10. týden Laboratory and Laboratory Assortment

LABORATORY AND ITS EQUIPMENT / MICROSCOPE
A laboratory, or a lab, in general is a facility which offers suitable conditions for conducting
measurements, tests, experiments and research-oriented activities. Laboratories vary in sizes and
purposes for which they are intended and used. Research work in different scientific fields poses
different requirements on the facilities where the laboratories are located, on their work and safety
equipment and spatial layout, as well as specific safety rules minimizing individual’s risk and
protecting lab users. Despite the considerable differences among laboratories, there exist common
features, without which no laboratory could work properly.
A laboratory is not usually a single-room facility. There should be a changing room with showers,
bathroom sinks and toilets, where lab workers change from their street clothes, which they place
into lockers, into laboratory clothing or laboratory work wear consisting of white trousers, a white
long sleeve coat and laboratory shoes. Laboratory work wear protects against accidental spills and
splashes of chemicals. White coats, however, did not use to be universal in all laboratories at all
times. Until about the 1930s, black laboratory coats were commonly worn in microbiology labs and
biomedical labs because any dust, often contagious, was clearly visible. Also, students performing
autopsies on cadavers would dress in black laboratory coats in order to show their respect for the
dead. Apart from the lab work wear mentioned above, there are other protective means worn by
laboratory users – rubber gloves, safety glasses, face masks and face shields.
Other rooms supporting laboratory work can be preparation rooms where reagents of different
concentrations are prepared, and stockrooms where not only chemicals, but also laboratory
glassware are stored: beakers, burettes, dropping and separatory funnels, syringes, graduated
cylinders, Petri dishes, watch glasses, flasks, test tubes or pipettes. Amongst other utilities frequently
used for laboratory testing and experimenting are wash bottles, burners, crucibles, stirrers, mortars
with pestles, thermometers, tubes, clamps, tongs, wire gauzes, grinders or pumps. As far as larger
laboratory equipment is concerned, fume hoods minimize the risk of inhaling toxic vapours when
working with hazardous chemicals, centrifuges separating solid particles from liquids using the
sedimentation principle, distillation units, aspirators using the Venturi effect, mixers, shakers, ovens
and furnaces, refrigerators and freezers, balances, or spectrophotometers which measure light
absorption.
All laboratories are equipped with workbenches, sinks with running water for hand washing, eye
wash stations and overhead showers useful when a chemical comes into contact with one’s eyes or
skin. Fire extinguishers are used to put out or control small fires, while fire blankets, usually made of
wool, should be wrapped around a person whose coat catches fire.
Safety rules to be observed in a laboratory can be divided into general rules, rules for personal
protection, hygienic rules, emergencies and storage and disposal rules. General safety rules include:
Do NOT work with hazardous substances without a second person being present.
Do NOT eat, drink or smoke in the laboratory under any circumstances.
ALWAYS keep your working area clean and tidy and free of clutter.
ALWAYS label containers with the common known name of the substance and the
appropriate hazard warning sign.
ALWAYS secure the tops of reagent bottles immediately after use.
ALWAYS clear up spillages immediately.
Do NOT leave equipment using water, gas or electricity on overnight.
Rules of personal protection of individuals working in a laboratory are as follows:
ALWAYS wear a lab coat and appropriate eye protection, e.g. safety glasses or face shield.
Lab coats should ALWAYS be buttoned up.
ALWAYS use the appropriate gloves whenever handling chemicals or hazardous substances,
and ALWAYS check their integrity before use, ensuring they will give you protection against
the substance being used.
ALWAYS wear proper footwear, do NOT wear open toed footwear.
Essential hygienic rules, emergencies and storage and disposal rules include the following:
Do NOT pipette by mouth.
ALWAYS wash hands after using any substances hazardous to health, on leaving the
laboratory and before visiting the toilet.
Do NOT touch surfaces (phones, doors, handles etc.) with contaminated gloves if they may
be touched by others.
ALWAYS know where the nearest fire extinguisher and first aid kit are.
ALWAYS know the emergency escape route and assembly point.
ALWAYS keep broken glassware and sharps separate from other waste and ALWAYS dispose
of in the appropriate containers.
ALWAYS return stock bottles, jars etc. of highly flammable liquids or acids to their correct
store cupboard after work has finished.
Do NOT have more than 500 ml of a flammable solvent in use at any one time on the bench.
Microscope
A microscope is a laboratory device which enables observing objects too small to be viewed by the
naked eye. The timeline of microscope technology is rather long, dating back almost one millennium
when a so called reading stone was invented, a glass sphere used for magnifying reading materials
when laid on top of them. The inventor of this device is unknown. The next important milestone for
microscopy in general was the invention of glass lenses followed by devising the first wearable
spectacles at the end of the 13th century by an Italian, Salvino D'Armate. More than 300 years later,
in 1590, experiments with eye glasses were performed by two Dutch glassmakers, the Janssens. They
created a device which can be called the forerunner of the telescope and microscope, its
magnification being about 10x. Improvements to both the telescope and the microscope were done
in the 17th century by a man called the “father of science”, the Italian Galileo Galilei. In the same
century there were more contributions to the field of microscopy. Robert Hooke, an Englishman,
constructed the first British operational compound microscope, and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek,
considered “the father of microbiology” built a simple one-lens microscope and made observations
of sperm, blood cells, and microscopic single-celled organisms. Van Leeuwenhoek’s hand-ground
lenses had magnifying power of up to 275x. Some of van Leeuwenhoek’s original microscopes exist
till present. Major improvements were made no sooner than in the 19th century when foundations of
the Zeiss laboratories were laid, their compound microscopes distributed to most of the world.
Today, there are many companies producing a great variety of many kinds of microscopes, such as
electron microscopes (invented by Ernst Ruska in the 1930s), optical and light microscopes, scanning
electron microscopes, atomic force microscopes etc.
There are several basic parts of a microscope. The body and support of
the device form the heavy microscope base and the arm on which
other parts are mounted: a body tube with the eyepiece, or ocular, a
revolving nosepiece, or a turret, with objectives of different magnifying
power, a stage, or a slide platform, with clips on which the slide with
specimen ready for microscopy is placed. The object condenser under
the stage is composed of a diaphragm and a lens. The former is used to
control the amount of light entering the body tube from a light source
located on the base. Coarse and fine adjustment knobs, or coarse and
fine focus knobs, are used for sharpening the observed image
(Pict. 6)
ACTIVITIES
1. Comprehension check
Microscope. Answer these questions.
How long is the history of the microscope?
What was the reading stone?
What did Salvino D’Armate construct?
Who built the first telescope and microscope?
What was Robert Hooke’s contribution to microscopy?
Why is van Leeuwenhoek called “the father of microbiology”?
Who and when invented the electron microscope?
2. Lexis
Translate the following lab equipment into Czech.
fire extinguisher
crucible
graduated cylinder
laboratory balances
mortar and pestle
sink and running water
test tubes
dropping funnel
wire gauze and burner
oven and furnace
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
3. Matching
Match the beginnings of the sentences on the left with proper endings on the right to form
meaningful laboratory safety rules.
Always keep your working
a. on overnight.
Lab coats should
b. with contaminated gloves.
Do not wear open
c. area free of clutter.
Do not touch surfaces (handles, doors, etc.)
d. on a bench at one time.
Eating, drinking and smoking in labs are
e. toed footwear
Do not leave equipment using electricity, water or gas f. where the first aid kit is.
Make sure you know
g. always be buttoned up.
There should never be more
h. forbidden under all circumstances.
4. Gap filling
Read the following text and fill in the gaps with appropriate words from the box.
features - safety - scientific - spatial - suitable - users - vary
A laboratory is a facility with conditions _________ for conducting measurements, tests, experiments
and research activities. Laboratories can __________ in sizes and purposes for which they are
intended. Research work in different __________fields poses different requirements on the facilities
where the laboratories are located, on their work and safety equipment and _________ layout, as
well as specific _________ rules minimizing individual’s risk and protecting lab_________. Despite
the considerable differences among laboratories, there exist common __________, without which no
laboratory could work properly.
5. Lexis
Translate the following expressions into English. The first letters of words have been given.
činidla různých koncentrací
clona mikroskopu
pozorovat pouhým okem
úniková cesta z laboratoře
sestrojit zařízení
zacházet s chemikáliemi
provádět pitvy
ochranné prostředky
oddělit pevné části
vybavit laboratorním sklem
r________ of
m________
v________ by
e________
c________ a
h________
p________
p________
s________
e________
d________
c________
d________
the
n________
e________
e________ f________ a l________
d________
c________
a________
m________
s________
p________
w________
l________
g________
6. Microscope
Label the indicated microscope parts in the picture below.
(Pict. 7)
7. Pronunciation
Which words from the texts above have been transcribed below? Write the words in English
and translate them into Czech.
/əbˈdʒektɪv/
_______________________
_______________________
/əˈrɪdʒ(ə)nəl/
_______________________
_______________________
/wɒʃ ˈbɒt(ə)l/
_______________________
_______________________
/sɪˈkjʊə(r)/
_______________________
_______________________
/ˌdɪstɪˈleɪʃ(ə)n//ˈjuːnɪt/
_______________________
_______________________
/əˈdʒʌst/
_______________________
_______________________
/ˈsɜː(r)kəmstəns/
_______________________
_______________________
/ˈfəʊkəs/
_______________________
_______________________
/ɡɔːz/
_______________________
_______________________
/rɪˈvɒlvɪŋ nəʊzpiːs/
_______________________
_______________________
/ˈstɜːrə(r)/
_______________________
_______________________
/ræp əˈraʊnd/
_______________________
_______________________
/dɪˈspəʊz/
_______________________
_______________________
/ɪˈkwɪpt/
_______________________
_______________________
8. Lexis
Form the designated forms of words in the table below.
VERB
devise
measure
warn
protect
invent
shake
compose
store
perform
exist
dispose
NOUN
NOUN
vapour
experiment
absorption
improvement
foundation
stirrer
requirement
difference
intention
contribution
reaction
VERB
NOUN
hazard
chemical
health
magnification
contagion
protection
equipment
vision
difference
importance
toe
ADJECTIVE
9. Translation
Translate the following sentences into English.
Mikroskopovaný objekt zaostřujeme pomocí makro- a mikro šroubů.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Digestoře minimalizují riziko, že při práci s nebezpečnými chemikáliemi vdechneme jejich jedovaté
výpary.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Vybavení a velikost laboratoří se různí dle jejich zaměření.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Pokožku musíme chránit před kontaktem s infekčními látkami.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
Štítky nádob s vysoce hořlavými látkami musí obsahovat tuto výstražnou značku.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
VOCABULARY LIST
10x
/ten taɪmz/
desetkrát
accidental
/ˌæksɪˈdent(ə)l/
náhodný, neúmyslný
acid
/ˈæsɪd/
kyselina
adjust
/əˈdʒʌst/
nastavit, regulovat
adjustment knob
/əˈdʒʌs(t)mənt nɒb/
otočný regulátor
aspirator
/ˈespəˌreɪtə(r)/
odsávač, vývěva
assembly point
/əˈsembli pɔɪnt/
shromaždiště
atomic force microscope
/əˈtɒmɪk fɔː(r)s ˈmaɪkrəˌskəʊp/
mikroskop atomárních sil
balances
/ˈbælənsɪz/
váhy
base
/beɪs/
základna
bathroom sink
/ˈbɑːθˌruːm sɪŋk/
umyvadlo
beaker
/ˈbiːkə(r)/
kádinka
blood cell
/blʌd sel/
krvinka
body tube
/ˈbɒdi tjuːb/
tubus
burette
/bjuəˈret/
byreta
burner
/ˈbɜː(r)nə(r)/
hořák
button up
/ˈbʌt(ə)n ʌp/
zapnout (na knoflíky)
centrifuge
/ˈsentrɪˌfjuːdʒ/
odstředivka
circumstance
/ˈsɜː(r)kəmstəns/
podmínka
clamp
/klæmp/
svorka
clear up spillages
/klɪə(r) ʌp ˈspɪlɪdʒɪz/
uklidit rozlité látky
coarse adjustment knob
/kɔː(r)s/
makrošroub
come into contact with
/kʌm ˈɪntə ˈkɒntækt wɪθ/
přijít do kontaktu s
common feature
/ˈkɒmən ˈfiːtʃə(r)/
společný rys, prvek
conduct measurements
/kənˈdʌkt ˈmeʒə(r)mənts/
provádět měření
consider
/kənˈsɪdə(r)/
zvážit
considerable difference
/kənˈsɪd(ə)rəb(ə)l ˈdɪfrəns/
značný rodíl
contagious
/kənˈteɪdʒəs/
infekční, nkažlivý
contribution
/ˌkɒntrɪˈbjuːʃ(ə)n/
přínos
crucible
/ˈkruːsəb(ə)l/
tavicí kelímek
devise
/dɪˈvaɪz/
vynalézt, sestrojit
diaphragm
/ˈdaɪəfræm/
clona
disposal rules
/dɪˈspəʊz(ə)l ruːlz/
dispenzační pravidla
dispose of
/dɪˈspəʊz/
zbavit se něčeho
distillation unit
/ˌdɪstɪˈleɪʃ(ə)n ˈjuːnɪt/
destilační jednotka
dropping funnel
/drɒpɪŋ ˈfʌn(ə)l/
kapací nálevka
dust (n)
/dʌst/
prach
Dutch (adj)
/dʌst/
holandský
electron microscope
/ˈmaɪkrəˌskəʊp/
elektronový mikroskop
emergency escape route
/ɪˈmɜː(r)dʒ(ə)nsi ɪˈskeɪp ruːt/
úniková cesta
equipped
/ɪˈkwɪpt/
vybavený
etc.
/et ˈset(ə)rə/
atd.
experiment (n)
/ɪkˈsperɪmənt/
pokus
eyepiece
/ˈaɪˌpiːs/
okulár
face shield
/feɪs ʃiːld/
obličejový štít
facility
/fəˈsɪləti/
prostora
fine adjustment knob
/faɪn/
mikrošroub
fire blanket
/ˈfaɪə(r) ˈblæŋkɪt/
hasicí rouška
fire extinguisher
/ˈfaɪə(r) ɪkˈstɪŋɡwɪʃə(r)/
hasicí přístroj
first aid kit
/fɜː(r)st eɪd kɪt/
lékárnička
flammable solvent
/ˈflæməb(ə)l ˈsɒlv(ə)nt/
hořlavé rozpouštědlo
flask
/flɑːsk/
baňka
focus
/ˈfəʊkəs/
soustředit se na, fokus
forerunner
/ˈfɔːˌrʌnə(r)/
předchůdce
free of clutter
/ˈklʌtə(r)/
uklizený
frequently
/ˈfriːkwəntli/
často
fume hood
/fjuːm hʊd/
digestoř, odsávač par
furnace
/ˈfɜː(r)nɪs/
pec
gauze
/ɡɔːz/
drátěná gáza, kovové sítko
glass lens
/ɡlɑːs lenz/
skleněná čočka
glassmaker
/ɡlɑːsmeɪkə(r)/
sklář
graduated cylinder
/ˈɡrædʒuˌeɪtɪd ˈsɪlɪndə(r)/
odměrný válec
grinder
/ˈɡraɪndə(r)/
mlýnek, drtič
hand-ground lens
/hænd ɡraʊnd lenz/
ručně broušená čočka
handle chemicals
/ˈhænd(ə)l ˈkemɪk(ə)lz/
zacházet s chemikáliemi
highly flammable liquid
/ˈhaɪli ˈflæməb(ə)l ˈlɪkwɪd/
vysoce hořlavá kapalina
changing room
/ˈtʃeɪndʒɪŋ ˌruːm/
šatna
image
/ˈɪmɪdʒ/
obraz
immediately
/ɪˈmiːdiətli/
okamžitě
improvement
/ɪmˈpruːvmənt/
vylepšení
in general
/ˈdʒen(ə)rəl/
všeobecně
in order to
/ˈɔː(r)də(r)/
aby
inhale toxic vapours
/ɪnˈheɪl ˈtɒksɪk ˈveɪpə(r)z/
vdechovat toxické páry/výpary
invent
/ɪnˈvent/
vynalézt, sestrojit
kind (n)
/kaɪnd/
druh
knob
/nɒb/
regulátor (otočný)
label a container
/ˈleɪb(ə)l//kənˈteɪnə(r)/
opatřit nádobu štítkem
laboratory
/ləˈbɒrət(ə)ri/
laboratoř
laboratory device
/ləˈbɒrət(ə)ri dɪˈvaɪs/
laboratoní zařízení
laboratory glassware
/ləˈbɒrət(ə)ri ˈɡlɑːsˌweə(r)/
laboratorní sklo
lay foundations of
/leɪ faʊnˈdeɪʃ(ə)nz/
položit základy čemu
leave on
/liːv/
nechat zapnuté
lens
/lenz/
čočka
light microscope
/laɪt ˈmaɪkrəˌskəʊp/
světelný mikroskop
locker
/ˈlɒkə(r)/
šatní skříňka
long sleeve coat
/lɒŋ sliːv kəʊt/
plášť s dlouhým rukávem
magnify
/ˈmæɡnɪfaɪ/
zvětšovat
magnifying power
/ˈmæɡnɪfaɪɪŋ ˈpaʊə(r)/
zvětšovací síla
microscope
/ˈmaɪkrəˌskəʊp/
mikrokop
minimize
/ˈmɪnɪmaɪz/
minimalizovat
mortar with pestle
/ˈmɔː(r)tə(r) wɪθ ˈpes(ə)l/
hmoždíř s paličkou
mount
/maʊnt/
připevnit
object condenser
/ˈɒbdʒekt kənˈdensə(r)/
kondenzátor
objective (n)
/əbˈdʒektɪv/
objektiv
observe objects
/əbˈzɜː(r)v ˈɒbdʒekts/
pozorovat předměty
ocular
/ˈɒkjʊlə(r)/
okulár
open toed footwear
/ˈəʊpən təʊd ˈfʊtˌweə(r)/
obuv s otevřenou špičkou
optical microscope
/ˈɒptɪk(ə)l ˈmaɪkrəˌskəʊp/
optický mikroskop
original (adj)
/əˈrɪdʒ(ə)nəl/
původní
oven
/ˈʌv(ə)n/
pec
perform autopsy on cadavers /pə(r)ˈfɔː(r)m ˈɔːtɒpsi//kəˈdævə(r)z/
Petri dish
/ˈpiːtri ˌdɪʃ/
provádět pitvu na kadaverech
Petriho miska
pipette
/pɪˈpet/
pipeta
pose requirements on
/pəʊz rɪˈkwaɪə(r)mənts/
klást požadavky
preparation room
/ˌprepəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/
přípravna
proper footwear
/ˈprɒpə(r) ˈfʊtˌweə(r)/
vhodná obuv
protect against
/prəˈtekt əˈɡenst/
chránit před
protective means
/prəˈtektɪv miːnz/
ochranné prostředky
pump (n)
/pʌmp/
pumpa
put out fire
/pʊt aʊt ˈfaɪə(r)/
uhasit oheň
reagent
/riˈeɪdʒ(ə)nt/
činidlo
research activity
/rɪˈsɜː(r)tʃ ækˈtɪvəti/
výzkumná činnost
revolving nosepiece
/rɪˈvɒlvɪŋ nəʊzpiːs/
otočná hlavice
rubber gloves
/ˈrʌbə(r) ɡlʌvz/
gumové rukavice
running water
/ˈrʌnɪŋ ˈwɔːtə(r)/
tekoucí voda
safety equipment
/ˈseɪfti ɪˈkwɪpmənt/
bezpečnostní zařízení, vybavení
safety rules
/ˈseɪfti ruːlz/
pravidla bezpečnosti
secure a top
/sɪˈkjʊə(r)/
upevnit uzávěr
separatory funnel
/seˈpərət(ə)ri ˈfʌn(ə)l/
dělicí nálevka
sharp
/ʃɑː(r)p/
ostrý
sharps
/ʃɑː(r)ps/
střepy
show respect to the dead
/rɪˈspekt//ded/
prokázat úctu mrtvým
single-celled organism
/ˈsɪŋɡ(ə)lseld ˈɔː(r)ɡəˌnɪz(ə)m/
jednobuněčný organizmus
slide with a specimen
/slaɪd//wɪθ//ˈspesəmɪn/
sklíčko s preparátem
so called
/ˈsəʊ kɔːld/
tzv.
spatial layout
/ˈspeɪʃ(ə)l ˈleɪaʊt/
prostorové rozvržení
spectacles
/ˈspektək(ə)lz/
brýle
spectrophotometer
/speˈktrɒfəʊtəʊmɪtə(r)/
spektrální fotometr
sperm
/spɜː(r)m/
sperma, spermie
sphere
/sfɪə(r)/
koule
spill (n)
/spɪl/
louže
splash (n)
/splæʃ/
kapka, kalužinka
stage
/steɪdʒ/
stolek
stirrer
/ˈstɜːrə(r)/
mísidlo
stock bottle
/stɒk ˈbɒt(ə)l/
skladová nádoba
stockroom
/ˈstɒkˌruːm/
sklad
suitable conditions
/ˈsuːtəb(ə)l kənˈdɪʃ(ə)nz/
vhodné podmínky
support (n)
/səˈpɔː(r)t/
podpora
surface (n)
/ˈsɜː(r)fɪs/
povrch
syringe (n)
/sɪˈrɪndʒ/
injekční stříkačka
test tube
/test tjuːb/
zkumavka
thermometer
/θə(r)ˈmɒmɪtə(r)/
teploměr
tongs
/tɒŋz/
kleště, nůžky
tidy (adj)
/ˈtaɪdi/
poklizený
timeline
/ˈtaɪmˌlaɪn/
časová osa
tube
/tjuːb/
trubice
turret
/ˈtʌrɪt/
otočná hlavice
utility
/juːˈtɪləti/
pomůcka
variety
/vəˈraɪəti/
pestrost, rozmanitost
vary (v)
/ˈveəri/
různit se, lišit se
viewed by the naked eye
/vjuːd baɪ//ˈneɪkɪd aɪ/
viditelný pouhým okem
warning sign
/ˈwɔː(r)nɪŋ saɪn/
varovný nápis
wash bottle
/wɒʃ ˈbɒt(ə)l/
střička, promývací baňka
waste
/weɪst/
odpad
watch glass
/wɒtʃ ɡlɑːs/
hodinové sklíčko
wool
/wʊl/
vlna, příze
work properly
/wɜː(r)k ˈprɒpə(r)li/
správně fungovat
work wear
/wɜː(r)k weə(r)/
pracovní oděv
workbench
/ˈwɜː(r)kˌbentʃ/
pracovní stůl
wrap around
/ræp əˈraʊnd/
omotat kolem
Source: BUCHALOVÁ, K., SCHÜLLEROVÁ, S.: Angličtina pro posluchače bakalářského studijního
programu FVHE VFU Brno. Brno 2010.
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