Server Consolidation with SQL Server 2008
Writer: Martin Ellis
Reviewer: Prem Mehra,Lindsey Allen, Tiffany Wissner, Sambit Samal
Published: March 2009
Applies to: SQL Server 2008
Summary: This White Paper outlines the benefits and savings that you can make by
consolidating your databases on SQL Server 2008.
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2
Contents
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 4
Forces Driving Consolidation ....................................................................................... 4
Key Enablers for Consolidation .................................................................................... 6
The Trend towards Consolidation ................................................................................ 8
Options for Consolidating with SQL Server 2008 ............................................................ 8
Multiple Databases Consolidated to a Single Database .............................................. 9
Multiple Databases Consolidated to a SQL Server 2008 Instance ............................... 9
Multiple SQL Server 2008 Instances per Physical Server .......................................... 10
Multiple Virtual Machines per Physical Server (Virtualization) ................................... 12
Considerations for Choosing a Server Consolidation Strategy .................................. 14
Choosing the Appropriate Edition of SQL Server 2008 for Consolidation ..................... 15
Support for Hardware Resources............................................................................... 16
Licensing .................................................................................................................... 16
High Availability.......................................................................................................... 17
Data Compression and Backup Compression ........................................................... 18
Security ...................................................................................................................... 19
Scalability and Performance ...................................................................................... 20
Manageability ............................................................................................................. 21
Centralizing management with SQL Server Management Studio .......................... 21
Enforcing configuration policy compliance with policy-based management ........... 21
Centralizing and consolidating monitoring using Data Collector ............................ 21
Migration and Integration ........................................................................................... 22
Enterprise Edition / Standard Edition Features Comparison Summary...................... 22
Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 23
3
Introduction
In the light of recent economic events, organizations around the world now need to
operate in a more challenging environment, and as a result, many are seeking ways to
minimize the costs associated with maintaining and developing their IT infrastructures.
While cutting budgets is one way that this can be achieved, making the right strategic
investments in their IT infrastructures will help companies to reduce costs and at the
same time to develop and maintain their competitive edge. Organizations that take this
approach will see savings in the short term, and will be best positioned to take
advantage when the economic climate improves.
Over the last few years, organizations have tended to use increasing numbers of
applications to manage business processes, provide new services, and gain insights
into business performance. Consequently, the number of application servers and data
storage servers that are required to support those applications has grown significantly.
In many organizations, the hardware costs and the overhead of deploying and
maintaining multiple servers throughout the enterprise is a major financial and logistical
challenge.
At the same time, advances in hardware and software technologies have opened up
opportunities to reduce costs through consolidation. Consolidation is simply the act of
gathering applications from multiple physical locations to a single location. It can occur
either by installing all of those applications onto a single physical machine or by creating
multiple “virtual” computers on one physical set of hardware. This results in better
utilization of available hardware capacity. Modern IT servers can handle significantly
greater workloads, meaning that it is now possible to consolidate servers without
sacrificing performance or availability. The costs associated with buying and maintaining
servers are reduced and administration is more efficient, which in turn yields further
savings.
Forces Driving Consolidation
Organizations are turning to consolidation with increasing frequency, and not only
because of the obvious financial benefits. Companies that consider server consolidation
may do so for a number of very compelling reasons, including:
4

Reduced overall total cost of ownership (TCO). In the current economic
climate, keeping costs down is imperative. Consolidation can help you to achieve
this is several ways:

Reduced administration. By standardizing and reducing the number of servers,
businesses reduce the complexity of the infrastructure they must administer.
Fewer support staff can therefore manage the same service demands. For
international companies, this standardization also facilitates the provision of 24/7
support using worldwide support resources.
5

Reduced operations costs. Increase in service capacity and growth are
achieved with better utilization of resources. Typically, fewer servers are
required, resulting in hardware and power savings.

Reduced data center costs. Site space formerly used for IT services can be
returned to the business, and existing facilities can be used more efficiently.

Reduced revenue loss through higher uptime/availability. Consolidation
reduces the cost of implementing high-availability solutions, which reduces
revenue losses due to downtime.

Improved service management. By standardizing and reducing the complexity
of service infrastructure, organizations facilitate more effective service
management processes, tools, and automated system administration.

Simplified contingency planning solutions. A simpler service infrastructure
means that more services can be restored when a site failure occurs.

Reduced licensing costs. In most consolidation scenarios, licensing is reduced
because there are fewer servers that require licenses. However, even when this
is not the case, the other savings you make will still result in a lower TCO.

Improved quality of service (QoS). Consolidation improves up-time and can
deliver better performing systems.

Increased reliability and availability. Server consolidation makes it more
economic to provide high-availability configurations and dedicated support staff.
Organizations also benefit from implementing better storage management and
service continuity solutions.

Improved performance. Standardized systems deliver more predictable
performance, and proprietary technologies such as data compression can
improve query response times.

Improved infrastructure agility. In uncertain times, flexibility and the ability to
respond quickly to changing needs of the business can help to maintain the
competitive edge. Consolidation results in a more standardized, centralized and
dynamic infrastructure, which makes it possible for systems to be more
responsive to change and to quickly adapt to business needs.

Improved consistency. Consolidating on a single platform improves
interoperability, and makes your systems more productive and easier to manage:

Better integration. Using a single platform makes for better systems integration,
which improves data consistency and reduces the complexity of tasks such as
extract, transform, and load (ETL) operations.

Centralized management. Because consolidation facilitates centralized
management, it becomes easier to implement standard policies across your
systems.

Reduced carbon footprint. With greater emphasis on sustainability, many
organizations are striving to reduce the environmental impact that their activities
have. Consolidation enables organizations to reduce their energy consumption
by using less hardware as well as by using that hardware more efficiently.

Improved resource utilization. Organizations may already have the resources
that they need in order to consolidate. It is not uncommon for companies that
possess powerful servers to be using only a relatively small percentage of those
servers’ capacity. Consolidating by using these servers enables a company to
make more efficient use of their resources and requires no extra investment in
hardware.
Key Enablers for Consolidation
The growing interest in consolidation is due to several factors that make it a realistic
proposition for more organizations than before:

6
Improvements in hardware. Consolidation relies upon hardware that can
handle the increased workload that consolidating brings. However, consolidation
does not necessarily require a large investment in high-end servers, and can
often be achieved by using standard commodity hardware. In recent years,
powerful servers have become available to more organizations as prices have
become more affordable. Processors and other hardware have increased in
power, with 64-bit systems, multi-core and multi-processor systems now
commonplace. Dedicated technologies, such as AMD-V and Intel VT, exist to
enable optimal performance in virtualized environments.Data storage systems
with improved I/O, including storage area networks (SANs) and network attached
storage (NAS) are no longer the preserve of high-performance critical workloads.
All of this makes it possible to reduce costs by employing a smaller number of
more powerful machines to host consolidated services.

Improvements in software. As hardware has improved, so has the software
that can take advantage of it. The rich feature set offered by Microsoft® SQL
Server ® 2008 Enterprise Edition, coupled with the virtualization capabilities of
Microsoft Windows Server® 2008, provides a robust, reliable, high-performance
platform for consolidation. Specifically, SQL Server 2008 offers:
o Flexible deployment options that enable consolidation in many different
scenarios, from a small number of databases on a single instance to
multiple instances running in their own dedicated virtual operating
systems.
o Administrative tools, such as SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS),
Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM), and System Center Virtual
Machine Manager (SCVMM), that enable you to centrally manage,
monitor, and troubleshoot consolidated data systems, resulting in greater
efficiency.
o Scalability and performance features that enable your databases to grow
without a loss in performance. For example, Resource Governor enables
you to manage contention between applications for resources by
prioritizing competing workloads.
o Powerful tools and technologies that you can use to migrate data and
databases when creating your consolidated solution. These include
backup and restore, attach and detach, and SQL Server Integration
Services, a powerful extract, transform, and load (ETL) utility that ships
with SQL Server 2008 at no extra cost. There are also tools that make it
straightforward to upgrade and migrate SQL Server 2000 and SQL Server
2005 databases into a consolidated SQL Server 2008 environment.
o A range of high-availability technologies, including up to 16-node clusters
and improved failover cluster support when used with Windows Server
2008.
7

Advances in networking technologies and improvements in bandwidth. To
ensure efficient response times for servers on networks that have multiple sites
and limited bandwidth, it has been common practice to place servers within each
site on the network. However, as bandwidth availability and networking
technologies have improved, it has become possible to centralize servers while
maintaining acceptable response times.

Virtualization. The advent of hypervisor based hardware virtualization software
such as Hyper-V™, available with Windows Server 2008, makes it possible to
reduce the number of physical servers by replacing them with virtual servers.
You can run many virtual servers on a single physical server and move virtual
machines from one physical server to another with ease, making it possible to
redistribute workloads and to move from test to production environments quickly
and with little or no disruption. Virtual servers share the hardware resources of
their physical host server, but each virtual server is isolated from the others, has
dedicated resources allocated to it, and can be configured with independent
security settings as well as other features.
The Trend towards Consolidation
Throughout the industry, there is a growing trend towards consolidation as more
companies respond to the drivers and enablers outlined above. In the current economic
climate, it is not difficult to see why this is the case, given the savings that consolidation
can deliver. Based on research published in a recent Forrester Consulting report( June
2008 “The Forrester Wave™: IT Consolidation Consultancies, Q2 2008” ), Table 1
shows the aggregated responses of various companies to the question:
What are the top database initiatives you are currently pursuing for your enterprise
databases?
Database standardization
43.9%
Clustering and virtualization
41.2%
Automate database administration
38.5%
Database consolidation
37.2%
Database archiving (information life-cycle management)
33.1%
Table 1: Trend towards consolidation
Options for Consolidating with SQL Server 2008
There are four main options for using SQL Server 2008 as a platform for consolidation:
8

Multiple databases consolidated into a single database

Multiple databases consolidated to a SQL Server 2008 instance

Multiple SQL Server 2008 instances per physical server

Multiple virtual machines per physical server (virtualization)
Multiple Databases Consolidated to a Single Database
In some cases, it may be possible to consolidate multiple databases into a single
database in a single instance, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Multiple databases consolidated to a single instance
For example, separate departmental databases could be subsumed into a single
database, assuming that there are no operational or security barriers to prevent this.
Applications that query the existing databases will be able to query the consolidated
database with, typically, minimal re-coding required. Maintaining just one database is
generally simpler and more cost-effective than maintaining multiple databases because,
typically, fewer servers are required, backup management can be simplified (although
individual backups can take longer), and you can use Resource Governor to manage
contention.
Multiple Databases Consolidated to a SQL Server 2008 Instance
Probably the simplest approach to consolidation is to use a single instance of SQL
Server 2008 with multiple databases, as shown in Figure 2. This approach is suitable
when all of your databases have similar security, manageability, and compatibility
requirements, and your hardware can provide the required level of performance and
scalability for the workloads that are generated in all of the databases. The benefits of
this approach include lower licensing and administrative costs, because you need to
license and manage only one instance. Also, because each SQL Server instance that
you install requires its own resources in terms of memory, disk, and so on, running a
single instance makes better use of the available hardware than running multiple
instances.
9
The number of databases that you can host will be dictated in part by the available
hardware and the edition of SQL Server 2008 that you are using. SQL Server 2008
Standard Edition supports up to 4 CPUs; SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition is limited
only by the limitations of the host operating system. Within a single instance, you can
use Resource Governor to prioritize workloads and to prevent queries that dominate
resource consumption and deny access to CPU and memory resources to other
applications.
Figure 2: Multiple databases in a single SQL Server 2008 instance
Multiple SQL Server 2008 Instances per Physical Server
A single-instance, multiple-database strategy may not always be appropriate, for
example, in situations where you have databases with different security, manageability,
or compatibility requirements. When this is the case, you can obtain the required level of
isolation by running multiple instances of SQL Server 2008 concurrently on a single
server to consolidate your data services. This approach is illustrated in Figure 3.
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Figure 3: Multiple instances of SQL server 2008 on a single server
Security is tighter because each instance has its own set of services, and you can
prevent users from accessing data not just by denying them access at the database
level, but at the server instance level. Furthermore, the authentication mode for each
instance (SQL Server and Microsoft Windows® or Windows only) can be configured
separately. By selectively enabling features such as CLR integration on only the
instances where they are required, you can maintain minimal surface area exposure.
However, this strategy does not enable complete isolation, because the sysadmin role
can still access all instances on the machine.
Using this strategy, administrative functions such as backups of system databases are
also isolated, and you can use Resource Governor within each instance to manage
resource allocation for that instance. Using multiple instances to consolidate puts
greater strain on the server, because each instance has its own resource requirements
and you must take account of this when assessing your hardware requirements.
The edition of SQL Server 2008 that you use will determine the maximum number of
instances that you can host per server. As you can see from Table 2, SQL Server 2008
Enterprise Edition offers the greatest number of instances per server (up to 50) and is
generally the better choice for larger implementations and those that need the flexibility
to grow.
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Edition
Maximum instances
SQL Server 2008 Standard Edition
16*
SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition
50*
*Depending upon available system resources and workload
Table 2: Multi-instance support in SQL Server 2008
Multiple Virtual Machines per Physical Server (Virtualization)
For complete isolation at the operating system level, you can use a virtualization
technology such as Microsoft Windows Hyper-V to host multiple virtual database
servers on a single physical server, as illustrated in Figure 4. By using Microsoft
Windows Server 2008 with the Hyper-V role, you can install multiple virtual operating
systems on one computer and each of these virtual operating systems can host multiple
instances of SQL Server 2008. By consolidating using virtualization, you achieve a good
level of isolation between databases with different workloads, security requirements,
manageability requirements, or compatibility requirements. The benefits are that you
minimize the number of servers and licenses required and simplify the network
infrastructure.
The hard disks of each virtual machine (VM) exist either as VHD files on the host
operating system, which makes them very easy to back up and move to other servers,
or as pass-through disks, which are physical disks that are allocated for the sole use of
the virtual machine, and which provide excellent I/O performance. VMs provide an ideal
environment for development and testing, because you do not need to maintain test
environments that consist of multiple physical servers, and deployment to a live
environment is simplified.
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Figure 4: Virtual database servers
While you can install any edition of SQL Server in a VM, the licensing condition for SQL
Server 2008 Enterprise Edition enables you to purchase one Windows license and one
SQL Server license for each physical processor on the server, and run an unlimited
number of VMs, each of which can host one or more SQL Server 2008 instances. This
makes it possible for a single powerful server to host as many SQL Server instances as
you require, and to add instances to it in the future without incurring extra licensing
costs.
You can migrate VMs between physical servers quickly and easily, and with minimal
downtime. This enables administrators to improve performance by making optimal use
of server resources, to scale databases as required, and to perform scheduled
maintenance, all with little or no impact on users. Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V
offers two mechanisms for migrating VMs: Quick Migration and Live Migration. Quick
migration involves saving, moving, and restoring a VM to a new machine, and its use
will usually involve a short period of downtime. Live migration enables the migration of
VMs with virtually no downtime using a “memory to memory” operation. You can use
Live Migration with both VHDs and network-attached pass-through disks.
Virtualization places a greater strain on servers than a simpler single or multiple
instance strategy, and you need to carefully assess the impact of each virtual machine
in terms of the resources it will consume. The AMD-V and Intel VT processor
architectures that Windows Hyper-V leverages are designed specifically for
virtualization, and they minimize the impact that running virtual machines has on a
system.
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The following table summarizes the differences between using multiple instances and
using multiple virtual machines for consolidation.
Multiple SQL Server
Instances
Multiple VMs
Isolation
Shared Windows instance
Dedicated Windows instance
CPU Resources
Number of CPUs visible to
Windows instance
Maximum
Windows 2008 – up to 4 virtual CPUs
Windows 2003 – up to 2 virtual CPUs
Memory
Server Limit
Statically allocated to VM
Flexible (max server memory)
Offline changes only
No ability to “over commit” memory
resources
64GB limit per VM
2 TB limit per Host
Storage
SQL Data Files with standard
storage options
SQL Data Files using pass-through or
Virtual Hard Disks exposed to VM
Resource Management
WSRM (process level)
Hyper-V guest VM
Number of instances
50
Practical limit determined by physical
resources
Support
Normal rules apply
SQL 2008 , SQL 2005
High Availability
Normal rules apply
DBM, Log Shipping
Table 3: Summary of differences between using multiple instances and multiple virtual machines for consolidation
Considerations for Choosing a Server Consolidation Strategy
Choosing a server consolidation strategy for database servers can present a number of
considerations. Key factors in deciding on the best consolidation strategy for your data
services include:
14

Hardware resources. Each consolidation approach has a different effect on
hardware resource usage. Consider whether 32-bit or 64-bit hardware will
provide the best performance and scalability for your solution. The general trend
is towards the use of 64-bit hardware.

Workload isolation. While the goal of consolidation is to reduce the number of
servers as much as possible, you should profile the workloads performed by
different database applications, and consider whether they should be isolated
from one another for performance or other reasons.

Application compatibility. Some applications may have specific requirements
for data access protocols, collation, or other configuration options that might be
incompatible with other applications.

Manageability. Consolidation generally simplifies management by centralizing
the resources that require management. However, you must consider the effect
of maintenance tasks, such as backups and index management, on the
consolidated system. You must also consider the security implications of
consolidation, because operators with administrative rights in one database
system might not require administrative rights in others.

Availability.Your consolidation strategy might affect your choice of a highavailability solution. For example, database mirroring provides failover protection
at the individual database level and server clustering protects the entire instance.
Additionally, database mirroring provides for lesser data loss in case of failures..

Security. In some cases, it may be prudent to isolate database applications for
security reasons. For example, one application might require that a feature be
enabled in the database server, such as common language runtime (CLR)
integration or Database Mail. If you isolate this database you can enable the
required functionality while retaining a minimal surface area for other database
applications.
The strategies outlined above illustrate the flexibility that you have when consolidating
on SQL Server 2008. Furthermore, these strategies are not mutually exclusive; for
example, your solution could blend the first two, using multiple instances on a single
server, with each instance hosting multiple databases. Whatever your current setup,
SQL Server 2008 provides all the flexibility that you will need to build the consolidation
solution that is right for your organization.
Choosing the Appropriate Edition of SQL Server 2008 for Consolidation
Consolidated systems present you with different challenges from non-consolidated
systems, so you need to choose an edition of SQL Server 2008 that can meet these
specific challenges. SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition is the natural choice because
of its superior hardware support, richer functionality, and better support for scalability
and future growth. The higher initial investment cost of Enterprise Edition when
compared to Standard Edition can be recouped very quickly through the savings it will
enable you to make and the losses in revenue that it can help you to avoid. For
15
example, on consolidated systems, the window for planned downtime is reduced and
the cost of unplanned downtime is increased, so an effective high-availability solution is
critical. Both SQL Server Standard Edition and SQL Server Enterprise Edition feature
server clustering, but only Enterprise Edition supports up to sixteen nodes (Standard
Edition supports just two). This enables you to handle multiple simultaneous unplanned
failovers as well as to manually failover for maintenance purposes without affecting
other applications, keeping your systems highly available, enabling you to meet SLAs,
and avoiding loss of revenue.
This section outlines the key features of SQL Server 2008 that enable consolidation,
and highlights why Enterprise Edition is the most appropriate platform for consolidation.
Support for Hardware Resources
SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition can support very large size of RAM (up to 2TB). It
also supports more processors than SQL Server 2008 Standard Edition (64 CPUs
compared to Standard’s 4), enabling Enterprise Edition to scale to true enterprise
deployments and making it possible for you to consolidate more databases onto fewer
physical servers. Table 3 compares the hardware support offered by SQL Server 2008
Standard Edition and SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition.
SQL Server 2008
Standard
SQL Server 2008
Enterprise
32-bit
64-bit
32-bit
64-bit
Maximum number of CPUs
4
4
32*
64*
Hot-swap CPU and RAM
No
No
Yes*
Yes*
* On Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition. (Windows Server 2008 R2 offers support for up to 256 logical CPUs.)
Table 4: Hardware support offered by SQL Server 2008 Standard Edition and SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition
In addition to better hardware support, SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition supports hot
swapping of CPUs and memory modules. This enables you to add resources and scale
up without incurring downtime.
Licensing
You can license SQL Server 2008 in per-server mode (with the appropriate number of
Client Access Licenses or CALs) or in per-processor mode. SQL Server 2008
Enterprise Edition offers special licensing conditions that can result in significant
savings for a consolidated system:
16

Server Licensing. A server license covers unlimited SQL Server instances on
the physical server and on any number of virtual machines.

Processor Licensing. As long as all of the physical processors on the server
are licensed, you can install unlimited instances on the physical server and also
on any number of virtual machines hosted on that server.

License mobility. You can move virtual machines freely between physical
servers without any licensing restrictions. This helps you to optimize the use of
available server capacity and redeploy virtual servers as required.
These licensing conditions apply to Enterprise Edition only.
High Availability
One of the most frequently voiced concerns about consolidation is that using fewer
servers increases the risk of system downtime if any servers fail. SQL Server 2008
Enterprise Edition offers comprehensive high-availability features that will help to keep
your systems highly available:

Failover clustering. Clustering offers automatic (or manual) failover of SQL
Server instances. SQL Server 2008 Standard Edition supports cluster with a
maximum of two nodes. SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition offers support for up
to 16-node clusters when used with Windows Server 2008, giving you greater
redundancy and more control over how services fail over, as discussed earlier.
Cluster Services in Windows Server 2008 features major improvements that
make it easier to create and manage clusters, and which offer better scalability
and reliability. The cluster validation tool helps you to verify the integrity of your
SQL Server 2008 failover cluster.

Database mirroring. Mirroring enables you to ensure that individual databases
remain available at all times. Using mirroring, you can maintain an exact copy
(mirror) of a database that becomes available to users through automatic failover
if the principal database becomes unavailable. Enhancements to mirroring in
SQL Server 2008 include:
o Log stream compression, which minimizes the network bandwidth used
when transferring data between the principal and the mirror databases.
o Automatic suspect page recovery using the mirror database. This removes
the need to manually recover individual pages from backup.
o Transparent redirection from any client on failover. Clients do not need to
be reconfigured to access the mirror database when failover occurs.
17
o With Enterprise Edition, you can mirror databases asynchronously.
Asynchronous mirroring (or mirroring in high-performance mode) offers
better performance because the principal server sends confirmations to
clients writing to the database without waiting for acknowledgement from
the mirror server. The trade-off is the risk of a small amount of data loss.

Peer-to-peer replication. Peer-to-peer transactional replication involves two or
more servers that replicate database changes to one another in near-real time.
This enables you to spread read operations over multiple servers and also
provides redundancy. Enhancements in SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition
include:
o Simplified configuration and management.
o The addition of nodes to a peer-to-peer replication configuration without
stopping system activity.
You can use these technologies together to ensure that databases and services remain
highly available. For example, you can cluster the physical (parent) server and use
database mirroring between SQL Server instances in virtual machines.
Data Compression and Backup Compression
Consolidated systems must often support very large volumes of data, which leads to
increased costs, especially when storage is handled through expensive SANs. Large
data volumes can also reduce the performance of a system because much of its
workload can involve moving data. One of the biggest bottlenecks on a database
system is I/O, but because compression minimizes the I/O for a given volume of data,
performance is improved. SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition supports data
compression, which enables you to store your data more effectively, reduces the cost of
storage on a consolidated system, and significantly improves performance for large I/Obound workloads. The amount of disk capacity that you can save can be significant. A
recent report by Forrester Consulting (Total Economic Impact of SQLServer 2008
Upgrade) found that for one organization:
“The data compression feature in SQL Server 2008 [Enterprise Edition] has significantly
reduced the amount of storage required. On average, the customer is reducing storage
space by 50%. It was able to free up one terabyte (TB) of storage space for the existing
2005 SQL Server databases. Additionally, the amount of storage added in future years
will be reduced from 500GB to 250GB per year. The result is that no storage needs to
be added to support the SQL Server databases for the next three years.”
Compression also helps in reducing the cost of business continuity. For disaster
recovery purposes, one or multiple copies of the data is backed up on disk, tapes and
18
other storage mechanisms, which directly translates to costs in terms of storage
hardware. Backup compression addresses these concerns on both fronts: the size of
the backup is reduced substantially, depending on the content of the data being
compressed, and the overall time to back up and restore is similarly reduced. However,
backup compression comes at the cost of CPU usage, so this might have an impact on
your online workload.
Security
Consolidated databases bring additional security concerns, such as ensuring that users
and administrators can access the data to which they require access, while restricting
unauthorized access to other data on the same server. SQL Server 2008 Enterprise
Edition has new and improved features that help to keep your consolidated systems
secure:

Transparent data encryption (TDE). Use TDE to encrypt and de-encrypt entire
databases automatically. The process is transparent to applications, which do not
require modification to take advantage of TDE, with the result that the
development effort required to achieve greatly improved levels of security is
virtually eliminated.

Extensible key management. SQL Server’s support for enterprise key
management enables you to integrate SQL Server encryption into your
enterprise cryptographic infrastructure.

Levels of isolation. You can isolate applications at three levels:
o Database. Control access to individual database on a user-by-user basis.
o Server. Control access to individual instances by using logins. In SQL
Server or Windows integrated authentication.
o Operating System (physical or virtual). Control access to the operating
systems that host SQL Server instances by using local Windows or Active
Directory® accounts.

19
SQL Server Audit. A key security requirement in an enterprise is the ability to
audit activity in databases automatically and to be able to generate consistent
audit reports for all database server instances. Consolidation simplifies this
process, because there are fewer servers to manage. SQL Server 2008
Enterprise Edition includes extensive auditing capabilities that enable you to log
activity at both the server and database level, including changes to the data and
schema. You can define auditing filters to specify the actions to audit based on
actions, objects, and security principals, and specify where the auditing
information should be recorded. After you configure auditing on one instance of
SQL Server 2008, you can apply these settings to other instances on the server.
You can consolidate the audit results for your entire organization in one place,
use Reporting Services to create customized reports, and use Analysis Services
to analyze the centralized audit data.
Scalability and Performance
Consolidation makes use of existing hardware as well as, in some cases, new
hardware. The decision is based on workload types and future workload projections. A
scalable server such as SQL Server 2008 will mitigate some risk by helping
organizations make decisions about hardware with the confidence that SQL Server can
scale when required. The other big challenge with consolidation is resource contention.
Resource prioritization will help application business needs. SQL Server 2008
Enterprise Edition provides some key new features to meet these challenges:
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
Resource Governor. Resource Governor enables organizations to define
resource limits and set priorities for different workloads. This enables the
differentiation of workloads within a single instance on a consolidated server and
the control of memory and processor resources to prevent runaway queries or
large workloads from adversely affecting the performance of mission-critical
workloads. This ability to proactively control use of resources provides more
predictable performance of consolidated data services.

Scaling up consolidated servers. SQL Server Enterprise Edition also provides
optimal performance and scalability by providing several features to improve
concurrency and prevent locks caused by one process blocking other processes
on the server. The locking system in SQL Server 2008 provides greater
concurrency and improved lock escalation compared to previous releases. You
can organize tables and indexes into partitions on a disk and switch in and out of
these partitions individually to reduce contention and improve overall
performance. Furthermore, the release of Windows Server 2008 R2 includes
support for 256 logical CPUs, offering SQL Server 2008 the ability to scale to
unprecedented levels. For more information, see:
http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/features/2008/nov08/1106winserverr2.mspx

Data and backup compression. As discussed earlier, these technologies can
help you save a great deal of storage space, which makes it possible to scale up
without purchasing more storage.
Manageability
Server consolidation helps in the centralization of administrative functions. SQL
Server 2008 provides a suite of tools to manage, administer, monitor, and troubleshoot
consolidated data systems.
Centralizing management with SQL Server Management Studio
SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) is a great tool for managing a consolidated
database environment. SSMS can be used to manage multiple native or virtual SQL
Server databases and instances on local or remote servers. SSMS is backward
compatible, so you can use it to manage SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server 2000 too.
The same consistent SMMS interface is used for managing SQL Server Database
Engine instances, SQL Server Analysis Services, SQL Server Integration Services, and
SQL Server Reporting Services.
Enforcing configuration policy compliance with policy-based management
Organizations increasingly want to enforce a set of policies to follow regulatory or bestpractice requirements. Previously this has involved configuring many tables, databases,
and instances, and then periodically checking compliance against these policies. In SQL
Server 2008, you can consolidate configuration management by using policy-based
management to apply policies to multiple servers, databases, tables, and other targets
in the enterprise. Policy-based management enables you to:

Ensure compliance with policies for system configuration.

Monitor or prevent changes to the system by authoring policies for the desired
configuration.

Scale management across multiple servers.

Reduce total cost of ownership by simplifying administration tasks.
You can proactively enforce policies by using triggers, or on a schedule by using
SQL Server Agent. Additionally, you can use ad-hoc execution to check or configure
target objects against policies in real time.
Centralizing and consolidating monitoring using Data Collector
SQL Server generates valuable data to assist in performance tuning and
troubleshooting. Although this is extremely useful, it can also be time-consuming to use
multiple tools to identify problems. SQL Server 2008 includes Management Data
Warehouse and a suite of tools to help you troubleshoot, tune, and monitor the state of
one or more instances of SQL Server 2008. The centralized management of data
collection, storage, and reporting of the various performance metrics can help in
consolidation planning and ongoing operations.
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Migration and Integration
Migrating data is an important part of the consolidation process. This may involve
moving data from older versions of SQL Server or from third-party systems. SQL Server
2008 Integration Services is ideally suited for this purpose. It can extract data from a
wide variety of sources, including SQL Server, Oracle, Teradata, DB2, Sybase, SAP BI,
Siebel, Microsoft Office Access®, Microsoft Office Excel®, XML, and flat file sources.
You can use Integrations Service’s extensive set of transformations to modify the data
(cleaning it, for example) before loading it into your SQL Server 2008 database.
Enterprise Edition offers advanced transformations that enable you to perform tasks
such as fuzzy lookups and groupings and to create large-scale data warehouses.
You can also consolidate on data analysis and reporting. SQL Server 2008 comes
complete with SQL Server Analysis Services and SQL Server Reporting Services at no
extra cost. This makes it possible for you to build sophisticated data analysis, data
mining, and reporting solutions on a single platform. Tight integration with Microsoft
Office Excel and Microsoft Office Word, along with the Report Builder 2.0 tool, makes it
easy for users to create reports and interact with Reporting Services, without the need
for third-party tools.
Enterprise Edition / Standard Edition Features Comparison Summary
Table 5 shows a summary of the features offered by SQL Server 2008 Enterprise
Edition and SQL Server 2008 Standard Edition.
SQL Server 2008 Standard
Edition
SQL Server 2008 Enterprise
Edition
Max Databases
32,767
32,767
Max Instances
16
50
Virtualization
Yes
Yes, unlimited
64-bit
Yes
Yes
Max Memory
Operating system maximum
Operating system maximum
Max CPUs
4
64 / 32
Hot-Add CPU and memory
No
Yes
Data Compression
No
Yes
Backup Compression
No
Yes
TDE
No
Yes
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SQL Server Audit
No
Yes
Resource Governor
No
Yes
Policy-Based Management
No
Yes
Data Collector
No
Yes
Table 5: Summary of the features offered by SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition and SQL Server 2008 Standard Edition
A full list of features for each edition can be found at MSDN:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc645993.aspx
Conclusion
SQL Server 2008 reduces hardware and maintenance costs by providing a flexible
server consolidation solution that enables organizations to save money by centralizing
data services on fewer servers. SQL Server 2008 provides support for Windows
Server 2008 Hyper-V virtualization. For multiple service instances on a single physical
server, it has the tools and functionality necessary for migrating distributed data to a
consolidated data center. By providing a centralized data services management
interface and policy-based management, SQL Server makes it easy for organizations
with multiple data stores to reduce management overhead. The industry-leading
features and performance of SQL Server 2008 Enterprise Edition and its ability to
explicitly control how server resources are used enables you to consolidate your data
services while providing the scalability and performance your applications need.
For more information:
Microsoft SQL Server 2008:
http://www.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2008/en/us/default.aspx
SQL Server Developer Center:
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/sqlserver
SQL Server TechCenter:
http://technet.microsoft.com/sqlserver
Windows Server 2008 R2 multi-processor support:
http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/features/2008/nov08/11-06winserverr2.mspx
Forrester Consulting report:
http://download.microsoft.com/download/d/1/1/d11349b8-af33-45c4-a89cf0dc64bbd431/TEI%20of%20SQL%20Server%202008%20Upgrade.pdf
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