24-Port Intelligent Fast Ethernet Switch Management Guide

24-Port Intelligent Fast Ethernet Switch
Management Guide
Management Guide
24-Port Intelligent Fast Ethernet Switch
Workgroup Switch with 24 10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX (RJ-45) Ports,
and 2 Slots for Optional Gigabit Uplink or 100BASE-FX Modules
150200001400A
E012002-R02
FV1.06
Contents
Chapter 1: Switch Management
Configuration Options
Required Connections
Console Port (Out-of-Band) Connections
In-Band Connections
Chapter 2: Console Interface
Log-in Screen
Main Menu
System Information Menu
Displaying System Information
Displaying Switch Version Information
Management Setup Menu
Changing the Network Configuration
IP Configuration
IP Connectivity Test (Ping)
HTTP Configuration
Configuring the Serial Port
Assigning SNMP Parameters
Configuring Community Names
Configuring IP Trap Managers
User Log-in Configuration
Downloading System Software
Saving or Restoring the System Configuration
Device Control Menu
Layer 2 Menu
Configuring Port Parameters
Using a Mirror Port for Analysis
Configuring Port Trunks
Configuring the Static Unicast Address Table
Configuring the Static Multicast Address Table
Using the Bridge Menu
Configuring Global Bridge Settings
Configuring STA for Ports
Configuring Virtual LANs
VLAN Port Configuration
VLAN Table Configuration
Configuring IGMP Snooping
Configuring Security Filters
Configuring MAC Address Filters
Security Mode
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
2-1
2-1
2-3
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-16
2-17
2-19
2-20
2-22
2-23
2-24
2-26
2-27
2-29
2-30
2-31
2-32
2-34
2-35
2-35
2-38
2-39
2-40
2-41
2-42
i
Contents
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying Port Statistics
Displaying Ethernet Port Statistics
Displaying RMON Statistics
Layer 2 Address Table
Displaying the Unicast Address Table
Displaying Bridge Information
Viewing the Current Spanning Tree Information
Displaying the Current STA for Ports
Displaying VLAN Information
VLAN Dynamic Registration Information
VLAN Forwarding Information
IP Multicast Registration Table
Resetting the System
Logging Off the System
Chapter 3: Web Interface
Web-Based Configuration and Monitoring
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Home Page
Configuration Options
Panel Display
Port State Display
Configuring the Serial Port
Main Menu
System Information Menu
Displaying System Information
Displaying Switch Version Information
Main Board
Expansion Slot
Management Setup Menu
Changing the Network Configuration
Assigning SNMP Parameters
Configuring Community Names
Configuring IP Trap Managers
User Login Configuration
Displaying the Current User Configuration
Downloading System Software
Saving or Restoring the System Configuration
Device Control Menu
Layer 2 Menu
Configuring Port Parameters
Using a Port Mirror for Analysis
Configuring Port Trunks
Static Unicast Address Table
ii
2-43
2-44
2-45
2-48
2-49
2-50
2-51
2-52
2-53
2-54
2-55
2-56
2-57
2-58
2-58
3-1
3-1
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-9
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-17
3-18
3-20
3-21
3-23
Contents
Configuring the Static Multicast Address Table
Using the Bridge Menu
Configuring Global Bridge Settings
Configuring STA for Ports
Configuring Virtual LANs
VLAN Port Configuration
VLAN Table Configuration
Configuring IGMP Snooping
Configuring Security Filters
Configuring MAC Address Filters
Security Mode
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying Port Statistics
Displaying Ethernet Port Statistics
Displaying RMON Statistics
Layer 2 Address Table
Displaying the Unicast Address Table
Displaying Bridge Information
Viewing the Current Spanning Tree Information
Displaying the Current STA for Ports
Displaying VLAN Information
VLAN Dynamic Registration Information
VLAN Forwarding Information
IP Multicast Registration Table
Resetting the System
Chapter 4: Advanced Topics
Layer 2 Switching
Unicast Switching
Multicast Switching
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Virtual LANs
Assigning Ports to VLANs
VLAN Classification
Port Overlapping
Port-based VLANs
Automatic VLAN Registration (GVRP)
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping
IGMP Protocol
Class-of-Service (CoS) Support
Security Features
SNMP Community Strings
User Name and Passwords
3-24
3-25
3-25
3-27
3-28
3-29
3-31
3-32
3-33
3-33
3-33
3-34
3-34
3-35
3-37
3-38
3-38
3-38
3-39
3-40
3-41
3-41
3-41
3-42
3-42
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-9
iii
Contents
MAC Address Filters
Address Learning
SNMP Management Software
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
4-9
4-9
4-9
4-10
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Chart
Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port
A-1
A-1
A-2
Appendix B: Pin Assignments
Console Port Pin Assignments
DB-9 Port Pin Assignments
Console Port to 9-Pin DTE Port on PC
Console Port to 25-Pin DTE Port on PC
B-1
B-1
B-1
B-1
B-1
Glossary
Index
iv
Chapter 1: Switch Management
Configuration Options
For advanced management capability, the on-board management agent provides a
menu-driven system configuration program. This program can be accessed by a
direct connection to the serial port on the rear panel (out-of-band), or by a Telnet
connection over the network (in-band).
The management agent is based on SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol). This SNMP agent permits the switch to be managed from any PC in the
network using in-band management software.
The management agent also includes an embedded HTTP Web agent. This Web
agent can be accessed using a standard Web browser from any computer attached
to the network.
The system configuration program and the SNMP agent support management
functions such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Enable/disable any port
Set the communication mode for any port
Configure SNMP parameters
Configure VLANs or multicast filtering
Display system information or statistics
Configure the switch to join a Spanning Tree
Download system firmware
Restart the system
Required Connections
Console Port (Out-of-Band) Connections
Attach a VT100 compatible terminal or a PC running a terminal emulation program
to the serial port on the switch’s rear panel. Use the null-modem cable provided with
this package, or use a null-modem connection that complies with the wiring
assignments shown in Appendix B of this guide.
When attaching to a PC, set terminal emulation type to VT100, specify the port used
by your PC (i.e., COM 1~4), and then set communications to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit,
no parity, and 19200 bps (for initial configuration). Also be sure to set flow control to
“none.” (Refer to “Configuring the Serial Port” on page 2-13 for a complete
description of configuration options.)
Note:
If the default settings for the management agent’s serial port have been
modified and you are having difficulty making a console connection, you can
display or modify the current settings using a Web browser as described under
“Configuring the Serial Port” on page 3-6.
1-1
Switch Management
In-Band Connections
Prior to accessing the switch’s on-board agent via a network connection, you must
first configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using an
out-of-band connection or the BOOTP protocol.
After configuring the switch’s IP parameters, you can access the on-board
configuration program from anywhere within the attached network. The on-board
configuration program can be accessed using Telnet from any computer attached to
the network. The switch can also be managed by any computer using a Web
browser (Internet Explorer 4.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 4.0 or above), or
from a network computer using network management software.
Notes: 1. By default BOOTP is disabled. To enable BOOTP, see “IP Configuration” on
page 2-10.
2. This switch supports four concurrent Telnet sessions.
3. The on-board program only provides access to basic configuration functions.
To access the full range of SNMP management functions, you must use
SNMP-based network management software.
1-2
Chapter 2: Console Interface
Log-in Screen
Once a direct connection to the serial port or a Telnet connection is established, the
log-in screen for the onboard configuration program appears as shown below.
V1.06
10-23-2001
User Name :
Password :
If this is your first time to log into the configuration program, then the default user
names are “admin” and “guest,” with no password. The administrator has Read/
Write access to all configuration parameters and statistics, while the guest has Read
Only access to the management program.
You should define a new administrator password, record it and put it in a safe place.
Select User Configuration from the Management Setup Menu and enter a new
password for the administrator. Note that passwords can consist of up to 15
alphanumeric characters and are not case sensitive.
Notes: 1. You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third
failed attempt the current connection is terminated.
2. If you have forgotten your password, you can return the switch to its default
settings by entering “ResetSystem” (note, this is case-sensitive) as the user
name (no password required). The system will then reboot and return to its
default settings.
2-1
Console Interface
After you enter the user name and password, you will have access to the system
configuration program illustrated by the following menu map:
System
Information Menu
Management
Setup Menu
System Information
Switch Information
Network Configuration
Serial Port Configuration
SNMP Configuration
User Configuration
TFTP Download
Configuration File
IP Configuration
IP Connectivity Test (Ping)
HTTP Configuration
SNMP Communities
IP Trap Managers
Port Configuration
Mirror Port Configuration
Port Trunking Configuration
Static Unicast Address Table Configuration
Static Multicast Address Table Configuration
Device
Control Menu
Layer 2 Menu
Bridge Menu
VLAN Menu
IGMP Snooping Configuration
Security Menu
Bridge Configuration
Spanning Tree Port Configuration
VLAN Port Configuration
VLAN Table Configuration
MAC Filtering Configuration
Security Mode
Port Statistics
RMON Statistics
Network
Monitor Menu
System
Restart Menu
Exit
2-2
Port Statistics
Layer 2 Address Table
Bridge Menu
VLAN Menu
IP Multicast Registration Table
Unicast Address Table
Spanning Tree Bridge Information
Spanning Tree Port Information
VLAN Dynamic Registration Info.
VLAN Forwarding Information
Main Menu
Main Menu
With the system configuration program you can define system parameters, manage
and control the switch and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The screen
below of the Main Menu and the table following it briefly describe the selections
available from this program.
Note: Options for the currently selected item are displayed in the highlighted area at the
bottom of the interface screen.
Main Menu
=========
System Information Menu...
Management Setup Menu...
Device Control Menu...
Network Monitor Menu...
System Restart Menu...
Exit
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
System Information Menu
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information.
Switch Information
Shows hardware/firmware version numbers, power status, and
expansion modules used in the switch.
Management Setup Menu
Network Configuration
Includes IP setup, Ping facility, and HTTP (Web agent) setup.
Serial Port Configuration
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including baud rate,
console timeout, and screen data refresh interval.
SNMP Configuration
Activates authentication failure traps; configures community access
strings and trap managers.
User Configuration
Sets the user names and passwords for system access.
TFTP Download
Downloads new version of firmware to update your system (in-band).
Configuration File
Saves or restores configuration data using the specified file.
2-3
Console Interface
Menu
Description
Device Control Menu
Layer 2 Menu
Configures port communication mode, mirror ports, port trunking, and
static addresses.
Bridge Menu
Configures GMRP and GVRP for the bridge, as well as Spanning Tree
settings for the global bridge or for specific ports.
VLAN Menu
Configures VLAN settings for specific ports, and defines the port
membership for VLAN groups.
IGMP Snooping Configuration
Configures IGMP multicast filtering.
Security Menu
Configures MAC address filtering, and enables or disables address
learning.
Network Monitor Menu
Port Statistics
Displays statistics on port traffic, including information from the
Interfaces Group, Ethernet-like MIB, and RMON MIB.
Layer 2 Address Table
Contains the unicast address table.
Bridge Menu
Displays Spanning Tree information for the overall bridge and for
specified ports.
VLAN Menu
Displays dynamic port registration information for VLANs as well as
VLAN forwarding information for static and dynamic assignment.
IP Multicast
Registration Table
Displays all the multicast groups active on this switch, including the
multicast IP addresses and corresponding VLANs.
Restart System
Restarts the system with options to restore factory defaults.
Exit
Exits the configuration program.
2-4
System Information Menu
System Information Menu
Use the System Information Menu to display a basic description of the switch,
including contact information, and hardware/firmware versions.
System Information Menu
=======================
System Information ...
Switch Information ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information.
Switch Information
Shows hardware/firmware version numbers, power status, and
expansion modules used in the switch.
2-5
Console Interface
Displaying System Information
Use the System Information screen to display descriptive information about the
switch, or for quick system identification as shown in the following screen and table.
System Information
==================
System Description :
System Object ID
: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.5.7.3.1
System Up Time
: 1270430 (0 day 3 hr 31 min 44 sec)
System Name
:
System Contact
:
System Location
:
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
System Description
System hardware description.
System Object ID
MIB II object identifier for switch’s network management subsystem.
System Up Time
Length of time the current management agent has been running.
(Note that the first value is in centiseconds.)
System Name*
Name assigned to the switch system.
System Contact*
Contact person for the system.
System Location*
Specifies the area or location where the system resides.
* Maximum string length is 99, but the screen only displays 45 characters. You can use the arrow keys to
browse the whole string.
2-6
System Information Menu
Displaying Switch Version Information
Use the Switch Information screen to display hardware/firmware version numbers
for the main board, as well as the power status.
Switch Information
==================
Hardware Version
Firmware Version
Serial Number
Port Number
Internal Power Status
Fan Power Status
Expansion Slot 1
Expansion Slot 2
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
R01
V1.04
00-10-B5-DD-DF-C0
26
Active
Active
100FX_MM
1GBase-T
<OK>
Use <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Hardware Version
Hardware version of the main board.
Firmware Version
System firmware version in ROM.
Serial Number
The serial number of the main board.
Port Number
Number of ports on this switch.
Internal Power Status
Shows if primary power is active or inactive.
Fan Power Status
Shows if power to the fan is active or inactive.
Expansion Slot 1
Expansion Slot 2
Shows module type if inserted:
100BASE-FX_MM:
100BASE-FX (multimode)
100BASE-FX_SM:
100BASE-FX (singlemode)
1GBase-SX:
1000BASE-SX (multimode)
1GBase-LX:
1000BASE-LX (singlemode)
1GBase-T:
1000BASE-T
2-7
Console Interface
Management Setup Menu
After initially logging on to the system, adjust the communication parameters for your
console to ensure a reliable connection (1 Serial Port Configuration). Specify the IP
addresses for the switch (2 Network Configuration / IP Configuration), and then set
the Administrator and User passwords (3 User Configuration). Remember to record
them in a safe place. Also set the community string which controls access to the
onboard SNMP agent via in-band management software (4 SNMP Configuration).
The items provided by the Management Setup Menu are described in the following
sections.
Management Setup Menu
=====================
2 Network Configuration ...
1 Serial Port Configuration ...
4 SNMP Configuration ...
3 User Configuration ...
TFTP Download ...
Configuration File
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
Network Configuration
Includes IP setup, Ping facility, and HTTP setup for the onboard Web
agent.
Serial Port Configuration
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including baud
rate, console timeout, and screen data refresh interval.
SNMP Configuration
Activates authentication failure traps and configures communities
and trap managers.
User Configuration
Sets the user names and passwords for system access.
TFTP Download
Downloads new version of firmware to update your system (in-band).
Configuration File
Saves or restores configuration data based on the specified file.
2-8
Management Setup Menu
Changing the Network Configuration
Use the Network Configuration menu to set the bootup option, configure the switch’s
Internet Protocol (IP) parameters, or enable the onboard Web agent. The screen
shown below is described in the following table.
Network Configuration
=====================
IP Configuration ...
IP Connectivity Test (Ping) ...
HTTP Configuration ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
IP Configuration
Screen used to set the bootup option, or configure the switch’s IP
parameters.
IP Connectivity Test (Ping)
Screen used to test IP connectivity to a specified device.
HTTP Configuration
Screen used to enable the Web agent.
2-9
Console Interface
IP Configuration
Use the IP Configuration screen to set the bootup option, or configure the switch’s IP
parameters. The screen shown below is described in the following table.
IP Configuration
================
Interface Type : Ethernet
IP Address
: 192.168.1.254
Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.0
Gateway IP
: 0.0.0.0
IP State
: USER-CONFIG
VLAN ID
: 1
Mgt. Access : All VLANs
Mgt. Access : Mgmt VLAN
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
Confirm current screen setting.
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Interface Type
Indicates IP over Ethernet.
IP Address
IP address of the switch you are managing. The system supports SNMP over UDP/
IP transport protocol. In this environment, all systems on the Internet such as
network interconnection devices and any PC accessing the agent module must
have an IP address.
Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 and 255, separated by periods.
Anything outside this format will not be accepted by the configuration program.
Subnet Mask
Subnet mask of the switch. This mask identifies the host address bits used for
routing to specific subnets.
Default Gateway
Gateway used to pass trap messages from the system’s agent to the management
station. Note that the gateway must be defined if the management station is located
in a different IP segment.
IP State
Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual configuration, or set by
Boot Protocol (BOOTP). Options include:
USER-CONFIG IP functionality is enabled based on the default or user
specified IP Configuration. (This is the default setting.)
BOOTP Get IP IP is enabled but will not function until a BOOTP reply has
been received. BOOTP requests will be broadcast
periodically by the switch in an effort to learn its IP address.
(BOOTP values can include the IP address, default
gateway, and subnet mask.)
VLAN ID
The VLAN used for management access when “Mgmt VLAN” is selected. (See the
next item.)
Mgt. Access
Allows management access of the switch from all VLANs or only from a specified
VLAN. If you select “Mgmt VLAN,” then select Apply to display the VLAN ID field,
select the required VLAN, and then select Apply or OK to save your changes.
2-10
Management Setup Menu
IP Connectivity Test (Ping)
Use the IP Connectivity Test to see if another site on the Internet can be reached.
The screen shown below is described in the following table.
IP Connectivity Test (Ping)
===========================
IP Address : 10.1.3.22
Test Times : 3
Success
: 3
Failure
: 0
[Start]
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
IP Address
IP address of the site you want to ping.
Test Times
The number of ICMP echo requests to send to the specified site.
Range: 1~1000
Success/Failure
The number of times the specified site has responded (or not) to
pinging.
Note: The switch waits up to 10 seconds for a response to each ping.
2-11
Console Interface
HTTP Configuration
Use the HTTP Configuration screen to enable/disable the onboard Web agent.
HTTP Configuration
==================
HTTP Server
: ENABLED
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Note: Port 80 is used for HTTP service.
2-12
Management Setup Menu
Configuring the Serial Port
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the switch’s serial port. (For more information on connecting to
this port, see “Required Connections” on page 1-1.) The communication parameters
for this port can be accessed from the Serial Port Configuration screen shown below
and described in the following table.
Serial Port Configuration
=========================
Management Mode
: CONSOLE MODE
Baud rate
Data bits
Stop bits
Parity
Time-Out (in minutes)
Auto Refresh (in seconds)
:
:
:
:
:
:
19200
8
1
NONE
0
10
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Default
Description
Management
Mode
Console Mode
Indicates that the port settings are for direct console connection.
Baud Rate
19200
The rate at which data is sent between devices.
Options: 9600, 19200 and 38400 baud.
Data Bits
8 bits
Sets the data bits of the RS-232 port.
Options: 7, 8
Stop Bits
1 bit
Sets the stop bits of the RS-232 port.
Options: 1, 2
Parity
None
Sets the parity of the RS-232 port.
Options: none, odd, even
Timeout
10 minutes
If no input is received from the attached device after this interval, the
current session is automatically closed.
Range : 0 - 100 minutes; 0 indicates disabled
Auto Refresh
1 second
Sets the interval before a console session will auto-refresh the
console information, such as Spanning Tree Information, Port
Configuration, Port Statistics, and RMON Statistics.
Range : 0-255 seconds; 0 indicates disabled
2-13
Console Interface
Assigning SNMP Parameters
Use the SNMP Configuration screen to display and modify parameters for the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The switch includes an onboard
SNMP agent which monitors the status of its hardware, as well as the traffic passing
through its ports. A computer attached to the network, called a Network
Management Station (NMS), can be used to access this information. Access rights
to the onboard agent are controlled by community strings. To communicate with the
switch, the NMS must first submit a valid community string for authentication. The
options for configuring community strings and related trap functions are described in
the following sections.
SNMP Configuration
==================
Send Authentication Fail Traps : ENABLED
SNMP Communities ...
IP Trap Managers ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
Send Authentication
Fail Traps
Issue a trap message to specified IP trap managers whenever
authentication of an SNMP request fails. (The default is enabled.)
SNMP Communities
Assigns SNMP access based on specified strings.
IP Trap Managers
Specifies management stations that will receive authentication failure
messages or other trap messages from the switch.
2-14
Management Setup Menu
Configuring Community Names
The following figure and table describe how to configure the community strings
authorized for management access. Up to 5 community names may be entered.
SNMP Communities
================
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Community Name
Access
Status
public
private
READ/WRITE
READ ONLY
ENABLED
ENABLED
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Community Name
A community entry authorized for management access.
Maximum string length: 19 characters
Access
Management access is restricted to Read Only or Read/Write.
Status
Sets administrative status of entry to enabled or disabled.
Note: The default community strings are displayed on the screen.
2-15
Console Interface
Configuring IP Trap Managers
The following figure and table describe how to specify management stations that will
receive authentication failure messages or other trap messages from the switch. Up
to 5 trap managers may be entered.
IP Trap Managers
================
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
IP Address
Community Name
Status
10.1.0.23
public
ENABLED
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
IP Address
IP address of the trap manager.
Community Name
A community specified for trap management access.
Status
Sets administrative status of selected entry to enabled or disabled.
2-16
Management Setup Menu
User Log-in Configuration
Use the User Configuration menu to restrict management access based on specified
user names and passwords. There are two user types, Administrator and Guest.
Only the Administrator has write access for parameters governing the SNMP agent.
You should therefore assign a user name and password to the Administrator as soon
as possible, and store it in a safe place. (If for some reason your password is lost, or
you cannot gain access to the System Configuration Program, enter “ResetSystem”
for the user name, with no password.) The parameters shown on this screen are
indicated in the following figure and table.
User Configuration
==================
User Name
Access Right Console
guest
admin
GUEST
ADMIN
DISABLED
ENABLED
Telnet
DISABLED
ENABLED
HTTP
ENABLED
ENABLED
<Add>
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
User Name
Specifies a user authorized management access to the switch via the console, Telnet or
HTTP.
Access Right
ADMIN: Read/Write for all screens.
GUEST: Read Only for all screens.
Console
Authorizes management via the console.
Telnet
Authorizes management via Telnet.
HTTP
Authorizes management via HTTP (i.e., a Web browser).
2-17
Console Interface
To add a new user, select <Add>. When you add a user, the following screen is
displayed.
Add User
========
User Name
Password
:
:
Access Right
Console Access
Telnet Access
HTTP Access
GUEST
DISABLED
DISABLED
ENABLED
<OK>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
User Name*
Specifies a user authorized management access to the switch via the console, Telnet
or HTTP.
Password*
Password associated with this entry.
Access Right
ADMIN: Read/Write for all screens.
GUEST: Read Only for all screens.
Console Access
Authorizes management via the console.
Telnet Access
Authorizes management via Telnet.
HTTP Access
Authorizes management via HTTP (i.e., a Web browser).
* These entries can consist of up to 15 alphanumeric characters and are not case sensitive.
2-18
Management Setup Menu
Downloading System Software
Use the TFTP Download menu to load software updates to permanent flash ROM in
the switch. The success of the download operation depends on the accessibility of
the TFTP server and the quality of the network connection. After downloading the
new software, the agent will automatically restart itself. Parameters shown on this
screen are indicated in the following figure and table.
TFTP Download
=============
Download Server IP : 190.186.144.20
Download Filename
:
Download Option
: Runtime Code
<APPLY>
<OK>
<CANCEL>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Download Server IP
IP address of a TFTP server.
Download Filename
The binary file to download.
Download Option
Select to download “Post Code” or “Runtime Code.”
Note: You can also download firmware using the Web agent (page 3-15) or by a direct
console connection after a restart (page A-2).
2-19
Console Interface
Saving or Restoring the System Configuration
Use the Configuration File menu to save the switch configuration settings to a file on
a TFTP client. The file can be later downloaded to the switch to restore the switch’s
settings. The success of the operation depends on the accessibility of the TFTP
client and the quality of the network connection. Parameters shown on this screen
are indicated in the following figure and table.
Configuration File
======================
Station IP :190.186.144.20
Operation
:Download from switch
<START>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
Station IP
IP address of a PC running TFTP client software.
Operation
Download from switch – Downloads the current switch configuration to a file on the client
PC.
Upload to switch – Uploads a configuration file to the switch from the client PC.
To transfer a file –
Switch: Specify the IP address of the TFTP client, and select “Download from
switch” or “Upload from Switch.”
TFTP Client: Set the mode to <binary>, specify the IP address of the target switch
and the directory path / name of the file to transfer.
Switch: Select <START> from the Configuration File menu.
TFTP Client: Start transferring the configuration file from the TFTP client or the
switch, and wait until the transfer completes.
2-20
Management Setup Menu
Saving and restoring switch configuration settings can be initiated by using any
TFTP client utility, such as the command line utility included in Windows NT. For
example, using Windows NT, from a DOS window command prompt, enter the TFTP
command in the form:
TFTP -i host [GET : PUT] source [destination]
Parameter
Description
-i
Specifies that binary mode is used for the transfer. If binary mode is not specified, the
default will be ASCII. Always specify binary mode to save or restore configuration
settings.
host
The IP address of the switch.
Get
Downloads the current switch configuration to the TFTP client.
PUT
Uploads a specified configuration file from the TFTP client to the switch.
source*
Specifies the file to transfer.
destination*
Specifies where to transfer the file.
When downloading the current configuration settings “source” has no meaning. When uploading a
configuration from a file on the TFTP client “destination” has no meaning. However, these parameters must
still be specified for the transfer to work. Any name (eg., abc) may be used for these parameters, provided it
is of no more than 8 characters.
For example: TFTP
-i 190.186.144.20 GET abc c:\3526J.cfg
will download the current configuration of the switch with IP address 190.186.144.20
to the file “3526J.cfg,” in drive “c:\,” of the TFTP client PC.
2-21
Console Interface
Device Control Menu
The Device Control menu is used to control a broad range of functions, including
port mode, port mirroring, port trunking, Spanning Tree, Virtual LANs, IP subnets,
multicast filtering, and routing protocols. Each of the setup screens provided by
these configuration menus is described in the following sections.
Device Control Menu
===================
Layer 2 Menu ...
Bridge Menu ...
VLAN Menu ...
IGMP Snooping Configuration ...
Security Menu ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
Layer 2 Menu
Configures port communication mode, mirror ports, and port trunking.
Bridge Menu
Configures the Spanning Tree Protocol for the bridge or for specific ports, GMRP
and GVRP for automatic registration of multicast and VLAN groups, traffic class
priority threshold, and address aging time.
VLAN Menu
Configures VLAN settings for specific ports, and defines the port membership for
VLAN groups.
IGMP Snooping
Configuration
Configures IGMP multicast filtering.
Security Menu
Configures MAC address filtering, and enables or disables address learning.
2-22
Device Control Menu
Layer 2 Menu
The Layer 2 menu contains options for port configuration, port mirroring, port
trunking, static unicast address configuration and static multicast address
configuration. These menu options are described in the following sections.
Layer 2 Menu
============
Port Configuration ...
Mirror Port Configuration ...
Port Trunking Configuration ...
Static Unicast Address Configuration ...
Static Multicast Address Configuration ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
Port
Configuration
Enables any port, enables/disables flow control, and sets communication mode
to auto-negotiation, full duplex or half duplex.
Mirror Port Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring.
Port Trunking
Configuration
Specifies ports to group into aggregate trunks.
Static Unicast
Address Table
Used to manually configure host MAC addresses in the unicast table.
Static Multicast
Address Table
Used to manually configure host MAC addresses in the multicast table.
2-23
Console Interface
Configuring Port Parameters
Use the Port Configuration menu to display or set communication parameters for
any port or module on the switch, including administrative status, auto-negotiation,
default communication speed and duplex mode, as well as flow control in use.
Layer 2 Menu: Port Configuration
============
(Port 1-12)
Port
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Link
Admin
Auto
Default
Current
Flow
Jack
Status
Status
Negotiate Type
Type
Control
Type
------------------------------------------------------------------On
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
100TX-FDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
Off
ENABLED
ENABLED
10HDX
10HDX
Off
RJ-45
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
<Prev Page> <Next Page>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
2-24
Device Control Menu
Parameter
Default
Link Status
Description
Indicates if the port has a valid connection to an external device.
Admin Status
Enabled
Allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive
collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has been resolved. You
may also disable a port for security reasons.
Auto Negotiate
Enabled
Enables or disables auto-negotiation for the following features
Port Type
Speed
Duplex Mode Flow Control
10/100BASE-T
auto
auto
auto
100BASE-FX
100M
full duplex
auto
1000BASE-SX
1000M
full duplex
auto
1000BASE-LX
1000M
full duplex
auto
1000BASE-T
1000M
full duplex
auto
The 10/100BASE-TX ports can auto-negotiate the speed to 10/100 Mbps,
and the transmission mode to half/full duplex. The plug-in modules are all fixed
at the indicated speed and duplex mode. All media types can auto-negotiate
flow control.
Default Type
10HDX
If auto-negotiation is disabled, the port will be set to the indicated speed and
duplex mode.
Current Type
Flow Control
Jack Type
Indicates the current speed and duplex mode.
Off
Used to enable or disable flow control. Flow control can eliminate frame loss
by “blocking” traffic from end stations or segments connected directly to the
switch when its buffers fill. When enabled, back pressure is used for half
duplex and IEEE 802.3x for full duplex. Note that flow control should not be
used if a port is connected to a hub. For the Gigabit modules the options for
flow control are set out below:
Switch
Link Partner*
Flow Control
SendOnly
Rcv/BothWay
Switch can only send pause frames, link
partner can only receive pause
frames.
BothWay
Rcv/BothWay
Both switch and link partner can send
and receive pause frames.
Shows the jack type for each port.
Ports 1-24: RJ-45
Ports 25-26: SC, RJ-45
2-25
Console Interface
Using a Mirror Port for Analysis
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a target port for real-time analysis. You
can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the target port and study the
traffic crossing the source port in a completely unobtrusive manner. When mirroring
port traffic, note that the target port must be included in the same VLAN as the
source port. (See “Configuring Virtual LANs” on page 2-35.)
You can use the Port Mirror Configuration screen to mirror one or more ports to the
monitor port as shown below.
Layer 2 Menu: Mirror Port Configuration
============
Enable Port Mirror: ENABLED
Transmission Path
Mirrored Ports
Tx: 4
Rx: 5
Monitor Port Tx :
Monitor Port Rx :
2
3
<Apply>
<OK>
<Add>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
Enable Port Mirror
Enables or disables the mirror function.
Mirrored Ports (Tx/Rx)
The port whose transmitted or received traffic will be mirrored. Select <Add>
to specify mirrored ports.
Monitor Port
The port that will duplicate the transmitted or received traffic appearing on
the mirrored port.
Note: You can mirror multiple ports to a single port to view traffic such as that crossing a
port trunk. However, note that some packets may be dropped for moderate to
heavy loading.
2-26
Device Control Menu
Configuring Port Trunks
Ports can be combined into an aggregate link to increase the bandwidth of a network
connection or to ensure fault recovery. You can configure trunks between any two
switches. Ports 1-24 on this switch can be grouped into a trunk consisting of two,
four or eight ports, creating an aggregate bandwidth up to 400, 800 or 1600 Mbps
when operating at full duplex. Ports 25-26 (extender module ports) can be trunked
together creating an aggregate bandwidth up to 2 Gbps (see page 2-28). The ports
that can be assigned to the same trunk are listed on page 2-28. Besides balancing
the load across each port in the trunk, the additional ports provide redundancy by
taking over the load if another port in the trunk fails. However, before making any
physical connections between devices, use the Port Trunking Configuration menu to
specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a port trunk, remember
that:
• Ports can only be assigned to one trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including communication mode, and VLAN assignments.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
or deleted from a VLAN.
• The Spanning Tree Algorithm will treat all the ports in a trunk as a whole.
• Enable the trunk prior to connecting any cable between the switches to avoid
creating a loop.
2-27
Console Interface
You can use the Port Trunking Configuration screen to set up port trunks as shown
below:
Layer 2 Menu: Port Trunking Configuration
============
Index
Trunk1
Trunk2
Trunk3
Port Count
2
4
8
Port Number
14
15
17
02
03
05
16
18
04
06
19
07
20
08
<OK>
<Add>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Index
The trunk identifier.
Port Count
Trunks can contain 2, 4 or 8 ports.
Port Number
The ports assigned to each trunk.
The port groups permitted include:
<<13, 1>>
<<17, 5>>
<<21, 9>>
<<13,
<<17,
<<21,
<<14, 2>>
<<18, 6>>
<<22,10>>
1, 14, 2>>
5, 18, 6>>
9, 22, 10>>
<<15, 3>>
<<19, 7>>
<<23,11>>
<<16, 4>>
<<20, 8>>
<<24,12>>
<<15, 3, 16, 4>>
<<19, 7, 20, 8>>
<<23, 11, 24, 12>>
<<13, 1, 14, 2, 15, 3, 16, 4>>
<<17, 5, 18, 6, 19, 7, 20, 8>>
<<21, 9, 22, 10, 23, 11, 24, 12>>
<<25, 26>>
For the extender modules (ports 25, 26), the possible port trunking
combinations are set out below.
Extender Module
100BASE-FX
Can be trunked together.
1000BASE-SX,
1000BASE-LX,
1000BASE-T
Can be trunked together, irrespective of media.
2-28
Device Control Menu
To add a trunk, select <Add>. To delete a trunk, highlight the required entry and
select Enter. Before disconnecting a port trunk, take the following steps:
• Before removing a port trunk via the configuration menu, you must disable all the
ports in the trunk or remove all the network cables. Otherwise, a loop may be
created.
• To disable a single link within a port trunk, you should first remove the network
cable, and then disable both ends of the link via the configuration menu. This
allows the traffic passing across that link to be automatically distributed to the other
links in the trunk, without losing any significant amount of traffic.
Configuring the Static Unicast Address Table
The Static Unicast Address Table can be used to assign the MAC address for a host
device to a specific port on this switch. Static unicast addresses are never aged out,
and cannot be learned on another port. If any packets with a source address
specified in this table enter another port, they will be dropped. The Static Unicast
Address Table is described in the following figure and table.
Layer 2 Address Table: Static Address Table
=====================
Address
30-30-30-30-30-30
Port
1
Address
Port
Page
1
<Apply>
Total
1
Pages
<OK>
<Next Page>
<Prev Page>
<Add>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Address
The MAC address of a host device attached to this switch.
Port
The switch port to which the host device is attached.
Notes: 1. To assign a MAC address to a specific port, use <Add>. To delete or modify
an address, highlight it with the cursor and select Enter.
2. To scroll through the address table, use the <Next Page> and <Prev Page>
buttons.
3. To display a specific page, set the page number in the Page field and then
select <Apply>.
2-29
Console Interface
Configuring the Static Multicast Address Table
The Static Multicast Address Table can be used to assign a destination MAC
address (and the corresponding ports) to the VLAN group used for a specific
multicast service. Static multicast addresses are never aged out, and traffic with
these addresses can be forwarded only to ports specified in this table.
Layer 2 Menu: Multicast Address Table
============
VLAN
1
Port
1
2
Address
12345678901234567890123456
61-60-60-60-60-60 M
Page
1
<Apply>
Total
1
Pages
<OK>
<Next Page>
<Prev Page>
<Add>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
VLAN
The VLAN corresponding to this multicast service.
Address
The destination MAC address for a multicast service.
Port
The ports to which this multicast traffic can be forwarded.
Notes: 1. To assign a destination MAC address to one or more ports, use <Add>. To
delete or modify an address, highlight it with the cursor and select Enter.
2. To scroll through the address table, use the <Next Page> and <Prev Page>
buttons.
3. To display a specific page, set the page number in the Page field and then
select <Apply>.
2-30
Device Control Menu
Using the Bridge Menu
The Bridge menu is used to configure settings for the Spanning Tree Algorithm, as
well as the global bridge settings for GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration Protocol)
and GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol), traffic class priority threshold, and
address aging time.
The Spanning Tree Algorithm can be used to detect and disable network loops, and
to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows the switch
to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch, bridge or
router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any two stations
on the network, and provide backup links which automatically take over when a
primary link goes down. For a more detailed description of how to use this algorithm,
refer to “Spanning Tree Algorithm” on page 4-3.
Bridge Menu
============
Bridge Configuration ...
Spanning Tree Port Configuration ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
Bridge Configuration
Contains global bridge settings for STA (including bridge priority, hello time,
forward delay, maximum message age), GMRP, GVRP, traffic class priority
threshold, and address aging time.
Spanning Tree
Port Configuration
Contains STA settings for individual ports, including port priority, path cost, and
fast forwarding.
2-31
Console Interface
Configuring Global Bridge Settings
The following figure and table describe bridge configuration for STA, GMRP, GVRP,
priority threshold, and address aging time.
Bridge Configuration
====================
Spanning Tree
:ENABLED
GMRP
:DISABLED
Bridge Priority
Hello Time (sec)
:32768
GVRP
:DISABLED
:2
Priority Threshold
:4
Forward Delay (sec):15
Max Age (sec)
Aging Time (in seconds):300
:20
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Default
Description
Spanning Tree
Enabled
Enable this parameter to participate in a STA compliant network.
Bridge Priority
32,768
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root
device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the
lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
Enter a value from 0 - 65535.
Hello Time
2
Time interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
The minimum value is 1.
The maximum value is the lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1].
Forward Delay
1
The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before changing
states (i.e., listening to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes
before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen
for conflicting information that would make it return to a blocking state;
otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
The maximum value is 30.
The minimum value is the higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1].
Remember that the lower the numeric value, the higher the priority.
2-32
Device Control Menu
Parameter
Default
Description
Max
(Message) Age
20
The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports
(except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the
last configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached
LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device
ports attached to the network.
The minimum value is the higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
The maximum value is the lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)].
GMRP
Disabled
GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to
register endstations with multicast groups.
If GMRP is globally enabled for the switch, then you can individually
enable or disable GMRP for a specific port. See “VLAN Port Configuration”
on page 2-35.
IGMP and IGMP Snooping also provide multicast filtering. (See “IGMP
Protocol” on page 4-7.)
GVRP
Disabled
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to register VLAN members on ports
across the network. This function should be enabled to permit automatic
VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which extend beyond the local
switch.
If GVRP is globally enabled for the switch, then you can individually enable
or disable GVRP for a specific port. See “VLAN Port Configuration” on
page 2-35.
Priority Threshold*
4
This switch supports Quality of Service (QoS) by using two priority queues,
with Weighted Fair Queuing for each port. Up to 8 separate traffic classes
are defined in IEEE 802.1p. Therefore, any packets with a priority equal to
or higher than this threshold are placed in the high priority queue.
(Address)
Aging Time
300
Timeout period in seconds for aging out dynamically learned forwarding
information.
Range: 10 - 415 seconds
* You can use “VLAN Port Configuration” on page 2-35 to configure the default priority for each port.
2-33
Console Interface
Configuring STA for Ports
The following figure and table describe port STA configuration.
Spanning Tree Port Configuration (Port 1-12)
================================
Port
Type
Priority
Cost
FastForwarding
------------------------------------------------------1
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
2
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
3
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
4
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
5
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
6
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
7
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
8
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
9
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
10
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
11
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
12
100TX
128
19
DISABLED
<Apply>
Parameter
<OK>
<Cancel>
<Prev Page>
<Next Page>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Default
Type
Description
Shows port type as:
100TX
100BASE-FX_MM:
100BASE-FX_SM:
1GBase-SX:
1GBase-LX:
1GBase-T:
10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX
100BASE-FX (multimode)
100BASE-FX (singlemode)
1000BASE-SX (multimode)
1000BASE-LX (singlemode)
1000BASE-T
Priority
128
Defines the priority for the use of a port in the STA algorithm. If the path
cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(that is, lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning
Tree. Where more than one port is assigned the highest priority, the port
with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled. The range is 0 - 255.
(Path) Cost
100/19/4
This parameter is used by the STA algorithm to determine the best path
between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.)
The default and recommended range is:
Ethernet:
100 (50~600)
Fast Ethernet:
19 (10~60)
Gigabit Ethernet:
4 (3~10)
The full range is 0 - 65535.
Fast Forwarding* Disabled
This parameter is used to enable/disabled the Fast Spanning Tree mode
for the selected port. In this mode, ports skip the Blocked, Listening and
Learning states and proceed straight to Forwarding.
* Since end-nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can be passed through the Spanning Tree state
changes more quickly than allowed by standard convergence time. Fast Forwarding can achieve quicker
convergence for end-node workstations and servers, and also overcome other STA related timeout problems.
(Remember that Fast Forwarding should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.)
2-34
Device Control Menu
Configuring Virtual LANs
You can use the VLAN configuration menu to assign any port on the switch to any of
up to 256 Virtual LAN groups. In conventional networks with routers, broadcast
traffic is split up into separate domains. Switches do not inherently support
broadcast domains. This can lead to broadcast storms in large networks that handle
traffic such as IPX or NetBeui. By using IEEE 802.1Q-compliant VLANs, you can
organize any group of network nodes into separate broadcast domains, thus
confining broadcast traffic to the originating group. This also provides a more secure
and cleaner network environment. For more information on how to use VLANs, see
“Virtual LANs” on page 4-4. The VLAN configuration screens are described in the
following sections.
VLAN Port Configuration
You can use the VLAN Port Configuration screen to configure GARP, the default VLAN
identifier, default port priority, VLAN tagging on outgoing frames, GVRP and GMRP
status, and filtering of incoming frames for VLAN groups to which this port does not
belong.
VLAN Menu: VLAN Port Configuration
=========
GARP Configuration
Join Time
Leave Time
Leave All Time
20 Centiseconds
60 Centiseconds
1000 Centiseconds
VLAN and Priority
Port VID
Port Default Priority
VLAN Tagging
GVRP
GMRP
Ingress Filtering
1
0
Rx All, Tx All
ENABLED
ENABLED
DISABLED
Port 1 <Apply> <OK>
<Cancel> <Prev Port>
<Next Port>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
2-35
Console Interface
Parameter
Default
Description
Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP and GMRP to
register or deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged
LAN.
GARP1
Join Time
20
The interval (centiseconds) between transmitting requests/queries to
participate in a group.
Leave Time
60
The interval (centiseconds) a port waits before leaving a group.
This time should be set to more than twice the Join Time. This ensures
that after a Leave or LeaveAll message has been issued, the applicants
can re-join before the port actually leaves the group.
Leave All Time 1000
VLAN and Priority
The interval (centiseconds) between sending out a LeaveAll query
message for group participants and the port leaving the group.
This interval should be considerably larger than the Leave Time to
minimize the amount of traffic generated by nodes rejoining the group.
These fields set the default values for VLANs, port priority, GVRP and
GMRP.
Port VID
1
The VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on this port.
Port Default
Priority2
0
Set the default ingress priority to any value beneath the priority threshold
(page 2-33) to specify the low priority queue, or to any value equal to or
above this threshold to specify the high priority queue.
VLAN Tagging3 Rx All,
Tx All
Indicates whether or not VLAN tags will be included on frames passing
through this port. The options include:
Rx All:
Accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
Rx Tag:
Only accepts tagged frames. The switch will only accept
frames if the PVID and frame tag are the same.
Tx All:
If the PVID and frame tag are the same, sends a tagged
frame, otherwise sends an untagged frame.
Tx Untag:
Sends only untagged frames.
1. The default values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access method or data rate. These
values should not be changed unless you are experiencing difficulties with GMRP or GVRP registration/
deregistration.
2. This switch supports Quality of Service (QoS) by using two priority queues, with Weighted Fair Queuing
for each port. Inbound frames that do not have VLAN tags are tagged with the input port’s default ingress
user priority, and then placed in the appropriate priority queue at the output port. The default priority for all
ingress ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that do not have priority tags will be placed in the low
priority queue of the output port. (Note that if the output port is an untagged member of the associated
VLAN, these frames are stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.)
3. If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for just one or two switches, you can assign ports to the
same untagged VLAN (and use a separate connection where a VLAN crosses the switches). However, to
participate in a VLAN group that extends beyond this switch, we recommend using the VLAN ID for that
group, by VLAN tagging. For Layer 2 switching, ports assigned to a large VLAN group that crosses several
switches must use VLAN tagging.
2-36
Device Control Menu
Parameter
Default
Description
GVRP
Enabled
Enables or disables GVRP for this port. When disabled, any GVRP
packets received on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations
will be propagated from other ports.
Note that GVRP must be enabled globally for the switch before this setting
can take effect. (See “Configuring Global Bridge Settings” on page 2-32.)
GMRP
Enabled
Enables or disables GMRP for this port. When enabled, this port will allow
endstations to register with multicast groups using GMRP.
Note that GMRP must be enabled for the switch before this setting can
take effect (page 2-32).
IGMP and IGMP Snooping also provide multicast filtering. (See “IGMP
Protocol” on page 4-7.)
Ingress
Filtering4
Disabled
If enabled, incoming frames for VLANs which do not include this ingress
port in their member set will be discarded at the ingress port.
4. This control does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP or STP. However, they do
affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
2-37
Console Interface
VLAN Table Configuration
Use this screen to create a new VLAN or modify the settings for an existing VLAN.
VLAN Menu: VLAN Table Configuration
=========
Port
VLAN
1
1
2
12345678901234567890123456
SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS
-:
S:
R:
X:
Normal
Static
Reg. Fixed
Forbidden
Page : 1
<Apply>
Total:
1
Pages
<OK>
<Prev Page>
<Next Page>
<Add>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Parameter
Description
VLAN
The ID for the VLAN currently displayed.
Range: 1-4094
Port
Port entries may be marked as:
- : (Normal) Uses GVRP to determine port membership.
S : (Static) Adds port as a static entry. GVRP protocol is disabled.
R : (Registration Fixed) Adds port as a static entry. GVRP protocol messages are still
forwarded through this port.
X : (Forbidden) Disables GVRP for this VLAN on the specified port.
If a removed port is no longer assigned to any other group as an untagged port, it will
automatically be assigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
Notes: 1. Use the <Next Page> and <Prev Page> buttons to scroll through the table.
2. To display a specific page, set the page number in the Page field and select
<Apply>.
3. To modify a VLAN group, highlight the entry in the table and select Enter. To
add a VLAN group, select <Add>.
2-38
Device Control Menu
Configuring IGMP Snooping
Multicasting is used to support real-time applications such as video conferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have to establish a separate
connection with each client. It merely broadcasts its service to the network, and any
hosts which want to receive the multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the network overhead required by a
multicast server, the broadcast traffic must be carefully filtered at every multicast
switch/router it passes through to ensure that traffic is only passed on to the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) Snooping to monitor
any attached hosts which want to receive a specific multicast service. It looks up the
IP Multicast Group used for this service, and adds to it any port that received a
similar request.
You can use the IGMP Snooping Configuration screen to configure multicast filtering
as shown below.
IGMP Snooping Configuration
===========================
IGMP Snooping Status
: DISABLED
IGMP Router Timeout (Minutes) : 5
IGMP Group Timeout (Minutes)
: 5
Act as IGMP Querier
: DISABLED
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Default
Description
IGMP
Snooping
Status
Disabled
If enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine which
hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is also referred to as IGMP
Snooping.
IGMP Router
Timeout
5
A switch port that stops receiving multicast protocol packets for this
interval will be removed from the IGMP forwarding list.
Range: 3 - 5 minutes
IGMP Group
Timeout
5
The time between last spotting an IGMP Report message for an IP
multicast address on a specific port and the switch removing that entry
from its list.
Range: 3 - 5 minutes
Act as IGMP
Querier
Disabled
If enabled, the switch can serve as the “querier,” which is responsible for
asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
2-39
Console Interface
Configuring Security Filters
You can use the Security menu to filter MAC addresses or to enable/disable address
learning.
Security Menu
=============
MAC Filtering Configuration ...
Security Mode ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
MAC Filtering Configuration
Specifies the source or destination MAC address for any traffic to be filtered
from the switch.
Security Mode
Enables or disables address learning.
2-40
Device Control Menu
Configuring MAC Address Filters
Any node that presents a security risk or is functioning improperly can be filtered
from this switch. You can drop all the traffic from a host device based on a specified
MAC address. Traffic with either a source or destination address listed in the
Security Filtering Configuration table will be filtered.
MAC Security Filtering Configuration
====================================
----------------------------------------------------------------------00-90-CC-87-33-AF
Page
1
<Apply>
Total
1
Pages
<OK>
<Prev Page>
<Next Page>
<Add>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Notes: 1. To add a MAC address to the security filter, use <Add>. To delete an
address, highlight it with the cursor and select Enter.
2. To scroll through the address table, use the <Next Page> and <Prev Page>
buttons.
3. To display a specific page, set the page number in the Page field and then
select <Apply>.
2-41
Console Interface
Security Mode
The learning function enables ports to learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair
of received frames. This information is then used to make later decisions for frame
forwarding. The learning function should be initially enabled for a long enough
period to ensure that all valid VLAN members have been registered on the switch. It
may then be disabled as a security feature to ensure that frames from any station
with an unknown MAC address are filtered. To add new VLAN members at a later
time, the learning function must be re-enabled until all the new VLAN members have
been registered. Learning may then be disabled again, if desired, for security.
Security Menu: Security Mode
=============
Learning Function
: ENABLED
<Apply>
<OK>
<Cancel>
The status of the Learning Function.
| READ/SELECT
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
2-42
Monitoring the Switch
Monitoring the Switch
The Network Monitor Menu provides access to port statistics, address tables, STA
information, VLAN registration and forwarding information and multicast groups.
Each of the screens provided by these menus is described in the following sections.
Network Monitor Menu
====================
Port Statistics ...
Layer 2 Address Table ...
Bridge Menu ...
VLAN Menu ...
IP Multicast Registration Table ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
Port Statistics
Displays statistics on port traffic, including information from the Interfaces
Group, Ethernet-like MIB, and RMON MIB.
Layer 2 Address Table
Contains the unicast address table.
Bridge Menu
Displays Spanning Tree settings for the overall switch and for specific ports.
VLAN Menu
Displays ports dynamically learned through GMRP or GVRP, and ports that
are currently forwarding VLAN traffic.
IP Multicast
Registration Table
Displays all the multicast groups active on this switch, including the multicast
IP address and the corresponding VLANs.
2-43
Console Interface
Displaying Port Statistics
Port Statistics displays standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces
Group and Ethernet-like MIBs, as well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on
the RMOM MIB.
Statistics Menu
===============
Port Statistics ...
RMON Statistics ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Port Statistics
Displays standard statistics on network traffic passing through the selected
port.
RMON Statistics
Displays detailed statistics for the selected port, such as packet type and
frame size counters.
2-44
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying Ethernet Port Statistics
Port Statistics displays key statistics from the Interfaces Group and Ethernet-like
MIBs for each port. Error statistics on the traffic passing through each port are
displayed. This information can be used to identify potential problems with the
switch (such as a faulty port or unusually heavy loading). The values displayed have
been accumulated since the last system reboot.
Select the required port. The statistics displayed are indicated in the following figure
and table.
Port Statistics
===============
Interfaces
In Octets
In Unicast Pkts
In Non-Unicast Pkts
In Discards
In Errors
Alignment Errors
:
:
:
:
:
:
169024
0
2641
0
0
0
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
CRC
Octets
Unicast Pkts
Non-Unicast Pkts
Discards
Errors
Errors
:
:
:
:
:
:
136
0
2
0
0
0
Single Collisions
:
Deferred Transmissions:
Excess Collisions
:
Drop Events
:
Octets
:
0
0
0
0
169480
Multiple Collisions
Late Collisions
Carrier Sense Errors
Fragments
Jabbers
:
:
:
:
:
0
0
0
0
0
Ethernet
Port Number: 1
<Apply>
<Reset>
<Reset All>
<OK>
<Refresh>
<Next Port>
<Prev Port>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
2-45
Console Interface
Parameter
Description
Interfaces Group
In Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
In Unicast Pkts.
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
In Non-Unicast Pkts.
The number of non-unicast (i.e., subnetwork- broadcast or
subnetwork-multicast) packets delivered to a higher-layer protocol.
In Discards
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a
higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for discarding such a packet
could be to free up buffer space.
In Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them from
being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
Out Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including framing
characters.
Out Unicast Pkts.
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Out Non-Unicast Pkts.
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a non- unicast (that is, a subnetwork-broadcast or
subnetwork-multicast) address, including those that were discarded or not
sent.
Out Discards
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted. One
possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer
space.
Out Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of
errors.
CRC Errors
Number of Ethernet Cyclic Redundancy Check errors detected by this
device.
2-46
Monitoring the Switch
Parameter
Description
Ethernet-Like
Single Collisions
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Excessive Collisions
The number of frames for which transmission failed due to excessive
collisions.
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Octets
Number of octets passing through this port.
Multiple Collisions
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by more than one collision.
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times into
the transmission of a packet.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never
asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS or
alignment error.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS or
alignment error.
Note: Statistics are refreshed every 10 seconds by default (page 2-13).
2-47
Console Interface
Displaying RMON Statistics
Use the RMON Statistics screen to display key statistics for each port from RMON
group 1. (RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software) The following screen displays the overall statistics on traffic passing
through each port. RMON statistics provide access to a broad range of statistics,
including a total count of different frame types and sizes passing through each port.
Values displayed have been accumulated since the last system reboot.
RMON Statistics
===============
Drop Events
Received Bytes
Received Frames
Broadcast Frames
Multicast Frames
CRC/Alignments Errors
Undersize Frames
Oversize Frames
Fragments
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
0
170888
2670
4
2666
0
0
0
0
Jabbers
Collisions
64 Byte Frames
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
1519-1536 Byte Frames
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
0
0
2668
0
0
0
0
0
0
Port Number: 1
<Apply>
<Reset>
<Reset All>
<OK>
<Refresh>
<Next Port>
<Prev Port>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can be
used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this multicast
address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS or
alignment error.
2-48
Monitoring the Switch
Parameter
Description
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS or
alignment error.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet segment.
64 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted
that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but including FCS
octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
1519-1536 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted
where the number of octets fall within the specified range (excluding framing
bits but including FCS octets).
Note: Statistics are refreshed every 10 seconds by default (page 2-13).
Layer 2 Address Table
This menu includes the unicast address table.
Layer 2 Address Table
=====================
Unicast Address Table ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
Unicast
Address Table
Provides a full listing for unicast addresses.
2-49
Console Interface
Displaying the Unicast Address Table
The Unicast Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each port
(that is, the source port associated with the address). The information displayed in the
Address Table is indicated in the following figure and table.
Layer 2 Menu: Unicast Address Table
============
Address
00-90-CC-DD-DA-A0
00-90-CC-6E-40-06
Port
13
7
Address
00-90-CC-6E-40-00
00-90-CC-94-34-1D
Port
7
1
Page
1
<Apply>
Total
0
Pages
<OK>
<Next Page>
<Prev Page>
Show specified page in Unicast Address Table.
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Address
The MAC address of a node seen on this switch.
Port
The port whose address table includes this MAC address.
Notes: 1. Use the <Next Page> and <Prev Page> buttons to scroll through the address
table.
2. To display a specific page, set the page number in the Page field and then
select <Apply>.
2-50
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying Bridge Information
The Bridge menu is used to display settings for the Spanning Tree Algorithm. For a
more detailed description of how to use this algorithm, refer to “Spanning Tree
Algorithm” on page 4-3.
Bridge Menu
============
Spanning Tree Bridge Information ...
Spanning Tree Port Information ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
Spanning Tree
Bridge Information
Displays a full list of STA values used for the bridge.
Spanning Tree
Port Information
Displays a list of STA values used for each port, including status, designated
cost, designated bridge, and designated port.
2-51
Console Interface
Viewing the Current Spanning Tree Information
The STA Bridge Information screen displays a summary of STA information for the
overall bridge. To make any changes to these parameters, use the Bridge STA
Configuration menu as described on page 2-32. The parameters shown in the
following figure and table describe the current Bridge STA settings.
Bridge Menu: Spanning Tree Bridge Information
===========
Priority
Hello Time (in seconds)
Max Age (in seconds)
Forward Delay (in seconds)
Hold Time (in seconds)
Designated Root
Root Cost
Root Port
Configuration Changes
Topology Up Time
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
32768
2
20
5
0
128.0000E800E800
57
7
1
1014515 (0 day 2 hr 49 min 5 sec)
<OK>
Return to previous panel.
Use <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Priority
Device priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated
port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest
MAC address will then become the root device.
Hello Time
The time interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
Max Age
The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure.
Forward Delay
The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before changing
states (i.e., listening to learning to forwarding).
Hold Time
The minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive
Configuration BPDUs.
Designated Root
The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning Tree that this
switch has accepted as the root device.
Root Cost
The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root device.
Root Port
The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This switch
communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no root port,
then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the Spanning Tree
network.
Configuration Changes
The number of times the Spanning Tree has been reconfigured.
Topology Up Time
The time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
2-52
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying the Current STA for Ports
The parameters shown in the following figure and table are for port STA Information.
Bridge Menu: Spanning Tree Port Information (Port 1-12)
===========
Status
Designated
Designated
Designated
Cost
Bridge
Port
-----------------------------------------------------------------1
100TX
FORWARDING
38
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.1
2
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.2
3
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.3
4
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.4
5
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.5
6
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.6
7
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.7
8
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.8
9
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.9
10
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.10
11
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.11
12
100TX
DISABLED
0
32768.00E0296E3EC0
128.12
Port
Type
<OK>
<Prev Page>
<Next Page>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
Type
Shows port type as:
100TX
100FX_MM
100FX_SM
1000LX
1000SX
1000T
Status
: 10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX
: 100BASE-FX (multimode)
: 100BASE-FX (singlemode)
: 1000BASE-LX (singlemode)
: 1000BASE-SX (multimode)
: 1000BASE-T
Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
Disabled
No link has been established on this port. Otherwise, the port has
been disabled by the user or has failed diagnostics.
Blocking
Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
Listening
Port will leave blocking state due to a topology change, start
transmitting configuration messages, but does not yet forward
packets.
Learning
Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by the
Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information.
Port address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
Forwarding
The port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
•
A port on a network segment with no other STA-compliant bridging device is
always forwarding.
•
If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no other
STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID forwards
packets and the other is blocked.
•
All ports are blocked when the switch is booted, then some of them change state
to listening, to learning, and then to forwarding.
2-53
Console Interface
Parameter
Description
Designated Cost
The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the current Spanning Tree
configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
Designated
Bridge (ID)
The priority and MAC address of the device through which this port must communicate
to reach the root of the Spanning Tree.
Designated
Port (ID)
The priority and number of the port on the designated bridging device through which
this switch must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Displaying VLAN Information
These menus display information on the ports that have been automatically learned
via GVRP, and all the ports that have been configured by dynamic or static means to
forward VLAN traffic.
VLAN Information
================
VLAN Dynamic Registration Information ...
VLAN Forwarding Information ...
<OK>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Menu
Description
VLAN Dynamic
Registration
Information
Shows the ports that have been automatically learned via GVRP.
VLAN Forwarding
Information
Shows all the ports that have been configured by either dynamic or static means to
forward VLAN traffic.
2-54
Monitoring the Switch
VLAN Dynamic Registration Information
This table shows the ports that have been automatically learned via GVRP.
VLAN Dynamic Registration Information
=====================================
Port
VLAN
1
1
2
12345678901234567890123456
D
D D
D
D: Dynamic
Page : 1
<Apply>
Total: 1 Pages
<OK>
<Prev Page>
<Next Page>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Notes: 1. To scroll through the dynamic registration table, use the <Next Page> and
<Prev Page> buttons.
2. To display a specific page, set the page number in the Page field and then
select <Apply>.
2-55
Console Interface
VLAN Forwarding Information
Shows all the ports that have been configured by either dynamic or static means to
forward VLAN traffic.
VLAN Forwarding Information
===========================
Port
VLAN
1
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456
SSSSSSSSSSS SSSSSSSSSSSSSS
S
S: Static
D: Dynamic
Page : 1
<Apply>
Total: 1 Pages
<OK>
<Prev Page>
<Next Page>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, other keys to make changes.
Notes: 1. To scroll through the dynamic registration table, use the <Next Page> and
<Prev Page> buttons.
2. To display a specific page, set the page number in the Page field and then
select <Apply>.
2-56
Monitoring the Switch
IP Multicast Registration Table
This table displays all the multicast groups active on the switch, including the
multicast IP address and the corresponding VLANs.
IP Multicast Registration Table
===============================
1
2
Multicast IP
12345678901234567890123456
234.7.6.99
M
VLAN
1
Learned by
IGMP
Page 1
<Apply>
Total 1 Pages
<OK>
<Prev Page>
<Next Page>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move. <Enter> to select.
Parameter
Description
VLAN
A VLAN with host members that have asked to receive the indicated multicast
service.
Multicast IP
A multicast group address that represents a specific multicast service.
(Multicast
Group Port List)
The ports that belong to the indicated VLAN group.
Learned by
Shows if this entry was learned dynamically or via IGMP Snooping. An entry is
learned dynamically if a multicast packet was seen crossing the port, or via IGMP
Snooping if an IGMP registration packet was seen crossing the port.
Notes: 1. To scroll through the address table, use the <Next Page> and <Prev Page>
buttons.
2. To display a specific page, set the page number in the Page field and then
select <Apply>.
2-57
Console Interface
Resetting the System
Use the Restart command under the Main Menu to reset the management agent.
The reset screen is shown below.
System Restart Menu
===================
Restart Option :
Reload Factory Defaults
: NO
<Restart>
<Cancel>
Use <TAB> or arrow keys to move, <Space> to scroll options.
Parameter
Description
Reload Factory Defaults
Reloads the factory defaults
<Restart>
Restarts the switch.
Note: When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will also
retain all system information, unless you elect to reload the factory defaults.
Logging Off the System
Use the Exit command under the Main Menu to exit the configuration program and
terminate communication with the switch for the current session.
2-58
Chapter 3: Web Interface
Web-Based Configuration and Monitoring
In addition to the menu-driven system configuration program, this switch also
provides an embedded HTTP Web agent. Using a Web browser you can configure
the switch and view statistics to monitor network activity. The Web agent can be
accessed by any computer on the network using a standard Web browser (Internet
Explorer 4.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 4.0 or above).
Prior to accessing the switch from a Web browser, be sure you have first performed
the following tasks:
1. Configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using an
out-of-band serial connection or BOOTP protocol.
2. Set a user name and password using an out-of-band serial connection (page
2-17). Access to the Web agent is controlled by the same user name and
password as the onboard configuration program.
Note: If the path between your management station and this switch does not pass
through any device that uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm, then you can set the
switch port attached to your management station to Fast Forwarding (see page
3-27) to improve the switch’s response time to management commands issued
through the Web interface.
3-1
Web Interface
After you enter the user name and password, you will have access to the system
configuration program illustrated by the following menu hierarchy:
System
Information Menu
System Information
Switch Information
Management
Setup Menu
Network Configuration
Serial Port Configuration
SNMP Configuration
User Configuration
TFTP Download
Configuration File
IP Configuration
SNMP Communities
IP Trap Managers
Port Configuration
Mirror Port Configuration
Port Trunking Configuration
Static Unicast Address Table Configuration
Static Multicast Address Table Configuration
Device
Control Menu
Layer 2 Menu
Bridge Menu
VLAN Menu
IGMP Snooping Configuration
Security Menu
Bridge Configuration
STA Port Configuration
VLAN Port Configuration
VLAN Table Configuration
Port Statistics
RMON Statistics
Network
Monitor Menu
System
Restart Menu
Exit
3-2
Port Statistics
Layer 2 Address Table
Bridge Menu
VLAN Menu
IP Multicast Registration Table
Unicast Address Table
Spanning Tree Bridge Information
Spanning Tree Port Information
VLAN Dynamic Registration Info.
VLAN Forwarding Information
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the Web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration parameters
and statistics. The default user name for the administrator is “admin,” with no
password.
Home Page
When your Web browser connects with the switch’s Web agent, the home page is
displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side
of the screen and System Information on the right side. The Main Menu links are
used to navigate to other menus and display configuration parameters and statistics.
If this is your first time to access the management agent, you should define a new
Administrator name and password, record it and put it in a safe place. Press Mgt
Setup / User Cfg. from the Main Menu, and then enter a new name and password for
the Administrator. Note that user names and passwords can consist of up to 11
alphanumeric characters and are not case sensitive.
Note: You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third failed
attempt the current connection is terminated.
3-3
Web Interface
Configuration Options
Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a configuration
change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the “Apply” button at the
bottom of the page to confirm the new setting. The following table summarizes the
Web page configuration buttons.
Web Page Configuration Buttons
Button
Action
Apply
Sets specified values in the SNMP agent.
Cancel
Cancels specified values prior to pressing the “Apply” button.
Refresh
Immediately updates values from the SNMP agent.
Notes: 1. To ensure proper screen refresh, be sure that Internet Explorer 5.x is
configured as follows: Under the menu “Tools / Internet Options / General /
Temporary Internet Files / Settings,” the setting for item “Check for newer
versions of stored pages” should be “Every visit to the page.”
2. When using Internet Explorer 5.0, you may have to manually refresh the
screen after making configuration changes by pressing the browser’s refresh
button.
3-4
Panel Display
Panel Display
The Web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports, showing port links and
activity. Clicking on the image of a port displays statistics and configuration
information for the port. Clicking on the image of the serial port (labeled “Mgmt”)
displays the Console Configuration screen. Clicking on any other part of the front
panel displays switch version information as described on page 3-9.
Port State Display
Click on any port to display a summary or port status as shown below, as well as
Etherlike statistics (page 3-35).
Parameter
Description
Type
Shows port type as:
100BASE-TX:
100BASE-FX-MM:
100BASE-FX-SM:
1GBase-SX:
1GBase-LX:
1GBase-T:
10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX
100BASE-FX (multimode)
100BASE-FX (singlemode)
1000BASE-SX (multimode)
1000BASE-LX (singlemode)
1000BASE-T
Admin Status
Shows if the port is enabled, or has been disabled due to abnormal
behavior or for security reasons. See “Configuring Port Parameters” on
page 3-18.
Link Status
Indicates if the port has a valid connection to an external device.
Speed Status
Indicates the current port speed.
Duplex Status
Indicates the port’s current duplex mode.
Flow Control Status
Shows the flow control type in use. Flow control can eliminate frame loss
by “blocking” traffic from end stations connected directly to the switch.
VLAN ID
The VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on this port. Use
the PVID (page 3-29) to assign ports to the same untagged VLAN.
3-5
Web Interface
Configuring the Serial Port
If you are having difficulties making an out-of-band console connection to the serial
port on the switch, you can display or modify the current settings for the serial port
through the Web agent. Click on the serial port icon in the switch image to display or
configure these settings, as shown below.
Parameter
Default
Description
Management
Mode
Console Mode
Indicates that the port settings are for direct console
connection.
Baud Rate
19200
The rate at which data is sent between devices.
Options : 9600, 19200 and 38400 baud.
Data Bits
8 bits
Sets the data bits of the RS-232 port.
Options : 7, 8
Stop Bits
1 bit
Sets the stop bits of the RS-232 port.
Options : 1, 2
Parity
none
Sets the parity of the RS-232 port.
Options : none/odd/even
Timeout
0 minutes
If no input is received from the attached device after this
interval, the current session is automatically closed.
Range : 0 - 100 minutes; 0 indicates disabled
Auto Refresh
10 second
Sets the interval before a console session will auto refresh
the console information, such as Spanning Tree Information,
Port Configuration, Port Statistics, and RMON Statistics.
Range : 0-255 seconds; 0 indicates disabled
3-6
Main Menu
Main Menu
Using the onboard Web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and
control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The interface
screen includes the main menu on the left side, the menu bar beneath the image of
the switch, and a list of commands beneath the menu bar. The following table briefly
describes the selections available from this program.
Menu
Description
System Information Menu
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information.
Switch Information
Shows hardware/firmware version numbers, power status, and
expansion modules used in the switch.
Management Setup Menu
Network Configuration
Configures the switch’s network parameters.
Serial Port Configuration
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including
baud rate, console timeout, and screen data refresh interval.
SNMP Configuration
Activates authentication failure traps, configures community
access strings and trap managers.
User Configuration
Sets the user names and passwords for system access.
TFTP Download
Downloads new version of firmware to update your system
(in-band).
Configuration File
Saves or restores configuration data based on the specified file.
Device Control Menu
Layer 2 Menu
Configures port communication mode, mirror ports, port trunking,
and static addresses.
Bridge Menu
Configures GMRP and GVRP for the bridge, as well as Spanning
Tree settings for the global bridge or for specific ports.
VLAN Menu
Configures VLAN settings for specific ports, and defines the port
membership for VLAN groups.
IGMP Snooping Configuration Configures IGMP multicast filtering.
Security Menu
Configures MAC address filtering, and enables or disables
address learning.
Network Monitor Menu
Port Statistics
Displays statistics on port traffic, including information from the
Interfaces Group, Ethernet-like MIB, and RMON MIB.
Layer 2 Address Table
Contains the unicast address table.
Bridge Menu
Displays Spanning Tree information for the overall bridge and for
specified ports.
VLAN Menu
Displays dynamic port registration information for VLANs, as well
as all VLAN forwarding information for static and dynamic
assignment.
IP Multicast Registration Table Displays all the multicast groups active on this switch, including
the multicast IP addresses and corresponding VLANs.
System Restart Menu
Restart Option
Restarts the system with options to restore factory defaults.
3-7
Web Interface
System Information Menu
Use the System Information Menu to display a basic description of the switch,
including contact information, and hardware/firmware versions.
Menu
Description
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact
information.
Switch Information
Shows hardware/firmware version numbers, power status,
and expansion modules used in the switch.
Displaying System Information
Use the System Information screen to display descriptive information about the
switch, or for quick system identification as shown in the following figure and table.
Parameter
Description
System Name*
Name assigned to the switch system.
Object ID
MIB II object identifier for switch’s network management subsystem.
Location*
Specifies the area or location where the system resides.
Contact*
Contact person for the system.
System Up Time
Length of time the current management agent has been running.
*
Maximum string length is 99, but the screen only displays 45 characters. You can use the arrow
keys to browse the whole string.
3-8
System Information Menu
Displaying Switch Version Information
Use the Switch Information screen to display hardware/firmware version numbers
for the main board, as well as the power status and modules plugged into the
system.
Main Board
Parameter
Description
Hardware Version
Hardware version of the main board.
Firmware Version
System firmware version in ROM.
Serial Number
Serial number of the main board.
Port Number
Number of ports on this switch
Internal Power Status
Power status for the switch.
Fan Power Status
Shows if power to the fan is active or inactive.
Expansion Slot
Parameter
Description
Expansion Slot
Shows module type if inserted:
100BASE-FX-MM:
100BASE-FX (multimode)
100BASE-FX-SM:
100BASE-FX (singlemode)
1GBase-SX:
1000BASE-SX (multimode)
1GBase-LX:
1000BASE-LX (singlemode)
1GBase-T:
1000BASE-T
3-9
Web Interface
Management Setup Menu
After initially logging onto the system, you can use this menu to configure access
rights. You should set user names and passwords (User Configuration). Remember
to record them in a safe place. You should also set the community string which
controls access to the onboard SNMP agent via in-band management software
(SNMP Configuration). The items provided by the Management Setup Menu are
described in the following sections.
Menu
Description
Network Configuration
Configures the switch’s IP parameters.
Serial Port Configuration
Sets communication parameters for the serial port, including
baud rate, console timeout, and screen data refresh interval.
SNMP Configuration
Activates authentication failure traps, and configures
communities and trap managers.
User Configuration
Sets the user names and passwords for system access.
TFTP Download
Downloads new version of firmware to update your system
(in-band).
Configuration File
Saves or restores configuration data based on the specified
file.
(See “Configuring the Serial Port” on page 3-6.)
3-10
Management Setup Menu
Changing the Network Configuration
Use the Network Configuration menu to set the bootup option and configure the
switch’s IP parameters. The screen shown below is described in the following table.
Parameter
Description
IP Address
IP address of the switch you are managing. The system supports SNMP
over UDP/IP transport protocol. In this environment, all systems on the
Internet such as network interconnection devices and any PC accessing
the agent module must have an IP address.
Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 and 255, separated by
periods. Anything outside this format will not be accepted by the
configuration program.
Subnet Mask
Subnet mask of the switch. This mask identifies the host address bits
used for routing to specific subnets.
Gateway IP
Gateway used to pass trap messages from the system’s agent to the
management station. Note that the gateway must be defined if the
management station is located in a different IP segment.
IP State
Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual configuration, or
set by Boot Protocol (BOOTP). Options include:
User Configuration- IP functionality is enabled based on the default or
user specified IP Configuration. (This is the default setting.)
BOOTP Get IP - IP is enabled but will not function until a BOOTP reply
has been received. BOOTP requests will be broadcast periodically by the
switch in an effort to learn its IP address. (BOOTP values can include the
IP address, default gateway, and subnet mask.)
VLAN ID
The VLAN used for management access when “Mgmt VLAN is selected.
(See the next item.)
Mgt. Access
Allows management access of the switch from all VLANs or only from a
specified VLAN. If you select “Mgmt VLAN,” then be sure to specify the
required VLAN.
3-11
Web Interface
Assigning SNMP Parameters
Use the SNMP Configuration screen to display and modify parameters for the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The switch includes an onboard
SNMP agent which monitors the status of its hardware as well as the traffic passing
through its ports. A computer attached to the network, called a Network
Management Station (NMS), can be used to access this information. Access rights
to the agent module are controlled by community strings. To communicate with the
switch, the NMS must first submit a valid community string for authentication. The
options for configuring community strings and related trap functions are described in
the following figures and table.
Configuring Community Names
The following figure and table describe how to configure the community strings
authorized for management access. Up to 5 community names may be entered.
Parameter
Description
Community Name
A community entry authorized for management access. (The maximum
string length is 20 characters.)
Access
Management access is restricted to Read Only or Read/Write.
Status
Displays the administrative status of entry. An entry can only be to
enabled or disabled via the console interface.
3-12
Management Setup Menu
Configuring IP Trap Managers
The following figure and table describe how to specify management stations that will
receive authentication failure messages or other trap messages from the switch. Up
to 5 trap managers may be entered.
Parameter
Description
IP Address
IP address of the trap manager.
Community Name
A community authorized to receive trap messages.
Status
Displays the administrative status of entry. An entry can only be to
enabled or disabled via the console interface.
3-13
Web Interface
User Login Configuration
Use the User Configuration screen to restrict management access based on user
names and passwords. The default administrator (admin) has write access for
parameters governing the onboard agent. You should therefore assign a password
to the administrator as soon as possible, and store it in a safe place.
Displaying the Current User Configuration
Use this menu to configure the names and access rights for people authorized to
manage the switch.
Parameter
Description
User Name*
Specifies a user authorized management access to the switch via the
console, Telnet or HTTP. An entry can only be to deleted via the console
interface.
User Password*
Password associated with this entry.
Access Right
ADMIN: Read/Write for all screens.
GUEST: Read Only for all screens.
Console
Authorizes management via the console.
Telnet
Authorizes management via Telnet.
HTTP
Authorizes management via HTTP.
* These entries can consist of up to 15 alphanumeric characters and are not case sensitive.
3-14
Management Setup Menu
Downloading System Software
Use the TFTP Download menu to load software updates to permanent flash ROM in
the switch. The success of the download operation depends on the accessibility of
the TFTP server and the quality of the network connection. After downloading the
new software, the agent will automatically restart itself. Parameters shown on this
screen are indicated in the following figure and table.
Parameter
Description
Server IP Address
IP address of a TFTP server.
File Name
The binary file to download.
Download Option
Select to download “Post Code” or “Runtime Code.”
Start TFTP Download
Issues request to TFTP server to download the specified file.
3-15
Web Interface
Saving or Restoring the System Configuration
Use the Configuration File menu to save the switch configuration settings to a file on
a TFTP client. The file can be later downloaded to the switch to restore the switch’s
settings. The success of the operation depends on the accessibility of the TFTP
client and the quality of the network connection. Parameters shown on this screen
are indicated in the following figure and table.
Parameter
Description
Station IP
IP address of a PC running TFTP client software.
Operation
Download from switch – Downloads the current switch configuration to a file on the client PC.
Upload to switch – Uploads a configuration file to the switch from the client PC.
Note: Saving and restoring switch configuration settings can then be initiated by using
any TFTP client utility, such as the command line utility included in Windows NT.
For example, using Windows NT, from a DOS window command prompt, enter
the TFTP command in the form:
TFTP -i host [GET : PUT] source [destination]
(Refer to page 2-21 for a description of the TFTP command.)
To transfer a file –
Switch: Specify the IP address of the TFTP client, and select “Download from
switch” or “Upload from Switch.”
TFTP Client: Set the mode to <binary>, specify the IP address of the target switch
and the directory path / name of the file to transfer.
Switch: Select <START> from the Configuration File menu.
TFTP Client: Start transferring the configuration file from the TFTP client or the
switch, and wait until the transfer completes.
3-16
Device Control Menu
Device Control Menu
The Device Control menu is used to control a broad range of functions, including
port mode, port mirroring, port trunking, Spanning Tree, Virtual LANs, and multicast
filtering. Each of the setup screens provided by these configuration menus is
described in the following sections.
Menu
Description
Layer 2 Menu
Configures port communication mode, mirror ports, port trunking, and
static addresses.
Bridge Menu
Configures the Spanning Tree Protocol for the bridge or for specific
ports, GMRP and GVRP for automatic registration of multicast and
VLAN groups, traffic class priority threshold, and address aging time.
VLAN Menu
Configures VLAN settings for specific ports, and defines the port
membership for VLAN groups.
IGMP Snooping
Configuration
Configures IGMP multicast filtering.
Security Menu
Configures MAC address filtering, and enables or disables address
learning.
Layer 2 Menu
The Layer 2 menu contains options for port configuration, port mirroring, and port
trunking. These menu options are described in the following sections.
Menu
Description
Port
Configuration
Enables any port, enables/disables flow control, and sets
communication mode to auto-negotiation, full duplex or half duplex.
Mirror Port Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring.
Port Trunking
Configuration
Specifies ports to group into aggregate trunks.
Static Unicast
Address Table
Used to manually configure host MAC addresses in the unicast table.
Static Multicast
Address Table
Used to manually configure host MAC addresses in the multicast table.
3-17
Web Interface
Configuring Port Parameters
Use the Port Configuration menu to display or set communication parameters for
any port or module on the switch, including administrative status, auto-negotiation,
default communication speed and duplex mode, as well as flow control in use.
...
Parameter
Default
Link Status
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto Negotiate* Enabled
Default Type
3-18
Allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior (e.g.,
excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has
been resolved. You may also disable a port for security reasons.
Enables or disables auto-negotiation for the following features
Port Type
Speed
Duplex Mode
Flow Control
10/100BASE-T
auto
auto
auto
100BASE-FX
100M
full duplex
auto
1000BASE-SX
1000M full duplex
auto
1000BASE-LX
1000M full duplex
auto
1000BASE-T
1000M full duplex
auto
The 10/100BASE-TX ports can auto-negotiate the speed to 10/100
Mbps, and the transmission mode to half/full duplex. The plug-in
modules are all fixed at the indicated speed and duplex mode. All
media types can auto-negotiate flow control.
10MIf auto-negotiation is disabled, the port will be set to the indicated
Half-Duplex speed and duplex mode.
Current Type
Flow Control
Description
Indicates if the port has a valid connection to an external device.
Indicates the current speed and duplex mode.
Off
Used to enable or disable flow control. Flow control can eliminate
frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or segments
connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex and IEEE 802.3x for
full-duplex. Note that flow control should not be used if a port is
connected to a hub.
Device Control Menu
Parameter
Default
Description
For the Gigabit modules the options for flow control are set out
below:
Jack Type
Switch
SendOnly
Link Partner*
Rcv/BothWay
BothWay
Rcv/BothWay
Flow Control
Switch can only
send pause frames, link
partner can only receive
pause frames.
Both switch and link partner
can send and receive pause
frames.
Shows the jack type for each port.
Ports 1-24: RJ-45
Ports 25-26: SC, RJ-45
Configuring Port Settings – To configure a port, press the edit icon ( ) for the
required entry, make any necessary changes, and press Save. Press Reset to
restore the latest configuration settings.
3-19
Web Interface
Using a Port Mirror for Analysis
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a target port for real-time analysis. You
can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the target port and study the
traffic crossing the source port in a completely unobtrusive manner. When mirroring
port traffic, note that the target port must be included in the same VLAN as the
source port. (See “VLAN Table Configuration” on page 3-31.)
You can use the Mirror Configuration screen to mirror one or more ports to the
monitor port as shown below.
Parameter
Description
Enable Port Mirror
Enables or disables the mirror function.
TX Mirrored Port
The port whose transmitted traffic will be mirrored.
RX Mirrored Port
The port whose received traffic will be mirrored.
Monitor Port
(drop down box)
The port that will duplicate the traffic appearing on the mirrored port.
TX Monitor Port is indicated in the upper drop-down box. RX Monitor
Port is indicated in the lower drop-down box.
Note: You can mirror multiple ports to a single port to view traffic such as that crossing a
port trunk. However, note that some packets may be dropped for moderate to
heavy loading.
3-20
Device Control Menu
Configuring Port Trunks
Ports can be combined into an aggregate link to increase the bandwidth of a network
connection or ensure fault recovery. You can configure trunks between any two
switches. The Ports 1-24 on this switch can be grouped into a trunk consisting of
two, four or eight ports, creating an aggregate bandwidth up to 400, 800 or 1600
Mbps when operating at full duplex. Ports 25-26 (extender module ports) can be
trunked together creating an aggregate bandwidth up to 2 Gbps (see page 3-22).
The ports that can be assigned to the same trunk are listed on page 3-22. Beyond
balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the additional ports provide
redundancy by taking over the load if another port in the trunk should fail. However,
before making any physical connections between devices, use the Trunk
Configuration menu to specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a
port trunk, remember that:
• Ports can only be assigned to one trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including communication mode and VLAN assignments.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
to, or deleted from, a VLAN.
• The Spanning Tree Algorithm will treat all the ports in a trunk as a whole.
• Enable the trunk prior to connecting any cable between the switches to avoid
creating a loop.
Use the Trunk Configuration screen to set up port trunks as shown below:
Parameter
Description
Trunk List
The port groups currently configured as trunks.
New Setting
The port groups that can still be configured as trunks.
3-21
Web Interface
The port groups permitted include:
<<13, 1>>
<<17, 5>>
<<21, 9>>
<<13,
<<17,
<<21,
<<14, 2>>
<<18, 6>>
<<22,10>>
1, 14, 2>>
5, 18, 6>>
9, 22, 10>>
<<15, 3>>
<<19, 7>>
<<23,11>>
<<16, 4>>
<<20, 8>>
<<24,12>>
<<15, 3, 16, 4>>
<<19, 7, 20, 8>>
<<23, 11, 24, 12>>
<<13, 1, 14, 2, 15, 3, 16, 4>>
<<17, 5, 18, 6, 19, 7, 20, 8>>
<<21, 9, 22, 10, 23, 11, 24, 12>>
<<25, 26>>
For the extender modules (ports 25, 26), the possible port trunking combinations are
set out below:
Extender Module
100BASE-FX
Can be trunked together.
1000BASE-SX,
1000BASE-LX,
1000BASE-T
Can be trunked together, irrespective of media.
To add a trunk, highlight a port group in the New Setting list and press Add. To
delete a trunk, highlight a port group in the Trunk List and press Delete. Before
disconnecting a port trunk, take the following steps:
• Before removing a port trunk via the configuration menu, you must disable all the
ports in the trunk or remove all the network cables. Otherwise, a loop may be
created.
• To disable a single link within a port trunk, you should first remove the network
cable, and then disable both ends of the link via the configuration menu. This
allows the traffic passing across that link to be automatically distributed to the other
links in the trunk, without losing any significant amount of traffic.
3-22
Device Control Menu
Static Unicast Address Table
The Static Unicast Address Table can be used to assign the MAC address for a host
device to a specific port on this switch. Static unicast addresses are never aged out,
and cannot be learned by another port. If any packets with a source address
specified in this table enter another port, they will be dropped. The Static Unicast
Address Table is described in the following figure and table.
Parameter
Description
MAC Address
The MAC address of a host device attached to this switch. The MAC address
consists of twelve hexadecimal digits with no dashes and no spaces.
Port
The port to which the host device is attached.
Notes: 1. To assign an address to a specific port, enter it in the MAC Address field,
select the corresponding port, and press Apply.
2. To delete an address, press the edit icon (
then press Delete.
) for the required entry, and
3. To modify an address, press the edit icon ( ) for the required entry, make
any necessary changes, and then press Apply.
3-23
Web Interface
Configuring the Static Multicast Address Table
The Static Multicast Address Table can be used to assign a destination MAC
address (and the corresponding ports) to the VLAN group used for a specific
multicast service. Static multicast addresses are never aged out, and traffic with
these addresses can be forwarded only to ports specified in this table.
Parameter
Description
MAC Address
The destination MAC address for a multicast service. The MAC address that
you enter must consist of twelve hexadecimal digits with no dashes and no
spaces.
VLAN
The VLAN corresponding to this multicast service.
Port
The ports to which this multicast traffic can be forwarded.
Notes: 1. To assign a destination MAC address to one or more ports, enter its address
and the corresponding VLAN, select the required ports, and then press
Apply.
2. To delete an address, press the edit icon (
then press Delete.
) for the required entry, and
3. To modify an address, press the edit icon ( ) for the required entry, make
any necessary changes, and then press Apply.
3-24
Device Control Menu
Using the Bridge Menu
The Bridge menu is used to configure settings for the Spanning Tree Algorithm, as
well as the global bridge settings for GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration Protocol)
and GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol), traffic classes priority threshold,
and address aging time.
The Spanning Tree Algorithm can be used to detect and disable network loops, and
to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows the switch
to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch, bridge or
router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any two stations
on the network, and provide backup links that automatically take over when a
primary link goes down. For a more detailed description of how to use this algorithm,
refer to “Spanning Tree Algorithm” on page 4-3.
Menu
Description
STA Bridge Configuration Contains global bridge settings for STA (including bridge priority, hello
time, forward delay, maximum message age), GMRP, GVRP, traffic
class priority threshold, and address aging time.
STA Port Configuration
Contains STA settings for individual ports, including port priority, path
cost, and fast forwarding
Configuring Global Bridge Settings
The following figure and table describe bridge configuration for STA, GMRP, GVRP,
priority threshold, and address aging time.
Parameter
Default
Description
Spanning Tree
Enabled
Enable this parameter to participate in a STA compliant network.
Bridge Priority
32,768
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes
the STA root device. However, if all devices have the same
priority, the device with the lowest MAC address will then become
the root device.
Enter a value from 0 - 65535.
Remember that the lower the numeric value, the higher the
priority.
3-25
Web Interface
Parameter
Default
Description
Hello Time
2
Time interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
The minimum value is 1.
The maximum value is the
lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1].
Forward Delay
15
The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before
changing states (that is, listening to learning to forwarding). This
delay is required because every device must receive information
about topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In
addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting information
that would make it return to a blocking state; otherwise,
temporary data loops might result.
The maximum value is 30.
The minimum value is the
higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1].
Maximum
(Message) Age
20
The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to
reconfigure. All device ports (except for designated ports) should
receive configuration messages at regular intervals. Any port
that ages out STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If
it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device
ports attached to the network.
The minimum value is the
higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
The maximum value is the
lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)].
GMRP
Disabled
GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network
devices to register endstations with multicast groups.
If GMRP is globally enabled for the switch, then you can
individually enable or disable GMRP for a specific port. See
“VLAN Port Configuration” on page 3-29.
IGMP Snooping also provides multicast filtering.
GVRP
Disabled
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for
switches to exchange VLAN information in order to register
VLAN members on ports across the network. This function
should be enabled to permit automatic VLAN registration and to
support VLANs which extend beyond the local switch.
If GVRP is globally enabled for the switch, then you can
individually enable or disable GVRP for a specific port. See
“VLAN Port Configuration” on page 3-29.
Priority Threshold*
4
This switch supports Quality of Service (QoS) by using two
priority queues, with Weighted Fair Queuing for each port. Up to
8 separate traffic classes are defined in IEEE 802.1p. Therefore,
any packets with a priority equal to or higher than this threshold
are placed in the high priority queue.
(Address)
Aging Time
300
Timeout period in seconds for aging out dynamically learned
forwarding information.
Range: 10 - 415 seconds
* You can use “VLAN Port Configuration” on page 3-29 to configure the default priority for each port.
3-26
Device Control Menu
Configuring STA for Ports
The following figure and table describe port STA configuration.
Parameter
Default
Type
Description
Shows port type as:
100BASE-TX:
100BASE-FX-MM:
100BASE-FX-SM:
1GBase-SX:
1GBase-LX:
1GBase-T:
10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX
100BASE-FX (multimode)
100BASE-FX (singlemode)
1000BASE-SX (multimode)
1000BASE-LX (singlemode)
1000BASE-T
Priority
128
Defines the priority for the use of a port in the STA algorithm. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with
the highest priority (i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an
active link in the Spanning Tree. Where more than one port is
assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest numeric
identifier will be enabled. The range is 0 - 255.
(Path) Cost
100/19/4
This parameter is used by the STA algorithm to determine the
best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be
assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values
assigned to ports with slower media. (Path cost takes
precedence over port priority.)
The default and recommended range is:
Ethernet:
100 (50~600)
Fast Ethernet:
19 (10~60)
Gigabit Ethernet:
4 (3~10)
The full range is 0 - 65535.
Fast Forwarding* Enabled
This parameter is used to enable/disabled the Fast Spanning
Tree mode for the selected port. In this mode, ports skip the
Blocked, Listening and Learning states and proceed straight to
Forwarding.
* Since end-nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass through the Spanning Tree state
changes more quickly than allowed by standard convergence time. Fast Forwarding can achieve
quicker convergence for end-node workstations and servers, and also overcome other STA
related timeout problems. (Remember that Fast Forwarding should only be enabled for ports
connected to an end-node device.)
3-27
Web Interface
Configuring Virtual LANs
You can use the VLAN configuration menu to assign any port on the switch to any of
up to 256 LAN groups. In conventional networks with routers, broadcast traffic is
split up into separate domains. Switches do not inherently support broadcast
domains. This can lead to broadcast storms in large networks that handle traffic
such as IPX or NetBeui. By using IEEE 802.1Q compliant VLANs, you can organize
any group of network nodes into separate broadcast domains, thus confining
broadcast traffic to the originating group. This also provides a more secure and
cleaner network environment. For more information on how to use VLANs, see
“Virtual LANs” on page 4-4. The VLAN configuration screens are described in the
following sections.
3-28
Device Control Menu
VLAN Port Configuration
You can use the VLAN Port Configuration screen to configure GARP, the default
VLAN identifier, default port priority, VLAN tagging on outgoing frames, GVRP and
GMRP status, and filtering incoming frames for VLAN groups to which this port does
not belong.
Parameter
Default
GARP Configuration1
Description
Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP and
GMRP to register or deregister client attributes for client
services within a bridged LAN.
Join Time
20
The interval (in centiseconds) between transmitting requests/
queries to participate in a group.
Leave Time
60
The interval (in centiseconds) a port waits before leaving a
group.
This time should be set to more than twice the join time. This
ensures that after a Leave or LeaveAll message has been
issued, the applicants can rejoin before the port actually
leaves the group.
Leave All Time 1000
The interval (in centiseconds) between sending out a
LeaveAll query message for group participants and the port
leaving the group.
This interval should be considerably larger than the Leave
Time to minimize the amount of traffic generated by nodes
rejoining the group.
VLAN and Priority
Port VID
These fields set the default values for VLANs, port priority,
GVRP and GMRP.
1
The VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on this
port.
1. The default values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access method or data rate.
These values should not be changed unless you are experiencing difficulties with GMRP or GVRP
registration/deregistration.
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Web Interface
Parameter
Port Default
Priority2
Default
Description
0
Set the default ingress priority to any value beneath the
priority threshold (page 3-26) to specify the low priority queue,
or to any value equal to or above this threshold to specify the
high priority queue.
VLAN Tagging3 Rx All,
Tx All
Indicates whether or not VLAN tags will be included on frames
transmitted out of this port. The options include:
Rx All:
Accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
Rx Tag:
Only accepts tagged frames. The switch will
only accept frames if the PVID and frame tag
are the same.
Tx All:
If the PVID and the frame tag are the same,
sends a tagged frame, otherwise sends an
untagged frame.
Tx Untag:
Sends only untagged frames.
Port GVRP
Enables or disables GVRP for this port. When disabled, any
GVRP packets received on this port will be discarded and no
GVRP registrations will be propagated from other ports.
Enabled
Note that GVRP must be enabled globally for the switch
before this setting can take effect. (See “Configuring Global
Bridge Settings” on page 3-25.)
Port GMRP
Enabled
Enables or disables GMRP for this port. When enabled, this
port will allow endstations to register with multicast groups
using GMRP.
Note that GMRP must be enabled for the switch before this
setting can take effect (page 3-25).
IGMP and IGMP Snooping also provide multicast filtering.
Ingress
Filtering4
Disabled
If enabled, incoming frames for VLANs which do not include
this ingress port in their member set will be discarded at the
ingress port.
2. This switch supports Quality of Service (QoS) by using two priority queues, with Weighted Fair
Queuing for each port. Inbound frames that do not have VLAN tags are tagged with the input
port’s default ingress user priority, and then placed in the appropriate priority queue at the output
port. The default priority for all ingress ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that do not
have priority tags will be placed in the low priority queue of the output port. (Note that if the output
port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are stripped of all VLAN tags
prior to transmission.)
3. If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for just one or two switches, you can assign ports
to the same untagged VLAN (and use a separate connection where a VLAN crosses the
switches). However, to participate in a VLAN group that extends beyond this switch, we
recommend using the VLAN ID for that group, by VLAN tagging. For Layer 2 switching, ports
assigned to a large VLAN group that crosses several switches must use VLAN tagging.
4. This control does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP or STP. However,
they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
3-30
Device Control Menu
VLAN Table Configuration
Use this screen to create a new VLAN or modify the settings for an existing VLAN.
Parameter
VLAN
Description
The ID for the VLAN currently displayed.
Range: 1-4094
(Port)
Port entries may be marked as:
N : (Normal) Uses GVRP to determine port membership.
X : (Forbidden) Disables GVRP for this VLAN on the specified port.
R : (Registration Fixed) Adds port as a static entry. GVRP protocol messages
are still forwarded through this port.
S : (Static) Adds port as a static entry. GVRP protocol is disabled.
If a removed port is no longer assigned to any other group as an untagged port, it
will automatically be assigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
Note: To add a new VLAN, enter a new VLAN number in the VID field, select the port
members, and press Add. To modify a VLAN, click on the edit icon ( ) for the
required entry, modify the port settings, and press Save.
3-31
Web Interface
Configuring IGMP Snooping
Multicasting is used to support real-time applications such as video conferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have to establish a separate
connection with each client. It merely broadcasts its service to the network, and any
hosts which want to receive the multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the network overhead required by a
multicast server, the broadcast traffic must be carefully filtered at every multicast
switch/router it passes through to ensure that traffic is passed on only to the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) Snooping to monitor
for any attached hosts who want to receive a specific multicast service. It looks up
the IP Multicast Group used for this service, and adds any port which received a
similar request to that group.
You can use the IGMP Snooping Configuration screen to configure multicast filtering
as shown below.
Parameter
Default
Description
IGMP Snooping
Status
Disabled
If enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine
which hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is also
referred to as IGMP Snooping.
IGMP Router
Timeout
5
A switch port that stops receiving multicast protocol packets for
this interval will be removed from the IGMP forwarding list.
Range: 3 - 5 minutes
IGMP Group
Timeout
5
The time between spotting an IGMP Report message for an IP
multicast address on a specific port before the switch removes
that entry from its list.
Act as IGMP
Querier
Disabled
If enabled, the switch can serve as the “querier,” which is
responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast
traffic.
Range: 3 - 5 minutes
3-32
Device Control Menu
Configuring Security Filters
You can use the Security menu to filter MAC addresses or to enable the security
mode.
Parameter
Description
MAC Filtering Configuration
Specifies the source or destination MAC address for any traffic to
be filtered from the switch.
Security Mode
Disables learning of MAC addresses and specifies an uplink port.
Configuring MAC Address Filters
Any node that presents a security risk or is functioning improperly can be filtered
from this switch. You can drop all the traffic from a host device based on a specified
MAC address. Traffic with either a source or destination address listed in the
Security Filtering Configuration table will be filtered.
Notes: 1. To add a MAC address to the security filter, type an entry into the MAC
Address field, and press Add. The MAC address that you enter must consist
of twelve hexadecimal digits with no dashes and no spaces.
2. To modify an address, press the edit icon ( ) for the required entry, make
any necessary changes, and then press Add.
3. To delete an address, click on the edit icon (
press Delete.
) for the required entry, and
Security Mode
This menu can be used to disable the switch’s MAC address learning function. If the
learning function is disabled, an uplink port must be specified to which the switch will
forward all unknown packets.
Parameter
Description
Learning Function
Enables and disables the switch’s function of learning the source
MAC address of incoming packets.
Uplink Port
The designated port to which the switch forwards packets with
unknown source MAC addresses.
3-33
Web Interface
Monitoring the Switch
The Network Monitor Menu provides access to port statistics, address tables,
STA information, VLANs registration and forwarding information, multicast groups,
and subnet addresses. Each of the screens provided by these menus is described in
the following sections.
Menu
Description
Port Statistics
Displays statistics on port traffic, including information from the
Interfaces Group, Ethernet-like MIB, and RMON MIB.
Layer 2 Address Table
Contains the unicast address table.
Bridge Menu
Displays Spanning Tree settings for the overall switch and for
specific ports.
VLAN Menu
Displays ports dynamically learned through GMRP or GVRP, and
ports that are currently forwarding VLAN traffic.
IP Multicast
Registration Table
Displays all the multicast groups active on this switch, including the
multicast IP address and the corresponding VLANs.
Displaying Port Statistics
Port Statistics displays standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces
Group and Ethernet-like MIBs, as well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on
the RMOM MIB.
Parameter
Description
Port Statistics
Displays standard statistics on network traffic passing through the
selected port.
RMON Statistics
Displays detailed statistics for the selected port, such as packet
type and frame size counters.
3-34
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying Ethernet Port Statistics
Port Statistics display key statistics from the Interfaces Group and Ethernet-like
MIBs for each port. Error statistics on the traffic passing through each port are
displayed. This information can be used to identify potential problems with the
switch, such as a faulty port or unusually heavy loading. The values displayed have
accumulated since the last system reboot.
Select the required port. The statistics displayed are indicated in the following figure
and table.
Parameter
Description
Interfaces Group
In Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including
framing characters.
In Unicast Pkts.
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a
higher-layer protocol.
In Non-Unicast Pkts.
The number of non-unicast (that is, subnetwork- broadcast or
subnetwork-multicast) packets delivered to a higher-layer protocol.
In Discards
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be
discarded even though no errors had been detected to prevent
their being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol. One possible
reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer
space.
In Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing
them from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
Out Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface,
including framing characters.
Out Unicast Pkts.
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested
be transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those
that were discarded or not sent.
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Web Interface
Parameter
Description
Out Non-Unicast Pkts.
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested
be transmitted to a non- unicast (that is, a subnetwork-broadcast or
subnetwork-multicast) address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Out Discards
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be
discarded even though no errors had been detected to prevent
their being transmitted. One possible reason for discarding such a
packet could be to free up buffer space.
Out Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted
because of errors.
CRC Errors
Number of Ethernet Cyclic Redundancy Check errors detected by
this device.
Ethernet-Like
Single Collisions
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which
transmission is inhibited by exactly one collision.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a
particular interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Excessive Collisions
The number of frames for which transmission failed due to
excessive collisions.
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to
lack of resources.
Octets
Number of octets passing through this port.
Multiple Collisions
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission
is inhibited by more than one collision.
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512
bit-times into the transmission of a packet.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or
never asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets
in length (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and
contained either an FCS or alignment error.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518
octets (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and
contained either an FCS or alignment error.
Note: Statistics are refreshed every 10 seconds by default (page 3-6).
3-36
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying RMON Statistics
Use the RMON Statistics screen to display key statistics for each port from RMON
group 1. (RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software.) The following screen displays the overall statistics on traffic passing
through each port. RMON statistics provide access to a broad range of statistics,
including a total count of different frame types and sizes passing through each port.
Values displayed have been accumulated since the last system reboot.
Parameter
Description
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to
lack of resources.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This
statistic can be used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet
utilization.
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast)
received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast
packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this
multicast address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets
long (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were
otherwise well formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518
octets (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were
otherwise well formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets
in length (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and
contained either an FCS or alignment error.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518
octets (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and
contained either an FCS or alignment error.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
3-37
Web Interface
Parameter
Description
64 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
1519-1536 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted where the number of octets fall within the specified
range (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Note: Statistics are refreshed every 10 seconds by default (page 3-6).
Layer 2 Address Table
This menu includes the unicast address table.
Menu
Description
Unicast Address Table
Provides a full listing for unicast addresses.
Displaying the Unicast Address Table
The Unicast Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each port
(that is, the source port associated with the address). The information displayed in the
Address Table is indicated in the following figure and table.
Parameter
Description
Address
The MAC address of a node seen on this switch.
Port
The port whose address table includes this MAC address.
Displaying Bridge Information
The Bridge menu is used to display settings for the Spanning Tree Algorithm. For a
more detailed description of how to use this algorithm, refer to “Spanning Tree
Algorithm” on page 4-3.
Menu
Description
Spanning Tree
Bridge Information
Displays a full list of STA values used for the bridge.
Spanning Tree
Port Information
Displays a list of STA values used for each port, including status,
designated cost, designated bridge, and designated port.
3-38
Monitoring the Switch
Viewing the Current Spanning Tree Information
The STA Bridge Information screen displays a summary of STA information for the
overall bridge. To make any changes to these parameters, use the Bridge STA
Configuration menu as described on page 3-25. The parameters shown in the
following figure and table describe the current Bridge STA settings.
Parameter
Description
Priority
Device priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the
STA root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the
device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root
device.
Hello Time
The time interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
Max Age
The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to
reconfigure.
Forward Delay
The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before
changing states (i.e., listening to learning to forwarding).
Hold Time
The minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive
Configuration BPDUs.
Designated Root
The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning Tree
that this switch has accepted as the root device.
Root Cost
The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root device.
Root Port
The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This
switch communicates with the root device through this port. If there
is no root port, then this switch has been accepted as the root
device of the Spanning Tree network.
Configuration Changes
The number of times the Spanning Tree has been reconfigured.
Topology Up Time
The time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
3-39
Web Interface
Displaying the Current STA for Ports
The parameters shown in the following figure and table are for port STA Information.
Parameter
Description
Type
Shows port type as:
100BASE-TX:
10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX 100BASE-FX-MM:
100BASE-FX (multimode)
100BASE-FX-SM:
100BASE-FX (singlemode)
1GBase-SX:
1000BASE-SX (multimode)
1GBase-LX:
1000BASE-LX (singlemode)
1GBase-T:
1000BASE-T
Status
Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
Disabled
No link has been established on this port. Otherwise, the
port has been disabled by the user or has failed diagnostics.
Blocking
Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not
forward packets.
Listening
Port will leave blocking state due to a topology change, start
transmitting configuration messages, but does not yet
forward packets.
Learning
Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval
set by the Forward Delay parameter without receiving
contradictory information. Port address table is cleared, and
the port begins learning addresses.
Forwarding
The port forwards packets, and continues learning
addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
•
A port on a network segment with no other STA-compliant bridging
device is always forwarding.
•
If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is
no other STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller
ID forwards packets and the other is blocked.
•
All ports are blocked when the switch is booted, then some of them
change state to listening, to learning, and then to forwarding.
Designated Cost
The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the current Spanning
Tree configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
Designated
Bridge (ID)
The priority and MAC address of the device through which this port must
communicate to reach the root of the Spanning Tree.
Designated
Port (ID)
The priority and number of the port on the designated bridging device through
which this switch must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
3-40
Monitoring the Switch
Displaying VLAN Information
These menus display information on the ports that have been automatically learned
via GVRP and all those ports that have been configured by dynamic or static means
to forward VLAN traffic.
Menu
Description
VLAN Dynamic
Registration
Information
Shows the ports that have been automatically learned via GVRP.
VLAN Forwarding
Information
Shows all those ports that have been configured by either dynamic or static
means to forward VLAN traffic.
VLAN Dynamic Registration Information
This table shows the ports that have been automatically learned via GVRP.
VLAN Forwarding Information
Shows all those ports that have been configured by either dynamic or static means
to forward VLAN traffic.
3-41
Web Interface
IP Multicast Registration Table
This table displays all the multicast groups active on the switch, including the
multicast IP address and the corresponding VLANs.
Parameter
Description
VLAN
A VLAN with host members that have asked to receive the indicated
multicast service.
Multicast IP
A source IP address that represents a specific multicast service.
Multicast Group Ports
The ports that belong to the indicated VLAN group.
Learned By
Shows if this entry was learned dynamically or via IGMP Snooping. An
entry is learned dynamically if a multicast packet was seen crossing the
port, or via IGMP Snooping if an IGMP registration packet was seen
crossing the port.
Resetting the System
Use the Restart command under the Main Menu to reset the management agent.
The reset screen is shown below.
Parameter
Description
Reload Factory Defaults
Reloads the factory defaults
[Apply]
Restarts the switch.
Note: When restarting the system, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will also
retain all system information, unless you elect to reload the factory defaults.
3-42
Chapter 4: Advanced Topics
This supports Layer 2 switching and other advanced features which are described in
this chapter.
Layer 2 Switching
When a frame enters a port, its destination MAC address is checked in the address
database to see which port leads to this destination. If the destination address
belongs to the incoming port, the frame is dropped or “filtered.” If the destination port
is found on another port, the frame is forwarded to that port and queued for output.
But, if the destination address is not found in the address database, the frame is
sent to one or more output ports based on the rules for handling tagged or untagged
VLAN frames.
If the source MAC address of the frame was not found in the address database, it is
recorded along with the incoming port number where it entered the switch. This
information is then used to make later decisions for frame forwarding.
During switching, the switch performs multiple steps, including:
◆
◆
◆
◆
◆
VLAN Classification
Learning
Filtering
Forwarding
Aging
The following sections provide additional information about the tasks the switch
performs during unicast and multicast switching.
Unicast Switching
This section describes VLAN classification, learning, filtering, and forwarding for
unicast switching.
• VLAN Classification—When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in
one of two ways:
- If the frame is untagged, the switch classifies the frame into the default VLAN for
the incoming port.
- If the frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the
broadcast domain of the frame.
• Learning—After VLAN classification, the switch checks the <source MAC address,
VLAN> pair in the address table to see whether this pair is known.
- If unknown, the switch adds this pair to the address table.
- If known, the switch checks the pair for an incorrect Port ID. If the PID associated
with the pair in the address table is different from the receiving port, the switch
modifies the PID in the address table.
4-1
Advanced Topics
• Filtering—After learning the address, the switch checks:
- If the source or destination port is not in the forwarding state. (For example, if it
is in blocking state or has been disabled.)
- If the source or destination MAC address is to be filtered.
- If the source PID is the same as the destination PID.
If any of these conditions are met, the switch drops the received frame.
Otherwise, it continues with the forwarding process as described below.
• Forwarding—During the forwarding process, the switch checks whether the
<destination MAC address, VLAN> pair is unknown.
- If unknown, the switch floods the received frame to all ports in the VLAN,
excluding the source port.
- If known, the switch forwards the received frame to the port associated with the
pair. At the same time, the switch decides whether a VLAN tag needs to be
added to or stripped from the frame, depending on the VLAN tagged/untagged
configuration and VLAN ID for the output port.
• Aging—the switch performs the aging process for the <MAC addresses, VLAN>
pair in the MAC address table. Once a pair is aged out, the address table is
modified.
Multicast Switching
For multicast switching, the switch checks whether the received frame is a Bridge
Protocol Data Unit (BPDU). If a BPDU is received, the switch forwards the frame for
processing by the Spanning Tree Protocol. Otherwise, the switch performs the
following processes:
• VLAN classification—same as for unicast switching (page 4-1).
• Learning—same as for unicast switching (page 4-1).
• Filtering—after learning, the switch checks the same filtering criteria used for
unicast switching (page 4-1), except there is no destination MAC address to check.
• Forwarding—the switch floods the received multicast frame to all ports within the
VLAN, excluding the source port. At the same time, the switch decides whether a
VLAN tag needs to be added to, or stripped from, the frame, depending on the VLAN
tagged/untagged configuration and VLAN ID for the output port.
• Aging—same as for unicast switching (page 4-1).
4-2
Layer 2 Switching
Spanning Tree Algorithm
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (that is, the STA-configuration algorithm as outlined in
IEEE 802.1D) can be used to detect and disable network loops, and to provide link
backup. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (including STAcompliant switches, bridges or routers) in your network to ensure that only one route
exists between any two stations on the network. If redundant paths or loops are
detected, one or more ports are put into a blocking state (stopped from forwarding
packets) to eliminate the extra paths. Moreover, if one or more of the paths in a
stable spanning tree topology fail, this algorithm will automatically change ports from
blocking state to forwarding state to reestablish contact with all network stations.
STA uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STA-compliant switch,
bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It selects a
root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs the lowest
path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device. Then it
selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest path
cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports connected
to designated bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After determining
the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated ports, and
disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between root
ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge
does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge
assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid
network topology.
The following figure gives an illustration of how the Spanning Tree Algorithm assigns
bridging device ports.
4-3
Advanced Topics
Virtual LANs
Switches do not inherently support broadcast domains, which can lead to broadcast
storms in large networks that handle a lot of traffic, such as NetBEUI or IPX. In
conventional networks with routers, broadcast traffic is split up into separate
domains to confine this traffic to the originating group and provide a much cleaner
network environment. Instead of using physically separate subnets which are linked
by traditionally slow routers, this switch creates segregated broadcast domains
based on easily configurable VLANs, and then links these VLANs as required with
wire-speed routing.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the
network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a
new VLAN without having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily
organized to reflect departmental groups (such as Marketing or R&D), usage groups
(such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia applications such as
videoconferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and allow
you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses or IP subnets.
VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security since traffic must pass
through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a different VLAN.
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
• Up to 256 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
• Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit tagging
and GVRP protocol
• Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
• End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
• Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
• Priority tagging
4-4
Virtual LANs
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to the VLAN
group(s) in which it will participate (page 2-38 and 3-31). By default all ports are
assigned to VLAN 1 as untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port (i.e., a port
attached to a VLAN-aware device) if you want it to carry traffic for one or more
VLANs and if the device at the other end of the link also supports VLANs (page 2-35
and 3-29). Then assign the port at the other end of the link to the same VLAN(s).
However, if you want a port on this switch to participate in one or more VLANs, but
the device at the other end of the link does not support VLANs, then you must add
this port as an untagged port (that is, a port attached to a VLAN-unaware device).
VLAN Classification
When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in one of two ways. If the
frame is untagged, the switch assigns the frame to an associated VLAN (based on
the PVID of the receiving port (page 2-35 and 3-29). But if the frame is tagged, the
switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping
Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly shared network
resources among different VLAN groups such as file servers or printers. Note that if
you implement VLANs which do not overlap, but still need to communicate, you can
connect them by using a Layer-3 router or switch.
Port-based VLANs
Port-based (or static) VLANs are manually tied to specific ports. The switch’s
forwarding decision is based on the destination MAC address and its associated port.
Therefore, to make valid forwarding or flooding decisions, the switch must learn the
relationship of the MAC address to its related port—and thus to the VLAN—at
run-time. However, when GVRP is enabled, this process can be fully automatic.
Automatic VLAN Registration (GVRP)
GVRP defines a system whereby the switch can automatically learn the VLANs to
which each endstation should be assigned. If an endstation (or its network adapter)
supports the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN protocol, it can be configured to broadcast a
message to your network indicating the VLAN groups it wants to join. When this
switch receives these messages, it will automatically place the receiving port in the
specified VLANs, and then forward the message to all other ports. When the
message arrives at another switch that supports GVRP, it will also place the
receiving port in the specified VLANs, and pass the message on to all other ports.
VLAN requirements are propagated in this way throughout the network. This allows
GVRP-compliant devices to be automatically configured for VLAN groups based
solely on endstation requests.
4-5
Advanced Topics
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the
switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To forward a
frame from a VLAN-aware device to a VLAN-unaware device, the switch first
decides where to forward the frame, and then strips off the VLAN tag. However, to
forward a frame from a VLAN-unaware device to a VLAN-aware device, the switch
first decides where to forward the frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting this
port’s default VID. The default PVID is VLAN 1 for all ports, but this can be changed
(see page 2-35 or 3-29).
VLAN aware
VLAN aware
VLAN 1,3
(802.1Q tags)
VLAN 1,2
(802.1Q tags)
VLAN aware
trunk
VLAN 1,2,3
(802.1Q tags)
VLAN aware
VLAN 1,2,3
(802.1Q tags)
VLAN aware
4-6
VLAN 1,3
(untagged)
VLAN unaware
Multicast Filtering
Multicast Filtering
Multicasting sends data to a group of nodes instead of a single destination. The
simplest way to implement multicasting is to broadcast data to all nodes on the
network. However, such an approach wastes a great deal of bandwidth if the target
group is small compared to the overall broadcast domain.
Because applications such as videoconferencing and data sharing are now widely
used, efficient multicasting has become vital. A common approach is to use a group
registration protocol that allows nodes to join or leave multicast groups. A switch or
router can then easily determine which ports contain group members and send data
out to those ports only. This procedure is called multicast filtering.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s
performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing
multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead of flooding traffic to all
ports in the subnet (VLAN).
The switch supports multicast filtering by passively monitoring IGMP Query and
Report messages and VMRP Probe messages to register end-stations as multicast
group members (Layer 2), but also by actively sending GMRP Query messages to
learn the location of multicast routers/switches and member hosts in multicast
groups within each VLAN (Layer 3).
IGMP Snooping
A Layer 2 switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report packets
transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast host groups to
identify the IP multicast group members. It simply monitors the IGMP packets
passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and configures
multicast filters accordingly. IGMP Snooping generates no additional network traffic,
and allows you to significantly reduce the multicast traffic passing through your
switch.
IGMP Protocol
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) runs between hosts and their
immediately adjacent multicast router/switch. IGMP is a multicast host registration
protocol that allows any host to inform its local router that it wants to receive
transmissions addressed to a specific multicast group.
A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask their hosts if they want to
receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/switch on the LAN
performing IP multicasting, one of these devices is elected “querier” and assumes
the role of querying the LAN for group members. It then propagates the service
requests on to any adjacent multicast switch/router to ensure that it will continue to
receive the multicast service.
Based on the group membership information learned from IGMP, a router/switch can
determine which (if any) multicast traffic needs to be forwarded to each of its ports.
At Layer 3, multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing
protocol such as DVMRP, to support IP multicasting across the Internet.
4-7
Advanced Topics
Note that IGMP neither alters nor routes IP multicast packets. A multicast routing
protocol must be used to deliver IP multicast packets across different subnetworks.
GMRP Protocol
GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to register
endstations with multicast groups. GMRP requires that any participating network
devices or endstations comply with the IEEE 802.1p standard. Compliant
endstations can request to receive traffic from a multicast group simply by issuing a
join packet that includes a known multicast address. When the join packet reaches a
port on the switch, it configures this port to receive multicast traffic for the requested
group, and then issues a similar join packet to all other ports on the switch, informing
them that incoming multicast traffic for the stated group is to be forwarded to the
requesting port.
Class-of-Service (CoS) Support
The switch provides two transmit queues on each port, with a weighted fair queuing
scheme. This function can be used to provide independent priorities for various
types of data, such as real-time video or voice, and best-effort data.
Priority assignment to a packet in the switch can be accomplished in any of the
following ways:
• Priority can be explicitly assigned by endstations which have applications that
require a higher priority than best-effort. This switch utilizes the IEEE 802.1p and
802.1Q tag structure to decide priority assignments for the received packets.
• A port may be manually configured as high priority. In this case, when any other
port receives traffic from a high-priority port, that traffic is automatically placed in
the high-priority output queue.
4-8
Security Features
Security Features
The switch provides security features which allow you to control management
access and network access as described in the following sections.
SNMP Community Strings
Access to the switch using network management tools is controlled by SNMP
community strings. This switch supports up to five community strings. A character
string indicating the access rights of the management community must be provided
whenever you send an SNMP message to the switch. Each community has either
read-only or read/write access rights. A community that has read-only access can
use only GET and GETNEXT commands to view the current configuration settings
and status of the switch. But a community with read/write access can use GET and
GETNEXT commands, as well as the SET command to configure the switch.
User Name and Passwords
This switch can also be accessed via a direct connection to the console port or
through a network connection using Telnet or a Web browser. When managing the
switch by any of these means, a user name and password is required to enter the
system. The factory defaults include two sets of user names and passwords. One
set has administrator rights, which allows you to view or modify system parameters.
The other set has read-only access, which allows you to view the status of the
system, but not to modify it.
MAC Address Filters
If you discover that some nodes are sending abnormal or destructive data that could
adversely affect the network or cause security problems, you can set their MAC
addresses to be filtered by the switch. Any packets with a source or destination
address listed in the MAC address filter will then be dropped by the switch upon
entry.
Address Learning
The learning function enables ports to learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair
of received frames. After all current network nodes have been registered, learning
may be disabled as a security feature to ensure that frames from any station with an
unknown MAC address are filtered.
SNMP Management Software
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a communication protocol
designed specifically for managing devices or other elements on a network. Network
equipment commonly managed with SNMP includes hubs, switches, bridges,
routers and host computers. SNMP is typically used to configure these devices for
proper operation in a network environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate
performance and detect potential problems.
4-9
Advanced Topics
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
Remote Monitoring provides a cost-effective way to monitor large networks by
placing embedded or external probes on distributed network equipment (hubs,
switches or routers). RMON has already become a valuable tool for network
managers faced with a quickly changing network landscape that contains dozens to
hundreds of separate segments. RMON is the only way to retain control of the
network and analyze applications running at multi-megabit speeds. It provides the
tools you need to implement either reactive or proactive policies that can keep your
network running based on real-time access to key statistical information.
This switch provides support for mini-RMON which contains the four key groups
required for basic remote monitoring. These groups include:
Statistics: Includes all the tools needed to monitor your network for common errors
and overall traffic rates. Information is provided on bandwidth utilization, peak
utilization, packet types, errors and collisions, as well as the distribution of packet
sizes.
History: Can be used to create a record of network utilization, packet types, errors
and collisions. You need a historical record of activity to be able to track down
intermittent or recurring problems. Historical data can also be used to establish
normal baseline activity, which may reveal problems associated with high traffic
levels, broadcast storms, or other unusual events. Historical information can also be
used to predict network growth and to plan for expansion before your network
becomes overloaded.
Alarms: Can be set to test data over any specified time interval, and can monitor
absolute or changing values (such as a statistical counter reaching a specific value,
or a statistic changing by a certain amount over the set interval). Alarms can be set
to respond to either rising or falling thresholds.
Events: Defines the action to take when an alarm is triggered. The response to an
alarm can include recording the alarm in the Log Table or sending a message to a
trap manager. Note that the Alarm and Event Groups are used together to record
important events or respond immediately to critical network problems.
4-10
Appendix A: Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Chart
Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using
Telnet, Web browser, or
SNMP software
• Be sure you have configured the agent with a valid IP address, subnet
mask and default gateway (Layer 2).
• If you are trying to connect to the agent via a specified tagged VLAN
group, your management station must include the appropriate tag in its
transmitted frames.
• Check that you have a valid network connection to the switch and that
the port you are using has not been disabled.
• Check network cabling between the management station and the
switch.
• If you cannot connect using Telnet, there may already be four active
sessions. Try connecting again at a later time.
Cannot access
the on-board configuration
program via a serial port
connection
• Be sure you have set the terminal emulator program to VT100
compatible, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, and 19200 bps.
Forgot or lost the
password
• Enter “ResetSystem” for the user name, with no password.
• Check that the null-modem serial cable conforms to the pin-out
connections provided in Appendix B.
A-1
Troubleshooting
Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port
You can upgrade system firmware by connecting your computer to the serial port on
the switch and using a console interface package that supports the XModem
protocol. (See “Required Connections” on page 1-1.)
1. Restart the system by using the Restart System command, or by pulling out the
power cord to reset the power, waiting five seconds, and plugging it back in.
2. When the system initialization screen appears as shown below, press “D” to
download system firmware, and then indicate the code type (<r> Runtime image
or <d> Diagnostic image).
POST Version
V2.58.A03 11/03/2000
------ Power-On Self Test (POST)-----Int. Loopback Testing SCC2 UART Channel ... PASS
Testing the System SDRAM .................. PASS
Int. Loopback Testing 1 UART Channel ... PASS
Int. Loopback Testing 2 UART Channel ... PASS
CPU Self Test ............................. PASS
Test Accessing Agent's Config EEPROM ...... PASS
FlashROM CheckSum Test .................... PASS
!!! If you want to download image file, Please press < D > to download:
!!!
Download Runtime image, press < r >
!!!
Download Diagnostic image, press < d >
!!!
Clear the system parameter block < c >r
Please input the Baud Rate as following :
Press 1: Baud Rate = 9600
Press 2: Baud Rate = 19200
Press 3: Baud Rate = 38400
Press 4: Baud Rate = 57600
Press 5: Baud Rate = 115200
Select a number and then press <ENTER> !!! 5
Please change local console BaudRate to exact rate and press <ENTER>!!!
3. Change your baud rate to the selected value and press Enter to enable
download. From the terminal emulation program, select the file you want to
download, set the protocol to XModem, and then initialize downloading.
Notes: 1. If you use Windows HyperTerminal, disconnect
reconnect
.
A-2
, set the baud rate, and
Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port
4. After the file has been downloaded, the console screen will display information
similar to that shown below. Press Enter to download to permanent memory,
change the baud rate back to 19200, press Enter to start decompressing the new
firmware, then press Enter to open the Log-on screen.
XModem Download to 0x00400020: ... SUCCESS !
(P)ermanent or (T)emporary Download: [P]
Update RunTime Image at 0x03040000 ... ... SUCCESS !
Change to original Baud Rate and Press <ENTER> to Run Application !!!
Decompress now............ !!!
run-time code starting now. !!! Starting System...
MAINBOARD OCTOPUS0 RAMBIST TEST......... PASS!
MAINBOARD OCTOPUS1 RAMBIST TEST......... PASS!
MAINBOARD OCTOPUS2 RAMBIST TEST......... PASS!
MAINBOARD OCTOPUS3 RAMBIST TEST......... PASS!
MAINBOARD DOLPHIN RAMBIST TEST......... PASS!
MAINBOARD STARFISH RAMBIST TEST......... PASS!
Press <Enter> to start UI
For details on managing the switch, refer to Chapter 2 for information on the
out-of-band console interface, or Chapter 3 for information on the Web interface.
A-3
Troubleshooting
A-4
Appendix B: Pin Assignments
Console Port Pin Assignments
The DB-9 serial port on the switch’s rear panel is used to connect to the switch for
out-of-band console configuration. The onboard menu-driven configuration program
can be accessed from a terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation program.
The pin assignments used to connect to the serial port are provided in the following
tables.
DB-9 Port Pin Assignments
EIA
Circuit
BB
BA
AB
CCITT
Signal
104
103
102
Description
RxD (Received Data)
TxD (Transmitted Data)
SGND (Signal Ground)
Switch’s DB9
DTE Pin #
2
3
5
PC DB9 DTE
Pin #
2
3
5
No other pins are used.
Console Port to 9-Pin DTE Port on PC
Switch’s 9-Pin Serial
Port
2 RXD
3 TXD
5 SGND
Null Modem
<---------TXD ----------------------RXD ---------->
-----------SGND ----------
PC’s 9-Pin DTE Port
3 TXD
2 RXD
5 SGND
No other pins are used.
Console Port to 25-Pin DTE Port on PC
Switch’s 9-Pin Serial
Port
2 RXD
3 TXD
5 SGND
Null Modem
<---------TXD ----------------------RXD ---------->
-----------SGND ----------
PC’s 25-Pin DTE Port
2 TXD
3 RXD
7 SGND
No other pins are used.
B-1
Pin Assignments
B-2
Glossary
Bandwidth Utilization
The historical percentage of packets received as compared to total bandwidth.
BOOTP
Boot protocol used to load the operating system for devices connected to the
network.
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
Defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to register
necessary VLAN members on ports along the Spanning Tree so that VLANs defined
in each switch can work automatically over a Spanning Tree network.
Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
GARP is a protocol that can be used by endstations and switches to register and
propagate multicast group membership information in a switched environment so
that multicast data frames are propagated only to those parts of a switched LAN
containing registered endstations. Formerly called Group Address Registration
Protocol.
Generic Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP)
GMRP allows network devices to register endstations with multicast groups. GMRP
requires that any participating network devices or endstations comply with the IEEE
802.1p standard.
Group Attribute Registration Protocol
See Generic Attribute Registration Protocol.
IEEE 802.1D
Specifies a general method for the operation of MAC bridges, including the
Spanning Tree Protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN Tagging—Defines Ethernet frame tags which carry VLAN information. It
allows switches to assign endstations to different virtual LANs, and defines a
standard way for VLANs to communicate across switched networks.
IEEE 802.3ac
Defines frame extensions for VLAN tagging.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Commonly used to send echo messages (i.e., Ping) for monitoring purposes.
Glossary-1
Glossary
IGMP Snooping
Listening to IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP Multicast
Routers and IP Multicast host groups to identify IP Multicast group members.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Commonly used to send echo messages (i.e., Ping) for monitoring purposes.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
A protocol through which hosts can register with their local router for multicast
services. If there is more than one multicast router on a given subnetwork, one of the
routers is made the “querier” and assumes responsibility for keeping track of group
membership.
In-Band Management
Management of the network from a station attached directly to the network.
IP Multicast Filtering
A process whereby this switch can pass multicast traffic along to participating hosts.
Layer 2
Data Link layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This is related
directly to the hardware interface for network devices and passes on traffic based on
MAC addresses.
Layer 3
Network layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This layer handles
the routing functions for data moving from one open system to another.
Link Aggregation
See Port Trunk.
Management Information Base (MIB)
An acronym for Management Information Base. It is a set of database objects that
contains information about a specific device.
Multicast Switching
A process whereby the switch filters incoming multicast frames for services for
which no attached host has registered, or forwards them to all ports contained within
the designated multicast VLAN group.
Out-of-Band Management
Management of the network from a station not attached to the network.
Glossary-2
Glossary
Port Mirroring
A method whereby data on a target port is mirrored to a monitor port for
troubleshooting with a logic analyzer or RMON probe. This allows data on the target
port to be studied unobstructively.
Port Trunk
Defines a network link aggregation and trunking method which specifies how to
create a single high-speed logical link that combines several lower-speed physical
links.
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
RMON provides comprehensive network monitoring capabilities. It eliminates the
polling required in standard SNMP, and can set alarms on a variety of traffic
conditions, including specific error types.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The application protocol in the Internet suite of protocols which offers network
management services.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
A technology that checks your network for any loops. A loop can often occur in
complicated or backup linked network systems. Spanning Tree detects and directs
data along the shortest available path, maximizing the performance and efficiency of
the network.
Telnet
Defines a remote communication facility for interfacing to a terminal device over
TCP/IP.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
A TCP/IP protocol commonly used for software downloads.
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that share the same collision domain
regardless of their physical location or connection point in the network. A VLAN
serves as a logical workgroup with no physical barriers, and allows users to share
information and resources as though located on the same LAN.
XModem
A protocol used to transfer files between devices. Data is grouped in 128-byte
blocks and error-corrected.
Glossary-3
Glossary
Glossary-4
Index
Numerics
802.1p port priority 2-36, 3-30, 4-8
802.1Q VLANs 2-35, 3-28, 4-4
802.3x flow control 2-25, 3-18
A
address aging time 2-33, 3-26
address filters
configuration menus 2-40, 3-33
auto-negotiation 2-25, 3-18
B
baud rate, configuring 2-13, 3-6
BOOTP
enabling 2-10, 3-11
for IP configuration 1-2
BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Units) 4-3
C
community names, SNMP 2-15, 3-12
configuration, saving and
restoring 2-20, 3-16
connections
serial port 1-1
Web browser 1-2
console port
configuring 2-13, 3-6
connections 1-1
pin assignments B-1
CoS (Class of Service) 2-36, 3-30, 4-8
D
default gateway 2-10, 3-11
device control menu 2-22, 3-17
downloading software 2-19, 3-15, A-2
F
firmware
information 2-7, 3-9
upgrading A-2
version 2-7
flow control, configuring 2-25, 3-18
G
GARP (Group Address Registration
Protocol), configuring 2-36, 3-29
GMRP (GARP Mulitcast Registration
Protocol)
description 4-8
enable for switch 2-33, 3-26
enable for VLAN 2-37, 3-30
GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration
Protocol)
description 4-5
enable for switch 2-33, 3-26
enable for VLAN 2-37, 3-30
H
hardware information 2-7, 3-9
HTTP configuration 2-12
I
IGMP (Internet Group Management
Protocol) 2-39, 3-32
description 4-7
querier 4-7
query and report messages 4-7
snooping configuration 2-38, 3-32
IGMP snooping, description 4-7
in-band connections 1-2
IP
configuring addresses 2-10, 3-11
multicast registration table 2-57,
3-42
trap managers 2-16, 3-13
L
link aggregation 2-27, 3-21
logging off 2-58
log-in
configuration 2-17, 3-14
console interface 2-1
Web interface 3-3
M
MAC address table 2-50, 3-38
main menu 2-3, 3-7
management
options 1-1
setup menu 2-8, 3-10
SNMP software 4-9
menu map 2-2, 3-2
mirror port, configuring 2-26, 3-20
Index-1
Index
monitor port, configuring 2-26, 3-20
multicast
description 4-2
filtering 4-7
querier 4-7
registration table 2-57, 3-42
static address table 2-30, 3-24
N
network configuration 2-9, 3-11
network monitor menu 2-43, 3-34
O
out-of-band connection 1-1
P
password configuration 2-17, 3-14
pin assignments
25-pin DTE port B-1
pin assignments, console port B-1
Ping test 2-11
port
auto-negotiation 2-25, 3-18
configuration 2-24, 3-18
default priority 2-36, 3-29
default VID 2-36, 3-29
overlapping (VLANs) 4-5
priority threshold 2-33, 3-26
STA information 2-53, 3-40
statistics 2-44, 2-45, 3-34, 3-35
trunk configuration 2-27, 3-21
priority threshold 2-33, 3-26
problems, troubleshooting A-1
PVID 2-36, 3-29, 4-5
Q
quality of service, priority
threshold 2-33, 3-26
configuring MAC addresses 2-41,
3-33
security filters, configuring 2-40, 3-33
serial port
configuring 2-13, 3-6
connections 1-1
XModem downloads A-2
SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol)
configuration 2-14, 3-12
description 4-9
management 1-2
software downloads 2-19, 3-15, A-2
STA (Spanning Tree Algorithm) 4-3
algorithm 4-3
bridge configuration 2-32, 3-25
bridge information 2-52, 3-39
configuration 2-31, 3-25
displaying current settings 2-51,
3-38
port configuration 2-34, 3-27
port information 2-53, 3-40
statistics
Ethernet 2-45, 3-35
port 2-44, 3-34
RMON 2-48, 3-37
switch configuration 2-22, 3-17
switching
multicast 4-2
unicast 4-1
system
information 2-5, 3-8
restart menu 2-58, 3-42
T
restarting the system 2-58, 3-42
restoring system configuration 2-20,
3-16
RMON (Remote Monitoring) 4-10
statistics 2-48, 3-37
tagged ports 4-5
TFTP downloads 2-19, 3-15
timeout, console 2-13, 3-6
traffic classes, configuring 2-36, 3-30,
4-8
trap managers, configuring 2-16, 3-13
troubleshooting A-1
trunk configuration 2-27, 3-21
S
U
saving system configuration 2-20, 3-16
screen refresh 2-13, 3-6
security filter table
unicast
address table 2-50, 3-38
static address table 2-29, 3-23
R
Index-2
Index
switching 4-1
untagged ports 2-36, 3-30, 4-5
upgrading software 2-19, 3-15, A-2
user password 2-1, 2-18, 3-3, 3-14
V
VLANs (Virtual LANs)
assigning ports 4-5
configuring 2-35, 3-28
description 4-4, 4-5
GVRP 4-5
port configuration 2-35, 3-29
port overlapping 4-5
PVID 4-5
table configuration 2-38, 3-31
tagged frames 4-6
tagging 2-36, 3-30
untagged frames 4-6
W
Web
access requirements 3-1
agent configuration 2-12
browser connection 1-2
Web interface
configuration buttons 3-4
home page 3-3
menu map 3-2
panel display 3-5
X
XModem download A-2
Index-3
Index
Index-4
E012002-R02
150200001400A
F01.06
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