Forestry Product Calculator: Addressing
Mismatches Between Energy Provision
and Consumption
Ida Katrine Thoresen
Master of Science in Computer Science
Submission date: June 2014
Supervisor:
Herindrasana Ramampiaro, IDI
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Department of Computer and Information Science
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This master thesis is written in the course TDT4900 Computer and Information Science,
Master Thesis at Norwegian University of Technology and Science (NTNU). This thesis
was executed on behalf of COWI Norway AS between the 15th of January and the 11th of
June.
I am a student from the Department of Computer and Information Science at NTNU. My
task was to plan and develop a forestry product calculator application for handheld devices.
I would like to thank my adviser Heri Ramampiaro for his advice, help and feedback
through the whole period. His help has been tremendous, and despite of the long distance
between our workplaces, I have received quick responses to all my questions.
In addition I would like to thank my customer COWI and their contact persons Stein
Eriksen, Mikael Ørseng and Knute Foss. Their input and feedback have been invaluable
and I would like to thank them for the cooperation.
I would also like to thank the persons that sat aside the time to participate in my surveys
and tests, and provided valuable feedback about the application.
i
ii
ABSTRACT
The climate is a still growing problem. By making people aware that they can save money
when heating houses using firewood, several people might start using firewood instead of
other more polluting heating methods. But to calculate the kWh price of firewood is not
something that most people know how to do, and it seems that there does not exist any
tools that make this easy today.
Forestry products trading is usually done between forestry specialists and energy specialists.
These professional groups do not share standards, thus having problems to understand one
another. The Forestry Product Calculator calculates prices and amounts between all the
necessary annotations.
In view of this, the main goal with this thesis is to develop an application that remove
the problems regarding cooperation between different industries when trading forestry
products. The Forestry Product Calculator should be so intuitive to use so that everyone
participating in such tradings should enjoy using it. The application should be seen as a
tool that makes the everyday work go a lot easier.
To evaluate the work done with the Forestry Product Calculator application there have
been conducted several tests, all which provided valuable feedback. The test persons have
also responded to an SUS-form that provided an SUS-score, revealing whether or not they
were satisfied with the application. Forestry experts have also been contacted, and they are
all looking forward to start using the application.
All requirements established at the beginning of this thesis is met, and some even better
than anticipated. The response time of the application is better than hoped, and the users do
not use as much time as expected. We believe, however, that the application can enlighten
users about the energy amount in firewood, which makes it easier for the user to see the
environmental benefits of firewood heating compared to other heating methods. We also
believe that the application will make the regular workday for a forestry expert easier, as
calculation annotations are done by the application.
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SAMMENDRAG
Klimaendringer er fortsatt ett voksende problem. Ved å gjøre folk oppmerksomme på at
de kan spare penger ved å varme opp husene med vedfyring, vil flere mennesker begynne
å bruke dette som brensel i stedet for andre mer forurensende oppvarmingsmetoder. Det å
beregne kWh prisen på fyringsved er ikke noe folk flest vet hvordan de gjør, og det finnes
ingen verktøy som gjør dette i dag.
Handel av skogsprodukter til bruk i industri utføres vanligvis mellom skogspesialister og
energispesialister. Disse benytter ikke de samme enhetene, og har dermed problemer med
å sammenligne priser og kvantitet av produktene. Forestry Product Calculator beregner
priser og kvantitet mellom forskjellige enheter.
I lys av dette, er hovedmålet med denne avhandlingen å utvikle et verktøy som løser
problemene rundt kjøp og salg av skogsprodukter mellom de ulike aktørene. Forestry
Product Calculator skal være intuitiv å bruke, slik at alle som utfører denne type handel
ønsker å ta verktøyet i bruk. Dette verktøyet skal lette det daglige arbeidet til ansatte i
skogbruks- og energiindustrien.
For å evaluere arbeidet som er gjort med Forestry Product Calculator er det gjennomført
flere tester. Testpersonene fylte også ut ett SUS-skjema, som er benyttet til beregning
av en SUS-poengsum. Denne poengsummen viser hvor enkelt og effektivt testpersonene
oppfatter verktøyet. Skogbrukseksperter er forespurt om nytten av dette verktøyet, og flere
ønsker å benytte verktøyet i arbeidssammenheng.
Alle spesifikasjonene som ble utarbeidet ved oppstart av dette arbeidet har blitt oppfylt,
noen med bedre resultat enn sepesifisert, blandt annet er responstiden. Det vil si at
resultatene av beregningene som blir utført, vises tilnærmet umiddelbart . Verktøyet vil
gi brukerne informasjon om energimengde i veden de kjøper, noe som gjør det enklere
for brukeren å se de miljømessige fordelene ved oppvarming med ved sammenlignet med
andre oppvarmingsmetoder. Vi tror også at verktøyet vil lette arbeidssituasjonen til en
skogbruksekspert, ved at beregninger mellom forskjellige enheter utføres av verktøyet.
v
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
x
List of Tables
xii
List of Figures
xiii
1
Introduction
1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Problem statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Outline of dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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2
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Research Context & Method
2.1 Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Research Methods . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Quantitative research . . . . .
2.2.2 Qualitative research . . . . . .
2.2.3 Mixed research . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 Method applied for this thesis
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Theoretical background
3.1 Social issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Bio-energy is less climate friendly than anticipated
3.1.2 Research challenges for the energy nation . . . . .
3.2 Quality attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Usability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4 Testability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5 Modifiability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
4
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6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Related Work
4.1 Calculators . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 BMI kalkulator . . . . . .
4.1.2 Financial Calculators . . .
4.1.3 Calories Burned Calculator
4.2 Forestry products . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Firewood Log Companion
4.2.2 Timber Calculator . . . .
4.2.3 Firewood Calculator . . .
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System development
5.1 Requirement Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Capturing the requirements . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 Application requirements . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 Major requirements . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 System Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 How the product was designed . . . . . .
5.2.2 Development from the preliminary study
5.2.3 Screen structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5 Related tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5.1 DevExtreme . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5.2 PhoneGap . . . . . . . . . . .
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Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.1 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 Prototype testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1.1 Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Black-box testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2.1 Functional testing . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2.1.1
Template for functional testing .
6.1.2.1.2
The tests . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2.2 Usability testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2.2.1
System Usability Scale . . . . .
6.1.2.2.2
Usability goals . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2.2.3
Templates . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2.2.4
The test . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2.2.5
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3 Use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3.1 Actors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3.2 Use case diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3.3 Textual use cases . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Empirical studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Advanced studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1.1 Firewood purchase survey . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1.1.1
Firewood purchase survey results
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.2.1.2
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Conclusion
7.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Achievements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Further work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6.3
7
Industrial survey . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1.2.1
Industrial survey results
6.2.1.3 Outcome of the studies . . . . .
6.2.2 Arrears studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation & Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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A Apache License
63
B Requirements
B.1 Functional requirements . . . . . . . . . .
B.2 Non-functional requirements . . . . . . . .
B.2.1 Quality requirements . . . . . . . .
B.2.1.1 Usability . . . . . . . . .
B.2.1.1.1 U1 Ease of use
B.2.1.1.2 U2 Efficient use
B.2.2 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.2.2.1 P1 Latency . . . . . . . .
B.2.2.2 P2 Correctness . . . . .
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C Design Guidelines
C.1 Microsoft guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.1.1 Android guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C.2 iOS guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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D User Manual
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E Functional tests
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F Usability testing
F.1 The tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2 Test execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2.1 Preparation for the test leader . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2.2 Information about the test given to the user . . . .
F.2.3 Information about the application given to the user
F.2.4 SUS form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.2.5 Observation form for usability testing . . . . . . .
F.3 The results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.3.1 Test one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.3.2 Test two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.3.3 Test three . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.3.4 Test four . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F.3.5 Test five . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
F.3.6
F.3.7
F.3.8
F.3.9
F.3.10
F.3.11
F.3.12
F.3.13
F.3.14
F.3.15
F.3.16
F.3.17
F.3.18
F.3.19
F.3.20
Test six . . . .
Test seven . . .
Test eight . . .
Test nine . . .
Test ten . . . .
Test eleven . .
Test twelve . .
Test thirteen . .
Test fourteen .
Test fifteen . .
Test sixteen . .
Test seventeen
Test eighteen .
Test nineteen .
Test twenty . .
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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101
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115
115
x
LIST OF TABLES
2.1
2.2
Common types of variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emphases of Quantitative, Mixed and Qualitative Research . . . . . . . .
7
9
3.1
CO2 combustion calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Test case template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textual use case - Choose part . . . . . . . . . .
Textual use case - Calculate results, firewood part
Textual use case - Calculate results, industry part
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40
44
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46
7.1
Fulfillment of requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
Functional requirements
U1 Ease of use . . . . .
U2 Efficient use . . . . .
P1 Latency . . . . . . .
P2 Correctness . . . . .
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67
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69
E.1
E.2
E.3
E.4
E.5
E.6
Test case 1
Test case 2
Test case 3
Test case 4
Test case 5
Test case 6
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87
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89
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90
90
F.1
F.2
F.3
F.4
F.5
Usability test - task 1
Usability test - task 2
Usability test - task 3
Usability test - task 4
Usability test - task 5
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91
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xi
LIST OF TABLES
F.6
F.7
F.8
F.9
F.10
F.11
F.12
F.13
F.14
F.15
F.16
F.17
F.18
F.19
F.20
F.21
F.22
F.23
F.24
F.25
F.26
F.27
Usability test - task 6 . . .
Observation form template
Test number one . . . . . .
Test number two . . . . . .
Test number three . . . . .
Test number four . . . . .
Test five . . . . . . . . . .
Test six . . . . . . . . . .
Test seven . . . . . . . . .
Test eight . . . . . . . . .
Test nine . . . . . . . . . .
Test ten . . . . . . . . . .
Test eleven . . . . . . . .
Test twelve . . . . . . . .
Test thirteen . . . . . . . .
Test fourteen . . . . . . .
Test fifteen . . . . . . . .
Test sixteen . . . . . . . .
Test seventeen . . . . . . .
Test eighteen . . . . . . .
Test nineteen . . . . . . .
Test twenty . . . . . . . .
LIST OF TABLES
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xii
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92
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96
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113
114
115
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1
Research methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
BMI kalkulator icon . . . . . . .
Financial Calculators icon . . .
Calories Burned Calculator icon
Firewood Log Companion icon .
Timber Calculator icon . . . . .
Firewood Calculator icon . . . .
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17
18
19
20
20
21
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interrelated components . . . . . . . . . .
Shell diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flow chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Designer and code window . . . . .
PhoneGap development life cycle . . . .
PhoneGap architecture(PhoneGap, 2013)
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26
27
28
29
30
31
32
34
35
6.1
6.2
Black-box testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use case diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
43
F.1
SUS form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
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6
xiii
CHAPTER
1
INTRODUCTION
This chapter briefly explains the motivation behind my work. It also explains the problem
to be solved and why this problem is worth solving.
1.1
Motivation
The climate is always changing, but unfortunately not to the better. As the development
goes on, people pollute more and more, and the climate is in the long term getting worse.
To minimize pollution, people need to be aware of a more environmental, but still not
more expensive, way to heat houses. People need to get help when comparing firewood
and other energy products regarding price per kWh. The firewood part of the Forestry
Product Calculator that is to be developed during this thesis does exactly that. It makes it
easier to compare prices between different quantities and qualities of firewood as well as
it provides the price per kWh of the firewood. In this way it becomes quite easy for the
home owners to compare firewood to other kinds of heating products, such as electricity
and kerosene.
Both regarding the climate and the constant resource reduction, the energy industry needs
to start using other products when producing energy. Some of the products they increasingly
use, are different forestry products. The problem today appears when the energy industries
and the forestry product industries are trading products. The two different industries
use different standards, and therefore they have problems calculating correct prices and
amounts of one extension to another. This may often lead to problems in accounting, and
that one of the parties ends up with the feeling of being cheated since they thought they
bought more energy than they actually did. The industry part of the Forestry Product
Calculator provides correct calculations between all the different extensions, and removes
the problems regarding different standards in the industries.
1
1.2 Problem statement
1.2
Chapter 1. Introduction
Problem statement
The problem addressed in this thesis is whether it is possible to build an application which
calculates between different annotations regarding forestry products. For instance, the
forestry industry can talk about solid tons while the energy industry believes that this is
the same as tons, which it is not. Solid tons and tons are two different weight annotations.
The different parties in the process of purchasing forestry products do not use the same
annotations. Can such an application make the trading easier?
A lot of people use firewood today, but do they really understand how much energy they
buy, or what the price of the energy is? The possibilities of such an application, for use in
the industry and for the regular firewood buyer, will be investigated.
An application called Forestry Product Calculator should be available on an open mobile
platform, such as Android. If there exist any tools that make it possible for the application
to work on iOS and Windows phones without too much extra work, the application should
work on these as well. The problems regarding firewood purchase and energy, as well as
the one regarding annotation problems when trading forestry product should be taken into
account.
2
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.3
1.3 Outline of dissertation
Outline of dissertation
The rest of this thesis is organized as follows:
Chapter 2 - Research context & method gives an overview of the different research
methods and describes the one that have been used during this thesis, as well as the
context of which the application is to be used.
Chapter 3 - Theoretical background contains an overview of today’s social issues that
the Forestry Product Calculator application can minimize, and describes the theory
behind the application.
Chapter 4 - Related work gives an overview of other applications that are in some way
similar to the Forestry Product Calculator.
Chapter 5 - System Development describes how the requirements were captured, what
they are, and why they are important. It also includes design decision discussions,
how the screen is structured, and tools that are used in the making of the Forestry
Product Calculator application.
Chapter 6 - Experiments & empirical studies gives an overview of the different tests
that have been conducted, all use cases for the application and empirical studies
done in the forestry product industry before and after the application was produced.
Chapter 7 - Conclusion contains results achieved, and what should be done next.
Appendices
Appendix A - Licenses include licenses for the different tools used making the
Forestry Product Calculator.
Appendix B - Requirements gives an overview of both functional and non-functional
requirements.
Appendix C - Design guidelines contains the different operating systems guidelines
that are used making a recognizable design.
Appendix D - User manual includes the user manuals for both the firewood and
industry part of the application.
Appendix E - Functional tests contains the functional tests that are used during
the experiments.
Appendix F - Usability testing gives an overview of usability testing, the tests
itself and the results.
Bibliography
3
1.3 Outline of dissertation
Chapter 1. Introduction
4
CHAPTER
2
RESEARCH CONTEXT & METHOD
This chapter explains in what context the different parts of the Forestry Product Calculator
should be used, and why it should be used in those cases. It also presents three different
research methodology paradigms, and which one that are used in this thesis.
2.1
Context
The application is divided into two parts, industrial use of forestry products and public use
of firewood. These parts are to be used in different ways. The industry part is to be used by
professionals in the forestry and energy industries, while the firewood part is going to be
used by the everyday man when buying firewood. Both parts makes it easier to compare
prices between different forestry products and quantity.
The industry part is to be used during tradings of forestry products, in order to make it
easier for the different participants to understand what they are buying regardless of the
standards used. Even though the two parties in a trade do not use the same standards, it
should be easy for both parties to know how much product, or energy, is being bought or
sold.
The firewood part will be used to make it easier for the everyday man to know which
sack of firewood is the most valuable to buy. The application makes the energy content
calculation for a sack of firewood to make it is possible for everyone, even those who do
not know much about energy or firewood, to know how much energy they buy and how
much they pay for it.
5
2.2 Research Methods
2.2
Chapter 2. Research Context & Method
Research Methods
This section explains three research methodology paradigms. These are shown in figure
2.1, and compared in table 2.2. (Bryman, 2006, p. 97-113)
Figure 2.1: Research methods
2.2.1
Quantitative research
”Research that relies primarily on the collection of quantitative data.” (Bryman, 2006, p.
97)
Quantitative data is data that deals with numbers. It is data that can be measured, such as
length, height, weight and cost. For instance a picture can be described by the measurement
10” by 14”, it weighs 8.5 pounds and cost $300.
Quantitative research is based on the use of variables. There are different variable types
that are used in quantitative research, as showed in table 2.1 below.
Quantitative research consists of two major types, experimental and non-experimental.
In experimental research, cause and effect relationship are being studied. Experimental
research actively manipulates independent variables and uses random assignment to create
equivalent groups. With non-experimental research there are no manipulation of independent
variables.
The research done in quantitative research decides what to study. It is done by asking
specific and narrow questions regarding the topic in hand, meaning that usable quantifiable
data can be collected from the users. All collected data from such surveys are to be
analyzed, and further provide the developer knowledge about what should be researched.
6
Chapter 2. Research Context & Method
Variable type
Categorical
Quantitative
Independent
Dependent
Intervening
Moderator
2.2 Research Methods
Key characteristic
Made up of different types or categories of a phenomenon
Varies in degree or amount of a phenomenon
Presumed cause of another variable
Changes the effect or outcome, based on another variable
Comes in between other variables, helps to delineate the process
through which variables affect one another, a mediator variable
Delineates how a relationship of interest changes under different
conditions or circumstances
Table 2.1: Common types of variables
Since this thesis is regarded around the forestry industry, using the quantitative research
method would in some ways be beneficial, as the users are the ones that best know what
is missing, and what the problems are today. By conducting surveys that addresses the
problems regarding the forestry industry and the use of firewood it became clear what
the issues that needed attention were. Based on the results from the surveys and the
conversations with several forestry trading experts information about the problems decided
what problems this these should concentrate on minimizing.
2.2.2
Qualitative research
”Research that relies on the collection of qualitative data.” (Bryman, 2006, p. 97)
Qualitative data is data that deals with descriptions. It is data that can be observed but
not measured, such as colors, textures, smells, tastes and appearances. For instance the
same picture as described with quantitative data, in section 2.2.1, can be characterized
by blue colors, an old smell and a texture that show brush strokes (Roberts, 2012). Both
descriptions explain the picture, but in very different ways. The best description depends
on what information the user needs.
There are five major types of qualitative research:
• Phenomenology: The researches attempts to understand how individuals experience
a phenomenon
• Ethnography: Focuses on describing the culture of a group of people
• Case study: Focused on providing a detailed account of one or more cases
• Grounded theory: Generating and developing a theory from data that the researcher
collects
• Historical: About events that occurred in the past
7
2.2 Research Methods
Chapter 2. Research Context & Method
During the surveys, the users provided different data regarding the main problems of
trading, and the problems of understanding the energy content in firewood.They provided
numbers regarding how hard they found it to calculate different annotations, as well as how
high the energy content in the firewood are. This problem again leads to the ignorance of
whether firewood or electricity heating provides the best environmental benefit.
2.2.3
Mixed research
”Research that involves the mixing of quantitative and qualitative methods or paradigm
characteristics.” (Bryman, 2006, p. 97)
Mixed research is a mix between quantitative an qualitative methods, techniques or paradigms
to make one overall study. There exists two major types of mixed research:
• Mixed method: The researches use qualitative research paradigm for one phase of a
research study and the quantitative research paradigm for another phase of the study
• Mixed model: The researcher mixes both qualitative and quantitative research approaches
within a stage of the study across two or more of the stages of the research process.
2.2.4
Method applied for this thesis
The mixed method is the method applied during this project. Today’s social challenges are
looked into, and compared with my application considering how it can make some of the
challenges smaller, or even disappear. To make this possible, a lot of information about the
different problems is collected, and given a lot of thought on how to make some of them
smaller. The problems form the base that decided that an application, that the people and
society need, should be made.
The application is to be used by many different types of users, all of which may not have
used too many applications before. Therefore the different kinds of users have been studied
through testing of the application. Several people in different ages and sex contributed in
the testing process, which proved that the design really needed to be easy if it were to be
self-explanatory for all the users.
The application is twofolded and the firewood part is to be used to figure out which sack
of firewood is the most economic for the user to buy. The application is to be used when
someone are buying firewood, and it is to be used while the user is in the store looking at
the different options, helping the user to make the best decision.
The industry part is to be used mainly by experts in the forestry and energy industries.
They should use the application when trading forestry products, to be able to understand
each other. The different industries use different annotations when measuring initial and
final products, which leaves some trouble when trading and doing accounting.
8
Description, explanation,
and prediction
Narrow-angle lens
Attempt to study behavior
under controlled conditions
Objective
Scientific method
View of human behavior
Most common research
objectives
Focus
Nature of observation
9
Statistical
Form of final report
Corroborated findings may
generalize
Eclectic and pragmatic
Study behavior in more than
one context or condition
Commonsense realism and
pragmatic view of world
Multiple
Mixture of variables, words
and images
Quantitative and qualitative
Multilens
Multiple
Mixed research
Deductive and inductive
Somewhat predictable
Narrative
with
contextual
description and direct quotations
from research participants
Search for patterns, themes, and
holistic features
Particularistic findings
Qualitative research
Inductive or ”bottom-up”
Fluid, dynamic, situational,
social, contextual, and personal
Description, exploration, and
discovery
Wide-angle and ”deep-angle”
lens
Study behavior in natural
environments
Subjective, personal, and socially
constructed
Qualitative
Words, images, categories
Table 2.2: Emphases of Quantitative, Mixed and Qualitative Research
Identify
statistical
relationships
Generalizable findings
Data and analysis
Results
Quantitative
Variables
Form of data collected
Nature of data
Nature of reality
Quantitative research
Deductive or ”top-down”
Regular and predictable
Chapter 2. Research Context & Method
2.2 Research Methods
2.2 Research Methods
Chapter 2. Research Context & Method
10
CHAPTER
3
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
This chapter explains social issues connected to energy consumption and provision that
can be minimized by the use of the Forestry Product Calculator, as well as theory that can
be useful when designing the application screens.
3.1
Social issues
There are several social issues connected to energy consumption that can arise today.
This section discusses some of these issues and elaborate on how the Forestry Product
Calculator can make these issues smaller, or even disappear.
3.1.1
Bio-energy is less climate friendly than anticipated
Bio-energy from slow-growing forests and plants has always been categorized as climate-neutral
fuel since the CO2-emissions from plant mass can be absorbed by next generation plants.
However, the time f taken for new plants to be fully grown, and absorb all carbon dioxide
emission, is long. Regarding this, new calculations show that bio-energy from plants and
forests provide more carbon dioxide emissions than previously assumed (Foss, 2013).
The global warming potential (GWP) of combustion of bio-energy and fossil energy has
been calculated over a hundred-year perspective:
Former calculations
New calculations
Bioenergy
1 kilo CO2
1 kilo CO2
Fossil energy
0,4 kilo CO2
1,25-1,5 kilo CO2
Table 3.1: CO2 combustion calculations
11
3.1 Social issues
Chapter 3. Theoretical background
The numbers in table 3.1, state that the climate-effect from combustion of bio-energy,
forestry products and plants, are higher than the climate-effect from combustion of fossil
energy. This major change of results is due to the fact that former calculations did not
regard the logging waste that was left in the forests, or the fact that mature forests are still
growing, which means that it will take quite some time until the forests again absorbs the
same amount of carbon dioxide.
Regarding the pollution from combustion of bio-energy, the numbers are not all positive.
However, it is important to remember that these numbers only consider bio-energy that
is obtained by increased logging. This means that if the forest is being logged anyway,
for procurement of building materials or raw materials for the paper industry, the surplus
masses are climate-neutral energy sources.
The Forestry Product Calculator can provide a price and energy amount on the logging
waste, and in this way provide the logging companies an economical reason for using the
logging waste as well as the building materials. This way, the logging materials stop being
waste, and can instead be used as energy materials. This again may lead to less cutting,
since the former logging waste can be used as firewood. The Forestry Product Calculator
makes it possible to calculate the amount and price of the kWh in every forestry products
able to create, which makes it easier for the producing industries to know how much they
can earn on what they earlier has considered waste.
3.1.2
Research challenges for the energy nation
Regardless of its size, Norway is one of the largest energy nations in the world. The
Norwegian energy deposits will, with successful use and proper development of the
technological possibilities the deposits provide, probably be important success factors for
years to come. It is therefore essential to research, develop and secure these resources, and
their associated technologies, for the time to come (Havellen, 2007).
With the understanding of the growing importance of environmental impacts associated
with extraction and use of energy, there exists four important areas of focus:
• Increased efforts to utilize bio-resources and commodities from the Norwegian
agriculture and forestry, for energy purposes, both liquid and solid. It is decided
that all the countries that are members of the European Union must collect at least
twenty percent of its energy from renewable resources within the year of 2020.
• Major investments in offshore wind power.
• Long-term and committed work to best utilize the Norwegian thorium resources.
• Extensive efforts on reducing energy consumption and improve energy performance.
Saved energy is more valuable than newly manufactured energy.
12
Chapter 3. Theoretical background
3.2 Quality attributes
What can be done to reduce energy consumption, and at the same time make the everyday
man aware of his consumption? The Forestry Product Calculator can be used to calculate
how many kWh a specific amount of firewood consists of, as well as the price of it. By
making it easy for the everyday man to calculate how much kWh his sack of firewood
contains, he might be more aware of how much he is using, and in that way reduce his
energy consumption.
3.2
Quality attributes
This section addresses theory related to the frontend design of an application, thus relevant
for this project. It also explains how this theory have been used in the process of making
the application as good as possible.
3.2.1
Usability
”Any darn fool can make something complex; it takes a genius to make something
simple.” - Albert Einstein
Usability is a quality attribute that says something about the ease of use and learnability
of a human-made object for the intended users. The ISO definition is as follows: ”The
extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with
effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.”.
The usability consultant Jakob Nielsen and computer science professor Ben Shneiderman
have defined usability to consist of five quality attributes (Nielsen, 2012):
• Learnablity: How easy is it for the user to accomplish a basic task the first time he
uses the design?
• Efficiency: How quickly does a user perform different tasks after he has learned the
design?
• Memorability: How easy does the user reestablish the proficiency after he has
returned from a period of time where he did not use the design?
• Errors: How many errors does a user make during a period of time? How severe
are the errors, and how easily does the application recover after the errors have
occurred?
• Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design?
There are two different design paradigms that can be used to provide good usability to the
design of an object:
• User-centered: the design is made with its intended users in mind at all times.
• User-driven: some of the users become members of the design team.
13
3.2 Quality attributes
Chapter 3. Theoretical background
The user-centered design paradigm is chosen to be used when producing the Forestry
Product Calculator. To some extent, the decision was made based on the fact that this
is an assignment that is to be conducted by one person only. To include the user in the
design-making process, it has been decided to perform user-tests during the entire process.
The test plan is presented in chapter 6.
The hope is that a lot of different people, including the forestry product experts will use
the tool, but not all are experts regarding the use of electronics and applications. As a lot
of the users are beginners, regarding use of applications, an easy and self-explanatory user
interface is essential. If the interface gets to complicated, many of the users are likely to
be scared away. Hence, for this application, it is important to make an interface that invites
users to try and to use the application (Bass et al., 2013, p. 175).
3.2.2
Performance
”An ounce of performance is worth pounds of promises.” - Mae West
Performance is all about the time, and the system’s ability to meet timing requirements.
Whenever an event occur, the system must respond to that element within a certain time
frame. For different reasons, most systems would like the response time to be low in order
to avoid delay of other system processes, and let users get the best possible experience
considering response time. Performance is about managing system resources to achieve
acceptable timing behavior.
The response of a system can be characterized by latency, the time taken for a system
to respond to any event, or throughput, the number of events completed during a given
amount of time. Increased response time and reduced throughput are the key issues for
performance (Design Fundamentals, 2014).
If the application uses a lot of time on each calculation the user will be bored, and it would
end with no users at all. The application is supposed to be used when buying firewood
or in the middle of negotiations. Therefore, all calculations should be done fast, as the
answers are needed right away (Bass et al., 2013, pp. 131-145).
14
Chapter 3. Theoretical background
3.2.3
3.2 Quality attributes
Availability
”Ninety percent of life is just showing up.” - Woody Allen
Availability is about the systems ability to be available, even after a fault has occurred.
The system needs to be idle, and to be able to execute the tasks when needed. Availability
adds the notion of recovery, meaning that when the system breaks, it will recover itself.
This means that it is all about minimizing downtime by mitigating faults.
To sum it all up, when thinking of availability, these questions must be considered:
• What makes the system break?
• How likely is that fault to occur?
• How much time is needed to repair it?
Considering this application, availability is a crucial quality attribute. If there are cases
where the application does not work when a user needs it, users will be lost quickly. If
the application breaks during a calculation, it is important that it will recover quickly and
try again, with the same input that was typed in earlier. If the calculations take long time
to complete, it is quite a big chance that the users get bored, and therefore quit using the
application (Bass et al., 2013, pp. 79-98).
3.2.4
Testability
”Testing leads to failure, and failure leads to understanding” - Burt Rutan
Testability is about the ease with which software can demonstrate faults through testing.
If there actually exist a fault in the system, the sooner that fault is recognized the better,
and preferably through testing. The sooner a fault is detected, the costs of fixing that fault
is lower, meaning that finding the faults as soon as possible is desired. To properly test a
system it must be possible to control each component’s input and observe the output, as
well as being able to test portions of the system or the entire system. Testing can be done
by many different people; developers, users or quality assurance personnel. Making sure
that a system is easily testable makes payoffs in costs of testing as well as the reliability of
the system.
Not only do the calculations done by the application need to be correct, but the underlying
code should not include any mistakes either. The calculations can be tested by checking
the results against the result we get from an Excel calculator made by COWI’s forestry
expert Knute Foss. If they match, the calculations are correct. To make sure that all the
underlying code works as supposed to, and contains no errors, it is best to make it possible
to test the different classes in the model separately. This class testing shall not be a concern
as long as it is in the mind of the programmer from the beginning (Bass et al., 2013, pp.
159-172).
15
3.2 Quality attributes
3.2.5
Chapter 3. Theoretical background
Modifiability
”Adapt or perish, now as ever, is nature’s inexorable imperative.” - H.G. Wells
Change happens in many different places and due to many different reasons. It is impossible
to avoid changes, but it is possible to make the costs, in time and money, of making
changes as low as possible. Modifiability is about change, and the interest of costs and
risks associated with making changes.
There are a lot of different tactics for reducing change. To make a plan for modifiability
these questions must be asked:
• What can change?
• What is the likelihood of the change?
• When is the change made and by who?
• What is the cost of the change?
All these questions were asked in regard of the Forestry Product Calculator. And some
changes may appear, both with the design and with the input variations. There might be
necessary to have several annotations, as well as multiple wood species to choose from.
On one hand the needs for changes in the design can appear, but the probability of large
changes after the application is finished are rather small. On the other hand, the needs
for several wood species are expected to happen. But adding a wood specie should be
considered when making the application, and then making it an easy change. That kind
of change should only be necessary to perform in one place of the application code (Bass
et al., 2013, pp. 117-128).
16
CHAPTER
4
RELATED WORK
This chapter presents applications that are similar with the Forestry Product Calculator.
The main goal is to illustrate the main motivation behind our calculator. We look into
different calculators as well as applications concerning forestry products.
4.1
Calculators
The Forestry Product Calculator is primarily a calculator, and there exists a lot of other
calculator applications today. Even though none of the calculator applications computes
the same items as the Forestry Product Calculator does, they are similar to the Forestry
Product Calculator in some ways. This section will look at some different calculator
applications, and compare them to the Forestry Product Calculator.
4.1.1
BMI kalkulator
Figure 4.1: BMI kalkulator icon
The ”BMI kalkulator” is a calculator which
calculates body mass index and ideal weight based
on height, weight, age and sex. As with the
firewood part of the Forestry Product Calculator,
only a few and known inputs are necessary to
make the calculations needed. On the other hand,
the BMI calculator needs input that describes
the user, while the Forestry Product Calculator
needs input that describes the sack of firewood the
user considers. This means that in the Forestry
Product Calculator users need to read the input
off the firewood sack, while the users of the BMI
calculator normally already know the needed input
(smayer.net, 2013).
17
4.1 Calculators
Chapter 4. Related Work
A good thing about the ”BMI kalkulator” is that the necessary input is information already
known by the user, and there are also very few input fields that need to be filled to make
the calculation. This is very much like the Forestry Product Calculator in the sense that
it does not require much input, but the input needed is not known by the users, they have
to read it from the sack of firewood. On the other hand, the ”BMI kalkulator” exists with
many different menus. Each menu show a new view that calculate different body indexes,
which makes the application a bit messy. The only menus the forestry calculator consists
of is the firewood and industry parts, and they have very different areas of usage.
4.1.2
Financial Calculators
The Financial Calculators application is actually
an application that makes use of many other
different financial calculators that exist, while
the forestry application does not. Both these
applications are advanced applications regarding
their science, and they are similar to some
extent.
They are similar in the way that they both need a
lot of information to make the correct and expected
calculations, but the theme of the calculators are
so different that they need entirely different inputs.
They give very different results, since they are not
calculating the same sciences. The results from the Figure 4.2: Financial Calculators icon
financial calculator are shown in a very different
way than the ones from the forestry calculator. The financial calculator uses graphs for
instance, while the forestry application only uses clear text (Bishinews, 2013).
One of the good sides of the financial calculators application is that it is very structured,
making it is easy to find where to provide all the needed input to make the calculations.
Even though there are a lot of choices, it is constructed to make it is easy to navigate
between the available calculations. The results also appear just below the input choices
made by the user, which is the same way as in the forestry products calculator.
On the negative side, there are too many choices that have to be taken in the financial
calculator, but in the Forestry Product Calculator the input choices have been minimized.
This means that only the necessary input must be provided.
18
Chapter 4. Related Work
4.1.3
4.2 Forestry products
Calories Burned Calculator
The Calories Burned Calculator is an application that calculates how many calories a user
spends on daily activities and exercises. The user can plot what he has been eating, how
much of it and what kind of exercise he has been doing, and for how long. Based on the
input the user provides the calculator computes how much calories have been ingested and
how much have been used. This application is similar to the Forestry Product Calculator in
the way that they are both calculators. It can be compared to the firewood part in quantity
of input needed to make calculations, which is quite small, and that they are both intended
for the everyday man. Other than that the two applications have very little in common
(Patel, 2013).
One part of the calories burned calculator that
is not likable is all the pictures and symbols
that are used as buttons and menus.
First,
the pictures does not look good at all, and
second, the different pictures make the design
messy. Some of the users are believed to have
problems understanding what the different pictures
and symbols actually mean.
No pictures or
symbols will be used in the Forestry Product
Calculator.
The likable parts about the calories burned
calculator, are those who are quite similar to the
Figure 4.3: Calories Burned Calculator
design choices of the Forestry Product Calculator.
icon
The fact that only the necessary inputs are required,
and that the results are listed just below the input
possibilities makes it structured and recognizable for the users.
4.2
Forestry products
There exists some applications regarding forestry products, but to our best knowledge,
none of them do the same as our Forestry Product Calculator. Most of the forestry product
applications that do exist today regard timber, the size of firewood and how to cut down
trees. This section will compare such applications with the Forestry Product Calculator.
19
4.2 Forestry products
4.2.1
Chapter 4. Related Work
Firewood Log Companion
The Firewood Log Companion states that it is a must for all wood burning addicts (ZORAC,
2013). The firewood log companion includes a list of all the known wood species, containing
name and burning performance, which make it a bit similar to the Forestry Product Calculator.
The difference is that the Forestry Product
Calculator provides a number telling how much
energy, in kWh, the sack of firewood contains,
while the firewood log companion just provides
poor, good, average etc.
The applications are very different in another area
as well, namely the industry part of the Forestry
Product Calculator which is not existing in the
firewood log companion at all. This application
does not contain anything similar to the industry
part of the forestry product application. The
Firewood Log Companion does, on the other hand,
provide information of when to cut down trees, and Figure 4.4: Firewood Log Companion
icon
how. It also contains the possibility of recognizing a
wood specie by comparing pictures regarding bark
and leafs.
The design consists of many buttons, which seems to make it chaotic. In the Forestry
Product Calculator it has been decided not to use any buttons at all. At the same time, the
results are displayed in a very organized way. The results in the firewood log companion
consists of very much information and a lot of pictures. The way they have organized the
results are very clean and tidy, and in the Forestry Product Calculator all the results are
displayed very organized as a list.
4.2.2
Timber Calculator
Figure 4.5: Timber Calculator icon
The Timber Calculator can be used to generate
the estimation quotation of timbers and related
products.
The calculator can for instance
compare prices on timber products from different
suppliers.
This makes the application both
similar and different from the Forestry Product
Calculator. The forestry product application can
also be used to compare prices, but regarding
quantity, not suppliers. Another difference is
the fact that the timber calculator only includes
timber, and timber products, while the forestry
product application includes firewood and other
kinds of cut up trees (Principal Axis Android,
2012).
20
Chapter 4. Related Work
4.2 Forestry products
The Timber Calculator uses a small tab-menu to separate the three different main parts
of the application, believed to be a clean and straightforward way to separate the different
parts. It makes it very easy for the user to know where he is at all times. Still, there were a
couple of things that were not that great, like the colors and the text-boxes. The colors that
are used all melt together, and makes it quite hard to separate the different parts, leaving the
colors to work against their purpose. It was also quite hard to understand which text-boxes
to write in, and which were supposed to provide results from the calculations.
4.2.3
Firewood Calculator
As the name predicts, the Firewood Calculator does
Calculations regarding firewood purchases, which
makes the application very similar to the firewood
part of the forestry product at first glance. But
after taking a closer look at the application it is
not as similar to the Forestry Product Calculator
as expected. The Firewood Calculator can be
used to figure out if the user actually have bought
the amount of firewood that the seller said. By
measuring the pile of firewood the calculator
computes the actual amount of firewood bought,
which is not the purpose of the Forestry Product
Calculator. They can both be used to figure out
whether it is good firewood that is bought or not.
While the Forestry Product Calculator calculates Figure 4.6: Firewood Calculator icon
price per kWh and the amount of energy, in kWh,
bought, the Firewood Calculator tells you if the firewood bought is a good burning wood
specie (BoxCrusher Solutions, 2011).
The Firewood Calculator consists of some good sides, and some bad sides. It was really
positive that the calculator only require the absolute necessary inputs. The results are
shown underneath the input, and they are really systematized, which makes it easy to use
and see the results.
At first, some trouble regarding the tab-menu in top of the application was experienced,
because there were problems understanding that there were two different menus since
they both use the same background symbol. If they wanted to use background symbols
for the buttons, the symbols should reflect the menu behind the button. It was also hard to
understand the meaning of the campfire pictures in front of the results. It was not possible
to understand why those pictures where placed there, and it made the results a bit more
messy and hard to read.
21
4.2 Forestry products
Chapter 4. Related Work
22
CHAPTER
5
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
This chapter explains how the requirements for the Forestry Product Calculator were
captured, what they are, and their degree of importance. It contains information about
the screen structure, how it evolved, and related tools that was used when implementing
the application. Information about the implementation are also included.
5.1
Requirement Analysis
In order to create a new product that solves or simplifies problems that users experience
regarding a specific situation, requirement analysis is needed to determine the needs or
conditions that must be met. In addition, various interests may have conflicting demands
that must be considered (Hay, 2003).
5.1.1
Capturing the requirements
The search for requirements started by talking with specialists who are involved in the
trading of forestry products, to understand which problems existed. All of the contacted
specialists had experienced the same problems regarding the use of different standards.
The parties in the proceedings use different standards. Therefore, they have problems
understanding what amount of forestry products they are buying or selling, and how much
they actually pay for the annotation they are familiar with.
It was quite clear that all the problems developed from the use of different standards in the
different industries. The parties in the proceedings do not know how to calculate between
the different annotations, as they do not know how they interrelate. It turned out that a
very few people did even know the correlation between many of the annotations, as well
as how to calculate the amount of energy in all the different forestry products, which often
led to at least one part of the proceedings feeling scammed.
23
5.1 Requirement Analysis
Chapter 5. System development
After getting a grasp on what the problem was, two surveys were conducted. One for
firewood buyers and one for industry workers, which can be viewed in section 6.2.1. Many
people answered the surveys, viewed in section 6.2.1, and the application requirements
were based on these answers.
5.1.2
Application requirements
• The application must be easy to understand, and users should not ever have problems
when using the application. Since the application is to be used by many different
people, it is crucial that the design is intuitive and clear making it impossible to
misunderstand what to do. There should be a maximum of 3% user operating
mistakes, decided in appendix B.1. This number is based on experience. If a user
makes many mistakes, experience shows that most of them give up, and stop using
the application, which is not desired.
• The application must be easy to use, and usage should go quickly. When using
the application, the calculations have to run fast not letting the users get tired of
waiting, but rather wants to use it again. The application should facilitate the work
day for industrial workers and wood buyers, not make it harder. In the requirements,
appendix B.1, it is stated that first time use should not take more than four minutes
for either of the parts, firewood or industry. This is also a number based on experience,
as many people stop using an application if it takes to much time.
• The application should be for anyone to use, and help provide insightful feedback to
everyone that needs help calculating different annotations and prices. It is important
that the application is useful for everyone, and not only people that know much
about forestry products and energy.
5.1.3
Major requirements
All the requirements discussed in the section above are important, but the following
requirements are what the entire Forestry Product Calculator is based upon.
• The calculations must always be correct, as the user should not get scammed by
the application. If the user experience calculation flaws, even just once, the user
might feel tricked and does not want to use the application again. The calculations
must also be done within a latency of 3 seconds, shown in appendix B.1. Studies
show that most people stop to use an application or a web-site when the latency gets
close to 5 seconds or more.
• The application should remove the difficulties when trading forestry products to
make cooperation between different industries easier. Problems with the use
of different standards should be removed, and trading forestry products should not
require knowledge of all different annotations that exists.
24
Chapter 5. System development
5.2
5.2 System Architecture
System Architecture
After the requirements were captured and totally understood, building the screen almost
made itself.
This section explains how the screen architecture was captured and how it evolved during
the forestry product life-cycle. It also describes tools that can be used as bases for the
Forestry Product Calculator.
5.2.1
How the product was designed
The Forestry Product Calculator is an application that is made to work on different operating
systems as well as on devices with different screen sizes. The different operation systems
guidelines therefore works as bases for the application’s design, see appendix C. All the
guidelines are established by the different cooperations that initiated the different operating
systems. By implementing these guidelines, the application should feel known to all the
users, independent of the operating system in use. This way, the application behaves like
other applications that the users are familiar with, which will lower the threshold to start
using the application.
5.2.2
Development from the preliminary study
During the preliminary studies it was decided that the design needs to be clean and easy.
These main characteristics have been kept through the entire process. It was also decided
that the results should be displayed at the bottom of the screen, and divided on to different
screens. The different results should be scrolled between horizontally. Even though the
results are being viewed at the bottom of the screen, the grouping that led to horizontal
scrolling has been forsaken. Instead, the results are listed below each other, and can be
browsed using vertical scroll.
After three usability tests were conducted, appendix F, sections F.3.1 - F.3.3, it was decided
to make one change. The three test participants had problems triggering the calculations.
They managed to provide the correct input, but they did not understand how to do the
calculations. As for now, the calculations were conducted if the user touched anywhere
outside of the last input field, which was not as self explanatory for the users as predicted.
A ”Calculate”-button was therefore included underneath all input choices. The button
does not hold any functionality, but it makes the user touch somewhere outside the last
input-field. As seen in the last 17 usability tests, appendix F, sections F.3.4 - F.3.20, the
button removed the problem regarding calculation execution.
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5.2 System Architecture
5.2.3
Chapter 5. System development
Screen structure
Since the application is to be used by many different people, all of which do not use
applications that often, the design had to be self explanatory and orderly. Therefore, the
application needed a simple design securing that the user would not doubt what to do
during usage of the application. To make the application meet all the decisions, it was
important to fully understand what the users would use the application for, and how it
would be most sufficient to use the application.
The continuation consisted of figuring out the formulas needed to make the necessary
calculations, and to know what choices the users must make in order to get the required
input. After this was interpreted, the development of the first part of the application could
be started, the one consisting of the input choices. Which choices should the user make
first? What is the most important choice? In which order would it be most natural for the
user to make his choices?
Figure 5.1: Choices
The order of the input choices was based on what was natural when testing the application,
as shown in figure 5.1.
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Chapter 5. System development
5.2 System Architecture
The last part of the application is the results part. It has been decided that this part should
consist of several pages that can be swiped between. This part is located below the input
part, as shown in figure 5.2.
Figure 5.2: Calculation
There are two different options to show the results from the calculations:
1. Different views to group the results, scroll horizontally. The input choices are
shown at the top of the screen, and the results that are changing are underneath it,
meaning that only the lower part of the screen is changed when swiping between the
results. The results are divided on different views to let the grouping make it easier
to find the results the user is searching for. The swiping between the result views is
done horizontally.
2. List of results, scroll vertically. The input choices are still to be shown at the top
of the screen, with the results underneath it. The results are grouped, but only by
having the similar results closest in line. They are displayed underneath each other
in a line, and can be viewed by scrolling vertically.
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5.2 System Architecture
Chapter 5. System development
Both options agree that the input choices should be at top of the page, hence, that part of
the application is decided. As far as the results go, there are two very good options, both
with their own strengths and weaknesses. The first option groups the results in a very clear
and easy way, and the user will find the results he is searching for quite easy, given that
he understands that it is possible to swipe horizontally. Several studies state that many
users have problems understanding the horizontal swiping, and they suggest that vertical
scrolling is the only possible option to display information that needs more space than one
screen. Even though option two uses vertical scroll only, satisfying the studies, it does not
separate the different types of results as well as option one.
Even though the results are not grouped as well in option two, the scrolling choice of
the application feels more natural. If the users do not understand how to view all the
results, then how they are grouped is not too important. Hence, option two seems like the
best the solution, as shown in 5.3.
Figure 5.3: Results
There does not exist any similar tool that can make these calculations. This tool is easy to
use, and can revolutionize the way forestry products are traded today. With this tool the
forestry product experts and the energy experts are able to calculate different annotations
in order to fully understand each other. The design is standardized , making the threshold
to begin to use this tool quite low as many of the users will identify several parts from
previously used applications.
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Chapter 5. System development
5.2.4
5.2 System Architecture
Implementation
The Forestry Product Calculator has been implemented using HTML5 and JavaScript.
The application consists of four main components, namely the ”Startpage”, the ”About”
page, the ”Firewood” part, and the ”Industry” part. These components are related as shown
graphically in figure 5.4.
Figure 5.4: Interrelated components
Each component consists of two parts, frontend and backend. These parts are divided into
two separate files, a HTML5 file and a JavaScript file. The frontend file is the HTML5 file,
and includes all the text, input fields and buttons that the user can see. It makes the design
that the users can see on their screen. The backend file is linked together with the frontend
file, and this file contains everything that the user feels. All functions, calculations and
lists are located here. The backend file is where everything happens. It registers the input
provided by the user, and makes the calculations required to provide the correct results to
the user. This structure is graphically displayed in figure 5.5 as a shell diagram.
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5.2 System Architecture
Chapter 5. System development
Figure 5.5: Shell diagram
The application opens at the startpage, where the user has several different opportunities
for moving forward. Figure 5.6 shows what happens when the user presses the different
buttons. The flow chart provides a graphical route of what happens as a person uses the
Forestry Product Calculator, from start and until the calculations are done.
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Chapter 5. System development
5.2 System Architecture
Figure 5.6: Flow chart
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5.2 System Architecture
5.2.5
Chapter 5. System development
Related tools
This section presents tools that can be used to develop the Forestry Product Calculator,
and how they make the implementation easier.
5.2.5.1
DevExtreme
DevExtreme is a cross-platform framework that can be used together with Visual Studio
2010, 2012 and 2013. Visual Studio is a comprehensive collection of tools and services
that makes it easier for the programmer to make different applications (Microsoft, 2014).
When using DevExtreme with Visual Studio it is possible to make native applications
for different operating systems using HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript. This means that
applications can be made for iOS, Android, Windows Phone and Tizen without using
multiple languages or frameworks (DevExpress, 2013).
DevExtreme offers built-in styling that detects what platform is used at runtime, and
automatically applies the approperiate ”native” theme on all widgets and navigation elements
inside the application.
Figure 5.7: View Designer and code window
Many templates and wizards can be used in Visual Studio when an application is created
with DevExtreme. This includes an integrated View Designer and a code window, see
figure 5.7, that makes constructing views inside Visual Studio orderly as it provides the
opportunity of drag-and-drop, and at the same time the possibility to make or render code.
Debugging is made easy with a built-in emulator inside Visual Studio. The emulator
includes all the different devices or platforms DevExtreme offers when creating an application.
This means that the application can be debugged on the different devices the application
is supposed to work on, just by using the emulator on the computer.
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Chapter 5. System development
5.2 System Architecture
There are two ways to build the application when using DevExtreme. You can either use
the DevExtreme Courier App to execute the application using PhoneGap Build, or you
can use the store-ready packages without SDKs or external services. DevExtreme offers
packaging for App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store and Tizen store.
When making an application using DevExtreme, it is suggested to start with a DevExtreme
project template, and add its built-in predefined layouts to simplify the generation of the
application’s UI. To make it your own you tweak it using design-time customization that
includes drag-and-drop support, property grid and design and markup split views.
DevExtreme offers a comprehensive range of HTML5/JS Widgets perfectly styled for each
target platform. These widgets are:
• Data Visualization: chart, gauge, range selector, sparkline, vector map, bullet
• Navigation: map, tab, navigation bar, panorama, pivot, slideout, toolbar
• Actions and Lists: button, action sheet, dropdown menu, gallery, list, lookup,
autocomplete
• Editors: field set, check box, number box, text area, text box, date box
• Forms and Multi-Purpose: slider, range slider, switch, radio group, select box
• Dialogs and Notification panels: popover, popup, toast, load panel
DevExtreme also offers a wide range of supported platforms and browsers. These are:
• Mobile platforms: Android 4+, iOS 5+, Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, Tizen
• Desktop browsers: IE 10+, Safari 5+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera 12
• Mobile OS Integrated Browsers: Android 4+, iOS 5+, Windows Phone 8, Tizen
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5.2 System Architecture
5.2.5.2
Chapter 5. System development
PhoneGap
PhoneGap is an open source web-based development framework based on Cordova (The
Apache Software Foundation, 2011) for building native mobile applications using HTML,
CSS and JavaScript. PhoneGap helps to make applications run on many different platforms,
such as Android, BlackBerry, iOS, Windows Phone and Windows 8, by using standard-based
web technologies to bridge web applications and mobile devices (Adobe Systems Inc.,
2013).
Figure 5.8: PhoneGap development life cycle
The development of such mobile applications is done by following the threefold life cycle
of the PhoneGap development:
• First, the application is being built using regular web technology
• Second, PhoneGap is used to wrap the application
• Last, the application is deployed to the different mobile platforms
This life cycle is shown graphically in figure 5.8.
Before it is possible to develop an application for any platform, it is necessary to install the
Cordova command-line interface. Then, to be able to develop any Cordova applications,
it is important to install the Software Development Kits for all the different platforms you
are targeting. Without these kits, the wrapping and deploying using PhoneGap will not
work.
PhoneGap works as an abstraction layer on top of the native mobile phones operating
system. The only part that needs to be implemented regarding the Forestry Product
Calculator is what is inside the Web App box in figure 5.9. This means that the developer
does not have to think about the differences between the operating systems as PhoneGap
does that for them.
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Chapter 5. System development
5.2 System Architecture
Figure 5.9: PhoneGap architecture(PhoneGap, 2013)
It is also worth noting that PhoneGap is a plug-in based application, which means that it
is possible to extend it to fit your own use. The use of plug-ins makes it possible to access
the file system and other underlying resources.
PhoneGap uses the Apache license, version 2.0 which states that PhoneGap is free of
charge and for everybody to use. The entire license can be viewed in appendix A. Even
though PhoneGap is a free of charge tool that everybody can use, it is possible to make a
payment application as the pricing is not set in PhoneGap, but in the developer console in
different application stores.
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5.2 System Architecture
Chapter 5. System development
36
CHAPTER
6
EXPERIMENTS & EMPIRICAL STUDIES
This chapter describes the different experiments done during the Forestry Product Calculator
life-cycle, how and why they were conducted, and what came from them. It also explains
the empirical studies executed before and after the Forestry Product Calculator was released.
Finally, it contains the information provided by the users who participated in the studies.
6.1
Experiments
Experiments will be performed during the development process, in order to validate the
tool continuously. There are two types of experiments that will be conducted, prototype
testing and black-box testing. The prototype testing is conducted on a few test subjects
before any programming is started. This experiment is carried out for the purpose of
identifying the users’ understanding of the design, and how they think and use the tool.
The black-box testing is done by several test subjects, and normally over at least two
cycles. The experiments are conducted in order to see if the tool meets all the requirements.
It also experiments with the design and functionality interacting with the user. What did
the user find self-explanatory, and what was confusing? The answer to these questions can
be found in paragraph 6.1.2.2.5.
6.1.1
Prototype testing
In order to test the idea of the application, we started do develop a prototype on paper.
This was done to figure out if the application could be used at all, and which parts that
needed to be changed. Knowledge about what parts the users experienced problems with,
revealed where they thought differently from us.
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
Prototype testing is testing executed on an actual user when there does not exist any
application. Thinking about the application and its design, and making of some sketches
was the start of the design. These sketches are to be used during the execution of the
first test, the prototype test. This kind of testing reveals severe design flaws early in the
process, since it is discovered before the programming has even started. Testing using a
paper prototype means that the developer, test leader, works as the computer by laying
down different paper sketches of the application while the user ”presses” the buttons.
This testing makes it possible to change the design, if something is not as understandable
for the user as the developer thought it would be. These tests are easy to conduct, and can
be done several times, which means that individual parts of the design of the application
easily can be changed and tested again. During a prototype test, as well as other test, the
designs are being redefined based on the test results. Then, after some changes have been
made, and tests have been conducted, the final design can be implemented. This saves the
developer a lot of time and effort during the programming phase, and only small changes
are to be done when the usability tests have been conducted using the application.
Prototype testing was conducted early in the design process on potential customers to
see whether the design was intuitive or not. By execution of the tests, tables F.1 - F.6,
it became clear which order the user found it logical to provide the different inputs, and
which parts of the design were misunderstood. These results provided information that
made us change the scrolling direction on the results, thus changing the grouping of the
results as well. By finding these flaws early in the process, programming time was spared,
since the changes were made before the design programming had started.
6.1.1.1
Test Results
A paper prototype testing of the firewood part was conducted at a couple of users. They
provided useful and concrete feedback to the test personnel. They had some questions and
input regarding headlines and text, as well as some design feedback. There were only a
couple of misunderstandings: how to change between the different results? And that it
needs to be an enter or continue button for the fields of moisture and price, as they are text
boxes that the user write in. They need to let the application know when they are finished
typing in numbers.
Headline and text feedback regarded the headlines on the result pages. The text of the
headlines did not explain well enough what kind of results were displayed. On the other
hand, the design feedback was that it would be nice to have a firewood pile as a background
picture, and then use black text color.
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.1.2
6.1 Experiments
Black-box testing
Black-box testing is a functional or non-functional behavioral software testing method
(Software Testing fundamentals, 2012). This method is named black-box testing because
the tester does not know anything about the internal structure, design or implementation
of the item that is being tested, illustrated in figure 6.1.
Figure 6.1: Black-box testing
Black-box testing is used to detect and correct incorrect or missing functions, interface
errors, data structure errors, behavior or performance errors and initialization and termination
errors early in the process. It is possible to conduct many tests without the entire application
ready, which means that when the application is ready, most of the times the final tests will
not fail.
The use of two forms of functional testing, functional testing and usability testing, is
done because functionality and usability are equally important in the Forestry Product
Calculator. It is crucial that all functionality work as intended, or else the application is
useless. The usability of the application is best tested by testing intended users and running
usability tests. Usability tests establish whether the design is intuitive for the user, or if
there are some parts that do not communicate the way they were intended to.
6.1.2.1
Functional testing
Functional testing tests how the system works and what it does. Test cases are made based
on the specifications of the software components, and how the system is supposed to work
(Wikipedia, 2014).
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6.1 Experiments
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
In functional tests the input is fed into the program, and output is examined. The main
focus is to discover whether the application works as it is supposed to, or if there are some
faults with the functionality.
Functional testing is based on five steps:
• Identification of the functions that the software is expected to perform
• Creation of input based on the functions specifications
• Determination of output based on the functions specifications
• Execution of the test cases
• Comparison between the expected and actual results
6.1.2.1.1 Template for functional testing
The template for functional testing can be found in table 6.1.
Item
Test case ID
Name
Requirement
Description
Preconditions
Flow of events
Expected results
Actual results
Comments
Status
Description
id
Short name for the test
Requirement reference
Description of test
The conditions of the application before the tests are started
The list of steps necessary to complete the test
The exected end results
The end result
What went wrong, what could be the cause
OK (no errors), OK- (minor issues) and Failed (not working)
Table 6.1: Test case template
6.1.2.1.2 The tests
Functional tests use test cases meant to verify that the application works correctly, shown
in test E.1 to E.6. The test cases can be found in Appendix E. The specific test should be
carried out whenever a feature is finished, and all the tests should be carried out at the end
of the project.
6.1.2.2
Usability testing
Usability testing is testing the application on possible end-users, and observe as they solve
different tasks. The test leader measures time spent on each task, problems during the
execution of the task, comments from the user as well as the test leaders thoughts. After
the test have been executed the test subject fills out a SUS form.
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.1 Experiments
6.1.2.2.1 System Usability Scale
SUS is an abbreviation for System Usability Scale (Wikipedia, 2013) and is a simple
Likert scale of ten questions where the test persons shall give a score from 1 to 5 where
1 is strongly disagree and 5 is strongly agree. The purpose is to obtain a global view of
subjective evaluation of the usability of the software.
The SUS score is calculated the following way:
1. Take the odd numbered questions and subtract 1 from these scores.
2. Take the even numbered questions and subtract the score from 5.
3. Add these scores together.
4. Take this sum and multiply by 2,5.
5. Then you have a SUS score between 0 and 100.
6.1.2.2.2 Usability goals
To have something to assess the usability up against, some usability goals were set before
conducting the usability tests.
• The user should never spend more than three (3) minutes on a task
• The application should never crash
• The user should never make more than one (1) error during the tasks
• The user should solve task six (6) faster than task two (2) because of memorability
• The average SUS score should be above 70 since studies have shown that 68 is
average (Sauro, 2011)
6.1.2.2.3 Templates
The SUS form can be found in appendix F.2.4, and the observation form can be found i
appendix F.2.5.
6.1.2.2.4 The test
When a user is going to conduct a test, he or she first get some information about the
application and the test. Then the subject is provided with a device where the latest version
of the application is installed and a paper with six tasks, F.1 - F.6 in appendix F, that are to
be performed.
20 persons participated in the testing, both male and female. The test persons range
from 24 to 57 years old, though most of the subjects are in their 40s or 50s. This is
beneficial because the expected users are in the age range from 35 to 55. They hold
different educations, some only completed secondary school while others have completed
a university degree. The Forestry Product Calculator has a wide user profile, and it is
therefore important to get as many different users as possible to participate in the testing
process to cover the entire user profile.
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6.1.2.2.5
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
Results
The first three usability tests were executed May 15th, and all the test participants experienced
trouble after the last input was provided. They had problems understanding how to execute
the calculations, as can be seen in observation forms F.8 - F.10 in appendix F. Up until this
point the user only had to click somewhere outside of the last provided input field to make
the Forestry Product Calculator calculate the results.
This problem, regarding calculation execution, was solved by including a button after
the input choices containing the text ”Calculate”. After this, non of the subsequent testers
experienced that problem, as seen in observation forms F.10 - F.27 in appendix F. The
button does not have to do anything, because clicking the button means that the user clicks
somewhere outside of the last provided input field.
There were no problems in the last 17 tests regarding making the calculations, even though
those who used the enter-button on the phone wondered why the calculate-button was
included. This question arose since the enter-button makes the calculations as well. On
the other hand, there were some testers that experienced some problems when providing
the moisture input as they wondered whether or not to include the % -sign with the number.
Overall, the testers were happy with the Forestry Product Calculator, and most of them
would like to use it frequently.
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.1.3
6.1 Experiments
Use cases
This section discusses the different actors that will use the application. Then it continues
with showing a full use case diagram derived from the functional requirements. Finally, it
lists the textual use cases to detail the use case diagram.
6.1.3.1
Actors
An actor specifies a role to be played by internal or external persons interacting with the
application. In this case, there is only one actor, the end-user. The end-user is in this
case different persons, but they do not necessarily have much experience with usage of
applications on handheld devices. The industry part is to be used by forestry experts in a
regular workday, while the firewood part is to be used by the everyday man.
6.1.3.2
Use case diagrams
For a combined figure of all the use cases, see figure 6.2.
Figure 6.2: Use case diagram
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6.1 Experiments
6.1.3.3
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
Textual use cases
Each of the use cases is described below, making the use case diagram easier to understand.
See tables 6.2 - 6.4, starting below for a more detailed explanation of the use cases.
Element
Use case name
Requirement
Goal
Summary
Description
Choose part
User chooses either ”Vedkjøp” or ”Industri”
The user sees a start screen and must choose between the firewood
purchase part and the industry part
Preconditions
1. The application is running
Flow of events
1. User starts the application
2. User pushes either ”Vedkjøp” or ”Industri” button
3. User is redirected to the specified part
Exceptions
Table 6.2: Textual use case - Choose part
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
Element
Use case name
Requirement
Goal
Summary
6.1 Experiments
Description
Make calculations, firewood part
Run calculations in the firewood part
The user fills all the input fields with correct data, and the application
will run the calculations, and provide results to the user
Preconditions
1. The application is running
2. The user has chosen the firewood part
Flow of events
1. The user chooses ”Vedmengde” from the drop-down menu
2. The user chooses either ”Tretype” from the drop-down menu, or
types weight
3. The user types in moisture in percent
4. The user types in price
5. The application runs the calculations and provides the user with
the required results
Exceptions
The user does not fill in all the required input
Table 6.3: Textual use case - Calculate results, firewood part
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6.1 Experiments
Element
Use case name
Requirement
Goal
Summary
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
Description
Make calculations, industry part
Run calculations in the industry part
The user fills all the input fields with correct data, the application will
run the calculations, and provide results to the user
Preconditions
1. The application is running
2. The user has chosen the industry part
Flow of events
1. The user chooses ”Produkt” from the drop-down menu
2. The user chooses ”Tretype” from the drop-down menu
3. The user types in moisture in percent
4. The user types in number of units
5. The user types in amount
6. The user chooses ”Enhet” from the drop-down menu
7. The user types in price
8. The application runs the calculations and provides the user with
the required results
Exceptions
The user does not fill in all the required input
Table 6.4: Textual use case - Calculate results, industry part
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.2
6.2 Empirical studies
Empirical studies
This section informs about the empirical studies executed before and after the making
of the Forestry Product Calculator. What information this study provided, and how the
information was useful for the implementation process.
6.2.1
Advanced studies
After understanding the problems regarding trading of forestry products, and the awareness
of the energy content in firewood, two surveys were conducted to get a better understanding
of the problems. One of the surveys dealt with the problems regarding industries, while
the other regarded firewood buyers. The surveys provided a lot of information about the
problems, why they exist and what the users need in such a tool.
6.2.1.1
Firewood purchase survey
The survey consisted of 9 questions, where the first four were to learn a bit about who
answered the survey, and whether or not they were the ones doing the firewood purchase
in their family. The next two questions involved difficulties regarding firewood purchase.
Then, the last three questions covered the application we were planning to make, and
whether they would use such an application and what they would expect from it.
The survey questions were:
1. What is your age?
2. What is your sex?
3. Where in Norway do you live?
4. Are you responsible for the firewood purchase in your household?
5. Do you find it hard knowing how much energy (kWh) you actually get when purchasing
firewood?
6. Do you think it is complicated to know which sack of firewood it is profitable to
buy?
7. If there were to exist an application that could compared prices of the different sacks,
as well as calculate how much energy you buy, would you use it?
8. What would be most important for you with such an application?
9. What would it take for you to use such an application?
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6.2 Empirical studies
6.2.1.1.1
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
Firewood purchase survey results
The survey results were:
1. What is your age?
2. What is your sex?
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.2 Empirical studies
3. Where in Norway do you live?
4. Are you responsible for the firewood purchase in your household?
5. Do you find it hard knowing how much energi (kWh) you actually get when
purchasing firewood?
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6.2 Empirical studies
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6. Do you think it is complicated to know which sack of firewood it is profitable to
buy?
7. If there were to exist an application that could compared prices of the different sacks,
as well as calculate how much energy you buy, would you use it?
8. What would be most important for you with such an application?
(a) Easy to use
(b) Straightforward usability
(c) Low price
9. What would it take for you to use such an application?
(a) Easy to use
(b) Correct calculations
(c) A reminder that such an application exists
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.2 Empirical studies
The firewood survey established the fact that very few firewood buyers know how to
calculate the energy content in the firewood they are buying, hence they do not know
the kWh rate of which they are paying. Not knowing such crucial facts, make the users
unaware of whether or not heating with firewood is cheaper than other heating methods or
which sack of firewood provides the best kWh rate. This leads to most of the participants
also having problems when deciding which sack of firewood it is profitable to buy. For
this reason, it seems that many are eager to use an application, like the one we are making,
to make these choices easier.
If people are to use such an application, it is needed to focus on a usability that makes
it easy for the everyday man to use it. They would also need a reminder that such an
application exists, and that you could get it for free. The application must also make the
right calculations, and convince the user that it is working correctly.
6.2.1.2
Industrial survey
The industrial survey was constructed for trained personnel employed in the forestry industry,
with trading of such products as a profession. The survey consisted of six questions in
total, where the two first regarded the background of the participants. The third question
was about experiences regarding problems with trading forestry products. The rest of
the questions concentrated on the use of such an application, and what was important
regarding the use of the application.
The survey questions were:
1. Do you work with selling or buying of forestry products?
2. For how long have you been employed in the industry of selling/buying forestry
products?
3. Have you experienced problems when trading forestry products?
4. If an application that could calculate forestry product prices between the different
annotations were to exist, to what degree would that remove the challenges around
trading?
5. If such an application were to exist for your smart phone, would you use it?
6. What would be most important for you with such an application?
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6.2 Empirical studies
6.2.1.2.1
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
Industrial survey results
The survey results were:
1. Do you work with selling or buying of forestry products?
2. For how long have you been employed in the industry of selling/buying forestry
products?
3. Have you experienced problems when trading forestry products?
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Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.2 Empirical studies
4. If an application that could calculate forestry product prices between the different
annotations were to exist, to what degree would that remove the challenges around
trading?
5. If such an application were to exist for your smart phone, would you use it?
6. What would be most important for you with such an application?
(a) That it works correctly
(b) That it contains all the necessary input choices
(c) That it is trustworthy
(d) That it provides correct and accurate results
(e) That it is easy to use
(f) That it is accessible
(g) That it is widely used in the industry; become a standard
53
6.2 Empirical studies
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
The industry survey provided information regarding problems in trading of forestry products.
Usually, there are forestry industries on one side, and energy industries on the other side in
a trading process. Even though the persons participating in such a trade are experts within
their field, they do not use the same annotations. In one way it is correct to state that they
speak different languages. For instance, the energy specialists deal with kWh and tons,
while the forestry specialists use dry tons and solid cubic meters. The problems appear
when none of the parts know how to calculate the different annotations.
Based on the results from the survey it can be concluded that most of the industry workers
has experienced problems at some level regarding trading of forestry products. The majority
of the participants believe that such an application can remove at least some of the problems
that arise when trading. The most optimistic answer though, is that almost all of the
participants would be willing to use the application.
The last question in the survey was the same as in the firewood purchase survey, and the
results were very similar. All the participants from both surveys agree that the application
should be easy to use and to get a hold of. They are all very concerned about the correctness
of the calculations, and whether the application can be trusted.
6.2.1.3
Outcome of the studies
This knowledge about the users’ troubles and wishes indicated the way forward. The
firewood buyers need a tool that calculates the energy content in a specific amount of
firewood, as well as the kWh rate. Such a tool should also contain a list providing the user
with corresponding prices of firewood in regard to the amount bought. Such a tool would
make it easier for the firewood buyers to know which amount of firewood to buy, in order
to save money, and which heating methods are the most economic.
The understanding of the problem, as not speaking the same language, in the industry
pointed in the direction of a conversion tool. Both parts of a trading needs a calculator
that can calculate amount and price between the different annotations that are in use today.
By making such an application, the trading process will be quicker, and hopefully several
energy industries will understand the environmental and economic possibilities in using
forestry products. This calculator also needs to contain a calculation of energy amount as
well as kWh rates.
6.2.2
Arrears studies
At a forestry exhibition, the Forestry Product Calculator was shown to several forestry
experts, and all of them were positive to this new tool. They were impressed about all
the input choices and results provided. They felt like all conceivable areas of use were
considered and included. Several experts stated that they believed that this tool could
make a huge difference in the forestry trading process, and revolutionize the entire process
by decreasing today’s annotation problems.
54
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
6.3
6.3 Evaluation & Results
Evaluation & Results
The DevExtreme plug-in for Visual Studio worked well, and made the application quite
easy to implement. Everything about the development of the application worked well until
it was time to publish. Both Android and Windows publication were straightforward, but
iOS, on the other hand, was quite the opposite. After paying the developer license at Apple
it became clear that the developer had to be in possession of a MAC in order to be able to
generate the certificates needed to publish the application on AppStore.
After several usability tests were conducted, and the design was changed a couple times,
the average user needed three minutes and four seconds to make calculations in both
the firewood and industry parts. The time spent on making both firewood and industry
calculations is way below the four minutes used on one part that was decided upon in the
requirements. Some users experienced some troubles understanding how to provide input
the first time input was requested, but the learning curve was steep, and each user used
shorter time each time new input was provided. Most of the testers said that they were
interested in using the Forestry Product Calculator regularly.
Both the Forestry Product Calculator and the executed tests includes some general limitations.
It is required that the users possess a smartphone or a tablet in order to use the application.
This limitation includes both individuals buying firewood, and forestry expert workers
using it in the industry.
In addition, the equations that all the calculations are based on are made by Knute Foss.
His knowledge and experience in the field form the basis for these formulas, as there do
not exist any fixed rules for such calculations.
Regarding the conducted tests, we only had a limited number of test participants, but we
tried our best to test on a wide audience.
The forestry product experts that were spoken with at the forestry seminar were all excited
about the application and eager to start using it in their daily routines. They were all
positive to the tool, and believed that it would help reducing the challenges of trading
forestry products between the forestry industry and the energy industry. Even though there
have been conversations with forestry product experts, there should have been done more
testing with them as well. They are the primary audience, and the ones that are expected
to use the tool the most.
After the tests were conducted the test persons filled in the SUS-schema, and the majority
of the testers provided a SUS-score around 85 which is much higher than the required 70.
On average the SUS-score was 79, which provides the knowledge of satisfied testers. This
score says that the testers overall were pleased with the application, and that they would
like to use it when buying firewood and other forestry products.
55
6.3 Evaluation & Results
Chapter 6. Experiments & Empirical Studies
56
CHAPTER
7
CONCLUSION
This chapter includes the application’s status, the achievements made during this master
thesis, and what work is believed to be done in the future.
7.1
Summary
During these 20 weeks the Forestry Product Calculator has evolved from paper to cellphones.
The application is fully implemented, and it can be found at both Google Play, for Android,
and Windows Store, for Windows phones. The application is unfortunately not available
on App Store, for iPhones, yet. The native package for iOS is finished, but due to some
certificate issues, it has not been published.
The application has been tested over several processes, and the last seventeen tests all
provided good feedback from potential customers. They all believed that they would use
the tool to calculate energy content in firewood, and they provided an average SUS-score
of 79 which is much higher than the 70 that it was hoped for.
The forestry industry have also been contacted, and they were all very excited about the
tool and how they believed it could make their workdays easier. They are eager to start
use the calculator, which is a much better response than expected just a few days after
publication.
57
7.2 Achievements
7.2
Chapter 7. Conclusion
Achievements
At the beginning of this thesis there were some things that were hoped to be achieved, as
well as some application requirements that needed to be fulfilled. The requirements and
how they were met are explained in section 5.1.2, and table 7.1.
Requirement
Easy to understand
Easy to use
For anyone
Correct calculations
Ease cooperation
Fulfilling ways
None of the test persons experienced serious problems, and they
all completed the provided usability tests
All test persons explained the tool as easy and intuitive
The tool was tested on many different persons, all which
had different experience with both smart phones and forestry
products, and they all provided very high SUS-scores
The calculations have been tested against a huge
excel-calculator, as well as tested by a forestry expert
All the forestry experts that have seen the tool are very excited
and eager to start using it, which should mean that it has great
potential in making trading forestry products easier
Table 7.1: Fulfillment of requirements
Besides the requirements, there were also a hope that the application would be published
for Android phones when this master thesis was done. Not only is the application available
for Android phones, but also for Android tablets and Windows phone. This achievement
were only possible because of the DevExtreme plug-in, and hard and consistent work-flow.
In addition to all the other achievements, the most important goal, was to minimize the
problems when trading forestry products between the forestry industry and the energy
industry. Due to all the positivism and accolades received from the forestry experts we
believe that these problems have been captured spot on. They are all eager to start using
the tool, and they do all believe that this tool will make their ordinary workday a lot easier.
Since these people are experts in trading forestry products we choose to trust them when
they say that this tool will minimize the trading problems considerably.
We feel that these problems were handled from the center and out, and are pleased to see
that the challenges regarding forestry product trading, and ignorance among the everyday
man are to be reduced by the usage of this tool. Almost all the test subjects said that they
would use this tool to make sure they knew how much energy they were buying, and for
how much money, so that they easily can compare firewood with other heating methods.
Hopefully, this will minimize the ignorance amongst people, and help them become more
conscious of the environment.
58
Chapter 7. Conclusion
7.3
7.3 Further work
Further work
Due to the limited time frame of this thesis, we have not been able to address all aspects.
Some suggestions for future work are outlined in this section.
We recommend that the wood specie lists and the product list get alphabetized, making
it easier to locate the right specie or product. During the testing, only one test subject used
the search option, while the rest scrolled and looked for the specie ”Furu” manually. Some
of the test persons used quite some time locating the wood-specie.
We would also recommend to put a constraint on the different input-fields, for instance
that the %-sign can not be entered into the moisture-input field. By including such a
constraint the problems that arise when a user includes the %-sign are removed.
Finally, we would highly recommend that the application is included in the App Store
for iPhones as well. To include the application in the App Store a MAC is needed to make
certificates and provisioning profile.
59
7.3 Further work
Chapter 7. Conclusion
60
Appendices
61
APPENDIX
A
APACHE LICENSE
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Chapter A. Apache License
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Chapter A. Apache License
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Chapter A. Apache License
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66
APPENDIX
B
REQUIREMENTS
This appendix describes the requirements stated for this thesis. Section B.1 outlines the
functional requirements and section B.2 the non-functional requirements.
B.1
Functional requirements
The functional requirements for this thesis is listed in table B.1.
Req. ID
FR1
FR2
FR3
FR4
FR5
FR6
Description
Start the application: The user should be able to start
application.
Start the firewood part: The user should be able to open
firewood part by pressing the ”Vedkjøp”-button.
Start the industry part: The user should be able to open
industry part by pressing the ”Industri”-button.
Insert inputs: The user should be able to choose, or write
needed input.
Make calculations: The user should be able to press
”Kalkuler”-button, and display the correct results.
Scroll results: The user should be able to scroll to see all
different results.
the
Priority
High
the
High
the
High
the
High
the
High
the
High
Table B.1: Functional requirements
67
B.2 Non-functional requirements
B.2
Chapter B. Requirements
Non-functional requirements
This section explains the requirements for the application that do not add specific functionality
to the product.
B.2.1
Quality requirements
The quality attribute requirements are listed and explained in the following sections.
B.2.1.1
Usability
Usability explains how the application is made in order to be effective to learn and use.
B.2.1.1.1 U1 Ease of use
The user should be able to use the application with few mistakes, such as pressing the
wrong button because button labels are ambiguous or too small. The scenario is described
in table B.2.
Portion of scenario
Source
Stimulus
Artifact
Environment
Response
Response measure
Values
End user
Use system without problems
System
At run time
Provide clean and intuitive interfaces
Maximum 3% of user operations should be mistakes
Table B.2: U1 Ease of use
B.2.1.1.2 U2 Efficient use
The user should be able to use the main features of the application by making few iterations.
The scenario is described in table B.3.
Portion of scenario
Source
Stimulus
Artifact
Environment
Response
Response measure
Values
End user
Use system efficiently
System
At run time
Organize the application so that it is easy to understand and use
A user that have used the application before should not need
to use more time than one minute executing the calculations.
A new user should not use more than 4 minutes executing the
calculations.
Table B.3: U2 Efficient use
68
Chapter B. Requirements
B.2.2
B.2 Non-functional requirements
Performance
Performance explains how fast and precise the application works.
B.2.2.1
P1 Latency
The user should be able to read the calculation results quickly after the ”Kalkuler”-button
is pressed. The scenario is described in table B.4.
Portion of scenario
Source
Stimulus
Artifact
Environment
Response
Response measure
Values
End user
Wants to know the results
System
After providing correct input, and the ”Kalkuler”-button have
been pushed
The calculations are performed
With a latency of maximum 3 seconds, the user should be able
to look at the results
Table B.4: P1 Latency
B.2.2.2
P2 Correctness
The application should be able to provide the user with correct calculations. The scenario
is described in table B.5.
Portion of scenario
Source
Stimulus
Artifact
Environment
Response
Response measure
Values
System
Wants to have satisfied users
System
After the user have provided correct input,
”Kalkuler”-button have been pushed
The calculations are performed correctly
All the answers are correct each time
Table B.5: P2 Correctness
69
and the
B.2 Non-functional requirements
Chapter B. Requirements
70
APPENDIX
C
DESIGN GUIDELINES
The Forestry Product Calculator is an application that is supposed to work on different
operating systems, and at devices with different screen sizes. The different operating
systems’ guidelines therefore works as basis for the application’s design.
C.1
Microsoft guidelines
Microsoft’s guidelines for Windows phones are divided into 5 categories (Windows Phone,
2014):
1. Pride in craftsmanship means that the programmer should put a lot of time and
energy into the small things that many users will see often. Which means that
attention to detail is the most important. If the small details are perfect, then the
application will be extraordinary.
2. More with less means that only the most relevant elements should appear on screen.
The saying ”Content over chrome”, means that the content, and not the chrome are
the most important part of the application. This allows the content to shine, and it
becomes easier for the user to find the information needed.
3. Fast and fluid means that the user should be able to interact directly so that the
application responds quickly to the user actions.
4. Authentically digital means to go beyond the rules and properties of the physical
world to create new and exciting possibilities purely in digital space. Information is
the primary goal and not the wrapping around it.
5. Win as one means to use common design models that are know for the users to
complete end-to-end user scenarios. The programmer should not reinvent the wheel,
but use models that are know to the user, so that using the application is familiar and
easy to use.
71
C.2 iOS guidelines
C.1.1
Chapter C. Design Guidelines
Android guidelines
Guidelines for Android phones are divided into 3 categories (Android developer, 2014):
1. Enchant Me means using subtle effects making the user feel like using the application
is effortlessness. Let the users add their personal touch to the application by directly
touch and manipulate objects. Learn peoples preferences so that they do not need to
take the same choices all over again.
2. Simplify My Life means using short phrases and pictures instead of long sentences.
Divide information and choices into small chunks, so that it does not get overwhelming
for the user. Discern functional differences by making them look the same, to
provide the user with more confidence when use the application.
3. Make Me Amazing means using familiar patterns that the users know from other
applications. Complex thoughts should be broken down into smaller steps so that
the tasks are easily accomplished. Decide what actions are most important, and
make sure that they are fast to use.
C.2
iOS guidelines
iOS guidelines are divided into 3 categories CITE:
1. Defer to Content means using the entire screen, do not use insets and frames
anymore, which gives the application more space for the information to be shown.
The UI should only play a supporting role, the information is what should be in
focus. In this way the information are a lot easier for the users to find.
2. Provide Clarity means using a lot of negative space to make information pop. The
negative space also make the application appear more efficient and focused. Color
should be used to highlight and separate the most important states in a clean and
orderly way. To make the application feel more homely for the user, the user should
always be able to choose text size.
3. Use Depth to Communicate means that a translucent background should be used
to separate folders containing different information from each other, and from the
rest of the screen.
72
APPENDIX
D
USER MANUAL
73
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
2
08.06.2014
Firewood purchase
iPone
Android
Windows
Press to get to the Firewood purchase part
3
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to get a drop-down-list with amount choices
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch one alternative to choose that amount
4
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to get a drop-down-list with wood species choices
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch one alternative to choose that specie
5
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to fill in moisture
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to fill in price
6
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Scroll in the arrows direction to see all the results
iPhone
Android
Windows
7
08.06.2014
Industry
iPhone
Android
Windows
Press to get to the Industry part
8
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to get a drop-down-list with product choices
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch one alternative to choose that product
9
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to get a drop-down-list with wood species choices
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch one alternative to choose that specie
10
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to fill in moisture
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to fill in amount
11
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to get a drop-down-list with annotations
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch one alternative to choose that annotiation
12
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
Touch to fill in price
iPhone
Android
Windows
Scroll in the arrows direction to see all the results
13
08.06.2014
iPhone
Android
Windows
14
APPENDIX
E
FUNCTIONAL TESTS
See table E.1 - E.6 for test cases.
Test case ID
Name
Requirement
Description
Preconditions
Flow of events
1
Test firewood front page
Push the ”Vedkjøp” button on the start page
The application is running
1. Push the button named ”Vedkjøp”
Expected results
Actual results
Comments
Status
The start screen disappears, and the firewood screen appears
Table E.1: Test case 1
87
Chapter E. Functional tests
Test case ID
Name
Requirement
Description
Preconditions
2
Test calculations
Fill in the required input to do the calculations
• The application is running
• The user have chosen the firewood part
Flow of events
1. Choose Vedmengde ”40 l sekk”
2. Choose Tretype ”Furu”
3. Enter Fukt % ”5”
4. Enter Pris ”100”
Expected results
Actual results
Comments
Status
The results appears at the bottom of the firewood page
Table E.2: Test case 2
88
Chapter E. Functional tests
Test case ID
Name
Requirement
Description
Preconditions
3
Test view results
Scroll to see energy and ”Tilsvarende priser” results
• The application is running
• The user have chosen the firewood part
• The user have filled in all the required input
• The application have calculated the results
Flow of events
1. User scrolls down below the input choices
Expected results
Actual results
Comments
Status
The firewood input choices disappears, and the results appear instead
Table E.3: Test case 3
Test case ID
Name
Requirement
Description
Preconditions
Flow of events
4
Industry page
Press the ”Industri” button at the start page
The application is running
1. User presses the button named ”Industri”
Expected results
Actual results
Comments
Status
The front page disappears and the industry start page appears
Table E.4: Test case 4
89
Chapter E. Functional tests
Test case ID
Name
Requirement
Description
Preconditions
5
Calculations
Fill in all the needed input and do the calculations
• The application is running
• The user have chosen the industry part
Flow of events
1. Choose Produkt ”Fersk bark”
2. Choose Tretype ”Furu”
3. Enter Fukt % ”5”
4. Choose Enhet ”Lm3”
5. Enter Pris ”300”
Expected results
Actual results
Comments
Status
The industry results appears underneath the input choices
Table E.5: Test case 5
Test case ID
Name
Requirement
Description
Preconditions
Flow of events
Expected results
Actual results
Comments
Status
6
Results
Look at the energy, and the two amount results
Table E.6: Test case 6
90
APPENDIX
F
USABILITY TESTING
F.1
The tests
Task no.
Task name
Description
Input
1
Firewood
You are going to buy firewood, get to the firewood start page
Table F.1: Usability test - task 1
Task no.
Task name
Description
Input
2
Calculations
Fill in all the input needed and do the calculations
Vedmengde = ”40 l sekk”
Tretype = ”Furu”
Fukt % = ”5”
Pris = ”100”
Table F.2: Usability test - task 2
Task no.
Task name
Description
Input
3
Results
Look at the energy results and ”Tilsvarende priser” results
Table F.3: Usability test - task 3
91
F.2 Test execution
Task no.
Task name
Description
Input
Chapter F. Usability testing
4
Industry
You are buying forestry products for your company. Go to the industry start page
Table F.4: Usability test - task 4
Task no.
Task name
Description
Input
5
Calculations
Fill in all the input needed and do the calculations
Produkt = ”Fersk bark”
Tretype = ”Furu”
Fukt % = ”5”
Enhet = ”Lm3”
Pris = ”300”
Table F.5: Usability test - task 5
Task no.
Task name
Description
Input
6
Results
Look at the energy, and amount results
Table F.6: Usability test - task 6
F.2
Test execution
The test leader plans a meeting with the test subjects, and they set up a meeting. Prior to the
meeting the test leader does the required preparations, as explained in section F.2.1.Then
the test subject is provided with information about the test, section F.2.2. Then the user is
provided with the tests and a phone with the latest version of the tool, and the test begins.
During the test the test leader takes notes regarding issues during the execution of the tasks.
After all the tasks have been conducted, the user fills out a SUS form, and the test leader
calculates the SUS-score.
92
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.2.1
F.2 Test execution
Preparation for the test leader
• Make sure that you have the latest version of the forestry calculator on a phone.
• Have the tasks ready on paper or screen.
• Have the SUS questionnaire ready on paper or screen.
• Have pen and the observation form on paper or a computer ready to make notes on.
• Put an ID (e.g. the test leader’s name) on both the observation form and the SUS
questionnaire.
F.2.2
Information about the test given to the user
• This is a test to find out if the application is intuitive and user friendly, and not a test
of you and your skills.
• The test consists of six (6) tasks and will take approximately 10 minutes.
• Read the instructions for each task and perform the tasks one by one.
• Each task has the same structure: A task number, a task name, a description of what
you should do and input data that is needed to solve a task. If you find input fields
in the application that do not have a value listed, you can enter an arbitrary value.
• If you cannot figure out how to solve a task this is not your fault, but the application
that is not designed in a user friendly way. You can then move on to the next task,
but notify the test leader.
• You can ask questions before and after the test, but we cannot help you during the
test.
• You can quit the test anytime you want.
• It would be helpful if you could try to think along during the test. Try to explain
what you see and why you make your choices. This makes it easier for us to figure
out how users think and what could be done better in the design.
• After the test we would appreciate if you could fill out a questionnaire and give
feedback if you felt that something worked well or not so well.
F.2.3
Information about the application given to the user
The Forestry Product Calculator is a tool that is to be used to calculate the energy amount
in firewood, and to calculate different annotations used in the forestry industry.
93
F.2 Test execution
F.2.4
Chapter F. Usability testing
SUS form
Figure F.1: SUS form
94
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.2.5
F.3 The results
Observation form for usability testing
Test leader:
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
Test observation
Time
Task number Observations
1
2
3
4
5
6
Question
Answer Actual
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score x 2.5
Table F.7: Observation form template
F.3
The results
This section includes the observation forms from all the tests conducted, as well as the
corresponding SUS-calculations.
95
F.3 The results
F.3.1
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test one
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information:
Participant ID
Gender
Age
1
Female
24
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-14
Nurse
iOS
Test observation:
Time
1 sec
1 min 27 sec
13 sec
45 sec
3 min
7 sec
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
6
Answer
3
1
4
4
4
1
5
1
4
1
x 2.5
Observations
Finds the firewood button at first glance
Looking for the % button
Scrolls to find all the results
Uses the back button, then the industry button from
the startpage
Problems understanding how to make the calculations
Find the results as they are provided
Actual
2
4
3
1
3
4
4
4
3
4
32
80
Table F.8: Test number one
96
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.2
F.3 The results
Test two
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information:
Participant ID
Gender
Age
2
Female
25
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-14
Nurse
iOS
Test observation:
Time
1 min
33 sec
50 sec
6 sec
30 sec
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
8 sec
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
5
4
3
2
4
1
5
1
4
2
x 2.5
Observations
Problems seeing the text
Fills in the input, no problems
Do not understand how to do the calculations
Uses the back button on top of the screen
Writes %-sign in the moisture-field first, so no
calculations executes
Expects where the results will be shown
Actual
4
1
2
3
3
4
4
4
3
3
31
77.5
Table F.9: Test number two
97
F.3 The results
F.3.3
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test three
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information:
Participant ID
Gender
Age
3
Female
24
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-14
Teacher
iOS & Android
Test observation:
Time
Task number
5 sec
1
56 sec 2
38 sec 3
2 sec
4
41 sec 5
7 sec
6
Question
Answer
1
5
2
1
3
5
4
1
5
5
6
1
7
5
8
1
9
5
10
1
Sum
SUS-score x 2.5
Observations
Finds the button quickly
Fills in all the input correctly
Some problems getting the calculations to execute
Uses the back button
Remembers from task 2
Learned from task 3
Actual
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
40
100
Table F.10: Test number three
98
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.4
F.3 The results
Test four
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information:
Participant ID
Gender
Age
4
Male
45
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-20
Technical college
iOS & Android
Test observation:
Time
7 sec
30 sec
10 sec
18 sec
1 min 10 sec
15 sec
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
6
Answer
5
2
4
1
5
1
5
1
4
2
x 2.5
Observations
Found the button quite quickly
Pushed outside the input-field, so the calculate-button
did not provide any changes
Scrolled to see the results
Used the phones back button
Learned from task 2
Thought the results were straightforward
Actual
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
36
90
Table F.11: Test number four
99
F.3 The results
F.3.5
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test five
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
5
Male
52
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-22
Technical college
None
Test observation
Time
10 sec
Task number
1
2 min
40 sec
2
3
15 sec
3 min
4
5
15 sec
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
4
1
5
1
4
1
5
1
5
1
x 2.5
Observations
Experienced some problems reading the text because
of the black background
Looks for the %-sign quite some time
Uses the enter button on the keyboard, so do not see
any changes when pushing the calculate button
Used the back button
Had some trouble getting the product list to show,
touched outside the drop down list
Learned from task 3 regarding execution of the
calculations
Actual
3
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
38
95
Table F.12: Test five
100
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.6
F.3 The results
Test six
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
6
Male
57
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-22
Technical college
iOS
Test observation
Time
10 sec
2 min
Task number
1
2
10 sec
1 min
3
4
1 min
5
2 min
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
2
2
3
2
3
2
5
3
3
1
x 2.5
Observations
Found the firewood button easy
Had problems understanding the difference in what
was input fields, and what was the input fields label.
Looked carefully at all the results
Looked for a home button, but did not find one. After
a while he discovered the back button
Learned from task 2, but had some problems because
he had already put a number in the moisture input, but
he did not understand how to remove that number and
put in a new one. Very little experience with using
apps on smart phones.
Experienced problems understanding that MWh were
energy results
Actual
1
3
2
3
2
3
4
2
2
4
26
65
Table F.13: Test six
101
F.3 The results
F.3.7
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test seven
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
7
Male
54
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-26
Technical college
Android & iOS
Test observation
Time
4 sec
2 min
Task number
1
2
20 sec
9 sec
1 min 27 sec
3 sec
3
4
5
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
4
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
4
1
x 2.5
Observations
Problems understanding he is already on the startpage
Problems seeing the screen because of the black
background and sunlight.
Scrolls to see all the results
Found the back button quickly
Learned from task 2, but is a slow toucher
Sees the results as soon as the calculations are
executed
Actual
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
38
95
Table F.14: Test seven
102
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.8
F.3 The results
Test eight
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
8
Female
48
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-26
Secondary school
iOS for 3 weeks
Test observation
Time
1 sec
1 min
16 sec
3 sec
1 min 26 sec
6 sec
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Task number Observations
1
Observes the button at once
2
Do not use the given input
3
Pushes the button, and scrolls downwards
4
Uses the back button right away
5
This time she registers the input given
6
Remember the button and scrolling from task 3
Answer Actual
3
2
2
3
5
4
2
3
4
3
2
3
5
4
1
4
5
4
1
4
34
x 2.5
85
Table F.15: Test eight
103
F.3 The results
F.3.9
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test nine
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
9
Male
44
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-26
Printing college
Android & iOS
Test observation
Time
3 sec
52 sec
Task number
1
2
2 sec
3
7 sec
4
43 sec 5
9 sec
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
3
2
4
1
5
1
5
1
4
2
x 2.5
Observations
Found the firewood button at first glance
Experienced some trouble defining what was input
fields
Scrolled quickly to see all the results
Used the back-button right away
Learned from task 2
Expected where to find the results
Actual
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
34
85
Table F.16: Test nine
104
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.10
F.3 The results
Test ten
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
10
Female
48
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-26
High school
Windows
Test observation
Time
25 sec
30 sec
6 sec
8 sec
30 sec
6 sec
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
3
1
5
1
4
1
5
2
5
1
x 2.5
Observations
Uses some time finding the firewood button
Wonders whether or not to write the % -sign
Scrolls after pushing the calculate button
Found the back-button easily
Learned from task 2
Expected the results to be underneath the input, so
found them very easily
Actual
2
4
4
4
3
4
4
3
4
4
36
90
Table F.17: Test ten
105
F.3 The results
F.3.11
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test eleven
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
11
Female
54
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-26
high school
iOS & Android
Test observation
Time
26 sec
Task number
1
41 sec 2
6 sec
3
9 sec
4
33 sec 5
7 sec
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
3
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
x 2.5
Observations
Having problems understanding that the app started at
the start page
Wonders whether she needs to write the %-sign
Scrolled to fined all the results
Learned from last and used the start page button
Learned from task 2
Found the results quickly
Actual
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
38
95
Table F.18: Test eleven
106
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.12
F.3 The results
Test twelve
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
12
Female
33
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-26
Technical college, engineering
iOS & Android
Test observation
Time
2 sec
31 sec
Task number
1
2
4 sec
3 sec
35 sec
4 sec
3
4
5
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
3
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
x 2.5
Observations
Found the button at once
Filled in the input as she had done it thousand times
before
Scrolled to see all the results
Used the back button
Went smoothly
Knew already where to find the results when pushing
the calculate button
Actual
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
38
95
Table F.19: Test twelve
107
F.3 The results
F.3.13
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test thirteen
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
13
Male
47
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-26
High school
iOS
Test observation
Time
1 sec
55 sec
10 sec
6 sec
1 min 31 sec
8 sec
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
6
Answer
4
1
5
1
5
2
4
1
5
1
x 2.5
Observations
found the firewood button at first galnce
Do not use the input provided
Some troubles with the scrolling at first
Uses the back-button immediately
Stops and wonders what the industry annotations
means
Learned from task 3, scrolls right away
Actual
3
4
4
4
4
3
3
4
4
4
37
92.5
Table F.20: Test thirteen
108
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.14
F.3 The results
Test fourteen
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
14
Female
24
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-26
High school
Android & Windows
Test observation
Time
4 sec
19 sec
9 sec
3 sec
34 sec
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
6 sec
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
5
1
5
1
4
1
5
1
5
1
x 2.5
Observations
Found the firewood button quickly
Filled inn all the input needed without any problems
Scrolled to be able to look at all the different results
Used the back button
Filled inn all the input provided, even though she did
not understand what all of them were
Found the results quite easy
Actual
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
39
97.5
Table F.21: Test fourteen
109
F.3 The results
F.3.15
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test fifteen
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
15
Male
51
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-30
Master-degree, university
None
Test observation
Time
5 sec
46 sec
7 sec
14 sec
42 sec
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
11 sec 6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
2
1
4
1
4
1
5
1
4
1
x 2.5
Observations
Found the firewood button easy
Filled in all the input needed without any problems
Scrolled to view all the different results
Used the back-button
Used the enter button, so did not understand what
happens when pushing the calculate-button
Looked at all the different results quite thoroughly
Actual
1
4
3
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
34
85
Table F.22: Test fifteen
110
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.16
F.3 The results
Test sixteen
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
16
Female
50
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-30
Finance college
Android & Windows
Test observation
Time
1 sec
30 sec
Task number
1
2
4 sec
9 sec
40 sec
7 sec
3
4
5
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
4
1
5
1
4
1
5
1
5
1
x 2.5
Observations
Found the firewood button quickly
Experiencing some issues finding the correct specie,
since the list is not alphabetized
Scrolled to see all the different results
Used the phones back-button
Filled in all the input require, no troubles
Looked at the results in the table and found them very
orderly
Actual
3
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
38
95
Table F.23: Test sixteen
111
F.3 The results
F.3.17
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test seventeen
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
17
Female
28
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-30
High school
Android & iOS
Test observation
Time
3 sec
1 min 8 sec
12 sec
3 sec
34 sec
11 sec
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
6
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Answer
3
2
5
1
4
1
4
2
4
1
x 2.5
Observations
Locates the firewood button fast
Wonders whether or not the %-sign is needed
Scrolls to see all the different results
Used the back-button
Learned from task 2
Looks at the result table, and the energy results, but
wonders what load value is
Actual
2
3
4
4
3
4
3
3
3
4
33
82.5
Table F.24: Test seventeen
112
Chapter F. Usability testing
F.3.18
F.3 The results
Test eighteen
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
18
Male
48
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-27
Technical college
iOS
Test observation
Time
2 sec
3 min
11 sec
6 sec
1 min 25 sec
12 sec
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
Task number
1
2
3
4
5
6
Answer
3
1
4
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
x 2.5
Observations
Pushes the firewood button at once
Touches the input text not the input field
Uses some time before he scrolls
Used the back-button
Learned from task 2 regarding the input, but forgets
to choose unit
Carefully studies all the different results
Actual
2
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
37
92.5
Table F.25: Test eighteen
113
F.3 The results
F.3.19
Chapter F. Usability testing
Test nineteen
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
19
Male
30
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-05-30
College
None
Test observation
Time
17 sec
Task number
1
1 min 34 sec
2
11 sec
18 sec
2 min 20 sec
3
4
5
4 sec
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sum
SUS-score
6
Answer
5
2
3
3
4
2
5
1
3
4
x 2.5
Observations
Some problems understanding that the app started at
the start page
He is just a slow worker, had no problems providing
the input required
Scrolled to see all the different results
Used the back-button
Having problems understanding where the input are
to be provided, as to where the results are going to
show. Sees the units further down at the screen.
Looked at all the results
Actual
4
3
2
2
3
3
4
4
2
3
30
75
Table F.26: Test nineteen
114
F.3.20
Test twenty
Test leader: Ida Katrine Thoresen
General information
Participant ID
Gender
Age
20
Male
19
Date of test
Education
Experience with smart phones
2014-06-01
High school
iOS
Test observation
Time
Task number
1 sec
1
36 sec 2
9 sec
3
4 sec
4
43 sec 5
5 sec
6
Question
Answer
1
4
2
1
3
5
4
2
5
4
6
2
7
4
8
2
9
5
10
1
Sum
SUS-score x 2.5
Observations
Spotted the firewood button at once
Filled in all the necessary input
Understood the scrolling right away
Used the back-button
Filled in all input required
Looked at all the results
Actual
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
34
85
Table F.27: Test twenty
115
116
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