G1000
TM
system overview for
the Diamond DA40
Record of Revisions
Revision Date of Revision Revision Page Range
A
02/14/05
2-1 – 2-15
Description
Initial release.
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
190-00374-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
2.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
This document is designed to provide an overview of
the G1000 Integrated Cockpit System as installed in the
Diamond DA40 aircraft.
The G1000 includes the following Line Replaceable
Units (LRUs):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
GDU 1040 Primary Flight Display (PFD)
GDU 1040 Multi Function Display (MFD)
GIA 63 Integrated Avionics Units (2)
GEA 71 Engine/Airframe Unit
GDC 74A Air Data Computer (ADC)
GRS 77 Attitude & Heading Reference System
(AHRS)
GMU 44 Magnetometer
GMA 1347 Audio System with integrated Marker
Beacon Receiver
GTX 32 or GTX 33 Mode S Transponder
GDL 69/69A Data Link
The LRUs are further described in the following section. All LRUs have a modular design, which greatly
eases troubleshooting and maintenance of the G1000
system. A top-level G1000 block diagram is given in
Figure 2.2.1. Additional or optional interfaces are depicted in Figure 2.2.2.
NOTE: Refer to the G1000 Pilot’s Guide Appendices for detailed specifications regarding the
G1000 LRUs.
190-00374-01 Rev. A
2.2 LRU DESCRIPTIONS
• GDU 1040 – The GDU 1040 has a 10.4-inch LCD
display with 1024 x 768 resolution. The left display is configured as a PFD and the right display is
configured as a MFD. Both GDU 1040s link and
display all functions of the G1000 system during
flight. The displays communicate with each other
through a High-Speed Data Bus (HSDB) Ethernet
connection. Each display is also paired with an
Ethernet connection to a GIA 63 Integrated Avionics
Unit.
• GMA 1347 – The GMA 1347 integrates NAV/COM
digital audio, intercom system and marker beacon
controls. The GMA 1347 also controls manual
display reversionary mode (red DISPLAY BACKUP
button) and is installed between the MFD and the
PFD. The GMA 1347 communicates with both
GIA 63s using an RS-232 digital interface.
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
2-1
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GIA 63 – The GIA 63 is the central Integrated
Avionics Unit (IAU) of the G1000 system. The
GIA 63 is the main communications hub, linking
all LRUs with the PFD and the MFD displays. Each
GIA 63 contains a GPS receiver, VHF COM/NAV/GS
receivers, and system integration microprocessors.
Each GIA 63 is paired with a GDU 1040 display
through an Ethernet connection. The GIAs do not
communicate with each other directly.
• GRS 77 – The GRS 77 is an Attitude and Heading
Reference System (AHRS) that provides aircraft
attitude and heading information to both the
G1000 displays and the GIA 63s. The unit contains advanced sensors, accelerometers, and rate
sensors. In addition, the GRS 77 interfaces with
the GDC 74A Air Data Computer and the GMU 44
Magnetometer. The GRS 77 also utilizes two GPS
signal inputs sent from the GIA 63s. Attitude and
heading information is sent using an ARINC 429
digital interface to both GDU 1040s and GIA 63s.
The AHRS modes of operation are discussed later
in this document.
2-2
• GMU 44 – The GMU 44 Magnetometer measures
local magnetic field information. Data is sent to
the GRS 77 AHRS for processing to determine aircraft magnetic heading. This unit receives power
directly from the GRS 77 and communicates with
the GRS 77 using an RS-485 digital interface.
• GDC 74A – The GDC 74A Air Data Computer
processes information received from the pitot/static
system and the outside air temperature (OAT)
sensor. The GDC 74A provides pressure altitude,
airspeed, vertical speed and OAT information to the
G1000 system and communicates with the GIA 63s,
GDU 1040s and GRS 77 using an ARINC 429 digital
interface.
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
190-00374-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• GEA 71 – The GEA 71 receives and processes signals
from the engine and airframe sensors. Sensor types
include engine temperature and pressure sensors as
well as fuel measurement and pressure sensors. The
GEA 71 communicates with both GIA 63s using an
RS-485 digital interface.
• GDL 69/69A – The GDL 69/69A is an XM satellite radio receiver that provides real-time weather
information to the G1000 MFD. The GDL 69A also
provides digital audio entertainment in the cockpit.
The GDL 69/69A communicates with the MFD on
the High-Speed Data Bus. A subscription to the
XM Satellite Radio service is required for the GDL
69/69A to be used.
• GTX 33 – The GTX 33 is a solid-state, Mode S
transponder that provides Modes A, C and S operation. The GTX 33 is controlled through the PFD
and communicates with both GIA 63s through an
RS-232 digital interface.
190-00374-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
2-3
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
High-Speed Data Bus (Ethernet)
GMA 1347
Audio Panel
GDU 1040 (PFD)
GDU 1040 (MFD)
Reversionary
Control
Reversionary
Control
GDC 74A
Air Data
Computer
No. 1 GIA 63
Integrated Avionics Unit
System Inegration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
GPS Output
OAT
Airspeed
Altitude
Vertical Speed
GRS 77
AHRS
Attitude
Rate of Turn
Slip/Skid
No. 2 GIA 63
Integrated Avionics Unit
System Integration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
GPS Output
GMU 44
Magnetometer
Heading
GTX 33
Transponder
Honeywell
KAP 140
Autopilot
GEA 71
Engine/Airframe
Unit
Figure 2.2.1 Basic G1000 System
2-4
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
190-00374-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
High-Speed Data Bus (Ethernet)
No. 2 GIA 63
Integrated Avionics Unit
GDL 69/69A
System Integration Processors
I/O Processors
VHF COM
VHF NAV/LOC
GPS
Glideslope
L3
Stormscope
Lightning Strike and
Thunderstorm Detection
(optional)
Becker
RA 3502-(1)
ADF Receiver
(optional)
Data Link
Real-time Weather and
Digital Audio Entertainment
(subscription-based service)
Honeywell
KN 63
DME
(optional)
Figure 2.2.2 G1000 Optional Features
NOTE: For information on all optional equipment shown in the above figure, consult the applicable optional
interface user’s guide. This document assumes that the reader is already familiar with the operation of this
additional equipment.
190-00374-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
2-5
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
2.3 PFD/MFD CONTROLS
1
2
3
17
2-6
5
4
6
7
8
9
Figure 2.3.1 PFD/MFD Controls
1
NAV VOL/ID Knob
10
Direct-to Key
2
NAV Frequency Toggle Key
11
Flight Plan Key
10
14
3
NAV Knob
12
Clear Key
11
Heading Knob
13
Flight Management System Knob
15
4
5
Range Joystick
14
Menu Key
12
16
6
Course/Baro Knob
15
Procedure Key
7
COM Knob
16
Enter Key
8
COM Frequency Toggle Key
17
Altitude Knob
9
COM VOL/SQ Knob
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
13
190-00374-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The G1000 controls and keys have been designed to
simplify the operation of the system and to minimize
workload as well as the time required to access sophisticated functionality. The following list provides an overview of the primary function(s) of the keys and knobs
located on the display bezel.
• (1) NAV VOL/ID Knob – Controls the NAV audio
level. Press to toggle the Morse code identifier ON
and OFF. Volume level is shown in the field as a
percentage.
• (2) NAV Frequency Toggle Key – Toggles the
standby and active NAV frequencies.
• (3) Dual NAV Knob – Tunes the MHz (large knob)
and kHz (small knob) standby frequencies for the
NAV receiver. Press to toggle the tuning cursor (cyan
box) between the NAV1 and NAV2 fields.
• (4) Heading Knob – Manually selects a heading.
When this knob is pressed, a window displaying a
digital heading momentarily appears to the left of the
heading indicator and the heading bug synchronizes
with the compass lubber line.
• (5) Joystick – Changes the map range when rotated.
Activates the map pointer when pressed.
• (6) CRS/BARO Knob – The large knob sets the
altimeter barometric pressure and the small knob
adjusts the course. The course is only adjustable
when the HSI is in VOR1, VOR2, or OBS/SUSP
mode. Pressing this knob centers the CDI on the
currently selected VOR.
• (7) Dual COM Knob – Tunes the MHz (large knob)
and kHz (small knob) standby frequencies for the
COM transceiver. Pressing the knob toggles the
tuning cursor (cyan box) between the COM1 and
COM2 fields.
• (8) COM Frequency Toggle Key – Toggles the
standby and active COM frequencies. Pressing and
holding this key for two seconds automatically tunes
the emergency frequency (121.5 MHz) in the active
frequency field.
190-00374-01 Rev. A
• (9) COM VOL/SQ Knob – Controls COM audio
level. Pressing this knob turns the COM automatic
squelch ON and OFF. Audio volume level is shown
in the field as a percentage.
• (10) Direct-to Key (
) – Allows the user to enter
a destination waypoint and establish a direct course
to the selected destination (specified by identifier,
chosen from the active route, or taken from the map
cursor position).
• (11) FPL Key – Displays the active Flight Plan Page
for creating and editing the active flight plan or for
accessing stored flight plans.
• (12) CLR Key (DFLT MAP) – Erases information,
cancels an entry, or removes page menus. To immediately display the Navigation Map Page, press and
hold the CLR key (MFD only).
• (13) Dual FMS Knobs – Used to select the page
to be viewed (only on the MFD). The large knob
selects a page group (MAP, WPT, AUX, NRST) while
the small knob selects a specific page within the page
group. Pressing the small knob turns the selection
cursor ON and OFF. When the cursor is ON, data
may be entered in the different windows using a
combination of the small and large knobs. The large
knob is used to move the cursor on the page, while
the small knob is used to select individual characters for the highlighted cursor location. When the
G1000 displays a list of information that is too long
for the display screen, a scroll bar appears along the
right side of the display to indicate the availability of
additional items within the selected category. Press
the FMS/PUSH CRSR knob to activate the cursor
and turn the large knob to scroll through the list.
• (14) MENU Key – Displays a context-sensitive list
of options. This option list allows the user to access
additional features or to make setting changes that
relate to certain pages.
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
2-7
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
• (15) PROC Key – Selects approaches, departures
and arrivals from the flight plan. When using a
flight plan, available procedures for the departure
and/or arrival airport are automatically suggested. If
a flight plan is not used, the desired airport and the
desired procedure may be selected. This key selects
IFR departure procedures (DPs), arrival procedures
(STARs) and approaches (IAPs) from the database
and loads them into the active flight plan.
• (16) ENT Key – Accepts a menu selection or data
entry. This key is used to approve an operation or
to complete data entry. It is also used to confirm
selections and information entries.
• (17) Dual ALT Knob – Sets the reference altitude
in the window located above the Altimeter. The
large knob selects the thousands, while the small
knob selects the hundreds.
2.4 SECURE DIGITAL CARDS
The GDU 1040 data card slots use Secure Digital (SD)
cards. SD cards are used for aviation database updates
and terrain database storage.
To install an SD card:
1.
Insert the SD card in the SD card slot located
on the right side of the display bezel (the front
of the card should be flush with the face of the
display bezel).
To remove an SD card:
1.
Gently press on the SD card to release the
spring latch and eject the card.
NOTE: Refer to the Pilot’s Guide Appendices for
instructions on updating the aviation database.
NOTE: The selected COM (displayed in green)
is controlled by the COM MIC key on the audio
panel (GMA 1347).
2-8
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
190-00374-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
2.5 SYSTEM POWER-UP
The G1000 system is integrated with the aircraft electrical system and receives power directly from electrical
busses. The Garmin G1000 PFD/MFD and supporting
sub-systems include both power-on and continuous builtin test features that exercise the processor, RAM, ROM,
external inputs and outputs to provide safe operation.
While the system begins to initialize, test annunciations are displayed to the pilot at power-up, as shown in
the figure below. All system annunciations should clear
within one (1) minute of power-up. The GMA 1347 also
annunciates all bezel lights briefly upon power-up.
On the PFD, the AHRS system displays the ‘AHRS
ALIGN: Keep Wings Level’ message and begins to initialize.
The AHRS should display valid attitude and heading fields
within one (1) minute of power-up. The AHRS can align
itself while the aircraft is taxiing or during level flight.
NOTE: Refer to the approved Airplane Flight
Manual Supplement (AFMS) for specific procedures concerning avionics power application and
emergency power supply operation.
NOTE: Refer to the G1000 Pilot’s Guide Appendices for AHRS initialization bank angle limitations.
NOTE: Refer to the Annunciations and Alerts
Pilot’s Guide for more information regarding
system annunciations and alerts.
Figure 2.5.1 PFD Initialization
190-00374-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
2-9
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
When the MFD powers up, the MFD Power-up page
displays the following data:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
System version
Copyright
Checklist filename
Land database name and version
Obstacle database name and version
Terrain database name and version
Aviation database name, version, and effective
dates
When this information has been reviewed for currency
(to ensure that no databases have expired), the pilot is
prompted to continue. Current database information is
displayed with valid operating dates, cycle number and
database type.
Press the ENT key to acknowledge this information
and proceed to the Navigation Map Page. When the
system has acquired a sufficient number of satellites to
determine a position, the Navigation Map Page appears
showing the aircraft current position.
Figure 2.5.2 MFD Power-up Page
2-10
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
190-00374-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
2.6 DISPLAY BACKLIGHTING
The G1000 PFD and MFD displays use photocell technology to automatically adjust for ambient lighting conditions. Photocell calibration curves are pre-configured
to optimize display appearance through a broad range of
cockpit lighting conditions. PFD, MFD, and GMA 1347
bezel/key lighting is normally controlled directly by the
existing instrument panel dimmer bus.
If desired, the PFD and MFD display backlighting
may be adjusted manually. PFD, MFD, and GMA 1347
bezel/key brightness can also be adjusted manually as
well. GMA 1347 bezel/key brightness is directly tied to
the MFD bezel/key adjustment.
NOTE: Refer to the Primary Flight Display Pilot’s
Guide for instructions on how to manually adjust
the backlighting.
2.7 SYSTEM OPERATION
NORMAL MODE
The PFD and MFD are connected together on a single
Ethernet bus, allowing for high-speed communication between the two units. Each GIA 63 is connected to a single
display, as shown in Figure 2.2.1. This allows the units to
share information, enabling true system integration.
In normal operating mode, the PFD displays graphical
flight instrumentation in lieu of traditional gyro instruments. Attitude, heading, airspeed, altitude, and vertical
speed are all shown on one display. The MFD shows a
full-color moving map with navigation information. Both
displays offer control for COM and NAV frequency selection, as well as for the heading, course/baro and altitude
reference functions. On the left of the MFD display, the
Engine Indication System (EIS) cluster shows engine and
airframe instrumentation. Figure 2.7.1 gives an example
of the G1000 system in normal mode.
Figure 2.7.1 G1000 Normal Mode
190-00374-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
2-11
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
REVERSIONARY MODE
Should a failure occur in either display, the G1000
automatically enters reversionary mode. In reversionary
mode, all important flight information is shown on the
remaining display. Figure 2.7.2 shows an example where
the PFD fails.
If a display fails, the GIA 63-GDU 1040 Ethernet interface is cut off. Thus, the GIA can no longer communicate
with the remaining display (refer to Figure 2.2.1), and the
NAV and COM functions provided to the failed display by
the GIA are flagged as invalid on the remaining display.
The system reverts to using backup paths for the GRS 77,
GDC 74A, GEA 71 and GTX 33, as required. The change
to backup paths is completely automated for all LRUs,
and no pilot action is required.
NOTE: The system alerts the pilot when backup
paths are utilized by the LRUs. Refer to the
Annunciations and Alerts Pilot’s Guide for further
information regarding these and other system
alerts.
Reversionary mode may also be manually activated by
the pilot if the system fails to detect a display problem.
Reversionary mode is activated manually by pressing
the red DISPLAY BACKUP button at the bottom of the
GMA 1347. Pressing this button again deactivates reversionary mode.
Figure 2.7.2 G1000 Reversionary Mode (Failed PFD)
2-12
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
190-00374-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AHRS MODES OF OPERATION
Air Data Input Failure
In addition to using internal sensors, the GRS 77
AHRS uses GPS information, magnetic field data and air
data to assist in attitude/heading calculations. In normal
(primary) mode, the AHRS relies upon GPS and magnetic
field measurements. If either external measurement is unavailable or invalid, the AHRS uses air data information
to assist in attitude determination. Four AHRS modes of
operation are available (see table below) and depend upon
the combination of the sensor inputs available. Loss of air
data, GPS, or magnetometer sensor inputs is communicated to the pilot by message advisory alerts.
A failure of the air data input has no effect on the AHRS
output while AHRS is operating in normal (primary)
mode. A failure of the air data input while the AHRS is
operating in reversionary ‘No GPS’ mode results in invalid
attitude and heading information on the PFD (as indicated
by red ‘X’ flags).
GPS Input Failure
Magnetometer Failure
If the magnetometer input fails, the AHRS transitions
to one of the reversionary ‘No Magnetometer’ modes and
continues to output valid attitude information. However,
the heading output on the PFD is flagged as invalid with
a red ‘X’.
The G1000 system provides two sources of GPS information. If a single GPS receiver fails, or if the information provided from one of the GPS receivers is unreliable,
the AHRS transitions seamlessly to using the other GPS
receiver. An alert message informs the pilot of the use of
the backup GPS path. If both GPS inputs fail, the AHRS
continues to operate in reversionary ‘No GPS’ mode, so
long as air data and magnetometer inputs are available
and valid.
NOTE: Refer to the G1000 Annunciations and
Alerts Pilot’s Guide for specific AHRS alert information.
NOTE: Aggressive maneuvering in any of the
three reversionary modes listed below can
degrade AHRS accuracy.
Available AHRS Functions
AHRS Mode
Normal/Primary
Reversionary:
No GPS
Reversionary:
No Magnetometer
Reversionary:
No Magnetometer
No Air Data
190-00374-01 Rev. A
Available Sensor Inputs
GPS Input
GMU 44
GDC 74A
Heading
(At least one) Magnetometer Air Data Computer
X
X
X
X
Pitch
Roll
X
X
X
X
X
–
X
X
X
X
–
X
–
X
X
X
–
X
–
–
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
2-13
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
2.8 CHECKLISTS
The G1000 MFD is able to display electronic checklists
customized for the Diamond DA40. The G1000 accesses
the Diamond DA40 checklists from an SD card which is
inserted into a slot on the bezel.
If the SD card contains a valid checklist file, the
Power-up Page displays both the aircraft make and model
to which the checklist applies (DA40, DIAMOND AIRCRAFT INDUSTRIES) and copyright information.
With the Checklist Page displayed:
The Checklist Page displays the following data:
• Selected checklist group
• Selected checklist title
• Selected checklist text, including:
• Plain text
• Notes
• Cautions
• Warnings
• Challenge/Response pairs
• Challenges with no responses
• Check state of each checkable item
• Checklist complete indicator
• If the SD card contains an invalid checklist file, the page displays ‘INVALID CHECKLIST’.
• If the SD card does not contain any
checklist, the page displays ‘CHECKLIST
NOT PRESENT’.
If a valid checklist file exists, pressing the CHKLIST
softkey allows access to all checklists. Pressing the EXIT
softkey exits the Checklist Pages and displays the page
last viewed.
NOTE: The checklists cannot be edited from
within the system. Refer to the Garmin Aviation
Checklist Editor (ACE) User’s Guide for information on creating and editing checklists.
2-14
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
190-00374-01 Rev. A
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
Figure 2.8.1 Sample Checklist
190-00374-01 Rev. A
Garmin G1000 System Overview for the DA40
2-15
Garmin International, Inc.
1200 East 151st Street
Olathe, KS 66062, U.S.A.
p: 913.397.8200 f: 913.397.8282
Garmin AT, Inc.
2345 Turner Road SE
Salem, OR 97302, U.S.A.
p: 503.391.3411 f: 503.364.2138
Garmin (Europe) Ltd.
Unit 5, The Quadrangle
Abbey Park Industrial Estate
Romsey, SO51 9DL, U.K.
p: 44/0870.8501241 f: 44/0870.8501251
Garmin Corporation
No. 68, Jangshu 2nd Road
Shijr, Taipei County, Taiwan
p: 886/2.2642.9199 f: 886/2.2642.9099
www.garmin.com
© 2004, 2005 Garmin Ltd. or its subsidiaries
190-00374-01 Rev. A
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