Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training

DRAFT CAAP 5.23-1(2)
Civil Aviation Advisory
Publication
August 2015
This Civil Aviation Advisory Publication
(CAAP) provides guidance,
interpretation and explanation on
complying with the Civil Aviation
Regulations 1988 (CAR) or a Civil
Aviation Order (CAO).
This CAAP provides advisory
information to the aviation industry in
support of a particular CAR or CAO.
Ordinarily, the CAAP will provide
additional ‘how to’ information not
found in the source CAR, or elsewhere.
Note: Read this advisory publication in
conjunction with the appropriate
regulations/orders.
Multi-engine aeroplane
operations and training
This CAAP will be of interest to:
•
multi-engine aeroplane pilots
•
flight instructors
•
approved testing officers (ATO)
•
flying training providers.
Why this publication was written
Following a number of multi-engine aeroplane accidents
caused by aircraft systems mismanagement and loss of
control by pilots, flight instructors and persons approved to
conduct multi-engine training, this CAAP was written to
address threats and errors associated with multi-engine
operations and provide advice on multi-engine training.
This CAAP also includes competency standards for multiengine operations, suggested multi-engine and flight
instructor training syllabi and a questionnaire to assist
pilots to learn and assess their aircraft systems
knowledge.
Status of this CAAP
This is the third CAAP to be written on this subject. This
CAAP will be superseded with a Part 61 Advisory Circular
(AC) in the future.
For further information
Telephone Flight Standards Branch on 131 757.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
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Contents
1.
The relevant regulations and other references
2
2.
Acronyms
3
3.
Definitions
5
4.
Background
5
5.
Multi-engine training
8
6.
Flight instructor training
24
Appendix A: Range of variables
Appendix B: Multi-engine aeroplane ground and flight training syllabus
Appendix C: Multi-engine flight instructor training
Appendix D: Multi-engine piston aeroplane endorsement
Appendix E: Multi-engine turbo-prop aeroplane endorsement
1.
36
44
73
103
111
The relevant regulations and other references
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CAOs:
− 20.7.0: Aeroplane weight limitations – General
− 20.7.4: Aeroplane weight & performance limitations – Aeroplanes not above 5,700 kg –
Private aerial work
− 20.7.1B: Aeroplane weight & performance limitations – Aeroplanes above 5,700 kg –
All operations (turbine & piston-engine)
Part 61 Manual of Standards(MOS)
Parts 23 and 25, 61, 141 and 142 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR)
Flight Training-Multi-Engine Rating–R. D. Campbell
Flying High Performance Singles and Twins – John Eckalbar
Multi-Engine Flight Manual for Professional Pilots – John Chesterfield
Multi-Engine Piston-Aviation Theory Centre – David Robson
Understanding Light Twin Engine Aeroplanes – Russ Evans
‘Even worse than the real thing’ Flight Safety Australia, March-April 2002
Civil Aviation Authority Publication (CAP of the United Kingdom) 601 – Multi-Engine Piston
Aeroplane Class Rating Training Syllabus
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) AC 61-9B – Pilot Transition Courses for Complex
Single-engine and Light Twin-Engine Airplanes
FAA Flight Instructor Training Module Volume 2 System Safety – Course Development
Guide
Transport Canada-Instructor Guide – Multi-Engine Class Rating
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
2.
Acronyms
AC
Advisory Circular
AC
Alternating Current
AGL
Above Ground Level
amsl
Above Mean Sea Level
AOC
Air Operator's Certificate
ASI
Air Speed Indicator
ATC
Air Traffic Control
ATO
Approved Testing Officer
ATPL
Airline Transport Pilot Licence
ATSB
Australian Transport Safety Bureau
AUW
All Up Weight
CAAP
Civil Aviation Advisory Publication
CAO
Civil Aviation Order
CAR
Civil Aviation Regulations
CASA
Civil Aviation Safety Authority
CFI
Chief Flying Instructor
CG
Centre of Gravity
CPL
Commercial Pilot Licence
CRM
Crew Resource Management
CSU
Constant Speed Unit
DA
Decision Altitude
DC
Direct Current
EFATO
Engine Failure After Take-off
ELT
Emergency Locator Transmitter
ENR
En-route
ETP
Equi Time Point
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration (of the USA)
FAR
Federal Aviation Regulation (of the USA)
fpm
feet per minute
FTO
Flying Training Organisation
IAS
Indicated Air Speed
ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organisation
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
IFR
Instrument Flight Rules
IMC
Instrument Meteorological Conditions
ISA
International Standard Atmosphere
ITT
Interstage Turbine Temperature
MAP
Manifold Air Pressure
MAUW
Maximum All Up Weight
MDA
Minimum Descent Altitude
MOS
Manual of Standards
N1
Gas Generator Speed
N2
Second Stage Turbine Speed
Ng
Gas Generator Speed
Np
Propeller Speed
NTS
Negative Torque Sensing System
OAT
Outside Air Temperature
OEI
One Engine Inoperative
PIC
Pilot-in-Command
POB
Persons on Board
POH
Pilot Operating Handbook
RPM
Revolutions per minute
SOP
Standard Operating Procedures
TAS
True Air Speed
TEM
Threat and Error Management
VFR
Visual Flight Rules
VP
Variable Pitch Propellers
V
Velocity
VA
Maximum Manoeuvring Speed
VFE
Flap Extension Speed
VLE
Maximum Speed with Landing Gear Extended
VLO
Landing Gear Operating
VLO2
Landing Gear Operation Down
VMC
Minimum Control Speed
VMCA
Minimum Control Airspeed Airborne (Red line speed)
VNE
Never Exceed Speed
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
VNO
Normal Operating Speed
VS0
Stall Speed with Undercarriage and Flap Selected
VS1
Clean Stall Speed
VSSE
Safe Single-engine Speed
VTOSS
Take-off Safety Speed
VX
Best Angle of Climb Speed
VXSE
Best Single-engine Angle of Climb Speed
VY
Best Rate of Climb Speed
VYSE
Best Single-engine Rate of Climb Speed (Blue line speed)
V1
Take-off Decision Speed
3.
5
Definitions
AEROPLANE/AIRCRAFT IS BALANCED: The skid ball in the balance indicator is less than a
quarter of the ball diameter from the centre. In a multi-engine, asymmetric aeroplane with bank
toward the functioning engine, the aircraft is balanced when the ball is positioned vertically below
the fore-aft axis.
AIRCRAFT IS TRIMMED: The aircraft is trimmed within 10 seconds of achieving stabilised and
balanced flight, after an attitude, power or configuration change, so that no control input is required
from the pilot to maintain this state. During asymmetric operations aircraft trimmed within 10
seconds of Phase 1 actions.
BETA: Manually controlled mode for constant speed propellers on turboprop aircraft.
GO-AROUND: A pilot initiated abandonment of a visual approach for a landing.
SAFE (LY): Means that a manoeuvre or flight is completed without injury to persons, damage to
aircraft or breach of aviation safety regulations, while meeting the standards specified by the Civil
Aviation Safety Authority (CASA).
VISUAL COMMITTAL HEIGHT: A nominated height at or above which a safe asymmetric go-around
can be initiated, and below which the aircraft is committed to land.
4.
Background
4.1
An Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) Aviation Research Report analysed
accidents and incidents over a ten-year period caused by power loss in twin-engine aircraft
weighing less than 5,700 kg. Of the 57 accidents investigated, one third were double engine
failures, the majority caused by fuel exhaustion due to mismanagement. Eleven of the accidents
were fatal and 10 of the fatalities were caused by loss of control of the aircraft. Forty-six percent of
the engine failures happened during take-off, rather than any other phase of flight. Additionally, 16%
of reported multi-engine accidents were associated with planned power losses during training.
4.2
These statistics indicate that fuel mismanagement leading to double engine failures caused
a significant number of accidents. Asymmetric engine failures led to 10 fatal accidents that were due
to loss of control of the aeroplane. It is not unrealistic to assume that inadequate aircraft systems
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
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knowledge or practice, lack of familiarity with asymmetric aircraft handling, and inadequate
management of asymmetric training are noteworthy reasons that multi-engine aircraft accidents
occur.
4.3
The ATSB Aviation Research Report B2005/0085 provides additional interesting
information and is available at www.atsb.gov.au.
4.4
Personnel responsible for competent operation of an aircraft
4.4.1
Regulation 61.385 of CASR clearly states that it is the pilot’s responsibility to ensure that
they are competent to operate all the aircraft systems, and to perform normal and emergency flight
manoeuvres, as well as calculate aircraft performance and weight and balance, and complete all
required flight planning.
4.4.2
The difficulty with this requirement is that some pilots may be relatively inexperienced and
unable to competently assess their ability to comply with the order. Normally, pilots assume that if
they complete the required training then they meet the above requirement. This may not always be
the case, and the information that follows in this CAAP will help pilots to determine if they meet the
requirements of regulation 61.385 of CASR.
4.5
Engine shutdowns while in flight
4.5.1
Any pilot qualified to operate a multi-engine aircraft may shutdown an engine in flight.
However, CASA strongly recommends that this only be done with a qualified flight instructor
present, as there is likelihood for errors and engine mismanagement. Flight instructors regularly
practice this procedure and are less likely to cause problems.
4.5.2
In addition, engines must not be shut down in flight when carrying passengers (except in an
actual emergency), as emergency training is not permitted when transporting them. CASA also
recommends that passengers not be carried on training flights as they can be a distraction and limit
the type of training that may be conducted.
4.6
Multi-engine endorsement requirements
4.6.1
Subpart 61.L of CASR includes the legislative requirements for aircraft ratings and
endorsement as applicable to the aircraft type the pilot intends to operate.
4.7
Certification of multi-engine aeroplanes
4.7.1
An understanding of the weight and performance limitations of multi-engine aeroplanes
requires an understanding of the performance of single-engine aeroplanes.
4.7.2
The Pilots Operating Handbook (POH) or Flight Manual for most single-engine aeroplanes
provides for two requirements for climb capability:
•
Take-off - the aeroplane in the take-off configuration at maximum weight with maximum
power must have an adequate climb capability in standard atmospheric conditions. For
most light aeroplane types, adequate climb capability is defined as either 300 feet per
minute (fpm) or a gradient of 1:12 (8.3%) at sea level.
− This definition is given in Part 23 of the US FAA Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR)
regulations (see FAR 23.65). Paragraph 7.1 of CAO 20.7.4 specifies a minimum takeoff gradient of 6%. CAO 20.7.4 is expected to be repealed when Parts 91 and 135 of
CASR commence.
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Baulked Landing - the aeroplane in the landing configuration at maximum weight with
maximum power must have an adequate climb capability in standard atmospheric
conditions. For most light aeroplane types, adequate climb capability is defined as either
200 fpm or a gradient of 1:30 (3.3%) at sea level.
− This definition is given in Part 23 of the US (see FAR 23.77). Paragraph 9.1 of
CAO 20.7.4 specifies a landing climb gradient of 3.1%. CAO 20.7.4 is expected to be
repealed when Parts 91 and 135 of CASR commence.
4.7.3
Light multi-engine aeroplanes with all engines operating must possess the climb
capabilities described above for single-engine aeroplanes. In addition, light multi-engine aeroplanes
with one engine inoperative (OEI) must have an adequate climb capability at 5,000 ft pressure
altitude. For most light aeroplane types, adequate climb capability with OEI is a positive rate of climb
at 5,000 feet pressure altitude. This definition is given in Part 23 of the FAR (see FAR 23.67).
Subsection 8 of CAO 20.7.4 specifies an en-route climb gradients of 0% and 1%. CAO 20.7.4 is
expected to be repealed when Parts 91 and 135 of CASR commence.
4.7.4
At practical operating weights, light multi-engine aeroplanes do not have climb capability
with OEI after take-off. It is usually not until the propeller has been feathered, the aeroplane’s
undercarriage and wing flaps have been retracted and its airspeed reaches the optimum speed
(VYSE) that light multi-engine aeroplanes have the capability to climb with OEI.
4.7.5
This is most significant for pilots of light multi-engine aeroplanes. It means that if the
aeroplane suffers an engine failure shortly after take-off it is unlikely to be able to climb. It is more
likely that the aeroplane will descend and the pilot will have no alternative other than a forced
landing.
4.7.6
Multi-engine aeroplanes with maximum take-off weight greater than 5,700 kg have
performance requirements that are significantly different to those of light multi-engine aeroplanes.
Large multi-engine aeroplanes must have the capability to climb with OEI after take-off regardless of
the configuration of the propeller, wing flaps and undercarriage. It is important that pilots of light
multi-engine aeroplanes understand that their aeroplanes do not possess the same climb capability
as large aeroplanes.
4.8
Recent experience
4.8.1
Subpart 61.E of CASR includes the legislative requirements for recent experience as
applicable to the aircraft type you are intending to operate.
4.9
The aim of recency
4.9.1
The pilot should be familiar and competent to plan the flight and operate and control the
aeroplane. Before getting airborne, pilots must ensure that all possible pre-flight contingency
planning is completed and normal and emergency procedures can be confidently and competently
managed.
Things the pilot should take into consideration include would they be able to:
•
•
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load the aircraft to ensure adequate post take-off asymmetric performance on the day of
the flight?
calculate single-engine climb performance?
manage a take-off or landing with a maximum permissible crosswind?
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manage an engine failure after take-off?
confidently cross-feed and balance fuel during asymmetric flight?
manage fuel pump failures?
manage electrical/electronic malfunctions?
manage propeller malfunctions?
manually lower the undercarriage?
manage an unexpected malfunction/failure during the en-route flight phase and divert to an
unfamiliar aerodrome?
4.9.2
If the answer to any of the items listed above is 'No', then a review of the POH, Operations
Manual or some flight training is required. Recency may not be an issue for a pilot who is operating
a multi-engine aeroplane on a regular basis and receives ongoing training, but could be a significant
problem for a pilot who flies infrequently, or has not practiced asymmetric operations in recent
times.
5.
Multi-engine training
5.1
The importance of receiving good multi-engine training
5.1.1
Good training for any aircraft type is extremely important. However, training is normally
more involved in a multi-engine aircraft because of additional and complex systems and flight
characteristics that require increased management and skills. The first multi-engine endorsement
that a pilot receives is probably the most crucial.
5.1.2
During this training it is critical that aircraft systems and normal and asymmetric flight
characteristics are well understood and practiced, and the pilot can comfortably maintain control of
the aircraft under all circumstances. This can be achieved if the training is comprehensive and pilots
apply themselves to attain these goals.
5.1.3
Professional organisations such as airlines, charter operators and defence forces
acknowledge the importance of good flight training and dedicate considerable expenditure to this
task. As there are financial costs to obtain safety training, each pilot should carefully consider what
training they require to operate a multi-engine aircraft safely. Appendices A and B contain the
competency standards and syllabus of training required to operate a multi-engine aeroplane. The
pilot should look at any course they are considering, measure it against the syllabus and final
standard to ensure that the training provider can achieve those outcomes.
5.1.4
The standards included in this CAAP detail what the pilot must be able to achieve at the
end of their training. It also provides advice for them to determine if they are competent to safely
operate a multi-engine aeroplane weighing less than 5,700 kg. However, also included in this CAAP
is guidance on training techniques and practices that should lead to the development of a good level
of competency and confidence.
5.2
Qualified multi engine flight training organisation
5.2.1
A flying training organisation (FTO) that has the multi-engine aircraft included in the Air
Operator Certificate (AOC), and a multi-engine syllabus of training contained in the Company
Operations Manual, is permitted to conduct multi-engine training.
Additionally, a flight instructor must hold a multi-engine or type rating training endorsement.
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5.3
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Choosing a flying training organisation
5.3.1
Many FTOs offer multi-engine training. This CAAP emphasises the importance of receiving
good training, particularly for a pilot’s first multi-engine endorsement, and the selection of a flighttraining operator will their decision. It is important for the pilot to be well informed when making such
a decision.
5.3.2
A personal recommendation from another pilot is always helpful. However, the pilot should
not consider a recommendation based solely on cost. It would be worthwhile for the pilot to research
a number of operators across the market to see what they have to offer.
5.3.3
The first item to examine is the syllabus of training that all FTOs must have in their
operations manual. It should detail in a logical sequence all the theory and flight training exercises
involved in the course. For guidance, refer to the recommended syllabus at Appendix B and map
the course against this document. The pilot should ask how many flying hours will be involved.
Experience has shown that it is unlikely that all the flight sequences for an initial multi-engine
endorsement can be adequately taught in less than 5-7 hours of flight time.
5.3.4
The same time frame applies to the aeronautical knowledge training. A structured, well-run
course should be the pilot’s goal. If they choose a flying instructor to conduct their training, they
should ensure that the organisation has an appropriate written syllabus and training plan.
5.3.5
CASA requires training providers to supply adequate and appropriate training facilities
before an AOC is issued. However, the pilot should examine the facilities and look for:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
briefing facilities (lecture rooms and training aids)
flight manuals and checklists
training notes
reference libraries
comprehensive training records
sufficient experienced instructors available at the time you require
flight testing capability close to the end of training.
5.3.6
The pilot should then inspect the aircraft. It should be well presented and clean. The
interiors should be neat with no unnecessary equipment or publications left inside. Windows should
be clean and unscratched, and the condition of the paintwork is often an indicator of the care taken
of the aircraft.
5.3.7
•
•
To ensure training is not delayed due to aircraft unserviceabilities, the pilot should also:
examine maintenance documents to ensure there are no long-standing unserviceabilities
review the maintenance release to ensure that unserviceabilities are entered (as
sometimes this is not done).
5.3.8
The next component to review is the flight instructor. The value of a flight instructor who
helps the pilot gain knowledge and skills and develop a positive and robust safety culture cannot be
over emphasised. The pilot should ensure they are satisfied with the instructor’s performance and
professional behaviour. It is important for the pilot to:
•
•
discuss their aims and any concerns they may have about the flight training
establish good communication
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determine that the instructor is available when they are. Some training operators will
substitute flight instructors and this can cause time wasting while the new instructor reassesses the trainee to establish what training is required.
5.3.9
The pilot should not just accept an instructor that they feel uncomfortable with or have
doubts about.
5.4
Knowledge training
5.4.1
Logical and comprehensive briefings by flight or specialist technical instructors are an
essential component of pilot training. Ideally, the aeronautical knowledge briefings should be
coordinated with their flight training to ensure that maximum benefit can be gained.
5.4.2
CASA recommends use of the publications listed in Section 1that provide excellent
guidance material for multi-engine pilots and any others that are equivalent. The pilot should study
such documents well before starting their multi-engine training. It is also important to ensure that a
flight manual or POH is readily available. The pilot should become very familiar with this document
to ensure that they are comfortable using all the performance charts and tables. They should also
familiarise themselves with the layout and table of contents of flight manuals, and know how to
quickly look for any information that is needed.
5.4.3
Appendix B has a training syllabus that provides guidance for pilots to determine the
suitability of a multi-engine training course. On completion of the course, pilots should finish the
appropriate questionnaire provided at Appendices D and E. These questionnaires are designed to
be completed by pilots using any suitable reference material and should be retained as a way to
refresh their aircraft systems knowledge at any time. The questionnaire is based on the layout of a
standard flight manual and is designed to give the pilot practice in using a flight manual.
5.4.4
A good knowledge of the aircraft systems, performance planning and fuel management can
reduce if not eliminate the chance of multi-engine accidents occurring. An important aspect of safe
operations is the ability to apply knowledge in a practical sense. Being able to apply knowledge to
analyse faults and make appropriate decisions can enhance safe operations. Too often pilots have
only superficial knowledge that enables them to manage normal operations, but may limit their
performance during abnormal situations. Therefore, pilots must apply themselves to understand and
manage aircraft performance and systems confidently and competently.
5.5
Flight training
The purpose of flight training is to teach a pilot to control the aircraft, and to operate and manage all
the aircraft systems in normal and abnormal flight. During training, pilots should be shown all the
flight characteristics of the aircraft, and be given adequate time and practice to consolidate their
skills.
5.6
Understanding and operating the aircraft systems
5.6.1
Good training and conscientious application by a pilot can ensure confidence and
competence when operating all the aircraft systems. It is important to refine knowledge obtained
through study of the reference publications and the approved flight manual and apply it to the
aircraft. Pilots should not forget that competence and recency are as important as each other. If the
pilot does not fly regularly, they should review the flight manual to refresh their systems knowledge
before flying.
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5.6.2
The following paragraphs offer advice about issues, characteristics and some potential
‘traps’ of individual aircraft systems.
5.7
Fuel system
5.7.1
Mismanagement of the fuel system has been the cause of many multi-engine accidents.
These accidents included:
•
•
•
•
•
poor fuel planning leading to fuel exhaustion
inappropriate use of engine controls
cross-feed and fuel pump mismanagement
incorrect tank selection
failure to visually inspect fuel contents.
5.7.2
Fuel system configuration and operation vary with aircraft type and range from simple to
complex. The simplest system may have one fuel tank in each wing with a cross-feed system to
transfer fuel from one side to the engine on the opposite wing. More complex systems may have
three fuel tanks on each side with multiple tank selections and cross-feed combinations, using
auxiliary fuel pumps. Fuel systems may even be different in similar models.
5.7.3
It is vitally important that the pilot understands the configuration and operation of the fuel
system in the aircraft they are flying.
5.7.4
There is a lot of benefit in just sitting in an aircraft on the ground and using the fuel system
(or any other systems) controls to accommodate various scenarios. This type of practice, while not
under pressure of actually flying the aircraft, can be an effective learning experience.
5.7.5
Visual inspection of fuel contents applies to all aircraft types, but some larger multi-engine
aircraft may have fuel tanks that are difficult to inspect. For example, wing tip tanks are often hard to
reach. It is particularly important to check the contents on the first flight of the day after the aircraft
has been standing overnight. There have been numerous incidents of fuel being drained from the
tanks of unguarded aircraft, in some cases with tragic results.
5.7.6
Fuel gauges in some aircraft can be inaccurate and must be used with a calibration card.
Tanks should be dipped and the amounts compared to the fuel log and actual gauge indications.
5.7.7
Pilots should know exactly how much fuel is in the aircraft on start, be familiar with the
expected fuel flow rate of the aircraft and monitor these rates in flight to confirm normal engine
performance.
5.8
Engines
5.8.1
Modern multi-engine aeroplanes can be fitted with a variety of engines including normally
aspirated and turbo/supercharged piston engines and turboprops. Most pilots would be familiar with
normally aspirated engines and should operate them within prescribed limitations. However,
supercharged or turbocharged engines require extra attention. Older supercharged engines are
susceptible to over and under boosting, which can cause significant damage to an engine. Pilots
must carefully monitor engine performance at all times, but particularly when applying full power or
descending rapidly so that manifold pressure limitations are not exceeded.
5.8.2
Modern turbocharged engines are generally fitted with an automatic waste gate and are
simple to operate. It is important to use all the engine controls smoothly and not too rapidly, and in
the correct sequence. If the pilot is going to fly an aircraft with fixed or manual waste gates a little
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more attention needs to be paid to engine management and the manifold pressure gauge may
require more monitoring. As turbochargers are driven by exhaust gas, they are subject to high
temperatures.
5.8.3
Prior to shutdown, it is important to ensure that the temperature of the turbocharger has
stabilised (comply with POH time limits), and if the cylinder head temperature is in the normal range
this is also an indication that the turbocharger is within shutdown temperature limits.
5.8.4
Turbine propeller or turboprop engines are generally less difficult to manage than a piston
engine. They are reliable and quite rugged. However, there have been cases of the compressor
stalling in these types of engines when intakes are affected by ice build-up. Care should be taken
when operating in these conditions.
5.8.5
Pilots should also pay attention when starting turboprop engines. If excessive fuel gets to
the combustion chambers, or the engine is slow to accelerate (possibly caused by low battery
voltage), a ‘hot start’ can occur. This is likely to cause expensive damage and ground the aircraft.
However, if the engine is operated within the prescribed limitations, it will provide reliable service.
5.8.6
On aeroplanes fitted with propellers, one engine has a greater yawing moment because of
the effects of lift being produced by the down going propeller blade when the wing has an increased
angle of attack. American built engines rotate clockwise when viewed from behind. Additionally,
torque and slipstream effect add to the control difficulty. Therefore, the thrust of the down going
blade of the right engine has a greater moment arm than the left engine, and consequently a greater
yawing force. Therefore, the loss of the left engine presents the pilot with a greater control problem
than the loss of the right engine, so the left engine is called the critical engine. In some cases this
problem is overcome by fitting counter-rotating propellers.
5.8.7
Pilots must always manage aircraft engines within the engine operating limitations, ensure
that the specifications for fuel and oil are met and comply with maintenance requirements and they
should enjoy trouble free operation of aero engines.
5.9
Propeller systems
5.9.1
Following an engine failure in multi-engine aeroplanes, a pilot needs to be able to feather
the propeller to reduce drag. The feathering function complicates the design of a basic constant
speed unit (CSU) as fitted to a single-engine aircraft. A good understanding of how such a system
works will help the pilot appreciate any limitations that the design can impose.
5.9.2
In most CSUs, pressure is transmitted to the propeller through the engine oil and forces the
propeller to move to the fine pitch stops.
5.9.3
Conversely, as the oil pressure is reduced, the propeller increases its blade angle to a
coarser pitch by the action of spring and gas pressure contained in the propeller dome at the front of
the propeller hub. The downside of this design is that, as the oil pressure reduces to zero when an
engine is stopped on the ground, the propeller would feather. To overcome this, a centrifugal latch
engages when the propeller speed decreases to between 700 to 1,000 revolutions per minute (rpm),
and this prevents the propeller from moving past the coarse pitch angle. Therefore, pilots should be
aware that if an engine failure occurs in flight, the propeller must be feathered before the centrifugal
latch engages if the rpm drops below 1,000. Normally a windmilling propeller rotates at a speed well
above this figure, but if a catastrophic failure occurs the engine may slow down rapidly and then it
will not be possible to feather the propeller.
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5.9.4
Restarting an engine that has been shut down usually involves using the starter motor to
turn the engine and feathered propeller until the increasing oil pressure moves the propeller towards
fine pitch. However, before doing this the propeller pitch control lever must be moved to the fine
pitch stops to allow the oil pressure to be directed to the propeller. As the blade angle decreases,
aerodynamic forces help turn the propeller and with the addition of fuel and ‘spark’ (ignition) the
engine starts. Alternatively, if an unfeathering accumulator is fitted, the action is initiated by moving
the propeller pitch control lever forward to allow oil to flow under pressure from the accumulator to
the propeller. This type of start is usually smoother and less stressful on the engine than a starter
motor unfeathering procedure.
5.9.5
Pilots must analyse the situation they are faced with before restarting an engine that has
been shut down in flight. This action could lead to greater damage to an engine or cause an engine
to windmill without starting, leading to a dangerous degradation of flight performance.
5.10
Electrical system
5.10.1 Multi-engine aircraft introduce pilots to electrical systems with multiple power sources and
bus bars. Modern aircraft usually have two alternators (older aircraft may have generators) that
provide electrical power to all the aircraft electrical equipment. Alternators have on-off switches,
voltage regulators, over voltage protection, field switches and voltmeters. Pilots must understand
the functions and application of these devices. The on-off switches isolate the alternators from the
electrical system and should be turned off in the event of an alternator failure.
5.10.2 Voltage regulators maintain the voltage within the normal operating range, but if an over
voltage occurs, relays will trip and take the alternator off-line. If an alternator is turned on and will
not produce electrical power, it may require activation of the field switch to excite the alternator to
produce electricity. The voltmeter shows the battery charge or discharge rate, the amount of current
being delivered into or drawn from the electrical system (amperes) and the bus voltage, depending
upon the mode selection, when fitted.
5.10.3 Pilots must be able to interpret the voltmeter reading to determine what is happening to the
electrical system. Normally a switch connects the battery or individual alternators to the ammeter or
voltmeter so that the pilot can monitor power or voltage of the electrical power delivery systems
(alternator or battery). High amperage or low voltage can be an indicator of problems and remedial
action may be required as detailed in the approved flight manual.
5.10.4 Bus bars are simply a metal bar connected to a power source (battery or alternator) to
which all the aircraft electrical services are connected. Pilots should be familiar with what power
sources the bus bars are connected to, and what services run off the bus bar. Some bus bars may
be isolated to lighten the load on the electrical system during abnormal operations. For example, the
battery bus would include all the services that are required to start an aircraft including the starter
motors, radios, fuel pumps, avionics and lighting. These electrical services would also be required
during flight if a double alternator failure occurred. After the engine is started and the alternator
comes on-line more services may be added through other bus bars.
5.10.5 Flight instructors should ensure that trainees are able to interpret voltmeter readings, know
the location and function of the circuit breakers, be able to identify and isolate services that demand
high amperage (power) and demonstrate competency managing all electrical abnormal and
emergency procedures.
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5.11
14
Pressurisation system
5.11.1 Some multi-engine aircraft will introduce pilots to pressurisation. Because of the extra
performance available, some multi-engine aircraft are able to operate at high altitude. Simply
explained, engine driven pumps pressurise a sealed cabin. In the case of turbo-prop or turbine
engines, bleed air is used. An automatic outflow valve regulates the pressure in the cabin. The
pressurisation is normally turned on after engine start and is controlled automatically.
5.11.2 The pilot’s primary role is to monitor the system and ensure that it works correctly. They
must be familiar with all the pressurisation-warning devices, monitor the cabin altitude and
differential and understand the implications of high altitude operations. They should also be
confident of manually operating the system (if required) and be able to identify and manage outflow
valve problems if they arise. In addition, they should always recognise the symptoms of hypoxia and
the action that should be taken to remedy this situation. It is important to be familiar with all the
actions involved in an emergency descent following a pressurisation failure, including amended fuel
usage, which should be addressed during pre-flight planning.
5.11.3 Pilots should never fly above a cabin altitude of 10,000 ft without oxygen. There have been
cases of fatal accidents caused by pressurisation failures that have gone undetected. Therefore,
this system should not be treated lightly. Instructors must ensure that a new multi-engine pilot is
competent to operate the system during normal and emergency operations, conducts regular
checks of the system and is familiar with the physical hazards of high altitude flight.
5.12
Undercarriage system
5.12.1 The normal function of an aircraft undercarriage is ‘gear goes up, gear goes down’ and
malfunctions are rare. However, when they do occur pilots must be familiar with all the actions that
must be taken. On some aircraft, emergency lowering of the undercarriage is a simple process.
5.12.2 However, in other cases, it may well be a long and involved procedure. It may require
multiple actions with selectors, switches, valves and circuit breakers, as well as manual pumping or
winding. Pumping or winding an undercarriage may entail a lot of physical effort and time. A pilot
must also continue to stay in control of the aircraft, and maintain situational awareness; this could
be a real problem in instrument conditions, at night or bad weather.
5.12.3 Therefore, a pilot must be familiar with limiting speeds and minimum speeds to reduce air
loads, the normal and emergency undercarriage system, warning and undercarriage down
indicators and the time frame required to complete the emergency lowering procedure. The best
way of achieving these goals is to actually experience a practice emergency undercarriage lowering.
It should be a standard part of endorsement training and never overlooked.
5.12.4 In some cases, manual undercarriage lowering requires significant maintenance action to
return the aircraft to operation condition. In these circumstances, it may be preferable to simulate
the manual undercarriage extension procedure while an aircraft is on jacks (during maintenance).
5.12.5 It is also important to discuss action in the event of a main wheel or nose gear failing to
lower. Include in the discussions fuel burn-off to reduce the fuel load on landing, when to turn the
fuel off during the landing roll, type of runway and advantageous use of crosswind. Finally, consider
the evacuation and where to exit the aircraft.
5.12.6 Flight instructors must give guidance to trainees on the considerations that should be
included in the planning. Night, minimum control speed (VMC) or instrument meteorological
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conditions (IMC), traffic, air traffic control (ATC) requirements, turbulence, timeframe, emergency
services, passenger briefings and evacuation and flying techniques are just some of the issues that
should be taken into account. For example, there may be a need to yaw the aircraft to lock the
undercarriage down. This exercise is often overlooked by flight instructors, possibly because it can
be time consuming and can require ground servicing to allow the undercarriage to be retracted, but
the demonstration should be done at least once during endorsement training.
5.13
Flight instruments
5.13.1 Because of the redundancy built into multi-engine aircraft systems it is unlikely that a
vacuum pump failure would affect an attitude indicator, because each engine has a vacuum pump
fitted. However, because of the complexity of the system it is remotely possible that a component
failure could lead to an attitude failure. For example if a vacuum pump or an engine failed and the
shuttle valve that diverts the suction to the other pump failed (stuck), then there may be a need to
control the aircraft using -limited instrument panel techniques in IMC. The procedure for checking
the system on start-up and/or shutdown should be well understood.
5.13.2 If the pilot is likely to operate in instrument conditions, the instructor should take the time to
address this possibility.
5.14
Autopilot and electric trimming systems
5.14.1 The autopilot and trimming systems are a great aid to flight management and aircraft
control during both normal and abnormal flight. It is vital that pilots use the systems to relieve
workload and assist accuracy.
5.14.2 These systems have been linked together because both have influence on the pitch or roll
control of the aircraft. Malfunctions of either system can lead to loss of control of the aeroplane.
5.14.3 Pilots must be familiar with the normal operation of the autopilot and trim systems, but it is
critical to understand the abnormal actions contained in the flight manual that apply. Experience has
shown that reaction time can be a vital factor in regaining or maintaining control of an aeroplane
following an autopilot or pitch trim malfunction. Therefore, pilots must be sure of their actions to
manage these malfunctions.
5.14.4 If a fault exists in an autopilot it will often manifest itself when the autopilot is first engaged.
Therefore, pilots should monitor the aircraft attitude when engaging the autopilot and be prepared to
disengage it immediately if any abnormal attitude changes occur. During normal operations, the
autopilot should automatically disengage if excessive roll or pitch deviations occur. Overpowering
the autopilot will also normally disengage it. This instinctive reaction is probably the first action a
pilot will take and the problem should disappear. If not, the autopilot disengage switch should be
activated. As a last resort, the autopilot circuit breaker or the avionics master switch could be used.
The primary concern is to regain control of the aircraft and the pilot must monitor the autopilot and
be confident about disengaging it.
5.14.5 Runaway electric trim can be a serious problem in an aircraft, and it is not an uncommon
problem. Depending upon the aircraft’s airspeed, it is possible that full travel of the trim may cause
control column loads that a pilot will not be strong enough to manage. An electrical fault or a sticking
trim switch could cause this condition. Normally the electronic trim is disengaged when the autopilot
is engaged, so the most likely occasion for trim problems is when the pilot is hand flying the aircraft.
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5.14.6 In the first instance, the aircraft should be controlled using the control column and the trim
disengage switch should be activated. There have been cases where this has not worked and pilots
have repositioned the manual trim to override the system, or pulled the electric trim circuit breaker.
Using the manual trim wheel to override the electric trim should pop the trim circuit breaker, but
there have been examples where this has not happened, and when the trim wheel has been
released, the loads have re-occurred. In addition the pilot should consider reducing airspeed to
lower the aerodynamic loads on the flight controls.
5.14.7 Flight instructors should pay attention to the autopilot and trim systems during multi-engine
training. Control malfunctions are serious problems and pilots should be competent and quick to
remedy them. Ensure that they understand the different methods of disengaging these aids, and are
able locate the appropriate circuit breakers without having to look too hard.
5.15
Very light jets
5.15.1 Very light jets introduces new performance, technology and physiological aspects into
multi-engine operations and training. Flight at transonic speeds and high altitude with unique
weather and physiological conditions, new systems and avionics/glass cockpit will change the
knowledge and skills required by flight instructors and pilots seeking endorsements on these
aircraft.
5.15.2 Flight instructors who conduct training on these aircraft will be required to be familiar with
technology and operational conditions that they may never have previously experienced. This will
require good training and the development of teaching techniques to accommodate the technology
and associated human factors.
5.16
Assessing the risks
5.16.1 Before undertaking a flight it is important to assess any associated risks and then
implement procedures and practices that mitigate the identified risks. Flight training is no exception.
This process is called risk management, and should be done before any flight to determine whether
the flight should be undertaken and what modifications need to be made to reduce identified risks.
The question that risk management addresses is whether the level of risk is acceptable or, if not,
can it be managed to make it acceptable?
5.17
Risks associated with multi-engine training
5.17.1 There are many identifiable risks associated with multi-engine training. Some of the risks
are common to all types of flying while others are unique to multi-engine operations. Examples of
risks associated with flight training in general are:
•
•
•
•
•
5.17.2
•
•
weather
environmental conditions
traffic
task saturation
fatigue.
These risks can be countered by:
planning for and avoiding adverse weather
being familiar with the operating environment and avoiding associated hazards
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•
•
17
maintaining a lookout and traffic listening watch
prioritising tasks and following fatigue risk management procedures.
5.17.3 Identifying the risks specific to multi-engine training is important because this form of
training is potentially dangerous if not well managed.
5.17.4
•
•
•
•
•
Risks associated with multi-engine training are:
inappropriate management of complex aircraft systems
conducting flight operations at low level (engine failures after take-off)
conducting operations at or near VMCA or VSO with an engine inoperative
errors
asymmetric operations including
− inadequate pre-take-off planning and briefing
− decision making
− aircraft control
− performance awareness and management
− operations with feathered propellers
− missed approaches and go-arounds
− final approach and landing
− stalling.
5.17.5 To mitigate these risks, robust defences must be put into place. Because multi-engine
aircraft systems are often complex, it is important for pilots to be familiar with the systems
operations. It is also important to be current on the aircraft, though this may not always be possible
for private operators who may not have easy access to the full range of training.
5.17.6 In the absence of actual flight training, a private pilot should use self-study as an alternative
form of recurrent training or comprehensive training facilities to regularly familiarise themselves with
the aircraft systems. The pilot should undertake regular reviews of the flight manual or revision of
the questionnaire that is available at Appendices D and E. This should be completed and retained
by the pilot for each aircraft type flown.
5.17.7 Any flight operation at low altitude has potential dangers. Trainers have debated over the
decades on the value of practicing engine failures after an actual take-off, near the ground. The
general consensus is that despite the risks, pilots must be trained to manage these situations in
multi-engine aircraft.
5.17.8 Instructors should consider not simulating engine failures below 400 ft above ground level
(AGL) to provide a reasonable safety margin. The use of simulators has reduced the perils of this
activity. Other mitigating factors are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
well trained instructors
complete knowledge of the theoretical factors involved during asymmetric operations
proven procedures, provided these are strictly adhered to
comprehensive pre-flight and pre-take-off planning and briefings
ongoing training
situation awareness
flying competency.
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5.17.9 Each take-off is unique and should be carefully planned. Even daily operations from an
aerodrome like Sydney airport require each take-off to be planned. Variables that should be
included in pre-take-off planning include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
weight
weather
runway length available
take-off direction
traffic
temperature
departure clearances
runway conditions.
5.17.10 Terrain and obstructions are very real threats and should also be accommodated in the
pilot’s planning.
5.17.11 A thorough briefing after planning (either a self or crew brief) will both help with, and
minimise, the in-flight analysis required; especially if a critical decision has to be made following an
engine failure after take-off. This action will also reduce the workload that may distract from the
critical task of flying the aircraft.
5.17.12 Statistics show that a multi-engine aircraft that suffers an engine failure after take-off has a
higher probability of experiencing a fatality than a single-engine aircraft. This may be due to the fact
a multi-engine aircraft suffering an engine failure presents a host of alternative options for the pilot
seeking a remedy. This makes the decision-making, as well as identifying the correct solution, far
more complex. If the plan is simple and well-understood the correct solution may be identified
without doubtful hesitation and in a timely fashion.
5.17.13 The primary action in any emergency must be to maintain control of the aircraft. If a multiengine aircraft has an engine failure it is immediately ‘out of balance’. The ability to maintain control
of the aircraft is paramount and is dependent on sound knowledge of the asymmetric characteristics
of the aircraft.
5.17.14 The pilot must stay above VMCA and adjust the aircraft attitude to achieve best single-engine
angle of climb speed (VXSE) or best single-engine rate of climb speed (VYSE) so that optimum climb
performance is attained for the flight situation. Above all the pilot must maintain control of the
aircraft.
5.17.15 Engine failures may occur during any stage of flight and could require considerable time
flying around with a propeller feathered. Therefore, a pilot must safely manage the aircraft when in
this configuration. Propellers should never be feathered in flight during training below 3,000 ft AGL.
5.17.16 The pilot should practice flight with a feathered propeller, including climbs, descents and
turns in both 'clean' and ‘dirty’ (undercarriage and flap extended) configuration. It is important to be
reassured that the aircraft will still fly safely when in this situation and configuration.
5.17.17 Flying asymmetric with the undercarriage or flaps down should only be accepted in the
early stages of a take-off or overshoot during a missed approach, and the aircraft should be
‘cleaned’ up as soon as it is safe to do so, to improve aircraft climb performance.
5.17.18 CASA strongly recommends that, when practicing asymmetric flight, an aircraft should
never be landed with the propeller of a serviceable engine feathered. The risk far outweighs the
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minimal benefits, with a list of examples of such unnecessary risks proving fatal. If a landing with a
feathered propeller on a serviceable engine is contemplated, a comprehensive risk assessment
should be made and a clear plan developed. The plan should include weather, traffic, ATC and any
other factors that could adversely affect the safety of the procedure.
5.17.19 Go-arounds are often mismanaged, resulting in many fatalities. The pilot must establish a
visual committal height applicable to them and the aircraft type and not attempt to initiate a
go-around below this height.
5.17.20 When initiating a go-around prior to or at the committal height from an approach to land,
the pilots must ensure that they apply power smoothly and accelerate to and maintain VYSE, while
maintaining directional control. Every change of power on the live engine affects the directional
balance of the aircraft, so it is important to anticipate the required change of rudder input to maintain
continuous directional control. The pilot must not adjust the nose attitude until they are sure that
they can achieve VYSE before establishing the climb. When terrain or obstructions pose a hazard, it
may be a safer option to initially climb at VXSE until clear. Raise the undercarriage and flaps as soon
as it is safe to do so.
5.17.21 It is important for the pilot to understand the need to maintain directional control of the
aircraft during a go-around. They must continue to maintain situational awareness during the
process. In this procedure the handling of the aircraft is challenged by its low speed and maximum
power setting, which has the potential to bring about a directionally critical flight situation. This may
be further aggravated by its proximity to the ground.
5.17.22 Pilots must have a plan of action that ensures a safe result when making an asymmetric
approach. The approach and landing speeds and configurations should be as for a normal approach
unless there are well-documented reasons for not doing so. Operations manuals should detail the
procedures and the recommended approach speed, visual committal heights, when to lower the
undercarriage and flaps (if different from a normal approach) and speed control. If these procedures
are not available in an operations manual, the pilot should seek guidance from a suitably qualified
flight instructor and have these actions clear in their mind before flying.
5.17.23 The pilot must never practice stalls when under asymmetric power. This is an extremely
dangerous manoeuvre and autorotation and spinning are likely to occur. Experience has shown that
the chances of recovery are poor. Pilots should also be aware that as altitude increases, stall speed
and minimum control speed could coincide. Not only will the aircraft stall, but it is almost guaranteed
the aircraft will lose directional control. Pilots should also be aware that some aircraft have a VMCA
that is very close to the stall speed (for example-Partenavia PN-68) and care should be exercised
when operating these aircraft near these speeds.
5.17.24 Although the risks associated with asymmetric operations are manifest, they can be
mitigated. Robust procedures, adherence to standard operating procedures (SOP), compliance with
flight manual warnings, comprehensive and ongoing training and a willingness to learn about, and
practice, asymmetric operations can ensure a safe outcome during multi-engine training.
5.18
Threat and error management
5.18.1 Threat and error management (TEM) is an operational concept applied to the conduct of a
flight that includes the traditional role of airmanship, but provides for a structured and pro-active
approach for pilots to use in identifying and managing threats and errors (hazards) that may affect
the safety of the flight.
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5.18.2 TEM uses many tools, including training, SOP, checklists, briefings and crew resource
management (CRM) principles to assist pilots to manage flight safely. It has been widely accepted
in the airline industry as an effective method of improving flight safety, and is now required by the
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) as an integral part of pilot training at all licence
levels from trainee to airline transport pilot. It is also a useful concept for multi-engine pilots to apply
to their operations.
5.18.3 There is some overlap between risk management, TEM and CRM, particularly at the stage
of developing and implementing plans to mitigate risks and in reviewing the conduct of a flight.
Generally risk management is the process of deciding whether or not operations can be conducted
to an acceptable 'level' of risk (go or no-go) safely, whereas TEM is the concept applied to
managing and maintaining the safety of a particular flight.
5.18.4 The following sections provide a brief introduction to TEM to assist multi-engine pilots and
trainers who may wish to apply the principles to their own operations.
5.19
Threats
5.19.1 In the TEM model, threats are events or hazards (e.g. meteorological conditions) whose
occurrence is outside the control of the pilot(s) and which may threaten the safety of the flight.
These treats may be anticipated, unexpected or hidden in the operational systems. Pilots need good
situational awareness to anticipate and to recognise threats as they occur. Threats must be
managed to maintain normal flight safety margins. Some typical threats/hazards to multi-engine
operations might be:
•
•
•
•
•
•
5.20
weight
density altitude
runway length
other traffic
high terrain or obstacles
condition of the aircraft.
Errors
5.20.1 The TEM model accepts that human error is unavoidable. Errors can be classified as
handling errors, procedural errors or communications errors. External threats can also lead to errors
on the part of the pilot(s).
5.20.2 While errors may be inevitable, safety of flight demands that errors that do occur are
identified and managed before flight safety margins are compromised. Some typical errors in multiengine flight might be:
•
•
•
•
•
incorrect performance calculations
aircraft handling errors
incorrect identification of failed engine
incorrect systems operation or management
failure to recognise, achieve or manage optimum performance.
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5.21
21
Undesired aircraft state
5.21.1 Threats and errors that are not detected and managed correctly can lead to an undesired
aircraft state, which could be a deviation from flight path or aircraft configuration that reduces normal
safety margins. An undesired aircraft state can still be recovered to normal flight but, if not managed
appropriately, may lead to an outcome such as an accident or an incident. Multi-engine flight
requires recognition and recovery from undesired aircraft state in a very short timeframe before an
outcome, such as loss of directional control, failure to achieve optimum climb performance or
uncontrolled flight into terrain (UFIT) occurs. Examples of an undesired aircraft states in multiengines might be:
•
•
•
•
•
mismanagement of aircraft systems
loss of directional control following engine failure (flight below VMCA)
flight below VYSE or VXSE
incorrect attitude recognised during manoeuvre
commencing a missed approach below visual committal height.
5.21.2 Good TEM requires the pilot to plan and use appropriate countermeasures to prevent
threats and errors leading to an undesired aircraft state. Countermeasures used in TEM include
many standard aviation practices and may be categorised as follows:
•
•
•
planning countermeasures – including flight planning, briefing, and contingency planning
execution countermeasures – including monitoring, cross-checking, workload and
automation management
review countermeasures – including evaluating and modifying plans as the flight proceeds,
and inquiry and assertiveness to identify and address issues in a timely way.
5.21.3 Once an undesired aircraft state is recognised, it is important to manage the undesired
state through the correct remedial solution and prioritise aircraft control for return to normal flight,
rather than to fixate on the error that may have initiated the event.
5.22
TEM applications
5.22.1 Threats and errors occur during every flight, as demonstrated by the considerable
database that has been built up in observing threats and errors in flight operations worldwide. One
interesting fact revealed by this program is that around 50% of crew errors go undetected.
5.22.2 TEM should be integral to every flight, including anticipation of potential threats and errors,
and planning of countermeasures. Include potential threats, errors and countermeasures in the selfbriefing process at each stage of flight, and avoid becoming complacent about threats that are
commonly encountered.
5.22.3 Minimum control speed, often referred to as VMC is a speed that is associated with the
maintenance of directional control during asymmetric flight. If the pilot flies below this speed the tail
fin and rudder are unable to generate enough lift to prevent the aircraft from yawing. If uncorrected,
the yaw causes roll, the nose drops, the aircraft rapidly assumes a spiral descent or even dive, and
if the aircraft is at low altitude, it will impact steeply into the ground. This type of accident is not
uncommon in a multi-engine aircraft during training or actual engine failure. VMCA is a specific speed
that is established for aircraft certification requirements.
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Note: With regard to a particular aircraft, VMCA is a specific published speed. VMC can be a range of speeds
dependant on altitude, power setting, aircraft configuration etc.
5.22.4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
5.23
The following summary is intended to assist pilots to apply TEM to multi-engine operations:
Try to anticipate possible threats and errors associated with each flight, and plan
countermeasures.
Brief (self-brief) planned procedures before take-off and prior to commencing each
significant multi-engine sequence.
Include anticipated threats and countermeasures in briefings.
Continuously monitor and cross-check visual and instrument indications and energy state
to maintain situation awareness.
Prioritise tasks and manage workload so as not to be overloaded, but to maintain
situational awareness.
Identify and manage threats and errors.
Maintain control of the aircraft and flight path.
Monitor the progress of the sequence and abort (if necessary).
Maintain aircraft control and optimum performance.
Do not fixate on error management.
Identify and manage undesired aircraft state.
Recover to planned flight and normal safety margins rather than dealing with other
problems.
Pre-flight planning and briefing
5.23.1 A multi-engine pilot should never take-off without knowing how the aircraft is capable of
performing during all phases of flight, and what options are available should an engine fail. The
performance data in the flight manual will provide this information.
5.23.2 The accelerate-stop distance will indicate to the pilot how much runway length is required
to accelerate to take-off speed, suffer an engine failure and be able to stop. If the available runway
is less than this figure, the pilot should reduce the take-off weight to meet the physical constraint of
the available runway length. Otherwise, they may possibly run off the runway end should an engine
fail during the take-off run.
5.23.3 The pilot must then calculate the single-engine best rate of climb for the prevailing
atmospheric conditions. As an example, a 1978 Cessna 404 at all up weight (AUW) with OEI, will
climb at 220 ft/min on a standard day or 140 ft/min at a temperature of 36oC from a sea level
aerodrome. This information should be included in the pilot’s Engine Failure After Take-off (EFATO)
plan.
5.23.4 Does the terrain require a steeper angle of climb? If so, the pilot should consider VXSE and
look closely at where they should fly to avoid obstacles to return for a landing on the airfield.
5.23.5 The pilot should also consider that age of the aircraft and question whether it will perform
according to flight manual figures. Familiarity with the aircraft will help the pilot when they are
considering their options.
5.23.6 The pilot will need to calculate the single-engine service ceiling for various weights and
terrain at different stages of the flight, and formulate a plan that will keep the aircraft clear of high
ground and allow a safe diversion to a suitable aerodrome/s (as available). The diversion
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aerodromes should be noted in the flight briefing package for ready access in flight (if required). If
possible equi time point (ETP) between each diversion aerodrome should be noted.
5.23.7 The pre-take-off briefing should at least explain the pilot’s actions and plans in the event of
an engine failure after take-off. The plan should also include a decision speed or point, at which the
take-off will be abandoned or continued. Consideration should be given to the conditions in the overrun area of the runway. Having a plan reduces the chances of making a bad decision under the
pressure of an emergency. Experience has shown that by verbalising the plan, whether with another
crewmember or alone, helps to clarify and reinforce the plan for the pilot-in-command (PIC).
5.24
Understanding the important velocity (V) speeds
5.24.1 Power loss in a light multi-engine aircraft is a problem that requires good management. The
asymmetric climb performance in such aircraft is not guaranteed as it is in the case of larger multiengine aeroplanes such as a Boeing-737. At high-density altitudes, a heavily laden aeroplane may
not even be able to climb following an engine failure after take-off.
5.24.2 During multi-engine operations there are a number of airspeeds that a pilot will use. Some
of these speeds are defined in Section 2. The pilot should understand the reasons for the speeds,
the conditions that affect them and how the speeds are applied. When referring to these speeds,
they can be categorized as relating to aircraft control or performance.
5.24.3 The first speed to review is VSSE or safe single-engine speed. The speed is determined by
the aircraft manufacturer and is greater than VS1 and minimum control airspeed airborne (VMCA),
factored to provide a safety margin for intentional asymmetric training operations. In other words,
practice engine failures should never be simulated below this speed, and if you are in an aircraft
where this occurs, you should question the PIC about their actions.
5.24.4 The critical speed associated with asymmetric performance is best single-engine rate of
climb speed (VYSE). This speed is typically less than the all engine best rate of climb speed (VY) and
allows a pilot to attain the best rate of climb under asymmetric conditions. This ensures that a safe
height is achieved fast so as to avoid all obstacles and be able to manoeuvre the aircraft for a safe
landing.
5.24.5 If an engine failure occurs below VYSE, the nose attitude should be adjusted and maintained
to allow the aircraft to accelerate to the optimum speed and then readjusted to maintain the best
rate of climb. Pilots should also be aware that VYSE varies with aircraft weight and airspeed
differences can be significant. If, because of inadequate performance the aircraft does not climb,
VYSE should be maintained even during a descent. This speed is colloquially referred to as the ‘blue
line speed’ and is marked by a blue line on the lower speed end of an airspeed indicator (ASI).
5.24.6 In summary, to optimise the chances of survival in a multi-engine aircraft weighing less
than 5,700 kg, that is used for asymmetric training or suffers an engine failure, the pilot should:
•
•
•
never simulate a failure below VSSE (may be unavoidable with an actual failure)
control the aircraft by preventing yaw, pitch and roll
achieve best performance by adjusting the nose attitude to maintain or attain VYSE.
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6.
Flight instructor training
6.1
The multi-engine flight instructor
24
6.1.1
The multi-engine flight instructor employs the same teaching techniques as any other form
of flight training, but the pilot is operating in a regime that is potentially more dangerous than most
other flight training. TEM should become an integral part of the instructor’s flight training technique.
Not only must the instructor follow the practices, but just as importantly, must also teach trainees the
TEM principles and show them how to apply TEM to all their flying operations.
6.1.2
Because multi-engine aeroplanes generally have higher performance and greater mass
than singles, trainees must be taught the handling characteristics of the aircraft until they are
familiar with them. As multi-engine aircraft systems are more complex, the instructor requires
substantial knowledge of the aircraft systems on which they are training trainees. The same applies
to asymmetric operations. This is a critical area of training that needs both detailed briefings on the
factors that apply to this type of flying as well as comprehensive airborne training.
6.1.3
The important role that the flight instructor plays in the development and training of pilots in
general and multi-engine pilots in particular cannot be over emphasised. Their ability to correctly
teach, influence and direct pilots can help prepare them for a safe and effective flying career.
6.2
Instructor training
6.2.1
The key to achieving well trained and competent pilots is to make sure that the flight
instructors who deliver the endorsement training are themselves well trained and competent. They
must have the knowledge, skills and behaviour to safely operate an aircraft during all phases of
flight and be capable of communicating this knowledge and skills to their trainees.
6.2.2
Under a competency-based training (CBT) system, trainees should be trained to meet a
clearly defined standard. The standard for a multi-engine pilot is at Appendix A, which forms the
basis for designing a training plan that ensures a pilot can achieve the standard at the end of their
training. The syllabus at Appendix B provides a means of achieving this goal.
6.2.3
Flight instructor training should involve all the sequences that the instructor will be required
to teach a trainee. These include actually explaining and assessing the use of all systems during
both normal and abnormal operations. Instructors should dedicate considerable effort into
developing teaching techniques that ensure trainees are confident and competent operating all the
aircraft systems by the end of their training. For example, trainees should be shown the emergency
undercarriage lowering sequence. In some aircraft this is a straightforward operation, but in others it
can be complicated.
6.2.4
A pilot should never be placed in a position where an actual emergency is the first
exposure to a manual landing gear extension. Pilots should be aware of the:
•
•
•
time involved
difficulties in controlling the aircraft while maintaining situation awareness
physical effort that may be required to wind an undercarriage down.
6.2.5
For a pilot flying in instrument flight conditions the problem becomes even more
complicated. It may be necessary to devise an alternative method to teach this sequence if manual
undercarriage lowering requires maintenance action to return the aircraft to a serviceable state.
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6.2.6
The increased flying performance of the aircraft, such as speed and inertia, has to be well
managed and well taught. Runway performance and safety considerations demand additional
attention by the instructor, and asymmetric operations require a high degree of situational
awareness and adherence to SOP. It is also important that trainees thoroughly understand the
implications of control and performance and apply all the techniques to ensure a positive result.
6.2.7
The cabin of a multi-engine aircraft is often larger than a single-engine aeroplane, and is
capable of carrying more passengers. This requires sound passenger management technique and
thorough briefings. Flight instructors should highlight these considerations during a pilot’s training.
6.2.8
Flight instructors must guide trainees on how to formulate valid plans and ensure that
during their training they follow the plans when practicing engine failures. Most importantly,
emphasise the requirement to have a plan for every take-off.
6.2.9
Before commencing after take-off asymmetric training, which should not be started until the
trainee is competent with general aircraft handling, the instructor should clarify:
•
•
•
•
•
the trainee is competent at general aircraft handling
how engine failures will be simulated
the trainees actions in the event of a simulated engine failure
the threats and countermeasures applicable during asymmetric training
actions in the event of an actual engine failure.
6.2.10 To be an effective multi-engine flight instructor it is essential that all sequences are taught
in a logical and comprehensive manner. This involves a good training plan, high-quality technical
and flight briefings and continuous TEM. A suggested course for FTOs that conduct multi-engine
flight instructor training is at Appendix C. This can be adapted to suit individual training needs.
6.3
Behaviour and responsibility
6.3.1
Flight instructor’s behaviour must be impeccable. Not only do they need to have knowledge
and skills, but they must also set an example of good planning, compliance with SOP and
regulations, professionalism and self-discipline. Deviations from these principles will be observed,
and may be copied by trainees. The influence an instructor has on trainees is a great responsibility
that should never be compromised or forgotten.
6.3.2
ATSB statistics indicate that 16% of multi-engine aeroplane accidents occur during training
or assessment. Unfortunately, a number of these accidents where caused by unsatisfactory
behaviour by instructors or ATOs. This behaviour has ranged from disregard of regulations or best
advice to failure to comply with SOP or loss of situational awareness. In this CAAP, the term
‘behaviour’ is used rather than ‘attitude’, as behaviour is something that is observable, measurable
and assessable.
6.3.3
One of the hallmarks of a good pilot or instructor is their ability to maintain situational
awareness. This is particularly important during multi-engine asymmetric training at low altitude.
Instructors must be able to think ahead and anticipate hazards. At critical stages of flight, such as
engine failures after take-off, the instructor must constantly monitor the trainee’s performance and
be ready to take over and rectify any dangerous event. An instructor must not only maintain
situational awareness, but should also teach it to the trainee.
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6.4
26
Engine shutdown and restart
6.4.1
During multi-engine training, engine shutdown and restart is an exercise that the trainee will
be required to practice throughout their course. However, it is more than just a training exercise, and
pilots must be aware of the serious implications of shutting down and re-starting an engine.
6.4.2
Section 6.8 discusses the symptoms of engine failures in further detail. Pilots should
consider this guidance when making the decision to shut down an engine. It is likely that a partial
engine failure could occur, and it may be beneficial to delay shutting down an engine until more
suitable conditions exist, unless of course a greater risk exists in not shutting the engine down
immediately (i.e. mechanical damage, oil/fuel leak or fire in the affected engine).
6.4.3
For example, it may be better to use a partially failed engine to help position the aircraft
clear of inhospitable terrain before securing the engine. Once a decision has been made, the pilot
must ensure the aircraft and serviceable engine are set up to achieve optimum performance. They
must also advise ATC of their actions and intentions. They must also ensure that all actions are
conducted in accordance with the approved flight manual and navigate to the nearest suitable
landing area.
6.4.4
In the unlikely event that an engine is to be restarted after shutdown, the pilot should give
considerable thought to their actions. They should ask themselves will a re-start cause more
damage to the engine? And is there a likelihood that the propeller may not unfeather?
6.4.5
There could be a chance after the propeller has come out of feather, the engine may fail to
start, but the propeller cannot be re-feathered and continues to windmill. This would create
significant drag that may seriously impair the aircraft’s performance in maintaining altitude. This
situation is not unusual and has caused a number of accidents. When re-starting an engine, pilots
should refer to a checklist or the flight manual in order to avoid mismanagement (errors).
6.4.6
Flight instructors must give clear guidance on shutting down and re-starting engines. They
must discuss the implications, options and hazards associated with these activities. When
conducting the procedure as a training exercise, it is a good opportunity to use a scenario that
mimics actual situations.
6.4.7
The exercise should be thoroughly briefed, covering both the trainee and instructor’s
activities, and clearly state what expectations the trainee is to demonstrate when the propeller is
feathered. Throughout the exercise, there needs to be emphasis on maintaining control of the
aircraft at all times and to strictly follow checklist procedures.
6.5
Simulating engine failures
6.5.1
Before simulating engine failures in multi-engine aircraft, instructors must be aware of the
implications and be sure of their actions. Consult the aircraft flight manual or POH for the
manufacturer’s recommended method of simulating an engine failure. Prior to undertaking the task,
the instructor must ensure that the aircraft is not in a dangerous situation to start with, such as the
aircraft is running too slow, too low, is in an unsuitable configuration or hazardous weather (wind,
ice or visibility). There is no benefit introducing more risks than the emergency being trained for.
6.5.2
The instructor should avoid loading the trainee up with multiple emergencies. More will be
learned by concentrating on one aspect at a time. Do not simulate an engine failure using
procedures that may jeopardise the restoration of power. It is not recommended to simulate an
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engine failure at low level by selecting the mixture to idle cut-off or turning the fuel selector off.
These procedures would be more appropriate at higher altitude
6.5.3
Instructors must emphasise that during a practice engine failure, when the throttle is closed
and the propeller is windmilling, this replicates the situation of high propeller drag that exists until the
propeller is ‘simulated feathered’, when zero thrust is set.
6.5.4
Slowly closing the throttle is one of the methods used to simulate an engine failure.
Although selecting idle cut-off may be kinder to an engine, as the engine or aircraft manufacturer
may not permit it. So slowly closing the throttle to idle or zero thrust is unlikely to harm the engine
and allows for immediate restoration of power.
6.5.5
When setting zero thrust (only after the trainee has completed the simulated feathering),
throttle movements should not be rapid, and the trainee should have been briefed about the
instructor’s actions.
6.5.6
As a rule, unless a catastrophic engine failure occurs, an engine does not just fail without
warning. During an actual failure, pilots should also take the time to determine whether a total failure
has transpired or if the engine is still delivering some power. If it is delivering power, use the thrust
to get to a safe height before shutting the engine down to avoid further damage, unless a greater
risk exists in continuing to operate the engine, such as fire, oil/fuel leaks or significant mechanical
damage.
6.5.7
Trainees must be shown how to identify and confirm that an engine has failed. For initial
identification, a common method is ‘dead leg, dead engine’. When controlling yaw the leg that is not
exerting pressure to the rudder pedal is the ‘dead leg’ and is on the same side as the ‘dead’ or failed
engine.
6.5.8
This is probably the most used method as it is a direct function of maintaining control of the
aircraft, therefore offering a true indication of which engine has failed. Appropriate engine
instruments and thrust gauges may be carefully used to confirm the failure.
6.5.9
It should be noted that the rpm and manifold pressure gauges of a piston engine are not
reliable means of identifying a failed engine, as the instrument indications may appear normal. After
identifying the failed engine through, for example, the ‘dead leg, dead engine’ method, the pilot
should confirm that their identification is correct. This is done by closing the throttle of the failed
engine - if no yaw develops as the throttle is eased back, and the serviceable engine operates
normally it confirms the identification of the faulty engine.
6.5.10 It is not uncommon for pilots to shut down the wrong engine in haste or panic, so the pilot
must train themselves to calm down and take the time to accurately confirm the problem. Although
time can be critical in some situations, taking the time to properly identify and confirm the failed
engine can reduce the chances of an error.
6.5.11 Trainees should be made to verbalise their actions when practicing asymmetric
procedures. They should verbally identify controls and switches and touch them at 90 degrees to
the direction of operation to avoid inadvertent activation during turbulence. Flight instructors should
guard controls, particularly during initial training, in order to prevent incorrect selections.
6.6
Simulating turboprop engine failures
6.6.1
Because turboprop aircraft are fitted with auto-feather, when simulating engine failures
after take-off, power only need be reduced to zero thrust. The propeller of a failed turboprop engine
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does not windmill, but automatically feathers. If a negative torque sensing system (NTS) is fitted,
negative torque is sensed in the gear train between the propeller and the aircraft engine when a
failure occurs. When the reverse torque exceeds a selected threshold, hydraulic valves are
actuated, which remove oil pressure from the pitch control mechanism of the propeller. This loss of
oil pressure causes the propeller to set a pitch that ensures minimal drag. Therefore, to properly
replicate the conditions that apply to an actual failure, instructors should ensure that zero thrust is
set whenever simulating an engine failure on a turboprop. Some typical zero thrust settings for
individual aircraft types are detailed in the next section.
6.6.2
To avoid inadvertent feathering of a propeller, before simulating an engine failure,
instructors must turn the auto-feather off if this is recommended in the flight manual, as is the case
with the DHC-4 (Caribou).
6.6.3
Identification of a failed turboprop is less complicated than a piston engine. Like all multiengine aircraft with wing-mounted engines, ‘dead leg, dead engine’ still applies but the torque gauge
is an accurate indicator of the condition of the engine. This instrument immediately measures loss of
power and is an almost foolproof way of confirming a failed engine. If the power loss is caused by a
compressor surge or stall there will be an accompanying rapid increase in turbine temperature.
6.6.4
When performing an actual shutdown and restart of a turboprop, instructors must ensure
that the checklist procedures are followed religiously. Feathering a propeller is normally
straightforward, but if the re-start is mishandled, the propeller can go into flight idle or even the beta
range. Should this occur, the aircraft performance might be so adversely affected that a return to the
departure point may not be possible if unsuitable terrain exists. Therefore, before shutting down an
engine, pilots should make sure that if the engine will not re-start, it would still be possible to return
to the airfield of departure.
6.7
Setting zero thrust
6.7.1
Reports from Australia and overseas have repeatedly shown that fatal accidents have
occurred following practice engine failures because instructors have failed to set zero thrust on a
windmilling engine to simulate a feathered propeller. A windmilling propeller causes the largest
component of drag on an aircraft that suffers an engine failure. If the propeller is not feathered
following an actual failure, or in the case of a practice failure zero thrust is not set to simulate a
feathered propeller, the aircraft’s climb performance cannot be guaranteed. In many cases, it is
likely that the aeroplane will only be able to maintain a descent. Therefore, any pilot giving multiengine asymmetric training must know how to set zero thrust on the propeller aircraft type that they
are flying.
6.7.2
The zero thrust setting depends on the engine type and aircraft’s airspeed, altitude and
temperature. In a piston engine aircraft zero thrust is normally achieved by setting a manifold
pressure that causes a specified rpm; and a turbine propeller engine by a torque and in some cases
rpm for a particular airspeed. Unless stated otherwise in the flight manual, CASA recommends that
VYSE be used for setting zero thrust. Remember that if zero thrust is set and the airspeed increases
above VYSE, there will be a corresponding increase in propeller drag from the windmilling engine.
6.7.3
Before conducting asymmetric flight training it is important for an instructor to determine an
accurate zero thrust power setting for the aircraft type being flown. If a zero thrust power setting is
not specified in the aircraft’s flight manual, a method of doing this would be to climb to a minimum of
3,000 ft AGL, feather a propeller, shutdown an engine and find what power setting will allow the
aircraft to fly, trimmed at VYSE. Restart the engine and adjust the rpm and manifold air pressure
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(MAP) combination on the restarted engine to re-establish the airspeed at VYSE, and return the
aircraft to the previously trimmed state. This procedure may take some time and could involve
manipulation of the engine controls to determine a reliable power setting. The rpm to indicated air
speed (IAS) relationship could vary significantly between aircraft and engine types.
6.7.4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Some typical zero thrust power settings for turbine propeller engine aeroplanes are:
Beech C90 Kingair: 100 ft pounds of torque at 1800 RPM at VYSE
Beech 1900D Airliner: 200 pounds of torque at or above VSSE
de Havilland DHC-6: 5 psi
de Havilland DHC-8: 14% torque
Embraer EMB-110 Bandierante: 150 ft pounds of torque at 2200 rpm
Fairchild Metro III: 10% to 12% of indicated torque
SAAB SF340: 10% to 20% torque below 120 kts.
6.7.5
With respect to setting zero thrust a company or FTO operations manual should at least
state for each aircraft type being operated:
•
•
•
the procedure for setting zero thrust
the power setting that represents zero thrust
that engine failures should be simulated by setting zero thrust on aircraft fitted with NTS or
auto feather.
6.7.6
Failure by an instructor to set an accurate zero thrust to simulate a feathered propeller will
result in unrealistic asymmetric climb performance that may give the trainee an over optimistic or
pessimistic impression of what performance the aircraft is capable of achieving on one engine.
Therefore, multi-engine flight instructors must know how and when to set zero thrust before
commencing any asymmetric flight training.
6.8
About engine failures
6.8.1
Flight instructors often simulate an engine failure by rapidly closing the throttle or moving
the mixture control to idle cut-off. The latter method should never be used at low altitude. However,
the majority of engine failures are not instantaneous. If an engine failure is caused by fuel starvation
or low fuel pressure the engine will usually cough and splutter before stopping; this may take time
and gives a pilot some space to react. When an engine suffers damage such as a broken valve
rocker arm, valve stem or pushrod, the engine is likely to run roughly, but still deliver power. It may
be possible to reduce power and still develop some useful thrust. However, a precautionary
shutdown is probably inevitable.
6.8.2
Low oil pressure coupled with increasing oil temperature indicates that a failure is
imminent, with a possible engine seizure and rapid decrease in RPM. The engine should be shut
down before the centrifugal latches engage and lock the propeller in coarse pitch. Electrical
malfunctions usually result in rough running, misfiring and a reduction in power. It may be possible
to rectify the problem by isolating a faulty magneto.
6.8.3
Probably the worst type of engine failure is a catastrophic failure caused by a fractured
crankshaft or connecting rod. Such a failure can be indicated by a loud bang, vibration and a very
quick reduction in RPM. In some cases it may not be possible to feather the propeller. This could be
a very serious problem if it occurred shortly after take-off, and quick but precise action needs to be
taken to feather the propeller.
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6.8.4
Part of managing an engine failure is to recognise the type of problem and then decide the
appropriate action. It is very unlikely that an engine failure will be instantaneous, and instructors
should give trainees advice about what action to take to manage partial engine failures and attempt
to restore power when possible. Consideration should also be given to looking after the serviceable
engine. In some circumstance there may be no alternative other than to apply full power. However,
pilots should be aware of engine limitations and time limits for the application of full power and plan
actions accordingly. During training, the pilot should learn how an aircraft performs with less than full
power.
6.9
Engine failure after take-off
6.9.1
Management of an engine failure starts with a clear and well thought-out plan. The pilot
should have an clear plan of what to do during various phases of take-off, such as:
•
•
•
engine failure before the decision speed/point prior to lift-off
engine failure before the decision speed/point after take-off
engine failure after the decision speed/point.
6.9.2
Pilots may note that the term ‘decision point’ is used as well as decision speed. This is
another concept to aid decision-making. From the list above, the first two situations will require an
aborted take-off, using procedures specified in the flight manual. A decision point can be a
predetermined point, on the runway or an action. For example, by adjusting the pilot’s grip on the
throttle, or retracting the undercarriage, these actions could represent the point at which the pilot
has made the decision to continue the take-off and keep on flying if an engine failure occurs. A
further example would be a take-off from a 13,000 ft runway like Sydney airport, where the decision
point may be when the aircraft passes 200 ft and the undercarriage is selected up. Flight instructors
should give clear guidance on how to apply the principles of determining and using the decision
point or decision speed.
6.9.3
If a pilot experiences an engine failure after the decision speed/point, actions must be
prompt and correct. This section addresses engine failures in a general sense, and pilots must
understand that the procedures in the approved flight manual must be followed.
6.9.4
•
•
•
•
6.10
The procedures include:
Controlling the aeroplane. Prevent yaw with the rudder and adjust the nose attitude to a
position where the aircraft is able to maintain or accelerate to VYSE. The wing may also be
required to be lowered towards the serviceable engine.
The pilot must ensure that full power is applied to the good engine and the gear and flap
are selected up – ‘Pitch up, mixture up, throttle(s) up, gear up, flap up’.
The pilot must identify the failed engine (dead leg, dead engine method), but maintain
control of the aircraft during this process.
Once the failed engine is confirmed, the pilot must close the throttle of the failed engine
and confirm that the engine noise does not change or no yaw occurs towards the live
engine. They also need to visually identify the failed engine propeller level before
activation.
Feather the propeller
6.10.1 Up to this point a lot has been done in a short time and there is no room for error. Now, it is
time to ensure that the aircraft is achieving best performance. Ideally the aircraft should be at VYSE,
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but depending on the terrain, it may be necessary to climb initially at VXSE. It is vital to maintain the
appropriate nose attitude while conducting all other procedures. If the nose attitude is too high,
speed can decay towards VMCA very rapidly and cause serious control problems. The pilot must
ensure that the wing is lowered towards the serviceable engine with the balance ball appropriately
positioned to attain optimum performance.
6.10.2 The pilot must then perform clean up actions in accordance with the flight manual and trim
appropriately.
6.10.3 As these procedures take place over a short period of time, actions must be precise and
the pilot must maintain situational awareness. Maintenance of situational awareness involves a lot
of factors, such as, but not limited to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
control of the aircraft
engine identification
feathering
performance
terrain
traffic
weather
ATC.
6.10.4 The pilot will obtain successful training by having a good plan enforced, doing the actions
and monitoring and modifying the progress of the procedure.
6.10.5 In summary, it is important to have a logical and systematic approach to an engine failure
after take-off. The pilot must:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
6.11
maintain control of myself and the aircraft and keep it airborne
make sure the maximum power is set, gear is up, flaps are up (or in the position required
by performance considerations)
correctly identify the failed engine
feather the appropriate propeller to reduce drag
achieve optimum performance
monitor the situation and revise plans if required
communicate the situation.
Checklist aide
6.11.1 A good recall-checklist for an engine failure in a multi-engine aircraft, especially after takeoff, is ‘CONTROL - IDENTIFY – CONFIRM – FEATHER – CLEAN UP’:
•
•
CONTROL includes not only directional but attitudinal control (speed) and maximum power
is applied.
CLEAN UP calls for undercarriage and flaps to be retracted, but only when it is safe to do
so, and to trim the aircraft correctly. Once flight has been brought under control, follow up
the recall emergency drills by going through the hardcopy checklist to ensure that nothing
has been left out, and to manage the remaining systems (e.g. switching off non-essential
busbars and electrical services).
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6.12
32
Minimum control speed demonstration
6.12.1 The minimum control speed sequence is one of the more important in asymmetric training.
Before commencing flying training, instructors need to ensure that the trainee fully understands the
theory and application of minimum control speed. The trainee should receive a good explanation of
minimum control speed and what leads to loss of control, and the quickest method of regaining
control. The instructor should also point out all the potential dangers of both practice and actual loss
of control.
6.12.2 During the first pre-flight briefing question the trainee is to determine their level of
understanding of the topic. It is imperative that the trainee understands how VMCA is derived from
minimum control speed (VMC) principles and the relevance of each.
6.12.3 Before getting airborne, the control seats should be adjusted so that both the instructor and
trainee are able to apply full rudder in both directions. This step is vital and if an engine fails after
take-off could mean the difference between a safe flyaway or a fatal crash. Double check that the
seats are locked on the adjusting rails and seat belts are tight, as there may be a need to apply up
to 150 lbs (60 kg) of pressure to the rudder pedals to maintain control of an aircraft with a failed
engine. This is the seating position that should be used for every take-off.
6.12.4 The demonstration should be given at a height that permits the engines to develop full
power or as much power as possible, but is safe for the proposed exercise. The pilot should be
aware that the engine may not be developing full power at this height because of the reduced
density altitude and minimum control speed may be lower than VMCA published in the flight manual.
In fact, there is a critical altitude where the minimum control speed will reduce to where it will
coincide with the stall speed (which does not reduce). This is a dangerous area as auto-rotation and
a spin could occur. Generally, multi-engine aircraft are not certified to recover from spins.
6.12.5 Similarly, some aircraft have a minimum control speed that is close to the stall. In such
cases, the instructor can restrict the application of full rudder in order to avoid auto-rotation, but still
demonstrate how directional control is lost. VMCA demonstrations should be terminated when yaw is
recognised by the trainee.
6.12.6 During the minimum control speed demonstration point out the yaw, wing drop and change
to attitude. Show that the recovery technique depends on two factors, increase in airspeed or/and
reduction of power on the live engine. The optimum choice, especially in a take-off climb, should
only be to increase airspeed firstly to regain control, and finally to achieve VYSE. However, when the
aircraft is very close to the ground, this may not be practical where reduction of power on the live
engine remains the only option.
6.12.7 In a critical situation, with low speed near the ground, and possibly with an engine
windmilling, the pilot may have to maintain directional control by a combination of a slight lowering
of attitude (not below the straight and level for the speed) and very small incremental reduction in
power changes, until the airspeed may be coaxed up by feathering of the failed engine and cleaning
up the aircraft. The power reduction should be dictated by how much control has been lost.
Recovery may only require a small reduction in power to stop yaw and roll, and power re-introduced
immediately after speed has been gained through feathering and clean up action.
6.12.8 On the other hand, a major loss of control may require large power changes, but any power
changes should be deliberate and measured, even if the throttle needs to be closed completely. The
instructor should:
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•
•
•
33
show how power should be re-applied and any yaw prevented
mention the height loss in the exercise and relate this to the dangers of an engine failure at
low altitude
highlight that when the exercise is done during straight and level flight, the airspeed might
drop off slowly. However, in a situation such as an engine failure shortly after take-off, the
nose attitude will be higher and speed will reduce towards minimum control speed more
rapidly.
6.13
The instructor should also allow the trainee to experience this situation, and observe how
important it is to adjust the nose attitude to maintain or regain airspeed after an engine failure.
6.13.1 When trainees are conducting the minimum control speed exercise, the instructor should
ask them to indicate when the aircraft starts to yaw and roll. This will allow the instructor to
determine if the trainee is recognizing these conditions early enough. They should also ask the
trainee to state how much height was lost during the recovery phase of each demonstration.
6.13.2 It is also important to demonstrate the effect of lowering the wing up to 5o towards the live
engine and keep the balance ball half a ball width from the centre towards the lowered wing. Failure
to perform this procedure increases the minimum control speed of the aircraft. Flight tests in an
instrumented Cessna Conquest showed that with a published VMCA of 91 kts, if the aircraft was flown
in asymmetric flight with full power applied and the wings held level with the rudder balancing the
aircraft, minimum control speed increased to 115 kts, an increase of 24 kts.
6.13.3 Conversely, lowering the wing towards the failed engine, minimum control speed increases
by about 3 kts per degree of bank. The pilot must ensure the wing is lowered 5o towards the
serviceable engine. They should also consider the direction of turn in order to optimise performance.
6.13.4 This manoeuvre is difficult to perform, particularly in the early stages of the training or when
using flight instruments. A lot of concentration is required to maintain the low angle of bank towards
the serviceable engine, and to keep the ball ½ to ¾ outside the ‘cage’, towards the lower wing.
6.14
Single-engine go-around
6.14.1 A single-engine go-around in a multi-engine aircraft weighing less than 5,700 kg must be
well managed. Recently there have been a number of accidents involving this procedure,
particularly during training. Pilots must be aware of the implications of a single-engine go-around
and be prepared to lose height in the process. It is important to have a good understanding of what
a visual committal height, is and how to apply this concept
6.14.2 Visual committal height is a nominated height at or above which a safe asymmetric goaround can be initiated, or below which the aircraft is committed to land. It is used for visual flight
operations and is to accommodate the performance of the aircraft being flown. It should not be
confused with minimum descent altitude (MDA) or decision altitude (DA) that applies to Instrument
Flight Rules (IFR) operations.
6.14.3 Ideally, an asymmetric approach should be flown in the normal configuration
(undercarriage, flap and airspeed), at least until the visual committal height is reached and a landing
assured. However, if the aircraft has to go round, positive and precise action must be taken if a
successful single-engine go-around is to be completed. Full power should be applied smoothly and
the yaw controlled and the aircraft accelerated to VYSE. If full flap has been selected, pilots must
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anticipate a tendency for the aircraft to roll soundly and full aileron may be insufficient to maintain
wings level.
6.14.4 Correct anticipation of the rudder trim change with power change is the fundamental key to
smooth and effective handling technique, ensuring confident and safe asymmetric operations.
6.14.5 It is unlikely that the aircraft would be less than minimum control speed during an approach
so full power should be applied smoothly. If, for some unforeseen reason, the aircraft speed
happens to be below minimum control speed, advancing power to maximum even with full rudder
applied will cause the aircraft to yaw. Should this happen, the pilot must not increase the power any
further until the yaw is controlled before further increasing power.
6.14.6 Where necessary, the go-around may be conducted in a smooth continuous descent, while
the aircraft is cleaned up and VYSE achieved. The committal height is precisely for this manoeuvre
where height is traded for speed. Once VYSE has been attained, the nose attitude should be
readjusted to maintain VYSE, or when appropriate VXSE, during the climb.
6.14.7 The visual committal height should be designed to accommodate a worst-case scenario (as
described above) and a height between 200 - 500 ft AGL is commonly used
6.14.8 MDAs and DA pose another problem. As an MDA is usually at a considerable altitude, a
single-engine missed approach should not be a big predicament. However, the case of a DA is
different. Because a DA is quite low it may be below the pilot’s visual committal height. This means
that once below this height the aircraft is committed to land and if the weather is below minima the
aircraft is in an emergency situation and must continue. If the weather minima are known to be
below committal height, then the approach should not have been commenced except in an
emergency The information on how to consider this type of situation should be included in the
company operations manual as an operating policy.
6.14.9 During training, flight instructors must emphasise the potential dangers of mismanaging a
single-engine go-around. The instructor should give the trainee ample opportunity to practice this
procedure to ensure they are able to maintain both directional and attitudinal (for speed) control with
varying power and/or speed changes. As the trainee’s skill level increases in their control of the
aircraft, even with significant changes in power and airspeed, their conduct of a safe, smooth and
effective go-around would be assured. However, if recency is not maintained, the level of skill may
reduce.
6.15
Stall training
6.15.1 It is important for the trainee to be able to recognise and avoid the stall in any aircraft.
Instructors must conduct this exercise in multi-engine aircraft and reiterate the characteristics and
devices that warn the pilot of the stall. The stall warning is the primary device, however, airspeed
indications, nose attitude, buffet, and reduced control response rate are all indicators of an
impending stall. The instructor should allow the trainee to experiment with these characteristics and
practice them in different configurations and flight situations. They should also show the pilot a stall
while simulating a turn from base leg to final approach. The pilot should commence recovery action
well before a stall occurs.
6.15.2 To recover from a stall in a multi-engine aircraft, the procedure is no different to any other
aircraft. Unstall the wing by adjusting the elevator position to reduce the angle of attack releasing
the backpressure on the control column and simultaneously applying full power while keeping the
aircraft balanced.
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6.15.3 Stall training should never be done with asymmetric power. This is a very dangerous
exercise and numerous aircraft both in Australia and overseas have fatally crashed after entering
autorotation and spinning.
6.16
Asymmetric training at night
6.16.1 Engine failures after take-off must never be practiced at night. History has repeatedly
shown that a disproportionate number of fatal accidents have occurred while conducting this
exercise. The main danger is the loss of visual cues that alert the pilot to the fact that the aircraft
performance is inadequate to avoid terrain or obstacles. When operating at night or in poor visibility
it is likely that a pilot will be slow to interpret instrument readings that show the aircraft is not
climbing or has drifted off track. Therefore, asymmetric training should not be practiced in these
conditions. When conducting simulated instrument training, the flight instructor should still be able to
see the terrain or obstacles and terminate the exercise immediately a dangerous situation is
recognised.
6.16.2 Paragraph 81.3 of the Aeronautical Information Publication – En-route (AIP ENR) 1.1
states that simulated asymmetric flight at night must not be conducted below 1,500 ft AGL.
6.17
En-route engine/system failure training
6.17.1 A number of accidents have been attributed to the mismanagement of engine failures in
the en-route phase of flight. To reduce the risks of mismanaging an engine failure, applying TEM
during the planning and flight phases is a key aspect. In particular pilots need to consider the
following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
maintaining situational awareness
understanding the aeroplane systems
applying the correct drills and procedures
declaring the appropriate level of emergency
positively manage the subsequent flight profile
utilising contingency plans determined prior to flight.
6.17.2 It is recommended that flying school operators, flight instructors and trainees make
allowance in the training program so that training in this area is adequately addressed.
6.18
Touch and go landing during a asymmetric training
6.18.1 Experience has shown that it is inadvisable to perform touch and go procedures when
conducting asymmetric circuits and landings. There would be increased likelihood for confusion and
errors with engine controls and possibly offset elevator, aileron and rudder trim settings that may be
fairly different from normal take-off trim settings. Coming to a full stop on each landing and taxiing
back to the threshold provides the instructor with the opportunity to perform a good debrief, as well
as allowing engine temperatures to stabilise.
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Appendix A: Range of variables
Range of variables
• Performance standards are to be demonstrated, in flight, in an aircraft of the appropriate category
equipped with dual flight controls and electronic intercommunication between the trainee and the instructor
or examiner.
• Consistency of performance is achieved when competency is demonstrated on more than one flight.
• Flight accuracy tolerances specified in the standards apply under flight conditions from smooth air up to,
and including, light turbulence.
• Where flight conditions exceed light turbulence appropriate allowances as determined by the assessor
may be applied to the tolerances specified.
• Infrequent temporary divergence from specified tolerances is acceptable if the pilot applies controlled
corrective action.
• Units and elements may be assessed separately or in combination with other units and elements that form
part of the job function.
• Assessment of an aircraft-operating standard also includes assessment of the threat and error
management and human factors standards applicable to the unit or element.
• Standards are to be demonstrated while complying with approved checklists, placards, aircraft flight
manuals, operations manuals, SOP and applicable aviation regulations.
• Performance of emergency procedures is demonstrated in flight following simulation of the emergency by
the instructor or examiner, except where simulation of the emergency cannot be conducted safely or is
impractical.
• Assessment should not involve simulation of more than one emergency at a time.
• Recreational and private pilots should demonstrate that control of the aircraft or procedure is maintained
at all times but, if the successful outcome is in doubt corrective action is taken promptly to recover to safe
flight.
• Commercial and airline transport pilots should demonstrate that control of the aircraft or procedure is
maintained at all times so that the successful outcome is assured.
• The following evidence is used to make the assessment:
• The trainee’s licence and medical certificate as evidence of identity and authorisation to pilot the aircraft;
• For all standards, the essential evidence for assessment of a standard is direct observation by an
instructor or examiner of the trainee’s performance in the specified units and elements, including aircraft
operation and threat and error management (TEM);
• Oral and written questioning of underpinning knowledge standards;
• Completed flight plan, aircraft airworthiness documentation, appropriate maps and charts and aeronautical
information;
• Aircraft operator’s completed flight records to support records of direct observation;
• Completed achievement records for evidence of consistent achievement of all specified units and
elements of competency;
• The trainee’s flight training records, including details of training flights and instructors comments, to
support assessment of consistent achievement; and
• The trainee’s logbook for evidence of flight training completed.
For licence and rating issue:
• Completed application form, including, licence or rating sought, aeronautical experience, chief flying
instructor (CFI) recommendation and the result of the flight test;
• Completed flight test report indicating units and elements completed; and
• Examination results and completed knowledge deficiency reports.
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Unit: Multi-engine aeroplane (land) – flight standards
Unit Description: Skills, knowledge and behaviour to extract and interpret required performance
information to calculate aeroplane weight and balance; to calculate take-off, climb, cruise, descent,
landing and emergency flight performance; and to control a multi-engine aeroplane and operate all
aeroplane systems in normal and abnormal flight in accordance with Flight Manual/POH.
Element
Performance criteria
1.1 Extract, interpret, calculate and apply normal and
abnormal flight performance information.
• Extracts approved flight performance information
from Flight Manual/POH, interprets and applies
the information to calculate aircraft take-off and
landing weight, centre of gravity and take-off and
landing performance.
• Extracts flight performance information from Flight
Manual/POH, interprets and applies the
information to the phase of flight and calculates
aircraft performance during normal flight
operations.
• Applies performance information to calculate fuel
requirements.
• Extracts flight performance information from Flight
Manual/POH, interprets and applies the
information to failed engine(s) operations during
any phase of flight.
Engine failure after take-off
• Assesses weather and traffic conditions and
terrain and formulates a plan that can be
implemented following an engine failure after
take-off to achieve the safest outcome.
Engine failure during cruise
• Determines asymmetric performance for the
cruise phase of flight, analyses weather and
terrain conditions, and formulates a plan that can
be implemented following and engine failure
during any stage of cruise flight to achieve the
safest outcome.
Engine failure during visual and instrument approach
• Maintains situation awareness of aircraft position,
altitude, configuration and weather during
approach, and formulates a plan that includes
actions before and after visual committal height
that can be implemented following and engine
failure on approach to achieve the safest
outcome.
• Controls multi-engine aircraft in all phases of
normal flight to the appropriate standards
specified for a private or commercial aeroplane
pilot in the Day Visual Flight Rules (VFR)
(Aeroplane) Syllabus.
• Operates all aircraft systems, equipment and
engines in accordance with Flight Manual/POH.
• Controls aeroplane.
• Identifies and confirms abnormal or emergency
situation.
• Performs appropriate abnormal or emergency
procedures in accordance with Flight
1.2 Plan for asymmetric operations after take-off,
during cruise and approach phases of flight.
1.3 Operate multi-engine aeroplane (land) in all
phases of flight.
1.4 Manage abnormal or emergency situations in
multi-engine aeroplane (land).
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1.5 Manage engine failure in multi-engine aeroplane
(land).
38
Manual/POH and published procedures.
• Advises Air Traffic Service (ATS) or another
agency capable of assistance of situation and
intentions.
• Self-briefs or briefs crew members, stating a plan
of action that will ensure the safest outcome in
the event of an engine failure.
• Maintains control of aeroplane, identifies and
confirms failed engine(s) and shuts down failed
engine(s) following engine failure during any
phase of flight, in accordance with Flight
Manual/POH.
• Operates aircraft in accordance with Flight
Manual/POH during flight with failed engine(s).
Engine failure in flight (sequence of actions may be
varied)
• Controls aircraft.
• Sets power on serviceable engine(s) to ensure
desired aircraft performance.
• Shuts down failed engine(s) in accordance with
Flight Manual/POH.
• Configures aircraft to achieve minimum drag.
• Controls aircraft without sideslip (1/2 ball out
towards the lowered wing) or balances aircraft
when applicable.
• Maintains indicated airspeed at or above
minimum control speed.
• Climbs aircraft at VYSE (+5-0kts) if applicable.
• Lands aircraft at nearest appropriate landing
area.
Rejected take-off
• Recognises and identifies cause for rejecting
take-off.
• Decides to reject take-off.
• Controls aircraft and maintains aircraft on runway.
• Closes throttle(s) on all engine(s).
• Applies braking and other fitted retardation
devices and stops aircraft in runway distance
available.
• Performs engine shutdown or abnormal
procedures in accordance with Flight
Manual/POH or Company Operations Manual.
EFATO
• Controls aircraft.
• Ensures maximum take-off power is applied to
serviceable engine(s).
• Identifies failed engines and confirms failure.
• Feathers propeller (as applicable) and shuts
down failed engine(s) in accordance with Flight
Manual/POH.
• Configures aircraft to achieve minimum drag.
• Controls aircraft without sideslip (1/2 ball out
towards the lowered wing) or balances aircraft
when applicable.
• Maintains aircraft at or above minimum control
speed.
• Climbs aircraft at VYSE (+5-0 kts).
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• Lands aircraft at nearest appropriate landing
area.
Manage engine failure after take-off below take of
safety speed (VTOSS) – aircraft will not accelerate or
climb
• Sets power as required to manoeuvre aircraft to
most suitable area to land.
Perform overshoot from visual committal height
• Determines visual committal height (consider 300
ft above ground level (AGL).
• Initiates go-around at or above visual committal
height.
• Controls aircraft.
• Applies maximum take-off power.
• Configures aircraft to achieve minimum drag.
• Maintains VYSE (+5-0 kts).
• Climbs to circuit height.
• Reassesses situation for landing.
Manage engine failure below visual committal height
• Controls aircraft.
• Lands aircraft.
Range of variables
•
•
•
•
•
•
Day VFR. or IFR
Approved multi-engine aeroplane with dual controls, electronic intercom and dual control brakes.
Aerodromes.
Sealed, gravel or grass surfaces.
Simulated emergencies.
Simulated hazardous weather.
Underpinning knowledge
General aircraft data
• Recall make, type and model of aircraft, designation of engines, take-off and rated power.
• Explain the relationship between take-off distance available and aircraft weight to accelerate stop
distance.
Airspeed and load limitations
• Recall and apply all stated airspeed limitations including: VNO, VA, VX and VY, VNE, VFE, VLO, VLE, VLO2
(landing gear operations down), maximum crosswind, turbulence penetration speed and maximum load
factor.
• Determine and apply accelerate/stop distance.
Emergency procedures
• Recall from memory and apply all stated emergency airspeeds including: VMCA, VSSE, engine(s) inoperative
climb, approach and final speed, emergency descent and best glide range speeds.
• List applicable emergency procedures for: engine failure after take-off, engine fire on the ground and
airborne, engine failure in the cruise, electrical fire on the ground and airborne, cabin fire in flight, rapid
depressurisation, waste gate failure (if applicable) and propeller over-speed.
• Recall from memory all warnings stated in the Flight Manual.
Normal procedures
Fuel system
• Use a schematic diagram of the fuel system to explain layout and normal operating procedures
• Explain operation of fuel selector panel;
• Explain use of cross-feed;
• Explain fuel-dumping procedures if applicable;
• Recall full fuel capacity and fuel grade; and
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State normal, minimum and maximum fuel pressures.
Hydraulic system
• Use a schematic diagram of the hydraulic system to explain layout and normal operating procedures:
• Explain likely faults that may affect hydraulic system;
• Explain emergency operating procedures;
• Detail units or services operated by hydraulics; and
• Recall type of hydraulic fluid, operating pressure and capacity of reservoir.
Electrical system
• Use a schematic diagram of the electrical system to:
• Explain type(s) of electrical system alternating current/direct current (AC/DC);
• State voltage and amperage of battery;
• State number and output of generators;
• Explain methods of circuit protection;
• Locate fuses and circuit breakers;
• Specify precautions to be taken when operating electrical service; and
• Specify instruments operated by electrics.
Oil system
• Use a schematic diagram of the oil system to:
• Explain function of the oil system;
• State number of tanks, capacity and oil grade;
• State oil source of CSU and propeller feathering;
• State normal, minimum and maximum oil pressure and temperature; and
• Explain operation of oil cooler shutters.
Autopilot
• Explain the principles of operation.
• Identify power sources, voltage or pressure.
• Explain procedure to determine gyros are operating normally.
• Explain procedure to engage autopilot.
• Explain normal and emergency procedure to disengage autopilot.
• Explain the conditions that will automatically disengage the autopilot.
• State the limits of gyro units.
• Explain pre-flight serviceability checks for autopilot.
Anti-icing and de-icing systems
• Explain method of de-icing aerofoils, propeller and carburettor.
• Explain heat or power source of de-icing/anti-icing equipment.
• Explain any system limitations.
• Explain operation and control of systems.
Heating, ventilation and pressurisation systems
• Explain normal procedures to operate and control system.
• Explain emergency operation of system.
• Recall all precautions to be complied with.
Pitot/static system
• •Use a schematic diagram of the pitot/static system to:
• Explain heating source of pitot system if applicable;
• Explain operating procedure for pitot/static system;
• Explain methods of detecting pitot/static system problems;
• Explain procedures to rectify static system problems;
• Identify location of pitot and static pressure source;
• Locate alternate static source; and
• Locate static drain points if applicable.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
Gyro suction pressure system
• •Use a schematic diagram of the suction system to:
• Explain the function of the suction pressure system;
• Identify source of suction or pressure;
• State normal operating pressure;
• List instruments operated by suction or pressure; and
• Explain warning system to indicate suction pump failure.
Oxygen system
• Use a schematic diagram of the oxygen system to:
• Explain type and principles of operation of system; and
• Explain method of operation, flow and warning indicators, and characteristics of system.
Fire extinguisher system
• Use a schematic diagram of the fire extinguishing system to:
• Explain what areas of aircraft are serviced by extinguishers;
• Explain method of activation of fire extinguishers;
• Explain method of cross-selection of fire bottles if applicable;
• Explain fire warning indications;
• State number of fire bottles fitted and identify contents;
• Detail position, number and type of hand-held extinguishers; and
• Explain precautions for the operation of fire extinguishers.
Engines
• Explain starting order and any starter limitations.
• State normal, minimum and maximum engine and oil temperatures and pressures.
• State all power limitations.
• State power combinations for take-off, climb, cruise and descent.
• Explain the use of supercharger on the ground and airborne.
• State all supercharger limitations.
• Interpret all engine instrument readings.
• Interpret and apply fuel flow indications.
• State revolutions per minute (RPM) settings for approach and landing.
• State maximum permitted RPM drop on magneto test.
• State engine idling speed.
• Explain precautions to be observed when unfeathering propeller on cold engines.
• State any appropriate engine limitations.
Weight, balance and performance
• Calculate take-off weight.
• State maximum take-off weight.
• State maximum take-off weight, landing weight, ramp weight and zero fuel weight.
• Demonstrate use of the Approved Loading System.
• Apply calculated centre of gravity position and confirm it is within limits.
• Relate mean aerodynamic chord to loading, fuel used and retraction or extension of undercarriage,
reference point and turning moment in mm/kg.
• Calculate take-off distance for any specified conditions.
• Calculate landing distance for any specified conditions.
• Explain the procedures for landing on a wet or contaminated runway.
Failed engine operations - Multi-engine aeroplane less than 5,700 kg
• Define VMCA.
• Explain the relationship between minimum control speed (VMC) and VMCA and describe potential hazards
with operation at low airspeeds with one engine failed or at low power.
• State the minimum control speed airborne (VMCA) for the aircraft type flown.
• Explain the safety implications of asymmetric flight below minimum control speed.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
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• Explain the power, flight and configuration requirements that apply to VMCA.
• Identify the critical engine (if there is one).
• Explain the methods of regaining control of an aircraft with a failed engine that is flying at a speed less
than minimum control speed.
• Explain the relationship between minimum control speed at altitude and VS1 (clean stall speed), and the
potential dangers of this condition of flight.
• Explain why asymmetric stalling and asymmetric stall recoveries should never be practiced.
• Explain the primary reason for VYSE.
• Explain the performance implications of flying below or above VYSE following an engine failure.
• Explain the parameters that apply to VSSE and the factors that are taken into account in calculating this
speed.
• Explain why simulated engine failures after take-off are not conducted below VSSE
• Calculate initial rate of climb and climb gradient for OEI after take-off for specified conditions.
• Explain markings on the airspeed indicator that applies to asymmetric engine operations.
• Calculate fuel flow and true airspeed during cruise with OEI.
• Determine if the range of the aircraft increases or decreases following an engine failure.
• Calculate point of no return (PNR) for OEI with maximum fuel (Commercial Transport Pilot Licence [CPL]
and Airline Transport Pilot Licence [ATPL]).
• Calculate ETP for OEI with maximum fuel (CPL and ATPL).
Multi-engine aeroplane with Large Aeroplane Performance
• Calculate V1 for any specified take-off conditions.
• State the conditions that would increase V1.
• Explain the function of V2.
• Explain what performance the aircraft can achieve after reaching V2 during asymmetric flight.
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MULTI-ENGINE AEROPLANE (LAND) – ACHIEVEMENT RECORD
NAME:………………………………………………………………………………
ARN:…..........
The standard for certification of each element is that all performance criteria for that element are
met.
Unit
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
Element
Instructor/ARN/Date
Trainee/Date
• Extract, interpret,
calculate and apply
normal and abnormal
flight performance
information
• Plan for asymmetric
operations after takeoff, during cruise and
approach phases of
flight
• Operate multi-engine
aeroplane (land) in all
phases of flight
• Manage abnormal or
emergency situations
in multi-engine
aeroplane (land)
• Manage engine
failure in multi-engine
aeroplane (land)
…………………………………………………. (Trainee name) has completed the training specified in the
elements 1.1 through 1.5 complete, which have been certified on this achievement record.
Instructor ……………………………………………..(Signature)
Date……………………………
Trainee ……………………………………………..(Signature)
Date……………………………
Attach this achievement record to the trainee’s training records to be retained at the office of the FTO.
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Appendix B: Multi-engine aeroplane ground and flight training syllabus
AIM
The aim of this document is to describe in detail the course of ground and flight training that trainees
seeking their first multi-engine endorsement (rating) should undertake. The syllabus is also
applicable to subsequent endorsements.
COURSE OBJECTIVE
The objective of the course is to give the trainee a sound theoretical knowledge of multi-engine
aircraft operation on which to base endorsements, and to teach the piloting skills necessary for the
safe and competent operation of such aircraft.
COURSE STRUCTURE
The course will comprise 7 hours of ground training in the form of lectures or briefings, and 7 hours
of flight training. The ground and flight training should be integrated and coordinated so that the
trainee gains the maximum benefit from time spent in the air. During the course of the endorsement
(rating) the ‘endorser’ should certify, on the assessment form, the successful completion of each
required sequence. On completion of this training, the Chief Flying Instructor/Chief Pilot (CFI/CP) of
the training organisation concerned should certify that the trainee has completed the course
satisfactorily. All requirements stated in this syllabus are to be regarded as minimum.
CONVERSION TRAINING FOR OTHER THAN INITIAL MULTI-ENGINE TRAINING
Trainees for subsequent training, on aircraft covered by the multi-engine aeroplane class rating
should complete the flight training as detailed therein.
TURBO-JET AIRCRAFT
An applicant who wishes to add a turbo-jet aircraft type rating, in their licence should undergo the
same course as described above, except that jet-engine theory and handling is substituted for the
piston engine teaching. If, however, the applicant already has a multi-engine class or type rating, the
course may be reduced to 4 hours of ground, and 3 hours of flight integrated training. The flight
training may be carried out either in an aeroplane or in an approved flight simulator under the
supervision of a person approved by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) to give such
instruction.
TURBO-PROP AIRCRAFT
An applicant wishing to add a turbo-prop aircraft as the first multi-engine aircraft in his/her licence
should undergo the same course as described above, except that jet engine theory and practice is
substituted for that of piston engines.
INSTRUCTION
A flight instructor or other approved person shall conduct flight instruction for multi-engine
aeroplanes. The ground instruction is most desirably given in the form of long briefings by the same
flying instructor, but may take the form of lectures by a competent ground school instructor.
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FINAL FLIGHT ASSESSMENT
On completion of the course for the multi-engine aeroplane class or type rating in their license, the
trainee may be required to undertake an assessment flight either with a CASA Flying Operations
Inspector (FOI) or with a suitably approved person. NIGHT FLYING
Flying instructors conducting the course should note that the full flight assessment includes a night
element. If a trainee has limited night experience, an additional flight is advised to familiarise them
with normal night circuits. However, flight with an engine simulated inoperative and engine failures
after take-off must not be practiced (conditions in AIP ENR 1.1 Paragraph 81.3 to apply).
Note 1: If the trainee does not hold an instrument rating or a Night Visual Flight Rules (NVFR) rating, the night
element should be incorporated in the day element such that the overall ‘hours’ requirement remains
unchanged.
Note 2: If an approved type simulator is available, then the night sequences should be conducted in the simulator
notwithstanding Note 1 above.
DOCUMENT STATUS
This Civil Aviation Advisory Publication (CAAP) 5.23-2 (0)) provides a training syllabus for use by
approved organisations or persons offering courses for the initial issue of a multi-engine aircraft type
endorsement (rating). It amplifies the requirements of CASR Part 61 MOS, and it represents
industry ‘best practice’ with regard to the minimum acceptable level of training.
SOURCE MATERIAL
Refer to Section 1 for a list of source material for use on the course, however the recommended
reference is ‘FLYING TRAINING Multi-engine Rating’ by R.D. Campbell. This reference was written
to complement the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (UK CAA) syllabus on which this CAAP
is based.
GROUND TRAINING
The training for the multi-engine course comprises of ground lectures/long briefings on subjects
associated with the operation of multi-engine propeller or turbo-jet aircraft. It includes elements
which are related to the type of aeroplane to be used on the course. The training should be
integrated with the flight training so that the maximum benefit is gained from time spent in the air.
The suggested syllabus is as follows and which in general terms equates to the approximate
durations. Trainers also need to take into account a particular trainees’ level of competence.
Long Briefing (LB)
Subject Duration
LB1
Aircraft Systems
1.5 hrs
LB2 (P)
Variable Pitch (VP) Propellers and Feathering
1 hr
LB3
Principle of Multi-Engine Flight
1 hr
LB4
Minimum Control & Safety Speed
1 hr
LB5
Weight & Balance
0.5 hr
LB6
Effect of Engine Failure on Systems &
1 hr
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46
Performance
LB7
Weight & Performance
1 hr
LB8
Flight Planning Normal Operations
1.5hrs
LB9
Flight Planning
Emergency/Abnormal/Contingency
1.5hrs
If the rating required is for a turbo-jet aeroplane, Long Briefing 2 changed to:
LB2 (TJ)
LB2 (TJ) Turbo-Jet Engine Theory and Handling
1 hr
If the rating required is for a turbo-prop aeroplane, an additional briefing is to be given in conjunction
with LB2 (P):
LB2 (TP)
Turbo-Prop Engine Theory & Handling
1 hr
The flying instructor conducting the course should give the long briefings; however, a suitably
qualified ground instructor may give them in the form of lectures. Before commencing flying training
the trainees should have satisfactorily completed the Engineering Data and Performance
questionnaire (see Appendices D and E), and in the case of a turbo-jet or turbo-prop, Basic Gas
Turbine theory. Knowledge level should be a minimum of CPL ground examination standard.
The detailed content of each Long Briefing as set out in the following pages should be used as a
guide. Section 1 should provide the reference material for general theory and principles; the Flight
Manual should be used for type specific data.
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
LONG BRIEFING: LB1 – AEROPLANES AND ENGINE SYSTEMS
Approximate Duration: 1½ hours
Aim: To give the trainee a thorough understanding of all systems relevant to the aeroplane type.
Briefing content:
•
•
•
•
Aeroplane systems (normal operation):
− Fuel;
− Electrical;
− Flight control (primary and secondary);
− Hydraulic;
− Flight instruments;
− Avionics;
− Braking;
− De-icing;
− Oxygen;
− Cabin air conditioning and pressurisation; and
− Others.
Engine systems (normal operation):
− Fuel;
− Oil;
− Starter (including air start for turbo-jets);
− Ignition;
− Propeller – piston engine only;
− Mixture – piston engine only; and
− Turbochargers.
Limitations:
− Airframe:
o Load factors; and
o Speeds.
− Engine:
o Revolutions per minute (RPM), temperatures and pressures.
Emergency Procedures:
− Refer to the flight manual for the specific aeroplane type
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should have a sound knowledge of airframe and engine
systems and their operation in normal and emergency conditions at a standard to pass the
Engineering Data and Performance Type Endorsement written questionnaire.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
LONG BRIEFING: LB2 (P) – VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLERS
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To revise the principles of variable pitch propellers and propeller feathering mechanisms.
Briefing Content:
•
•
Variable pitch propellers:
− Principles;
− CSUs;
− Synchronisation;
− Full authority digital engine control (FADEC) and
− Handling (type related).
Feathering:
− Principles and purpose;
− Feathering mechanisms; and
− Handling and limitations (type related).
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should have sound understanding of VP propellers feathering
systems, and know the handling and feathering limitations for the aeroplane type.
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49
LONG BRIEFING: LB2 (TJ) – TURBO-JET ENGINES – THEORY AND HANDLING
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To give the trainee a sound theoretical knowledge of the principles of the turbo-jet engine, and
the handling procedures and techniques relevant to the aeroplane type.
Briefing Content:
•
•
Turbo-jet engine theory:
− General principles;
− Factors affecting thrust;
o Altitude;
o True air speed (TAS);
o Density;
o Spool-up time;
o Temperature; and
o Pressure.
− Performance factors:
o Rate of climb – best climb speed;
o Specific fuel consumption;
o Range speed (including effect of altitude etc.); and
o Endurance speed (including effect of altitude etc.).
o Twin spool engines.
Theory of high speed flight:
− Compressibility effects; and
− Swept wing;
o Effect on handling.
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should gain a sound (CPL equivalent) knowledge of turbo-jet
engine principles and handling related to the aeroplane type, including the difference between
piston and turbo-jet engines in performance considerations.
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LONG BRIEFING: LB2 (TP) – TURBO-PROP ENGINES – THEORY AND HANDLING
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To teach the trainee a sound theoretical knowledge of the principles of the turbo-propeller jet
engines and the handling procedures and the techniques relevant to the engine/propeller/aeroplane
type.
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
•
Variable pitch propeller:
− Principles;
− CSUs;
− Feathering and reversing/braking propellers;
− Synchronisation; and
− Pilot handling (type related).
Engine theory:
− General principles;
− Factors affecting thrust:
o Altitude;
o TAS
o Density;
o Spool-up time;
o Temperature; and
o Pressure.
− Performance factors:
o Rate of Climb – best climb speed;
o Specific fuel consumption;
o Range speed; and
o Endurance speed.
Engine Handling:
− Thrust indicator (torque, RPM, interstage turbine temperature [ITT] and gas generator
speed [N1%)]);
− Limitations (type related);
− Reaction (spool up) time;
− Emergencies (type related); and
− Air start systems (windmill/starter assist) type related;
Theory of high altitude flight:
− Performance Limitations.
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should gain knowledge (CPL equivalent) of propeller systems
together with jet engine principles and handling including performance considerations of aeroplane
type.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
LONG BRIEFING: LB3 – PRINCIPLES OF MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To give to the trainee a sound knowledge of the aerodynamic principles involved in multiengine flight in normal and asymmetric conditions.
Briefing Contents:
•
•
•
•
The multi-engine environment:
− Rationale for 2 or more engines; and
− Configurations of multi-engine aeroplanes.
The multi-engine problem:
− Engine failure situation, leading to:
o Asymmetry;
o Control capability reduction; and
o Performance reduction – LB7.
Aerodynamics of asymmetry:
− Thrust:
o Offset thrust line; and
o Asymmetric blade effect.
− Drag:
o Offset drag line;
o Failed engine drag; and
o Total drag.
− Lift:
o Asymmetry; and
o Slipstream effect.
− Unbalanced flight:
o Effect of yaw; and
o Sideslip/side forces.
− Thrust/drag, side force couples.
Controllability in asymmetric flight:
− Rudder, Aileron and Elevator:
o Effectiveness; and
o Limitations.
− Balanced/unbalanced flight;
− Effect of bank/sideslip:
o Fin strength, and stall;
o Residual unbalance – effect on controls;
o Out of balance control loads; and
o Trimming.
− IAS/thrust relationship.
Knowledge Standard: CPL equivalent.
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LONG BRIEFING: LB4 – MINIMUM CONTROL AND SAFETY SPEEDS
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To ensure the trainee has a full understanding of the principles involved in, and the factors
affecting, critical/minimum control and safety speeds.
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
Minimum control speed (VMC):
− Definition;
− Derivation; and
− Factors affecting:
o Power;
o Weight/centre of gravity (CG);
o Altitude;
o Drag (e.g. undercarriage, flaps, etc.; feathering);
o Turbulence; and
o Critical engine (if applicable.)
− Pilot handling:
o Skill/strength;
o Reaction time; and
o Effect of bank.
Take-off safety speed (VTOSS) (V2):
− Definition; and
− Derivation.
VMC, V2 and other V coded speeds (type related).
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should show a complete understanding of the principles and
factors affecting minimum control and safety speeds, and should know the value of these and other
V speeds for the aeroplane type.
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
LONG BRIEFING: LB5 – WEIGHT AND BALANCE
Approximate Duration: ½ hour
Aim: To familiarise the trainee with the weight and balance calculations for the aeroplane type.
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
•
Revision of weight and balance principles
Application of principles to aeroplane type calculation
Practice sample calculations using Flight Manual data; and
Use of the aircraft's Load Data Sheet and Approved Loading System.
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should be able to perform correctly weight and balance
calculations for the aeroplane type.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
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LONG BRIEFING: LB6 – EFFECTS OF ENGINE FAILURE ON SYSTEMS AND PERFORMANCE
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To give the trainee a sound knowledge of the effects on performance in flight caused by one
inoperative engine.
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
•
•
Effect on Systems:
− Electrics;
− Hydraulic;
− Fuel;
− Air conditioning and pressurisation; and
− Others (type related).
Effect on power:
− Excess power available; and
− Optimum speeds.
Effect on cruise:
− Range; and
− Endurance.
Acceleration/deceleration; and
Zero thrust:
− Definition;
− Purpose; and
− Determination.
Note: This content should be varied appropriately for relevance to the turbo-jet and turbo-prop aeroplane.
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should demonstrate a sound theoretical knowledge (CPL
equivalent) of the effects on performance of OEI.
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LONG BRIEFING: LB7 – WEIGHT AND PERFORMANCE
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To familiarise the trainee with weight and performance calculations.
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
Revision of Civil Aviation Regulations and Orders.
Revision of principles of weight and performance calculations, use of graphs and tables.
Practice calculations for the aeroplane type, using Flight Manual Data:
− Weight at take-off (WAT);
− Take-off;
− Accelerate/stop;
− Climb out – flight paths;
− En-route ceiling, range, endurance;
− Descent; and
− Landing.
To include, as appropriate, the OEI case.
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should be able to perform correctly all weight and performance
calculations relevant to the aeroplane type.
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LONG BRIEFING: LB8 – FLIGHT PLANNING NORMAL OPERATIONS
Approximate Duration: 1.5 hour
Aim: To familiarise the trainee with BASIC flight planning principles, considerations and practices in
multi-engine aeroplanes.
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
•
Revision of PPL/CPL flight planning competencies.
Review of multi-engine aeroplane flight planning data.
Extraction of relevant flight planning data from Flight Manual/POH.
Practice flight planning exercises for the aeroplane type, using Flight Manual/POH Data:
Knowledge Standard: The trainee should be able to perform correctly all basic flight planning
calculations relevant to the aeroplane type.
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
LONG BRIEFING: LB9 – FLIGHT PLANNING EMERGENCY/ABNORMAL/CONTINGENCY
OPERATIONS
Approximate Duration: 1.5 hour
Aim: To familiarise the trainee with emergency/abnormal/contingency flight planning principles,
considerations and practices in multi-engine aeroplanes.
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
•
Revision of possible emergency/abnormal/contingency situations.
Review of available multi-engine aeroplane flight planning data in emergency/abnormal
configurations.
Extraction of relevant flight planning data from Flight Manual/POH.
Practice flight planning exercises for the aeroplane type, using Flight Manual/POH Data:
Knowledge Standard: When presented with a routine tasking, the trainee should be able to apply
TEM principles in order to develop a suitable flight plan and contingency plans relevant to the
aeroplane type.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
58
Flight training
The Flight Training element of the Initial Multi Engine course consists of dual instruction with a
particular focus on asymmetric training. Should a trainee hold an instrument rating, instrument flying
under asymmetric flight conditions need to be taken into account. This syllabus also covers type
familiarisation training for the aeroplane used on the course.
The suggested syllabus is as follows and which in general terms equates to the approximate
durations. Trainers also need to take into account a particular trainees’ level of competence.
Flight number
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
Description duration
Initial Type Familiarisation
General Handling & Circuits
Introduction to Asymmetric flight
Critical & Safety Speeds
Asymmetric Circuits
Asymmetric Performance &
Circuits
Instrument Flying
Navex
Flight Test
1 hr
1 hr
1 hr
1 hr
1 hr
1 hr
1 hr
1.5 hr
1 hr
Asterisked items refer to piston-engine aircraft; the equivalent item should be substituted for turbojet or turbo-prop aircraft.
On satisfactory completion of the flight training set out above, the trainee should satisfactorily
complete the final assessment flight with an approved person or a CASA Flying Operations
Inspector. This assessment includes a night element and it is recommended that a trainee with
limited night flying experience should be given a further dual flight at night.
If the trainee does not hold an instrument rating, F7 may be reduced to 0.5hrs.
When the full course is to be conducted on a turbo-jet aeroplane, the same flight training should be
followed, except that engine shut-down and air start drills should be substituted for feathering and
unfeathering exercises. Items that are applicable to piston engine aeroplanes only are indicated in
the Flight Number briefs by an asterisk; the alternative turbo-jet exercise is shown in brackets where
appropriate.
On completion of the training, the trainee should be capable of handling the aeroplane safely and
confidently under both the normal and asymmetric condition.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
FLIGHT NUMBER F1 – INITIAL TYPE FAMILIARISATION
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To familiarise the trainee with the handling characteristics of the aeroplane in normal flight.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pre-flight preparation and aircraft inspection.
Start-up and taxiing:
− Cockpit familiarisation;
− Checklist procedures;
− Engine start;
− Engine fire on the ground;
− Taxiing:
o Use of brakes; and
o Use of throttles.
Take-off and climb:
− Check list procedures;
− Normal take-off/cross-wind take-off;
− After take-off checks;
− Normal climb, climbing turns;
− Throttle and VP propeller (engine limitations)*; and
− Pressurisation (as appropriate).
Cruise:
− Level off;
− Use of trim;
− Effect of flaps, undercarriage;
− Normal turns; and
− Cruise checks.
Engine handling:
− Engine temperatures and pressures; and
− Use of:
o Mixture control*; and
o Carburettor de-icing and engine anti-icing (as appropriate)*.
In flight emergencies (other than engine fire/failure):
− Hydraulic;
− Electric;
− Airframe and engine icing;
− Pressurisation; and
− Others as per Flight Manual.
Steep turns:
Descending:
− Descent checks;
− Normal descent and descending turns;
− Mixture control; and
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
•
− Carburettor de-icing (as appropriate)*.
Demonstration normal circuit:
− Checklist procedures;
− Approach; and
− Normal landing.
Skill Standard: The trainee should know the normal and emergency checklist procedures, and be
able to handle the aeroplane competently.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
FLIGHT NUMBER F2 – GENERAL HANDLING AND CIRCUITS
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To revise aeroplane and engine handling, and practice circuit procedures.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
•
Start-up and Taxi;
Normal Take-off and Climb;
Stalling:
− Checks;
− Clean configuration – power off;
− Approach configuration – power off;
− Approach configuration – power on; and
− Landing configuration – power on and power off.
Circuit Procedures – Both Engines Operative:
− Normal configuration;
− Flapless approach and landing;
− Performance landing; and
− Go-around.
Undercarriage Emergency Procedures.
Skill Standard: The trainee should demonstrate his/her ability to handle all aspects of aeroplane
operation with all engines operative.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
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FLIGHT NUMBER F3 – INTRODUCTION TO ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To teach the trainee basic aeroplane handling in the event of engine failure.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
Normal Take-Off and Climb;
Single-Engine Flight:
− Demonstrate full feathering drill* (engine shut-down:
o Checklist procedures.
− Aeroplane handling with OEI:
o Power required;
o Trim position for balanced flight; and
o Flight controls positions for balanced flight.
− Demonstrate fuel cross-feed;
− Demonstrate unfeather drill* (air start):
o Checklist procedures.
− Demonstrate zero thrust condition:
o Determination of 'zero thrust' settings.
Simulated Engine Failure:
− Effect of engine failure:
o Visual;
o Instrument; and
o Performance.
− Control after engine failure:
o Yaw;
o Roll; and
o Pitch.
− Identification of failed engine:
o Dead leg, dead engine; and
o Instrument indications.
− Engine failure in turns:
o Identification; and
o Control.
− Alternative method of control.
Airspeed/power relationship:
− Effect on control of:
o Varying speed at constant power; and
o Varying power at constant speed.
− Practice handling in asymmetric flight.
Skill Standard: The trainee should be able to handle the aeroplane confidently in asymmetric flight,
and to understand engine failure, feathering and unfeathering drills* (engine shut down and air start
drills).
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FLIGHT NUMBER F4 – CRITICAL AND SAFETY SPEEDS
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To investigate the significance of critical speeds and take-off safety speed (VTOSS).
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Revise engine failure: control and identification.
Critical Speeds:
− Critical speeds – wings level – windmilling engine;
− Critical speeds – wings 5
windmilling
–
ba nk
engine; and
− Critical speeds – wings 5
zero
–
ba nkthrust.
Engine failure during take-off:
− Engine failure below VTOSS;
− Engine failure at or above VTOSS;
− Full EFATO drill; and
− Single engine climb.
Practice feathering and unfeathering drill* (engine shut-down and air start).
Aeroplane handling: (turbo-jet and turbo-prop only):
− High speed; and
− High altitude.
Demonstrate asymmetric circuit, go-around and landing.
Skill Standard: The trainee should understand the significance of critical speeds and take-off safety
speeds, should be able to handle an engine failure correctly in flight or during take-off, and should
be able to carry out the feathering and unfeathering drills (shutdown and air start) correctly.
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FLIGHT NUMBER F5 – ASYMMETRIC CIRCUITS
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To teach the trainee to handle an engine failure after take-off, and to carry out an asymmetric
circuit, go-around and landing.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
•
•
−
−
−
−
−
−
Take-off brief;
Engine failure after take-off;
Asymmetric circuit:
Power settings and speeds; and
Use of flap.
Undercarriage and flap operation:
o Normal; and
o Emergency.
Visual committal height:
o Consideration.
Go-around:
o Decision; and
o Actions.
Landing:
o Use of flap;
o Foot load; and
o Taxiing.
Skill Standard: The trainee should be able to demonstrate an ability to handle an engine failure
after take-off and an asymmetric circuit and land safely and competently at the flight test standard,
i.e. maintain selected speeds within
5 knots a nd h
failure operations.
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65
FLIGHT NUMBER F6 – ASYMMETRIC PERFORMANCE AND CIRCUIT
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To revise the effects of asymmetric operation on aeroplane systems and performance, and to
practice asymmetric circuits.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
Effect On Aircraft Systems:
− Engine parameters;
− Electrical system operation;
− Hydraulic system operation;
− Fuel system:
o Cross feed; and
o Fuel consumption.
− Other systems – type related.
Effect on aeroplane’s performance of:
− Feathering;
− Configuration (e.g. flaps, undercarriage); and
− Departure from scheduled speeds.
Effect on climb/cruise performance:
− Climb;
− Range;
− Endurance; and
− Descent.
Asymmetric circuits.
Skill Standard: The trainee should have a thorough understanding of systems operation and
aeroplane performance with OEI.
Note: the case of aircraft meeting the performance requirements of CAO 20.7.1B, or if this sequence is conducted in
an approved simulator, the aircraft should be loaded to approximately 90% maximum all up weight (MAUW). If
loading the aircraft is not practicable, then the use of a properly developed Training Power setting that
approximates the performance of the aircraft at MAUW may be utilised.
Warning: Where a training power setting is used, the PIC should not hesitate to resume full power immediately
should an actual emergency occur during training.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
FLIGHT NUMBER F7 – INSTRUMENT FLYING
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To teach the trainee instrument flight on a multi-engine aeroplane in normal and asymmetric
conditions.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
Normal Flight (all engines operative):
− Straight and level;
− Climbing and descending;
− Turning; and
− Recovery from unusual attitudes.
Asymmetric Flight (OEI):
− Engine failure: identification and control;
− Straight and level;
− Climbing and descending;
− Turning; and
− Effect of flap and/or undercarriage.
Visual asymmetric circuit and landing (or asymmetric instrument approach and circle to
landing).
Skill Standard: The trainee should be able to control the aeroplane and its systems in instrument
flight conditions with OEI.
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67
FLIGHT NUMBER F8 – NAVIGATION EXERCISE
Approximate Duration: 1.5 hours
Aim: For the trainee to demonstrate the ability to plan and complete a short navigation exercise to
another aerodrome and to safety manage simulated en-route emergency/abnormal situations during
this flight.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
Flight Planning:
− Set Task;
− Normal requirements;
− Emergency considerations;
− Abnormal considerations:
− Contingencies
Air exercise:
− Pre-flight;
− Ground Operations
− Take off
− Climb/cruise/descent.
− Arrival circuit/landing
Management of simulated emergencies/abnormal situations:
Skill Standard: The trainee should demonstrate a PPL/CPL competencies and elements 1.1
through 1.5 with minimal assistance for the entire flight.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
FLIGHT NUMBER F9 – FLIGHT TEST
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: For the trainee to demonstrate the ability safely operate a multi-engine aeroplane in all flight
phases.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
Flight Planning:
− Set Task;
− Normal requirements;
− Emergency considerations;
− Abnormal considerations:
− Contingencies
Air exercise:
− Pre-flight;
− Ground Operations
− Take off
− Climb/cruise/descent.
− Arrival circuit/landing
Management of simulated emergencies/abnormal situations:
Skill Standard: The trainee should demonstrate a PPL/CPL competencies and elements 1.1
through 1.5 unassisted for the entire flight.
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69
Abridged Turbo-jet Course
When a trainee who already has a multi-engine aeroplane class/type rating on his/her licence
wishes to add a first turbo-jet multi-engine aeroplane to it, the full course is reduced to a minimum of
4 hours ground school and 3 hours of flight training. The ground school should normally be
conducted by the person giving the flight instruction, but may be given by a suitably qualified ground
instructor.
The flight instruction may be given in the aeroplane or in a flight simulator approved for this purpose.
In the latter case the training should be given by a person authorised by CASA to give such
instruction.
The ground element of the course consists of 5 long briefings which are the same long briefings
used on the full course for turbo-jet engine trainees. In view of the trainee’s previous multi-engine
experience, two of these are reduced in duration as indicated below:
Long briefing
LB1
LB2 (TJ)
Subject duration
Aircraft Systems
Turbo-jet Engine Theory &
Handling
Weight & Balance
Effect of Engine Failure on
Systems & Performance
Weight & Performance
LB5
LB6
LB7
1 hr
1 hr
½ hr
½ hr
1 hr
The flight instruction, given in the aeroplane or an approved simulator, shall consist of 3 flights as
given below. The exercise content of each flight is shown in detail at the end of this chapter; flights
do not correspond with the full course flights, because the trainee is assumed to be competent in
handling a multi-engine piston aeroplane.
Flight number
FL1 (TJ)
FL2 (TJ)
FL3 (TJ)
Description duration
Type conversion
Critical and safety speed
Instrumental flying
1 hr
1 hr
1 hr
If required an additional flight to give the trainee night circuit experience may be added.
On completion of the flight training, a flight assessment is required in accordance with normal
practice.
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70
FLIGHT NUMBER F1 (TJ) – TYPE CONVERSION
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To familiarise the trainee with the handling characteristics of the aeroplane and its systems in
normal flight.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pre-flight Preparation and aircraft inspection.
Start-up and taxiing:
− Normal procedures; and
− Starting emergencies.
Take-off and climb:
− Normal procedures.
Aeroplane handling:
− High altitude;
− High speed;
− Stalling;
− Steep turns; and
− Engine handling.
In Flight Emergencies (other than engine):
− Hydraulic;
− Electric;
− Cabin conditioning and pressurisation;
− Undercarriage;
− Others as per flight manual; and
− Emergency descent.
Normal Circuits:
− Circuit procedures;
− Normal and flapless approaches;
− Go-around; and
− Landings and performance landings.
Skill Standard: The trainee should know the normal and emergency procedures and be able to
handle the aeroplane safely and competently.
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
FLIGHT NUMBER F2 (TJ) – CRITICAL AND SAFETY SPEEDS
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To introduce the trainee to asymmetric flying, critical and safety speeds, and asymmetric
circuits.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
•
Normal take-off and climb.
Asymmetric flight:
− Engine fire/failure drills;
− Engine shutdown and air start drills;
− Fuel cross feed; and
− Aeroplane handling with OEI.
Critical Speeds:
− Critical speeds – wings level, engine windmilling; and
− Critical speeds – wings 5
 ba nk, e ngine windm illing.
Safety Speeds:
− Engine failure during take-off:
o Below decision speed; and
o Above decision speed.
Asymmetric Circuits:
− Power settings and speeds;
− Use of flap, and undercarriage operation;
− Visual committal height;
− Go-around; and
− Landing.
Skill Standard: The trainee should be able to carry out correctly engine failure drills and to handle
the aeroplane competently in the asymmetric configuration.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
72
FLIGHT NUMBER F3 (TJ) – INSTRUMENT FLYING
Approximate Duration: 1 hour
Aim: To practice instruments flying in the normal and asymmetric configuration, and to revise
asymmetric circuits.
Air Exercise:
•
•
•
•
Take-off brief.
Engine failure after take-off.
Instrument flying:
− Normal configuration:
o Full panel;
o Limited panel; and
o Unusual attitudes.
Asymmetric Instrument approach, go-around and visual landing.
Skill Standard: The trainee should be able to handle the aeroplanes competently under instrument
flight conditions, and to fly the aeroplane competently and safely to a standard to pass the final flight
assessment.
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73
Appendix C: Multi-engine flight instructor training
Approximate course duration
Training hours
Ground school
Synthetic trainer
16.5 (Lesson briefing)
1.0
Flight training
9.5
Equipment type
N/A
Appropriate STD or aeroplane on the
ground
Multi-engine aeroplane <5,700 kg
Course Aim:
The aim of this course is to train the holder of a flight instructor rating to be proficient in multi-engine
operations and to gain the skills, knowledge and behaviour to conduct multi-engine flight training.
Prior to the commencement of this course trainees must hold an appropriate grade of instructor
rating.
Phase Objectives:
a.
b.
c.
d.
To refresh and confirm the trainees multi-engine aircraft systems and asymmetric
principles knowledge.
To become proficient in the delivery of instructional lesson briefings applicable to an
initial multi-engine type rating training course.
To ensure proficiency in multi-engine aircraft handling.
To develop and refine multi-engine instructional techniques.
Instructional Aids Required:
•
•
•
•
•
Briefing Room
Over-head Projector (OHP)
Whiteboard
Multi-Engine Aeroplane <5,700 kg
Aircraft and/or Synthetic Training Device (STD)
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74
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground School
There is no pre-set ground school for this course. Ground instruction in the form of long (tutorial)
and short (pre-flight) briefings are included in the flight training details. The contents of the long
briefings are explained from pages 96 to 116.
Ground Training (GT)
Exercise
GT 1
GT 2
GT 3
GT 4
GT 5
GT 6
GT 7
GT 8
GT 9
GT 10
GT 11
GT 12
GT 13
GT 14
Brief Time
Aircraft Systems
Aircraft Systems
Aircraft Systems
Asymmetric Refresher
Demonstration Briefing- Differences
Demonstration Briefing- Asymmetric.
Principles
Demonstration Briefing- Asymmetric Flight
Procedures
Demonstration Briefing- Introductory Flight
Trainee Instructor Brief - Differences
Trainee Instructor - Asymmetric Principles
Trainee Instructor - Asymmetric Flight
Procedures
Trainee Instructor - Short Notice
Simulator Practice - Mutual
The Multi Engine Instructor- Instructional
Technique
Total Briefing
Progressive
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.5
7.0
1.5
8.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
10.0
11.5
13.0
14.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
15.5
16.5
17.5
17.5 Hours
Flight Training
Flight training involves multi-engine familiarisation and practical demonstrations and assessment of
instructional technique. The flight simulator time may be conducted in an aircraft on the ground
when a synthetic training device is not available.
The flight training course is comprised of five sorties with each sortie comprising a pre-flight briefing
and the airborne exercise. The first sortie is a familiarisation and consolidation flight involving
general and asymmetric flying. On the second sortie the flight instructor demonstrates or ‘gives’ the
instructional techniques for stalling, asymmetric flight and circuits. The third sortie requires the
trainee flight instructor to ‘give back’ or repeat the previous sortie acting as a flight instructor. The
fourth sortie is a consolidation flight where the trainee instructor refines and reinforces his or her
instructional techniques. The final sortie involves a flight test with an approved training officer (ATO)
or other approved person.
Trainee multi-engine flight instructor assessment
Sample training records are provided in the following pages. There are columns used to record
assessments, titled ‘trainee preparation’ and ‘trainee technique’. These tables are generic and each
flying training organisation may use its own system of recording a trainee’s competence. On the
example form in this appendix a scale of one to five is used, but this could be adapted to ‘C’ for
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
75
competent or ‘NYC’ for not yet competent. Flying training organisations should use a system of
recording assessment that suits their individual needs.
The sorties and flying hours breakdown for the multi-engine instructor course are specified in the
table that follows.
Exercise
ME 1
ME 2
ME 3
ME 4
ME 5
Flight Time
Multi-engine (ME) Rating or re-familiarisation
Instructor Control Seat Familiarities –
Airborne Sequence Demonstrated
Instructor Control Seat Instruction
Consolidation
Test
Total Flight
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Progressive
1.5
2.0
1.5
3.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.5
7.5
9.5
9.5 Hours
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
76
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING SEQUENCES
ME 1 (Page
1)
Date:
Instructor:
Duration
Trainee:
Trainee
Preparation
1
2
Pre-Flight Brief
Stalling - clean and approach
configuration
VMC - entry and recovery
o
Medium level turns 45/60 angle of
bank
Emergency undercarriage lowering
High speed handling characteristics
Normal Circuits - standard
circuit/power settings
Flapless and asymmetric circuits
Pre-brief on simulated and real
emergencies - action and
responsibilities
Use of touch drills, for simulated
emergencies
Management of engine and flight
controls during normal
At the Aircraft
Aircraft familiarisation
Cockpit familiarisation
Systems familiarisation - normal
operation and
Protection of systems where provided
Pre-start checks and precautions
Start up - pre-taxi checks and ground
manoeuvring
Run- up - Normal take off and climb
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3
4
Trainee Technique
5
1
2
3
4
5
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
77
Comments:
Instructors Signature:
ME 1 (Page
Instructor:
2)
Date:
Duration
Trainee:
Trainee
Preparation
1
2
Flight - Re-familiarisation
Medium level steep turns - note
performance detriment
Effect of controls - flaps, landing gear,
etc.
Stalls in clean, approach and landing
configuration
VMC demonstration and recovery
Engine failure with touch drills
Single-engine handling and
demonstration of go-around
Circuits - normal, flapless and asymmetric
approaches
Comments:
Instructors Signature:
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3
4
Trainee Technique
5
1
2
3
4
5
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
ME 2
78
Instructor:
Date:
Duration
Trainee:
Trainee
Preparation
1
Pre-Flight Brief
Engine feather and unfeathering drills
Flight - Give
Patter stalling and recovery
Patter initial asymmetric (emphasis on
control)
Patter engine failures in various
configurations (emphasis on accuracy of
drills)
Patter VMC demonstration and recovery
Patter engine failure drills with full
feathering
Patter unfeathering drills
Patter single engine go-around at
altitude
Patter normal, flapless and asymmetric
circuits
Comments:
Instructors Signature:
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2
3
4
Trainee Technique
5
1
2
3
4
5
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
ME 3
79
Instructor:
Date:
Duration
Trainee:
Trainee
Preparation
1
Pre-Flight Brief
Discuss the importance of passing on the
essential information only
Emphasise that the patter should not be
rushed and has a logical flow
Flight - Give Back
Give back stalling and recovery
Give back initial asymmetric (emphasis on
control)
Give back engine failures in various
configurations (emphasis on accuracy of
drills)
Give back VMC demonstration and recovery
Give back engine failure drills with full
feathering
Give back unfeathering drills
Give back single engine go-around at
altitude
Give back normal, flapless and asymmetric
circuits
Comments:
Instructors Signature:
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2
3
4
Trainee Technique
5
1
2
3
4
5
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
ME 4
80
Instructor:
Date:
Duration
Trainee:
Trainee
Preparation
1
Pre-Flight Brief
Discuss sequences to revise
Flight may start with an hour of mutual if
there are two trainees
Flight - Consolidation
Revise sequences as discussed
Ensure all flight sequences a have logical
flow
Trainee is aware of all safety aspects
Comments:
Instructors Signature:
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2
3
4
Trainee Technique
5
1
2
3
4
5
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
ME 5
81
Instructor:
Date:
Duration
Trainee:
Trainee
Preparation
Sim 1 or 2
1
Pre-Flight Brief
Quiz based on questions listed on CASA
Instructor Rating Test Form
Discuss profile of test
Instructor Brief
Briefing as requested by ATO
As per CASA Test Form
Flight
Sequences as requested by ATO
Comments:
Instructors Signature:
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2
3
4
Trainee Technique
5
1
2
3
4
5
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 1 - Aeroplanes and Engine Systems
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: To ensure a thorough understanding of all systems relevant to the aeroplane type.
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
•
Airframe:
− Construction;
− Aerodynamic features;
− Flight controls (primary and secondary);
− Flaps- type, operation, selection, limitations and common problems;
− Hatches/Harnesses; and
− Pre-flight checks.
Engine:
− Type;
− Power ratings;
− Fuel types;
− Oil type, cooling and quantities;
− Starter operation and limitations;
− Priming;
− Ground starting;
− In-flight restart; and
− Pre-flight checks.
Propeller:
− Type and Dimensions;
− General Variable Pitch Propeller/CSU Principles;
− General Feathering Principles and Mechanisms;
− Construction;
− Operation- fine, coarse, constant speeding, feathering and un-feathering;
− Ground and in-flight un-feathering;
− Normal handling and synchronising; and
− Pre-flight checks.
Electrics:
− Alternator types, voltage and capacities;
− Alternator control system. Activation, indication, over/under voltage control and
resetting;
− Buses;
− Battery - Type, capacity, physical location and drainage details;
− Aircraft electrical systems;
− Starting procedures when using external power sources; and
− Pre-flight checks.
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83
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground Training 2 - Aeroplanes and Engine Systems (Continued)
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: To give the trainee a thorough understanding of all systems relevant to the
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hydraulic:
− Systems/Operation; and
− Location and top up details.
Undercarriage:
− Type;
− Normal operation and operating limits (speeds/times);
− Up-locks;
− Down-locks;
− Indications;
− Abnormal operation;
− Emergency selection; and
− Struts.
Brakes:
− Type, operation and refill details.
Fuel:
− Type;
− Tank locations and types;
− Capacity, measurement and indication;
− Boost pumps and locations;
− Tank Selection and consumption requirements;
− Fuel cross-feeding;
− Fuel drain location;
− Cabin heater use;
− Minimum required fuel for flight;
− Slipping or abnormal flight limitations; and
− Flight planning.
Instrumentation:
− Power sources; and
Electric Trim/Auto-pilot:
− Type and power source;
− Operation; and
− Pre-flight checks.
Cabin air Conditioning:
− Venting;
− Heater type, operation and selection; and
− Abnormal operation.
De-icing/Anti-Icing:
DRAFT August 2015
aeroplane type.
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
•
•
•
− Pitot Heat; and
− Pre-flight check (Amps/temperature).
Avionics:
− System provided/system operation:
o Intercom and radio telephone/transmission (RT) and reception (Tx/Rx);
o automatic direction finder (ADF);
o Very high frequency omni-directional range (VOR);
o Instrument landing system (ILS);
o Markers (MKRS);
o Distance measuring equipment (DME);
o Global navigation satellite system (GNSS); and
o Other.
− Aerials and locations;
− Pre-flight checks.
Aircraft Weight and Balance:
− Limitations;
− System and load sheet;
− Movement of CG with fuel burn-off; and
− IFR and asymmetric restrictions (take-off, cruise, approach and landing).
Flight Planning:
− Fuel (normal, asymmetric, holding, approaches, alternates; endurance and range);
− Speeds;
− Climb, Cruise, instrument flight (IF) manoeuvring, normal descent, IF descent;
− Take-off, accelerate/stop, climb, cruise, approach and landing;
− Performance for normal and asymmetric; and
− Max endurance, holding and maximum range configurations.
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85
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 3 - Aeroplanes and engine systems
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: To give the trainee a thorough understanding of all systems relevant to the
aeroplane type.
Briefing Content:
•
•
Limitations:
− Airframe;
− Load factors;
− Airspeeds; and
− Engine/propeller:
o Full power/revolutions per minute (RPM);
o Max Continuous power/RPM;
o Temperatures and pressures; and
o Minimum fuel and oil quantities.
Emergencies:
− Engine;
− Propeller- over/under speeding and feather on shutdown;
− Undercarriage- lights, micro’s, electrical, hydraulic, mechanical and partial;
− Flap;
− Flight controls (elevator, aileron, rudder and trims);
− Electrical/Lighting;
− Electric Trim/Auto-pilot;
− Radio/Navigation-aid;
− Fuel – leaks, fuel cap off, cross feeding and asymmetric;
− Brakes;
− Tyres;
− Door open in-flight;
− Fire - engine/wing, electrical, heater and cabin;
− In-flight structural; and
− Passengers.
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86
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 4 - Asymmetric refresher part a
Approximate Duration: 1.5 hours
Aim: To refresh the trainees knowledge of piston engine asymmetric operations
Briefing Content:
Multi-engine problems:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Engine failure situation, leading to asymmetric flight symptoms:
− VFR;
− Feel;
− Yaw/Roll/Nose Drop - leading to spiral dive;
− IFR;
− Flight Instruments no yaw on AI, mainly see roll but yaw is what needs to be countered
first;
− Engine instruments – probably use EGT only;
− Control capability reduction rudder;
− Aileron – can often over power yaw;
− Elevator; and
− Minimum control airspeed (VMCA).
Aerodynamics of asymmetry:
− Thrust (Yaw);
− Offset thrust line;
− Asymmetric blade effect (P factor – good/bad); and
− Asymmetric torque (good/bad).
Drag (Yaw):
− Offset drag line;
− Failed engine drag; and
− Total drag.
Lift (Roll):
− Asymmetry;
− Slipstream effect;
− Vertical stabiliser/rudder (good/bad); and
− Flaps.
Unbalanced flight:
− Effect of yaw;
− Side-slip/side-forces; and
− Drag increase.
Thrust/drag/side-force couples – aircraft cannot fly straight (side-slip) lift/weight force
couple – nose drop;
Controllability in asymmetric flight;
Identification dead leg – dead engine (rudder force - not instruments – ball always shows
rudder required);
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
87
IAS/thrust relationship;
Rudder, aileron and elevator:
− Effectiveness;
− Limitations;
− Balanced/unbalanced flight;
− Effect of bank/side-slip;
− Fin: size; strength, and stall;
− Residual unbalance-effect on controls;
− Out of balance control loads;
− Trimming- using rudder trim reduces rudder control effectiveness and can reduce your
ability to correctly identify the failed engine; and
− BUT YOU NEED TO USE RUDDER TRIM AFTER FEATHERING TO STAY ON
HEADING.
Controllability Methods:
− Rudder only and aileron for wings level (side-slipping and less rudder available);
− Aileron only and no rudder (full rudder available but less vertical lift and more drag);
and
− Combination 5° angle of bank and ½ rudder ball to live engine (least drag and
reasonable rudder control available).
Minimum air control Speed (VMCA):
− Definition;
− Derivation;
− Factors affecting VMCA;
− Weight/CG
− Drag (e.g. undercarriage, flaps and wind-milling propeller);
− Turbulence;
− Condition of airframe;
− Critical engine (if applicable);
− P Factor;
− Slipstream; and
− Torque.
Power;
Altitude;
Pilot Handling;
Reaction time:
− Minimal reaction time for test pilot expecting engine failure means lower VMCA for
him/her; and
− Pilot currency – ability degrades with lack of practice.
Skill/strength:
− Greater skill of test pilot means lower VMCA for him/her;
− Some pilots not strong enough (use some rudder trim); and
− Optimisation - not used initially due uncertainty of which engine has failed.
Pilot seat position:
− Must be seated so as to be able to command full control movement; and
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
−
•
•
Lap seatbelt tight to avoid slipping up in the seat due to Newton’s third law reducing
control deflection.
Relationship of VMCA to VS:
− Recovery from flight below VMCA;
− Power; and
− Airspeed.
Take-off Safety Speed (VTOSS) (V2):
− Definition;
− Derivation; and
− VMC, VSSE, V2 and other V coded (type related).
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
89
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 5 - Asymmetric refresher Part B
Approximate Duration: 1.5 hours
Aim: To refresh the trainees knowledge of piston engine asymmetric operations
Briefing Content:
Below 5,700 kg aircraft design requirements compared to >5,700 kg regular public transport (RPT)
requirements:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
IFR requirements;
Aircraft Performance:
− Loss of horse power (HP);
− Due loss of engine;
− Due temperature above International Standard Atmosphere (ISA);
− Due Altitude;
− Due lack of going to full power;
− Increase in HP required due increased drag (propeller and form [due side-slip] drag);
− Rough handling in the recovery and climb increases control/trim drag;
− Any turbulence increases drag (summer);
− Leaving gear and flaps down;
− Not feathering wind-milling propeller;
− Reduction of excess horse-power (HP);
− Climb performance reduction - 80% or more loss;
− The aircraft’s ability to out-climb obstacles after take-off is in no way guaranteed but
continued climb may be possible under optimal conditions; and
− As a product of excess HP - rate of climb will be optimum at one airspeed – VYSE.
VYSE – Definition:
− Blue line on ASI.
Single-engine ceiling:
− Drift down;
− If terrain is above single-engine ceiling or even if just close then only a controlled
forced landing is available; and
− VXSE may be required to avoid close in obstacles but drag is increasing and the control
margin is reducing. With passengers – do not take off unless obstacles can be outclimbed at VYSE.
Visual asymmetric committal height (decision height);
Asymmetric instrument approach considerations;
Asymmetric IMC committal height – missed approach considerations;
Factors affecting single-engine performance:
− Aircraft design requirements – minimal performance;
− Airframe/engine condition;
− Density altitude;
− Turbulence;
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
•
•
90
− Aircraft weight;
− Engine power used;
− Drag;
− Pilot handling technique;
− Reaction time;
− Quick and accurate control and cleanup;
− Accurate VYSE maintenance and climb optimisation; and
− Smooth handling.
Introduction to asymmetric handling and engine failure checks:
− Recognition;
− Yaw primary - instruments secondary;
− Aborting - immediate actions;
− Throttles to idle;
− Control - yaw/turn back to runway centreline/lower nose;
− Gear down;
− Full flap;
− Land;
− Full optimal braking;
− Continuing - immediate actions;
− Control - yaw/wings level/pitch/VYSE;
− Power - mixture/pitch/throttle;
− Drag reduction - gear/flap;
− Identify (dead leg dead engine;
− Confirm with throttle (remember partial power case);
− After take-off - feather dead engine/trim to hands off/cowls flaps open live – closed
dead/check dead engine for visual signs of fire;
− At a safe airspeed and height – trim to hands off/cowl flaps open on live – closed on
dead/check dead engine for visual signs of fire;
− Trouble checks, (remember to try throttle) if not fixed;
− Feather dead engine;
− Monitor climb-out path – Climb at VYSE/lowest terrain/forced landing required;
− Effect of bank;
− Optimise performance by 5° to live engine/rudder ball ½ out to live;
− If at a safe height/airspeed then fly ball middle and wings level for ease unless in driftdown situation;
− Importance of balance;
− Use of flight controls and trim - trim to hands off;
− PLAN - then action it;
− Radio - PAN call (to obtain priority and assistance);
− Secondary actions if time permits (securing engine); and
− Mixture idle cut-off, fuel cock off/boost pump off/magneto off/alternator off (reduces fire
risk).
Asymmetric Approach Considerations:
− Live engine temps and pressure – Reduce to climb power if possible;
− Fuel cross-feeding – on own tank for landing;
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•
•
•
91
− Delay gear and flap extension ; and
− Possible increase to MDA for MAP terrain clearance.
Effects of engine failure on systems and performance:
− Electrics;
− Hydraulic;
− Fuel;
− Air-conditioning;
− Other systems;
− Excess power;
− Optimum speeds;
− Range;
− Endurance;
− Acceleration/Deceleration;
− Overheating – live engine working harder – open cowl flap;
− Ensure dead engine cowl flap closed in training particularly;
− May have to slowly warm 'dead' engine before using high power; and
− Use higher than zero thrust generally to reduce cooling.
Zero thrust settings:
− Definition;
− Purpose; and
− Determination.
Discuss performance consideration:
− Accelerate stop/go distances;
− Take-off runway available and take-off distance available; accelerate stop distance
available, clear-way and stop-way available;
− Continued take-off climb gradient;
− Decision point on take-off;
− Why;
− Determination;
− Wind;
− Aircraft weight;
− Density Alt;
− Runway surface condition;
− Take-off path obstacles;
− Turns towards failed engine unless terrain requirements;
− Touch drills for simulation after confirming;
− Climb out flight paths;
− En-route single engine ceiling/lowest safe altitude;
− Single-engine range/endurance;
− Asymmetric consideration during non-precision approach outside/inside final approach
fix;
− Asymmetric consideration during precision approaches outside/inside FAF;
− Asymmetric landing considerations;
− Asymmetric taxiing considerations;
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
−
−
Missed approach climb gradients; and
Standard departure climb gradients.
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93
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 6 - Demonstration briefing – differences
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: To give the trainee a demonstration briefing on multi-engine aircraft differences compared to
single engine aircraft.
Briefing Content:
•
As per Ground Training (GT) 4
This briefing should address all the items listed in GT4. However, trainee instructor may vary the
order of delivery, style or teaching techniques to achieve the best learning outcome for the trainee.
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94
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 7 - Demonstration briefing – asymmetric principles
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: To give the trainee a demonstration briefing on multi-engine aircraft asymmetric operation
principles.
Briefing Content:
•
As per Ground Training (GT) 4 and 5.
This briefing should address all the items listed in GT4 and 5. However, trainee instructor may vary
the order of delivery, style or teaching techniques to achieve the best learning outcome for the
trainee.
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95
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 8 - Demonstration briefing – asymmetric flight procedures
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: To give the trainee a demonstration briefing on multi-engine aircraft asymmetric flight
procedures.
Briefing Content:
•
As per Ground Training (GT) 4 and 5.
This briefing should address all the items listed in GT 4 and 5. However, trainee instructor may vary
the order of delivery, style or teaching techniques to achieve the best learning outcome for the
trainee.
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 9 - Demonstration briefing – multi engine aircraft introduction flight
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: To give the trainee a demonstration briefing on a multi-engine aircraft introduction flight
Briefing Content:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Recap on effect of controls.
Engine feather and un-feathering drills.
Stalling - Clean and approach configuration.
VMCA - entry and recovery
Medium level turns 45o/60o angle of bank.
Emergency under carriage lowering.
High Speed handling characteristics.
Normal circuits standard circuit/power settings.
Pre brief on simulated and real emergencies action and responsibilities.
Use of touch drills, for simulated emergencies.
Management of engine and flight controls during normal two engine operations.
At the aircraft:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aircraft familiarisation – Pre-flight inspection.
Cockpit familiarisation.
Systems familiarisation normal operation and remedial actions in case of malfunctions.
Protection of systems where provided.
Pre start checks and precautions.
Start Up - Pre-taxi checks - ground manoeuvring.
Run up - Normal take off and climb.
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MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 10 - Trainee brief – differences
Approximate Duration: 1.5 hours
Aim: For the trainee to practice a briefing on the differences of multi-engine aircraft flight to single
engine aircraft flight.
Briefing Content:
•
As per Ground Training (GT) 6.
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MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 11 - Trainee brief – principles of asymmetric flight
Approximate Duration: 1.5 hours
Aim: For the trainee to practice a briefing on the principles of multi-engine aircraft flight.
Briefing Content:
•
As per Ground Training (GT) 7.
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MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 12 - Trainee brief – asymmetric flight procedures
Approximate Duration: 1.5 hours
Aim: For the trainee to practice a briefing on asymmetric flight procedures
Briefing Content:
•
As per Ground Training (GT) 8.
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MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 13 - Trainee brief – subject as required
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: For the trainee to give a briefing on a particular topic with short notice
Briefing Content:
•
As required.
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MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 14 - Simulator practice – asymmetric flight procedures
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: For the trainee to practice his /her asymmetric flight procedures and then practice failing and
restoring engines while a “trainee” is flying the aircraft.
Simulator practice or utilising an aircraft on the ground to practice the engine failure and power
restoration procedures:
•
•
Engine failures:
− on take- off – abort/continue; and
− In-flight –climbing/level/turning/descending/instrument approach.
Change seats for a repeat of above.
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MULTI-ENGINE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR TRAINING
Ground training 15 - The twin instructor
Approximate Duration: 1.0 hour
Aim: To give the trainee an appreciation of the factors involved in maintaining aircraft safety in-flight
and particularly while close to the ground. To give the trainee guidelines for maintaining engine and
system integrity in the short and long term.
Briefing Content:
•
Instructional Technique with emphasis on instructor situation awareness.
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
Appendix D: Multi-engine piston aeroplane endorsement
ENGINEERING, DATA AND PERFORMANCE QUESTIONARE
FOR___________________________________________________________
(Aeroplane make and model)
Version 2
Date: mmmm yyyy
Name:_________________________
ARN:___________
Endorsed:______________________
ARN:___________
(Signature/Name)
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The endorsement questionnaire
To qualify for an aeroplane endorsement you must be able to fly the aeroplane to an acceptable
standard and demonstrate a level of knowledge which satisfies the Endorser that you have
completed 'training in the operating limitations, procedures and systems of the type of aeroplane for
which the endorsement is sought' Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 40.1.0, paragraph 4.3 Note 1).
This questionnaire will assist you to fully satisfy these knowledge requirements, thereby enhancing
safety and reducing industry costs.
The questionnaire will also be a useful ready reference for you in the future, particularly if you do not
fly regularly.
In any case, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) recommends that both you and your
instructor retain a copy of the questionnaire for at least 12 months as proof of completion of training.
How to answer these questions
You should use references such as Flight Manuals, the POH and theory texts, and make liberal use
of notes and sketches on the applicable questionnaire page.
To assist you, the layout of the questionnaire corresponds to the sections of most POH.
Some of the questions may not apply to the aeroplane type on which you are being endorsed, you
should mark these 'N/A' (not applicable).
The questionnaire at Appendix E is comprised of 16 pages and may be copied.
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General Aircraft Data
1.
a.
b.
What is the make, type and model of the aeroplane?
In which category (categories) is the aeroplane permitted to fly?
Airspeed Limitation
2.
List the applicable airspeed for the aeroplane type:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
(a) VNO (normal operating)
i. VMAX X/WIND (maximum crosswind)
ii. VA (design manoeuvre speed)
iii. Vx (best climb angle)
VB Turbulence penetration speed:
i. VY (best climb rate)
ii. VFE (flap extension)
iii. VLO (landing gear operation up)
iv. VLE (landing gear extended)
v. VLO2 (landing gear operation down)
vi. VNE (never exceed)
Maximum landing light operating speed;
Maximum load factor (flaps up) is +
g and Maximum load factor (flaps down) is +
g and -
g; and
g.
Emergency Procedures
3.
Detail the emergency procedures for the following situations, if applicable:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
Engine fire on the ground;
Engine failure after take-off;
Engine fire airborne;
Engine failure in the cruise;
Electrical fire on the ground;
Electrical fire in flight;
Cabin fire in flight;
Rapid depressurisation;
Waste gate failure;
Emergency undercarriage extension procedure;
The optimum glide speed for the aeroplane is
Propeller over-speed.
Normal Procedures
4.
State, describe or detail:
a.
b.
The start sequence for cold and hot starts;
The revolutions per minute (RPM) used for checking:
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
106
i. The feathering system (if applicable);
ii. Minimum RPM for feathering;
iii. The ignition system;
iv. The propeller governing system (if applicable); and
v. The carburettor heat.
The maximum RPM drop and RPM differential between magnetos when checking the
ignition switches;
The use of cowl flaps (if fitted);
The climb power setting, IAS and fuel flow;
A typical 65% power setting, indicated air speed (IAS) and fuel flow at 5000 ft pressure
height;
Using the aeroplane flight manual, calculate the endurance for the aeroplane at 5000 ft
above mean sea level (amsl) international standard atmospheres.(ISA) with 65%
power set; and
How the mixtures are leaned in the cruise.
Weight and Balance and Performance
5. Specify the correct values of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
The maximum ramp weight;
The maximum take-off weight (MTOW);
The maximum landing weight;
The maximum zero fuel weight;
The maximum number of adult persons on board (POB);
The maximum baggage weight; and
The maximum fuel which can be carried with a full load of adult passengers
(80 kg/person) and maximum baggage weight.
Do any of the weight limitations in (a) to (g) vary between categories?
i. If so, what are the weight limitations of each category?
Using the aeroplane flight manual, and a typical loading problem posed by the
endorser, determine the take-off weight and balance solution (MTOW and CG
position), the amount of fuel that can be carried and the endurance;
Calculate the take-off distance required at maximum take-off weight, 2500 ft amsl and,
outside air temperature (OAT) 30 C, and the minimum landing distance at maximum
landing weight;
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
Fuel System, Fuel and Fluids
6.
State, sketch or show on the aircraft diagram:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
The correct grade of fuel;
Any approved alternate fuel;
The location of fuel tanks and drain points;
The total and usable fuel in each tank;
The position of the fuel tank vents;
Whether the engines have a carburettor or fuel injection system;
If applicable, describe the priming system and its use; and
Where the fuel boost/auxiliary pumps are located:
i. Are these electrical or mechanical?
ii. Maximum and minimum operating pressure; and
iii. When pumps should be used;
If applicable, the fuel tank change procedure;
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108
j.
k.
What conditions apply to tank selection for take-off and landing?
When refuelling, to less than full tanks, what restrictions apply, and how is the fuel
quantity checked?
l. If applicable, describe the cross feed system;
m. If applicable, the minimum and normal hydraulic fluid capacity;
n. The correct grade of oil for the aeroplane;
o. The minimum oil quantity before flight;
p. The maximum quantity of oil;
q. The maximum, minimum and normal engine oil pressures; and
r. The maximum, minimum and normal engine oil temperatures.
Asymmetric Performance
7.
Answer the following questions:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
What indicated air speed (IAS) is VMCA in the take-off configuration?
What effect will full flap have on VMCA?
What speed is VSSE?
What is the fuel flow rate with one engine shut down at 1000 ft amsl on an ISA day?
What is the rate of climb with one engine shutdown, propeller feathered maximum
AUW, 1000 ft amsl, take-off power, undercarriage and flap retracted, on an ISA day?
i. On an ISA +20 day?
Which engine is the critical engine?
What is the single engine rate of climb speed (VYSE)?
How does single engine flight affect the range of the aeroplane?
Engines and Propeller
8.
Answer the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
What is the make/model of the engines?
What is the power output, and number of cylinders?
What is the take-off power setting and time limit?
What is the maximum continuous power?
Are the engines supercharged of turbo-charged?
What is the maximum MAP permitted?
If turbo-charged, what:
i. Is the type of waste gate fitted (Fixed, Manual or Automatic)?
ii. Is the procedure for operating the waste gate?
iii. Prevents the engine from being over-boosted?
If supercharged, what:
i. Prevents the engine from being over-boosted?
ii. Controls the MAP in the climb/descent?
Describe the propeller governing system; and
If the oil pressure to the propeller dome is lost, does the propeller go into coarse or fine
pitch?
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109
Airframe
9.
Answer the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
What type is the undercarriage system (fixed/retractable/tricycle/conventional)?
Which control surfaces can be trimmed?
Describe the flap actuating system;
Describe the flap indicating system;
What is the flap operating range?
Sketch the location of all exits;
g.
Describe/sketch the location of:
i. Landing/taxi lights;
ii. Fresh air intakes; and
iii. Fuel caps;
What is the wingspan of the aeroplane?
h.
Ancillary Systems
10.
Answer the following questions:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
What systems are hydraulically operated?
What procedures are followed when a hydraulic system failure is suspected?
How many brake applications would be expected from a fully pressurised brake
accumulator (if applicable)?
What are the sources of electrical power?
What is the DC system voltage?
Can an external power source be used?
i. If so, what is the procedure?
Where are the battery and external power receptacle located?
How long can the battery supply emergency power?
Following an alternator/generator failure in flight, which non-essential electrical
services should be switched off?
Which, if any, ancillary system(s) would be lost if the left engine is shut down and the
propeller feathered?
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110
k.
Which, if any, ancillary system(s) would be lost if the right engine is shut down and the
propeller feathered?
l. If a stall-warning device is fitted, is it electrical or mechanical?
m. How is the cockpit ventilated?
n. How is the cockpit heated?
o. If a fuel-burning heater is installed, describe the method used to turn the heater on and
off, and detail any limitations;
p. What is the fuel consumption of the heater?
q. Describe the pressurisation system (if applicable);
r. Show the location of the following safety equipment:
i. fire extinguisher;
ii. Emergency locator transmitter
(ELT);
iii. Torches;
iv. Survival equipment; and
v. First aid kit.
s. Explain all the methods of
disengaging the autopilot;
t. Under what conditions will the
autopilot automatically disengage?
and
u. Explain how an electrical trim can be
over-ridden if it runs away.
Flight Instruments
1.
Answer the following questions:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Where are the pitot head(s), static vent(s) and any water drain points for the pitot/static
system located?
Is there a pitot heat system fitted?
Is there an alternate static source fitted? - if so:
i. Where is this located?
ii. What is the purpose of this system?
iii. If used, what effect does it have on the pressure instruments?
Which flight instruments are operated electrically?
Which flight instruments are gyroscopically operated?
Which instruments are operated by vacuum?
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
Appendix E: Multi-engine turbo-prop aeroplane endorsement
ENGINEERING, DATA AND PERFORMANCE QUESTIONARE
FOR___________________________________________________________
(Aeroplane make and model)
Version 2
Date: mmmm yyyy
Name:_________________________
ARN:___________
Endorsed:______________________
ARN:___________
(Signature/Name)
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CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
112
The endorsement questionnaire
To qualify for an aeroplane endorsement you must be able to fly the aeroplane to an acceptable
standard and demonstrate a level of knowledge which satisfies the Endorser that you have
completed 'training in the operating limitations, procedures and systems of the type of aeroplane for
which the endorsement is sought' Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 40.1.0, paragraph 4.3 Note 1).
This questionnaire will assist you to fully satisfy these knowledge requirements, thereby enhancing
safety and reducing industry costs.
The questionnaire will also be a useful ready reference for you in the future, particularly if you do not
fly regularly.
In any case, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) recommends that both you and your
instructor retain a copy of the questionnaire for at least 12 months as proof of completion of training.
How to answer these questions
You should use references such as Flight Manuals, POH and theory texts, and make liberal use of
notes and sketches on the applicable questionnaire page.
To assist you, the layout of the questionnaire corresponds to the sections of most POH.
Some of the questions may not apply to the aeroplane type on which you are being endorsed you
should mark these 'N/A' (not applicable).
The questionnaire is comprised of 17 pages and may be copied.
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
General Aircraft Data
1.
a.
b.
What is the make, type and model of the aeroplane?
In which category (categories) is the aeroplane permitted to fly?
Airspeed Limitation
2.
List the applicable airspeed for the aeroplane type:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
VNO (normal operating)
VMAX X/W (maximum crosswind);
i.
ii. (ii)
VA (design manoeuvre speed);
iii. (iii)
VX (best climb angle);
iv. VS; (stall speed)
v. VY (best climb rate); and
vi. VFE - flap extension.
VB Turbulence penetration speed:
i. VLO, (landing gear operation up);
ii. VLE (landing gear extended);
iii. VLO2 (landing gear operation down); and
iv. VNE. (never exceed speed).
Maximum landing light operating speed;
Maximum load factor (flaps up) is +
g and g; and
Maximum load factor (flaps down) is +
g and g.
Emergency Procedures
3.
Detail the emergency procedures for the following situations if applicable:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
Engine fire on the ground;
Engine failure after take-off,
Engine failure in the cruise;
Engine fire airborne;
Electrical fire on the ground;
Electrical fire in flight;
Cabin fire in flight;
Rapid depressurisation;
The optimum glide speed for the aeroplane is _______kts;
Propeller over-speed; and
Emergency under-carriage extension.
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Normal Procedures
4. State, describe or detail:
a.
b.
c.
d.
The cruise power setting, indicated air speed (IAS) and fuel flow for the aeroplane;
The climb power setting, IAS and fuel flow for the aeroplane;
A typical power setting, TAS and fuel flow at 20000 ft pressure height; and
Using the aeroplane flight manual, calculate the endurance for the aeroplane at 5000 ft
above mean sea level (amsl) ISA with endurance power set.
Weight and Balance and Performance
5. Specify the correct values of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
The maximum ramp weight;
The maximum take-off weight;
The maximum landing weight;
The maximum zero fuel weight;
The maximum number of adult POB;
The maximum baggage weight; and
The maximum fuel which can be carried with a full load of adult passengers
(80 kg/person) and maximum baggage weight.
Do any of the weight limitations in (a) to (g) vary between categories? If so, what are
the weight limitations of each category?
Using the aeroplane flight manual, and a typical loading problem posed by the
endorser, determine the take-off weight and balance solution (maximum take-off
weight and CG position), the amount of fuel that can be carried and the endurance;
Calculate the take-off distance required at maximum take-off weight, 2500 ft (amsl) and
OAT CG 30° C; and
Fuel System, Fuel and Fluids
6.
State, describe or sketch on the aircraft diagram:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
The correct grade of fuel;
Any approved alternate fuel;
The location of fuel tanks and drain points;
The total and usable fuel in each tank;
The position of the fuel tank vents;
Where the fuel boost/auxiliary pumps are located;
i. When should these pumps be used?
If applicable, the fuel tank change procedure;
i. What conditions apply to tank selection for take-off and landing?
When refuelling to less than full tanks, what restrictions apply and how is the quantity
checked?
If applicable, describe the cross feed system;
If applicable, the minimum and normal hydraulic fluid capacity;
DRAFT August 2015
CAAP 5.23-1(2): Multi-engine aeroplane operations and training
k. The correct grade of oil for the aeroplane;
l. The minimum oil quantity before flight; and
m. The maximum quantity of oil.
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116
Asymmetric Performance
7. Answer the following questions:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
What IAS is VMCA in the take-off configuration?
What effect will full flap have on VMCA?
What IAS is VSSE?
What is the TAS and fuel flow rate with one engine shut down at 1000 ft and 10000 ft
amsl on an ISA day?
What is the rate of climb with one engine shut down, propeller feathered, maximum
AUW, 1000 ft amsl, take-off power, undercarriage and flap retracted, on an ISA day?
i. On an ISA +20° C day?
Which engine is the critical engine?
What is the single engine rate of climb speed (VYSE) ?
How does single engine flight affect the range of the aeroplane?
Turbine Engine
8.
Answer the following questions:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
What is the type and number designation of the engines?
What is the shaft horse-power (SHP) of the engines?
Maximum inter-stage turbine temperature (ITT) turbine outlet temperature (TOT) on:
i. Start;
ii. Take-off,
iii. Climb;
iv. Maximum continuous power;
v. Idle;
vi. Reverse; and
vii. Transient;
Maximum Ng (N1) on take-off,
Maximum propeller speed Np (N2) on take-off/climb;
Max torque on:
i. Take-off,
ii. Climb;
iii. Maximum continuous power;
iv. Idle;
v. Reverse; and
vi. Transient.
What is the in-flight minimum power limit?
Starter cycle limitations:
i. Seconds on
minutes off;
ii. Seconds on
minutes off; and
iii. Seconds on
minutes off.
What oil pressure illuminates the warning light if fitted?
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117
j.
Before shutdown, the engine must run at or below ______°C ITT for
_______________(minutes/seconds).
k. What is the critical/prohibited revolution per minute (RPM) range and what limitations
apply in this range?
l. What are the manual ignition time limits?
m. When should the anti-icing be activated?
n. What is the purpose of the over-speed and under-speed governor and what are the
settings/range of the governor?
o. What is the auto-ignition and when is it used?
p. What are the settings of the condition lever, and what is the purpose of each setting?
Propellers
9.
Answer the following questions or describe:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
The propeller system in general;
What is the BETA mode and range?
Over what RPM range in flight does the propeller governor operate?
How is an over-speed/under-speed prevented?
What drives the blade into:
i. fine pitch?
ii. coarse pitch?
iii. reverse? and
iv. feather?
What precautions apply to propeller operations both in the air and on the ground?
How does the auto-feather system feather the propeller?
What is the purpose of the Negative Torque Sensing System (NTS)?
What indications show that the propeller is in the NTS range? and
What actions would correct this unfavourable NTS situation?
Airframe
10.
Answer the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
What type is the undercarriage system? (fixed/retractable) (tricycle/conventional)?
Which control surfaces can be trimmed?
How are the flap systems activated?
Describe the flap indicating system.
What is the flap operating range?
Sketch the location of all exits on the diagram
If a fuel burning heater is installed, describe the method used to turn the heater on and
off and state any limitations;
What is the fuel consumption rate of the heater?
Describe/sketch the location of.
i. Landing/taxi lights;
ii. Pitot heads;
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j.
118
iii. Fresh air intakes;
iv. Fuel caps; and
What is the wing span of the aeroplane?
Ancillary Systems
11. Answer the following questions:
a.
b.
c.
d.
What systems are hydraulically operated?
What procedures are followed when a hydraulic system failure is suspected?
What provision is there for emergency hydraulic systems?
How many brake applications would be expected from a fully pressurised brake
accumulator (if applicable)?
e. What are the sources of electrical power?
f. What is the DC system voltage?
g. Where are the battery and external power receptacle located?
h. How long can the battery supply emergency power?
i. Can an external power source be used?
j. Which, if any, ancillary system(s) would be lost if the left engine was shut down and
propeller feathered?
k. Which, if any, ancillary system(s) would be lost if the right engine was shut down and
propeller feathered?
l. Following an alternator/generator failure in flight, which non-essential electrical
equipment should be switched off?
m. How is the cockpit ventilated?
n. How is the cockpit heated?
o. Describe the pressurisation system (if fitted);
p. What is the maximum permitted cabin pressure?
q. Explain all the methods of disengaging the autopilot.
r. Under what conditions will the autopilot automatically disengage?
s. Explain how an electrical trim can be overridden if it runs away; and
t. What are the symptoms of, and dangers associated with an outlet valve which is
jammed closed? and
u. Show the location of the following safety equipment:
i. Fire extinguisher;
ii. ELT;
iii. Torches; and
iv. Survival equipment.
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120
Flight Instruments
12. Answer the following questions:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Where are the pitot head(s), static vent(s) and any water drain points for the pitot/static
system located?
What type of pitot heat system is fitted to the aeroplane?
Is there an alternate static source fitted? - if so;
i. Where is this located?
ii. What is the purpose of this system?
iii. If used, what effect does it have on instruments?
What instruments and gauges are alternating current (AC) powered?
What instruments and gauges are direct current (DC) powered?
What is the limit of generator reset attempts?
At what temperature will the battery overheat light illuminate?
i. If illuminated, what action is required?
What does the auxiliary battery provide power for?
i. How is an inverter failure indicated?
End of Questionnaire: Satisfactorily completed on ..……/……………/………..
DRAFT August 2015
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