MySQL Hardening
Carsten Thalheimer
Oracle MySQL GBU
Software
All software is available for 30days evaluation without obligation from here:
MySQL:
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2
43%
of companies have experienced a
data breach in the past year.
Source: Ponemon Institute, 2014
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3
Mega Breaches
552 Million identities
exposed in 2013. 493%
increase over previous
year
8
Breaches that exposed
more than 10 million
records in 2013.
77
%
Web sites with
vulnerabilities. 1-in-8 of all
websites had a critical
vulnerability.
Total Breaches increased
62% in 2013
Source: Internet Security Threat Report 2014, Symantec
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4
Mega Breaches
552 Million identities
exposed in 2013. 493%
increase over previous year
8
Breaches that exposed
more than 10 million
records in 2013.
77%
Web sites with vulnerabilities.
1-in-8 of all websites had a
critical vulnerability.
Total Breaches increased
62% in 2013
Source: Internet Security Threat Report 2014, Symantec
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5
Target Breach, 2013, $270 million
The hackers who committed the Target breach took 40 million credit
and debit card numbers and 70 million records, including names and
addresses of shoppers.
Source: Fortune.com, 2014
One major data breach discovered every month
Those breaches include Michaels Stores, Sally Beauty Supply,
Neiman Marcus, AOL, eBay and P.F. Chang’s Chinese Bistro.
Source: paymetric.com, 2014
Cybercrime cost the global economy $575 billion/year
Source: paymetric.com, 2014
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Database Vulnerabilities
• Poor Configurations
– Set controls and change default
setting
• Over Privileged Accounts
– Privilege Policies
• Weak Access Control
– Dedicated Administrative Accounts
• Weak Authentication
– Strong Password Enforcement
• Weak Auditing
– Compliance & Audit Policies
• Lack of Encryption
– Data, Back, & Network Encryption
• Proper Credential or Key Management
– Use mysql_config_editor , Key Vaults
• Unsecured Backups
– Encrypted Backups
• No Monitoring
– Security Monitoring, Users, Objects
• Poorly Coded Applications
– Database Firewall
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Database Attacks
• SQL Injection
– Prevention: DB Firewall, White List, Input Validation
• Buffer Overflow
– Prevention: Frequently apply Database Software updates, DB Firewall, White List, Input Validation
• Brute Force Attack
– Prevention: lock out accounts after a defined number of incorrect attempts.
• Network Eavesdropping
– Prevention: Require SSL/TLS for all Connections and Transport
• Malware
– Prevention: Tight Access Controls, Limited Network IP access, Change default settings
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Database Malicious Actions
• Information Disclosure: Obtain credit card and other personal information
– Defense: Encryption – Data and Network, Tighter Access Controls
• Denial of Service: Run resource intensive queries
– Defense: Resource Usage Limits – Set various limits – Max Connections, Sessions, Timeouts, …
• Elevation of Privilege: Retrieve and use administrator credentials
– Defense: Stronger authentication, Access Controls, Auditing
• Spoofing: Retrieve and use other credentials
– Defense: Stronger account and password policies
• Tampering: Change data in the database, Delete transaction records
• Defense: Tighter Access Controls, Auditing, Monitoring, Backups
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9
Regulatory Compliance
• Regulations
– PCI – DSS: Payment Card Data
– HIPAA: Privacy of Health Data
– Sarbanes Oxley: Accuracy of Financial Data
– EU Data Protection Directive: Protection of Personal Data
– Data Protection Act (UK): Protection of Personal Data
• Requirements
– Continuous Monitoring (Users, Schema, Backups, etc)
– Data Protection (Encryption, Privilege Management, etc.)
– Data Retention (Backups, User Activity, etc.)
– Data Auditing (User activity, etc.)
https://www.mysql.com/why-mysql/white-papers/mysql-pci-data-security-compliance/
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DBA Responsibilities
• Ensure only users who should get access, can get access
• Limit what users and applications can do
• Limit from where users and applications can access data
• Watch what is happening, and when it happened
• Make sure to back things up securely
• Minimize attack surface
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MySQL Security Overview
Authentication
Authorization
MySQL Security
Encryption
Firewall
Auditing
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12
MySQL Security Overview
MySQL
Linux / LDAP
Windows AD
Custom
Authentication
Authorization
Privilege Management
Administration
Database & Objects
Proxy Users
Security
SSL/TLS
Public Key
Private Key
Digital Signatures
Encryption
Firewall &
Auditing
Block Threats
Auditing
Regulatory Compliance
Login and Query Activities
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13
MySQL Authorization
• Administrative Privileges
• Database Privileges
• Session Limits and Object Privileges
• Fine grained controls over user privileges
Security Privilege Management in MySQL Workbench
– Creating, altering and deleting databases
– Creating, altering and deleting tables
– Execute INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE queries
– Create, execute, or delete stored procedures and with what rights
– Create or delete indexes
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MySQL Privilege Management
• user: user accounts, global privileges columns
• db: database-level privileges
• tables_priv: Contains table-level privileges
• columns_priv: Contains column-level privileges
• procs_priv: Contains stored procedure and function privileges
• proxies_priv: Contains proxy-user
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MySQL Privilege Management Grant Tables
user
• User Accounts
• Global Privileges
columns_priv
• Specific columns
db
• Database Level Privileges
• Database, Tables, Objects
• User and host
procs_priv
• Stored Procedures
• Functions
• Single function privilege
tables_priv
• Table level privileges
• Table and columns
proxies_priv
• Proxy Users
• Proxy Privileges
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MySQL Authentication
• Built in Authentication
– user table stores users and encrypted passwords
• X.509
– Server authenticates client certificates
• MySQL Native, SHA 256 Password plugin
– Native uses SHA1 or plugin with SHA-256 hashing and per user salting for user account passwords.
• MySQL Enterprise Authentication
– Microsoft Active Directory
– Linux PAMs (Pluggable Authentication Modules)
• Support LDAP and more
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MySQL Password Policies
• Accounts without Passwords
– Assign passwords to all accounts to prevent unauthorized use
• Password Validation Plugin
– Enforce Strong Passwords
• Password Expiration/Rotation
– Require users to reset their password
• Account lockout (in v. 5.7)
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MySQL Encryption
• SSL/TLS Encryption
• MySQL Enterprise Encryption
– Between MySQL clients and Server
– Replication: Between Master & Slave
• Data Encryption
– AES Encrypt/Decrypt
– Asymmetric Encrypt/Decrypt
– Generate Public Key and Private Keys
– Derive Session Keys
– Digital Signatures
• MySQL Enterprise Backup
– AES Encrypt/Decrypt
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SSL/TLS
• Encrypted connections
– Between MySQL Client and Server
– Replication: Between Master & Slave
• MySQL enables encryption on a per-connection basis
– Identity verification using the X509 standard
• Specify the appropriate SSL certificate and key files
• Will work with trusted CAs (Certificate Authorities)
• Supports CRLs – Certificate Revocation Lists
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20
Database Auditing
• Auditing for Security & Compliance
– FIPS, HIPAA, PCI-DSS, SOX, DISA STIG, …
• MySQL built-in logging infrastructure:
– general log, error log
• MySQL Enterprise Audit
– Granularity made for auditing
– Can be modified live
– Contains additional details
– Compatible with Oracle Audit Vault.
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Database Firewall
• SQL Injection: #1 Web Application Vulnerability
– 77% of Web Sites had vulnerabilities
– 1 in 8 critical vulnerabilities
• MySQL Enterprise Firewall
– Monitor database statements in real-time
– Automatic White List “rules” generation for any application
– Out of policy database transactions detected and blocked
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MySQL Database Hardening
Installation
• Mysql_secure_installation
• Keep MySQL up to date
− MySQL Installer for Windows
− Yum/Apt Repository
Passwords
• Strong Password Policy
• Hashing, Expiration
• Password Validation Plugin
Configuration
• Firewall
• Auditing and Logging
• Limit Network Access
• Monitor changes
Encryption
• SSL/TLS for Secure
Connections
• Data Encryption (AES, RSA)
User Management
• Remove Extra Accounts
• Grant Minimal Privileges
• Audit users and privileges
Backups
• Monitor Backups
• Encrypt Backups
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MySQL Database Hardening: Installation
• MySQL_Secure_Installation / MySQL Installer for Windows
– Set a strong password for root account
– Remove root accounts that are accessible from outside the local host
– Remove anonymous-user accounts
– Remove the test database
• Which by default can be accessed by all users
• Including Anonymous Users
• Keep MySQL up to date
– Repos – YUM/APT/SUSE
– MySQL Installer for Windows
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MySQL 5.7 Linux Packages - Security Improvements
• Test/Demo database has been removed
– Now in separate packages (prod/dev)
• Anonymous account creation is removed.
• Creation of single root account – local host only
• Default installation ensures encrypted communication by default
– Automatic generation of SSL/RSA Certs/Keys
• For EE : At server startup if options Certs/Keys were not set
• For CE : Through new mysql_ssl_rsa_setup utility
• Automatic detection of SSL Certs/Keys
• Client attempts secure TLS connection by default
MySQL Installer for Windows includes various Security Setup and Hardening Steps
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Software Updates - Database and OS Maintenance
• Maintaining security requires keeping Operating System and MySQL
security patches up to date.
– May require a restart (mysql or operating system) to take effect.
• To enable seamless upgrades consider MySQL Replication
– Allows for changes to be performed in a rolling fashion
• Best practice to upgrade slaves first
– MySQL 5.6 and above supports GTID-based replication
• Provides for simple rolling upgrades
• Follow OS vendor specific hardening Guidelines
– For example
• http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/articles/servers-storage-admin/tips-harden-oracle-linux-1695888.html
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MySQL Database Hardening: Configuration
• Audit Activity
• Disable unauthorized reading from
local files
– Use Enterprise Audit
– Alt. Transiently enable Query Logging
– Disable LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE
– Monitor and Inspect regularly
• Run MySQL on non default port
• Disable or Limit Remote Access
– More difficult to find database
– If local “skip-networking” or bind• Limit MySQL OS User
address=127.0.0.1
• Ensure secure-auth is enabled (do
– If Remote access then limit hosts/IP
not allow old passwords format)
•Change root username
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MySQL Database Hardening: Best Practices
Parameter
Recommended Value
Why
Secure_file_priv
A Designated Leaf directory for
data loads
Only allows file to be loaded from a specific
location. Limits use of MySQL to get data from
across the OS
Symbolic_links
Boolean – NO
Prevents redirection into less secure filesystem
directories
Default-storage_engine
InnoDB
Ensures transactions commits, data safety!
General-log
Boolean – OFF
Should only be used for debugging – off
otherwise
Log-raw
Default - OFF
Should only be used for debugging – off
otherwise
Skip-networking
or bind-address
ON
127.0.0.1
If all local, then block network connections or
limit to the local host.
SSL options
Set valid values
Should encrypt network communication
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MySQL Database Hardening: Password Policies
• Enforce Strong Password Policies
• Password Hashing
• Password Expiration
• Password Validation Plugin
• Authentication Plugin
– Inherits the password policies from the component
– LDAP, Windows Active Directory, etc.
• Disable accounts when not in use
– Account lockout (5.7+)
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MySQL Database Hardening: Backups
• Backups are Business Critical
– Used to restore after attack
– Migrate, move or clone server
– Part of Audit Trail
• Regularly Scheduled Backups
• Monitor Backups
• Encrypt Backups
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Applications and Credentials - Best Practices
• Applications – minimize sharing credentials (username/password)
– Finer grained the better – don’t overload across many applications/servers
• Should enable support for credential rotation
– Do not require all passwords to be changed in synchronization.
– Facilitates better troubleshooting and root-cause analysis.
• Steps to changing credentials should be secure and straightforward
– Not embedded in your code
• Can be changed without redeploying an application
• Should never be stored in version control and must differ between environments.
• Applications should get credentials using a secure configuration methodology.
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MySQL Enterprise Edition
• MySQL Enterprise Authentication
– External Authentication Modules
• Microsoft AD, Linux PAMs
• MySQL Enterprise Encryption
– Public/Private Key Cryptography
– Asymmetric Encryption
– Digital Signatures, Data Validation
• MySQL Enterprise Monitor
– Changes in Database Configurations, Users
Permissions, Database Schema, Passwords
• MySQL Enterprise Backup
– Securing Backups, AES 256 encryption
• MySQL Enterprise Firewall
– Query Monitoring, White List
Matching,
• MySQL Enterprise Audit
– User Activity Auditing, Regulatory Compliance
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MySQL Enterprise Monitor
• Enforce MySQL Security Best Practices
– Identifies Vulnerabilties
– Assesses current setup against security hardening policies
• Monitoring & Alerting
– User Monitoring
– Password Monitoring
– Schema Change Monitoring
– Backup Monitoring
– Firewall Monitoring?
• Configuration Management
– Configuration Tuning Advice
• Centralized User Management
"I definitely recommend the MySQL Enterprise
Monitor to DBAs who don't have a ton of MySQL
experience. It makes monitoring MySQL security,
performance and availability very easy to
understand and to act on.”
Sandi Barr
Sr. Software Engineer
Schneider Electric
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Oracle Enterprise Manager for MySQL
• Availability monitoring
• Performance monitoring
• Configuration monitoring
• All available metrics collected
– Allowing for custom threshold
based incident reports
• MySQL auto-detection
Security
Performance
Availability
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34
MySQL Enterprise Firewall
• Real Time Protection
– Queries analyzed and matched against White List
• Blocks SQL Injection Attacks
– Positive Security Model
• Block Suspicious Traffic
– Out of Policy Transactions detected & blocked
MySQL Enterprise Firewall monitoring
• Learns White List
– Automated creation of approved list of SQL command patterns on a per user basis
• Transparent
– No changes to application required
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Firewall Overview
SQL Injection Attack
Via Brower
MySQL Instance
Internet
Web
Applications
Inbound
SQL traffic
Allows
Normal
SQL
Firewall
In Whitelist
ALLOW
Table
Table
Results
Blocks
SQL
Attacks
Not In Whitelist
BLOCK
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Table
36
Firewall Workflow
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37
MySQL Enterprise Firewall
•SQL Injection Protection with Positive Security Model
✔ Allow & Log
Select *.* from employee where id=22
Select *.* from employee where id=22 or 1=1
Applications
White List
✖ Block & Log
• Out of policy database transactions detected and blocked
• Logging & Analysis
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38
MySQL Enterprise Firewall Details
• Firewall operation is turned on at a per user level
• Per User States are
– RECORDING
– PROTECTING
– OFF
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39
Per User Firewall White Lists
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40
What happens when SQL is blocked?
•The client application gets an ERROR
mysql> SELECT first_name, last_name FROM customer WHERE customer_id = 1 OR TRUE;
ERROR 1045 (28000): Statement was blocked by Firewall
mysql> SHOW DATABASES;
ERROR 1045 (28000): Statement was blocked by Firewall
mysql> TRUNCATE TABLE mysql.user;
ERROR 1045 (28000): Statement was blocked by Firewall
•Reported to the Error Log
•Increment Counter
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41
Monitoring the Firewall
Firewall Status Counters
mysql> SHOW STATUS LIKE 'Firewall%';
+-------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name
| Value |
+-------------------------+-------+
| Firewall_access_denied | 32
|
| Firewall_access_granted | 138
|
| Firewall_cached_entries | 39
|
+-------------------------+-------+
3 rows in set (0,00 sec)
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42
What’s the whitelist look like?
•mysql> SELECT userhost, substr(rule,1,80) FROM mysql.firewall_whitelist WHERE userhost=
'wpuser@localhost';
+------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| userhost
| substr(rule,1,80)
|
+------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| wpuser@localhost | SELECT * FROM `wp_posts` WHERE `ID` = ? LIMIT ?
|
| wpuser@localhost | SELECT `option_value` FROM `wp_options` WHERE `option_name` = ? LIMIT ?
|
| wpuser@localhost | SELECT `wp_posts` . * FROM `wp_posts` WHERE ? = ? AND `wp_posts` . `ID` = ? AND |
...
| wpuser@localhost | UPDATE `wp_posts` SET `comment_count` = ? WHERE `ID` = ?
|
| wpuser@localhost | SELECT `t` . * , `tt` . * FROM `wp_terms` AS `t` INNER JOIN `wp_term_taxonomy` A |
| wpuser@localhost | SELECT `t` . * , `tt` . * FROM `wp_terms` AS `t` INNER JOIN `wp_term_taxonomy` A |
+------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
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43
MySQL Enterprise Firewall Documentation
•http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/firewall.html
•http://mysqlserverteam.com/new-mysql-enterprise-firewall-prevent-sqlinjection-attacks/
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44
MySQL Enterprise Authentication
Integrates MySQL with existing
security infrastructures
• Integrate with Centralized Authentication Infrastructure
– Centralized Account Management
– Password Policy Management
– Groups & Roles
• PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules)
– Standard interface (Unix, LDAP, Kerberos, others)
– Windows
• Access native Windows service - Use to Authenticate users using Windows
Active Directory or to a native host
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45
MySQL Enterprise Authentication: PAM
• Standard Interface
– LDAP
– Unix/Linux
• Proxy Users
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46
MySQL Enterprise Authentication: Windows
•Windows Active Directory
•Windows Native Services
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47
MySQL Enterprise Encryption
• MySQL encryption functions
– Symmetric encryption AES256 (All Editions)
– Public-key / asymmetric cryptography – RSA
• Key management functions
– Generate public and private keys
– Key exchange methods: DH
• Sign and verify data functions
– Cryptographic hashing for digital signing, verification, & validation – RSA,DSA
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48
All within MySQL
MySQL Enterprise Encryption
Functions
Can Generate
Public/Private Key Pairs
(or use those generated externally –
say by OpenSSL)
Private Key
(It can decrypt)
Public Key
(It only encrypts)
“This is a secret”
Encryption
MySQL
#@%@&#
Decryption
Could be
From Client App
Within MySQL (function call)
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“This is a secret”
App encrypts
MySQL Stores Decrypts
MySQL Enterprise Encryption
Functions
Can Generate
Public/Private Key Pairs
(or use those generated externally –
say by OpenSSL)
Private Key
(It can decrypt)
Public Key
(It only encrypts)
MySQL
“This is a secret”
Encryption
#@%@&#
Decryption
Copyright © 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |
“This is a secret”
App encrypts
MySQL Stores
App Decrypts
MySQL Enterprise Encryption
Functions
Can Generate
Public/Private Key Pairs
(or use those generated externally –
say by OpenSSL)
MySQL
Private Key
(It can decrypt)
Public Key
(It only encrypts)
“This is a secret”
Encryption
#@%@&#
Decryption
Copyright © 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |
“This is a secret”
MySQL Enterprise Audit
• Out-of-the-box logging of connections, logins, and query
• User defined policies for filtering, and log rotation
• Dynamically enabled, disabled: no server restart
• XML-based audit stream per Oracle Audit Vault spec
Adds regulatory compliance to
MySQL applications
(HIPAA, Sarbanes-Oxley, PCI, etc.)
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52
MySQL Enterprise Audit
3. Joe’s connection & query logged
1. DBA enables Audit plugin
2. User Joe connects and runs a query
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53
MySQL Enterprise Backup
• Online Backup for InnoDB (scriptable interface)
• Full, Incremental, Partial Backups (with compression)
• Strong Encryption (AES 256)
• Point in Time, Full, Partial Recovery options
• Metadata on status, progress, history
• Scales – High Performance/Unlimited Database Size
• Windows, Linux, Unix
• Certified with Oracle Secure Backup, NetBackup, Tivoli, others
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54
MySQL Enterprise Oracle Certifications
• Oracle Enterprise Manager for
MySQL
• Oracle Linux (w/DRBD stack)
• Oracle VM
• Oracle Solaris
• Oracle Solaris Clustering
• Oracle Clusterware
• Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall
• Oracle Secure Backup
• Oracle Fusion Middleware
• Oracle GoldenGate
• My Oracle Support
MySQL integrates into your Oracle environment
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55
Oracle Audit Vault and Database Firewall
• Oracle DB Firewall
– Oracle, MySQL, SQL Server, IBM DB2, Sybase
– Activity Monitoring & Logging
– White List, Black List, Exception List
• Audit Vault
– Built-in Compliance Reports
– External storage for audit archive
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56
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Carsten Thalheimer
Mobile: +49 172 8833386
Carsten.Thalheimer@Oracle.com
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