030.0002.02.1
User Guide
Tracer Series
Hand-held XRF Analyzers
Includes:
Tracer III-V+
Tracer III-SD
Tracer IV-SD
For distribution in the United States and Great Britain
Tracer Series User Guide
Table of Contents
1
Overview........................................................................................................................................................ 5
1.1
2
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................5
Radiation Safety Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 6
2.1
What is Radiation? .......................................................................................................................................6
2.2
Terminology .................................................................................................................................................6
2.3
Radiation from the Tracer Series Instrument ..............................................................................................7
2.4
Radiation Profile ...........................................................................................................................................7
2.5
Safety Design ................................................................................................................................................8
2.5.1
Agency Approvals ....................................................................................................................................8
2.5.2
Safety Features ........................................................................................................................................9
2.5.3
Safety Warning Labels ...........................................................................................................................10
2.6
Using the Tracer Series Instrument Safely .................................................................................................11
2.6.1
Radiation Safety Tips .............................................................................................................................12
2.6.2
Low Density Samples .............................................................................................................................12
2.7
2.7.1
2.8
Positioning..................................................................................................................................................13
Thin or Light Element Samples ..............................................................................................................13
In Case of Emergency .................................................................................................................................14
2.8.1
Minor Damage .......................................................................................................................................14
2.8.2
Major Damage .......................................................................................................................................14
2.8.3
Loss or Theft ..........................................................................................................................................14
2.9
License/Registration Requirements ...........................................................................................................14
2.10
Transportation Requirements ....................................................................................................................15
3
Principal Components .................................................................................................................................. 16
4
Setup............................................................................................................................................................ 18
4.1
Power Sources ............................................................................................................................................18
4.1.1
Analyzer .................................................................................................................................................18
4.1.2
PDA ........................................................................................................................................................19
4.1.3
Vacuum Pump ........................................................................................................................................20
4.1.4
Notes on Batteries .................................................................................................................................21
4.2
Physical Configurations ..............................................................................................................................21
4.2.1
Hand-held ..............................................................................................................................................21
4.2.2
Desktop Stand ........................................................................................................................................22
4.2.3
Small Sample Table ................................................................................................................................23
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4.2.4
Remote Control (optional) .....................................................................................................................23
4.2.5
Enclosed Bench-top Stand (optional) ....................................................................................................23
4.2.6
Tripod (optional) ....................................................................................................................................24
4.2.7
Notebook/Laptop Accessory (optional) .................................................................................................24
4.3
4.3.1
Non-Vacuum ..........................................................................................................................................25
4.3.2
Vacuum ..................................................................................................................................................25
4.3.3
Hot Surface ............................................................................................................................................26
4.4
Setting up the Analyzer ..............................................................................................................................26
4.4.1
Hand-held Operation .............................................................................................................................26
4.4.2
Desktop/Bench-top Operation ..............................................................................................................27
4.4.3
Window label .........................................................................................................................................27
4.4.4
Window Replacement ...........................................................................................................................27
4.5
Filter Configuration ....................................................................................................................................29
4.5.1
Determining filter Configuration ...........................................................................................................30
4.5.2
Changing the Filter .................................................................................................................................30
4.5.3
Filter Specifications, Tracer IV-SD, Automatic filter changer .................................................................31
4.6
5
Analysis Techniques ...................................................................................................................................25
Sample Preparation ....................................................................................................................................31
Operation..................................................................................................................................................... 32
5.1
5.1.1
5.2
Starting the BrukerS1 Program ..................................................................................................................32
Memory Card .........................................................................................................................................32
General Purpose Measure .........................................................................................................................33
5.2.1
Metals Mode ..........................................................................................................................................33
5.2.2
Taking a Measurement ..........................................................................................................................35
5.2.3
Configuration .........................................................................................................................................37
5.2.4
View Results ...........................................................................................................................................42
5.3
Utilities .......................................................................................................................................................42
5.3.1
View Readings ........................................................................................................................................42
5.3.2
View Energies.........................................................................................................................................42
5.3.3
Library Maintenance ..............................................................................................................................43
5.3.4
System Setup .........................................................................................................................................43
5.3.5
Backup Data ...........................................................................................................................................45
5.4
Shutting Down ............................................................................................................................................45
5.5
Viewing and Exporting Stored Data ...........................................................................................................45
5.6
Checking Calibrations .................................................................................................................................47
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5.7
6
Coefficient Setup ........................................................................................................................................47
5.7.1
Introduction to Coefficients ...................................................................................................................47
5.7.2
Applying a Coefficient ............................................................................................................................48
5.7.3
Maintaining Coefficients ........................................................................................................................48
5.7.4
Slope and Offset Calculations ................................................................................................................48
Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................................................... 50
Appendix A
General Care ............................................................................................................................... 54
INDEX .................................................................................................................................................................. 55
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1 Overview
1.1 Introduction
The Tracer III-SD and Tracer IV-SD use Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) technology for dramatically improved speed and
sensitivity. The technology is based on energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EXRF) and uses an X-ray tube as its
excitation source. Bruker's proprietary SDD, previously only available in large laboratory analyzers, offers
unprecedented resolution and count rates.
+
The Tracer III- V may use a bulk Rhenium (Re), Rhodium (Rh) or Silver (Ag) target, depending on configuration
required by the purchaser. This instrument contains a high-resolution, Peltier cooled, Silicon PIN (Si-PIN) diode
detector.
The Tracer series are fully field portable analyzers with an integrated Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) computer.
The removable PDA provides the user interface for operating the instrument and contains the BrukerS1 analytical
program. This program enables the user to select analytical modes, view spectra, and save data. The display is a
320×240 pixel color touch screen (TFT) that can be operated with either a fingertip or the stylus provided.
The instrument is factory calibrated, based on a customer ordered configuration. Originally designed as a handheld device, the Tracer series makes no compromises in the lab. When placed in the vertical stand, it becomes a
powerful bench-top analysis tool. Couple this configuration with a PC or notebook computer and the Tracer series
instrument becomes a truly versatile mobile laboratory.
The advent of SDD technology has reduced – and in most cases eliminated – the need for vacuum or helium
flushing during light element analysis. With count-rates in excess of 100,000 cps, the Tracer SD can generate the
statistics necessary for detecting trace concentrations of the lightest elements, including magnesium. The optional
vacuum pump removes the air in the gap between the sample and the detector, further improving detection limits.
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2 Radiation Safety Requirements
2.1 What is Radiation?
A basic understanding of radiation characteristics is necessary to prevent inadvertent and unnecessary radiation
exposure to Tracer users and persons nearby. The concepts illustrated in this section of the manual have been
simplified to give an essential picture of what radiation is and how it applies to operators of the Tracer XRF
Analyzer.
The term radiation is used with all forms of energy (e.g., light, X-rays, radar, microwaves), which can be expressed
as particles or waves. However, high levels of ionizing radiation, which has the potential to damage and/or alter
the chemical structure of cells, may pose a danger to living tissue, resulting in various levels of illness, from mild to
severe. This section identifies the exposure levels associated with this equipment.
2.2 Terminology
ALARA – “As low as reasonably achievable” refers to the practice of limiting the operator’s exposure to radiation
using the factors of time, distance, and shielding.
Backscatter - The Tracer generates spectral data by analyzing the specific secondary X-ray energies that travel
from the sample under test to the detector. This is referred to as backscatter. Although the Tracer is specifically
designed to limit excess backscatter, there is always the possibility that a small amount of X-ray radiation may
scatter beyond the detector in the direction of the operator. To ensure safe operation of the system, it is vital that
the operator understands the radiation field. The radiation profiles provided in the next section illustrate the
radiation field intensity for the Tracer series.
WARNING: Operators should carefully study radiation profiles prior to using the Tracer series.
Count-rate – When a material is analyzed, it is bombarded with X-ray radiation. As a result, characteristic X-rays
are emitted from the material and counted by the detector. Count-rate is the rate at which these characteristic Xrays are detected, counted, and ultimately quantified.
Ionizing Radiation – Not all radiation is inherently dangerous (e.g., the heat and light from an incandescent bulb).
However, the ionizing radiation emitted from “radioactive” materials or generated from X-ray tubes, which ionizes
matter as it passes through it, may pose a danger to living tissue by altering the chemical structure of cells, causing
damage that can result in various levels of illness, from mild to severe. For the purpose of this manual, radiation
refers to invisible waves or particles of ionizing energy emitted from X-ray tubes.
Radiation Scatter - Radiation scatter is produced whenever an absorbing material is directly irradiated from a
nearby source. The atoms within the material become temporarily excited, producing X-rays before becoming
stable again. This process, called X-ray fluorescence (XRF), is the principle of operation of the Tracer.
X-Ray – X-rays are high-energy photons that can ionize matter by knocking electrons out of orbit around the nuclei
of atoms. When this occurs, the matter through which the original X-rays passed produces additional X-rays.
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These newly created X-rays are detected and quantified by the Tracer series instrument, forming the basis of X-ray
Fluorescence.
2.3 Radiation from the Tracer Series
Instrument
X-rays are emitted at a 53° incident angle from the examination
window to the users’ left (as viewed from the users’ perspective),
shown in Figure 1. From this position, the concentration of X-rays
is at its highest level.
Although the X-ray beam exits the aperture at an angle, it is not a
focused beam. Everything forward the nose will be radiated to
some level. DO NOT point the analyzer at people during
measurement when the red X-ray lamp is on. DO NOT expose any
part of the body to the beam.
Figure 1 Emission of X-rays from the
aperture
WARNING: High intensity X-rays! Do not expose any part of body to the
beam!
2.4 Radiation Profile
The radiation profile of the Tracer SD shown in Figure 2 reflects the conditions during normal operation for
instruments in the Tracer Series. These readings show the radiation background around the instrument in all
directions. These values were obtained using a Bicron® Low Energy Micro Rem ion chamber and indicate that the
dose rate at 10 cm from any accessible surface was lower than 5.0 µSv/hr (less than 500 µrem/hr).
Figure 2 Radiation Profile of the Tracer SD
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Table 1*
Reading
A
B
C
D
E
F
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
Table 2*
Reading
G
H
I
J
K
L
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
40kV @ 20µA with Duplex 2205
Sample
A
B
C
D
E
F
Reading
25 µrem/hr
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
G
H
I
J
K
L
Reading
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
bkgnd
10 µrem/hr
bkgnd
15kV @ 60µA with Al2024 Sample
*Dose rates for the Tracer SD normal operation configuration. All other locations on side, top, bottom and back of the
analyzer are background (bkgnd). Readings taken with a Bicron Model RSO-50E low energy ion chamber survey
instrument. Reference distances were measured from the effective center of the detector to the surface of the analyzer.
The indicated readings were the maximum noted for the distances and locations. Each reading was taken over a oneminute period with the analyzer operating at its respective settings.
Table 1 shows the results at 40 kV and 20 µA (the maximum voltage at the highest current available at that
voltage) with the titanium/aluminum filter in place. Table 2 shows the results at 15 kV and 60 µA without a filter.
NOTE: The L-line of the silver target in the X-ray tube produces X-rays of ~3keV. This accounts for the higher emission in the
open beam without the Ti/Al filter in place. Dose rates will vary based on current, energy, sample, target, collimator, and
windows.
2.5 Safety Design
The Tracer series XRF analyzers employ a miniature X-ray tube, instead of radioactive material, to generate the Xrays. The general construction and the safety features described in this manual are the same for all models within
the series.
2.5.1 Agency Approvals
The Tracer series instrument was designed to conform to ANSI N43.3 safety requirements for cabinet
(i.e., closed beam) X-rays systems, with the exception of providing a totally enclosed beam. To prevent the
operator from direct exposure to the open X-ray beam, extensive safety circuit requirements, including
switches and fail-safe lamps, have been incorporated.
The Tracer series analyzers were tested by TÜV SÜD against safety requirements of IEC 61010-1, “Safety
Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control, and Laboratory user, Part I General
Requirements.” The Tracer SD passed the ionizing radiation leakage requirements (IEC 61010-1, Section
12.2.1) of < 1 µSv/hr (< 0.1 mrem/hr) at 100 mm. Having passed all of the safety requirements, the device
was awarded the cTUVus license, CB Global Scheme, and the general CE marks. The license requires periodic
production audits by TÜV SÜD. See the Tracer series instrument Safety Features section (below) for
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discussion of the high level of protection offered the operator by use of warning lamps, fail-safe features, and
product labeling.
The Tracer series instrument employs a miniature X-ray tube operated with an acceleration voltage range of
10 to 40 kilovolts (kV) and an anode current range of 0.05 to 60 micro amps (µA), (the maximum high-voltage
available at 60 µA is 15 kV). In some cases, allowable ranges for X-ray tube voltage and current may vary to
comply with local regulations. The tube target is either rhodium (Rh) or silver (Ag), depending on instrument
model.
The X-ray tube and high-voltage (HV) power supply are sealed in a fluid-filled assembly. The X-ray tube is
shielded by a variety of materials in order to minimize any stray X-ray radiation. The assembly is mounted in
the XRF housing. The XRF housing is closed
using tamper-proof fasteners.
2.5.2 Safety Features
The Tracer series instrument is designed with
an elaborate fail-safe safety system that
prevents inadvertent operation of the
analyzer. The primary safety system consists
of a keyed or push-button switch, two
operationally dependent LED indicator lamps,
a manual push-button trigger, a minimum
backscatter detection monitor, and an
infrared proximity sensor to verify the
presence of a test sample. The function of
each of the Tracer series instrument safety
features is described below:
Figure 3 Typical Control Panel for Tracer Series
Primary Power Switch
A keyed main-power switch (Figure 3) controls power to all components. The key must be turned before
any other actions can be initiated. For security, the key should be removed when the unit is not in use.
Yellow Power Indicator Lamp
When the switch is activated, the yellow lamp (Figure 3) illuminates, indicating that the instrument is
powered. The lamp incorporates redundant LED elements for increased reliability. The redundant LED
segments safeguard that if either of the LED elements fails, generation of X-rays is disabled. If the
instrument microprocessors detect a malfunction in the instrument, the yellow lamp flashes to alert the
user.
Password Protection
Once the BrukerS1 program is initialized, the user is prompted to enter a password. The analyzer will
neither operate nor generate X-rays without the password being entered.
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Software X-ray Radiation Warning
When starting the PDA software, a splash screen displaying a black and yellow X-ray radiation warning
symbol ( ) and a text warning are displayed. No user input is accepted during the 15 seconds that the
warning is displayed.
Infrared (IR) Proximity Sensor
The IR proximity sensor is used to confirm that an object is within physical range of the examination
window. The sensor is located in the instrument nosepiece near the examination window opening. If the
nosepiece is separated from the sample by a distance greater than 38 mm (~1.5 inches), the IR proximity
sensor will discontinue X-ray generation. Because reflectivity of sample surfaces vary, the exact distance
is dependent on the sample material being tested and may vary dramatically.
Removable Filter Interlock (optional on Tracer III-SD and Tracer III-V+)
If the brass filter cap is removed or improperly installed, X-rays cannot be produced. Although optional,
this may be required depending on local regulations
Operator Trigger Interlock
If the device’s safety circuit has been satisfied, X-rays are generated when the trigger-style switch is
pulled. The switch is spring-loaded and must be continuously squeezed during measurements. If the
switch is inadvertently released, the spring mechanism will return the switch to its idle position and stop
X-ray generation.
Minimum Backscatter Detection
The count-rate is continuously monitored during each measurement. If the count-rate drops below the
allowable threshold (as it would be in the absence of a sample), the safety circuit will shut down the highvoltage supply and filament generator, further minimizing potential exposure.
Red X-ray Indicator Lamp
When the trigger is pulled and the infrared sensor is engaged, the red lamp (Figure 3) will illuminate,
indicating the generation of X-rays. The lamp incorporates redundant LED elements for increased
reliability. If either of the red LED elements fails, X-rays cannot be generated.
X-ray Enunciator (optional)
When the trigger is activated, an audible alarm will alert the operator and those nearby to the potential
for exposure.
Operator Time-Out
If the analyzer remains idle for a period greater than 10 minutes, the program will require the operator to
log back in. Upon login, the previous session will be restored.
2.5.3 Safety Warning Labels
The Tracer series instrument has safety-warning labels to alert the user and/or identify the functions of the
controls. These labels are illustrated in Figure 4. Additionally, the radiation trefoil is located on the label
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adjacent to the power switch. Both the vacuum window label and the clip-on window protector are
embossed with warning signs.
A manufacturers’ plate is mounted under the analyzer housing near the handle. The contents of this label
may vary with local regulatory requirements.
Figure 4 Assorted Warning Labels found on the Tracer series instrument
2.6 Using the Tracer Series Instrument Safely
When the Tracer series instrument is used properly, X-ray radiation from instrument poses no potential for harm
to the user or others. A properly trained user will use the Tracer series instrument in a manner that eliminates or
minimizes the risk of unnecessary exposure to X-ray radiation.
Safe use of any XRF device is based on the principles of:
Time – managing the amount of time during which X-rays are being produced by the instrument
Distance – keeping all parts of the user’s body as far away from the X-ray producing nose as possible, pointing
the analyzer away from others, and keeping others away from the instrument during use.
Shielding – ensuring that the Tracer series instrument is mechanically intact and sound, and using the shielded
sample cup accessory when measuring physically small or unknown samples that might allow unnecessary Xray radiation to escape.
Collectively, these practices are known by the phrase “As Low as Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). Safe practice is
further discussed during user training.
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2.6.1 Radiation Safety Tips
Operators should follow minimum safety requirements discussed below. When handled properly, the
amount of radiation exposure received from the analyzer will be negligible.
Do not allow anyone other than trained and
certified personnel to operate the analyzer.
Be aware of the direction that the X-rays travel
when the red lamp is on and avoid placing any part
of your body (especially the eyes or hands) near the
examination area during measurement (refer to
Figure 6 and Figure 7).
When using the bench-top configuration, obtain a sample
large enough to cover both the analyzer window and the IR
sensor. The operator should never defeat the IR sensor in
Figure 5 DO NOT use hands to hold
order to bypass this part of the safety circuit. Defeating
sample!
this safety feature could result in unnecessary exposure of
the operator. If a sample is not sufficient to cover both the examination window and the IR sensor, then the
optional safety shield accessory should be used for testing that sample.
WARNING: No one but the operator(s) should be allowed to be closer than 3 feet (1 meter) from the analyzer
during measurement, particularly the beam port. Ignoring this warning could result in unnecessary exposure.
Figure 6 Safe use of the Tracer series
instrument
Figure 7 Keep Clear of Examination
Area
2.6.2 Low Density Samples
Low-density (LD) materials, such as plastic, wood, soil, paper, or ceramic, will not attenuate higher energy
X-rays as efficiently as high-density materials, such as metal alloys. This creates a greater amount of
scattered radiation, which can cause a higher dose rate if the operator continuously measures LD materials
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for an extended period. If LD samples are measured frequently, the use of a bench-top stand is
recommended to minimize scattered radiation. If the LD samples are small enough, the Small Sample Safety
Shield is adequate.
WARNING: Never hold a sample to the window for analysis by hand, (Figure 5). Hold the window to the sample. The
infrared (IR) sensor located on the nose is designed to prevent the emission of X-rays in the absence of an object.
WARNING: Pregnant women who use the Tracer series instrument should be aware that improper handling or improper use of the
instrument could result in radiation exposure.
IMPORTANT: Wear an appropriate dosimeter if required by a regulatory agency when operating the analyzer.
IMPORTANT: The operator is responsible for the security of the analyzer. When in use, the device should be in the
operator's possession at all times (i.e. either in direct sight or a secure area). The key (if equipped) should not be left in an
unattended analyzer. Always store the instrument in a secure location when not in use; also store the key in a location
separate from the analyzer to avoid unauthorized use.
IMPORTANT: During transport to and from the field, store the instrument in a cool, dry location (i.e. in the trunk of a car
rather than in the back seat).
2.7 Positioning
Always place the analyzer on the sample, or when testing small parts, place the Tracer series instrument in the
stand and place the sample onto the nose of the analyzer. When testing very small samples, use the Small Sample
Safety Shield and keep a safe distance from the nosepiece of the analyzer while X-rays are being generated.
2.7.1 Thin or Light Element Samples
A less obvious risk of excess radiation
exposure occurs when testing thin samples.
Part of the radiation coming from the X-ray
tube is sufficiently high in energy to penetrate
thin samples, especially if the sample is
composed of “lighter” (low atomic number)
elements. Table 3 illustrates relative
intensities after the radiation has passed
through aluminum and iron sheets of various
thicknesses (the tube is operated at 40 kV and
is filtered by a 1.27 mm thick aluminum sheet
inside the instrument). When testing thin
samples, use of the radiation safety shield is
recommended.
Table 3 Material thickness vs.
Transmission of Energy
Aluminum Sheet
Iron Sheet
Thickness
(mm)
Intensity
Thickness
(mm)
Intensity
0
100%
0.0
100%
1
46%
0.1
23%
2
26%
0.2
9%
3
16%
0.3
4%
4
11%
0.4
2.1%
5
7.5%
0.5
1.1%
10
1.5%
1.0
0.08%
An aluminum sample must be quite thick
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before it absorbs a substantial amount of the radiation, while iron provides much better absorption. This
difference in transmission demonstrates why measuring samples while holding them in your hand is an
unsafe practice.
2.8 In Case of Emergency
If an analyzer is lost or stolen, notify the local law enforcement and regulatory authority as soon as possible. In the
event of an accident with, or damage to the analyzer, immediately turn off the device and remove its battery pack.
2.8.1 Minor Damage
If any hardware item appears to be damaged, even if the analyzer remains operable, immediately contact
Bruker Elemental at (800) 466-5323 or (509) 783-9850 for assistance. Use of a damaged analyzer may lead to
unnecessary radiation exposure and/or inaccurate measurements.
2.8.2 Major Damage
If the analyzer is severely damaged, immediately stop using instrument, contact Bruker Elemental at
(800) 466-5323 or (509) 783-9850, and notify the appropriate regulatory agency in your state or country.
Ensure that personnel near the device are not exposed to unshielded X-rays that may be generated (i.e., if
the safety logic circuit has been damaged and is not functional). Immediate removal of the battery pack will
stop all X-ray production.
2.8.3 Loss or Theft
Should an analyzer be lost or stolen, immediately notify the appropriate regulatory agency in the state or
country in which the device was located. Additionally, immediately notify local law enforcement authorities
and Bruker Elemental at (800) 466-5323 or (509) 783-9850.
Take the following precautions to minimize the chance of loss or theft:
Never leave the analyzer unattended when in use.
When not in use, always keep the device in its shipping container and store it in a secure area, such as
a locked vehicle or cabinet.
When not in use, keep the key separate from the analyzer.
Maintain records to keep track of all instruments owned, the operators assigned to use them, and the
locations they were used.
Never share the BrukerS1 program password with those not authorized to operate the analyzer.
2.9 License/Registration Requirements
The owner/operator of a Tracer series instrument may be subject to license and/or registration with the
appropriate local agency. The owner/operator should:
Contact the appropriate regulatory agency where the analyzer is to be used regarding specific
requirements. In the U.S., this agency is generally the State Health Department.
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Never remove labels from the analyzer.
Comply with all instructions and labels provided with the device.
Store the analyzer in a safe place where it is unlikely to be stolen or removed accidentally.
Maintain records of the storage, removal, and transport of the analyzer. Know its whereabouts at all
times.
Monitor operators’ compliance with safe use practices. Use dosimetry where required.
Report to the local regulatory agency any damage to the shielding and any loss or theft of the analyzer.
Only sell or transfer the analyzer to persons registered to receive it.
Notify your regulatory agency upon the transfer or disposal of the X-ray unit.
2.10 Transportation Requirements
An owner/operator of a Tracer series instrument may only transfer custody of the analyzer to authorized
(licensed/registered) individuals. However, the user must notify the regulatory agency of the destination State or
Province at least one week [typical] in advance of intent to transport and use the instrument in that locale. When
transferring control or ownership of the analyzer, the owner must verify that the recipient is authorized to receive
the analyzer. No verification is required when returning it to Bruker Elemental, the original manufacturer.
Check with your local regulatory agency prior to transporting or shipping an analyzer. For travel or shipment within
the U.S., there are no special Department of Transportation (DOT) interstate travel and shipping regulations. All
batteries meet the requirements of 49CFR § 173.185 for shipping as “normal cargo.” The analyzer may be shipped
using any available means. If the user is flying, it is recommended that the device be checked through due to
possible concerns about the X-ray unit in the main cabin.
The owner is responsible for ensuring that all requirements of the local jurisdiction are followed. In the event that
the analyzer is lost or stolen, and to prevent inadvertent exposure of a member of the public, the key (if equipped)
should be maintained and shipped separately.
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3 Principal Components
Figure 8 Profile of the Tracer Series Instrument
PDA
Figure 9 Control Panel
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Figure 10 iPAQ PDA
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Figure 11 Bruker 3V Vacuum Pump for Tracer series instrument
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4 Setup
4.1 Power Sources
Each analyzer may be operated using either battery or the optional AC adapter. The batteries for the Tracer series
instrument should arrive fully charged. However, it will be necessary to fully charge the PDA battery prior to using
the analyzer for the first time. In addition, Bruker recommends that the PDA be fully charged at the beginning of a
workday to maximize battery duty cycle.
4.1.1 Analyzer
Analyzer Charging the Main Batteries
To charge the battery pack, connect the Li-ion battery charger to
a 90-240V AC wall outlet with the supplied AC cord. Connect the
battery to the battery charger. A fully depleted battery takes
approximately 4 hours to charge. Refer to the instructional flyer
included with the battery charger for complete directions.
A new, fully charged battery will power the analyzer for 4 to 8
hours, depending on usage.
Main Battery Removal/Installation
Each analyzer is supplied with two Li-ion battery packs. Turn the
analyzer off prior to removing the battery pack.
To remove a battery pack, push the lever on the hilt of the
handle and pull downward (Figure 12). Insert a charged battery
into the handle until it snaps into place. Do not force the battery
into the handle. Refer to the instructional flyer included in the
charger packaging for detailed instructions.
Figure 12 External Power
Location
External Power
To operate the analyzer using the optional AC adapter, ensure that the analyzer is off and the battery is
removed. Connect the AC Adapter to a 90-240V AC wall outlet with the supplied cord. Connect the AC
adapter to the analyzer as shown in Figure 12.
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4.1.2 PDA
Battery Power
During normal operation, the PDA will continually draw power from the main battery. A fully charged
PDA will only draw a small maintenance charge, while a depleted PDA will consume significantly more
power due to inefficiencies in charging the device. Using a partially
charged or depleted PDA will significantly reduce the runtime of the
analyzer. Bruker recommends beginning each workday with a fully
charged PDA.
Power Saving Features
The PDA is configured to shut itself off after 5 minutes of inactivity.
This feature reduces the risk of unintentional depletion of the PDA
battery. If the PDA is ever removed and used for purposes other than
those recommended in this manual, it is possible that the PDA battery
will need to be recharged externally to the analyzer.
In addition, if the PDA is ever hard reset, or the PDA battery
completely depleted, this power saving feature will need to be reestablished by the user. See Troubleshooting – My PDA Battery is
Dead (page 51). See also PDA documentation regarding power
management of the PDA.
Figure 13 Charging with
External Power Supply
Charging the Battery
To charge the PDA battery externally, ensure that the PDA and
analyzer are powered off. Remove the PDA from the analyzer and
connect it to the PDA AC adapter using the cords provided.
The orange LED on the PDA will blink to indicate that the battery is
charging. The PDA may be externally charged by three different
methods:
External Power - Connect the output of the wall-mounted iPAQ AC
adapter to the connector adapter, and then to the bottom of the PDA
(Figure 13).
Figure 14 Charging on
the Cradle
Sync Cradle (optional) and External Power – Insert the PDA into the Sync Cradle. Connect the output of
the iPAQ, wall-mount power supply to the back of the cradle (Figure 14).
USB Charging – Insert the PDA into the Sync Cradle. Refer to the iPAQ user manual for details. USB
Charging is disabled by default and not recommended. When the battery is fully charged, the LED will
remain on.
NOTE: For more information on the PDA, please refer to the iPAQ user manual.
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4.1.3 Vacuum Pump
The vacuum pump included with the Tracer series instrument is fully portable and may be operated from a
battery or an AC adapter.
Battery Installation and Removal
The vacuum pump uses nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. Ensure that the vacuum pump is off and
the external power supply has been disconnected prior to removing the batteries. Rotate the threebattery compartment thumbscrews one-quarter turn counter-clockwise to remove the battery cover
(Figure 15). Disconnect at the white plastic connector and remove the battery from the compartment.
To reinstall the battery, reattach the white connector labeled “output” to the vacuum pump and place the
battery back into the compartment. Replace the battery cover and turn the three thumbscrews clockwise
to lock it in place. A fully charged battery will operate the vacuum pump for 2 to 4 hours.
Figure 15 Battery Removal
Figure 16 Charging Pump Battery
Charging the Batteries
Disconnect and remove the battery from the vacuum pump. Move the charge rate switch on the charger
to 1.8A. Connect the charger to a 90-240 AC outlet with the supplied power cord. Connect the charging
leads on the battery pack to the charger (Figure 16). The orange LED on the charger indicates that the
battery is charging, and the green LED indicates that the charge is complete. The vacuum pump batteries
require 4 to 6 hours to recharge completely.
External Power
To operate the vacuum pump with the AC adapter, ensure that the analyzer is off and remove the
batteries. Connect the power supply to a 90-240V AC wall outlet with the supplied cord. Plug the DC
output of the supply into the power jack on the face of the vacuum pump. Although the battery may be
connected while the pump is operating from the external power supply, the batteries will not charge
under these conditions.
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4.1.4 Notes on Batteries
The analyzer and its accessories use multiple types of batteries in varying sizes, shapes, and chemistries.
Each battery type has been chosen for its functional characteristics.
Battery Chemistry
Both the analyzer and the PDA use Lithium Ion (Li-ion) batteries. This chemistry offers better
performance, longer life, and lighter weight than traditional Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) batteries
Proper Care
To prolong the life of the batteries:
Ensure that the ambient temperature during charging is between 40 °F to 115 °F (+5 °C and +45 °C).
If the battery packs are to be stored for a prolonged period, the batteries should NOT be fully
charged before storage. Rather, keep the battery charged to about 30% to 50% and store at room
temperature. If the battery is not used for extended periods, recharge about once per year to
prevent over discharge. This applies to both Lithium and NiMH batteries.
General Battery Warnings
Do not disassemble, crush, or puncture a battery.
Do not place a battery in fire or water.
Do not charge a battery except with the supplied charger.
Do not short the battery terminals.
Do not put batteries in the trash.
Disposal
Should any of the provided batteries reach their end-of-life, contact local waste management regarding
disposal and recycling programs. Bruker Elemental will always accept used batteries from its products. A
nominal shipping charge applies. If a battery fails to operate normally within the normal warranty period,
return it to Bruker Elemental for evaluation and disposal.
4.2 Physical Configurations
The analyzer may be configured as a hand-held device or as a stationary, bench-top instrument, depending on the
testing requirements. With analytical capabilities rivaling that of some laboratory instrumentation, the Tracer
series instrument is an all-in-one tool, offering the performance of a bench-top XRF spectrometer along with the
portability and versatility of a handheld
4.2.1 Hand-held
Hand-held operation is most suitable for field-testing, allowing the operator to remain mobile on the job-site
for maximum efficiency. Having features common to many consumer portables – such as a pistol grip and
trigger-style switch, full color display, and battery operation – the Tracer series instrument is a fully portable,
hand-held XRF solution. Follow these guidelines for safe, effective hand-held operation:
Know your surroundings – Prior to taking a measurement, check the immediate work area for other
persons. Do not begin a measurement with anyone in front of the analyzer or in the beam path. Keep all
parts of the body away from the nose of the analyzer.
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Use the wrist strap – Always wear the included wrist strap when using the analyzer as a hand-held device.
Avoid the Elements – Although resistant to moisture and dust, the device is not waterproof. Contact
Bruker Elemental for specific weather requirements. The operating temperature ranges from 14 °F to
122 °F (-10 °C to +50 °C), and 25% to 95% humidity.
4.2.2 Desktop Stand
For applications requiring a more static workspace, the analyzer may be conveniently configured to operate
as a desktop analyzer. This enables the operator to bring small and/or odd shaped samples to the instrument
for analysis. In addition, the ability to operate from either battery power or an AC source allows the analyzer
to remain portable while offering flexibility in the laboratory.
To set up the acrylic instrument stand, unfold it and tighten the nylon thumbscrew to hold it in place. Lift the
shorter side until the legs swing down, and then fit them into the grooves in the base of the instrument
stand. Attach the PDA cradle to the Velcro dots. For more convenient PDA viewing and input, the PDA can
be removed from the instrument cradle and mounted on the front of the instrument stand. Remove the PDA
from the analyzer PDA cradle and connect it to the analyzer with the null modem cable. Place the PDA in the
cradle on the instrument stand. Place the analyzer into the stand by aligning the grooves in the body and
handle and sliding it onto the stand so that the control panel of the analyzer is forward.
Figure 17 Unfolding the Stand
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4.2.3 Small Sample Table
Whenever possible, analysis should be performed on samples large
enough to completely cover both the examination window AND
entirely fill the sample volume.
To analyze small samples or to have a flat surface on which to work,
replace the clip-on window protector with the sample table (Figure
18).
Place the Safety Shield Accessory (Figure 19) over the sample volume
when testing very small, thin, and/or light samples.
Figure 18 Sample Table
Placing samples directly onto the window film is not recommended.
If possible, obtain a sample large enough to cover the entire
examination window and rest upon the nose rather than the window
film.
4.2.4 Remote Control (optional)
Certain operational circumstances may require the analyzer to be
enabled remotely. This is typical in the desktop or bench-top
configuration, where it is critical that the analyzer remain motionless.
Depending upon the installed options, a 6-ft remote trigger cable
may be included with the analyzer to accommodate such
requirements. Operating the analyzer remotely is as simple as plugging
the cable into the remote trigger port (Figure 8) and pushing the button.
Figure 19 Sample Shield
Accessory
CAUTION: The remote trigger cable contains a 4-pin circular connector and will only connect to the remote trigger port.
Do not force this cable into the communications port on the control panel. Do not force the download cable into the
remote trigger port. Turn off the analyzer before installing or removing the remote trigger cable.
4.2.5
Enclosed Bench-top Stand (optional)
When an application calls for radiation to be more closely monitored in a
secure laboratory environment, a more stationary and semi-permanent
configuration may be required.
The optional bench-top stand is made of solid steel construction and
securely mounts both analyzer and PDA. The oversized sample table
ensures that geometries are maintained for both large and small
samples, and the pneumatic door and leaded window keep scatter
tightly controlled.
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4.2.6 Tripod (optional)
Certain operational circumstances – such as when valuable
artifacts are under test and may not be touched by the analyzer –
may require the analyzer to remain motionless, at a precise
distance, and enabled remotely.
This typical application of the Tracer series instrument series uses
a tripod in tandem with a Laptop/Notebook PC running S1PXRF
analytical software, which allows for a much more thorough
investigation of sample composition. Such applications often
require advanced knowledge of XRF and general spectroscopy.
4.2.7 Notebook/Laptop Accessory (optional)
Some tasks associated with laboratory analysis require additional
processing power and extensive I/O and data entry. While the
PDA is best suited for portable viewing and quick, in-field
additions, it is not optimal for lab testing. For this reason, Bruker
Handheld offers a Windows® compatible notebook PC containing
their S1PXRF software as an optional accessory.
Tripod Configuration
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4.3 Analysis Techniques
4.3.1 Non-Vacuum
For the majority of applications, including most light-element analysis, a vacuum is not required. Using this
technique, the Tracer series instrument should be used with the clip-on window protector or clip-on sample
holder installed to ensure that the critical geometry and distance
from the detector to the sample is maintained.
4.3.2 Vacuum
Instances in which it is necessary to obtain highly accurate
chemistry measurements of materials containing extremely low
concentrations of critical light elements may require vacuum
analysis. Because the surrounding air absorbs the lower energy Xrays generated by the excitation of light-elements, a vacuum is
used to remove air from the majority of the volume between the
sample and the detector, allowing the maximum number of X-rays
to be detected, further reducing detection limits.
Figure 20 Remove Clip-on Window
Protector for Vacuum
When operating in vacuum mode, remove the clip-on window protector, as illustrated in Figure 20. Grasp
the window protector firmly on both sides and lift it off. To reinstall, gently press the window protector over
the nose of the analyzer, lining up the four holes on the window protector with the alignment pins on the
nose. Never use the analyzer without a window installed and intact.
Connecting the Vacuum Pump
Apply power to the vacuum pump by either connecting to the
external AC adapter or installing a charged battery pack.
Connect the valve-end of the vacuum hose to the pump and
the other end to the port on the control panel of the analyzer
(Figure 21). Ensure that the slide valve is open. Switch the
pump power on using the large rocker switch on the front of
the pump. After the pump is operating, slide the valve closed
so that the detector chamber will evacuate and the LCD will
display the pressure inside. Ensure that the valve is open
before turning off the vacuum pump or removing the hose for
Figure 21 Connecting the Vacuum
either end. Failure to use the valve properly may cause
Pump
damage to the window of the detector. This relative
measurement will vary depending upon temperature, humidity, and relative barometric pressure. The
system is ready for measurement when the display reads less than 10 Torr. A pressure of less than 5 Torr
is preferable for accurate readings. It may take several minutes to reach this high vacuum level.
Monitoring Pressure
The vacuum level is measured in two locations: inside the instrument and at the pump itself. During an
assay in vacuum mode, the BrukerS1 program will monitor the pressure level inside the instrument. If it
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senses that the level is unacceptable, the PDA will display a message
indicating unacceptable vacuum levels. Likewise, if the level is
acceptable, it will indicate it is “good.” Due to the complexity of highvacuum systems, the analyzer may signal a “bad” vacuum level when
the pump indicates it is well within limits. For this reason, if the pump
display indicates acceptable levels, it is safe to assume the vacuum is
“good.” The pressure indication from the BrukerS1 software is to be
used as a warning only, and to remind the operator to check the
vacuum pump display regularly.
On instruments with vacuum capability, selecting a vacuum calibration
initiates monitoring of the vacuum condition of the instrument. This
will prevent acquisition of data using the wrong conditions
Figure 22 Vacuum Warning
Select a vacuum method and tap Continue. The instrument will issue
the warning (Figure 22). Activate the vacuum pump to evacuate the
nose of the instrument. If done improperly, an error message (Figure
23) will appear when the Analysis begins.
If sufficient vacuum is achieved, tap Analyze. The Ready to Analyze
screen (Figure 24) will appear. To acquire data, activate the trigger.
4.3.3 Hot Surface
The Tracer series instrument sacrifices high temperature analysis
capability for the benefits of the vacuum and light-element analysis
techniques. Under no circumstances should the nose of the Tracer series
instrument be exposed to surfaces greater than 170°C.
Figure 23 Error Message
CAUTION: Measuring surfaces beyond this temperature without
the hot surface option will destroy the thin-film examination
window and increase the risk of damaging the detector.
4.4 Setting up the Analyzer
If using the analyzer and accessories on battery power, begin with fully charged
batteries in the analyzer and PDA. Otherwise, connect them to AC power. If
small samples are to be analyzed in bench-top mode, install the sample table
and Small Sample Safety Shield.
4.4.1 Hand-held Operation
1) Using the barrel key , unlock the PDA cradle by turning the key
clockwise until the lock pin fully retracts
2) Carefully insert the PDA into the cradle.
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Figure 24 Vacuum Ready
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3) Lock the PDA into place by returning the key to the previous position; the lock pin will extend,
securing the PDA in the cradle.
4.4.2 Desktop/Bench-top Operation
1) Unfold the instrument stand and place on a flat surface near an electrical outlet.
2) Place the analyzer upright in the instrument stand.
3) Insert the null modem cable into the serial port on the control panel on the analyzer.
4) Insert the opposite end of the cable into the bottom of the PDA.
5) Place the PDA in the cradle on the instrument stand.
CAUTION: DO NOT force PDA into the analyzer as damage may occur to both connectors.
CAUTION: The circular connector on the null modem cable and the analyzer control panel are keyed and are designed
to be inserted one way. Do not use excessive force as damage may occur to both connectors. The red dot on both
mating ends indicates the proper orientation.
If the unit is to be used with a vacuum, connect the vacuum pump to the analyzer. Start the pump and wait
for the LCD to display 10 Torr or less (an indication of 5 Torr or less is preferable). Make certain that the clipon window protector has been removed. Install the wired remote into the remote trigger port on the handle
of the analyzer, if desired.
Turn the instrument ON. The yellow lamp will activate, indicating the unit is on. Wait one minute for the
detector and filament to reach their respective operating temperatures. During this time, on the Tracer-IV,
the filter wheel will advance to the appropriate location, producing an audible sound.
Turn the PDA power on by pressing the button in the upper right corner of the PDA and start the BrukerS1
program by selecting it from the Start menu. Optionally, you may press the calendar button on the PDA.
IMPORTANT: After powering the analyzer, allow it to idle for 1 – 2 minutes before taking a measurement.
4.4.3 Window label
The window label protects the sensitive instrumentation from dust and debris in normal operation. The
window must be replaced if it has been damaged, or if it has been contaminated. Five (5) replacement
window labels are included with the Tracer series instrument.
4.4.4 Window Replacement
The following procedure details the proper application of a window label on Tracer series analyzers.
Although your window may appear different, the procedure is the same for all window applications.
CAUTION: Removing the window label exposes the delicate beryllium window on the detector to dust and other
contaminants. Replace the window quickly to limit exposure.
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1) To replace a damaged window label, turn off the analyzer.
2)
Remove the old window from the nose-piece of the
instrument.
3) Carefully and thoroughly remove all remaining adhesive
from the nosepiece with a soft, lint-free cloth dampened
with alcohol. Oil, dirt, and old adhesive will prevent the
new window from maintaining a quality seal.
4) With clean, dry hands, carefully remove the window label
from the paper backing material.
Please note that the thin window film is fragile and easily damaged;
handle with care.
5) Position the window label and gently adhere only ONE edge
near the IR sensor window on the face of the nose-piece,
centering the window film over the aperture.
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6) Carefully grasp the label edge opposite the IR sensor
window and gently stretch the label just until taught, and
adhere to the flat face of the nosepiece.
7) Rub along the bottom edge of the nosepiece face, gradually
rolling the label down and smoothing from the flat face of
the nosepiece to the edge of the label, taking care to
remove all wrinkles as you go.
8) Repeat the process on the top edge of the nosepiece,
smoothing from the flat facing edge of the nose-piece down
toward the edge of the label, removing any wrinkles. Upon
replacement, users may wish to check adhesion of the
window by applying a vacuum.
4.5 Filter Configuration
In order to obtain optimal spectral information from an XRF spectrometer, it is important to control the excitation
conditions. This includes control of the X-ray tube current and voltage, as well as the excitation filter used. This
section provides instruction on how to manually replace and/or adjust the filter on the Tracer III-SD and
+
Tracer III-V .
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The Tracer IV-SD will automatically switch to the correct filter when any of the pre-installed factory calibrations are
used. Advanced users can also manually select the appropriate filter with the S1 PXRF PC software to optimize
excitation conditions for their elements of interest.
4.5.1 Determining filter Configuration
Samples composed primarily of light elements, such as aluminum or titanium alloys, should be analyzed with
the filter removed (and possibly with vacuum).
Other elements should be examined using the appropriate filter configuration. To optimize the excitation
conditions for a particular element or group of elements in principle filters and tube voltage settings should
be used that “position” the X-ray excitation energy impacting the sample just above the absorption edge(s) of
the element(s) of interest.
4.5.2 Changing the Filter
Caution: Ensure that the brass knurled screw has been replaced before using the instrument. DO NOT
OPERATE the Tracer-III without the brass knurled screw in place.
1.
2.
3.
4.
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To insert or remove the filter, UNSCREW the brass
knurled screw.
INSERT the filter (see figures above).
USE forceps to INSERT or REMOVE the filter.
FINGER TIGHTEN the brass knurled screw. DO NOT
OVERTIGHTEN.
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+
Filter Specifications Tracer III-SD and Tracer III-V
Filter Number
1
2
3
4
Color
Red
Green
Yellow
Blue
Layer 1
12mil Al
12mil Al
12mil Al
1 mil Ti
Layer 2
1mil Ti
1mil Ti
1mil Ti
Layer 3
1mil Cu
6mil Cu
4.5.3 Filter Specifications, Tracer IV-SD, Automatic filter changer
Filter Number
1
2
3
4
5
Layer 1
Material
Thickness
Ti
25μ
Blank
Ti
25μ
Ti
25μ
Al
38μ
Layer 2
Material
Thickness
Al
300μ
Al
Fe
200μ
50μ
Layer 3
Material
Thickness
Cu
Mo
75μ
25μ
4.6 Sample Preparation
In a laboratory environment, samples are normally prepared as flat discs, 20-50 mm in diameter (typical). Samples
are placed a small distance from the tube and detector window. Because the X-ray intensity follows an inversesquare law, in order to maintain a repeatable X-ray flux, the tolerances for this placement and for the flatness of
the surface must be very tightly controlled. Methods of obtaining sample discs vary: metals may be machined to
shape, minerals may be finely ground and pressed into a tablet, and glasses may be cast to the required shape. The
matrix of the material often defines which method is used.
In the handheld world, manufacturing discs is not practical. Even so, it is imperative that the sample area – be it a
pipe, ingot, or wire – be clean and relatively smooth. Irregular surfaces can produce poor results by reabsorbing
lower energy X-rays, and contamination can lead to the identification of unwanted elements added to the spectra
as well as attenuating desired X-rays.
Analysis of light elements, such as Mg, Al, and Si, are especially sensitive to surface condition. To ensure accurate
light element analysis, sample surfaces must be clean and free of oxidation, oils, or other surface films. In addition,
samples must be flat and cover the entire measurement window. In practice, this often means that sample surface
needs to be mechanically prepared before analysis.
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5 Operation
5.1 Starting the BrukerS1 Program
Each analyzer is delivered fully calibrated for the intended application. Therefore,
it can be used for normal work without any preparation other than that described
in earlier sections. The intuitive user interface makes it easy to begin using the
Tracer series instrument right away. The analyzer is operated and maintained
through the BrukerS1 analytical program, located in the Start menu on the PDA.
Alternatively, the device can be activated by pressing the program Calendar
button, located on the PDA directly above the communication port. To view the
PDA desktop while running BrukerS1, press the Show Desktop button, located
adjacent to the BrukerS1 Start button (Figure 25).
5.1.1 Memory Card
Figure 25 Start Button
The analyzer ships with a Compact Flash (CF) card of varying capacity. This card contains a backup of the
BrukerS1 program and instrument calibration, and is specific to each analyzer. Store the flash card in a safe
location; it is required to reinstall the BrukerS1 program. Refer to the Troubleshooting section (page 50) for
instructions on how to reset and reinstall the software from CF card. DO NOT
install a memory card from another analyzer in the PDA.
CAUTION: The memory card provided with the analyzer contains
settings and calibrations specific to the instrument with which it ships.
Using a memory card or PDA from another instrument may produce
undesirable results.
The supplied flash memory card is not necessary to operate the analyzer; all
components required to operate the analyzer are included on the PDA.
Additionally, assays are saved to the internal memory of the PDA. If desired,
the program can store these assay files to a memory card. Bruker
Figure 26 Logon Screen
recommends use of a separate memory card for file storage and supplies a Secure Digital (SD) card for this
purpose.
After turning the power on to the instrument, select the “BrukerS1” icon from the Start menu. The icon is
also located in the Programs group, (Start Menu > Programs). Upon starting the BrukerS1 program, the title
screen will display, showing a progress bar. If the instrument connects successfully, the page will show the
“Connected – Ready” status.
IMPORTANT: The analyzer arrives from the factory with the default password: 12345. It is highly recommended
that the owner immediately change the password upon receipt. See “I forgot my password” in the
Troubleshooting section.
Tap the Exit button to quit the BrukerS1 program, or the Login button to display the login screen, (Figure 26).
Enter your personal password and tap Continue. When the software has verified the user password, a
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Radiation Warning will display (Figure 27). No operator action is possible during this time. After 15 seconds,
the Main Menu will appear (Figure 28). From the Main Menu, you can access
either the General Purpose Measure, or Utilities.
5.2 General Purpose Measure
Selecting the General Purpose Measure button displays the Mode Selection Menu
(Figure 29). The menu is organized into two groups of buttons: Metals Mode and
Configuration.
5.2.1 Metals Mode
By default, the Tracer series instrument is set up to perform an unlimited
measurement of materials in Universal mode. This feature will detect the
type of alloy under test, and make automatic adjustments to the excitation
parameters and filter settings during the first second of analysis. This default
function is intended to remove the uncertainty in selecting method and
analysis type, and make these decisions automatically—just point and shoot.
Universal Mode is described in detail on page 37.
Figure 27 Radiation
Warning
Pass/Fail
This useful option allows the user to determine if the material being
analyzed matches a specific alloy from the library. Any number of
materials can be added to the match list, including those from custom
libraries; the program will compare the current analysis to the chemistries
of the materials listed and issue a PASS/FAIL result. This is a fast and
accurate way of quickly sorting materials based on Grade ID. FP and any
empirical method can be used in Pass/Fail Mode;
however, the sample must be in the library to
receive a PASS result.
Figure 30 Pass Fail
Screen
Figure 28 Main Menu
Activate Pass/Fail analysis by tapping on the
associated button, displaying the Pass/Fail screen
(Figure 30). To test for a specific alloy, scroll down
the “Fail” list and highlight the alloy of interest with
the stylus. Tap the arrow button underneath to add
the selected alloy to the “Pass” list. The Pass list
indicates which alloys will be tested against the
Figure 29 Mode
library. To remove an alloy from the Pass list,
Selection Menu
highlight the alloy on the Pass list and tap on the
arrow button underneath to move the alloy into the Fail list.
During analysis, An icon will appear showing that the instrument is calculating the results.
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Once the alloys have been selected and testing is ready to begin, pull the trigger. The screen will display
results similar to those shown in Figure 31. This screen displays the Grade
ID name, the tested material’s chemistry, and whether or not the material
passes or fails the match test. As the test progresses, the color of the
upper screen will indicate the test status: green indicates that the
material matches one of the Grade IDs selected; yellow indicates a
possible match; and red indicates that the material does not match any of
the selected Grade IDs. The display also includes a Match Quality value
(in parenthesis). This is a range 0.0 to 10, and indicates how closely the
measured chemistry matches the chemistry for the Grade ID found in the
library. Higher numbers indicate a closer match. For most standard alloy
grades, a value of 8.0 or higher can be expected. If no match is found, the
result will say No Match.
Figure 31 Pass Fail
The Results screen presents additional information in column form: El
(element), Min (the minimum percent value for passing), Result (the
percent value recorded in the analysis), Max (the maximum percent value
for passing), and Err (2 standard deviations). If the sample analyzed falls
between the min and max values, it passes (green); if an element within
the sample falls outside of the min and max values, but within the
standard deviation, it is uncertain (yellow); if it falls outside the standard
deviation, it fails (red). Tap on any column heading to sort that column.
Results
Analyze
NOTE: If a material does not match one of the alloys in the PASS list,
the Tracer series instrument will still attempt to determine a Grade
ID.
Figure 32 Ready to
Analyze
NOTE: If the chemistry of the alloy does not closely match a
chemistry in a library, “No Match” will display for Grade ID. The
Match Quality threshold below which “No Match” is displayed is set
to a default value of 5.0. The Match Quality threshold may be
changed from the System Setup Menu (see page 43).
Analyze is the primary tool for obtaining the Grade ID (alloy name) and
chemical composition of all materials—alloys, plastics, etc. Selecting
Analyze from the menu prompts the Analyze screen (Figure 32), indicating
that the instrument is ready to analyze. The screen also shows the status
of the internal pressure (Vacuum Status). Depending on the selected
Figure 33 Live Results
method, a good, bad, or N/A status will be displayed. Near the bottom of
the screen is the Results button which opens the Results Viewer. Next to the Results button is the Edit
Info button, which allows the operator to change file names and add extra information. The Back button
returns to the previous menu.
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5.2.2 Taking a Measurement
To begin a measurement, place a sample over the examination window and IR proximity sensor and pull the
trigger. During a measurement, the Live Results screen (Figure 33) will
display the assay number, Grade ID of the alloy, the match quality
(confidence) number, and chemistry in weight-percent (wt%). As
measurement time increases, the results will become more precise. At
the bottom of the screen is a small spectral display that shows the
energy lines in real time. It may be brought to the foreground by
tapping on the Spectra button. Release the trigger at any time to halt
the measurement and display the results (Figure 34).
Grade ID – If the material being measured is an alloy found in the
sample library, the name will be displayed at the top of the screen.
Materials not found in the library will be named “No Match.”
Match Quality – This is a range 0.0 to 10 and indicates how closely
the measured chemistry matches the chemistry for the Grade ID
found in the library. Higher numbers indicate a closer match. For
most standard alloy grades, a value of 8.0 to 10 can be expected.
Figure 34 Final results of
measurements
Chemistry List - The concentration of each element in the sample is
compared to the allowable range of concentrations for that element
in the reported Grade ID. Concentrations that fall within the
allowable range are highlighted in green. Those elements outside of
the range, but within the error limits of their respective ranges, are
highlighted yellow. If an element falls outside the range beyond
error, the concentration is highlighted red.
Edit Info - Information related to an assay may be added to the
record by using this function. Tap on the Edit Info button on the
Results screen to display the Edit Info dialog (Figure 35). From here,
the user can enter the name of the test, the name (ID) of the material
being tested, and other optional information in the two provided
fields. To enter information in any field, tap on the field to display
the cursor, activate the keyboard, and enter the desired information.
When a particular field is complete, repeat the procedure for the
other fields as needed. To save this information, tap Continue at the
bottom of the screen. Tap the Back button to return to the Results.
The data will be stored with each assay until they are changed again.
NOTE: The information will be saved with the next assay, not the
current results.
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Figure 35 Edit info dialog
Figure 36 Spectrum
Navigator
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Spectra - This function allows the user to evaluate more closely the spectra stored on the PDA. Toggle
back to the Results screen by tapping the Results button. The spectra (Figure 36) can be manipulated by
dragging the stylus along the XY axis of the screen. Dragging the stylus up and down will stretch and
compress the y-axis (count rate) scale. Dragging the stylus left and right will move the x-axis (keV) scale
so that the entire spectrum can be viewed.
The spectrum can also be manipulated through the spectral menu. Press and hold the stylus anywhere
on the spectrum to bring up the Spectral Menu.
The following options are available:
X+: Stretches the x-axis (keV) scale to zoom in on the spectrum.
X-: Compresses the x-axis (keV) scale to zoom out from the spectrum.
X0: Re-centers and returns the spectrum to the original x-axis scale.
Cent.: Re-centers the spectrum on both the x- and y-axes.
Y+: Stretches the y-axis (count rate) scale.
Y-: Compresses the y-axis (count rate) scale.
Y0: Returns the spectrum to the original scale along the y-axis.
Def.: Restores the spectrum to its default setting; the spectrum is re-centered and the original scale
along both axes is restored.
To highlight specific peaks, tap anywhere on the screen to mark the
region of interest with two red vertical lines (Figure 36). These lines
correspond to the spectral energies of each element. Tap the
element button and an element list appears (Figure 37). Select an
element of interest and tap continue to see the spectral lines for that
element.
To identify which spectral energy lines correspond to a particular
element, tap on the Results button to return to the results page.
Highlight the element of interest by tapping on the element name.
Tap on the Spectra button to return to the spectrum. The spectral
energy lines associated with the element of interest will be displayed
by two red lines (the K and L energy lines).
Figure 37 Element List
Back - Returns to the Ready to Analyze screen (Figure 32).
Previous and Next allow the user to scroll through the current list of recorded spectra.
To return to the Ready to Analyze screen from Results, tap the Back button. From the Ready to Analyze
screen, you may begin another measurement; edit information for subsequent measurements; or view
results. Once at the Ready to Analyze screen, tap the Main button to open the Main Menu, where
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additional configuration options can be selected to further detail each subsequent measurement and
alter the overall behavior of the analyzer.
5.2.3 Configuration
The Configuration group contains four buttons: Analysis Type, Test Params,
Method, and Library (see Figure 29). The text displayed on each reflects the
function of the button and the current selection.
Analysis Type
This button allows the operator to change the type of analysis for the
selected Method (see page 38). The analysis types available are defined
below. Changing the analysis type will affect general behavior of the
analyzer and the accuracy of the results. Tapping this button will reveal
the menu (Figure 38).
Universal
The Universal mode is the default analysis type (Figure 38), bringing
together the benefits of Empirical and FP calibrations, automatic
Method detection, and Dual Energy excitation. In the first second of a
measurement, the analyzer determines the best excitation voltage,
anode current, and beam filter based primarily on the matrix element,
and automatically switch to it. In the next five seconds, the algorithm
determines if the measurement would benefit from a second analysis
at a lower energy (Dual Mode). Typically, at the end of a 10 – 15
second assay, the appropriate calibration will be chosen (Empirical or
FP) and results will display. Analysis will halt at anytime by releasing
the trigger.
Empirical (EMP)
The Empirical function (Figure 39) calculates elemental concentrations
empirically based on valid count data. If the type of material is
generally known (e.g., steel alloy, copper alloy), the Empirical analysis
will identify the results more quickly than the FP type, and will often
report more accurate analytical results.
Figure 38 Analysis Type
Menu
Figure 39 Empirical
Analysis Type
Dual (Tracer IV-SD only)
The Dual function (Figure 40) is a subset of the Empirical and FP
Analysis types that measure samples with two different excitation
energies. It is available only on models containing light-element
calibrations.
Figure 40 GradeID-EMP
Some alloys contain critical light elements that define them, and are
with Dual enabled
difficult to quantify with a 40kV source. With Dual enabled, the
analyzer will drop to 15kV after five (5) seconds and continue analysis until the trigger is release or the
measurement concludes. Dual Mode is a toggle function and can be selected when EMP or FP are
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active. Figure 40 shows the EMP analysis type activated with Dual Mode enabled. Tapping the Dual
button will turn off Dual and enable the original 40 kV Empirical analysis.
Fundamental Parameters (FP)
This function (Figure 41) analyzes valid counts for each element and
computes concentrations. FP should be selected if the composition
of the material is generally unknown. It can analyze the
composition of a broader range of materials, but will typically take
longer to display results, and the results may not be as accurate as
those obtained using the Empirical analysis type.
Auto
Auto mode (Figure 42) automatically switches from Empirical
analysis to Fundamental Parameters analysis if a grade ID cannot be
determined within 10 seconds and/or the material under test is not
defined in the empirical calibration.
Figure 41 FP Analysis Type
Methods Menu
The Methods menu allows the user to choose instrument settings
optimized for measurements of certain sample types to obtain more
accurate results. These settings establish different voltage, current,
and filter settings. The number of methods available will vary based
on the purchased configuration. Simply select a one of the following
methods and tap Continue:
Standard Alloys
This setting is the de facto standard method and is used for the
general alloy analysis of steel, nickel, cobalt, and copper.
Aluminum FP Alloys
This setting is used for Grade ID and general chemistry of Aluminum
alloys.
Figure 42 Auto Analysis
Type
Additional methods for RoHS, Mining, Precious metals and other
special calibrations are available; discuss these options with your
sales representative.
Spectrum Acquisition
With Bruker S1 software version 1.0.2.9 or later, spectral data may
be captured on the PDA. To use this feature, the instrument tube
must first be set using X-Ray Ops (see the X-Ray Ops User Guide
for details on tube pre-sets).
Tube settings are selected from the Methods window (Figure 43).
These settings are created and saved using X-Ray Ops. See the XRay Ops User Guide for more detail on how to save tube settings.
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Figure 43 Example of
Methods Menu
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Using pre-set tube settings, spectra will be displayed as in Figure 44. Each acquisition is named
SPECTRUM, auto-incremented, and stored as a PDZ file.
For operation of the Results window, see Spectra, page 36.
Test Parameters
This menu (Figure 45) allows the user to define minimum and maximum
measurement time, trigger behavior, and Dual Mode reaction times. By
default, the measurement time is Unlimited and Manual, which allows the
analysis to continue as long as the trigger is pulled and safety criteria are
satisfied.
Trigger Options
By default, the Tracer series instrument will run unlimited
measurements (i.e., it will continue to collect data as long as the trigger
is pulled and safety criteria are satisfied). Selecting the Trigger Options
button will toggle this option to Timed Measurement. Once set, the
operator will be able to change the Test Time and toggle the
Manual/Auto trigger.
Figure 44 Spectrum
Manual Trigger – The analyzer requires physical contact with the
trigger. It must be depressed completely to take a measurement.
The measurement will continue for the set minimum time, up to
the maximum time, or until the trigger is released or safety criteria
are disturbed.
Auto Trigger – If the trigger is pulled for 2 seconds and released,
the analysis will begin. Analysis time is controlled by the contents
of the Set Test Time fields. Due to regulatory restrictions, this
feature is not available in all locales.
IMPORTANT: Fields that appear grayed out are unavailable with the current
configuration. Changing the Analysis Type or Trigger options will alter the
availability of certain menu items.
Set Test Time
By entering minimum and maximum values, the measurement time is
set. This feature is only available if Timed Measurement is active (see
Trigger Options above and Figure 46). When set, the analysis will
continue until the trigger is released or the maximum measurement
time has been reached. If the trigger is released before the maximum
time is reached, the measurement will stop. If the trigger is held
beyond the maximum time, the measurement will stop at the set time.
If an assay runs for less than the minimum time, no data will be stored
and the file index will not be incremented. Note that if any of the safety
criteria are disturbed, the measurement will stop.
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Figure 45 Test
Parameters Menu
Figure 46 Timed
Measurement Trigger
Option
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Dual Mode Reaction Time
Entering values into the Dual T1 and Dual T2 fields controls how Dual Mode operates. Used only when
Dual analysis type is selected, Dual T1 sets the duration (in seconds) that a measurement will run at
40kV, and Dual T2 sets the duration for the 15kV measurement. It is unlikely these will ever need to be
changed, but results may vary.
Library
The Library feature allows the operator to create custom libraries and add new samples unique to his/her
application. In the context of the Tracer series instrument, a library is a file residing in memory on the
PDA that defines the names (Grade ID) and allowable ranges of concentration for each element for a
particular alloy. By default, the Standard factory library of alloys is used by the calibration for Grade ID.
User Libraries are custom user-created libraries that contain definitions of alloys other than those
contained in the Standard Library. From the Library menu, the operator
may add/delete individualized libraries and/or samples, and even exclude
the factory library entirely.
CAUTION: Deleting a user library is PERMANENT; however, the
standard factory library cannot be deleted.
Adding a Library
Tap the Library button to open the Selection Screen (Figure 47). By
default, only the Standard factory library is included.
Figure 47 Library
To add a new library, tap the Lib Maint button to open the menu. Tap
Selection Screen
Create Library and the New User Library screen will display (Figure 48).
Enter the name of your library and tap OK. The newly created library will open, showing an empty
sample list (Figure 49).
Adding Samples to a Custom Library
From the sample list of the User Library Maintenance screen (Figure 50), tap the Add New button to
display the User Grade Entry screen (Figure 50). Tap on the text field at the top and enter the name of
the sample.
Figure 48 Library
Maintenance Menu
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Figure 49 New library (empty)
Figure 50 Grade entry screen
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NOTE: To expose or hide the virtual keyboard, tap the keyboard icon at the bottom of the screen.
Using the stylus, scroll down to the defining elements and highlight
them. Enter the ranges in wt% by tapping on the Min and Max value
and entering proper percentage with the stylus and keyboard. Tap the
Save button to commit the sample to the library and return to the
Library Sample list. Enter additional samples (up to 100 entries per
library) as required. Tap the Back button to return to the
Library Maintenance menu. Determining the minimum and maximum
concentrations for each material is beyond the scope of this
document. Use caution when selecting a range of values for a
particular element that overlaps the ranges for that element in
another material. Overlapping ranges may result in ambiguous Grade
Identification.
Figure 51 Available
libraries
The newly created library displays the list of available libraries (Figure
51). Additional libraries may be added at any time (the recommended
limit is 100), and samples can be added to existing user-created
libraries, but not the standard library. User libraries may also be
deleted.
To return to the main Library menu, tap the Back button. Figure 51
shows the Standard factory library (highlighted) and the newly created
library beneath it. To include the new library in future analysis,
highlight it by tapping on the name and tap Continue. Notice the text
on the Library button (Figure 52) changed from “Library Standard” to
“Library Multiple,” as multiple libraries were selected. To exclude a
library, tap the Library button then tap the undesired library to
remove the highlight, and tap Continue.
Figure 52 Multiple
libraries listed
IMPORTANT: Including multiple libraries, large ones in
particular, will increase analysis time, as each library must be
searched individually
Figure 53 Results
explorer
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5.2.4 View Results
The final button in the Configuration group is View Results. This feature, which
can be accessed from numerous locations
throughout the program, allows the user to
sort and review prior assays for a more
detailed analysis.
Tap the View Results button to open the View
Readings screen (Figure 53). This window
displays every assay stored in memory,
ordered by index. The five checkboxes to the
left represent the modes used to collect the
data stored on the PDA. Check the box
corresponding to the assays to be viewed (e.g.,
Figure 54 Results explorer
to display assays collected in Analyze Mode,
check the box labeled Analyze). To view the results of a prior assay,
highlight it with the stylus and tap the box at the bottom having that index
number. The Results screen (Figure 54) appears and displays the results
from that assay. Three buttons are available from this screen.
Figure 55 Utilities menu
Spectra – See page 35 for description of this function.
Back – Returns to the View Results screen.
Edit Info – see page 35 for use of this feature.
5.3 Utilities
The Utilities menu contains a variety of tools for viewing and managing data,
and manipulating system level functions. From the main Mode Selection menu,
tap the Utilities button to display the screen (Figure 55).
Figure 56 View energies
utility
5.3.1 View Readings
The View Readings tool performs identically to the View Results function
previously detailed (see page 42).
5.3.2
View Energies
The View Energies tool (Figure 56) is a periodic table that contains pertinent
information for each element. The table consists of:
Atomic number
Atomic Symbol
Atomic Name
Atomic Weight
Spectral Line Energies
Spectral line energies
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Figure 57 View Standard
Library utility
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5.3.3 Library Maintenance
Selecting the Library Maintenance button opens a menu that allows manipulation of certain aspects of the
library system. Two options are available.
View Standard Library Utility
The View Standard Library utility allows the operator to view all alloys identified by the Tracer series
instrument, as well as the allowable ranges by weight percent and the UNS designation (Unified
Numbering System for Metals and Alloys). This library is installed at the factory and cannot be edited or
deleted from within the BrukerS1 program (Figure 57). Advanced users may wish to import the library
from the KTILIB.CSV in the System folder of the flash card.
Maintain User Libraries Utility
The Maintain User Libraries utility allows the user to create custom libraries and manage the contents by
defining the chemistry of special materials. This Utility is identical to the Library… function within the
Mode Selection menu. Refer to page 40 for details.
5.3.4 System Setup
The System Setup screen (Figure 58) enables the user to alter various settings for use during subsequent
testing. In summary, the user may select which data files to record, where the data files will be written,
which COM port to use for communication with the analyzer, and the threshold for Match Quality used in
Pass/Fail testing. The user password may also be changed beginning from the System Setup screen.
Whenever a system setting is changed, tap Continue and the system will prompt you to restart the program.
Saving Output Data
By default, all data is saved to the Data folder on the PDA in the root of My Device. When PDA memory
has been completely filled with assay data, it will begin overwriting the
files with the oldest time/date stamp. If a blank CF or SD card is inserted
into the PDA, and the Removable Media box is check, all assay data will
be stored to the card, rather than PDA memory.
Results – Enabled by default. Uncheck this box to discard the results
from all assays. The output options ‘Spectra’ and ‘Save CSV’ are ignored if
this box is unchecked.
Spectra – Enabled by default. Spectra and results are stored in the .PDZ
file format. They can be opened from within the View Results utility, or
with a Windows Compatible PC running S1PXRF.
Save CSV – Enabled by default. The resulting Grade ID and chemistry of
Figure 58 System Setup
utility
every alloy tested is appended to the RESULTS.CSV file in the Data folder.
It can be imported into Microsoft Excel® for later evaluation.
Removable Media – Disabled by default. This option requires installation of a blank, formatted
Compact Flash or SD Card into the PDA. Once enabled, all output files are stored in a Data folder residing
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on the card(s). When the card is removed, the default is reset. It is recommended to use a separate
media card when using the Removable Media feature.
CAUTION: DO NOT use the compact flash card provided with the analyzer during normal operation. This card
contains the files required for installation of the BrukerS1 program and will overwrite the contents of the PDA.
Language
Select available languages are from this drop-down menu. If a language is
not available, contact a sales representative to discuss when it will become
available. This option only changes the language of the BrukerS1 program.
The language of the Windows environment is changed from within the
PDA control panel under “regional settings.”
Instrument Port
By default, the PDA communicates to the Tracer series instrument on
communications Port 1. Some special applications may require the use of
another port. In most cases, the default value is applicable.
Match Quality Threshold
To change the threshold for Match Quality used in Pass/Fail calculations,
enter the new value in the Match Quality Threshold box. For most
Pass/Fail measurements, the default value is applicable. Changing this
threshold is not recommended when using the Standard Library.
Generally, the Match Quality Threshold should only be changed if a User
Library is active (see User Libraries, page 40).
Figure 59 Change
Password Utility
Simple Mode
Simple Mode allows the user to limit the functions available, simplifying
the analysis process. When checked, Simple Mode will disable all
functions except those in Utilities, Edit Info, and Results. Ensure that the
method you want to use as default has been selected BEFORE selecting
Simple Mode (see 0 for details on selecting methods). Once Simple Mode
is selected, tap Continue and the program will reboot in the General
Measure mode using settings active when Simple Mode was selected.
Figure 60 Display
Settings
When Simple Mode is selected, the Ready to Analyze window will be
reconfigured (Figure 61) to include the Utilities button. When you want to
return to Normal Mode, use the Utilities button to return to Instrument
Setup.
System Password
The Tracer series instrument arrives from the factory with the default
password (12345). It is highly recommended that the owner immediately
change the password upon receipt.
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Figure 61 Simple Mode
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Tap the Change Password button to display the Password Management dialog box (Figure 59). Enter the
current password, then the new password, then re-enter the new password. Select OK to submit the new
password. If successful, a dialog box will appear, indicating a successful change.
If the current password was entered incorrectly, a dialog box will appear stating that the New and Verify
passwords do not match. In this case, carefully re-enter the new and verify passwords and try again.
IMPORTANT: The password scheme in the BrukerS1 software is casesensitive. Be sure you record your selected password in a safe place
away from the analyzer, as Bruker Elemental cannot recover a lost user
password. See “I forgot my password” in the Troubleshooting section.
Display Settings
This function (Figure 60) allows the setting of display units, % or PPM (parts per million) and number of
displayed decimals. Use Color coding and Grade Limits checkbox allows to choose whether grade color
coding and grade limits are displayed in result screen or not. Color codes are enabled by default.
5.3.5 Backup Data
The Backup Data utility (Figure 62) will copy or move the results of every assay stored in local memory to
another location, be it a Compact Flash, SD card, or another folder within PDA memory. If moving data, the
operator is given the option to Reset the Assay Filename Counter (index). The next assay stored will begin
with the index 1.
Select Copy to leave data on the PDF, or select Move to remove the data
from the PDA. In either case, select the file destination and tap Execute.
5.4 Shutting Down
From any menu, continue tapping either the Back or Main buttons until the Login
screen appears. Tap the Exit to return to the PDA desktop. Turn the PDA power off
by depressing the power button in the upper right of the PDA. Depress the pushbutton switch to turn the instrument OFF.
5.5 Viewing and Exporting Stored Data
The Tracer series instrument saves and appends to the file RESULTS.CSV the
Figure 62 Backup Data
chemistry of each material tested. Test results may be viewed outside the BrukerS1
program by exporting the stored results to a Windows Compatible PC running Excel 95 or later. Results can also be
viewed individually on the PDA by accessing the View Readings screen in the Utilities menu (See page 42).
Windows™ PC
To view test data on a Windows Compatible PC running Excel 97 or later, you must first export the test
data to the PC by one of two methods.
Media Card
If the BrukerS1 program was instructed to save files to Removable Media, simply remove the card from
the PDA (Compact Flash or SD) and insert it into a media card reader attached to the Windows PC. Using
File Explorer, browse to the Data Folder on the card. The folder contains two file types, PDZ and CSV.
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Double-click on the file RESULTS.CSV to open the file in Excel. Viewing PDZ files requires S1PXRF to be
installed. Refer to the S1PXRF User Guide for details.
If the BrukerS1 Program was NOT instructed to save files to Removable Media, it is still possible to
transfer them to a PC using this method. Insert a media card into the PDA and open File Explorer. Browse
to the Data folder in the root of My Device. Scroll down and select the file RESULTS.CSV with the stylus.
Tap Menu->Edit->Copy to copy the file to the clipboard. Next, browse to the media card. Tap Menu>Edit->Paste to paste the file from the clipboard to the media card. Remove the card from the PDA and
insert it into a media card reader in the same manner.
Alternatively, data can be moved to a media card by using the Backup utility from within the BrukerS1
program (see page 45).
ActiveSync®
ActiveSync is a program that synchronizes files from frequently used applications to both PDA and PC.
Every Pocket PC device is compatible with ActiveSync, but to use it, it must be installed on the PC.
Installing ActiveSync
1.
Turn on the PC and log on to Windows.
2.
A copy of ActiveSync has been provided for convenience. It is a software product distributed
freely by Microsoft (following EULA) and updated frequently. There is no guarantee that the
copy provided is the most current.
3.
Insert the ActiveSync CD-ROM into the CD/DVD-ROM drive. Follow the instructions that appear
on the screen.
NOTE: The most current version of ActiveSync may be downloaded from the Microsoft website:
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsmobile/activesync/activesync45.mspx
Transferring Files
1.
Connect the PDA cradle to the PC with the supplied USB cable.
2.
Insert the PDA into the cradle. ActiveSync will start and ask if a Partnership should be
established. This is not necessary and, in fact, not recommended. Click Cancel.
3.
In the ActiveSync window, click on Explore from the toolbar. A File Explorer window will open to
display the contents of the PDA memory.
4.
Double-click the icon at the top labeled “My Windows Mobile-Based Device.”
5.
Select the Data folder, and then click Edit->Copy to copy the folder to the clipboard.
6.
Browse to a location on the PC hard drive (such as My Documents) and click Edit->Paste. The
entire Data folder will appear in the new location.
7.
Open the new Data Folder to view the Spectra files (PDZ) and RESULTS.CSV.
8.
Scroll down to the file RESULTS.CSV and double-click to open it in Excel.
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5.6 Checking Calibrations
Each Tracer series instrument ships with two calibration check samples and documentation for each. Locate these
in the shipping case:
A stainless steel duplex 2205 check sample (used to verify general alloy calibration)
An aluminum AA5083 or AA7075 check sample (used to verify the light-element and/or aluminum
calibration)
A calibration sheet for each
A CD-ROM with a copy of the calibration files
All Tracer XRF analyzers are calibrated with NIST traceable alloy standards unless
the client application is not intended for alloys or the library contains proprietary
materials.
To verify the calibration of the analyzer, set the analyzer up to operate and run
five 30-second assays. Calculate the average of the chemistry results (shown
from within the RESULTS.CSV file). The results for each element should be within
the tolerance range specified on the corresponding calibration sheet.
Contact Bruker Elemental if you suspect your calibration is invalid.
5.7 Coefficient Setup
5.7.1 Introduction to Coefficients
Figure 63 Method menu,
with coefficient
highlighted
Coefficients enable the user to fine tune methods by setting up offset and
slope corrections. This feature is intended for mining and specialty
applications where site specific calibration optimization is required.
Coefficients are available in both General Measure and Pass-Fail Measure
mode. Generally, coefficients should not be used for standard alloy
application. Coefficients are specific to selected method and are applied only
to selected method or method group.
Caution! Use of coefficients will change the results and if they are
incorrectly used may lead to erroneous results. Use of coefficients is
intended only for the advanced users. If in doubt how to correctly use
this feature, don’t use it!
Figure 64 Coefficient
Menu
Once a coefficient set has been defined for a specific method, it will be applied to that method in all instances
when the method is used, including in Universal or Auto mode. An asterisk after the Method name indicates
that a coefficient set has been applied to that method (Figure 63).
Coefficient sets are applied to the final measurement result of specific element and can contain slope and
offset correction for multiple elements. It is possible to create and save multiple coefficient sets to one
calibration method, but only one coefficient set can be active at a time.
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Once a coefficient set has been activated, the adjusted results are reported on the PDA screen and in
Results.CSV file. The original, uncorrected results are not saved.
5.7.2 Applying a Coefficient
From the Main Menu, select the Methods button to open the Methods Menu (Figure 63). Highlight the
method for which you wish to apply a coefficient set, and then tap on the Coefficients button. The Coefficient
Menu (Figure 64) will open. Highlight the coefficient set you wish to apply to the selected method, and then
tap Continue. You will return to the Methods Menu. Ensure an asterisk now shows next to the selected
method. Select the method and tap Continue to activate the adjusted method.
If a coefficient set needs to be adjusted, or a new coefficient added to the
existing list, tap the Coef Maint button on the Coefficients Menu (see
Section 5.7.3).
Tap None to return to the Methods Menu with no coefficient set selected.
5.7.3 Maintaining Coefficients
The Coefficient Maintenance window (Figure 65) allows the user to edit,
delete, or add a new coefficient set for application to methods. See
Section 5.7.4 for details on calculating slope and offset for coefficients.
To delete an existing coefficient set from the list, highlight the coefficient
set and tap Delete.
To add a new coefficient set, tap Add New to open the Coefficient Entry
window (Figure 66). Highlight the element of interest that you wish to
adjust and the keyboard will open. Enter the Coefficient Name in the field
provided, then change the offset and slope for each element you wish to
adjust. Tap the keyboard icon at the bottom of the window to close the
keyboard. Check the appropriate box for Empirical (Emp) and/or
Fundamental Parameters (FP). Tap Save to set the new coefficient, or
Cancel to discard the changes and return to the Coefficient Maintenance
menu.
Figure 65 Coefficient
Maintenance
5.7.4 Slope and Offset Calculations
If a simple offset or slope correction is required (e.g., result are always
relative 10% too low, slope coefficient is 1.1), the value can be determined
without calculation. If, however, the relation between measured values
Figure 66 Coefficient Entry
and reference values (expected correct values) is more complex, multiple
samples should be used to define the slope and/or offset correction. A sample Excel sheet (Figure 67) is
included on the operator’s disk provided by Bruker. This Excel sheet contains the required formulae for
proper calibration.
To use this sheet to calculate coefficients, select a set of samples which are representative of the matrix of
the unknowns and for which you have reliable analysis. These samples must cover the range of
concentrations of interest. Measure each sample with sufficient measurement time (e.g., 60-300 sec) and
030.0002.02.1
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Operation
Tracer Series User Guide
record the values reported by the analyzer. Using the spreadsheet, enter the known values in the column
marked “Reference Values” and the measured values in the column marked “S1 Meas. Results”. When all
samples have been entered, examine the correlation – the closer to 100% the better; if this value is greater
than 80-85% , there is reasonable correlation between the measured value and the known value. Repeat this
process for each element of interest. Once all the data has been input, create a coefficient set using the
values in the Slope and Offset rows in the sheet.
Bruker S1 CALIBRATION COEFFICIENT CALCULATION - ver 1.0
Input Reference values and S1 Measurement results to BLUE cells.
Estimated measurement result after Coefficients are applied is indicated in "Adjusted S1 Result" column.
Element 1
SLOPE
OFFSET
CORRELATION
Reference
values
2.3
2.3
4.5
4.5
6.4
6.4
7
Ni
1.0407
0.4396
99.7%
S1 Meas.
Results
1.8
1.77
3.92
3.99
5.75
5.54
6.12
Element 2
SLOPE
OFFSET
CORRELATION
Adjusted S1
Result
2.31
2.28
4.52
4.59
6.42
6.21
6.81
Reference
values
0.17
0.17
0.93
0.93
1.11
1.11
1.4
Cu
0.6214
0.0752
99.1%
S1 Meas.
Results
0.22
0.22
1.22
1.34
1.57
1.66
2.31
Adjusted S1
Result
0.21
0.21
0.83
0.91
1.05
1.11
1.51
Element 3
SLOPE
OFFSET
CORRELATION
Reference
values
2
3.1
4.4
Co
1.2355
-0.4575
95.6%
S1 Meas.
Results
1.9
3.2
3.7
Adjusted S1
Result
1.89
3.50
4.11
-0.46
-0.46
-0.46
-0.46
Figure 67 BrukerS1 Calibration Coefficient Calculation
030.0002.02.1
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6 Troubleshooting
Problem
Error: measurement will
not start
Solution
If the program is started before the instrument power key is turned on, the
program will not respond to the spectral data. In this case—
•
Exit the program and turn off PDA and instrument power
• Ensure the instrument power is switched on before starting program.
To prevent this error state, it is important to remember to exit the program
before switching off the instrument power.
The BrukerS1 program
isn’t on the “Start”
menu.
Upon insertion, it can take up to 30 seconds for the PDA to read the compact
flashcard and verify the installation. Tap somewhere else in the screen to get
out of the “Start” menu and wait a few more seconds. Tap “Start” again and
see if the program is visible on the menu. If the program still does not
appear on the Start menu, turn off the PDA and ensure that the compact
flashcard is inserted properly. Do not force the card into the PDA.
The program on the PDA
“locked up.”
If other programs are running, the program may “lock up” and fail to respond
to commands. Closing other programs frees system memory for other tasks.
030.0002.02.1
•
If possible, exit out of the BrukerS1 program.
•
Tap the “Start” menu and select “Settings”.
•
Choose the “System” tab.
•
Click on the “Memory” icon and select “Running Programs” tab. Tap the
“Stop All” button to close all running programs. Attempt to restart the
BrukerS1 program.
•
If the program has hard locked remove the PDA from the instrument
cradle, remove any memory cards and press the reset button with the
stylus.
•
Restart the BrukerS1 program.
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Troubleshooting
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Problem
The program says a file
is “corrupt” or the
program is behaving
erratically.
Solution
It is possible for the PDA to lock up while writing data to memory. If this
occurs, it can lead to data corruption. Likewise, a system file can become
corrupt. A “hard reset” is required to restore system files that may have
become damaged.
1) Disconnect the PDA from the analyzer and place on a table with the
reset button near edge.
2) Remove any memory cards installed.
3) With one hand, press and hold the “calendar”, “mail”, and “power”
buttons. The screen will turn on.
4) With the other hand, press and hold the reset button until a blue and
white screen titled “HP iPAQ Pocket PC” is displayed with the text
“Formatting PS” at the bottom. If this text is not shown, repeat the
other two steps.
5) Follow the setup steps on screen.
6) Reinsert the memory card containing the BrukerS1 program and
calibration files. The program will take up to 30 seconds to install and
the BrukerS1 icon will appear in the Start Menu.
7) Promptly remove the card and return to a safe location.
PDA battery is dead.
030.0002.02.1
8) Optionally adjust screen brightness and power management functions as
described in the iPAQ user manual.
Manually charge the PDA by connecting to the iPAQ AC adapter. This may
take 30 to 60 minutes. The PDA may turn on automatically. If it does not,
press the power button. Follow the steps displayed on the PDA screen. Once
the setup process has completed, insert the flashcard containing the
BrukerS1 setup program and calibration files. The program will take up to 30
seconds to install and the BrukerS1 icon will appear in the Start Menu.
Promptly remove the card and return to a safe location. Optionally adjust
screen brightness and power management functions as described in the iPAQ
user manual.
Page 51 of 59
Troubleshooting
Tracer Series User Guide
Problem
The vacuum pump will
not reach 5 Torr or less.
Solution
Ensure that the fittings on the tubing are fully inserted onto the vacuum
pump and Tracer series instrument and that the vacuum release port is in the
closed position.
If there continue to be problems with the vacuum level, check the
examination window for damage. Ensure that the window label and thin film
is completely sealed and not punctured.
CAUTION: Failure to open the vacuum release valve prior to removing the vacuum
tubing from the pump or the instrument may damage the highly sensitive SDD
detector.
The red lamp on the
control panel does not
turn on.
If the red lamp on the control panel does not turn on when taking a
measurement, it is likely that the IR proximity sensor has not been covered
completely or is focused on a darkened surface. X-rays will not be generated
if the IR sensor is not covered by a sample.
WARNING: DO NOT attempt to look into the nose of the instrument to see if Xrays are being generated. The IR sensor cannot detect black surfaces and
therefore, the instrument will not generate X-rays. Be sure that the IR sensor is
fully covered and that it is focused on a light-reflective surface.
The red lamp on the
control panel looks
uneven or dim.
030.0002.02.1
Each lamp on the control panel contains two LEDs. If either appears dim or
unevenly lit, one of the redundant LEDs is not functioning. If either or both
of the red or yellow LEDs in either lamp malfunctions, X-rays will not be
generated. Refer to the warranty information on how to return the
instrument for evaluation.
Page 52 of 59
Troubleshooting
Tracer Series User Guide
Problem
I forgot my password!
Solution
Bruker cannot recover lost passwords. However, it is possible to reset it back
to the factory password “12345”:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remove all flashcards from the PDA.
Hard Reset the PDA:
• Simultaneously hold down the calendar, mail, and power
buttons on the PDA.
• Using the Stylus, press and hold the reset button in until it
reboots.
• If successful, the text “Formatting PS” will display at the
bottom.
Upon reboot, reset the time/date, brightness, and power-off
settings.
Reinsert the Original Flashcard containing the BrukerS1
program and calibration files.
NOTE: Any data stored on the PDA will be lost after a hard reset. To prevent this,
run the Backup Utility described in on page 45.
030.0002.02.1
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Troubleshooting
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Appendix A
General Care
General Care
Do not store or leave the analyzer where the LCD display will be exposed to direct sunlight for long
periods. Do not expose to sprays, liquids, or harsh solvents.
Cleaning
When replacing an examination window, do so in a clean, dust-free environment. Do not leave the
open detector chamber uncovered; install a new window immediately.
If remaining adhesive needs to be removed, apply a small amount of isopropyl alcohol to a lint free
cloth and gently clean around the aperture. Avoid inserting anything into the detector chamber.
If dust and dirt collects on the exterior of the analyzer, first use compressed air to remove the bulk,
followed by a damp, lint-free cloth. Avoid using harsh solvents.
Maintenance
The Tracer series instrument, when used properly, should require very little maintenance beyond
window replacement and battery recharging.
030.0002.02.1
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Appendix A
Tracer Series User Guide
INDEX
A
C
ActiveSync ........................................................................ 46
calibration......................................................................... 47
ALARA ............................................................................... 11
chemistry .......................................................................... 35
analysis
clip-on ................................................See window protector
non-vacuum ................................................................. 25
configuration .................................................................... 37
vacuum ........................................................................ 25
configuration
analysis types
bench-top ..................................................................... 12
auto .............................................................................. 38
dual .............................................................................. 37
D
empirical ...................................................................... 37
damage ............................................................................. 14
fundamental parameters ............................................. 38
dose rate............................................................................. 7
universal....................................................................... 37
E
B
emergency ........................................................................ 14
backscatter ......................................................................... 6
empirical ........................................... Also see analysis types
backup .............................................................................. 45
exporting .......................................................................... 45
batteries
external power ................................................................. 18
charging ............................................................ 18, 19, 20
disposal ........................................................................ 21
F
installation ............................................................. 18, 20
fail-safe ............................................................................... 9
operation ..................................................................... 19
fundamental parameters .................. also see analysis types
warnings....................................................................... 21
BrukerS1 ........................................................................... 32
G
general purpose measure ................................................. 33
gradeID ............................................................................. 35
030.0002.02.1
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Index
Tracer Series User Guide
hand-held ..................................................................... 21
I
incident angle ..................................................................... 7
P
L
password .................................................................... 44, 45
labels ................................................................................ 10
R
laptop ............................................................. See notebook
radiation .............................. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 33
library ............................................................................... 40
Radiation
adding .......................................................................... 40
telemetry........................................................................ 7
maintenance ................................................................ 43
remote control ................................................................. 23
samples ........................................................................ 40
standard ....................................................................... 43
S
license .............................................................................. 14
safety shield ...................................................................... 23
M
sample preparation .......................................................... 31
sample presentation ......................................................... 13
match quality.............................................................. 35, 44
save
memory card .............................................................. 32, 45
removable media ......................................................... 43
metals mode..................................................................... 33
SDD ............................................... See Silicon Drift Detector
methods
shutting down................................................................... 45
al non-vacuum ............................................................. 38
Silicon Drift Detector .......................................................... 5
non-vacuum ................................................................. 38
small samples ................................................................... 23
Minimum Backscatter Detection ..................................... 10
stand ................................................................................. 22
N
system setup .................................................................... 43
notebook .......................................................................... 24
T
O
test parameters
dual mode reaction time .............................................. 40
operation
set test time ................................................................. 39
bench-top..................................................................... 22
thin samples ..................................................................... 13
030.0002.02.1
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Index
Tracer Series User Guide
transportation .................................................................. 15
view
trigger
energies ........................................................................ 42
auto.............................................................................. 39
readings ........................................................................ 42
manual ......................................................................... 39
results........................................................................... 42
options ......................................................................... 39
standard library ............................................................ 43
TUV ..................................................................................... 8
view results
spectra ......................................................................... 42
U
unlimited .......................................................................... 39
W
window protector ............................................................. 11
V
vacuum
X
connection ................................................................... 25
X-ray ................................................................................... 6
pressure ....................................................................... 25
tube ................................................................................ 8
window .................................................................. 11, 27
tubes .............................................................................. 6
vacuum pump................................................................... 20
X-rays ....................... 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 25, 31, 52
030.0002.02.1
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This manual contains proprietary information, which is protected by copyrights. All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be
photocopied, reproduced or translated to another language without prior written consent of Bruker Elemental. Refer to the LICENSE NOTICE
for complete list of terms and conditions.
ActiveSync™, Excel™, and Windows™ and trademarks of Microsoft™ Corporation, and are protected by their respective copyrights.
The information in this manual was correct at the time of printing and supersedes previously published material. However, Bruker Elemental
continues to improve products and reserves the rights to change specifications, equipment, and maintenance procedures at any time without
notice.
Bruker Elemental products are covered by U.S. and foreign patents, issued and pending.
Copyright © 2008-2010 Bruker AXS, Inc.
For product information, sales, service, and technical support:
•
In North America, call +1 (509) 783-9850 or Fax: +1 (509) 735-9696
•
Email us: hhinfo@bruker-elemental.net
•
Worldwide, visit http://www.bruker-axs.com/ to find contacts in your area.
©2010
Re-order # 030.0002.02.1
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