and
VLAN 3 to MSTI 2, and other VLANs to MSTI 0. MSTP achieves load balancing by means of the
VLAN-to-instance mapping table.
CST
The common spanning tree (CST) is a single spanning tree that connects all MST regions in a switched
network. If you regard each MST region as a device, the CST is a spanning tree calculated by these
devices through STP or RSTP.
The blue lines in Figure 20 represent the CST.
IST
An internal spanning tree (IST) is a spanning tree that runs in an MST region. It is also called MSTI 0, a
special MSTI to which all VLANs are mapped by default.
In Figure 20, MSTI 0 is the IST in MST region 3.
CIST
The common and internal spanning tree (CIST) is a single spanning tree that connects all devices in a
switched network. It consists of the ISTs in all MST regions and the CST.
In Figure 20, the ISTs (MSTI 0) in all MST regions plus the inter-region CST constitute the CIST of the entire
network.
Regional root
The root bridge of the IST or an MSTI within an MST region is the regional root of the IST or MSTI. Based
on the topology, different spanning trees in an MST region might have different regional roots.
In MST region 3 in Figure 21, the regional root of MSTI 1 is Device B, the regional root of MSTI 2 is Device
C, and the regional root of MSTI 0 (also known as the IST) is Device A.
Common root bridge
The common root bridge is the root bridge of the CIST.
In Figure 20, the common root bridge is a device in MST region 1.
73
Port roles
A port can play different roles in different MSTIs. As shown in Figure 22, an MST region comprises Device
A, Device B, Device C, and Device D. Port A1 and port A2 of Device A connect to the common root
bridge. Port B2 and Port B3 of Device B form a loop. Port C3 and Port C4 of Device C connect to other
MST regions. Port D3 of Device D directly connects to a host.
Figure 22 Port roles
MSTP calculation involves the following port roles:
•
Root port—Forwards data for a non-root bridge to the root bridge. The root bridge does not have
any root port.
•
Designated port—Forwards data to the downstream network segment or device.
•
Alternate port—Serves as the backup port for a root port or master port. When the root port or
master port is blocked, the alternate port takes over.
•
Backup port—Serves as the backup port of a designated port. When the designated port is invalid,
the backup port becomes the new designated port. A loop occurs when two ports of the same
spanning tree device are connected, so the device blocks one of the ports. The blocked port acts as
the backup.
•
Edge port—Does not connect to any network device or network segment, but directly connects to a
user host.
•
Master port—Serves as a port on the shortest path from the local MST region to the common root
bridge. The master port is not always located on the regional root. It is a root port on the IST or CIST
and still a master port on the other MSTIs.
•
Boundary port—Connects an MST region to another MST region or to an STP/RSTP-running device.
In MSTP calculation, a boundary port's role on an MSTI is consistent with its role on the CIST. But
that is not true with master ports. A master port on MSTIs is a root port on the CIST.
Port states
In MSTP, a port can be in one of the following states:
74
•
Forwarding—The port receives and sends BPDUs, learns MAC addresses, and forwards user
traffic.
•
Learning—The port receives and sends BPDUs, learns MAC addresses, but does not forward user
traffic. Learning is an intermediate port state.
•
Discarding—The port receives and sends BPDUs, but does not learn MAC addresses or forward
user traffic.
NOTE:
When in different MSTIs, a port can be in different states.
A port state is not exclusively associated with a port role. Table 8 lists the port states that each port role
supports. (A check mark [√] indicates that the port supports this state, while a dash [—] indicates that the
port does not support this state.)
Table 8 Port states that different port roles support
Port role (right)
Port state (below)
Root port/master
port
Designated port
Alternate port
Backup port
Forwarding
√
√
—
—
Learning
√
√
—
—
Discarding
√
√
√
√
How MSTP works
MSTP divides an entire Layer 2 network into multiple MST regions, which are connected by a calculated
CST. Inside an MST region, multiple spanning trees, called MSTIs, are calculated. Among these MSTIs,
MSTI 0 is the IST.
Like STP, MSTP uses configuration BPDUs to calculate spanning trees. An important difference is that an
MSTP BPDU carries the MSTP configuration of the bridge from which the BPDU is sent.
CIST calculation
The calculation of a CIST tree is also the process of configuration BPDU comparison. During this process,
the device with the highest priority is elected as the root bridge of the CIST. MSTP generates an IST within
each MST region through calculation. At the same time, MSTP regards each MST region as a single
device and generates a CST among these MST regions through calculation. The CST and ISTs constitute
the CIST of the entire network.
MSTI calculation
Within an MST region, MSTP generates different MSTIs for different VLANs based on the
VLAN-to-instance mappings. For each spanning tree, MSTP performs a separate calculation process
similar to spanning tree calculation in STP. For more information, see "Calculation process of the STP
algorithm."
In MSTP, a VLAN packet is forwarded along the following paths:
•
Within an MST region, the packet is forwarded along the corresponding MSTI.
•
Between two MST regions, the packet is forwarded along the CST.
75
MSTP implementation on devices
MSTP is compatible with STP and RSTP. Devices that are running MSTP and that are used for spanning
tree calculation can identify STP and RSTP protocol packets.
In addition to basic MSTP functions, the following functions are provided for ease of management:
•
Root bridge hold
•
Root bridge backup
•
Root guard
•
BPDU guard
•
Loop guard
•
TC-BPDU guard
•
Port role restriction
•
TC-BPDU transmission restriction
•
Support for hot swapping of interface cards
Protocols and standards
MSTP is documented in the following protocols and standards:
•
IEEE 802.1d, Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges
•
IEEE 802.1w, Part 3: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges—Amendment 2: Rapid Reconfiguration
•
IEEE 802.1s, Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks—Amendment 3: Multiple Spanning Trees
•
IEEE 802.1Q-REV/D1.3, Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges and Virtual Bridged Local Area
Networks —Clause 13: Spanning tree Protocols
Spanning tree configuration task lists
Before configuring a spanning tree, you must determine the spanning tree protocol to be used (STP, RSTP,
or MSTP) and plan the device roles (the root bridge or leaf node).
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you configure the spanning tree feature, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
Configurations made in system view take effect globally. Configurations made in Ethernet interface
view or WLAN mesh interface view take effect on the interface only. Configurations made in Layer
2 aggregate interface view take effect only on the aggregate interface. Configurations made on an
aggregation member port can take effect only after the port is removed from the aggregation
group.
•
After you enable a spanning tree protocol on a Layer 2 aggregate interface, the system performs
spanning tree calculation on the Layer 2 aggregate interface, but not on the aggregation member
ports. The spanning tree protocol enable state and forwarding state of each selected member port
is consistent with those of the corresponding Layer 2 aggregate interface.
76
Though the member ports of an aggregation group do not participate in spanning tree calculation,
the ports still reserve their spanning tree configurations for participating in spanning tree
calculation after leaving the aggregation group.
•
STP configuration task list
Tasks at a glance
Configuring the root bridge:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Required.) Setting the spanning tree mode
(Optional.) Configuring the root bridge or a secondary root bridge
(Optional.) Configuring the device priority
(Optional.) Configuring the network diameter of a switched network
(Optional.) Configuring spanning tree timers
(Optional.) Configuring the timeout factor
(Optional.) Configuring the BPDU transmission rate
(Optional.) Enabling outputting port state transition information
(Required.) Enabling the spanning tree feature
Configuring the leaf nodes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Required.) Setting the spanning tree mode
(Optional.) Configuring the device priority
(Optional.) Configuring the timeout factor
(Optional.) Configuring the BPDU transmission rate
(Optional.) Configuring path costs of ports
(Optional.) Configuring the port priority
(Optional.) Enabling outputting port state transition information
(Required.) Enabling the spanning tree feature
(Optional.) Configuring protection functions
RSTP configuration task list
Tasks at a glance
Configuring the root bridge:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Required.) Setting the spanning tree mode
(Optional.) Configuring the root bridge or a secondary root bridge
(Optional.) Configuring the device priority
(Optional.) Configuring the network diameter of a switched network
(Optional.) Configuring spanning tree timers
(Optional.) Configuring the timeout factor
(Optional.) Configuring the BPDU transmission rate
(Optional.) Configuring edge ports
(Optional.) Configuring the port link type
(Optional.) Enabling outputting port state transition information
(Required.) Enabling the spanning tree feature
77
Tasks at a glance
Configuring the leaf nodes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Required.) Setting the spanning tree mode
(Optional.) Configuring the device priority
(Optional.) Configuring the timeout factor
(Optional.) Configuring the BPDU transmission rate
(Optional.) Configuring edge ports
(Optional.) Configuring path costs of ports
(Optional.) Configuring the port priority
(Optional.) Configuring the port link type
(Optional.) Enabling outputting port state transition information
(Required.) Enabling the spanning tree feature
(Optional.) Performing mCheck
(Optional.) Configuring protection functions
MSTP configuration task list
Tasks at a glance
Configuring the root bridge:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Required.) Setting the spanning tree mode
(Required.) Configuring an MST region
(Optional.) Configuring the root bridge or a secondary root bridge
(Optional.) Configuring the device priority
(Optional.) Configuring the maximum hops of an MST region
(Optional.) Configuring the network diameter of a switched network
(Optional.) Configuring spanning tree timers
(Optional.) Configuring the timeout factor
(Optional.) Configuring the BPDU transmission rate
(Optional.) Configuring edge ports
(Optional.) Configuring the port link type
(Optional.) Configuring the mode a port uses to recognize and send MSTP packets
(Optional.) Enabling outputting port state transition information
(Required.) Enabling the spanning tree feature
78
Tasks at a glance
Configuring the leaf nodes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Required.) Setting the spanning tree mode
(Required.) Configuring an MST region
(Optional.) Configuring the device priority
(Optional.) Configuring the timeout factor
(Optional.) Configuring the BPDU transmission rate
(Optional.) Configuring edge ports
(Optional.) Configuring path costs of ports
(Optional.) Configuring the port priority
(Optional.) Configuring the port link type
(Optional.) Configuring the mode a port uses to recognize and send MSTP packets
(Optional.) Enabling outputting port state transition information
(Required.) Enabling the spanning tree feature
(Optional.) Performing mCheck
(Optional.) Configuring Digest Snooping
(Optional.) Configuring No Agreement Check
(Optional.) Configuring protection functions
Setting the spanning tree mode
The spanning tree modes include:
•
STP mode—All ports of the device send STP BPDUs. Select this mode when the peer device of a port
supports only STP.
•
RSTP mode—All ports of the device send RSTP BPDUs. A port in this mode automatically transits to
the STP mode when it receives STP BPDUs from the peer device, and a port in this mode does not
transit to the MSTP mode when it receives MSTP BPDUs from the peer device.
•
MSTP mode—All ports of the device send MSTP BPDUs. A port in this mode automatically transits
to the STP mode when receiving STP BPDUs from the peer device, and a port in this mode does not
transit to the RSTP mode when receiving RSTP BPDUs from the peer device.
MSTP mode is compatible with RSTP mode, and RSTP mode is compatible with STP mode.
To set the spanning tree mode:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Set the spanning tree mode.
stp mode { mstp | rstp | stp }
The default setting is the
MSTP mode.
Configuring an MST region
Two or more spanning tree devices belong to the same MST region only if they are configured to have the
same format selector (0 by default, not configurable), MST region name, MST region revision level, and
79
the same VLAN-to-instance mapping entries in the MST region, and they are connected through a
physical link.
The configuration of MST region-related parameters (especially the VLAN-to-instance mapping table)
might cause MSTP to begin a new spanning tree calculation. To reduce the possibility of topology
instability, the MST region configuration takes effect only after you activate it by using the active
region-configuration command, or enable a spanning tree protocol by using the stp global enable
command if the spanning tree protocol is disabled.
To configure an MST region:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter MST region view.
stp region-configuration
N/A
3.
Configure the MST region
name.
region-name name
The default setting is the MAC
address.
4.
Configure the
VLAN-to-instance mapping
table.
• instance instance-id vlan
Use one of the commands.
• vlan-mapping modulo modulo
By default, all VLANs in an MST
region are mapped to the CIST (or
MSTI 0).
vlan-id-list
5.
Configure the MSTP revision
level of the MST region.
revision-level level
The default setting is 0.
6.
(Optional.) Display the MST
region configurations that are
not activated yet.
check region-configuration
N/A
7.
Manually activate MST region
configuration.
active region-configuration
N/A
8.
(Optional.) Display the
activated configuration
information of the MST
region.
display stp region-configuration
Available in any view.
Configuring the root bridge or a secondary root
bridge
You can have the spanning tree protocol determine the root bridge of a spanning tree through MSTP
calculation, or you can specify the current device as the root bridge or as a secondary root bridge.
A device has independent roles in different spanning trees. It can act as the root bridge in one spanning
tree and as a secondary root bridge in another. However, one device cannot be the root bridge and a
secondary root bridge in the same spanning tree.
A spanning tree can have only one root bridge. If two or more devices are selected as the root bridge in
a spanning tree at the same time, the device with the lowest MAC address is chosen.
When the root bridge of an instance fails or is shut down, the secondary root bridge (if you have
specified one) becomes the root bridge if you have not specified a new root bridge. If you specify
multiple secondary root bridges for an instance, the secondary root bridge with the lowest MAC address
is given priority.
80
You can specify one root bridge for each spanning tree, regardless of the device priority settings. Once
you specify a device as the root bridge or a secondary root bridge, you cannot change its priority.
You can configure the current device as the root bridge by setting the device priority to 0. For the device
priority configuration, see "Configuring the device priority."
Configuring the current device as the root bridge of a specific
spanning tree
Step
1.
Enter system view.
2.
Configure the current
device as the root
bridge.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• In STP/RSTP mode:
stp root primary
• In MSTP mode:
By default, a device does not
function as the root bridge.
stp [ instance instance-list ] root primary
Configuring the current device as a secondary root bridge of a
specific spanning tree
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• In STP/RSTP mode:
2.
Configure the current
device as a secondary root
bridge.
stp root secondary
• In MSTP mode:
stp [ instance instance-list ] root
secondary
By default, a device does not
function as a secondary root
bridge.
Configuring the device priority
Device priority is a factor in calculating the spanning tree. The priority of a device determines whether the
device can be elected as the root bridge of a spanning tree. A lower value indicates a higher priority.
You can set the priority of a device to a low value to specify the device as the root bridge of the spanning
tree. A spanning tree device can have different priorities in different MSTIs.
During root bridge selection, if all devices in a spanning tree have the same priority, the one with the
lowest MAC address is selected as the root bridge of the spanning tree. You cannot change the priority
of a device after it is configured as the root bridge or as a secondary root bridge.
To configure the priority of a device in a specified MSTI:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
81
Step
Command
Remarks
• In STP/RSTP mode:
2.
Configure the priority of
the current device.
stp priority priority
• In MSTP mode:
The default setting is 32768.
stp [ instance instance-list ] priority
priority
Configuring the maximum hops of an MST region
Restrict the region size by setting the maximum hops of an MST region. The hop limit configured on the
regional root bridge is used as the hop limit for the MST region.
Configuration BPDUs sent by the regional root bridge always have a hop count set to the maximum value.
When a device receives this configuration BPDU, it decrements the hop count by one, and uses the new
hop count in the BPDUs that it propagates. When the hop count of a BPDU reaches zero, it is discarded
by the device that received it. Devices beyond the reach of the maximum hop can no longer participate
in spanning tree calculations, so the size of the MST region is limited.
Make this configuration only on the root bridge. All other devices in the MST region use the maximum
hop value set for the root bridge.
To configure the maximum number of hops of an MST region:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure the maximum hops
of the MST region.
stp max-hops hops
The default setting is 20.
Configuring the network diameter of a switched
network
Any two terminal devices in a switched network are connected through a specific path composed of a
series of devices. The network diameter is the number of devices on the path composed of the most
devices. The network diameter is a parameter that indicates the network size. A bigger network diameter
indicates a larger network size.
Based on the network diameter you configured, the system automatically sets an optimal hello time,
forward delay, and max age for the device. Each MST region is considered a device and the configured
network diameter is effective only on the CIST (or the common root bridge) but not on other MSTIs.
To configure the network diameter of a switched network:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure the network
diameter of the switched
network.
stp bridge-diameter diameter
The default setting is 7.
82
Configuring spanning tree timers
The following timers are used for spanning tree calculation:
•
Forward delay—Delay time for port state transition. To prevent temporary loops on a network, the
spanning tree feature sets an intermediate port state (the learning state) before it transits from the
discarding state to the forwarding state. The feature also requires that the port transit its state after
a forward delay timer to make sure the state transition of the local port stays synchronized with the
peer.
•
Hello time—Interval at which the device sends configuration BPDUs to detect link failures. If the
device receives no configuration BPDUs within the timeout time, it recalculates the spanning tree.
(Timeout time = timeout factor × 3 × hello time.)
•
Max age—In the CIST of an MSTP network, the device uses the max age timer to determine if a
configuration BPDU received by a port has expired. If it has, a new spanning tree calculation
process starts. The max age timer does not take effect on other MSTIs except the CIST.
To avoid frequent network changes, make sure the timer settings meet the following formulas:
•
2 × (forward delay – 1 second) ≥ max age
•
Max age ≥ 2 × (hello time + 1 second)
HP recommends not manually setting the spanning tree timers. HP recommends specifying the network
diameter and letting spanning tree protocols automatically calculate the timers based on the network
diameter. If the network diameter uses the default value, the timers also use their default values.
Configure the timers only on the root bridge. The timer settings on the root bridge apply to all devices on
the entire switched network.
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you configure spanning tree timers, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
The length of the forward delay timer is related to the network diameter of the switched network. The
larger the network diameter is, the longer the forward delay time should be. If the forward delay
timer is too short, temporary redundant paths might occur. If the forward delay timer is too long,
network convergence might take a long time. HP recommends using the default setting.
•
An appropriate hello time setting enables the device to promptly detect link failures on the network
without using excessive network resources. If the hello time is too long, the device mistakes packet
loss for a link failure and triggers a new spanning tree calculation process. If the hello time is too
short, the device frequently sends the same configuration BPDUs, which waste device and network
resources. HP recommends using the default setting.
•
If the max age timer is too short, the device frequently begins spanning tree calculations and might
mistake network congestion as a link failure. If the max age timer is too long, the device might fail
to promptly detect link failures and quickly launch spanning tree calculations, reducing the
auto-sensing capability of the network. HP recommends using the default setting.
Configuration procedure
To configure the spanning tree timers:
83
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure the forward
delay timer.
stp timer forward-delay
time
The default setting is 15 seconds.
3.
Configure the hello timer.
stp timer hello time
The default setting is 2 seconds.
4.
Configure the max age
timer.
stp timer max-age time
The default setting is 20 seconds.
Configuring the timeout factor
The timeout factor is a parameter used to decide the timeout time, in the following formula: Timeout time
= timeout factor × 3 × hello time.
After the network topology is stabilized, each non-root-bridge device forwards configuration BPDUs to
the downstream devices at the hello interval to detect link failures. If a device does not receive a BPDU
from the upstream device within nine times the hello time, it assumes that the upstream device has failed
and starts a new spanning tree calculation process.
Sometimes a device might fail to receive a BPDU from the upstream device because the upstream device
is busy. If a spanning tree calculation occurs, the calculation can fail and also waste network resources.
On a stable network, you can prevent undesired spanning tree calculations by setting the timeout factor
to 5, 6, or 7.
To configure the timeout factor:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure the timeout factor
of the device.
stp timer-factor factor
The default setting is 3.
Configuring the BPDU transmission rate
The maximum number of BPDUs a port can send within each hello time equals the BPDU transmission
rate plus the hello timer value. Configure an appropriate BPDU transmission rate based on the physical
status of the port and the network structure.
The higher the BPDU transmission rate, the more BPDUs are sent within each hello time, and the more
system resources are used. By setting an appropriate BPDU transmission rate, you can limit the rate at
which the port sends BPDUs and prevent spanning tree protocols from using excessive network resources
when the network topology changes. HP recommends using the default setting.
To configure the BPDU transmission rate:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
84
Step
Command
Remarks
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the BPDU
transmission rate of the ports.
stp transmit-limit limit
The default setting is 10.
Configuring edge ports
If a port directly connects to a user terminal rather than another device or a shared LAN segment, this
port is regarded as an edge port. When network topology change occurs, an edge port will not cause
a temporary loop. Because a device does not determine whether a port is directly connected to a
terminal, you must manually configure the port as an edge port. After that, the port can rapidly transit
from the blocked state to the forwarding state.
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you configure edge ports, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
If BPDU guard is disabled, a port set as an edge port becomes a non-edge port again if it receives
a BPDU from another port. To restore the edge port, re-enable it.
•
If a port directly connects to a user terminal, configure it as an edge port and enable BPDU guard
for it. This enables the port to quickly transit to the forwarding state when ensuring network security.
•
On a port, the loop guard function and the edge port setting are mutually exclusive.
Configuration procedure
To specify a port as an edge port:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the current ports as
edge ports.
stp edged-port
By default, all ports are
non-edge ports.
Configuring path costs of ports
Path cost is a parameter related to the rate of a port. On a spanning tree device, a port can have different
path costs in different MSTIs. Setting appropriate path costs allows VLAN traffic flows to be forwarded
along different physical links, achieving VLAN-based load balancing.
You can have the device automatically calculate the default path cost, or you can configure the path cost
for ports.
85
Specifying a standard for the device to use when it calculates
the default path cost
CAUTION:
If you change the standard that the device uses to calculate the default path costs, you restore the path
costs to the default.
You can specify a standard for the device to use in automatic calculation for the default path cost. The
device supports the following standards:
•
dot1d-1998—The device calculates the default path cost for ports based on IEEE 802.1d-1998.
•
dot1t—The device calculates the default path cost for ports based on IEEE 802.1t.
•
legacy—The device calculates the default path cost for ports based on a private standard.
Table 9 shows the mapping between the link speed and the path cost.
Table 9 Mappings between the link speed and the path cost
Path cost
Link speed
Port type
IEEE
802.1d-1998
IEEE 802.1t
Private standard
0
N/A
65535
200000000
200000
Single port
2000000
2000
Aggregate interface
containing 2 Selected ports
1000000
1800
666666
1600
Aggregate interface
containing 4 Selected ports
500000
1400
Single port
200000
200
Aggregate interface
containing 2 Selected ports
100000
180
66666
160
Aggregate interface
containing 4 Selected ports
50000
140
Single port
20000
20
Aggregate interface
containing 2 Selected ports
10000
18
6666
16
5000
14
2000
2
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
1000 Mbps
Aggregate interface
containing 3 Selected ports
Aggregate interface
containing 3 Selected ports
Aggregate interface
containing 3 Selected ports
100
19
4
Aggregate interface
containing 4 Selected ports
10 Gbps
Single port
2
86
Path cost
Link speed
Port type
IEEE
802.1d-1998
IEEE 802.1t
Private standard
Aggregate interface
containing 2 Selected ports
1000
1
Aggregate interface
containing 3 Selected ports
666
1
Aggregate interface
containing 4 Selected ports
500
1
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you specify a standard for the device to use when it calculates the default path cost, follow these
restrictions and guidelines:
•
When it calculates the path cost for an aggregate interface, IEEE 802.1t takes into account the
number of Selected ports in its aggregation group, but IEEE 802.1d-1998 does not. The calculation
formula of IEEE 802.1t is: Path cost = 200,000,000/link speed (in 100 kbps), where link speed is
the sum of the link speed values of the Selected ports in the aggregation group.
•
IEEE 802.1d-1998 or the private standard always assigns the smallest possible value to a single port
or an aggregate interface when the link speed of the port or interface exceeds 10 Gbps. The
forwarding path selected based on this criterion might not be the best one. To solve this problem,
use dot1t as the standard for default path cost calculation, or manually set the path cost for the port
(see "Configuring path costs of ports").
Configuration procedure
To specify a standard for the device to use when it calculates the default path cost:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Specify a standard for the
device to use when it
calculates the default path
costs of its ports.
stp pathcost-standard
{ dot1d-1998 | dot1t | legacy }
The default setting is legacy.
Configuring path costs of ports
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the path cost of the
ports.
• In STP/RSTP mode:
stp cost cost
• In MSTP mode:
stp [ instance instance-list ] cost cost
87
By default, the system
automatically calculates the
path cost of each port.
NOTE:
When the path cost of a port changes, the system re-calculates the role of the port and initiates a state
transition.
Configuration example
# In MSTP mode, configure the device to calculate the default path costs of its ports by using IEEE
802.1d-1998, and set the path cost of FortyGigE 1/0/3 to 200 on MSTI 2.
<Sysname> system-view
[Sysname] stp pathcost-standard dot1d-1998
Cost of every port will be reset and automatically re-calculated after you change the
current pathcost standard. Continue?[Y/N]:y
Cost of every port has been re-calculated.
[Sysname] interface fortygige 1/0/3
[Sysname-FortyGigE1/0/3] stp instance 2 cost 200
Configuring the port priority
The priority of a port is a factor that determines whether the port can be elected as the root port of a
device. If all other conditions are the same, the port with the highest priority is elected as the root port.
On a spanning tree device, a port can have different priorities and play different roles in different
spanning trees, so that data of different VLANs can be propagated along different physical paths,
implementing per-VLAN load balancing. You can set port priority values based on the actual networking
requirements.
To configure the priority of a port:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
• In STP/RSTP mode:
stp port priority priority
3.
Configure the port priority.
• In MSTP mode:
stp [ instance instance-list ] port priority
priority
The default setting is 128
for all ports.
NOTE:
When the priority of a port changes, the system re-calculates the port role and initiates a state transition.
Configuring the port link type
A point-to-point link directly connects two devices. If two root ports or designated ports are connected
over a point-to-point link, they can rapidly transit to the forwarding state after a proposal-agreement
handshake process.
88
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you configure the port link type, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
You can configure the link type as point-to-point for a Layer 2 aggregate interface or a port that
operates in full duplex mode. HP recommends using the default setting and letting the device
automatically detect the port link type.
•
The stp point-to-point force-false or stp point-to-point force-true command configured on a port in
MSTP mode is effective on all MSTIs.
•
If you configure a non-point-to-point link as a point-to-point link, the configuration might cause a
temporary loop.
Configuration procedure
To configure the link type of a port:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the port link type.
stp point-to-point { auto | force-false
| force-true }
By default, the link type is auto
where the port automatically
detects the link type.
Configuring the mode a port uses to recognize and
send MSTP packets
A port can receive and send MSTP packets in the following formats:
•
dot1s—802.1s-compliant standard format
•
legacy—Compatible format
When the number of existing MSTIs exceeds 48, the port can send only 802.1s MSTP packets.
By default, the packet format recognition mode of a port is auto. The port automatically distinguishes the
two MSTP packet formats, and determines the format of packets that it will send based on the recognized
format.
You can configure the MSTP packet format on a port. When operating in MSTP mode after the
configuration, the port sends only MSTP packets of the format that you have configured to communicate
with devices that send packets of the same format.
A port in auto mode sends 802.1s MSTP packets by default. When the port receives an MSTP packet of
a legacy format, the port starts to send packets only of the legacy format. This prevents the port from
frequently changing the format of sent packets. To configure the port to send 802.1s MSTP packets, shut
down and then bring up the port.
To configure the MSTP packet format to be supported on a port:
89
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the mode that the
port uses to recognize/send
MSTP packets.
stp compliance { auto | dot1s | legacy }
The default setting is auto.
Enabling outputting port state transition information
In a large-scale spanning tree network, you can enable devices to output the port state transition
information of all MSTIs or the specified MSTI in order to monitor the port states in real time.
To enable outputting port state transition information:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• In STP/RSTP mode:
2.
Enable outputting port state
transition information.
stp port-log instance 0
• In MSTP mode:
stp port-log { all | instance
instance-list }
By default, this function is
enabled.
Enabling the spanning tree feature
You must enable the spanning tree feature for the device before any other spanning tree related
configurations can take effect. Make sure the spanning tree feature is enabled globally and on the
desired ports.
You can disable the spanning tree feature for certain ports with the undo stp enable command to exclude
them from spanning tree calculation and save CPU resources of the device.
To enable the spanning tree feature:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• If the device starts up with the initial settings,
by default the spanning tree feature is
disabled globally.
2.
Enable the spanning tree
feature globally.
• If the device starts up with the factory
stp global enable
defaults, by default the spanning tree feature
is enabled globally.
For more information about the startup
configuration, see Fundamentals Configuration
Guide.
90
Step
3.
4.
Command
Remarks
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface
view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
(Optional.) Enable the
spanning tree feature for
the port.
stp enable
By default, the spanning tree feature is enabled
on all ports.
Performing mCheck
The mCheck feature enables user intervention in the port status transition process.
If a port on a device that is running MSTP or RSTP connects to an STP device, this port automatically
transits to STP mode when the port receives STP BPDUs. However, if the peer STP device is shut down or
removed and the local device cannot detect the change, the local device cannot automatically transit
back to the original mode. To forcibly transit the port to operate in the original mode, you can perform
an mCheck operation.
Suppose a scenario where Device A, Device B, and Device C are connected in sequence. Device A runs
STP, Device B does not run any spanning tree protocol, and Device C runs RSTP or MSTP. In this case,
when Device C receives an STP BPDU transparently transmitted by Device B, the receiving port transits to
the STP mode. If you configure Device B to run RSTP or MSTP with Device C, you must perform mCheck
operations on the ports interconnecting Device B and Device C.
The following methods for performing mCheck produce the same result.
Performing mCheck globally
Step
Command
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
2.
Perform mCheck.
stp global mcheck
Performing mCheck in interface view
Step
Command
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or aggregate interface
view.
interface interface-type interface-number
3.
Perform mCheck.
stp mcheck
NOTE:
An mCheck operation takes effect on a device that operates in MSTP or RSTP mode.
91
Configuring Digest Snooping
As defined in IEEE 802.1s, connected devices are in the same region only when their MST region-related
configurations (region name, revision level, and VLAN-to-instance mappings) are identical. A spanning
tree device identifies devices in the same MST region by determining the configuration ID in BPDU
packets. The configuration ID includes the region name, revision level, and configuration digest, which is
16-byte long and is the result calculated through the HMAC-MD5 algorithm based on VLAN-to-instance
mappings.
Because spanning tree implementations vary by vendor, the configuration digests calculated through
private keys are different. The devices of different vendors in the same MST region cannot communicate
with each other.
To enable communication between an HP device and a third-party device, enable the Digest Snooping
feature on the port that connects the HP device to the third-party device in the same MST region.
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you configure Digest Snooping, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
Before you enable Digest Snooping, make sure associated devices of different vendors are
connected and run spanning tree protocols.
•
With Digest Snooping enabled, in-the-same-region verification does not require comparison of
configuration digest, so the VLAN-to-instance mappings must be the same on associated ports.
•
With Digest Snooping enabled globally, modify the VLAN-to-instance mappings or execute the
undo stp region-configuration command to restore the default MST region configuration with
caution. If the local device has different VLAN-to-instance mappings than its neighboring devices,
loops or traffic interruption occurs.
•
To make Digest Snooping take effect, you must enable Digest Snooping both globally and on
associated ports. HP recommends that you enable Digest Snooping on all associated ports first and
then enable it globally. This will make the configuration take effect on all configured ports and
reduce impact on the network.
•
To prevent loops, do not enable Digest Snooping on MST region edge ports.
•
HP recommends that you enable Digest Snooping first and then the spanning tree feature. To avoid
traffic interruption, do not configure Digest Snooping when the network is already working well.
Configuration procedure
You can enable Digest Snooping only on the HP device that is connected to a third-party device that uses
its private key to calculate the configuration digest.
To configure Digest Snooping:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
92
Step
Command
Remarks
3.
Enable Digest Snooping on
the interface.
stp config-digest-snooping
By default, Digest Snooping is
disabled on ports.
4.
Return to system view.
quit
N/A
5.
Enable Digest Snooping
globally.
stp global config-digest-snooping
By default, Digest Snooping is
disabled globally.
Digest Snooping configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 23, Device A and Device B connect to Device C, which is a third-party device. All
these devices are in the same region.
Enable Digest Snooping on the ports of Device A and Device B that connect to Device C, so that the three
devices can communicate with one another.
Figure 23 Network diagram
MST region
Device C
(Root bridge)
FGE1/0/1
Root port
FGE1/0/2
Designated port
Blocked port
Normal link
FGE1/0/1
FGE1/0/1
FGE1/0/2
Blocked link
FGE1/0/2
Device A
Device B
Configuration procedure
# Enable Digest Snooping on FortyGigE 1/0/1 of Device A and enable global Digest Snooping on
Device A.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] stp config-digest-snooping
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceA] stp global config-digest-snooping
# Enable Digest Snooping on FortyGigE 1/0/1 of Device B and enable global Digest Snooping on
Device B.
<DeviceB> system-view
[DeviceB] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceB-FortyGigE1/0/1] stp config-digest-snooping
93
[DeviceB-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceB] stp global config-digest-snooping
Configuring No Agreement Check
In RSTP and MSTP, the following types of messages are used for rapid state transition on designated
ports:
•
Proposal—Sent by designated ports to request rapid transition
•
Agreement—Used to acknowledge rapid transition requests
Both RSTP and MSTP devices can perform rapid transition on a designated port only when the port
receives an agreement packet from the downstream device. RSTP and MSTP devices have the following
differences:
•
For MSTP, the root port of the downstream device sends an agreement packet only after it receives
an agreement packet from the upstream device.
•
For RSTP, the downstream device sends an agreement packet regardless of whether an agreement
packet from the upstream device is received.
Figure 24 Rapid state transition of an MSTP designated port
Figure 25 Rapid state transition of an RSTP designated port
If the upstream device is a third-party device, the rapid state transition implementation might be limited.
For example, when the upstream device uses a rapid transition mechanism similar to that of RSTP, and the
downstream device adopts MSTP and does not operate in RSTP mode, the root port on the downstream
94
device receives no agreement packet from the upstream device and sends no agreement packets to the
upstream device. As a result, the designated port of the upstream device fails to transit rapidly, and can
only change to the forwarding state after a period twice the Forward Delay.
You can enable the No Agreement Check feature on the downstream device's port to enable the
designated port of the upstream device to transit its state rapidly.
Configuration prerequisites
Before you configure the No Agreement Check function, complete the following tasks:
•
Connect a device to a third-party upstream device that supports spanning tree protocols through a
point-to-point link.
•
Configure the same region name, revision level and VLAN-to-instance mappings on the two devices,
assigning them to the same region.
Configuration procedure
Enable the No Agreement Check feature on the root port.
To configure No Agreement Check:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
3.
Enable No Agreement
Check.
stp no-agreement-check
By default, No Agreement
Check is disabled.
No Agreement Check configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 26:
•
Device A connects to a third-party device that has a different spanning tree implementation. Both
devices are in the same region.
•
The third-party device (Device B) is the regional root bridge, and Device A is the downstream
device.
Figure 26 Network diagram
95
Configuration procedure
# Enable No Agreement Check on FortyGigE 1/0/1 of Device A.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] stp no-agreement-check
Configuring protection functions
A spanning tree device supports the following protection functions:
•
BPDU guard
•
Root guard
•
Loop guard
•
Port role restriction
•
TC-BPDU transmission restriction
•
TC-BPDU guard
Enabling BPDU guard
For access layer devices, the access ports can directly connect to the user terminals (such as PCs) or file
servers. The access ports are configured as edge ports to allow rapid transition. When these ports
receive configuration BPDUs, the system automatically sets the ports as non-edge ports and starts a new
spanning tree calculation process. This causes a change of network topology. Under normal conditions,
these ports should not receive configuration BPDUs. However, if someone forges configuration BPDUs
maliciously to attack the devices, the network will become unstable.
The spanning tree protocol provides the BPDU guard function to protect the system against such attacks.
With the BPDU guard function enabled on the devices, when edge ports receive configuration BPDUs,
the system closes these ports and notifies the NMS that these ports have been closed by the spanning tree
protocol. The device reactivates the closed ports after a detection interval. For more information about
this detection interval, see Fundamentals Configuration Guide.
BPDU guard does not take effect on loopback-testing-enabled ports. For more information about
loopback testing, see "Configuring Ethernet interfaces."
Configure BPDU guard on a device with edge ports configured.
To enable BPDU guard:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enable the BPDU guard
function for the device.
stp bpdu-protection
By default, BPDU guard is
disabled.
Enabling root guard
The root bridge and secondary root bridge of a spanning tree should be located in the same MST region.
Especially for the CIST, the root bridge and secondary root bridge are put in a high-bandwidth core
96
region during network design. However, due to possible configuration errors or malicious attacks in the
network, the legal root bridge might receive a configuration BPDU with a higher priority. Another device
supersedes the current legal root bridge, causing an undesired change of the network topology. The
traffic that should go over high-speed links is switched to low-speed links, resulting in network
congestion.
To prevent this situation, MSTP provides the root guard function. If the root guard function is enabled on
a port of a root bridge, this port plays the role of designated port on all MSTIs. After this port receives a
configuration BPDU with a higher priority from an MSTI, it immediately sets that port to the listening state
in the MSTI, without forwarding the packet. This is equivalent to disconnecting the link connected with
this port in the MSTI. If the port receives no BPDUs with a higher priority within twice the forwarding delay,
it reverts to its original state.
On a port, the loop guard function and the root guard function are mutually exclusive.
Configure root guard on a designated port.
To enable root guard:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
3.
Enable the root guard
function.
stp root-protection
By default, root guard is
disabled.
Enabling loop guard
By continuing to receive BPDUs from the upstream device, a device can maintain the state of the root port
and blocked ports. However, link congestion or unidirectional link failures might cause these ports to fail
to receive BPDUs from the upstream devices. The device reselects the port roles: Those ports in forwarding
state that failed to receive upstream BPDUs become designated ports, and the blocked ports transit to the
forwarding state, resulting in loops in the switched network. The loop guard function can suppress the
occurrence of such loops.
The initial state of a loop guard-enabled port is discarding in every MSTI. When the port receives BPDUs,
it transits its state. Otherwise, it stays in the discarding state to prevent temporary loops.
Do not enable loop guard on a port that connects user terminals. Otherwise, the port stays in the
discarding state in all MSTIs because it cannot receive BPDUs.
On a port, the loop guard function is mutually exclusive with the root guard function or the edge port
setting.
Configure loop guard on the root port and alternate ports of a device.
To enable loop guard:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
97
Step
3.
Enable the loop guard
function for the ports.
Command
Remarks
stp loop-protection
By default, loop guard is
disabled.
Configuring port role restriction
CAUTION:
Use this feature with caution, because enabling port role restriction on a port might affect the connectivity
of the spanning tree topology.
The change to the bridge ID of a device in the user access network might cause a change to the spanning
tree topology in the core network. To avoid this problem, you can enable port role restriction on a port.
With this feature enabled, when the port receives a superior BPDU, it becomes an alternate port rather
than a root port.
Make this configuration on the port that connects to the user access network.
To configure port role restriction:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Enable port role restriction.
stp role-restriction
By default, port role restriction is
disabled.
Configuring TC-BPDU transmission restriction
CAUTION:
Enabling TC-BPDU transmission restriction on a port might cause the previous forwarding address table to
fail to be updated when the topology changes.
The topology change to the user access network might cause the forwarding address changes to the core
network. When the user access network topology is unstable, the user access network might affect the
core network. To avoid this problem, you can enable TC-BPDU transmission restriction on a port. With
this feature enabled, when the port receives a TC-BPDU, it does not forward the TC-BPDU to other ports.
Make this configuration on the port that connects to the user access network.
To configure TC-BPDU transmission restriction:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet or
aggregate interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Enable TC-BPDU transmission
restriction.
stp tc-restriction
By default, TC-BPDU transmission
restriction is disabled.
98
Enabling TC-BPDU guard
When a device receives topology change (TC) BPDUs (the BPDUs that notify devices of topology
changes), it flushes its forwarding address entries. If someone forges TC-BPDUs to attack the device, the
device will receive a large number of TC-BPDUs within a short time and be busy with forwarding address
entry flushing. This affects network stability.
With the TC-BPDU guard function, you can set the maximum number of immediate forwarding address
entry flushes that the device can perform within a specified period of time (10 seconds) after it receives
the first TC-BPDU. For TC-BPDUs received in excess of the limit, the device performs a forwarding address
entry flush when the time period expires. This prevents frequent flushing of forwarding address entries.
To enable TC-BPDU guard:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
2.
Enable the TC-BPDU guard function.
stp tc-protection
3.
(Optional.) Configure the maximum
number of forwarding address entry
flushes that the device can perform every
10 seconds.
stp tc-protection threshold
number
By default, TC-BPDU guard is
enabled.
HP recommends not
disabling this feature.
The default setting is 6.
Displaying and maintaining the spanning tree
Execute display commands in any view and reset command in user view.
Task
Command
Display information about ports blocked by spanning tree
protection functions.
display stp abnormal-port
Display BPDU statistics on ports.
display stp bpdu-statistics [ interface
interface-type interface-number [ instance
instance-list ] ]
Display information about ports shut down by spanning
tree protection functions.
display stp down-port
Display the historical information of port role calculation
for the specified MSTI or all MSTIs (in standalone mode).
display stp [ instance instance-list ] history [ slot
slot-number ]
Display the historical information of port role calculation
for the specified MSTI or all MSTIs (in IRF mode).
display stp [ instance instance-list ] history [ chassis
chassis-number slot slot-number ]
Display the statistics of TC/TCN BPDUs sent and received
by all ports in the specified MSTI or all MSTIs (in
standalone mode).
display stp [ instance instance-list ] tc [ slot
slot-number ]
99
Task
Command
Display the statistics of TC/TCN BPDUs sent and received
by all ports in the specified MSTI or all MSTIs (in IRF
mode).
display stp [ instance instance-list ] tc [ chassis
chassis-number slot slot-number ]
Display the spanning tree status and statistics (in
standalone mode).
display stp [ instance instance-list ] [ interface
interface-list | slot slot-number ] [ brief ]
Display the spanning tree status and statistics (in IRF
mode).
display stp [ instance instance-list ] [ interface
interface-list | chassis chassis-number slot
slot-number ] [ brief ]
Display the MST region configuration information that has
taken effect.
display stp region-configuration
Display the root bridge information of all MSTIs.
display stp root
Clear the spanning tree statistics.
reset stp [ interface interface-list ]
Spanning tree configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 27, all devices on the network are in the same MST region. Device A and Device B
work at the distribution layer. Device C and Device D work at the access layer.
Configure MSTP so that packets of different VLANs are forwarded along different spanning trees: Packets
of VLAN 10 are forwarded along MSTI 1, those of VLAN 30 are forwarded along MSTI 3, those of VLAN
40 are forwarded along MSTI 4, and those of VLAN 20 are forwarded along MSTI 0.
VLAN 10 and VLAN 30 are terminated on the distribution layer devices, and VLAN 40 is terminated on
the access layer devices. The root bridges of MSTI 1 and MSTI 3 are Device A and Device B, respectively,
and the root bridge of MSTI 4 is Device C.
Figure 27 Network diagram
MST region
Device A
Device B
Permit: all VLAN
FGE1/0/3
FG
E1
/0/
2
FG
Permit: VLAN 10, 20
F
/2
1/0
GE
V
it:
rm
Pe
2
0,
N1
A
L
FGE1/0/3
0
2
/0/
E1
Pe
rm
it:
V
FGE1/0/3
Permit: VLAN 20, 30
LA
N
20
,3
0
FG
E1
/0/
2
FGE1/0/3
Permit: VLAN 20, 40
Device C
Device D
100
Configuration procedure
1.
2.
Configure VLANs and VLAN member ports: (Details not shown.)
{
Create VLAN 10, VLAN 20, and VLAN 30 on both Device A and Device B.
{
Create VLAN 10, VLAN 20, and VLAN 40 on Device C.
{
Create VLAN 20, VLAN 30, and VLAN 40 on Device D.
{
Configure the ports on these devices as trunk ports and assign them to related VLANs.
Configure Device A:
# Enter MST region view, and configure the MST region name as example.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] stp region-configuration
[DeviceA-mst-region] region-name example
# Map VLAN 10, VLAN 30, and VLAN 40 to MSTI 1, MSTI 3, and MSTI 4, respectively.
[DeviceA-mst-region] instance 1 vlan 10
[DeviceA-mst-region] instance 3 vlan 30
[DeviceA-mst-region] instance 4 vlan 40
# Configure the revision level of the MST region as 0.
[DeviceA-mst-region] revision-level 0
# Activate MST region configuration.
[DeviceA-mst-region] active region-configuration
[DeviceA-mst-region] quit
# Specify the current device as the root bridge of MSTI 1.
[DeviceA] stp instance 1 root primary
# Enable the spanning tree feature globally.
[DeviceA] stp global enable
3.
Configure Device B:
# Enter MST region view, and configure the MST region name as example.
<DeviceB> system-view
[DeviceB] stp region-configuration
[DeviceB-mst-region] region-name example
# Map VLAN 10, VLAN 30, and VLAN 40 to MSTI 1, MSTI 3, and MSTI 4, respectively.
[DeviceB-mst-region] instance 1 vlan 10
[DeviceB-mst-region] instance 3 vlan 30
[DeviceB-mst-region] instance 4 vlan 40
# Configure the revision level of the MST region as 0.
[DeviceB-mst-region] revision-level 0
# Activate MST region configuration.
[DeviceB-mst-region] active region-configuration
[DeviceB-mst-region] quit
# Specify the current device as the root bridge of MSTI 3.
[DeviceB] stp instance 3 root primary
# Enable the spanning tree feature globally.
[DeviceB] stp global enable
4.
Configure Device C:
101
# Enter MST region view, and configure the MST region name as example.
<DeviceC> system-view
[DeviceC] stp region-configuration
[DeviceC-mst-region] region-name example
# Map VLAN 10, VLAN 30, and VLAN 40 to MSTI 1, MSTI 3, and MSTI 4, respectively.
[DeviceC-mst-region] instance 1 vlan 10
[DeviceC-mst-region] instance 3 vlan 30
[DeviceC-mst-region] instance 4 vlan 40
# Configure the revision level of the MST region as 0.
[DeviceC-mst-region] revision-level 0
# Activate MST region configuration.
[DeviceC-mst-region] active region-configuration
[DeviceC-mst-region] quit
# Specify the current device as the root bridge of MSTI 4.
[DeviceC] stp instance 4 root primary
# Enable the spanning tree feature globally.
[DeviceC] stp global enable
5.
Configure Device D:
# Enter MST region view, and configure the MST region name as example.
<DeviceD> system-view
[DeviceD] stp region-configuration
[DeviceD-mst-region] region-name example
# Map VLAN 10, VLAN 30, and VLAN 40 to MSTI 1, MSTI 3, and MSTI 4, respectively.
[DeviceD-mst-region] instance 1 vlan 10
[DeviceD-mst-region] instance 3 vlan 30
[DeviceD-mst-region] instance 4 vlan 40
# Configure the revision level of the MST region as 0.
[DeviceD-mst-region] revision-level 0
# Activate MST region configuration.
[DeviceD-mst-region] active region-configuration
[DeviceD-mst-region] quit
# Enable the spanning tree feature globally.
[DeviceD] stp global enable
Verifying the configuration
In this example, suppose that Device B has the lowest root bridge ID. As a result, Device B is elected as
the root bridge in MSTI 0.
You can use the display stp brief command to display brief spanning tree information on each device
after the network is stable.
# Display brief spanning tree information on Device A.
[DeviceA] display stp brief
[DeviceA] display stp brief
MSTID
Port
Role
STP State
Protection
0
FortyGigE1/0/1
ALTE
DISCARDING
NONE
102
0
FortyGigE1/0/2
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
0
FortyGigE1/0/3
ROOT
FORWARDING
NONE
1
FortyGigE1/0/1
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
1
FortyGigE1/0/3
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
3
FortyGigE1/0/2
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
3
FortyGigE1/0/3
ROOT
FORWARDING
NONE
# Display brief spanning tree information on Device B.
[DeviceB] display stp brief
MSTID
Port
Role
STP State
Protection
0
FortyGigE1/0/1
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
0
FortyGigE1/0/2
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
0
FortyGigE1/0/3
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
1
FortyGigE1/0/2
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
1
FortyGigE1/0/3
ROOT
FORWARDING
NONE
3
FortyGigE1/0/1
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
3
FortyGigE1/0/3
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
# Display brief spanning tree information on Device C.
[DeviceC] display stp brief
MSTID
Port
Role
STP State
Protection
0
FortyGigE1/0/1
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
0
FortyGigE1/0/2
ROOT
FORWARDING
NONE
0
FortyGigE1/0/3
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
1
FortyGigE1/0/1
ROOT
FORWARDING
NONE
1
FortyGigE1/0/2
ALTE
DISCARDING
NONE
4
FortyGigE1/0/3
DESI
FORWARDING
NONE
# Display brief spanning tree information on Device D.
[DeviceD] display stp brief
MSTID
Port
Role
STP State
Protection
0
FortyGigE1/0/1
ROOT
FORWARDING
NONE
0
FortyGigE1/0/2
ALTE
DISCARDING
NONE
0
FortyGigE1/0/3
ALTE
DISCARDING
NONE
3
FortyGigE1/0/1
ROOT
FORWARDING
NONE
3
FortyGigE1/0/2
ALTE
DISCARDING
NONE
4
FortyGigE1/0/3
ROOT
FORWARDING
NONE
Based on the output, you can draw each MSTI mapped to each VLAN, as shown in Figure 28.
103
Figure 28 MSTIs mapped to different VLANs
A
B
A
C
B
C
MSTI 1 mapped to VLAN 10
A
MSTI 0 mapped to VLAN 20
B
D
C
MSTI 3 mapped to VLAN 30
Root bridge
D
D
MSTI 4 mapped to VLAN 40
Normal link
Blocked link
104
Configuring loop detection
Overview
Incorrect network connections or configurations can create Layer 2 loops, which results in repeated
transmission of broadcasts, multicasts, or unknown unicasts, waste network resources, and sometimes
even paralyze networks. The loop detection mechanism immediately generates a log when a loop occurs
so that you are promptly notified to adjust network connections and configurations. You can even
configure loop detection to shut down the looped port. Logs are maintained in the information center. For
more information, see Network Management and Monitoring Configuration Guide.
Loop detection mechanism
The device detects loops by sending detection frames and then checking whether these frames return to
any port on the device. If they do, the device considers that the port is on a looped link.
Figure 29 Ethernet frame header for loop detection
The Ethernet frame header for loop detection contains the following fields:
•
DMAC—Destination MAC address of the frame, which is the multicast MAC address
010F-E200-0007. When a loop detection-enabled device receives a frame with this destination
MAC address, it sends the frame to the CPU and floods the frame in the VLAN from which the frame
was originally received.
•
SMAC—Source MAC address of the frame, which is the bridge MAC address of the sending
device.
•
TPID—Type of the VLAN tag, with the value of 0x8100.
•
TCI—Information of the VLAN tag, including the priority and VLAN ID.
•
Type—Protocol type, with the value of 0x8918.
Figure 30 Inner frame header for loop detection
The inner frame header for loop detection contains the following fields:
•
Code—Protocol sub-type, which is 0x0001, indicating the loop detection protocol.
105
•
Version—Protocol version, which is always 0x0000.
•
Length—Length of the frame. The value includes the inner header, but excludes the Ethernet header.
•
Reserved—This field is reserved.
Frames for loop detection are encapsulated as TLV triplets.
Table 10 TLVs supported by loop detection
TLV
Description
Remarks
End of PDU
End of a PDU.
Optional.
Device ID
Bridge MAC address of the sending device.
Required.
Port ID
ID of the PDU sending port.
Optional.
Port Name
Name of the PDU sending port.
Optional.
System Name
Device name.
Optional.
Chassis ID
Chassis ID of the sending port.
Optional.
Slot ID
Slot ID of the sending port.
Optional.
Sub Slot ID
Sub-slot ID of the sending port.
Optional.
Loop detection uses the following important concepts.
Loop detection interval
Loop detection is a continuous process as the network changes. Loop detection frames are sent at a
specified interval (called a "loop detection interval") to check whether loops occur on ports and whether
loops are removed.
Loop protection actions
When the device detects a loop on a port, it generates a log but performs no action on the port by default.
You can configure the device to take one of the following actions:
•
Block—Disables the port from learning MAC addresses and blocks inbound traffic to the port.
•
No-learning—Disables the port from learning MAC addresses.
•
Shutdown—Shuts down the port to disable it from receiving and sending any frames.
Port status auto recovery
When the device configured with the block or no-learning loop action detects a loop on a port, it
performs the action and waits three loop detection intervals. If the device does not receive a loop
detection frame within three loop detection intervals, it performs the following tasks:
•
Automatically sets the port to the forwarding state.
•
Notifies the user of the event.
When the device configured with the shutdown action detects a loop on a port, the following events
occur:
106
1.
The device automatically shuts down the port.
2.
The device automatically sets the port to the forwarding state after the detection timer configured
by using the shutdown-interval command expires. For more information about the
shutdown-interval command, see Fundamentals Command Reference.
3.
The device shuts down the port again if a loop is still detected on the port when the detection timer
expires.
This process is repeated until the loop is removed.
NOTE:
Incorrect recovery can occur when loop detection frames are discarded to reduce the load. To avoid this,
use the shutdown action, or manually remove the loop.
Loop detection configuration task list
Tasks at a glance
(Required.) Enabling loop detection
(Optional.) Configuring the loop protection action
(Optional.) Setting the loop detection interval
Enabling loop detection
You can enable loop detection globally or on specific ports. The global configuration applies to all ports
in the specified VLAN. The per-port configuration applies to the individual port only when the port
belongs to the specified VLAN. Per-port configurations take precedence over global configurations.
Enabling loop detection globally
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Globally enable loop
detection.
loopback-detection global enable
vlan { vlan-list | all }
Disabled by default.
Enabling loop detection on a port
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface
view or Layer 2 aggregate
interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
Enable loop detection on the
port.
loopback-detection enable vlan
{ vlan-list | all }
Disabled by default.
3.
107
Configuring the loop protection action
You can configure the loop protection action globally or on specific ports. The global configuration
applies to all ports. The per-port configuration applies to the individual ports. The per-port configuration
takes precedence over the global configuration.
Configuring the global loop protection action
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure the global loop
protection action.
loopback-detection global action
shutdown
By default, the device generates a
log but performs no action on the
port on which a loop is detected.
Configuring the loop protection action on a Layer 2 Ethernet
interface
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface
view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the loop protection
action on the interface.
loopback-detection action { block |
no-learning | shutdown }
By default, the device generates
a log but performs no action on
the port on which a loop is
detected.
Configuring the loop protection action on a Layer 2 aggregate
interface
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2 aggregate
interface view.
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the loop protection
action on the interface.
loopback-detection action
shutdown
By default, the device generates
a log but performs no action on
the port on which a loop is
detected.
108
Setting the loop detection interval
With loop detection enabled, the device sends loop detection frames at a specified interval. A shorter
interval offers more sensitive detection but consumes more resources. Consider the system performance
and loop detection speed when you set the loop detection interval.
To set the loop detection interval:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Set the loop detection interval.
loopback-detection interval-time
interval
The default setting is 30 seconds.
Displaying and maintaining loop detection
Execute display commands in any view.
Task
Command
Display the loop detection configuration and status.
display loopback-detection
Loop detection configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 31, configure loop detection on Device A, so that Device A generates a log as a
notification and automatically shuts down the port on which a loop is detected.
Figure 31 Network diagram
Device A
FGE1/0/1
FGE1/0/2
Device B
Device C
VLAN 100
109
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Device A:
# Create VLAN 100, and globally enable loop detection for the VLAN.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] vlan 100
[DeviceA-vlan100] quit
[DeviceA] loopback-detection global enable vlan 100
# Configure FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 as trunk ports, and assign them to VLAN
100.
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-type trunk
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan 100
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-type trunk
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] port trunk permit vlan 100
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
# Configure the global loop protection action as shutdown.
[DeviceA] loopback-detection global action shutdown
# Set the loop detection interval to 35 seconds.
[DeviceA] loopback-detection interval-time 35
2.
Configure Device B:
# Create VLAN 100.
<DeviceB> system-view
[DeviceB] vlan 100
[DeviceB–vlan100] quit
# Configure FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 as trunk ports, and assign them to VLAN
100.
[DeviceB] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceB-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-type trunk
[DeviceB-FortyGigE1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan 100
[DeviceB-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceB] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceB-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-type trunk
[DeviceB-FortyGigE1/0/2] port trunk permit vlan 100
[DeviceB-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
3.
Configure Device C:
# Create VLAN 100.
<DeviceC> system-view
[DeviceC] vlan 100
[DeviceC–vlan100] quit
# Configure FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 as trunk ports, and assign them to VLAN
100.
[DeviceC] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceC-FortyGigE1/0/1] port link-type trunk
110
[DeviceC-FortyGigE1/0/1] port trunk permit vlan 100
[DeviceC-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
[DeviceC] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceC-FortyGigE1/0/2] port link-type trunk
[DeviceC-FortyGigE1/0/2] port trunk permit vlan 100
[DeviceC-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
Verifying the configuration
After the configurations are complete, Device A detects loops on ports FortyGigE 1/0/1 and
FortyGigE 1/0/2 within a loop detection interval. Consequently, Device A automatically shuts
down the ports and generates the following log messages:
[DeviceA]
%Feb 24 15:04:29:663 2011 DeviceA LPDT/4/LOOPED:Slot=1;
Loopback exists on FortyGigE 1/0/1.
%Feb 24 15:04:29:667 2011 DeviceA LPDT/4/LOOPED:Slot=1;
Loopback exists on FortyGigE 1/0/2.
%Feb 24 15:04:44:243 2011 DeviceA LPDT/4/RECOVERED:Slot=1;
Loopback on FortyGigE 1/0/1 recovered.
%Feb 24 15:04:44:248 2011 DeviceA LPDT/4/RECOVERED:Slot=1;
Loopback on FortyGigE 1/0/2 recovered.
Use the display loopback-detection command to display the loop detection configuration and
status on Device A.
# Display the loop detection configuration and status on Device A.
[DeviceA] display loopback-detection
Loop detection is enabled.
Loop detection interval is 35 second(s).
No loopback is detected.
The output shows that the device has removed the loops from FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE
1/0/2 according to the shutdown action. Use the display interface command to display the status
of FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 on Device A.
# Display the status of FortyGigE 1/0/1 on Device A.
[DeviceA] display interface fortygige 1/0/1
FortyGigE 1/0/1 current state: DOWN (Loop detection down)
...
# Display the status of FortyGigE 1/0/2 on Device A.
[DeviceA] display interface fortygige 1/0/2
FortyGigE 1/0/2 current state: DOWN (Loop detection down)
...
The output shows that FortyGigE 1/0/1 and FortyGigE 1/0/2 are already shut down by the loop
detection module.
111
Configuring VLANs
This chapter provides an overview of VLANs and explains how to configure them.
Overview
Ethernet is a family of shared-media LAN technologies based on the CSMA/CD mechanism. An Ethernet
LAN is both a collision domain and a broadcast domain. Because the medium is shared, collisions and
broadcasts are common in an Ethernet LAN. Typically, bridges and Layer 2 switches can reduce
collisions in an Ethernet LAN. To confine broadcasts, a Layer 2 switch must use the Virtual Local Area
Network (VLAN) technology.
VLANs enable a Layer 2 switch to break a LAN down into smaller broadcast domains, as shown
in Figure 32.
Figure 32 A VLAN diagram
VLAN 2
Router
Switch A
Switch B
VLAN 5
A VLAN is logically divided on an organizational basis rather than on a physical basis. For example, you
can assign all workstations and servers used by a particular workgroup to the same VLAN, regardless of
their physical locations. Hosts in the same VLAN can directly communicate with one another. You need
a router or a Layer 3 switch for hosts in different VLANs to communicate with one another.
All these VLAN features reduce bandwidth waste, improve LAN security, and enable flexible virtual
group creation.
VLAN frame encapsulation
To identify Ethernet frames from different VLANs, IEEE 802.1Q inserts a four-byte VLAN tag between the
destination and source MAC address (DA & SA) field and the upper layer protocol type (Type) field, as
shown in Figure 33.
112
Figure 33 VLAN tag placement and format
A VLAN tag includes the following fields:
•
TPID—16-bit tag protocol identifier that indicates whether a frame is VLAN-tagged. By default, the
TPID value is 0x8100, indicating that the frame is VLAN-tagged. However, device vendors can set
TPID to different values. For compatibility with neighbor devices, configure the TPID value on the
device to be the same as the neighbor device.
•
Priority—3-bit long 802.1p priority of the frame. For more information, see ACL and QoS
Configuration Guide.
•
CFI—1-bit long canonical format indicator that indicates whether the MAC addresses are
encapsulated in the standard format when packets are transmitted across different media. Value 0
(the default) indicates that the MAC addresses are encapsulated in the standard format. Value 1
indicates that MAC addresses are encapsulated in a non-standard format. The CFI is 0 in Ethernet.
•
VLAN ID—12-bit long, identifies the VLAN that the frame belongs to. The VLAN ID range is 0 to
4095. VLAN IDs 0 and 4095 are reserved, and VLAN IDs 1 to 4094 are user configurable.
A network device handles an incoming frame depending on whether the frame is VLAN tagged and the
value of the VLAN tag, if any. For more information, see "Introduction to port-based VLAN."
Ethernet supports encapsulation formats Ethernet II, 802.3/802.2 LLC, 802.3/802.2 SNAP, and 802.3
raw. The Ethernet II encapsulation format is used here. For how the VLAN tag fields are added to frames
encapsulated in the other formats for VLAN identification, see related protocols and standards.
For a frame with multiple VLAN tags, the device handles it according to its outer-most VLAN tag and
transmits its inner VLAN tags as payload.
Protocols and standards
IEEE 802.1Q, IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Virtual Bridged Local Area
Networks
Configuring basic VLAN settings
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
(Optional.) Create a
VLAN and enter its view,
or create a list of VLANs.
vlan { vlan-id1 [ to vlan-id2 ] |
all }
By default, only the system default VLAN
(VLAN 1) exists.
3.
Enter VLAN view.
vlan vlan-id
To configure a specific VLAN after you
create a list of VLANs, you must perform
this step.
4.
Configure a name for
the VLAN.
name text
By default, VLAN names are in the format
VLAN vlan-id. For example, the name of
VLAN 100 is VLAN 0100 by default.
113
Step
Configure the
description of the VLAN.
5.
Command
Remarks
description text
The default setting is VLAN vlan-id, which is
the ID of the VLAN. For example, the
description of VLAN 100 is VLAN 0100 by
default.
NOTE:
• As the system default VLAN, VLAN 1 cannot be created or removed.
• You cannot use the undo vlan command to delete a dynamic VLAN, a VLAN with a QoS policy
applied, or a VLAN locked by an application. To delete such a VLAN, first remove the configuration
from the VLAN.
Configuring basic settings of a VLAN interface
For hosts of different VLANs to communicate at Layer 3, you can use VLAN interfaces. VLAN interfaces
are virtual interfaces used for Layer 3 communication between different VLANs. They do not exist as
physical entities on devices. For each VLAN, you can create one VLAN interface. You can assign the
VLAN interface an IP address and specify it as the gateway of the VLAN to forward packets destined for
an IP subnet different from that of the VLAN.
When you configure a VLAN interface, follow these guidelines:
•
Before you create a VLAN interface for a VLAN, create the VLAN first.
•
You cannot create a VLAN interface for a sub VLAN.
To configure basic settings of a VLAN interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
N/A
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
2.
Create a VLAN interface
and enter VLAN interface
view.
interface vlan-interface
vlan-interface-id
3.
Assign an IP address to the
VLAN interface.
ip address ip-address { mask |
mask-length } [ sub ]
By default, no IP address is assigned to
any VLAN interface.
4.
Configure the description
of the VLAN interface.
description text
The default setting is the VLAN interface
name. For example, Vlan-interface1
Interface.
5.
(Optional.) Specify a line
processing unit (LPU) for
forwarding the traffic on
the current VLAN interface
(in standalone mode).
service slot slot-number
By default, no LPU is specified.
(Optional.) Specify an LPU
for forwarding the traffic on
the current VLAN interface
(in IRF mode).
service chassis chassis-number
slot slot-number
By default, no IRF member device or LPU
is specified.
6.
114
If the VLAN interface already exists, you
enter its view directly.
By default, no VLAN interface is created.
Step
Command
Remarks
7.
Configure the expected
bandwidth of the interface.
bandwidth bandwidth-value
By default, the expected bandwidth (in
kbps) is the interface baud rate divided
by 1000.
8.
(Optional.) Restore the
default settings for the
VLAN interface.
default
N/A
undo shutdown
By default, a VLAN interface is not
manually shut down. The VLAN interface
is up if one or more ports in the VLAN is
up, and goes down if all ports in the
VLAN go down.
9.
(Optional.) Cancel the
action of manually shutting
down the VLAN interface.
Reserving VLAN interface resources
The system provides 4094 Layer 3 interface hardware resources for Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces.
By default, these Layer 3 interface resources are assigned to 4094 VLAN interfaces.
Use this feature to reserve VLAN interface resources for the following types of Layer 3 interfaces and
subinterfaces before you create them:
•
Layer 3 Ethernet interfaces switched from Layer 2 Ethernet interfaces.
•
Layer 3 Ethernet subinterfaces.
•
Layer 3 aggregate interfaces.
•
Layer 3 aggregate subinterfaces.
VLAN interfaces cannot be created if their interface resources have been reserved.
Each of the Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces use one VLAN interface resource. When you reserve
VLAN interface resources for interfaces that have subinterfaces, take the number of the subinterfaces into
account. For example:
•
Reserve two VLAN interface resources when you create a Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface. The main
interface and subinterface each use one VLAN interface resource.
•
Reserve seven VLAN interface resources when you create four Layer 3 aggregate subinterfaces on
an aggregate interface whose corresponding aggregation group has two member ports. The
aggregate interface uses one VLAN interface. Each of the member ports and aggregate
subinterfaces uses one VLAN interface resource.
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
When you configure VLAN interface resource reservation, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
To simplify management and configuration, HP recommends that you reserve VLAN interface
resources as follows:
{
{
•
Bulk reserve resources of VLAN interfaces that are numbered in consecutive order.
Reserve resources of VLAN interfaces whose VLAN IDs are in the range of 3000 to 3500
preferentially.
Select the VLAN interfaces of unused VLANs rather than used VLANs for resource reservation. If the
VLAN interface resource of a VLAN is reserved, HP recommends not creating or using this VLAN.
115
•
The VLAN interface resource reservation of a VLAN conflicts with the VLAN interface creation of
this VLAN.
•
Before creating a Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface or aggregate subinterface, do not reserve a
resource for the VLAN interface whose interface number matches the subinterface number. After
you reserve a VLAN interface resource, do not create a Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface or aggregate
subinterface whose subinterface number is the VLAN interface number. A Layer 3 Ethernet
subinterface or aggregate subinterface uses the VLAN interface resource in processing tagged
packets whose VLAN ID matches the subinterface number.
•
If a reserved VLAN interface resource has been used by a Layer 3 interface or subinterface, you
cannot remove the resource reservation of this VLAN interface.
•
After the software upgrades to support this feature, examine whether Layer 3 interfaces and
subinterfaces exist when you create Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces for the first time.
{
{
If Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces exist, reserve VLAN interface resources for both the
existing and new Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces.
If no Layer 3 interfaces or subinterfaces exist, reserve VLAN interface resources only for new
Layer 3 interfaces and subinterfaces.
Configuration procedure
To reserve VLAN interface resources:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Reserve VLAN interface
resources.
reserve-vlan-interface { vlan-interface-id1
[ to vlan-interface-id2 ] }
By default, no VLAN interface
resources are reserved.
3.
Display VLANs whose
VLAN interface
resources have been
reserved.
display reserve-vlan-interface
N/A
Configuring port-based VLANs
Introduction to port-based VLAN
Port-based VLANs group VLAN members by port. A port forwards packets from a VLAN only after it is
assigned to the VLAN.
Port link type
You can configure the link type of a port as access, trunk, or hybrid. The link types use the following
VLAN tag handling methods:
•
Access—An access port can forward packets from only one specific VLAN and send these packets
untagged. An access port can connect a terminal device that does not support VLAN packets or is
used in scenarios that do not distinguish VLANs.
116
•
Trunk—A trunk port can forward packets from multiple VLANs. Except packets from the port VLAN
ID (PVID), packets sent out of a trunk port are VLAN-tagged. Ports connecting network devices are
typically configured as trunk ports.
•
Hybrid—A hybrid port can forward packets from multiple VLANs. A hybrid port allows traffic from
some VLANs to pass through untagged and traffic from other VLANs to pass through tagged. A
hybrid port can connect a network device or terminal device.
PVID
The PVID identifies the default VLAN of a port.
When you configure the PVID on a port, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
•
An access port can join only one VLAN. The VLAN to which the access port belongs is the PVID of
the port.
•
A trunk or hybrid port can carry multiple VLANs, and you can configure a PVID for the port.
•
You can use a nonexistent VLAN as the PVID for a hybrid or trunk port, but not for an access port.
After you remove the VLAN that an access port resides in with the undo vlan command, the PVID
of the port changes to VLAN 1. However, the removal of the VLAN specified as the PVID of a trunk
or hybrid port does not affect the PVID setting on the port.
•
HP recommends that you set the same PVID for local and remote ports.
•
Make sure a port is assigned to its PVID. Otherwise, when the port receives frames tagged with the
PVID or untagged frames, the port filters out these frames.
How ports of different link types handle frames
Actions
Access
In the
inbound
direction for
an untagged
frame
Tags the frame with the
PVID tag.
In the
inbound
direction for
a tagged
frame
Trunk
Hybrid
• If the PVID is permitted on the port, tags the frame with the PVID
tag.
• If not, drops the frame.
• Receives the frame if
its VLAN ID is the
same as the PVID.
• Drops the frame if its
VLAN ID is different
from the PVID.
• Receives the frame if its VLAN is permitted on the port.
• Drops the frame if its VLAN is not permitted on the port.
• Removes the tag and sends
In the
outbound
direction
Removes the VLAN tag
and sends the frame.
the frame if the frame carries
the PVID tag and the port
belongs to the PVID.
• Sends the frame without
removing the tag if its VLAN
is carried on the port but is
different from the PVID.
Sends the frame if its VLAN is
permitted on the port. The
tagging status of the frame
depends on the port hybrid vlan
command configuration.
Assigning an access port to a VLAN
You can assign an access port to a VLAN in VLAN view or interface view.
Make sure the VLAN has been created.
117
Assigning one or multiple access ports to a VLAN in VLAN view
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter VLAN view.
vlan vlan-id
N/A
3.
Assign one or a group of
access ports to the VLAN.
port interface-list
By default, all ports belong to
VLAN 1.
Assigning an access port to a VLAN in interface view
Step
Enter system view.
1.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• The configuration made in Layer 2
Ethernet interface view applies
only to the port.
• Enter Layer 2 Ethernet
interface view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
Enter interface view.
2.
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
interface view:
interface
bridge-aggregation
interface-number
• The configuration made in Layer 2
aggregate interface view applies
to the aggregate interface and its
aggregation member ports. If the
system fails to apply the
configuration to an aggregation
member port, it skips the port and
moves to the next member port. If
the system fails to apply the
configuration to the aggregate
interface, it stops applying the
configuration to aggregation
member ports.
3.
Configure the link type of the
port as access.
port link-type access
By default, all ports are access ports.
4.
(Optional.) Assign the access
port to a VLAN.
port access vlan vlan-id
By default, all access ports belong to
VLAN 1.
Assigning a trunk port to a VLAN
A trunk port can carry multiple VLANs. You can assign it to a VLAN in interface view.
When you assign a trunk port to a VLAN, follow these guidelines:
•
To change the link type of a port from trunk to hybrid or vice versa, set the link type to access first.
•
You must configure the trunk port to allow packets from the PVID to pass through by using the port
trunk permit vlan command.
To assign a trunk port to one or multiple VLANs:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
118
Step
Command
Remarks
• The configuration made in
Layer 2 Ethernet interface view
applies only to the port.
• The configuration made in
• Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface
Enter interface view.
2.
view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
Layer 2 aggregate interface
view applies to the aggregate
interface and its aggregation
member ports. If the system fails
to apply the configuration to an
aggregation member port, it
skips the port and moves to the
next member port. If the system
fails to apply the configuration
to the aggregate interface, it
stops applying the
configuration to aggregation
member ports.
3.
Configure the link type of the
port as trunk.
port link-type trunk
By default, all ports are access
ports.
4.
Assign the trunk port to the
specified VLANs.
port trunk permit vlan { vlan-id-list
| all }
By default, a trunk port only permits
VLAN 1.
5.
(Optional.) Configure the
PVID of the trunk port.
port trunk pvid vlan vlan-id
The default setting is VLAN 1.
Assigning a hybrid port to a VLAN
A hybrid port can carry multiple VLANs. You can assign it to the specified VLANs in interface view. Make
sure the VLANs have been created.
When you assign a hybrid port to a VLAN, follow these guidelines:
•
To change the link type of a port from trunk to hybrid or vice versa, set the link type to access first.
•
You must configure the hybrid port to allow packets from the PVID to pass through by using the port
hybrid vlan command.
To assign a hybrid port to one or multiple VLANs:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
119
Step
Command
Remarks
• The configuration made in
Layer 2 Ethernet interface view
applies only to the port.
• The configuration made in
• Enter Layer 2 Ethernet interface
2.
Enter interface view.
view:
interface interface-type
interface-number
• Enter Layer 2 aggregate
interface view:
interface bridge-aggregation
interface-number
Layer 2 aggregate interface
view applies to the aggregate
interface and its aggregation
member ports. If the system fails
to apply the configuration to an
aggregation member port, it
skips the port and moves to the
next member port. If the system
fails to apply the configuration
to the aggregate interface, it
stops applying the
configuration to aggregation
member ports.
3.
Configure the link type of the
port as hybrid.
port link-type hybrid
By default, all ports are access
ports.
4.
Assign the hybrid port to the
specified VLANs.
port hybrid vlan vlan-id-list
{ tagged | untagged }
By default, a hybrid port is an
untagged member of the VLAN to
which the port was assigned as an
access port.
5.
(Optional.) Configure the
PVID of the hybrid port.
port hybrid pvid vlan vlan-id
By default, the PVID of a hybrid
port is the ID of the VLAN to which
the port was assigned as an access
port.
Displaying and maintaining VLANs
Execute display commands in any view.
Task
Command
Display VLAN information.
display vlan [ vlan-id1 [ to vlan-id2 ] | all | dynamic |
reserved | static ]
Display VLAN interface information.
display interface vlan-interface [ vlan-interface-id ] [ brief
[ description ] ]
Display hybrid ports or trunk ports on the
device.
display port { hybrid | trunk }
Display VLANs whose VLAN interface
resources have been reserved.
display reserve-vlan-interface
120
Port-based VLAN configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 34:
•
Host A and Host C belong to Department A. VLAN 100 is assigned to Department A.
•
Host B and Host D belong to Department B. VLAN 200 is assigned to Department B.
Configure port-based VLANs so that hosts only in the same department can communicate with each
other.
Figure 34 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Device A:
# Create VLAN 100, and assign FortyGigE 1/0/1 to VLAN 100.
<DeviceA> system-view
[DeviceA] vlan 100
[DeviceA-vlan100] port fortygige 1/0/1
[DeviceA-vlan100] quit
# Create VLAN 200, and assign FortyGigE 1/0/2 to VLAN 200.
[DeviceA] vlan 200
[DeviceA-vlan200] port fortygige 1/0/2
[DeviceA-vlan200] quit
# Configure FortyGigE 1/0/3 as a trunk port, and assign it to VLANs 100 and 200.
[DeviceA] interface fortygige 1/0/3
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] port link-type trunk
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] port trunk permit vlan 100 200
Please wait... Done.
2.
Configure Device B in the same way Device A is configured. (Details not shown.)
3.
Configure hosts:
{
Configure Host A and Host C to be on the same IP subnet. For example, 192.168.100.0/24.
{
Configure Host B and Host D to be on the same IP subnet. For example, 192.168.200.0/24.
121
Verifying the configuration
# Verify that Host A and Host C can ping each other, but they both fail to ping Host B. (Details not
shown.)
# Verify that Host B and Host D can ping each other, but they both fail to ping Host A. (Details not
shown.)
# Verify that VLANs 100 and 200 are correctly configured on devices, for example, on Device A.
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] display vlan 100
VLAN ID: 100
VLAN type: Static
Route interface: Not configured
Description: VLAN 0100
Name: VLAN 0100
Tagged ports:
FortyGigE1/0/3
Untagged ports:
FortyGigE1/0/1
[DeviceA-FortyGigE1/0/3] display vlan 200
VLAN ID: 200
VLAN type: Static
Route interface: Not configured
Description: VLAN 0200
Name: VLAN 0200
Tagged ports:
FortyGigE1/0/3
Untagged ports:
FortyGigE1/0/2
122
Configuring LLDP
You can set an Ethernet port as a Layer 3 interface by using the port link-mode route command (see
"Configuring Ethernet interfaces").
Overview
In a heterogeneous network, a standard configuration exchange platform ensures that different types of
network devices from different vendors can discover one another and exchange configuration.
The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is specified in IEEE 802.1AB. The protocol operates on the data
link layer to exchange device information between directly connected devices. With LLDP, a device sends
local device information as TLV (type, length, and value) triplets in LLDP Data Units (LLDPDUs) to the
directly connected devices. Local device information includes its system capabilities, management IP
address, device ID, port ID, and so on. The device stores the device information in LLDPDUs from the LLDP
neighbors in a standard MIB. For more information about MIBs, see Network Management and
Monitoring Configuration Guide. LLDP enables a network management system to quickly detect and
identify Layer 2 network topology changes.
Basic concepts
LLDP agent
An LLDP agent is a mapping of an entity where LLDP runs. Multiple LLDP agents can run on the same
interface.
LLDP agents include the following types:
•
Nearest bridge agent.
•
Nearest customer bridge agent.
•
Nearest non-TPMR bridge agent.
A Two-port MAC Relay (TPMR) is a type of bridge that has only two externally-accessible bridge ports.
It supports a subset of the functions of a MAC bridge. A TPMR is transparent to all frame-based
media-independent protocols except for the following:
•
Protocols destined to it.
•
Protocols destined to reserved MAC addresses that the relay function of the TPMR is configured not
to forward.
LLDP exchanges packets between neighbor agents and creates and maintains neighbor information for
them. Figure 35 shows the neighbor relationships for these LLDP agents. LLDP has two bridge modes:
customer bridge (CB) and service bridge (SB).
123
Figure 35 LLDP neighbor relationships
LLDP frame formats
LLDP sends device information in LLDP frames. LLDP frames are encapsulated in Ethernet II or SNAP
frames.
LLDP frame encapsulated in Ethernet II
•
Figure 36 Ethernet II-encapsulated LLDP frame
Table 11 Fields in an Ethernet II-encapsulated LLDP frame
Field
Destination MAC address
Description
MAC address to which the LLDP frame is advertised. LLDP specifies
different multicast MAC addresses as destination MAC addresses for LLDP
frames destined for agents of different types. This helps distinguish
between LLDP frames sent and received by different agent types on the
same interface. The destination MAC address is fixed to one of the
following multicast MAC addresses:
• 0x0180-C200-000E for LLDP frames destined for nearest bridge
agents.
• 0x0180-C200-0000 for LLDP frames destined for nearest customer
bridge agents.
• 0x0180-C200-0003 for LLDP frames destined for nearest non-TPMR
bridge agents.
Source MAC address
MAC address of the sending port.
Type
Ethernet type for the upper-layer protocol. This field is 0x88CC for LLDP.
Data
LLDPDU.
FCS
Frame check sequence, a 32-bit CRC value used to determine the validity
of the received Ethernet frame.
124
LLDP frame encapsulated in SNAP
•
Figure 37 SNAP-encapsulated LLDP frame
Table 12 Fields in a SNAP-encapsulated LLDP frame
Field
Description
Destination MAC address
MAC address to which the LLDP frame is advertised. It is the same as that
for Ethernet II-encapsulated LLDP frames.
Source MAC address
MAC address of the sending port.
Type
SNAP type for the upper-layer protocol. This field is
0xAAAA-0300-0000-88CC for LLDP.
Data
LLDPDU.
FCS
Frame check sequence, a 32-bit CRC value used to determine the validity
of the received Ethernet frame.
LLDPDUs
LLDP uses LLDPDUs to exchange information. An LLDPDU comprises multiple TLV. Each TLV carries a type
of device information, as shown in Figure 38.
Figure 38 LLDPDU encapsulation format
An LLDPDU can carry up to 32 types of TLVs. Mandatory TLVs include Chassis ID TLV, Port ID TLV, Time
to Live TLV, and End of LLDPDU TLV. Other TLVs are optional.
TLVs
A TLV is an information element that contains the type, length, and value fields.
LLDPDU TLVs include the following categories:
•
Basic management TLVs
•
Organizationally (IEEE 802.1 and IEEE 802.3) specific TLVs
•
LLDP-MED (media endpoint discovery) TLVs
Basic management TLVs are essential to device management.
125
Organizationally specific TLVs and LLDP-MED TLVs are used for enhanced device management. They are
defined by standardization or other organizations and are optional to LLDPDUs.
•
Basic management TLVs
Table 13 lists the basic management TLV types. Some of them are mandatory to LLDPDUs.
Table 13 Basic management TLVs
Type
Description
Chassis ID
Specifies the bridge MAC address of the sending device.
Remarks
Specifies the ID of the sending port.
Port ID
• If the LLDPDU carries LLDP-MED TLVs, the port ID TLV carries
the MAC address of the sending port.
• Otherwise, the port ID TLV carries the port name.
Time to Live
Specifies the life of the transmitted information on the
receiving device.
End of LLDPDU
Marks the end of the TLV sequence in the LLDPDU.
Port Description
Specifies the description of the sending port.
System Name
Specifies the assigned name of the sending device.
System Description
Specifies the description of the sending device.
System Capabilities
Identifies the primary functions of the sending device and the
enabled primary functions.
Mandatory.
Optional.
Specifies the following elements:
Management Address
• The management address of the local device.
• The interface number and object identifier (OID)
associated with the address.
•
IEEE 802.1 organizationally specific TLVs
Table 14 IEEE 802.1 organizationally specific TLVs
Type
Description
Port VLAN ID
Specifies the port's VLAN identifier (PVID).
Port And Protocol VLAN ID
Indicates whether the device supports protocol VLANs and, if so, what
VLAN IDs these protocols will be associated with.
VLAN Name
Specifies the textual name of any VLAN to which the port belongs.
Protocol Identity
Indicates protocols supported on the port.
Data center bridging exchange protocol.
DCBX
NOTE:
The switch does not support DCBX TLV in the current software version.
Edge Virtual Bridging module, comprising EVB TLV and CDCP TLV.
EVB module
Link Aggregation
NOTE:
The switch does not support EVB TLV and CDCP TLV in the current software
version.
Indicates whether the port supports link aggregation, and if yes, whether
link aggregation is enabled.
126
Type
Description
Management VID
Management VLAN ID.
VID Usage Digest
VLAN ID usage digest.
ETS Configuration
Enhanced Transmission Selection configuration.
ETS Recommendation
ETS recommendation.
PFC
Priority-based Flow Control.
APP
Application protocol.
NOTE:
• HP devices support only receiving protocol identity TLVs and VID usage digest TLVs.
• Layer 3 Ethernet ports support only link aggregation TLVs.
•
IEEE 802.3 organizationally specific TLVs
Table 15 IEEE 802.3 organizationally specific TLVs
Type
Description
MAC/PHY Configuration/Status
Contains the bit-rate and duplex capabilities of the port, support
for autonegotiation, enabling status of autonegotiation, and the
current rate and duplex mode.
Contains the power supply capability of the port:
Power Via MDI
Maximum Frame Size
•
•
•
•
•
Port class (PSE or PD).
Power supply mode.
Whether PSE power supply is supported.
Whether PSE power supply is enabled.
Whether pair selection can be controllable.
Indicates the supported maximum frame size. It is now the MTU of
the port.
Indicates the power state control configured on the sending port,
including the following:
Power Stateful Control
• Power supply mode of the PSE/PD.
• PSE/PD priority.
• PSE/PD power.
NOTE:
The Power Stateful Control TLV is defined in IEEE P802.3at D1.0 and is not supported in later
versions. HP devices send this type of TLVs only after receiving them.
•
LLDP-MED TLVs
LLDP-MED TLVs provide multiple advanced applications for voice over IP (VoIP), such as basic
configuration, network policy configuration, and address and directory management. LLDP-MED
TLVs provide a cost-effective and easy-to-use solution for deploying voice devices in Ethernet.
LLDP-MED TLVs are shown in Table 16.
127
Table 16 LLDP-MED TLVs
Type
Description
LLDP-MED Capabilities
Allows a network device to advertise the LLDP-MED TLVs that it
supports.
Network Policy
Allows a network device or terminal device to advertise the VLAN
ID of a port, the VLAN type, and the Layer 2 and Layer 3 priorities
for specific applications.
Extended Power-via-MDI
Allows a network device or terminal device to advertise power
supply capability. This TLV is an extension of the Power Via MDI
TLV.
Hardware Revision
Allows a terminal device to advertise its hardware version.
Firmware Revision
Allows a terminal device to advertise its firmware version.
Software Revision
Allows a terminal device to advertise its software version.
Serial Number
Allows a terminal device to advertise its serial number.
Manufacturer Name
Allows a terminal device to advertise its vendor name.
Model Name
Allows a terminal device to advertise its model name.
Asset ID
Allows a terminal device to advertise its asset ID. The typical case
is that the user specifies the asset ID for the endpoint to facilitate
directory management and asset tracking.
Location Identification
Allows a network device to advertise the appropriate location
identifier information for a terminal device to use in the context of
location-based applications.
NOTE:
• If the MAC/PHY configuration/status TLV is not advertisable, none of the LLDP-MED TLVs will be
advertised even if they are advertisable.
• If the LLDP-MED capabilities TLV is not advertisable, the other LLDP-MED TLVs will not be advertised
even if they are advertisable.
Management address
The network management system uses the management address of a device to identify and manage the
device for topology maintenance and network management. The management address is encapsulated
in the management address TLV.
Work mechanism
LLDP operating modes
An LLDP agent can operate in one of the following modes:
•
TxRx mode—An LLDP agent in this mode can send and receive LLDP frames.
•
Tx mode—An LLDP agent in this mode can only send LLDP frames.
•
Rx mode—An LLDP agent in this mode can only receive LLDP frames.
•
Disable mode—An LLDP agent in this mode cannot send or receive LLDP frames.
128
Each time the LLDP operating mode of an LLDP agent changes, its LLDP protocol state machine
re-initializes. A configurable re-initialization delay prevents frequent initializations because of frequent
changes to the operating mode. If you configure the reinitialization delay, an LLDP agent must wait the
specified amount of time to initialize LLDP after the LLDP operating mode changes.
Transmitting LLDP frames
An LLDP agent operating in TxRx mode or Tx mode sends LLDP frames to its directly connected devices
both periodically and when the local configuration changes. To prevent LLDP frames from overwhelming
the network during times of frequent changes to local device information, LLDP uses the token bucket
mechanism to rate limit LLDP frames. For more information about the token bucket mechanism, see ACL
and QoS Configuration Guide.
LLDP automatically enables the fast LLDP frame transmission mechanism in either of the following cases:
•
A new LLDP frame is received and carries device information new to the local device.
•
The LLDP operating mode of the LLDP agent changes from Disable or Rx to TxRx or Tx.
The fast LLDP frame transmission mechanism successively sends the specified number of LLDP frames at
a configurable fast LLDP frame transmission interval. The mechanism helps LLDP neighbors discover the
local device as soon as possible. Then, the normal LLDP frame transmission interval resumes.
Receiving LLDP frames
An LLDP agent operating in TxRx mode or Rx mode confirms the validity of TLVs carried in every received
LLDP frame. If the TLVs are valid, the LLDP agent saves the information and starts an aging timer. When
the TTL value in the Time To Live TLV carried in the LLDP frame becomes zero, the information ages out
immediately.
Protocols and standards
•
IEEE 802.1AB-2005, Station and Media Access Control Connectivity Discovery
•
IEEE 802.1AB-2009, Station and Media Access Control Connectivity Discovery
•
ANSI/TIA-1057, Link Layer Discovery Protocol for Media Endpoint Devices
LLDP configuration task list
Tasks at a glance
Performing basic LLDP configuration:
(Required.) Enabling LLDP
(Optional.) Configuring the LLDP bridge mode
(Optional.) Setting the LLDP operating mode
(Optional.) Setting the LLDP re-initialization delay
(Optional.) Enabling LLDP polling
(Optional.) Configuring the advertisable TLVs
(Optional.) Configuring the management address and its encoding format
(Optional.) Setting other LLDP parameters
(Optional.) Setting an encapsulation format for LLDP frames
(Optional.) Configuring CDP compatibility
129
Tasks at a glance
(Optional.) Configuring LLDP trapping and LLDP-MED trapping
Performing basic LLDP configuration
Enabling LLDP
To make LLDP take effect on specific ports, you must enable LLDP both globally and on these ports.
To enable LLDP:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enable LLDP globally.
lldp global enable
By default, LLDP is disabled
globally.
3.
Enter Layer 2/Layer 3
Ethernet interface view, or
Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate
interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
(Optional.) Enable LLDP.
lldp enable
By default, LLDP is enabled
on a port.
4.
Configuring the LLDP bridge mode
The following LLDP bridge modes are available:
•
Service bridge mode—In service bridge mode, LLDP supports nearest bridge agents and nearest
non-TPMR bridge agents. LLDP processes the LLDP frames with destination MAC addresses for these
agents and transparently transmits the LLDP frames with other destination MAC addresses in the
VLAN.
•
Customer bridge mode—In customer bridge mode, LLDP supports nearest bridge agents, nearest
non-TPMR bridge agents, and nearest customer bridge agents. LLDP processes the LLDP frames with
destination MAC addresses for these agents and transparently transmits the LLDP frames with other
destination MAC addresses in the VLAN.
To configure the LLDP bridge mode:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Configure LLDP to operate
in service bridge mode.
lldp mode service-bridge
By default, LLDP operates in
customer bridge mode.
130
Setting the LLDP operating mode
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2/Layer 3
Ethernet interface view, or
Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate
interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
By default:
• The nearest bridge
agent operates in txrx
mode.
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 Ethernet interface
3.
Set the LLDP operating
mode.
view:
lldp [ agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } ] admin-status
{ disable | rx | tx | txrx }
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate interface
view:
lldp agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } admin-status { disable
| rx | tx | txrx }
• The nearest customer
bridge agent and
nearest non-TPMR
bridge agent operate in
disable mode.
In Ethernet interface view, if
no agent type is specified,
the command configures
the operating mode for
nearest bridge agents.
In aggregate interface
view, you can configure the
operating mode for only
nearest customer bridge
agents and nearest
non-TPMR bridge agents.
Setting the LLDP re-initialization delay
When the LLDP operating mode changes on a port, the port initializes the protocol state machines after
an LLDP reinitialization delay. By adjusting the delay, you can avoid frequent initializations caused by
frequent changes to the LLDP operating mode on a port.
To set the LLDP re-initialization delay for ports:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Set the LLDP re-initialization
delay.
lldp timer reinit-delay delay
The default setting is 2 seconds.
Enabling LLDP polling
With LLDP polling enabled, a device periodically searches for local configuration changes. When the
device detects a configuration change, it sends LLDPDUs to inform neighboring devices of the change.
To enable LLDP polling:
131
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2/Layer 3
Ethernet interface view, or
Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate
interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 Ethernet interface
3.
Enable LLDP polling and set
the polling interval.
view:
lldp [ agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } ]
check-change-interval interval
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate interface
By default, LLDP polling is
disabled.
view:
lldp agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr }
check-change-interval interval
Configuring the advertisable TLVs
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2/Layer 3
Ethernet interface view, or
Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate
interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
132
Step
Command
Remarks
• lldp tlv-enable { basic-tlv { all |
3.
Configure the advertisable
TLVs (in Layer 2 Ethernet
interface view).
port-description | system-capability |
system-description | system-name |
management-address-tlv [ ip-address ] }
| dot1-tlv { all | port-vlan-id |
link-aggregation | protocol-vlan-id
[ vlan-id ] | vlan-name [ vlan-id ] |
management-vid [ mvlan-id ] } | dot3-tlv
{ all | mac-physic | max-frame-size |
power } | med-tlv { all | capability |
inventory | network-policy |
power-over-ethernet | location-id
{ civic-address device-type country-code
{ ca-type ca-value }&<1-10> |
elin-address tel-number } } }
• lldp agent nearest-nontpmr tlv-enable
{ basic-tlv { all | port-description |
system-capability | system-description |
system-name | management-address-tlv
[ ip-address ] } | dot1-tlv { all |
port-vlan-id | link-aggregation } }
• lldp agent nearest-customer tlv-enable
{ basic-tlv { all | port-description |
system-capability | system-description |
system-name | management-address-tlv
[ ip-address ] } | dot1-tlv { all |
port-vlan-id | link-aggregation } }
• lldp tlv-enable { basic-tlv { all |
4.
Configure the advertisable
TLVs (in Layer 3 Ethernet
interface view).
port-description | system-capability |
system-description | system-name |
management-address-tlv [ ip-address ] }
| dot1-tlv { all | link-aggregation } |
dot3-tlv { all | mac-physic |
max-frame-size | power } | med-tlv { all
| capability | inventory |
power-over-ethernet | location-id
{ civic-address device-type country-code
{ ca-type ca-value }&<1-10> |
elin-address tel-number } } }
• lldp agent { nearest-nontpmr |
nearest-customer } tlv-enable { basic-tlv
{ all | port-description |
system-capability | system-description |
system-name | management-address-tlv
[ ip-address ] } | dot1-tlv { all |
link-aggregation } }
133
By default:
• Nearest bridge agents
can advertise all LLDP
TLVs except the
location identification
TLV, port and protocol
VLAN ID TLVs, VLAN
name TLVs, and
management VLAN ID
TLVs.
• Nearest non-TPMR
bridge agents
advertise no TLVs.
• Nearest customer
bridge agents can
advertise basic TLVs
and IEEE 802.1
organizationally
specific TLVs.
By default:
• Nearest bridge agents
can advertise all LLDP
TLVs (only link
aggregation TLV in
802.1
organizationally
specific TLVs) except
network policy TLVs.
• Nearest non-TPMR
bridge agents
advertise no TLVs.
• Nearest customer
bridge agents can
advertise basic TLVs
and IEEE 802.1
organizationally
specific TLVs (only link
aggregation TLV).
Step
Command
Remarks
By default:
• lldp agent nearest-nontpmr tlv-enable
{ basic-tlv { all | management-address-tlv
[ ip-address ] | port-description |
system-capability | system-description |
system-name } | dot1-tlv { all |
port-vlan-id } }
5.
Configure the advertisable
TLVs (in Layer 2 aggregate
interface view).
• Nearest non-TPMR
bridge agents
advertise no TLVs.
• Nearest customer
bridge agents can
advertise basic TLVs
and IEEE 802.1
organizationally
specific TLVs (only port
and protocol VLAN ID
TLV, VLAN name TLV,
and management
VLAN ID TLV).
• lldp agent nearest-customer tlv-enable
{ basic-tlv { all | management-address-tlv
[ ip-address ] | port-description |
system-capability | system-description |
system-name } | dot1-tlv { all |
port-vlan-id } }
• lldp tlv-enable dot1-tlv { protocol-vlan-id
[ vlan-id ] | vlan-name [ vlan-id ] |
management-vid [ mvlan-id ] }
• Nearest bridge agents
are not supported on
Layer 2 aggregate
interfaces.
By default:
• Nearest non-TPMR
6.
Configure the advertisable
TLVs (in Layer 3 aggregate
interface view).
lldp agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } tlv-enable basic-tlv { all |
management-address-tlv [ ip-address ] |
port-description | system-capability |
system-description | system-name }
bridge agents
advertise no TLVs.
• Nearest customer
bridge agents can
advertise only basic
TLVs.
• Nearest bridge agents
are not supported on
Layer 3 aggregate
interfaces.
Configuring the management address and its encoding format
LLDP encodes management addresses in numeric or string format in management address TLVs.
By default, management addresses are encoded in numeric format. If a neighbor encodes its
management address in string format, configure the encoding format of the management address as
string on the connecting port. This guarantees normal communication with the neighbor.
To configure a management address to be advertised and its encoding format on a port:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2/Layer 3 Ethernet
interface view, or Layer
2/Layer 3 aggregate interface
view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
134
Step
Command
Remarks
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 Ethernet
3.
Allow LLDP to advertise the
management address in LLDP
frames and configure the
advertised management
address.
interface view:
lldp [ agent { nearest-customer
| nearest-nontpmr } ]
tlv-enable basic-tlv
management-address-tlv
[ ip-address ]
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate
interface view:
lldp agent { nearest-customer
| nearest-nontpmr } tlv-enable
basic-tlv
management-address-tlv
[ ip-address ]
By default:
• Nearest bridge agents and
nearest customer bridge agents
can advertise the management
address in LLDP frames.
• Nearest non-TPMR bridge
agents cannot advertise the
management address in LLDP
frames.
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 Ethernet
4.
Configure the encoding
format of the management
address as string.
interface view:
lldp [ agent { nearest-customer
| nearest-nontpmr } ]
management-address-format
string
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate
interface view:
lldp agent { nearest-customer
| nearest-nontpmr }
management-address-format
string
By default, the encoding format of
the management address is
numeric.
Setting other LLDP parameters
The Time to Live TLV carried in an LLDPDU determines how long the device information carried in the
LLDPDU can be saved on a recipient device.
By setting the TTL multiplier, you can configure the TTL of locally sent LLDPDUs, which determines how
long information about the local device can be saved on a neighboring device. The TTL is expressed by
using the following formula:
TTL = Min (65535, (TTL multiplier × LLDP frame transmission interval))
As the expression shows, the TTL can be up to 65535 seconds. TTLs greater than 65535 will be rounded
down to 65535 seconds.
To change LLDP parameters:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Set the TTL multiplier.
lldp hold-multiplier value
The default setting is 4.
3.
Set the LLDP frame
transmission interval.
lldp timer tx-interval interval
The default setting is 30
seconds.
4.
Set the token bucket size for
sending LLDP frames.
lldp max-credit credit-value
The default setting is 5.
135
Step
Command
Remarks
5.
Set the LLDP frame
transmission delay.
lldp timer tx-delay delay
The default setting is 2 seconds.
6.
Set the number of LLDP frames
sent each time fast LLDP frame
transmission is triggered.
lldp fast-count count
The default setting is 4.
Set an interval for fast LLDP
frame transmission.
lldp timer fast-interval interval
The default setting is 1 second.
7.
Setting an encapsulation format for LLDP frames
LLDP frames can be encapsulated in the following formats:
•
Ethernet II—With Ethernet II encapsulation configured, an LLDP port sends LLDP frames in Ethernet
II frames.
•
SNAP—With SNAP encapsulation configured, an LLDP port sends LLDP frames in SNAP frames.
To set the encapsulation format for LLDP frames to SNAP:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2/Layer 3
Ethernet interface view, or
Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate
interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 Ethernet interface
3.
Set the encapsulation
format for LLDP frames to
SNAP.
view:
lldp [ agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } ] encapsulation snap
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate interface
view:
lldp agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } encapsulation snap
By default, Ethernet II
encapsulation format
applies.
NOTE:
LLDP of earlier versions requires the same encapsulation format on both ends to process LLDP frames. For
this reason, to communicate stably with a neighboring device running LLDP of earlier versions, the local
device should be configured with the same encapsulation format.
Configuring CDP compatibility
When the switch is directly connected to a Cisco device that supports only CDP rather than LLDP, you can
enable CDP compatibility to enable the switch to exchange information with the directly-connected
device.
With CDP compatibility enabled on the switch, the switch can use LLDP to perform the following tasks:
•
Receive and recognize the CDP packets received from the directly-connected device.
•
Send CDP packets to the directly-connected device.
136
The packets that the switch sends to the neighboring CDP device carry the device ID, the ID of the port
connecting to the neighboring device, the port IP address, the PVID, and the TTL. The port IP address is
the main IP address of the VLAN interface in up state. The VLAN interface must have the lowest VLAN ID
among all VLANs permitted on the port. If none of the VLAN interfaces of the permitted VLANs is
assigned an IP address or all VLAN interfaces are down, no port IP address will be advertised.
The CDP neighbor-information-related fields in the output of the display lldp neighbor-information
command show the CDP neighboring device information that can be recognized by the switch. For more
information about the display lldp neighbor-information command, see Layer 2—LAN Switching
Command Reference.
Configuration prerequisites
Before you configure CDP compatibility, complete the following tasks:
•
Globally enable LLDP.
•
Enable LLDP on the port connecting to a device supporting CDP.
•
Configure the port to operate in TxRx mode.
Configuration procedure
CDP-compatible LLDP operates in one of the following modes:
•
TxRx—CDP packets can be transmitted and received.
•
Disable—CDP packets cannot be transmitted or received.
To make CDP-compatible LLDP take effect on specific ports, follow these steps:
1.
Enable CDP-compatible LLDP globally.
2.
Configure CDP-compatible LLDP to operate in TxRx mode on the port.
The maximum TTL value that CDP allows is 255 seconds. To make CDP-compatible LLDP work correctly
with Cisco IP phones, configure the LLDP frame transmission interval to be no more than 1/3 of the TTL
value.
To enable LLDP to be compatible with CDP:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enable CDP compatibility
globally.
lldp compliance cdp
By default, CDP compatibility is
disabled globally.
3.
Enter Layer 2 or Layer 3
Ethernet interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
4.
Configure CDP-compatible
LLDP to operate in TxRx mode.
lldp compliance admin-status cdp
txrx
By default, CDP-compatible LLDP
operates in disable mode.
Configuring LLDP trapping and LLDP-MED trapping
LLDP trapping or LLDP-MED trapping notifies the network management system of events such as newly
detected neighboring devices and link failures.
137
To prevent excessive LLDP traps from being sent when the topology is unstable, set a trap transmission
interval for LLDP.
To configure LLDP trapping and LLDP-MED trapping:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter Layer 2/Layer 3
Ethernet interface view, or
Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate
interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 Ethernet interface
3.
Enable LLDP trapping.
view:
lldp [ agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } ] notification
remote-change enable
• In Layer 2/Layer 3 aggregate interface
By default, LLDP trapping is
disabled.
view:
lldp agent { nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } notification
remote-change enable
4.
Enable LLDP-MED trapping
(in Layer 2 or Layer 3
Ethernet interface view).
lldp notification med-topology-change
enable
By default, LLDP-MED
trapping is disabled.
5.
Return to system view.
quit
N/A
6.
(Optional.) Set the LLDP
trap transmission interval.
lldp timer notification-interval interval
The default setting is 30
seconds.
Displaying and maintaining LLDP
Execute display commands in any view.
Task
Command
Display local LLDP information.
display lldp local-information [ global | interface interface-type
interface-number ]
Display the information contained in
the LLDP TLVs sent from neighboring
devices.
display lldp neighbor-information [ [ [ interface interface-type
interface-number ] [ agent { nearest-bridge | nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } ] [ verbose ] ] | list [ system-name system-name ] ]
Display LLDP statistics.
display lldp statistics [ global | [ interface interface-type
interface-number ] [ agent { nearest-bridge | nearest-customer |
nearest-nontpmr } ] ]
Display LLDP status of a port.
display lldp status [ interface interface-type interface-number ] [ agent
{ nearest-bridge | nearest-customer | nearest-nontpmr } ]
138
Task
Command
Display types of advertisable
optional LLDP TLVs.
display lldp tlv-config [ interface interface-type interface-number ]
[ agent { nearest-bridge | nearest-customer | nearest-nontpmr } ]
LLDP configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 39, the NMS and Switch A are located in the same Ethernet network. An MED device
and Switch B are connected to FortyGigE1/0/1 and FortyGigE1/0/2 of Switch A.
Enable LLDP globally on Switch A and Switch B to perform the following tasks:
•
Monitor the link between Switch A and Switch B on the NMS.
•
Monitor the link between Switch A and the MED device on the NMS.
Figure 39 Network diagram
MED
FGE1/0/1
NMS
FGE1/0/2
FGE1/0/1
Switch A
Switch B
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Switch A:
# Enable LLDP globally.
<SwitchA> system-view
[SwitchA] lldp global enable
# Enable LLDP on FortyGigE1/0/1. By default, LLDP is enabled on ports.
[SwitchA] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[SwitchA-FortyGigE1/0/1] lldp enable
# Set the LLDP operating mode to Rx on FortyGigE1/0/1.
[SwitchA-FortyGigE1/0/1] lldp admin-status rx
[SwitchA-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
# Enable LLDP on FortyGigE1/0/2. By default, LLDP is enabled on ports.
[SwitchA] interface fortygige 1/0/2
[SwitchA-FortyGigE1/0/2] lldp enable
# Set the LLDP operating mode to Rx on FortyGigE1/0/2.
[SwitchA-FortyGigE1/0/2] lldp admin-status rx
139
[SwitchA-FortyGigE1/0/2] quit
2.
Configure Switch B:
# Enable LLDP globally.
<SwitchB> system-view
[SwitchB] lldp global enable
# Enable LLDP on FortyGigE1/0/1. By default, LLDP is enabled on ports.
[SwitchB] interface fortygige 1/0/1
[SwitchB-FortyGigE1/0/1] lldp enable
# Set the LLDP operating mode to Tx on FortyGigE1/0/1.
[SwitchB-FortyGigE1/0/1] lldp admin-status tx
[SwitchB-FortyGigE1/0/1] quit
Verifying the configuration
# Verify that:
•
FortyGigE1/0/1 of Switch A connects to an MED device.
•
FortyGigE1/0/2 of Switch A connects to a non-MED device.
•
Both ports operate in Rx mode, and they can receive LLDP frames but cannot send LLDP frames.
[SwitchA] display lldp status
Global status of LLDP: Enable
Bridge mode of LLDP: customer-bridge
The current number of LLDP neighbors: 2
The current number of CDP neighbors: 0
LLDP neighbor information last changed time: 0 days, 0 hours, 4 minutes, 40 seconds
Transmit interval
: 30s
Fast transmit interval
: 1s
Transmit credit max
: 5
Hold multiplier
: 4
Reinit delay
: 2s
Trap interval
: 30s
Fast start times
: 4
LLDP status information of port 1 [FortyGigE1/0/1]:
LLDP agent nearest-bridge:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: RX_Only
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 1
Number of MED neighbors
: 1
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 21
Number of received unknown TLV : 0
LLDP agent nearest-customer:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
140
Admin status
: Disable
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 0
Number of MED neighbors
: 0
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 16
Number of received unknown TLV : 0
LLDP status information of port 2 [FortyGigE1/0/2]:
LLDP agent nearest-bridge:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: RX_Only
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 1
Number of MED neighbors
: 0
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 21
Number of received unknown TLV : 3
LLDP agent nearest-nontpmr:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: Disable
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 0
Number of MED neighbors
: 0
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 1
Number of received unknown TLV : 0
LLDP agent nearest-customer:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: Disable
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 0
Number of MED neighbors
: 0
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 16
Number of received unknown TLV : 0
# Remove the link between Switch A and Switch B.
# Verify that FortyGigE1/0/2 of Switch A does not connect to any neighboring devices.
141
[SwitchA] display lldp status
Global status of LLDP: Enable
The current number of LLDP neighbors: 1
The current number of CDP neighbors: 0
LLDP neighbor information last changed time: 0 days, 0 hours, 5 minutes, 20 seconds
Transmit interval
: 30s
Fast transmit interval
: 1s
Transmit credit max
: 5
Hold multiplier
: 4
Reinit delay
: 2s
Trap interval
: 30s
Fast start times
: 4
LLDP status information of port 1 [FortyGigE1/0/1]:
LLDP agent nearest-bridge:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: RX_Only
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 1
Number of MED neighbors
: 1
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 0
Number of received unknown TLV : 5
LLDP agent nearest-nontpmr:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: Disable
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 0
Number of MED neighbors
: 0
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 1
Number of received unknown TLV : 0
LLDP status information of port 2 [FortyGigE1/0/2]:
LLDP agent nearest-bridge:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: RX_Only
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 0
Number of MED neighbors
: 0
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
142
Number of sent optional TLV
: 0
Number of received unknown TLV : 0
LLDP agent nearest-nontpmr:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: Disable
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 0
Number of MED neighbors
: 0
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 1
Number of received unknown TLV : 0
LLDP agent nearest-customer:
Port status of LLDP
: Enable
Admin status
: Disable
Trap flag
: No
MED trap flag
: No
Polling interval
: 0s
Number of LLDP neighbors
: 0
Number of MED neighbors
: 0
Number of CDP neighbors
: 0
Number of sent optional TLV
: 16
Number of received unknown TLV : 0
143
Support and other resources
Contacting HP
For worldwide technical support information, see the HP support website:
http://www.hp.com/support
Before contacting HP, collect the following information:
•
Product model names and numbers
•
Technical support registration number (if applicable)
•
Product serial numbers
•
Error messages
•
Operating system type and revision level
•
Detailed questions
Subscription service
HP recommends that you register your product at the Subscriber's Choice for Business website:
http://www.hp.com/go/wwalerts
After registering, you will receive email notification of product enhancements, new driver versions,
firmware updates, and other product resources.
Related information
Documents
To find related documents, browse to the Manuals page of the HP Business Support Center website:
http://www.hp.com/support/manuals
•
For related documentation, navigate to the Networking section, and select a networking category.
•
For a complete list of acronyms and their definitions, see HP FlexNetwork Technology Acronyms.
Websites
•
HP.com http://www.hp.com
•
HP Networking http://www.hp.com/go/networking
•
HP manuals http://www.hp.com/support/manuals
•
HP download drivers and software http://www.hp.com/support/downloads
•
HP software depot http://www.software.hp.com
•
HP Education http://www.hp.com/learn
144
Conventions
This section describes the conventions used in this documentation set.
Command conventions
Convention
Description
Boldface
Bold text represents commands and keywords that you enter literally as shown.
Italic
Italic text represents arguments that you replace with actual values.
[]
Square brackets enclose syntax choices (keywords or arguments) that are optional.
{ x | y | ... }
Braces enclose a set of required syntax choices separated by vertical bars, from which
you select one.
[ x | y | ... ]
Square brackets enclose a set of optional syntax choices separated by vertical bars, from
which you select one or none.
{ x | y | ... } *
Asterisk-marked braces enclose a set of required syntax choices separated by vertical
bars, from which you select at least one.
[ x | y | ... ] *
Asterisk-marked square brackets enclose optional syntax choices separated by vertical
bars, from which you select one choice, multiple choices, or none.
&<1-n>
The argument or keyword and argument combination before the ampersand (&) sign can
be entered 1 to n times.
#
A line that starts with a pound (#) sign is comments.
GUI conventions
Convention
Description
Boldface
Window names, button names, field names, and menu items are in bold text. For
example, the New User window appears; click OK.
>
Multi-level menus are separated by angle brackets. For example, File > Create > Folder.
Convention
Description
Symbols
WARNING
An alert that calls attention to important information that if not understood or followed can
result in personal injury.
CAUTION
An alert that calls attention to important information that if not understood or followed can
result in data loss, data corruption, or damage to hardware or software.
IMPORTANT
An alert that calls attention to essential information.
NOTE
TIP
An alert that contains additional or supplementary information.
An alert that provides helpful information.
145
Network topology icons
Represents a generic network device, such as a router, switch, or firewall.
Represents a routing-capable device, such as a router or Layer 3 switch.
Represents a generic switch, such as a Layer 2 or Layer 3 switch, or a router that supports
Layer 2 forwarding and other Layer 2 features.
Represents an access controller, a unified wired-WLAN module, or the switching engine
on a unified wired-WLAN switch.
Represents an access point.
Represents a mesh access point.
Represents omnidirectional signals.
Represents directional signals.
Represents a security product, such as a firewall, UTM, multiservice security gateway, or
load-balancing device.
Represents a security card, such as a firewall, load-balancing, NetStream, SSL VPN, IPS,
or ACG card.
Port numbering in examples
The port numbers in this document are for illustration only and might be unavailable on your device.
146
Index
port-based VLAN trunk port, 118
Numerics
802.x
attribute
Ethernet link aggregation attribute
configuration, 33
802.1 LLDPDU TLV types, 125
802.3 LLDPDU TLV types, 125
A
auto
Ethernet interface autonegotiation mode, 3
accessing
port-based VLAN access port, 117
port-based VLAN access port (in interface
view), 118
port-based VLAN access port (in VLAN
view), 118
action
loop detection block, 106
loop detection no-learning protection, 106
loop detection shutdown protection, 106
adding
MAC address table blackhole entry, 21
MAC address table multiport unicast entry, 21
loop detection port status auto recovery, 106
B
backup port (MST), 74
bandwidth
Ethernet link aggregate interface (expected
bandwidth), 46
basic management LLDPDU TLV types, 125
blackhole entry
MAC address table, 19, 21
block action (loop detection), 106
boundary port (MST), 74
BPDU
MST region max hops, 82
address
STP BPDU forwarding, 70
MAC address learning disable, 23
STP BPDU guard, 96
MAC address table address synchronization, 25
STP hello time, 83
MAC Information queue length, 29
STP max age timer, 83
advertising
STP TC-BPDU guard, 99
LLDP advertisable TLV, 132
STP TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
aggregating
link. See Ethernet link aggregation
aging
transmission rate configuration, 84
bridge
LLDP agent customer bridge, 123
MAC address table timer, 24
LLDP agent nearest bridge, 123
STP max age timer, 83
LLDP agent non-TPMR bridge, 123
algorithm
MST common root bridge, 73, 73
STP calculation, 66
MST regional root, 73
alternate port (MST), 74
MSTP root bridge configuration, 80
assigning
MSTP secondary root bridge configuration, 80
port to isolation group (multiple), 61
port-based VLAN access port, 117
RSTP root bridge configuration, 80
port-based VLAN access port (in interface
view), 118
STP designated bridge, 65
RSTP secondary root bridge configuration, 80
STP loop guard, 97
port-based VLAN access port (in VLAN
view), 118
STP root bridge, 65
port-based VLAN hybrid port, 119
STP root bridge configuration, 80
147
STP root guard, 96
Ethernet link aggregation group, 40
STP secondary root bridge configuration, 80
Ethernet link aggregation group (dynamic), 42
Ethernet link aggregation group (static), 41
bulk
Ethernet link aggregation group load sharing
criteria, 48
interface configuration, 16
interface configuration display, 17
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing, 48
C
interface (inloopback), 14
calculating
interface (loopback), 13
MSTI calculation, 75
interface (null), 14
MSTP CIST calculation, 75
Layer 2 Ethernet interface, 10
STP algorithm, 66
Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm control, 10
STP port path cost calculation standard, 86
Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm suppression, 10
STP timeout factor, 84
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation (dynamic), 52
CDP
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation (static), 50
LLDP CDP compatibility, 136
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 42
checking
STP mCheck, 91
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group (static), 41
STP mCheck (global), 91
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation load sharing, 53
STP mCheck (interface view), 91
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation (dynamic), 57
STP No Agreement Check, 94, 95
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation (static), 56
choosing
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation edge aggregate
interface, 58
Ethernet link aggregation reference port, 34, 36
Cisco
LLDP CDP compatibility, 136
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 43
calculation, 75
Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface basic settings, 4
network device connection, 73
LLDP, 123, 129
STP max age timer, 83
LLDP advertisable TLVs, 132
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group (static), 42
CIST
common root bridge, 73
LLDP basics, 130, 139
configuring
LLDP bridge mode, 130
Ethernet aggregate interface, 44
LLDP CDP compatibility, 136
Ethernet aggregate interface (description), 44
LLDP management address, 134
Ethernet interface, 1
LLDP management address encoding format, 134
Ethernet interface basic settings, 3
LLDP trapping, 137
Ethernet interface common settings, 1
LLDP-MED trapping, 137
Ethernet interface generic flow control, 7
loop detection, 105, 107, 109
Ethernet interface jumbo frame support, 6
loop detection protection action, 108
Ethernet interface link mode, 5
loop detection protection action (global), 108
Ethernet interface PFC, 8
loop detection protection action (Layer 2 aggregate
interface), 108
Ethernet interface physical state change
suppression, 6
loop detection protection action (Layer 2 Ethernet
interface), 108
Ethernet link aggregate interface (expected
bandwidth), 46
MAC address table, 18, 19, 27
Ethernet link aggregation, 32, 39, 50
MAC address table dynamic aging timer, 24
Ethernet link aggregation edge aggregate
interface, 46
MAC address table entry, 20
MAC change notification interval, 29
148
STP port path cost calculation standard, 86
MAC Information, 28, 29
STP port path cost configuration, 85, 87
MAC Information mode, 28
MAC Information queue length, 29
CST
management Ethernet interface, 1
MST region, 79
MST region connection, 73
customer
MST region max hops, 82
MSTP, 64, 76, 100
MSTP device priority, 81
MSTP root bridge, 80
LLDP customer bridge mode, 130
D
default
Ethernet link aggregate interface default
settings, 47
MSTP root bridge device, 81
MSTP secondary root bridge, 80
MSTP secondary root bridge device, 81
designated
MST port, 74
port isolation, 61
STP bridge, 65
port isolation (on LAN), 62
RSTP, 64, 76, 100
RSTP device priority, 81
STP port, 65
device
Ethernet interface configuration, 1
RSTP root bridge, 80
LLDP basic configuration, 130, 139
RSTP root bridge device, 81
LLDP CDP compatibility, 136
RSTP secondary root bridge, 80
LLDP configuration, 123, 129
RSTP secondary root bridge device, 81
LLDP parameters, 135
STP, 64, 76, 100
loop protection actions, 106
STP BPDU transmission rate, 84
MSTP implementation, 76
STP device priority, 81
MSTP priority, 81
STP Digest Snooping, 92, 93
MSTP root bridge configuration, 81
STP edge port, 85
MSTP secondary root bridge configuration, 81
STP No Agreement Check, 94, 95
RSTP priority, 81
STP port link type, 88
RSTP root bridge configuration, 81
STP port mode, 89
RSTP secondary root bridge configuration, 81
STP port path cost, 85, 87
STP BPDU guard, 96
STP port priority, 88
STP Digest Snooping, 92, 93
STP port role restriction, 98
STP loop guard, 97
STP protection functions, 96
STP No Agreement Check, 94, 95
STP root bridge, 80
STP port role restriction, 98
STP root bridge device, 81
STP priority, 81
STP secondary root bridge, 80
STP protection functions, 96
STP secondary root bridge device, 81
STP root bridge configuration, 81
STP switched network diameter, 82
STP root guard, 96
STP TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
STP secondary root bridge configuration, 81
STP timeout factor, 84
STP TC-BPDU guard, 99
STP timer, 83
VLAN (port-based), 116, 121
VLAN basic settings, 113
VLAN interface basic settings, 114
cost
STP path cost, 65
STP TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
Digest Snooping (STP), 92, 93
disabling
MAC address learning, 23
discarding
149
MAC Information, 28
MST discarding port state, 74
STP BPDU guard, 96
displaying
bulk interface configuration, 17
STP feature, 90
Ethernet interface, 12
STP loop guard, 97
Ethernet link aggregation, 49
STP port state transition information output, 90
interface, 14
STP root guard, 96
LLDP, 138
STP TC-BPDU guard, 99
loop detection, 109
encapsulating
MAC address table, 26
LLDP frame encapsulated in Ethernet II, 124
MSTP, 99
LLDP frame encapsulated in SNAP format, 124
port isolation, 61
LLDP frame encapsulation format, 136
RSTP, 99
VLAN frame encapsulation, 112
STP, 99
Ethernet
VLAN, 120
interface. See Ethernet interface
dot1d-1998 (STP port path cost calculation), 86
link aggregation. See Ethernet link aggregation
dot1s (STP port mode), 89
LLDP frame encapsulated in Ethernet II, 124
dot1t (STP port path cost calculation), 86
LLDP trapping, 137
dynamic
LLDP-MED trapping, 137
Ethernet link aggregation dynamic mode, 35
loop detection configuration, 105, 109
Ethernet link aggregation edge aggregate
interface, 39
MAC address table configuration, 18, 19, 27
Ethernet link aggregation group, 42
port isolation configuration, 61
MAC Information configuration, 28, 29
Ethernet link aggregation mode, 34
port isolation configuration (on LAN), 62
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation, 52
port-based VLAN access port assignment, 117
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 42
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in
interface view), 118
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation, 57
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in VLAN
view), 118
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation edge
aggregate interface, 58
port-based VLAN hybrid port assignment, 119
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 43
port-based VLAN trunk port assignment, 118
reserving VLAN interface resource, 115
link aggregation process, 36
VLAN basic configuration, 113
MAC address table dynamic aging timer, 24
VLAN configuration, 112
MAC address table entry, 19
VLAN frame encapsulation, 112
E
VLAN interface basic configuration, 114
edge port
VLAN port-based configuration, 116, 121
MST, 74
Ethernet interface
basic settings configuration, 3
STP, 85
common settings configuration, 1
enabling
configuration, 1
LLDP, 130
configuring management Ethernet interface, 1
LLDP polling, 131
displaying, 12
loop detection, 107
generic flow control, 7
loop detection (global), 107
jumbo frame support configuration, 6
loop detection (port-specific), 107
link mode, 5
MAC address synchronization, 25
150
maintaining, 12
member port state, 32, 34, 37
naming convention, 1
modes, 34
PFC configuration, 8
operational key, 33
physical state change suppression, 6
reference port, 36
splitting and combining, 2
reference port choice, 34
Ethernet link aggregation
aggregate group min/max number Selected
ports, 45
aggregate interface, 32
static mode, 34
F
flow control
Ethernet interface generic flow control, 7
aggregate interface (description), 44
aggregate interface configuration, 44
aggregate interface default settings, 47
Ethernet interface PFC, 8
format
LLDP frame encapsulated in Ethernet II, 124
aggregate interface shutdown, 47
LLDP frame encapsulated in SNAP format, 124
aggregation group, 32
LLDP frame encapsulation format, 136
basic concepts, 32
configuration, 32, 39, 50
configuration types, 33
LLDP management address encoding format, 134
forwarding
MST forwarding port state, 74
displaying, 49
STP BPDU forwarding, 70
dynamic mode, 35
dynamic process, 36
edge aggregate interface, 39, 46
STP forward delay timer, 70, 83
frame
Ethernet interface jumbo frame support, 6
group configuration, 40
loop detection, 105
group configuration (dynamic), 42
loop detection (Ethernet frame header), 105
group configuration (static), 41
loop detection (inner frame header), 105
group load sharing criteria, 48
loop detection interval, 106
interface configuration (expected
bandwidth), 46
MAC address learning, 18
LACP, 35
MAC address table blackhole entry, 21
Layer 2 aggregate interface (ignored
VLAN), 44, 44
MAC address table entry configuration, 20
MAC address table configuration, 18, 19, 27
Layer 2 aggregation (dynamic), 52
MAC address table multiport unicast entry, 21
Layer 2 aggregation (static), 50
MAC Information configuration, 28, 29
Layer 2 aggregation load sharing, 53
port-based VLAN frame handling, 117
Layer 2 group (dynamic), 42
VLAN frame encapsulation, 112
Layer 2 group (static), 41
full-duplex mode (Ethernet interface), 3
Layer 3 aggregation (dynamic), 57
G
Layer 3 aggregation (static), 56
Layer 3 edge aggregate interface, 58
Layer 3 group (dynamic), 43
generic flow control (Ethernet interface), 7
group
Ethernet link aggregate group min/max number
Selected ports, 45
Layer 3 group (static), 42
load sharing configuration, 48
Ethernet link aggregation group, 32
load sharing criteria, 39
Ethernet link aggregation group (dynamic), 42
local-first load sharing, 48
Ethernet link aggregation group (static), 41
maintaining, 49
Ethernet link aggregation group configuration, 40
member port, 32
Ethernet link aggregation LACP, 35
151
ports. See port isolation
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing, 48
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing
criteria, 39, 48
Ethernet link aggregation member port state, 32
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 42
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group
(static), 41
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 43
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group
(static), 42
IST
MST region, 73
J
jumbo frame support (Ethernet interface), 6
K
key
Ethernet link aggregation operational key, 33
L
LACP
Ethernet link aggregation, 35
H
half-duplex mode (Ethernet interface), 3
LAN
port isolation configuration, 62
hello
reserving VLAN interface resource, 115
STP timer, 70, 83
VLAN basic configuration, 113
hybrid port
VLAN configuration, 112
port-based VLAN assignment, 119
VLAN interface basic configuration, 114
I
ignored VLAN
Layer 2 aggregate interface, 44
VLAN port-based configuration, 116, 121
LAN switching
Ethernet link aggregation basic concepts, 32
implementing
Ethernet link aggregation configuration, 50
MSTP device implementation, 76
Ethernet link aggregation dynamic mode, 35
inloopback interface
Ethernet link aggregation LACP, 35
configuration, 14
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing, 48
displaying, 14
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing criteria, 39
maintaining, 14
interface
bulk configuration, 16
Ethernet link aggregation static mode, 34
Layer 2
Ethernet link aggregation (dynamic), 52
Ethernet aggregate interface, 44
Ethernet link aggregation (static), 50
Ethernet aggregate interface (description), 44
Ethernet link aggregation configuration, 50
Ethernet link aggregate interface default
settings, 47
Ethernet link aggregation group (dynamic), 42
Ethernet link aggregate interface shutdown, 47
Ethernet link aggregation group load sharing
criteria, 48
Ethernet link aggregation group (static), 41
Ethernet link aggregation edge aggregate
interface, 39, 46
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing, 48, 53
inloopback configuration, 13, 14
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing criteria, 39
Layer 2 Ethernet aggregate interface (ignored
VLAN), 44
Ethernet link aggregation local-first load
sharing, 48
loopback configuration, 13, 13
LLDP basic configuration, 139
null configuration, 13, 14
LLDP trapping, 137
interval
LLDP-MED trapping, 137
loop detection, 106, 109
loop detection configuration, 105, 107, 109
MAC Information change send interval, 29
port isolation configuration, 61
isolating
152
port isolation configuration (on LAN), 62
Ethernet link aggregation edge aggregate
interface, 39, 46, 58
port-based VLAN access port assignment, 117
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in
interface view), 118
Ethernet link aggregation group, 40
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in
VLAN view), 118
Ethernet link aggregation group (static), 41, 42
Ethernet link aggregation group (dynamic), 42, 43
LLDP basic configuration, 139
port-based VLAN hybrid port assignment, 119
LLDP trapping, 137
port-based VLAN trunk port assignment, 118
LLDP-MED trapping, 137
reserving VLAN interface resource, 115
port-based VLAN access port assignment, 117
VLAN basic configuration, 113
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in
interface view), 118
VLAN configuration, 112
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in VLAN
view), 118
VLAN interface basic configuration, 114
VLAN port-based configuration, 116, 121
port-based VLAN hybrid port assignment, 119
Layer 2 Ethernet interface
port-based VLAN trunk port assignment, 118
configuration, 1, 10
reserving VLAN interface resource, 115
storm control configuration, 10
VLAN interface basic configuration, 114
storm suppression configuration, 10
Layer 2 LAN switching
Ethernet aggregate interface, 44
VLAN port-based configuration, 116, 121
Layer 3 Ethernet interface
configuration, 1
Ethernet aggregate interface (description), 44
Ethernet link aggregate group min/max number
Selected ports, 45
Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface
Ethernet link aggregate interface (expected
bandwidth), 46
learning
basic settings configuration, 4
loop detection no-learning action, 106
Ethernet link aggregate interface default
settings, 47
MAC address, 18
MAC address learning disable, 23
Ethernet link aggregate interface shutdown, 47
Ethernet link aggregation configuration, 32, 39
Ethernet link aggregation edge aggregate
interface, 39, 46
Ethernet link aggregation group, 40
Ethernet link aggregation group (dynamic), 42
MST learning port state, 74
legacy
STP port mode, 89
STP port path cost calculation, 86
link
aggregation. See Ethernet link aggregation
Ethernet link aggregation group (static), 41
Ethernet interface link mode, 5
Layer 3
link layer discovery protocol. See LLDP
Ethernet aggregate interface, 44
MSTP configuration, 64, 76, 100
Ethernet aggregate interface (description), 44
RSTP configuration, 64, 76, 100
Ethernet link aggregate group min/max number
Selected ports, 45
Ethernet link aggregate interface (expected
bandwidth), 46
Ethernet link aggregate interface default
settings, 47
STP configuration, 64, 76, 100
STP hello time, 83
STP port link type configuration, 88
LLDP
advertisable TLV configuration, 132
agent, 123
Ethernet link aggregate interface shutdown, 47
basic concepts, 123
Ethernet link aggregation (dynamic), 57
basic configuration, 130, 139
Ethernet link aggregation (static), 56
bridge mode configuration, 130
Ethernet link aggregation configuration, 32, 39
153
CDP compatibility configuration, 136
Ethernet link aggregation group load sharing, 39
configuration, 123, 129
Ethernet link aggregation local-first load
sharing, 48
displaying, 138
Ethernet link aggregation packet type-based load
sharing, 39
enable, 130
how it works, 128
Ethernet link aggregation per-flow load sharing, 39
LLDP frame encapsulation format, 136
Ethernet link aggregation per-packet load
sharing, 39
LLDP frame format, 124
LLDP frame management address TLV, 128
LLDP frame reception, 129
LLDP frame transmission, 129
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation configuration, 53
local
Ethernet link aggregation local-first load
sharing, 48
LLDPDU TLV types, 125
LLDPDU TLVs, 125
LLDP-MED trapping configuration, 137
management address configuration, 134
management address encoding format, 134
logging
loop detection configuration, 105, 107, 109
loop
MSTP configuration, 64, 76, 100
operating mode (disable), 128, 131
RSTP configuration, 64, 76, 100
operating mode (Rx), 128, 131
STP configuration, 64, 76, 100
operating mode (Tx), 128, 131
operating mode (TxRx), 128, 131
operating mode set, 131
STP loop guard, 97
loop detection
configuration, 105, 107, 109
parameter set, 135
displaying, 109
polling enable, 131
enable, 107
protocols and standards, 129
enable (global), 107
re-initialization delay, 131
enable (port-specific), 107
trapping configuration, 137
interval, 106
LLDP frame
interval setting, 109
encapsulated in Ethernet II format, 124
mechanisms, 105
encapsulated in SNAP format, 124
port status auto recovery, 106
encapsulation format, 136
protection action configuration, 108
LLDP basic configuration, 130, 139
protection action configuration (global), 108
LLDP configuration, 123, 129
protection action configuration (Layer 2 aggregate
interface), 108
LLDP parameters, 135
management address configuration, 134
protection action configuration (Layer 2 Ethernet
interface), 108
management address encoding format, 134
management address TLV, 128
receiving, 129
transmitting, 129
protection actions, 106
loopback interface
configuration, 13
LLDPDU
displaying, 14
TLV basic management types, 125
TLV LLDP-MED types, 125
TLV organization-specific types, 125
load sharing
Ethernet link aggregation configuration, 48
Ethernet link aggregation group criteria, 48
maintaining, 14
M
MAC address
VLAN frame encapsulation, 112
MAC address table
address learning, 18
154
address synchronization, 25
Ethernet link aggregation dynamic mode, 35
blackhole entry, 21
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing criteria, 39
configuration, 18, 19, 27
Ethernet link aggregation static, 34
displaying, 26
Ethernet link aggregation static mode, 34
dynamic aging timer, 24
LLDP customer bridge mode, 130
entry configuration, 20
LLDP disable, 128, 131
entry creation, 18
LLDP Rx, 128, 131
entry types, 19
LLDP service bridge mode, 130
MAC address learning disable, 23
LLDP Tx, 128, 131
manual entries, 18
LLDP TxRx, 128, 131
multiport unicast entry, 21
MAC Information syslog, 28
MAC Information
change notification interval, 29
MAC Information trap, 28
modifying
configuration, 28, 29
MAC address table blackhole entry, 21
enable, 28
MAC address table multiport unicast entry, 21
mode configuration, 28
MST
queue length configuration, 29
CIST, 73
MAC relay (LLDP agent), 123
common root bridge, 73
maintaining
CST, 73
IST, 73
Ethernet interface, 12
Ethernet link aggregation, 49
MSTI, 73
interface, 14
port roles, 74
MSTP, 99
port states, 74
RSTP, 99
region, 72
STP, 99
region configuration, 79
VLAN, 120
region max hops, 82
regional root, 73
management address
LLDP encoding format, 134
MSTI
management Ethernet interface
calculation, 75
MST instance, 73
configuration, 1
mapping
MSTP, 64, See also STP
basic concepts, 71
MSTP VLAN-to-instance mapping table, 73
master port (MST), 74
CIST calculation, 75
max age timer (STP), 70
configuration, 64, 76, 78, 100
mCheck (STP), 91, 91, 91
device implementation, 76
MED (LLDP-MED trapping), 137
device priority configuration, 81
MIB
displaying, 99
LLDP basic configuration, 130, 139
features, 71
LLDP configuration, 123, 129
how it works, 75
maintaining, 99
mode
Ethernet interface autonegotiation, 3
mode set, 79
Ethernet interface full-duplex, 3
MSTI calculation, 75
Ethernet interface half-duplex, 3
No Agreement Check, 94, 95
Ethernet interface link mode, 5
protocols and standards, 76
Ethernet link aggregation dynamic, 34
relationship to RSTP and STP, 71
155
root bridge configuration, 80
loop detection protection action configuration, 108
root bridge device configuration, 81
loop protection actions, 106
secondary root bridge configuration, 80
loopback interface configuration, 13
secondary root bridge device configuration, 81
MAC address table address synchronization, 25
STP basic concepts, 65
MAC address table blackhole entry, 21
STP max age timer, 83
MAC address table dynamic aging timer, 24
STP port mode configuration, 89
MAC address table entry configuration, 20
VLAN-to-instance mapping table, 73
MAC address table entry types, 19
multiport unicast entry (MAC address table), 19, 21
MAC address table multiport unicast entry, 21
N
MST region configuration, 79
MSTP mode set, 79
network
null interface configuration, 14
Ethernet interface basic settings configuration, 3
port-based VLAN access port assignment, 117
Ethernet interface common settings
configuration, 1
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in
interface view), 118
Ethernet interface generic flow control, 7
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in VLAN
view), 118
Ethernet interface jumbo frame support
configuration, 6
port-based VLAN hybrid port assignment, 119
Ethernet interface link mode, 5
port-based VLAN trunk port assignment, 118
Ethernet interface PFC, 8
reserving VLAN interface resource, 115
Ethernet interface physical state change
suppression, 6
RSTP mode set, 79
RSTP network convergence, 71
Ethernet interface splitting and combining, 2
STP algorithm calculation, 66
Ethernet link aggregation configuration
types, 33
STP BPDU guard, 96
Ethernet link aggregation dynamic mode, 35
STP BPDU transmission rate, 84
Ethernet link aggregation edge aggregate
interface, 39
STP designated port, 65
STP designated bridge, 65
Ethernet link aggregation LACP, 35
STP Digest Snooping, 92, 93
Ethernet link aggregation member port
state, 34, 37
STP edge port, 85
Ethernet link aggregation modes, 34
STP mode set, 79
Ethernet link aggregation operational key, 33
STP No Agreement Check, 94, 95
Ethernet link aggregation reference port, 36
STP path cost, 65
Ethernet link aggregation reference port
choice, 34
STP port link type, 88
STP loop guard, 97
STP port mode, 89
Ethernet link aggregation static mode, 34
STP port path cost, 85, 87
inloopback interface configuration, 14
STP port priority, 88
Layer 2 Ethernet interface configuration, 10
STP port role restriction, 98
Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm control
configuration, 10
STP port state transition, 90
STP protection functions, 96
Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm suppression
configuration, 10
STP root bridge, 65
STP root guard, 96
Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface basic settings
configuration, 4
STP root port, 65
STP switched network diameter, 82
loop detection interval, 106, 109
STP TC-BPDU guard, 99
156
STP TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
P
VLAN interface basic configuration, 114
packet
VLAN port-based configuration, 116, 121
Ethernet link aggregation packet type-based load
sharing, 39
network management
Ethernet interface configuration, 1
LLDP CDP compatibility, 136
Ethernet link aggregation
configuration, 32, 39, 50
STP BPDU protocol packets, 64
STP port mode configuration, 89
inloopback interface configuration, 13
interface bulk configuration, 16
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation (dynamic), 52
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation (static), 50
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation load
sharing, 53
STP TCN BPDU protocol packets, 64
parameter
STP timeout factor, 84
per-flow load sharing, 39
performing
STP mCheck, 91
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation (dynamic), 57
STP mCheck globally, 91
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation (static), 56
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation edge
aggregate interface, 58
LLDP basic concepts, 123
LLDP basic configuration, 130, 139
STP mCheck in interface view, 91
per-packet load sharing, 39
PFC (Ethernet interface), 8
physical
Ethernet interface physical state change
suppression, 6
LLDP configuration, 123, 129
loop detection, 105
loop detection configuration, 107, 109
loopback interface configuration, 13
MAC address table configuration, 18, 19, 27
polling
LLDP enable, 131
port
Ethernet aggregate interface, 44
MAC Information configuration, 28, 29
Ethernet aggregate interface (description), 44
MSTP configuration, 64, 76, 100
Ethernet link aggregate group min/max number
Selected ports, 45
null interface configuration, 13
port isolation configuration, 61
Ethernet link aggregate interface (expected
bandwidth), 46
port isolation configuration (on LAN), 62
RSTP configuration, 64, 76, 100
Ethernet link aggregate interface default
settings, 47
STP configuration, 64, 76, 100
VLAN basic configuration, 113
Ethernet link aggregate interface shutdown, 47
VLAN configuration, 112
Ethernet link aggregation configuration, 32, 39, 50
No Agreement Check (STP), 94, 95
Ethernet link aggregation configuration types, 33
no-learning action (loop detection), 106
Ethernet link aggregation dynamic mode, 35
null interface
Ethernet link aggregation edge aggregate
interface, 39, 46
configuration, 13, 14
Ethernet link aggregation group (dynamic), 42
displaying, 14
Ethernet link aggregation group (static), 41
maintaining, 14
Ethernet link aggregation group configuration, 40
O
Ethernet link aggregation LACP, 35
operational key (Ethernet link aggregation), 33
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing, 48
organization-specific LLDPDU TLV types, 125
Ethernet link aggregation load sharing criteria, 39
outputting
Ethernet link aggregation local-first load
sharing, 48
STP port state transition information, 90
157
Ethernet link aggregation member port, 32
loop detection protection actions, 106
Ethernet link aggregation member port
state, 32, 34, 37
MAC address learning, 18
Ethernet link aggregation modes, 34
MAC address table blackhole entry, 21
loop detection status auto recovery, 106
Ethernet link aggregation operational key, 33
MAC address table configuration, 18, 19, 27
Ethernet link aggregation reference port, 36
MAC address table entry configuration, 20
Ethernet link aggregation reference port
choice, 34
MAC address table multiport unicast entry, 21
MAC Information configuration, 28, 29
Ethernet link aggregation static mode, 34
MST port roles, 74
group assignment (port isolation), 61
MST port states, 74
isolation. See port isolation
RSTP network convergence, 71
Layer 2 aggregate interface (ignored
VLAN), 44
STP BPDU guard, 96
STP BPDU transmission rate, 84
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation (dynamic), 52
STP designated port, 65
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation (static), 50
STP edge port configuration, 85
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 42
STP forward delay timer, 83
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group
(static), 41
STP mCheck, 91
STP loop guard, 97
STP mCheck (global), 91
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation load
sharing, 53
STP mCheck (interface view), 91
STP path cost calculation standard, 86
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation (dynamic), 57
STP path cost configuration, 85, 87
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation (static), 56
STP port link type configuration, 88
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation edge
aggregate interface, 58
STP port mode configuration, 89
STP port priority configuration, 88
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 43
STP port role restriction, 98
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group
(static), 42
STP port state transition output, 90
STP root guard, 96
LLDP basic configuration, 130, 139
STP root port, 65
LLDP configuration, 123, 129
STP TC-BPDU guard, 99
LLDP disable operating mode, 128, 131
STP TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
LLDP enable, 130
LLDP frame encapsulation format, 136
LLDP frame reception, 129
VLAN port link type, 116
port isolation
configuration, 61
LLDP frame transmission, 129
configuration (on LAN), 62
LLDP operating mode, 131
displaying, 61
LLDP polling, 131
LLDP re-initialization delay, 131
LLDP Rx operating mode, 128, 131
port assignment to group (multiple), 61
port-based VLAN
access port assignment, 117
LLDP Tx operating mode, 128, 131
access port assignment (in interface view), 118
LLDP TxRx operating mode, 128, 131
access port assignment (in VLAN view), 118
loop detection configuration, 105, 107, 109
configuration, 116, 121
loop detection interval, 106, 109
hybrid port assignment, 119
loop detection protection action
configuration, 108
port frame handling, 117
port link type, 116
158
configuring Ethernet link aggregation group
(static), 41
PVID, 117
trunk port assignment, 118
configuring Ethernet link aggregation group load
sharing criteria, 48
priority
Ethernet link aggregation LACP, 35
configuring Ethernet link aggregation load
sharing, 48
MSTP device priority, 81
RSTP device priority, 81
configuring interface (inloopback), 14
STP device priority, 81
configuring interface (loopback), 13
STP port priority configuration, 88
configuring interface (null), 14
priority-based flow control. Use PFC
configuring Layer 2 Ethernet interface, 10
procedure
configuring Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm
control, 10
adding MAC address table blackhole entry, 21
adding MAC address table multiport unicast
entry, 21
configuring Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm
suppression, 10
assigning port to isolation group (multiple), 61
configuring Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation
(dynamic), 52
assigning port-based VLAN access port, 117
assigning port-based VLAN access port (in
interface view), 118
configuring Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation
(static), 50
assigning port-based VLAN access port (in
VLAN view), 118
configuring Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 42
assigning port-based VLAN hybrid port, 119
configuring Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group
(static), 41
assigning port-based VLAN trunk port, 118
bulk configuring interfaces, 16
configuring Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation load
sharing, 53
combining 10-GE breakout interfaces into
40-GE interface, 2
configuring Ethernet aggregate interface, 44
configuring Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation
(dynamic), 57
configuring Ethernet aggregate interface
(description), 44
configuring Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation
(static), 56
configuring Ethernet interface basic settings, 3
configuring Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation edge
aggregate interface, 58
configuring Ethernet interface common
settings, 1
configuring Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 43
configuring Ethernet interface generic flow
control, 7
configuring Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group
(static), 42
configuring Ethernet interface jumbo frame
support, 6
configuring Ethernet interface link mode, 5
configuring Layer 3 Ethernet subinterface basic
settings, 4
configuring Ethernet interface PFC, 8
configuring LLDP, 129
configuring Ethernet interface physical state
change suppression, 6
configuring LLDP advertisable TLVs, 132
configuring Ethernet link aggregate interface
(expected bandwidth), 46
configuring LLDP bridge mode, 130
configuring LLDP basics, 130, 139
configuring LLDP CDP compatibility, 136
configuring Ethernet link aggregation, 39, 50
configuring LLDP management address, 134
configuring Ethernet link aggregation edge
aggregate interface, 46
configuring LLDP management address encoding
format, 134
configuring Ethernet link aggregation group, 40
configuring LLDP trapping, 137
configuring Ethernet link aggregation group
(dynamic), 42
configuring LLDP-MED trapping, 137
configuring loop detection, 107, 109
159
configuring loop detection protection
action, 108
configuring STP protection functions, 96
configuring STP root bridge, 80
configuring loop detection protection action
(global), 108
configuring STP root bridge device, 81
configuring STP secondary root bridge, 80
configuring loop detection protection action
(Layer 2 aggregate interface), 108
configuring STP secondary root bridge device, 81
configuring STP switched network diameter, 82
configuring loop detection protection action
(Layer 2 Ethernet interface), 108
configuring STP TC-BPDU transmission
restriction, 98
configuring MAC address table, 27
configuring STP timeout factor, 84
configuring MAC address table dynamic aging
timer, 24
configuring STP timer, 83
configuring VLAN (port-based), 116, 121
configuring MAC address table entry, 20
configuring VLAN basic settings, 113
configuring MAC change notification
interval, 29
configuring VLAN interface basic settings, 114
disabling global MAC address learning, 23
configuring MAC Information, 29
disabling MAC address learning, 23
configuring MAC Information mode, 28
disabling MAC address learning on interface, 23
configuring MAC Information queue length, 29
displaying bulk interface configuration, 17
configuring management Ethernet interface, 1
displaying Ethernet interface, 12
configuring MST region, 79
displaying Ethernet link aggregation, 49
configuring MST region max hops, 82
displaying interface, 14
configuring MSTP, 76, 78, 100
displaying LLDP, 138
configuring MSTP device priority, 81
displaying loop detection, 109
configuring MSTP root bridge, 80
displaying MAC address table, 26
configuring MSTP root bridge device, 81
displaying MSTP, 99
configuring MSTP secondary root bridge, 80
displaying port isolation, 61
configuring MSTP secondary root bridge
device, 81
displaying RSTP, 99
displaying STP, 99
configuring port isolation (on LAN), 62
displaying VLAN, 120
configuring RSTP, 76, 77, 100
enabling Ethernet link aggregation local-first load
sharing, 48
configuring RSTP device priority, 81
configuring RSTP root bridge, 80
enabling LLDP, 130
configuring RSTP root bridge device, 81
enabling LLDP polling, 131
configuring RSTP secondary root bridge, 80
enabling loop detection, 107
configuring RSTP secondary root bridge
device, 81
enabling loop detection (global), 107
enabling loop detection (port-specific), 107
configuring STP, 76, 77, 100
enabling MAC address synchronization
globally, 25
configuring STP BPDU transmission rate, 84
configuring STP device priority, 81
enabling MAC Information, 28
configuring STP Digest Snooping, 92, 93
enabling STP BPDU guard, 96
configuring STP edge port, 85
enabling STP feature, 90
configuring STP No Agreement Check, 94, 95
enabling STP loop guard, 97
configuring STP port link type, 88
enabling STP port state transition information
output, 90
configuring STP port mode for MSTP packets, 89
configuring STP port path cost, 85, 87
enabling STP root guard, 96
configuring STP port priority, 88
enabling STP TC-BPDU guard, 99
configuring STP port role restriction, 98
160
maintaining Ethernet interface, 12
Q
maintaining Ethernet link aggregation, 49
queuing
maintaining interface, 14
maintaining MSTP, 99
maintaining RSTP, 99
maintaining STP, 99
maintaining VLAN, 120
MAC Information queue length, 29
R
rate
STP BPDU transmission rate, 84
modifying MAC address table blackhole
entry, 21
receiving
modifying MAC address table multiport unicast
entry, 21
recovering
LLDP frames, 129
loop detection port status auto recovery, 106
performing STP mCheck, 91
reference port (Ethernet link aggregation), 34, 36
performing STP mCheck globally, 91
region
performing STP mCheck in interface view, 91
MST, 72
reserving VLAN interface resource, 115
MST region configuration, 79
restoring Ethernet link aggregate interface
default settings, 47
MST region max hops, 82
setting Ethernet link aggregate group min/max
number Selected ports, 45
setting LLDP frame encapsulation format, 136
setting LLDP operating mode, 131
setting LLDP parameters, 135
MST regional root, 73
re-initialization delay (LLDP), 131
reserving
VLAN interface resource, 115
restoring
Ethernet link aggregate interface default
settings, 47
setting LLDP re-initialization delay, 131
setting loop detection interval, 109
setting MSTP mode, 79
restrictions
STP Digest Snooping configuration, 92
setting RSTP mode, 79
STP edge port configuration, 85
setting STP mode, 79
STP port link type configuration, 89
shutting down Ethernet link aggregate
interface, 47
STP port role restriction, 98
specifying Layer 2 aggregate interface (ignored
VLAN), 44
STP timer configuration, 83
specifying STP port path cost calculation
standard, 86
STP TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
root
MST common root bridge, 73
MST regional root, 73
splitting 40-GE interface into 10-GE breakout
interfaces, 2
MST root port role, 74
MSTP root bridge configuration, 80
splitting and combining Ethernet interface, 2
MSTP secondary root bridge configuration, 80
protecting
RSTP root bridge configuration, 80
STP protection functions, 96
RSTP secondary root bridge configuration, 80
protocols and standards
STP algorithm calculation, 66
Ethernet link aggregation protocol
configuration, 33
STP root bridge, 65
STP root bridge configuration, 80
LLDP, 129
STP root guard, 96
MSTP, 76
STP root port, 65
STP protocol packets, 64
VLAN, 113
PVID (port-based VLAN), 117
STP secondary root bridge configuration, 80
RSTP, 64, See also STP
161
configuration, 64, 76, 77, 100
Layer 2 aggregate interface (ignored VLAN), 44
device priority configuration, 81
displaying, 99
STP port path cost calculation standard, 86
state
maintaining, 99
Ethernet interface state change suppression, 6
mode set, 79
Ethernet link aggregation member port
state, 32, 34, 37
network convergence, 71
No Agreement Check, 94, 95
static
Ethernet link aggregation group, 41
root bridge configuration, 80
Ethernet link aggregation mode, 34
root bridge device configuration, 81
secondary root bridge configuration, 80
Ethernet link aggregation static mode, 34
secondary root bridge device configuration, 81
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation, 50
Layer 2 Ethernet link aggregation group, 41
STP basic concepts, 65
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation, 56
S
Layer 3 Ethernet link aggregation group, 42
selecting
Ethernet link aggregation Selected ports, 45
Ethernet link aggregation selected state, 32
MAC address table entry, 19
storm
Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm control, 10
Ethernet link aggregation unselected state, 32
service
LLDP service bridge mode, 130
Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm suppression, 10
STP
algorithm calculation, 66
setting
basic concepts, 65
Ethernet link aggregate group min/max number
Selected ports, 45
BPDU forwarding, 70
BPDU guard enable, 96
Ethernet link aggregation member port
state, 34, 37
BPDU transmission rate configuration, 84
CIST, 73
LLDP frame encapsulation format, 136
configuration, 64, 76, 77, 100
LLDP operating mode, 131
CST, 73
LLDP parameters, 135
designated bridge, 65
LLDP re-initialization delay, 131
designated port, 65
loop detection interval, 109
device priority configuration, 81
MSTP mode, 79
Digest Snooping, 92, 93
RSTP mode, 79
Digest Snooping configuration restrictions, 92
STP mode, 79
displaying, 99
shutting down
edge port configuration, 85
Ethernet link aggregate interface, 47
edge port configuration restrictions, 85
loop detection shutdown action, 106
feature enable, 90
SNAP
IST, 73
LLDP frame encapsulated in SNAP format, 124
loop detection, 64
LLDP frame encapsulation format, 136
loop guard enable, 97
SNMP
maintaining, 99
MAC Information configuration, 28, 29
mCheck, 91
snooping
mCheck (global), 91
STP Digest Snooping, 92, 93
mCheck (interface view), 91
spanning tree. Use STP, RSTP, MSTP
mode set, 79
specifying
MST common root bridge, 73
162
MST port roles, 74
switching
MST port states, 74
Ethernet interface configuration, 1
MST region, 72
inloopback interface configuration, 13, 14
MST region configuration, 79
loopback interface configuration, 13, 13
MST regional root, 73
MAC address table configuration, 18, 19, 27
MSTI, 73
null interface configuration, 13, 14
MSTI calculation, 75
port isolation configuration, 61
MSTP, 71, See also MSTP
port isolation configuration (on LAN), 62
MSTP CIST calculation, 75
port-based VLAN access port assignment, 117
MSTP device implementation, 76
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in
interface view), 118
No Agreement Check, 94, 95
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in VLAN
view), 118
path cost, 65
port link type configuration, 88
port-based VLAN hybrid port assignment, 119
port link type configuration restrictions, 89
port-based VLAN trunk port assignment, 118
port mode configuration, 89
reserving VLAN interface resource, 115
port path cost calculation standard, 86
VLAN basic configuration, 113
port path cost configuration, 85, 87
VLAN configuration, 112
port priority configuration, 88
VLAN interface basic configuration, 114
port role restriction, 98
port state transition output, 90
protection functions, 96
protocol packets, 64
root bridge, 65
VLAN port-based configuration, 116, 121
synchronizing
MAC addresses, 25
system
interface bulk configuration, 16
root bridge configuration, 80
root bridge device configuration, 81
T
root guard enable, 96
table
root port, 65
MAC address, 18, 19, 27
RSTP, 71, See also RSTP
secondary root bridge configuration, 80
secondary root bridge device configuration, 81
MSTP VLAN-to-instance mapping table, 73
TC-BPDU
STP TC-BPDU guard, 99
switched network diameter, 82
TC-BPDU guard, 99
TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
timeout factor configuration, 84
timer configuration, 83
timer configuration restrictions, 83
timers, 70
STP TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
time
Ethernet link aggregation LACP timeout interval, 35
timeout
STP timeout factor, 84
timer
LLDP re-initialization delay, 131
VLAN-to-instance mapping table, 73
MAC address table dynamic aging timer, 24
suppressing
STP forward delay, 70, 83
Ethernet interface physical state change
suppression, 6
Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm control
configuration, 10
STP hello, 70, 83
STP max age, 70, 83
TLV
LLDP advertisable TLV configuration, 132
Layer 2 Ethernet interface storm suppression
configuration, 10
LLDP frame management address TLV, 128
163
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in
interface view), 118
LLDP management address configuration, 134
LLDP management address encoding
format, 134
port-based VLAN access port assignment (in VLAN
view), 118
LLDP parameters, 135
port-based VLAN frame handling, 117
LLDPDU basic management types, 125
port-based VLAN trunk port assignment, 118
LLDPDU LLDP-MED types, 125
protocols and standards, 113
LLDPDU organization-specific types, 125
PVID, 117
topology
reserving interface resource, 115
STP TCN BPDU protocol packets, 64
transmitting
voice traffic
LLDP CDP compatibility, 136
LLDP frames, 129
STP TC-BPDU transmission restriction, 98
trapping
LLDP configuration, 137
LLDP-MED configuration, 137
MAC Information configuration, 28, 29
MAC Information mode configuration, 28
trunk port
port-based VLAN assignment, 118
U
unicast
MAC address table configuration, 18, 19, 27
MAC address table multiport unicast entry, 19
V
Virtual Local Area Network. Use VLAN
VLAN
basic configuration, 113
configuration, 112
configuring, 112
displaying, 120
frame encapsulation, 112
hybrid port assignment, 119
interface basic configuration, 114
Layer 2 Ethernet aggregate interface (ignored
VLAN), 44
LLDP CDP compatibility, 136
loop detection configuration, 105, 107, 109
maintaining, 120
MSTP VLAN-to-instance mapping table, 73
port isolation configuration, 61
port link type, 116
port-based configuration, 116, 121
port-based VLAN access port assignment, 117
164
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