MIPS R4000 Microprocessor
User’s Manual
Second Edition
Joe Heinrich
 1994 MIPS Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND
Use, duplication, or disclosure of the technical data contained in this
document by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in
subdivision (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS 52.227-7013 and/or in similar or successor
clauses in the FAR, or in the DOD or NASA FAR Supplement.
Unpublished rights reserved under the Copyright Laws of the United
States. Contractor/manufacturer is MIPS Technologies, Inc., 2011 N.
Shoreline Blvd., Mountain View, CA 94039-7311.
RISCompiler, RISC/os, R2000, R6000, R4000, and R4400 are trademarks of
MIPS Technologies, Inc. MIPS and R3000 are registered trademarks of
MIPS Technologies, Inc.
IBM 370 is a registered trademark of International Business Machines.
VAX is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.
iAPX is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation.
MC68000 is a registered trademark of Motorola Inc.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries,
licensed exclusively through X/Open Company, Ltd.
MIPS Technologies, Inc.
2011 North Shoreline
Mountain View, California 94039-7311
Acknowledgments for the First Edition
First of all, special thanks go to Duk Chun for his patient help in supplying and
verifying the content of this manual; that this manual is technically correct is, in a
very large part, directly attributable to him.
Thanks also to the following people for supplying portions of this book: Shabbir
Latif, for, among other things, the exception handler flow charts, the description
of the output buffer edge-control logic, and the interrupts; once again, Duk Chun,
for his paper on R4000 processor synchronization support; Paul Ries, for
confirming the accuracy of sections describing the memory management and the
caches; John Mashey, for verifying the R4000 processor actually does employ the
64-bit architecture; Dave Ditzel, for raising the issue in the first place; and Mike
Gupta, for substantiating various aspects of the errata. Finally, thanks to Ed
Reidenbach for supplying a large portion of the parity and ECC sections of this
manual, and Michael Ngo for checking their accuracy.
Thanks also to the following folks for their technical assistance: Andy Keane,
Keith Garrett, Viggy Mokkarala, Charles Price, Ali Moayedian, George Hsieh,
Peter Fu, Stephen Przybylski, Michael Woodacre, and Earl Killian. Also to be
thanked are the people at fvn@world.std.com: Bill Tuthill, Barry Shein, Bob
Devine, and Alan Marr, for helping place RISC in a pecuniary perspective. Also,
thanks to the following people at the mystery_train@swim2birds news group: toma,
dan_sears, jharris@garnet, tut@cairo (again), and elvis@dalkey(mateo_b). Their nightfor-day netversations, fueled by caffeine, concerning the viability of the
cyberpsykinetic compute-core model helped form an important basis of this book.
On the editorial front, thanks once again to Ms. Robin Cowan, of the Consortium
of Editorial Arts for her labors in editing this manual. Thanks to Evelyn Spire for
slaving over that bottomless black well we refer to as an “Index.” Thanks also,
once again, to Karen Gettman, and Lisa Iarkowski at Prentice-Hall for their help.
On the artistic side, thanks to Jeanne Simonian, of the Creative department here
at Silicon Graphics, for the book cover design; and thanks to Pam Flanders for
providing MarCom tactical support.
Have we missed anyone? If so, here is where we apologize for doing so.
Joe Heinrich
April 1, 1993
Mt. View, California
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
iv
Acknowledgments for the Second Edition
Thanks go to Shabbir Latif, from whose errata the major part of this second
edition is derived. Thanks also to Charlie Price for, among other things, making
available his revision of the ISA.
On the production side, thanks to Kay Maitz, Beth Fraker, Molly Castor, Lynnea
Humphries, and Claudia Lohnes for their assistance at the center of the hurricane.
Joe Heinrich
joeh@sgi.com
April 1, 1994
Mt. View, California
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Preface
This book describes the MIPS R4000 and R4400 family of RISC
microprocessors (also referred to in this book as processor).
Overview of the Contents
Chapter 1 is a discussion (including the historical context) of RISC
development in general, and the R4000 microprocessor in particular.
Chapter 2 is an overview of the CPU instruction set.
Chapter 3 describes the operation of the R4000 instruction execution
pipeline, including the basic operation of the pipeline and
interruptions that are caused by interlocks and exceptions.
Chapter 4 describes the memory management system including
address mapping and address spaces, virtual memory, the translation
lookaside buffer (TLB), and the System Control Processor (CP0).
Chapter 5 describes the exception processing resources of R4000
processor. It includes an overview of the CPU exception handling
process and describes the format and use of each CPU exception
handling register.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Preface
Chapter 6 describes the Floating-Point Unit (FPU), a coprocessor for
the CPU that extends the CPU instruction set to perform floatingpoint arithmetic operations. This chapter lists the FPU registers and
instructions.
Chapter 7 describes the FPU exception processing.
Chapter 8 describes the signals that pass between the R4000 processor
and other components in a system. The signals discussed include the
System interface, the Clock/Control interface, the Secondary Cache
interface, the Interrupt interface, the Initialization interface, and the
JTAG interface.
Chapter 9 describes in more detail the Initialization interface, which
includes the boot modes for the processor, as well as system resets.
Chapter 10 describes the clocks used in the R4000 processor, as well as
the processor status reporting mechanism.
Chapter 11 discusses cache memory, including the operation of the
primary and secondary caches, and cache coherency in a
multiprocessor system.
Chapter 12 describes the System interface, which allows the processor
access to external resources such as memory and input/output (I/O).
It also allows an external agent access to the internal resources of the
processor, such as the secondary cache.
Chapter 13 describes the Secondary Cache interface, including read
and write cycle timing. This chapter also discusses the interface buses
and signals.
Chapter 14 describes the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) interface.
The JTAG boundary scan mechanism tests the interconnections
between the R4000 processor, the printed circuit board to which it is
mounted, and other components on the board.
Chapter 15 describes the single nonmaskable processor interrupt,
along with the six hardware and two software processor interrupts.
Chapter 16 describes the error checking and correcting (ECC)
mechanisms of the R4000 processor.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Preface
Appendix A describes the R4000 CPU instructions, in both 32- and 64bit modes. The instruction list is given in alphabetical order.
Appendix B describes the R4000 FPU instructions, listed
alphabetically.
Appendix C describes sub-block ordering, a nonsequential method of
retrieving data.
Appendix D describes the output buffer and the ∆i/∆t control
mechanism.
Appendix E describes the passive components that make up the
phase-locked loop (PLL).
Appendix F describes Coprocessor 0 hazards.
Appendix G describes the R4000 pinout.
A Note on Style
A brief note on some of the stylistic conventions used in this book: bits,
fields, and registers of interest from a software perspective are
italicized (such as Config register); signal names of more importance
from a hardware point of view are rendered in bold (such as Reset*).
A range of bits uses a colon as a separator; for instance, (15:0)
represents the 16-bit range that runs from bit 0, inclusive, through bit
15. (In some places an ellipsis may used in place of the colon for
visibility: (15...0).)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Preface
x
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Preface to the Second Edition
Changes From the First Edition
The second edition of this book incorporates certain low-level changes
and technical additions, but retains a substantive identity with the
original version.
Changes from the first edition are indicated by left-margin vertical
rules.
Getting MIPS Documents On-Line
MIPS documents (including an electronic version of the errata) are
available on-line, through the file transport protocol (FTP). To
retrieve them, follow the steps below. The text you are to type is
shown in Courier Bold font; the computer’s responses are in
shown in Courier Regular font.
1.
First, place yourself in the directory on your system within which
you want to store the retrieved files. Do this by typing:
cd <directory_you_want_file_to_be_in>
2.
Access the MIPS document server, sgigate, through FTP by
typing:
ftp sgigate.sgi.com
3.
The server tells you when you are connected for FTP by
responding:
Connected to sgigate.sgi.com.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
xi
Preface
4.
Next (after some announcements) the server asks you to log in by
requesting a name and then a password.
Name (sgigate.sgi.com:<login_name>):
5.
Login by typing anonymous for your name and your electronic
mail address for your password.
Name (sgigate.sgi.com:<login_name>): anonymous
331 Guest login ok, type your name as
password.
Password: your_email_address
6.
The system indicates you have successfully logged in by
supplying an FTP prompt:
ftp>
7.
Go to the pub/doc directory by typing:
ftp> cd pub/doc
8.
You can take a look at the contents of the doc directory by listing
them:
ftp> ls
9.
You will find several R4000-related subdirectories, such as R4200,
R4400, and R4600. When you find the subdirectory you want, cd
into that subdirectory and retrieve the file you want by typing:
get <filename>
This copies the file from sgigate back to your system.
10. When you have retrieved the files you want, exit from ftp by
typing:
ftp> quit
11. If the file was encoded for transmission, you must decode it, after
retrieval, by typing:
uudecode <filename>
12. If the file was compressed for transmission, you must uncompress
it, after retrieval, by typing:
uncompress <filename>
13. If you tarred the file, type:
tar xvof <filename>
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Table of Contents
Preface
Overview of the Contents ................................................................................... vii
A Note on Style .................................................................................................... ix
Preface to the Second Edition
Changes From the First Edition ......................................................................... xi
Getting MIPS Documents On-Line.................................................................... xi
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Table of Contents
1
Introduction
Benefits of RISC Design........................................................................................... 2
Shorter Design Cycle ........................................................................................... 3
Effective Utilization of Chip Area ..................................................................... 3
User (Programmer) Benefits............................................................................... 3
Advanced Semiconductor Technologies .......................................................... 3
Optimizing Compilers......................................................................................... 4
MIPS RISCompiler Language Suite .................................................................. 5
Compatibility ............................................................................................................ 6
Processor General Features..................................................................................... 6
R4000 Processor Configurations ............................................................................ 7
R4400 Processor Enhancements ............................................................................. 7
R4000 Processor ........................................................................................................ 9
64-bit Architecture ............................................................................................... 9
Superpipeline Architecture ................................................................................ 11
System Interface ................................................................................................... 11
CPU Register Overview ...................................................................................... 12
CPU Instruction Set Overview........................................................................... 14
Data Formats and Addressing ........................................................................... 24
Coprocessors (CP0-CP2) ..................................................................................... 27
System Control Coprocessor, CP0................................................................. 27
Floating-Point Unit (FPU), CP1 ..................................................................... 30
Memory Management System (MMU)............................................................. 31
The Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) ...................................................... 31
Operating Modes ............................................................................................. 32
Cache Memory Hierarchy .............................................................................. 32
Primary Caches ................................................................................................ 33
Secondary Cache Interface ............................................................................. 33
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CPU Instruction Set Summary
CPU Instruction Formats ........................................................................................ 36
Load and Store Instructions ............................................................................... 37
Scheduling a Load Delay Slot ........................................................................ 37
Defining Access Types .................................................................................... 37
Computational Instructions................................................................................ 39
64-bit Operations ............................................................................................. 39
Cycle Timing for Multiply and Divide Instructions................................... 40
Jump and Branch Instructions ........................................................................... 41
Overview of Jump Instructions ..................................................................... 41
Overview of Branch Instructions .................................................................. 41
Special Instructions.............................................................................................. 42
Exception Instructions......................................................................................... 42
Coprocessor Instructions .................................................................................... 42
3
The CPU Pipeline
CPU Pipeline Operation .......................................................................................... 44
CPU Pipeline Stages................................................................................................. 45
Branch Delay ............................................................................................................. 48
Load Delay ................................................................................................................ 48
Interlock and Exception Handling......................................................................... 49
Exception Conditions .......................................................................................... 52
Stall Conditions .................................................................................................... 53
Slip Conditions ..................................................................................................... 53
External Stalls ....................................................................................................... 53
Interlock and Exception Timing ........................................................................ 53
Backing Up the Pipeline ................................................................................. 54
Aborting an Instruction Subsequent to an Interlock .................................. 55
Pipelining the Exception Handling ................................................................... 56
Special Cases......................................................................................................... 58
Performance Considerations.......................................................................... 58
Correctness Considerations............................................................................ 58
R4400 Processor Uncached Store Buffer ............................................................... 59
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4
Memory Management
Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) ...................................................................... 62
Hits and Misses .................................................................................................... 62
Multiple Matches ................................................................................................. 62
Address Spaces ......................................................................................................... 63
Virtual Address Space......................................................................................... 63
Physical Address Space....................................................................................... 64
Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation .......................................................... 64
32-bit Mode Address Translation ...................................................................... 65
64-bit Mode Address Translation ...................................................................... 66
Operating Modes ................................................................................................. 67
User Mode Operations................................................................................... 67
Supervisor Mode Operations........................................................................ 69
Kernel Mode Operations ............................................................................... 73
System Control Coprocessor .................................................................................. 80
Format of a TLB Entry......................................................................................... 81
CP0 Registers ........................................................................................................ 84
Index Register (0) ............................................................................................. 85
Random Register (1)........................................................................................ 86
EntryLo0 (2), and EntryLo1 (3) Registers..................................................... 87
PageMask Register (5)..................................................................................... 87
Wired Register (6)............................................................................................ 88
EntryHi Register (CP0 Register 10)............................................................... 89
Processor Revision Identifier (PRId) Register (15)...................................... 89
Config Register (16) ......................................................................................... 90
Load Linked Address (LLAddr) Register (17) ............................................ 93
Cache Tag Registers [TagLo (28) and TagHi (29)] ...................................... 93
Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation Process............................................ 95
TLB Misses ............................................................................................................ 97
TLB Instructions ................................................................................................... 97
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CPU Exception Processing
How Exception Processing Works......................................................................... 100
Exception Processing Registers .............................................................................. 101
Context Register (4) ............................................................................................. 102
Bad Virtual Address Register (BadVAddr) (8) ................................................ 103
Count Register (9) ................................................................................................ 103
Compare Register (11)......................................................................................... 104
Status Register (12)............................................................................................... 105
Status Register Format .................................................................................... 105
Status Register Modes and Access States..................................................... 109
Status Register Reset ....................................................................................... 110
Cause Register (13) .............................................................................................. 110
Exception Program Counter (EPC) Register (14) ............................................ 112
WatchLo (18) and WatchHi (19) Registers ....................................................... 113
XContext Register (20)......................................................................................... 114
Error Checking and Correcting (ECC) Register (26)....................................... 115
Cache Error (CacheErr) Register (27) ................................................................ 116
Error Exception Program Counter (Error EPC) Register (30)........................ 118
Processor Exceptions ............................................................................................... 119
Exception Types ................................................................................................... 119
Reset Exception Process.................................................................................. 120
Cache Error Exception Process ...................................................................... 120
Soft Reset and NMI Exception Process......................................................... 121
General Exception Process ............................................................................. 121
Exception Vector Locations ................................................................................ 122
Priority of Exceptions .......................................................................................... 123
Reset Exception .................................................................................................... 124
Soft Reset Exception ............................................................................................ 125
Address Error Exception..................................................................................... 127
TLB Exceptions..................................................................................................... 128
TLB Refill Exception........................................................................................ 129
TLB Invalid Exception..................................................................................... 130
TLB Modified Exception................................................................................. 131
Cache Error Exception......................................................................................... 132
Virtual Coherency Exception ............................................................................. 133
Bus Error Exception ............................................................................................. 134
Integer Overflow Exception ............................................................................... 135
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Table of Contents
Trap Exception ..................................................................................................... 136
System Call Exception ......................................................................................... 137
Breakpoint Exception .......................................................................................... 138
Reserved Instruction Exception ......................................................................... 139
Coprocessor Unusable Exception ...................................................................... 140
Floating-Point Exception..................................................................................... 141
Watch Exception .................................................................................................. 142
Interrupt Exception.............................................................................................. 143
Exception Handling and Servicing Flowcharts ................................................... 144
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6
Floating-Point Unit
Overview ................................................................................................................... 152
FPU Features ............................................................................................................. 153
FPU Programming Model....................................................................................... 154
Floating-Point General Registers (FGRs).......................................................... 154
Floating-Point Registers ...................................................................................... 156
Floating-Point Control Registers ....................................................................... 157
Implementation and Revision Register, (FCR0) .............................................. 158
Control/Status Register (FCR31)....................................................................... 159
Accessing the Control/Status Register......................................................... 160
IEEE Standard 754 ........................................................................................... 161
Control/Status Register FS Bit....................................................................... 161
Control/Status Register Condition Bit ......................................................... 161
Control/Status Register Cause, Flag, and Enable Fields........................... 161
Control/Status Register Rounding Mode Control Bits.............................. 163
Floating-Point Formats ............................................................................................ 164
Binary Fixed-Point Format...................................................................................... 166
Floating-Point Instruction Set Overview .............................................................. 167
Floating-Point Load, Store, and Move Instructions ........................................ 169
Transfers Between FPU and Memory........................................................... 169
Transfers Between FPU and CPU.................................................................. 169
Load Delay and Hardware Interlocks .......................................................... 169
Data Alignment................................................................................................ 170
Endianness........................................................................................................ 170
Floating-Point Conversion Instructions............................................................ 170
Floating-Point Computational Instructions ..................................................... 170
Branch on FPU Condition Instructions............................................................. 170
Floating-Point Compare Operations ................................................................. 171
FPU Instruction Pipeline Overview....................................................................... 172
Instruction Execution .......................................................................................... 172
Instruction Execution Cycle Time ..................................................................... 173
Scheduling FPU Instructions.............................................................................. 175
FPU Pipeline Overlapping.................................................................................. 175
Instruction Scheduling Constraints .............................................................. 176
Instruction Latency, Repeat Rate, and Pipeline Stage Sequences............. 181
Resource Scheduling Rules ............................................................................ 182
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Floating-Point Exceptions
Exception Types........................................................................................................ 188
Exception Trap Processing...................................................................................... 189
Flags ........................................................................................................................... 190
FPU Exceptions......................................................................................................... 192
Inexact Exception (I) ............................................................................................ 192
Invalid Operation Exception (V)........................................................................ 193
Division-by-Zero Exception (Z) ......................................................................... 194
Overflow Exception (O) ...................................................................................... 194
Underflow Exception (U).................................................................................... 195
Unimplemented Instruction Exception (E) ...................................................... 196
Saving and Restoring State ..................................................................................... 197
Trap Handlers for IEEE Standard 754 Exceptions............................................... 198
8
R4000 Processor Signal Descriptions
System Interface Signals.......................................................................................... 201
Clock/Control Interface Signals ............................................................................ 203
Secondary Cache Interface Signals ........................................................................ 205
Interrupt Interface Signals ...................................................................................... 207
JTAG Interface Signals............................................................................................. 207
Initialization Interface Signals ................................................................................ 208
Signal Summary ....................................................................................................... 209
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Initialization Interface
Functional Overview ............................................................................................... 214
Reset Signal Description.......................................................................................... 215
Power-on Reset..................................................................................................... 216
Cold Reset ............................................................................................................. 217
Warm Reset........................................................................................................... 217
Initialization Sequence............................................................................................. 218
Boot-Mode Settings .................................................................................................. 222
10
Clock Interface
Signal Terminology.................................................................................................. 228
Basic System Clocks ................................................................................................. 229
MasterClock .......................................................................................................... 229
MasterOut ............................................................................................................. 229
SyncIn/SyncOut................................................................................................... 229
PClock.................................................................................................................... 229
SClock .................................................................................................................... 230
TClock.................................................................................................................... 230
RClock.................................................................................................................... 230
PClock-to-SClock Division ................................................................................. 230
System Timing Parameters ..................................................................................... 233
Alignment to SClock............................................................................................ 233
Alignment to MasterClock ................................................................................. 233
Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)................................................................................... 233
Connecting Clocks to a Phase-Locked System..................................................... 234
Connecting Clocks to a System without Phase Locking..................................... 235
Connecting to a Gate-Array Device .................................................................. 235
Connecting to a CMOS Logic System ............................................................... 238
Processor Status Outputs ........................................................................................ 241
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11
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
Memory Organization ............................................................................................. 244
Overview of Cache Operations .............................................................................. 245
R4000 Cache Description......................................................................................... 246
Secondary Cache Size.......................................................................................... 248
Variable-Length Cache Lines ............................................................................. 248
Cache Organization and Accessibility .............................................................. 248
Organization of the Primary Instruction Cache (I-Cache)......................... 249
Organization of the Primary Data Cache (D-Cache) .................................. 250
Accessing the Primary Caches....................................................................... 251
Organization of the Secondary Cache .......................................................... 252
Accessing the Secondary Cache..................................................................... 254
Cache States............................................................................................................... 255
Primary Cache States........................................................................................... 256
Secondary Cache States....................................................................................... 256
Mapping States Between Caches ....................................................................... 257
Cache Line Ownership ............................................................................................ 258
Cache Write Policy ................................................................................................... 259
Cache State Transition Diagrams........................................................................... 260
Cache Coherency Overview ................................................................................... 264
Cache Coherency Attributes............................................................................... 264
Uncached .......................................................................................................... 265
Noncoherent ..................................................................................................... 265
Sharable............................................................................................................. 265
Update ............................................................................................................... 265
Exclusive ........................................................................................................... 266
Cache Operation Modes...................................................................................... 266
Secondary-Cache Mode .................................................................................. 266
No-Secondary-Cache Mode ........................................................................... 266
Strong Ordering ................................................................................................... 267
An Example of Strong Ordering.................................................................... 267
Testing for Strong Ordering........................................................................... 267
Restarting the Processor ................................................................................. 268
Maintaining Coherency on Loads and Stores ...................................................... 269
Manipulation of the Cache by an External Agent ............................................... 270
Invalidate............................................................................................................... 270
Update ................................................................................................................... 270
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Snoop ..................................................................................................................... 270
Intervention........................................................................................................... 271
Coherency Conflicts ................................................................................................. 271
How Coherency Conflicts Arise ........................................................................ 272
Processor Coherent Read Requests............................................................... 272
Processor Invalidate or Update Requests .................................................... 273
External Coherency Requests ........................................................................ 274
System Implications of Coherency Conflicts ................................................... 275
System Model................................................................................................... 276
Load ................................................................................................................... 278
Store ................................................................................................................... 278
Processor Coherent Read Request and Read Response............................. 278
Processor Invalidate ........................................................................................ 279
Processor Write ................................................................................................ 279
Handling Coherency Conflicts........................................................................... 280
Coherent Read Conflicts ................................................................................. 280
Coherent Write Conflicts ................................................................................ 281
Invalidate Conflicts ......................................................................................... 282
Sample Cycle: Coherent Read Request............................................................. 283
R4000 Processor Synchronization Support........................................................... 286
Test-and-Set (Spinlock) ....................................................................................... 286
Counter .................................................................................................................. 288
LL and SC.............................................................................................................. 289
Examples Using LL and SC ................................................................................ 290
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System Interface
Terminology.............................................................................................................. 294
System Interface Description.................................................................................. 294
Interface Buses...................................................................................................... 295
Address and Data Cycles ............................................................................... 296
Issue Cycles ...................................................................................................... 296
Handshake Signals.............................................................................................. 298
System Interface Protocols ...................................................................................... 299
Master and Slave States....................................................................................... 299
Moving from Master to Slave State ................................................................... 300
External Arbitration............................................................................................. 300
Uncompelled Change to Slave State ................................................................. 301
Processor and External Requests ........................................................................... 302
Rules for Processor Requests.............................................................................. 303
Processor Requests............................................................................................... 304
Processor Read Request .................................................................................. 306
Processor Write Request ................................................................................. 307
Processor Invalidate Request ......................................................................... 308
Processor Update Request.............................................................................. 310
Clusters.............................................................................................................. 311
External Requests................................................................................................. 313
External Read Request .................................................................................... 316
External Write Request ................................................................................... 316
External Invalidate Request ........................................................................... 316
External Update Request ................................................................................ 316
External Snoop Request .................................................................................. 317
External Intervention Request ....................................................................... 317
Read Response ................................................................................................. 317
Handling Requests ................................................................................................... 318
Load Miss .............................................................................................................. 318
Secondary-Cache Mode .................................................................................. 320
No-Secondary-Cache Mode ........................................................................... 320
Store Miss .............................................................................................................. 321
Secondary-Cache Mode .................................................................................. 323
No-Secondary-Cache Mode ........................................................................... 325
Store Hit................................................................................................................. 326
Secondary-Cache Mode .................................................................................. 326
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No-Secondary-Cache Mode ........................................................................... 326
Uncached Loads or Stores .................................................................................. 326
CACHE Operations ............................................................................................. 327
Load Linked Store Conditional Operation....................................................... 327
Processor and External Request Protocols............................................................ 329
Processor Request Protocols............................................................................... 330
Processor Read Request Protocol .................................................................. 330
Processor Write Request Protocol ................................................................. 333
Processor Invalidate and Update Request Protocol ................................... 335
Processor Null Write Request Protocol ........................................................ 336
Processor Cluster Request Protocol .............................................................. 337
Processor Request and Cluster Flow Control.............................................. 338
External Request Protocols ................................................................................. 341
External Arbitration Protocol......................................................................... 342
External Read Request Protocol .................................................................... 343
External Null Request Protocol ..................................................................... 344
External Write Request Protocol ................................................................... 347
External Invalidate and Update Request Protocols.................................... 348
External Intervention Request Protocol ....................................................... 349
External Snoop Request Protocol .................................................................. 352
Read Response Protocol.................................................................................. 354
Data Rate Control ..................................................................................................... 356
Data Transfer Patterns......................................................................................... 356
Secondary Cache Transfers ................................................................................ 357
Secondary Cache Write Cycle Time .................................................................. 358
Independent Transmissions on the SysAD Bus .............................................. 359
System Interface Endianness.............................................................................. 360
System Interface Cycle Time................................................................................... 361
Cluster Request Spacing ..................................................................................... 361
Release Latency .................................................................................................... 362
External Request Response Latency.................................................................. 363
System Interface Commands and Data Identifiers.............................................. 364
Command and Data Identifier Syntax.............................................................. 364
System Interface Command Syntax .................................................................. 365
Read Requests .................................................................................................. 366
Write Requests ................................................................................................. 367
Null Requests ................................................................................................... 369
Invalidate Requests ......................................................................................... 370
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Update Requests .............................................................................................. 370
Intervention and Snoop Requests ................................................................. 372
System Interface Data Identifier Syntax ........................................................... 374
Coherent Data .................................................................................................. 374
Noncoherent Data............................................................................................ 374
Data Identifier Bit Definitions........................................................................ 375
System Interface Addresses .................................................................................... 377
Addressing Conventions .................................................................................... 377
Sequential and Subblock Ordering.................................................................... 378
Processor Internal Address Map............................................................................ 378
13
Secondary Cache Interface
Data Transfer Rates .................................................................................................. 380
Duplicating Signals .................................................................................................. 380
Accessing a Split Secondary Cache........................................................................ 381
SCDChk Bus.............................................................................................................. 381
SCTAG Bus................................................................................................................ 381
Operation of the Secondary Cache Interface........................................................ 382
Read Cycles........................................................................................................... 383
4-Word Read Cycle.......................................................................................... 383
8-Word Read Cycle.......................................................................................... 384
Notes on a Secondary Cache Read Cycle..................................................... 384
Write Cycles.......................................................................................................... 385
4-Word Write Cycle......................................................................................... 385
8-Word Write Cycle......................................................................................... 386
Notes on a Secondary Cache Write Cycle.................................................... 387
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JTAG Interface
What Boundary Scanning Is ................................................................................... 390
Signal Summary ....................................................................................................... 391
JTAG Controller and Registers............................................................................... 392
Instruction Register.............................................................................................. 392
Bypass Register..................................................................................................... 393
Boundary-Scan Register...................................................................................... 394
Test Access Port (TAP) ........................................................................................ 395
TAP Controller ................................................................................................. 396
Controller Reset ............................................................................................... 396
Controller States............................................................................................... 396
Implementation-Specific Details ............................................................................ 400
15
R4000 Processor Interrupts
Hardware Interrupts................................................................................................ 402
Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI)............................................................................... 402
Asserting Interrupts................................................................................................. 402
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
xxvii
Table of Contents
16
Error Checking and Correcting
Error Checking in the Processor............................................................................. 408
Types of Error Checking ..................................................................................... 408
Parity Error Detection ..................................................................................... 408
SECDED ECC Code......................................................................................... 409
Error Checking Operation .................................................................................. 412
System Interface............................................................................................... 412
Secondary Cache Data Bus............................................................................. 412
System Interface and Secondary Cache Data Bus....................................... 412
Secondary Cache Tag Bus............................................................................... 413
System Interface Command Bus ................................................................... 413
SECDED ECC Matrices for Data and Tag Buses ............................................. 414
ECC Check Bits..................................................................................................... 414
Data ECC Generation .......................................................................................... 415
Detecting Data Transmission Errors ................................................................. 418
Single Data Bit ECC Error .............................................................................. 420
Single Check Bit ECC Error............................................................................ 421
Double Data Bit ECC Errors........................................................................... 422
Three Data Bit ECC Errors ............................................................................. 423
Four Data Bit ECC Errors ............................................................................... 424
Tag ECC Generation............................................................................................ 425
Summary of ECC Operations............................................................................. 426
R4400 Master/Checker Mode................................................................................. 430
Connecting a System in Lock Step .................................................................... 431
Master-Listener Configuration .......................................................................... 432
Cross-Coupled Checking Configuration .......................................................... 433
Fault Detection ..................................................................................................... 435
Reset Operation .................................................................................................... 436
Fault History......................................................................................................... 436
xxviii
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Table of Contents
A
CPU Instruction Set Details
B
FPU Instruction Set Details
C
Subblock Ordering
Sequential Ordering................................................................................................. C-2
Subblock Ordering ................................................................................................... C-2
D
Output Buffer ∆i/∆t Control Mechanism
Mode Bits................................................................................................................... D-1
Delay Times............................................................................................................... D-2
E
PLL Passive Components
F
Coprocessor 0 Hazards
G
R4000 Pinouts
Pinout of R4000PC.................................................................................................... G-2
Pinout of R4000MC/SC Package Pinout .............................................................. G-5
Index
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Table of Contents
xxx
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
1
Historically, the evolution of computer architectures has been dominated
by families of increasingly complex central processors. Under market
pressures to preserve existing software, complex instruction set computer
(CISC) architectures evolved by the accretion of microcode and
increasingly intricate instruction sets. This intricacy in architecture was
itself driven by the need to support high-level languages and operating
systems, as advances in semiconductor technology made it possible to
fabricate integrated circuits of greater and greater complexity. And at that
time it seemed self-evident to designers that architectures should continue
to become more and more complex as technological advances made such
VLSI designs possible.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
1
Chapter 1
In recent years, however, reduced instruction set computer (RISC)
architectures are implementing a different model for the interaction
between hardware, firmware, and software. RISC concepts emerged from
a statistical analysis of the way in which software actually uses processor
resources: dynamic measurement of system kernels and object modules
generated by optimizing compilers showed that the simplest instructions
were used most often—even in the code for CISC machines.
Correspondingly, complex instructions often went unused because their
single way of performing a complex operation rarely matched the precise
needs of a high-level language.
RISC architecture eliminates microcode routines and turns low-level
control of the machine over to software. The RISC approach is not new,
but its application has become more prevalent in recent years, due to the
increasing use of high-level languages, the development of compilers that
are able to optimize at the microcode level, and dramatic advances in
semiconductor memory and packaging. It is now feasible to replace
relatively slow microcode ROM with faster RAM that is organized as an
instruction cache. Machine control resides in this instruction cache that is,
in effect, customized on-the-fly: the instruction stream generated by
system- and compiler-generated code provides a precise fit between the
requirements of high-level software and the low-level capabilities of the
hardware.
Reducing or simplifying the instruction set was not the primary goal of
RISC architecture; it is a pleasant side effect of techniques used to gain the
highest performance possible from available technology. Thus, the term
reduced instruction set computers is a bit misleading; it is the push for
performance that really drives and shapes RISC designs.
1.1 Benefits of RISC Design
Some benefits that result from RISC design techniques are not directly
attributable to the drive to increase performance, but are a result of the
basic reduction in complexity—a simpler design allows both chip-area
resources and human resources to be applied to features that enhance
performance. Some of these benefits are described below.
2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Shorter Design Cycle
The architectures of RISC processors can be implemented more quickly
than their CISC counterparts: it is easier to fabricate and debug a
streamlined, simplified architecture with no microcode than a complex
architecture that uses microcode. CISC processors have such a long
design cycle that they may not be completely debugged by the time they
are technologically obsolete. The shorter time required to design and
implement RISC processors allows them to make use of the best available
technologies.
Effective Utilization of Chip Area
The simplicity of RISC processors also frees scarce chip geography for
performance-critical resources such as larger register files, translation
lookaside buffers (TLBs), coprocessors, and fast multiply and divide units.
Such resources help RISC processors obtain an even greater performance
edge.
User (Programmer) Benefits
Simplicity in architecture also helps the user by providing a uniform
instruction set that is easier to use. This allows a closer correlation
between the instruction count and the cycle count, making it easier to
measure code optimization activities.
Advanced Semiconductor Technologies
Each new VLSI technology is introduced with tight limits on the number
of transistors that fit on each chip. Since the simplicity of a RISC processor
allows it to be implemented in fewer transistors than its CISC counterpart,
the first computers capable of exploiting these new VLSI technologies
have been using and will continue to use RISC architecture.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
3
Chapter 1
Optimizing Compilers
RISC architecture is designed so that the compilers, not assembly
languages, have the optimal working environment. RISC philosophy
assumes that high-level language programming is used, which contradicts
the older CISC philosophy that assumes assembly language programming
is of primary importance.
The trend toward high-level language instructions has led to the
development of more efficient compilers to convert high-level language
instructions to machine code. Primary measures of compiler efficiency are
the compactness of its generated code and the shortness of its execution
time.
During the development of more efficient compilers, analysis of
instruction streams revealed that the greatest amount of time was spent
executing simple instructions and performing load and store operations,
while the more complex instructions were used less frequently. It was also
learned that compilers produce code that is often a narrow subset of the
processor instruction set architecture (ISA). A compiler works more
efficiently with instructions that perform simple, well-defined operations
and generate minimal side-effects. Compilers do not use complex
instructions and features; the more complex, powerful instructions are
either too difficult for the compiler to employ or those instructions do not
precisely fit high-level language requirements.
Thus, a natural match exists between RISC architectures and efficient,
optimizing compilers. This match makes it easier for compilers to
generate the most effective sequences of machine instructions to
accomplish tasks defined by the high-level language.
4
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
MIPS RISCompiler Language Suite
Some compiler products are derived from disparate sources and
consequently do not fit together very well. Instead of treating each
language’s compiler as a separate entity, the MIPS RISCompilerTM
language suite shares common elements across the entire family of
compilers. In this way the language suite offers both tight integration and
broad language coverage.
The MIPS language suite supports:
•
industry-standard front ends for the following languages (C,
FORTRAN, Pascal)
•
a common intermediate language, offering an efficient way to
add language front ends over time
•
all of the back end optimization and code generation
•
the same object format and calling conventions
•
mixed-language programs
•
debugging of programs written in all languages, including
mixtures
This language suite approach yields high-quality compilers for all
languages, since common elements make up the majority of each of the
language products. In addition, this approach provides the ability to
develop and execute multi-language programs, promoting flexibility in
development, avoiding the necessity of recoding proven program
segments, and protecting the user’s software investment. The common
back-end also exports optimizing and code-generating improvements
immediately throughout the language suite, thereby reducing
maintenance.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
5
Chapter 1
1.2 Compatibility
The R4000 processor provides complete application software
compatibility with the MIPS R2000, R3000, and R6000 processors.
Although the MIPS processor architecture has evolved in response to a
compromise between software and hardware resources in the computer
system, the R4000 processor implements the MIPS ISA for user-mode
programs. This guarantees that user programs conforming to the ISA
execute on any MIPS hardware implementation.
1.3 Processor General Features
This section briefly describes the programming model, the memory
management unit (MMU), and the caches in the R4000 processor. A more
detailed description is given in succeeding sections.
6
•
Full 32-bit and 64-bit Operations. The R4000 processor
contains 32 general purpose 64-bit registers. (When operating
as a 32-bit processor, the general purpose registers are 32-bits
wide.) All instructions are 32 bits wide.
•
Efficient Pipeline. The superpipeline design of the processor
results in an execution rate approaching one instruction per
cycle. Pipeline stalls and exceptional events are handled
precisely and efficiently.
•
MMU. The R4000 processor uses an on-chip TLB that provides
rapid virtual-to-physical address translation.
•
Cache Control. The R4000 primary instruction and data caches
reside on-chip, and can each hold 8 Kbytes. In the R4400
processor, the primary caches can each hold 16 Kbytes.
Architecturally, each primary cache can be increased to hold up
to 32 Kbytes. An off-chip secondary cache (R4000SC and
R4000MC processors only) can hold from 128 Kbytes to 4
Mbytes. All processor cache control logic, including the
secondary cache control logic, is on-chip.
•
Floating-Point Unit. The FPU is located on-chip and
implements the ANSI/IEEE standard 754-1985.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
1.4 R4000 Processor Configurations
The R4000 processor† is packaged in three different configurations. All
processors are implemented in sub-1-micron CMOS technology.
•
R4000PC is designed for cost-sensitive systems such as
inexpensive desktop systems and high-end embedded
controllers. It is packaged in a 179-pin PGA, and does not
support a secondary cache.
•
R4000SC is designed for high-performance uniprocessor
systems. It is packaged in a 447-pin LGA/PGA and includes
integrated control for large secondary caches built from
standard SRAMs.
•
R4000MC is designed for large cache-coherent multiprocessor
systems. It is packaged in a 447-pin LGA/PGA and, in addition
to the features of R4000SC, includes support for a wide variety
of bus designs and cache-coherency mechanisms.
Table 1-1 lists the features in each of the three configurations (X indicates
the feature is present). R4400 processor enhancements are described in the
section following.
1.5 R4400 Processor Enhancements
In addition to the features contained in the R4000 processor, the R4400
processor has the following enhancements:
•
fully functional Status pins (described in Chapter 10)
•
Master/Checker mode (described in Chapter 16)
•
larger primary caches (described in Processor General Features,
in this chapter)
•
uncached store buffer (described in Chapter 3)
•
divide-by-6 and divide-by-8 modes (described in Chapter 10)
•
cache error bit, EW, added to the CacheErr register (described in
Chapter 5).
† Features of the R4400 processor that differ from the R4000 processor are noted throughout
this book; for instance, R4400 processor enhancements are listed in the next section.
Otherwise, references to the R4000 processor may be taken to include the R4400 processor.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
7
Chapter 1
Table 1-1
Feature
R4000 Features
R4000PC
R4000SC
R4000MC
X
X
Primary Cache States
Valid
X
Shared
X
Clean Exclusive
Dirty Exclusive
X
Secondary Cache Interface
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Secondary Cache States
Valid
X
Shared
X
Dirty Shared
X
Clean Exclusive
Dirty Exclusive
X
X
X
X
X
Multiprocessing
X
Cache Coherency Attributes
Uncached
X
X
X
Noncoherent
X
X
X
Sharable
X
Update
X
Exclusive
X
Packages
PGA (179-pin)
PGA (447-pin)
8
X
X
X
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
1.6 R4000 Processor
This section describes the following:
•
the 64-bit architecture of the R4000 processor
•
the superpipeline design of the CPU instruction pipeline
(described in detail in Chapter 3)
•
an overview of the System interface (described in detail in
Chapter 12)
•
an overview of the CPU registers (detailed in Chapters 4 and 5)
and CPU instruction set (detailed in Chapter 2 and Appendix
A)
•
data formats and byte ordering
•
the System Control Coprocessor, CP0, and the floating-point
unit, CP1
•
caches and memory, including a description of primary and
secondary caches, the memory management unit (MMU), the
translation lookaside buffer (TLB), and the Secondary Cache
interface (described in more detail in Chapters 4 and 11). The
Secondary Cache interface is detailed in Chapter 13.
64-bit Architecture
The natural mode of operation for the R4000 processor is as a 64-bit
microprocessor; however, 32-bit applications maintain compatibility even
when the processor operates as a 64-bit processor.
The R4000 processor provides the following:
•
64-bit on-chip floating-point unit (FPU)
•
64-bit integer arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
•
64-bit integer registers
•
64-bit virtual address space
•
64-bit system bus
Figure 1-1 is a block diagram of the R4000 processor internals.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
9
Chapter 1
64-bit System Bus
System
Control
Data Cache
S-cache
Control
CP0
P-cache
Control
FPU
CPU
Exception/Control
Registers
Memory Management
Registers
Translation
Lookaside
Buffers
Instruction
Cache
CPU Registers
FPU Registers
ALU
Pipeline Bypass
Load Aligner/Store Driver
FP Multiplier
Integer Multiplier/Divider
FP Divider
Address Unit
PC Incrementer
FP Add, Convert
Square Root
Pipeline Control
Figure 1-1
10
R4000 Processor Internal Block Diagram
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Superpipeline Architecture
The R4000 processor exploits instruction parallelism by using an eightstage superpipeline which places no restrictions on the instruction issued.
Under normal circumstances, two instructions are issued each cycle.
The internal pipeline of the R4000 processor operates at twice the
frequency of the master clock, as discussed in Chapter 3. The processor
achieves high throughput by pipelining cache accesses, shortening
register access times, implementing virtual-indexed primary caches, and
allowing the latency of functional units to span more than one pipeline
clock cycles.
System Interface
The R4000 processor supports a 64-bit System interface that can construct
uniprocessor systems with a direct DRAM interface—with or without a
secondary cache—or cache-coherent multiprocessor systems. The System
interface includes:
•
a 64-bit multiplexed address and data bus
•
8 check bits
•
a 9-bit parity-protected command bus
•
8 handshake signals
The interface is capable of transferring data between the processor and
memory at a peak rate of 400 Mbytes/second, when running at 50 MHz.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
11
Chapter 1
CPU Register Overview
The central processing unit (CPU) provides the following registers:
•
32 general purpose registers
•
a Program Counter (PC) register
•
2 registers that hold the results of integer multiply and divide
operations (HI and LO).
Floating-point unit (FPU) registers are described in Chapter 6.
CPU registers can be either 32 bits or 64 bits wide, depending on the R4000
processor mode of operation.
Figure 1-2 shows the CPU registers.
63
General Purpose Registers
0
32 31
r0
63
Multiply and Divide Registers
32 31
r1
0
HI
r2
32 31
63
•
•
•
•
0
LO
Program Counter
32 31
63
r29
0
PC
r30
r31
Register width depends on mode of operation: 32-bit or 64-bit
Figure 1-2
12
CPU Registers
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Two of the CPU general purpose registers have assigned functions:
•
r0 is hardwired to a value of zero, and can be used as the target
register for any instruction whose result is to be discarded. r0
can also be used as a source when a zero value is needed.
•
r31 is the link register used by Jump and Link instructions. It
should not be used by other instructions.
The CPU has three special purpose registers:
•
PC — Program Counter register
•
HI — Multiply and Divide register higher result
•
LO — Multiply and Divide register lower result
The two Multiply and Divide registers (HI, LO) store:
•
the product of integer multiply operations, or
•
the quotient (in LO) and remainder (in HI) of integer divide
operations
The R4000 processor has no Program Status Word (PSW) register as such;
this is covered by the Status and Cause registers incorporated within the
System Control Coprocessor (CP0). CP0 registers are described later in
this chapter.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
13
Chapter 1
CPU Instruction Set Overview
Each CPU instruction is 32 bits long. As shown in Figure 1-3, there are
three instruction formats:
•
immediate (I-type)
•
jump (J-type)
•
register (R-type)
31
26 25
op
I-Type (Immediate)
31
21 20
rs
16 15
rt
31
R-Type (Register)
Figure 1-3
immediate
26 25
0
op
J-Type (Jump)
0
target
26 25
op
rs
21 20
16 15
rt
11 10
rd
0
6 5
sa
funct
CPU Instruction Formats
Each format contains a number of different instructions, which are
described further in this chapter. Fields of the instruction formats are
described in Chapter 2.
Instruction decoding is greatly simplified by limiting the number of
formats to these three. This limitation means that the more complicated
(and less frequently used) operations and addressing modes can be
synthesized by the compiler, using sequences of these same simple
instructions.
14
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
The instruction set can be further divided into the following groupings:
•
Load and Store instructions move data between memory and
general registers. They are all immediate (I-type) instructions,
since the only addressing mode supported is base register plus
16-bit, signed immediate offset.
•
Computational instructions perform arithmetic, logical, shift,
multiply, and divide operations on values in registers. They
include register (R-type, in which both the operands and the
result are stored in registers) and immediate (I-type, in which
one operand is a 16-bit immediate value) formats.
•
Jump and Branch instructions change the control flow of a
program. Jumps are always made to a paged, absolute address
formed by combining a 26-bit target address with the highorder bits of the Program Counter (J-type format) or register
address (R-type format). Branches have 16-bit offsets relative
to the program counter (I-type). Jump And Link instructions
save their return address in register 31.
•
Coprocessor instructions perform operations in the
coprocessors. Coprocessor load and store instructions are
I-type.
•
Coprocessor 0 (system coprocessor) instructions perform
operations on CP0 registers to control the memory
management and exception handling facilities of the processor.
These are listed in Table 1-18.
•
Special instructions perform system calls and breakpoint
operations. These instructions are always R-type.
•
Exception instructions cause a branch to the general exceptionhandling vector based upon the result of a comparison. These
instructions occur in both R-type (both the operands and the
result are registers) and I-type (one operand is a 16-bit
immediate value) formats.
Chapter 2 provides a more detailed summary and Appendix A gives a
complete description of each instruction.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
15
Chapter 1
Tables 1-2 through 1-17 list CPU instructions common to MIPS R-Series
processors, along with those instructions that are extensions to the
instruction set architecture. The extensions result in code space
reductions, multiprocessor support, and improved performance in
operating system kernel code sequences—for instance, in situations where
run-time bounds-checking is frequently performed. Table 1-18 lists CP0
instructions.
Table 1-2
CPU Instruction Set: Load and Store Instructions
OpCode
Description
LB
Load Byte
LBU
Load Byte Unsigned
LH
Load Halfword
LHU
Load Halfword Unsigned
LW
Load Word
LWL
Load Word Left
LWR
Load Word Right
SB
Store Byte
SH
Store Halfword
SW
Store Word
SWL
Store Word Left
SWR
Store Word Right
Table 1-3
CPU Instruction Set: Arithmetic Instructions (ALU Immediate)
OpCode
16
Description
ADDI
Add Immediate
ADDIU
Add Immediate Unsigned
SLTI
Set on Less Than Immediate
SLTIU
Set on Less Than Immediate Unsigned
ANDI
AND Immediate
ORI
OR Immediate
XORI
Exclusive OR Immediate
LUI
Load Upper Immediate
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Table 1-4
CPU Instruction Set: Arithmetic (3-Operand, R-Type)
OpCode
Description
ADD
Add
ADDU
Add Unsigned
SUB
Subtract
SUBU
Subtract Unsigned
SLT
Set on Less Than
SLTU
Set on Less Than Unsigned
AND
AND
OR
OR
XOR
Exclusive OR
NOR
NOR
Table 1-5
CPU Instruction Set: Multiply and Divide Instructions
OpCode
Description
MULT
Multiply
MULTU
Multiply Unsigned
DIV
Divide
DIVU
Divide Unsigned
MFHI
Move From HI
MTHI
Move To HI
MFLO
Move From LO
MTLO
Move To LO
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
17
Chapter 1
Table 1-6
CPU Instruction Set: Jump and Branch Instructions
OpCode
Description
J
Jump
JAL
Jump And Link
JR
Jump Register
JALR
Jump And Link Register
BEQ
Branch on Equal
BNE
Branch on Not Equal
BLEZ
Branch on Less Than or Equal to Zero
BGTZ
Branch on Greater Than Zero
BLTZ
Branch on Less Than Zero
BGEZ
Branch on Greater Than or Equal to Zero
BLTZAL
Branch on Less Than Zero And Link
BGEZAL
Branch on Greater Than or Equal to Zero And Link
Table 1-7
CPU Instruction Set: Shift Instructions
OpCode
18
Description
SLL
Shift Left Logical
SRL
Shift Right Logical
SRA
Shift Right Arithmetic
SLLV
Shift Left Logical Variable
SRLV
Shift Right Logical Variable
SRAV
Shift Right Arithmetic Variable
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Table 1-8
CPU Instruction Set: Coprocessor Instructions
OpCode
Description
LWCz
Load Word to Coprocessor z
SWCz
Store Word from Coprocessor z
MTCz
Move To Coprocessor z
MFCz
Move From Coprocessor z
CTCz
Move Control to Coprocessor z
CFCz
Move Control From Coprocessor z
COPz
Coprocessor Operation z
BCzT
Branch on Coprocessor z True
BCzF
Branch on Coprocessor z False
Table 1-9
CPU Instruction Set: Special Instructions
OpCode
Description
SYSCALL
System Call
BREAK
Break
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
19
Chapter 1
Table 1-10
Extensions to the ISA: Load and Store Instructions
OpCode
LD
Load Doubleword
LDL
Load Doubleword Left
LDR
Load Doubleword Right
LL
Load Linked
LLD
Load Linked Doubleword
LWU
Load Word Unsigned
SC
Store Conditional
SCD
Store Conditional Doubleword
SD
Store Doubleword
SDL
Store Doubleword Left
SDR
Store Doubleword Right
SYNC
Sync
Table 1-11
Extensions to the ISA: Arithmetic Instructions (ALU Immediate)
OpCode
Description
DADDI
Doubleword Add Immediate
DADDIU
Doubleword Add Immediate Unsigned
Table 1-12
OpCode
20
Description
Extensions to the ISA: Multiply and Divide Instructions
Description
DMULT
Doubleword Multiply
DMULTU
Doubleword Multiply Unsigned
DDIV
Doubleword Divide
DDIVU
Doubleword Divide Unsigned
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Table 1-13
Extensions to the ISA: Branch Instructions
OpCode
Description
BEQL
Branch on Equal Likely
BNEL
Branch on Not Equal Likely
BLEZL
Branch on Less Than or Equal to Zero Likely
BGTZL
Branch on Greater Than Zero Likely
BLTZL
Branch on Less Than Zero Likely
BGEZL
Branch on Greater Than or Equal to Zero Likely
BLTZALL
Branch on Less Than Zero And Link Likely
BGEZALL
Branch on Greater Than or Equal to Zero And Link
Likely
BCzTL
Branch on Coprocessor z True Likely
BCzFL
Branch on Coprocessor z False Likely
Table 1-14
Extensions to the ISA: Arithmetic Instructions (3-operand, R-type)
OpCode
Description
DADD
Doubleword Add
DADDU
Doubleword Add Unsigned
DSUB
Doubleword Subtract
DSUBU
Doubleword Subtract Unsigned
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
21
Chapter 1
Table 1-15
Extensions to the ISA: Shift Instructions
OpCode
Description
DSLL
Doubleword Shift Left Logical
DSRL
Doubleword Shift Right Logical
DSRA
Doubleword Shift Right Arithmetic
DSLLV
Doubleword Shift Left Logical Variable
DSRLV
Doubleword Shift Right Logical Variable
DSRAV
Doubleword Shift Right Arithmetic Variable
DSLL32
Doubleword Shift Left Logical + 32
DSRL32
Doubleword Shift Right Logical + 32
DSRA32
Doubleword Shift Right Arithmetic + 32
Table 1-16
Extensions to the ISA: Exception Instructions
OpCode
22
Description
TGE
Trap if Greater Than or Equal
TGEU
Trap if Greater Than or Equal Unsigned
TLT
Trap if Less Than
TLTU
Trap if Less Than Unsigned
TEQ
Trap if Equal
TNE
Trap if Not Equal
TGEI
Trap if Greater Than or Equal Immediate
TGEIU
Trap if Greater Than or Equal Immediate
Unsigned
TLTI
Trap if Less Than Immediate
TLTIU
Trap if Less Than Immediate Unsigned
TEQI
Trap if Equal Immediate
TNEI
Trap if Not Equal Immediate
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Table 1-17
Extensions to the ISA: Coprocessor Instructions
OpCode
Description
DMFCz
Doubleword Move From Coprocessor z
DMTCz
Doubleword Move To Coprocessor z
LDCz
Load Double Coprocessor z
SDCz
Store Double Coprocessor z
Table 1-18
CP0 Instructions
OpCode
Description
DMFC0
Doubleword Move From CP0
DMTC0
Doubleword Move To CP0
MTC0
Move to CP0
MFC0
Move from CP0
TLBR
Read Indexed TLB Entry
TLBWI
Write Indexed TLB Entry
TLBWR
Write Random TLB Entry
TLBP
Probe TLB for Matching Entry
CACHE
Cache Operation
ERET
Exception Return
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
23
Chapter 1
Data Formats and Addressing
The R4000 processor uses four data formats: a 64-bit doubleword, a 32-bit
word, a 16-bit halfword, and an 8-bit byte. Byte ordering within each of
the larger data formats—halfword, word, doubleword—can be
configured in either big-endian or little-endian order. Endianness refers
to the location of byte 0 within the multi-byte data structure. Figures 1-4
and 1-5 show the ordering of bytes within words and the ordering of
words within multiple-word structures for the big-endian and littleendian conventions.
When the R4000 processor is configured as a big-endian system, byte 0 is
the most-significant (leftmost) byte, thereby providing compatibility with


MC 68000 and IBM 370 conventions. Figure 1-4 shows this
configuration.
Word
Higher
Address Address
12
Lower
Address
Bit #
12
24 23
13
8
8
4
0
Figure 1-4
31
16 15
8 7
0
14
15
9
10
11
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
Big-Endian Byte Ordering
When configured as a little-endian system, byte 0 is always the leastsignificant (rightmost) byte, which is compatible with iAPX x86 and DEC
VAX conventions. Figure 1-5 shows this configuration.
Word
Higher
Address Address
12
Lower
Address
31
24 23
16 15
8 7
0
15
14
13
12
8
11
10
9
8
4
7
6
5
4
0
3
2
1
0
Figure 1-5
24
Bit #
Little-Endian Byte Ordering
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
In this text, bit 0 is always the least-significant (rightmost) bit; thus, bit
designations are always little-endian (although no instructions explicitly
designate bit positions within words).
Figures 1-6 and 1-7 show little-endian and big-endian byte ordering in
doublewords.
Least-significant byte
Most-significant byte
Word
24 23 16 15
8 7
56 55
48 47 40 39
32 31
Bit # 63
7
6
3
2
1
5
4
Byte #
Halfword
0
0
Byte
Bit # 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Bits in a Byte
Figure 1-6
Little-Endian Data in a Doubleword
Least-significant byte
Most-significant byte
Word
56 55
Bit # 63
0
1
Byte #
48 47 40 39
32 31
24 23 16 15
8 7
4
5
6
7
2
3
Halfword
0
Byte
Bit # 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Bits in a Byte
Figure 1-7
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Big-Endian Data in a Doubleword
25
Chapter 1
The CPU uses byte addressing for halfword, word, and doubleword
accesses with the following alignment constraints:
•
Halfword accesses must be aligned on an even byte boundary
(0, 2, 4...).
•
Word accesses must be aligned on a byte boundary divisible by
four (0, 4, 8...).
•
Doubleword accesses must be aligned on a byte boundary
divisible by eight (0, 8, 16...).
The following special instructions load and store words that are not
aligned on 4-byte (word) or 8-word (doubleword) boundaries:
LWL
LWR
SWL
SWR
LDL
LDR
SDL
SDR
These instructions are used in pairs to provide addressing of misaligned
words. Addressing misaligned data incurs one additional instruction
cycle over that required for addressing aligned data.
Figures 1-8 and 1-9 show the access of a misaligned word that has byte
address 3.
Higher
Address
Bit #
31
24 23
4
16 15
5
8 7
0
6
3
Lower
Address
Figure 1-8
Big-Endian Misaligned Word Addressing
Higher
Address
Bit #
31
24 23
16 15
6
8 7
5
0
4
3
Lower
Address
Figure 1-9
26
Little-Endian Misaligned Word Addressing
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Coprocessors (CP0-CP2)
The MIPS ISA defines three coprocessors (designated CP0 through CP2):
•
Coprocessor 0 (CP0) is incorporated on the CPU chip and
supports the virtual memory system and exception handling.
CP0 is also referred to as the System Control Coprocessor.
•
Coprocessor 1 (CP1) is reserved for the on-chip, floating-point
coprocessor, the FPU.
•
Coprocessor 2 (CP2) is reserved for future definition by MIPS.
CP0 and CP1 are described in the sections that follow.
System Control Coprocessor, CP0
CP0 translates virtual addresses into physical addresses and manages
exceptions and transitions between kernel, supervisor, and user states.
CP0 also controls the cache subsystem, as well as providing diagnostic
control and error recovery facilities.
The CP0 registers shown in Figure 1-10 and described in Table 1-19
manipulate the memory management and exception handling capabilities
of the CPU.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
27
Chapter 1
Register Name
Reg. #
Reg. #
Index
0
Config
16
Random
1
LLAddr
17
EntryLo0
2
WatchLo
18
EntryLo1
3
WatchHi
19
Context
4
XContext
20
PageMask
5
21
Wired
6
22
7
23
BadVAddr
8
24
Count
9
25
EntryHi
10
ECC
26
Compare
11
CacheErr
27
SR
12
TagLo
28
Cause
13
TagHi
29
EPC
14
ErrorEPC
30
PRId
15
Exception Processing
31
Memory Management
Figure 1-10
28
Register Name
Reserved
R4000 CP0 Registers
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Table 1-19
Number
System Control Coprocessor (CP0) Register Definitions
Register
Description
0
Index
Programmable pointer into TLB array
1
Random
Pseudorandom pointer into TLB array (read only)
2
EntryLo0
Low half of TLB entry for even virtual address (VPN)
3
EntryLo1
Low half of TLB entry for odd virtual address (VPN)
4
Context
Pointer to kernel virtual page table entry (PTE) in 32-bit
addressing mode
5
PageMask
TLB Page Mask
6
Wired
Number of wired TLB entries
7
—
Reserved
8
BadVAddr
Bad virtual address
9
Count
Timer Count
10
EntryHi
High half of TLB entry
11
Compare
Timer Compare
12
SR
Status register
13
Cause
Cause of last exception
14
EPC
Exception Program Counter
15
PRId
Processor Revision Identifier
16
Config
Configuration register
17
LLAddr
Load Linked Address
18
WatchLo
Memory reference trap address low bits
19
WatchHi
Memory reference trap address high bits
20
XContext
Pointer to kernel virtual PTE table in 64-bit addressing mode
21–25
—
Reserved
26
ECC
Secondary-cache error checking and correcting (ECC) and
Primary parity
27
CacheErr
Cache Error and Status register
28
TagLo
Cache Tag register
29
TagHi
Cache Tag register
30
ErrorEPC
Error Exception Program Counter
31
—
Reserved
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
29
Chapter 1
Floating-Point Unit (FPU), CP1
The MIPS floating-point unit (FPU) is designated CP1; the FPU extends
the CPU instruction set to perform arithmetic operations on floating-point
values. The FPU, with associated system software, fully conforms to the
requirements of ANSI/IEEE Standard 754–1985, IEEE Standard for Binary
Floating-Point Arithmetic.
The FPU features include:
30
•
Full 64-bit Operation. The FPU can contain either 16 or 32
64-bit registers to hold single-precision or double-precision
values. The FPU also includes a 32-bit Status/Control register
that provides access to all IEEE-Standard exception handling
capabilities.
•
Load and Store Instruction Set. Like the CPU, the FPU uses a
load- and store-based instruction set. Floating-point operations
are started in a single cycle and their execution overlaps other
fixed-point or floating-point operations.
•
Tightly-coupled Coprocessor Interface. The FPU is on the
CPU chip, and appears to the programmer as a simple
extension of the CPU (accessed as CP1). Together, the CPU and
FPU form a tightly-coupled unit with a seamless integration of
floating-point and fixed-point instruction sets. Since each unit
receives and executes instructions in parallel, some floatingpoint instructions can execute at the same rate (two
instructions per cycle) as fixed-point instructions.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Memory Management System (MMU)
The R4000 processor has a 36-bit physical addressing range of 64 Gbytes.
However, since it is rare for systems to implement a physical memory
space this large, the CPU provides a logical expansion of memory space by
translating addresses composed in the large virtual address space into
available physical memory addresses. The R4000 processor supports the
following two addressing modes:
•
32-bit mode, in which the virtual address space is divided into
2 Gbytes per user process and 2 Gbytes for the kernel.
•
64-bit mode, in which the virtual address is expanded to
1 Tbyte (240 bytes) of user virtual address space.
A detailed description of these address spaces is given in Chapter 4.
The Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)
Virtual memory mapping is assisted by a translation lookaside buffer,
which caches virtual-to-physical address translations. This fullyassociative, on-chip TLB contains 48 entries, each of which maps a pair of
variable-sized pages ranging from 4 Kbytes to 16 Mbytes, in multiples of
four.
Instruction TLB
The R4000 processor has a two-entry instruction TLB (ITLB) which assists
in instruction address translation. The ITLB is completely invisible to
software and exists only to increase performance.
Joint TLB
An address translation value is tagged with the most-significant bits of its
virtual address (the number of these bits depends upon the size of the
page) and a per-process identifier. If there is no matching entry in the TLB,
an exception is taken and software refills the on-chip TLB from a page
table resident in memory; this TLB is referred to as the joint TLB (JTLB)
because it contains both data and instructions jointly. The JTLB entry to
be rewritten is selected at random.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
31
Chapter 1
Operating Modes
The R4000 processor has three operating modes:
•
User mode
•
Supervisor mode
•
Kernel mode
The manner in which memory addresses are translated or mapped depends
on the operating mode of the CPU; this is described in Chapter 4.
Cache Memory Hierarchy
To achieve a high performance in uniprocessor and multiprocessor
systems, the R4000 processor supports a two-level cache memory
hierarchy that increases memory access bandwidth and reduces the
latency of load and store instructions. This hierarchy consists of on-chip
instruction and data caches, together with an optional external secondary
cache that varies in size from 128 Kbytes to 4 Mbytes.
The secondary cache is assumed to consist of one bank of industrystandard static RAM (SRAM) with output enables, arranged as a
quadword (128-bit) data array, with a 25-bit-wide tag array. Check fields
are added to both data and tag arrays to improve data integrity.
The secondary cache can be configured as a joint cache, or split into
separate instruction and data caches. The maximum secondary cache size
is 4 Mbytes; the minimum secondary cache size is 128 Kbytes for a joint
cache, or 256 Kbytes total for split instruction/data caches. The secondary
cache is direct mapped, and is addressed with the lower part of the
physical address.
Primary and secondary caches are described in more detail in Chapter 11.
32
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Introduction
Primary Caches
The R4000 processor incorporates separate on-chip primary instruction
and data caches to fill the high-performance pipeline. Each cache has its
own 64-bit data path, and each can be accessed in parallel.
The R4000 processor primary caches hold from 8 Kbytes to 32 Kbytes; the
R4400 processor primary caches are fixed at 16 Kbytes.
Cache accesses can occur up to twice each cycle. This provides the integer
and floating-point units with an aggregate bandwidth of 1.6 Gbytes per
second at a MasterClock frequency of 50 MHz.
Secondary Cache Interface
The R4000SC (secondary cache) and R4000MC (multiprocessor) versions
of the processor allow connection to an optional secondary cache. These
processors provide all of the secondary cache control circuitry, including
error checking and correcting (ECC) protection, on chip.
The Secondary Cache interface includes:
•
a 128-bit data bus
•
a 25-bit tag bus
•
an 18-bit address bus
•
SRAM control signals
The 128-bit-wide data bus is designed to minimize cache miss penalties,
and allow the use of standard low-cost SRAM in secondary cache.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
33
Chapter 1
34
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Summary
2
This chapter is an overview of the central processing unit (CPU)
instruction set; refer to Appendix A for detailed descriptions of individual
CPU instructions.
An overview of the floating-point unit (FPU) instruction set is in
Chapter 6; refer to Appendix B for detailed descriptions of individual FPU
instructions.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
35
Chapter 2
2.1 CPU Instruction Formats
Each CPU instruction consists of a single 32-bit word, aligned on a word
boundary. There are three instruction formats—immediate (I-type), jump
(J-type), and register (R-type)—as shown in Figure 2-1. The use of a small
number of instruction formats simplifies instruction decoding, allowing
the compiler to synthesize more complicated (and less frequently used)
operations and addressing modes from these three formats as needed.
I-Type (Immediate)
31
26 25
21 20
rs
op
16 15
rt
0
immediate
J-Type (Jump)
31
26 25
0
op
target
R-Type (Register)
31
26 25
op
21 20
rs
16 15
rt
11 10
rd
6 5
sa
0
funct
op
6-bit operation code
rs
5-bit source register specifier
rt
5-bit target (source/destination) register or branch
condition
immediate
16-bit immediate value, branch displacement or
address displacement
target
26-bit jump target address
rd
5-bit destination register specifier
sa
5-bit shift amount
funct
6-bit function field
Figure 2-1
CPU Instruction Formats
In the MIPS architecture, coprocessor instructions are implementationdependent; see Appendix A for details of individual Coprocessor 0
instructions.
36
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Summary
Load and Store Instructions
Load and store are immediate (I-type) instructions that move data
between memory and the general registers. The only addressing mode
that load and store instructions directly support is base register plus 16-bit
signed immediate offset.
Scheduling a Load Delay Slot
A load instruction that does not allow its result to be used by the
instruction immediately following is called a delayed load instruction. The
instruction slot immediately following this delayed load instruction is
referred to as the load delay slot.
In the R4000 processor, the instruction immediately following a load
instruction can use the contents of the loaded register, however in such
cases hardware interlocks insert additional real cycles. Consequently,
scheduling load delay slots can be desirable, both for performance and
R-Series processor compatibility. However, the scheduling of load delay
slots is not absolutely required.
Defining Access Types
Access type indicates the size of an R4000 processor data item to be loaded
or stored, set by the load or store instruction opcode. Access types are
defined in Appendix A.
Regardless of access type or byte ordering (endianness), the address given
specifies the low-order byte in the addressed field. For a big-endian
configuration, the low-order byte is the most-significant byte; for a littleendian configuration, the low-order byte is the least-significant byte.†
The access type, together with the three low-order bits of the address,
define the bytes accessed within the addressed doubleword (shown in
Table 2-1). Only the combinations shown in Table 2-1 are permissible;
other combinations cause address error exceptions. See Appendix A for
individual descriptions of CPU load and store instructions.
† Data formats are described in Chapter 1.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
37
Chapter 2
Table 2-1
Access Type
Mnemonic
(Value)
Doubleword (7)
Septibyte (6)
Sextibyte (5)
Quintibyte (4)
Word (3)
Triplebyte (2)
Halfword (1)
Byte (0)
38
Low Order
Address
Bits
Byte Access within a Doubleword
Bytes Accessed
2
1
0
Big endian
Little endian
(63-----------31------------0) (63-----------31------------0)
Byte
Byte
0
0
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0
0
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
0 1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1 0
2 3 4 5 6 7 7 6 5 4 3 2
0 1 2 3 4
4 3 2 1 0
3 4 5 6 7 7 6 5 4 3
0 1 2 3
3 2 1 0
4 5 6 7 7 6 5 4
0 1 2
2 1 0
1 2 3
3 2 1
4 5 6
6 5 4
5 6 7 7 6 5
0 1
1 0
2 3
3 2
4 5
5 4
6 7 7 6
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7 7
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Summary
Computational Instructions
Computational instructions can be either in register (R-type) format, in
which both operands are registers, or in immediate (I-type) format, in
which one operand is a 16-bit immediate.
Computational instructions perform the following operations on register
values:
•
arithmetic
•
logical
•
shift
•
multiply
•
divide
These operations fit in the following four categories of computational
instructions:
•
ALU Immediate instructions
•
three-Operand Register-Type instructions
•
shift instructions
•
multiply and divide instructions
64-bit Operations
When operating in 64-bit mode, 32-bit operands must be sign extended.
The result of operations that use incorrect sign-extended 32-bit values is
unpredictable.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
39
Chapter 2
Cycle Timing for Multiply and Divide Instructions
Any multiply instruction in the integer pipeline is transferred to the
multiplier as remaining instructions continue through the pipeline; the
product of the multiply instruction is saved in the HI and LO registers.
If the multiply instruction is followed by an MFHI or MFLO before the
product is available, the pipeline interlocks until this product does become
available.
Table 2-2 gives the execution time for integer multiply and divide
operations. The “Total Cycles” column gives the total number of cycles
required to execute the instruction. The “Overlap” column gives the
number of cycles that overlap other CPU operations; that is, the number of
cycles required between the present instruction and a subsequent MFHI or
MFLO without incurring an interlock. If this value is zero, the operation
is not performed in parallel with any other CPU operation.
Table 2-2
Multiply/Divide Instruction Cycle Timing
Instruction
Total Cycles
Overlap
MULT
12
10
MULTU
12
10
DIV
75
0
DIVU
75
0
DMULT
20
18
DMULTU
20
18
DDIV
139
0
DDIVU
139
0
For more information about computational instructions, refer to the
individual instruction as described in Appendix A.
40
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Summary
Jump and Branch Instructions
Jump and branch instructions change the control flow of a program. All
jump and branch instructions occur with a delay of one instruction: that is,
the instruction immediately following the jump or branch (this is known
as the instruction in the delay slot) always executes while the target
instruction is being fetched from storage.†
Overview of Jump Instructions
Subroutine calls in high-level languages are usually implemented with
Jump or Jump and Link instructions, both of which are J-type instructions.
In J-type format, the 26-bit target address shifts left 2 bits and combines
with the high-order 4 bits of the current program counter to form an
absolute address.
Returns, dispatches, and large cross-page jumps are usually implemented
with the Jump Register or Jump and Link Register instructions. Both are
R-type instructions that take the 32-bit or 64-bit byte address contained in
one of the general purpose registers.
For more information about jump instructions, refer to the individual
instruction as described in Appendix A.
Overview of Branch Instructions
All branch instruction target addresses are computed by adding the
address of the instruction in the delay slot to the 16-bit offset (shifted left
2 bits and sign-extended to 32 bits). All branches occur with a delay of one
instruction.
If a conditional branch likely is not taken, the instruction in the delay slot
is nullified.
For more information about branch instructions, refer to the individual
instruction as described in Appendix A.
† Taken branches have a 3 cycle penalty in this implementation. See Chapter 3 for more
information.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
41
Chapter 2
Special Instructions
Special instructions allow the software to initiate traps; they are always
R-type. For more information about special instructions, refer to the
individual instruction as described in Appendix A.
Exception Instructions
Exception instructions are extensions to the MIPS ISA. For more
information about exception instructions, refer to the individual
instruction as described in Appendix A.
Coprocessor Instructions
Coprocessor instructions perform operations in their respective
coprocessors. Coprocessor loads and stores are I-type, and coprocessor
computational instructions have coprocessor-dependent formats.
Individual coprocessor instructions are described in Appendices A (for
CP0) and B (for the FPU, CP1).
CP0 instructions perform operations specifically on the System Control
Coprocessor registers to manipulate the memory management and
exception handling facilities of the processor. Appendix A details CP0
instructions.
42
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
3
This chapter describes the basic operation of the CPU pipeline, which
includes descriptions of the delay instructions (instructions that follow a
branch or load instruction in the pipeline), interruptions to the pipeline
flow caused by interlocks and exceptions, and R4400 implementation of an
uncached store buffer.
The FPU pipeline is described in Chapter 6.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
43
Chapter 3
3.1 CPU Pipeline Operation
The CPU has an eight-stage instruction pipeline; each stage takes one
PCycle (one cycle of PClock, which runs at twice the frequency of
MasterClock). Thus, the execution of each instruction takes at least eight
PCycles (four MasterClock cycles). An instruction can take longer—for
example, if the required data is not in the cache, the data must be retrieved
from main memory.
Once the pipeline has been filled, eight instructions are executed
simultaneously. Figure 3-1 shows the eight stages of the instruction
pipeline; the next section describes the pipeline stages.
PCycle
(8-Deep)
MasterClock
Cycle
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
Current
CPU
Cycle
Figure 3-1
44
Instruction Pipeline Stages
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
3.2 CPU Pipeline Stages
This section describes each of the eight pipeline stages:
•
IF - Instruction Fetch, First Half
•
IS - Instruction Fetch, Second Half
•
RF - Register Fetch
•
EX - Execution
•
DF - Data Fetch, First Half
•
DS - Data Fetch, Second Half
•
TC - Tag Check
•
WB - Write Back
IF - Instruction Fetch, First Half
During the IF stage, the following occurs:
•
Branch logic selects an instruction address and the instruction
cache fetch begins.
•
The instruction translation lookaside buffer (ITLB) begins the
virtual-to-physical address translation.
IS - Instruction Fetch, Second Half
During the IS stage, the instruction cache fetch and the virtual-to-physical
address translation are completed.
RF - Register Fetch
During the RF stage, the following occurs:
•
The instruction decoder (IDEC) decodes the instruction and
checks for interlock conditions.
•
The instruction cache tag is checked against the page frame
number obtained from the ITLB.
•
Any required operands are fetched from the register file.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
45
Chapter 3
EX - Execution
During the EX stage, one of the following occurs:
•
The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs the arithmetic or
logical operation for register-to-register instructions.
•
The ALU calculates the data virtual address for load and store
instructions.
•
The ALU determines whether the branch condition is true and
calculates the virtual branch target address for branch
instructions.
DF - Data Fetch, First Half
During the DF stage, one of the following occurs:
•
The data cache fetch and the data virtual-to-physical
translation begins for load and store instructions.
•
The branch instruction address translation and translation
lookaside buffer (TLB)† update begins for branch instructions.
•
No operations are performed during the DF, DS, and TC stages
for register-to-register instructions.
DS - Data Fetch, Second Half
During the DS stage, one of the following occurs:
•
The data cache fetch and data virtual-to-physical translation
are completed for load and store instructions. The Shifter
aligns data to its word or doubleword boundary.
•
The branch instruction address translation and TLB update are
completed for branch instructions.
TC - Tag Check
For load and store instructions, the cache performs the tag check during
the TC stage. The physical address from the TLB is checked against the
cache tag to determine if there is a hit or a miss.
† The TLB is described in Chapter 4.
46
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
WB - Write Back
For register-to-register instructions, the instruction result is written back
to the register file during the WB stage. Branch instructions perform no
operation during this stage.
Figure 3-2 shows the activities occurring during each ALU pipeline stage,
for load, store, and branch instructions.
Clock
Phase
1
Stage
2
1
2
IS
IC1
ITLB1
IC2
ITLB2
2
1
RF
2
1
2
1
2
EX
DF
DS
ALU
Load/Store
ALU
DVA
DC1
DC2
LSA
JTLB2
Branch
IVA
IFetch
and
Decode
IF
1
1
2
TC
1
2
WB
ITC
IDEC
RF
WB
JTLB1
IC1
Instruction cache access stage 1
IC2
Instruction cache access stage 2
ITLB1
Instruction address translation stage 1
ITLB2
Instruction address translation stage 2
ITC
Instruction tag check
IDEC
Instruction decode
RF
Register operand fetch
ALU
Operation
DVA
Data virtual address calculation
DC1
Data cache access stage 1
DC2
Data cache access stage 2
LSA
Data load or store align
JTLB1
Data/Instruction address translation stage 1
JTLB2
Data/Instruction address translation stage 2
DTC
Data tag check
IVA
Instruction virtual address calculation
WB
Write back to register file
Figure 3-2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
DTC
WB
CPU Pipeline Activities
47
Chapter 3
3.3 Branch Delay
The CPU pipeline has a branch delay of three cycles and a load delay of
two cycles. The three-cycle branch delay is a result of the branch
comparison logic operating during the EX pipeline stage of the branch,
producing an instruction address that is available in the IF stage, four
instructions later.
Figure 3-3 illustrates the branch delay.
branch
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF DS
TC WB
IF
IS
RF
EX DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF EX
DF
DS
TC WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
target
three branch
delay
instructions
TC WB
Branch Delay
Figure 3-3
CPU Pipeline Branch Delay
3.4 Load Delay
The completion of a load at the end of the DS pipeline stage produces an
operand that is available for the EX pipeline stage of the third subsequent
instruction.
Figure 3-4 shows the load delay of two pipeline stages.
load
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF DS
TC WB
IF
IS
RF
EX DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF EX
DF
DS
TC WB
IF
IS
EX
DF
DS
f(load)
RF
two load
delay
instructions
TC WB
Load
Delay
Figure 3-4
48
CPU Pipeline Load Delay
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
3.5 Interlock and Exception Handling
Smooth pipeline flow is interrupted when cache misses or exceptions
occur, or when data dependencies are detected. Interruptions handled
using hardware, such as cache misses, are referred to as interlocks, while
those that are handled using software are called exceptions.
As shown in Figure 3-5, all interlock and exception conditions are
collectively referred to as faults.
Faults
Software
Hardware
Interlocks
Exceptions
Stalls
Figure 3-5
Slips
Interlocks, Exceptions, and Faults
There are two types of interlocks:
•
stalls, which are resolved by halting the pipeline
•
slips, which require one part of the pipeline to advance while
another part of the pipeline is held static
At each cycle, exception and interlock conditions are checked for all active
instructions.
Because each exception or interlock condition corresponds to a particular
pipeline stage, a condition can be traced back to the particular instruction
in the exception/interlock stage, as shown in Figure 3-6. For instance, an
Illegal Instruction (II) exception is raised in the execution (EX) stage.
Tables 3-1 and 3-2 describe the pipeline interlocks and exceptions listed in
Figure 3-6.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
49
Chapter 3
Clock
PCycle
State
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Pipeline Stage
IF
IS
ITM
RF
EX
ICM
Stall*
DF
DS
TC
CPBE
DCM
SXT
WA
WB
STI
*MP stalls can occur at any stage; they are not associated with any instruction or pipe stage
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
LDI
MultB
DivB
Slip
MDOne
ShSlip
FCBsy
IF
IS
RF
ITLB
Exceptions
Intr
OVF
DTLB
DBE
IBE
FPE
TLBMod Watch
IVACoh
ExTrap
DVACoh
II
DECCErr
BP
NMI
SC
Reset
CUn
IECCErr
Figure 3-6
50
Correspondence of Pipeline Stage to Interlock Condition
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
Table 3-1 Pipeline Exceptions
Exception
Description
ITLB
Instruction Translation or Address Exception
Intr
External Interrupt
IBE
IBus Error
IVACoh
IVA Coherent
II
Illegal Instruction
BP
Breakpoint
SC
System Call
CUn
Coprocessor Unusable
IECCErr
Instruction ECC Error
OVF
Integer Overflow
FPE
FP Interrupt
ExTrap
EX Stage Traps
DTLB
Data Translation or Address Exception
TLBMod
TLB Modified
DBE
Data Bus Error
Watch
Memory Reference Address Compare
DVACoh
DVA Coherent
DECCErr
Data ECC Error
NMI
Non-maskable Interrupt
Reset
Reset
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
51
Chapter 3
Table 3-2
Pipeline Interlocks
Interlock
Description
ITM
Instruction TLB Miss
ICM
Instruction Cache Miss
CPBE
Coprocessor Possible Exception
SXT
Integer Sign Extend
STI
Store Interlock
DCM
Data Cache Miss
WA
Watch Address Exception
LDI
Load Interlock
MultB
Multiply Unit Busy
DivB
Divide Unit Busy
MDOne
Mult/Div One Cycle Slip
ShSlip
Var Shift or Shift > 32 bits
FCBsy
FP Busy
Exception Conditions
When an exception condition occurs, the relevant instruction and all those
that follow it in the pipeline are cancelled. Accordingly, any stall
conditions and any later exception conditions that may have referenced
this instruction are inhibited; there is no benefit in servicing stalls for a
cancelled instruction.
After instruction cancellation, a new instruction stream begins, starting
execution at a predefined exception vector. System Control Coprocessor
registers are loaded with information that identifies the type of exception
and auxiliary information such as the virtual address at which translation
exceptions occur.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
Stall Conditions
Often, a stall condition is only detected after parts of the pipeline have
advanced using incorrect data; this is called a pipeline overrun. When a stall
condition is detected, all eight instructions—each different stage of the
pipeline—are frozen at once. In this stalled state, no pipeline stages can
advance until the interlock condition is resolved.
Once the interlock is removed, the restart sequence begins two cycles
before the pipeline resumes execution. The restart sequence reverses the
pipeline overrun by inserting the correct information into the pipeline.
Slip Conditions
When a slip condition is detected, pipeline stages that must advance to
resolve the dependency continue to be retired (completed), while
dependent stages are held until the required data is available.
External Stalls
External stall is another class of interlocks. An external stall originates
outside the processor and is not referenced to a particular pipeline stage.
This interlock is not affected by exceptions.
Interlock and Exception Timing
To prevent interlock and exception handling from adversely affecting the
processor cycle time, the R4000 processor uses both logic and circuit
pipeline techniques to reduce critical timing paths. Interlock and
exception handling have the following effects on the pipeline:
•
In some cases, the processor pipeline must be backed up
(reversed and started over again from a prior stage) to recover
from interlocks.
•
In some cases, interlocks are serviced for instructions that will
be aborted, due to an exception.
These two cases are discussed below.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
53
Chapter 3
Backing Up the Pipeline
An example of pipeline back-up occurs in a data cache miss, in which the
late detection of the miss causes a subsequent instruction to compute an
incorrect result.
When this occurs, not only must the cache miss be serviced but the EX
stage of the dependent instruction must be re-executed before the pipeline
can be restarted. Figure 3-7 illustrates this procedure; a minus (–) after
the pipeline stage descriptor (for instance, EX–) indicates the operation
produced an incorrect result, while a plus (+) indicates the successful
re-execution of that operation.
Cycle
Run Run Run Run Run Run Run
Stl
Stl
Stl
ALU
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
IF
IS
RF EX-
IF
IS
RF
Figure 3-7
54
Stl
Run Run Run Run Run
Rst2 Rst1
Restart
Load
Stl
DF
DS
TC
WB
DF
DS
TC
WB
DF
DS
TC
WB
RF EX+ DF
DS
TC
WB
EX
DF
DS
TC WB
Pipeline Overrun
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
Aborting an Instruction Subsequent to an Interlock
The interaction between an integer overflow and an instruction cache miss
is an example of an interlock being serviced for an instruction that is
subsequently aborted.
In this case, pipelining the overflow exception handling into the DF stage
allows an instruction cache miss to occur on the next immediate
instruction. Figure 3-8 illustrates this; aborted instructions are indicated
with an asterisk (*).
Run Run Run Run
Cycle
Stl
Stl
Stl
Stl
Run Run Run Run Run Run Run
InstrCacheMiss
Stall
Rst2 Rst1
Restart
ALU
Stl
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC WB*
OVF
IF
IS
RF
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC WB*
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC WB*
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
ICM
IF
IS
IF
Figure 3-8
TC WB*
Instruction Cache Miss
Even though the line brought in by the instruction cache could have been
replaced by a line of the exception handler, no performance loss occurs,
since the instruction cache miss would have been serviced anyway, after
returning from the exception handler. Handling of the exception is done
in this fashion because the frequency of an exception occurring is, by
definition, relatively low.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
55
Chapter 3
Pipelining the Exception Handling
Pipelining of interlock and exception handling is done by pipelining the
logical resolution of possible fault conditions with the buffering and
distributing of the pipeline control signals.
In particular, a half clock period is provided for buffering and distributing
the run control signal; during this time the logic evaluation to produce run
for the next cycle begins. Figure 3-9 shows this process for a sequence of
loads.
Clock
Phase
Load1:
1
2
1
DF
2
DS
1
2
TC
TagCk
DF
Load2:
1
DS
2
DF
2
Resolve
56
2
Buffer
TC
DS
WB
Resolve
Buffer
TC
TagCk
Figure 3-9
1
WB
TagCk
Load3:
1
WB
Resolve
Buffer
Pipelining of Interlock and Exception Handling
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
The decision whether or not to advance the pipeline is derived from these
three rules:
•
All possible fault-causing events, such as cache misses,
translation exceptions, load interlocks, etc., must be
individually evaluated.
•
The fault to be serviced is selected, based on a predefined
priority as determined by the pipeline stage of the asserted
faults.
•
Pipeline advance control signals are buffered and distributed.
Figure 3-10 illustrates this process.
Clock
Phase
Cycle
1
2
1
Run
Evaluate
2
1
Run
Resolve
Evaluate
2
Run
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
2
Run
Buffer
Resolve
Buffer
Evaluate
Figure 3-10
1
Resolve
Buffer
Pipeline Advance Decision
57
Chapter 3
Special Cases
In some instances, the pipeline control state machine is bypassed. This
occurs due to performance considerations or to correctness
considerations, which are described in the following sections.
Performance Considerations
A performance consideration occurs when there is a cache load miss. By
bypassing the pipeline state machine, it is possible to eliminate up to two
cycles of load miss latency. Two techniques, address acceleration and
address prediction, increase performance.
Address Acceleration
Address acceleration bypasses a potential cache miss address. It is relatively
straightforward to perform this bypass since sending the cache miss
address to the secondary cache has no negative impact even if a
subsequent exception nullifies the effect of this cache access. Power is
wasted when the miss is inhibited by some fault, but this is a minor effect.
Address Prediction
Another technique used to reduce miss latency is the automatic increment
and transmission of instruction miss addresses following an instruction
cache miss. This form of latency reduction is called address prediction: the
subsequent instruction miss address is predicted to be a simple increment
of the previous miss address. Figure 3-11 shows a cache miss in which the
cache miss address is changed based on the detection of the miss.
Cycle
Run Run Run Run Run Run Run
Stl
Stl
Stl
Stl
Stl
Stl
Stl
Run
Cache Index
Address
Restart
Load
Stl
Rst3 Rst2 Rst1
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
Figure 3-11
TC
DF
DS TC
WB
Load Address Bypassing
Correctness Considerations
An example in which bypassing is necessary to guarantee correctness is a
cache write.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
The CPU Pipeline
3.6 R4400 Processor Uncached Store Buffer
The R4400 processor contains an uncached store buffer to improve the
performance of uncached stores over that available from an R4000
processor. When an uncached store reaches the write-back (WB) stage in
the CPU pipeline, the CPU must stall until the store is sent off-chip. In the
R4400 processor, a single-entry buffer stores this uncached WB-stage data
on the chip without stalling the pipeline.
If a second uncached store reaches the WB stage in the R4400 processor
before the first uncached store has been moved off-chip, the CPU stalls
until the store buffer completes the first uncached store. To avoid this
stall, the compiler can insert seven instruction cycles between the two
uncached stores, as shown in Figure 3-12. A single instruction that
requires seven cycles to complete could be used in place of the seven No
Operation (NOP) instructions.
SW R2, (r3)
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
SW R2, (R3)
Figure 3-12
# uncached store
# NOP 1
# NOP 2
# NOP 3
# NOP 4
# NOP 5
# NOP 6
# NOP 7
# uncached store
Pipeline Sequence for Back-to-Back Uncached Stores
If the two uncached stores execute within a loop, the two killed
instructions which are part of the loop branch latency are included in the
count of seven interpolated cycles. Figure 3-13 shows the four NOP
instructions that need to be scheduled in this case.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
59
Chapter 3
Loop:
SW R2, (R3)
NOP
NOP
NOP
B Loop
NOP
killed
killed
Figure 3-13
# uncached store
# branch to loop
# branch latency
# branch latency
Back-to-Back Uncached Stores in a Loop
The timing requirements of the System interface govern the latency
between uncached stores; back-to-back stores can be sent across the
interface at a maximum rate of one store for every four external cycles. If
the R4400 processor is programmed to run in divide-by-2 mode (for more
information about divided clock, see the description of SClock in Chapter
10), an uncached store can occur every eight pipeline cycles. If a larger
clock divisor is used, more pipeline cycles are required for each store.
CAUTION: The R4000 processor always had a strongly-ordered
execution; however, with the addition of the uncached store buffer in
the R4400 there is a potential for out-of-order execution (described in
the section of the same name in Chapter 11, and Uncached Loads or
Stores in Chapter 12).
60
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
4
The MIPS R4000 processor provides a full-featured memory management
unit (MMU) which uses an on-chip translation lookaside buffer (TLB) to
translate virtual addresses into physical addresses.
This chapter describes the processor virtual and physical address spaces,
the virtual-to-physical address translation, the operation of the TLB in
making these translations, and those System Control Coprocessor (CP0)
registers that provide the software interface to the TLB.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 4
4.1 Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)
Mapped virtual addresses are translated into physical addresses using an
on-chip TLB.† The TLB is a fully associative memory that holds 48 entries,
which provide mapping to 48 odd/even page pairs (96 pages). When
address mapping is indicated, each TLB entry is checked simultaneously
for a match with the virtual address that is extended with an ASID stored
in the EntryHi register.
The address mapped to a page ranges in size from 4 Kbytes to 16 Mbytes,
in multiples of 4—that is, 4K, 16K, 64K, 256K, 1M, 4M, 16M.
Hits and Misses
If there is a virtual address match, or hit, in the TLB, the physical page
number is extracted from the TLB and concatenated with the offset to form
the physical address (see Figure 4-1).
If no match occurs (TLB miss), an exception is taken and software refills
the TLB from the page table resident in memory. Software can write over
a selected TLB entry or use a hardware mechanism to write into a random
entry.
Multiple Matches
If more than one entry in the TLB matches the virtual address being
translated, the operation is undefined. To prevent permanent damage to
the part, the TLB may be disabled if more than several entries match. The
TLB-Shutdown (TS) bit in the Status register is set to 1 if the TLB is
disabled.
† There are virtual-to-physical address translations that occur outside of the TLB. For
example, addresses in the kseg0 and kseg1 spaces are unmapped translations. In these
spaces the physical address is derived by subtracting the base address of the space from
the virtual address.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
4.2 Address Spaces
This section describes the virtual and physical address spaces and the
manner in which virtual addresses are converted or “translated” into
physical addresses in the TLB.
Virtual Address Space
The processor virtual address can be either 32 or 64 bits wide,† depending
on whether the processor is operating in 32-bit or 64-bit mode.
•
In 32-bit mode, addresses are 32 bits wide. The maximum user
process size is 2 gigabytes (231).
•
In 64-bit mode, addresses are 64 bits wide. The maximum user
process size is 1 terabyte (240).
Figure 4-1 shows the translation of a virtual address into a physical
address.
Virtual address
1. Virtual address (VA) represented by the
virtual page number (VPN) is compared
with tag in TLB.
2. If there is a match, the page frame
number (PFN) representing the upper
bits of the physical address (PA) is
output from the TLB.
G
ASID
VPN
G
ASID
VPN
Offset
TLB
Entry
PFN
TLB
3. The Offset, which does not pass through
the TLB, is then concatenated to the PFN.
PFN
Offset
Physical address
Figure 4-1
Overview of a Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation
† Figure 4-8 shows the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the processor TLB entry.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
63
Chapter 4
As shown in Figures 4-2 and 4-3, the virtual address is extended with an
8-bit address space identifier (ASID), which reduces the frequency of TLB
flushing when switching contexts. This 8-bit ASID is in the CP0 EntryHi
register, described later in this chapter. The Global bit (G) is in the EntryLo0
and EntryLo1 registers, described later in this chapter.
Physical Address Space
Using a 36-bit address, the processor physical address space encompasses
64 gigabytes. The section following describes the translation of a virtual
address to a physical address.
Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation
Converting a virtual address to a physical address begins by comparing
the virtual address from the processor with the virtual addresses in the
TLB; there is a match when the virtual page number (VPN) of the address
is the same as the VPN field of the entry, and either:
•
the Global (G) bit of the TLB entry is set, or
•
the ASID field of the virtual address is the same as the ASID
field of the TLB entry.
This match is referred to as a TLB hit. If there is no match, a TLB Miss
exception is taken by the processor and software is allowed to refill the
TLB from a page table of virtual/physical addresses in memory.
If there is a virtual address match in the TLB, the physical address is
output from the TLB and concatenated with the Offset, which represents
an address within the page frame space. The Offset does not pass through
the TLB.
Virtual-to-physical translation is described in greater detail throughout
the remainder of this chapter; Figure 4-20 is a flow diagram of the process
shown at the end of this chapter.
The next two sections describe the 32-bit and 64-bit address translations.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
32-bit Mode Address Translation
Figure 4-2 shows the virtual-to-physical-address translation of a 32-bit
mode address.
•
The top portion of Figure 4-2 shows a virtual address with a
12-bit, or 4-Kbyte, page size, labelled Offset. The remaining 20
bits of the address represent the VPN, and index the 1M-entry
page table.
•
The bottom portion of Figure 4-2 shows a virtual address with
a 24-bit, or 16-Mbyte, page size, labelled Offset. The remaining
8 bits of the address represent the VPN, and index the 256entry page table.
Virtual Address with 1M (220) 4-Kbyte pages
39
32 31 29 28
12 11
20 bits = 1M pages
0
ASID
VPN
Offset
8
20
12
Virtual-to-physical
translation in TLB
Bits 31, 30 and 29 of the virtual
address select user, supervisor,
or kernel address spaces.
TLB
36-bit Physical Address
35
0
PFN
Offset
Virtual-to-physical
translation in TLB
Offset passed
unchanged to
physical
memory
TLB
39
32 31 29 28
ASID
8
Offset passed
unchanged to
physical
memory
24 23
VPN
8
8 bits = 256 pages
0
Offset
24
Virtual Address with 256 (28)16-Mbyte pages
Figure 4-2
32-bit Mode Virtual Address Translation
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
65
Chapter 4
64-bit Mode Address Translation
Figure 4-3 shows the virtual-to-physical-address translation of a 64-bit
mode address. This figure illustrates the two extremes in the range of
possible page sizes: a 4-Kbyte page (12 bits) and a 16-Mbyte page (24 bits).
•
The top portion of Figure 4-3 shows a virtual address with a
12-bit, or 4-Kbyte, page size, labelled Offset. The remaining 28
bits of the address represent the VPN, and index the 256Mentry page table.
•
The bottom portion of Figure 4-3 shows a virtual address with
a 24-bit, or 16-Mbyte, page size, labelled Offset. The remaining
16 bits of the address represent the VPN, and index the 64Kentry page table.
Virtual Address with 256M (228) 4-Kbyte pages
71
64 63 62 61
40 39
28 bits = 256M pages
12 11
0
ASID
0 or -1
VPN
Offset
8
24
28
12
Virtual-to-physical
translation in TLB
Bits 62 and 63 of the virtual
address select user, supervisor,
35
or kernel address spaces.
TLB
36-bit Physical Address
0
PFN
Offset
Offset passed
unchanged to
physical
memory
Virtual-to-physical
translation in TLB
TLB
71
64
ASID
8
63 62 61
40 39
0 or -1
24
Offset passed
unchanged to
physical
memory
24 23
0
VPN
Offset
16
24
16 bits = 64K pages
Virtual Address with 64K (216)16-Mbyte pages
Figure 4-3
66
64-bit Mode Virtual Address Translation
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Operating Modes
The processor has three operating modes that function in both 32- and 64bit operations:
•
User mode
•
Supervisor mode
•
Kernel mode
These modes are described in the next three sections.
User Mode Operations
In User mode, a single, uniform virtual address space—labelled User
segment—is available; its size is:
•
2 Gbytes (231 bytes) in 32-bit mode (useg)
•
1 Tbyte (240 bytes) in 64-bit mode (xuseg)
Figure 4-4 shows User mode virtual address space.
32-bit*
64-bit
0x FFFF FFFF
0x FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF
Address
Error
Address
Error
0x 8000 0000
0x 0000 0100 0000 0000
2 GB
Mapped
1 TB
Mapped
useg
0x 0000 0000
xuseg
0x 0000 0000 0000 0000
Figure 4-4
User Mode Virtual Address Space
*NOTE: The R4000 uses 64-bit addresses internally. When the kernel
is running in Kernel mode, it initializes registers before switching
modes, and saves (or restores, whichever is appropriate) register
values on context switches. In 32-bit mode, a valid address must be a
32-bit signed number, where bits 63:32 = bit 31. In normal operation
it is not possible for a 32-bit User-mode program to produce invalid
addresses. However, although it would be an error, it is possible for a
Kernel-mode program to erroneously place a value that is not a 32-bit
signed number into a 64-bit register, in which case the User-mode
program generates an invalid address.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 4
The User segment starts at address 0 and the current active user process
resides in either useg (in 32-bit mode) or xuseg (in 64-bit mode). The TLB
identically maps all references to useg/xuseg from all modes, and controls
cache accessibility.†
The processor operates in User mode when the Status register contains the
following bit-values:
•
KSU bits = 102
•
EXL = 0
•
ERL = 0
In conjunction with these bits, the UX bit in the Status register selects
between 32- or 64-bit User mode addressing as follows:
•
when UX = 0, 32-bit useg space is selected and TLB misses are
handled by the 32-bit TLB refill exception handler
•
when UX = 1, 64-bit xuseg space is selected and TLB misses are
handled by the 64-bit XTLB refill exception handler
Table 4-1 lists the characteristics of the two user mode segments, useg and
xuseg.
Table 4-1
32-bit and 64-bit User Mode Segments
Status Register
Address Bit
Values
Segment
Name
Bit Values
Address Range
Segment Size
KSU EXL ERL UX
32-bit
A(31) = 0
102
0
0
0
useg
0x0000 0000
through
0x7FFF FFFF
2 Gbyte
(231 bytes)
64-bit
A(63:40) = 0
102
0
0
1
xuseg
0x0000 0000 0000 0000
through
0x0000 00FF FFFF FFFF
1 Tbyte
(240 bytes)
† The cached (C) field in a TLB entry determines whether the reference is cached; see Figure
4-8.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
32-bit User Mode (useg)
In User mode, when UX = 0 in the Status register, User mode addressing
is compatible with the 32-bit addressing model shown in Figure 4-4, and a
2-Gbyte user address space is available, labelled useg.
All valid User mode virtual addresses have their most-significant bit
cleared to 0; any attempt to reference an address with the most-significant
bit set while in User mode causes an Address Error exception.
The system maps all references to useg through the TLB, and bit settings
within the TLB entry for the page determine the cacheability of a reference.
64-bit User Mode (xuseg)
In User mode, when UX =1 in the Status register, User mode addressing is
extended to the 64-bit model shown in Figure 4-4. In 64-bit User mode, the
processor provides a single, uniform address space of 240 bytes, labelled
xuseg.
All valid User mode virtual addresses have bits 63:40 equal to 0; an
attempt to reference an address with bits 63:40 not equal to 0 causes an
Address Error exception.
Supervisor Mode Operations
Supervisor mode is designed for layered operating systems in which a
true kernel runs in R4000 Kernel mode, and the rest of the operating
system runs in Supervisor mode.
The processor operates in Supervisor mode when the Status register
contains the following bit-values:
•
KSU = 012
•
EXL = 0
•
ERL = 0
In conjunction with these bits, the SX bit in the Status register selects
between 32- or 64-bit Supervisor mode addressing:
•
when SX = 0, 32-bit supervisor space is selected and TLB
misses are handled by the 32-bit TLB refill exception handler
•
when SX = 1, 64-bit supervisor space is selected and TLB
misses are handled by the 64-bit XTLB refill exception handler
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
69
Chapter 4
Figure 4-5 shows Supervisor mode address mapping. Table 4-2 lists the
characteristics of the supervisor mode segments; descriptions of the
address spaces follow.
32-bit*
0x FFFF FFFF
0x E000 0000
0x C000 0000
0x A000 0000
0x 8000 0000
Address
error
0.5 GB
Mapped
Address
error
Address
error
64-bit
0x FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF
0x FFFF FFFF E000 0000
sseg
0x FFFF FFFF C000 0000
0x 4000 0100 0000 0000
Address
error
0.5 GB
Mapped
csseg
Address
error
1 TB
Mapped
xsseg
0x 4000 0000 0000 0000
2 GB
Mapped
suseg
0x 0000 0000
0x 0000 0100 0000 0000
Address
error
1 TB
Mapped
xsuseg
0x 0000 0000 0000 0000
Figure 4-5
Supervisor Mode Address Space
*NOTE: The R4000 uses 64-bit addresses internally. In 32-bit mode,
a valid address must be a 32-bit signed number, where bits 63:32 = bit
31. In normal operation it is not possible for a 32-bit Supervisor-mode
program to create an invalid address through arithmetic operations.
However 32-bit-mode Supervisor programs must not create addresses
using base register+offset calculations that produce a 32-bit 2’scomplement overflow; in specific, there are two prohibited cases:
•
offset with bit 15 = 0 and base register with bit 31 = 0, but (base
register+offset) bit 31 = 1
•
offset with bit 15 = 1 and base register with bit 31 = 1, but (base
register+offset) bit 31 = 0
Using this invalid address produces an undefined result.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Table 4-2
32-bit and 64-bit Supervisor Mode Segments
Status Register
Address Bit
Values
Segment
Name
Bit Values
Address Range
Segment
Size
KSU EXL ERL SX
32-bit
A(31) = 0
012
0
0
0
suseg
0x0000 0000
through
0x7FFF FFFF
2 Gbytes
(231 bytes)
32-bit
A(31:29) = 1102
012
0
0
0
ssseg
0xC000 0000
through
0xDFFF FFFF
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
64-bit
A(63:62) = 002
012
0
0
1
xsuseg
0x0000 0000 0000 0000
through
0x0000 00FF FFFF FFFF
1 Tbyte
(240 bytes)
64-bit
A(63:62) = 012
012
0
0
1
xsseg
0x4000 0000 0000 0000
through
0x4000 00FF FFFF FFFF
1 Tbyte
(240 bytes)
64-bit
A(63:62) = 112
012
0
0
1
csseg
0xFFFF FFFF C000 0000
through
0xFFFF FFFF DFFF FFFF
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
32-bit Supervisor Mode, User Space (suseg)
In Supervisor mode, when SX = 0 in the Status register and the mostsignificant bit of the 32-bit virtual address is set to 0, the suseg virtual
address space is selected; it covers the full 231 bytes (2 Gbytes) of the
current user address space. The virtual address is extended with the
contents of the 8-bit ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
This mapped space starts at virtual address 0x0000 0000 and runs through
0x7FFF FFFF.
32-bit Supervisor Mode, Supervisor Space (sseg)
In Supervisor mode, when SX = 0 in the Status register and the three mostsignificant bits of the 32-bit virtual address are 1102, the sseg virtual
address space is selected; it covers 229-bytes (512 Mbytes) of the current
supervisor address space. The virtual address is extended with the
contents of the 8-bit ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
This mapped space begins at virtual address 0xC000 0000 and runs
through 0xDFFF FFFF.
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Chapter 4
64-bit Supervisor Mode, User Space (xsuseg)
In Supervisor mode, when SX = 1 in the Status register and bits 63:62 of the
virtual address are set to 002, the xsuseg virtual address space is selected;
it covers the full 240 bytes (1 Tbyte) of the current user address space. The
virtual address is extended with the contents of the 8-bit ASID field to
form a unique virtual address.
This mapped space starts at virtual address 0x0000 0000 0000 0000 and
runs through 0x0000 00FF FFFF FFFF.
64-bit Supervisor Mode, Current Supervisor Space (xsseg)
In Supervisor mode, when SX = 1 in the Status register and bits 63:62 of the
virtual address are set to 012, the xsseg current supervisor virtual address
space is selected. The virtual address is extended with the contents of the
8-bit ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
This mapped space begins at virtual address 0x4000 0000 0000 0000 and
runs through 0x4000 00FF FFFF FFFF.
64-bit Supervisor Mode, Separate Supervisor Space (csseg)
In Supervisor mode, when SX = 1 in the Status register and bits 63:62 of the
virtual address are set to 112, the csseg separate supervisor virtual address
space is selected. Addressing of the csseg is compatible with addressing
sseg in 32-bit mode. The virtual address is extended with the contents of
the 8-bit ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
This mapped space begins at virtual address 0xFFFF FFFF C000 0000 and
runs through 0xFFFF FFFF DFFF FFFF.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Kernel Mode Operations
The processor operates in Kernel mode when the Status register contains
one of the following values:
•
KSU = 002
•
EXL = 1
•
ERL = 1
In conjunction with these bits, the KX bit in the Status register selects
between 32- or 64-bit Kernel mode addressing:
•
when KX = 0, 32-bit kernel space is selected and all TLB misses
are handled by the 32-bit TLB refill exception handler
•
when KX = 1, 64-bit kernel space is selected and all TLB misses
are handled by the 64-bit XTLB refill exception handler
The processor enters Kernel mode whenever an exception is detected and
it remains in Kernel mode until an Exception Return (ERET) instruction is
executed. The ERET instruction restores the processor to the mode
existing prior to the exception.
Kernel mode virtual address space is divided into regions differentiated
by the high-order bits of the virtual address, as shown in Figure 4-6. Table
4-3 lists the characteristics of the 32-bit kernel mode segments, and Table
4-4 lists the characteristics of the 64-bit kernel mode segments.
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Chapter 4
32-bit*
0x E000 0000
0x FFFF FFFF E000 0000
64-bit
0.5 GB
Mapped
0x FFFF FFFF C000 0000
0.5 GB
Mapped
0x FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF
0x FFFF FFFF
0.5 GB
Mapped
0.5 GB
Mapped
kseg3
0.5 GB
Unmapped
Uncached
0.5 GB
Unmapped
Cached
ksseg
0x FFFF FFFF A000 0000
0x C000 0000
kseg1 0x FFFF FFFF 8000 0000
0x A000 0000
0.5 GB
Unmapped
Uncached
kseg0
0x 8000 0000
0.5 GB
Unmapped
Cached
ckseg3
cksseg
ckseg1
ckseg0
Address
error
0x C000 00FF 8000 0000
Mapped
xkseg
Unmapped
xkphys
0x C000 0000 0000 0000
0x 8000 0000 0000 0000
0x 4000 0100 0000 0000
2 GB
1 TB
Mapped
kuseg
Mapped
Address
error
xksseg
0x 4000 0000 0000 0000
0x 0000 0100 0000 0000
Address
error
1 TB
Mapped
xkuseg
0x 0000 0000 0000 0000
0x 0000 0000
Figure 4-6
Kernel Mode Address Space
*NOTE: The R4000 uses 64-bit addresses internally. In 32-bit mode,
a valid address must be a 32-bit signed number, where bits 63:32 = bit
31; an invalid address produces an undefined result. In 32-bit mode,
a Kernel-mode program may use 64-bit instructions, but must not
create addresses using base register+offset calculations that produce a
32-bit 2’s-complement overflow; in specific, there are two prohibited
cases:
74
•
offset with bit 15 = 0 and base register with bit 31 = 0, but (base
register+offset) bit 31 = 1
•
offset with bit 15 = 1 and base register with bit 31 = 1, but (base
register+offset) bit 31 = 0
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Table 4-3
Address Bit
Values
32-bit Kernel Mode Segments
Status Register
Is One Of These
Values
Segment
Name
Address Range
Segment
Size
KSU EXL ERL KX
A(31) = 0
0
kuseg
0x0000 0000
through
0x7FFF FFFF
2 Gbytes
(231 bytes)
A(31:29) = 1002
0
kseg0
0x8000 0000
through
0x9FFF FFFF
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
0
kseg1
0xA000 0000
through
0xBFFF FFFF
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
A(31:29) = 1102
0
ksseg
0xC000 0000
through
0xDFFF FFFF
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
A(31:29) = 1112
0
kseg3
0xE000 0000
through
0xFFFF FFFF
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
A(31:29) = 1012
KSU = 002
or
EXL = 1
or
ERL =1
32-bit Kernel Mode, User Space (kuseg)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 0 in the Status register, and the mostsignificant bit of the virtual address, A31, is cleared, the 32-bit kuseg virtual
address space is selected; it covers the full 231 bytes (2 Gbytes) of the
current user address space. The virtual address is extended with the
contents of the 8-bit ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
When ERL = 1 in the Status register, the user address region becomes a
231-byte unmapped (that is, mapped directly to physical addresses)
uncached address space. See the Cache Error exception in Chapter 5 for
more information.
32-bit Kernel Mode, Kernel Space 0 (kseg0)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 0 in the Status register and the mostsignificant three bits of the virtual address are 1002, 32-bit kseg0 virtual
address space is selected; it is the 229-byte (512-Mbyte) kernel physical
space. References to kseg0 are not mapped through the TLB; the physical
address selected is defined by subtracting 0x8000 0000 from the virtual
address. The K0 field of the Config register, described in this chapter,
controls cacheability and coherency.
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Chapter 4
32-bit Kernel Mode, Kernel Space 1 (kseg1)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 0 in the Status register and the mostsignificant three bits of the 32-bit virtual address are 1012, 32-bit kseg1
virtual address space is selected; it is the 229-byte (512-Mbyte) kernel
physical space.
References to kseg1 are not mapped through the TLB; the physical address
selected is defined by subtracting 0xA000 0000 from the virtual address.
Caches are disabled for accesses to these addresses, and physical memory
(or memory-mapped I/O device registers) are accessed directly.
32-bit Kernel Mode, Supervisor Space (ksseg)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 0 in the Status register and the mostsignificant three bits of the 32-bit virtual address are 1102, the ksseg virtual
address space is selected; it is the current 229-byte (512-Mbyte) supervisor
virtual space. The virtual address is extended with the contents of the 8bit ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
32-bit Kernel Mode, Kernel Space 3 (kseg3)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 0 in the Status register and the mostsignificant three bits of the 32-bit virtual address are 1112, the kseg3 virtual
address space is selected; it is the current 229-byte (512-Mbyte) kernel
virtual space. The virtual address is extended with the contents of the 8-bit
ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Table 4-4
Address Bit
Values
64-bit Kernel Mode Segments
Status Register
Is One Of These
Values
Segment
Name
Address Range
Segment
Size
KSU EXL ERL KX
A(63:62) = 002
1
xksuseg
0x0000 0000 0000 0000
through
0x0000 00FF FFFF FFFF
1 Tbyte
(240 bytes)
A(63:62) = 012
1
xksseg
0x4000 0000 0000 0000
through
0x4000 00FF FFFF FFFF
1 Tbyte
(240 bytes)
A(63:62) = 102
1
xkphys
0x8000 0000 0000 0000
through
0xBFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF
8 236-byte
spaces
1
xkseg
0xC000 0000 0000 0000
through
0xC000 00FF 7FFF FFFF
(240–231)
bytes
1
ckseg0
0xFFFF FFFF 8000 0000
through
0xFFFF FFFF 9FFF FFFF
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
A(63:62) = 112
A(61:31) = -1
1
ckseg1
0xFFFF FFFF A000 0000
through
0xFFFF FFFF BFFF FFFF
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
A(63:62) = 112
A(61:31) = -1
1
cksseg
0xFFFF FFFF C000 0000 512 Mbytes
through
29
0xFFFF FFFF DFFF FFFF (2 bytes)
A(63:62) = 112
A(61:31) = -1
1
ckseg3
0xFFFF FFFF E000 0000
through
0xFFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF
A(63:62) = 112
A(63:62) = 112
A(61:31) = -1
KSU = 002
or
EXL = 1
or
ERL =1
512 Mbytes
(229 bytes)
64-bit Kernel Mode, User Space (xkuseg)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 1 in the Status register and bits 63:62 of the 64bit virtual address are 002, the xkuseg virtual address space is selected; it
covers the current user address space. The virtual address is extended
with the contents of the 8-bit ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
When ERL = 1 in the Status register, the user address region becomes a 231byte unmapped (that is, mapped directly to physical addresses) uncached
address space. See the Cache Error exception in Chapter 5 for more
information.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
77
Chapter 4
64-bit Kernel Mode, Current Supervisor Space (xksseg)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 1 in the Status register and bits 63:62 of the 64bit virtual address are 012, the xksseg virtual address space is selected; it is
the current supervisor virtual space. The virtual address is extended with
the contents of the 8-bit ASID field to form a unique virtual address.
64-bit Kernel Mode, Physical Spaces (xkphys)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 1 in the Status register and bits 63:62 of the 64bit virtual address are 102, the xkphys virtual address space is selected; it is
a set of eight 236-byte kernel physical spaces. Accesses with address bits
58:36 not equal to 0 cause an address error.
References to this space are not mapped; the physical address selected is
taken from bits 35:0 of the virtual address. Bits 61:59 of the virtual address
specify the cacheability and coherency attributes, as shown in Table 4-5.
Table 4-5
Value (61:59)
78
Cacheability and Coherency Attributes
Cacheability and Coherency Attributes
Starting Address
0
Reserved
0x8000 0000 0000 0000
1
Reserved
0x8800 0000 0000 0000
2
Uncached
0x9000 0000 0000 0000
3
Cacheable, noncoherent
0x9800 0000 0000 0000
4
Cacheable, coherent exclusive
0xA000 0000 0000 0000
5
Cacheable, coherent exclusive on write
0xA800 0000 0000 0000
6
Cacheable, coherent update on write
0xB000 0000 0000 0000
7
Reserved
0xB800 0000 0000 0000
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
64-bit Kernel Mode, Kernel Space (xkseg)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 1 in the Status register and bits 63:62 of the 64bit virtual address are 112, the address space selected is one of the
following:
•
kernel virtual space, xkseg, the current kernel virtual space; the
virtual address is extended with the contents of the 8-bit ASID
field to form a unique virtual address
•
one of the four 32-bit kernel compatibility spaces, as described
in the next section.
64-bit Kernel Mode, Compatibility Spaces (ckseg1:0, cksseg, ckseg3)
In Kernel mode, when KX = 1 in the Status register, bits 63:62 of the 64-bit
virtual address are 112, and bits 61:31 of the virtual address equal –1, the
lower two bytes of address, as shown in Figure 4-6, select one of the
following 512-Mbyte compatibility spaces.
•
ckseg0. This 64-bit virtual address space is an unmapped
region, compatible with the 32-bit address model kseg0. The K0
field of the Config register, described in this chapter, controls
cacheability and coherency.
•
ckseg1. This 64-bit virtual address space is an unmapped and
uncached region, compatible with the 32-bit address model
kseg1.
•
cksseg. This 64-bit virtual address space is the current
supervisor virtual space, compatible with the 32-bit address
model ksseg.
•
ckseg3. This 64-bit virtual address space is kernel virtual space,
compatible with the 32-bit address model kseg3.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 4
4.3 System Control Coprocessor
The System Control Coprocessor (CP0) is implemented as an integral part
of the CPU, and supports memory management, address translation,
exception handling, and other privileged operations. CP0 contains the
registers shown in Figure 4-7 plus a 48-entry TLB. The sections that follow
describe how the processor uses the memory management-related
registers†.
Each CP0 register has a unique number that identifies it; this number is
referred to as the register number. For instance, the Page Mask register is
register number 5.
EntryHi
EntryHi
10*
EntryLo0
EntryLo0
2*2*
EntryLo1
3*
Context
0*
Index
BadVAddr
4*
8*
Random
Random
Count
Page Mask
Page Mask
Status
12*
13*
Wired
Wired
EPC
WatchLo
Index
47
5*
TLB
0
(“Safe” entries)
(See Random Register,
contents of TLB Wired)
127
0
Compare
9*
1*
11*
Cause
6*
14*
PRId
WatchHi
15*
19*
Config
ECC
CacheErr
16*
26*
27*
18*
XContext
20*
LLAddr
TagLo
TagHi
ErrorEPC
17*
28*
29*
30*
Used with memory
management system.
*Register number
Figure 4-7
Used with exception
processing. See
Chapter 5 for details.
CP0 Registers and the TLB
† For a description of CP0 data dependencies and hazards, please see Appendix F.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Format of a TLB Entry
Figure 4-8 shows the TLB entry formats for both 32- and 64-bit modes.
Each field of an entry has a corresponding field in the EntryHi, EntryLo0,
EntryLo1, or PageMask registers, as shown in Figures 4-9 and 4-10; for
example the Mask field of the TLB entry is also held in the PageMask
register.
32-bit Mode
127
121 120
109
0
MASK
7
12
96
0
13
95
128-bit TLB
entry in 32bit mode of
R4000
processor
108
77 76 75 72 71
64
VPN2
G
0
ASID
19
1
4
8
63 62 61
38 37 35 34 33 32
0
PFN
2
24
C
D V0
3
31 30 29
6
1 1 1
5
3 2 1
0
0
PFN
C
D V 0
2
24
3
1 1 1
64-bit Mode
255
217 216
191 190 189
256-bit TLB
entry in 64bit mode of
R4000
processor
192
205 204
0
MASK
0
39
12
13
168 167
141 140139 136 135
128
R
0
VPN2
G
0
ASID
2
22
27
1
4
8
127
94 93
70 69
67 66 65 64
0
PFN
C
D V0
34
24
3
1 1 1
63
30 29
6
5
3 2 1
0
0
PFN
C
D V0
34
24
3
1 1 1
Figure 4-8
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Format of a TLB Entry
81
Chapter 4
The format of the EntryHi, EntryLo0, EntryLo1, and PageMask registers are
nearly the same as the TLB entry. The one exception is the Global field
(G bit), which is used in the TLB, but is reserved in the EntryHi register.
Figures 4-9 and 4-10 describe the TLB entry fields shown in Figure 4-8.
31
32-bit
Mode
25 24
PageMask Register
0
0
13 12
0
MASK
7
12
13
Mask ..... Page comparison mask.
0 ........... Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes when read.
EntryHi Register
31
32-bit
Mode
13 12
VPN2
64-bit
Mode
ASID
0
19
63 62 61
8
5
40 39
0
8 7
13 12
0
8 7
R
FILL
VPN2
0
2
22
27
5
ASID
8
VPN2 ... Virtual page number divided by two (maps to two pages).
ASID .... Address space ID field. An 8-bit field that lets multiple processes share the TLB;
each process has a distinct mapping of otherwise identical virtual page numbers.
R .......... Region. (00 → user, 01 → supervisor, 11 → kernel) used to match vAddr63...62
Fill ........ Reserved. 0 on read; ignored on write.
0 ........... Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes when read.
Figure 4-9
82
Fields of the PageMask and EntryHi Registers
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
30 29
31
32-bit
Mode
EntryLo0 and EntryLo1 Registers
0
32-bit
Mode
24
2
63
30 29
3
1 1 1
3 2 1 0
C
D V G
3
1 1 1
3 2 1 0
6 5
0
PFN
34
24
63
64-bit
Mode
D V G
6 5
PFN
C
3
6 5
30 29
PFN
0
0
C
24
30 29
0
64-bit
Mode
3 2 1
PFN
2
31
6 5
C
D V G
1 1 1
3 2 1 0
D V G
34
24
3
1 1 1
PFN ...... Page frame number; the upper bits of the physical address.
C .......... Specifies the TLB page coherency attribute; see Table 4-6.
D .......... Dirty. If this bit is set, the page is marked as dirty and, therefore, writable. This bit is
actually a write-protect bit that software can use to prevent alteration of data.
V .......... Valid. If this bit is set, it indicates that the TLB entry is valid; otherwise, a TLBL or TLBS
miss occurs.
G .......... Global. If this bit is set in both Lo0 and Lo1, then the processor ignores the ASID during
TLB lookup.
0 ........... Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes when read.
Figure 4-10
Fields of the EntryLo0 and EntryLo1 Registers
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 4
The TLB page coherency attribute (C) bits specify whether references to
the page should be cached; if cached, the algorithm selects between several
coherency attributes. Table 4-6 shows the coherency attributes selected by
the C bits.
Table 4-6
TLB Page Coherency (C) Bit Values
C(5:3) Value
Page Coherency Attribute
0
Reserved
1
Reserved
2
Uncached
3
Cacheable noncoherent (noncoherent)
4
Cacheable coherent exclusive (exclusive)
5
Cacheable coherent exclusive on write (sharable)
6
Cacheable coherent update on write (update)
7
Reserved
CP0 Registers
The following sections describe the CP0 registers, shown in Figure 4-7,
that are assigned specifically as a software interface with memory
management (each register is followed by its register number in
parentheses).
84
•
Index register (CP0 register number 0)
•
Random register (1)
•
EntryLo0 (2) and EntryLo1 (3) registers
•
PageMask register (5)
•
Wired register (6)
•
EntryHi register (10)
•
PRId register (15)
•
Config register (16)
•
LLAddr register (17)
•
TagLo (28) and TagHi (29) registers
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Index Register (0)
The Index register is a 32-bit, read/write register containing six bits to
index an entry in the TLB. The high-order bit of the register shows the
success or failure of a TLB Probe (TLBP) instruction.
The Index register also specifies the TLB entry affected by TLB Read
(TLBR) or TLB Write Index (TLBWI) instructions.
Figure 4-11 shows the format of the Index register; Table 4-7 describes the
Index register fields.
Index Register
31
30
6 5
0
P
0
Index
1
25
6
Figure 4-11
Table 4-7
Field
Index Register
Index Register Field Descriptions
Description
P
Probe failure. Set to 1 when the previous TLBProbe
(TLBP) instruction was unsuccessful.
Index
Index to the TLB entry affected by the TLBRead and
TLBWrite instructions
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes
when read.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
85
Chapter 4
Random Register (1)
The Random register is a read-only register of which six bits index an entry
in the TLB. This register decrements as each instruction executes, and its
values range between an upper and a lower bound, as follows:
•
A lower bound is set by the number of TLB entries reserved for
exclusive use by the operating system (the contents of the
Wired register).
•
An upper bound is set by the total number of TLB entries (47
maximum).
The Random register specifies the entry in the TLB that is affected by the
TLB Write Random instruction. The register does not need to be read for
this purpose; however, the register is readable to verify proper operation
of the processor.
To simplify testing, the Random register is set to the value of the upper
bound upon system reset. This register is also set to the upper bound
when the Wired register is written.
Figure 4-12 shows the format of the Random register; Table 4-8 describes
the Random register fields.
Random Register
31
6 5
0
Random
26
Figure 4-12
Table 4-8
6
Random Register
Random Register Field Descriptions
Field
86
0
Description
Random
TLB Random index
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes
when read.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
EntryLo0 (2), and EntryLo1 (3) Registers
The EntryLo register consists of two registers that have identical formats:
•
EntryLo0 is used for even virtual pages.
•
EntryLo1 is used for odd virtual pages.
The EntryLo0 and EntryLo1 registers are read/write registers. They hold
the physical page frame number (PFN) of the TLB entry for even and odd
pages, respectively, when performing TLB read and write operations.
Figure 4-10 shows the format of these registers.
PageMask Register (5)
The PageMask register is a read/write register used for reading from or
writing to the TLB; it holds a comparison mask that sets the variable page
size for each TLB entry, as shown in Table 4-9.
TLB read and write operations use this register as either a source or a
destination; when virtual addresses are presented for translation into
physical address, the corresponding bits in the TLB identify which virtual
address bits among bits 24:13 are used in the comparison. When the Mask
field is not one of the values shown in Table 4-9, the operation of the TLB
is undefined.
Table 4-9
Page Size
Mask Field Values for Page Sizes
Bit
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
4 Kbytes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
16 Kbytes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
64 Kbytes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
256 Kbytes
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 Mbyte
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4 Mbytes
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
16 Mbytes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
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Chapter 4
Wired Register (6)
The Wired register is a read/write register that specifies the boundary
between the wired and random entries of the TLB as shown in Figure 4-13.
Wired entries are fixed, nonreplaceable entries, which cannot be
overwritten by a TLB write operation. Random entries can be overwritten.
TLB
47
Range of Random entries
Wired
Register
Range of Wired entries
0
Figure 4-13
Wired Register Boundary
The Wired register is set to 0 upon system reset. Writing this register also
sets the Random register to the value of its upper bound (see Random
register, above). Figure 4-14 shows the format of the Wired register; Table
4-10 describes the register fields.
Wired Register
31
6 5
0
Wired
26
6
Figure 4-14
Table 4-10
Field
88
0
Wired Register
Wired Register Field Descriptions
Description
Wired
TLB Wired boundary
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns
zeroes when read.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
EntryHi Register (CP0 Register 10)
The EntryHi register holds the high-order bits of a TLB entry for TLB read
and write operations.
The EntryHi register is accessed by the TLB Probe, TLB Write Random,
TLB Write Indexed, and TLB Read Indexed instructions.
Figure 4-9 shows the format of this register.
When either a TLB refill, TLB invalid, or TLB modified exception occurs,
the EntryHi register is loaded with the virtual page number (VPN2) and
the ASID of the virtual address that did not have a matching TLB entry.
(See Chapter 5 for more information about these exceptions.)
Processor Revision Identifier (PRId) Register (15)
The 32-bit, read-only Processor Revision Identifier (PRId) register contains
information identifying the implementation and revision level of the CPU
and CP0. Figure 4-15 shows the format of the PRId register; Table 4-11
describes the PRId register fields.
PRId Register
31
16 15
0
87
0
Imp
Rev
16
8
8
Figure 4-15
Processor Revision Identifier Register Format
Table 4-11
Field
PRId Register Fields
Description
Imp
Implementation number
Rev
Revision number
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes
when read.
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Chapter 4
The low-order byte (bits 7:0) of the PRId register is interpreted as a revision
number, and the high-order byte (bits 15:8) is interpreted as an
implementation number. The implementation number of the R4000
processor is 0x04. The content of the high-order halfword (bits 31:16) of
the register are reserved.
The revision number is stored as a value in the form y.x, where y is a major
revision number in bits 7:4 and x is a minor revision number in bits 3:0.
The revision number can distinguish some chip revisions, however there
is no guarantee that changes to the chip will necessarily be reflected in the
PRId register, or that changes to the revision number necessarily reflect
real chip changes. For this reason, these values are not listed and software
should not rely on the revision number in the PRId register to characterize
the chip.
Config Register (16)
The Config register specifies various configuration options selected on
R4000 processors; Table 4-12 lists these options.
Some configuration options, as defined by Config bits 31:6, are set by the
hardware during reset and are included in the Config register as read-only
status bits for the software to access. Other configuration options are
read/write (as indicated by Config register bits 5:0) and controlled by
software; on reset these fields are undefined.
Certain configurations have restrictions. The Config register should be
initialized by software before caches are used. Caches should be written
back to memory before line sizes are changed, and caches should be
reinitialized after any change is made.
Figure 4-16 shows the format of the Config register; Table 4-12 describes
the Config register fields.
Config Register
31
30
28 27
24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11
CM
EC
EP
SB SS SW
1
3
4
2
1 1
EW
2
Figure 4-16
90
SC SM BE EM EB 0
1
1 1
1
1
1
9 8
6 5 4 3 2
0
IC
DC
IB DB CU
K0
3
3
1 1 1
3
Config Register Format
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Table 4-12
Config Register Fields
Field
Description
CM
Master-Checker Mode (1 → Master/Checker Mode is enabled).
EC
System clock ratio:
0 → processor clock frequency divided by 2
1 → processor clock frequency divided by 3
2 → processor clock frequency divided by 4
3 → processor clock frequency divided by 6 (R4400 processor only)
4 → processor clock frequency divided by 8 (R4400 processor only)
EP
Transmit data pattern (pattern for write-back data):
0→D
Doubleword every cycle
1 → DDx
2 Doublewords every 3 cycles
2 → DDxx
2 Doublewords every 4 cycles
3 → DxDx
2 Doublewords every 4 cycles
4 → DDxxx
2 Doublewords every 5 cycles
5 → DDxxxx
2 Doublewords every 6 cycles
6 → DxxDxx
2 Doublewords every 6 cycles
7 → DDxxxxxx 2 Doublewords every 8 cycles
8 → DxxxDxxx 2 Doublewords every 8 cycles
SB
Secondary Cache line size:
0 → 4 words
1 → 8 words
2 → 16 words
3 → 32 words
SS
Split Secondary Cache Mode
0 → instruction and data mixed in secondary cache (joint cache)
1 → instruction and data separated by SCAddr(17)
SW
Secondary Cache port width
0 → 128-bit data path to S-cache
1 → Reserved
EW
System Port width
0 → 64-bit
1, 2, 3 → Reserved
SC
Secondary Cache present
0 → S-cache present
1 → no S-cache present
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Chapter 4
Table 4-12 (cont.) Config Register Fields
Field Name
92
Description
SM
Dirty Shared coherency state
0 → Dirty Shared coherency state is enabled
1 → Dirty Shared state is disabled
BE
BigEndianMem
0 → kernel and memory are little endian
1 → kernel and memory are big endian
EM
ECC mode enable
0 → ECC mode enabled
1 → parity mode enabled
EB
Block ordering
0 → sequential
1 → sub-block
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, returns zeroes when read.
IC
Primary I-cache Size (I-cache size = 212+IC bytes). In the R4000 processor,
this is set to 8 Kbytes; in the R4400 processor, this is set to 16 Kbytes.
DC
Primary D-cache Size (D-cache size = 212+DC bytes). In the R4000 processor,
this is set to 8 Kbytes, in the R4400 processor, this is set to 16 Kbytes.
IB
Primary I-cache line size
0 → 16 bytes
1 → 32 bytes
DB
Primary D-cache line size
0 → 16 bytes
1 → 32 bytes
CU
Update on Store Conditional
0 → Store Conditional uses coherency algorithm specified by TLB
1 → SC uses cacheable coherent update on write
K0
kseg0 coherency algorithm (see EntryLo0 and EntryLo1 registers and the C
field of Table 4-6)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Load Linked Address (LLAddr) Register (17)
The read/write Load Linked Address (LLAddr) register contains the physical
address read by the most recent Load Linked instruction.
This register is for diagnostic purposes only, and serves no function
during normal operation.
Figure 4-17 shows the format of the LLAddr register; PAddr represents bits
of the physical address, PA(35:4).
LLAddr Register
31
0
PAddr(35:4)
32
Figure 4-17
LLAddr Register Format
Cache Tag Registers [TagLo (28) and TagHi (29)]
The TagLo and TagHi registers are 32-bit read/write registers that hold
either the primary cache tag and parity, or the secondary cache tag and
ECC during cache initialization, cache diagnostics, or cache error
processing. The Tag registers are written by the CACHE and MTC0
instructions.
The P and ECC fields of these registers are ignored on Index Store Tag
operations. Parity and ECC are computed by the store operation.
Figure 4-18 shows the format of these registers for primary cache
operations. Figure 4-19 shows the format of these registers for secondary
cache operations.
Table 4-13 lists the field definitions of the TagLo and TagHi registers.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 4
31
8 7
TagLo
6 5
1
0
PTagLo
PState
0
P
24
2
5
1
0
31
TagHi
Undefined
32
Figure 4-18
TagLo and TagHi Register (P-cache) Formats
31
13 12
TagLo
STagLo
10 9
SState
3
19
7 6
0
VIndex ECC
3
31
7
0
TagHi
Undefined
32
Figure 4-19
Table 4-13
Field
TagLo and TagHi Register (S-cache) Formats
Cache Tag Register Fields
Description
PTagLo
Specifies the physical address bits 35:12
PState
Specifies the primary cache state
P
Specifies the primary tag even parity bit
STagLo
Specifies the physical address bits 35:17
SState
Specifies the secondary cache state
VIndex
Specifies the virtual index of the associated Primary cache line,
vAddr(14:12)
ECC
ECC for the STag, SState, and VIndex fields
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes when read.
Undefined
The TagHi register should not be used.
94
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
Virtual-to-Physical Address Translation Process
During virtual-to-physical address translation, the CPU compares the
8-bit ASID (if the Global bit, G, is not set) of the virtual address to the ASID
of the TLB entry to see if there is a match. One of the following
comparisons are also made:
•
In 32-bit mode, the highest 7-to-19 bits (depending upon the
page size) of the virtual address are compared to the contents
of the TLB virtual page number.
•
In 64-bit mode, the highest 15-to-27 bits (depending upon the
page size) of the virtual address are compared to the contents
of the TLB virtual page number.
If a TLB entry matches, the physical address and access control bits (C, D,
and V) are retrieved from the matching TLB entry. While the V bit of the
entry must be set for a valid translation to take place, it is not involved in
the determination of a matching TLB entry.
Figure 4-20 illustrates the TLB address translation process.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
95
Chapter 4
Virtual Address (Input)
VPN
and
ASID
For valid
address space, see
the section describing
Operating Modes
in this chapter.
Valid
Address?
No
Address
Error
Yes
User No
Mode?
Sup Yes
Mode?
Valid
No
Address?
No
Yes
Exception
Address
Error
Exception
Yes
Unmapped
Access
No
Valid
Address?
Yes
VPN
No
Match?
Yes
Global
G
= 1?
ASID
No
Match?
No
Yes
Yes
V
= 1?
32-bit
address?
Valid
No
No
Yes
Yes
Dirty
Yes
No
Write?
D
= 1?
Yes
No
TLB
Mod
Exception
Yes
Access
Main
Memory
C=
010?
Noncacheable
No
TLB
Refill
TLB
Invalid
XTLB
Refill
Exception
Access
Cache
Physical Address (Output)
Figure 4-20
96
TLB Address Translation
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Memory Management
TLB Misses
If there is no TLB entry that matches the virtual address, a TLB miss
exception occurs.† If the access control bits (D and V) indicate that the
access is not valid, a TLB modification or TLB invalid exception occurs. If
the C bits equal 0102, the physical address that is retrieved accesses main
memory, bypassing the cache.
TLB Instructions
Table 4-14 lists the instructions that the CPU provides for working with
the TLB. See Appendix A for a detailed description of these instructions.
Table 4-14
Op Code
TLB Instructions
Description of Instruction
TLBP
Translation Lookaside Buffer Probe
TLBR
Translation Lookaside Buffer Read
TLBWI
Translation Lookaside Buffer Write Index
TLBWR
Translation Lookaside Buffer Write Random
† TLB miss exceptions are described in Chapter 5.
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Chapter 4
98
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Exception Processing
5
This chapter describes the CPU exception processing, including an
explanation of exception processing, followed by the format and use of
each CPU exception register.
The chapter concludes with a description of each exception’s cause,
together with the manner in which the CPU processes and services these
exceptions. For information about Floating-Point Unit exceptions, see
Chapter 7.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
99
Chapter 5
5.1 How Exception Processing Works
The processor receives exceptions from a number of sources, including
translation lookaside buffer (TLB) misses, arithmetic overflows, I/O
interrupts, and system calls. When the CPU detects one of these
exceptions, the normal sequence of instruction execution is suspended
and the processor enters Kernel mode (see Chapter 4 for a description of
system operating modes).
The processor then disables interrupts and forces execution of a software
exception processor (called a handler) located at a fixed address. The
handler saves the context of the processor, including the contents of the
program counter, the current operating mode (User or Supervisor), and
the status of the interrupts (enabled or disabled). This context is saved so
it can be restored when the exception has been serviced.
When an exception occurs, the CPU loads the Exception Program Counter
(EPC) register with a location where execution can restart after the
exception has been serviced. The restart location in the EPC register is the
address of the instruction that caused the exception or, if the instruction
was executing in a branch delay slot, the address of the branch instruction
immediately preceding the delay slot.
The registers described later in the chapter assist in this exception
processing by retaining address, cause and status information.
For a description of the exception handling process, see the description of
the individual exception contained in this chapter, or the flowcharts at the
end of this chapter.
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CPU Exception Processing
5.2 Exception Processing Registers
This section describes the CP0 registers that are used in exception
processing. Table 5-1 lists these registers, along with their number—each
register has a unique identification number that is referred to as its register
number. For instance, the ECC register is register number 26. The
remaining CP0 registers are used in memory management, as described in
Chapter 4.
Software examines the CP0 registers during exception processing to
determine the cause of the exception and the state of the CPU at the time
the exception occurred. The registers in Table 5-1 are used in exception
processing, and are described in the sections that follow.
Table 5-1 CP0 Exception Processing Registers
Register Name
Reg. No.
Context
4
BadVAddr (Bad Virtual Address)
8
Count
9
Compare register
11
Status
12
Cause
13
EPC (Exception Program Counter)
14
WatchLo (Memory Reference Trap Address Low)
18
WatchHi (Memory Reference Trap Address High)
19
XContext
20
ECC
26
CacheErr (Cache Error and Status)
27
ErrorEPC (Error Exception Program Counter)
30
CPU general registers are interlocked and the result of an instruction can
normally be used by the next instruction; if the result is not available right
away, the processor stalls until it is available. CP0 registers and the TLB
are not interlocked, however; there may be some delay before a value
written by one instruction is available to following instructions. For more
information please see Appendix F.
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Chapter 5
Context Register (4)
The Context register is a read/write register containing the pointer to an
entry in the page table entry (PTE) array; this array is an operating system
data structure that stores virtual-to-physical address translations. When
there is a TLB miss, the CPU loads the TLB with the missing translation
from the PTE array. Normally, the operating system uses the Context
register to address the current page map which resides in the kernelmapped segment, kseg3. The Context register duplicates some of the
information provided in the BadVAddr register, but the information is
arranged in a form that is more useful for a software TLB exception
handler. Figure 5-1 shows the format of the Context register; Table 5-2
describes the Context register fields.
Context Register
31
32-bit
Mode
23 22
PTEBase
19
63
4
23 22
PTEBase
4 3
0
BadVPN2
0
19
4
41
Field
0
0
BadVPN2
9
64-bit
Mode
4 3
Figure 5-1
Context Register Format
Table 5-2
Context Register Fields
Description
BadVPN2
This field is written by hardware on a miss. It contains
the virtual page number (VPN) of the most recent
virtual address that did not have a valid translation.
PTEBase
This field is a read/write field for use by the operating
system. It is normally written with a value that allows
the operating system to use the Context register as a
pointer into the current PTE array in memory.
The 19-bit BadVPN2 field contains bits 31:13 of the virtual address that
caused the TLB miss; bit 12 is excluded because a single TLB entry maps
to an even-odd page pair. For a 4-Kbyte page size, this format can directly
address the pair-table of 8-byte PTEs. For other page and PTE sizes,
shifting and masking this value produces the appropriate address.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Exception Processing
Bad Virtual Address Register (BadVAddr) (8)
The Bad Virtual Address register (BadVAddr) is a read-only register that
displays the most recent virtual address that caused one of the following
exceptions: TLB Invalid, TLB Modified, TLB Refill, Virtual Coherency
Data Access, or Virtual Coherency Instruction Fetch.
Figure 5-2 shows the format of the BadVAddr register.
BadVAddr Register
31
0
32-bit
Mode
Bad Virtual Address
32
63
64-bit
Mode
0
Bad Virtual Address
64
Figure 5-2
BadVAddr Register Format
Note: The BadVAddr register does not save any information for bus errors,
since bus errors are not addressing errors.
Count Register (9)
The Count register acts as a timer, incrementing at a constant rate—half the
maximum instruction issue rate—whether or not an instruction is
executed, retired, or any forward progress is made through the pipeline.
This register can be read or written. It can be written for diagnostic
purposes or system initialization; for example, to synchronize processors.
Figure 5-3 shows the format of the Count register.
Count Register
31
0
Count
32
Figure 5-3
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Count Register Format
103
Chapter 5
Compare Register (11)
The Compare register acts as a timer (see also the Count register); it
maintains a stable value that does not change on its own.
When the value of the Count register equals the value of the Compare
register, interrupt bit IP(7) in the Cause register is set. This causes an
interrupt as soon as the interrupt is enabled.
Writing a value to the Compare register, as a side effect, clears the timer
interrupt.
For diagnostic purposes, the Compare register is a read/write register. In
normal use however, the Compare register is write-only. Figure 5-4 shows
the format of the Compare register.
Compare Register
31
0
Compare
32
Figure 5-4
104
Compare Register Format
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Exception Processing
Status Register (12)
The Status register (SR) is a read/write register that contains the operating
mode, interrupt enabling, and the diagnostic states of the processor. The
following list describes the more important Status register fields; Figures
5-5 and 5-6 show the format of the entire register, including descriptions
of the fields. Some of the important fields include:
•
The 8-bit Interrupt Mask (IM) field controls the enabling of eight
interrupt conditions. Interrupts must be enabled before they
can be asserted, and the corresponding bits are set in both the
Interrupt Mask field of the Status register and the Interrupt
Pending field of the Cause register. For more information, refer
to the Interrupt Pending (IP) field of the Cause register and
Chapter 15, which describes the interrupts.
•
The 4-bit Coprocessor Usability (CU) field controls the usability
of 4 possible coprocessors. Regardless of the CU0 bit setting,
CP0 is always usable in Kernel mode.
•
The 9-bit Diagnostic Status (DS) field is used for self-testing,
and checks the cache and virtual memory system.
•
The Reverse-Endian (RE) bit, bit 25, reverses the endianness of
the machine. The processor can be configured as either littleendian or big-endian at system reset; reverse-endian selection
is used in Kernel and Supervisor modes, and in the User mode
when the RE bit is 0. Setting the RE bit to 1 inverts the User
mode endianness.
Status Register Format
Figure 5-5 shows the format of the Status register. Table 5-3 describes the
Status register fields. Figure 5-6 and Table 5-4 provide additional
information on the Diagnostic Status (DS) field. All bits in the DS field
except TS are readable and writable.
Status Register
31
28 27 26 25 24
CU
(Cu3:.Cu0)
4
RP FR RE
1 1
1
16 15
DS
8 7
IM7 - IM0
9
Figure 5-5
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
8
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
KX SX UX KSU ERL EXL IE
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
Status Register
105
Chapter 5
Table 5-3
Field
106
Status Register Fields
Description
CU
Controls the usability of each of the four coprocessor unit
numbers. CP0 is always usable when in Kernel mode,
regardless of the setting of the CU0 bit.
1 → usable
0 → unusable
RP
Enables reduced-power operation by reducing the internal
clock frequency. The clock divisor is programmable at boot
time.
0 → full speed
1→ reduced clock
FR
Enables additional floating-point registers
0 → 16 registers
1 → 32 registers
RE
Reverse-Endian bit, valid in User mode.
DS
Diagnostic Status field (see Figure 5-6).
IM
Interrupt Mask: controls the enabling of each of the external,
internal, and software interrupts. An interrupt is taken if
interrupts are enabled, and the corresponding bits are set in
both the Interrupt Mask field of the Status register and the
Interrupt Pending field of the Cause register.
0 → disabled
1→ enabled
KX
Enables 64-bit addressing in Kernel mode. The extendedaddressing TLB refill exception is used for TLB misses on
kernel addresses.
0 → 32−bit
1 → 64−bit
SX
Enables 64-bit addressing and operations in Supervisor
mode. The extended-addressing TLB refill exception is used
for TLB misses on supervisor addresses.
0 → 32−bit
1 → 64−bit
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Exception Processing
Table 5-3 (cont.) Status Register Fields
Field
Description
UX
Enables 64-bit addressing and operations in User mode.
The extended-addressing TLB refill exception is used for
TLB misses on user addresses.
0 → 32−bit
1 → 64−bit
KSU
Mode bits
102 → User
012 → Supervisor
002 → Kernel
ERL
Error Level; set by the processor when Reset, Soft Reset,
NMI, or Cache Error exception are taken.
0 → normal
1 → error
EXL
Exception Level; set by the processor when any exception
other than Reset, Soft Reset, NMI, or Cache Error exception
are taken.
0 → normal
1 → exception
IE
Interrupt Enable
0 → disable interrupts
1 → enables interrupts
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
107
Chapter 5
Diagnostic Status Field
24
23
0
2
22
BEV
1
21
20
TS
SR
1
1
Figure 5-6
Table 5-4
Bit
BEV
18
17
16
0
CH
CE
DE
1
1
1
1
Status Register DS Field
Status Register Diagnostic Status Bits
Description
Controls the location of TLB refill and general exception
vectors.
0 → normal
1→ bootstrap
TS
1→ Indicates TLB shutdown has occurred (read-only).
SR
1→ Indicates a Reset* signal or NMI has caused a Soft Reset
exception
CH
Hit (tag match and valid state) or miss indication for last
CACHE Hit Invalidate, Hit Write Back Invalidate, Hit Write
Back, Hit Set Virtual, or Create Dirty Exclusive for a
secondary cache.
0 → miss
1 → hit
CE
Contents of the ECC register set or modify the check bits of the
caches when CE = 1; see description of the ECC register.
DE
Specifies that cache parity or ECC errors cannot cause
exceptions.
0 → parity/ECC remain enabled
1 → disables parity/ECC
0
108
19
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes
when read.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Exception Processing
Status Register Modes and Access States
Fields of the Status register set the modes and access states described in the
sections that follow.
Interrupt Enable: Interrupts are enabled when all of the following
conditions are true:
•
IE = 1
•
EXL = 0
•
ERL = 0
If these conditions are met, the settings of the IM bits enable the interrupt.
Operating Modes: The following CPU Status register bit settings are
required for User, Kernel, and Supervisor modes (see Chapter 4 for more
information about operating modes).
•
The processor is in User mode when KSU = 102, EXL = 0, and
ERL = 0.
•
The processor is in Supervisor mode when KSU = 012, EXL = 0,
and ERL = 0.
•
The processor is in Kernel mode when KSU = 002, or EXL = 1,
or ERL = 1.
32- and 64-bit Modes: The following CPU Status register bit settings select
32- or 64-bit operation for User, Kernel, and Supervisor operating modes.
Enabling 64-bit operation permits the execution of 64-bit opcodes and
translation of 64-bit addresses. 64-bit operation for User, Kernel and
Supervisor modes can be set independently.
•
64-bit addressing for Kernel mode is enabled when KX = 1.
64-bit operations are always valid in Kernel mode.
•
64-bit addressing and operations are enabled for Supervisor
mode when SX = 1.
•
64-bit addressing and operations are enabled for User mode
when UX = 1.
Kernel Address Space Accesses: Access to the kernel address space is
allowed when the processor is in Kernel mode.
Supervisor Address Space Accesses: Access to the supervisor address
space is allowed when the processor is in Kernel or Supervisor mode, as
described above in the section above titled, Operating Modes.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
109
Chapter 5
User Address Space Accesses: Access to the user address space is allowed
in any of the three operating modes.
Status Register Reset
The contents of the Status register are undefined at reset, except for the
following bits in the Diagnostic Status field:
•
TS = 0
•
ERL and BEV = 1
The SR bit distinguishes between the Reset exception and the Soft Reset
exception (caused either by Reset* or Nonmaskable Interrupt [NMI]).
Cause Register (13)
The 32-bit read/write Cause register describes the cause of the most recent
exception.
Figure 5-7 shows the fields of this register; Table 5-5 describes the Cause
register fields. A 5-bit exception code (ExcCode) indicates one of the
causes, as listed in Table 5-6.
All bits in the Cause register, with the exception of the IP(1:0) bits, are readonly; IP(1:0) are used for software interrupts.
Table 5-5
Field
Cause Register Fields
Description
BD
Indicates whether the last exception taken occurred in a branch delay slot.
1 → delay slot
0 → normal
CE
Coprocessor unit number referenced when a Coprocessor Unusable
exception is taken.
IP
Indicates an interrupt is pending.
1 → interrupt pending
0 → no interrupt
ExcCode
Exception code field (see Table 5-6)
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes when read.
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Cause Register
31
30 29 28 27
BD 0
2
Table 5-6
Code Value
IP0 0
12
8
Figure 5-7
Exception
8 7 6
IP7
0
CE
1
1
16 15
2 1
Exc
Code
1
5
Mnemonic
Description
Interrupt
1
Mod
TLB modification exception
2
TLBL
TLB exception (load or instruction fetch)
3
TLBS
TLB exception (store)
4
AdEL
Address error exception (load or instruction fetch)
5
AdES
Address error exception (store)
6
IBE
Bus error exception (instruction fetch)
7
DBE
Bus error exception (data reference: load or store)
8
Sys
Syscall exception
9
Bp
Breakpoint exception
10
RI
Reserved instruction exception
11
CpU
Coprocessor Unusable exception
12
Ov
Arithmetic Overflow exception
13
Tr
Trap exception
14
VCEI
Virtual Coherency Exception instruction
15
FPE
Floating-Point exception
–
Reserved
WATCH
Reference to WatchHi/WatchLo address
–
Reserved
VCED
Virtual Coherency Exception data
24–30
31
2
Cause Register ExcCode Field
Int
23
0
Cause Register Format
0
16–22
0
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Exception Program Counter (EPC) Register (14)
The Exception Program Counter (EPC) is a read/write register that
contains the address at which processing resumes after an exception has
been serviced.
For synchronous exceptions, the EPC register contains either:
•
the virtual address of the instruction that was the direct cause
of the exception, or
•
the virtual address of the immediately preceding branch or
jump instruction (when the instruction is in a branch delay
slot, and the Branch Delay bit in the Cause register is set).
The processor does not write to the EPC register when the EXL bit in the
Status register is set to a 1.
Figure 5-8 shows the format of the EPC register.
31
EPC Register
32-bit
Mode
0
EPC
32
63
0
64-bit
Mode
EPC
64
Figure 5-8
112
EPC Register Format
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CPU Exception Processing
WatchLo (18) and WatchHi (19) Registers
R4000 processors provide a debugging feature to detect references to a
selected physical address; load and store operations to the location
specified by the WatchLo and WatchHi registers cause a Watch exception
(described later in this chapter).
Figure 5-9 shows the format of the WatchLo and WatchHi registers;
Table 5-7 describes the WatchLo and WatchHi register fields.
WatchLo Register
31
3
PAddr0
29
2
1
0
0
R
W
1
1
1
WatchHi Register
31
4
0
Table 5-7
Field
0
PAddr1
28
Figure 5-9
3
4
WatchLo and WatchHi Register Formats
WatchHi and WatchLo Register Fields
Description
PAddr1
Bits 35:32 of the physical address
PAddr0
Bits 31:3 of the physical address
R
Trap on load references if set to 1
W
Trap on store references if set to 1
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns
zeroes when read.
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XContext Register (20)
The read/write XContext register contains a pointer to an entry in the page
table entry (PTE) array, an operating system data structure that stores
virtual-to-physical address translations. When there is a TLB miss, the
operating system software loads the TLB with the missing translation
from the PTE array. The XContext register duplicates some of the
information provided in the BadVAddr register, and puts it in a form useful
for a software TLB exception handler. The XContext register is for use with
the XTLB refill handler, which loads TLB entries for references to a 64-bit
address space, and is included solely for operating system use. The
operating system sets the PTE base field in the register, as needed.
Normally, the operating system uses the Context register to address the
current page map, which resides in the kernel-mapped segment kseg3.
Figure 5-10 shows the format of the XContext register; Table 5-8 describes
the XContext register fields.
XContext Register
63
33 32 31 30
PTEBase
31
Figure 5-10
4 3
0
R
BadVPN2
0
2
27
4
XContext Register Format
The 27-bit BadVPN2 field has bits 39:13 of the virtual address that caused
the TLB miss; bit 12 is excluded because a single TLB entry maps to an
even-odd page pair. For a 4-Kbyte page size, this format may be used
directly to address the pair-table of 8-byte PTEs. For other page and PTE
sizes, shifting and masking this value produces the appropriate address.
Table 5-8
Field
XContext Register Fields
Description
BadVPN2
The Bad Virtual Page Number/2 field is written by hardware on a miss. It
contains the VPN of the most recent invalidly translated virtual address.
R
The Region field contains bits 63:62 of the virtual address.
002 = user
012 = supervisor
112 = kernel.
PTEBase
The Page Table Entry Base read/write field is normally written with a value
that allows the operating system to use the Context register as a pointer into
the current PTE array in memory.
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Error Checking and Correcting (ECC) Register (26)
The 8-bit Error Checking and Correcting (ECC) register reads or writes either
secondary-cache data ECC bits or primary-cache data parity bits for cache
initialization, cache diagnostics, or cache error processing. (Tag ECC and
parity are loaded from and stored to the TagLo register.)
The ECC register is loaded by the Index Load Tag CACHE operation.
Content of the ECC register is:
•
written into the primary data cache on store instructions
(instead of the computed parity) when the CE bit of the Status
register is set
•
substituted for the computed instruction parity for the CACHE
operation Fill
•
XORed into the secondary cache computed ECC for the
following primary data cache CACHE operations: Index Write
Back Invalidate, Hit Write Back, and Hit Write Back Invalidate.
Figure 5-11 shows the format of the ECC register; Table 5-9 describes the
register fields.
ECC Register
31
8 7
0
ECC
24
8
Figure 5-11
Table 5-9
Field
0
ECC Register Format
ECC Register Fields
Description
ECC
An 8-bit field specifying the ECC bits read from or
written to a secondary cache, or the even byte parity bits
to be read from or written to a primary cache.
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes
when read.
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Cache Error (CacheErr) Register (27)
The 32-bit read-only CacheErr register processes ECC errors in the
secondary cache and parity errors in the primary cache. Parity errors
cannot be corrected.
All single- and double-bit ECC errors in the secondary cache tag and data
are detected; single-bit errors in the cache tag are automatically corrected.
Single-bit ECC errors in the secondary cache data are not automatically
corrected.
The CacheErr register holds cache index and status bits that indicate the
source and nature of the error; it is loaded when a Cache Error exception
is asserted.
Figure 5-12 shows the format of the CacheErr register and Table 5-10
describes the CacheErr register fields.
CacheErr Register
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23
22 21
ER EC ED ET ES EE EB EI EW
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Field
116
1
1
2
0
SIdx
PIDx
19
3
1
Figure 5-12
CacheErr Register Format
Table 5-10
CacheErr Register Fields
Description
ER
Type of reference
0 → instruction
1 → data
EC
Cache level of the error
0 → primary
1 → secondary
ED
Indicates if a data field error occurred
0 → no error
1 → error
ET
Indicates if a tag field error occurred
0 → no error
1 → error
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CPU Exception Processing
Table 5-10 (cont.) CacheErr Register Fields
Field
Description
ES
Indicates the error occurred while accessing primary or secondary cache in
response to an external request.
0 → internal reference
1 → external reference
EE
This bit is set if the error occurred on the SysAD bus.
EB
This bit is set if a data error occurred in addition to the instruction error
(indicated by the remainder of the bits). If so, this requires flushing the
data cache after fixing the instruction error.
EI
This bit is set on a secondary data cache ECC error while refilling the
primary cache on a store miss. The ECC handler must first do an Index
Store Tag to invalidate the incorrect data from the primary data cache.
EW
This bit is only available on the R4400 processor. It is set on an
multiprocessor cache error when the CacheErr register is already holding
the values of a previous cache error. This bit could be set by the processor
from the time the CacheErr register is loaded due to an error until the time
that an ERET instruction is executed. Once the EW bit is set, it can only be
cleared by a reset. The following errors set the EW bit:
• Secondary cache tag errors arising from an external request
(multibit errors only)
• Secondary cache data errors arising from an external update
• Primary cache tag errors arising from an external request
SIdx
Bits pAddr(21:3) of the reference that encountered the error (which is not
necessarily the same as the address of the doubleword in error, but is
sufficient to locate that doubleword in the secondary cache).
PIdx
Bits vAddr(14:12) of the doubleword in error (used with SIdx to construct
a virtual index for the primary caches).
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes when read.
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Error Exception Program Counter (Error EPC) Register (30)
The ErrorEPC register is similar to the EPC register, except that ErrorEPC
is used on ECC and parity error exceptions. It is also used to store the
program counter (PC) on Reset, Soft Reset, and nonmaskable interrupt
(NMI) exceptions.
The read/write ErrorEPC register contains the virtual address at which
instruction processing can resume after servicing an error. This address
can be:
•
the virtual address of the instruction that caused the exception
•
the virtual address of the immediately preceding branch or
jump instruction, when this address is in a branch delay slot.
There is no branch delay slot indication for the ErrorEPC register.
Figure 5-13 shows the format of the ErrorEPC register.
ErrorEPC Register
31
0
32-bit
Mode
ErrorEPC
32
63
0
64-bit
Mode
ErrorEPC
64
Figure 5-13
118
ErrorEPC Register Format
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CPU Exception Processing
5.3 Processor Exceptions
This section describes the processor exceptions—it describes the cause of
each exception, its processing by the hardware, and servicing by a handler
(software). The types of exception, with exception processing operations,
are described in the next section.
Exception Types
This section gives sample exception handler operations for the following
exception types:
•
reset
•
soft reset
•
nonmaskable interrupt (NMI)
•
cache error
•
remaining processor exceptions
When the EXL bit in the Status register is 0, either User, Supervisor, or
Kernel operating mode is specified by the KSU bits in the Status register.
When the EXL bit is a 1, the processor is in Kernel mode.
When the processor takes an exception, the EXL bit is set to 1, which means
the system is in Kernel mode. After saving the appropriate state, the
exception handler typically changes KSU to Kernel mode and resets the
EXL bit back to 0. When restoring the state and restarting, the handler
restores the previous value of the KSU field and sets the EXL bit back to 1.
Returning from an exception, also resets the EXL bit to 0 (see the ERET
instruction in Appendix A).
In the following sections, sample hardware processes for various
exceptions are shown, together with the servicing required by the handler
(software).
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Reset Exception Process
Figure 5-14 shows the Reset exception process.
T: undefined
Random ← TLBENTRIES–1
Wired ← 0
Config ← CM || EC || EP || SB || SS || SW || EW || SC || SM || BE || EM || EB || 0 || IC
|| DC || undefined6
ErrorEPC ← RestartPC /* If the instruction is in a branch delay slot, RestartPC */
/* holds the value of PC-4, otherwise RestartPC = PC */
If R4400 then
CacheErr ← undefined8 || 0 || undefined23 /* Set EW bit to 0 */
endif
SR ← SR31:23 || 1 || 0 || 0 || SR19:3 || 1 || SR1:0
PC ← 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0000
Figure 5-14
Reset Exception Processing
Cache Error Exception Process
Figure 5-15 shows the Cache Error exception process.
T: ErrorEPC ← RestartPC /* If the instruction is in a branch delay slot, RestartPC */
/* holds the value of PC-4, otherwise RestartPC = PC */
if R4000 then
CacheErr ← ER || EC || ED || ET || ES || EE || EB || EI || 02 || SIdx || PIdx
else
/* R4400 */
CacheErr ← ER || EC || ED || ET || ES || EE || EB || EI || EW || 0 || SIdx || PIdx
endif
SR ← SR31:3 || 1 ||SR1:0
if SR22 = 1 then
PC ← 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0200 + 0x100
else
PC ← 0xFFFF FFFF A000 0000 + 0x100
endif
Figure 5-15
120
Cache Error Exception Processing
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CPU Exception Processing
Soft Reset and NMI Exception Process
Figure 5-16 shows the Soft Reset and NMI exception process.
T: ErrorEPC ← RestartPC /* If the instruction is in a branch delay slot, RestartPC */
/* holds the value of PC-4, otherwise RestartPC = PC */
SR ← SR31:23 || 1 || 0 || 1 || SR19:3 || 1 || SR1:0
If R4400 then
CacheErr ← CacheErr31:24 || 0 || CacheErr22:0
endif
PC ← 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0000
Figure 5-16
Soft Reset and NMI Exception Processing
General Exception Process
Figure 5-17 shows the process used for exceptions other than Reset, Soft
Reset, NMI, and Cache Error.
T: if SR1 = 0 then
/* if not EXL */
EPC ← RestartPC
/* If the instruction is in a branch delay slot, */
/* RestartPC holds the value of PC-4, */
/* otherwise RestartPC = PC */
Cause ← BD || 0 || CE || 012 || Cause15:8 || 0 || ExcCode || 02
if TLBrefill then
vector ← 0x000
elseif XTLBrefill then
vector ← 0x080
else /* not a miss */
vector ← 0x180
else
Cause ← Cause31 || 0 || CE || 012 || Cause15:8 || 0 || ExcCode || 02
vector ← 0x180
endif
SR ← SR31:2 || 1 || SR0 /* EXL */
if SR22 = 1 then
PC ← 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0200 + vector
else
PC ← 0xFFFF FFFF 8000 0000 + vector
endif
Figure 5-17
General Exception Processing (Except Reset, Soft Reset, NMI, and Cache Error)
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Exception Vector Locations
The Reset, Soft Reset, and NMI exceptions are always vectored to the
dedicated Reset exception vector at an uncached and unmapped address.
Addresses for all other exceptions are a combination of a vector offset and
a base address.
The boot-time vectors (when BEV = 1 in the Status register) are at
uncached and unmapped addresses. During normal operation (when
BEV = 0) the regular exceptions have vectors in cached address spaces;
Cache Error is always at an uncached address so that cache error handling
can bypass a suspect cache.
Table 5-11 shows the 64-bit-mode vector base address for all exceptions;
the 32-bit mode address is the low-order 32 bits (for instance, the base
address for NMI in 32-bit mode is 0xBFC0 0000).
Table 5-12 shows the vector offset added to the base address to create the
exception address.
Table 5-11
Exception Vector Base Addresses
BEV
Exception
0
1
Cache Error
0xFFFF FFFF A000 0000
0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0200
Others
0xFFFF FFFF 8000 0000
0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0200
Reset, NMI,
Soft Reset
0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0000
Table 5-12
Exception Vector Offsets
Exception
122
R4000 Processor Vector Offset
TLB refill, EXL = 0
0x000
XTLB refill, EXL = 0 (X = 64-bit TLB)
0x080
Cache Error
0x100
Others
0x180
Reset, Soft Reset, NMI
none
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CPU Exception Processing
Priority of Exceptions
The remainder of this chapter describes exceptions in the order of their
priority shown in Table 5-13 with (certain of the exceptions, such as the
TLB exceptions and Instruction/Data exceptions, grouped together for
convenience). While more than one exception can occur for a single
instruction, only the exception with the highest priority is reported.
Table 5-13
Exception Priority Order
Reset (highest priority)
Soft Reset caused by Reset* signal
Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI) (Soft Reset exception caused by NMI)
Address error –– Instruction fetch
TLB refill –– Instruction fetch
TLB invalid –– Instruction fetch
Cache error –– Instruction fetch
Virtual Coherency –– Instruction fetch
Bus error –– Instruction fetch
Integer overflow, Trap, System Call, Breakpoint, Reserved
Instruction, Coprocessor Unusable, or Floating-Point Exception
Address error –– Data access
TLB refill –– Data access
TLB invalid –– Data access
TLB modified –– Data write
Cache error –– Data access
Watch
Virtual Coherency –– Data access
Bus error –– Data access
Interrupt (lowest priority)
Generally speaking, the exceptions described in the following sections are
handled (“processed”) by hardware; these exceptions are then serviced by
software.
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Reset Exception
Cause
The Reset exception occurs when the ColdReset*† signal is asserted and
then deasserted. This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The CPU provides a special interrupt vector for this exception:
•
location 0xBFC0 0000 in 32-bit mode
•
location 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0000 in 64-bit mode
The Reset vector resides in unmapped and uncached CPU address space,
so the hardware need not initialize the TLB or the cache to process this
exception. It also means the processor can fetch and execute instructions
while the caches and virtual memory are in an undefined state.
The contents of all registers in the CPU are undefined when this exception
occurs, except for the following register fields:
•
In the Status register, SR and TS are cleared to 0, and ERL and
BEV are set to 1. All other bits are undefined.
•
Config register is initialized with the boot mode bits read from
the serial input (see Figure 5-14).
•
The Random register is initialized to the value of its upper
bound.
•
The Wired register is initialized to 0.
•
The EW bit in the CacheErr register is cleared (R4400 only).
Reset exception processing is shown in Figure 5-14.
Servicing
The Reset exception is serviced by:
•
initializing all processor registers, coprocessor registers, caches,
and the memory system
•
performing diagnostic tests
•
bootstrapping the operating system
† In the following sections—indeed, throughout this book—a signal followed by an asterisk,
such as Reset*, is low active.
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Soft Reset Exception
Cause
The Soft Reset exception occurs in response to either the Reset* input
signal or a Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI)†.
The NMI is caused either by an assertion of the NMI* signal or an external
write to the Int*[6] bit of the Interrupt register.
This exception is not maskable.
Processing
Regardless of the cause, when this exception occurs the SR bit of the Status
register is set, distinguishing this exception from a Reset exception.
The processor does not indicate any distinction between an exception
caused by the Reset* signal or the NMI* signal.
•
An exception caused by an NMI can only be taken if the
processor is processing instructions; it is taken at the
instruction boundary. It does not abort any state machines,
preserving the state of the processor for diagnosis.
•
An exception caused by assertion of Reset* performs a subset
of the full reset initialization. After a processor is completely
initialized by a Reset exception (caused by ColdReset* or
Power-On), Reset* can be asserted on the processor in any
state, even if the processor is no longer processing instructions.
In this situation the processor does not read or set processor
configuration parameters. It does, however, initialize all other
processor state that requires hardware initialization (for
instance, the state machines and registers), in order that the
CPU can fetch and execute the Reset exception handler located
in uncached and unmapped space. Although no other
processor state is unnecessarily changed, a soft reset sequence
may be forced to alter some state since the exception can be
invoked arbitrarily on a cycle boundary, and abort any
multicycle operation in progress. Since bus, cache, or other
operations may be interrupted, portions of the cache, memory,
or other processor state may be inconsistent.
† In this book, a Soft Reset exception caused by assertion of the Reset* signal is referred to
as a “soft reset” or “warm reset.” A Soft Reset exception caused by a nonmaskable
interrupt (NMI) is referred to as a “nonmaskable interrupt exception.”
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In both the Reset* and NMI cases the processor jumps to the Reset
exception vector located in unmapped and uncached address space, so
that the cache and TLB contents need not be initialized to service this
exception. Typically, the Reset exception vector is located in PROM, and
system memory does not need to be initialized to handle the exception.
As previously noted, state machines interrupted by Reset* may cause
some register contents to be inconsistent with the other processor state.
Otherwise, on an exception caused by Reset* or NMI the contents of all
registers are preserved, except for:
•
EW bit in the CacheErr register, which is reset to 0 (R4400 only)
•
ErrorEPC register, which contains the restart PC
•
ERL bit of the Status register, which is set to 1
•
SR bit of the Status register, which is set to 1
•
BEV bit of the Status register, which is set to 1
•
TS bit of the Status register, which is set to 0
•
PC is set to the reset vector 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0000
Soft reset exception processing is shown in Figure 5-16.
Servicing
The exception initiated by Reset* is intended to quickly reinitialize a
previously operating processor after a fatal error such as a Master/
Checker mismatch. The NMI can be used for purposes other than resetting
the processor while preserving cache and memory contents. For example,
the system might use an NMI to cause an immediate, controlled shutdown
when it detects an impending power failure.
The exceptions due to Reset* and NMI appear identical to software; both
exceptions jump to the Reset exception vector and have the Status register
SR bit set. Unless external hardware provides a way to distinguish
between the two, they are serviced by saving the current user-visible
processor state for diagnostic purposes and reinitializing as for the Reset
exception. It is not normally possible to continue program execution after
returning from this exception, since a Reset* signal can be accepted
anytime and an NMI can occur in the midst of another error exception.
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Address Error Exception
Cause
The Address Error exception occurs when an attempt is made to execute
one of the following:
•
load or store a doubleword that is not aligned on a doubleword
boundary
•
load, fetch, or store a word that is not aligned on a word
boundary
•
load or store a halfword that is not aligned on a halfword
boundary
•
reference the kernel address space from User or Supervisor
mode
•
reference the supervisor address space from User mode
This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception. The AdEL or
AdES code in the Cause register is set, indicating whether the instruction
caused the exception with an instruction reference, load operation, or store
operation shown by the EPC register and BD bit in the Cause register.
When this exception occurs, the BadVAddr register retains the virtual
address that was not properly aligned or that referenced protected
address space. The contents of the VPN field of the Context and EntryHi
registers are undefined, as are the contents of the EntryLo register.
The EPC register contains the address of the instruction that caused the
exception, unless this instruction is in a branch delay slot. If it is in a
branch delay slot, the EPC register contains the address of the preceding
branch instruction and the BD bit of the Cause register is set as indication.
Address Error exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
The process executing at the time is handed a UNIX SIGSEGV
(segmentation violation) signal. This error is usually fatal to the process
incurring the exception.
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TLB Exceptions
Three types of TLB exceptions can occur:
•
TLB Refill occurs when there is no TLB entry that matches an
attempted reference to a mapped address space.
•
TLB Invalid occurs when a virtual address reference matches a
TLB entry that is marked invalid.
•
TLB Modified occurs when a store operation virtual address
reference to memory matches a TLB entry which is marked
valid but is not dirty (the entry is not writable).
The following three sections describe these TLB exceptions.
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TLB Refill Exception
Cause
The TLB refill exception occurs when there is no TLB entry to match a
reference to a mapped address space. This exception is not maskable.
Processing
There are two special exception vectors for this exception; one for
references to 32-bit address spaces, and one for references to 64-bit address
spaces. The UX, SX, and KX bits of the Status register determine whether
the user, supervisor or kernel address spaces referenced are 32-bit or 64bit spaces. All references use these vectors when the EXL bit is set to 0 in
the Status register. This exception sets the TLBL or TLBS code in the
ExcCode field of the Cause register. This code indicates whether the
instruction, as shown by the EPC register and the BD bit in the Cause
register, caused the miss by an instruction reference, load operation, or
store operation.
When this exception occurs, the BadVAddr, Context, XContext and EntryHi
registers hold the virtual address that failed address translation. The
EntryHi register also contains the ASID from which the translation fault
occurred. The Random register normally contains a valid location in which
to place the replacement TLB entry. The contents of the EntryLo register
are undefined. The EPC register contains the address of the instruction
that caused the exception, unless this instruction is in a branch delay slot,
in which case the EPC register contains the address of the preceding
branch instruction and the BD bit of the Cause register is set.
TLB Refill exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
To service this exception, the contents of the Context or XContext register
are used as a virtual address to fetch memory locations containing the
physical page frame and access control bits for a pair of TLB entries. The
two entries are placed into the EntryLo0/EntryLo1 register; the EntryHi and
EntryLo registers are written into the TLB.
It is possible that the virtual address used to obtain the physical address
and access control information is on a page that is not resident in the TLB.
This condition is processed by allowing a TLB refill exception in the TLB
refill handler. This second exception goes to the common exception vector
because the EXL bit of the Status register is set.
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TLB Invalid Exception
Cause
The TLB invalid exception occurs when a virtual address reference
matches a TLB entry that is marked invalid (TLB valid bit cleared). This
exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception. The TLBL or
TLBS code in the ExcCode field of the Cause register is set. This indicates
whether the instruction, as shown by the EPC register and BD bit in the
Cause register, caused the miss by an instruction reference, load operation,
or store operation.
When this exception occurs, the BadVAddr, Context, XContext and EntryHi
registers contain the virtual address that failed address translation. The
EntryHi register also contains the ASID from which the translation fault
occurred. The Random register normally contains a valid location in which
to put the replacement TLB entry. The contents of the EntryLo register are
undefined.
The EPC register contains the address of the instruction that caused the
exception unless this instruction is in a branch delay slot, in which case the
EPC register contains the address of the preceding branch instruction and
the BD bit of the Cause register is set.
TLB Invalid exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
A TLB entry is typically marked invalid when one of the following is true:
•
a virtual address does not exist
•
the virtual address exists, but is not in main memory (a page
fault)
•
a trap is desired on any reference to the page (for example, to
maintain a reference bit)
After servicing the cause of a TLB Invalid exception, the TLB entry is
located with TLBP (TLB Probe), and replaced by an entry with that entry’s
Valid bit set.
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TLB Modified Exception
Cause
The TLB modified exception occurs when a store operation virtual address
reference to memory matches a TLB entry that is marked valid but is not
dirty and therefore is not writable. This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the Mod code
in the Cause register is set.
When this exception occurs, the BadVAddr, Context, XContext and EntryHi
registers contain the virtual address that failed address translation. The
EntryHi register also contains the ASID from which the translation fault
occurred. The contents of the EntryLo register are undefined.
The EPC register contains the address of the instruction that caused the
exception unless that instruction is in a branch delay slot, in which case the
EPC register contains the address of the preceding branch instruction and
the BD bit of the Cause register is set.
TLB Modified exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
The kernel uses the failed virtual address or virtual page number to
identify the corresponding access control information. The page
identified may or may not permit write accesses; if writes are not
permitted, a write protection violation occurs.
If write accesses are permitted, the page frame is marked dirty/writable
by the kernel in its own data structures. The TLBP instruction places the
index of the TLB entry that must be altered into the Index register. The
EntryLo register is loaded with a word containing the physical page frame
and access control bits (with the D bit set), and the EntryHi and EntryLo
registers are written into the TLB.
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Chapter 5
Cache Error Exception
Cause
The Cache Error exception occurs when either a secondary cache ECC
error, primary cache parity error, or SysAD bus parity/ECC error
condition occurs and error detection is enabled. This exception is not
maskable, but error detection can be disabled if either ERL or DE = 1 in the
Status register.
Processing
The processor sets the ERL bit in the Status register, saves the exception
restart address in the ErrorEPC register, records information about the
error in the CacheErr register, and then transfers to a special vector that is
always in uncached space (Tables 5-11 and 5-12). No other registers are
changed. Cache Error exception processing is shown in Figure 5-15.
Servicing
Unlike other exception conditions, cache errors cannot be avoided while
operating at exception level, so Cache Error exceptions must be handled
from exception level. Any general register used by the handler must be
saved before use and restored before return; this includes the registers
available to regular exception handlers without save/restore. When
ERL=1 in the Status register, the user address region becomes a 231-byte
uncached space mapped directly to physical addresses, allowing the
Cache Error handler to save registers to memory without using a register
to construct the address. The handler can save and restore registers using
operating system-reserved locations in low physical memory by using R0
as the base register for load and store instructions. All errors should be
logged. To correct single-bit ECC errors in the secondary cache, the
system uses the CACHE instruction. Execution then resumes through an
ERET instruction. To correct cache parity errors and non-single-bit ECC
errors in unmodified cache blocks, the system uses the CACHE instruction
to invalidate the cache block, overwrites the old data through a cache miss,
and resumes execution with an ERET. Other errors are not correctable and
are likely to be fatal to the current process. The exception handler cannot
be interrupted by another Cache Error exception because error detection
is disabled while ERL = 1, so the handler should avoid actions which
might cause an unnoticed cache error. The R4400 (but not R4000)
implements the EW bit in the CacheErr register to record a nonrecoverable
error occurring while ERL = 1.
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CPU Exception Processing
Virtual Coherency Exception
Cause
A Virtual Coherency exception occurs when all of the following conditions
are true:
•
a primary cache miss hits in the secondary cache
•
bits 14:12 of the virtual address were not equal to the
corresponding bits of the PIdx field of the secondary cache tag
•
the cache algorithm for the page (from the C field in the TLB)
specifies that the page is cached
This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception.
The VCEI or VCED code in the Cause register is set for instruction and data
cache misses respectively.
The BadVAddr register holds the virtual address that caused the exception.
Virtual Coherency exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
Using the appropriate CACHE instruction(s), the primary cache line at
both the previous and the new virtual index should be invalidated† (and
written back, if necessary), and the PIDx field of the secondary cache
should be written with the new virtual index. Once completed, the
program continues.
Software can avoid the cost of this exception by using consistent virtual
primary cache indexes to access the same physical data.
† When a cache miss occurs, the processor refills the primary cache line at the present virtual
index before taking an exception.
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Chapter 5
Bus Error Exception
Cause
A Bus Error exception is raised by board-level circuitry for events such as
bus time-out, backplane bus parity errors, and invalid physical memory
addresses or access types. This exception is not maskable.
A Bus Error exception occurs either when the SysCmd(5) bit indicates the
data is erroneous (see Chapter 12) or the IvdErr* signal is asserted
(Chapter 12). This can only occur when a cache miss refill, uncached
reference, or an unbuffered write occurs synchronously; a Bus Error
exception resulting from a buffered write transaction must be reported
using the general interrupt mechanism.
Processing
The common interrupt vector is used for a Bus Error exception. The IBE
or DBE code in the ExcCode field of the Cause register is set, signifying
whether the instruction (as indicated by the EPC register and BD bit in the
Cause register) caused the exception by an instruction reference, load
operation, or store operation.
The EPC register contains the address of the instruction that caused the
exception, unless it is in a branch delay slot, in which case the EPC register
contains the address of the preceding branch instruction and the BD bit of
the Cause register is set. Bus Error processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
The physical address at which the fault occurred can be computed from
information available in the CP0 registers.
•
If the IBE code in the Cause register is set (indicating an
instruction fetch reference), the virtual address is contained in
the EPC register.
•
If the DBE code is set (indicating a load or store reference), the
instruction that caused the exception is located at the virtual
address contained in the EPC register (or 4+ the contents of the
EPC register if the BD bit of the Cause register is set).
The virtual address of the load and store reference can then be obtained by
interpreting the instruction. The physical address can be obtained by
using the TLBP instruction and reading the EntryLo register to compute
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CPU Exception Processing
the physical page number. The process executing at the time of this
exception is handed a UNIX SIGBUS (bus error) signal, which is usually
fatal.
Integer Overflow Exception
Cause
An Integer Overflow exception occurs when an ADD, ADDI, SUB, DADD,
DADDI or DSUB† instruction results in a 2’s complement overflow. This
exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the OV code
in the Cause register is set.
The EPC register contains the address of the instruction that caused the
exception unless the instruction is in a branch delay slot, in which case the
EPC register contains the address of the preceding branch instruction and
the BD bit of the Cause register is set.
Integer Overflow exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
The process executing at the time of the exception is handed a UNIX
SIGFPE/FPE_INTOVF_TRAP (floating-point exception/integer
overflow) signal. This error is usually fatal to the current process.
† See Appendix A for a description of these instructions.
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Chapter 5
Trap Exception
Cause
The Trap exception occurs when a TGE, TGEU, TLT, TLTU, TEQ, TNE,
TGEI, TGEUI, TLTI, TLTUI, TEQI, or TNEI† instruction results in a TRUE
condition. This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the Tr code
in the Cause register is set.
The EPC register contains the address of the instruction causing the
exception unless the instruction is in a branch delay slot, in which case the
EPC register contains the address of the preceding branch instruction and
the BD bit of the Cause register is set.
Trap exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
The process executing at the time of a Trap exception is handed a UNIX
SIGFPE/FPE_INTOVF_TRAP (floating-point exception/integer
overflow) signal. This error is usually fatal.
† See Appendix A for a description of these instructions.
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CPU Exception Processing
System Call Exception
Cause
A System Call exception occurs during an attempt to execute the
SYSCALL instruction. This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the Sys code
in the Cause register is set.
The EPC register contains the address of the SYSCALL instruction unless
it is in a branch delay slot, in which case the EPC register contains the
address of the preceding branch instruction.
If the SYSCALL instruction is in a branch delay slot, the BD bit of the Status
register is set; otherwise this bit is cleared.
System Call exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
When this exception occurs, control is transferred to the applicable system
routine.
To resume execution, the EPC register must be altered so that the
SYSCALL instruction does not re-execute; this is accomplished by adding
a value of 4 to the EPC register (EPC register + 4) before returning.
If a SYSCALL instruction is in a branch delay slot, a more complicated
algorithm, beyond the scope of this description, may be required.
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Chapter 5
Breakpoint Exception
Cause
A Breakpoint exception occurs when an attempt is made to execute the
BREAK instruction. This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the BP code
in the Cause register is set.
The EPC register contains the address of the BREAK instruction unless it
is in a branch delay slot, in which case the EPC register contains the
address of the preceding branch instruction.
If the BREAK instruction is in a branch delay slot, the BD bit of the Status
register is set, otherwise the bit is cleared.
Breakpoint exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
When the Breakpoint exception occurs, control is transferred to the
applicable system routine. Additional distinctions can be made by
analyzing the unused bits of the BREAK instruction (bits 25:6), and
loading the contents of the instruction whose address the EPC register
contains. A value of 4 must be added to the contents of the EPC register
(EPC register + 4) to locate the instruction if it resides in a branch delay
slot.
To resume execution, the EPC register must be altered so that the BREAK
instruction does not re-execute; this is accomplished by adding a value of
4 to the EPC register (EPC register + 4) before returning.
If a BREAK instruction is in a branch delay slot, interpretation of the
branch instruction is required to resume execution.
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CPU Exception Processing
Reserved Instruction Exception
Cause
The Reserved Instruction exception occurs when one of the following
conditions occurs:
•
an attempt is made to execute an instruction with an undefined
major opcode (bits 31:26)
•
an attempt is made to execute a SPECIAL instruction with an
undefined minor opcode (bits 5:0)
•
an attempt is made to execute a REGIMM instruction with an
undefined minor opcode (bits 20:16)
•
an attempt is made to execute 64-bit operations in 32-bit mode
when in User or Supervisor modes
64-bit operations are always valid in Kernel mode regardless of the value
of the KX bit in the Status register.
This exception is not maskable.
Reserved Instruction exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the RI code
in the Cause register is set.
The EPC register contains the address of the reserved instruction unless it
is in a branch delay slot, in which case the EPC register contains the
address of the preceding branch instruction.
Servicing
No instructions in the MIPS ISA are currently interpreted. The process
executing at the time of this exception is handed a UNIX SIGILL/
ILL_RESOP_FAULT (illegal instruction/reserved operand fault) signal.
This error is usually fatal.
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Chapter 5
Coprocessor Unusable Exception
Cause
The Coprocessor Unusable exception occurs when an attempt is made to
execute a coprocessor instruction for either:
•
a corresponding coprocessor unit that has not been marked
usable, or
•
CP0 instructions, when the unit has not been marked usable
and the process executes in either User or Supervisor mode.
This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the CPU code
in the Cause register is set. The contents of the Coprocessor Usage Error field
of the coprocessor Control register indicate which of the four coprocessors
was referenced. The EPC register contains the address of the unusable
coprocessor instruction unless it is in a branch delay slot, in which case the
EPC register contains the address of the preceding branch instruction.
Coprocessor Unusable exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
The coprocessor unit to which an attempted reference was made is
identified by the Coprocessor Usage Error field, which results in one of the
following situations:
140
•
If the process is entitled access to the coprocessor, the
coprocessor is marked usable and the corresponding user state
is restored to the coprocessor.
•
If the process is entitled access to the coprocessor, but the
coprocessor does not exist or has failed, interpretation of the
coprocessor instruction is possible.
•
If the BD bit is set in the Cause register, the branch instruction
must be interpreted; then the coprocessor instruction can be
emulated and execution resumed with the EPC register
advanced past the coprocessor instruction.
•
If the process is not entitled access to the coprocessor, the
process executing at the time is handed a UNIX SIGILL/
ILL_PRIVIN_FAULT (illegal instruction/privileged instruction
fault) signal. This error is usually fatal.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Exception Processing
Floating-Point Exception
Cause
The Floating-Point exception is used by the floating-point coprocessor.
This exception is not maskable.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the FPE code
in the Cause register is set.
The contents of the Floating-Point Control/Status register indicate the cause
of this exception.
Floating-Point exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
This exception is cleared by clearing the appropriate bit in the FloatingPoint Control/Status register.
For an unimplemented instruction exception, the kernel should emulate
the instruction; for other exceptions, the kernel should pass the exception
to the user program that caused the exception.
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Chapter 5
Watch Exception
Cause
A Watch exception occurs when a load or store instruction references the
physical address specified in the WatchLo/WatchHi System Control
Coprocessor (CP0) registers. The WatchLo register specifies whether a
load or store initiated this exception.
The CACHE instruction never causes a Watch exception.
The Watch exception is postponed if the EXL bit is set in the Status register,
and Watch is only maskable by setting the EXL bit in the Status register.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the Watch
code in the Cause register is set.
Watch exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
The Watch exception is a debugging aid; typically the exception handler
transfers control to a debugger, allowing the user to examine the situation.
To continue, the Watch exception must be disabled to execute the faulting
instruction. The Watch exception must then be reenabled. The faulting
instruction can be executed either by interpretation or by setting
breakpoints.
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Interrupt Exception
Cause
The Interrupt exception occurs when one of the eight interrupt conditions
is asserted. The significance of these interrupts is dependent upon the
specific system implementation.
Each of the eight interrupts can be masked by clearing the corresponding
bit in the Int-Mask field of the Status register, and all of the eight interrupts
can be masked at once by clearing the IE bit of the Status register.
Processing
The common exception vector is used for this exception, and the Int code
in the Cause register is set.
The IP field of the Cause register indicates current interrupt requests. It is
possible that more than one of the bits can be simultaneously set (or even
no bits may be set) if the interrupt is asserted and then deasserted before
this register is read.
Interrupt exception processing is shown in Figure 5-17.
Servicing
If the interrupt is caused by one of the two software-generated exceptions
(SW1 or SW0), the interrupt condition is cleared by setting the
corresponding Cause register bit to 0.
If the interrupt is hardware-generated, the interrupt condition is cleared
by correcting the condition causing the interrupt pin to be asserted.
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Chapter 5
5.4 Exception Handling and Servicing Flowcharts
The remainder of this chapter contains flowcharts for the following
exceptions and guidelines for their handlers:
•
general exceptions and their exception handler
•
TLB/XTLB miss exception and their exception handler
•
cache error exception and its handler
•
reset, soft reset and NMI exceptions, and a guideline to their
handler.
Generally speaking, the exceptions are handled by hardware (HW); the
exceptions are then serviced by software (SW).
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CPU Exception Processing
Exceptions other than Reset, Soft Reset, NMI, CacheError or first-level miss
Note: Interrupts can be masked by IE or IMs
and Watch is masked if EXL = 1
Set Watch Register
Set FP Control Status Register
EnHi <- VPN2, ASID
Context <- VPN2
Set Cause Register
EXCCode, CE
Set BadVA
Check if exception within
another exception
EXL
(SR1)
Comments
*Watch & FP Control Status Register
are only set if the respective exception
occurs.
EnHi, X/Context are set only for
*TLB- Invalid, Modified,
& Refill exceptions
BadVA is set only for
TLB- Invalid, Modified,
Refill- and VCED/I exceptions
Note: not set if it is a Bus Error
=1
=0
Yes
Instr. in
Br.Dly. Slot?
No
Cause 31 (BD) <- 1
Cause 31 (BD) <- 0
EPC <- (PC - 4)
EPC <- PC
EXL <- 1
=0 (normal)
Processor forced to Kernel Mode
& interrupt disabled
=1 (bootstrap)
BEV
PC <- 0xFFFF FFFF 8000 0000 + 180
(unmapped, cached)
PC <- 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0200 + 180
(unmapped, uncached)
To General Exception Servicing Guidelines
Figure 5-18
General Exception Handler (HW)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
145
Chapter 5
Comments
* Unmapped vector so TLBMod, TLBInv,
TLB Refill exceptions not possible
MFC0 X/Context
EPC
Status
Cause
* EXL=1 so Watch, Interrupt exceptions disabled
* OS/System to avoid all other exceptions
*Only CacheError, Reset, Soft Reset, NMI
exceptions possible.
MTC0 (Set Status Bits:)
KSU<- 00
EXL <- 0
& IE=1
Check CAUSE REG. & Jump to
appropriate Service Code
=1
Status
bit 21(TS)
(optional - only to enable Interrupts while keeping Kernel Mode)
* After EXL=0, all exceptions allowed.
(except interrupt if masked by IE or IM
and CacheError if masked by DE)
Optional: Check only if 2nd-level TLB miss
=0
Reset the processor
Service Code
EXL = 1
MTC0 EPC
STATUS
* ERET is not allowed in the branch delay slot of
another Jump Instruction
ERET
* Processor does not execute the instruction which is
in the ERET’s branch delay slot
* PC <- EPC; EXL <- 0
* LLbit <- 0
Figure 5-19
146
General Exception Servicing Guidelines (SW)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Exception Processing
Yes
Instr. in
Br.Dly. Slot?
No
EnHi <- VPN2, ASID
Context <- VPN2
Set Cause Reg.
EXCCode, CE and
Set BadVA
EnHi <- VPN2, ASID
Context <- VPN2
Set Cause Reg.
EXCCode, CE and
Set BadVA
EXL
(SR bit 1)
=1
EXL
(SR bit 1)
=1
Check if exception within
another exception
=0
=0
EPC <- (PC - 4)
Cause bit 31 (BD) <- 1
Y
EPC <- PC
Cause bit 31 (BD) <- 0
XTLB
Instruction?
Vec. Off. = 0x080
N
Vec. Off. = 0x000
Points to Refill Exception
Points to General Exception
EXL <- 1
=0 (normal)
Vec. Off. = 0x180
BEV
(SR bit 22)
PC <- 0xFFFF FFFF 8000 0000 + Vec.Off.
(unmapped, cached)
Processor forced to Kernel Mode &
interrupt disabled
=1
(bootstrap)
PC <- 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0200 + Vec.Off.
(unmapped, uncached)
To TLB/XTLB Exception Servicing Guidelines
Figure 5-20
TLB/XTLB Miss Exception Handler (HW)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
147
Chapter 5
Comments
MFC0 -
* Unmapped vector so TLBMod, TLBInv,
TLB Refill or VCEP exceptions
not possible
* EXL=1 so Watch, Interrupt exceptions disabled
CONTEXT
* OS/System to avoid all other exceptions
*Only CacheError, Reset, Soft Reset, NMI
exceptions possible.
* Load the mapping of the virtual address in Context Reg.
Move it to ENLO and Write into the TLB
Service Code
* There could be a TLB miss again during the mapping
of the data or instruction address. The processor will
jump to the general exception vector since the EXL is 1.
(Option to complete the first level refill in the general
exception handler or ERET to the original instruction
and take the exception again)
* ERET is not allowed in the branch delay slot of
another Jump Instruction
ERET
* Processor does not execute the instruction which is
in the ERET’s branch delay slot
* PC <- EPC; EXL <- 0
* LLbit <- 0
Figure 5-21
148
TLB/XTLB Exception Servicing Guidelines (SW)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Exception Processing
Note: Can be masked/disabled by DE (SR16) bit = 1
Set CacheErr Reg.
Cache Error Exception Handling (HW)
Yes
No
ErrEPC <- (PC - 4)
ErrEPC <- PC
ERL <- 1
=0
(normal)
=1
BEV
PC <- 0xFFFF FFFF A000 0000 + 100
(unmapped, uncached)
Servicing Guidelines (SW)
Instr. in
Br. Dly. Slot?
(bootstrap)
PC <- 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0200 + 100
(unmapped, uncached)
Comments
* Unmapped Uncached vector so
TLB related & Cache Error Exception not possible
Service Code
* ERL=1 so Interrupt exceptions disabled
* OS/System to avoid all other exceptions
*Only Reset, Soft Reset, NMI
exceptions possible.
ERET
* ERET is not allowed in the branch delay slot of
another Jump Instruction
* Processor does not execute the instruction which is
in the ERET’s branch delay slot
* PC <- ErrorEPC; ERL <- 0
* LLbit <- 0
Figure 5-22
Cache Error Exception Handling (HW) and Servicing Guidelines (SW)
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149
Chapter 5
Reset, Soft Reset & NMI Exception Handling (HW)
Soft Reset or NMI Exception
Random <- TLBENTRIES - 1
Wired <- 0
Config <- Update(31:6)|| Undef(5:0)
Status:
BEV <- 1
TS <- 0
SR<- 1
ERL <- 1
Status:
BEV <- 1
TS <- 0
CacheErr(EW) <- 0
(R4400 only)
SR<- 0
ERL <- 1
CacheErr(EW) <- 0
(R4400 only)
ErrorEPC <- PC
PC <- 0xFFFF FFFF BFC0 0000
Yes
Reset, Soft Reset & NMI
Servicing Guidelines (SW)
Reset Exception
NMI?
No
NMI Service Code
(Optional)
Note: There is no indication from the
processor to differentiate between
NMI & Soft Reset;
there must be a system level indication.
=0
Status bit 20
(SR)
=1
ERET
Soft Reset Service Code
Reset Service Code
Figure 5-23 Reset, Soft Reset & NMI Exception Handling (HW) and Servicing Guidelines (SW)
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Floating-Point Unit
6
This chapter describes the MIPS floating-point unit (FPU) features,
including the programming model, instruction set and formats, and the
pipeline.
The FPU, with associated system software, fully conforms to the
requirements of ANSI/IEEE Standard 754–1985, IEEE Standard for Binary
Floating-Point Arithmetic. In addition, the MIPS architecture fully supports
the recommendations of the standard and precise exceptions.
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Chapter 6
6.1 Overview
The FPU operates as a coprocessor for the CPU (it is assigned coprocessor
label CP1), and extends the CPU instruction set to perform arithmetic
operations on floating-point values.
Figure 6-1 illustrates the functional organization of the FPU.
Data Cache
FCU
Control
64
64
FP Bypass
Pipeline Chain
FAdd
+
FP Sqrt
FP Div
FP Mul
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
FP Reg File
Figure 6-1
152
FPU Functional Block Diagram
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
6.2 FPU Features
This section briefly describes the operating model, the load/store
instruction set, and the coprocessor interface in the FPU. A more detailed
description is given in the sections that follow.
•
Full 64-bit Operation. When the FR bit in the CPU Status
register equals 0, the FPU is in 32-bit mode and contains thirtytwo 32-bit registers that hold single- or, when used in pairs,
double-precision values. When the FR bit in the CPU Status
register equals 1, the FPU is in 64-bit mode and the registers
are expanded to 64 bits wide. Each register can hold single- or
double-precision values. The FPU also includes a 32-bit Control/
Status register that provides access to all IEEE-Standard
exception handling capabilities.
•
Load and Store Instruction Set. Like the CPU, the FPU uses a
load- and store-oriented instruction set, with single-cycle load
and store operations. Floating-point operations are started in a
single cycle and their execution overlaps other fixed-point or
floating-point operations.
•
Tightly Coupled Coprocessor Interface. The FPU resides onchip to form a tightly coupled unit with a seamless integration
of floating-point and fixed-point instruction sets. Since each
unit receives and executes instructions in parallel, some
floating-point instructions can execute at the same single-cycleper-instruction rate as fixed-point instructions.
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Chapter 6
6.3 FPU Programming Model
This section describes the set of FPU registers and their data organization.
The FPU registers include Floating-Point General Purpose registers (FGRs)
and two control registers: Control/Status and Implementation/Revision.
Floating-Point General Registers (FGRs)
The FPU has a set of Floating-Point General Purpose registers (FGRs) that
can be accessed in the following ways:
154
•
As 32 general purpose registers (32 FGRs), each of which is 32
bits wide when the FR bit in the CPU Status register equals 0;
or as 32 general purpose registers (32 FGRs), each of which is
64-bits wide when FR equals 1. The CPU accesses these
registers through move, load, and store instructions.
•
As 16 floating-point registers (see the next section for a
description of FPRs), each of which is 64-bits wide, when the
FR bit in the CPU Status register equals 0. The FPRs hold
values in either single- or double-precision floating-point
format. Each FPR corresponds to adjacently numbered FGRs
as shown in Figure 6-2.
•
As 32 floating-point registers (see the next section for a
description of FPRs), each of which is 64-bits wide, when the
FR bit in the CPU Status register equals 1. The FPRs hold
values in either single- or double-precision floating-point
format. Each FPR corresponds to an FGR as shown in
Figure 6-2.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
Floating-Point
Floating-Point
Registers (FPR) General Purpose Registers
(FR = 0)
(FGR)
0
31
FPR0
FPR2
FPR30
0
63
FGR0
FPR0
FGR0
(most)
FGR1
FPR1
FGR1
(least)
FGR2
FPR2
FGR2
(most)
FGR3
FPR3
FGR3
(least)
•
•
•
•
•
•
FPR28
Floating-Point
Floating-Point
Registers (FPR) General Purpose Registers
(FR = 1)
(FGR)
FGR28
(least)
•
•
•
•
•
•
FPR28
FGR28
(most)
FGR29
FPR29
FGR29
(least)
FGR30
FPR30
FGR30
(most)
FGR31
FPR31
FGR31
31
Control/Status Register
FCR31
Figure 6-2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point
Control Registers
(FCR)
0
Implementation/Revision Register
0
FCR0
31
FPU Registers
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Chapter 6
Floating-Point Registers
The FPU provides:
•
16 Floating-Point registers (FPRs) when the FR bit in the Status
register equals 0, or
•
32 Floating-Point registers (FPRs) when the FR bit in the Status
register equals 1.
These 64-bit registers hold floating-point values during floating-point
operations and are physically formed from the General Purpose registers
(FGRs). When the FR bit in the Status register equals 1, the FPR references
a single 64-bit FGR.
The FPRs hold values in either single- or double-precision floating-point
format. If the FR bit equals 0, only even numbers (the least register, as
shown in Figure 6-2) can be used to address FPRs. When the FR bit is set
to a 1, all FPR register numbers are valid.
If the FR bit equals 0 during a double-precision floating-point operation,
the general registers are accessed in double pairs. Thus, in a doubleprecision operation, selecting Floating-Point Register 0 (FPR0) actually
addresses adjacent Floating-Point General Purpose registers FGR0 and
FGR1.
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Floating-Point Unit
Floating-Point Control Registers
The FPU has 32 control registers (FCRs) that can only be accessed by move
operations. The FCRs are described below:
•
The Implementation/Revision register (FCR0) holds revision
information about the FPU.
•
The Control/Status register (FCR31) controls and monitors
exceptions, holds the result of compare operations, and
establishes rounding modes.
•
FCR1 to FCR30 are reserved.
Table 6-1 lists the assignments of the FCRs.
Table 6-1
Floating-Point Control Register Assignments
FCR Number
Use
FCR0
Coprocessor implementation and revision register
FCR1 to FCR30
Reserved
FCR31
Rounding mode, cause, trap enables, and flags
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Implementation and Revision Register, (FCR0)
The read-only Implementation and Revision register (FCR0) specifies the
implementation and revision number of the FPU. This information can
determine the coprocessor revision and performance level, and can also be
used by diagnostic software.
Figure 6-3 shows the layout of the register; Table 6-2 describes the
Implementation and Revision register (FCR0) fields.
Implementation/Revision Register (FCR0)
31
8 7
16 15
0
Imp
16
8
Figure 6-3
Rev
8
Implementation/Revision Register
Table 6-2
Field
0
FCR0 Fields
Description
Imp
Implementation number (0x05)
Rev
Revision number in the form of y.x
0
Reserved. Must be written as zeroes, and returns zeroes
when read.
The revision number is a value of the form y.x, where:
•
y is a major revision number held in bits 7:4.
•
x is a minor revision number held in bits 3:0.
The revision number distinguishes some chip revisions; however, MIPS
does not guarantee that changes to its chips are necessarily reflected by the
revision number, or that changes to the revision number necessarily reflect
real chip changes. For this reason revision number values are not listed,
and software should not rely on the revision number to characterize the
chip.
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Floating-Point Unit
Control/Status Register (FCR31)
The Control/Status register (FCR31) contains control and status
information that can be accessed by instructions in either Kernel or User
mode. FCR31 also controls the arithmetic rounding mode and enables
User mode traps, as well as identifying any exceptions that may have
occurred in the most recently executed instruction, along with any
exceptions that may have occurred without being trapped.
Figure 6-4 shows the format of the Control/Status register, and Table 6-3
describes the Control/Status register fields. Figure 6-5 shows the Control/
Status register Cause, Flag, and Enable fields.
Control/Status Register (FCR31)
31
25 24 23 22
0
7
FS C
1
1
Figure 6-4
18 17
12 11
7 6
2 1
0
0
Cause
EVZOUI
Enables
VZOUI
Flags
VZOUI
RM
5
6
5
5
2
FP Control/Status Register Bit Assignments
Table 6-3
Control/Status Register Fields
Field
Description
FS
When set, denormalized results are flushed to 0 instead of causing an
unimplemented operation exception.
C
Condition bit. See description of Control/Status register Condition bit.
Cause
Cause bits. See Figure 6-5 and the description of Control/Status register
Cause, Flag, and Enable bits.
Enables
Enable bits. See Figure 6-5 and the description of Control/Status register
Cause, Flag, and Enable bits.
Flags
Flag bits. See Figure 6-5 and the description of Control/Status register
Cause, Flag, and Enable bits.
RM
Rounding mode bits. See Table 6-4 and the description of Control/Status
register Rounding Mode Control bits.
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Bit # 17
16
15
14
13
12
V
Z
O
U
I
Bit # 11
10
9
8
7
V
Z
O
U
I
Bit # 6
5
4
3
2
V
Z
O
U
I
E
Cause
Bits
Enable
Bits
Flag
Bits
Inexact Operation
Underflow
Overflow
Division by Zero
Invalid Operation
Unimplemented Operation
Figure 6-5
Control/Status Register Cause, Flag, and Enable Fields
Accessing the Control/Status Register
When the Control/Status register is read by a Move Control From
Coprocessor 1 (CFC1) instruction, all unfinished instructions in the
pipeline are completed before the contents of the register are moved to the
main processor. If a floating-point exception occurs as the pipeline
empties, the FP exception is taken and the CFC1 instruction is re-executed
after the exception is serviced.
The bits in the Control/Status register can be set or cleared by writing to the
register using a Move Control To Coprocessor 1 (CTC1) instruction.
FCR31 must only be written to when the FPU is not actively executing
floating-point operations; this can be ensured by reading the contents of
the register to empty the pipeline.
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Floating-Point Unit
IEEE Standard 754
IEEE Standard 754 specifies that floating-point operations detect certain
exceptional cases, raise flags, and can invoke an exception handler when
an exception occurs. These features are implemented in the MIPS
architecture with the Cause, Enable, and Flag fields of the Control/Status
register. The Flag bits implement IEEE 754 exception status flags, and the
Cause and Enable bits implement exception handling.
Control/Status Register FS Bit
When the FS bit is set, denormalized results are flushed to 0 instead of
causing an unimplemented operation exception.
Control/Status Register Condition Bit
When a floating-point Compare operation takes place, the result is stored
at bit 23, the Condition bit, to save or restore the state of the condition line.
The C bit is set to 1 if the condition is true; the bit is cleared to 0 if the
condition is false. Bit 23 is affected only by compare and Move Control To
FPU instructions.
Control/Status Register Cause, Flag, and Enable Fields
Figure 6-5 illustrates the Cause, Flag, and Enable fields of the Control/Status
register.
Cause Bits
Bits 17:12 in the Control/Status register contain Cause bits, as shown in
Figure 6-5, which reflect the results of the most recently executed
instruction. The Cause bits are a logical extension of the CP0 Cause register;
they identify the exceptions raised by the last floating-point operation and
raise an interrupt or exception if the corresponding enable bit is set. If
more than one exception occurs on a single instruction, each appropriate
bit is set.
The Cause bits are written by each floating-point operation (but not by
load, store, or move operations). The Unimplemented Operation (E) bit is
set to a 1 if software emulation is required, otherwise it remains 0. The
other bits are set to 0 or 1 to indicate the occurrence or non-occurrence
(respectively) of an IEEE 754 exception.
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When a floating-point exception is taken, no results are stored, and the
only state affected is the Cause bit.
Enable Bits
A floating-point exception is generated any time a Cause bit and the
corresponding Enable bit are set. A floating-point operation that sets an
enabled Cause bit forces an immediate exception, as does setting both
Cause and Enable bits with CTC1.
There is no enable for Unimplemented Operation (E). Setting
Unimplemented Operation always generates a floating-point exception.
Before returning from a floating-point exception, software must first clear
the enabled Cause bits with a CTC1 instruction to prevent a repeat of the
interrupt. Thus, User mode programs can never observe enabled Cause
bits set; if this information is required in a User mode handler, it must be
passed somewhere other than the Status register.
For a floating-point operation that sets only unenabled Cause bits, no
exception occurs and the default result defined by IEEE 754 is stored. In
this case, the exceptions that were caused by the immediately previous
floating-point operation can be determined by reading the Cause field.
Flag Bits
The Flag bits are cumulative and indicate that an exception was raised by
an operation that was executed since they were explicitly reset. Flag bits
are set to 1 if an IEEE 754 exception is raised, otherwise they remain
unchanged. The Flag bits are never cleared as a side effect of floating-point
operations; however, they can be set or cleared by writing a new value into
the Status register, using a Move To Coprocessor Control instruction.
When a floating-point exception is taken, the flag bits are not set by the
hardware; floating-point exception software is responsible for setting
these bits before invoking a user handler.
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Floating-Point Unit
Control/Status Register Rounding Mode Control Bits
Bits 1 and 0 in the Control/Status register constitute the Rounding Mode
(RM) field.
As shown in Table 6-4, these bits specify the rounding mode that the FPU
uses for all floating-point operations.
Table 6-4
Rounding
Mode
RM(1:0)
Mnemonic
Rounding Mode Bit Decoding
Description
0
RN
Round result to nearest representable
value; round to value with leastsignificant bit 0 when the two nearest
representable values are equally near.
1
RZ
Round toward 0: round to value closest to
and not greater in magnitude than the
infinitely precise result.
2
RP
Round toward +∞: round to value closest
to and not less than the infinitely precise
result.
3
RM
Round toward – ∞: round to value closest
to and not greater than the infinitely
precise result.
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Chapter 6
6.4 Floating-Point Formats
The FPU performs both 32-bit (single-precision) and 64-bit (doubleprecision) IEEE standard floating-point operations. The 32-bit singleprecision format has a 24-bit signed-magnitude fraction field (f+s) and an
8-bit exponent (e), as shown in Figure 6-6.
31
30
23
s
Sign
e
Exponent
1
8
Figure 6-6
22
0
f
Fraction
23
Single-Precision Floating-Point Format
The 64-bit double-precision format has a 53-bit signed-magnitude fraction
field (f+s) and an 11-bit exponent, as shown in Figure 6-7.
63
62
52
51
0
s
Sign
e
Exponent
f
Fraction
1
11
52
Figure 6-7
Double-Precision Floating-Point Format
As shown in the above figures, numbers in floating-point format are
composed of three fields:
•
sign field, s
•
biased exponent, e = E + bias
•
fraction, f = .b1b2....bp–1
The range of the unbiased exponent E includes every integer between the
two values Emin and Emax inclusive, together with two other reserved
values:
•
Emin -1 (to encode 0 and denormalized numbers)
•
Emax +1 (to encode
∞
and NaNs [Not a Number])
For single- and double-precision formats, each representable nonzero
numerical value has just one encoding.
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Floating-Point Unit
For single- and double-precision formats, the value of a number, v, is
determined by the equations shown in Table 6-5.
Table 6-5
Equations for Calculating Values in Single and Double-Precision
Floating-Point Format
No.
Equation
(1)
if E = Emax+1 and f ≠ 0, then v is NaN, regardless of s
(2)
if E = Emax+1 and f = 0, then v = (–1)s ∞
(3)
if Emin ≤ E ≤ Emax, then v = (–1)s2E(1.f)
(4)
if E = Emin–1 and f ≠ 0, then v = (–1)s2Emin(0.f)
(5)
if E = Emin–1 and f = 0, then v = (–1)s0
For all floating-point formats, if v is NaN, the most-significant bit of f
determines whether the value is a signaling or quiet NaN: v is a signaling
NaN if the most-significant bit of f is set, otherwise, v is a quiet NaN.
Table 6-6 defines the values for the format parameters; minimum and
maximum floating-point values are given in Table 6-7.
Table 6-6
Floating-Point Format Parameter Values
Format
Parameter
Single
Double
Emax
+127
+1023
Emin
–126
–1022
Exponent bias
+127
+1023
Exponent width in bits
8
11
Integer bit
hidden
hidden
f (Fraction width in bits)
24
53
Format width in bits
32
64
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Chapter 6
Table 6-7
Minimum and Maximum Floating-Point Values
Type
Value
Float Minimum
1.40129846e–45
Float Minimum Norm
1.17549435e–38
Float Maximum
3.40282347e+38
Double Minimum
4.9406564584124654e–324
Double Minimum Norm
2.2250738585072014e–308
Double Maximum
1.7976931348623157e+308
6.5 Binary Fixed-Point Format
Binary fixed-point values are held in 2’s complement format. Unsigned
fixed-point values are not directly provided by the floating-point
instruction set. Figure 6-8 illustrates binary fixed-point format; Table 6-8
lists the binary fixed-point format fields.
31
30
0
Sign
Integer
31
1
Figure 6-8
Binary Fixed-Point Format
Field assignments of the binary fixed-point format are:
Table 6-8
Binary Fixed-Point Format Fields
Field
sign
integer
166
Description
sign bit
integer value
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
6.6 Floating-Point Instruction Set Overview
All FPU instructions are 32 bits long, aligned on a word boundary. They
can be divided into the following groups:
•
Load, Store, and Move instructions move data between
memory, the main processor, and the FPU General Purpose
registers.
•
Conversion instructions perform conversion operations
between the various data formats.
•
Computational instructions perform arithmetic operations on
floating-point values in the FPU registers.
•
Compare instructions perform comparisons of the contents of
registers and set a conditional bit based on the results.
•
Branch on FPU Condition instructions perform a branch to the
specified target if the specified coprocessor condition is met.
In the instruction formats shown in Tables 6-9 through 6-12, the fmt
appended to the instruction opcode specifies the data format: S specifies
single-precision binary floating-point, D specifies double-precision binary
floating-point, W specifies 32-bit binary fixed-point, and L specifies 64-bit
(long) binary fixed-point.
Table 6-9
FPU Instruction Summary: Load, Move and Store Instructions
OpCode
Description
LWC1
Load Word to FPU
SWC1
Store Word from FPU
LDC1
Load Doubleword to FPU
SDC1
Store Doubleword From FPU
MTC1
Move Word To FPU
MFC1
Move Word From FPU
CTC1
Move Control Word To FPU
CFC1
Move Control Word From FPU
DMTC1
Doubleword Move To FPU
DMFC1
Doubleword Move From FPU
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Chapter 6
Table 6-10
OpCode
Description
CVT.S.fmt
Floating-point Convert to Single FP
CVT.D.fmt
Floating-point Convert to Double FP
CVT.W.fmt
Floating-point Convert to 32-bit Fixed Point
CVT.L.fmt
Floating-point Convert to 64-bit Fixed Point
ROUND.W.fmt
Floating-point Round to 32-bit Fixed Point
ROUND.L.fmt
Floating-point Round to 64-bit Fixed Point
TRUNC.W.fmt
Floating-point Truncate to 32-bit Fixed Point
TRUNC.L.fmt
Floating-point Truncate to 64-bit Fixed Point
CEIL.W.fmt
Floating-point Ceiling to 32-bit Fixed Point
CEIL.L.fmt
Floating-point Ceiling to 64-bit Fixed Point
FLOOR.W.fmt
Floating-point Floor to 32-bit Fixed Point
FLOOR.L.fmt
Floating-point Floor to 64-bit Fixed Point
Table 6-11
OpCode
FPU Instruction Summary: Computational Instructions
Description
ADD.fmt
Floating-point Add
SUB.fmt
Floating-point Subtract
MUL.fmt
Floating-point Multiply
DIV.fmt
Floating-point Divide
ABS.fmt
Floating-point Absolute Value
MOV.fmt
Floating-point Move
NEG.fmt
Floating-point Negate
SQRT.fmt
Floating-point Square Root
Table 6-12
FPU Instruction Summary: Compare and Branch Instructions
OpCode
168
FPU Instruction Summary: Conversion Instructions
Description
C.cond.fmt
Floating-point Compare
BC1T
Branch on FPU True
BC1F
Branch on FPU False
BC1TL
Branch on FPU True Likely
BC1FL
Branch on FPU False Likely
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
Floating-Point Load, Store, and Move Instructions
This section discusses the manner in which the FPU uses the load, store
and move instructions listed in Table 6-9; Appendix B provides a detailed
description of each instruction.
Transfers Between FPU and Memory
All data movement between the FPU and memory is accomplished by
using one of the following instructions:
•
Load Word To Coprocessor 1 (LWC1) or Store Word From
Coprocessor 1 (SWC1) instructions, which reference a single
32-bit word of the FPU general registers
•
Load Doubleword (LDC1) or Store Doubleword (SDC1)
instructions, which reference a 64-bit doubleword.
These load and store operations are unformatted; no format conversions
are performed and therefore no floating-point exceptions can occur due to
these operations.
Transfers Between FPU and CPU
Data can also be moved directly between the FPU and the CPU by using
one of the following instructions:
•
Move To Coprocessor 1 (MTC1)
•
Move From Coprocessor 1 (MFC1)
•
Doubleword Move To Coprocessor 1 (DMTC1)
•
Doubleword Move From Coprocessor 1 (DMFC1)
Like the floating-point load and store operations, these operations
perform no format conversions and never cause floating-point exceptions.
Load Delay and Hardware Interlocks
The instruction immediately following a load can use the contents of the
loaded register. In such cases the hardware interlocks, requiring
additional real cycles; for this reason, scheduling load delay slots is
desirable, although it is not required for functional code.
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Chapter 6
Data Alignment
All coprocessor loads and stores reference the following aligned data
items:
•
For word loads and stores, the access type is always WORD,
and the low-order 2 bits of the address must always be 0.
•
For doubleword loads and stores, the access type is always
DOUBLEWORD, and the low-order 3 bits of the address must
always be 0.
Endianness
Regardless of byte-numbering order (endianness) of the data, the address
specifies the byte that has the smallest byte address in the addressed field.
For a big-endian system, it is the leftmost byte; for a little-endian system,
it is the rightmost byte.
Floating-Point Conversion Instructions
Conversion instructions perform conversions between the various data
formats such as single- or double-precision, fixed- or floating-point
formats. Table 6-10 lists conversion instructions; Appendix B gives a
detailed description of each instruction.
Floating-Point Computational Instructions
Computational instructions perform arithmetic operations on floatingpoint values, in registers. Table 6-11 lists the computational instructions
and Appendix B provides a detailed description of each instruction. There
are two categories of computational instructions:
•
3-Operand Register-Type instructions, which perform floatingpoint addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
•
2-Operand Register-Type instructions, which perform floatingpoint absolute value, move, negate, and square root operations
Branch on FPU Condition Instructions
Table 6-12 lists the Branch on FPU (coprocessor unit 1) condition
instructions that can test the result of the FPU compare (C.cond)
instructions. Appendix B gives a detailed description of each instruction.
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Floating-Point Unit
Floating-Point Compare Operations
The floating-point compare (C.fmt.cond) instructions interpret the
contents of two FPU registers (fs, ft) in the specified format (fmt) and
arithmetically compare them. A result is determined based on the
comparison and conditions (cond) specified in the instruction.
Table 6-12 lists the compare instructions; Appendix B gives a detailed
description of each instruction. Table 6-13 lists the mnemonics for the
compare instruction conditions.
Table 6-13
Mnemonics and Definitions of Compare Instruction Conditions
Mnemonic
Definition
Mnemonic
Definition
T
True
F
False
OR
Ordered
UN
Unordered
NEQ
Not Equal
EQ
Equal
OLG
Ordered or Less Than or
Greater Than
UEQ
Unordered or Equal
UGE
Unordered or Greater Than
or Equal
OLT
Ordered Less Than
OGE
Ordered Greater Than
ULT
Unordered or Less Than
UGT
Unordered or Greater Than
OLE
Ordered Less Than or Equal
OGT
Ordered Greater Than
ULE
Unordered or Less Than or
Equal
ST
Signaling True
SF
Signaling False
GLE
Greater Than, or Less Than
or Equal
NGLE
Not Greater Than or Less
Than or Equal
SNE
Signaling Not Equal
SEQ
Signaling Equal
GL
Greater Than or Less Than
NGL
Not Greater Than or Less
Than
NLT
Not Less Than
LT
Less Than
GE
Greater Than or Equal
NGE
Not Greater Than or Equal
NLE
Not Less Than or Equal
LE
Less Than or Equal
GT
Greater Than
NGT
Not Greater Than
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Chapter 6
6.7 FPU Instruction Pipeline Overview
The FPU provides an instruction pipeline that parallels the CPU
instruction pipeline. It shares the same eight-stage pipeline architecture
with the CPU (see Chapter 3).
Instruction Execution
Figure 6-9 illustrates the 8-instruction overlap in the FPU pipeline.
PCycle
(8-Deep)
MasterClock
Cycle
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IF
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
Current
CPU
Cycle
Figure 6-9
FPU Instruction Pipeline
Figure 6-9 assumes that one instruction is completed every PCycle. Most
FPU instructions, however, require more than one cycle in the EX stage.
This means the FPU must stall the pipeline if an instruction execution
cannot proceed because of register or resource conflicts.
Figure 6-10 illustrates the effect of a three-cycle stall on the FPU pipeline.
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Floating-Point Unit
IF
IS
IF
RF
IS
IF
DF
stall stall stall
DS
TC
WB
RF
EX
stall stall stall
DF
DS
TC
WB
IS
RF
stall stall stall
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
IS
stall stall stall
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
WB
stall stall stall
IS
RF
EX
DF
DS
TC
EX
IF
IF
Figure 6-10
WB
FPU Pipeline Stall
To lessen the performance impact that results from stalling the instruction
pipeline, the FPU allows instructions to overlap so that instruction
execution can proceed as long as there are no resource conflicts, data
dependencies, or exception conditions. The following sections describe
the timing and overlapping of FPU instructions.
Instruction Execution Cycle Time
Unlike the CPU, which executes almost all instructions in a single cycle,
more time may be required to execute FPU instructions.
Table 6-14 gives the minimum latency, in processor pipeline cycles, of each
floating-point operation for the currently implemented configurations.
These latency calculations assume the result of the operation is
immediately used in a succeeding operation.
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Chapter 6
Table 6-14
Operation
Floating-Point Operation Latencies
Pipeline Cycles
S
D
W
L
Pipeline Cycles
Operation
S
D
W
L
ADD.fmt
4
4
(a)
(a)
CVT.[W,L].fmt
4
4
(a)
(a)
SUB.fmt
4
4
(a)
(a)
C.fmt.cond
3
3
(a)
(a)
MUL.fmt
7
8
(a)
(a)
BC1T
(b)
1
(b)
(b)
DIV.fmt
23
36
(a)
(a)
BC1F
(b)
1
(b)
(b)
SQRT.fmt
54
112
(a)
(a)
BC1TL
(b)
1
(b)
(b)
ABS.fmt
2
2
(a)
(a)
BC1FL
(b)
1
(b)
(b)
MOV.fmt
1
1
(a)
(a)
LWC1
(b)
3
(b)
(b)
NEG.fmt
2
2
(a)
(a)
SWC1
(b)
1
(b)
(b)
ROUND.[W,L].fmt
4
4
(a)
(a)
LDC1
(b)
3
(b)
(b)
TRUNC.[W,L].fmt
4
4
(a)
(a)
SDC1
(b)
1
(b)
(b)
CEIL.[W,L].fmt
4
4
(a)
(a)
MTC1
(b)
3
(b)
(b)
FLOOR.[W,L].fmt
4
4
(a)
(a)
MFC1
(b)
3
(b)
(b)
CVT.S.fmt
(a)
4
6
7
CTC1
(b)
3
(b)
(b)
CVT.D.fmt
2
(a)
5
4
CFC1
(b)
2
(b)
(b)
(a) ........ These operations are illegal.
(b) ........ These operations are undefined.
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Floating-Point Unit
Scheduling FPU Instructions
The floating-point architecture permits the overlapping of floating-point
load, store, and move instructions with some of the other processor
operations.
To permit this, the FPU coprocessor implements three separate operation
(op) units:
•
divider
•
multiplier
•
adder (for remaining operations)
The multiplier and divider can overlap adder operations; however, they
use the adder on their final cycles, which imposes some limitations.
The multiplier can begin a new double-precision multiplication every four
cycles, and a new single-precision multiplication every three cycles. The
adder generally begins a new operation one cycle before the previous
cycle completes; therefore, a floating-point addition or subtraction can
start every three cycles.
The FPU coprocessor pipeline is fully bypassed and interlocked.
FPU Pipeline Overlapping
Each of the three op units is controlled by an FPU resource scheduler,
which issues instructions under constraints described in the following
section. Table 6-15 lists the pipe stages used in each of the op units
(although not all stages are used by each unit).
Table 6-15
FPU Operational Unit Pipe Stages
Stage
Description
A
FPU Adder Mantissa Add stage
E
FPU Adder Exception Test stage
EX
CPU EX stage
M
FPU Multiplier 1st stage
N
FPU Multiplier 2nd stage
R
FPU Adder Result Round stage
S
FPU Adder Operand Shift stage
U
FPU Unpack stage
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 6
Instruction Scheduling Constraints
The FPU resource scheduler is kept from issuing instructions to the FPU
op units (adder, multiplier, and divider) by the limitations in their microarchitectures. If any of the following constraints are violated, the op unit
assumes the outstanding instruction in its pipe is discarded, and then
continues operation on the most recently issued instruction.
FPU Divider Constraints
The FPU divider can handle only one non-overlapped division instruction
in its pipe at any one time.
FPU Multiplier Constraints
The FPU multiplier allows up to two pipelined MUL.[S,D] instructions to
be processed as long as the following constraints are met:
•
Two idle cycles are required after a MUL.S instruction (as
shown in Figure 6-11).
•
Three idle cycles are required after MUL.D instruction (as
shown in Figure 6-12).
These figures are not meant to imply that back-to-back multiplications are
allowed. Rather, as shown in Figure 6-11, instructions I2 and I3 are illegal
and I5, I6, I7, and I8 are successive stages of I4, referenced to I1.
Figure 6-12 is similar, in that I6, I7, and I8 are successive stages of I5.
MUL.S I1 U
MUL.[S.D]
MUL.[S.D]
MUL.[S.D]
I2
M
M
N
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
I7
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
I8
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
I3
I4
I5
MUL.[S.D]
I6
MUL.[S.D]
MUL.[S.D]
MUL.[S.D]
Figure 6-11
176
Legal to Issue?
M
N/A R
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – No
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – No
– – – – – – – – – – – Yes
– – – – – – – – – Yes
– – – – – – Yes
– – – Yes
R
Yes
MUL.S Instruction Scheduling in the FPU Multiplier
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
MUL.D I1
MUL.[S.D]
U
I2
MUL.[S.D]
Legal to Issue?
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
I5
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
I6
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
R
U
M
M
M
M
N
N/A
I3
MUL.[S.D]
I4
MUL.[S.D]
MUL.[S.D]
I7
MUL.[S.D]
I8
MUL.[S.D]
Figure 6-12
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – No
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – No
– – – – – – – – – – – No
– – – – – – – – – Yes
– – – – – – Yes
– – – Yes
R
Yes
MUL.D Instruction Scheduling in the FPU Multiplier
FPU Adder Constraints
Following are the constraints that must be met in the FPU adder op unit.
Cycle Overlap. The adder op unit must allow a clock cycle overlap
between each newly issued instruction and the instruction being
completed, as shown in Figure 6-13.
NEG.[S,D] U
S
ADD.[S,D]
U
NOP
NOP
S+A A+R R+S
U
U
C.COND.[S,D]
U
NOP
A
R
U
SQRT.[S,D]
U
NOP
E
A+R . . . A+R R
U
...
...
NOP
ADD.[S,D]
U
U
Figure 6-13
S
A
R
Instruction Cycle Overlap in FPU Adder
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
177
Chapter 6
Resource Conflict. The adder must allow the cleanup stages (A, R) of a
multiplication instruction to be pipelined with the execution of an
ADD.[S,D], SUB.[S,D], or C.COND.[S,D] instruction, as long as no two
instructions simultaneously attempt to use the same A and R pipe stages.
For instance, Figure 6-14 shows a resource conflict between the mantissa
add (A, stage 7) of instructions 1, 5, and 6. This figure also shows the
resource conflict between result round (R), stage 8, of instructions 1, 5, and
6. The multiplication cleanup cycles (A, R) can neither overlap nor
pipeline with any other instruction currently in the adder pipe.
Figures 6-14 through 6-17 show these constraints.
MUL.D I1
ADD.[S,D]
1
2
3
4
Stage#
5
6
U
M
M
M
M
I2
U
I3
N
7
8
N/A
R
U
U
S+A A+R R+S
U
I6
Legal to Issue?
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – No
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – No
– – – – – – – – – – – Yes
S+A A+R R+S
S+A A+R R+S
U
U
I8
Figure 6-14
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
S+A A+R R+S
I7
Indicates a resource conflict
U
S+A A+R R+S
– – – – – – – – – Yes
MUL.D and ADD.[S,D] Cycle Conflict in FPU Adder
1
2
3
4
Stage#
5
6
MUL.S I1 U
M
M
M
N
N/A
7
8
9
10
11
Legal to Issue?
R
S+A A+R R+S – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
I3 U
S+A A+R R+S
I4 U
Figure 6-15
––––––––––––––––––––
No
–––––––––––––––––
No
S+A A+R R+S
I6 U
Indicates a resource conflict
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
S+A A+R R+S
I5 U
178
11
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
S+A A+R R+S – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
I5
I2 U
10
S+A A+R R+S
I4
ADD.[S,D]
9
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
– – – – – – – – – – – Yes
S+A A+R R+S
S+A A+R R+S
I7 U
I8 U
S+A A+R R+S – – – – – – – – – Yes
MUL.S and ADD.[S,D] Cycle Conflict in FPU Adder
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
1
2
3
4
Stage#
5
6
MUL.D I1 U
M
M
M
M
I2 U
A
R
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
I3 U
A
R
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
U
A
R
I5 U
A
R
I6 U
A
R
I7 U
A
R
U
A
CMP.[S,D]
I4
N
Indicates a resource conflict
7
N/A
8
9
10
Legal to Issue?
R
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
I8
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – No†
––––––––––––––
No
– – – – – – – – – – – Yes
R
– – – – – – – – – Yes
†
While there is no resource conflict in issuing this CMP.[S,D] instruction, the hardware does
not allow it.
Figure 6-16
MUL.D and CMP.[S,D] Cleanup Cycle Conflict in FPU Adder
1
2
3
4
Stage#
5
6
7
MUL.S I1 U
M
M
M
N
R
I2 U
A
R
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
I3 U
A
R
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
U
A
R
I5 U
A
R
I6 U
A
R
I7 U
A
R
U
A
CMP.[S,D]
I4
Indicates a resource conflict
N/A
8
9
10
Legal to Issue?
†
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – No
I8
–––––––––––––––––
No
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – Yes
– – – – – – – – – – – Yes
R
– – – – – – – – – Yes
†
While there is no resource conflict in issuing this CMP.[S,D] instruction, the hardware does
not allow it.
Figure 6-17
MUL.S and CMP.[S,D] Cleanup Cycle Conflict in FPU Adder
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 6
Prep and Cleanup Cycle Overlap. Τhe adder does not allow the
preparation (U stage) and cleanup cycles (N, A, R) of a division instruction
to be pipelined with any other instruction; however, the adder does allow
the last cycle of preparation or cleanup to be overlapped one clock by the
following instruction’s U stage (the CPU EX cycle). Figure 6-18 shows this
process.
DIV.D
U
A
R+D
D
U
A
S+R S+D
D
...
D
A+D R+D A+D R+D A
R
D
...
D
A+D R+D A+D R+D A
R
or
DIV.D
NOP
...
NOP
ADD.[S,D]
U
...
U
U
NOP
...
NOP
CMP.[S,D]
U
...
U
U
Figure 6-18
180
S+A A+R R+S
A
R
Adder Prep and Cleanup Cycle Overlap
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
Instruction Latency, Repeat Rate, and Pipeline Stage Sequences
Table 6-16 lists the latency and repeat rate between instructions, together
with the sequence of pipeline stages for each instruction. For example, the
latency of the ADD.[S,D] is 4, which means it takes four processor cycles
to complete. The Repeat Rate column indicates how soon an instruction
can be repeated; for example, an ADD.[S,D] can be repeated after the
conclusion of the third pipeline stage.
Table 6-16
Latency, Repeat Rate, and Pipe Stages of FPU Instructions
Latency
Repeat
Rate
MOV.[S,D]
1
1
EX
ADD.[S,D]
4
3
U→ S+A→ A+R→ R+S
SUB.[S,D]
4
3
U→ S+A→ A+R→ R+S
C.COND.[S,D]
3
2
U→ A→ R
NEG.[S,D]
2
1
U→ S
ABS.[S,D]
2
1
U→ S
CVT.S.W
6
5
U→ A→ R→ S→ A→ R
CVT.D.W
5
4
U→ S→ A→ R→ S
CVT.S.L
7
6
U→ A→ R→ S→ S→ A→ R
CVT.D.L
4
3
U→ A→ R→ S
CVT.D.S
2
1
U→ S
CVT.S.D
4
3
U→ S→ A→ R
CVT.[W,L].[S,D] or
ROUND.[W,L].[S,D] or
TRUNC.[W,L].[S,D] or
CEIL.[W,L].[S,D] or
FLOOR.[W,L].[S,D]
4
3
U→ S→ A→ R
MUL.S
7
3
U→ E/M→ M→ M→ N→ N/A→ R
MUL.D
8
4
U→ E/M→ M→ M→ M→ N→ N/A→ R
DIV.S
23
22
U→ S+A→ S+R→ S→ D...D→ D/A→
D/R→ D/A→ D/R→A→R
DIV.D
36
35
U→ A→ R→ D...D→ D/A→ D/R→ D/A →
D/R→ A→ R
SQRT.S
2–54
2–53
U→ E→ A+R→...→ A+R→ A→ R
SQRT.D
2–112
2–111
U→ E→ A+R→...→ A+R→ A→ R
Instruction Type
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Pipeline Stage
Sequence
181
Chapter 6
Resource Scheduling Rules
The FPU Resource Scheduler issues instructions while adhering to the
rules described below. These scheduling rules optimize op unit
executions; if the rules are not followed, the hardware interlocks to
guarantee correct operation.
DIV.[S,D] can start only when all of the following conditions are met in
the RF stage:
•
The divider is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
•
The adder is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
•
The multiplier is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution
cycle.
Idle means an operation unit—adder, multiplier or divider—is either not
processing any instruction, or is currently in its last execution cycle
completing an instruction.
182
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
MUL.[S,D] can start only when all of the following conditions are met in
the RF stage:
•
The multiplier is one of the following:
- idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
- not within the first two execution cycles (EX, EX+1) if the
most recent instruction in the multiplier pipe is MUL.S
- not within the first three execution cycles (EX...EX+2) if
the most recent instruction in the multiplier pipe is
MUL.D
•
The adder is one of the following:
- idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
- not processing the first execution cycle (EX) of CVT.S.L
•
The adder is not processing a square root instruction
•
The divider is one of the following:
- idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
- in the first 8 execution cycles (EX...EX+7) of a DIV.S
- in the first 21 execution cycles, except for the second
execution cycle, (cycles EX, EX+2...EX+20) of a DIV.D)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
183
Chapter 6
SQRT.[S,D] can start only when all of the following conditions are met in
the RFstage:
•
The divider is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
•
The adder is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
•
The multiplier is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution
cycle.
CVT.fmt, NEG.[S,D] or ABS.[S,D] instructions can only start when all of
the following conditions are met in the RF stage:
•
The adder is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
•
The multiplier is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution
cycle.
•
The divider is one of the following:
- idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
- in the third through eighth execution cycle (EX+2...EX+7)
of a DIV.S
- in the third through twenty-first execution cycle
(EX+2...EX+20) of a DIV.D
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Unit
ADD.[S,D], SUB.[S,D] or C.COND.[S,D] can only start when all of the
following conditions are met in the RF stage:
•
The adder is either idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
•
The multiplier is one of the following:
- idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
- not in the third or fourth execution cycles (EX+2...EX+3)
if the most recent instruction in the multiplier pipe is
MUL.S
- not in the fourth or fifth execution cycles (EX+3...EX+4) if
the most recent instruction in the multiplier pipe is
MUL.D
•
The divider is one of the following:
- idle, or in its second-to-last execution cycle.
- in the third through eighth execution cycle (EX+2...EX+7)
of a DIV.S
- in the third through twenty-first execution cycle
(EX+2...EX+20) of a DIV.D
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
185
Chapter 6
186
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Exceptions
7
This chapter describes FPU floating-point exceptions, including FPU
exception types, exception trap processing, exception flags, saving and
restoring state when handling an exception, and trap handlers for IEEE
Standard 754 exceptions.
A floating-point exception occurs whenever the FPU cannot handle either
the operands or the results of a floating-point operation in its normal way.
The FPU responds by generating an exception to initiate a software trap or
by setting a status flag.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
187
Chapter 7
7.1 Exception Types
The FP Control/Status register described in Chapter 6 contains an Enable bit
for each exception type; exception Enable bits determine whether an
exception will cause the FPU to initiate a trap or set a status flag.
•
If a trap is taken, the FPU remains in the state found at the
beginning of the operation and a software exception handling
routine executes.
•
If no trap is taken, an appropriate value is written into the FPU
destination register and execution continues.
The FPU supports the five IEEE Standard 754 exceptions:
•
Inexact (I)
•
Underflow (U)
•
Overflow (O)
•
Division by Zero (Z)
•
Invalid Operation (V)
Cause bits, Enables, and Flag bits (status flags) are used.
The FPU adds a sixth exception type, Unimplemented Operation (E), to
use when the FPU cannot implement the standard MIPS floating-point
architecture, including cases in which the FPU cannot determine the
correct exception behavior. This exception indicates the use of a software
implementation. The Unimplemented Operation exception has no Enable
or Flag bit; whenever this exception occurs, an unimplemented exception
trap is taken (if the FPU interrupt input to the CPU is enabled).
Figure 7-1 illustrates the Control/Status register bits that support
exceptions.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Exceptions
Bit # 17
16
15
14
13
12
V
Z
O
U
I
Bit # 11
10
9
8
7
V
Z
O
U
I
Bit # 6
5
4
3
2
V
Z
O
U
I
E
Cause
Bits
Enable
Bits
Flag
Bits
Inexact Operation
Underflow
Overflow
Division by Zero
Invalid Operation
Unimplemented Operation
Figure 7-1
Control/Status Register Exception/Flag/Trap/Enable Bits
Each of the five IEEE Standard 754 exceptions (V, Z, O, U, I) is associated
with a trap under user control, and is enabled by setting one of the five
Enable bits. When an exception occurs, the corresponding Cause bit is set.
If the corresponding Enable bit is not set, the Flag bit is also set. If the
corresponding Enable bit is set, the Flag bit is not set and the FPU generates
an interrupt to the CPU. Subsequent exception processing allows a trap to
be taken.
7.2 Exception Trap Processing
When a floating-point exception trap is taken, the Cause register indicates
the floating-point coprocessor is the cause of the exception trap. The
Floating-Point Exception (FPE) code is used, and the Cause bits of the
floating-point Control/Status register indicate the reason for the floatingpoint exception. These bits are, in effect, an extension of the system
coprocessor Cause register.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 7
7.3 Flags
A Flag bit is provided for each IEEE exception. This Flag bit is set to a 1 on
the assertion of its corresponding exception, with no corresponding
exception trap signaled.
The Flag bit is reset by writing a new value into the Status register; flags
can be saved and restored by software either individually or as a group.
When no exception trap is signaled, floating-point coprocessor takes a
default action, providing a substitute value for the exception-causing
result of the floating-point operation. The particular default action taken
depends upon the type of exception. Table 7-1 lists the default action taken
by the FPU for each of the IEEE exceptions.
Table 7-1
Default FPU Exception Actions
Field
Description
Rounding
Mode
I
Inexact
exception
Any
Supply a rounded result
RN
Modify underflow values to 0 with the sign of the
intermediate result
RZ
Modify underflow values to 0 with the sign of the
intermediate result
RP
Modify positive underflows to the format’s smallest positive
finite number; modify negative underflows to -0
RM
Modify negative underflows to the format’s smallest
negative finite number; modify positive underflows to 0
RN
Modify overflow values to ∞ with the sign of the
intermediate result
RZ
Modify overflow values to the format’s largest finite number
with the sign of the intermediate result
RP
Modify negative overflows to the format’s most negative
finite number; modify positive overflows to + ∞
RM
Modify positive overflows to the format’s largest finite
number; modify negative overflows to – ∞
U
O
Underflow
exception
Overflow
exception
Default action
Z
Division by
zero
Any
Supply a properly signed ∞
V
Invalid
operation
Any
Supply a quiet Not a Number (NaN)
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Floating-Point Exceptions
The FPU detects the eight exception causes internally. When the FPU
encounters one of these unusual situations, it causes either an IEEE
exception or an Unimplemented Operation exception (E).
Table 7-2 lists the exception-causing situations and contrasts the behavior
of the FPU with the requirements of the IEEE Standard 754.
Table 7-2
FPA Internal
Result
Inexact result
Exponent overflow
FPU Exception-Causing Conditions
IEEE
Trap
Trap
Standard
Enable Disable
754
I
O,I
†
I
I
O,I
O,I
Notes
Loss of accuracy
Normalized exponent > Emax
Division by zero
Z
Z
Z
Zero is (exponent = Emin-1,
mantissa = 0)
Overflow on convert
V
E
E
Source out of integer range
Signaling NaN
source
V
V
V
Invalid operation
V
V
V
U
E
UI‡
Normalized exponent < Emin
None
E
E
Denormalized is (exponent =
Emin-1 and mantissa <> 0)
Exponent underflow
Denormalized or
QNaN
0/0, etc.
† The IEEE Standard 754 specifies an inexact exception on overflow only if the overflow
trap is disabled.
‡ Exponent underflow sets the U and I Cause bits if both the U and I Enable bits are not set
and the FS bit is set; otherwise exponent underflow sets the E Cause bit.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
191
Chapter 7
7.4 FPU Exceptions
The following sections describe the conditions that cause the FPU to
generate each of its exceptions, and details the FPU response to each
exception-causing condition.
Inexact Exception (I)
The FPU generates the Inexact exception if one of the following occurs:
•
the rounded result of an operation is not exact, or
•
the rounded result of an operation overflows, or
•
the rounded result of an operation underflows and both the
Underflow and Inexact Enable bits are not set and the FS bit is
set.
The FPU usually examines the operands of floating-point operations
before execution actually begins, to determine (based on the exponent
values of the operands) if the operation can possibly cause an exception. If
there is a possibility of an instruction causing an exception trap, the FPU
uses a coprocessor stall to execute the instruction.
It is impossible, however, for the FPU to predetermine if an instruction will
produce an inexact result. If Inexact exception traps are enabled, the FPU
uses the coprocessor stall mechanism to execute all floating-point
operations that require more than one cycle. Since this mode of execution
can impact performance, Inexact exception traps should be enabled only
when necessary.
Trap Enabled Results: If Inexact exception traps are enabled, the result
register is not modified and the source registers are preserved.
Trap Disabled Results: The rounded or overflowed result is delivered to
the destination register if no other software trap occurs.
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Floating-Point Exceptions
Invalid Operation Exception (V)
The Invalid Operation exception is signaled if one or both of the operands
are invalid for an implemented operation. When the exception occurs
without a trap, the MIPS ISA defines the result as a quiet Not a Number
(NaN). The invalid operations are:
•
Addition or subtraction: magnitude subtraction of infinities,
such as: ( + ∞ ) + ( – ∞ ) or ( – ∞ ) – ( – ∞ )
•
Multiplication: 0 times ∞, with any signs
•
Division: 0/0, or ∞/∞, with any signs
•
Comparison of predicates involving < or > without ?, when the
operands are unordered
•
Comparison or a Convert From Floating-point Operation on a
signaling NaN.
•
Any arithmetic operation on a signaling NaN. A move (MOV)
operation is not considered to be an arithmetic operation, but
absolute value (ABS) and negate (NEG) are considered to be
arithmetic operations and cause this exception if one or both
operands is a signaling NaN.
•
Square root: √x, where x is less than zero
Software can simulate the Invalid Operation exception for other
operations that are invalid for the given source operands. Examples of
these operations include IEEE Standard 754-specified functions
implemented in software, such as Remainder: x REM y, where y is 0 or x is
infinite; conversion of a floating-point number to a decimal format whose
value causes an overflow, is infinity, or is NaN; and transcendental
functions, such as ln (–5) or cos–1(3). Refer to Appendix B for examples or
for routines to handle these cases.
Trap Enabled Results: The original operand values are undisturbed.
Trap Disabled Results: A quiet NaN is delivered to the destination
register if no other software trap occurs.
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Division-by-Zero Exception (Z)
The Division-by-Zero exception is signaled on an implemented divide
operation if the divisor is zero and the dividend is a finite nonzero number.
Software can simulate this exception for other operations that produce a
signed infinity, such as ln(0), sec(π/2), csc(0), or 0–1.
Trap Enabled Results: The result register is not modified, and the source
registers are preserved.
Trap Disabled Results: The result, when no trap occurs, is a correctly
signed infinity.
Overflow Exception (O)
The Overflow exception is signaled when the magnitude of the rounded
floating-point result, with an unbounded exponent range, is larger than
the largest finite number of the destination format. (This exception also
sets the Inexact exception and Flag bits.)
Trap Enabled Results: The result register is not modified, and the source
registers are preserved.
Trap Disabled Results: The result, when no trap occurs, is determined by
the rounding mode and the sign of the intermediate result (as listed in
Table 7-1).
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Floating-Point Exceptions
Underflow Exception (U)
Two related events contribute to the Underflow exception:
•
creation of a tiny nonzero result between ±2Emin which can
cause some later exception because it is so tiny
•
extraordinary loss of accuracy during the approximation of
such tiny numbers by denormalized numbers.
IEEE Standard 754 allows a variety of ways to detect these events, but
requires they be detected the same way for all operations.
Tininess can be detected by one of the following methods:
•
after rounding (when a nonzero result, computed as though
the exponent range were unbounded, would lie strictly
between ±2Emin)
•
before rounding (when a nonzero result, computed as though
the exponent range and the precision were unbounded, would
lie strictly between ±2Emin).
The MIPS architecture requires that tininess be detected after rounding.
Loss of accuracy can be detected by one of the following methods:
•
denormalization loss (when the delivered result differs
from what would have been computed if the exponent
range were unbounded)
•
inexact result (when the delivered result differs from what
would have been computed if the exponent range and
precision were both unbounded).
The MIPS architecture requires that loss of accuracy be detected as an
inexact result.
Trap Enabled Results: If Underflow or Inexact traps are enabled, or if the
FS bit is not set, then an Unimplemented exception (E) is generated, and
the result register is not modified.
Trap Disabled Results: If Underflow and Inexact traps are not enabled
and the FS bit is set, the result is determined by the rounding mode and
the sign of the intermediate result (as listed in Table 7-1).
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Chapter 7
Unimplemented Instruction Exception (E)
Any attempt to execute an instruction with an operation code or format
code that has been reserved for future definition sets the Unimplemented bit
in the Cause field in the FPU Control/Status register and traps. The operand
and destination registers remain undisturbed and the instruction is
emulated in software. Any of the IEEE Standard 754 exceptions can arise
from the emulated operation, and these exceptions in turn are simulated.
The Unimplemented Instruction exception can also be signaled when
unusual operands or result conditions are detected that the implemented
hardware cannot handle properly. These include:
•
Denormalized operand, except for Compare instruction
•
Quiet Not a Number operand, except for Compare instruction
•
Denormalized result or Underflow, when either Underflow or
Inexact Enable bits are set or the FS bit is not set.
•
Reserved opcodes
•
Unimplemented formats
•
Operations which are invalid for their format (for instance,
CVT.S.S)
NOTE: Denormalized and NaN operands are only trapped if the
instruction is a convert or computational operation. Moves do not trap
if their operands are either denormalized or NaNs.
The use of this exception for such conditions is optional; most of these
conditions are newly developed and are not expected to be widely used in
early implementations. Loopholes are provided in the architecture so that
these conditions can be implemented with assistance provided by
software, maintaining full compatibility with the IEEE Standard 754.
Trap Enabled Results: The original operand values are undisturbed.
Trap Disabled Results: This trap cannot be disabled.
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Floating-Point Exceptions
7.5 Saving and Restoring State
Sixteen doubleword coprocessor load or store operations save or restore
the coprocessor floating-point register state in memory. The remainder of
control and status information can be saved or restored through Move To/
From Coprocessor Control Register instructions, and saving and restoring
the processor registers. Normally, the Control/Status register is saved first
and restored last.
When the coprocessor Control/Status register (FCR31) is read, and the
coprocessor is executing one or more floating-point instructions, the
instruction(s) in progress are either completed or reported as exceptions.
The architecture requires that no more than one of these pending
instructions can cause an exception. If the pending instruction cannot be
completed, this instruction is placed in the Exception register, if present.
Information indicating the type of exception is placed in the Control/Status
register. When state is restored, state information in the status word
indicates that exceptions are pending.
Writing a zero value to the Cause field of Control/Status register clears all
pending exceptions, permitting normal processing to restart after the
floating-point register state is restored.
The Cause field of the Control/Status register holds the results of only one
instruction; the FPU examines source operands before an operation is
initiated to determine if this instruction can possibly cause an exception. If
an exception is possible, the FPU executes the instruction in stall mode to
ensure that no more than one instruction (that might cause an exception)
is executed at a time.
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Chapter 7
7.6 Trap Handlers for IEEE Standard 754 Exceptions
The IEEE Standard 754 strongly recommends that users be allowed to
specify a trap handler for any of the five standard exceptions that can
compute; the trap handler can either compute or specify a substitute result
to be placed in the destination register of the operation.
By retrieving an instruction using the processor Exception Program Counter
(EPC) register, the trap handler determines:
•
exceptions occurring during the operation
•
the operation being performed
•
the destination format
On Overflow or Underflow exceptions (except for conversions), and on
Inexact exceptions, the trap handler gains access to the correctly rounded
result by examining source registers and simulating the operation in
software.
On Overflow or Underflow exceptions encountered on floating-point
conversions, and on Invalid Operation and Divide-by-Zero exceptions, the
trap handler gains access to the operand values by examining the source
registers of the instruction.
The IEEE Standard 754 recommends that, if enabled, the overflow and
underflow traps take precedence over a separate inexact trap. This
prioritization is accomplished in software; hardware sets the bits for both
the Inexact exception and the Overflow or Underflow exception.
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R4000 Processor Signal Descriptions
8
This chapter describes the signals used by and in conjunction with the
R4000 processor. The signals include the System interface, the Clock/
Control interface, the Secondary Cache interface, the Interrupt interface,
the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) interface, and the Initialization
interface.
Signals are listed in bold, and low active signals have a trailing asterisk—
for instance, the low-active Read Ready signal is RdRdy*. The signal
description also tells if the signal is an input (the processor receives it) or
output (the processor sends it out).
Figure 8-1 illustrates the functional groupings of the processor signals.
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Chapter 8
128
8
16
9
25
System Interface
SysCmd(8:0)
SCData (127:0)
SCDChk (15:0)
SCTag (24:0)
7
SysCmdP
17
ValidIn*
4
ValidOut*
SCTChk (6:0)
SCAddr (17:1)
SCAddr0 (w,x,y,z)
3
ExtRqst*
Release*
SCAPar(2:0)
SCOE*
4
RdRdy*
SCWr(w,x,y,z)*
WrRdy*
SCDCS*
IvdAck* (3)
SCTCS*
IvdErr* (3)
2
TClock(1:0)
2
R4000
Logic
Symbol
5
Int(5:1)* (2)
RClock(1:0)
Int0*
MasterClock
NMI*
MasterOut
Secondary Cache Interface (1)
SysADC(7:0)
64
Interrupt Interface
SysAD(63:0)
ModeClock
IOOut
ModeIN
IOIn
Fault*
VCCOk
VccP
Reset*
ColdReset*
Initialization
Interface
SyncIn
VssP
Status(7:0) (4)
8
JTDI
VccSense (1)
JTDO
VssSense (1)
JTMS
JTAG
Interface
Clock/Control Interface
SyncOut
JTCK
(1) = R4000SC and R4000MC only (2) = R4000PC only
(3) = R4000MC only
(4) = R4400 only
Figure 8-1
200
R4000 Processor Signals
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Processor Signal Descriptions
8.1 System Interface Signals
System interface signals provide the connection between the R4000
processor and the other components in the system. IvdAck* and IvdErr*
signals are applicable only on R4000MC; on the R4000SC they must be tied
to Vcc. The remaining signals are available on all three of the package
configurations.
Table 8-1 lists the system interface signals.
Table 8-1
Name
Definition
Input
An external agent asserts IvdAck* to
signal successful completion of a
processor invalidate or update request
(R4000MC only; tie to Vcc on R4000SC).
Input
An external agent asserts IvdErr* to
signal unsuccessful completion of a
processor invalidate or update request
(R4000MC only; tie to Vcc on R4000SC).
Output
In response to the assertion of ExtRqst*,
the processor asserts Release*, signalling
to the requesting device that the System
interface is available.
Read ready
Input
The external agent asserts RdRdy* to
indicate that it can accept processor read,
invalidate, or update requests in both
secondary-cache and no-secondary-cache
mode; or can accept a read followed by
write request, a read followed by a
potential update request, or a read
followed by a potential update followed
by a write request in secondary cache
mode.
System address/
data bus
Input/
Output
A 64-bit address and data bus for
communication between the processor
and an external agent.
IvdAck*
Invalidate
acknowledge
RdRdy*
SysAD(63:0)
Description
Input
External request
Release*
Direction
An external agent asserts ExtRqst* to
request use of the System interface. The
processor grants the request by asserting
Release*.
ExtRqst*
IvdErr*
System Interface Signals
Invalidate error
Release interface
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Table 8-1 (cont.) System Interface Signals
Name
SysADC(7:0)
SysCmd(8:0)
SysCmdP
ValidIn*
Definition
System address/
data check bus
System command/
data identifier
System command/
data identifier bus
parity
Valid input
Direction
Description
Input/Output
An 8-bit bus containing
check bits for the SysAD
bus.†
Input/Output
A 9-bit bus for command
and data identifier
transmission between the
processor and an external
agent.
Input/Output
A single, even-parity bit for
the SysCmd bus. When the
System interface is set to
parity mode, the processor
also indicates a secondary
cache ECC error by
corrupting the state of the
SysCmdP signal.
Input
The external agent asserts
ValidIn* when it is driving a
valid address or data on the
SysAD bus and a valid
command or data identifier
on the SysCmd bus.
ValidOut*
Valid output
Output
The processor asserts
ValidOut* when it is
driving a valid address or
data on the SysAD bus and a
valid command or data
identifier on the SysCmd
bus.
WrRdy*
Write ready
Input
An external agent asserts
WrRdy* when it can accept
a processor write request.
†. The SysADC(7:0) bits map to the SysAD bus in this manner: SysADC(7) covers
SysAD(63:56), SysADC(6) covers SysAD(55:48), and so on down to SysADC(0), which
covers SysAD(7:0).
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R4000 Processor Signal Descriptions
8.2 Clock/Control Interface Signals
The Clock/Control interface signals make up the interface for clocking
and maintenance. Table 8-2 lists the Clock/Control interface signals.
Table 8-2
Name
Clock/Control Interface Signals
Definition
Direction
Description
I/O output
Output
Output slew rate control
feedback loop output. Must be
connected to IOIn through a
delay loop that models the I/O
path from the processor to an
external agent.
I/O input
Input
Output slew rate control
feedback loop input (see
IOOut).
Master clock
Input
Master clock input that
establishes the processor
operating frequency.
MasterOut
Master clock out
Output
Master clock output aligned
with MasterClock.
RClock(1:0)
Receive clocks
Output
Two identical receive clocks that
establish the System interface
frequency.
IOOut
IOIn
MasterClock
SyncOut
Synchronization
clock out
Output
Synchronization clock output.
Must be connected to SyncIn
through an interconnect that
models the interconnect
between MasterOut, TClock,
RClock, and the external agent.
SyncIn
Synchronization
clock in
Input
Synchronization clock input.
TClock(1:0)
Transmit clocks
Output
Two identical transmit clocks
that establish the System
interface frequency.
Output
The processor asserts Fault* to
indicate a mismatch output of
boundary comparators, and
indication of System interface
input parity or ECC errors.
Fault*
Fault
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Chapter 8
Table 8-2 (cont.) Clock/Control Interface Signals
Name
Status(7:0)
VccP
VccSense
VssP
VssSense
204
Definition
Direction
Description
Status
Output
An 8-bit bus that indicates the
current operational status of the
processor. R4400 only.
Quiet Vcc for PLL
Input
Quiet Vcc for the internal phase
locked loop.
Vcc sense
Input/
Output
A special pin used only in
component testing and
characterization,VccSense
provides a separate, direct
connection from the on-chip Vcc
node to a package pin, without
connecting to the in-package
power planes. Test fixtures treat
VccSense as an analog output
pin; the voltage at this pin
directly exhibits the behavior of
the on-chip Vcc. Thus,
characterization engineers can
easily observe the effects of ∆i/
∆t noise, transmission line
reflections, etc. VccSense
should be connected to Vcc in
functional system designs.
Quiet Vss for PLL
Input
Quiet Vss for the internal phase
locked loop.
Input/
Output
VssSense provides a separate,
direct connection from the onchip Vss node to a package pin
without having to connect to the
in-package ground planes.
VssSense should be connected
to Vss in functional system
designs.
Vss sense
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Processor Signal Descriptions
8.3 Secondary Cache Interface Signals
Secondary Cache interface signals constitute the interface between the
R4000 processor and secondary cache. These signals are available only on
the R4000MC and R4000SC. Table 8-3 lists the Secondary Cache interface
signals.
Table 8-3
Secondary Cache Interface Signals
Name
Definition
SCAddr(17:1)
Secondary cache
address bus
Output
SCAddr0W
Secondary cache
address LSB
Output
SCAddr0X
Secondary cache
address LSB
Output
SCAddr0Y
Secondary cache
address LSB
Output
SCAddr0Z
Secondary cache
address LSB
Output
SCAPar(2:0)
Secondary cache
address parity
bus
Output
A 3-bit bus that carries the parity
of the SCAddr bus and the cache
control line SCWr*. The
individual bit definitions are:
SCAPar2
Secondary cache
address parity
bus
Output
Even parity for SCAddr(17:12)
and SCWr*
SCAPar1
Secondary cache
address parity
bus
Output
Even parity for SCAddr(11:6) and
SCDCS*
SCAPar0
Secondary cache
address parity
bus
Output
Even parity for SCAddr(5:0) and
SCTCS*
SCData(127:0)
Secondary cache
data bus
Input/Output
A 128-bit bus used to read or write
cache data from and to the
secondary cache data RAM.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Direction
Description
The 18-bit address bus for the
secondary cache. Bit 0 has four
output lines, (SCAddr0W:Z), to
provide additional drive current.
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Chapter 8
Table 8-3 (cont.) Secondary Cache Interface Signals
Name
Definition
Direction
Description
SCDChk(15:0)
Secondary cache
data ECC bus
Input/Output
A 16-bit bus that carries two 8-bit
ECC fields that cover the 128 bits
of SCData from/to secondary
cache. SCDChk(15:8)
corresponds to SCData(127:64)
and SCDChk(7:0) corresponds to
SCData(63:0).
SCDCS*
Secondary cache
data chip select
Output
Chip select enable signal for the
secondary cache data RAM.
SCOE*
Secondary cache
output enable
Output
Output enable for the secondary
cache data and tag RAM.
SCTag(24:0)
Secondary cache
tag bus
Input/Output
A 25-bit bus used to read or write
cache tags from and to the
secondary cache.
SCTChk(6:0)
Secondary cache
tag ECC bus
Input/Output
A 7-bit bus that carries an ECC
field covering the SCTag from and
to the secondary cache.
SCTCS*
Secondary cache
tag chip select
Output
Chip select enable signal for the
secondary cache tag RAM.
SCWrW*
Secondary cache
write enable
Output
Write enable for the secondary
cache data and tag RAM.
SCWrX*
Secondary cache
write enable
Output
Write enable for the secondary
cache data and tag RAM.
SCWrY*
Secondary cache
write enable
Output
Write enable for the secondary
cache data and tag RAM.
SCWrZ*
Secondary cache
write enable
Output
Write enable for the secondary
cache data and tag RAM.
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R4000 Processor Signal Descriptions
8.4 Interrupt Interface Signals
The Interrupt interface signals make up the interface used by external
agents to interrupt the R4000 processor. Int*(5:1) are available only on the
R4000PC; Int*(0) and NMI* are available on all three configurations. Table
8-4 lists the Interrupt interface signals.
Table 8-4
Name
Definition
Interrupt Interface Signals
Direction
Description
Int*(5:1) Interrupt
Input
Five of six general processor interrupts, bitwise ORed with bits 5:1 of the interrupt
register. R4000PC only.
Int*(0)
Interrupt
Input
One of six general processor interrupts, bitwise ORed with bit 0 of the interrupt register.
NMI*
Nonmaskable
interrupt
Input
Nonmaskable interrupt, ORed with bit 6 of the
interrupt register.
8.5 JTAG Interface Signals
The JTAG interface signals make up the interface that provides the JTAG
boundary scan mechanism. Table 8-5 lists the JTAG interface signals.
Table 8-5
Name
Definition
JTAG Interface Signals
Direction
Description
JTDI
JTAG data in
Input
Data is serially scanned in through this pin.
JTCK
TAG clock input
Input
The processor outputs a serial clock on
JTCK. On the rising edge of JTCK, both
JTDI and JTMS are sampled.
JTDO
JTAG data out
Output
Data is serially scanned out through this pin.
JTMS
JTAG command
Input
JTAG command signal, indicating the
incoming serial data is command data.
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Chapter 8
8.6 Initialization Interface Signals
The Initialization interface signals make up the interface by which an
external agent initializes the processor operating parameters. These
signals are available on each of the three processor configurations. Table
8-6 lists the Initialization interface signals.
Table 8-6
Name
Definition
Initialization Interface Signals
Direction
Description
ColdReset*
Cold reset
Input
This signal must be asserted for a
power on reset or a cold reset. The
clocks SClock, TClock, and RClock
begin to cycle and are synchronized
with the deasserted edge of
ColdReset*. ColdReset* must be
deasserted synchronously with
MasterOut.
ModeClock
Boot mode clock
Output
Serial boot-mode data clock output;
runs at the system clock frequency
divided by 256: (MasterClock/256).
Boot mode data in
Input
Serial boot-mode data input.
Input
This signal must be asserted for any
reset sequence. It can be asserted
synchronously or asynchronously for
a cold reset, or synchronously to
initiate a warm† reset. Reset* must be
deasserted synchronously with
MasterOut.
Input
When asserted, this signal indicates to
the processor that the +5 volt power
supply has been above 4.75 volts for
more than 100 milliseconds and will
remain stable. The assertion of
VCCOk initiates the initialization
sequence.
ModeIn
Reset*
VCCOk
Reset
Vcc is OK
†. A warm reset restarts processor, but does not affect clocks; it preserves the processor internal state. A description of warm reset is given in Chapter 9.
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R4000 Processor Signal Descriptions
8.7 Signal Summary
Table 8-7
R4000SC/MC Processor Signal Summary
Name
I/O
Asserted
3-State
State
Secondary cache data bus
SCData(127:0)
I/O
High
Yes
Secondary cache data ECC bus
SCDChk(15:0)
I/O
High
Yes
Secondary cache tag bus
SCTag(24:0)
I/O
High
Yes
Secondary cache tag ECC bus
SCTChk(6:0)
I/O
High
Yes
Secondary cache address bus
SCAddr(17:1)
O
High
No
Secondary cache address LSB
SCAddr0Z
O
High
No
Secondary cache address LSB
SCAddr0Y
O
High
No
Secondary cache address LSB
SCAddr0X
O
High
No
Secondary cache address LSB
SCAddr0W
O
High
No
Secondary cache address parity bus
SCAPar(2:0)
O
High
No
Secondary cache output enable
SCOE*
O
Low
No
Secondary cache write enable
SCWrZ*
O
Low
No
Secondary cache write enable
SCWrY*
O
Low
No
Secondary cache write enable
SCWrX*
O
Low
No
Secondary cache write enable
SCWrW*
O
Low
No
Secondary cache data chip select
SCDCS*
O
Low
No
Secondary cache tag chip select
SCTCS*
O
Low
No
System address/data bus
SysAD(63:0)
I/O
High
Yes
System address/data check bus
SysADC(7:0)
I/O
High
Yes
System command/data identifier bus
SysCmd(8:0)
I/O
High
Yes
System command/data identifier bus parity
SysCmdP
I/O
High
Yes
Valid input
ValidIn*
I
Low
No
Valid output
ValidOut*
O
Low
No
External request
ExtRqst*
I
Low
No
Release interface
Release*
O
Low
No
Read ready
RdRdy*
I
Low
No
Write ready
WrRdy*
I
Low
No
Invalidate acknowledge
IvdAck*
I
Low
No
Invalidate error
IvdErr*
I
Low
No
Description
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Chapter 8
Table 8-7 (cont.) R4000SC/MC Processor Signal Summary
Description
Name
I/O
Asserted
3-State
State
Interrupt
Int*(0)
I
Low
No
Nonmaskable interrupt
NMI*
I
Low
No
Boot mode data in
ModeIn
I
High
No
Boot mode clock
ModeClock
O
High
No
JTAG data in
JTDI
I
High
No
JTAG data out
JTDO
O
High
No
JTAG command
JTMS
I
High
No
JTAG clock input
JTCK
I
High
No
Transmit clocks
TClock(1:0)
O
High
No
Receive clocks
RClock(1:0)
O
High
No
Master clock
MasterClock
I
High
No
Master clock out
MasterOut
O
High
No
Synchronization clock out
SyncOut
O
High
No
Synchronization clock in
SyncIn
I
High
No
I/O output
IOOut
O
High
No
I/O input
IOIn
I
High
No
Vcc is OK
VCCOk
I
High
No
Cold reset
ColdReset*
I
Low
No
Reset
Reset*
I
Low
No
Fault
Fault*
O
Low
No
Quiet Vcc for PLL
VccP
I
High
No
Quiet Vss for PLL
VssP
I
High
No
Status
Status(7:0)
O
High
No
Vcc sense
VccSense
I/O
N/A
No
Vss sense
VssSense
I/O
N/A
No
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R4000 Processor Signal Descriptions
Table 8-8
R4000PC Processor Signal Summary
Name
I/O
Asserted
3-State
State
System address/data bus
SysAD(63:0)
I/O
High
Yes
System address/data check bus
SysADC(7:0)
I/O
High
Yes
System command/data identifier bus
SysCmd(8:0)
I/O
High
Yes
System command/data identifier bus parity
SysCmdP
I/O
High
Yes
Valid input
ValidIn*
I
Low
No
Valid output
ValidOut*
O
Low
No
External request
ExtRqst*
I
Low
No
Release interface
Release*
O
Low
No
Read ready
RdRdy*
I
Low
No
Write ready
WrRdy*
I
Low
No
Interrupts
Int*(5:1)
I
Low
No
Interrupt
Int*(0)
I
Low
No
Nonmaskable interrupt
NMI*
I
Low
No
Boot mode data in
ModeIn
I
High
No
Boot mode clock
ModeClock
O
High
No
JTAG data in
JTDI
I
High
No
JTAG data out
JTDO
O
High
No
JTAG command
JTMS
I
High
No
JTAG clock input
JTCK
I
High
No
Transmit clocks
TClock(1:0)
O
High
No
Receive clocks
RClock(1:0)
O
High
No
Master clock
MasterClock
I
High
No
Master clock out
MasterOut
O
High
No
Synchronization clock out
SyncOut
O
High
No
Synchronization clock in
SyncIn
I
High
No
I/O output
IOOut
O
High
No
I/O input
IOIn
I
High
No
Vcc is OK
VCCOk
I
High
No
Description
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 8
Table 8-8 (cont.) R4000PC Processor Signal Summary
Description
Name
I/O
Asserted
3-State
State
Cold reset
ColdReset*
I
Low
No
Reset
Reset*
I
Low
No
Fault
Fault*
O
Low
No
Quiet Vcc for PLL
VccP
I
High
No
Quiet Vss for PLL
VssP
I
High
No
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Initialization Interface
9
This chapter describes the R4000 Initialization interface. This includes the
reset signal description and types, initialization sequence, with signals
and timing dependencies, and boot modes, which are set at initialization
time.
Signal names are listed in bold letters—for instance the signal VCCOk
indicates +5 voltage is stable. Low-active signals are indicated by a
trailing asterisk, such as ColdReset*, the power-on/cold reset signal.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
213
Chapter 9
9.1 Functional Overview
The R4000 processor has the following three types of resets; they use the
VCCOk, ColdReset*, and Reset* input signals.
•
Power-on reset: starts when the power supply is turned on and
completely reinitializes the internal state machine of the
processor without saving any state information.
•
Cold reset: restarts all clocks, but the power supply remains
stable. A cold reset completely reinitializes the internal state
machine of the processor without saving any state information.
•
Warm reset: restarts processor, but does not affect clocks. A
warm reset preserves the processor internal state.
The operation of each type of reset is described in sections that follow.
Refer to Figures 9-1, 9-2, and 9-3 later in this chapter for timing diagrams
of the power-on, cold, and warm resets.
The Initialization interface is a serial interface that operates at the
frequency of the MasterClock divided by 256: (MasterClock/256). This
low-frequency operation allows the initialization information to be stored
in a low-cost EPROM.
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Initialization Interface
9.2 Reset Signal Description
This section describes the three reset signals, VCCOk, ColdReset*, and
Reset*.
VCCOk: When asserted†, VCCOk indicates to the processor that the +5
volt power supply (Vcc) has been above 4.75 volts for more than 100
milliseconds (ms) and is expected to remain stable. The assertion of
VCCOk initiates the reading of the boot-time mode control serial stream
(described in Initialization Sequence, in this chapter).
ColdReset*: The ColdReset* signal must be asserted (low) for either a
power-on reset or a cold reset. The clocks SClock, TClock, and RClock
begin to cycle and are synchronized with the deasserted edge (high) of
ColdReset*. ColdReset* must be deasserted synchronously with
MasterClock.
Reset*: the Reset* signal must be asserted for any reset sequence. It can
be asserted synchronously or asynchronously for a cold reset, or
synchronously to initiate a warm reset. Reset* must be deasserted
synchronously with MasterClock.
ModeIn: Serial boot mode data in.
ModeClock: Serial boot mode data out, at the MasterClock frequency
divided by 256 (MasterClock/256).
† Asserted means the signal is true, or in its valid state. For example, the low-active Reset*
signal is said to be asserted when it is in a low (true) state; the high-active VCCOk signal
is true when it is asserted high.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
215
Chapter 9
Power-on Reset
The sequence for a power-on reset is listed below.
1.
Power-on reset applies a stable Vcc of at least 4.75 volts from the
+5 volt power supply to the processor. It also supplies a stable,
continuous system clock at the processor operational frequency.
2.
After at least 100 ms of stable Vcc and MasterClock, the VCCOk
signal is asserted to the processor. The assertion of VCCOk
initializes the processor operating parameters. After the mode
bits have been read in, the processor allows its internal phase
locked loops to lock, stabilizing the processor internal clock,
PClock, the SyncOut-SyncIn clock path (described in Chapter
10), and the master clock output, MasterOut. Note that when
JTAG is not used, JTCK must be tied low at the rising edge of
VCCOk for the processor to properly reset. If JTAG is used, JTCK
may be toggled during power-up.
3.
ColdReset* is asserted for at least 64K (216) MasterClock cycles
after the assertion of VCCOk. Once the processor reads the boottime mode control serial data stream, ColdReset* can be
deasserted. ColdReset* must be deasserted synchronously with
MasterClock.
4.
The deassertion of ColdReset* synchronizes the rising edges of
SClock and TClock with the rising edge of the next MasterClock,
aligning SClock, TClock, and RClock (which is 90 degrees ahead
of phase with SClock and TClock) of all processors in a
multiprocessor system. However, these clocks are only
guaranteed to be stabilized 64 MasterClock cycles after
ColdReset* is deasserted.
5.
After ColdReset* is deasserted synchronously and SClock,
TClock, and RClock have stabilized, Reset* is deasserted to allow
the processor to begin running. (Reset* must be held asserted for
at least 64 MasterClock cycles after the deassertion of
ColdReset*.) Reset* must be deasserted synchronously with
MasterClock.
NOTE: ColdReset* must be asserted when VCCOk asserts. The
behavior of the processor is undefined if VCCOk asserts while
ColdReset* is deasserted.
216
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Initialization Interface
Cold Reset
A cold reset can begin anytime after the processor has read the
initialization data stream, causing the processor to start with the Reset
exception. For information about saving processor states, see the
description of the Reset exception in Chapter 5.
A cold reset requires the same sequence as a power-on reset except that the
power is presumed to be stable before the assertion of the reset inputs and
the deassertion of VCCOk.
To begin the reset sequence, VCCOk must be deasserted for a minimum
of at least 64 MasterClock cycles before reassertion.
Warm Reset
To execute a warm reset, the Reset* input is asserted synchronously with
MasterClock. It is then held asserted for at least 64 MasterClock cycles
before being deasserted synchronously with MasterClock. The processor
internal clocks, PClock and SClock, and the System interface clocks,
TClock and RClock, are not affected by a warm reset. The boot-time
mode control serial data stream is not read by the processor on a warm
reset. A warm reset forces the processor to start with a Soft Reset
exception. For information about saving processor states, see the
description of the Soft Reset exception in Chapter 5.
The master clock output, MasterOut, can be used to generate any resetrelated signals for the processor that must be synchronous with
MasterClock.†
After a power-on reset, cold reset, or warm reset, all processor internal
state machines are reset, and the processor begins execution at the reset
vector. All processor internal states are preserved during a warm reset,
although the precise state of the caches depends on whether or not a cache
miss sequence has been interrupted by resetting the processor state
machines.
† Since MasterOut is undefined until after the serial PROM is read, reset logic must not
depend on MasterOut before the boot PROM is read.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
217
Chapter 9
9.3 Initialization Sequence
The boot-mode initialization sequence begins immediately after VCCOk
is asserted. As the processor reads the serial stream of 256 bits through the
ModeIn pin, the boot-mode bits initialize all fundamental processor
modes (the signals used are described in Chapter 8).
The initialization sequence is listed below.
1.
The system deasserts the VCCOk signal. The ModeClock output
is held asserted.
2.
The processor synchronizes the ModeClock output at the time
VCCOk is asserted. The first rising edge of ModeClock occurs
256 MasterClock cycles after VCCOk is asserted.
3.
Each bit of the initialization stream is presented at the ModeIn pin
after each rising edge of the ModeClock. The processor samples
256 initialization bits from the ModeIn input.
Figures 9-1, 9-2, and 9-3 on the next three pages show the timing diagrams
for the power-on, warm, and cold resets.
218
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Power-on Reset (POR)
Wavy lines indicate one or more identical
cycles, not shown due to space constraints
MasterClock
(MClk)
TDS
> 100ms
VCCOK
Figure 9-1
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Vcc
5.25V
4.75V
256
MClk
cycles
256 MClk cycles
ModeClock
TMDS
TMDH
ModeIn
Bit 1
Bit
255
TDS
TDS
> 64K MClk cycles*
ColdReset*
TDS
Reset*
*Considering multiple processing variables and systemsrelated variables that cannot be duplicated on the tester, a larger
number greater than or equal to 100 ms is recommended
Undefined
MasterOut
Undefined
SyncOut
Undefined
TClock
219
Undefined
RClock
> 64 MClk cycles
For all div. modes, assume the rising edges are
synchronized to this edge of MasterClock.
Power-on Reset
Bit 0
TDS
TClock and RClock are stable
after 64 MClk cycles
Cold Reset
MasterClock
(MClk)
TDS
VCCOK
Figure 9-2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Wavy lines indicate one or more identical
cycles, not shown due to space constraints
Vcc
TDS
> 64 MClk
cycles
256
MClk
cycles
256 MClk cycles
ModeClock
TMDS
TMDH
Bit 0
Cold Reset
ModeIn
Bit 1
Bit
255
TDS
TDS
> 64K MClk cycles*
ColdReset*
Reset*
*Considering multiple processing variables and systemsrelated variables that cannot be duplicated on the tester, a larger
number greater than or equal to 100 ms is recommended
Undefined
MasterOut
Undefined
SyncOut
Undefined
TClock
220
Undefined
RClock
> 64 MClk cycles
For all div. modes, assume the rising edges are
synchronized to this edge of MasterClock.
TDS
TDS
TClock and RClock are stable
after 64 MClk cycles
Warm Reset
Wavy lines indicate one or more identical
cycles, not shown due to space constraints
MasterClock
(MClk)
VCCOK
256 MClk cycles
ModeClock
Figure 9-3
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Vcc
ModeIn
Warm Reset
ColdReset*
TDS
TDS
> 64 MClk cycles
Reset*
Undefined
MasterOut
Undefined
SyncOut
Undefined
TClock
Undefined
221
RClock
Chapter 9
9.4 Boot-Mode Settings
Table 9-1 lists the processor boot-mode settings. The following rules apply
to the boot-mode settings listed in this table:
•
Bit 0 of the stream is presented to the processor when VCCOk
is first asserted.
•
Selecting a reserved value results in undefined processor
behavior.
•
Bits 65 to 255 are reserved bits.
•
Zeros must be scanned in for all reserved bits.
Table 9-1
Serial Bit
0
1
2
3
4
5:6
7
8
222
Boot-Mode Settings
Value
Mode Setting
BlkOrder: Secondary Cache Mode block read response ordering
0
Sequential ordering
1
Subblock ordering
EIBParMode: Specifies nature of System interface check bus
Single error correcting, double error detecting (SECDED) error
0
checking and correcting mode
1
Byte parity
EndBIt: Specifies byte ordering
0
Little-endian ordering
1
Big-endian ordering
DShMdDis: Dirty shared mode; enables the transition to dirty shared state
on a successful processor update
0
Dirty shared mode enabled
1
Dirty shared mode disabled
NoSCMode: Specifies presence of secondary cache
0
Secondary cache present
1
No secondary cache present
SysPort: System Interface port width, bit 6 most significant
0
64 bits
1-3
Reserved
SC64BitMd: Secondary cache interface port width
0
128 bits
1
Reserved
EISpltMd: Specifies secondary cache organization
0
Secondary cache unified
1
Secondary cache split
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Initialization Interface
Table 9-1 (cont.) Boot-Mode Settings
Serial Bit
9:10
11:14
15:17
18
19
20
21:24
Value
Mode Setting
SCBlkSz: Secondary cache line length, bit 10 most significant
0
4 words
1
8 words
2
16 words
3
32 words
XmitDatPat: System interface data rate, bit 14 most significant
0
D
1
DDx
2
DDxx
3
DxDx
4
DDxxx
5
DDxxxx
6
DxxDxx
7
DDxxxxxx
8
DxxxDxxx
9-15
Reserved
SysCkRatio: PClock to SClock divisor, frequency relationship between
SClock, RClock, and TClock and PClock, bit 17 most significant
0
Divide by 2
1
Divide by 3
2
Divide by 4
3
Divide by 6 (R4400 processor only)
4
Divide by 8 (R4400 processor only)
5-7
Reserved
SIMasterMd: Master/Checker Mode (see mode bit 42); used in R4400 only.
TimIntDis: Timer Interrupt enable allows timer interrupts, otherwise the
interrupt used by the timer becomes a general purpose interrupt
0
Timer Interrupt enabled
1
Timer Interrupt disabled
PotUpdDis: Potential update enable allows potential updates to be issued.
Otherwise, only compulsory updates are issued
0
Potential updates enabled
1
Potential updates disabled
TWrSUp: Secondary cache write deassertion delay, TWrSup in PCycles, bit
24 most significant
0-2
Undefined
3-15
Number of PClock cycles: Min 3, Max 15
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
223
Chapter 9
Table 9-1 (cont.) Boot-Mode Settings
Serial Bit
25:26
27:28
29
30:32
33:36
37:40
41
224
Value
Mode Setting
TWr2Dly: Secondary cache write assertion delay 2, TWr2Dly in PCycles, bit
26 most significant
Undefined
0
1-3
Number of PClock cycles: Min 1, Max 3
TWr1Dly: Secondary cache write assertion delay 1, TWr1Dly in PCycles, bit
28 most significant
Undefined
0
1-3
Number of PClock cycles; Min 1, Max 3
TWrRc: Secondary cache write recovery time, TWrRc in PCycles, either 0 or
1 cycle
0 cycle
0
1
1 cycle
TDis: Secondary cache disable time, TDis in PCycles, bit 32 most significant
Undefined
0-1
2-7
Number of PClock cycles: Min 2, Max 7
TRd2Cyc: Secondary cache read cycle time 2, TRdCyc2 in PCycles, bit 36 most
significant
Undefined
0-1
2-15
Number of PClock cycles: Min 2, Max 15
TRd1Cyc: Secondary cache read cycle time 1, TRdCyc1 in PCycles, bit 40 most
significant
Undefined
0-3
4-15
Number of PClock cycles: Min 4, Max 15
NoMPmode: Secondary cache line is not invalidated
NoMPmode off: after a secondary cache miss, the
0
existing valid cache line is invalidated (following
writeback if necessary)
NoMPmode on: after a secondary cache miss, the
existing valid cache line is not invalidated.
1
Available on the R4000SC and R4400SC, to
improve performance.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Initialization Interface
Table 9-1 (cont.) Boot-Mode Settings
Serial Bit
Value
Mode Setting
SCMasterMd: selects the type of Master/Checker mode (also see
description of mode bit 18). Used in R4400 only.
SCMasterMd SIMasterMd
(Bit 42)
(Bit 18)
Complete Master
(required for single-chip operation)
Complete Listener
1
1
(paired with Complete Master)
System Interface Master
1
0
(SIMaster)
Secondary Cache Master
0
1
(SCMaster, paired with SIMaster)
0
Reserved
Pkg179: R4000 Processor Package type
0
Large (447 pin)
1
Small (179 pin)
CycDivisor: This mode determines the clock divisor for the reduced
power mode. When the RP bit in the Status register is set to 1, the pipeline
clock is divided by one of the following values. Bit 49 is the most
significant.
0
Divide by 2
1
Divide by 4
2
Divide by 8
3
Divide by 16
Reserved
4-7
Drv0_50, Drv0_75, Drv1_00: Drive the outputs out in n x MasterClock
period. Bit 52 is the most significant. Combinations not defined below are
reserved.
1
Drive at 0.50 x MasterClock period
2
Drive at 0.75 x MasterClock period
4
Drive at 1.00 x MasterClock period
InitP: Initial values for the state bits that determine the pull-down ∆i/∆t
and switching speed of the output buffers. Bit 53 is the most significant.
Fastest pull-down rate
0
1-14
Intermediate pull-down rates
15
Slowest pull-down rate
0
42
43:45
46
47:49
50:52
53:56
Mode
0
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
225
Chapter 9
Table 9-1 (cont.) Boot-Mode Settings
Serial Bit
57:60
61
62
63
64
65:255
226
Value
Mode Setting
InitN: Initial values for the state bits that determine the pull-up ∆i/∆t and
switching speed of the output buffers. Bit 57 is the most significant.
0
Slowest pull-up rate
1-14
Intermediate pull-up rates
15
Fastest pull-up rate
EnblDPLLR: Enables the negative feedback loop that determines the
∆i/∆t and switching speed of the output buffers during ColdReset.
Disable ∆i/∆t mechanism
0
1
Enable ∆i/∆t mechanism
EnblDPLL: Enables the negative feedback loop that determines the ∆i/∆t
and switching speed of the output buffers during ColdReset and during
normal operation.
Disable ∆i/∆t control mechanism
0
1
Enable ∆i/∆t control mechanism
DsblPLL: Disables the phase-locked loops (PLLs) that match MasterClock
and produce RClock, TClock, SClock, and the internal clocks.
Enable PLLs
0
1
Disable PLLs
SRTristate: Controls when output-only pins are tristated
0
Only when ColdReset* is asserted
1
When Reset* or ColdReset* are asserted
Reserved. Scan in zeros.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Clock Interface
10
This chapter describes the clock signals (“clocks”) used in the R4000
processor and the processor status reporting mechanism.
The subject matter includes basic system clocks, system timing
parameters, connecting clocks to a phase-locked system, connecting clocks
to a system without phase locking, and processor status outputs.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
227
Chapter 10
10.1 Signal Terminology
The following terminology is used in this chapter (and book) when
describing signals:
•
Rising edge indicates a low-to-high transition.
•
Falling edge indicates a high-to-low transition.
•
Clock-to-Q delay is the amount of time it takes for a signal to
move from the input of a device (clock) to the output of the
device (Q).
Figures 10-1 and 10-2 illustrate these terms.
single clock cycle
1
2
high-to-low
transition
3
4
low-to-high
transition
Figure 10-1
Signal Transitions
Q
data out
data in
clock input
Clock-to-Q
delay
Figure 10-2
228
Clock-to-Q Delay
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Clock Interface
10.2 Basic System Clocks
The various clock signals used in the R4000 processor are described below,
starting with MasterClock, upon which the processor bases all internal
and external clocking.
MasterClock
The processor bases all internal and external clocking on the single
MasterClock input signal. The processor generates the clock output
signal, MasterOut, at the same frequency as MasterClock and aligns
MasterOut with MasterClock, if SyncIn is connected to SyncOut.
MasterOut
The processor generates the clock output signal, MasterOut, at the same
frequency as MasterClock and aligns MasterOut with MasterClock, if
SyncIn is connected to SyncOut. MasterOut clocks external logic, such as
the reset logic.
SyncIn/SyncOut
The processor generates SyncOut at the same frequency as MasterClock
and aligns SyncIn with MasterClock.
SyncOut must be connected to SyncIn either directly, or through an
external buffer. The processor can compensate for both output driver and
input buffer delays (and, when necessary, delay caused by an external
buffer) when aligning SyncIn with MasterClock. Figure 10-7 gives an
illustration of SyncOut connected to SyncIn through an external buffer.
PClock
The processor generates an internal clock, PClock, at twice the frequency
of MasterClock and precisely aligns every other rising edge of PClock
with the rising edge of MasterClock.
All internal registers and latches use PClock.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
229
Chapter 10
SClock
The R4000 processor divides PClock by 2, 3, or 4 (as programmed at bootmode initialization) to generate the internal clock signal, SClock. The
R4400 processor divides PClock by 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 (as programmed at bootmode initialization) to generate SClock. The processor uses SClock to
sample data at the system interface and to clock data into the processor
system interface output registers.
The first rising edge of SClock, after ColdReset* is deasserted, is aligned
with the first rising edge of MasterClock.
TClock
TClock (transmit clock) clocks the output registers of an external agent,†
and can be a global system clock for any other logic in the external agent.
TClock is the same frequency as SClock. When SyncIn is shorted to
SyncOut, the edges of TClock align precisely with the edges of SClock
and MasterClock.
When a delay is added between SyncIn and SyncOut, the TClock at the
pins leads SClock (and thus MasterClock) by the same amount of delay.
If the delay between SyncIn and SyncOut is matched to an external delay
between TClock at the processor and TClock at the external logic, the
TClock at the external logic aligns to SClock and MasterClock.
RClock
The external agent uses RClock (receive clock) to clock its input registers.
The processor generates RClock at the same frequency as TClock, but
RClock always leads TClock and SClock by 25 percent of SClock cycle
time. The relationship between RClock and TClock is independent of the
delay between SyncIn and SyncOut.
PClock-to-SClock Division
Figure 10-3 shows the clocks for a PClock-to-SClock division by 2; Figure
10-4 shows the clocks for a PClock-to-SClock division by 4.
† External agent is defined in Chapter 12.
230
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Clock Interface
1
Cycle
2
3
4
MasterClock
tMCkHigh
tMCkLow
tMCkP
MasterOut
PClock
SClock
TClock
RClock
D
SysAD Driven
D
D
D
tDM
tDO
D
SysAD Received
D
D
D
tDS
tDH
Figure 10-3
Processor Clocks, PClock-to-SClock Division by 2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
231
Chapter 10
1
cycle
2
3
4
MasterClock
SyncOut
PClock
SClock
TClock
RClock
D
SysAD Driven
D
tDM
tDO
SysAD Received
D
D
tDS
tDH
Figure 10-4
232
Processor Clocks, PClock-to-SClock Division by 4
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Clock Interface
10.3 System Timing Parameters
As shown in Figures 10-3 and 10-4, data provided to the processor must be
stable a minimum of tDS nanoseconds (ns) before the rising edge of SClock
and be held valid for a minimum of tDH ns after the rising edge of SClock.
Alignment to SClock
Processor data becomes stable a minimum of tDM ns and a maximum of
tDO ns after the rising edge of SClock. This drive-time is the sum of the
maximum delay through the processor output drivers together with the
maximum clock-to-Q delay of the processor output registers.
Alignment to MasterClock
Certain processor inputs (specifically VCCOk, ColdReset*, and Reset*)
are sampled based on MasterClock, while others (specifically, Status(7:0))
are output based on MasterClock. The same setup, hold, and drive-off
parameters, tDS, tDH, tDM, and tDO, shown in Figures 10-3 and 10-4, apply
to these inputs and outputs, but they are measured by MasterClock
instead of SClock.
Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)
The processor aligns SyncOut, PClock, SClock, TClock, and RClock with
internal phase-locked loop (PLL) circuits that generate aligned clocks
based on SyncOut/SyncIn. By their nature, PLL circuits are only capable
of generating aligned clocks for MasterClock frequencies within a limited
range.
Clocks generated using PLL circuits contain some inherent inaccuracy, or
jitter; a clock aligned with MasterClock by the PLL can lead or trail
MasterClock by as much as the related maximum jitter allowed by the
individual vendor.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
233
Chapter 10
10.4 Connecting Clocks to a Phase-Locked System
When the processor is used in a phase-locked system, the external agent
must phase lock its operation to a common MasterClock. In such a system,
the delivery of data and data sampling have common characteristics, even
if the components have different delay values. For example, transmission
time (the amount of time a signal takes to move from one component to
another along a trace on the board) between any two components A and B
of a phase-locked system can be calculated from the following equation:
Transmission Time = (SClock period) – (tDO for A) – (tDS for B) –
(Clock Jitter for A Max) – (Clock Jitter for B Max)
Figure 10-5 shows a block-level diagram of a phase-locked system using
the R4000 processor.
MasterClock
External Agent
R4000
MasterClock
SysCmd
SysAD
MasterClock
SysCmd
SysAD
SyncOut
SyncIn
RClock
TClock
Figure 10-5
234
R4000 Processor Phase-Locked System
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Clock Interface
10.5 Connecting Clocks to a System without Phase Locking
When the R4000 processor is used in a system in which the external agent
cannot lock its phase to a common MasterClock, the output clocks RClock
and TClock can clock the remainder of the system. Two clocking
methodologies are described in this section: connecting to a gate-array
device or connecting to discrete CMOS logic devices.
Connecting to a Gate-Array Device
When connecting to a gate-array device, both RClock and TClock are
used within the gate-array. The gate array internally buffers RClock and
uses this buffered version to clock registers that sample processor outputs.
These sampling registers should be immediately followed by staging
registers clocked by an internally buffered version of TClock. This
buffered version of TClock should be the global system clock for the logic
inside the gate array and the clock for all registers that drive processor
inputs. Figure 10-6 is a block diagram of this circuit.
Staging registers place a constraint on the sum of the clock-to-Q delay of
the sample registers and the setup time of the staging registers inside the
gate arrays, as shown in the following equation:
Clock-to-Q Delay + Setup of Staging Register
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for RClock)
– (Maximum Delay Mismatch for Internal Clock
Buffers on RClock and TClock)
0.25 (RClock period)
Figure 10-6 is a block diagram of a system without phase lock, using the
R4000 processor with an external agent implemented as a gate array.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
235
Chapter 10
Gate
Array
MasterClock
Sampling
Register
Staging
Register
R4000
MasterClock
SysCmd
SysAD
SyncOut
SyncIn
RClock
TClock
CE
Sampling
Register
Staging
Register
CE
Figure 10-6
236
Gate-Array System without Phase Lock, using the R4000 Processor
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Clock Interface
In a system without phase lock, the transmission time for a signal from the
processor to an external agent composed of gate arrays can be calculated
from the following equation:
Transmission Time = (75 percent of TClock period) – (tDO for R4000)
+ (Minimum External Clock Buffer Delay)
– (External Sample Register Setup Time)
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for R4000 Internal Clocks)
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for RClock)
The transmission time for a signal from an external agent composed of gate
arrays to the processor in a system without phase lock can be calculated
from the following equation:
Transmission Time = (TClock period) – (tDS for R4000)
– (Maximum External Clock Buffer Delay)
– (Maximum External Output Register Clock-to-Q Delay)
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for TClock)
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for R4000 Internal Clocks)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 10
Connecting to a CMOS Logic System
The processor uses matched delay clock buffers to generate aligned clocks
to external CMOS logic. A matched delay clock buffer is inserted in the
SyncOut/SyncIn alignment path of the processor, skewing SyncOut,
MasterOut, RClock, and TClock to lead MasterClock by the buffer delay
amount, while leaving PClock aligned with MasterClock.
The remaining matched delay clock buffers are available to generate a
buffered version of TClock aligned with MasterClock. Alignment error
of this buffered TClock is the sum of the maximum delay mismatch of the
matched delay clock buffers, and the maximum clock jitter of TClock.
As the global system clock for the discrete logic that forms the external
agent, the buffered version of TClock clocks registers that sample
processor outputs, as well as clocking the registers that drive the processor
inputs.
The transmission time for a signal from the processor to an external agent
composed of discrete CMOS logic devices can be calculated from the
following equation:
Transmission Time = (TClock period) – (tDO for R4000)
– (External Sample Register Setup Time)
– (Maximum External Clock Buffer Delay Mismatch)
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for R4000 Internal Clocks)
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for TClock)
Figure 10-7 is a block diagram of a system without phase lock, employing
the R4000 processor and an external agent composed of both a gate array
and discrete CMOS logic devices.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Clock Interface
MasterClock
R4000
MasterClock
SysCmd
Control
Gate
Array
SysAD
SyncOut
SyncIn
RClock
TClock
Sample
CE
Registers
CE
Memory
Memory
Figure 10-7
Gate Array and CMOS System without Phase Lock, using the R4000 Processor
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
239
Chapter 10
The transmission time for a signal from an external agent composed of
discrete CMOS logic devices can be calculated from the following
equation:
Transmission Time = (TClock period) – (tDS for R4000)
– (Maximum External Output Register Clock-to-Q Delay)
– (Maximum External Clock Buffer Delay Mismatch)
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for R4000 Internal Clocks)
– (Maximum Clock Jitter for TClock)
In this clocking methodology, the hold time of data driven from the
processor to an external sampling register is a critical parameter. To
guarantee hold time, the minimum output delay of the processor, tDM,
must be greater than the sum of:
minimum hold time for the external sampling register
+ maximum clock jitter for R4000 internal clocks
+ maximum clock jitter for TClock
+ maximum delay mismatch of the external clock buffers
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Clock Interface
10.6 Processor Status Outputs
The R4400 processor provides eight status outputs, Status(7:0), aligned
with each rising edge of MasterClock. At time T (the first PCycle of
MasterClock when status is examined) these status outputs indicate
whether the machine was running or stalled during the previous T-2 and
T-3 PCycles, as follows:
•
If the machine was stalled during the T-2 or T-3 PCycles, the
status outputs indicate the type of stall which occurred (listed
in Table 10-1).
•
If the machine was running during the T-2 or T-3 PCycles, the
status outputs describe the type of instruction which occupied
the WriteBack pipeline stage during the T-2 or T-3 PCycles, and
which was successfully completed (listed in Table 10-1).
•
The status outputs also indicate if an instruction in the T-2 or
T-3 PCycle was killed, and if so, states the cause (listed in
Table 10-1.
The Status(7:0) bits are treated as two fields, as follows:
•
The Status(7:4) field indicates the internal status of the
processor during PCycle T-3.
•
The Status(3:0) bits indicate the internal status of the processor
during the PCycle T-2.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 10
Table 10-1 shows the encoding of processor’s status for pins Status(7:4) or
Status(3:0).
Table 10-1
Status(7:4) or
Status(3:0)
242
Encoding of R4400 Processor Internal State by Status(7:4) or Status(3:0)
Cycle
0
Run cycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
a
b
Run cycle
Run cycle
Run cycle
Run cycle
c
Run cycle
d
e
f
Run cycle
Run cycle
Run cycle
Stall cycle
Run cycle
Stall cycle
Stall cycle
Stall cycle
Stall cycle
Processor Internal Status
Other integer instruction (not load/store/conditional
branch. Includes ERET and Jump instructions.)
Load
Untaken conditional branch
Taken conditional branch
Store
Reserved
MP stall
Integer instruction killed by slip
Other stall type
Primary instruction cache stall
Primary data cache stall
Secondary cache stall
Other floating-point instruction (not load, store, or
conditional branch)
Instruction killed by branch, jump, or ERET
Instruction killed by exception
Floating-point instruction killed by slip
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
11
This chapter describes in detail the cache memory: its place in the R4000
memory organization, individual operations of the primary and
secondary caches, cache interactions, and an example of a cache coherency
request cycle. The chapter concludes with a description of R4000
processor synchronization in a multiprocessor environment.
This chapter uses the following terminology:
•
The primary cache may also be referred to as the P-cache.
•
The secondary cache may also be referred to as the S-cache.
•
The primary data cache may also be referred to as the D-cache.
•
The primary instruction cache may also be referred to as the
I-cache.
These terms are used interchangeably throughout this book.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 11
11.1 Memory Organization
Figure 11-1 shows the R4000 system memory hierarchy. In the logical
memory hierarchy, caches lie between the CPU and main memory. They
are designed to make the speedup of memory accesses transparent to the
user. Each functional block in Figure 11-1 has the capacity to hold more
data than the block above it. For instance, physical main memory has a
larger capacity than the secondary cache. At the same time, each
functional block takes longer to access than any block above it. For
instance, it takes longer to access data in main memory than in the CPU
on-chip registers.
I-cache
Registers
D-cache
Primary Cache
Caches
Registers
Registers
R4000 CPU
Faster Access
Time
Disk, CD-ROM,
Tape, etc.
Figure 11-1
244
Peripherals
Main Memory
Increasing Data
Capacity
Memory
S-cache
Logical Hierarchy of Memory
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
The R4000 processor has two on-chip primary caches: one holds
instructions (the instruction cache), the other holds data (the data cache).
Off-chip, the R4000 processor supports a secondary cache on the R4000SC
and MC models.
11.2 Overview of Cache Operations
As described earlier, caches provide fast temporary data storage, and they
make the speedup of memory accesses transparent to the user. In general,
the processor accesses cache-resident instructions or data through the
following procedure:
1.
The processor, through the on-chip cache controller, attempts to access
the next instruction or data in the primary cache.
2.
The cache controller checks to see if this instruction or data is present
in the primary cache.
3.
4.
•
If the instruction/data is present, the processor retrieves it.
This is called a primary-cache hit.
•
If the instruction/data is not present in the primary cache, the
cache controller must retrieve it from the secondary cache or
memory. This is called a primary-cache miss.
If a primary-cache miss occurs, the cache controller checks to see if the
instruction/data is in the secondary cache.
•
If the instruction/data is present in the secondary cache, it is
retrieved and written into the primary cache.
•
If the instruction/data is not present in the secondary cache, it
is retrieved as a cache line (a block whose size set in the Config
register; see the section titled Variable-Length Cache Lines in
this chapter for available cache line lengths) from memory and
is written into both the secondary cache and the appropriate
primary cache.
The processor retrieves the instruction/data from the primary cache
and operation continues.
It is possible for the same data to be in three places simultaneously: main
memory, secondary cache, and primary cache. This data is kept consistent
through the use of write back methodology; that is, modified data is not
written back to memory until the cache line is replaced.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 11
11.3 R4000 Cache Description
As Figure 11-1 shows, the R4000 contains separate primary instruction and
data caches. Figure 11-1 also shows that the R4000 supports a secondary
cache that can be split into separate portions, one portion containing data
and the other portion containing instructions, or it can be a joint cache,
holding combined instructions and data.
This section describes the organization of on-chip primary caches and the
optional off-chip secondary cache. Table 11-1 lists the cache and cache
coherency support for the three R4000 models.
Table 11-1
R4000 Cache and Coherency Support
Support
Primary
Cache?
Support
Secondary
Cache?
Support
Cache
Coherency?
R4000PC
Yes
No
No
R4000SC
Yes
Yes
No
R4000MC
Yes
Yes
Yes
R4000
Model
Figure 11-2 provides block diagrams of the three R4000 models:
246
•
R4000PC, which supports only the primary cache
•
R4000SC and R4000MC, which support both primary and
secondary caches
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
Primary Cache Only
R4000PC
Main Memory
Cache Controller
I-cache
Primary
Caches
D-cache
Primary and Secondary Cache
R4000SC/MC
Cache Controller
Main Memory
I-cache
Primary
Caches
D-cache
Secondary Cache
Figure 11-2
I-cache primary instruction cache
D-cache primary data cache
Cache Support in the R4000PC, R4000SC, and R4000MC
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
247
Chapter 11
Secondary Cache Size
Table 11-2 lists the range of secondary cache sizes. The secondary cache is
user-configurable at boot time through the boot-mode bits (see Chapter 9);
it can be a joint cache, containing both data and instructions in a single
cache, or split into separate data and instruction caches.
Table 11-2
Cache
Secondary Cache Sizes
Minimum Size
Maximum Size
Secondary Joint Cache
128 Kbytes
4 Mbytes
Secondary Split I-Cache
128 Kbytes
2 Mbytes
Secondary Split D-Cache
128 Kbytes
2 Mbytes
Variable-Length Cache Lines
A cache line is the smallest unit of information that can be fetched from the
cache, and that is represented by a single tag.† A primary cache line can
be either 4 or 8 words in length; a secondary cache line can be either 4, 8,
16, or 32 words in length. Primary cache line length is set in the Config
register; see Chapter 4 for more information. Secondary cache line length
is set at boot time through the boot-mode bits, as described in Chapter 9.
Upon a cache miss in both primary and secondary caches, the missing
secondary cache line is loaded first from memory into the secondary
cache, whereupon the appropriate subset of the secondary cache line is
loaded into the primary cache.
The primary cache line length can never be longer than that of the
secondary cache; it must always be less than or equal to the secondary
cache line length. This means the secondary cache cannot have a 4-word
line length while the primary cache has an 8-word line length.
Cache Organization and Accessibility
This section describes the organization of the primary and secondary
caches, including the manner in which they are mapped, the addressing
(either virtual or physical) used to index the cache, and composition of the
cache lines. The primary instruction and data caches are indexed with a
virtual address (VA), while the secondary cache is indexed with a physical
address (PA).
† Primary and secondary cache tags are described in the following sections.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
Organization of the Primary Instruction Cache (I-Cache)
Each line of primary I-cache data (although it is actually an instruction, it
is referred to as data to distinguish it from its tag) has an associated 26-bit
tag that contains a 24-bit physical address, a single valid bit, and a single
parity bit. Byte parity is used on I-cache data.
The R4000 processor primary I-cache has the following characteristics:
•
direct-mapped
•
indexed with a virtual address
•
checked with a physical tag
•
organized with either a 4-word (16-byte) or 8-word (32-byte)
cache line.
Figure 11-3 shows the format of an 8-word (32-byte) primary I-cache line.
25
24
P
V
PTag
1
1
24
PTag
V
Data
P
DataP
23
0
Physical tag (bits 35:12 of the physical address)
Valid bit
Cache data
Even parity for the PTag and V fields
Even parity; 1 parity bit per byte of data
Figure 11-3
71
64 63
0
DataP
Data
DataP
Data
DataP
Data
DataP
Data
8
64
R4000 8-Word Primary I-Cache Line Format
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
249
Chapter 11
Organization of the Primary Data Cache (D-Cache)
Each line of primary D-cache data has an associated 29-bit tag that
contains a 24-bit physical address, 2-bit cache line state, a write-back bit, a
parity bit for the physical address and cache state fields, and a parity bit
for the write-back bit. Byte parity is used on D-cache data.
The R4000 processor primary D-cache has the following characteristics:
•
write-back
•
direct-mapped
•
indexed with a virtual address
•
checked with a physical tag
•
organized with either a 4-word (16-byte) or 8-word (32-byte)
cache line.
Figure 11-4 shows the format of a 8-word (32-byte) primary D-cache line.
28
27
26 25
24 23
0
W’ W
P
CS
PTag
1
1
2
24
1
71
64 63
0
DataP
Data
DataP
Data
Data
DataP
DataP
Data
Data
DataP
DataP
Data
Data
8
W’
W
P
CS
PTag
DataP
Data
Even parity for the write-back bit
Write-back bit (set if cache line has been written)
Even parity for the PTag and CS fields
Primary cache state:
0 = Invalid in all R4000 configurations
1 = Shared (either Clean or Dirty) in R4000MC configuration only
2 = Clean Exclusive in R4000SC and MC configurations only
3 = Dirty Exclusive in all R4000 configurations
Physical tag (bits 35:12 of the physical address)
Even parity for the data
Cache data
Figure 11-4
250
64
R4000 8-Word Primary Data Cache Line Format
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
In all R4000 processors, the W (write-back) bit, not the cache state,
indicates whether or not the primary cache contains modified data that
must be written back to memory or to the secondary cache.
Accessing the Primary Caches
Figure 11-5 shows the virtual address (VA) index into the primary caches.
Each instruction and data cache range in size from 8 Kbytes to 32 Kbytes;
therefore, the number of virtual address bits used to index the cache
depends on the cache size. For example, VA(12:4) accesses a 8-Kbyte page
tag in a cache with a 4-word line (VA(12) addresses 8 Kbytes and VA(4)
provides quadword resolution); similarly, VA(14:5) accesses an 8-word
tag: VA(5) provides octalword access in a 32-Kbyte cache (VA(14)
addresses 32 Kbytes).
Tags
Data
Tag line
VA(12:n*) for 8 Kbyte
to
VA(14:n*) for 32 Kbyte
VA(12:n*)
to
VA(14:n*)
W
Data line
W’ State Tag P
*n = 4 for 4-word lines
n = 5 for 8-word lines
64
Data
Figure 11-5
Primary Cache Data and Tag Organization
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
251
Chapter 11
Organization of the Secondary Cache
Each secondary cache line has an associated 19-bit tag that contains bits
35:17 of the physical address, a 3-bit primary cache index, VA(14:12), and
a 3-bit cache line state. These 25 bits are protected by a 7-bit ECC code.
The secondary cache is accessible to the processor and to the system
interface; by setting the appropriate boot-mode bits, it can be configured
at chip reset as a joint cache, or as separate I- and D-caches.
Figure 11-6 shows the format of the R4000 processor secondary-cache line.
The size of the secondary cache line is set in the SB field of the Config
register.
31
ECC
CS
PIdx
7
3
3
ECC
CS
PIdx
STag
STag
19
ECC for secondary tag
Secondary-cache state
0 = Invalid
1 = reserved
2 = reserved
3 = reserved
4 = Clean Exclusive
5 = Dirty Exclusive
6 = Shared
7 = Dirty Shared
Primary cache index (bits 14:12 of the virtual address)
Physical tag (bits 35:17 of the physical address)
Figure 11-6
252
0
25 24 22 21 19 18
R4000 Secondary Cache Line Format
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
The R4000 processor secondary cache has the following characteristics:
•
write-back
•
direct-mapped
•
indexed with a physical address
•
checked with a physical tag
•
organized with either a 4-word (16-byte), 8-word (32-byte),
16-word (64-byte), or 32-word (128-byte) cache line.
The secondary cache state (CS) bits indicate whether:
•
the cache line data and tag are valid
•
the data is potentially present in the caches of other processors
(shared versus exclusive)
•
the processor is responsible for updating main memory (clean
versus dirty).
The PIdx field provides the processor with an index to the virtual address
of primary cache lines that may contain data from the secondary cache
line.
The PIdx field also detects a cache alias. Cache aliasing occurs when the
physical address tag matches during a data reference to the secondary
cache, but the PIdx field does not match in the virtual address. This
indicates that the cache reference was made from a different virtual
address than the one that created the secondary-cache line, and the
processor signals a Virtual Coherency exception.
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Chapter 11
Accessing the Secondary Cache
Figure 11-7 shows the physical address (PA) index into the secondary
cache. The secondary cache ranges in size from 128 Kbytes to 4 Mbytes,
and the number of physical address bits used to index the cache depends
upon the cache size. For instance, PA(16:4) accesses the tags in a 128-Kbyte
secondary cache with 4-word lines; PA(21:5) accesses the tags in a 4-Mbyte
secondary cache with 8-word lines.
The processor always uses PA(35:17) from the secondary cache, regardless
of the S-cache size. This makes it important to initialize all secondary
cache tag address bits with a valid physical address, regardless of the size
of the S-cache.
Tags
Data
Tag line
PA(16:n*) for 128 Kbyte
to
PA(21:n*) for 4 Mbyte
ECC
PA(16:n*)
to
PA(21:n*)
CS
PIdx
Data line
Tag
*n = 4 for 4-word lines
n = 5 for 8-word lines
n = 6 for 16-word lines
n = 7 for 32-word lines
Data
Figure 11-7
254
Secondary Cache Data and Tag Organization
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
11.4 Cache States
The four terms below are used to describe the state of a cache line:
•
Exclusive: a cache line that is present in exactly one cache in
the system is exclusive, and may be in one of the exclusive
states.
•
Dirty: a cache line that contains data that has changed since it
was loaded from memory is dirty, and must be in one of the
dirty or shared states.
•
Clean: a cache line that contains data that has not changed
since it was loaded from memory is clean, and may be in one
of the clean states.
•
Shared: a cache line that is present in more than one cache in
the system.
Each primary and secondary cache line in the R4000 system is in one of the
states described in Table 11-3. Table 11-3 also lists with the types of cache
and the R4000 models in which the various states may be found.
Table 11-3
Cache
Line
State
Cache States
Description
Where the Available on
State is
the Following
Used
R4000 Models
Invalid
A cache line that does not contain valid
information must be marked invalid, and
cannot be used. For example, a cache line is
marked invalid if the same information,
located in another cache, is modified. A cache
line in any other state than invalid is assumed
to contain valid information.
Primary or
Secondary
Cache
R4000PC
R4000SC
R4000MC
Shared
A cache line that is present in more than one
cache in the system is shared.
Primary or
Secondary
Cache
R4000MC
only
Dirty
Shared
A dirty shared cache line contains valid
information and can be present in another
cache. This cache line is inconsistent with
memory and is owned by the processor (see the
section titled Cache Line Ownership in this
chapter).
Secondary
cache only
R4000MC
only
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
255
Chapter 11
Table 11-3 (cont.) Cache States
Cache
Line
State
Description
Where the Available on
State is
the Following
Used
R4000 Models
Clean
Exclusive
A clean exclusive cache line contains valid
information and this cache line is not present in
any other cache. The cache line is consistent
with memory and is not owned by the
processor (see the section titled Cache Line
Ownership in this chapter).
Primary or
Secondary
Cache
R4000SC
R4000MC
Dirty
Exclusive
A dirty exclusive cache line contains valid
information and is not present in any other
cache. The cache line is inconsistent with
memory and is owned by the processor (see the
section titled Cache Line Ownership in this
chapter).
Primary or
Secondary
Cache
R4000PC
R4000SC
R4000MC
Primary Cache States
Each primary data cache line is in one of the following states:
•
invalid
•
shared
•
clean exclusive
•
dirty exclusive
Each primary instruction cache line is in one of the following states:
•
invalid
•
valid
Secondary Cache States
Each secondary cache line is in one of the following states:
256
•
invalid
•
shared
•
dirty shared
•
clean exclusive
•
dirty exclusive
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
Mapping States Between Caches
Secondary cache states correspond, or map, to primary cache states (this
mapping is listed in Table 11-6, later on in this chapter). For example, the
secondary cache shared and dirty shared states map to the primary cache
shared state.
Therefore, when the primary cache line is filled from the secondary cache,
the state of the secondary cache line is also mapped into the primary cache;
in the case described above, the shared or dirty shared secondary state is
mapped to the shared primary cache state.
As shown in Figure 11-8, a primary cache line in the R4000PC model can
be in either an invalid or dirty exclusive state. In the R4000SC model, a
primary cache line can be in the invalid, clean exclusive, or dirty exclusive
state. In the R4000MC model, the primary cache line can be invalid, clean
exclusive, dirty exclusive, or shared.
R4000PC
R4000SC
R4000MC
Invalid State
Invalid State
Invalid State
Dirty Exclusive State
Clean Exclusive State
Clean Exclusive State
Dirty Exclusive State
Dirty Exclusive State
Shared State
Figure 11-8
Primary Cache States Available to Each Type of Processor
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 11
11.5 Cache Line Ownership
A processor becomes the owner of a cache line after it writes to that cache
line (that is, by entering the dirty exclusive or dirty shared state), and is
responsible for providing the contents of that line on a read request.
There can only be one owner for each cache line.
The ownership of a cache line is set and maintained through the rules
described below.
258
•
A processor assumes ownership of the cache line if the state of
the secondary cache line is dirty shared or dirty exclusive.
•
A processor that owns a cache line is responsible for writing
the cache line back to memory if the line is replaced during the
execution of a Write-back or Write-back Invalidate cache
instruction. For read responses to a processor coherent read
request (both of these terms are defined in Chapter 12) in which
the data is returned in the dirty shared or dirty exclusive state,
the cache state is set when the last word of read response data
is returned. Therefore, the processor assumes ownership of the
cache line when the last word of response data is returned.
•
For processor coherent write requests, the state of the cache
line changes to invalid if the cache line is replaced, or to either
clean exclusive or shared if the cache line is retained (provided
the cache line was written back to memory). In either case, the
cache state transition occurs when the last word of write data is
transmitted to the external agent. Therefore, the processor
gives up ownership of the cache line when the last word of
write data is transmitted to the external agent (Chapter 12
defines external agent).
•
Memory always owns clean cache lines.
•
The processor gives up ownership of a cache line when the
state of the cache line changes to invalid, shared, or clean
exclusive.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
11.6 Cache Write Policy
The R4000 processor manages its primary and secondary caches by using
a write-back policy; that is, it stores write data into the caches, instead of
writing it directly to memory.† Some time later this data is independently
written into memory. In the R4000 implementation, a modified cache line
is not written back to memory until the cache line is replaced either in the
course of satisfying a cache miss, or during the execution of a Write-back
CACHE instruction.
If a primary cache line is in either the dirty exclusive or shared state and
that cache line has been modified (the W bit is set), the processor writes
this cache line back to memory (or the secondary cache, if it is present)
when the line is replaced, either in the course of satisfying a cache miss or
during the execution of a Write-back or Write-back Invalidate CACHE
instruction.
If a secondary cache line is in either the dirty exclusive or dirty shared
state, the processor writes this cache line back to memory when the line is
replaced, either in the course of satisfying a cache miss or during the
execution of a Write-back CACHE instruction.
Many systems, in particular multiprocessor systems, or systems
employing I/O devices that are capable of DMA, require the system to
behave as if the caches are always consistent both with memory and with
each other. Schemes for maintaining consistency between more than one
cache, or between caches and memory, are defined by the system cache
coherency protocols (see the section titled Cache Coherency Overview
later in this chapter). In the R4000 system, when the content of a cache line
is inconsistent with memory, it is classified as dirty and is written back to
memory according to the rules of the cache write-back policy.
When the processor writes a cache line back to memory, it does not
ordinarily retain a copy of the cache line, and the state of the cache line is
changed to invalid. However, there is one exception. The processor
retains a copy of the cache line if a cache line is written back by the Hit
Write-back cache instruction. The processor changes the retained cache
line state to either clean exclusive if the secondary cache state was dirty
exclusive before the write, or shared if the secondary cache state was dirty
shared before the write. The processor signals this line retention during a
write by setting SysCmd(2) to a 1, as described in Chapter 12.
† An alternative to this is a write-through cache, in which information is written
simultaneously to cache and memory.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 11
11.7 Cache State Transition Diagrams
The following sections describe the cache state diagrams that illustrate the
cache state transitions for both the primary and secondary caches. Figures
11-9 and 11-10 are state diagrams of the primary and secondary caches,
respectively.
When an external agent supplies a cache line, the initial state of the cache
line is specified by the external agent (see Chapter 12 for a definition of an
external agent). Otherwise, the processor changes the state of the cache
line during one of the following events:
•
A store to a clean exclusive cache line causes the state to be
changed to dirty exclusive in both the primary and secondary
caches.
•
A store to a shared cache line—that is a line marked shared in
the primary cache and either shared or dirty shared in the
secondary cache—causes the processor to issue either an
invalidate request or an update request (depending on the
coherency attribute in the TLB entry for the page containing
the cache line). And update page attribute causes an update
request to be issued; a sharable page attribute causes an
invalidate request to be issued.
- Upon successful completion of an invalidate, the
processor completes the store and changes the state of the
cache line to dirty exclusive in both the primary and
secondary caches.
- Upon successful completion of an update, the processor
completes the store and changes the state of the cache line
to shared in the primary cache and dirty shared in the
secondary cache if dirty shared mode is enabled. Dirty
shared mode is programmable through the boot-time
mode control interface (see Chapter 9 for a description of
boot mode bits). If dirty shared mode is not enabled, the
state of the primary and secondary caches are left in a
shared state, after successful completion of an update.
•
A store to a dirty exclusive line remains in a dirty exclusive
state.
These state diagrams do not cover the initial state of the system since the
initial state is system dependent.
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I/O invalidate received
Invalid
Clean
Exclusive
Read hit
I/O invalidate received
Invalidate received
Write hit
Write hit [update]
Read hit
Update received
Bus read
Write hit
Read hit
Shared
Write hit [sharable]
Dirty
Exclusive
Bus read [intervention]
Figure 11-9
Primary Data Cache State Diagram
If the system is in no-secondary-cache mode, the cache state provided by
the system is ignored, and the primary data cache state is set to dirty
exclusive.
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Invalid
Invalidate
received
I/O
invalidate
received
Invalidate
received
Shared
Bus read [intervention]
Write hit [update],
Read hit
Clean
Exclusive
Bus
read
Read hit,
Update received
Write hit
[update]
I/O
invalidate
received
Update
received
Dirty
Shared
Read hit
Write hit
[invalidate]
Write hit [invalidate]
Write hit
Dirty
Exclusive
Read hit,
Write hit
Bus read [intervention]
Figure 11-10
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The state of a secondary cache line is provided by the external agent and
is set as follows:
Case 1. If the cache line is not present in another cache, it should be loaded
in the clean exclusive state.
Case 2. If the cache line is retained by another cache and the state of the
line in that cache remains shared or dirty shared, the line should
be loaded in the shared state.
Case 3. If the cache line is retained by another cache and the cache
relinquishes ownership to the processor making the read request,
the line should be returned in the dirty shared state.
Case 4. If the cache line is retained by another cache and ownership is
relinquished to memory, the line should be loaded in the shared
state.
Case 5. If the cache line is relinquished by another cache and ownership
is transferred to the processor making the read request, the line
should be loaded in the dirty exclusive or dirty shared state.
For case 1, if the refill occurs on a store miss, the processor changes the
cache line state to dirty exclusive. For each of the remaining cases listed
above, the R4000 processor passes the state received from the external
agent to the secondary cache.
The invalid state is never used for a refill. Software, however, should
initialize the secondary cache to the invalid state after the system is
powered up.
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11.8 Cache Coherency Overview
Systems using more than one R4000MC processor must have a mechanism
to maintain data consistency throughout a multi-cache, multiprocessor
system. This mechanism is called a cache coherency protocol.
Cache Coherency Attributes
Cache coherency attributes are necessary to ensure the consistency of data
throughout the multitude of caches that can be present in the
multiprocessor environment.
Bits in the translation look-aside buffer (TLB) control coherency on a perpage basis. Specifically, the TLB contains 3 bits per entry that provide five
possible coherency attributes; they are listed below and described more
fully in the following sections.
•
uncached (R4000PC, R4000SC, R4000MC)
•
noncoherent (R4000PC, R4000SC, R4000MC)
•
sharable (R4000MC only, with secondary cache)
•
update (R4000MC only, with secondary cache)
•
exclusive (R4000MC only, with secondary cache)
Only uncached or noncoherent attributes can be used by an R4000PC or an
R4000SC processor.
Table 11-4 summarizes the behavior of the processor on load misses, store
misses, and store hits to shared cache lines for each of the five coherency
attributes listed above. The following sections describe in detail the five
coherency attributes.
Table 11-4
Attribute
Coherency Attributes and Processor Behavior
Load Miss
Store Miss
Store Hit Shared
Uncached
Main memory read
Main memory write
NA
Noncoherent
Noncoherent read
Noncoherent read
Invalidate †
Exclusive
Coherent read exclusive
Coherent read exclusive
Invalidate †
Sharable
Coherent read
Coherent read exclusive
Invalidate
Update
Coherent read
Coherent read
Update
† These should not occur under normal circumstances.
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Uncached
Lines within an uncached page are never in a cache. When a page has the
uncached coherency attribute, the processor issues a doubleword, partialdoubleword, word, or partial-word read or write request directly to main
memory (bypassing the cache) for any load or store to a location within
that page.
Noncoherent
Lines with a noncoherent attribute can reside in a cache; a load or store miss
causes the processor to issue a noncoherent block read request to a
location within the cached page.
Sharable
Lines with a sharable attribute must be in a multiprocessor environment
(using the R4000MC), since shared lines can be in more than one cache at
a time. When the coherency attribute is sharable, the processor operates as
follows:
•
a coherent block read request is issued for a load miss to a
location within the page, or
•
a coherent block read request that requests exclusivity is issued
for a store miss to a location within the page.
In most systems, coherent read requests require snoops or directory
checks, and noncoherent read requests do not.† Cache lines within the
page are managed with a write invalidate protocol; that is, the processor
issues an invalidate request on a store hit to a shared cache line.
Update
Lines with an update coherency attribute must be in a multiprocessor
environment and can reside in more than one cache at a time. When the
coherency attribute is update, the processor issues a coherent block read
request for a load or store miss to a location within the page. Cache lines
within the page are managed with a write update protocol; that is, the
processor issues an update request on a store hit to a shared cache line.
† A coherent read that requests exclusivity implies that the processor functions most
efficiently if the requested cache line is returned to it in an exclusive state, but the
processor still performs correctly if the cache line is returned in a shared state.
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Exclusive
Lines with an exclusive coherency attribute must be in a multiprocessor
environment. When the coherency attribute is exclusive, the processor
issues a coherent block read request that requests exclusivity for a load or
store miss to a location within the page.
Cache lines within the page are managed with a write invalidate protocol.
NOTE: Load Linked-Store Conditional instruction sequences must
ensure that the link location is not in a page managed with the
exclusive coherency attribute.
Cache Operation Modes
The R4000 processor supports the following two cache modes:
•
secondary-cache mode (R4000MC and R4000SC models; for
R4000MC all five cache coherency attributes described above
are applicable, and for R4000SC only uncached and
noncoherent coherency attributes are applicable)
•
no-secondary-cache mode (only uncached and noncoherent
coherency attributes are applicable).
Secondary-Cache Mode
In its secondary-cache mode, an R4000MC model provides a set of cache
states and mechanisms that implement a variety of cache coherency
protocols. In particular, the processor simultaneously supports both the
write-invalidate and write-update protocols.
No-Secondary-Cache Mode
A processor in no-secondary-cache mode supports the uncached and
noncoherent coherency attributes. These two attributes are described in
the section titled Cache Coherency Attributes in this chapter.
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Strong Ordering
Cache-coherent multiprocessor systems must obey ordering constraints
on stores to shared data. A multiprocessor system that exhibits the same
behavior as a uniprocessor system in a multiprogramming environment is
said to be strongly ordered.
An Example of Strong Ordering
Given that locations X and Y have no particular relationship—that is,
they are not in the same cache line—an example of strong ordering is as
follows:
1.
At time T, Processor A performs a store to location X and at the same
time processor B performs a store to location Y.
2.
At time T+1, Processor A does a load from location Y and at the same
time processor B does a load from location X.
For the system to be considered strongly ordered, either processor A must
load the new value of Y, or processor B must load the new value of X, or
both processors A and B must load the new values of Y and X, respectively,
under all conditions.
If processors A and B load old values of Y and X, respectively, under any
conditions, the system is not strongly ordered.
Testing for Strong Ordering
Table 11-5 shows the algorithm for testing strong ordering.
Table 11-5
Time
T
T+1
Algorithm for Testing Strong Ordering
Processor A
Processor B
Store to location X
Store to location Y
Load from location Y
Load from location X
For this algorithm to succeed, stores must have a global ordering in time;
that is, every processor in the system must agree that either the store to
location X precedes the store to location Y, or vice versa. If this global
ordering is enforced, the test algorithm for strong ordering succeeds.
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Restarting the Processor
Strong ordering requires precise control of a processor restart.
Specifically, after completion of a processor coherency request, the system
must ensure the completion of any cache state changes before allowing a
processor restart.
The following sections describe processor restarts in a strong-ordered
system after a processor coherency request.
Restart after a Coherent Read Request
Unless a processor invalidate or update request is unacknowledged after
a coherent read request, the processor restarts (if sequential ordering is
enabled) after the last word in the block has been transmitted to the
processor.
Any external requests that must be completed before the read request is
finished must be issued to the processor before the read response is issued.
Restart after a Coherent Write Request
The processor restarts after the coherent write request is completed. That
is, the processor restarts after the last doubleword of data associated with
the write request has been transmitted to the external agent, unless a
processor read request is pending,† or a processor invalidate or update
request is unacknowledged.
Restart after an Invalidate or Update Request
Following an invalidate or update request, the processor restarts after the
external agent asserts IvdAck* or IvdErr*, unless a processor read request
is pending or the processor is processing an external request when either
IvdAck* or IvdErr* is asserted.
If either IvdAck* or IvdErr* is asserted during or after the first cycle that
the external agent asserts ExtRqst*, the processor accepts the external
request and completes any cache state changes associated with the
external request before restarting.
† That is, present but not yet executed.
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If either IvdAck* or IvdErr* is asserted before, but not asserted during or
after the first cycle that the external agent asserts ExtRqst*, the processor
restarts before beginning the external request.
External requests must be completed before a processor invalidate or
update completes. They can be completed, provided the processor
receives an asserted ExtRqst* by the external agent either before or during
the same cycle IvdAck* or IvdErr* is asserted.
11.9 Maintaining Coherency on Loads and Stores
Cache coherency protocols maintain data consistency throughout a
multiprocessor environment. Table 11-6 lists the coherency effects of load
and store operations on primary and secondary cache states in a
multiprocessor environment (using an R4000MC processor).
Table 11-6
Primary
Cache States
Invalid
Shared
Clean Exclusive
Dirty Exclusive†
R4000MC Data Cache Coherency States
Secondary
Cache States
Any
Action on
Load
Action on
Store
Miss
Miss
Shared
Dirty Shared
None
Read secondary tag. If the coherency
algorithm is Update on Write, then
send update and set the secondary
cache state to Dirty Shared. If the
coherency algorithm is Invalidate on
Write, then send invalidate and set the
primary and secondary cache states to
Dirty Exclusive.
Dirty Exclusive
None
Set the primary cache state to Dirty
Exclusive.
Clean
Exclusive
None
Set the primary and secondary cache
states to Dirty Exclusive.
Dirty Exclusive
None
Set the primary data cache state to
Dirty Exclusive.
Dirty Exclusive
None
None
† The dirty exclusive primary state allows the primary cache to be written without a
secondary access.
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11.10 Manipulation of the Cache by an External Agent
Just as the processor accesses caches, so too can an external agent examine
and manipulate the state and content of the primary and secondary caches
through invalidate, update, snoop, and intervention transactions.
These transactions are described in the following sections. Encodings of
these request transactions are given in Chapter 12.
Invalidate
An invalidate request causes the processor to change the state of the
specified cache line to invalid in both the primary and secondary caches.
Update
An update request causes the processor to write the specified data element
into the specified cache line, and either change the state of the cache line
to shared in both the primary and secondary caches, or leave the state of
the cache line unchanged, depending on the nature of the update request.
An external agent can issue updates to cache lines that are in either the
exclusive or shared states without changing the state of the cache line (see
the SysCmd(3) bit description in Chapter 12).
NOTE: If there is an update to a line in the primary instruction cache,
the line in the secondary cache is updated and the primary instruction
cache line is invalidated.
Snoop
A snoop request to the processor causes the processor to return the
secondary cache state of the specified cache line.
At the same time, the processor atomically† sets the state of the specified
cache line in both the primary and secondary caches according to the value
of the SysCmd(2:0) bits, which define cache state change, and are supplied
by the external agent.
† An atomic operation is one that cannot be split, or portions of it deferred. In this case, the
processor sets the state of both secondary and primary caches in an indivisible action; it
cannot set the state of one cache line, allow another process to interrupt, and then
complete the first process by setting the state of the remaining cache line.
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Intervention
An intervention request causes the processor to return the secondary
cache state of the specified cache line and, under certain conditions related
to the state of the cache line and the nature of the intervention request, the
contents of the specified secondary cache line.
At the same time, the processor atomically sets the state of the specified
cache line in both the primary and secondary caches according to the value
of the SysCmd(2:0) bits which define cache state change, and are supplied
by an external agent.
11.11 Coherency Conflicts
The R4000MC processor must handle competing coherency conflicts that
arise from the processor and an external source. This section describes
how coherency conflicts arise and how they are handled. A system model
illustrates the implications of coherency conflicts in a multiprocessor
environment; a coherent read request cycle is described at the end of this
section.
Figure 11-11 shows the R4000MC processor issuing processor coherency
requests and accepting external coherency requests.
R4000MC
• coherent read
• invalidate
• update
Figure 11-11
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processor coherency request
External Agent
• invalidate
• update
external coherency request • snoop
• intervention
Coherency Requests: Processor and External
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The R4000MC processor issues the following processor coherency
requests:
•
processor coherent read requests
•
processor invalidate requests
•
processor update requests
The R4000MC processor accepts the following external coherency
requests:
•
external invalidate requests
•
external update requests
•
external snoop requests
•
external intervention requests
How Coherency Conflicts Arise
Because of the overlapped nature of the system interface, it is possible for
an external coherency request to target the same cache physical address as
a pending processor read request, an unacknowledged processor
invalidate, or an update request. The processor does not contain the
comparison mechanism necessary to detect such conflicts; instead, it uses
the secondary cache as a point of reference to determine suitable
coherency actions, and only checks the state of the secondary cache at
specific times.
Processor Coherent Read Requests
When the processor wants to service either a store or load cache miss for a
page that has a coherent page attribute in the TLB (meaning the data
passed back and forth should follow a defined multiprocessor coherency
scheme), a coherent read request is used.
Conflicting external coherency requests cannot affect the behavior of the
processor for pending processor coherent read requests. The processor
only issues read requests for a range of physical addresses not currently in
the cache; consequently, an external coherency request that targets the
same physical address range will not find this physical address range in
the cache. In such a case, the processor simply discards any external
coherency requests that conflict with a pending processor coherent read
request.
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Processor Invalidate or Update Requests
For processor invalidate or compulsory update requests, a cancellation
mechanism indicates a conflict. For example, if an external coherency
request is submitted while a processor invalidate or compulsory update
request has been issued but not yet acknowledged, the conflict is resolved
when the external agent cancels the processor invalidate or compulsory
update.
Cancellation is accomplished by setting the cancellation bit in the
command for the coherency request [SysCmd(4)]. The processor, upon
receiving an external coherency request with the cancellation bit set,
considers its invalidate or update request to be acknowledged and
cancelled. The processor again accesses the secondary cache to determine
whether to reissue the invalidate or update request, or to issue a read
request.
An external agent can only assert the cancellation bit during an
unacknowledged processor invalidate or unacknowledged compulsory
update request. If an external coherency request is issued with the
cancellation bit set, and there is no unacknowledged processor invalidate
or update request pending, the behavior of the processor is undefined.
If an external coherency request is issued with the cancellation bit set
when a processor update request remains potential—in other words,
while a processor read request is currently pending—the behavior of the
processor is undefined.
Processor potential update requests cannot be cancelled. Potential
updates are always issued with processor read requests and become
compulsory only after the response to the processor read request is
returned in one of the shared states.
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External Coherency Requests
If an external agent issues an external coherency request that conflicts with
an unacknowledged processor invalidate or update request, without
setting the cancellation bit, the system will operate in an undefined
manner. In this case, the processor has no indication of the conflict and
does not reevaluate the cache state to determine the correct action; it
simply waits for an acknowledge to its invalidate or update request as it
would for any invalidate or update request.
It is not possible for external coherency requests to conflict with processor
write requests, since the processor does not accept external requests while
a processor write request is in progress.
Tables 11-7 and 11-8 summarize the interactions between processor
coherency requests and conflicting external coherency requests, organized
by processor state. These two tables show the processor in one of the
following states:
Idle: no processor transactions are pending.
Read Pending: a processor coherent read request has been issued,
but the read response has not been received.
Potential Update Unacknowledged: a processor update request
has been issued while a processor coherent read request is pending but not yet acknowledged. By definition, therefore, the response to the coherent read request has not been received.
Invalidate or Update Unacknowledged: a processor invalidate or
update request has been issued but has not yet been acknowledged. By definition, no coherent read request is pending.
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Table 11-7
Summary of Coherency Conflicts: Invalidate and Update
Conflicting External Coherency Request
Processor
State
Invalidate
Invalidate
Update
Update
with Cancel
with Cancel
Idle
NA
Undefined
NA
Undefined
Read Pending
OK
Undefined
OK
Undefined
Potential Update Unacknowledged
OK
Undefined
OK
Undefined
Invalidate or Update
Unacknowledged
OK†
OK
OK†
OK
† This can cause incorrect system operation and normally should not be allowed to occur.
Table 11-8
Summary of Coherency Conflicts: Intervention and Snoop
Processor
State
Conflicting External Coherency Request
Intervention
Intervention
with Cancel
Snoop
Snoop
with Cancel
Idle
NA
Undefined
NA
Undefined
Read Pending
OK
Undefined
OK
Undefined
Potential Update
Unacknowledged
OK
Undefined
OK
Undefined
Invalidate or Update
Unacknowledged
OK†
OK
OK†
OK
† This can cause incorrect system operation and normally should not be allowed to occur.
System Implications of Coherency Conflicts
The constraints that the processor must place on the handling of coherency
conflicts have certain implications on the design of a multiprocessor
system using the R4000MC model. These constraints and their
implications are described in this section.
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System Model
To describe the implications of a coherency conflict, this section uses a
system model that is snooping, split-read, and bus-based; I/O is not
considered in this model.
The system model used in this example has the following components:
•
Four processor subsystems, each consisting of an R4000MC
processor, a secondary cache, and an external agent (shown in
Figure 11-12). The external agent communicates with the
R4000MC processor, accepting processor requests and issuing
external requests. Likewise, the system bus issues and receives
bus requests.
•
A memory subsystem that communicates with main memory
and the system bus.
•
A system bus that has the following characteristics:
- It is a multiple master, request-based, arbitrated bus.
When an agent wishes to perform a transaction on the
bus, it must request the bus and wait for global
arbitration logic to assert a grant signal before assuming
mastership of the bus. Once mastership has been
granted, the agent can begin a transaction.
- It supports read transactions, read exclusive transactions,
write transactions, and invalidate transactions.
- It is a split-read bus. This means bus operations can
separate a read request from the return of its data.
- It is a snooping bus. All agents connected to the bus
must monitor all bus traffic to correctly maintain cache
coherency.
276
•
All of the TLB pages in the system have either a noncoherent or
a sharable coherency attribute. (Noncoherent data is not
allowed; noncoherent page attributes are used for instructions
only.)
•
The sharable coherency attribute allows data to be shared
between the four caches in the system by using a write
invalidate cache coherency protocol.
•
The secondary cache states used are invalid, shared, clean
exclusive, and dirty exclusive; the dirty shared secondary
cache state is not allowed.
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Subsystem 4
External
Agent
Subsystem 3
R4000MC
External
Agent
Main
Memory
S-cache
Subsystem 2
S-cache
External
Agent
R4000MC
System Bus
R4000MC
Subsystem 1
External
Agent
S-cache
R4000MC
S-cache
Figure 11-12
4-Processor System Illustrating Coherency Transactions
Given this system model, the following operations are described:
•
loads and stores
•
processor coherent read request and read response
•
processor invalidate
•
processor write
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Load
A shown in Figure 11-12, when a processor misses in the primary and
secondary caches on a load, the processor issues a read request. The
subsystem external agent translates this to a read request on the bus. The
returned data is loaded in either the clean exclusive or shared state, based
on the shared indication returned with the read response data.†
Store
In this system model, when a processor misses in the primary and
secondary caches on a store, it issues a read request with exclusivity; this
is translated to a read exclusive on the bus and data is loaded in the dirty
exclusive state.
When a processor hits in the cache on a store to shared data, it issues an
invalidate request that must be forwarded to the system bus. Before the
store can be completed and the state changed to dirty exclusive, the
invalidate request must be acknowledged.
Processor Coherent Read Request and Read Response
In this system model, when one of the external agents observes a coherent
read request on the system bus, it does not take immediate action. Instead,
the external agent issues an intervention request to its processor during
the read response. This is referred to as a response complete read protocol;
that is, the read is complete after the read response has occurred.
At the end of the read response, each of the external agents in the system
model indicate whether it was able to obtain the state of the cache line that
is the target of the intervention; if successful, the external agent indicates
either sharing or takeover. Takeover occurs when an external agent
discovers that its processor has a dirty exclusive copy of the cache line that
is the target of the read.
The read response is extended until all external agents have obtained the
state of the cache line from their processors.
In this system model, the response from an external agent at the end of a
read response depends on whether the read request was an ordinary read
request or a read exclusive request. These are described in the following
sections.
† The shared indication is the result of an intervention request to another processor, and is
supplied by an external agent that is a part of the other three processor subsystems.
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Ordinary Read Request
For an ordinary read request, an external agent indicates shared at the end
of the read response if it finds that its processor has a copy of the requested
cache line in the clean exclusive or shared state.
An external agent indicates both shared and takeover at the end of a read
response if it finds that its processor has a copy of the requested cache line
in the dirty exclusive state. Having indicated takeover, the external agent
supplies the contents of the cache line (returned by the processor in
response to the intervention request) over the bus to the read requester,
and causes the processor to change the state of the cache line to shared. At
the same time the cache line is supplied to the read requester, it is also
written back to memory.
Read Exclusive Request
For a read exclusive request, an external agent never indicates shared at
the end of the read response, regardless of the state the cache line is in.
Instead, the cache line must be in one of the following states:
•
If the current state of the cache line is clean exclusive or shared,
the external agent changes the state of the cache line to invalid.
•
If the current state of the cache line is dirty exclusive, the
external agent indicates takeover but not shared. Having
indicated takeover, the external agent supplies the contents of
the cache line to the read requester, and the processor changes
the state of the cache line to invalid. While the cache line is
supplied to the read requester, it is also written back to
memory.
Processor Invalidate
In this system model, an invalidate request is considered complete as soon
as it appears on the system bus. When an external agent observes an
invalidate request on the system bus, it reacts as if the invalidate has
changed the state of all caches at that instant.
Processor Write
In this system model, an external agent takes no action in response to a
write request on the bus.
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Handling Coherency Conflicts
Coherency conflicts are examined and resolved based on the current state
of the processor. Referring to Figure 11-12, the following conflicts and
their resolutions are described in this section:
•
coherent read conflicts
•
coherent write conflicts
•
invalidate conflicts
Coherent Read Conflicts
External coherency requests that conflict with pending processor coherent
read requests can be issued to the processor without affecting processor
behavior. In the system model shown in Figure 11-12, no conflict
detection is performed by the external agent for processor coherent read
requests; if an external intervention request or invalidate request is
forwarded to the processor that is in conflict with a pending processor
coherent read request, it does not affect the processor cache since the
targeted cache line is, by definition, absent from the cache. The processor
effectively discards the conflicting external intervention request,
responding with an invalid indication for the targeted cache line.
Similarly, the processor discards a conflicting external invalidate request
since the targeted cache line is not present and therefore invalid.
For pending processor coherent read requests, conflict detection could be
added to a system similar to the one shown in Figure 11-12. In such a case,
when the external agent sees a read response on the bus that conflicts with
a pending processor coherent read request, the external agent does not
issue an intervention request to the processor. Rather, it simply reacts as
if an intervention request has been completed and the cache line is not
present in the processor cache.
Similarly, when an external agent sees an invalidate request on the bus
that conflicts with a pending processor coherent read request, it does not
forward the invalidate request to the processor since the targeted cache
line is absent from the processor cache. This scheme for conflict detection
on processor coherent read requests could reduce the number of external
intervention and invalidate requests issued to the processor. However,
since the intervention and invalidate requests that would otherwise be
issued to the processor cannot result in any state modification within the
processor (since the targeted cache line is not present in the cache), conflict
detection for processor coherent read requests is not necessary.
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Coherent Write Conflicts
As soon as a write request has been issued to the external agent, the
external agent becomes responsible for the cache line. No conflicts are
possible with a processor write request; however, the external agent must
manage ownership of the cache line while it is waiting to acquire
mastership of the system bus so that it can forward the write request. The
external agent is responsible for the cache line from the time the issue cycle
of the write request completes until the write request is forwarded to the
system bus.
If the response to a coherent read request conflicts with a waiting
processor write request, or with a processor write request that is
transmitting data, the external agent detects the conflict and does not issue
an intervention request to the processor. Instead, it reacts as if an
intervention request has been completed and the line is in the dirty
exclusive state. The external agent indicates takeover and supplies the
read data to the read requester itself without disturbing the processor.
After providing the read data to the read requester, the external agent
must discard the write request if the read request was a read exclusive. In
fact, the external agent can ignore the write request for either type of read,
since processor-supplied read data is also written back to memory.
It is not possible for an invalidate request, or a write request that conflicts
with a waiting processor write request, to appear on the system bus;
before a processor write request can be issued, the state of the processor
cache line must be set to dirty exclusive.
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Invalidate Conflicts
From the time the processor issues an invalidate request until that request
is acknowledged, any external coherency request issued to the processor
that conflicts with the unacknowledged invalidate must include a
cancellation.
In the model system shown in Figure 11-12, an acknowledge for the
invalidate is sent to the processor as soon as the invalidate is forwarded to
the system bus. Therefore, while the external agent is waiting to become
a bus master to forward the invalidate request, the external agent must
detect, by using comparators, any external coherency request that conflicts
with the unacknowledged invalidate. If a conflict is detected, the external
agent must not forward the invalidate request to the system bus; instead,
it must rescind the invalidate request and submit the conflicting external
request to the processor, with a cancellation for the invalidate request.
If the response to a coherent read request conflicts with a waiting
unacknowledged processor invalidate request, the external agent detects
this conflict and does not forward the processor invalidate request to the
bus. Instead, it discards the processor invalidate request and issues to the
processor an intervention request that includes a cancellation. The
processor then reevaluates its cache state and either reissues the invalidate
request or issues a coherent read request.
If an invalidate request appears on the bus while the external agent has a
processor invalidate request waiting, and the external agent detects the
conflict, the external agent does not forward the processor invalidate
request. Instead, it discards the processor invalidate request and issues an
external invalidate request that includes a cancellation to the processor.
The processor then reevaluates its cache state and either reissues the
invalidate request or issues a coherent read request.
It is not possible for a write request that conflicts with a waiting processor
invalidate request to appear on the system bus. To issue an invalidate
request, the state of the cache line must be shared with every cache in the
system that contains the line.
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Sample Cycle: Coherent Read Request
This section describes a multiprocessor system within which a coherent
read request cycle† services a secondary cache load miss. The system has
two processors, PA and PB, and two external agents linked to these
processors, external agent A (EA) and external agent B (EB). The external
agents connect the processors to a system bus. Each of the processors has
its own secondary cache.
The sample cycle follows the steps below (these steps are also numbered
in Figures 11-13, 11-14, and 11-15):
1.
Processor B has a load miss within a sharable page.
2.
Processor B issues a coherent read request (CRR) through EB.
3.
The CRR is placed on the bus.
Memory
System Bus
3
Coherent Read Request (CRR)
External
Agent A (EA)
External
Agent B (EB)
2
Processor
A (PA)
Processor
B (PB)
1
INV
DE
Secondary
Cache A (SA)
Figure 11-13
Secondary
Cache B (SB)
Cache Load Miss Cycle: Coherent Read Request
† Request Cycles are described in Chapter 12.
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Memory
System Bus
3
4
External
Agent A (EA)
External
Agent B (EB)
5
External
Intervention
Request (EIR)
Processor
A (PA)
2
Processor
B (PB)
6
7
1
DE
Secondary
Cache A (SA)
Figure 11-14
Secondary
Cache B (SB)
Cache Load Miss Cycle: External Intervention
4.
As shown in Figure 11-14, external agent EA reads the CRR from the
bus.
5.
To service this CRR, EA issues an external intervention request (EIR)
to processor A, PA.
6.
PA receives the EIR and examines its secondary cache, SA.
7.
Depending on the type of intervention request—based on the state of
the SysCmd(3) bit—one of the following actions is taken:
•
If the cache line in SA is in the dirty exclusive state, the entire
cache line is returned.
•
Otherwise, PA just returns the state of the secondary cache line.
In Figure 11-14 the retrieved data is in the dirty exclusive state (DE),
servicing a load miss, when the state of cache line SA goes from dirty
exclusive to dirty shared (DS),† indicating PA is owner of the line.
† Assuming DS mode is enabled.
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Memory
System Bus
3
8
4
9
External
Agent A (EA)
External
Agent B (EB)
5
Read
10
Response
2
Processor
A (PA)
Processor
B (PB)
1
6
7
11
DS
Secondary
Cache A (SA)
Figure 11-15
S
Secondary
Cache B (SB)
Cache Load Miss Cycle: Read Response
8.
Figure 11-15 shows the cache state and cache data returned from PA,
through EA to the bus.
9.
This cache state and data are returned to EB.
10. EB issues a read response to PB.
11. PA remains owner of the cache line.
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11.12 R4000 Processor Synchronization Support
In a multiprocessor system, it is essential that two or more processors
working on a common task execute without corrupting each other’s
subtasks. Synchronization, an operation that guarantees an orderly access
to shared memory, must be implemented for a properly functioning
multiprocessor system. Two of the more widely used methods are
discussed in this section: test-and-set, and counter.
Test-and-Set (Spinlock)
Test-and-set† uses a variable called the semaphore, which protects data
from being simultaneously modified by more than one processor.
In other words, a processor can lock out other processors from accessing
shared data when the processor is in a critical section, a part of program in
which no more than a fixed number of processors is allowed to execute. In
the case of test-and-set, only one processor can enter the critical section.
Figure 11-16 illustrates a test-and-set synchronization procedure that uses
a semaphore; when the semaphore is set to 0, the shared data is unlocked,
and when the semaphore is set to 1, the shared data is locked.
† Test-and-set is sometimes referred to as spinlock.
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1. Load semaphore
No
2. Unlocked?
(=0?)
Yes
3. Try locking
semaphore
No
4. Successful?
Yes
5. Execute critical section
(Access shared data)
6. Unlock semaphore
Continue processing
Figure 11-16
Synchronization with Test-and-Set
The processor begins by loading the semaphore and checking to see if it is
unlocked (set to 0) in steps 1 and 2. If the semaphore is not 0, the processor
loops back to step 1. If the semaphore is 0, indicating the shared data is
not locked, the processor next tries to lock out any other access to the
shared data (step 3). If not successful, the processor loops back to step 1,
and reloads the semaphore.
If the processor is successful at setting the semaphore (step 4), it executes
the critical section of code (step 5) and gains access to the shared data,
completes its task, unlocks the semaphore (step 6), and continues
processing.
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Counter
Another common synchronization technique uses a counter. A counter is a
designated memory location that can be incremented or decremented.
In the test-and-set method, only one processor at a time is permitted to
enter the critical section. Using a counter, up to N processors are allowed
to concurrently execute the critical section. All processors after the Nth
processor must wait until one of the N processors exits the critical section
and a space becomes available.
The counter works by not allowing more than one processor to modify it
at any given time. Conceptually, the counter can be viewed as a variable
that counts the number of limited resources (for example, the number of
processes, or software licenses, etc.). Figure 11-17 shows this process.
Load counter
Execute critical section
No
Counter > 0?
Yes
Load counter
Try decrementing
counter
Try incrementing
counter
No
Successful?
No
Successful?
Yes
Yes
Continue processing
Figure 11-17
288
Synchronization Using a Counter
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Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
LL and SC
MIPS instructions Load Linked (LL) and Store Conditional (SC) provide
support for processor synchronization. These two instructions work very
much like their simpler counterparts, load and store. The LL instruction,
in addition to doing a simple load, has the side effect of setting a bit called
the link bit. This link bit forms a breakable link between the LL instruction
and the subsequent SC instruction. The SC performs a simple store if the
link bit is set when the store executes. If the link bit is not set, then the store
fails to execute. The success or failure of the SC is indicated in the target
register of the store.
The link is broken in the following circumstances:†
•
if any external request (invalidate, snoop, or intervention)
changes the state of the line containing the lock variable to
invalid
•
upon completion of an ERET (return from exception)
instruction
•
an external update to the cache line containing the lock
variable
The most important features of LL and SC are:
•
They provide a mechanism for generating all of the common
synchronization primitives including test-and-set, counters,
sequencers, etc., with no additional overhead.
•
When they operate, bus traffic is generated only if the state of
the cache line changes; lock words stay in the cache until some
other processor takes ownership of that cache line.
† The most obvious case where the link is broken occurs when an invalidate to the cache line
is the subject of the load. In this case, some other processor has successfully completed a
store to that line.
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Examples Using LL and SC
Figure 11-18 shows how to implement test-and-set using LL and SC
instructions.
Load semaphore
Loop: LL r2,(r1)
ORI r3,r2,1
BEQ r3,r2,Loop
NOP
No
Unlocked?
(=0?)
Yes
Try locking
semaphore
No
Successful?
(r3=0?)
SC r3,(r1)
BEQ r3,0,Loop
NOP
Yes
Execute critical section
(Access shared data)
Unlock semaphore
Figure 11-18
290
.
.
.
.
.
SW r2,(r1)
Test-and-Set using LL and SC
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Cache Organization, Operation, and Coherency
Figure 11-19 shows synchronization using a counter.
Load counter
No
Counter > 0?
Loop1: LL r2,(r1)
BLEZ r2,Loop1
NOP
Yes
Try decrementing
counter
No
Successful?
(r3=0?)
Yes
Execute critical section
Load counter
Try incrementing
counter
No
Successful?
SUB r3,r2,1
SC r3,(r1)
BEQ r3,0,Loop1
NOP
.
.
.
.
Loop2: LL r2,(r1)
ADDr3,r2,1
SC r3,(r1)
BEQ r3,0,Loop2
NOP
Yes
Continue processing
Figure 11-19
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System Interface
12
The System interface allows the processor to access external resources
needed to satisfy cache misses and uncached operations, while permitting
an external agent access to some of the processor internal resources.
In the R4000MC configuration, the System interface also provides the
processor with mechanisms to maintain the cache coherency of shared
data, while providing an external agent the mechanisms to maintain
system-wide multiprocessor cache coherency.
This chapter describes the System interface from the point of view of both
the processor and the external agent.
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12.1 Terminology
The following terms are used in this chapter:
•
An external agent is any logic device connected to the processor,
over the System interface, that allows the processor to issue
requests.
•
A system event is an event that occurs within the processor and
requires access to external system resources.
•
Sequence refers to the precise series of requests that a processor
generates to service a system event.
•
Protocol refers to the cycle-by-cycle signal transitions that occur
on the System interface pins to assert a processor or external
request.
•
Syntax refers to the precise definition of bit patterns on
encoded buses, such as the command bus.
12.2 System Interface Description
The R4000 processor supports a 64-bit address/data interface that can
construct systems ranging from a simple uniprocessor with main memory
to a multiprocessor system with caches and complete cache coherency.
The System interface consists of:
•
64-bit address and data bus, SysAD
•
8-bit SysAD check bus, SysADC
•
9-bit command bus, SysCmd
•
eight handshake signals:
- RdRdy*, WrRdy*
- ExtRqst*, Release*
- ValidIn*, ValidOut*
- IvdAck*, IvdErr*
The processor uses the System interface to access external resources such
as cache misses and uncached operations. In the case of R4000MC, the
System interface also supports multiprocessor cache coherency.
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Interface Buses
Figure 12-1 shows the primary communication paths for the System
interface: a 64-bit address and data bus, SysAD(63:0), and a 9-bit
command bus, SysCmd(8:0). These SysAD and the SysCmd buses are
bidirectional; that is, they are driven by the processor to issue a processor
request, and by the external agent to issue an external request (see
Processor and External Requests, in this chapter, for more information).
A request through the System interface consists of:
•
an address
•
a System interface command that specifies the precise nature of
the request
•
a series of data elements if the request is for a write, read
response, or update.
R4000
External Agent
SysAD(63:0)
SysCmd(8:0)
Figure 12-1
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Address and Data Cycles
Cycles in which the SysAD bus contains a valid address are called address
cycles. Cycles in which the SysAD bus contains valid data are called data
cycles. Validity is determined by the state of the ValidIn* and ValidOut*
signals (described in Interface Buses, in this chapter).
The SysCmd bus identifies the contents of the SysAD bus during any
cycle in which it is valid. The most significant bit of the SysCmd bus is
always used to indicate whether the current cycle is an address cycle or a
data cycle.
•
During address cycles [SysCmd(8) = 0], the remainder of the
SysCmd bus, SysCmd(7:0), contains a System interface command
(the encoding of System interface commands is detailed in
System Interface Commands and Data Identifiers, in this
chapter).
•
During data cycles [SysCmd(8) = 1], the remainder of the
SysCmd bus, SysCmd(7:0), contains a data identifier (the
encoding of data identifiers is detailed in System Interface
Commands and Data Identifiers, in this chapter).
Issue Cycles
There are two types of processor issue cycles:
•
processor read, invalidate, and update request issue cycles
•
processor write request issue cycles.
The processor samples the signal RdRdy* to determine the issue cycle for
a processor read, invalidate, or update request; the processor samples the
signal WrRdy* to determine the issue cycle of a processor write request.
As shown in Figure 12-2, RdRdy* must be asserted two cycles prior to the
address cycle of the processor read/invalidate/update request to define
the address cycle as the issue cycle.
SCycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
RdRdy*
Figure 12-2
296
State of RdRdy* Signal for Read, Invalidate, or Update Requests
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As shown in Figure 12-3, WrRdy* must be asserted two cycles prior to the
first address cycle of the processor write request to define the address
cycle as the issue cycle.
SCycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
WrRdy*
Figure 12-3
State of WrRdy* Signal for Write Requests
The processor repeats the address cycle for the request until the conditions
for a valid issue cycle are met. After the issue cycle, if the processor
request requires data to be sent, the data transmission begins. There is
only one issue cycle for any processor request.
The processor accepts external requests, even while attempting to issue a
processor request, by releasing the System interface to slave state in
response to an assertion of ExtRqst* by the external agent.
Note that the rules governing the issue cycle of a processor request are
strictly applied to determine the action the processor takes. The processor
either:
•
completes the issuance of the processor request in its entirety
before the external request is accepted, or
•
releases the System interface to slave state without completing
the issuance of the processor request.
In the latter case, the processor issues the processor request (provided the
processor request is still necessary) after the external request is complete.
The rules governing an issue cycle again apply to the processor request.
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Handshake Signals
The processor manages the flow of requests through the following eight
control signals:
•
RdRdy*, WrRdy* are used by the external agent to indicate
when it can accept a new read (RdRdy*) or write (WrRdy*)
transaction.
•
ExtRqst*, Release* are used to transfer control of the SysAD
and SysCmd buses. ExtRqst* is used by an external agent to
indicate a need to control the interface. Release* is asserted by
the processor when it transfers the mastership of the System
interface to the external agent.
•
The R4000 processor uses ValidOut* and the external agent
uses ValidIn* to indicate valid command/data on the
SysCmd/SysAD buses.
•
IvdAck*, IvdErr* are used in multiprocessor systems; they are
asserted by the external agent to indicate the successful
completion (IvdAck*) or the unsuccessful completion (IvdErr*)
of a pending processor invalidate or update request.†
† When using the R4000SC processor, IvdAck* and IvdErr* must be connected to Vcc.
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12.3 System Interface Protocols
Figure 12-4 shows the System interface operates from register to register.
That is, processor outputs come directly from output registers and begin
to change with the rising edge of SClock.†
Processor inputs are fed directly to input registers that latch these input
signals with the rising edge of SClock. This allows the System interface to
run at the highest possible clock frequency.
R4000
Output data
Input data
SClock
Figure 12-4
System Interface Register-to-Register Operation
Master and Slave States
When the R4000 processor is driving the SysAD and SysCmd buses, the
System interface is in master state. When the external agent is driving the
SysAD and SysCmd buses, the System interface is in slave state.
In master state, the processor asserts the signal ValidOut* whenever the
SysAD and SysCmd buses are valid.
In slave state, the external agent asserts the signal ValidIn* whenever the
SysAD and SysCmd buses are valid.
† SClock is an internal clock used by the processor to sample data at the System interface
and to clock data into the processor System interface output registers; see Chapter 10 for
more details.
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Moving from Master to Slave State
The System interface remains in master state unless one of the following
occurs:
•
The external agent requests and is granted the System interface
(external arbitration).
•
The processor issues a read request or completes the issue of a
cluster (uncompelled change to slave state).
External Arbitration
The System interface must be in slave state for the external agent to issue
an external request through the System interface. The transition from
master state to slave state is arbitrated by the processor using the System
interface handshake signals ExtRqst* and Release*. This transition is
described by the following procedure:
1.
An external agent signals that it wishes to issue an external request by
asserting ExtRqst*.
2.
When the processor is ready to accept an external request, it releases
the System interface from master to slave state by asserting Release*
for one cycle.
3.
The System interface returns to master state as soon as the issue of the
external request is complete.
This process is described in External Arbitration Protocol, later in this
chapter.
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Uncompelled Change to Slave State
An uncompelled change to slave state is the transition of the System
interface from master state to slave state, initiated by the processor when
a processor read request is pending. Release* is asserted automatically
after a read request or cluster (see Clusters, later in this chapter, for a
definition of a cluster). An uncompelled change to slave state occurs either
during or some number of cycles after the issue cycle of a read request, or
either during or some number of cycles after the last cycle of the last
request in a cluster.
The uncompelled release latency depends on the state of the cache, the
presence or absence of a secondary cache, and the secondary cache
parameters (see Release Latency, in this chapter). After an uncompelled
change to slave state, the processor returns to master state at the end of the
next external request. This can be a read response, or some other type of
external request.
An external agent must note that the processor has performed an
uncompelled change to slave state and begin driving the SysAD bus along
with the SysCmd bus. As long as the System interface is in slave state, the
external agent can begin an external request without arbitrating for the
System interface; that is, without asserting ExtRqst*.
After the external request, the System interface returns to master state.
Whenever a processor read request is pending, after the issue of a read
request or after the issue of all of the requests in a cluster, the processor
automatically switches the System interface to slave state, even though the
external agent is not arbitrating to issue an external request. This
transition to slave state allows the external agent to return read response
data.
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12.4 Processor and External Requests
There are two broad categories of requests: processor requests and external
requests. These two categories are described in this section.
When a system event occurs, the processor issues either a single request or
a series of requests—called processor requests—through the System
interface, to access an external resource and service the event. For this to
work, the processor System interface must be connected to an external
agent that is compatible with the System interface protocol, and can
coordinate access to system resources.
An external agent requesting access to processor caches or to a processor
status register generates an external request. This access request passes
through the System interface. System events and request cycles are shown
in Figure 12-5.
R4000
External Agent
Processor Requests
• Read
• Write
• Null write
• Invalidate
• Update
External Requests
• Read
• Write
• Null
• Invalidate
• Update
• Snoop
• Intervention
System Events
• Load Miss
• Store Miss
• Store Hit
• Uncached Load/Store
• CACHE operations
Figure 12-5
302
Requests and System Events
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Rules for Processor Requests
The following rules apply to processor requests.
SCycle
•
After issuing a processor read request, either individually or as
part of a cluster, the processor cannot issue a subsequent read
request until it has received a read response.
•
After issuing a processor update request, or after a potential
update request becomes compulsory, the processor cannot
issue a subsequent request until it has received an
acknowledge for the update request.
•
After the processor has issued a write request, the processor
cannot issue a subsequent request until at least four cycles after
the issue cycle of the write request. This means back-to-back
write requests with a single data cycle are separated by two
unused system cycles, as shown in Figure 12-6.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Cycles
1
2
3
4
8
9
10
SClock
Addr
SysAD Bus
Data Unused Unused Addr
Write #1
Data
Write #2
WrRdy*
Figure 12-6
Back-to-Back Write Cycle Timing
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Processor Requests
A processor request is a request or a series of requests, through the System
interface, to access some external resource. As shown in Figure 12-7,
processor requests include read, write, null write, invalidate, and update.
This section also describes clusters.
R4000
External Agent
Processor Requests
• Read
• Write
• Null write
• Invalidate
• Update
Figure 12-7
Processor Requests
Read request asks for a block, doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or
partial word of data either from main memory or from another system
resource.
Write request provides a block, doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or
partial word of data to be written either to main memory or to another
system resource.
Null write request indicates that an expected write has been cancelled as a
result of an external request.
Invalidate request specifies a line in every other cache in the system that
must be marked invalid.
Update request provides a block, doubleword, partial doubleword, word,
or partial word of data that must be transferred to every other cache in the
system.
Table 12-1 lists the processor requests that each type of R4000 can issue.
Table 12-1
Request
R4000PC
R4000SC
R4000MC
Processor Read
X
X
X
Processor Write
X
X
X
X
X
Processor Null Write
304
Supported Processor Requests
Processor Invalidate
X
Processor Update
X
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Processor requests are managed by the processor in two distinct modes:
secondary-cache mode and no-secondary-cache mode (see Chapter 11 for a
description of these two modes), which are programmable through the
boot-time mode control interface described in Chapter 9.
The permissible modes of operation are dependent on the following
processor package configurations; if not programmed correctly, the
behavior of the processor is undefined.
•
An R4000PC must be programmed to run in no-secondarycache mode.
•
An R4000SC or R4000MC can be programmed to run in either
secondary-cache or no-secondary-cache mode.
In no-secondary-cache mode, the processor issues requests in a strict
sequential fashion; that is, the processor is only allowed to have one
request pending at any time. For example, the processor issues a read
request and waits for a read response before issuing any subsequent
requests. The processor submits a write request only if there are no read
requests pending.
The processor has the input signals RdRdy* and WrRdy* to allow an
external agent to manage the flow of processor requests. RdRdy* controls
the flow of processor read, invalidate, and update requests, while WrRdy*
controls the flow of processor write requests. Processor null write requests
must always be accepted and cannot be delayed by either RdRdy* or
WrRdy*. The processor request cycle sequence is shown in Figure 12-8.
External Agent
R4000
1. Processor issues read, write,
invalidate, or update request
2. External system controls
acceptance of requests by
asserting RdRdy* or WrRdy*
Figure 12-8
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Processor Read Request
When a processor issues a read request, the external agent must access the
specified resource and return the requested data. (Processor read requests
are described in this section; external read requests are described in
External Requests, later on in this chapter.)
A processor read request can be split from the external agent’s return of
the requested data; in other words, the external agent can initiate an
unrelated external request before it returns the response data for a
processor read. A processor read request is completed after the last word
of response data has been received from the external agent.
Note that the data identifier (see System Interface Commands and Data
Identifiers, in this chapter) associated with the response data can signal
that the returned data is erroneous, causing the processor to take a bus
error.
Processor read requests that have been issued, but for which data has not
yet been returned, are said to be pending. A read remains pending until the
requested read data is returned.
In secondary-cache mode, the external agent must be capable of accepting
a processor read request followed by a potential update request any time
all three of the following conditions are met:
•
There is no processor read request pending.
•
There is no unacknowledged processor update request.
•
The signal RdRdy* has been asserted for two or more cycles.
In no-secondary-cache mode, the external agent must be capable of
accepting a processor read request any time the following two conditions
are met:
306
•
There is no processor read request pending.
•
The signal RdRdy* has been asserted for two or more cycles.
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Processor Write Request
When a processor issues a write request, the specified resource is accessed
and the data is written to it. (Processor write requests are described in this
section; external write requests are described in External Requests, later on
in this chapter.)
A processor write request is complete after the last word of data has been
transmitted to the external agent.
In secondary-cache mode, the external agent must be capable of accepting
a processor write request any time all three of the following conditions are
met:
•
There is no processor read request pending.
•
There is no unacknowledged processor update request that is
compulsory.
•
The signal WrRdy* has been asserted for two or more cycles.
In no-secondary-cache mode, the external agent must be capable of
accepting a processor write request any time the following two conditions
are met:
•
No processor read request is pending.
•
The signal WrRdy* has been asserted for two or more cycles.
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Processor Invalidate Request
An invalidate request notifies all processors that the specified cache line
must be marked invalid in all caches in the system. Invalidate requests can
only be used in a multiprocessing system.
When a processor issues an invalidate request, the specified resource is
accessed and the line is marked invalid. (Processor invalidate requests are
described in this section; external invalidate requests are described in
External Requests, later on in this chapter.)
A processor invalidate request requires a completion acknowledge by
either the invalidate acknowledge signal IvdAck* or the invalidate error
signal IvdErr*, unless the invalidate is canceled by the external agent. A
processor invalidate request that has been submitted, but for which the
processor has not yet received an acknowledge or a cancellation, is said to
be unacknowledged. When the processor invalidate request fails (IvdErr* is
asserted), the issuing processor takes a bus error on the store instruction
that generated the failed request. Figure 12-10 shows a sample processor
invalidate/update request cycle.
Invalidate cancellation is signaled to the processor during external
invalidate, update, snoop, and intervention requests; IvdErr* signals a
processor invalidate request has failed.
A completion acknowledge for processor invalidate requests is signaled
through the System interface on dedicated pins, and this acknowledgment
can occur in parallel with processor and external requests.
State changes in the external system are not instantaneously reflected in
the caches of every processor, which means an external agent can discover
that a processor request for an invalidate cannot be completed. For
example, a processor store can hit on a shared cache line and issue an
invalidate to the external agent. However, before the external agent can
transmit the invalidate to the rest of the system another invalidate for the
same cache line can be received by the external agent. If this occurs, the
processor cache does not reflect the current state of the system and the
processor invalidate must not be transmitted to the system; instead, the
external agent must cancel the processor unacknowledged invalidate.
Figure 12-9 shows this cancellation cycle.
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System bus
R4000
External Agent
1. Processor issues
invalidate request
2. Invalidate arrives from
the system
3. External invalidate with
cancellation sent to processor
4. Processor issues processor
read request
Figure 12-9
Cancelling an Invalidate Request
The steps shown in Figure 12-9 are described below:
1.
The processor issues an invalidate on a store hit to a shared line in
its cache.
2.
An invalidate request, coming from the system bus, is received by
the processor’s external agent targeting the same cache line.
3.
The external invalidate invalidates the cache line, and the
processor invalidate request is cancelled.
4.
The processor re-examines the state of the cache line and
discovers the cache line which was target of the store is now
invalid. The processor issues a processor read request to service
the store miss.
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Processor Update Request
An update request notifies all processors that a specified cache line in all
caches throughout a multiprocessor system must be replaced with
modified data. An update request can only be used in a multiprocessing
system.
When a processor issues an update request, the specified resource is
accessed and the line is updated. (Processor update requests are described
in this section; external update requests are described in External
Requests, later on in this chapter.)
A processor update request requires a completion acknowledge by either
the invalidate acknowledge signal IvdAck* or the invalidate error signal
IvdErr* (shown in Figure 12-10), unless the update is canceled by the
external agent. A processor update request that has been submitted, but
for which the processor has not yet received an acknowledge or a
cancellation, is said to be unacknowledged. When the processor update
request fails (IvdErr* is asserted), the issuing processor takes a bus error
on the store instruction that generated the failed request. Figure 12-10
shows a sample processor invalidate/update request cycle.
System bus
R4000
External Agent
External Agent
1. Processor Update or
Invalidate Request
2
R4000
3. External Update
or Invalidate
Request
4
5. IvdAck* or IvdErr*
Figure 12-10
Processor Update/Invalidate Acknowledge Cycle
Update cancellation is signaled to the processor during external
invalidate, update, snoop, and intervention requests; IvdErr* signals a
processor update request has failed.
Since a completion acknowledge for processor update requests is signaled
through the System interface on dedicated pins, this acknowledgment can
occur in parallel with processor and external requests.
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Clusters
A cluster consists of a single processor read request, followed by one or
two additional processor requests that are issued while the initial read
request is pending.
The processor supports three types of clusters:
•
a processor read request, followed by a write request
•
a processor read request, followed by potential update request
•
a processor read request, followed by a potential update
request, followed by a write request.
In secondary-cache mode, the processor issues individual requests (as in
no-secondary-cache mode), or cluster requests. All requests in the cluster
must be accepted before the response to the read request that began the
cluster can be returned to the processor.
Potential update requests within a cluster can be disabled through the
boot-time mode control interface.
Read With Write Forthcoming Request as Part of a Cluster
The processor signals that it is issuing a cluster containing a processor
write request by issuing a read-with-write-forthcoming request, instead of
starting the cluster with an ordinary read request. The read-with-writeforthcoming request is identified by a bit in the command for processor
read requests.
The external agent must accept all requests that form the cluster before it
can respond to the read request that began the cluster. The behavior of the
processor is undefined if the external agent returns a response to a
processor read request before accepting all of the requests of the cluster.
Potential Update as Part of a Cluster
Potential updates are identified by setting a bit in the processor update
command. A processor potential update request is any update request
that is issued while a processor read request is pending.
Once the processor issues a read request, a potential update request
follows, regardless of the state of RdRdy*. Potential update requests do
not obey the RdRdy* flow control rules for issuance, but rather issue with
a single address cycle regardless of the state of RdRdy*.
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A processor potential update request remains potential until the read
response to the pending processor read request which began the cluster is
received by the external agent.
•
If the read response data is returned in one of the shared
states—shared or dirty shared—the potential update becomes
compulsory and is no longer potential. A compulsory update
must receive an acknowledge either by the signal IvdAck* or
IvdErr*.
•
If the read response data is returned in one of the exclusive
states—clean exclusive or dirty exclusive—the potential update is
nullified and the processor neither expects nor requires an
acknowledge.
Write Request as Part of a Cluster
A write request that is part of a cluster obeys the WrRdy* timing rules for
issuing, as shown earlier in Figure 12-3.
Null Write Request as Part of a Cluster
Since the processor accepts external requests between the issue of a readwith-write-forthcoming request that begins a cluster and the issue of the
write request that completes a cluster, it is possible for an external request
to eliminate the need for the write request in the cluster. For example, if
the external agent issued an external invalidate request that targeted the
cache line the processor was attempting to write back, the state of the
cache line would be changed to invalid and the write back for the cache
line would no longer be needed. In this event, the processor issues a
processor null write request after completing the external request to
complete the cluster.
Processor null write requests do not obey the WrRdy* flow control rules
for issuance, rather they issue with a single address cycle regardless of the
state of WrRdy*. Any external request that changes the state of a cache
line from dirty exclusive or dirty shared to clean exclusive, shared, or
invalid obviates the need for a write back of that cache line.
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External Requests
External requests include read, write, invalidate, update, snoop,
intervention, and null requests, as shown in Figure 12-11. External
invalidate, update, snoop and intervention requests, as a group, are
referred to as external coherence requests. This section also includes a
description of read response, a special case of an external request.
R4000
External Agent
External Requests
• Read
• Write
• Null
• Invalidate
• Update
• Snoop
• Intervention
Figure 12-11
External Requests
Read request asks for a word of data from the processor’s internal resource.
Write request provides a word of data to be written to the processor’s
internal resource.
Invalidate request specifies a cache line, in the primary and secondary
caches of the processor, that must be marked invalid.
Update request provides a doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or
partial word of data to be written to the processor’s primary and
secondary caches.
Snoop request checks the processor’s secondary cache to see if a valid copy
of a particular cache line exists. If a valid copy exists, the processor returns
the state of the cache line at the specified physical address in the secondary
cache, and can modify the state of the cache line.
Intervention request requires the processor to return the state of the
secondary cache line at the specified physical address. Under certain
conditions related to the state of the cache line and the nature of the
intervention request, the contents of the primary and secondary cache line
can be returned. The state of the line can also be modified by this request.
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Null request requires no action by the processor; it provides a mechanism
for the external agent to either return control of the secondary cache to the
processor, or return the System interface to the master state without
affecting the processor.
Table 12-2 lists the external requests that each type of R4000 can receive
(an X indicates the request is supported on that model).
Table 12-2
Supported External Requests
Request Type
R4000PC
R4000SC
R4000MC
External Read
X
X
X
External Write
X
X
X
External Null
(System interface)
X
X
X
X
X
External Null
(Secondary Cache)
External Invalidate
X
External Update
X
External Snoop
X
External Intervention
X
The processor controls the flow of external requests through the
arbitration signals ExtRqst* and Release*, as shown in Figure 12-12. The
external agent must acquire mastership of the System interface before it is
allowed to issue an external request; the external agent arbitrates for
mastership of the System interface by asserting ExtRqst* and then waiting
for the processor to assert Release* for one cycle.
R4000
External Agent
1. External system requests bus
mastership by asserting ExtRqst*
2. Processor grants mastership by
asserting Release*
3. External system issues an
External Request
4. Processor regains bus mastership
Figure 12-12
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Mastership of the System interface always returns to the processor after an
external request is issued. The processor does not accept a subsequent
external request until it has completed the current request. The processor
accepts external requests between the issue of a processor read request, or
a processor read request followed by a potential update request and the
issue of a processor write request within a cluster.
If there are no processor requests pending, the processor decides, based on
its internal state, whether to accept the external request, or to issue a new
processor request. The processor can issue a new processor request even if
the external agent is requesting access to the System interface.
The external agent asserts ExtRqst* indicating that it wishes to begin an
external request. The external agent then waits for the processor to signal
that it is ready to accept this request by asserting Release*. The processor
signals that it is ready to accept an external request based on the criteria
listed below.
•
The processor completes any processor request or processor
request cluster that is in progress.
•
While waiting for the assertion of RdRdy* to issue a processor
read request, the processor can accept an external request if the
request is delivered to the processor one or more cycles before
RdRdy* is asserted.
•
While waiting for the assertion of WrRdy* to issue a processor
write request, the processor can accept an external request
provided the request is delivered to the processor one or more
cycles before WrRdy* is asserted.
•
If waiting for the response to a read request after the processor
has made an uncompelled change to a slave state, the external
agent can issue an external request before providing the read
response data.
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External Read Request
In contrast to a processor read request, data is returned directly in
response to an external read request; no other requests can be issued until
the processor returns the requested data. An external read request is
complete after the processor returns the requested word of data.
The data identifier (see System Interface Commands and Data Identifiers
in this chapter) associated with the response data can signal that the
returned data is erroneous, causing the processor to take a bus error.
NOTE: The processor does not contain any resources that are
readable by an external read request; in response to an external read
request the processor returns undefined data and a data identifier
with its Erroneous Data bit, SysCmd(5), set.
External Write Request
When an external agent issues a write request, the specified resource is
accessed and the data is written to it. An external write request is complete
after the word of data has been transmitted to the processor.
The only processor resource available to an external write request is the
Interrupt register.
External Invalidate Request
When an external agent issues an invalidate request, the specified resource
is accessed and the line is marked invalid. An external invalidate request
is considered to be complete after the request has been transmitted.
External Update Request
When an external agent issues an update request, the specified resource is
accessed and the line is replaced. An external update request is
considered complete after the request has been transmitted.
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External Snoop Request
An external snoop request makes the processor inspect the secondary
cache to see if the cache contains a valid version of the specified cache line.
If the valid cache line is present, the processor reports the cache line state
and can modify this state.
An external snoop request is complete after the processor returns the state
of the specified cache line.
External Intervention Request
When an external agent issues an intervention request, the specified
secondary cache line is inspected. Upon inspection, the cache line state is
reported and/or modified. Under certain circumstances the specified
cache line may also be retrieved. The external intervention request is
complete after one of the following occurs:
•
the processor returns the state of the specified cache line
•
the processor returns the last word of data for the specified
cache line.
Read Response
A read response returns data in response to a processor read request, as
shown in Figure 12-13. While a read response is technically an external
request, it has one characteristic that differentiates it from all other
external requests—it does not perform System interface arbitration. For
this reason, read responses are handled separately from all other external
requests, and are simply called read responses.
R4000
External Agent
1. Read request
2. Read response
Figure 12-13
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12.5 Handling Requests
This section details the sequence, protocol, and syntax (See Terminology, in
this chapter, for definitions of these terms) of both processor and external
requests. The following system events are discussed:
•
load miss in secondary-cache mode and no-secondary-cache
mode
•
store miss in secondary-cache mode and no-secondary-cache
mode
•
store hit
•
uncached loads/stores
•
CACHE operations
•
load linked store conditional.
Load Miss
When a processor load misses in both the primary and secondary caches,
before the processor can proceed it must obtain the cache line that contains
the data element to be loaded from the external agent.
If the new cache line replaces a current dirty exclusive or dirty shared
cache line, the current cache line must be written back before the new line
can be loaded in the primary and secondary caches.
The processor examines the coherency attribute (cache coherency
attributes are described in Chapter 11) in the TLB entry for the page that
contains the requested cache line, and executes one of the following
requests:
•
If the coherency attribute is exclusive, the processor issues a
coherent read request that also requests exclusivity.
•
If the coherency attribute is sharable or update, the processor
issues a coherent read request.
•
If the coherency attribute is noncoherent, the processor issues a
noncoherent read request.
Table 12-3 shows the actions taken on a load miss to primary and
secondary caches.
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Table 12-3
Load Miss to Primary and Secondary Caches
State of Data Cache Line Being Replaced
Page Attribute
Processor
(Write-back policy) Configuration
No-Secondary-Cache
Mode
Secondary-Cache Mode
Clean/Invalid
Dirty
Clean/Invalid
Dirty
Noncoherent
All R4000
models
NCR
NCR/W
NCR
NCR-W
Exclusive
(read and write
invalidate)
R4000SC
R4000MC
N/A
N/A
REx
REx-W
Shareable
(write invalidate)
R4000MC
N/A
N/A
R
R-W
Update
(write update)
R4000MC
N/A
N/A
R
R-W
NCR................... Processor noncoherent block read request
NCR/W ............ Processor noncoherent block read request followed by processor block write
request
NCR-W ............. Cluster: Processor noncoherent block read request with write forthcoming
followed by processor block write request
R......................... Processor coherent block read request
R-W ................... Cluster: Processor coherent block read request with write forthcoming followed
by processor block write request
REx ..................... Processor coherent block read request with exclusivity
REx-W................ Cluster: Processor coherent block read request with exclusivity and write
forthcoming followed by processor block write request
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Secondary-Cache Mode
In secondary-cache mode, if the current cache line does not have to be
written back and the coherency attribute for the page that contains the
requested cache line is not exclusive, the processor issues a coherent block
read request for the cache line that contains the data element to be loaded.
If the current cache line needs to be written back and the coherency
attribute for the requested cache line is sharable or update, the processor
issues a cluster. The cluster consists of a coherent block read-with-writeforthcoming request for the cache line that contains the data element to be
loaded, followed by a block write request for the current cache line.
If the current cache needs to be written back and the coherency attribute
for the page containing the requested cache line is exclusive, the processor
issues a cluster consisting of an exclusive read-with-write-forthcoming
request, followed by a write request for the current cache line.
Table 12-3 lists these actions.
No-Secondary-Cache Mode
In no-secondary-cache mode, if the cache line must be written back on a
load miss, the read request is issued and completed before the write
request is handled. The processor takes the following steps:
1.
The processor issues a noncoherent read request† for the cache line
that contains the data element to be loaded.
2.
The processor then waits for an external agent to provide the read
response.
If the current cache line must be written back, the processor issues a write
request to save the dirty cache line in memory.
† Only noncoherent and uncached attributes are supported in no-secondary-cache mode.
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Store Miss
When a processor store misses in both the primary and secondary caches,
the processor must obtain, from the external agent, the cache line that
contains the target location of the store. The processor examines the
coherency attribute in the TLB entry for the page (TLB page coherency
attributes are listed in Chapter 4) that contains the requested cache line to
see if the cache line is being maintained with either a write invalidate or a
write update cache coherency protocol.
The processor then executes one of the following requests:
•
If the coherency attribute is either sharable or exclusive, a write
invalidate protocol is in effect, and a coherent block read that
requests exclusivity is issued.
•
If the coherency attribute is update, a write update protocol is in
effect and a coherent block read request is issued.
•
If the coherency attribute is noncoherent, a noncoherent block
read request is issued.
Table 12-4 shows the actions taken on a store miss to primary and
secondary caches.
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Table 12-4
Store Miss to Primary and Secondary Caches
State of Data Cache Line Being Replaced
Page Attribute
(Write-back
Policy)
Processor
Configuration
No-SecondaryCache Mode
Secondary-Cache Mode
Clean/
Invalid
Dirty
Clean/
Invalid
Dirty
Noncoherent
All R4000
models
NCR
NCR/
W
NCR
NCR-W
Exclusive
(write
invalidate)
R4000SC
R4000MC
N/A
N/A
REx
REx-W
Shareable
(write
invalidate)
R4000MC
N/A
N/A
REx
REx-W
Update
(write update)
R4000MC
N/A
N/A
Dis(1)
R/U
En(2)
R-PU
Dis(1)
R-W/U
En(2)
R-PU-W
NCR ...................Processor noncoherent block read request
NCR/W.............Processor noncoherent block read request followed by processor block
write request
NCR-W..............Cluster: Processor noncoherent block read request with write forthcoming
followed by processor block write request
REx ......................Processor coherent block read request with exclusivity
REx-W ................Cluster: Processor coherent block read request with exclusivity and write
forthcoming followed by processor block write request
R/U....................Processor coherent block read request followed by processor update
request (if read response data is shared or dirty shared)
R-PU ..................Cluster: Processor coherent block read request followed by processor
potential update request
R-PU-W .............Cluster: Processor coherent block read request followed by processor
potential update request, followed by processor block write request
R-W/U ..............Cluster: Processor coherent block read request with write forthcoming
followed by processor block write request, followed by processor update
request (if read response data is shared or dirty shared)
(1) ..................Potential update disable [Modebit(20): PotUpdDis = 1]
Dis
En(2) ...................Potential update enable [Modebit(20): PotUpdDis = 0]
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Secondary-Cache Mode
In secondary-cache mode, if the new cache line replaces a current cache
line that is in either the dirty exclusive or dirty shared state, the current
cache line must be written back before the new line can be loaded in the
primary and secondary caches. The processor requests issued are a
function of the page attributes listed below.
Noncoherent Page Attribute
If the current cache line must be written back, and the coherency attribute
for the requested cache line is noncoherent, the processor issues a cluster
consisting of a noncoherent block read-with-write-forthcoming request
for the cache line that contains the store target location, followed by a
block write request for the current cache line.
If the current cache line does not need to be written back and the
coherency attribute for the page that contains the requested cache line is
noncoherent, the processor issues a noncoherent block read request for the
cache line that contains the store target location.
Sharable or Exclusive Page Attribute
If the current cache line must be written back and the coherency attribute
for the page that contains the requested cache line is sharable or exclusive,
the processor issues a cluster consisting of a coherent block read request
with exclusivity and write forthcoming, followed by a processor block
write request for the current cache line.
If the current cache line does not need to be written back and the coherency
attribute for the page that contains the requested cache line is sharable or
exclusive, the processor issues a coherent block read request that also
requests exclusivity.
Update Page Attribute
If the current cache line must be written back and the coherency attribute
for the page that contains the requested cache line is update, and potential
updates are enabled, the processor issues a cluster consisting of a coherent
block read-with-write-forthcoming request, followed by a potential
update request, followed by a write request for the current cache line.
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If the current cache line does not need to be written back, the coherency
attribute for the page that contains the requested cache line is update, and
potential updates are enabled, the processor issues a cluster consisting of
a read request, followed by a potential update request.
In an update protocol, the cache line requested by a processor coherent
read request can be returned in a shared state; the processor then has to
issue an update request before it can complete a store instruction. A
potential update issued with a read request in a cluster allows the external
agent to anticipate the read response on the system bus. If the read
response is in a shared state, the required update is quickly transmitted to
the rest of the system. This provides the processor with the acknowledge
and allows the processor to complete the store instruction as rapidly as
possible.
Without the potential update request, the response data must be returned
to the processor. If the line is returned in the shared or dirty shared state,
the processor issues an update request, which must then be forwarded to
the system bus before an acknowledge can be returned to the processor.
Note that potential updates behave as if they have not yet been issued by
the processor. Potential updates are not subject to cancellation, and do not
require an acknowledge. When a potential update is nullified, the
processor behaves as if no update request was ever issued; when a
potential update becomes compulsory, the processor behaves as if it had
issued an update request at that instant.
Compulsory Update: If the processor issues a cluster that contains a
potential update, and the response data for the read request is
returned with an indication that it must be placed in the cache in either
a shared or dirty shared state, the potential update then becomes
compulsory. Once a potential update becomes compulsory, it is
subject to cancellation, and the processor requires an acknowledge for
the update request. The external agent must forward the update to the
system, then signal the acknowledge to the processor when the update
is complete. The processor will not complete the store until it has
received an acknowledge for the update request.
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Nullifying a Potential Update: If the processor issues a cluster that
contains a potential update, and the response data for the read request
is returned in either a clean exclusive or dirty exclusive state, the
potential update is nullified. Once a potential update has been
nullified, the external agent must discard the update. The processor
does not wait for or expect an acknowledge to a potential update that
has been nullified. It is not correct to assert either IvdAck* or IvdErr*
in this situation.
If the read response data is returned in either the clean exclusive or dirty
exclusive state, the processor cannot issue an update request. It is
assumed that the external agent will take the appropriate action to change
the state of the cache line to invalid in other caches.
An external request indicating processor update cancellation can be issued
when a processor read is not pending or when compulsory update is
unacknowledged. Processor state is undefined if a cancellation is signaled
on an external coherence request to the processor when a processor read
is pending, or there is no unacknowledged compulsory update.
No-Secondary-Cache Mode
The processor issues a read request for the cache line that contains the data
element to be loaded, then awaits the external agent to provide read data
in response to the read request. Then, if the current cache line must be
written back, the processor issues a write request for the current cache line.
In no-secondary-cache mode, if the new cache line replaces a current cache
line whose Write back (W) bit is set, the current cache line moves to an
internal write buffer before the new cache line is loaded in the primary
cache.
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Store Hit
This section describes store hits in both secondary-cache and nosecondary-cache mode.
Secondary-Cache Mode
When the processor hits in the secondary cache, on a line that is marked
either shared or dirty shared, the processor must issue an update or
invalidate request and then wait to receive an acknowledge, before the
store is complete. The processor checks the coherency attribute in the TLB
for the page containing the cache line that is target of the store, to
determine if the cache line is managed by either a write invalidate or write
update cache coherency protocol.
•
If the coherency attribute is sharable or exclusive, a write
invalidate protocol is in effect, and the processor issues an
invalidate request. The processor cannot complete the store
until the external agent signals an acknowledge for this
invalidate request.
•
If the coherency attribute is update, a write update protocol is
in effect, and the processor issues an update request. The
processor cannot complete the store until the external agent
signals an acknowledge for this update request.
No-Secondary-Cache Mode
In no-secondary-cache mode, all lines are set to the dirty exclusive state.
This means store hits cause no bus transactions.
Uncached Loads or Stores
When the processor performs an uncached load, it issues a noncoherent
doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or partial word read request.
When the processor performs an uncached store, it issues a doubleword,
partial doubleword, word, or partial word write request.
External requests have a higher priority than uncached stores. When
using the uncached store buffer on an R4400 processor, it is possible for the
external agent to receive cached and uncached stores out of program
order, as the example below illustrates. Figure 12-14 shows a cached and
uncached store instruction sequence:
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SW r2, (r3)
SW r4, (r5)
# uncached store
# cached store
Figure 12-14
R4400 Processor Cached and Uncached Store Sequence
Referring to Figure 12-14, suppose an external intervention or snoop is
issued to the R4400 processor while the uncached store is still in the store
buffer (the uncached store data has not yet been stored off-chip). The
cached store from Figure 12-14 has hit in the primary cache and is in the
tag check (TC) stage of the pipeline (see Chapter 3 for a description of the
pipeline stages). In this case, the external agent sees the state of the
internal caches after the cached store but before the result of the uncached
store is available off the chip. Figure 12-15 shows how a SYNC instruction
can force the uncached store to occur before the cached store.
SW r2, (r3)
SYNC
SW r4, (r5)
Figure 12-15
# uncached store
# cached store
R4400 Processor Cached and Uncached Stores, Using SYNC
CACHE Operations
The processor provides a variety of CACHE operations to maintain the
state and contents of the primary and secondary caches. During the
execution of the CACHE operation instructions, the processor can issue
either write requests or invalidate requests.
Load Linked Store Conditional Operation
Generally, the execution of a Load Linked Store Conditional instruction
sequence is not visible at the System interface; that is, no special requests
are generated due to the execution of this instruction sequence.
There is, however, one situation in which the execution of a Load Linked
Store Conditional instruction sequence is visible, as indicated by the link
address retained bit during a processor read request, as programmed by the
SysCmd(2) bit. This situation occurs when the data location targeted by a
Load Linked Store Conditional instruction sequence maps to the same
cache line to which the instruction area containing the Load Linked Store
Conditional code sequence is mapped. In this case, immediately after
executing the Load Linked instruction, the cache line that contains the link
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location is replaced by the instruction line containing the code. The link
address is kept in a register separate from the cache, and remains active as
long as the link bit, set by the Load Linked instruction, is set.
The link bit, which is set by the load linked instruction, is cleared by a
change of cache state for the line containing the link address, or by a
Return From Exception.
In order for the Load Linked Store Conditional instruction sequence to
work correctly, all coherency traffic targeting the link address must be
visible to the processor, and the cache line containing the link location
must remain in a shared state in every cache in the system. This
guarantees that a Store Conditional executed by some other processor is
visible to the processor as a coherence request, changing the state of the
cache line containing the link location.
To accomplish this, a read request issued by the processor, causing the
cache line containing the link location to be replaced. In the mean time,
the link address retained bit is set, indicating the link address is being
retained. This informs the external agent that, although the processor has
replaced this cache line, the processor must still see any coherence traffic
that targets this cache line.
Any snoop or intervention request that targets a cache line which is not
present in the cache—but for which the snoop or intervention address
matches the current link address while the link bit is set—returns an
indication that the cache line is present in the cache in a shared state. This
is consistent with the coherency model, since the processor never returns
data, in response to an intervention request, for a cache line that is in the
shared state. The shared response guarantees that the cache line
containing the link location remains in a shared state in all other
processor’s caches, and therefore that any other processor attempting a
store conditional to this link location must issue a coherence request in
order to complete the store conditional.
For more information, refer to Chapter 11, or see the specific Load Linked
and Store Conditional instructions described in Appendix A.
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12.6 Processor and External Request Protocols
The following sections contain a cycle-by-cycle description of the bus
arbitration protocols for each type of processor and external request.
Table 12-5 lists the abbreviations and definitions for each of the buses that
are used in the timing diagrams that follow.
Table 12-5
Scope
Global
SysAD bus
SysCmd bus
System Interface Requests
Abbreviation
Meaning
Unsd
Unused
Addr
Physical address
Data<n>
Data element number n of a block of data
Cmd
An unspecified System interface command
Read
A processor or external read request command
RwWF
A processor read-with-write-forthcoming request
command
Write
A processor or external write request command
Null
A processor null request command
SINull
A System interface release external null request
command
SCNull
A secondary cache release external null request
command
Ivd
A processor or external invalidate request
command
Upd
A processor or external update request command
Ivtn
An external intervention request command
Snoop
An external snoop request command
NData
A noncoherent data identifier for a data element
other than the last data element
NEOD
A noncoherent data identifier for the last data
element
CData
A coherent data identifier for a data element other
than the last data element
CEOD
A coherent data identifier for the last data element
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Processor Request Protocols
Processor request protocols described in this section include:
•
read
•
write
•
invalidate and update
•
null write
•
cluster
NOTE: In the timing diagrams, the two closely spaced, wavy vertical
lines (such as those shown in Figure 12-16) indicate one or more identical cycles which are not illustrated due to space constraints.
Figure 12-16
Symbol for Undocumented Cycles
Processor Read Request Protocol
The following sequence describes the protocol for a processor read request
(the numbered steps below correspond to Figures 12-17 and 12-18).
1.
RdRdy* is asserted low, indicating the external agent is ready to
accept a read request.
2.
With the System interface in master state, a processor read request is
issued by driving a read command on the SysCmd bus and a read
address on the SysAD bus.
3.
At the same time, the processor asserts ValidOut* for one cycle,
indicating valid data is present on the SysCmd and the SysAD buses.
NOTE: Only one processor read request can be pending at a time.
4.
330
The processor makes an uncompelled change to slave state either at
the issue cycle of the read request, or sometime after the issue cycle of
the read request by asserting the Release* signal for one cycle.
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NOTE: The external agent must not assert the signal ExtRqst* for the
purposes of returning a read response, but rather must wait for the uncompelled change to slave state. The signal ExtRqst* can be asserted
before or during a read response to perform an external request other
than a read response.
5.
The processor releases the SysCmd and the SysAD buses one SCycle
after the assertion of Release*.
6.
The external agent drives the SysCmd and the SysAD buses within
two cycles after the assertion of Release*.
Once in slave state (starting at cycle 5 in Figure 12-17), the external agent
can return the requested data through a read response. The read response
can return the requested data or, if the requested data could not be
successfully retrieved, an indication that the returned data is erroneous. If
the returned data is erroneous, the processor takes a bus error exception.
Figure 12-17 illustrates a processor read request, coupled with an
uncompelled change to slave state, that occurs as the read request is
issued. Figure 12-18 illustrates a processor read request, and the
subsequent uncompelled change to slave state, that occurs sometime after
the read request is issued.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
Master
1
SCycle
2
Slave
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
SysCmd Bus
Read
ValidOut*
2
5
6
3
ValidIn*
RdRdy*
1
WrRdy*
Release*
4
Figure 12-17
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Slave
Master
1
SCycle
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
SysCmd Bus
Read
5
ValidOut*
2
6
3
ValidIn*
RdRdy*
1
WrRdy*
4
Release*
Figure 12-18
Processor Read Request Protocol, Change to Slave State Delayed
When the following three events occur—a read request is pending,
ExtRqst* is asserted, and Release* is asserted for one cycle—it may be
unclear if the assertion of Release* is in response to ExtRqst*, or
represents an uncompelled change to slave state. The only situation in
which the assertion of Release* cannot be considered an uncompelled
change to slave state is if the following three conditions exist
simultaneously:
•
the System interface is operating in secondary-cache mode
•
the read request was a read-with-write-forthcoming request
•
the expected write request has not been issued by the
processor.
If these three conditions exist, the processor cannot accept the read
response; rather, it accepts the external request. The write request must be
accepted by the external agent before the read response can be issued.
In all other cases, the assertion of Release* indicates either an
uncompelled change to slave state, or a response to the assertion of
ExtRqst*, whereupon the processor accepts either a read response, or any
other external request. If any external request other than a read response
is issued, the processor performs another uncompelled change to slave
state, asserting Release*, after processing the external request.
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Processor Write Request Protocol
Processor write requests are issued using one of two protocols.
•
Doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or partial word writes
use a word† write request protocol.
•
Block writes use a block write request protocol.
Processor doubleword write requests are issued with the System interface
in master state, as described below in the steps below; Figure 12-19 shows
a processor noncoherent single word write request cycle.
1.
A processor single word write request is issued by driving a write
command on the SysCmd bus and a write address on the SysAD bus.
2.
The processor asserts ValidOut*.
3.
The processor drives a data identifier on the SysCmd bus and data on
the SysAD bus.
4.
The data identifier associated with the data cycle must contain a last
data cycle indication. At the end of the cycle, ValidOut* is deasserted.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
Master
1
SCycle
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr Data0
SysCmd Bus
Write NEOD
ValidOut*
2
4
1
ValidIn*
3
RdRdy*
WrRdy*
Release*
Figure 12-19
Processor Noncoherent Single Word Write Request Protocol
† Called word to distinguish it from block request protocol. Data transferred can actually be
doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or partial word.
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Processor block write requests are issued with the System interface in
master state, as described below; a processor coherent block request for
eight words of data is illustrated in Figures 12-20 and 12-21.
1.
The processor issues a write command on the SysCmd bus and a write
address on the SysAD bus.
2.
The processor asserts ValidOut*.
3.
The processor drives a data identifier on the SysCmd bus and data on
the SysAD bus.
4.
The processor asserts ValidOut* for a number of cycles sufficient to
transmit the block of data.
5.
The data identifier associated with the last data cycle must contain a
last data cycle indication.
NOTE: As shown in Figure 12-21, however, the first data cycle does
not have to immediately follow the address cycle.
Figures 12-20 and 12-21 illustrate a processor coherent block request for
eight words of data.
Master
SCycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
SysCmd Bus
Write CData CData CData CEOD
5
4
2
ValidOut*
1
ValidIn*
Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3
3
RdRdy*
WrRdy*
Release*
Figure 12-20
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Processor Coherent Block Write Request Protocol
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Master
1
SCycle
2
3
4
5
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
SysCmd Bus
Write
ValidOut*
1
7
8
9
10
11
12
6
Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3
CData CData CData CEOD
5
4
2
ValidIn*
6
3
RdRdy*
WrRdy*
Release*
Figure 12-21
Processor Coherent Block Write Request Protocol (Delayed)
Processor Invalidate and Update Request Protocol
Processor invalidate request and update request protocols are the same as
a coherent word write request, except for the following:
•
invalidate and update requests are controlled by RdRdy*,
while the write request is controlled by WrRdy*
•
the single data cycle transfer is not used by an invalidate
request
Processor invalidate and update requests are acknowledged using the
signals IvdAck* and IvdErr*. The external agent drives either IvdAck* or
IvdErr* for one cycle to signal the completion of the current processor
update or invalidate request; IvdAck* occurs in parallel with requests on
the SysAD and SysCmd buses.
IvdAck* or IvdErr* can be driven at any time after a processor update or
invalidate request is issued, provided the update request is compulsory.
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The processor pipeline stalls until one of the following occurs:
•
IvdAck* or IvdErr* is asserted by the external agent. Assertion
of IvdAck* indicates a successful invalidation, and the
processor continues. IvdErr* causes a bus error exception.
•
either an intervention, snoop, update, or invalidate request is
sent by the external agent, with the Invalidate or Update
Cancellation bit set, SysCmd(4) = 0, indicating the processor
invalidate or update request was cancelled.
If the processor update or invalidate request is cancelled, the instruction
that caused the processor request is re-executed. If the external request is
sent with SysCmd(4) = 1, indicating no cancellation, the processor, after
responding to the external request, stalls again until one of the two
conditions described above terminate the processor’s invalidate or update
request.
Processor Null Write Request Protocol
A processor null write request is issued with the System interface in
master state; the request consists of a single address cycle. The processor
drives a null command on the SysCmd bus and asserts ValidOut* for one
cycle. The SysAD bus is unused during the address cycle associated with
a null write request, and processor null write requests cannot be
controlled with either RdRdy* or WrRdy* signals. Figure 12-22 illustrates
a processor null write request.
Master
SCycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
SysCmd Bus
Unsd
Null
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
RdRdy*
WrRdy*
Release*
Figure 12-22
336
Processor Null Write Request Protocol
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Processor Cluster Request Protocol
In secondary-cache mode, the processor can issue two types of requests:
individual and cluster.
All of the requests that are part of a cluster must be accepted by the
external agent before a response to the read request, that began the cluster,
can be returned to the processor. A cluster consists of:
•
a processor read with write forthcoming request followed by a
write request
•
a processor read request followed by a potential update request
•
a processor read with write forthcoming request followed by a
potential update request, followed by a write request.
Figure 12-23 illustrates a cluster consisting of a read with write
forthcoming request, followed by a potential update request, followed by
a coherent block write request for eight words of data (with minimum
spacing between the requests that form the cluster), followed by an
uncompelled change to slave state at the earliest opportunity.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively. There may be
unused cycles between the requests that form a cluster.
Master
SCycle
1
5
6
Slave
2
3
4
7
8
9
10
Addr
Addr
Data0
RwWF
Upd
CEOD Write CData CData CData CEOD
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
SysCmd Bus
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
Addr Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3
1
2
3
4
RdRdy*
WrRdy*
Release*
Figure 12-23
Processor Cluster Request Protocol
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Processor Request and Cluster Flow Control
The external agent uses RdRdy* to control the flow of the following
processes:
•
processor read request
•
processor invalidate request
•
processor update request
•
processor read request, followed by a potential update request
within a cluster.
Figures 12-24 through 12-27 illustrate this flow control, as described in the
steps below.
1.
The processor samples the signal RdRdy* to determine if the external
agent is capable of accepting a read, invalidate, update request, or a
read request followed by a potential update request.
2.
The signal WrRdy* controls the flow of a processor write request.
3.
The processor does not complete the issue of a read, invalidate, update
request, or a read request followed by a potential update request, until
it issues an address cycle in response to the request for which the
signal RdRdy* was asserted two cycles earlier.
4.
The processor does not complete the issue of a write request until it
issues an address cycle in response to the write request for which the
signal WrRdy* was asserted two cycles earlier.
Figure 12-24 illustrates two processor write requests in which the issue of
the second is delayed for the assertion of WrRdy*.
Figure 12-25 illustrates a processor cluster in which the issue of the read
and a potential update request are delayed for the assertion of RdRdy*.
Figure 12-26 illustrates a processor cluster in which the issue of the write
request is delayed for the assertion of WrRdy*.
Figure 12-27 illustrates the issue of a processor write request delayed for
the assertion of WrRdy* and the completion of an external invalidate
request.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
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1
3
4
SysAD Bus
Addr
Data0
Addr
Data0
SysCmd Bus
Write NEOD
Write
NEOD
SCycle
2
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
4
RdRdy*
WrRdy*
2
Release*
Figure 12-24 Two Processor Write Requests, Second Write Delayed for the Assertion of WrRdy*
SCycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Addr
Data0
Addr
Upd
CEOD Write CData CData CData CEOD
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
SysCmd Bus
Read
Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3
3
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
RdRdy*
1
WrRdy*
Release*
Figure 12-25
Processor Read Request within a Cluster Delayed for the Assertion of RdRdy*
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1
2
3
SysAD Bus
Addr
Addr
Data0
Addr
Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3
SysCmd Bus
Read
Upd
CEOD
Write
CData CData CData CEOD
SCycle
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
4
RdRdy*
2
WrRdy*
Release*
Figure 12-26
SCycle
Processor Write Request within a Cluster Delayed for the Assertion of WrRdy*
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
Addr
Unsd
Addr
Data0
SysCmd Bus
Write
Ivd
CEOD
Write
NEOD
ValidOut*
4
ValidIn*
RdRdy*
WrRdy*
2
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-27 Processor Write Request Delayed for the Assertion of WrRdy* and the Completion
of an External Invalidate Request
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External Request Protocols
External requests can only be issued with the System interface in slave
state. An external agent asserts ExtRqst* to arbitrate (see External
Arbitration Protocol, below) for the System interface, then waits for the
processor to release the System interface to slave state by asserting
Release* before the external agent issues an external request. If the System
interface is already in slave state—that is, the processor has previously
performed an uncompelled change to slave state—the external agent can
begin an external request immediately.
After issuing an external request, the external agent must return the
System interface to master state. If the external agent does not have any
additional external requests to perform, ExtRqst* must be deasserted two
cycles after the cycle in which Release* was asserted. For a string of
external requests, the ExtRqst* signal is asserted until the last request
cycle, whereupon it is deasserted two cycles after the cycle in which
Release* was asserted.
The processor continues to handle external requests as long as ExtRqst* is
asserted; however, the processor cannot release the System interface to
slave state for a subsequent external request until it has completed the
current request. As long as ExtRqst* is asserted, the string of external
requests is not interrupted by a processor request.
This section describes the following external request protocols:
•
read
•
null
•
write
•
invalidate and update
•
intervention
•
snoop
•
read response
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External Arbitration Protocol
System interface arbitration uses the signals ExtRqst* and Release* as
described above. Figure 12-28 is a timing diagram of the arbitration
protocol, in which slave and master states are shown.
The arbitration cycle consists of the following steps:
1.
The external agent asserts ExtRqst* when it wishes to submit an
external request.
2.
The processor waits until it is ready to handle an external request,
whereupon it asserts Release* for one cycle.
3.
The processor sets the SysAD and SysCmd buses to tri-state.
4.
The external agent must wait at least two cycles after the assertion of
Release* before it drives the SysAD and SysCmd buses.
5.
The external agent deasserts ExtRqst* two cycles after the assertion of
Release*, unless the external agent wishes to perform an additional
external request.
6.
The external agent sets the SysAD and the SysCmd buses to tri-state
at the completion of an external request.
The processor can start issuing a processor request one cycle after the
external agent sets the bus to tri-state.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
Master
SCycle
1
2
Master
Slave
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
Addr Data0
SysAD Bus
3
4
6
Cmd NEOD
SysCmd Bus
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
1
5
2
Release*
Figure 12-28
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External Read Request Protocol
External reads are requests for a word of data from a processor internal
resource, such as a register. External read requests cannot be split; that is,
no other request can occur between the external read request and its read
response.
Figure 12-29 shows a timing diagram of an external read request, which
consists of the following steps:
1.
An external agent asserts ExtRqst* to arbitrate for the System
interface.
2.
The processor releases the System interface to slave state by asserting
Release* for one cycle and then deasserting Release*.
3.
After Release* is deasserted, the SysAD and SysCmd buses are set to
a tri-state for one cycle.
4.
The external agent drives a read request command on the SysCmd
bus and a read request address on the SysAD bus and asserts
ValidIn* for one cycle.
5.
After the address and command are sent, the external agent releases
the SysCmd and SysAD buses by setting them to tri-state and
allowing the processor to drive them. The processor, having accessed
the data that is the target of the read, returns this data to the external
agent. The processor accomplishes this by driving a data identifier on
the SysCmd bus, the response data on the SysAD bus, and asserting
ValidOut* for one cycle. The data identifier indicates that this is lastdata-cycle response data.
6.
The System interface is in master state. The processor continues
driving the SysCmd and SysAD buses after the read response is
returned.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
External read requests are only allowed to read a word of data from the
processor. The processor response to external read requests for any data
element other than a word is undefined.
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Master
1
SCycle
2
Master
Slave
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
Data0
6
Read
NEOD
6
3
SysCmd Bus
ValidOut*
4
5
ValidIn*
1
ExtRqst*
2
Release*
Figure 12-29
External Read Request, System Interface in Master State
NOTE: The processor does not contain any resources that are
readable by an external read request; in response to an external read
request the processor returns undefined data and a data identifier
with its Erroneous Data bit, SysCmd(5), set.
External Null Request Protocol
The processor supports two kinds of external null requests.
344
•
A secondary cache release external null request returns ownership
of the secondary cache to the processor while the System
interface remains in slave state, until another external null
request returns it to master state.
•
A System interface release external null request returns the System
interface to master state from slave state without otherwise
affecting the processor.
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Any time the processor releases the System interface to slave state to
accept an external request, it also allows the external agent to use the
secondary cache, in anticipation of a cache coherence request. When the
external agent uses the SysAD bus for a transfer unrelated to the processor
(for example, a DMA transfer), this ownership of the secondary cache
prevents the processor from satisfying subsequent primary cache misses.
To satisfy such a primary cache miss, the external agent issues a secondary
cache release external null request, returning ownership of the secondary
cache to the processor.
External null requests require no action from the processor other than to
return the System interface to master state, or to regain ownership of the
secondary cache.
Figures 12-30 and 12-31 show timing diagrams of the two external null
request cycles, which consist of the following steps:
1.
The external agent asserts ExtRqst* to arbitrate for the System
interface.
2.
The processor releases the System interface to slave state by asserting
Release*.
3.
The external agent drives a secondary cache release external null
request command on the SysCmd bus, and asserts ValidIn* for one
cycle to return the secondary cache interface ownership to the
processor.
4.
The SysAD bus is unused (does not contain valid data) during the
address cycle associated with an external null request.
5.
After the address cycle is issued, the null request is complete.
For a secondary cache release external null request, the System interface
remains in slave state.
For a System interface release external null request, the external agent releases
the SysCmd and SysAD buses, and expects the System interface to return
to master state.
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Master
SCycle
1
2
Slave
3
4
5
SClock
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
4
Unsd
SysAD Bus
SCNull
SysCmd Bus
3
ValidOut*
5
ValidIn*
1
ExtRqst*
2
Release*
Figure 12-30
Secondary Cache Release External Null Request
Master
Slave
SCycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SClock
9
SysAD Bus
4
Unsd
SysCmd Bus
SINull
10
11
12
5
3
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-31
346
System Interface Release External Null Request
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External Write Request Protocol
External write requests use a protocol identical to the processor single
word write protocol except the ValidIn* signal is asserted instead of
ValidOut*. Figure 12-32 shows a timing diagram of an external write
request, which consists of the following steps:
1.
The external agent asserts ExtRqst* to arbitrate for the System
interface.
2.
The processor releases the System interface to slave state by asserting
Release*.
3.
The external agent drives a write command on the SysCmd bus, a
write address on the SysAD bus, and asserts ValidIn*.
4.
The external agent drives a data identifier on the SysCmd bus, data on
the SysAD bus, and asserts ValidIn*.
5.
The data identifier associated with the data cycle must contain a
coherent or noncoherent last data cycle indication.
6.
After the data cycle is issued, the write request is complete and the
external agent sets the SysCmd and SysAD buses to a tri-state,
allowing the System interface to return to master state. Timings for
the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as those of the SysAD
and SysCmd buses, respectively.
External write requests are only allowed to write a word of data to the
processor. Processor behavior in response to an external write request for
any data element other than a word is undefined.
Master
6
7
SysAD Bus
Addr
Data0
SysCmd Bus
Write
NEOD
SCycle
1
2
Master
Slave
3
4
5
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
6
4
3
ValidOut*
4
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-32
5
1
2
External Write Request, with System Interface initially a Bus Master
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External Invalidate and Update Request Protocols
External invalidate and update request protocols are the same as the
external write request protocol. The data element provided with an
update or invalidate request can be a doubleword, partial doubleword,
word, or partial word. The single data cycle transfer is not used (it does
not contain valid data) for an invalidate request.
Figure 12-33 illustrates an external invalidate request following an
uncompelled change to slave state.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
Slave
Master
SCycle
1
2
Master
Slave
3
4
5
6
7
Addr
Unsd
Ivd
CEOD
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
SysCmd Bus
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-33
348
External Invalidate Request following an Uncompelled Change to Slave State
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External Intervention Request Protocol
External intervention requests use a protocol similar to that of external
read requests, except that a cache line size block of data can be returned
along with an indication of the cache state for the cache line. The cache
state indication depends upon the state of the cache line and the value of
the data return bit in the intervention request command.†
The data return bit indicates either return on dirty or return on exclusive:
•
If the data return bit indicates return on dirty, and the cache line
that is target of the intervention request is in the dirty exclusive
or dirty shared state, the contents of the cache line are returned
in response to the intervention request.
•
If the data return bit indicates return on exclusive, and the cache
line that is the target of the intervention request is in the clean
exclusive or dirty exclusive state, the contents of the cache line
are returned in response to the intervention request.
If neither of the two cases above are true, the response to the intervention
request does not include the contents of the cache line, but simply indicates
the state of the cache line that is the target of the intervention request.
The case in which the processor returns a cache line state, but not cache
line contents, is described in the following steps:
1.
The external agent asserts ExtRqst* to arbitrate for the System
interface.
2.
The processor releases the System interface to slave state by asserting
Release*.
3.
The external intervention request is driven onto the SysCmd bus and
the address onto the SysAD bus. ValidIn* is asserted for one cycle.
4.
The processor drives a coherent data identifier that indicates the state
of the cache line on the SysCmd bus and asserts ValidOut* for one
cycle.
5.
The SysAD bus is not used during the data cycle.
6.
The data identifier indicates a response data cycle that contains a last
data cycle indication.
† If the cache line that is the target of the intervention request is not present in the cache—
that is, the tag comparison for the cache line at the target cache address fails—the cache
line that is the target of the intervention request is considered to be in the invalid state.
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Figure 12-34 shows an external intervention request to a cache line found
in the shared state, with the System interface initially in a master state.
Figure 12-35 shows an external intervention request to a cache line found
in the dirty exclusive state, with the System interface initially in a slave
state.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
Master
SCycle
1
2
Slave
3
4
5
6
Master
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
SysCmd Bus
Ivtn
5
Unsd
4
CEOD
3
ValidOut*
6
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-34
350
1
2
External Intervention Request, Shared Line, System Interface in Master State
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The case in which the processor returns cache line contents is described in
the steps below. In this example, the system is already in slave state.
1.
The external intervention request is driven onto the SysCmd bus and
the address onto the SysAD bus. ValidIn* is asserted for one cycle.
2.
The processor drives data on the SysAD bus and a data identifier on
the SysCmd bus. The processor asserts ValidOut* for each data cycle.
3.
The data identifier associated with the last data cycle must contain a
last data cycle indicator.
SCycle
SClock
1
2
Slave
Master
Slave
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
SysAD Bus
Addr
SysCmd Bus
Ivtn
Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3
2
CData CData CData CEOD
3
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-35 External Intervention Request, Dirty Exclusive Line, System Interface in Slave State
The processor returns the contents of a cache line, along with an indication
of the cache state in which it was found, by issuing a sequence of data
cycles sufficient to transmit the contents of the cache line, as shown in
Figure 12-35. The data identifier transmitted with each data cycle
indicates the cache state in which the cache line was found, together with
an indication that this data is response data. The data identifier associated
with the last data cycle contains a last data cycle indication.
If the contents of a cache line are returned in response to an intervention
request, they are returned in subblock order starting with the doubleword
at the address supplied with the intervention request. Note, however, that
if the intervention address targets the doubleword at the beginning of the
block, subblock ordering is equivalent to sequential ordering.
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External Snoop Request Protocol
External snoop requests use a protocol identical to the external read
request protocol, except that, instead of returning data, the processor
responds with an indication of the current cache state for the targeted
cache line. This protocol is described by the following steps:
1.
The external agent asserts ExtRqst* to arbitrate for the System
interface.
2.
The processor releases the System interface to slave state by asserting
Release*.
3.
The external snoop request is driven onto the SysCmd bus and the
address onto the SysAD bus. ValidIn* is asserted for one cycle.
4.
The processor drives a coherent data identifier on the SysCmd bus
and asserts ValidOut* for one cycle.
5.
The SysAD bus is unused during the snoop response.
6.
The processor continues driving the SysCmd and SysAD buses after
the snoop response is returned, to move the System interface back to
master state.
Note that if the cache line that is the target of the snoop request is not
present in the cache—that is, a tag comparison for the cache line at the
target cache address fails—the cache line that is the target of the snoop
request is considered to be in the invalid state.
Figure 12-36 shows an external snoop request submitted with the System
interface in the master state. Figure 12-37 shows an external snoop request
submitted with the System interface in slave state.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
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Slave
Master
1
SCycle
2
3
4
5
6
Master
7
8
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
SysCmd Bus
Snoop
9
10
11
12
5
Unsd
6
CEOD
4
3
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
1
ExtRqst*
2
Release*
Figure 12-36
External Snoop Request, System Interface in Master State
Master
Slave
1
SCycle
2
3
4
5
SClock
5
Unsd
Addr
SysAD Bus
SysCmd Bus
Snoop
6
4
7
Slave
8
9
10
11
12
6
CEOD
3
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-37
External Snoop Request, System Interface in Slave State
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Read Response Protocol
An external agent must return data to the processor in response to a
processor read request by using a read response protocol. A read response
protocol consists of the following steps:
1.
The external agent waits for the processor to perform an uncompelled
change to slave state.
2.
The processor returns the data through a single data cycle or a series
of data cycles.
3.
After the last data cycle is issued, the read response is complete and
the external agent sets the SysCmd and SysAD buses to a tri-state.
4.
The System interface returns to master state.
NOTE: The processor always performs an uncompelled change to
slave state after issuing a read request.
5.
The data identifier for data cycles must indicate the fact that this data
is response data.
6.
The data identifier associated with the last data cycle must contain a
last data cycle indication.
For read responses to coherent block read requests, each data identifier
must include the cache state of the response data. The cache state
provided with each data identifier must be the same and must be clean
exclusive, dirty exclusive, shared, or dirty shared. The behavior of the
processor is undefined if the cache state provided with the data identifiers
changes during the transfer of the block of data, or if the cache state
provided is invalid.
The data identifier associated with a data cycle can indicate that the data
transmitted during that cycle is erroneous; however, an external agent
must return a data block of the correct size regardless of the fact that the
data may be in error. If a read response includes one or more erroneous
data cycles, the processor then takes a bus error.
Read response data must only be delivered to the processor when a
processor read request is pending. The behavior of the processor is
undefined when a read response is presented to it and there is no
processor read pending. Further, if the processor issues a read-with-writeforthcoming request, a processor write request or a processor null write
request must be accepted before the read response can be returned. The
behavior of the processor is undefined if the read response is returned
before a processor write request is accepted.
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Figure 12-38 illustrates a processor word read request followed by a word
read response. Figure 12-39 illustrates a read response for a processor
block read with the System interface already in slave state.
NOTE: Timings for the SysADC and SysCmdP buses are the same as
those of the SysAD and SysCmd buses, respectively.
Master
1
SCycle
2
3
Slave
4
5
6
7
8
Master
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
Data0
SysCmd Bus
Read
NEOD
4
3
ValidOut*
2
6
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
1
Release*
Figure 12-38
Processor Word Read Request, followed by a Word Read Response
Slave
1
SCycle
2
3
4
Master
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3
SysCmd Bus
CData CData CData CEOD
ValidOut*
2
5
3
4
6
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-39
Block Read Response, System Interface already in Slave State
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12.7 Data Rate Control
The System interface supports a maximum data rate of one doubleword
per cycle. The data rate the processor can support is directly related to the
secondary cache access time; if the access time is too long, the processor
cannot transmit and accept data at the maximum rate.
The rate at which data is delivered to the processor can be determined by
the external agent—for example, the external agent can drive data and
assert ValidIn* every n cycles, instead of every cycle. An external agent
can deliver data at any rate it chooses, but must not deliver data to the
processor any faster than the processor is capable of receiving it.
The processor only accepts cycles as valid when ValidIn* is asserted and
the SysCmd bus contains a data identifier; thereafter, the processor
continues to accept data until it receives the data word tagged as the last
one.
Data Transfer Patterns
A data pattern is a sequence of letters indicating the data and unused cycles
that repeat to provide the appropriate data rate. For example, the data
pattern DDxx specifies a repeatable data rate of two doublewords every
four cycles, with the last two cycles unused. Table 12-6 lists the maximum
processor data rate for each of the possible secondary cache write cycle
times, and the most efficient data pattern for each data rate.
Table 12-6
Transmit Data Rates and Patterns
Maximum Data Rate
356
Data Pattern
Maximum Secondary
Cache Access
1 Double/1 SClock Cycle
D
4 PCycles
2 Doubles/3 SClock Cycles
DDx
6 PCycles
1 Double/2 SClock Cycles
DDxx
8 PCycles
1 Double/2 SClock Cycles
DxDx
8 PCycles
2 Doubles/5 SClock Cycles
DDxxx
10 PCycles
1 Double/3 SClock Cycles
DDxxxx
12 PCycles
1 Double/3 SClock Cycles
DxxDxx
12 PCycles
1 Double/4 SClock Cycles
DDxxxxxx
16 PCycles
1 Double/4 SClock Cycles
DxxxDxxx
16 PCycles
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In Tables 12-6 and 12-7, data patterns are specified using the letters D and
x; D indicates a data cycle and x indicates an unused cycle. Figure 12-40
shows a read response in which data is provided to the processor at a rate
of two doublewords every three cycles using the data pattern DDx.
SCycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Data0 Data1
Data2 Data3
SysCmd Bus
CData CData
CData CEOD
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-40
Read Response, Reduced Data Rate, System Interface in Slave State
Secondary Cache Transfers
The processor operates most efficiently if data is delivered in pairs of
doublewords, since the secondary cache is organized as a 128-bit RAM
array. The most efficient way of reducing the data rate is to deliver a pair
of doublewords followed by some number of unused cycles, followed by
another pair of doublewords. The secondary cache write cycle time
should determine the rate at which this pattern is repeated. However, the
processor accepts data in any pattern as long as the time between the
transfer of any pair of odd-numbered doublewords is greater than, or
equal to, the write cycle time of the secondary cache. Doublewords in the
transfer pattern are numbered beginning at 0: the odd-numbered
doublewords are the second, fourth, sixth, and so on.
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Secondary Cache Write Cycle Time
Behavior of the processor is undefined if, based on the secondary cache
write cycle time, data is delivered to the processor faster than the
processor can handle it. Secondary cache write cycle time is defined as the
sum of the parameters:
TWr1Dly, TWrSUp, and TWrRc
These parameters are defined in Chapter 9, Table 9-1.
The rate at which the processor transmits data to an external agent is
programmable at boot time through the boot-time mode control interface.
The transmit data rate can be programmed to any of the data rates and
data patterns listed in Table 12-6, as long as the programmed data rate
does not exceed the maximum rate the processor can handle, based on the
secondary cache write cycle time. The behavior of the processor is
undefined if a programmed transmit data rate exceeds the maximum the
processor can support.
Figure 12-41 shows a processor write request in which the processor
transmit data rate is programmed as one doubleword every two cycles,
using the data pattern DDxx.
1
SCycle
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SClock
SysAD Bus
Addr
Data0 Data1
Data2 Data3
SysCmd Bus
Write CData CData
CData CEOD
ValidOut*
ValidIn*
ExtRqst*
Release*
Figure 12-41
358
Processor Write Request, Transmit Data Rate Reduced
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Table 12-7 shows the maximum transmit data rates for a given set of
secondary cache parameters, based on a PClock-to-SClock divisor of 2. To
find the maximum allowable secondary cache write cycle time and
secondary cache access time, multiply the maximum secondary cache
numbers for each pattern by:
(PClock_to_SClock_Divisor)/2
The minimum number for these parameters is always the minimum access
time supported by processor.
Table 12-7
Secondary Cache
Write Cycle Time
Maximum Transmit Data Rates
Best Data
Pattern
Maximum Data Rate
1-4 PCycles
1 Double/1 SClock Cycle
D
5-6 PCycles
2 Doubles/3 SClock Cycles
DDx
7-8 PCycles
1 Double/2 SClock Cycles
DDxx
9-10 PCycles
2 Doubles/5 SClock Cycles
DDxxx
11-12 PCycles
1 Double/3 SClock Cycles
DDxxxx
Independent Transmissions on the SysAD Bus
In most applications, the SysAD bus is a point-to-point connection,
running from the processor to a bidirectional registered transceiver
residing in an external agent. For these applications, the SysAD bus has
only two possible drivers, the processor or the external agent.
Certain applications may require connection of additional drivers and
receivers to the SysAD bus, to allow transmissions over the SysAD bus
that the processor is not involved in. These are called independent
transmissions. To effect an independent transmission, the external agent
must coordinate control of the SysAD bus by using arbitration handshake
signals and external null requests.
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An independent transmission on the SysAD bus follows this procedure:
1.
The external agent requests mastership of the SysAD bus, to issue an
external request.
2.
The processor releases the System interface to slave state.
3.
If the processor is being used with a secondary cache, the external
agent issues a secondary cache release external null request to return
ownership of the secondary cache to the processor.
4.
The external agent then allows the independent transmission to take
place on the SysAD bus, making sure that ValidIn* is not asserted
while the transmission is occurring.
5.
When the transmission is complete, the external agent must issue a
System interface release external null request to return the System
interface to master state.
System Interface Endianness
The endianness of the System interface is programmed at boot time
through the boot-time mode control interface, and remains fixed until the
next time the processor mode bits are read. Software cannot change the
endianness of the System interface and the external system; software can
set the reverse endian bit to reverse the interpretation of endianness inside
the processor, but the endianness of the System interface remains
unchanged.
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12.8 System Interface Cycle Time
The processor specifies minimum and maximum cycle counts for various
processor transactions and for the processor response time to external
requests. Processor requests themselves are constrained by the System
interface request protocol, and request cycle counts can be determined by
examining the protocol. The following System interface interactions can
vary within minimum and maximum cycle counts:
•
spacing between requests within a cluster (cluster request
spacing)
•
waiting period for the processor to release the System interface
to slave state in response to an external request (release latency)
•
response time for an external request that requires a response
(external response latency).
The remainder of this section describes and tabulates the minimum and
maximum cycle counts for these System interface interactions.
Cluster Request Spacing
Processor internal activity determines the minimum and maximum
number of unused cycles allowed between the requests within a cluster.
•
The minimum number of unused cycles allowed between
requests within a cluster is 0: in other words, the requests can
be adjacent.
•
The maximum number of unused cycles separating requests
within a cluster varies depending on the requests that form the
cluster.
Table 12-8 summarizes the minimum and maximum number of unused
cycles allowed between requests within a cluster.
Table 12-8
Unused Cycles Separating Requests within a Cluster
From Processor To Processor Minimum Unused Maximum Unused
Request
Request
SClock Cycles
SClock Cycles
Read
Update
0
2
Read
Write
0
2
Update
Write
0
2
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Release Latency
Release latency is generally defined as the number of cycles the processor
can wait to release the System interface to slave state for an external
request. When no processor requests are in progress, internal activity—
such as refilling the primary cache from the secondary cache—can cause
the processor to wait some number of cycles before releasing the System
interface. Release latency is therefore more specifically defined as the
number of cycles that occur between the assertion of ExtRqst* and the
assertion of Release*.
There are three categories of release latency:
•
Category 1: when the external request signal is asserted two
cycles before the last cycle of a processor request, or two cycles
before the last cycle of the last request in a cluster.
•
Category 2: when the external request signal is not asserted
during a processor request or cluster, or is asserted during the
last cycle of a processor request or cluster.
•
Category 3: when the processor makes an uncompelled change
to slave state.
Table 12-9 summarizes the minimum and maximum release latencies for
requests that fall into categories 1, 2, 3a and 3b. Note that the maximum
and minimum cycle count values are subject to change.
Table 12-9
362
Release Latency for External Requests
Category
Minimum PCycles
Maximum PCycles
1
4
6
2
4
24
3a
0
See (3a), below
3b
0
See (3b), below
(3a) Read =
Tdis
+ 4- or 8-word Secondary cache write cycle time
(depending upon Primary cache size)
+ 4-word Secondary cache write cycle time
+ Secondary cache line size
+ 16 PCycles
(3b) Read
With Write
Forthcoming
4-word Secondary cache Write cycle time
+ 4 PCycles
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External Request Response Latency
The number of cycles the processor takes to respond to an external
intervention request, read request, or snoop request, are referred to as the
intervention response latency, external read response latency, or snoop response
latency, respectively.
The number of latency cycles is the number of unused cycles between the
address cycle of the request and the first data cycle of the response.
Intervention response latency and snoop response latency are a function
of processor internal activity and secondary cache access time. Table 1210 summarizes the minimum and maximum intervention response
latency and snoop response latency. Note that the latency values are
subject to change.
Table 12-10
Intervention Response and Snoop Response Latencies
Maximum Secondary
Cache
Access
Intervention
Response
Latency
Snoop Response
Latency
Min
Max
Min
Max
1-4 PCycles
6
26
6
26
5-6 PCycles
8
28
8
28
7-8 PCycles
10
30
10
30
9-10 PCycles
12
32
12
32
11-12 PCycles
14
34
14
34
External read response latency is a function of processor internal activity.
Minimum and maximum external read response latency is 4 PCycles.
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12.9 System Interface Commands and Data Identifiers
System interface commands specify the nature and attributes of any
System interface request; this specification is made during the address
cycle for the request. System interface data identifiers specify the
attributes of data transmitted during a System interface data cycle.
The following sections describe the syntax, that is, the bitwise encoding of
System interface commands and data identifiers.
Reserved bits and reserved fields in the command or data identifier
should be set to 1 for System interface commands and data identifiers
associated with external requests. For System interface commands and
data identifiers associated with processor requests, reserved bits and
reserved fields in the command and data identifier are undefined.
Command and Data Identifier Syntax
System interface commands and data identifiers are encoded in 9 bits and
are transmitted on the SysCmd bus from the processor to an external
agent, or from an external agent to the processor, during address and data
cycles. Bit 8 (the most-significant bit) of the SysCmd bus determines
whether the current content of the SysCmd bus is a command or a data
identifier and, therefore, whether the current cycle is an address cycle or a
data cycle. For System interface commands, SysCmd(8) must be set to 0.
For System interface data identifiers, SysCmd(8) must be set to 1.
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System Interface Command Syntax
This section describes the SysCmd bus encoding for System interface
commands. Figure 12-42 shows a common encoding used for all System
interface commands.
8
7
0
5
4
Request Type
Figure 12-42
0
Request Specific
System Interface Command Syntax Bit Definition
SysCmd(8) must be set to 0 for all System interface commands.
SysCmd(7:5) specify the System interface request type which may be read,
write, null, invalidate, update, intervention, or snoop; Table 12-11 lists the
encoding of SysCmd(7:5).
Table 12-11 shows the types of requests encoded by the SysCmd(7:5) bits.
Table 12-11
Encoding of SysCmd(7:5) for System Interface Commands
SysCmd(7:5)
Command
0
Read Request
1
Read-With-Write-Forthcoming Request
2
Write Request
3
Null Request
4
Invalidate Request
5
Update Request
6
Intervention Request
7
Snoop Request
SysCmd(4:0) are specific to each type of request and are defined in each of
the following sections.
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Read Requests
Figure 12-43 shows the format of a SysCmd read request.
8
7
5
000
or
001
0
Figure 12-43
4
3
2
1
0
Read Request Specific
(see tables)
Read Request SysCmd Bus Bit Definition
Tables 12-12 through 12-14 list the encodings of SysCmd(4:0) for read
requests.
Table 12-12
Encoding of SysCmd(4:3) for Read Requests
SysCmd(4:3)
Read Attributes
0
Coherent block read
1
Coherent block read, exclusivity requested
2
Noncoherent block read
3
Doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or partial word
Table 12-13
Encoding of SysCmd(2:0) for Coherent and Noncoherent
Block Read Request
SysCmd(2)
Link Address Retained Indication
0
Link address not retained
1
Link address retained
SysCmd(1:0)
366
Read Block Size
0
4 words
1
8 words
2
16 words
3
32 words
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Table 12-14
Doubleword, Word, or Partial-word Read Request Data Size
Encoding of SysCmd(2:0)
SysCmd(2:0)
Read Data Size
0
1 byte valid (Byte)
1
2 bytes valid (Halfword)
2
3 bytes valid (Tribyte)
3
4 bytes valid (Word)
4
5 bytes valid (Quintibyte)
5
6 bytes valid (Sextibyte)
6
7 bytes valid (Septibyte)
7
8 bytes valid (Doubleword)
Write Requests
Figure 12-44 shows the format of a SysCmd write request.
Table 12-15 lists the write attributes encoded in bits SysCmd(4:3). Table
12-16 lists the block write replacement attributes encoded in bits
SysCmd(2:0). Table 12-17 lists the write request bit encodings in
SysCmd(2:0).
8
7
0
Figure 12-44
Table 12-15
5
010
4
3
2
1
0
Write Request Specific
(see tables)
Write Request SysCmd Bus Bit Definition
Write Request Encoding of SysCmd(4:3)
SysCmd(4:3)
Write Attributes
0
Reserved
1
Reserved
2
Block write
3
Doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or
partial word
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Chapter 12
Table 12-16
SysCmd(2)
Block Write Request Encoding of SysCmd(2:0)
Cache Line Replacement Attributes
0
Cache line replaced
1
Cache line retained†
SysCmd(1:0)
Write Block Size
0
4 words
1
8 words
2
16 words
3
32 words
†The only time the processor sets this bit is if a Hit Writeback causes the processor
to execute a write request (see Cache Write Policy in Chapter 11).
Table 12-17
Doubleword,Word, or Partial-word Write Request Data Size
Encoding of SysCmd(2:0)
SysCmd(2:0)
368
Write Data Size
0
1 byte valid (Byte)
1
2 bytes valid (Halfword)
2
3 bytes valid (Tribyte)
3
4 bytes valid (Word)
4
5 bytes valid (Quintibyte)
5
6 bytes valid (Sextibyte)
6
7 bytes valid (Septibyte)
7
8 bytes valid (Doubleword)
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System Interface
Null Requests
Figure 12-45 shows the format of a SysCmd null request.
8
7
5
0
4
2
1
0
Null Request Specific
(see tables)
011
Figure 12-45
3
Null Request SysCmd Bus Bit Definition
Processor null write requests, System interface release external null
requests, and secondary cache release external null requests all use the
null request command. Table 12-18 lists the encodings of SysCmd(4:3) for
processor null write requests. Table 12-19 lists the encodings of
SysCmd(4:3) for external null requests.
SysCmd(2:0) are reserved for both instances of null requests.
Table 12-18
Processor Null Write Request Encoding of SysCmd(4:3)
SysCmd(4:3)
Null Write Attributes
0
Null write
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
Table 12-19
External Null Request Encoding of SysCmd(4:3)
SysCmd(4:3)
Null Attributes
0
System Interface release
1
Secondary cache release
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
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Chapter 12
Invalidate Requests
Figure 12-46 shows the format for an invalidate request, and Table 12-20
lists the encodings of SysCmd(4:0) for an external invalidate request.
SysCmd(4:0) are reserved on a processor invalidate request.
8
7
5
0
3
2
0
Invalidate Request
Specific
(see table)
100
Figure 12-46
Table 12-20
4
Invalidate Request SysCmd Bus Bit Definition
Encoding of SysCmd(4:0) for External Invalidate Requests
Processor Unacknowledged Invalidate or Update
Cancellation
SysCmd(4)
0
Invalidate or Update cancelled
1
No cancellation
Reserved
SysCmd(3:0)
Update Requests
Figure 12-47 shows the format for a SysCmd update request.
8
7
0
Figure 12-47
5
101
4
3
2
0
Update Request Specific
(see tables)
Update Request SysCmd Bus Bit Definition
Table 12-21 lists the encodings of SysCmd(4:0) for external update
requests. Table 12-22 lists the encodings of SysCmd(4:0) for processor
update requests. The remaining upper bits are the same for both processor
and external update requests.
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Table 12-21
Encoding of SysCmd(4:0) for External Update Requests
SysCmd(4)
0
1
SysCmd(3)
0
1
SysCmd(2:0)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Table 12-22
Processor Unacknowledged Invalidate or
Update Cancellation
Invalidate or Update cancelled
No cancellation
Update Cache State Change Attributes
Cache state changed to shared
No change to cache state
Update Data Size
1 byte valid (Byte)
2 bytes valid (Halfword)
3 bytes valid (Tribyte)
4 bytes valid (Word)
5 bytes valid (Quintibyte)
6 bytes valid (Sextibyte)
7 bytes valid (Septibyte)
8 bytes valid (Doubleword)
Encoding of SysCmd(4:0) for Processor Update Requests
SysCmd(4)
Reserved
SysCmd(3)
Update type
0
Compulsory
1
Potential
SysCmd(2:0)
Update Data Size
0
1 byte valid (Byte)
1
2 bytes valid (Halfword)
2
3 bytes valid (Tribyte).
3
4 bytes valid (Word)
4
5 bytes valid (Quintibyte)
5
6 bytes valid (Sextibyte)
6
7 bytes valid (Septibyte)
7
8 bytes valid (Doubleword)
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Chapter 12
Intervention and Snoop Requests
Figure 12-48 shows the format of an intervention request; Figure 12-49
shows the format of a snoop request. Table 12-23 lists the encodings of
SysCmd(4:0) for intervention requests; Table 12-24 lists the encodings
SysCmd(4:0) for snoop requests.
8
7
5
0
Table 12-23
SysCmd(4)
2
0
Intervention Request SysCmd Bus Bit Definition
Encodings of SysCmd(4:0) for Intervention Requests
Processor Unacknowledged Invalidate or Update
Cancellation
0
Update or Invalidate cancelled
1
No cancellation
SysCmd(3)
Response to Dirty or Exclusive State
0
Return cache line data if in the dirty exclusive or dirty
shared state
1
Return cache line data if in the clean exclusive or dirty
exclusive state
SysCmd(2:0)
372
3
Intervention Request Specific
(see table)
110
Figure 12-48
4
Cache State Change Function
0
No change to cache state
1
If cache state is clean exclusive, change to shared;
otherwise no change to cache state
2
If cache state is clean exclusive or shared, change to
invalid; otherwise no change to cache state
3
If cache state is clean exclusive, change to shared; if cache
state is dirty exclusive, change to dirty shared; otherwise
make no change to cache state
4
If cache state is clean exclusive, dirty exclusive, or dirty
shared, change to shared; otherwise make no change to
cache state
5
Change to invalid regardless of current cache state
6
Reserved
7
Reserved
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
System Interface
8
7
5
0
111
Figure 12-49
Table 12-24
SysCmd(4)
3
2
0
Snoop Request Specific
(see table)
Snoop Request SysCmd Bus Bit Definition
Encodings of SysCmd(4:0) for Snoop Requests
Processor Unacknowledged Update Cancellation
0
Update cancelled
1
No cancellation
SysCmd(3)
4
Reserved
SysCmd(2:0)
Cache State Change Function
0
No change to cache state
1
If cache state is clean exclusive, change to shared state;
otherwise make no change to cache state
2
If cache state is clean exclusive or shared, change to
invalid state; otherwise make no change to cache state
3
If cache state is clean exclusive, change to shared; if
cache state is dirty exclusive, change to dirty shared;
otherwise make no change to cache state
4
If cache state is clean exclusive, dirty exclusive, or
dirty shared, change to shared; otherwise make no
change to cache state
5
Change to invalid regardless of current cache state
6
Reserved
7
Reserved
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Chapter 12
System Interface Data Identifier Syntax
This section defines the encoding of the SysCmd bus for System interface
data identifiers. Figure 12-50 shows a common encoding used for all
System interface data identifiers.
8
1
7
Last
Data
Figure 12-50
6
Resp
Data
5
Err
Data
4
See
Note
below
3
Reserved
2
0
Cache
State
Data Identifier SysCmd Bus Bit Definition
SysCmd(8) must be set to 1 for all System interface data identifiers.
NOTE: SysCmd(4) is reserved for processor data identifier. In an
external data identifier, SysCmd(4) indicates whether or not to check
the data and check bits for error.
System interface data identifiers have two formats, one for coherent data
and another for noncoherent data.
Coherent Data
Coherent data is defined as follows:
•
data that is returned in response to a processor coherent block
read request
•
data that is returned in response to an external intervention
request.
Noncoherent Data
Noncoherent data is defined as follows:
374
•
data that is associated with processor block write requests and
processor doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or partial
word write requests
•
data that is returned in response to a processor noncoherent
block read request or a processor doubleword, partial
doubleword, word, or partial word read request
•
data that is associated with external update requests
•
data that is associated with external write requests
•
data that is returned in response to an external read request
•
data that is associated with processor update requests.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
System Interface
Data Identifier Bit Definitions
SysCmd(7) marks the last data element and SysCmd(6) indicates whether
or not the data is response data, for both processor and external coherent
and noncoherent data identifiers. Response data is data returned in
response to a read request or an intervention request.
SysCmd(5) indicates whether or not the data element is error free.
Erroneous data contains an uncorrectable error and is returned to the
processor, forcing a bus error. In the case of a block response, the entire
line must be delivered to the processor no matter how minimal the error.
The processor delivers data with the good data bit deasserted if a primary
parity error is detected for a transmitted data item. If the system is in ECC
mode, a secondary cache data ECC error is detected by comparing the
values transmitted on the SysAD and SysADC.
SysCmd(4) indicates to the processor whether to check the data and check
bits for this data element, for both coherent and noncoherent external data
identifiers.
SysCmd(3) is reserved for external data identifiers.
SysCmd(4:3) are reserved for both coherent and noncoherent processor
data identifiers.
SysCmd(2:0) indicate the data cache state to load the cache line, in
response to processor coherent read requests for coherent data identifiers.
SysCmd(2:0) also indicate the cache state for response data to an external
intervention request, or for the data cycle issued in response to an external
snoop request. SysCmd(2:0) are reserved for noncoherent data identifiers.
Table 12-25 lists the encodings of SysCmd(7:3) for processor data
identifiers. Table 12-26 lists the encodings of SysCmd(7:3) for external
data identifiers. Table 12-27 lists the encodings of SysCmd(2:0) for
coherent data identifiers.
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Chapter 12
Table 12-25
Processor Data Identifier Encoding of SysCmd(7:3)
SysCmd(7)
Last Data Element Indication
0
Last data element
1
Not the last data element
SysCmd(6)
Response Data Indication
0
Data is response data
1
Data is not response data
SysCmd(5)
Good Data Indication
0
Data is error free
1
Data is erroneous
Reserved
SysCmd(4:3)
Table 12-26
External Data Identifier Encoding of SysCmd(7:3)
SysCmd(7)
Last Data Element Indication
0
Last data element
1
Not the last data element
SysCmd(6)
Response Data Indication
0
Data is response data
1
Data is not response data
SysCmd(5)
Good Data Indication
0
Data is error free
1
Data is erroneous
SysCmd(4)
0
Check the data and check bits
1
Do not check the data and check bits
SysCmd(3)
376
Data Checking Enable
Reserved
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System Interface
Table 12-27
Coherent Data Identifiers Encoding of SysCmd(2:0)
SysCmd(2:0)
Cache State
0
Invalid†
1
Reserved
2
Reserved
3
Reserved
4
Clean Exclusive
5
Dirty Exclusive
6
Shared
7
Dirty Shared
†This state also occurs if the line does not exist in the cache.
12.10 System Interface Addresses
System interface addresses are full 36-bit physical addresses presented on
the least-significant 36 bits (bits 35 through 0) of the SysAD bus during
address cycles; the remaining bits of the SysAD bus are unused during
address cycles.
Addressing Conventions
Addresses associated with doubleword, partial doubleword, word, or
partial word transactions and update requests, are aligned for the size of
the data element. The system uses the following address conventions:
•
Addresses associated with block requests are aligned to
double-word boundaries; that is, the low-order 3 bits of
address are 0.
•
Doubleword requests set the low-order 3 bits of address to 0.
•
Word requests set the low-order 2 bits of address to 0.
•
Halfword requests set the low-order bit of address to 0.
•
Byte, tribyte, quintibyte, sextibyte, and septibyte requests use
the byte address.
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Chapter 12
Sequential and Subblock Ordering
The order in which data is returned in response to a processor block read
request can be programmed to sequential ordering or subblock ordering,
using the boot-time mode control interface. Appendix C has more
information about subblock ordering. Either sequential or subblock
ordering may be enabled, as follows:
•
If sequential ordering is enabled on a block read request, the
processor delivers the address of the doubleword at the start of
the block. An external agent must return the block of data
sequentially from the beginning of the block.
•
If subblock ordering is enabled, the processor delivers the
address of the requested doubleword within the block. An
external agent must return the block of data using subblock
ordering, starting with the addressed doubleword.
NOTE: Only R4000SC and R4000MC configurations (using a
secondary cache) can be programmed to use sequential ordering.
For block write requests, the processor always delivers the address of the
doubleword at the beginning of the block; the processor delivers data
beginning with the doubleword at the beginning of the block and
progresses sequentially through the doublewords that form the block.
During data cycles, the valid byte lines depend upon the position of the
data with respect to the aligned doubleword (this may be a byte, halfword,
tribyte, quadbyte/word, quintibyte, sextibyte, septibyte, or an octalbyte/
doubleword). For example, in little-endian mode, on a byte request where
the address modulo 8 is 0, SysAD(7:0) are valid during the data cycles.
12.11 Processor Internal Address Map
External reads and writes provide access to processor internal resources
that may be of interest to an external agent. The processor decodes bits
SysAD(6:4) of the address associated with an external read or write
request to determine which processor internal resource is the target.
However, the processor does not contain any resources that are readable
through an external read request. Therefore, in response to an external
read request the processor returns undefined data and a data identifier
with its Erroneous Data bit, SysCmd(5), set. The Interrupt register is the
only processor internal resource available for write access by an external
request. The Interrupt register is accessed by an external write request
with an address of 0002 on bits 6:4 of the SysAD bus.
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Secondary Cache Interface
13
The R4000SC and R4000MC versions of the R4000 processor contain
interface signals for an optional external secondary cache. This interface
consists of:
•
a 128-bit data bus
•
a 25-bit tag bus
•
an 18-bit address bus
•
various static random access memory (SRAM) control signals.
The 128-bit-wide data bus minimizes the primary cache miss penalty, and
allows the use of standard low-cost SRAMs in the design of the secondary
cache.
The remainder of the System interface signals are described in Chapter 8.
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Chapter 13
13.1 Data Transfer Rates
The interface to the secondary cache maximizes service of primary cache
misses. The Secondary Cache interface, SCData(127:0), supports a data
rate that is close to the processor-to-primary-cache bandwidth during
normal operation. To ensure that this bandwidth is maintained, each data,
tag, and check pin must be connected to a single SRAM device.
The SCAddr bus, together with the SCOE*, SCDCS*, and SCTCS*
signals, drives a large number of SRAM devices; because of this, one level
of external buffering between the processor and the cache array is used.
13.2 Duplicating Signals
The buffered control signals control the speed of the Secondary Cache
interface. Critical control signals are duplicated by design to minimize
this limitation: the SCWR* signal and SCAddr(0) have four versions so
that external buffers are not needed to drive them. When an 8-word
(256-bit) primary cache line is used, these signals can be controlled
quickly, reducing the time of back-to-back transfers.
Each duplicated control signal can drive up to 11 SRAMs; therefore, a total
of 44 SRAM packages can be used in the cache array. This allows a cache
design using 16-Kbyte-by-64-bit, 64-Kbyte-by-4-bit, or 256-Kbyte-by-4-bit
standard SRAM.†
The benefit of duplicating SCAddr(0) is greater in systems that use fast
sequential static cache RAM and an 8-word primary cache line. If
SCAddr(0) is attached to the SRAM address bit that affects column decode
only, the read cycle time should approximate the output enable time of the
RAM. For fast static RAM, this cycle time should be half of the nominal
read cycle time.
† Other cache designs within this constraint are also acceptable. For example, a smaller
cache design can use 22 8-Kbyte-by-8-bit static RAMs; this design presents less load on the
address pins and control signals, and reduces the overall parts count.
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13.3 Accessing a Split Secondary Cache
When the secondary cache is split into separate instruction and data
portions, assertion of the high-order SCAddr bit, SCAddr(17), enables the
instruction half of the cache.
It is possible to design a cache that supports both joint and split
instruction/data configurations of less than the maximum cache size; in
doing so, SCAddr(12:0) must address the cache in all configurations.
SCAddr(17) must support the split instruction/data configuration, and
any of SCAddr(16:14) bits can be omitted, because of the fixed width of the
physical tag array.
13.4 SCDChk Bus
The secondary cache data check bus, SCDChk, is divided into two fields
to cover the upper and lower 64 bits of SCData. This form is required by
the 64-bit width of internal data paths.
13.5 SCTAG Bus
The secondary cache tag bus, SCTag, is divided into three fields, as shown
in Figure 13-1. The CS field indicates the cache state: invalid, clean
exclusive, dirty exclusive, shared, or dirty shared. The PIdx field is an
index to the virtual address of primary cache lines that can contain data
from the secondary cache. Bits 18:0 contain the upper physical address.
24
22 21
CS
3
19
18
0
PIdx
Physical_Tag
3
19
Figure 13-1
SCTag Fields
The SCDCS* and SCTCS* signals disable reads or writes of either the data
array or tag array when the opposite array is being accessed. These signals
are useful for saving power on snoop and invalidate requests since access
to the data array is not necessary. These signals also write data from the
primary data cache to the secondary cache.
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Chapter 13
13.6 Operation of the Secondary Cache Interface
The secondary cache can be configured for various clock rates and static
RAM speeds. All configurable parameters are specified in multiples of
PClock, which runs at twice the frequency of the external system clock,
MasterClock.
During boot time, secondary cache timing parameters are programmed
through the boot-time mode bits, as described in Chapter 9. Table 13-1
lists the secondary cache timing parameters. The following sections
describe secondary cache read and write cycles.
Table 13-1
382
Secondary Cache Timing Parameters
Symbol
Number of Cycles
tRd1Cyc
4-15 PCycles
tRd2Cyc
2-15 PCycles
tDis
2-7 PCycles
tWr1Dly
1-3 PCycles
tWr2Dly
1-3 PCycles
tWrRC
0-1 PCycles
tWrSUp
3-15 PCycles
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Secondary Cache Interface
Read Cycles
There are two basic read cycles: 4-word read and 8-word read.
Each secondary cache read cycle begins by driving an address out on the
address pins. The output enable signal SCOE* is asserted at the same
time.
This section describes both 4-word and 8-word read cycles, including
timing diagrams.
4-Word Read Cycle
The 4-word read cycle has two user-accessible timing parameters:
tRd1Cyc
read sequence cycle time, which specifies the
time from the assertion of the SCAddr bus to
the sampling of the SCData bus
tDis
cache output disable time, which specifies the
time from the end of a read cycle to the start of
the next write cycle
Figure 13-2 illustrates the 4-word read cycle, including the two useraccessible timing parameters.
PCycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
Address
SCAddr(17:0)
tRd1Cyc
SCData(127:0)
SCTag(24:0)
SCDChk(15:0)
SCTChk(6:0)
Data
SCOE*
tDis
SCAPar(2:0)
SCDCS*:
SCTCS*:
Figure 13-2
Timing Diagram of a 4-Word Read Cycle
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Chapter 13
8-Word Read Cycle
The 8-word read cycle has an additional user-accessible parameter beyond
that of the 4-word read cycle described above: tRd2Cyc, the time from the
first sample point to the second sample point.
In an 8-word read cycle, the low-order address bit, SCAddr(0), changes at
the same time as the first read sample point.
Figure 13-3 illustrates the 8-word read cycle, including the three useraccessible timing parameters.
PCycle
1
2
3
SCAddr(17:1)
4
5
6
7
8
9
Address
tRd1Cyc
SCAddr(0)
First_Address
Second_Address
tRd2Cyc
SCAPar(2:0)
SCData(127:0)
SCTag(24:0)
SCDChk(15:0)
SCTChk(6:0)
Data
Data
SCOE*
tDis
SCDCS*
SCTCS*
Figure 13-3
Timing Diagram of an 8-Word Read Cycle
Notes on a Secondary Cache Read Cycle
All read cycles can be aborted by changing the address; a new cycle begins
with the edge on which the address is changed. Additionally, the period
tDis after a read cycle can be interrupted any time by the start of a new
read cycle. If a read cycle is aborted by a write cycle, SCOE* must be
deasserted for the tDis period before the write cycle can begin.
Read cycles can also be extended indefinitely. There is no requirement to
change the address at the end of a read cycle.
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Secondary Cache Interface
Write Cycles
There are two basic write cycles: a 4-word write cycle and an 8-word write
cycle. The secondary cache write cycle begins with the assertion of an
address onto the address pins.
This section describes both 4-word and 8-word write cycles, including
timing diagrams.
4-Word Write Cycle
A 4-word write cycle has three timing parameters:
tWr1Dly
delay from the assertion of the address to the
assertion of SCWR*
tWrSUp
delay from assertion of the second data doubleword to the deassertion of SCWR*
tWrRc
delay from the deassertion of SCWR* to the
beginning of the next cycle
The timing parameter tWrRc is 0 for most cache designs. Note that the
upper data doubleword and the lower data doubleword are normally
driven one cycle apart; this reduces the peak current consumption in the
output drivers.
Figure 13-4 illustrates the 4-word write cycle. Either the upper or lower
data doubleword can be driven first.
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Chapter 13
PCycle
1
SCAddr(17:0)
2
3
4
Address
SCData(63:0)/
SCDChk(7:0) or
SCData(127:64)/
SCDChk(15:8)
Data
SCTChk(6:0)/
SCTag(24:0)
Data
SCData(127:64)/
SCDChk(15:8) or
SCData(63:0)/
SCDChk(7:0)
Data
tWrSUp
SCAPar(2:0)
SCWR*
tWr1Dly
tWrRc
SCOE*
SCDCS*
SCTCS*
Figure 13-4
Timing Diagram of a 4-Word Write Cycle
8-Word Write Cycle
An 8-word write cycle has one additional parameter beyond those used by
the 4-word write cycle: tWr2Dly. This is the time period that begins when
the low-order address bit SCAddr(0) changes and ends when SCWR* is
asserted for the second time. The lower half of SCData is driven on the
same edge as the change in SCAddr(0).
Figure 13-5 illustrates the 8-word write cycle.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Secondary Cache Interface
PCycle
1
2
3
SCAddr(17:1)
4
5
6
7
8
Address
SCAddr(0)
First_Address
Second_Address
SCData(63:0)/
SCDChk(7:0)
First_Data
Second_Data
SCTag(24:0)/
SCTChk(6:0)
First_Data
Second_Data
First_Data_MS/DTag_Chk
Second_Data_MS/DTag_Chk
SCDChk(15:8)
SCData(127:64)
First_Data
Second_Data
SCAPar(2:0)
SCWR*
tWr1Dly
tWrSUp
tWr2Dly
tWrSUp
tWrRc
tWrRc
SCOE*
SCDCS*
SCTCS*
Figure 13-5
Timing Diagram of an 8-Word Write Cycle
Notes on a Secondary Cache Write Cycle
When receiving data from the System interface, the first data doubleword
can arrive several cycles before the second data doubleword. In this case,
the cache state machine enters a wait-state that extends SCWR* until
tWrSUp period after the second data item is transmitted.
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Chapter 13
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
JTAG Interface
14
The R4000 processor provides a boundary-scan interface that is
compatible with Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) specifications, using the
industry-standard JTAG protocol.
This chapter describes that interface, including descriptions of boundary
scanning, the pins and signals used by the interface, and the Test Access
Port (TAP).
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Chapter 14
14.1 What Boundary Scanning Is
With the evolution of ever-denser integrated circuits (ICs), surfacemounted devices, double-sided component mounting on printed-circuit
boards (PCBs), and buried vias, in-circuit tests that depend upon making
physical contact with internal board and chip connections have become
more and more difficult to use. The greater complexity of ICs has also
meant that tests to fully exercise these chips have become much larger and
more difficult to write.
One solution to this difficulty has been the development of boundary-scan
circuits. A boundary-scan circuit is a series of shift register cells placed
between each pin and the internal circuitry of the IC to which the pin is
connected, as shown in Figure 14-1. Normally, these boundary-scan cells
are bypassed; when the IC enters test mode, however, the scan cells can be
directed by the test program to pass data along the shift register path and
perform various diagnostic tests. To accomplish this, the tests use the four
signals described in the next section: JTDI, JTDO, JTMS, and JTCK.
Integrated
Circuit
IC package pin
Boundary-scan cells
Figure 14-1
390
JTAG Boundary-scan Cells
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
JTAG Interface
14.2 Signal Summary
The JTAG interface signals are listed below and shown in Figure 14-2.
JTDI
JTAG serial data in
JTDO
JTAG serial data out
JTMS
JTAG test mode select
JTCK
JTAG serial clock input
2
0
Instruction
Context is
register
saved
CPU
0
Bypass
Context is
register
saved
JTD0 pin
1
JTMS pin
BoundaryContext
scan is
saved
register
JTCK pin
319
Figure 14-2
JTDI pin
JTAG Interface Signals and Registers
The JTAG boundary-scan mechanism (referred to in this chapter as JTAG
mechanism) allows testing of the connections between the processor, the
printed circuit board to which it is attached, and the other components on
the circuit board.
In addition, the JTAG mechanism provides rudimentary capability for
low-speed logical testing of the secondary cache RAM. The JTAG
mechanism does not provide any capability for testing the processor itself.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
391
Chapter 14
14.3 JTAG Controller and Registers
The processor contains the following JTAG controller and registers:
•
Instruction register
•
Boundary-scan register
•
Bypass register
•
Test Access Port (TAP) controller
The processor executes the standard JTAG EXTEST operation associated
with External Test functionality testing.
Instruction Register
The JTAG Instruction register includes three shift register-based cells; this
register is used to select the test to be performed and/or the test data
register to be accessed. As listed in Table 14-1, this encoding selects either
the Boundary-scan register or the Bypass register.
Table 14-1
JTAG Instruction Register Bit Encoding
MSB. . . . . LSB
Data Register
0
0
0
Boundary-scan register (external test only)
x
x
1
Bypass register
x
1
x
Bypass register
1
x
x
Bypass register
The Instruction register has two stages:
•
shift register
•
parallel output latch
Figure 14-3 shows the format of the Instruction register.
2
1
0
LSB
MSB
Figure 14-3
392
Instruction Register
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
JTAG Interface
Bypass Register
The Bypass register is 1 bit wide. When the TAP controller is in the ShiftDR (Bypass) state, the data on the JTDI pin is shifted into the Bypass
register, and the Bypass register output shifts to the JTDO output pin.
In essence, the Bypass register is a short-circuit which allows bypassing of
board-level devices, in the serial boundary-scan chain, which are not
required for a specific test. The logical location of the Bypass register in the
boundary-scan chain is shown in Figure 14-4. Use of the Bypass register
speeds up access to boundary-scan registers in those ICs that remain
active in the board-level test datapath.
JTDI
Bypass
register
Board
input
JTDO
JTDO
Board
output
JTDI
JTDI
JTDO
JTDO
JTDI
JTDI
JTDO
Boundary-scan
register pad cell
IC package
Board
Figure 14-4
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Bypass Register Operation
393
Chapter 14
Boundary-Scan Register
The Boundary-scan register is a single, 319-bit-wide, shift register-based
path containing cells connected to all input and output pads on the R4000
processor. Figure 14-5 shows the three most-significant bits of the
Boundary-scan register; these three bits control the output enables on the
various bidirectional buses.
319
318
317
OE3
OE2
OE1
Figure 14-5
316
1
See Table 14-2
Output Enable Bits of the Boundary-scan Register
The most-significant bit, OE3 (bit 319), is the JTAG output enable bit for
the SysAD, SysADC, SysCmd, and SysCmdP buses. Output is enabled
when this bit is set to 1.
OE2 (bit 318) is the JTAG output enable for the SCData and SCDChk
buses. Output is enabled when this bit is set to 1.
OE1 (bit 317) is the JTAG output enable for the SCTag and SCTChk buses.
The remaining 316 bits correspond to 316 signal pads of the processor.
Output is enabled when this bit is set to 1.
At the end of this chapter, Table 14-2 lists the scan order of these 316 scan
bits, starting from JTDI and ending with JTDO.
394
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
JTAG Interface
Test Access Port (TAP)
The Test Access Port (TAP) consists of the four signal pins: JTDI, JTDO,
JTMS, and JTCK. Serial test data and instructions are communicated
over these four signal pins, along with control of the test to be executed.
As Figure 14-6 shows, data is serially scanned into one of the three
registers (Instruction register, Bypass register, or the Boundary-scan register)
from the JTDI pin, or it is scanned from one of these three registers onto
the JTDO pin.
The JTDI input feeds the least-significant bit (LSB) of the selected register,
whereas the most-significant bit (MSB) of the selected register appears on
the JTDO output.
The JTMS input controls the state transitions of the main TAP controller
state machine.
The JTCK input is a dedicated test clock that allows serial JTAG data to be
shifted synchronously, independent of any chip-specific or system clocks.
JTCK
JTMS and JTDI sampled
on rising edge of JTCK
JTD0 sampled on
falling edge of JTCK
Data scanned in serially
2
Data scanned out serially
0
2
Instruction
Context is
register
saved
Instruction
Context is
register
saved
CPU
0
Bypass is
Context
register
saved
1
CPU
0
LSB
319
0
JTDI pin
JTMS pin
BoundaryContext is
scan
saved
register
(MSB)
Bypass is
Context
register
saved
319
JTD0 pin
1
BoundaryContext is
scan
saved
register
Figure 14-6
JTAG Test Access Port
Data on the JTDI and JTMS pins is sampled on the rising edge of the
JTCK input clock signal. Data on the JTDO pin changes on the falling
edge of the JTCK clock signal.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
395
Chapter 14
TAP Controller
The processor implements the 16-state TAP controller as defined in the
IEEE JTAG specification.
Controller Reset
The TAP controller state machine can be put into Reset state by one of the
following:
•
deassertion of the VCCOk input resets the TAP controller
•
keeping the JTMS input signal asserted through five
consecutive rising edges of JTCK input sends the TAP
controller state machine into its Reset state.
In either case, keeping JTMS asserted maintains the Reset state.
Controller States
The TAP controller has four states: Reset, Capture, Shift, and Update.
They can reflect either instructions (as in the Shift-IR state) or data (as in
the Capture-DR state).
396
•
When the TAP controller is in the Reset state, the value 0x7 is
loaded into the parallel output latch, selecting the Bypass
register as default. The three most significant bits of the
Boundary-scan register are cleared to 0, disabling the outputs.
•
When the TAP controller is in the Capture-IR state, the value
0x4 is loaded into the shift register stage.
•
When the TAP controller is in the Capture-DR (Boundary-scan)
state, the data currently on the processor input and I/O pins is
latched into the Boundary-scan register. In this state, the
Boundary-scan register bits corresponding to output pins are
arbitrary and cannot be checked during the scan out process.
•
When the TAP controller is in the Shift-IR state, data is loaded
serially into the shift register stage of the Instruction register
from the JTDI input pin, and the MSB of the Instruction
register’s shift register stage is shifted onto the JTDO pin.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
JTAG Interface
•
When the TAP controller is in the Shift-DR (Boundary-scan)
state, data is serially shifted into the Boundary-scan register
from the JTDI pin, and the contents of the Boundary-scan
register are serially shifted onto the JTDO pin.
•
When the TAP controller is in the Update-IR state, the current
data in the shift register stage is loaded into the parallel output
latch.
•
When the TAP controller is in the Update-DR (Boundary-scan)
state, data in the Boundary-scan register is latched into the
register parallel output latch. Bits corresponding to output
pins, and those I/O pins whose outputs are enabled (by the
three MSBs of the Boundary-scan register), are loaded onto the
processor pins.
Table 14-2 shows the boundary scan order of the processor signals.
Table 14-2
Pin #
Signal Name
Pin #
1.
5.
9.
13.
17.
21.
25.
29.
33.
37.
SCDChk(13)
SCDChk(5)
Status(3)
Status(5)
SysADC(7)
VCCOk
SysAD(63)
SCTag(17)
SCData(30)
SCData(94)
2.
6.
10.
14.
18.
22.
26.
30.
34.
38.
41.
45.
49.
53.
57.
61.
65.
69.
73.
77.
81.
85.
89.
93.
SysAD(61)
Reset*
SysAD(60)
ColdReset*
SysAD(59)
IOIn
SysAD(58)
IOOut
SysAD(57)
GrpRun*
SysAD(56)
GrpStall*
SysADC(6)
NMI*
42.
46.
50.
54.
58.
62.
66.
70.
74.
78.
82.
86.
90.
94.
JTAG Scan Order of R4000 Processor Pins
Signal Name
SysADC(1)
Status(0)
IvdErr*
Status(6)
SCDChk(3)
SCTag(16)
SCData(31)
SCData(95)
SysAD(30)
RClock(1:0) (share
the same JTAG bit)
SCData(29)
SCTag(20)
SCData(28)
SCTag(21)
SCData(27)
SCTag(22)
SCData(26)
SCTag(23)
SCData(25)
SCTag(24)
SCData(24)
SCTChk(0)
SCDChk(2)
SCTChk(1)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Pin #
Signal Name
Pin #
Signal Name
3.
7.
11.
15.
19.
23.
27.
31.
35.
39.
SCDChk(1)
Status(1)
Status(4)
Status(7)
SysADC(3)
SCDChk(11)
SysAD(31)
SCData(62)
SCData(126)
SCTag(19)
4.
8.
12.
16.
20.
24.
28.
32.
36.
40.
SysADC(5)
Status(2)
IvdAck*
SCDChk(7)
SCDChk(15)
SCData(63)
SCData(127)
SysAD(62)
SCTag(18)
SCData(61)
43.
47.
51.
55.
59.
63.
67.
71.
75.
79.
83.
87.
91.
95.
SysAD(29)
SCData(93)
SysAD(28)
SCData(92)
SysAD(27)
SCData(91)
SysAD(26)
SCData(90)
SysAD(25)
SCData(89)
SysAD(24)
SCData(88)
SysADC(2)
SCDChk(10)
44.
48.
52.
56.
60.
64.
68.
72.
76.
80.
84.
88.
92.
96.
SCData(125)
SCData(60)
SCData(124)
SCData(59)
SCData(123)
SCData(58)
SCData(122)
SCData(57)
SCData(121)
SCData(56)
SCData(120)
SCDChk(6)
SCDChk(14)
SCData(55)
397
Chapter 14
Table 14-2 (cont.) JTAG Scan Order of R4000 Processor Pins
Pin #
Signal Name
97. SysAD(55)
Pin #
Signal Name
98. SCData(23)
Pin #
Signal Name
99. SysAD(23)
Pin #
Signal Name
100. SCData(119)
101. Release*
102. SCTChk(2)
103. SCData(87)
104. SCData(54)
105. SysAD(54)
106. SysAD(22)
107. ModeIn
108. SCData(22)
109. RdRdy*
110. SCData(118)
111. SCData(86)
112. SCData(53)
113. SysAD(53)
114. SCData(21)
115. SysAD(21)
116. SCData(117)
117. ExtRqst*
118. SCTChk(3)
119. SCData(85)
120. SCData(52)
121. SysAD(52)
122. SCData(20)
123. SysAD(20)
124. SCData(116)
125. ValidOut*
126. SCTChk(4)
127. SCData(84)
128. SCData(51)
129. SysAD(51)
130. SCData(19)
131. SysAD(19)
132. SCData(115)
133. ValidIn*
134. SCTChk(5)
135. SCData(83)
136. SCAddr0W,X
(share the same
JTAG bit)
137. SCAddr0Y,Z
(share the same
JTAG bit)
138. SCAddr(1)
139. SCData(50)
140. SysAD(50)
141. SCData(18)
142. SysAD(18)
143. SCData(114)
144. Int*(0)
145. SCTChk(6)
146. SCData(82)
147. SCData(49)
148. SysAD(49)
149. SCData(17)
150. SysAD(17)
151. SCData(113)
152. SCAddr(2)/Int*(1)
153. SCAddr(3)
154. SCData(81)
155. SCData(48)
156. SysAD(48)
157. SCData(16)
158. SysAD(16)
159. SCData(112)
160. SCAddr(4)/Int*(2)
161. SCAddr(5)
162. SCData(80)
163. SCAddr(6)
164. SCAddr(7)
165. SCAddr(8)
166. SCAddr(9)
167. SCAddr(10)
168. SCAddr(11)
169. SC64Addr
170. SCAddr(12)
171. SCAddr(13)
172. SCAddr(14)
173. SCAddr(15)
174. SCAddr(16)
175. SCAddr(17)
176. SCData(64)
177. SCAPar(0)
178. SCAPar(1)/Int*(3)
179. SCData(96)
180. SysAD(0)
181. SCData(0)
182. SysAD(32)
183. SCData(32)
184. SCData(65)
185. SCAPar(2)
186. SCOE*/Int*(4)
187. SCData(97)
188. SysAD(1)
189. SCData(1)
190. SysAD(33)
191. SCData(33)
192. SCData(66)
193. SCDCS*
194. SCTCS*/Int*(5)
195. SCData(98)
196. SysAD(2)
197. SCData(2)
198. SysAD(34)
199. SCData(34)
200. SCTag(0)
201. SCWrW,X* (share
the same JTAG bit)
202. SCWrY,Z* (share
the same JTAG bit)
203. SCData(67)
204. SCTag(1)
205. SysCmd(0)
206. SCData(99)
207. SysAD(3)
208. SCData(3)
209. SysAD(35)
210. SCData(35)
211. SCData(68)
212. SCTag(2)
213. SysCmd(1)
214. SCData(100)
215. SysAD(4)
216. SCData(4)
217. SysAD(36)
218. SCData(36)
219. SCData(69)
220. SCTag(3)
221. SysCmd(2)
222. SCData(101)
223. SysAD(5)
224. SCData(5)
398
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
JTAG Interface
Table 14-2 (cont.) JTAG Scan Order of R4000 Processor Pins
Pin #
Signal Name
Pin #
Signal Name
Pin #
Signal Name
Pin #
Signal Name
225. SysAD(37)
226. SCData(37)
227. SCData(70)
228. WrRdy*
229. ModeClock
230. SCData(102)
231. SysAD(6)
232. SCData(6)
233. SysAD(38)
234. SCData(38)
235. SCData(71)
236. SCTag(4)
237. SysCmd(3)
238. SCData(103)
239. SysAD(7)
240. SCData(7)
241. SysAD(39)
242. SCData(39)
243. SCDChk(8)
244. SCTag(5)
245. SysCmd(4)
246. SCDChk(12)
247. SysADC(0)
248. SCDChk(0)
249. SysADC(4)
250. SCDChk(4)
251. SCData(72)
252. SCTag(6)
253. SysCmd(5)
254. SCData(104)
255. SysAD(8)
256. SCData(8)
257. SysAD(40)
258. SCData(40)
259. SCData(73)
260. SCTag(7)
261. SysCmd(6)
262. SCData(105)
263. SysAD(9)
264. SCData(9)
265. SysAD(41)
266. SCData(41)
267. SCData(74)
268. SCTag(8)
269. SysCmd(7)
270. SCData(106)
271. SysAD(10)
272. SCData(10)
273. SysAD(42)
274. SCData(42)
275. SCData(75)
276. SCTag(9)
277. SysCmd(8)
278. SCData(107)
279. SysAD(11)
280. SCData(11)
281. SysAD(43)
282. SCData(43)
283. SCData(76)
284. SCTag(10)
285. SysCmdP
286. SCData(108)
287. SysAD(12)
288. SCData(12)
289. SysAD(44)
290. SCData(44)
291. SCData(77)
292. SCTag(11)
293. Fault*
294. SCData(109)
295. SysAD(13)
296. SCData(13)
297. SysAD(45)
298. SCData(45)
299. SCTag(12)
300. TClock(1:0) (share
the same JTAG bit)
301. SCData(78)
302. SCTag(13)
303. SCData(110)
304. SysAD(14)
305. SCData(14)
306. SysAD(46)
307. SCData(46)
308. SCData(79)
309. SCTag(14)
310. SCData(111)
311. SysAD(15)
312. SCData(15)
313. SysAD(47)
314. SCData(47)
315. SCDChk(9)
316. SCTag(15)†
†See the section titled Boundary-Scan Register earlier in this chapter, for a
description of the last three output enable bits, 319:317.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
399
Chapter 14
14.4 Implementation-Specific Details
This section describes details of JTAG boundary-scan operation that are
specific to the processor.
•
The MasterClock, MasterOut, SyncIn, and SyncOut signal
pads do not support JTAG.
•
The following pairs of output pads share a single JTAG bit:
SCAddr0W and SCAddr0X
SCAddr0Y and SCAddr0Z
SCWrW* and SCWrX*
SCWrY* and SCWrZ*
TClock(0) and TClock(1)
RClock(0) and RClock(1)
400
•
All input pads data are first latched into a processor clock-based
register in the pad cell before they are captured into the
Boundary-scan register in the Capture-DR (Boundary-scan)
state. When the phase-locked loop is disabled, the processor
clock is half the frequency of MasterClock. Therefore, when the
TAP controller is in the Capture-DR (Boundary-scan) state, the
data setup required at the input pads is more than two
MasterClock periods before the rising edge of the JTCK.
•
The output enable controls generated from the three mostsignificant bits of the Boundary-scan register are latched into a
Processor Clock-based register before they actually enable the
data onto the pads. Therefore, the delay from the rising edge
of JTCK in the Update-DR (Boundary-scan) state to data valid
at the output pins of the chip is greater than two MasterClock
periods.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Processor Interrupts
15
The R4000 processor supports the following interrupts: six hardware
interrupts, one internal “timer interrupt,” two software interrupts, and
one nonmaskable interrupt. The processor takes an exception on any
interrupt.
This chapter describes the six hardware and single nonmaskable
interrupts. A description of the software and the timer interrupts can be
found in Chapter 5. CPU exception processing is also described in
Chapter 5.
Floating-point exception processing is described in Chapter 6.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
401
Chapter 15
15.1 Hardware Interrupts
The six CPU hardware interrupts can be caused by external write requests
to the R4000SC, R4000MC, and R4000PC, or can be caused through
dedicated interrupt pins. These pins are latched into an internal register
by the rising edge of SClock. The R4000MC and R4000SC packages
support a single interrupt pin, Int*(0). The R4000PC package supports six
interrupt pins, Int*(5:0).
15.2 Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI)
The nonmaskable interrupt is caused either by an external write request to
the R4000 or by a dedicated pin in the R4000. This pin is latched into an
internal register by the rising edge of SClock.
15.3 Asserting Interrupts
External writes to the CPU are directed to various internal resources,
based on an internal address map of the processor. When SysAD[6:4] = 0,
an external write to any address writes to an architecturally transparent
register called the Interrupt register; this register is available for external
write cycles, but not for external reads.
During a data cycle, SysAD[22:16] are the write enables for the seven
individual Interrupt register bits and SysAD[6:0] are the values to be
written into these bits. This allows any subset of the Interrupt register to
be set or cleared with a single write request. Figure 15-1 shows the
mechanics of an external write to the Interrupt register.
0
SysAD(6:0)
Interrupt Value
5
6
4
3
2
1
Interrupt register
1
0
2
See Figures 15-1,
15-2, and 15-3.
3
4
22
21
20
19
18
SysAD(22:16)
Write Enables
Figure 15-1
402
17
16
5
6
Interrupt Register Bits and Enables
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Processor Interrupts
Figure 15-2 shows how the R4000SC and R4000MC interrupts are readable
through the Cause register.
•
Bit 5 of the Interrupt register in the R4000SC and R4000MC is
multiplexed with the TimerInterrupt signal and the result is
directly readable as bit 15 of the Cause register.
•
Bits 4:1 of the Interrupt register are directly readable as bits
14:11 of the Cause register.
•
Bit 0 of the Interrupt register is latched into the internal register
by the rising edge of SClock, then ORed with the Int*(0) pin,
and the result is directly readable as bit 10 of the Cause register.
3
2
1
0
Interrupt register (5:0)
IP3
11
IP4
12
IP2
See Figure 15-5.
IP6
14
IP7
15
IP5
Timer
Interrupt
10
4
13
5
Cause
register(15:10)
TimerIntDis
(Internal
register)
Int*(0)
OR gate
multiplexer
SClock
Figure 15-2
R4000SC/MC Interrupt Signals
The select line for the Timer Interrupt multiplexer is enabled by bootmode bit 19, TimerIntDis, as described in Chapter 9. The Timer Interrupt
input to the multiplexer is asserted when the Count register equals the
Compare register.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
403
Chapter 15
Figure 15-3 shows how the R4000PC interrupts are readable through the
Cause register. The interrupt bits, Int*(5:0), are latched into the internal
register by the rising edge of SClock.
•
Bit 5 of the Interrupt register in the R4000PC is ORed with the
Int*(5) pin and then multiplexed with the TimerInterrupt
signal. This result is directly readable as bit 15 of the Cause
register.
•
Bits 4:0 of the Interrupt register are bit-wise ORed with the
current value of the interrupt pins Int*[4:0] and the result is
directly readable as bits 14:10 of the Cause register.
0
Interrupt register (5:0)
IP2
10
1
IP3
11
2
IP4
5
See
Figure 15-5.
14
IP7
Cause
register
Timer
Interrupt
SClock
IP6
15
IP5
12
3
13
4
5
4
3
2
1
0
(Internal
register)
OR gate
multiplexer
Int*(5)
Int*(3)
Int*(4)
Int*(1)
Int*(2)
Int*(0)
Figure 15-3
404
R4000PC Interrupt Signals
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Processor Interrupts
Figure 15-4 shows the internal derivation of the NMI signal, for all
versions of the R4000 processor.
The NMI* pin is latched by the rising edge of SClock, however the NMI
exception occurs in response to the falling edge of the NMI* signal, and is
not level-sensitive.
Bit 6 of the Interrupt register is then ORed with the inverted value of NMI*
to form the nonmaskable interrupt.
Interrupt register (6)
6
(Internal
register)
(Internal)
NMI
NMI*
SClock
Edgetriggered
Flip-flop
Figure 15-4
Inverter
OR gate
R4000 Nonmaskable Interrupt Signal
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
405
Chapter 15
Figure 15-5 shows the masking of the R4000 interrupt signal.
•
Cause register bits 15:8 (IP7-IP0) are AND-ORed with Status
register interrupt mask bits 15:8 (IM7-IM0) to mask individual
interrupts.
•
Status register bit 0 is a global Interrupt Enable (IE). It is
ANDed with the output of the AND-OR logic to produce the
R4000 interrupt signal.
Status register
SR(0)
IE
Status register
SR(15:8)
IM0
IM1
IM2
IM3
IM4
IM5
IM6
IM7
8
1
IP0
IP1
IP2
IP3
IP4
IP5
IP6
IP7
1
R4000 Interrupt
AND
function
8
AND-OR
function
Cause register
(15:8)
Figure 15-5
406
Masking of the R4000 Interrupt
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
16
This chapter describes the Error Checking and Correcting (ECC)
mechanism used in both the R4000 and R4400 processors.
This chapter also contains a description of the Master/Checker mode used
in the R4400 processor.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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16.1 Error Checking in the Processor
ECC code allows the processor to detect and sometimes correct errors
made when moving data from one place to another.
Two major types of data errors can occur in data transmission:
•
hard errors, which are permanent, arise from broken
interconnects, internal shorts, or open leads
•
soft errors, which are transient, are caused by system noise,
power surges, and alpha particles.
Hard errors must be corrected by physical repair of the damaged
equipment and restoration of data from backup. Soft errors can be
corrected by using error checking and correcting codes.
Types of Error Checking
The processor uses two types of error checking: parity (error detection
only), and single-bit error correction/double-bit error detection
(SECDED).
Parity Error Detection
Parity is the simplest error detection scheme. By appending a bit to the
end of an item of data—called a parity bit—single bit errors can be
detected; however, these errors cannot be corrected.
There are two types of parity:
•
Odd Parity adds 1 to any even number of 1s in the data,
making the total number of 1s odd (including the parity bit).
•
Even Parity adds 1 to any odd number of 1s in the data,
making the total number of 1s even (including the parity bit).
Odd and even parity are shown in the example below:
Data(3:0)
0 0 1 0
408
Odd Parity Bit
0
Even Parity Bit
1
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
The example above shows a single bit in Data(3:0) with a value of 1; this
bit is Data(1).
•
In even parity, the parity bit is set to 1. This makes 2 (an even
number) the total number of bits with a value of 1.
•
Odd parity makes the parity bit a 0 to keep the total number of
1-value bits an odd number—in the case shown above, the
single bit Data(1).
The example below shows odd and even parity bits for various data
values:
Data(3:0)
Odd Parity Bit
Even Parity Bit
0 1 1 0
1
0
0 0 0 0
1
0
1 1 1 1
1
0
1 1 0 1
0
1
Parity allows single-bit error detection, but it does not indicate which bit
is in error—for example, suppose an odd-parity value of 00011 arrives.
The last bit is the parity bit, and since odd parity demands an odd number
(1,3,5) of 1s, this data is in error: it has an even number of 1s. However it
is impossible to tell which bit is in error. To resolve this problem, SECDED
ECC was developed.
SECDED ECC Code
The ECC code chosen for processor secondary cache data and tag is singlebit error correction and double-bit error detection (SECDED) code.†
SECDED ECC code is an improvement upon the parity scheme; not only
does it detect single- and certain multi-bit errors, it corrects single-bit
errors.
† The 64-bit data code is a modification of one of the 64-bit codes proposed by M. Y. Hsiao,
to include the ability to detect 3- and 4-bit errors within a nibble. The 25-bit tag code was
created using the patterns observed in the 64-bit data code.
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Chapter 16
Secondary Cache Data Bus SECDED Code
The SECDED code protecting secondary cache data bus has the properties
listed below:
•
It corrects single-bit errors.
•
It detects double-bit errors.
•
It detects 3- or 4-bit errors within a nibble†.
•
It provides 64 data bits protected by 8 check bits, and yields 8bit syndromes (the syndrome is a generated value used to detect
an error, and locate the position of the single bit in error).
•
It is a minimal-length code; each parity tree used to generate
the 8-bit syndrome has only 27 inputs, the minimum number
possible.
•
It provides byte Exclusive-ORs (XORs) of the data bits as part
of the XOR trees used to build the parity generators. This
allows selection of byte parity out of the XOR trees that
generate or check the code.
•
Single-bit errors are indicated either by syndromes that contain
exactly three 1s, or by syndromes that contain exactly five 1s
(in which bits 0-3 or bits 4-7 of the syndrome are all 1s).‡
•
Double-bit errors are indicated by syndromes that contain an
even number of 1s.
•
3-bit errors within a nibble are indicated by syndromes that
contain five 1s, in which bits 0-3 of the syndrome and bits 4-7
of the syndrome are not all 1s.
•
4-bit errors within a nibble are indicated by syndromes that
contain four 1s. Because this is an even number of 1s, 4-bit
errors within a nibble look like double-bit errors.
† A nibble is defined here as any group of four bits located within the vertical rules of Figure
16-1.
‡ This makes it possible to decode the syndrome to find which data bit is in error, using 4input NAND gates, provided a pre-decode AND of bits 0-3 and bits 4-7 of the syndrome
is available. For the check bits, a full 8-bit decode of the syndrome is required.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Secondary Cache Tag Bus SECDED Code
The SECDED ECC code protecting the secondary cache tag bus has the
following properties:
•
It corrects single-bit errors.
•
It detects double-bit errors.
•
It detects 3- or 4-bit errors within a nibble.
•
It provides 25 data bits protected by 7 check bits, yielding 7-bit
syndromes.
•
It provides byte XORs of the data bits as part of the XOR trees
used to build the parity generators. This allows selection of
byte parity out of the XOR trees that generate or check the
code.
•
Single-bit errors are indicated by syndromes that contain
exactly three 1s. This makes it possible to decode the
syndrome to find which data bit is in error with 3-input NAND
gates. For the check bits, a full 7-bit decode of the syndrome is
required.
•
Double-bit errors are indicated by syndromes that contain an
even number of 1s.
•
3-bit errors within a nibble are indicated by syndromes that
contain either five 1s or seven 1s.
•
4-bit errors within a nibble are indicated by syndromes that
contain either four 1s or six 1s. Because these are even
numbers of 1s, 4-bit errors within a nibble look like double-bit
errors.
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Chapter 16
Error Checking Operation
The processor verifies data correctness by using either the parity or the
SECDED code as it passes data from the System interface to the secondary
cache, or it moves data from the secondary cache to the primary caches or
to the System interface.
System Interface
The processor generates correct check bits for doubleword, word, or
partial-word data transmitted to the System interface. As it checks for
data correctness, the processor passes data check bits from the secondary
cache, directly without changing the bits, to the System interface if the
interface is set to ECC mode. If the System interface is set to parity mode,
the processor indicates a secondary cache ECC error by corrupting the
state of the SysCmdP signal.
The processor does not check data received from the System interface for
external updates and external writes. By setting the SysCmd(4) bit in the
data identifier, it is possible to prevent the processor from checking read
response data from the System interface.
The processor does not check addresses received from the System
interface, but does generate correct check bits for addresses transmitted to
the System interface.
The processor does not contain a data corrector; instead, the processor
takes a cache error exception when it detects an error based on data check
bits. Software, in conjunction with an off-processor data corrector, is
responsible for correcting the data when SECDED code is employed.
Secondary Cache Data Bus
The 16 check bits, SCDChk(15:0), for the 128-bit secondary cache data bus
are organized as 8 check bits for the upper 64 bits of data, and 8 check bits
for the lower 64 bits of data.
System Interface and Secondary Cache Data Bus
The 8 check bits, SysADC(7:0), for the System interface address and data
bus provide even-byte parity, or are generated in accordance with a
SECDED code that also detects any 3- or 4-bit error in a nibble. The 8 check
bits for each half of the secondary cache data bus are always generated in
accordance with the SECDED code.
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Error Checking and Correcting
Secondary Cache Tag Bus
The 7 check bits, SCTChk(6:0), for the secondary cache tag bus are
generated in accordance with the SECDED code, which also detects any 3or 4-bit error in a nibble.
The processor generates check bits for the tag when it is written into the
secondary cache and checks the tag whenever the secondary cache is
accessed.
The processor contains a corrector for the secondary cache tag; the tag
corrector is not in-line for processor accesses due to primary cache misses.
The processor traps when a tag error is detected on a processor access due
to a primary cache miss. Software, using the processor cache management
primitives, is responsible for correcting the tag. When executing the cache
management primitives, the processor uses the corrected tag to generate
write back addresses and cache state.
For external accesses, the tag corrector is in-line; that is, the response to
external accesses is based on the corrected tag. The processor still traps on
tag errors detected during external accesses to allow software to repair the
contents of the cache if possible.
System Interface Command Bus
In the R4000 processor, the System interface command bus has a single
parity bit, SysCmdP, that provides even parity over the 9 bits of this bus.
The SysCmdP parity bit is generated when the System interface is in
master state, but it is not checked when the System interface is in slave
state. In the R4400 processor, input parity is reported through the Fault*
pin.
When the System interface is set to parity mode, the processor indicates a
secondary cache ECC error by corrupting the state of the SysCmdP signal.
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Chapter 16
SECDED ECC Matrices for Data and Tag Buses
The check matrices for data and tags, specifying the distribution of data
and check bits across nibbles, are shown in Figures 16-1 and 16-4.
The data bits in Figure 16-1 correspond to SysAD(63:0), SCData(127:64),
or SCData(63:0). The check bits in Figure 16-1 correspond to
SysADC(7:0), SCDChk(15:8), or SCDChk(7:0).
The check bits in Figure 16-4, shown later in this chapter, correspond to
SCTChk(6:0) and the data bits in Figure 16-4 correspond to SCTag(24:0).
The parity check matrices shown in these two figures generate the ECC
code for a fixed-width data word; they can also locate the data bit in error.
In Figure 16-1, the data word length is 64 bits; in Figure 16-4, the data word
length is 25 bits.
ECC Check Bits
The R4000 processor provides the following check bits: 16 check bits,
SCDChk(15:0), are used for the secondary cache data bus; 7 check bits,
SCTChk(6:0), are used for the secondary cache tag bus; 8 check bits,
SysADC(7:0), are used for the System interface address and data bus; a
single parity bit, SysCmdP, is used for the System interface command bus.
In the R4400 processor, the Fault* pin reports data parity or any ECC
errors received from the System interface during an external update or an
external write. The Fault* pin also reports errors among the address bits
received from the System interface. In each case, the full 64-bit data and 8bit ECC are significant. This checking is not affected by the state of the
disable bit [SysCmd(4)] in the data identifier. No exceptions are generated
for these checks.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Data ECC Generation
Each of the 64 data bits and 8 check bits has a unique 8-bit SECDED ECC
check code; this check code is generated by taking the even parity of the
ECC check code for a selected group of data bits. As Figure 16-1 shows,
bit locations are numbered from right to left in ascending order, from data
bit 0 (furthest right) to data bit 63 (furthest left). For example, data bit 0, in
the far right column of Figure 16-1, has an 8-bit check value of 0001 00112
(0s are represented in this figure by periods, (.), because they are not used
in the calculations).
Figure 16-1 also gives values for the 8 check bits, 7:0. For instance, the 8bit SECDED ECC code for check bit 6 is in column 6, near the right hand
edge of Figure 16-1.
Nibbles
Data bit 63
Check Bit
52
43
Data bit 0
Check bit 6
70
61
Data Bit
6666 55
3210 98
5555 55
7654 32
5544 4444 4444 3333 3333 3322 2222 2222 1111 1111 11
1098 7654 3210 9876 5432 1098 7654 3210 9876 5432 10
9876 54
3210
MSB 27
27
27
ECC
27
Code
27
Bits
27
27
LSB 27
1111
1111
....
....
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
11. .
1. . .
11. .
. 1. .
. . 11
. . 1.
. . 11
...1
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
....
1111
1111
....
. 1. .
11. .
1. . .
11. .
...1
. . 11
. . 1.
. . 11
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
....
....
1111
1111
11. .
1. . .
1. . .
1. 1.
. 1. 1
11. .
. 1. .
. 1. .
1. . .
1. . .
1. 1.
11. .
. 1. .
. 1. 1
11. .
. 1. .
....
....
1111
1111
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
1111
....
1111
....
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
1111
....
....
1111
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
....
1111
....
1111
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
1111
....
1111
....
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
1111
....
....
1111
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
....
1111
....
1111
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
1111
1111
....
....
....
1111
1111
....
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
1. 1.
11. .
1. . .
1. . .
11. .
. 1. .
. 1. .
. 1. 1
1. . .
1. 1.
11. .
1. . .
. 1. .
. 1. .
. 1. 1
11. .
Number of
3333 5511 3333 5511 3333 3333 3333 3333 3333 3333 3333 3333 3333 3333 5511 3333 5511 3333
1s in
syndrome*
Figure 16-1
Check Matrix for Data ECC Code
NOTE: * This row indicates the number of 1s in the generated syndrome for each data
bit in error.
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415
Chapter 16
As an example of this process, SECDED ECC for Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000
0000 0001 is generated in the steps below.
1.
Find any bits in Data(63:0) having a value of 1.
To determine this, the 16-bit hexadecimal value of 0x0000 0000
0000 0001 must be expanded to its 64-bit binary equivalent before
locating the data bit(s) with a value of 1. In this case, the only 1value in 0x0000 0000 0000 0001 is in column 0.
2.
Find the check bits in column 0.
They are 0001 00112.
3.
Take even parity of check bits 0001 00112.
ECC
4.
416
Parity (even)
MSB (7)
0
0
(6)
0
0
(5)
0
0
(4)
1
1
(3)
0
0
(2)
0
0
(1)
1
1
LSB (0)
1
1
This even parity value, 0001 00112, is sent out over the bus as ECC
check bits, ECC(7:0).
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
The following example uses data with several 1-value bits: Data(63:0) =
0x0000 0000 0000 0043.
1.
Expand the data to its binary equivalent in order to generate the
ECC check bits.
0x0000 0000 0000 0043 has 1s in the last byte only. The last byte
binary value is: 0x43 = 0100 00112.
column #
0x0043 =
7654 3210
0100 00112
Since only columns 0, 1, and 6 have 1s, they are the only columns
that can generate the even parity bits.
2.
Using Figure 16-1, generate even parity for the ECC check codes
in columns 0, 1, and 6:
Column 0 ECC
3.
Column 1 ECC
Column 6 ECC
Parity (even)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
This parity value, 0011 11002, is sent out over the ECC(7:0) check
bus.
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Chapter 16
Detecting Data Transmission Errors
The following procedure detects data transmission errors.
1.
System A transmits a 64-bit doubleword together with 8 bits of
SECDED ECC (see Figure 16-2).
System A
ECC Generator
Figure 16-2
System B
Data(63:0)
ECC(7:0)
Detecting ECC Errors: Transmitting Data and ECC
System B receives the data doubleword, together with the byte of
ECC check code.
3.
To verify proper transmission of the 64-bit doubleword and 8-bit
ECC check code, system B generates its own 8-bit ECC check code
from the 64-bit doubleword of System A, as shown in Figure 16-3.
4.
System B executes an Exclusive-OR (XOR) on the check bits of
System A with its own newly-generated ECC check bits, (see
Figure 16-3). The output of this XOR is called the syndrome.
System B
System A
Data(63:0)
ECC(7:0)
ECC Generator
Figure 16-3
5.
418
ECC Checker
Exclusive OR
2.
Syndrome
Detecting ECC Errors: Deriving the Syndrome
If the syndrome is 0000 00002, the data System B received, together
with the newly-generated ECC check bits from System B, are the
same as the data and check bits from System A. If the syndrome
is any other value than 0000 00002, it is assumed either the
received word or the received check bits are in error.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
6.
Using the data in Figure 16-1, it may be possible to correct either
the data bit or check bit in error. Determine if the syndrome is in
Figure 16-1 by counting the number on 1s in the syndrome.
•
If the syndrome contains either one, three, or five 1s,
the syndrome is in Figure 16-1. Three or five 1s
indicates that at least one data bit is in error. A single 1
indicates an ECC check bit is in error.
•
If the syndrome contains two 1s, a double-bit error has
been detected, located in two consecutive bits of a
nibble. This is not correctable.
•
If the syndrome contains four 1s, a 4-bit error has been
detected, located in four consecutive bits of a nibble.
This is not correctable.
If the syndrome is identical to any of the syndromes in the Figure
16-1, the column number of that data or check bit indicates the
location of the bit in error. The bit that is in error is corrected by
inverting its state (a 1 is changed to 0; a 0 is changed to 1).
The following sections show how to use the check matrices in Figure 16-1
for detecting:
•
single data bit error
•
single data check bit error
•
multiple data bit errors (2 consecutive bits in a nibble)
•
multiple data bit errors (3 consecutive bits in a nibble)
•
multiple data bit errors (4 consecutive bits in a nibble)
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Chapter 16
Single Data Bit ECC Error
The following procedure detects and corrects a single data bit ECC error.
1.
System A transmits:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0000
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002
2.
System B receives the following incorrect data:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0001
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002
3.
System B regenerates ECC for the received data. The correct ECC
check code for:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0001
is
ECC(7:0) = 0001 00112
420
4.
A syndrome is generated by the XOR of the System A check bits,
0000 00002, and the System B regenerated check bits, 0001 00112.
The resulting syndrome is 0001 00112. Since the syndrome has
three 1s, look for the column with three 1s in the parity check
matrix table.
5.
Searching the matrix (Figure 16-1) shows that the syndrome, 0001
00112, corresponds to data bit 0. This means the state of received
data bit 0 is incorrect.
6.
To correct the error, the system inverts the state of the received
data bit 0 from a value of 1 to 0.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Single Check Bit ECC Error
The following procedure detects and corrects a single check bit ECC error.
1.
System A transmits:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0000
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002
2.
System B receives the following incorrect check code:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0000
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00012
3.
System B regenerates the ECC for the received data. The correct
ECC check code for:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0000
is
ECC(7:0) = 0000 00002
4.
A syndrome is generated by the XOR of the System A check bits,
0000 00012, and the System B regenerated check bits, 0000 00002.
The resulting syndrome is 0000 00012.
Since the syndrome has a single 1, it is contained in the check
matrix. Figure 16-1 shows that the syndrome, 0000 00012,
corresponds to check bit 0. This indicates that the state of the
received check bit 0 is incorrect. To correct the error, the system
inverts the state of the received check bit 0 from a value of 1 to 0.
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Chapter 16
Double Data Bit ECC Errors
The following procedure detects double data bit ECC errors.
1.
System A transmits:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0000
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002.
2.
System B receives the following incorrect data:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0011
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002
3.
System B regenerates the ECC for the received data. The correct
ECC check code for:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0011
is
ECC(7:0) = 0011 00002
4.
A syndrome is generated by the XOR of the System A check bits,
0000 00002, and the System B regenerated check bits, 0011 00002.
The resulting syndrome is 0011 00002.
The syndrome of two 1s (or an even number of 1s) indicates that a
double-bit error has been detected. Double-bit errors cannot be
corrected.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Three Data Bit ECC Errors
The following procedure detects three data bit errors that occur within a
nibble.
1.
System A transmits:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0000
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002
2.
System B receives the following incorrect data:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0111
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002
3.
System B regenerates the ECC for the received data. The ECC
check code for:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0111
is
ECC(7:0) = 0111 00112
4.
A syndrome is generated by the XOR of the System A check bits,
0000 00002, and the System B regenerated check bits, 0111 00112.
The resulting syndrome is 0111 00112.
The resulting syndrome has five 1s. Since no four of the 1s are
contained in check bits (7:4) or check bits (3:0), three errors have
occurred within a nibble. Triple-bit errors within a nibble cannot
be corrected.
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Chapter 16
Four Data Bit ECC Errors
The following procedure detects four data bit errors that occur within a
nibble.
1.
System A transmits:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 0000
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002
2.
System B receives the following incorrect data:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 1111
and
ECC(7:0) check code = 0000 00002
3.
System B regenerates the ECC for the received data. The ECC
check code for:
Data(63:0) = 0x0000 0000 0000 1111
is
ECC(7:0) = 1111 00002
4.
A syndrome is generated by the XOR of the System A check bits,
0000 00002, and the System B regenerated check bits, 1111 00002.
The resulting syndrome is 1111 00002.
Since the resulting syndrome has four 1s (or an even number of
1s), this error is recognized as some variation of a double-bit error.
A 4-bit error within a nibble cannot be corrected.
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Error Checking and Correcting
Tag ECC Generation
The 25-bit tag ECC check matrix is similar to the 64-bit data check matrix;
the main difference is the number of check bits used and the manner in
which the errors are decoded. Figure 16-4 shows the check matrix for the
tag bits.
Check Bit
Data Bit
0
222
432
34
56
22
10
11
98
11
76
1111
5432
11
1098
7654
3210
1. . .
. . 1.
. 1. .
1. . .
. . 1.
1111
1. . .
. 1. .
1. . .
. 1. .
...1
. . 1.
11. .
1. . .
. 1. .
...1
. . 1.
1. . .
. 1. .
11. .
...1
. . 1.
1. . .
. 1. .
1. . .
. 1. .
11. .
1111
1111
....
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
...1
1. . .
1111
1111
. 1. .
....
. . 1.
...1
1. . .
....
. 1. .
1111
1111
. . 1.
...1
1. . .
. 1. .
. . 1.
....
1111
1111
...1
3331
3311
3311
3311
3333
3333
3333
3333
MSB 11 . 1. .
13
ECC
10
10
Code
13
Bits
11
LSB 14
Number of
1s in
syndrome*
12
Figure 16-4
Check Matrix for the Tag ECC Code
NOTE: * This row indicates the number of 1s in the generated syndrome for each data
bit in error.
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Chapter 16
Summary of ECC Operations
ECC operations are summarized in Tables 16-1 through 16-4.
Table 16-1
Error Checking and Correcting Summary for Internal Transactions
Secondary
Cache to
Primary
Cache
Primary
Cache to
Secondary
Cache
Processor or
Secondary Cache
Data
Checked;
Trap on Error
Primary
Cache parity
checked; Trap
on Error
From
System
Interface
Not
Checked
Secondary Cache
Data Check Bits
Checked;
Trap on Error
Generated
NA
NA
Secondary Cache Tag
and Check Bits
Checked; not
corrected in
Secondary
cache; Trap on
error
NA
NA
NA
System Interface
Address/Command
and Check Bits:
Transmit
NA
NA
Generated
Generated
System Interface
Address/Command
and Check Bits:
Receive
NA
NA
Not
Checked;
reported to
the Fault*
pin
NA
System Interface Data NA
NA
Checked
Trap on
error†
From
Processor
System Interface Data
Check Bits
NA
Checked;
Trap on
Error†
Generated
Bus
NA
Uncached
Load
Uncached
Store
† If error level (ERL bit of the Status register) is 1, the error is reported to the Fault* pin.
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Error Checking and Correcting
Table 16-2
Error Checking and Correcting Summary for Internal Transactions
Bus
Store to
Shared
Cache Line
Cache
Instruction
Secondary
Secondary
Cache Load
Cache Write
from System
to System Interface
Interface
NA
Check on
cache
writeback;
Trap on Error
From
System
Interface
unchanged
Checked; Trap on
Error
Secondary Cache
Data Check Bits
NA
Check on
cache
writeback;
Trap on Error
From
System
Interface
unchanged
Checked; Trap on
Error
Secondary Cache Tag
and Check Bits
Checked on
read part of
RMW†; correct
Secondary
cache tag; Trap
on Error
Checked;
corrected
Secondary
cache tag*;
Trap on Error
Generated
Checked; not
corrected; Trap on
Error
System Interface
Address, Command,
and Check Bits:
Transmit
Generated
Generated
Generated
Generated
System Interface
Address, Command,
and Check Bits:
Receive
NA
NA
Not
Checked
NA
System Interface Data
From
Processor
From Primary
or Secondary
Cache
Checked;
Trap on
Error‡
From Secondary
Cache
Checked;
Trap on
Error‡
From Secondary
Cache (SysCmdP
signal corrupted
if System
interface set to
parity mode)
Processor or
Secondary Cache
Data
System Interface Data
Check Bits
Generated
From Primary
or Secondary
Cache
† Read-Modify-Write cycle
‡ If error level (ERL bit of the Status register) is 1, the error is reported to the Fault* pin.
* Only if the current CACHE op needs to modify and write back the tag.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 16
Table 16-3
Error Checking and Correcting Summary for External Transactions
Bus
Processor or
Secondary Cache
Data
Secondary Cache
Data Check Bits
Read
Request
NA
NA
Write
Request
Invalidate
Request
Update
Request
Not Checked
Checked on read
part of RMW†;
Trap on Error‡
NA
Not Checked
Checked on read
part of RMW†;
Trap on Error‡;
Generation on
write part of
RMW if written
Checked on read
part of RMW†;
Trap on Error;
Generation on
write part of
RMW if written
NA
NA
Secondary Cache Tag
and Check Bits
NA
NA
Checked on
read part of
RMW†; Trap
on Error‡;
Generation
on write part
of RMW if
written
System Interface
Address, Command
and Check Bits:
Transmit
Generated
NA
NA
System Interface
Address, Command
and Check Bits:
Receive
Not
Checked;
reported to
the Fault*
pin
Not
Checked;
reported to
the Fault*
pin
Not Checked; Not Checked;
reported to
reported to the
the Fault* pin Fault* pin
System Interface Data
From
Processor
Checked;
Trap on
Error
Not Checked
Not Checked;
reported to the
Fault* pin
System Interface Data
Check Bits
Generated
Checked;
Trap on
Error
Not Checked
Not Checked;
reported to the
Fault* pin
† Read-Modify-Write cycle
‡ Only the pair of doublewords accessed on the read portion of RMW is checked.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Table 16-4
Error Checking and Correcting Summary for External Transactions
Bus
Intervention Request Intervention Request
Data Returned
State Returned
Snoop Request
Processor or
Secondary Cache
Data
Checked; Trap on
Error
Not Checked
Not Checked
Secondary Cache
Data Check Bits
Checked; Trap on
Error
Not Checked
Not Checked
Secondary Cache Tag
and Check Bits
Checked and
corrected on read
part of RMW†; Trap
on Error;
Generation on write
part of RMW if
written.
Checked and
corrected on read part
of RMW†; Trap on
Error; Generation on
write part of RMW if
written.
Checked and
corrected on
read part of
RMW†;
Trap on Error;
Generation on
write part of
RMW if
written.
System Interface
Address, Command,
and Check Bits:
Transmit
Generated
Generated
Generated
System Interface
Address, Command,
and Check Bits:
Receive
Not Checked;
reported to the
Fault* pin
Not Checked;
reported to the Fault*
pin
Not Checked;
reported to the
Fault* pin
System Interface Data
From Secondary
Cache
NA
NA
System Interface Data
Check Bits
From Secondary
Cache
NA
NA
† Read-Modify-Write cycle
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
429
Chapter 16
16.2 R4400 Master/Checker Mode
The R4400 processor supports four Master/Checker mode configurations,
which are designated by boot-mode bit settings: Complete Master,
Complete Listener, System Interface Master, and Secondary Cache Master.
The boot-mode bits, SIMasterMd (mode bit 18) and SCMasterMd (mode
bit 42), define Master/Checker configurations. Table 16-5 lists the
configurations encoded by these bits.
Table 16-5
Boot-Mode Bit Encodings of Master/Checker Modes
SCMasterMd
(Bit 42)
SIMasterMd
(Bit 18)
0
0
Complete Master
(required for single-chip operation)
1
1
Complete Listener
(paired with Complete Master)
1
0
System Interface Master
(SIMaster)
0
1
Secondary Cache Master
(SCMaster, paired with SIMaster)
Mode
For a non-fault tolerant system, these bits must be set to 002. This is the
Complete Master mode.
In a fault tolerant system, there are two possible configurations using the
Master-Listener and Cross-Coupled modes described in Table 16-5. These
are referred to as lock-step configurations, and are described later in this
section.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Connecting a System in Lock Step
By operating in lock step, a system with more than one R4400 processor
can be configured to improve data integrity. In such a configuration,
output signals and I/O buses used during output are connected in parallel
between the processors. One processor is defined at boot time as a bus
driver, and the remaining processor(s) is defined as a bus monitor.
Starting with the assertion of Reset*, all microprocessors must be
synchronous, and execute identical operations on a cycle-by-cycle basis.
The processor(s) designated as bus monitor compares the outputs and
buses at bus-cycle boundaries, and asserts the Fault*† signal on any
mismatch.
In a lock step operation, the following R4400 signal groups are connected
in parallel:
•
System interface
•
Secondary Cache interface (R4400SC and R4400MC only)
•
Interrupt interface
The following signals are not connected in parallel:
•
Initialization interface, ModeClock, ModeIn, and Reset*
signals
•
JTAG interface signals, JTDO and JTMS
•
all Clock/Control interface signals except VssP and VccP
The remaining processor signals can be connected either in parallel or
independently.
† Fault* is a non-persistent signal which is synchronous with the System interface. Fault*
signal timing is determined by the PClock-to-SClock divisor from boot-time mode bit
settings.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 16
Master-Listener Configuration
As shown in Figure 16-5, the Master-Listener lock step configuration pairs
a Complete Master (mode bits 42 and 18 = 002) with a Complete Listener
(mode bits 42 and 18 = 112). In this configuration, the Complete Listener
has disabled output drivers; otherwise, the two R4400 processors operate
identically, both receiving the same inputs. On all output cycles, the
Complete Listener compares data on the output and I/O buses with
expected data, and asserts the Fault* signal in the event of a
miscomparison.
System Interface bus
R4400
Complete
Master
Secondary cache bus
SCAddr
SysAD/
SysCmd
SCData/
SCTag
SysADC/
Data Chk/
Tag Chk
SysCmdP
External
Agent
SysAD/
SysCmd
Secondary cache
SCData/
SCTag
SysADC/
SysCmdP
Data Chk/
Tag Chk
SCAddr
R4400
Fault*
Complete Listener
=?
SysAD/
SysCmd
=?
SCData/
SCTag
=?
SysADC/
SysCmdP
=?
Data Chk/
Tag Chk
=?
Fault*
Figure 16-5
432
Maintenance
Processor
Master-Listener Configuration of Master/Checker Mode
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Cross-Coupled Checking Configuration
In the Cross-Coupled Checking configuration, one of the R4400 processors
drives the data bus pins and is labelled the System Interface Master (mode
bits 42 and 18 = 102). The other R4400 processor drives the ECC or parity
check pins on the same bus and is labelled the Secondary Cache Master
(mode bits 42 and 18 = 012). This is shown in Figure 16-6.
Both processors monitor the buses and indicate a miscomparison by
asserting their respective Fault* signals. The Fault* signal indicates error
conditions not specifically covered by R4400 processor exceptions.†
R4400
SI Master
System Interface bus
SysAD/
SysCmd
SysADC/
SysCmdP
External
Agent
SysAD/
SysCmd
=?
Secondary cache bus
=?
SCData/
SCTag
=?
Data Chk/
Tag Chk
SCData/
SCTag
Address =?
SysADC/
SysCmdP
Secondary cache
Data Chk/
Tag Chk
Fault*
R4400
Fault*
SC Master
SCAddress
SysAD/
SysCmd
=?
SCData/
SCTag
SysADC/
SysCmdP
Data Chk/
Tag Chk
Fault*
Figure 16-6
Maintenance
Processor
Cross-Coupled Configuration of Master/Checker Mode
† This includes such errors as an input parity error at SysCmd.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 16
The signals that are connected in parallel and driven from the System
Interface Master (1 in Figure 16-6) include:
•
SysAD(63:0)
•
SysCmd(8:0)
•
SCAPar(2:0)
Signals that are connected in parallel and driven from the Secondary
Cache Master (2 in Figure 16-6) include:
•
SysADC(7:0)
•
SysCmdP
•
ValidOut*
•
Release*
•
SCAddr(17:1)
•
SCAddr0(W:Z)
•
SCOE*
•
SCWr(W:Z)*
•
SCData(127:0)
•
SCDChk(15:0)
•
SCTag(24:0)
•
SCTChk(6:0)
•
SCDCS*
•
SCTCS*
It should be noted that the fault detection mechanism associated with the
Fault* pin does not cause any exceptions; the processor continues to run
normally regardless of the state of the Fault* signal. It is up to external
logic to handle an asserted Fault* signal.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Fault Detection
Fault detection of an output miscomparison occurs at the end of the bus
cycle (the length of the cycle is programmed at boot-mode time; see
Chapter 9). When the R4400 processor is in master state, outputs at the
System interface are checked at the end of every System interface cycle. At
the Secondary Cache interface, outputs are checked at the end of each read
or write cycle.
SCAPar(2:0) transition and check times are delayed from the rest of the
Secondary Cache interface by one PClock. SCAPar(2:0) transitions occur
one PClock after SCAddr transitions, or when the R4400 is changing from
a read cycle to a write cycle without an address change. SCAPar(2:0)
signals do not follow the timing of SCWr* signals, which are set separately
through the programming of the boot-time mode bits.
The R4400 processor has an internal fault detection latency of 4 PClocks
(clock cycles are described in Chapter 10), whereupon Fault* is
synchronized with the System interface. An output fault detected and
propagated through the R4400 processor internal fault logic in a prior
System interface cycle is reported in the current cycle.
In Complete Master mode, output fault reporting is disabled for the
Secondary Cache interface, but enabled for the following System interface
signals: SysCmd, SysCmdP, SysAD, SysADC, ValidOut*, and Release*.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
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Chapter 16
Reset Operation
When the R4400 processor is a Complete Listener, SIMaster, or SCMaster,
an assertion of Reset* after the initial boot sequence is significant.
If Reset* is asserted a second time and subsequently deasserted, the R4400
processor changes to Forced Complete Master mode and drives all
outputs.
If Reset* is asserted and deasserted a third time, the R4400 processor
returns to its prior mode, as programmed by the boot-mode bits.
On any subsequent assertion and deassertion of Reset*, the processor
alternates between the two modes described above: the mode determined
by boot-time mode bits if the Master/Checker mode is Complete Listener,
SIMaster, or SCMaster, or Forced Complete Master mode.
In Forced Complete Master mode, the Fault* pin reports all output faults,
not just faults of the System interface as are reported in Complete Master
mode.
Fault History
Two internal fault history bits, Output Fault History and Input Fault
History, record output faults and certain input faults reported through the
Fault* pin. These bits are cleared with each deassertion of Reset*.
The two fault history bits are readable when Reset* is asserted, and the
Fault* pin changes from reporting live faults to indicating which fault
history bit was set when Reset* was deasserted in the previous cycle. The
ModeIn pin acts as selector; if ModeIn = 0, Fault* indicates the inverted
state of the Output fault history bit. If ModeIn = 1, Fault* indicates the
inverted state of the Input fault history bit.
The fault history bits can be reset (cleared) while the R4400 processor is
running by asserting 1 to the ModeIn pin. Consequently, ModeIn must
be held to 0 to maintain the status of the fault history bits. Table 16-6
presents this information in tabular form.
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Error Checking and Correcting
Table 16-6
Boot/Reset
Controls
R4400 Fault History Bit Encoding
ModeIn Pin
Fault History
Bits
Fault* Pin
Master/Checker
Mode
Used as
VccOk just asserted boot-mode
(goes from 0 to 1)
bits; scan
data
N/A
N/A
N/A
Reset* just
deasserted (goes
from 0 to 1)
Cleared to 0
N/A
N/A
N/A
Reset* deasserted
0
in normal operation
Set and latched, Live faults are
if fault occurs
reported
N/A
Reset* deasserted
1
in normal operation
Cleared
Live faults are
reported
N/A
N/A
Changed,
toggling
between mode
bits and Forced
Complete
Master
Reset* just asserted
N/A
(goes from 1 to 0)
N/A
Reset* just asserted
0
(R4400 is reset)
Output Fault
History bit is
N/A
connected to the
Fault* pin
N/A
Reset just asserted
(R4400 is reset)
Input Fault
History bit is
connected to
Fault* pin
N/A
1
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
N/A
437
Chapter 16
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MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
A
This appendix provides a detailed description of the operation of each
R4000 instruction in both 32- and 64-bit modes. The instructions are listed
in alphabetical order.
Exceptions that may occur due to the execution of each instruction are
listed after the description of each instruction. Descriptions of the
immediate cause and manner of handling exceptions are omitted from the
instruction descriptions in this appendix.
Figures at the end of this appendix list the bit encoding for the constant
fields of each instruction, and the bit encoding for each individual
instruction is included with that instruction.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-1
Appendix A
A.1 Instruction Classes
CPU instructions are divided into the following classes:
A-2
•
Load and Store instructions move data between memory and
general registers. They are all I-type instructions, since the
only addressing mode supported is base register + 16-bit
immediate offset.
•
Computational instructions perform arithmetic, logical and
shift operations on values in registers. They occur in both
R-type (both operands are registers) and I-type (one operand is
a 16-bit immediate) formats.
•
Jump and Branch instructions change the control flow of a
program. Jumps are always made to absolute 26-bit word
addresses (J-type format), or register addresses (R-type), for
returns and dispatches. Branches have 16-bit offsets relative to
the program counter (I-type). Jump and Link instructions save
their return address in register 31.
•
Coprocessor instructions perform operations in the
coprocessors. Coprocessor loads and stores are I-type.
Coprocessor computational instructions have coprocessordependent formats (see the FPU instructions in Appendix B).
Coprocessor zero (CP0) instructions manipulate the memory
management and exception handling facilities of the processor.
•
Special instructions perform a variety of tasks, including
movement of data between special and general registers, trap,
and breakpoint. They are always R-type.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
A.2 Instruction Formats
Every CPU instruction consists of a single word (32 bits) aligned on a word
boundary and the major instruction formats are shown in Figure A-1.
I-Type (Immediate)
31
26 25
21 20
rs
op
16 15
rt
0
immediate
J-Type (Jump)
31
26 25
0
op
target
R-Type (Register)
31
26 25
op
21 20
rs
16 15
rt
11 10
rd
6 5
shamt
0
funct
op
6-bit operation code
rs
5-bit source register specifier
rt
5-bit target (source/destination) or branch condition
immediate
16-bit immediate, branch displacement or address
displacement
target
26-bit jump target address
rd
5-bit destination register specifier
shamt
5-bit shift amount
funct
6-bit function field
Figure A-1
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Formats
A-3
Appendix A
A.3 Instruction Notation Conventions
In this appendix, all variable subfields in an instruction format (such as rs,
rt, immediate, etc.) are shown in lowercase names.
For the sake of clarity, we sometimes use an alias for a variable subfield in
the formats of specific instructions. For example, we use rs = base in the
format for load and store instructions. Such an alias is always lower case,
since it refers to a variable subfield.
Figures with the actual bit encoding for all the mnemonics are located at
the end of this Appendix, and the bit encoding also accompanies each
instruction.
In the instruction descriptions that follow, the Operation section describes
the operation performed by each instruction using a high-level language
notation. The R4000 can operate as either a 32- or 64-bit microprocessor
and the operation for both modes is included with the instruction
description.
Special symbols used in the notation are described in Table A-1.
A-4
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Table A-1
CPU Instruction Operation Notations
Symbol
Meaning
←
Assignment.
||
Bit string concatenation.
y
Replication of bit value x into a y-bit string. Note: x is always a single-bit value.
x
xy:z
Selection of bits y through z of bit string x. Little-endian bit notation is always
used. If y is less than z, this expression is an empty (zero length) bit string.
+
2’s complement or floating-point addition.
-
2’s complement or floating-point subtraction.
*
div
mod
/
<
2’s complement or floating-point multiplication.
2’s complement integer division.
2’s complement modulo.
Floating-point division.
2’s complement less than comparison.
and
Bit-wise logical AND.
or
Bit-wise logical OR.
xor
Bit-wise logical XOR.
nor
Bit-wise logical NOR.
GPR[x]
General-Register x. The content of GPR[0] is always zero. Attempts to alter
the content of GPR[0] have no effect.
CPR[z,x]
Coprocessor unit z, general register x.
CCR[z,x]
Coprocessor unit z, control register x.
COC[z]
BigEndianMem
Coprocessor unit z condition signal.
Big-endian mode as configured at reset (0 → Little, 1 → Big). Specifies the endianness of the memory interface (see LoadMemory and StoreMemory), and
the endianness of Kernel and Supervisor mode execution.
Signal to reverse the endianness of load and store instructions. This feature is
available in User mode only, and is effected by setting the RE bit of the Status
register. Thus, ReverseEndian may be computed as (SR25 and User mode).
The endianness for load and store instructions (0 → Little, 1 → Big). In User
mode, this endianness may be reversed by setting SR25. Thus, BigEndianCPU
may be computed as BigEndianMem XOR ReverseEndian.
Bit of state to specify synchronization instructions. Set by LL, cleared by ERET
and Invalidate and read by SC.
Indicates the time steps between operations. Each of the statements within a
time step are defined to be executed in sequential order (as modified by conditional and loop constructs). Operations which are marked T+i: are executed
at instruction cycle i relative to the start of execution of the instruction. Thus,
an instruction which starts at time j executes operations marked T+i: at time
i + j. The interpretation of the order of execution between two instructions or
two operations which execute at the same time should be pessimistic; the order is not defined.
ReverseEndian
BigEndianCPU
LLbit
T+i:
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-5
Appendix A
Instruction Notation Examples
The following examples illustrate the application of some of the
instruction notation conventions:
Example #1:
GPR[rt] ←
immediate || 016
Sixteen zero bits are concatenated with an immediate
value (typically 16 bits), and the 32-bit string (with the lower
16 bits set to zero) is assigned to General-Purpose Register rt.
Example #2:
(immediate15)16 || immediate15...0
Bit 15 (the sign bit) of an immediate value is extended for
16 bit positions, and the result is concatenated with bits 15
through 0 of the immediate value to form a 32-bit sign
extended value.
A-6
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
A.4 Load and Store Instructions
In the R4000 implementation, the instruction immediately following a
load may use the loaded contents of the register. In such cases, the
hardware interlocks, requiring additional real cycles, so scheduling load
delay slots is still desirable, although not required for functional code.
Two special instructions are provided in the R4000 implementation of the
MIPS ISA, Load Linked and Store Conditional. These instructions are
used in carefully coded sequences to provide one of several
synchronization primitives, including test-and-set, bit-level locks,
semaphores, and sequencers/event counts.
In the load and store descriptions, the functions listed in Table A-2 are
used to summarize the handling of virtual addresses and physical
memory.
Table A-2
Load and Store Common Functions
Function
Meaning
AddressTranslation
Uses the TLB to find the physical address given the virtual
address. The function fails and an exception is taken if the
required translation is not present in the TLB.
LoadMemory
Uses the cache and main memory to find the contents of
the word containing the specified physical address. The
low-order two bits of the address and the Access Type field
indicates which of each of the four bytes within the data
word need to be returned. If the cache is enabled for this
access, the entire word is returned and loaded into the
cache.
StoreMemory
Uses the cache, write buffer, and main memory to store the
word or part of word specified as data in the word
containing the specified physical address. The low-order
two bits of the address and the Access Type field indicates
which of each of the four bytes within the data word
should be stored.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-7
Appendix A
As shown in Table A-3, the Access Type field indicates the size of the data
item to be loaded or stored. Regardless of access type or byte-numbering
order (endianness), the address specifies the byte which has the smallest
byte address in the addressed field. For a big-endian machine, this is the
leftmost byte and contains the sign for a 2’s complement number; for a
little-endian machine, this is the rightmost byte.
Table A-3
Access Type Specifications for Loads/Stores
Access Type Mnemonic
Value
Meaning
DOUBLEWORD
7
8 bytes (64 bits)
SEPTIBYTE
6
7 bytes (56 bits)
SEXTIBYTE
5
6 bytes (48 bits)
QUINTIBYTE
4
5 bytes (40 bits)
WORD
3
4 bytes (32 bits)
TRIPLEBYTE
2
3 bytes (24 bits)
HALFWORD
1
2 bytes (16 bits)
BYTE
0
1 byte (8 bits)
The bytes within the addressed doubleword which are used can be
determined directly from the access type and the three low-order bits of
the address.
A-8
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
A.5 Jump and Branch Instructions
All jump and branch instructions have an architectural delay of exactly
one instruction. That is, the instruction immediately following a jump or
branch (that is, occupying the delay slot) is always executed while the
target instruction is being fetched from storage. A delay slot may not itself
be occupied by a jump or branch instruction; however, this error is not
detected and the results of such an operation are undefined.
If an exception or interrupt prevents the completion of a legal instruction
during a delay slot, the hardware sets the EPC register to point at the jump
or branch instruction that precedes it. When the code is restarted, both the
jump or branch instructions and the instruction in the delay slot are
reexecuted.
Because jump and branch instructions may be restarted after exceptions or
interrupts, they must be restartable. Therefore, when a jump or branch
instruction stores a return link value, register 31 (the register in which the
link is stored) may not be used as a source register.
Since instructions must be word-aligned, a Jump Register or Jump and
Link Register instruction must use a register whose two low-order bits are
zero. If these low-order bits are not zero, an address exception will occur
when the jump target instruction is subsequently fetched.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-9
Appendix A
A.6 Coprocessor Instructions
Coprocessors are alternate execution units, which have register files
separate from the CPU. The MIPS architecture provides four coprocessor
units, or classes, and these coprocessors have two register spaces, each
space containing thirty-two 32-bit registers.
•
The first space, coprocessor general registers, may be directly
loaded from memory and stored into memory, and their
contents may be transferred between the coprocessor and
processor.
•
The second space, coprocessor control registers, may only have
their contents transferred directly between the coprocessor and
the processor. Coprocessor instructions may alter registers in
either space.
A.7 System Control Coprocessor (CP0) Instructions
There are some special limitations imposed on operations involving CP0
that is incorporated within the CPU. Although load and store instructions
to transfer data to/from coprocessors and to move control to/from
coprocessor instructions are generally permitted by the MIPS architecture,
CP0 is given a somewhat protected status since it has responsibility for
exception handling and memory management. Therefore, the move to/
from coprocessor instructions are the only valid mechanism for writing to
and reading from the CP0 registers.
Several CP0 instructions are defined to directly read, write, and probe TLB
entries and to modify the operating modes in preparation for returning to
User mode or interrupt-enabled states.
A-10
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
ADD
31
ADD
Add
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
ADD
100000
6
Format:
ADD rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs and the contents of general register rt
are added to form the result. The result is placed into general register rd.
In 64-bit mode, the operands must be valid sign-extended, 32-bit values.
An overflow exception occurs if the carries out of bits 30 and 31 differ (2’s
complement overflow). The destination register rd is not modified when
an integer overflow exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rd] ←GPR[rs] + GPR[rt]
64
T:
temp ← GPR[rs] + GPR[rt]
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp31...0
Exceptions:
Integer overflow exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-11
Appendix A
ADDI
31
ADDI
Add Immediate
26 25
ADDI
001000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
0
immediate
rt
5
16
Format:
ADDI rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register rs to form the result. The result is placed into general register rt.
In 64-bit mode, the operand must be valid sign-extended, 32-bit values.
An overflow exception occurs if carries out of bits 30 and 31 differ (2’s
complement overflow). The destination register rt is not modified when
an integer overflow exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR [rt] ← GPR[rs] +(immediate15)16 || immediate15...0
64
T:
temp ← GPR[rs] + (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0
GPR[rt] ← (temp31)32 || temp31...0
Exceptions:
Integer overflow exception
A-12
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
ADDIU
31
Add Immediate Unsigned
26 25
ADDIU
001001
6
21 20
rs
5
ADDIU
16 15
rt
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
ADDIU rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register rs to form the result. The result is placed into general register rt.
No integer overflow exception occurs under any circumstances. In 64-bit
mode, the operand must be valid sign-extended, 32-bit values.
The only difference between this instruction and the ADDI instruction is
that ADDIU never causes an overflow exception.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR [rt] ← GPR[rs] + (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0
64
T:
temp ← GPR[rs] + (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0
GPR[rt] ← (temp31)32 || temp31...0
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-13
Appendix A
ADDU
31
ADDU
Add Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
ADDU
100001
6
Format:
ADDU rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs and the contents of general register rt
are added to form the result. The result is placed into general register rd.
No overflow exception occurs under any circumstances. In 64-bit mode,
the operands must be valid sign-extended, 32-bit values.
The only difference between this instruction and the ADD instruction is
that ADDU never causes an overflow exception.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rd] ←GPR[rs] + GPR[rt]
64
T:
temp ← GPR[rs] + GPR[rt]
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp31...0
Exceptions:
None
A-14
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
AND
31
AND
And
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
rd
5
0
00000
5
6
5
0
AND
100100
6
Format:
AND rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs are combined with the contents of
general register rt in a bit-wise logical AND operation. The result is placed
into general register rd.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] and GPR[rt]
64
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] and GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-15
Appendix A
ANDI
31
ANDI
And Immediate
26 25
ANDI
001100
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
ANDI rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is zero-extended and combined with the contents of
general register rs in a bit-wise logical AND operation. The result is placed
into general register rt.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rt] ← 016 || (immediate and GPR[rs]15...0)
64
T:
GPR[rt] ← 048 || (immediate and GPR[rs]15...0)
Exceptions:
None
A-16
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BCzF
31
Branch On Coprocessor z False
26 25
21 20
BC
01000
5
COPz
0 1 0 0 x x*
6
16 15
BCF
00000
5
BCzF
0
offset
16
Format:
BCzF offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If coprocessor z’s condition signal (CpCond), as sampled
during the previous instruction, is false, then the program branches to the
target address with a delay of one instruction.
Because the condition line is sampled during the previous instruction,
there must be at least one instruction between this instruction and a
coprocessor instruction that changes the condition line.
Operation:
32
T–1: condition ← not COC[z]
T:
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
64
T–1: condition ← not COC[z]
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
*See the table “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-17
Appendix A
Branch On Coprocessor z False
(continued)
BCzF
BCzF
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Opcode Bit Encoding:
BCzF Bit #
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC0F 0
1 0 0
0 0
1
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC1F 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC2F 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
Opcode
Coprocessor Unit Number
A-18
0
0
BC sub-opcode Branch condition
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Branch On Coprocessor z
False Likely
BCzFL
31
26 25
21 20
BC
01000
5
COPz
0 1 0 0 x x*
6
BCzFL
16 15
BCFL
00010
5
0
offset
16
Format:
BCzFL offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the contents of coprocessor z’s condition line, as
sampled during the previous instruction, is false, the target address is
branched to with a delay of one instruction.
If the conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in the branch delay
slot is nullified.
Because the condition line is sampled during the previous instruction,
there must be at least one instruction between this instruction and a
coprocessor instruction that changes the condition line.
*See the table “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-19
Appendix A
BCzFL
Branch On Coprocessor z
False Likely
(continued)
BCzFL
Operation:
32
T–1: condition ← not COC[z]
T:
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
64
T–1: condition ← not COC[z]
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Opcode Bit Encoding:
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC0FL 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC1FL 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC2FL 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0
BCzFL
Opcode
BC sub-opcode Branch condition
Coprocessor Unit Number
A-20
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BCzT
31
Branch On Coprocessor z True
26 25
21 20
BC
01000
5
COPz
0 1 0 0 x x*
6
BCzT
16 15
BCT
00001
5
0
offset
16
Format:
BCzT offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the coprocessor z’s condition signal (CpCond) is true,
then the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction.
Because the condition line is sampled during the previous instruction,
there must be at least one instruction between this instruction and a
coprocessor instruction that changes the condition line.
Operation:
32
64
T–1: condition ← COC[z]
T:
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
T–1: condition ← COC[z]
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
*See the table “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-21
Appendix A
Branch On Coprocessor z True
(continued)
BCzT
BCzT
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Opcode Bit Encoding:
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC0T 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC1T 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC2T 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0
BCzT
Opcode
Coprocessor Unit Number
A-22
BC sub-opcode
Branch condition
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BCzTL
31
26 25
21 20
BC
01000
5
COPz
0 1 0 0 x x*
6
BCzTL
Branch On Coprocessor z
True Likely
16 15
BCTL
00011
5
0
offset
16
Format:
BCzTL offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the contents of coprocessor z’s condition line, as
sampled during the previous instruction, is true, the target address is
branched to with a delay of one instruction.
If the conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in the branch delay
slot is nullified.
Because the condition line is sampled during the previous instruction,
there must be at least one instruction between this instruction and a
coprocessor instruction that changes the condition line.
Operation:
32
64
T–1: condition ← COC[z]
T:
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T–1: condition ← COC[z]
T:
target ← (offset15)46|| offset || 02
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
*See the table “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-23
Appendix A
BCzTL
Branch On Coprocessor z
True Likely
(continued)
BCzTL
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Opcode Bit Encoding:
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC0TL 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC1TL 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16
BC2TL 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0
BCzTL
Opcode
Coprocessor Unit Number
A-24
BC sub-opcode Branch condition
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BEQ
31
BEQ
Branch On Equal
26 25
BEQ
000100
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
BEQ rs, rt, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. The contents of general register rs and the contents of
general register rt are compared. If the two registers are equal, then the
program branches to the target address, with a delay of one instruction.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs] = GPR[rt])
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs] = GPR[rt])
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-25
Appendix A
BEQL
31
BEQL
Branch On Equal Likely
26 25
BEQL
010100
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
16
Format:
BEQL rs, rt, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. The contents of general register rs and the contents of
general register rt are compared. If the two registers are equal, the target
address is branched to, with a delay of one instruction. If the conditional
branch is not taken, the instruction in the branch delay slot is nullified.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs] = GPR[rt])
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
T:
condition ← (GPR[rs] = GPR[rt])
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
Exceptions:
None
A-26
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Branch On Greater Than
Or Equal To Zero
BGEZ
31
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
BGEZ
16 15
BGEZ
00001
5
0
offset
16
Format:
BGEZ rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the contents of general register rs have the sign bit
cleared, then the program branches to the target address, with a delay of
one instruction.
Operation:
32
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 0)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
64
T:
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 0)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-27
Appendix A
Branch On Greater Than
Or Equal To Zero And Link
BGEZAL
31
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
BGEZAL
16 15
0
offset
BGEZAL
10001
5
16
Format:
BGEZAL rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. Unconditionally, the address of the instruction after the
delay slot is placed in the link register, r31. If the contents of general
register rs have the sign bit cleared, then the program branches to the
target address, with a delay of one instruction.
General register rs may not be general register 31, because such an
instruction is not restartable. An attempt to execute this instruction is not
trapped, however.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 0)
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 0)
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
A-28
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BGEZALL
31
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
Branch On Greater Than
Or Equal To Zero
And Link Likely
21 20
rs
5
BGEZALL
16 15
BGEZALL
10011
5
0
offset
16
Format:
BGEZALL rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. Unconditionally, the address of the instruction after the
delay slot is placed in the link register, r31. If the contents of general
register rs have the sign bit cleared, then the program branches to the
target address, with a delay of one instruction. General register rs may not
be general register 31, because such an instruction is not restartable. An
attempt to execute this instruction is not trapped, however. If the
conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in the branch delay slot is
nullified.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 0)
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 0)
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-29
Appendix A
BGEZL
31
Branch On Greater
Than Or Equal To Zero Likely
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
BGEZL
16 15
0
offset
BGEZL
00011
5
16
Format:
BGEZL rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the contents of general register rs have the sign bit
cleared, then the program branches to the target address, with a delay of
one instruction. If the conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in
the branch delay slot is nullified.
Operation:
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 0)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
32
T:
64
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 0)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
Exceptions:
None
A-30
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BGTZ
31
Branch On Greater Than Zero
26 25
BGTZ
000111
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
0
00000
5
BGTZ
0
offset
16
Format:
BGTZ rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. The contents of general register rs are compared to zero. If
the contents of general register rs have the sign bit cleared and are not
equal to zero, then the program branches to the target address, with a
delay of one instruction.
Operation:
32
T:
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 0) and (GPR[rs] ≠ 032)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
64
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 0) and (GPR[rs] ≠ 064)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-31
Appendix A
Branch On Greater
Than Zero Likely
BGTZL
31
26 25
BGTZL
010111
6
21 20
rs
5
0
00000
5
BGTZL
16 15
0
offset
16
Format:
BGTZL rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. The contents of general register rs are compared to zero. If
the contents of general register rs have the sign bit cleared and are not
equal to zero, then the program branches to the target address, with a
delay of one instruction. If the conditional branch is not taken, the
instruction in the branch delay slot is nullified.
Operation:
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 0) and (GPR[rs] ≠ 032)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
32
T:
64
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 0) and (GPR[rs] ≠ 064)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
A-32
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Branch on Less Than
Or Equal To Zero
BLEZ
31
26 25
BLEZ
000110
6
21 20
rs
5
0
00000
5
BLEZ
16 15
0
offset
16
Format:
BLEZ rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. The contents of general register rs are compared to zero. If
the contents of general register rs have the sign bit set, or are equal to zero,
then the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction.
Operation:
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 1) or (GPR[rs] = 032)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
32
T:
64
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 1) or (GPR[rs] = 064)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-33
Appendix A
Branch on Less Than
Or Equal To Zero Likely
BLEZL
31
26 25
BLEZL
010110
6
21 20
rs
5
0
00000
5
BLEZL
16 15
0
offset
16
Format:
BLEZL rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. The contents of general register rs is compared to zero. If
the contents of general register rs have the sign bit set, or are equal to zero,
then the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction.
If the conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in the branch delay
slot is nullified.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 1) or (GPR[rs] = 032)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 1) or (GPR[rs] = 064)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
A-34
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BLTZ
31
Branch On Less Than Zero
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
BLTZ
00000
5
BLTZ
0
offset
16
Format:
BLTZ rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the contents of general register rs have the sign bit set,
then the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction.
Operation:
32
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 1)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
64
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 1)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
T:
T:
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-35
Appendix A
Branch On Less
Than Zero And Link
BLTZAL
31
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
BLTZAL
16 15
0
offset
BLTZAL
10000
5
16
Format:
BLTZAL rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. Unconditionally, the address of the instruction after the
delay slot is placed in the link register, r31. If the contents of general
register rs have the sign bit set, then the program branches to the target
address, with a delay of one instruction.
General register rs may not be general register 31, because such an
instruction is not restartable. An attempt to execute this instruction with
register 31 specified as rs is not trapped, however.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 1)
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 1)
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
A-36
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BLTZALL
31
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
Branch On Less
Than Zero And Link Likely
21 20
rs
5
BLTZALL
16 15
BLTZALL
10010
5
0
offset
16
Format:
BLTZALL rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. Unconditionally, the address of the instruction after the
delay slot is placed in the link register, r31. If the contents of general
register rs have the sign bit set, then the program branches to the target
address, with a delay of one instruction.
General register rs may not be general register 31, because such an
instruction is not restartable. An attempt to execute this instruction with
register 31 specified as rs is not trapped, however. If the conditional
branch is not taken, the instruction in the branch delay slot is nullified.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 1)
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 1)
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-37
Appendix A
BLTZL
31
Branch On Less Than Zero Likely
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
BLTZL
0
offset
BLTZL
00010
5
16
Format:
BLTZ rs, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the contents of general register rs have the sign bit set,
then the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction. If the conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in the
branch delay slot is nullified.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]31 = 1)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs]63 = 1)
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
A-38
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BNE
31
BNE
Branch On Not Equal
26 25
BNE
000101
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
BNE rs, rt, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. The contents of general register rs and the contents of
general register rt are compared. If the two registers are not equal, then
the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction.
Operation:
32
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs] ≠ GPR[rt])
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
64
T:
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs] ≠ GPR[rt])
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-39
Appendix A
BNEL
31
Branch On Not Equal Likely
26 25
BNEL
010101
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
BNEL
0
offset
rt
5
16
Format:
BNEL rs, rt, offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. The contents of general register rs and the contents of
general register rt are compared. If the two registers are not equal, then
the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction.
If the conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in the branch delay
slot is nullified.
Operation:
32
64
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs] ≠ GPR[rt])
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
condition ← (GPR[rs] ≠ GPR[rt])
T+1: if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
T:
Exceptions:
None
A-40
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
BREAK
31
BREAK
Breakpoint
26
25
65
code
SPECIAL
000000
6
20
0
BREAK
001101
6
Format:
BREAK
Description:
A breakpoint trap occurs, immediately and unconditionally transferring
control to the exception handler.
The code field is available for use as software parameters, but is retrieved
by the exception handler only by loading the contents of the memory word
containing the instruction.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
BreakpointException
Exceptions:
Breakpoint exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-41
Appendix A
CACHE
31
26 25
CACHE
101111
6
CACHE
Cache
21 20
base
5
16 15
op
5
0
offset
16
Format:
CACHE op, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The virtual address is translated to
a physical address using the TLB, and the 5-bit sub-opcode specifies a
cache operation for that address.
If CP0 is not usable (User or Supervisor mode) the CP0 enable bit in the
Status register is clear, and a coprocessor unusable exception is taken. The
operation of this instruction on any operation/cache combination not
listed below, or on a secondary cache when none is present, is undefined.
The operation of this instruction on uncached addresses is also undefined.
The Index operation uses part of the virtual address to specify a cache
block.
For a primary cache of 2CACHEBITS bytes with 2LINEBITS bytes per tag,
vAddrCACHEBITS ... LINEBITS specifies the block.
For a secondary cache of 2CACHEBITS bytes with 2LINEBITS bytes per tag,
pAddrCACHEBITS ... LINEBITS specifies the block.
Index Load Tag also uses vAddrLINEBITS... 3 to select the doubleword for
reading ECC or parity. When the CE bit of the Status register is set, Hit
WriteBack, Hit WriteBack Invalidate, Index WriteBack Invalidate, and Fill
also use vAddrLINEBITS ... 3 to select the doubleword that has its ECC or
parity modified. This operation is performed unconditionally.
The Hit operation accesses the specified cache as normal data references,
and performs the specified operation if the cache block contains valid data
with the specified physical address (a hit). If the cache block is invalid or
contains a different address (a miss), no operation is performed.
A-42
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Cache
(continued)
CACHE
CACHE
Write back from a primary cache goes to the secondary cache (if there is
one), otherwise to memory. Write back from a secondary cache always
goes to memory. A secondary write back always writes the most recent
data; the data comes from the primary data cache, if present, and modified
(the W bit is set). Otherwise the data comes from the specified secondary
cache. The address to be written is specified by the cache tag and not the
translated physical address.
TLB Refill and TLB Invalid exceptions can occur on any operation. For
Index operations (where the physical address is used to index the cache
but need not match the cache tag) unmapped addresses may be used to
avoid TLB exceptions. This operation never causes TLB Modified or
Virtual Coherency exceptions.
Bits 17...16 of the instruction specify the cache as follows:
Code
Name
0
I
1
D
primary data
2
SI
secondary instruction
3
SD
secondary data (or combined instruction/data)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Cache
primary instruction
A-43
Appendix A
Cache
(continued)
CACHE
CACHE
Bits 20...18 (this value is listed under the Code column) of the instruction
specify the operation as follows:
Code
Caches
0
I, SI
0
D
Name
Operation
Index
Invalidate
Set the cache state of the cache block to Invalid.
Index
Writeback
Invalidate
Examine the cache state and Writeback bit (W bit) of the primary data
cache block at the index specified by the virtual address. If the state is
not Invalid and the W bit is set, write the block back to the secondary
cache (if present) or to memory (if no secondary cache). The address to
write is taken from the primary cache tag. When a secondary cache is
present, and the CE bit of the Status register is set, the contents of the
ECC register is XOR’d into the computed check bits during the write to
the secondary cache for the addressed doubleword. Set the cache state
of primary cache block to Invalid. The W bit is unchanged (and irrelevant
because the state is Invalid).
O
SD
Index
Writeback
Invalidate
Examine the cache state of the secondary data cache block at the index
specified by the physical address. If the block is dirty (the state is Dirty
Exclusive or Dirty Shared), write the data back to memory. Like all
secondary writebacks, the operation writes any modified data for the
addresses from the primary data cache. The address to write is taken
from the secondary cache tag. The PIdx field of the secondary tag is
used to determine the locations in the primaries to check for matching
primary blocks. In all cases, set the state of the secondary cache block
and all matching primary subblocks to Invalid. No Invalidate is sent on
the R4000’s system interface.
1
All
Index Load
Tag
Read the tag for the cache block at the specified index and place it iinto
the TagLo and TagHi CP0 registers, ignoring any ECC or parity errors.
Also load the data ECC or parity bits into the ECC register.
2
All
Index Store
Tag
Write the tag for the cache block at the specified index from the TagLo
and TagHi CP0 registers. The processor uses computed parity for the
primary caches and the TagLo register in the case of the secondary
cache.
A-44
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Cache
(continued)
CACHE
Code
3
Caches
SD
Name
CACHE
Operation
Create Dirty
Exclusive
This operation is used to avoid loading data needlessly from memory
when writing new contents into an entire cache block. If the cache block
is valid but does not contain the specified address (a valid miss) the
secondary block is vacated. The data is written back to memory if dirty
and all matching blocks in both primary caches are invalidated. As usual
during a secondary writeback, if the primary data cache contains
modified data (matching blocks with W bit set) that modified data is
written to memory. If the cache block is valid and contains the specified
physical address (a hit), the operation cleans up the primary caches to
avoid virtual aliases: all blocks in both primary caches that match the
secondary line are invalidated without writeback. Note that the search for
matching primary blocks uses the virtual index of the PIdx field of the
secondary cache tag (the virtual index when the location was last used)
and not the virtual index of the virtual address used in the operation (the
virtual index where the location will now be used). If the secondary tag
and address do not match (miss), or the tag and address do match (hit)
and the block is in a shared state, an invalidate for the specified address
is sent over the System interface. In all cases, the cache block tag must
be set to the specified physical address, the cache state must be set to
Dirty Exclusive, and the virtual index field set from the virtual address.
The CH bit in the Status register is set or cleared to indicate a hit or miss.
3
D
Create Dirty
Exclusive
This operation is used to avoid loading data needlessly from secondary
cache or memory when writing new contents into an entire cache block.
If the cache block does not contain the specified address, and the block
is dirty, write it back to the secondary cache (if present) or otherwise to
memory. In all cases, set the cache block tag to the specified physical
address, set the cache state to Dirty Exclusive.
4
I,D
Hit Invalidate
If the cache block contains the specified address, mark the cache block
invalid.
SI, SD
Hit Invalidate
If the cache block contains the specified address, mark the cache block
invalid and also invalidate all matching blocks, if present, in the primary
caches (the PIdx field of the secondary tag is used to determine the
locations in the primaries to search). The CH bit in the Status register is
set or cleared to indicate a hit or miss.
D
Hit Writeback
Invalidate
If the cache block contains the specified address, write the data back if it
is dirty, and mark the cache block invalid. When a secondary cache is
present, and the CE bit of the Status register is set, the contents of the
ECC register is XOR’d into the computed check bits during the write to
the secondary cache for the addressed doubleword.
4
5
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-45
Appendix A
Cache
(continued)
CACHE
Code
5
5
6
6
6
A-46
Caches
SD
I
D
SD
I
Name
CACHE
Operation
Hit Writeback
Invalidate
If the cache block contains the specified address, write back the data (if
dirty), and mark the secondary cache block and all matching blocks in
both primary caches invalid. As usual with secondary writebacks,
modified data in the primary data cache (matching block with the W bit
set) is used during the writeback. The PIdx field of the secondary tag is
used to determine the locations in the primaries to check for matching
primary blocks. The CH bit in the Status register is set or cleared to
indicate a hit or miss.
Fill
Fill the primary instruction cache block from secondary cache or memory.
If the CE bit of the Status register is set, the content of the ECC register
is used instead of the computed parity bits for addressed doubleword
when written to the instruction cache. For the R4000PC, the cache is
filled from memory. For the R4000SC and R4000MC, the cache is filled
from the secondary cache whether or not the secondary cache block is
valid or contains the specified address.
Hit Writeback
If the cache block contains the specified address, and the W bit is set,
write back the data. The W bit is not cleared; a subsequent miss to the
block will write it back again. This second writeback is redundant, but not
incorrect. When a secondary cache is present, and the CE bit of the
Status register is set, the content of the ECC register is XOR’d into the
computed check bits during the write to the secondary cache for the
addressed doubleword. Note: The W bit is not cleared during this
operation due to an artifact of the implementation; the W bit is
implemented as part of the data side of the cache array so that it can be
written during a data write.
Hit Writeback
If the cache block contains the specified address, and the cache state is
Dirty Exclusive or Dirty Shared, data is written back to memory. The
cache state is unchanged; a subsequent miss to the block causes it to be
written back again. This second writeback is redundant, but not
incorrect. The CH bit in the Status register is set or cleared to indicate a
hit or miss. The writeback looks in the primary data cache for modified
data, but does not invalidate or clear the Writeback bit in the primary data
cache. Note: The state of the secondary block is not changed to clean
during this operation because the W bit of matching sub-blocks cannot
be cleared to put the primary block in a clean state.
Hit Writeback
If the cache block contains the specified address, data is written back
unconditionally. When a secondary cache is present, and the CE bit of
the Status register is set, the contents of the ECC register is XOR’d into
the computed check bits during the write to the secondary cache for the
addressed doubleword.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Cache
(continued)
CACHE
Code
7
Caches
SI,SD
Name
Hit Set Virtual
CACHE
Operation
This operation is used to change the virtual index of secondary cache
contents, avoiding unnecessary memory operations. If the cache block
contains the specified address, invalidate matching blocks in the primary
caches at the index formed by concatenating PIdx in the secondary
cache tag (not the virtual address of the operation) and vAddr11..4, and
then set the virtual index field of the secondary cache tag from the
specified virtual address. Modified data in the primary data cache is not
preserved by the operation and should be explicitly written back before
this operation. The CH bit in the Status register is set or cleared to
indicate a hit or miss.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
CacheOp (op, vAddr, pAddr)
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-47
Appendix A
Move Control From
Coprocessor
CFCz
31
26 25
COPz
0 1 0 0 x x*
6
21 20
CF
00010
5
16 15
rt
CFCz
11 10
0
0
00000
11
rd
5
5
Format:
CFCz rt, rd
Description:
The contents of coprocessor control register rd of coprocessor unit z are
loaded into general register rt.
This instruction is not valid for CP0.
Operation:
32
T:
data ← CCR[z,rd]
T+1: GPR[rt] ← data
64
T:
data ← (CCR[z,rd]31)32 || CCR[z,rd]
T+1: GPR[rt] ← data
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
*Opcode Bit Encoding:
Bit # 31 30
1
CFC1 0
29
0
28
0
27
0
26
1
25
0
24
23
22 21
0
0
1
Bit # 31 30
1
CFC2 0
29
0
28
0
27
1
26
0
25
0
24
23
22 21
0
0
1
CFCz
0
0
0
0
Opcode
Coprocessor Suboperation
Coprocessor Unit Number
A-48
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
COPz
31
Coprocessor Operation
26
COPz
25 24
0
COPz
CO
0 1 0 0 x x* 1
6
1
cofun
25
Format:
COPz cofun
Description:
A coprocessor operation is performed. The operation may specify and
reference internal coprocessor registers, and may change the state of the
coprocessor condition line, but does not modify state within the processor
or the cache/memory system. Details of coprocessor operations are
contained in Appendix B.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
CoprocessorOperation (z, cofun)
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Coprocessor interrupt or Floating-Point Exception (R4000 CP1 only)
*Opcode Bit Encoding:
COPz
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
C0P0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
C0P1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
0
Bit # 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
C0P2 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
0
Opcode
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CO sub-opcode (see end of Appendix A)
Coprocessor Unit Number
A-49
Appendix A
CTCz
31
Move Control to Coprocessor
26 25
COPz
0100xx*
6
21 20
CT
00110
5
16 15
rt
5
CTCz
11 10
0
0
000 0000 0000
11
rd
5
Format:
CTCz rt, rd
Description:
The contents of general register rt are loaded into control register rd of
coprocessor unit z.
This instruction is not valid for CP0.
Operation:
32,64
T:
data ← GPR[rt]
T + 1: CCR[z,rd] ← data
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable
*See “CPU Instruction Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
A-50
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DADD
31
DADD
Doubleword Add
26 25
21 20
SPECIAL
000000
6
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
DADD
101100
6
Format:
DADD rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs and the contents of general register rt
are added to form the result. The result is placed into general register rd.
An overflow exception occurs if the carries out of bits 62 and 63 differ (2’s
complement overflow). The destination register rd is not modified when
an integer overflow exception occurs.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
GPR[rd] ←GPR[rs] + GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
Integer overflow exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-51
Appendix A
DADDI
31
Doubleword Add Immediate
26 25
DADDI
011000
6
21 20
rs
5
DADDI
16 15
rt
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
DADDI rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register rs to form the result. The result is placed into general register rt.
An overflow exception occurs if carries out of bits 62 and 63 differ (2’s
complement overflow). The destination register rt is not modified when
an integer overflow exception occurs.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
GPR [rt] ← GPR[rs] + (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0
Exceptions:
Integer overflow exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-52
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Doubleword Add
Immediate Unsigned
DADDIU
31
26 25
DADDIU
011001
6
21 20
rs
5
DADDIU
16 15
rt
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
DADDIU rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register rs to form the result. The result is placed into general register rt.
No integer overflow exception occurs under any circumstances.
The only difference between this instruction and the DADDI instruction is
that DADDIU never causes an overflow exception.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
GPR [rt] ← GPR[rs] + (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-53
Appendix A
DADDU
31
Doubleword Add Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
11 10
16 15
rt
5
rd
5
DADDU
6
0
00000
5
5
0
DADDU
101101
6
Format:
DADDU rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs and the contents of general register rt
are added to form the result. The result is placed into general register rd.
No overflow exception occurs under any circumstances.
The only difference between this instruction and the DADD instruction is
that DADDU never causes an overflow exception.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
GPR[rd] ←GPR[rs] + GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-54
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DDIV
31
DDIV
Doubleword Divide
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
16 15
rt
5
5
6
0
00 0000 0000
10
5
0
DDIV
011110
6
Format:
DDIV rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs are divided by the contents of general
register rt, treating both operands as 2’s complement values. No overflow
exception occurs under any circumstances, and the result of this operation
is undefined when the divisor is zero.
This instruction is typically followed by additional instructions to check
for a zero divisor and for overflow.
When the operation completes, the quotient word of the double result is
loaded into special register LO, and the remainder word of the double
result is loaded into special register HI.
If either of the two preceding instructions is MFHI or MFLO, the results of
those instructions are undefined. Correct operation requires separating
reads of HI or LO from writes by two or more instructions.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T–2:
T–1:
T:
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← GPR[rs] div GPR[rt]
← GPR[rs] mod GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-55
Appendix A
DDIVU
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
DDIVU
Doubleword Divide Unsigned
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
6
0
000000 0000
10
5
0
DDIVU
011111
6
Format:
DDIVU rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs are divided by the contents of general
register rt, treating both operands as unsigned values. No integer
overflow exception occurs under any circumstances, and the result of this
operation is undefined when the divisor is zero.
This instruction is typically followed by additional instructions to check
for a zero divisor.
When the operation completes, the quotient word of the double result is
loaded into special register LO, and the remainder word of the double
result is loaded into special register HI.
If either of the two preceding instructions is MFHI or MFLO, the results of
those instructions are undefined. Correct operation requires separating
reads of HI or LO from writes by two or more instructions.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T–2:
T–1:
T:
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← (0 || GPR[rs]) div (0 || GPR[rt])
← (0 || GPR[rs]) mod (0 || GPR[rt])
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-56
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DIV
31
DIV
Divide
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
0
00 0000 0000
10
6
5
0
DIV
011010
6
Format:
DIV rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs are divided by the contents of general
register rt, treating both operands as 2’s complement values. No overflow
exception occurs under any circumstances, and the result of this operation
is undefined when the divisor is zero.
In 64-bit mode, the operands must be valid sign-extended, 32-bit values.
This instruction is typically followed by additional instructions to check
for a zero divisor and for overflow.
When the operation completes, the quotient word of the double result is
loaded into special register LO, and the remainder word of the double
result is loaded into special register HI.
If either of the two preceding instructions is MFHI or MFLO, the results of
those instructions are undefined. Correct operation requires separating
reads of HI or LO from writes by two or more instructions.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-57
Appendix A
Divide
(continued)
DIV
DIV
Operation:
32
T–2:
T–1:
T:
64
T–2:
T–1:
T:
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← GPR[rs] div GPR[rt]
← GPR[rs] mod GPR[rt]
LO
HI
LO
HI
q
r
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← GPR[rs]31...0 div GPR[rt]31...0
← GPR[rs]31...0 mod GPR[rt]31...0
← (q31)32 || q31...0
← (r31)32 || r31...0
Exceptions:
None
A-58
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DIVU
31
DIVU
Divide Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
6
0
000000 0000
10
5
0
DIVU
011011
6
Format:
DIVU rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs are divided by the contents of general
register rt, treating both operands as unsigned values. No integer
overflow exception occurs under any circumstances, and the result of this
operation is undefined when the divisor is zero.
In 64-bit mode, the operands must be valid sign-extended, 32-bit values.
This instruction is typically followed by additional instructions to check
for a zero divisor.
When the operation completes, the quotient word of the double result is
loaded into special register LO, and the remainder word of the double
result is loaded into special register HI.
If either of the two preceding instructions is MFHI or MFLO, the results of
those instructions are undefined. Correct operation requires separating
reads of HI or LO from writes by two or more instructions.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-59
Appendix A
Divide Unsigned
(continued)
DIVU
DIVU
Operation:
32
T–2:
T–1:
T:
64
T–2:
T–1:
T:
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
LO
HI
q
r
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← (0 || GPR[rs]) div (0 || GPR[rt])
← (0 || GPR[rs]) mod (0 || GPR[rt])
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← (0 || GPR[rs]31...0) div (0 || GPR[rt]31...0)
← (0 || GPR[rs]31...0) mod (0 || GPR[rt]31...0)
← (q31)32 || q31...0
← (r31)32 || r31...0
Exceptions:
None
A-60
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Doubleword Move From
System Control Coprocessor
DMFC0
31
26 25
COP0
010000
6
21 20
DMF
00001
5
16 15
rt
5
DMFC0
11 10
rd
5
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00
11
Format:
DMFC0 rt, rd
Description:
The contents of coprocessor register rd of the CP0 are loaded into general
register rt.
This operation is defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode and in 32bit kernel mode. Execution of this instruction in 32-bit user or supervisor
mode causes a reserved instruction exception. All 64-bits of the general
register destination are written from the coprocessor register source. The
operation of DMFC0 on a 32-bit coprocessor 0 register is undefined.
Operation:
64
T:
data ←CPR[0,rd]
T+1: GPR[rt] ← data
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit user mode
R4000 in 32-bit supervisor mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-61
Appendix A
Doubleword Move To
System Control Coprocessor
DMTC0
31
26 25
COP0
010000
6
21 20
DMT
00101
5
16 15
rt
5
DMTC0
11 10
rd
5
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00
11
Format:
DMTC0 rt, rd
Description:
The contents of general register rt are loaded into coprocessor register rd
of the CP0.
This operation is defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode or in 32bit kernel mode. Execution of this instruction in 32-bit user or supervisor
mode causes a reserved instruction exception.
All 64-bits of the coprocessor 0 register are written from the general
register source. The operation of DMTC0 on a 32-bit coprocessor 0 register
is undefined.
Because the state of the virtual address translation system may be altered
by this instruction, the operation of load instructions, store instructions,
and TLB operations immediately prior to and after this instruction are
undefined.
Operation:
64
T:
data ← GPR[rt]
T+1: CPR[0,rd] ← data
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception (R4000 in 32-bit user mode
R4000 in 32-bit supervisor mode)
A-62
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DMULT
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
Doubleword Multiply
DMULT
21 20
6
rs
16 15
rt
5
5
0
00 0000 0000
10
5
0
DMULT
011100
6
Format:
DMULT rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general registers rs and rt are multiplied, treating both
operands as 2’s complement values. No integer overflow exception occurs
under any circumstances.
When the operation completes, the low-order word of the double result is
loaded into special register LO, and the high-order word of the double
result is loaded into special register HI.
If either of the two preceding instructions is MFHI or MFLO, the results of
these instructions are undefined. Correct operation requires separating
reads of HI or LO from writes by a minimum of two other instructions.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T–2: LO
HI
T–1: LO
HI
T:
t
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← GPR[rs] * GPR[rt]
← t63...0
← t127...64
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-63
Appendix A
Doubleword Multiply
Unsigned
DMULTU
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
DMULTU
16 15
rt
5
6
0
00 0000 0000
10
5
0
DMULTU
011101
6
Format:
DMULTU rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs and the contents of general register rt
are multiplied, treating both operands as unsigned values. No overflow
exception occurs under any circumstances.
When the operation completes, the low-order word of the double result is
loaded into special register LO, and the high-order word of the double
result is loaded into special register HI.
If either of the two preceding instructions is MFHI or MFLO, the results of
these instructions are undefined. Correct operation requires separating
reads of HI or LO from writes by a minimum of two instructions.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T–2:
T–1:
T:
LO ← undefined
HI ← undefined
LO ← undefined
HI ← undefined
t ← (0 || GPR[rs]) * (0 || GPR[rt])
LO ← t63...0
HI ←t127...64
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-64
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DSLL
31
DSLL
Doubleword Shift Left Logical
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
0
00000
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
DSLL
111000
6
Format:
DSLL rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted left by sa bits, inserting zeros
into the low-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
Operation:
64
T:
s ← 0 || sa
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rt](63–s)...0 || 0s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-65
Appendix A
Doubleword Shift Left
Logical Variable
DSLLV
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
rt
5
11 10
16 15
5
rd
5
DSLLV
6
0
00000
5
5
0
DSLLV
010100
6
Format:
DSLLV rd, rt, rs
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted left by the number of bits
specified by the low-order six bits contained in general register rs,
inserting zeros into the low-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
s ← GPR[rs]5...0
GPR[rd]← GPR[rt](63–s)...0 || 0s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-66
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DSLL32
31
26 25
Doubleword Shift Left
Logical + 32
21 20
0
00000
5
SPECIAL
000000
6
11 10
16 15
rt
5
DSLL32
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
DSLL32
111100
6
Format:
DSLL32 rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted left by 32+sa bits, inserting
zeros into the low-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
s ← 1 || sa
GPR[rd]← GPR[rt](63–s)...0 || 0s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-67
Appendix A
Doubleword
Shift Right Arithmetic
DSRA
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
0
00000
5
16 15
rt
5
DSRA
11 10
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
DSRA
111011
6
Format:
DSRA rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by sa bits, signextending the high-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
s ← 0 || sa
GPR[rd] ← (GPR[rt]63)s || GPR[rt] 63...s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-68
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Doubleword Shift Right
Arithmetic Variable
DSRAV
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
11 10
16 15
rt
5
rd
5
DSRAV
6
0
00000
5
5
0
DSRAV
010111
6
Format:
DSRAV rd, rt, rs
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by the number of bits
specified by the low-order six bits of general register rs, sign-extending the
high-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
s ← GPR[rs]5...0
GPR[rd] ← (GPR[rt]63)s || GPR[rt]63...s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-69
Appendix A
DSRA32
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
Doubleword Shift Right
Arithmetic + 32
21 20
0
00000
5
11 10
16 15
rt
5
DSRA32
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
DSRA32
111111
6
Format:
DSRA32 rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by 32+sa bits, signextending the high-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
s ←1 || sa
GPR[rd] ← (GPR[rt]63)s || GPR[rt] 63...s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-70
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Doubleword
Shift Right Logical
DSRL
31
26 25
21 20
0
00000
5
SPECIAL
000000
6
11 10
16 15
rt
5
DSRL
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
DSRL
111010
6
Format:
DSRL rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by sa bits, inserting
zeros into the high-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
s ← 0 || sa
GPR[rd] ← 0s || GPR[rt]63...s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-71
Appendix A
Doubleword Shift Right
Logical Variable
DSRLV
31
26 25
21 20
rs
SPECIAL
000000
6
16 15
rt
5
5
11 10
rd
5
DSRLV
6
0
00000
5
5
0
DSRLV
010110
6
Format:
DSRLV rd, rt, rs
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by the number of bits
specified by the low-order six bits of general register rs, inserting zeros
into the high-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
s ← GPR[rs]5...0
GPR[rd] ← 0s || GPR[rt]63...s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-72
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DSRL32
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
Doubleword Shift Right
Logical + 32
21 20
0
00000
5
16 15
rt
5
DSRL32
11 10
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
DSRL32
111110
6
Format:
DSRL32 rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by 32+sa bits, inserting
zeros into the high-order bits. The result is placed in register rd.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
s ← 1 || sa
GPR[rd] ← 0s || GPR[rt]63...s
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-73
Appendix A
DSUB
31
DSUB
Doubleword Subtract
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
rt
5
11 10
16 15
5
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
DSUB
101110
6
Format:
DSUB rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are subtracted from the contents of
general register rs to form a result. The result is placed into general
register rd.
The only difference between this instruction and the DSUBU instruction is
that DSUBU never traps on overflow.
An integer overflow exception takes place if the carries out of bits 62 and
63 differ (2’s complement overflow). The destination register rd is not
modified when an integer overflow exception occurs.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] – GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
Integer overflow exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-74
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
DSUBU
31
Doubleword Subtract Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
rt
5
11 10
16 15
5
rd
5
DSUBU
6
0
00000
5
5
0
DSUBU
101111
6
Format:
DSUBU rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are subtracted from the contents of
general register rs to form a result. The result is placed into general
register rd.
The only difference between this instruction and the DSUB instruction is
that DSUBU never traps on overflow. No integer overflow exception
occurs under any circumstances.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] – GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-75
Appendix A
ERET
31
Exception Return
26
COP0
010000
6
25 24
CO
1
1
ERET
6 5
0
000 0000 0000 0000 0000
19
0
ERET
011000
6
Format:
ERET
Description:
ERET is the R4000 instruction for returning from an interrupt, exception,
or error trap. Unlike a branch or jump instruction, ERET does not execute
the next instruction.
ERET must not itself be placed in a branch delay slot.
If the processor is servicing an error trap (SR2 = 1), then load the PC from
the ErrorEPC and clear the ERL bit of the Status register (SR2). Otherwise
(SR2 = 0), load the PC from the EPC, and clear the EXL bit of the Status
register (SR1).
An ERET executed between a LL and SC also causes the SC to fail.
Operation:
32, 64
T: if SR2 = 1 then
PC ← ErrorEPC
SR ← SR31...3 || 0 || SR1...0
else
PC ← EPC
SR ← SR31...2 || 0 || SR0
endif
LLbit ← 0
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
A-76
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
J
Jump
31
26 25
J
000010
6
J
0
target
26
Format:
J target
Description:
The 26-bit target address is shifted left two bits and combined with the
high-order bits of the address of the delay slot. The program
unconditionally jumps to this calculated address with a delay of one
instruction.
Operation:
32
T:
temp ← target
T+1: PC ← PC31...28 || temp || 02
64
T:
temp ← target
T+1: PC ← PC63...28 || temp || 02
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-77
Appendix A
JAL
31
Jump And Link
26 25
JAL
000011
6
JAL
0
target
26
Format:
JAL target
Description:
The 26-bit target address is shifted left two bits and combined with the
high-order bits of the address of the delay slot. The program
unconditionally jumps to this calculated address with a delay of one
instruction. The address of the instruction after the delay slot is placed in
the link register, r31.
Operation:
32
temp ← target
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: PC ← PC 31...28 || temp || 02
64
temp ← target
GPR[31] ← PC + 8
T+1: PC ← PC 63...28 || temp || 02
T:
T:
Exceptions:
None
A-78
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
JALR
31
JALR
Jump And Link Register
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
11 10
16 15
0
00000
5
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
JALR
001001
6
Format:
JALR rs
JALR rd, rs
Description:
The program unconditionally jumps to the address contained in general
register rs, with a delay of one instruction. The address of the instruction
after the delay slot is placed in general register rd. The default value of rd,
if omitted in the assembly language instruction, is 31.
Register specifiers rs and rd may not be equal, because such an instruction
does not have the same effect when re-executed. However, an attempt to
execute this instruction is not trapped, and the result of executing such an
instruction is undefined.
Since instructions must be word-aligned, a Jump and Link Register
instruction must specify a target register (rs) whose two low-order bits are
zero. If these low-order bits are not zero, an address exception will occur
when the jump target instruction is subsequently fetched.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
T+1:
temp ← GPR [rs]
GPR[rd] ← PC + 8
PC ← temp
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-79
Appendix A
JR
JR
Jump Register
31
26
25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
65
0
000 0000 0000 0000
15
0
JR
001000
6
Format:
JR rs
Description:
The program unconditionally jumps to the address contained in general
register rs, with a delay of one instruction.
Since instructions must be word-aligned, a Jump Register instruction
must specify a target register (rs) whose two low-order bits are zero. If
these low-order bits are not zero, an address exception will occur when the
jump target instruction is subsequently fetched.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
temp ← GPR[rs]
T+1:
PC ← temp
Exceptions:
None
A-80
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
LB
LB
Load Byte
31
26 25
LB
100000
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
LB rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the byte at the
memory location specified by the effective address are sign-extended and
loaded into general register rt.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1 ... 3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, BYTE, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
GPR[rt] ← (mem7+8*byte)24 || mem7+8*byte...8*byte
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1 ... 3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, BYTE, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
GPR[rt] ← (mem7+8*byte)56 || mem7+8*byte...8*byte
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-81
Appendix A
LBU
31
LBU
Load Byte Unsigned
26 25
21 20
LBU
100100
6
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
LBU rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the byte at the
memory location specified by the effective address are zero-extended and
loaded into general register rt.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1 ...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, BYTE, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
GPR[rt] ← 024 || mem7+8* byte...8* byte
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, BYTE, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
GPR[rt] ← 056 || mem7+8* byte...8* byte
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
Bus error exception
A-82
TLB invalid exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
LD
LD
Load Doubleword
31
26 25
LD
110111
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
16
Format:
LD rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the 64-bit
doubleword at the memory location specified by the effective address are
loaded into general register rt.
If any of the three least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception occurs.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
GPR[rt] ← mem
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
(R4000 in 32-bit user mode
R4000 in 32-bit supervisor mode)
A-83
Appendix A
LDCz
31
Load Doubleword To Coprocessor
26 25
LDCz
1 1 0 1 x x*
6
21 20
base
5
LDCz
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
16
Format:
LDCz rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The processor reads a doubleword
from the addressed memory location and makes the data available to
coprocessor unit z. The manner in which each coprocessor uses the data
is defined by the individual coprocessor specifications.
If any of the three least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception takes place.
This instruction is not valid for use with CP0.
This instruction is undefined when the least-significant bit of the
rt field is non-zero.
*See the table “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
A-84
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
LDCz
Load Doubleword To Coprocessor
(continued)
LDCz
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
COPzLD (rt, mem)
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
COPzLD (rt, mem)
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Coprocessor unusable exception
Opcode Bit Encoding:
LDCz
Bit # 31
LDC1 1
30
29
28
27
26
1
0
1
0
1
Bit # 31
LDC2 1
30
29
28
27
26
1
0
1
1
0
Opcode
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
0
0
Coprocessor Unit Number
A-85
Appendix A
LDL
31
LDL
Load Doubleword Left
26 25
LDL
011010
6
21 20
base
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
5
16
Format:
LDL rt, offset(base)
Description:
This instruction can be used in combination with the LDR instruction to
load a register with eight consecutive bytes from memory, when the bytes
cross a doubleword boundary. LDL loads the left portion of the register
with the appropriate part of the high-order doubleword; LDR loads the
right portion of the register with the appropriate part of the low-order
doubleword.
The LDL instruction adds its sign-extended 16-bit offset to the contents of
general register base to form a virtual address which can specify an
arbitrary byte. It reads bytes only from the doubleword in memory which
contains the specified starting byte. From one to eight bytes will be
loaded, depending on the starting byte specified.
Conceptually, it starts at the specified byte in memory and loads that byte
into the high-order (left-most) byte of the register; then it loads bytes from
memory into the register until it reaches the low-order byte of the
doubleword in memory. The least-significant (right-most) byte(s) of the
register will not be changed.
address 8
address 0
8
0
9
1
memory
(big-endian)
10 11 12 13 14 15
2 3 4 5 6 7
register
before A B C D E F G H $24
LDL $24,3($0)
after
A-86
3
4 5 6
7 F G H
$24
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Load Doubleword Left
(continued)
LDL
LDL
The contents of general register rt are internally bypassed within the
processor so that no NOP is needed between an immediately preceding
load instruction which specifies register rt and a following LDL (or LDR)
instruction which also specifies register rt.
No address exceptions due to alignment are possible.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
if BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...3 || 03
endif
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, byte, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
GPR[rt] ← mem7+8*byte...0 || GPR[rt]55–8*byte...0
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-87
Appendix A
Load Doubleword Left
(continued)
LDL
LDL
Given a doubleword in a register and a doubleword in memory, the
operation of LDL is as follows:
LDL
Register
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Memory
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
BigEndianCPU = 0
vAddr2..0
type
destination
BigEndianCPU = 1
offset
destination
LEM BEM
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
P
O
N
M
L
K
J
I
B
P
O
N
M
L
K
J
C
C
P
O
N
M
L
K
DE
DE
DE
PE
OP
NO
MN
L M
LEM
BEM
Type
Offset
F
F
F
F
F
P
O
N
G
G
G
G
G
G
P
O
H
H
H
P
H
H
H
P
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
offset
type
LEM BEM
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
B
K
L
M
N
O
P
C
C
L
M
N
O
P
D
D
D
MN
N O
OP
P F
E F
E F
E F
E F
O
P
G
G
G
G
G
G
P
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Little-endian memory (BigEndianMem = 0)
BigEndianMem = 1
AccessType (see Table 2-1) sent to memory
pAddr2...0 sent to memory
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-88
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
LDR
31
LDR
Load Doubleword Right
26 25
LDR
011011
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
16
Format:
LDR rt, offset(base)
Description:
This instruction can be used in combination with the LDL instruction to
load a register with eight consecutive bytes from memory, when the bytes
cross a doubleword boundary. LDR loads the right portion of the register
with the appropriate part of the low-order doubleword; LDL loads the left
portion of the register with the appropriate part of the high-order
doubleword.
The LDR instruction adds its sign-extended 16-bit offset to the contents of
general register base to form a virtual address which can specify an
arbitrary byte. It reads bytes only from the doubleword in memory which
contains the specified starting byte. From one to eight bytes will be
loaded, depending on the starting byte specified.
Conceptually, it starts at the specified byte in memory and loads that byte
into the low-order (right-most) byte of the register; then it loads bytes from
memory into the register until it reaches the high-order byte of the
doubleword in memory. The most significant (left-most) byte(s) of the
register will not be changed.
address 8
address 0
8
0
9
1
memory
(big-endian)
10 11 12 13 14 15
2 3 4 5 6 7
register
before A B C D E F G H $24
LDR $24,4($0)
register
after
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A B C 0
1 2 3 4
$24
A-89
Appendix A
LDR
Load Doubleword Right
(continued)
LDR
The contents of general register rt are internally bypassed within the
processor so that no NOP is needed between an immediately preceding
load instruction which specifies register rt and a following LDR (or LDL)
instruction which also specifies register rt.
No address exceptions due to alignment are possible.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
if BigEndianMem = 1 then
pAddr ← pAddr31...3 || 03
endif
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, byte, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
GPR[rt] ← GPR[rt]63...64-8*byte || mem63...8*byte
A-90
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Load Doubleword Right
(continued)
LDR
LDR
Given a doubleword in a register and a doubleword in memory, the
operation of LDR is as follows:
LDR
Register
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Memory
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
BigEndianCPU = 0
vAddr2..0
type
destination
BigEndianCPU = 1
offset
destination
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
I
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
J
I
B
B
B
B
B
B
K
J
I
C
C
C
C
C
L
K
J
I
D
D
D
D
M
L
K
J
I
E
E
E
N
M
L
K
J
I
F
F
O
N
M
L
K
J
I
G
P
O
N
M
L
K
J
I
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
LEM
BEM
Type
Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
offset
type
LEM BEM
LEM BEM
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
I
B
B
B
B
B
B
I
J
C
C
C
C
C
I
J
K
D
D
D
D
I
J
K
L
E F G
E F I
E I J
I J K
J K L
K L M
L MN
MNO
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Little-endian memory (BigEndianMem = 0)
BigEndianMem = 1
AccessType (see Table 2-1) sent to memory
pAddr2...0 sent to memory
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-91
Appendix A
LH
LH
Load Halfword
31
26 25
LH
100001
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
LH rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the halfword at the
memory location specified by the effective address are sign-extended and
loaded into general register rt.
If the least-significant bit of the effective address is non-zero, an address
error exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 0))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, HALFWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU2 || 0)
GPR[rt] ← (mem15+8*byte)16 || mem15+8*byte...8* byte
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 0))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, HALFWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU2 || 0)
GPR[rt] ← (mem15+8*byte)48 || mem15+8*byte...8* byte
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
A-92
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
LHU
31
LHU
Load Halfword Unsigned
26 25
LHU
100101
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
LHU rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the halfword at the
memory location specified by the effective address are zero-extended and
loaded into general register rt.
If the least-significant bit of the effective address is non-zero, an address
error exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian2 || 0))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, HALFWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU2 || 0)
GPR[rt] ← 016 || mem15+8*byte...8*byte
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian2 || 0))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, HALFWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU2 || 0)
GPR[rt] ← 048 || mem15+8*byte...8*byte
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
Bus Error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
TLB invalid exception
Address error exception
A-93
Appendix A
LL
31
LL
Load Linked
26 25
LL
110000
6
21 20
base
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
5
16
Format:
LL rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the word at the
memory location specified by the effective address are loaded into general
register rt. In 64-bit mode, the loaded word is sign-extended.
The processor begins checking the accessed word for modification by
other processor and devices.
Load Linked and Store Conditional can be used to atomically update
memory locations as shown:
L1:
LL
ADD
SC
BEQ
NOP
T1, (T0)
T2, T1, 1
T2, (T0)
T2, 0, L1
This atomically increments the word addressed by T0. Changing the ADD
to an OR changes this to an atomic bit set. This instruction is available in
User mode, and it is not necessary for CP0 to be enabled.
The operation of LL is undefined if the addressed location is uncached
and, for synchronization between multiple processors, the operation of LL
is undefined if the addressed location is noncoherent. A cache miss that
occurs between LL and SC may cause SC to fail, so no load or store
operation should occur between LL and SC, otherwise the SC may never
be successful. Exceptions also cause SC to fail, so persistent exceptions
must be avoided. If either of the two least-significant bits of the effective
address are non-zero, an address error exception takes place.
A-94
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Load Linked
(continued)
LL
LL
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, WORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
GPR[rt] ← mem31+8*byte...8*byte
LLbit ← 1
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, WORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
GPR[rt] ← (mem31+8*byte)32 || mem31+8*byte...8*byte
LLbit ← 1
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-95
Appendix A
LLD
31
LLD
Load Linked Doubleword
26 25
LLD
110100
6
21 20
base
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
5
16
Format:
LLD rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the doubleword at
the memory location specified by the effective address are loaded into
general register rt.
The processor begins checking the accessed word for modification by
other processor and devices.
Load Linked Doubleword and Store Conditional Doubleword can be used
to atomically update memory locations:
L1:
LLD
ADD
SCD
BEQ
NOP
T1, (T0)
T2, T1, 1
T2, (T0)
T2, 0, L1
This atomically increments the word addressed by T0. Changing the ADD
to an OR changes this to an atomic bit set.
A-96
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Load Linked Doubleword
(continued)
LLD
LLD
The operation of LLD is undefined if the addressed location is uncached
and, for synchronization between multiple processors, the operation of
LLD is undefined if the addressed location is noncoherent. A cache miss
that occurs between LLD and SCD may cause SCD to fail, so no load or
store operation should occur between LLD and SCD, otherwise the SCD
may never be successful. Exceptions also cause SCD to fail, so persistent
exceptions must be avoided.
This instruction is available in User mode, and it is not necessary for CP0
to be enabled.
If any of the three least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception takes place.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
GPR[rt] ← mem
LLbit ← 1
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-97
Appendix A
LUI
31
LUI
Load Upper Immediate
26 25
21 20
0
00000
5
LUI
001111
6
16 15
rt
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
LUI rt, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is shifted left 16 bits and concatenated to 16 bits of
zeros. The result is placed into general register rt. In 64-bit mode, the
loaded word is sign-extended.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rt] ← immediate || 016
64
T:
GPR[rt] ← (immediate15)32 || immediate || 016
Exceptions:
None
A-98
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
LW
31
LW
Load Word
26 25
LW
100011
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
LW rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the word at the
memory location specified by the effective address are loaded into general
register rt. In 64-bit mode, the loaded word is sign-extended. If either of
the two least-significant bits of the effective address is non-zero, an
address error exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, WORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
GPR[rt] ← mem31+8*byte...8*byte
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, WORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
GPR[rt] ← (mem31+8*byte)32 || mem31+8*byte...8*byte
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
Bus error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
TLB invalid exception
Address error exception
A-99
Appendix A
LWCz
31
Load Word To Coprocessor
26 25
LWCz
1 1 0 0 x x*
6
21 20
base
LWCz
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
5
16
Format:
LWCz rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The processor reads a word from
the addressed memory location, and makes the data available to
coprocessor unit z.
The manner in which each coprocessor uses the data is defined by the
individual coprocessor specifications.
If either of the two least-significant bits of the effective address is non-zero,
an address error exception occurs.
This instruction is not valid for use with CP0.
*See the table “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
A-100
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Load Word To Coprocessor
(continued)
LWCz
LWCz
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, WORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
COPzLW (byte, rt, mem)
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base}
(pAddr, uncached)← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, WORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
COPzLW (byte, rt, mem)
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Coprocessor unusable exception
Opcode Bit Encoding:
LWCz
Bit # 31
LWC1 1
30
29
28
27
26
1
0
0
0
1
Bit # 31
LWC2 1
30
29
28
27
26
1
0
0
1
0
Opcode
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
0
0
Coprocessor Unit Number
A-101
Appendix A
LWL
31
LWL
Load Word Left
26 25
LWL
100010
6
21 20
base
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
5
16
Format:
LWL rt, offset(base)
Description:
This instruction can be used in combination with the LWR instruction to
load a register with four consecutive bytes from memory, when the bytes
cross a word boundary. LWL loads the left portion of the register with the
appropriate part of the high-order word; LWR loads the right portion of
the register with the appropriate part of the low-order word.
The LWL instruction adds its sign-extended 16-bit offset to the contents of
general register base to form a virtual address which can specify an
arbitrary byte. It reads bytes only from the word in memory which
contains the specified starting byte. From one to four bytes will be loaded,
depending on the starting byte specified. In 64-bit mode, the loaded word
is sign-extended.
Conceptually, it starts at the specified byte in memory and loads that byte
into the high-order (left-most) byte of the register; then it loads bytes from
memory into the register until it reaches the low-order byte of the word in
memory. The least-significant (right-most) byte(s) of the register will not
be changed.
memory
(big-endian)
address 4
address 0
4
0
5
1
6
2
register
7
3
before
A
B
C
D
$24
1
2
3
D
$24
LWL $24,1($0)
after
A-102
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Load Word Left
(continued)
LWL
LWL
The contents of general register rt are internally bypassed within the
processor so that no NOP is needed between an immediately preceding
load instruction which specifies register rt and a following LWL (or LWR)
instruction which also specifies register rt. No address exceptions due to
alignment are possible.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
if BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...2 || 02
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU2
word ← vAddr2 xor BigEndianCPU
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, 0 || byte, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
temp ← mem32*word+8*byte+7...32*word || GPR[rt]23-8*byte...0
GPR[rt] ← temp
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
if BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...2 || 02
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU2
word ← vAddr2 xor BigEndianCPU
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, 0 || byte, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
temp ← mem32*word+8*byte+7...32*word || GPR[rt]23-8*byte...0
GPR[rt] ← (temp31)32 || temp
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-103
Appendix A
Load Word Left
(continued)
LWL
LWL
Given a doubleword in a register and a doubleword in memory, the
operation of LWL is as follows:
LWL
Register
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Memory
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
BigEndianCPU = 0
vAddr2..0
BigEndianCPU = 1
offset
type
destination
destination
LEM BEM
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
LEM
BEM
Type
Offset
S
P
O
N
M
L
K
J
I
F
P
O
N
F
L
K
J
G
G
P
O
G
G
L
K
H
H
H
P
H
H
H
L
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
offset
type
LEM BEM
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
I J
J K
K L
L F
MN
N O
OP
P F
K
L
G
G
O
P
G
G
L
H
H
H
P
H
H
H
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
4
4
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Little-endian memory (BigEndianMem = 0)
BigEndianMem = 1
AccessType (see Table 2-1) sent to memory
pAddr2...0 sent to memory
sign-extend of destination31
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
A-104
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
LWR
31
LWR
Load Word Right
26 25
LWR
100110
6
21 20
16 15
base
0
offset
rt
5
5
16
Format:
LWR rt, offset(base)
Description:
This instruction can be used in combination with the LWL instruction to
load a register with four consecutive bytes from memory, when the bytes
cross a word boundary. LWR loads the right portion of the register with
the appropriate part of the low-order word; LWL loads the left portion of
the register with the appropriate part of the high-order word.
The LWR instruction adds its sign-extended 16-bit offset to the contents of
general register base to form a virtual address which can specify an
arbitrary byte. It reads bytes only from the word in memory which
contains the specified starting byte. From one to four bytes will be loaded,
depending on the starting byte specified. In 64-bit mode, if bit 31 of the
destination register is loaded, then the loaded word is sign-extended.
Conceptually, it starts at the specified byte in memory and loads that byte
into the low-order (right-most) byte of the register; then it loads bytes from
memory into the register until it reaches the high-order byte of the word
in memory. The most significant (left-most) byte(s) of the register will not
be changed.
memory
(big-endian)
address 4
address 0
4
0
5
1
6
2
register
7
3
before
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
4
$24
LWR $24,4($0)
after
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-105
Appendix A
Load Word Right
(continued)
LWR
LWR
The contents of general register rt are internally bypassed within the
processor so that no NOP is needed between an immediately preceding
load instruction which specifies register rt and a following LWR (or LWL)
instruction which also specifies register rt. No address exceptions due to
alignment are possible.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
if BigEndianMem = 1 then
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–31...3 || 03
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU2
word ← vAddr2 xor BigEndianCPU
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, 0 || byte, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
temp ← GPR[rt]31...32-8*byte || mem31+32*word...32*word+8*byte
GPR[rt] ← temp
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
if BigEndianMem = 1 then
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE–31...3 || 03
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU2
word ← vAddr2 xor BigEndianCPU
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, 0 || byte, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
temp ← GPR[rt]31...32-8*byte || mem31+32*word...32*word+8*byte
GPR[rt] ← (temp31)32 || temp
A-106
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
LWR
Load Word Right
(continued)
LWR
Given a word in a register and a word in memory, the operation of LWR
is as follows:
LWR
Register
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Memory
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
BigEndianCPU = 0
vAddr2..0
BigEndianCPU = 1
offset
type
destination
destination
type
LEM BEM
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
M
E
E
E
I
E
E
E
N
M
F
F
J
I
F
F
O
N
M
G
K
J
I
G
P
O
N
M
L
K
J
I
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
LEM
BEM
Type
Offset
S
X
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
4
4
4
4
0
0
0
0
offset
LEM BEM
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
X
X
X
S
E F G
E F I
E I J
I J K
E F G
E F M
E MN
MNO
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
Little-endian memory (BigEndianMem = 0)
BigEndianMem = 1
AccessType (see Table 2-1) sent to memory
pAddr2...0 sent to memory
sign-extend of destination31
either unchanged or sign-extend of destination31
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-107
Appendix A
LWU
31
LWU
Load Word Unsigned
26 25
LWU
100111
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
LWU rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of the word at the
memory location specified by the effective address are loaded into general
register rt. The loaded word is zero-extended.
If either of the two least-significant bits of the effective address is non-zero,
an address error exception occurs.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
mem ← LoadMemory (uncached, WORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
GPR[rt] ← 032 || mem31+8*byte...8*byte
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-108
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Move From
System Control Coprocessor
MFC0
31
26 25
COP0
010000
6
21 20
MF
00000
5
16 15
rt
5
MFC0
11 10
rd
5
0
0
000 0000 0000
11
Format:
MFC0 rt, rd
Description:
The contents of coprocessor register rd of the CP0 are loaded into general
register rt.
Operation:
32
T:
data ← CPR[0,rd]
T+1: GPR[rt] ← data
64
T:
data ← CPR[0,rd]
T+1: GPR[rt] ← (data31)32 || data31...0
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-109
Appendix A
MFCz
31
Move From Coprocessor
26 25
COPz
0 1 0 0 x x*
6
21 20
MF
00000
5
16 15
rt
5
MFCz
11 10
rd
5
0
0
000 0000 0000
11
Format:
MFCz rt, rd
Description:
The contents of coprocessor register rd of coprocessor z are loaded into
general register rt.
Operation:
32
T:
data ← CPR[z,rd]
T+1: GPR[rt] ← data
64
T:
if rd0 = 0 then
data ← CPR[z,rd4...1 || 0]31...0
else
data ← CPR[z,rd4...1 || 0]63...32
endif
T+1: GPR[rt] ← (data31)32 || data
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
*See the table “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
A-110
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
MFCz
Move From Coprocessor
(continued)
MFCz
Opcode Bit Encoding:
Bit # 31
MFC0 0
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22 21
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit # 31
MFC1 0
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22 21
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Bit # 31
MFC2 0
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22 21
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
MFCz
0
0
0
0
0
0
Coprocessor Suboperation
Opcode
Coprocessor Unit Number
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-111
Appendix A
MFHI
31
MFHI
Move From HI
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
16 15
0
00 0000 0000
10
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
MFHI
010000
6
Format:
MFHI rd
Description:
The contents of special register HI are loaded into general register rd.
To ensure proper operation in the event of interruptions, the two
instructions which follow a MFHI instruction may not be any of the
instructions which modify the HI register: MULT, MULTU, DIV, DIVU,
MTHI, DMULT, DMULTU, DDIV, DDIVU.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
GPR[rd] ← HI
Exceptions:
None
A-112
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
MFLO
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
MFLO
Move From Lo
16 15
0
00 0000 0000
10
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
MFLO
010010
6
Format:
MFLO rd
Description:
The contents of special register LO are loaded into general register rd.
To ensure proper operation in the event of interruptions, the two
instructions which follow a MFLO instruction may not be any of the
instructions which modify the LO register: MULT, MULTU, DIV, DIVU,
MTLO, DMULT, DMULTU, DDIV, DDIVU.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
GPR[rd] ← LO
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-113
Appendix A
Move To
System Control Coprocessor
MTC0
31
26 25
COP0
010000
6
21 20
MT
00100
5
16 15
rt
5
MTC0
11 10
rd
5
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00
11
Format:
MTC0 rt, rd
Description:
The contents of general register rt are loaded into coprocessor register rd
of CP0.
Because the state of the virtual address translation system may be altered
by this instruction, the operation of load instructions, store instructions,
and TLB operations immediately prior to and after this instruction are
undefined.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
T+1:
data ← GPR[rt]
CPR[0,rd] ← data
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
A-114
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
MTCz
31
MTCz
Move To Coprocessor
26 25
COPz
0 1 0 0 x x*
6
21 20
MT
00100
5
16 15
rt
11 10
0
000 0000 0000
11
rd
5
0
5
Format:
MTCz rt, rd
Description:
The contents of general register rt are loaded into coprocessor register rd
of coprocessor z.
Operation:
32
T:
data ← GPR[rt]
T+1: CPR[z,rd] ← data
64
T:
data ← GPR[rt]31...0
T+1: if rd0 = 0
CPR[z,rd4...1 || 0] ← CPR[z, rd4...1 || 0]63...32 || data
else
CPR[z,rd4...1 || 0] ← data || CPR[z,rd4...1 || 0]31...0
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
*Opcode Bit Encoding:
Bit # 31
C0P0 0
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22 21
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Bit # 31
C0P1 0
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22 21
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
Bit # 31
C0P2 0
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22 21
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
MTCz
Opcode
Coprocessor Unit Number
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
0
0
0
0
0
0
Coprocessor Suboperation
A-115
Appendix A
MTHI
MTHI
Move To HI
31
26
25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
65
0
000 000000000000
15
0
MTHI
010001
6
Format:
MTHI rs
Description:
The contents of general register rs are loaded into special register HI.
If a MTHI operation is executed following a MULT, MULTU, DIV, or
DIVU instruction, but before any MFLO, MFHI, MTLO, or MTHI
instructions, the contents of special register LO are undefined.
Operation:
32,64
T–2: HI ← undefined
T–1: HI ← undefined
T:
HI ← GPR[rs]
Exceptions:
None
A-116
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
MTLO
31
MTLO
Move To LO
26
25
21 20
rs
SPECIAL
000000
6
5
65
0
000000000000000
15
0
MTLO
010011
6
Format:
MTLO rs
Description:
The contents of general register rs are loaded into special register LO.
If a MTLO operation is executed following a MULT, MULTU, DIV, or
DIVU instruction, but before any MFLO, MFHI, MTLO, or MTHI
instructions, the contents of special register HI are undefined.
Operation:
32,64
T–2: LO ← undefined
T–1: LO ← undefined
T:
LO ← GPR[rs]
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-117
Appendix A
MULT
31
MULT
Multiply
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
6
0
00 0000 0000
10
5
0
MULT
011000
6
Format:
MULT rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general registers rs and rt are multiplied, treating both
operands as 32-bit 2’s complement values. No integer overflow exception
occurs under any circumstances. In 64-bit mode, the operands must be
valid 32-bit, sign-extended values.
When the operation completes, the low-order word of the double result is
loaded into special register LO, and the high-order word of the double
result is loaded into special register HI.
If either of the two preceding instructions is MFHI or MFLO, the results of
these instructions are undefined. Correct operation requires separating
reads of HI or LO from writes by a minimum of two other instructions.
A-118
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Multiply
(continued)
MULT
MULT
Operation:
32
T–2: LO
HI
T–1: LO
HI
T:
t
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← GPR[rs] * GPR[rt]
← t31...0
← t63...32
64
T–2: LO
HI
T–1: LO
HI
T:
t
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← GPR[rs]31...0 * GPR[rt]31...0
← (t31)32 || t31...0
← (t63)32 || t63...32
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-119
Appendix A
MULTU
31
Multiply Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
MULTU
16 15
rt
5
6
0
00 0000 0000
10
5
0
MULTU
011001
6
Format:
MULTU rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs and the contents of general register rt
are multiplied, treating both operands as unsigned values. No overflow
exception occurs under any circumstances. In 64-bit mode, the operands
must be valid 32-bit, sign-extended values.
When the operation completes, the low-order word of the double result is
loaded into special register LO, and the high-order word of the double
result is loaded into special register HI.
If either of the two preceding instructions is MFHI or MFLO, the results of
these instructions are undefined. Correct operation requires separating
reads of HI or LO from writes by a minimum of two instructions.
A-120
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
MULTU
Multiply Unsigned
(continued)
MULTU
Operation:
32
T–2: LO
HI
T–1: LO
HI
T:
t
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← (0 || GPR[rs]) * (0 || GPR[rt])
← t31...0
← t63...32
64
T–2: LO
HI
T–1: LO
HI
T:
t
LO
HI
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← undefined
← (0 || GPR[rs]31...0) * (0 || GPR[rt]31...0)
← (t31)32 || t31...0
← (t63)32 || t63...32
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-121
Appendix A
NOR
31
NOR
Nor
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
rt
5
11 10
16 15
5
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
NOR
100111
6
Format:
NOR rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs are combined with the contents of
general register rt in a bit-wise logical NOR operation. The result is placed
into general register rd.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] nor GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
None
A-122
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
OR
31
OR
Or
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
rt
5
11 10
16 15
5
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
OR
100101
6
Format:
OR rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs are combined with the contents of
general register rt in a bit-wise logical OR operation. The result is placed
into general register rd.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] or GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-123
Appendix A
ORI
31
ORI
Or Immediate
26 25
ORI
001101
6
21 20
rs
16 15
rt
5
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
ORI rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is zero-extended and combined with the contents of
general register rs in a bit-wise logical OR operation. The result is placed
into general register rt.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rt] ← GPR[rs]31...16 || (immediate or GPR[rs]15...0)
64
T:
GPR[rt] ← GPR[rs]63...16 || (immediate or GPR[rs]15...0)
Exceptions:
None
A-124
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SB
SB
Store Byte
31
26 25
SB
101000
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
SB rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The least-significant byte of register
rt is stored at the effective address.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
data ← GPR[rt]63–8*byte...0 || 08*byte
StoreMemory (uncached, BYTE, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
data ← GPR[rt]63–8*byte...0 || 08*byte
StoreMemory (uncached, BYTE, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-125
Appendix A
SC
31
SC
Store Conditional
26 25
SC
111000
6
21 20
16 15
0
base
rt
offset
5
5
16
Format:
SC rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of general register rt
are conditionally stored at the memory location specified by the effective
address.
If any other processor or device has modified the physical address since
the time of the previous Load Linked instruction, or if an ERET instruction
occurs between the Load Linked instruction and this store instruction, the
store fails and is inhibited from taking place.
The success or failure of the store operation (as defined above) is indicated
by the contents of general register rt after execution of the instruction. A
successful store sets the contents of general register rt to 1; an unsuccessful
store sets it to 0.
The operation of Store Conditional is undefined when the address is
different from the address used in the last Load Linked.
This instruction is available in User mode; it is not necessary for CP0 to be
enabled.
If either of the two least-significant bits of the effective address is non-zero,
an address error exception takes place.
If this instruction should both fail and take an exception, the exception
takes precedence.
A-126
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Store Conditional
(continued)
SC
SC
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
data ← GPR[rt]63-8*byte...0 || 08*byte
if LLbit then
StoreMemory (uncached, WORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
endif
GPR[rt] ← 031 || LLbit
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
data ← GPR[rt]63-8*byte...0 || 08*byte
if LLbit then
StoreMemory (uncached, WORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
endif
GPR[rt] ← 063 || LLbit
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-127
Appendix A
SCD
31
Store Conditional Doubleword
26 25
SCD
111100
6
21 20
16 15
SCD
0
base
rt
offset
5
5
16
Format:
SCD rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of general register rt
are conditionally stored at the memory location specified by the effective
address.
If any other processor or device has modified the physical address since
the time of the previous Load Linked Doubleword instruction, or if an
ERET instruction occurs between the Load Linked Doubleword
instruction and this store instruction, the store fails and is inhibited from
taking place.
The success or failure of the store operation (as defined above) is indicated
by the contents of general register rt after execution of the instruction. A
successful store sets the contents of general register rt to 1; an unsuccessful
store sets it to 0.
The operation of Store Conditional Doubleword is undefined when the
address is different from the address used in the last Load Linked
Doubleword.
This instruction is available in User mode; it is not necessary for CP0 to be
enabled.
If either of the three least-significant bits of the effective address is nonzero, an address error exception takes place.
A-128
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Store Conditional Doubleword
(continued)
SCD
SCD
If this instruction should both fail and take an exception, the exception
takes precedence.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
data ← GPR[rt]
if LLbit then
StoreMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
endif
GPR[rt] ← 063 || LLbit
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-129
Appendix A
SD
SD
Store Doubleword
31
26 25
SD
111111
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
SD rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of general register rt
are stored at the memory location specified by the effective address.
If either of the three least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception occurs.
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
data ← GPR[rt]
StoreMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit user mode
R4000 in 32-bit supervisor mode)
A-130
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SDCz
31
SDCz
Store Doubleword
From Coprocessor
26 25
SDCz
1 1 1 1 x x*
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
SDCz rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. Coprocessor unit z sources a
doubleword, which the processor writes to the addressed memory
location. The data to be stored is defined by individual coprocessor
specifications.
If any of the three least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception takes place.
This instruction is not valid for use with CP0.
This instruction is undefined when the least-significant bit of the rt field is
non-zero.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
data ← COPzSD(rt),
StoreMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
data ← COPzSD(rt),
StoreMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
*See the table, “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-131
Appendix A
Store Doubleword
From Coprocessor
(continued)
SDCz
SDCz
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Coprocessor unusable exception
Opcode Bit Encoding:
SDCz
Bit # 31
SDC1 1
30
29
28
27
26
1
1
1
0
1
Bit # 31
SDC2 1
30
29
28
27
26
1
1
1
1
0
SD opcode
A-132
0
0
Coprocessor Unit Number
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SDL
31
SDL
Store Doubleword Left
26 25
SDL
101100
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
16
Format:
SDL rt, offset(base)
Description:
This instruction can be used with the SDR instruction to store the contents
of a register into eight consecutive bytes of memory, when the bytes cross
a doubleword boundary. SDL stores the left portion of the register into the
appropriate part of the high-order doubleword of memory; SDR stores the
right portion of the register into the appropriate part of the low-order
doubleword.
The SDL instruction adds its sign-extended 16-bit offset to the contents of
general register base to form a virtual address which may specify an
arbitrary byte. It alters only the word in memory which contains that byte.
From one to four bytes will be stored, depending on the starting byte
specified.
Conceptually, it starts at the most-significant byte of the register and
copies it to the specified byte in memory; then it copies bytes from register
to memory until it reaches the low-order byte of the word in memory.
No address exceptions due to alignment are possible.
address 8
address 0
8
0
9
1
memory
(big-endian)
10 11 12 13 14 15
before
2 3 4 5 6 7
register
A B C D E F G H $24
SDL $24,1($0)
address 8
address 0
8
0
9
B
10 11 12 13 14 15
after
C D E F G H
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-133
Appendix A
Store Doubleword Left
(continued)
SDL
SDL
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
A-134
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset 15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE –1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
If BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddr31...3 || 03
endif
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
data ← 056–8*byte || GPR[rt]63...56–8*byte
Storememory (uncached, byte, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Store Doubleword Left
(continued)
SDL
SDL
Given a doubleword in a register and a doubleword in memory, the
operation of SDL is as follows:
SDL
Register
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Memory
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
BigEndianCPU = 1
BigEndianCPU = 0
offset
type LEM BEM
offset
vAddr2..0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
destination
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
J
J
J
J
J
J
A
B
K
K
K
K
K
A
B
C
L
L
L
L
A
B
C
D
M
M
M
A
B
C
D
E
N
N
A
B
C
D
E
F
type
O
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
LEM
BEM
Type
Offset
destination
LEM BEM
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
A
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
B
A
J
J
J
J
J
J
C
B
A
K
K
K
K
K
D
C
B
A
L
L
L
L
E F
D E
C D
B C
A B
MA
MN
MN
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
O
H
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Little-endian memory (BigEndianMem = 0)
BigEndianMem = 1
AccessType (see Table 2-1) sent to memory
pAddr2...0 sent to memory
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-135
Appendix A
SDR
31
SDR
Store Doubleword Right
26 25
21 20
SDR
101101
6
base
5
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
16
Format:
SDR rt, offset(base)
Description:
This instruction can be used with the SDL instruction to store the contents
of a register into eight consecutive bytes of memory, when the bytes cross
a boundary between two doublewords. SDR stores the right portion of the
register into the appropriate part of the low-order doubleword; SDL stores
the left portion of the register into the appropriate part of the low-order
doubleword of memory.
The SDR instruction adds its sign-extended 16-bit offset to the contents of
general register base to form a virtual address which may specify an
arbitrary byte. It alters only the word in memory which contains that byte.
From one to eight bytes will be stored, depending on the starting byte
specified.
Conceptually, it starts at the least-significant (rightmost) byte of the
register and copies it to the specified byte in memory; then it copies bytes
from register to memory until it reaches the high-order byte of the word in
memory. No address exceptions due to alignment are possible.
memory
(big-endian)
address 8
address 0
8
0
9
1
memory
(big-endian)
address 8
address 0
A-136
8
E
9
F
register
10 11 12 13 14 15
before
2 3 4 5 6 7
10 11 12 13 14 15
G H 4 5 6 7
A B C D E F G H $24
SDR $24,4($0)
after
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Store Doubleword Right
(continued)
SDR
SDR
This operation is only defined for the R4000 operating in 64-bit mode.
Execution of this instruction in 32-bit mode causes a reserved instruction
exception.
Operation:
64
T: vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset 15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
If BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 31...3 || 03
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU3
data ← GPR[rt]63–8*byte || 08*byte
StoreMemory (uncached, DOUBLEWORD-byte, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-137
Appendix A
Store Doubleword Right
(continued)
SDR
SDR
Given a doubleword in a register and a doubleword in memory, the
operation of SDR is as follows:
SDR
Register
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Memory
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
BigEndianCPU = 1
BigEndianCPU = 0
vAddr2..0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
destination
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
C
D
E
F
G
H
K
K
DE
EF
F G
GH
HM
L M
L M
L M
LEM
BEM
Type
Offset
F
G
H
N
N
N
N
N
offset
offset
type
G
H
O
O
O
O
O
O
H
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
LEM BEM
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
type
destination
H
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
J
H
G
F
E
D
C
B
K
K
H
G
F
E
D
C
L
L
L
H
G
F
E
D
MN
MN
MN
MN
H N
GH
F G
E F
O
O
O
O
O
O
H
G
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
H
LEM BEM
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Little-endian memory (BigEndianMem = 0)
BigEndianMem = 1
AccessType (see Table 2-1) sent to memory
pAddr2...0 sent to memory
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Reserved instruction exception (R4000 in 32-bit mode)
A-138
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SH
SH
Store Halfword
31
26 25
SH
101001
6
21 20
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
SH rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form an unsigned effective address. The least-significant
halfword of register rt is stored at the effective address. If the leastsignificant bit of the effective address is non-zero, an address error
exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian2 || 0))
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU2 || 0)
data ← GPR[rt]63–8*byte...0 || 08*byte
StoreMemory (uncached, HALFWORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian2 || 0))
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU2 || 0)
data ← GPR[rt]63–8*byte...0 || 08*byte
StoreMemory (uncached, HALFWORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-139
Appendix A
SLL
31
SLL
Shift Left Logical
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
0
00000
5
11 10
16 15
rt
5
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
SLL
000000
6
Format:
SLL rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted left by sa bits, inserting zeros
into the low-order bits.
The result is placed in register rd.
In 64-bit mode, the 32-bit result is sign extended when placed in the
destination register. It is sign extended for all shift amounts, including
zero; SLL with a zero shift amount truncates a 64-bit value to 32 bits and
then sign extends this 32-bit value. SLL, unlike nearly all other word
operations, does not require an operand to be a properly sign-extended
word value to produce a valid sign-extended word result.
NOTE: SLL with a shift amount of zero may be treated as a NOP by
some assemblers, at some optimization levels. If using SLL with a
zero shift to truncate 64-bit values, check the assembler you are using.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rt]31– sa...0 || 0sa
64
T:
s ← 0 || sa
temp ← GPR[rt]31-s...0 || 0s
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp
Exceptions:
None
A-140
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SLLV
31
SLLV
Shift Left Logical Variable
26 25
21 20
rs
SPECIAL
000000
6
5
11 10
16 15
rd
rt
5
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
SLLV
000100
6
Format:
SLLV rd, rt, rs
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted left the number of bits
specified by the low-order five bits contained in general register rs,
inserting zeros into the low-order bits.
The result is placed in register rd.
In 64-bit mode, the 32-bit result is sign extended when placed in the
destination register. It is sign extended for all shift amounts, including
zero; SLLV with a zero shift amount truncates a 64-bit value to 32 bits and
then sign extends this 32-bit value. SLLV, unlike nearly all other word
operations, does not require an operand to be a properly sign-extended
word value to produce a valid sign-extended word result.
NOTE: SLLV with a shift amount of zero may be treated as a NOP by
some assemblers, at some optimization levels. If using SLLV with a
zero shift to truncate 64-bit values, check the assembler you are using.
Operation:
32
T:
s ← GP[rs]4...0
GPR[rd]← GPR[rt](31–s)...0 || 0s
64
T:
s ← 0 || GP[rs]4...0
temp ← GPR[rt](31-s)...0 || 0s
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-141
Appendix A
SLT
31
SLT
Set On Less Than
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
11 10
rt
5
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
SLT
101010
6
Format:
SLT rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are subtracted from the contents of
general register rs. Considering both quantities as signed integers, if the
contents of general register rs are less than the contents of general register
rt, the result is set to one; otherwise the result is set to zero.
The result is placed into general register rd.
No integer overflow exception occurs under any circumstances. The
comparison is valid even if the subtraction used during the comparison
overflows.
Operation:
32
T:
if GPR[rs] < GPR[rt] then
GPR[rd] ← 031 || 1
else
GPR[rd] ← 032
endif
64
T:
if GPR[rs] < GPR[rt] then
GPR[rd] ← 063 || 1
else
GPR[rd] ← 064
endif
Exceptions:
None
A-142
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SLTI
31
Set On Less Than Immediate
26 25
SLTI
001010
6
21 20
rs
16 15
rt
5
5
SLTI
0
immediate
16
Format:
SLTI rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and subtracted from the contents of
general register rs. Considering both quantities as signed integers, if rs is
less than the sign-extended immediate, the result is set to one; otherwise
the result is set to zero.
The result is placed into general register rt.
No integer overflow exception occurs under any circumstances. The
comparison is valid even if the subtraction used during the comparison
overflows.
Operation:
32
T:
if GPR[rs] < (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0 then
GPR[rd] ← 031 || 1
else
GPR[rd] ← 032
endif
64
T:
if GPR[rs] < (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0 then
GPR[rd] ← 063 || 1
else
GPR[rd] ← 064
endif
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-143
Appendix A
Set On Less Than
Immediate Unsigned
SLTIU
31
26 25
SLTIU
001011
6
21 20
rs
5
SLTIU
16 15
0
immediate
rt
5
16
Format:
SLTIU rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and subtracted from the contents of
general register rs. Considering both quantities as unsigned integers, if rs
is less than the sign-extended immediate, the result is set to one; otherwise
the result is set to zero.
The result is placed into general register rt.
No integer overflow exception occurs under any circumstances. The
comparison is valid even if the subtraction used during the comparison
overflows.
Operation:
32
T:
if (0 || GPR[rs]) < (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0 then
GPR[rd] ← 031 || 1
else
GPR[rd] ← 032
endif
64
T:
if (0 || GPR[rs]) < (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0 then
GPR[rd] ← 063 || 1
else
GPR[rd] ← 064
endif
Exceptions:
None
A-144
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SLTU
31
SLTU
Set On Less Than Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
SLTU
101011
6
Format:
SLTU rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are subtracted from the contents of
general register rs. Considering both quantities as unsigned integers, if the
contents of general register rs are less than the contents of general register
rt, the result is set to one; otherwise the result is set to zero.
The result is placed into general register rd.
No integer overflow exception occurs under any circumstances. The
comparison is valid even if the subtraction used during the comparison
overflows.
Operation:
32
T:
if (0 || GPR[rs]) < 0 || GPR[rt] then
GPR[rd] ← 031 || 1
else
GPR[rd] ← 032
endif
64
T:
if (0 || GPR[rs]) < 0 || GPR[rt] then
GPR[rd] ← 063 || 1
else
GPR[rd] ← 064
endif
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-145
Appendix A
SRA
31
SRA
Shift Right Arithmetic
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
0
00000
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
SRA
000011
6
Format:
SRA rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by sa bits, signextending the high-order bits.
The result is placed in register rd.
In 64-bit mode, the operand must be a valid sign-extended, 32-bit value.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rd] ← (GPR[rt]31)sa || GPR[rt] 31...sa
64
T:
s ← 0 || sa
temp ← (GPR[rt]31)s || GPR[rt] 31...s
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp
Exceptions:
None
A-146
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Shift Right
Arithmetic Variable
SRAV
31
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
SRAV
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
SRAV
000111
6
Format:
SRAV rd, rt, rs
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by the number of bits
specified by the low-order five bits of general register rs, sign-extending
the high-order bits.
The result is placed in register rd.
In 64-bit mode, the operand must be a valid sign-extended, 32-bit value.
Operation:
32
T:
s ← GPR[rs]4...0
GPR[rd] ← (GPR[rt]31)s || GPR[rt]31...s
64
T:
s ← GPR[rs]4...0
temp ← (GPR[rt]31)s || GPR[rt]31...s
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-147
Appendix A
SRL
31
SRL
Shift Right Logical
26 25
21 20
0
00000
SPECIAL
000000
6
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
6
rd
sa
5
5
5
0
SRL
000010
6
Format:
SRL rd, rt, sa
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by sa bits, inserting
zeros into the high-order bits.
The result is placed in register rd.
In 64-bit mode, the operand must be a valid sign-extended, 32-bit value.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rd] ← 0 sa || GPR[rt]31...sa
64
T:
s ← 0 || sa
temp ← 0s || GPR[rt]31...s
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp
Exceptions:
None
A-148
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SRLV
31
SRLV
Shift Right Logical Variable
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
SRLV
000110
6
Format:
SRLV rd, rt, rs
Description:
The contents of general register rt are shifted right by the number of bits
specified by the low-order five bits of general register rs, inserting zeros
into the high-order bits.
The result is placed in register rd.
In 64-bit mode, the operand must be a valid sign-extended, 32-bit value.
Operation:
32
T:
s ← GPR[rs]4...0
GPR[rd] ← 0s || GPR[rt]31...s
64
T:
s ← GPR[rs]4...0
temp ← 0s || GPR[rt]31...s
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-149
Appendix A
SUB
31
SUB
Subtract
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
SUB
100010
6
Format:
SUB rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are subtracted from the contents of
general register rs to form a result. The result is placed into general
register rd. In 64-bit mode, the operands must be valid sign-extended, 32bit values.
The only difference between this instruction and the SUBU instruction is
that SUBU never traps on overflow.
An integer overflow exception takes place if the carries out of bits 30 and
31 differ (2’s complement overflow). The destination register rd is not
modified when an integer overflow exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] – GPR[rt]
64
T:
temp ← GPR[rs] - GPR[rt]
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp31...0
Exceptions:
Integer overflow exception
A-150
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SUBU
31
SUBU
Subtract Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
SUBU
100011
6
Format:
SUBU rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are subtracted from the contents of
general register rs to form a result.
The result is placed into general register rd.
In 64-bit mode, the operands must be valid sign-extended, 32-bit values.
The only difference between this instruction and the SUB instruction is
that SUBU never traps on overflow. No integer overflow exception occurs
under any circumstances.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] – GPR[rt]
64
T:
temp ← GPR[rs] - GPR[rt]
GPR[rd] ← (temp31)32 || temp31...0
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-151
Appendix A
SW
31
SW
Store Word
26 25
21 20
SW
101011
6
base
5
16 15
rt
5
0
offset
16
Format:
SW rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. The contents of general register rt
are stored at the memory location specified by the effective address.
If either of the two least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception occurs.
Operation:
32
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
data ← GPR[rt]63-8*byte || 08*byte
StoreMemory (uncached, WORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
T: vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
data ← GPR[rt]63-8*byte || 08*byte
StoreMemory (uncached, WORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB modification exception
Address error exception
A-152
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SWCz
31
Store Word From Coprocessor
26 25
SWCz
1 1 1 0 x x*
6
21 20
base
SWCz
16 15
rt
5
5
0
offset
16
Format:
SWCz rt, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form a virtual address. Coprocessor unit z sources a word,
which the processor writes to the addressed memory location.
The data to be stored is defined by individual coprocessor specifications.
This instruction is not valid for use with CP0.
If either of the two least-significant bits of the effective address is non-zero,
an address error exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T: vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
data ← COPzSW (byte, rt)
StoreMemory (uncached, WORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
64
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
data ← COPzSW (byte,rt)
StoreMemory (uncached, WORD, data, pAddr, vAddr DATA)
*See the table “Opcode Bit Encoding” on next page, or “CPU Instruction
Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix A.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-153
Appendix A
SWCz
Store Word From Coprocessor
(Continued)
SWCz
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
Coprocessor unusable exception
Opcode Bit Encoding:
SWCz
Bit # 31
SWC1 1
30
29
28
27
26
1
1
0
0
1
Bit # 31
SWC2 1
30
29
28
27
26
1
1
0
1
0
SW opcode
A-154
0
0
Coprocessor Unit Number
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SWL
31
SWL
Store Word Left
26 25
SWL
101010
6
21 20
16 15
base
0
offset
rt
5
5
16
Format:
SWL rt, offset(base)
Description:
This instruction can be used with the SWR instruction to store the contents
of a register into four consecutive bytes of memory, when the bytes cross
a word boundary. SWL stores the left portion of the register into the
appropriate part of the high-order word of memory; SWR stores the right
portion of the register into the appropriate part of the low-order word.
The SWL instruction adds its sign-extended 16-bit offset to the contents of
general register base to form a virtual address which may specify an
arbitrary byte. It alters only the word in memory which contains that byte.
From one to four bytes will be stored, depending on the starting byte
specified.
Conceptually, it starts at the most-significant byte of the register and
copies it to the specified byte in memory; then it copies bytes from register
to memory until it reaches the low-order byte of the word in memory.
No address exceptions due to alignment are possible.
memory
(big-endian)
address 4
address 0
4
0
5
1
6
2
register
7
3
before
A
B
C
D
$24
SWL $24,1($0)
address 4
address 0
4
0
5
A
6
B
7
C
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
after
A-155
Appendix A
Store Word Left
(Continued)
SWL
SWL
Operation:
A-156
32
T: vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset 15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
If BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddr31...2 || 02
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU2
if (vAddr2 xor BigEndianCPU) = 0 then
data ← 032 || 024-8*byte || GPR[rt]31...24-8*byte
else
data ← 024-8*byte || GPR[rt]31...24-8*byte || 032
endif
Storememory (uncached, byte, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
64
T: vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset 15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
If BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddr31...2 || 02
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU2
if (vAddr2 xor BigEndianCPU) = 0 then
data ← 032 || 024-8*byte || GPR[rt]31...24-8*byte
else
data ← 024-8*byte || GPR[rt]31...24-8*byte || 032
endif
StoreMemory(uncached, byte, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Store Word Left
(Continued)
SWL
SWL
Given a doubleword in a register and a doubleword in memory, the
operation of SWL is as follows:
SWL
Register
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Memory
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
BigEndianCPU = 0
BigEndianCPU = 1
offset
vAddr2..0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
destination
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
E
J
J
J
J
J
J
E
F
K
K
K
K
K
E
F
G
L M
L M
L M
L E
EM
F M
GM
HM
N
N
E
F
N
N
N
N
type
O
E
F
G
O
O
O
O
E
F
G
H
P
P
P
P
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
LEM
BEM
Type
Offset
offset
LEM BEM
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
type
destination
E
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
F
E
J
J
J
J
J
J
G
F
E
K
K
K
K
K
H
G
F
E
L
L
L
L
M
M
M
M
E
M
M
M
N
N
N
N
F
E
N
N
O
O
O
O
G
F
E
O
P
P
P
P
H
G
F
E
LEM BEM
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
4
4
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Little-endian memory (BigEndianMem = 0)
BigEndianMem = 1
AccessType (see Table 2-1) sent to memory
pAddr2...0 sent to memory
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-157
Appendix A
SWR
31
SWR
Store Word Right
26 25
SWR
101110
6
21 20
base
16 15
0
offset
rt
5
5
16
Format:
SWR rt, offset(base)
Description:
This instruction can be used with the SWL instruction to store the contents
of a register into four consecutive bytes of memory, when the bytes cross
a boundary between two words. SWR stores the right portion of the
register into the appropriate part of the low-order word; SWL stores the
left portion of the register into the appropriate part of the low-order word
of memory.
The SWR instruction adds its sign-extended 16-bit offset to the contents of
general register base to form a virtual address which may specify an
arbitrary byte. It alters only the word in memory which contains that byte.
From one to four bytes will be stored, depending on the starting byte
specified.
Conceptually, it starts at the least-significant (rightmost) byte of the
register and copies it to the specified byte in memory; then copies bytes
from register to memory until it reaches the high-order byte of the word in
memory.
No address exceptions due to alignment are possible.
memory
(big-endian)
address 4
address 0
4
0
5
1
6
2
register
7
3
before
A
B
C
D
$24
SWR $24,1($0)
address 4
address 0
A-158
D
0
5
1
6
2
7
3
after
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Store Word Right
(Continued)
SWR
SWR
Operation:
32
T: vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset 15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
If BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddr31...2 || 02
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU2
if (vAddr2 xor BigEndianCPU) = 0 then
data ← 032 || GPR[rt]31-8*byte...0 || 08*byte
else
data ← GPR[rt]31-8*byte...0 || 08*byte || 032
endif
Storememory (uncached, WORD-byte, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
64
T: vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset 15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE – 1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor ReverseEndian3)
If BigEndianMem = 0 then
pAddr ← pAddr31...2 || 02
endif
byte ← vAddr1...0 xor BigEndianCPU2
if (vAddr2 xor BigEndianCPU) = 0 then
data ← 032 || GPR[rt]31-8*byte...0 || 08*byte
else
data ← GPR[rt]31-8*byte...0 || 08*byte || 032
endif
StoreMemory(uncached, WORD-byte, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-159
Appendix A
Store Word Right
(Continued)
SWR
SWR
Given a doubleword in a register and a doubleword in memory, the
operation of SWR is as follows:
SWR
Register
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Memory
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
BigEndianCPU = 1
BigEndianCPU = 0
offset
offset
vAddr2..0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
destination
I
I
I
I
E
F
G
H
J
J
J
J
F
G
H
J
K
K
K
K
G
H
K
K
L
L
L
L
H
L
L
L
LEM
BEM
Type
Offset
E
F
G
H
M
M
M
M
F
G
H
N
N
N
N
N
type
G
H
O
O
O
O
O
O
H
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
LEM BEM
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
4
4
4
4
0
0
0
0
type
destination
H
G
F
E
I
I
I
I
J
H
G
F
J
J
J
J
K
K
H
G
K
K
K
K
L
L
L
H
L
L
L
L
MN
MN
MN
MN
H N
GH
F G
E F
O
O
O
O
O
O
H
G
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
H
LEM BEM
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
Little-endian memory (BigEndianMem = 0)
BigEndianMem = 1
AccessType (see Table 2-1) sent to memory
pAddr2...0 sent to memory
Exceptions:
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
A-160
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
SYNC
31
SYNC
Synchronize
26 25
6
5
0
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000
SPECIAL
000000
6
20
0
SYNC
001111
6
Format:
SYNC
Description:
The SYNC instruction ensures that any loads and stores fetched prior to the
present instruction are completed before any loads or stores after this
instruction are allowed to start. Use of the SYNC instruction to serialize
certain memory references may be required in a multiprocessor
environment for proper synchronization. For example:
Processor A
SW
LI
SYNC
SW
R1, DATA
R2, 1
Processor B
1:
R2, FLAG
LW
BEQ
NOP
SYNC
LW
R2, FLAG
R2, R0, 1B
R1, DATA
The SYNC in processor A prevents DATA being written after FLAG,
which could cause processor B to read stale data. The SYNC in processor
B prevents DATA from being read before FLAG, which could likewise
result in reading stale data. For processors which only execute loads and
stores in order, with respect to shared memory, this instruction is a NOP.
LL and SC instructions implicitly perform a SYNC.
This instruction is allowed in User mode.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
SyncOperation()
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-161
Appendix A
SYSCALL
31
System Call
26 25
SYSCALL
6
SPECIAL
000000
6
Code
20
5
0
SYSCALL
0 0 1 1 00
6
Format:
SYSCALL
Description:
A system call exception occurs, immediately and unconditionally
transferring control to the exception handler.
The code field is available for use as software parameters, but is retrieved
by the exception handler only by loading the contents of the memory word
containing the instruction.
Operation:
32, 64 T:
SystemCallException
Exceptions:
System Call exception
A-162
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
TEQ
31
TEQ
Trap If Equal
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
16 15
rt
5
5
6
code
10
5
0
TEQ
110100
6
Format:
TEQ rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are compared to general register rs. If
the contents of general register rs are equal to the contents of general
register rt, a trap exception occurs.
The code field is available for use as software parameters, but is retrieved
by the exception handler only by loading the contents of the memory word
containing the instruction.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
if GPR[rs] = GPR[rt] then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-163
Appendix A
TEQI
31
TEQI
Trap If Equal Immediate
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
TEQI
01100
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
TEQI rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and compared to the contents of
general register rs. If the contents of general register rs are equal to the
sign-extended immediate, a trap exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
if GPR[rs] = (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0 then
TrapException
endif
64
T:
if GPR[rs] = (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0 then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
A-164
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
TGE
31
TGE
Trap If Greater Than Or Equal
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
6
code
10
5
0
TGE
110000
6
Format:
TGE rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are compared to the contents of general
register rs. Considering both quantities as signed integers, if the contents
of general register rs are greater than or equal to the contents of general
register rt, a trap exception occurs.
The code field is available for use as software parameters, but is retrieved
by the exception handler only by loading the contents of the memory word
containing the instruction.
Operation:
32, 64 T: if GPR[rs] ≥ GPR[rt] then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-165
Appendix A
TGEI
31
Trap If Greater Than Or Equal Immediate
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
TGEI
01000
5
TGEI
0
immediate
16
Format:
TGEI rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and compared to the contents of
general register rs. Considering both quantities as signed integers, if the
contents of general register rs are greater than or equal to the signextended immediate, a trap exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T: if GPR[rs] ≥ (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0 then
TrapException
endif
64
T: if GPR[rs] ≥ (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0 then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
A-166
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
Trap If Greater Than Or Equal
Immediate Unsigned
TGEIU
31
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
TGEIU
16 15
TGEIU
01001
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
TGEIU rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and compared to the contents of
general register rs. Considering both quantities as unsigned integers, if the
contents of general register rs are greater than or equal to the signextended immediate, a trap exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T: if (0 || GPR[rs]) ≥ (0 || (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0) then
TrapException
endif
64
T: if (0 || GPR[rs]) ≥ (0 || (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0) then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-167
Appendix A
TGEU
31
Trap If Greater Than Or Equal Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
6
code
10
TGEU
5
0
TGEU
110001
6
Format:
TGEU rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are compared to the contents of general
register rs. Considering both quantities as unsigned integers, if the
contents of general register rs are greater than or equal to the contents of
general register rt, a trap exception occurs.
The code field is available for use as software parameters, but is retrieved
by the exception handler only by loading the contents of the memory word
containing the instruction.
Operation:
T:
if (0 || GPR[rs]) ≥ (0 || GPR[rt]) then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
A-168
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
TLBP
31
Probe TLB For Matching Entry
26 25
COP0
010000
6
CO
1
1
24
TLBP
6 5
0
000 0000 0000 0000 0000
19
0
TLBP
001000
6
Format:
TLBP
Description:
The Index register is loaded with the address of the TLB entry whose
contents match the contents of the EntryHi register. If no TLB entry
matches, the high-order bit of the Index register is set.
The architecture does not specify the operation of memory references
associated with the instruction immediately after a TLBP instruction, nor
is the operation specified if more than one TLB entry matches.
Operation:
32
T:
Index← 1 || 025 || undefined6
for i in 0...TLBEntries–1
if (TLB[i]95...77 = EntryHi31...12) and (TLB[i]76 or
(TLB[i]71...64 = EntryHi7...0)) then
Index ← 026 || i 5...0
endif
endfor
64
T:
Index← 1 || 0 25 || undefined6
for i in 0...TLBEntries–1
if (TLB[i]167...141 and not (015 || TLB[i]216...205))
= EntryHi39...13) and not (015 || TLB[i]216...205)) and
(TLB[i]140 or (TLB[i]135...128 = EntryHi7...0)) then
Index ← 026 || i 5...0
endif
endfor
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-169
Appendix A
TLBR
31
Read Indexed TLB Entry
26
COP0
010000
6
25 24
CO
1
1
TLBR
6 5
0
000 0000 0000 0000 0000
19
0
TLBR
000001
6
Format:
TLBR
Description:
The G bit (which controls ASID matching) read from the TLB is written
into both of the EntryLo0 and EntryLo1 registers.
The EntryHi and EntryLo registers are loaded with the contents of the TLB
entry pointed at by the contents of the TLB Index register. The operation
is invalid (and the results are unspecified) if the contents of the TLB Index
register are greater than the number of TLB entries in the processor.
Operation:
32
T: PageMask ← TLB[Index5...0]127...96
EntryHi ← TLB[Index5...0]95...64 and not TLB[Index5...0]127...96
EntryLo1 ←TLB[Index5...0]63...32
EntryLo0 ← TLB[Index5...0]31...0
64
T: PageMask ← TLB[Index5...0]255...192
EntryHi ← TLB[Index5...0]191...128 and not TLB[Index5...0]255...192
EntryLo1 ←TLB[Index5...0]127...65 || TLB[Index5...0]140
EntryLo0 ← TLB[Index5...0]63...1 || TLB[Index5...0]140
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
A-170
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
TLBWI
31
Write Indexed TLB Entry
26
COP0
010000
6
25
CO
1
1
24
TLBWI
6 5
0
000 0000 0000 0000 0000
19
0
TLBWI
000010
6
Format:
TLBWI
Description:
The G bit of the TLB is written with the logical AND of the G bits in the
EntryLo0 and EntryLo1 registers.
The TLB entry pointed at by the contents of the TLB Index register is loaded
with the contents of the EntryHi and EntryLo registers.
The operation is invalid (and the results are unspecified) if the contents of
the TLB Index register are greater than the number of TLB entries in the
processor.
Operation:
32, 64T:
TLB[Index5...0] ←
PageMask || (EntryHi and not PageMask) || EntryLo1 || EntryLo0
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-171
Appendix A
TLBWR
31
26
COP0
010000
6
Write Random TLB Entry
25 24
CO
1
1
TLBWR
6 5
0
000 0000 0000 0000 0000
19
0
TLBWR
000110
6
Format:
TLBWR
Description:
The G bit of the TLB is written with the logical AND of the G bits in the
EntryLo0 and EntryLo1 registers.
The TLB entry pointed at by the contents of the TLB Random register is
loaded with the contents of the EntryHi and EntryLo registers.
Operation:
32, 64T:
TLB[Random5...0]
←
PageMask || (EntryHi and not PageMask) || EntryLo1 || EntryLo0
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
A-172
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
TLT
31
TLT
Trap If Less Than
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
6
code
10
5
0
TLT
110010
6
Format:
TLT rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are compared to general register rs.
Considering both quantities as signed integers, if the contents of general
register rs are less than the contents of general register rt, a trap exception
occurs.
The code field is available for use as software parameters, but is retrieved
by the exception handler only by loading the contents of the memory word
containing the instruction.
Operation:
32, 64 T: if GPR[rs] < GPR[rt] then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-173
Appendix A
TLTI
31
Trap If Less Than Immediate
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
0
16 15
TLTI
01010
5
TLTI
immediate
16
Format:
TLTI rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and compared to the contents of
general register rs. Considering both quantities as signed integers, if the
contents of general register rs are less than the sign-extended immediate, a
trap exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T: if GPR[rs] < (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0 then
TrapException
endif
64
T: if GPR[rs] < (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0 then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
A-174
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
TLTIU
31
Trap If Less Than Immediate Unsigned
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
TLTIU
16 15
TLTIU
01011
5
0
immediate
16
Format:
TLTIU rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and compared to the contents of
general register rs. Considering both quantities as signed integers, if the
contents of general register rs are less than the sign-extended immediate, a
trap exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
if (0 || GPR[rs]) < (0 || (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0) then
TrapException
endif
64
T:
if (0 || GPR[rs]) < (0 || (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0) then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-175
Appendix A
TLTU
31
TLTU
Trap If Less Than Unsigned
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
6
rt
code
5
10
5
0
TLTU
110011
6
Format:
TLTU rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are compared to general register rs.
Considering both quantities as unsigned integers, if the contents of
general register rs are less than the contents of general register rt, a trap
exception occurs.
The code field is available for use as software parameters, but is retrieved
by the exception handler only by loading the contents of the memory word
containing the instruction.
Operation:
32, 64T:
if (0 || GPR[rs]) < (0 || GPR[rt]) then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
A-176
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
TNE
31
TNE
Trap If Not Equal
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
rt
5
6
code
10
5
0
TNE
110110
6
Format:
TNE rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rt are compared to general register rs. If
the contents of general register rs are not equal to the contents of general
register rt, a trap exception occurs.
The code field is available for use as software parameters, but is retrieved
by the exception handler only by loading the contents of the memory word
containing the instruction.
Operation:
32, 64T:
if GPR[rs] ≠ GPR[rt] then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-177
Appendix A
TNEI
31
Trap If Not Equal Immediate
26 25
REGIMM
000001
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
TNEI
01110
5
TNEI
0
immediate
16
Format:
TNEI rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is sign-extended and compared to the contents of
general register rs. If the contents of general register rs are not equal to the
sign-extended immediate, a trap exception occurs.
Operation:
32
T:
if GPR[rs] ≠ (immediate15)16 || immediate15...0 then
TrapException
endif
64
T:
if GPR[rs] ≠ (immediate15)48 || immediate15...0 then
TrapException
endif
Exceptions:
Trap exception
A-178
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
XOR
31
XOR
Exclusive Or
26 25
SPECIAL
000000
6
21 20
rs
16 15
rt
5
5
11 10
rd
5
6
0
00000
5
5
0
XOR
100110
6
Format:
XOR rd, rs, rt
Description:
The contents of general register rs are combined with the contents of
general register rt in a bit-wise logical exclusive OR operation.
The result is placed into general register rd.
Operation:
32, 64
T:
GPR[rd] ← GPR[rs] xor GPR[rt]
Exceptions:
None
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
A-179
Appendix A
XORI
31
XORI
Exclusive OR Immediate
26 25
XORI
001110
6
21 20
rs
5
16 15
0
immediate
rt
5
16
Format:
XORI rt, rs, immediate
Description:
The 16-bit immediate is zero-extended and combined with the contents of
general register rs in a bit-wise logical exclusive OR operation.
The result is placed into general register rt.
Operation:
32
T:
GPR[rt] ← GPR[rs] xor (016 || immediate)
64
T:
GPR[rt] ← GPR[rs] xor (048 || immediate)
Exceptions:
None
A-180
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
CPU Instruction Set Details
CPU Instruction Opcode Bit Encoding
The remainder of this Appendix presents the opcode bit encoding for the
CPU instruction set (ISA and extensions), as implemented by the R4000.
Figure A-2 lists the R4000 Opcode Bit Encoding.
28...26
0
1
31...29
0
SPECIAL REGIMM
1
ADDI
ADDIU
COP0
COP1
2
3
DADDIε DADDIUε
4
LB
LH
5
SB
SH
6
LL
LWC1
7
SC
SWC1
5...3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
20...19
0
1
2
3
25, 24
0
1
2
3
2...0
0
SLL
JR
MFHI
MULT
ADD
*
TGE
DSLLε
Opcode
2
J
SLTI
COP2
LDLε
LWL
SWL
LWC2
SWC2
4
BEQ
ANDI
BEQL
*
LBU
SDLε
LLDε
SCDε
*
LDRε
LW
SW
*
*
5
BNE
ORI
BNEL
*
LHU
SDRε
LDC1
SDC1
6
BLEZ
XORI
BLEZL
*
LWR
SWR
LDC2
SDC2
7
BGTZ
LUI
BGTZL
*
LWUε
CACHE δ
LDε
SDε
SPECIAL function
1
*
JALR
MTHI
MULTU
ADDU
*
TGEU
*
2
SRL
3
SRA
*
MFLO
DIV
SUB
SLT
TLT
DSRLε
*
MTLO
DIVU
SUBU
SLTU
TLTU
DSRAε
18...16
0
1
2
BLTZ
BGEZ
BLTZL
TLTI
TGEI
TGEIU
BLTZAL BGEZAL BLTZALL
*
*
*
23...21
0
MF
BC
3
JAL
SLTIU
1
DMFε
γ
2
CF
γ
4
5
6
7
*
SLLV
SRLV
SRAV
*
SYNC
SYSCALL BREAK
DSLLVε
*
DSRLVε DSRAVε
DMULTε DMULTUε DDIVε
DDIVUε
AND
OR
XOR
NOR
DADDε DADDUε DSUBε DSUBUε
TEQ
TNE
*
*
DSLL32ε
*
DSRL32ε DSRA32ε
REGIMM rt
3
BGEZL
TLTIU
4
*
BGEZALL
*
3
γ
γ
TEQI
*
*
COPz rs
4
MT
γ
5
*
*
*
*
6
*
TNEI
*
*
7
*
*
*
*
5
DMTε
γ
6
CT
γ
7
γ
γ
CO
Figure A-2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Opcode Bit Encoding
A-181
Appendix A
COPz rt
18...16
0
BCF
γ
γ
γ
1
BCT
γ
γ
γ
2
BCFL
γ
γ
γ
2 ... 0
0
5 ... 3
0
φ
1 TLBP
ξ
2
3 ERET χ
φ
0
φ
1
φ
2
φ
3
1
TLBR
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
2
TLBWI
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
20...19
0
1
2
3
3
BCTL
γ
γ
γ
4
γ
γ
γ
γ
5
γ
γ
γ
γ
6
γ
γ
γ
γ
7
γ
γ
γ
γ
4
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
5
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
6
TLBWR
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
7
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
CP0 Function
Figure A-2 (cont.)
3
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
R4000 Opcode Bit Encoding
Key:
A-182
*
Operation codes marked with an asterisk cause reserved
instruction exceptions in all current implementations and are
reserved for future versions of the architecture.
γ
Operation codes marked with a gamma cause a reserved
instruction exception. They are reserved for future versions of the
architecture.
δ
Operation codes marked with a delta are valid only for R4000
processors with CP0 enabled, and cause a reserved instruction
exception on other processors.
φ
Operation codes marked with a phi are invalid but do not cause
reserved instruction exceptions in R4000 implementations.
ξ
Operation codes marked with a xi cause a reserved instruction
exception on R4000 processors.
χ
Operation codes marked with a chi are valid only on R4000.
ε
Operation codes marked with epsilon are valid when the processor
is operating either in the Kernel mode or in the 64-bit non-Kernel
(User or Supervisor) mode. These instructions cause a reserved
instruction exception if 64-bit operation is not enabled in User or
Supervisor mode.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
B
This appendix provides a detailed description of each floating-point unit
(FPU) instruction (refer to Appendix A for a detailed description of the
CPU instructions). The instructions are listed alphabetically, and any
exceptions that may occur due to the execution of each instruction are
listed after the description of each instruction. Descriptions of the
immediate causes and the manner of handling exceptions are omitted
from the instruction descriptions in this appendix (refer to Chapter 7 for
detailed descriptions of floating-point exceptions and handling).
Figure B-3 at the end of this appendix lists the entire bit encoding for the
constant fields of the floating-point instruction set; the bit encoding for
each instruction is included with that individual instruction.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-1
Appendix B
B.1 Instruction Formats
There are three basic instruction format types:
•
I-Type, or Immediate instructions, which include load and
store operations
•
M-Type, or Move instructions
•
R-Type, or Register instructions, which include the twoand three-register floating-point operations.
The instruction description subsections that follow show how these three
basic instruction formats are used by:
•
Load and store instructions
•
Move instructions
•
Floating-Point computational instructions
•
Floating-Point branch instructions
Floating-point instructions are mapped onto the MIPS coprocessor
instructions, defining coprocessor unit number one (CP1) as the floatingpoint unit.
Each operation is valid only for certain formats. Implementations may
support some of these formats and operations through emulation, but
they only need to support combinations that are valid (marked V in Table
B-1). Combinations marked R in Table B-1 are not currently specified by
this architecture, and cause an unimplemented operation trap. They will
be available for future extensions to the architecture.
B-2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Table B-1
Operation
Valid FPU Instruction Formats
Source Format
Single
Double
Word
Longword
ADD
V
V
R
R
SUB
V
V
R
R
MUL
V
V
R
R
DIV
V
V
R
R
SQRT
V
V
R
R
ABS
V
V
R
R
MOV
V
V
NEG
V
V
R
R
TRUNC.L
V
V
ROUND.L
V
V
CEIL.L
V
V
FLOOR.L
V
V
TRUNC.W
V
V
ROUND.W
V
V
CEIL.W
V
V
FLOOR.W
V
V
V
V
V
V
R
R
CVT.S
V
CVT.D
V
CVT.W
V
V
CVT.L
V
V
C
V
V
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-3
Appendix B
The coprocessor branch on condition true/false instructions can be used
to logically negate any predicate. Thus, the 32 possible conditions require
only 16 distinct comparisons, as shown in Table B-2 below.
Table B-2
Logical Negation of Predicates by Condition True/False
Condition
Relations
Mnemonic
True
False
Code
Greater
Than
Less
Than
Equal Unordered
Invalid
Operation
Exception If
Unordered
F
T
0
F
F
F
F
No
UN
OR
1
F
F
F
T
No
EQ
NEQ
2
F
F
T
F
No
UEQ
OGL
3
F
F
T
T
No
OLT
UGE
4
F
T
F
F
No
ULT
OGE
5
F
T
F
T
No
OLE
UGT
6
F
T
T
F
No
ULE
OGT
7
F
T
T
T
No
SF
ST
8
F
F
F
F
Yes
NGLE
GLE
9
F
F
F
T
Yes
SEQ
SNE
10
F
F
T
F
Yes
NGL
GL
11
F
F
T
T
Yes
LT
NLT
12
F
T
F
F
Yes
NGE
GE
13
F
T
F
T
Yes
LE
NLE
14
F
T
T
F
Yes
NGT
GT
15
F
T
T
T
Yes
B-4
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point Loads, Stores, and Moves
All movement of data between the floating-point coprocessor and
memory is accomplished by coprocessor load and store operations, which
reference the floating-point coprocessor General Purpose registers. These
operations are unformatted; no format conversions are performed and,
therefore, no floating-point exceptions can occur due to these operations.
Data may also be directly moved between the floating-point coprocessor
and the processor by move to coprocessor and move from coprocessor
instructions. Like the floating-point load and store operations, move to/
from operations perform no format conversions and never cause floatingpoint exceptions.
An additional pair of coprocessor registers are available, called FloatingPoint Control registers for which the only data movement operations
supported are moves to and from processor General Purpose registers.
Floating-Point Operations
The floating-point unit operation set includes:
•
floating-point add
•
floating-point subtract
•
floating-point multiply
•
floating-point divide
•
floating-point square root
•
convert between fixed-point and floating-point formats
•
convert between floating-point formats
•
floating-point compare
These operations satisfy the requirements of IEEE Standard 754
requirements for accuracy. Specifically, these operations obtain a result
which is identical to an infinite-precision result rounded to the specified
format, using the current rounding mode.
Instructions must specify the format of their operands. Except for
conversion functions, mixed-format operations are not provided.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-5
Appendix B
B.2 Instruction Notation Conventions
In this appendix, all variable subfields in an instruction format (such as fs,
ft, immediate, and so on) are shown in lower-case. The instruction name
(such as ADD, SUB, and so on) is shown in upper-case.
For the sake of clarity, we sometimes use an alias for a variable subfield in
the formats of specific instructions. For example, we use rs = base in the
format for load and store instructions. Such an alias is always lower case,
since it refers to a variable subfield.
In some instructions, the instruction subfields op and function can have
constant 6-bit values. When reference is made to these instructions,
upper-case mnemonics are used. For instance, in the floating-point ADD
instruction we use op = COP1 and function = ADD. In other cases, a single
field has both fixed and variable subfields, so the name contains both
upper and lower case characters. Bit encodings for mnemonics are shown
in Figure B-3 at the end of this appendix, and are also included with each
individual instruction.
In the instruction description examples that follow, the Operation section
describes the operation performed by each instruction using a high-level
language notation.
Instruction Notation Examples
The following examples illustrate the application of some of the
instruction notation conventions:
Example #1:
GPR[rt] ←
immediate || 016
Sixteen zero bits are concatenated with an immediate
value (typically 16 bits), and the 32-bit string (with the lower
16 bits set to zero) is assigned to General Purpose Register rt.
Example #2:
(immediate15)16 || immediate15...0
Bit 15 (the sign bit) of an immediate value is extended for
16 bit positions, and the result is concatenated with bits 15
through 0 of the immediate value to form a 32-bit sign
extended value.
B-6
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
B.3 Load and Store Instructions
In the R4000 implementation, the instruction immediately following a
load may use the contents of the register being loaded. In such cases, the
hardware interlocks, requiring additional real cycles, so scheduling load
delay slots is still desirable, although not required for functional code.
The behavior of the load store instructions is dependent on the width of
the FGRs.
•
When the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, the FloatingPoint General registers (FGRs) are 32-bits wide.
•
When the FR bit in the Status register equals one, the FloatingPoint General registers (FGRs) are 64-bits wide.
In the load and store operation descriptions, the functions listed in
Table B-3 are used to summarize the handling of virtual addresses and
physical memory.
Table B-3
Load and Store Common Functions
Function
Meaning
AddressTranslation
Uses the TLB to find the physical address given the virtual
address. The function fails and an exception is taken if the
required translation is not present in the TLB.
LoadMemory
Uses the cache and main memory to find the contents of
the word containing the specified physical address. The
low-order two bits of the address and the Access Type field
indicates which of each of the four bytes within the data
word need to be returned. If the cache is enabled for this
access, the entire word is returned and loaded into the
cache.
StoreMemory
Uses the cache, write buffer, and main memory to store the
word or part of word specified as data in the word
containing the specified physical address. The low-order
two bits of the address and the Access Type field indicates
which of each of the four bytes within the data word
should be stored.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-7
Appendix B
Figure B-1 shows the I-Type instruction format used by load and store
operations.
I-Type (Immediate)
31
26
25
21
20
16
op
base
ft
6
5
5
15
0
offset
16
op
is a 6-bit operation code
base
is the 5-bit base register specifier
ft
is a 5-bit source (for stores) or destination (for loads) FPA register
specifier
offset is the 16-bit signed immediate offset
Figure B-1
Load and Store Instruction Format
All coprocessor loads and stores reference aligned data items. Thus, for
word loads and stores, the access type field is always WORD, and the loworder two bits of the address must always be zero.
For doubleword loads and stores, the access type field is always
DOUBLEWORD, and the low-order three bits of the address must always
be zero.
Regardless of byte-numbering order (endianness), the address specifies
that byte which has the smallest byte-address in the addressed field. For
a big-endian machine, this is the leftmost byte; for a little-endian machine,
this is the rightmost byte.
B-8
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
B.4 Computational Instructions
Computational instructions include all of the arithmetic floating-point
operations performed by the FPU.
Figure B-2 shows the R-Type instruction format used for computational
operations.
R-Type (Register)
26 25
31
21 20
16 15
11 10
6
5
0
COP1
fmt
ft
fs
fd
function
6
5
5
5
5
6
COP1
is a 6-bit operation code
fmt
is a 5-bit format specifier
fs
is a 5-bit source1 register
ft
is a 5-bit source2 register
fd
is a 5-bit destination register
function
is a 6-bit function field
Figure B-2
Computational Instruction Format
The function field indicates the floating-point operation to be performed.
Each floating-point instruction can be applied to a number of operand
formats. The operand format for an instruction is specified by the 5-bit
format field; decoding for this field is shown in Table B-4.
Table B-4
Code
Mnemonic
Format Field Decoding
Size
Format
16
S
single
Binary floating-point
17
D
double
Binary floating-point
18
Reserved
19
Reserved
20
W
single
32-bit binary fixed-point
21
L
longword
64-bit binary fixed-point
22–31
Reserved
Table B-5 lists all floating-point instructions.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-9
Appendix B
Table B-5
Code
(5: 0)
Mnemonic
Operation
0
ADD
Add
1
SUB
Subtract
2
MUL
Multiply
3
DIV
Divide
4
SQRT
Square root
5
ABS
Absolute value
6
MOV
Move
7
NEG
Negate
8
ROUND.L
Convert to 64-bit (long) fixed-point, rounded to nearest/
even
9
TRUNC.L
Convert to 64-bit (long) fixed-point, rounded toward zero
10
CEIL.L
Convert to 64-bit (long) fixed-point, rounded to +∞
11
FLOOR.L
Convert to 64-bit (long) fixed-point, rounded to -∞
12
ROUND.W
Convert to single fixed-point, rounded to nearest/even
13
TRUNC.W
Convert to single fixed-point, rounded toward zero
14
CEIL.W
Convert to single fixed-point, rounded to + ∞
15
FLOOR.W
Convert to single fixed-point, rounded to – ∞
–
Reserved
32
CVT.S
Convert to single floating-point
33
CVT.D
Convert to double floating-point
34
–
Reserved
35
–
Reserved
36
CVT.W
Convert to 32-bit binary fixed-point
37
CVT.L
Convert to 64-bit (long) binary fixed-point
38–47
–
Reserved
48–63
C
Floating-point compare
16–31
B-10
Floating-Point Instructions and Operations
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
In the following pages, the notation FGR refers to the 32 General Purpose
registers FGR0 through FGR31 of the FPU, and FPR refers to the floatingpoint registers of the FPU.
•
When the FR bit in the Status register (SR(26)) equals zero, only
the even floating-point registers are valid and the 32 General
Purpose registers of the FPU are 32-bits wide.
•
When the FR bit in the Status register (SR(26)) equals one, both
odd and even floating-point registers may be used and the 32
General Purpose registers of the FPU are 64-bits wide.
The following routines are used in the description of the floating-point
operations to retrieve the value of an FPR or to change the value of an FGR:
value ← ValueFPR(fpr,fmt)
if SR26 = 1 then /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
case fmt of
S, W:
value ← FGR[fpr]31...0
return
D, L:
value ← FGR[fpr]
return
endcase
elseif fpr0 = 0 then /* valid specifier, 32-bit wide FGRs */
case fmt of
S, W:
value ← FGR[fpr]
return
D, L:
value ← FGR[fpr+1] || FGR[fpr]
return
endcase
else /* undefined result for odd 32-bit reg #s */
value ← undefined
endif
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-11
Appendix B
StoreFPR(fpr, fmt, value)
if SR26 = 1 then /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
case fmt of
S, W:
FGR[fpr] ← undefined32 || value
return
D, L:
FGR[fpr] ← value
return
endcase
elseif fpr0 = 0 then /* valid specifier, 32-bit wide FGRs */
case fmt of
S, W:
FGR[fpr+1] ← undefined
FGR[fpr] ← value
return
D, L:
FGR[fpr+1] ← value63...32
FGR[fpr] ← value31...0
return
endcase
else /* undefined result for odd 32-bit reg #s */
undefined_result
endif
B-12
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point
Absolute Value
ABS.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
ABS.fmt
11 10
0
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
ABS
000101
6
Format:
ABS.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the FPU register specified by fs are interpreted in the
specified format and the arithmetic absolute value is taken. The result is
placed in the floating-point register specified by fd.
The absolute value operation is arithmetic; a NaN operand signals invalid
operation.
This instruction is valid only for single- and double-precision floatingpoint formats. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register
specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since
the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor
general registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both
even and odd register numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, fmt, AbsoluteValue(ValueFPR(fs, fmt)))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Coprocessor exception trap
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Invalid operation exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-13
Appendix B
ADD.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
ADD.fmt
Floating-Point Add
21 20
16 15
11 10
6 5
fmt
ft
fs
fd
5
5
5
5
0
ADD
000000
6
Format:
ADD.fmt fd, fs, ft
Description:
The contents of the FPU registers specified by fs and ft are interpreted in
the specified format and arithmetically added. The result is rounded as if
calculated to infinite precision and then rounded to the specified format
(fmt), according to the current rounding mode. The result is placed in the
floating-point register (FPR) specified by fd.
This instruction is valid only for single- and double-precision floatingpoint formats. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register
specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since
the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor
general registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both
even and odd register numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR (fd, fmt, ValueFPR(fs, fmt) + ValueFPR(ft, fmt))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Invalid operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
Underflow exception
B-14
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Branch On FPA False
(Coprocessor 1)
BC1F
31
26 25
21 20
BC
01000
COP1
010001
6
16 15
BCF
00000
5
BC1F
0
offset
5
16
Format:
BC1F offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the result of the last floating-point compare is false
(zero), the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction.
There must be at least one instruction between C.cond.fmt and BC1F.
Operation:
32
T–1:
T:
T+1:
condition ← not COC[1]
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
64
T–1:
T:
T+1:
condition ← not COC[1]
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-15
Appendix B
Branch On FPU False Likely
(Coprocessor 1)
BC1FL
31
26 25
21 20
BC
01000
5
COP1
010001
6
16 15
BC1FL
0
BCFL
00010
5
offset
16
Format:
BC1FL offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the result of the last floating-point compare is false
(zero), the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction. If the conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in the
branch delay slot is nullified.
There must be at least one instruction between C.cond.fmt and BC1FL.
Operation:
32
T–1:
T:
T+1:
64
T–1:
T:
T+1:
condition ← not COC[1]
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
condition ← not COC[1]
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
B-16
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Branch On FPU True
(Coprocessor 1)
BC1T
31
26 25
21 20
BC
01000
5
COP1
010001
6
BC1T
0
16 15
BCT
00001
5
offset
16
Format:
BC1T offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the result of the last floating-point compare is true (one),
the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction.
There must be at least one instruction between C.cond.fmt and BC1T.
Operation:
32
T–1:
T:
T+1:
condition ← COC[1]
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
64
T–1:
T:
T+1:
condition ← COC[1]
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
if condition then
PC ← PC + target
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-17
Appendix B
Branch On FPU True Likely
(Coprocessor 1)
BC1TL
31
26 25
21 20
BC
01000
5
COP1
010001
6
BC1TL
0
16 15
offset
BCTL
00011
5
16
Format:
BC1TL offset
Description:
A branch target address is computed from the sum of the address of the
instruction in the delay slot and the 16-bit offset, shifted left two bits and
sign-extended. If the result of the last floating-point compare is true (one),
the program branches to the target address, with a delay of one
instruction. If the conditional branch is not taken, the instruction in the
branch delay slot is nullified.
There must be at least one instruction between C.cond.fmt and BC1TL.
Operation:
32
T–1:
T:
T+1:
64
T–1:
T:
T+1:
condition ← COC[1]
target ← (offset15)14 || offset || 02
if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
condition ← COC[1]
target ← (offset15)46 || offset || 02
if condition then
PC ← PC + target
else
NullifyCurrentInstruction
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
B-18
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point
Compare
C.cond.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
16 15
C.cond.fmt
11 10
fmt
ft
fs
5
5
5
6 5
0
00000
5
43
FC*
2
0
cond*
4
Format:
C.cond.fmt fs, ft
Description:
The contents of the floating-point registers specified by fs and ft are
interpreted in the specified format, fmt, and arithmetically compared.
A result is determined based on the comparison and the conditions
specified in the cond field. If one of the values is a Not a Number (NaN),
and the high-order bit of the cond field is set, an invalid operation
exception is taken. After a one-instruction delay, the condition is available
for testing with branch on floating-point coprocessor condition
instructions. There must be at least one instruction between the compare
and the branch.
Comparisons are exact and can neither overflow nor underflow. Four
mutually-exclusive relations are possible results: less than, equal, greater
than, and unordered. The last case arises when one or both of the
operands are NaN; every NaN compares unordered with everything,
including itself.
Comparisons ignore the sign of zero, so +0 = –0.
This instruction is valid only for single- and double-precision floatingpoint formats. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register
specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since
the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor
general registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both
even and odd register numbers are valid.
*See “FPU Instruction Opcode Bit Encoding” at the end of Appendix B.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-19
Appendix B
C.cond.fmt
Floating-Point
Compare
(continued)
C.cond.fmt
Operation:
T:
if NaN(ValueFPR(fs, fmt)) or NaN(ValueFPR(ft, fmt)) then
less ← false
equal ← false
unordered ← true
if cond3 then
signal InvalidOperationException
endif
else
less ← ValueFPR(fs, fmt) < ValueFPR(ft, fmt)
equal ← ValueFPR(fs, fmt) = ValueFPR(ft, fmt)
unordered ← false
endif
condition ← (cond2 and less) or (cond1 and equal) or
(cond0 and unordered)
FCR[31]23 ← condition
COC[1] ← condition
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Invalid operation exception
B-20
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point
Ceiling to Long
Fixed-Point Format
CEIL.L.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
CEIL.L.fmt
6 5
11 10
fs
fd
5
5
0
CEIL.L
001010
6
Format:
CEIL.L.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the long
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd.
Regardless of the setting of the current rounding mode, the conversion is
rounded as if the current rounding mode is round to +∞ (2).
This instruction is valid only for conversion from single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats. When the FR bit in the Status register
equals one, both even and odd register numbers are valid.
When the source operand is an Infinity, NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –263 to 263– 1, the Invalid operation exception is
raised. If the Invalid operation is not enabled then no exception is taken
and 263–1 is returned.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-21
Appendix B
CEIL.L.fmt
Floating-Point
Ceiling to Long
Fixed-Point Format
(continued)
CEIL.L.fmt
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, L, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, L))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
B-22
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
CEIL.W.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
Floating-Point
Ceiling to Single
Fixed-Point Format
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
CEIL.W.fmt
6 5
11 10
fs
fd
5
5
0
CEIL.W
001110
6
Format:
CEIL.W.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the single
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd.
Regardless of the setting of the current rounding mode, the conversion is
rounded as if the current rounding mode is round to +∞ (2).
This instruction is valid only for conversion from a single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of
any register specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals
zero, since the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent
coprocessor general registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals
one, both even and odd register numbers are valid.
When the source operand is an Infinity or NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –231 to 231– 1, the Invalid operation exception is
raised. If the Invalid operation is not enabled then no exception is taken
and 231–1 is returned.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-23
Appendix B
CEIL.W.fmt
Floating-Point
Ceiling to Single
Fixed-Point Format
(continued)
CEIL.W.fmt
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, W, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, W))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
B-24
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Move Control Word From FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
CFC1
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
CF
00010
5
16 15
rt
5
CFC1
11 10
fs
5
0
0
000 0000 0000
11
Format:
CFC1 rt, fs
Description:
The contents of the FPU control register fs are loaded into general register
rt.
This operation is only defined when fs equals 0 or 31.
The contents of general register rt are undefined for the instruction
immediately following CFC1.
Operation:
32
T:
temp ← FCR[fs]
T+1: GPR[rt] ← temp
64
T:
temp ← FCR[fs]
T+1: GPR[rt] ← (temp31)32 || temp
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-25
Appendix B
Move Control Word To FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
CTC1
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
CT
00110
5
16 15
rt
5
CTC1
11 10
fs
5
0
0
000 0000 0000
11
Format:
CTC1 rt, fs
Description:
The contents of general register rt are loaded into FPU control register fs.
This operation is only defined when fs equals 0 or 31.
Writing to Control Register 31, the floating-point Control/Status register,
causes an interrupt or exception if any cause bit and its corresponding
enable bit are both set. The register will be written before the exception
occurs. The contents of floating-point control register fs are undefined for
the instruction immediately following CTC1.
Operation:
32
T:
T+1:
temp ← GPR[rt]
FCR[fs] ← temp
COC[1] ← FCR[31]23
64
T:
T+1:
temp ← GPR[rt]31...0
FCR[fs] ← temp
COC[1] ← FCR[31]23
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Invalid operation exception
Division by zero exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
Underflow exception
B-26
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
CVT.D.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
Floating-Point
Convert to Double
Floating-Point Format
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
CVT.D.fmt
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
CVT.D
100001
6
Format:
CVT.D.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs is interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the
double binary floating-point format. The result is placed in the floatingpoint register specified by fd.
This instruction is valid only for conversions from single floating-point
format, 32-bit or 64-bit fixed-point format.
If the single floating-point or single fixed-point format is specified, the
operation is exact. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register
specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since
the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor
general registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both
even and odd register numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR (fd, D, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, D))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
Underflow exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-27
Appendix B
Floating-Point
Convert to Long
Fixed-Point Format
CVT.L.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
CVT.L.fmt
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
CVT.L
100101
6
Format:
CVT.L.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the long
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd. This instruction is valid only for conversions from singleor double-precision floating-point formats. The operation is not defined if
bit 0 of any register specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register
equals zero.
When the source operand is an Infinity, NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –263 to 263–1, the Invalid operation exception is
raised. If the Invalid operation is not enabled then no exception is taken
and 263–1 is returned.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR (fd, L, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, L))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
B-28
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point
Convert to Single
Floating-Point Format
CVT.S.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
CVT.S.fmt
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
CVT.S
100000
6
Format:
CVT.S.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the single
binary floating-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point
register specified by fd. Rounding occurs according to the currently
specified rounding mode.
This instruction is valid only for conversions from double floating-point
format, or from 32-bit or 64-bit fixed-point format. The operation is not
defined if bit 0 of any register specification is set and the FR bit in the Status
register equals zero, since the register numbers specify an even-odd pair
of adjacent coprocessor general registers. When the FR bit in the Status
register equals one, both even and odd register numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, S, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, S))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
Underflow exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-29
Appendix B
CVT.W.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
Floating-Point
Convert to
Fixed-Point Format
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
CVT.W.fmt
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
CVT.W
100100
6
Format:
CVT.W.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the single
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd. This instruction is valid only for conversion from a singleor double-precision floating-point formats. The operation is not defined if
bit 0 of any register specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register
equals zero, since the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of
adjacent coprocessor general registers. When the FR bit in the Status
register equals one, both even and odd register numbers are valid.
When the source operand is an Infinity or NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –231 to 231–1, an Invalid operation exception is
raised. If Invalid operation is not enabled, then no exception is taken and
231 –1 is returned.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, W, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, W))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
B-30
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
DIV.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
DIV.fmt
Floating-Point Divide
21 20
16 15
11 10
0
6 5
fmt
ft
fs
fd
5
5
5
5
DIV
000011
6
Format:
DIV.fmt fd, fs, ft
Description:
The contents of the floating-point registers specified by fs and ft are
interpreted in the specified format and the value in the fs field is divided by
the value in the ft field. The result is rounded as if calculated to infinite
precision and then rounded to the specified format, according to the
current rounding mode. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd.
This instruction is valid for only single or double precision floating-point
formats.
The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register specification is set and
the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since the register numbers
specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor general registers. When
the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both even and odd register
numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR (fd, fmt, ValueFPR(fs, fmt)/ValueFPR(ft, fmt))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Division-by-zero exception
Overflow exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Invalid operation exception
Inexact exception
Underflow exception
B-31
Appendix B
Doubleword Move From
Floating-Point Coprocessor
DMFC1
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
DMF
00001
5
16 15
rt
5
DMFC1
11 10
fs
5
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00
11
Format:
DMFC1 rt, fs
Description:
The contents of register fs from the floating-point coprocessor is stored
into processor register rt.
The contents of general register rt are undefined for the instruction
immediately following DMFC1.
The FR bit in the Status register specifies whether all 32 registers of the
R4000 are addressable. When FR equals zero, this instruction is not
defined when the least significant bit of fs is non-zero. When FR is set, fs
may specify either odd or even registers.
Operation:
64
T:
if SR26 = 1 then /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
data ← FGR[fs]
elseif fs0 = 0 then /* valid specifier, 32-bit wide FGRs */
data ← FGR[fs+1] || FGR[fs]
else /* undefined for odd 32-bit reg #s */
data ← undefined64
endif
T+1:
GPR[rt] ← data
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
B-32
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Doubleword Move To
Floating-Point Coprocessor
DMTC1
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
DMT
00101
5
16 15
rt
5
DMTC1
11 10
fs
5
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00
11
Format:
DMTC1 rt, fs
Description:
The contents of general register rt are loaded into coprocessor register fs of
the CP1.
The contents of floating-point register fs are undefined for the instruction
immediately following DMTC1.
The FR bit in the Status register specifies whether all 32 registers of the
R4000 are addressable. When FR equals zero, this instruction is not
defined when the least significant bit of fs is non-zero. When FR equals
one, fs may specify either odd or even registers.
Operation:
64
T:
data ← GPR[rt]
T+1:
if SR26 = 1 then /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
FGR[fs] ← data
elseif fs0 = 0 then /*valid specifier, 32-bit wide valid FGRs */
FGR[fs+1] ← data63...32
FGR[fs] ← data31...0
else /* undefined result for odd 32-bit reg #s */
undefined_result
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-33
Appendix B
FLOOR.L.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
Floating-Point
Floor to Long
Fixed-Point Format
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
FLOOR.L.fmt
6 5
11 10
fs
fd
5
5
0
FLOOR.L
001011
6
Format:
FLOOR.L.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the long
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd.
Regardless of the setting of the current rounding mode, the conversion is
rounded as if the current rounding mode is round to -∞ (3).
This instruction is valid only for conversion from single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats.
When the source operand is an Infinity, NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –263 to 263– 1, the Invalid operation exception is
raised. If the Invalid operation is not enabled then no exception is taken
and 263–1 is returned.
B-34
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
FLOOR.L.fmt
Floating-Point
Floor to Long
Fixed-Point Format
(continued)
FLOOR.L.fmt
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, L, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, L))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-35
Appendix B
FLOOR.W.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
Floating-Point
Floor to Single
Fixed-Point Format
FLOOR.W.fmt
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
FLOOR.W
001111
6
Format:
FLOOR.W.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the single
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd.
Regardless of the setting of the current rounding mode, the conversion is
rounded as if the current rounding mode is round to –∞ (RM = 3).
This instruction is valid only for conversion from a single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of
any register specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals
zero, since the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent
coprocessor general registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals
one, both even and odd register numbers are valid.
When the source operand is an Infinity or NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –231 to 231–1, an Invalid operation exception is
raised. If Invalid operation is not enabled, then no exception is taken and
231–1 is returned.
B-36
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point
Floor to Single
Fixed-Point Format
(continued)
FLOOR.W.fmt
FLOOR.W.fmt
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, W, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, W))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-37
Appendix B
Load Doubleword to FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
LDC1
31
26 25
LDC1
110101
6
21 20
base
5
LDC1
16 15
ft
5
0
offset
16
Format:
LDC1 ft, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form an unsigned effective address.
In 32-bit mode, the contents of the doubleword at the memory location
specified by the effective address is loaded into registers ft and ft+1 of the
floating-point coprocessor. This instruction is not valid, and is undefined,
when the least significant bit of ft is non-zero.
In 64-bit mode, the contents of the doubleword at the memory location
specified by the effective address are loaded into the 64-bit register ft of the
floating point coprocessor.
The FR bit of the Status register (SR26) specifies whether all 32 registers of
the R4000 are addressable. If FR equals zero, this instruction is not defined
when the least significant bit of ft is non-zero. If FR equals one, ft may
specify either odd or even registers.
If any of the three least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception takes place.
B-38
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Load Doubleword to FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
(continued)
LDC1
LDC1
Operation:
32
64
T:
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
data ← LoadMemory(uncached, DOUBLEWORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
if SR26 = 1 then /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
FGR[ft] ← data
elseif ft0 = 0 then /* valid specifier, 32-bit wide FGRs */
FGR[ft+1] ← data63...32
FGR[ft] ← data31...0
else /* undefined result if odd */
undefined_result
endif
32, 64
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-39
Appendix B
Load Word to FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
LWC1
31
26 25
LWC1
110001
6
21 20
base
5
LWC1
16 15
ft
5
0
offset
16
Format:
LWC1 ft, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form an unsigned effective address. The contents of the
word at the memory location specified by the effective address is loaded
into register ft of the floating-point coprocessor.
The FR bit of the Status register specifies whether all 64-bit Floating-Point
registers are addressable. If FR equals zero, LWC1 loads either the high or
low half of the 16 even Floating-Point registers. If FR equals one, LWC1
loads the low 32-bits of both even and odd Floating-Point registers.
If either of the two least-significant bits of the effective address is non-zero,
an address error exception occurs.
B-40
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Load Word to FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
(continued)
LWC1
LWC1
Operation:
32
64
T:
T:
32, 64
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
mem ← LoadMemory(uncached, WORD, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
/* “mem” is aligned 64-bits from memory. Pick out correct bytes. */
if SR26 = 1 then /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
FGR[ft] ← undefined32 || mem31+8*byte...8*byte
else /* 32-bit wide FGRs */
FGR[ft] ← mem31+8*byte...8*byte
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-41
Appendix B
Move From FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
MFC1
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
MF
00000
5
16 15
rt
5
MFC1
11 10
fs
5
0
0
000 0000 0000
11
Format:
MFC1 rt, fs
Description:
The contents of register fs from the floating-point coprocessor are stored
into processor register rt.
The contents of register rt are undefined for the instruction immediately
following MFC1.
The FR bit of the Status register specifies whether all 32 registers of the
R4000 are addressable. If FR equals zero, MFC1 stores either the high or
low half of the 16 even Floating-Point registers. If FR equals one, MFC1
stores the low 32-bits of both even and odd Floating-Point registers.
Operation:
32
T:
T+1:
data ← FGR[fs]31...0
GPR[rt] ← data
64
T:
data ← FGR[fs]31...0
T+1:
GPR[rt] ← (data31)32 || data
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
B-42
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
MOV.fmt
26 25
31
COP1
010001
6
MOV.fmt
Floating-Point Move
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
MOV
000110
6
Format:
MOV.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the FPU register specified by fs are interpreted in the
specified format and are copied into the FPU register specified by fd.
The move operation is non-arithmetic; no IEEE 754 exceptions occur as a
result of the instruction.
This instruction is valid only for single- or double-precision floating-point
formats.
The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register specification is set and
the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since the register numbers
specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor general registers. When
the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both even and odd register
numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, fmt, ValueFPR(fs, fmt))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-43
Appendix B
Move To FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
MTC1
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
MT
00100
5
16 15
rt
5
MTC1
11 10
fs
5
0
0
000 0000 0000
11
Format:
MTC1 rt, fs
Description:
The contents of register rt are loaded into the FPU general register at
location fs.
The contents of floating-point register fs is undefined for the instruction
immediately following MTC1.
The FR bit of the Status register specifies whether all 32 registers of the
R4000 are addressable. If FR equals zero, MTC1 loads either the high or
low half of the 16 even Floating-Point registers. If FR equals one, MTC1
loads the low 32-bits of both even and odd Floating-Point registers.
Operation:
32,64
T:
T+1:
data ← GPR[rt]31...0
if SR26 = 1 then /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
FGR[fs] ← undefined32 || data
else /* 32-bit wide FGRs */
FGR[fs] ← data
endif
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
B-44
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
MUL.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
MUL.fmt
Floating-Point Multiply
21 20
16 15
11 10
6 5
fmt
ft
fs
fd
5
5
5
5
0
MUL
000010
6
Format:
MUL.fmt fd, fs, ft
Description:
The contents of the floating-point registers specified by fs and ft are
interpreted in the specified format and arithmetically multiplied. The
result is rounded as if calculated to infinite precision and then rounded to
the specified format, according to the current rounding mode. The result
is placed in the floating-point register specified by fd.
This instruction is valid only for single- or double-precision floating-point
formats.
The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register specification is set and
the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since the register numbers
specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor general registers. When
the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both even and odd register
numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR (fd, fmt, ValueFPR(fs, fmt) * ValueFPR(ft, fmt))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Invalid operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
Underflow exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-45
Appendix B
NEG.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
NEG.fmt
Floating-Point Negate
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
NEG
000111
6
Format:
NEG.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the FPU register specified by fs are interpreted in the
specified format and the arithmetic negation is taken (polarity of the signbit is changed). The result is placed in the FPU register specified by fd.
The negate operation is arithmetic; an NaN operand signals invalid
operation.
This instruction is valid only for single- or double-precision floating-point
formats. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register specification
is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since the register
numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor general
registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both even and
odd register numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, fmt, Negate(ValueFPR(fs, fmt)))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Invalid operation exception
B-46
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
ROUND.L.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
Floating-Point
Round to Long
Fixed-Point Format
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
ROUND.L.fmt
6 5
11 10
fs
fd
5
5
0
ROUND.L
001000
6
Format:
ROUND.L.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the long
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd.
Regardless of the setting of the current rounding mode, the conversion is
rounded as if the current rounding mode is round to nearest/even (0).
This instruction is valid only for conversion from single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats.
When the source operand is an Infinity, NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –263 to 263– 1, the Invalid operation exception is
raised. If the Invalid operation is not enabled then no exception is taken
and 263 –1 is returned.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-47
Appendix B
ROUND.L.fmt
Floating-Point
Round to Long
Fixed-Point Format
(continued)
ROUND.L.fmt
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, L, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, L))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
B-48
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point
ROUND.W.fmt Round
ROUND.W.fmt
to Single
Fixed-Point Format
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
ROUND.W
001100
6
Format:
ROUND.W.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the single
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd.
Regardless of the setting of the current rounding mode, the conversion is
rounded as if the current rounding mode is round to the nearest/even
(RM = 0).
This instruction is valid only for conversion from a single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of
any register specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals
zero, since the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent
coprocessor general registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals
one, both even and odd register numbers are valid.
When the source operand is an Infinity or NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –231 to 231 –1, an Invalid operation exception is
raised. If Invalid operation is not enabled, then no exception is taken and
231 –1 is returned.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-49
Appendix B
Floating-Point
ROUND.W.fmt Round
ROUND.W.fmt
to Single
Fixed-Point Format
(continued)
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, W, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, W))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
B-50
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Store Doubleword from FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
SDC1
31
26 25
SDC1
111101
6
21 20
base
5
SDC1
16 15
ft
5
0
offset
16
Format:
SDC1 ft, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form an unsigned effective address.
In 32-bit mode, the contents of registers ft and ft+1 from the floating-point
coprocessor are stored at the memory location specified by the effective
address. This instruction is not valid, and is undefined, when the least
significant bit of ft is non-zero.
In 64-bit mode, the 64-bit register ft is stored to the contents of the
doubleword at the memory location specified by the effective address.
The FR bit of the Status register (SR26) specifies whether all 32 registers of
the R4000 are addressable. When FR equals zero, this instruction is not
defined if the least significant bit of ft is non-zero. If FR equals one, ft may
specify either odd or even registers.
If any of the three least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception takes place.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-51
Appendix B
Store Doubleword from FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
(continued)
SDC1
SDC1
Operation:
32
64
32,64
T:
T:
vAddr ← (offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
vAddr ← (offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
if SR26 = 1 /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
data ← FGR[ft]
elseif ft0 = 0 then /* valid specifier, 32-bit wide FGRs */
data ← FGR[ft+1] || FGR[ft]
else /* undefined for odd 32-bit reg #s */
data ← undefined64
endif
StoreMemory(uncached, DOUBLEWORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
B-52
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point
Square Root
SQRT.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
16 15
SQRT.fmt
11 10
6 5
fmt
0
00000
fs
fd
5
5
5
5
0
SQRT
000100
6
Format:
SQRT.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified format and the positive arithmetic square root is taken. The
result is rounded as if calculated to infinite precision and then rounded to
the specified format, according to the current rounding mode. If the value
of fs corresponds to –0, the result will be –0. The result is placed in the
floating-point register specified by fd.
This instruction is valid only for single- or double-precision floating-point
formats.
The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register specification is set and
the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since the register numbers
specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor general registers. When
the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both even and odd register
numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, fmt, SquareRoot(ValueFPR(fs, fmt)))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Invalid operation exception
Inexact exception
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-53
Appendix B
SUB.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
SUB.fmt
Floating-Point Subtract
21 20
16 15
11 10
6 5
fmt
ft
fs
fd
5
5
5
5
0
SUB
000001
6
Format:
SUB.fmt fd, fs, ft
Description:
The contents of the floating-point registers specified by fs and ft are
interpreted in the specified format and the value in the ft field is subtracted
from the value in the fs field. The result is rounded as if calculated to
infinite precision and then rounded to the specified format, according to
the current rounding mode. The result is placed in the floating-point
register specified by fd. This instruction is valid only for single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats.
The operation is not defined if bit 0 of any register specification is set and
the FR bit in the Status register equals zero, since the register numbers
specify an even-odd pair of adjacent coprocessor general registers. When
the FR bit in the Status register equals one, both even and odd register
numbers are valid.
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR (fd, fmt, ValueFPR(fs, fmt) – ValueFPR(ft, fmt))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Unimplemented operation exception
Invalid operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
Underflow exception
B-54
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Store Word from FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
SWC1
31
26 25
SWC1
111001
6
21 20
base
5
SWC1
16 15
ft
5
0
offset
16
Format:
SWC1 ft, offset(base)
Description:
The 16-bit offset is sign-extended and added to the contents of general
register base to form an unsigned effective address. The contents of
register ft from the floating-point coprocessor are stored at the memory
location specified by the effective address.
The FR bit of the Status register specifies whether all 64-bit floating-point
registers are addressable.
If FR equals zero, SWC1 stores either the high or low half of the 16 even
floating-point registers.
If FR equals one, SWC1 stores the low 32-bits of both even and odd
floating-point registers.
If either of the two least-significant bits of the effective address are nonzero, an address error exception occurs.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-55
Appendix B
Store Word from FPU
(Coprocessor 1)
(continued)
SWC1
SWC1
Operation:
32
64
32, 64
T:
T:
vAddr ← ((offset15)16 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
vAddr ← ((offset15)48 || offset15...0) + GPR[base]
(pAddr, uncached) ← AddressTranslation (vAddr, DATA)
pAddr ← pAddrPSIZE-1...3 || (pAddr2...0 xor (ReverseEndian || 02))
byte ← vAddr2...0 xor (BigEndianCPU || 02)
/* the bytes of the word are put in the correct byte lanes in
* “data” for a 64-bit path to memory */
if SR26 = 1 then /* 64-bit wide FGRs */
data ← FGR[ft]63-8*byte...0 || 08*byte
else /* 32-bit wide FGRs */
data ← 032-8*byte || FGR[ft] || 08*byte
endif
StoreMemory (uncached, WORD, data, pAddr, vAddr, DATA)
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable
TLB refill exception
TLB invalid exception
TLB modification exception
Bus error exception
Address error exception
B-56
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
TRUNC.L.fmt
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
Floating-Point
Truncate to Long
Fixed-Point Format
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
TRUNC.L.fmt
6 5
11 10
fs
fd
5
5
0
TRUNC.L
0 0 1 0 01
6
Format:
TRUNC.L.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the floating-point register specified by fs are interpreted in
the specified source format, fmt, and arithmetically converted to the long
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the floating-point register
specified by fd.
Regardless of the setting of the current rounding mode, the conversion is
rounded as if the current rounding mode is round toward zero (1).
This instruction is valid only for conversion from single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats.
When the source operand is an Infinity, NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –263 to 263–1, the Invalid operation exception is
raised. If the Invalid operation is not enabled then no exception is taken
and 263–1 is returned.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-57
Appendix B
TRUNC.L.fmt
Floating-Point
Truncate to Long
Fixed-Point Format
(continued)
TRUNC.L.fmt
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, L, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, L))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
B-58
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
Floating-Point
TRUNC.W.fmt Truncate
to Single TRUNC.W.fmt
Fixed-Point Format
31
26 25
COP1
010001
6
21 20
fmt
5
16 15
0
00000
5
11 10
6 5
fs
fd
5
5
0
TRUNC.W
001101
6
Format:
TRUNC.W.fmt fd, fs
Description:
The contents of the FPU register specified by fs are interpreted in the
specified source format fmt and arithmetically converted to the single
fixed-point format. The result is placed in the FPU register specified by fd.
Regardless of the setting of the current rounding mode, the conversion is
rounded as if the current rounding mode is round toward zero (RM = 1).
This instruction is valid only for conversion from a single- or doubleprecision floating-point formats. The operation is not defined if bit 0 of
any register specification is set and the FR bit in the Status register equals
zero, since the register numbers specify an even-odd pair of adjacent
coprocessor general registers. When the FR bit in the Status register equals
one, both even and odd register numbers are valid.
When the source operand is an Infinity or NaN, or the correctly rounded
integer result is outside of –231 to 231–1, an Invalid operation exception is
raised. If Invalid operation is not enabled, then no exception is taken and
–231 is returned.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-59
Appendix B
Floating-Point TRUNC.W.fmt
TRUNC.W.fmt Truncate
to Single
Fixed-Point Format
(continued)
Operation:
T:
StoreFPR(fd, W, ConvertFmt(ValueFPR(fs, fmt), fmt, W))
Exceptions:
Coprocessor unusable exception
Floating-Point exception
Coprocessor Exceptions:
Invalid operation exception
Unimplemented operation exception
Inexact exception
Overflow exception
B-60
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
FPU Instruction Set Details
FPU Instruction Opcode Bit Encoding
31...29
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
28...26
0
Opcode
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
COP1
LDC1
SDC1
LWC1
SWC1
23...21
25...24 0
MF
0
1
BC
S
2
3
δ
18...16
20...19 0
0
BCF
1
γ
2
γ
γ
3
sub
1
DMFη
δ
D
2
CF
δ
3
δ
δ
4
MT
δ
5
DMTη
δ
δ
W
δ
δ
δ
δ
1
2
3
BCT
γ
γ
γ
BCFL
γ
γ
γ
δ
6
CT
δ
7
Lη
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
γ
γ
γ
γ
6
γ
γ
γ
γ
7
γ
γ
γ
γ
δ
δ
br
Figure B-3
BCTL
γ
γ
γ
4
5
γ
γ
γ
γ
Bit Encoding for FPU Instructions
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
B-61
Appendix B
5...3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2...0
0
ADD
1
SUB
2
MUL
ROUND.Lη TRUNC.Lη CEIL.Lη
δ
δ
CVT.S
δ
C.F
C.SF
δ
δ
δ
δ
CVT.D
δ
δ
δ
C.UN
C.EQ
C.NGLE C.SEQ
Figure B-3 (cont.)
function
3
4
DIV
SQRT
FLOOR.Lη ROUND.W
δ
δ
δ
δ
C.UEQ
C.NGL
δ
δ
CVT.W
δ
C.OLT
C.LT
5
ABS
6
MOV
7
NEG
TRUNC.W
CEIL.W
FLOOR.W
δ
δ
CVT.Lη
δ
δ
δ
δ
C.OLE
C.LE
δ
δ
δ
δ
C.ULE
C.NGT
δ
C.ULT
C.NGE
Bit Encoding for FPU Instructions
Key:
B-62
γ
Operation codes marked with a gamma cause a reserved
instruction exception. They are reserved for future versions of the
architecture.
δ
Operation codes marked with a delta cause unimplemented
operation exceptions in all current implementations and are
reserved for future versions of the architecture.
η
Operation codes marked with an eta are valid only when MIPS III
instructions are enabled. Any attempt to execute these without
MIPS III instructions enabled causes an unimplemented operation
exception.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Subblock Ordering
C
A block of data elements (whether bytes, halfwords, words, or
doublewords) can be retrieved from storage in two ways: in sequential
order, or using a subblock order. This chapter describes these retrieval
methods, with an emphasis on subblock ordering.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
C-1
Appendix C
C.1 Sequential Ordering
Sequential ordering retrieves the data elements of a block in serial, or
sequential, order.
Figure C-1 shows a sequential order in which byte 0 is taken first and byte
7 is taken last.
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 0
taken first
Byte 3
Byte 4
Byte 4
taken fifth
Byte 2
taken third
Figure C-1
Byte 6
Byte 7
Byte 5
taken sixth
Byte 3
taken fourth
Byte 1
taken second
Byte 5
Byte 6
taken seventh
Byte 7
taken last
Retrieving a Data Block in Sequential Order
C.2 Subblock Ordering
Subblock ordering allows the system to define the order in which the data
elements are retrieved. The smallest data element of a block transfer for
the R400 is a doubleword, and Figure C-2 shows the retrieval of a block of
data that consists of 8 doublewords, in which DW2 is taken first.
hexword (block)
octalword
quadword
Order of retrieval
2
3
0
1
6
7
4
5
DW0
DW1
DW2
DW3
DW4
DW5
DW6
DW7
DW0
taken third
DW1
taken fourth
DW 3
taken second
DW2
taken first
Figure C-2
C-2
DW5
taken eighth
DW4
taken seventh
DW6
taken fifth
DW7
taken sixth
Retrieving Data in a Subblock Order
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Subblock Ordering
Using the subblock ordering shown in Figure C-2, the doubleword at the
target address is retrieved first (DW2), followed by the remaining
doubleword (DW3) in this quadword.
Next, the quadword that fills out the octalword are retrieved in the same
order as the prior quadword (in this case DW0 is followed by DW 1). This
is followed by the remaining octalword (DW8, DW7, DW4, DW5), that fills
out the hexword.
It may be easier way to understand subblock ordering by taking a look at
the method used for generating the address of each doubleword as it is
retrieved. The subblock ordering logic generates this address by
executing a bit-wise exclusive-OR (XOR) of the starting block address with
the output of a binary counter that increments with each doubleword,
starting at doubleword zero (0002).
Using this scheme, Tables C-1 through Table C-3 list the subblock ordering
of doublewords for a 32-word block, based on three different startingblock addresses: 00102, 10112, and 01012. The subblock ordering is
generated by an XOR of the subblock address (either 00102, 10112, and
01012) with the binary count of the doubleword (00002 through 11112).
Thus, the eighth doubleword retrieved from a block of data with a starting
address of 00102 is found by taking the XOR of address 00102 with the
binary count of DW8, 01112. The result is 01012, or DW5 (shown in Table
C-1).
The remaining tables illustrate this method of subblock ordering, using
various address permutations.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
C-3
Appendix C
Table C-1
C-4
Sequence of Doublewords Transferred Using Subblock Ordering: Address 00102
Cycle
Starting Block
Address
Binary Count
Double Word
Retrieved
1
0010
0000
0010
2
0010
0001
0011
3
0010
0010
0000
4
0010
0011
0001
5
0010
0100
0110
6
0010
0101
0111
7
0010
0110
0100
8
0010
0111
0101
9
0010
1000
1010
10
0010
1001
1011
11
0010
1010
1000
12
0010
1011
1001
13
0010
1100
1110
14
0010
1101
1111
15
0010
1110
1100
16
0010
1111
1101
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Subblock Ordering
Table C-2
Sequence of Doublewords Transferred Using Subblock Ordering: Address 10112
Cycle
Starting Block
Address
Binary Count
Double Word
Retrieved
1
1011
0000
1011
2
1011
0001
1010
3
1011
0010
1001
4
1011
0011
1000
5
1011
0100
1111
6
1011
0101
1110
7
1011
0110
1101
8
1011
0111
1100
9
1011
1000
0011
10
1011
1001
0010
11
1011
1010
0001
12
1011
1011
0000
13
1011
1100
0111
14
1011
1101
0110
15
1011
1110
0101
16
1011
1111
0100
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
C-5
Appendix C
Table C-3
C-6
Sequence of Doublewords Transferred Using Subblock Ordering: Address 01012
Cycle
Starting Block
Address
Binary Count
Double Word
Retrieved
1
0101
0000
0101
2
0101
0001
0100
3
0101
0010
0111
4
0101
0011
0110
5
0101
0100
0001
6
0101
0101
0000
7
0101
0110
0011
8
0101
0111
0010
9
0101
1000
1101
10
0101
1001
1100
11
0101
1010
1111
12
0101
1011
1110
13
0101
1100
1001
14
0101
1101
1000
15
0101
1110
1011
16
0101
1111
1010
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Output Buffer ∆i/∆t Control Mechanism
D
The speed of the R4000 output drivers is controlled by a negative feedback
loop that insures the drive-off times are only as fast as necessary to meet
the system requirement for single cycle transfers. This guarantees the
minimum ground bounce from L*(∆i/∆t) of the switching buffers,
consistent with the system timing requirements.
D.1 Mode Bits
Four bits are used to control the pull-up and pull-down delays. These bits
are initially set to the values in the mode bits InitN(3:0) for pull-up and
InitP(3:0) for pull-down. If the ∆i/∆t control mechanism is enabled, it is
recommended to load the mode bits InitP(3:0) and InitN(3:0) to the values
which provide the slowest slew rate.
Under normal conditions, the ∆i/∆t control mechanism is enabled to
compensate the output buffer delay for any changes in the temperature or
power supply voltage. The EnblDPLL mode bit is set for this mode of
operation.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
D-1
Appendix D
For situations where the jitter associated with the operation of the ∆i/∆t
control mechanism cannot be tolerated and where the variation in
temperature and supply voltage after ColdReset* is expected to be small,
the ∆i/∆t control mechanism can be instructed to lock during ColdReset*
and thereafter retain its control values. The EnblDPLLR mode bit is set
and EnblDPLL is cleared for this mode of operation.
In addition, if both the EnblDPLL and EnblDPLLR mode bits are cleared,
the speed of the output buffers are set by the InitP(3:0) and InitN(3:0)
mode bits.
D.2 Delay Times
Currently, delays of 0.5T, 0.75T, and T are supported, corresponding to the
Drv0_50, Drv0_75, and Drv1_00 mode bits, where T is the MasterClock
period. For example, in Drv0_75 mode, the entire signal transmission path
including the clock-to-Q, output buffer drive time, board flight time, input
buffer delay, and setup time will be traversed in 0.75 * the MasterClock
period, plus or minus the jitter due to the ∆i/∆t control mechanism.
All output drivers on the R4000, with the exception of the clock drivers, are
controlled by the ∆i/∆t control mechanism. The delay due to the output
buffer drive time component of the SCAddr(17:0), SCOEB, SCWRB,
SCDCSB, and SCTCSB pins is approximately 66% of the delay of drivers
of the other pins.
By measuring the transmission line delay of the trace that connects the
R4000 IO_Out and IO_In pins, the R4000 determines the worst case
propagation delay from an R4000 output driver to a receiving device. This
representative trace must have one and a half times the length and
approximately the same capacitive loading as the worst case trace on any
R4000 output.
D-2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Output Buffer Control Mechanism
The designer determines the trace characteristics by:
•
measuring the longest path from an R4000 output driver to a
receiving device, L
•
calculating the maximum capacitive loading on any signal pin,
C
•
connecting an incident-wave trace of length L with a capacitive
loading of C between the IO_In and IO_Out pins of the R4000
•
connecting a reflected wave trace of length L/2 to the IO_In
pin of the R4000.
An R4000 with appropriate traces connected to the IO_In and IO_Out
pins is illustrated in Figure D-1.
CPU Board
b
The longest trace from an
R4000 output driver to a
receiving device
a
c
R4000
IO_Out
d
IO_In
“Reflected wave” trace
Length = L/2
C Load = C
“Incident Wave” Trace
L=a+b+c+d
C = Total Capacitance Loading
of the worst case trace
Figure D-1
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
O_In/IO_Out Board Trace
D-3
Appendix D
D-4
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
PLL Passive Components
E
The Phase Locked Loop circuit requires several passive components for
proper operation, which are connected to PLLCap0, PLLCap1, VccP, and
VssP, as illustrated in Figure E-1.
In addition, the capacitors for PLLCap0 (Cp) and PLLCap1 (Cp) can be
connected to either VssP (as shown), VccP, or one to VssP and one to
VccP. Note that C2 and the Cp capacitors are incorporated into both the
179PGA and 447PGA package designs as surface-mounted chip
capacitors.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
E-1
Appendix E
Vcc
PLLCap1
R
L
Cp
VccP
%1
R4000
C2
C3 C1, C3,
Rs and Ls
are Board
Caps
C1
Cp
VssP
%2
R
PLLCap0
Vss
Figure E-1
E-2
L
PLL Passive Components
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
PLL Passive Components
Figure E-2 shows a top view of the 179-pin package with capacitors.
x
x
die
x
x
x
C2
%1
x: Vss-Vcc Bypass Caps
C2: VssP-VccP Bypass Caps
%1, %2: PLL Caps
%2
Figure E-2
179-Pin Package
Figure E-3 shows a top view of the 447-pin package with chip capacitors.
x
x
x
x: Vss-Vcc Bypass Caps
C2: VssP-VccP Bypass Caps
%1, %2: PLL Caps
x
die
x
x
x
%1
C2
%2
x
Figure E-3
447-Pin Package
It is essential to isolate the analog power and ground for the PLL circuit
(VccP/VssP) from the regular power and ground (Vcc/Vss). Initial
evaluations have yielded good results with the following values:
R = 5 ohms
C1 = 1 nF
C3 = 10 µF
Cp = 470 pF
C2 = 82 nF
Since the optimum values for the filter components depend upon the
application and the system noise environment, these values should be
considered as starting points for further experimentation within your
specific application. In addition, the chokes (inductors: L) can be
considered for use as an alternative to the resistors (R) for use in filtering
the power supply.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
E-3
Appendix E
E-4
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Coprocessor 0 Hazards
F
The contents of the System Coprocessor registers and the TLB affect the
operation of the processor in many ways. For instance, an instruction that
changes CP0 data also affects subsequent instructions that use the data.
In the CPU, general registers are interlocked and the result of an
instruction can generally be used by the next instruction; if the result is not
available right away, the processor stalls until it is available. CP0 registers
and the TLB are not interlocked, however; there may be some delay before
a value written by one instruction is available to following instructions.
There is a required-data dependence between an instruction that changes a
register or TLB entry (a writer) and the next instruction that uses it (a user).
(A writer can write multiple data items, forming multiple writer/user
pairs.) The writer/user instruction pair places a hazard on the data if there
must be a delay between the time the writer instruction writes the data,
and the user instruction can use the data.
In addition to instructions, events can be writers and users of CP0
information. For instance, an exception writes information to CP0
registers and events that occur for every instruction, like an instruction
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
F-1
Appendix F
fetch, use CP0 information. Therefore, when manipulating CP0 contents,
the systems programmer must identify hazards and write code that avoids
these hazards.
Table F-1 describes how to identify and avoid hazards, listing instructions
and events that use CP0 registers and the TLB. This table also tells when
written information is available (column 3) and when this latest
information can actually be used (column 2). Exception event writer timing
refers to the instruction identified with the exception; user event timing
information is the pipestage of each instruction during which the user
event uses the data. In the case of a hazard, the number of instructions
required between a writer and user is:
available_stage - (use_stage + 1)
To identify a hazard, look for an instruction/event writer/user pair that
has a required-data dependence and use the timing information in the
table to calculate the delay required between the writer and user. If no
delay is required, there is no hazard. If there is a hazard, place enough
instructions between the writer and user so that the written information is
available or effective when the user needs it.
NOTE: Any instructions inserted between a writer/reader pair with
a hazard must not depend on or modify the data creating the hazard
(for example NOP instructions may be used).
The following steps are used to determine a hazard delay:
1.
Find the pipeline stage of the writer instruction in which the result
is available. For example, the MTC0 instruction writes a CP0
general register, and the new value is available at stage 7.
2.
Find the pipeline stage in which the user instruction reads or uses
the data item that the writer changes. The TLBWR instruction, for
example, uses different registers through different stages; all source
register values must be stable by stage 5 and remain unchanged
through stage 8.
3. Calculate the number of instructions that must be inserted between
the hazardous pair, by using this formula: available_stage (use_stage + 1). For example, with an MTC0/TLBWR pair, MTC0
data is available at stage 7, and TLBWR data must be stable by
stage 5 so the computation is: 7 - (5 + 1) = 1. This means 1
instruction must be inserted between the MTC0 and TLBWR. If the
result of the computation is less than or equal to zero, there is no
hazard and no instructions are required between the pair.
F-2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Coprocessor 0 Hazards
Table F-1
R4000 Coprocessor 0 Data Writer and User Timing
Instruction or Event
MTC0 / DMTC0
MFC0 / DMFC0
CP0 Data Used, Stage Used
CPR[0,rd]
4βγ
TLBR
Index, TLB
5-7
PageMask, EntryHi,
EntryLo0, EntryLo1
8
5-8
TLB
8
3-6
4
3
Index
Status[EXL, ERL]
LLbit
TagLo, TagHi, ECC
7
4-8α
7
8βε
Status[CH]
cache line (see note)
8ε
ε
Index or Random,
PageMask, EntryHi,
EntryLo0, EntryLo1
PageMask, EntryHi
EPC or ErrorEPC, TLB
Status
TLBWI
TLBWR
TLBP
ERET
Index Load Tag
Index Store Tag
CACHE Hit ops
CACHE ops
Load/Store
TagLo, TagHi, ECC
8ε
cache line (see note)
EntryHi.ASID
Status[KSU, EXL, ERL, RE],
Config[K0, DB], TLB
Config[SB]
WatchHi, WatchLo
ε
4
7
4-5
EPC, Status, Cause,
8
BadVaddr, Context, XContext
EPC, Status
8
Cause, BadVAddr, Context,
4
XContext
Load/Store exception
Instruction fetch
exception
Instruction fetch
Coproc. usable test
Interrupt signals
sampled
TLB shutdown
CP0 Data Written, Stage Available
CPR[0,rd]
7γδ
EntryHi[ASID],
Status[KSU, EXL, ERL, RE],
Config[K0, IB]
Config.SB
TLB (mapped addresses)
Status[CU, KSU, EXL, ERL]
Cause[IP],
Status[IM, IE, EXL, ERL]
0α
3
2
2
3
Status.TS
7
EntryHi.ASID refers to the ASID field of the EntryHi register.
Config[K0, DB] refers to the K0 and DB fields of the Config register.
α
The EXL and ERL bits in the Status register are permanently
cleared in stage 8, if no exceptions abort the ERET. However the
effect of clearing them is visible to an instruction fetch starting in
stage 4, so the “returned to” instructions use the modified values in
the Status register.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
F-3
Appendix F
β
Only one instruction is needed to separate Index Load Tag and
MFC0 Tag, even though table timing indicates otherwise.
γ
An MTC0 of a CPR must not be immediately followed by MFC0 of
the same CPR.
δ
With an MTC0 to Status that modifies KSU and sets EXL or ERL, it
is possible for the five instructions following the MTC0 to be
executed incorrectly in the new mode, and not correctly in the
kernel mode. This can be avoided by setting EXL first, and only
later changing the value of KSU.
ε
There must be two non-load, non-CACHE instructions between a
store and a CACHE instruction directed to the same primary cache
line as the store.
Table F-2 lists some hazard conditions, and the number of instructions that
must come between the writer and the user. The table shows the data item
that creates the hazard, and the calculation for the required number of
intervening instructions.
Table F-2
Writer
→
CP0 Hazards and Calculated Delay Times.
User
Hazard On
Instructions
Between
Calculation
TLBWR/
TLBWI
→
TLBP
TLB entry
3
8-(4+1)
TLBWR/
TLBWI
→
load/store using new TLB
TLB entry
entry
3
8-(4+1)
TLBWR/
TLBWI
→
I-fetch using new TLB
entry
TLB entry
5
8-(2+1)
MTCO
Status[CU]
→
→
→
→
→
→
→
→
Coprocessor instruction
needs CU set
Status[CU]
4
7-(2+1)
MFC0 EntryHi
EntryHi
3
8-(4+1)
TLBWR/TLBWI
EntryLo0
1
7-(5+1)
MFC0 Index
Index
2
7-(4+1)
TLBP
EntryHi
1
7-(5+1)
ERET
EPC
2
7-(4+1)
ERET
Status
3
7-(3+1)
instruction interrupted†
Status[IE]
3
7-(3+1)
TLBR
MTC0 EntryLo0
TLBP
MTC0 EntryHi
MTC0 EPC
MTC0 Status
MTC0
Status[IE]
†. You cannot depend on a delay in effect if the instruction execution order is changed by exceptions.
In this case, for example, the minimum delay for IE to be effective is the maximum delay before a
pending, enabled interrupt can occur.
F-4
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Pinouts
G
This Appendix shows the pinouts for the three microprocessor
configurations: R4000PC, R4000SC, and R4000MC.
NOTE: This entire Appendix, Appendix G, is new for the
second edition.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
G-1
Appendix G
G.1 Pinout of R4000PC
Figure G-1 shows the physical pinout of the R4000PC. Table G-1 lists
the signal-to-pin correspondence.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
V
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
V
U
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
U
T
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
T
R
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
R
P
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
P
N
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
N
M
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
M
L
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
L
K
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
K
J
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
J
H
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
H
G
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
G
F
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
F
E
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
E
D
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
D
C
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
C
B
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
B
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
A
1
R4000 PC Pinout
Figure G-1
G-2
x
Bottom
R4000PC Physical Pinout
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Pinouts
Table G-1
R4000
Function
ColdReset*
NC
IOOut
Int*2
Int*5
JTDO
MasterOut
NMI*
RClock0
Release*
SyncOut
SysAD2
SysAD5
SysAD8
SysAD11
SysAD14
SysAD17
SysAD20
SysAD23
SysAD26
SysAD29
SysAD32
SysAD35
SysAD38
SysAD41
SysAD44
SysAD47
SysAD50
SysAD53
SysAD56
SysAD59
SysAD62
PC Pkg
Pin
T14
U10
U12
K3
F2
F16
P17
U7
T17
V5
P16
E1
C4
B9
B14
D17
M2
T2
U6
T12
T16
H2
D2
C6
C11
C15
F17
N3
U3
T10
V15
N16
Signal-to-Pin Correspondences for the R4000PC
R4000
Function
ExtRqst*
Vcc
Int*0
Int*3
JTCK
JTMS
ModeClock
PLLCap0
RClock1
Reset*
SysAD0
SysAD3
SysAD6
SysAD9
SysAD12
SysAD15
SysAD18
SysAD21
SysAD24
SysAD27
SysAD30
SysAD33
SysAD36
SysAD39
SysAD42
SysAD45
SysAD48
SysAD51
SysAD54
SysAD57
SysAD60
SysAD63
PC Pkg
Pin
U2
T9
N2
J3
H17
E16
B4
****†
R16
U16
J2
E3
B5
B11
B15
E18
P1
T4
U9
U14
R17
G3
C3
C7
B13
B17
L2
R2
T6
T11
T15
N17
R4000
Function
Fault*
IOIn
Int*1
Int*4
JTDI
MasterClock
ModeIn
PLLCap1
RdRdy*
SyncIn
SysAD1
SysAD4
SysAD7
SysAD10
SysAD13
SysAD16
SysAD19
SysAD22
SysAD25
SysAD28
SysAD31
SysAD34
SysAD37
SysAD40
SysAD43
SysAD46
SysAD49
SysAD52
SysAD55
SysAD58
SysAD61
SysADC0
PC Pkg
Pin
B16
T13
L3
H3
G16
J17
U4
****†
T5
J16
G2
C2
B6
C12
C16
K2
P3
U5
U11
U15
M16
F3
B3
C10
A15
E17
M3
T3
T7
U13
U17
C8
†. This node has capacitors for the PLL premounted to the package.
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
G-3
Appendix G
Table G-1 (cont.) Signal-to-Pin Correspondences for the R4000PC
R4000
Function
SysADC1
SysADC4
SysADC7
SysCmd2
SysCmd5
SysCmd8
TClock1
ValidOut*
VssP
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
G-4
PC Pkg
Pin
G17
B8
L17
B2
C9
C13
D16
R3
K16
A7
A13
C1
G18
K1
N18
U1
V8
V14
A6
A12
A18
D1
H18
L1
P18
U18
V4
V11
V18
R4000
Function
SysADC2
SysADC5
SysCmd0
SysCmd3
SysCmd6
SysCmdP
VCCOk
WrRdy*
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
PC Pkg
Pin
T8
H16
E2
A5
B10
C14
M17
C5
A2
A9
A16
D18
H1
L18
R1
V3
V10
V17
A8
A14
B1
F18
J1
M18
R18
V1
V7
V13
R4000
Function
SysADC3
SysADC6
SysCmd1
SysCmd4
SysCmd7
TClock0
ValidIn*
VccP
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
PC Pkg
Pin
L16
U8
D3
B7
B12
C17
P2
K17
A4
A11
B18
F1
J18
M1
T18
V6
V12
A3
A10
A17
C18
G1
K18
N1
T1
V2
V9
V16
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Pinouts
G.2 Pinout of R4000MC/SC Package Pinout
Figure G-2 shows the physical pinout of the R4000MC and SC. Table
G-2 lists the signal-to-pin correspondence.
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
AW AU AR AN AL AJ AG AE AC AA W
U
R
AV AT AP AM AK AH AF AD AB Y
V
T
P
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• MC/SC
•
• 447
• Pinout
•
•
R4000
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(bottom)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
N
M
•
L
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A
•
•
•
B
•
•
•
C
•
•
•
D
•
•
•
E
•
•
•
F
•
•
•
G
•
•
•
H
•
•
•
J
•
•
•
K
•
•
•
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
AW AU AR AN AL AJ AG AE AC AA W
U
R
N
L
J
G
E
C
A
AV AT AP AM AK AH AF AD AB Y
V
T
P
M
K
H
F
D
B
Figure G-2
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000MC/SC Physical Pinout
G-5
Appendix G
Table G-2
R4000
Function
ColdReset*
NC
IOOut
IvdErr*†
JTDO
MasterOut
NMI*
RClock0
Release*
SCAPar0
SCAdd1
SCAdd4
SCAdd7
SCAddr10
SCAddr13
SCAddr16
SCAddr0X
SCDCS*
SCDChk2
SCDChk5
SCDChk8
SCDChk11
SCDChk14
SCData1
SCData4
SCData7
SCData10
SCData13
SCData16
SCData19
SCData22
PC Pkg
Pin
AW37
AV24
AV28
AA39
J39
AJ39
AV16
AM34
AV12
U5
AL5
AC1
AA1
AA7
Y6
W1
AN5
M6
AP20
R37
C17
AG37
AR19
R7
C9
E17
G25
C35
AE3
AN9
AT14
Signal-to-Pin Correspondences for the R4000MC/SC
R4000
Function
ExtRqst*
Vcc
Int*0
JTCK
JTMS
ModeClock
PLLCap0
RClock1
Reset*
SCAPar1
SCAdd2
SCAdd5
SCAdd8
SCAddr11
SCAddr14
SCAddr17
SCAddr0Y
SCDChk0
SCDChk3
SCDChk6
SCDChk9
SCDChk12
SCDChk15
SCData2
SCData5
SCData8
SCData11
SCData14
SCData17
SCData20
SCData23
PC Pkg
Pin
AV2
AV20
AL1
U39
G37
B8
****‡
AL33
AU39
U1
AG1
AC5
AB4
AA3
W5
U3
AM6
G19
AD34
AU19
N37
E19
AE35
L5
F12
G21
E29
K36
AG5
AU9
AR17
R4000
Function
Fault*
IOIn
IvdAck*†
JTDI
MasterClock
ModeIn
PLLCap1
RdRdy*
SC64Addr
SCAPar2
SCAdd3
SCAdd6
SCAdd9
SCAddr12
SCAddr15
SCAddr0W
SCAddr0Z
SCDChk1
SCDChk4
SCDChk7
SCDChk10
SCDChk13
SCData0
SCData3
SCData6
SCData9
SCData12
SCData15
SCData18
SCData21
SCData24
PC Pkg
Pin
C39
AV32
AA35
N39
AA37
AV8
****‡
AW7
Y2
P4
AE7
AC3
AA5
W3
W7
AN7
AL7
T34
C19
AE37
AU17
R35
R3
F8
G15
C25
G31
N35
AK4
AN13
AT22
†. Used only in the MC part. Must be tied to Vcc for the SC part.
‡. This node has capacitors for the PLL premounted to the package.
G-6
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Pinouts
Table G-2 (cont.) Signal-to-Pin Correspondences for the R4000MC/SC
R4000
Function
SCData25
SCData28
SCData31
SCData34
SCData37
SCData40
SCData43
SCData46
SCData49
SCData52
SCData55
SCData58
SCData61
SCData64
SCData67
SCData70
SCData73
SCData76
SCData79
SCData82
SCData85
SCData88
SCData91
SCData94
SCData97
SCData100
SCData103
SCData106
SCData109
SCData112
SCData115
SCData118
PC Pkg
Pin
AU25
AN31
AG35
L7
E13
C23
D30
L35
AJ3
AT10
AT18
AR27
AN35
V4
E5
G13
D22
C31
M34
AG7
AR11
AU21
AP28
AL35
N3
E9
F16
C27
G33
AD6
AU5
AU13
R4000
Function
SCData26
SCData29
SCData32
SCData35
SCData38
SCData41
SCData44
SCData47
SCData50
SCData53
SCData56
SCData59
SCData62
SCData65
SCData68
SCData71
SCData74
SCData77
SCData80
SCData83
SCData86
SCData89
SCData92
SCData95
SCData98
SCData101
SCData104
SCData107
SCData110
SCData113
SCData116
SCData119
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
PC Pkg
Pin
AN27
AR35
T6
E7
E15
F24
C33
R33
AJ7
AR13
AU23
AN29
AJ35
R5
G9
D14
E25
F32
AC7
AR5
AN15
AN23
AU31
AH34
N7
C11
E21
F28
J37
AG3
AN11
AN17
R4000
Function
SCData27
SCData30
SCData33
SCData36
SCData39
SCData42
SCData45
SCData48
SCData51
SCData54
SCData57
SCData60
SCData63
SCData66
SCData69
SCData72
SCData75
SCData78
SCData81
SCData84
SCData87
SCData90
SCData93
SCData96
SCData99
SCData102
SCData105
SCData108
SCData111
SCData114
SCData117
SCData120
PC Pkg
Pin
AR29
AK36
L3
G11
G17
E27
E35
AF4
AP8
AR15
AT26
AP32
AE33
N5
E11
C21
G27
J35
AE5
AR9
AP16
AR25
AR33
U7
C5
C13
G23
E31
N33
AJ5
AU11
AR21
G-7
Appendix G
Table G-2 (cont.) Signal-to-Pin Correspondences for the R4000MC/SC
R4000
Function
SCData121
SCData124
SCData127
SCTChk0
SCTChk3
SCTChk6
SCTag2
SCTag5
SCTag8
SCTag11
SCTag14
SCTag17
SCTag20
SCTag23
SCWrX*
Status0
Status3
Status6
SyncOut
SysAD2
SysAD5
SysAD8
SysAD11
SysAD14
SysAD17
SysAD20
SysAD23
SysAD26
SysAD29
SysAD32
SysAD35
SysAD38
G-8
PC Pkg
Pin
AP24
AU33
AG33
AN21
AP12
AH6
C7
D18
D26
E33
L37
AJ37
AU35
AN25
J7
U33
W35
AC35
AN39
J3
A3
A21
A33
G39
AH2
AU1
AW13
AW29
AR37
R1
E1
A11
R4000
Function
SCData122
SCData125
SCOE*
SCTChk1
SCTChk4
SCTag0
SCTag3
SCTag6
SCTag9
SCTag12
SCTag150
SCTag18
SCTag21
SCTag24
SCWrY*
Status1
Status4
Status7
SysAD0
SysAD3
SysAD6
SysAD9
SysAD12
SysAD15
SysAD18
SysAD21
SysAD24
SysAD27
SysAD30
SysAD33
SysAD36
SysAD39
PC Pkg
Pin
AU27
AN33
N1
AN19
AU7
K4
D10
F20
C29
G35
P36
AJ33
AR31
AR23
H6
U35
W37
AC33
T2
G3
A9
A25
B38
L39
AL3
AW3
AW21
AW33
AM38
L1
C3
A15
R4000
Function
SCData123
SCData126
SCTCS*
SCTChk2
SCTChk5
SCTag1
SCTag4
SCTag7
SCTag10
SCTag13
SCTag16
SCTag19
SCTag22
SCWrW*
SCWrZ*
Status2
Status5
SyncIn
SysAD1
SysAD4
SysAD7
SysAD10
SysAD13
SysAD16
SysAD19
SysAD22
SysAD25
SysAD28
SysAD31
SysAD34
SysAD37
SysAD40
PC Pkg
Pin
AT30
AL37
J1
AU15
AR7
G7
C15
E23
G29
L33
AF36
AN37
AU29
J5
G5
V36
AC37
W39
M2
C1
A13
A29
E37
AD2
AN3
AW9
AW25
AV38
AH38
H2
A5
A23
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
R4000 Pinouts
Table G-2 (cont.) Signal-to-Pin Correspondences for the R4000MC/SC
R4000
Function
SysAD41
SysAD44
SysAD47
SysAD50
SysAD53
SysAD56
SysAD59
SysAD62
SysADC1
SysADC4
SysADC7
SysCmd2
SysCmd5
SysCmd8
TClock1
ValidOut*
VssSense
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
PC Pkg
Pin
A27
C37
M38
AM2
AW5
AW23
AW35
AL39
R39
A19
AC39
B2
B24
A37
J33
AR3
U37
A39
B18
D4
D24
F2
F30
H36
Y38
AD4
AF38
AM4
AP10
AP38
AT16
AT36
R4000
Function
SysAD42
SysAD45
SysAD48
SysAD51
SysAD54
SysAD57
SysAD60
SysAD63
SysADC2
SysADC5
SysCmd0
SysCmd3
SysCmd6
SysCmdP
VCCOk
WrRdy*
VccP
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
PC Pkg
Pin
A31
B39
AE1
AR1
AW11
AW27
AU37
AG39
AW17
T38
G1
B12
B28
H34
AE39
A7
AA33
B6
B26
D8
D32
F14
F38
K6
AB2
AD36
AK2
AM36
AP18
AT4
AT24
AV6
R4000
Function
SysAD43
SysAD46
SysAD49
SysAD52
SysAD55
SysAD58
SysAD61
SysADC0
SysADC3
SysADC6
SysCmd1
SysCmd4
SysCmd7
TClock0
ValidIn*
VccSense
VssP
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
Vcc
PC Pkg
Pin
A35
H38
AJ1
AU3
AW15
AW31
AR39
A17
AD38
AW19
E3
B20
B32
H34
AN1
W33
Y34
B10
B34
D16
D36
F22
H4
K38
AB34
AF6
AK34
AP2
AP26
AT8
AT32
AV14
G-9
Appendix G
Table G-2 (cont.) Signal-to-Pin Correspondences for the R4000MC/SC
R4000
Function
Vcc
Vcc
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
G-10
PC Pkg
Pin
AV22
AW1
B14
B36
D12
D34
F6
F26
K2
M36
V2
AB6
AF2
AH36
AP4
AP22
AP36
AT12
AT34
AV10
AV36
R4000
Function
Vcc
Vcc
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
PC Pkg
Pin
AV30
AW39
B22
D2
D20
D38
F10
F34
K34
P6
Y4
AB36
AF34
AK6
AP6
AP30
AT2
AT20
AT38
AV18
R4000
Function
Vcc
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
Vss
PC Pkg
Pin
AV34
B4
B30
D6
D28
F4
F18
F36
M4
P38
Y36
AB38
AH4
AK38
AP14
AP34
AT6
AT28
AV4
AV26
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Index
64-bit mode
32-bit operands, handling of 39
address space 31
address translation 66, 95
addresses 63
FPU operations 153
TLB entry format 81
A
Numerics
32-bit
addressing 109
applications 9
data format 24
instructions 36
operands, in 64-bit mode 39
operations 6, 67
single-precision FP format 164
virtual-to-physical-address
translation 65
32-bit mode
address space 31
address translation 65, 95
addresses 63
FPU operations 153
TLB entry format 81
4th Floor
B-dorm. See Alco Hall
64-bit
addressing 109
ALU 9
bus, address and data 201
data format 24
double-precision FP format 164
floating-point registers 156
FPU 9
internal data path widths 381
operations 6, 39, 67
System interface 11
virtual-to-physical-address
translation 66
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
address acceleration 58
Address Error exception 127
address prediction 58
address space identifier (ASID) 64
address spaces
32-bit translation of 65
64-bit translation of 66
address space identifier (ASID) 64
physical 64
virtual 63
virtual-to-physical translation of 64
addressing
and data formats 24
big-endian 24
Kernel mode 73
little-endian 24
misaligned data 26
Supervisor mode 69
User mode 67
virtual address translation 95
See also address spaces
Alco Hall vs. Acid. See game, softball
application software, compatibility with
MIPS R2000, R3000, and R6000
processors 6
architecture
64-bit 9
superpipeline 11
array, page table entry (PTE) 102
ASID. See address space identifier
I-1
Index
B
Bad Virtual Address register (BadVAddr)
103
big-endian, byte addressing 24, 170
binary fixed-point format 166
bit definition of
ERL 68, 69, 73, 109
EXL 68, 69, 73, 109, 112, 119
IE 109
KSU 68, 69, 73
KX 73, 109
SX 69, 109
UX 68, 109
boot-mode settings 222
boundary scanning 390
Boundary-scan register 394
branch delay 48
branch instructions, CPU 15, 41
branch instructions, FPU 170
Breakpoint exception 138
Bus Error exception 134
Bypass register 393
byte addressing
big-endian 24, 170
little-endian 24, 170
byte ordering 24
big-endian 24
in doublewords 25
little-endian 24
C
cache 33
Cache Error (CacheErr) register 116
Cache Error exception 132
Cache Error exception process 120
caches
attributes
clean 255
clean exclusive 256
dirty 255
dirty exclusive 256
I-2
dirty shared 255
exclusive 255
invalid 255
shared 255
coherency
attributes 264
conflicts 271–285
maintaining coherency on load
and store operations 269
protocol, overview 264
synchronization 286
description 246
line ownership 258
manipulation by an external agent 270
mapping states between caches 257
memory hierarchy 32, 244
misses
address prediction 58
handling 49
performance considerations 58
pipeline back-up 54
on-chip instruction and data caches 33
on-chip primary caches 33, 246
operation modes 266
optional external secondary cache 32
ordering constraints 267
overview of operations 245
primary cache, states 256
primary data cache
accessing 251
line size 250
primary instruction cache
accessing 251
line size 249
secondary cache
accessing 254
line size 252
organization 252
states 256
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Index
Secondary Cache interface 33, 379
See also Secondary Cache interface
secondary cache sizes 248
state diagrams 260
strong ordering
example of 267
testing for 267
terminology 243
write-back policy 259
Cause register 110
central processing unit (CPU)
cache memory hierarchy 32
data formats and addressing 24
exception processing 99
See also exception processing, CPU
features 6–33
instruction formats 14, 36
instruction pipeline, basic operation
43
See also pipeline, CPU
instruction set
extensions 16
overview 14, 35
types of instructions 15
instructions. See instructions, CPU
interrupts 401
See also interrupts, CPU
memory management 31
See also memory management
memory organization 244
operating modes 32
registers 12
See also registers, CPU
System Control Coprocessor (CP0)
27, 80
See also System Control
Coprocessor
System interface 293
See also System interface
transfers between FPU and CPU 169
CISC. See complex instruction set
computer
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
ckseg0 79
ckseg1 79
ckseg3 79
cksseg 79
Class of '73. See 4th Floor
B-dorm
clean exclusive, cache attribute 256
clean, cache attribute 255
Clock interface
connecting clocks
to CMOS logic system 238
to gate-array device 235
to phase-locked system 234
to system without phase locking
235
signals 203, 227
status outputs 241
system timing parameters 233
clocks, system 229
coherency. See caches, coherency
cold reset 214
compare instructions, FPU 171
Compare register 104
compatibility
application software, with MIPS
R2000, R3000, and R6000
processors 6
DEC VAX 24
iAPX x86 24
IBM 370 24
MC68000 24
compilers, MIPS suite of 5
complex instruction set computer (CISC)
compared with RISC, in languages
used 4
historical context 1–2
computational instructions, CPU 15
64-bit operations 39
cycle timing for multiply and divide
instructions 40
formats 39
I-3
Index
computational instructions, FPU
floating-point 170
Config register 90
Context register 102
Control/Status register, FPU 157, 159
conversion instructions, FPU 170
coprocessor instructions 15, 42
Coprocessor Unusable exception 140
correctness considerations 58
Count register 103
CP0. See System Control Coprocessor
CPU. See central processing unit
csseg 72
cycle time, interlock and exception
handling 53
D
data alignment 170
Data Fetch, First Half (DF) 46
Data Fetch, Second Half (DS) 46
data formats
and addressing 24
byte ordering 24
data identifiers 364
data transmission errors, ECC
detecting 418
types of
double data bit 422
four data bit 424
single check bit 421
single data bit 420
three data bit 423
DEC VAX, compatibility with 24
delayed load instruction 37
design cycles, RISC vs. CISC 3
dirty exclusive, cache attribute 256
dirty shared, cache attribute 255
dirty, cache attribute 255
divide registers, CPU 13
Division-by-Zero exception 194
doublewords, byte ordering in 25
I-4
E
EntryHi register 81, 89
EntryLo register 87
EntryLo0 register 81, 87
EntryLo1 register 81, 87
ERL bit 68, 69, 73, 109
Error Checking and Correcting (ECC)
mechanism
check bit assignments 414
data transmission errors
detecting 418
four data bit 424
parity check matrix 425
single check bit 421
single data bit 420
three data bit 423
operation 408, 412
parity error checking 408
R4400 Fault* signal 414
SECDED
check matrices 414
overview 409
Error Checking and Correcting (ECC)
register 115
Error Exception Program Counter
(ErrorEPC) register 118
exception instructions, CPU 15, 42
exception processing, CPU
conditions 52
effect on pipeline 53
exception handler flowcharts 144
exception types
Address Error 127
Breakpoint 138
Bus Error 134
Cache Error 132
Cache Error exception process 120
Coprocessor Unusable 140
Floating-Point 141
general exception process 121
Integer Overflow 135
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Index
exception types (cont.)
Interrupt 143
Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI)
exception process 121
overview 119
Reserved Instruction 139
Reset 124
Reset exception process 120
Soft Reset 125
Soft Reset exception process 121
System Call 137
TLB 128
Trap 136
Virtual Coherency 133
Watch 142
exception vector location
Reset 122
Illegal Instruction (II) 49
overview 100
pipelining 56
priority of 123
exception processing, FPU
exception types
Division by Zero 194
Inexact 192
Invalid Operation 193
Overflow 194
overview 188
Underflow 195
Unimplemented Instruction 196
flags 190
saving and restoring state 197
trap handlers 198
Exception Program Counter (EPC) register
100, 112
exclusive, cache attribute 255
Execution (EX) 46
EXL bit 68, 69, 73, 109, 112, 119
extensions, to instruction set architecture
F
faults, CPU
handling 49
features
central processing unit 6–33
Floating-Point Unit (FPU) 30, 153
R4000 configurations 7
Floating-Point exception 141
Floating-Point General-Purpose registers
(FGRs) 154
Floating-Point registers (FPRs) 156
Floating-Point Unit (FPU)
designated as CP1 30, 152
exception types 188
See also exception processing, FPU,
exception types
features 30, 153
formats
binary fixed-point 166
floating-point 164
instruction execution cycle time 173
instruction pipeline 172
See also pipeline, FPU
instruction set, overview 167
overview 152
programming model 154
transfers between FPU and CPU 169
transfers between FPU and memory
169
FPU. See Floating-Point Unit
G
game, softball. See yellow_slugs
general exception
handler 145
process 121
servicing guidelines 146
16
external stalls, conditions 53
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
I-5
Index
H
hardware
interlocks 169
interrupts 402
hazards, System Control Coprocessor F-1
I
iAPX x86, compatibility with 24
IBM 370, compatibility with 24
IDEC. See instruction decoder
IE bit 109
Illegal Instruction (II) exception 49
Implementation/Revision register, FPU
157–158
Index register 85
Initialization interface
boot-mode settings 222
cold reset 214, 217
initialization sequence 218
power-on reset 214, 216
reset signal description 215
signals 208, 213
warm reset 208, 214, 217
initialization sequence, system 218
instruction decoder (IDEC), CPU 45
instruction decoding, CPU 14
Instruction Fetch, First Half (IF) 45
Instruction Fetch, Second Half (IS) 45
instruction formats, CPU
types of 14, 36
See also instructions, CPU
Instruction register 392
instruction set architecture (ISA)
extensions to 16
overview 14
instruction set, CPU
extensions 16
overview 14, 35
types of instructions 15
See also instructions, CPU
instruction set, FPU 167
I-6
instruction translation lookaside buffer
(ITLB) 45
instructions, CPU
branch 15, 41
common to MIPS R-Series processors
16–23
computational 15
64-bit operations 39
cycle timing for multiply and
divide instructions 40
formats 39
coprocessor 15, 42
exception 15, 42
extensions to CPU instruction set 16
instruction decoder (IDEC) 45
instruction translation lookaside buffer
(ITLB) 45
joint translation lookaside buffer
(JTLB) 31
jump 15, 41
load
defining access types 37
delayed load instruction 37
overview 15
scheduling a load delay slot 37
No Operation (NOP) 59
register-to-register 47
special 15, 42
store
defining access types 37
overview 15
System Control Coprocessor (CP0) 15
translation lookaside buffer (TLB) 97
instructions, FPU
branch 170
compare 171
computational 170
conversion 170
latency 181
load 169
move 169
pipeline stage sequences 181
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Index
instructions, FPU (cont.)
repeat rate 181
scheduling 175
scheduling restraints 176
store 169
Integer Overflow exception 135
interfaces. See Clock interface; Initialization
interface; Interrupt interface; JTAG
interface; Secondary Cache
interface; System interface
interlocks, CPU
aborting instructions subsequent to 55
effect on pipeline 53
external stalls 53
handling 49, 56
pipelining 56
types of 49
interlocks, hardware 169
Interrupt exception 143
Interrupt interface, signals 207
Interrupt register 402–405
interrupts, CPU
accessing 402
handling 49
hardware 402
Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI) 402
Invalid Operation exception 193
invalid, cache attribute 255
ISA. See instruction set architecture
ITLB. See instruction translation lookaside
buffer
signals 207, 391
Test Access Port (TAP) 395
joint translation lookaside buffer (JTLB) 31
JTLB. See joint translation lookaside buffer
(JTLB)
jump instructions, CPU 15, 41
K
Kernel mode
and exception processing 100
ckseg0 79
ckseg1 79
ckseg3 79
cksseg 79
kseg0 75
kseg1 76
kseg3 76
ksseg 76
kuseg 75
operations 73
xkphys 78
xkseg 79
xksseg 78
xkuseg 77
kseg0 75
kseg1 76
kseg3 76
ksseg 76
KSU bit 68, 69, 73
kuseg 75
KX bit 73, 109
J
L
Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) interface
boundary scanning, explanation of
language suite approach, benefits of 5
latency
determining 363
external read response 363
external response 361, 363
fault detection 435
FPU instruction 181
FPU operation 173
390
operation 400
registers
Boundary-scan 394
Bypass 393
Instruction 392
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
I-7
Index
latency (cont.)
intervention response 363
release 361, 362
snoop response 363
line ownership, cache 258
line size
primary data cache 250
primary instruction cache 249
secondary cache 252
little-endian, byte addressing 24, 170
load delay 48, 169
load delay slot 37
load instructions, CPU
defining access types 37
delayed load instruction 37
overview 15
scheduling a load delay slot 37
load instructions, FPU 169
Load Linked Address (LLAddr) register
93
M
Master/Checker mode, of R4400 430
MC68000, compatibility with 24
memory management
address spaces 63
addressing 31
memory management unit (MMU) 61
register numbers 84
registers. See registers, CPU, memory
management
System Control Coprocessor (CP0) 80
memory organization, hierarchy 244
MIPS RISCompilers, language suite 5
MIPS R-Series processors, instructions
common to 16–23
move instructions, FPU 169
multiply registers, CPU 13
I-8
N
No Operation (NOP) instructions 59
Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI) 402
Nonmaskable Interrupt (NMI) exception
handling 150
process 121
O
on-chip primary caches 33, 246
operating modes 32
Kernel mode 73
Supervisor mode 69
User mode 67
Overflow exception 194
P
page table entry (PTE) array 102
PageMask register 81, 87
parameters, system timing 233
parity check matrix 425
parity error checking 408
performance
address acceleration 58
address prediction 58
of uncached stores 59
physical address space 64
pipeline, CPU
back-up 54
branch delay 48
correctness considerations 58
decision whether to advance 57
exception conditions 52
external stalls 53
load delay 48
operation 44
overrun 53
performance considerations 58
slip conditions 53
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Index
pipeline, CPU (cont.)
stages
Data Fetch, First Half (DF) 46
Data Fetch, Second Half (DS) 46
Execution (EX) 46
Instruction Fetch, First Half (IF) 45
Instruction Fetch, Second Half (IS)
45
Register Fetch (RF) 45
Tag Check (TC) 46
Write Back (WB) 47
stall conditions 53
pipeline, FPU
cycle time 173
overlapping 175
overview 172
resource scheduling rules 182
stage sequences 181
Porter, née College 5. See Class of '73
power-on reset 214, 216
primary caches. See caches
Processor Revision Identifier (PRId)
register 89
R
R4400
cache error bit 7
cache sizes 6
clock ratio 91
DC bit, setting primary D-cache size
92
divide-by-6 clock 91, 223
divide-by-8 clock 91, 223
EC bit 91
ECC Fault* signal 414
enhancements over R4000 7
EW bit 117
fault detection latency 435
IC bit, setting primary I-cache size 92
Master/Checker boot-mode bits
223, 225
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Master/Checker mode 7, 430
Master/Checker mode configurations
430
Master/Checker mode reset operation
436
primary cache size 33
Status signals 7, 241
system clock ratio, boot-mode bits 223
uncached loads 326
uncached store buffer 7, 59, 326
Random register 86
reduced instruction set computer (RISC)
compared with CISC, in languages
used 4
design, benefits of 2
developments in recent years 2
historical context 1–2
optimizing compilers 4
Register Fetch (RF) 45
registers, CPU
exception processing
Bad Virtual Address (BadVAddr)
103
Cache Error (CacheErr) 116
Cause 110
Compare 104
Config 90
Context 102
Count 103
Error Checking and Correcting
(ECC) 115
Error Exception Program Counter
(ErrorEPC) 118
Exception Program Counter (EPC)
112
Load Linked Address (LLAddr)
93
Processor Revision Identifier
(PRId) 89
register numbers 101
Status 105
TagHi 93
I-9
Index
registers, CPU (cont.)
exception processing (cont.)
TagLo 93
WatchHi 113
WatchLo 113
XContext 114
Exception Program Counter (EPC) 100
Interrupt 402–405
memory management
EntryHi 81, 89
EntryLo 87
EntryLo0 81, 87
EntryLo1 81, 87
Index 85
PageMask 81, 87
Random 86
register numbers (CP0) 80
Wired 86, 88
overview 12
register-to-register instructions 47
System Control Coprocessor (CP0)
80–97
registers, FPU
Control/Status 157, 159
Floating-Point (FPRs) 156
Floating-Point General-Purpose
(FGRs) 154
Implementation/Revision 157–158
registers, JTAG interface
Boundary-scan 394
Bypass 393
Instruction 392
Request 336
requests. See System interface
Reserved Instruction exception 139
Reset exception
handling 150
overview 124
process 120
I-10
resets
cold 214, 217
power-on 214, 216
warm 208, 214, 217
S
SCDChk bus 381
SCTAG bus 381
SECDED
check matrices 414
overview 409
Secondary Cache interface
accessing a split secondary cache 381
data transfer rates 380
duplicating signals 380
operation of 382
overview 33
read cycles 383
SCDChk bus fields 381
SCTAG bus fields 381
signals 205
write cycles 385
secondary caches. See caches
sequential ordering 378
shared, cache attribute 255
signals
Clock interface 203, 227
descriptions 199
Initialization interface 208, 213
Interrupt interface 207
JTAG interface 207, 391
request cycle control signals 298
Secondary Cache interface 205
summary 209
system clocks 229
System interface 201
slips, conditions 53
slugs, banana. See UCSC
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Index
Soft Reset exception
handling 150
overview 125
process 121
special instructions, CPU 15, 42
sseg 71
stalls
conditions 53
external 53
status outputs, processor 241
Status register
access states 109
format 105
operating modes 109
store instructions, CPU
defining access types 37
overview 15
store instructions, FPU 169
strong ordering
example of 267
testing for 267
subblock ordering 378
superpipeline architecture
execution rate 6
Supervisor mode
csseg 72
operations 69
sseg 71
suseg 71
xsseg 72
xsuseg 72
suseg 71
SX bit 69, 109
System Call exception 137
System Control Coprocessor (CP0)
hazards F-1
instructions 15
register numbers 80
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
registers
overview 27
used in exception processing 101
used in memory management
80–97
System interface
addressing conventions 377
buses 295
commands
external validate requests 370
intervention requests 372
null requests 369
overview 364
read requests 366
snoop requests 372
syntax 364
update requests 370
write requests 367
cycle time
cluster request spacing 361
external response latency 363
release latency 362
data identifiers
overview 364
data identifiers, syntax 364, 374
data rate control
data transfer patterns 356
independent transmissions on
SysAD bus 359
secondary cache transfers 357
secondary cache write cycle time
358
description 293–294
endianness 360
I-11
Index
System interface (cont.)
external request protocols
arbitration request 342
intervention request 349
invalidate request 348
null request 344
overview 329, 341
read request 343
snoop request 352
update request 348
write request 347
external requests
intervention request 317
invalidate request 316
null request 344
overview 313–315
read request 316
read response request 317
snoop request 317
update request 316
write request 316
handling requests
CACHE operations 327
Load Linked Store Conditional
operation 327
load miss 318–320
store hit 326
store miss 321–325
uncached loads or stores 326
issue cycles 296
master state 299
overview 11
processor internal address map 378
processor request protocols
cluster 337
cluster flow control 338
invalidate request 335
null write request 336
overview 329
read request 330
update request 335
write request 333
I-12
processor requests
cluster 311
invalidate request 308
null write request 336
overview 304–305
read request 306
update request 310
write request 307
protocols 299
request
control signals 298
overview 302
rules 303
sequential ordering 378
signals 201
slave state 299
subblock ordering 378
timing requirements 60
T
Tag Check (TC) 46
TagHi register 93
TagLo register 93
Test Access Port (TAP)
controller 396
controller reset 396
controller states 396
overview 395
timing requirements, pipeline 60
TLB invalid exception 130
TLB modified exception 131
TLB refill exception 129
TLB. See translation lookaside buffer
TLB/XTLB miss exception handler 147
TLB/XTLB refill exception servicing
guidelines 148
translation lookaside buffer (TLB)
and memory management 61
and virtual memory 62
coherency attributes 78
entry formats 81
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
Index
translation lookaside buffer (TLB) (cont.)
exceptions 128
instructions 97
misses 97, 102, 144
page attributes 78
pipeline stages 46
virtual memory mapping 31
translation, virtual to physical
32-bit 65
64-bit 66
Trap exception 136
U
X
XContext register 114
xkphys 78
xkseg 79
xksseg 78
xkuseg 77
xsseg 72
xsuseg 72
xuseg 67, 69
Y
yellow_slugs. See slugs, banana
UCSC. See Porter, née College 5
uncached store buffer 59
Underflow exception 195
Unimplemented Instruction exception 196
useg 67, 69
User mode
operations 67
useg 69
xuseg 69
UX bit 68, 109
V
virtual address space 63
Virtual Coherency exception 133
virtual memory
and the TLB 62
hits and misses 62
mapping 31
multiple matches 62
virtual address translation 95
W
warm reset 208, 214, 217
Watch exception 142
WatchHi register 113
WatchLo register 113
Wired register 86, 88
Write Back (WB) 47
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual
I-13
Index
I-14
MIPS R4000 Microprocessor User's Manual