DS8821 SPECTRUM ANALYZER OPERATION MANUAL

DS8821 SPECTRUM ANALYZER
OPERATION MANUAL
Deviser Part No.: DK118208821
Version 2.28
Applicable models
DS8821 Serial Spectrum analyzer
Software version 2.28
Firmware version 1.28
© TianJin Deviser Electronics Instrument Co., Ltd.
All rights reserved.
Printed in CHINA.
Safety Summary
1. Safety Symbol
The following safety symbols are used throughout this manual. Familiarize yourself with each of the symbols
and their meaning before operating this instrument.
CAUTION: The caution sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that if not correctly performed
or adhered to could result in damage to or destruction of the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a
caution sign until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
WARNING The warning sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that if not correctly performed
or adhered to could result in injury or loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning sign until the
indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
2. Basic Precautions
Please observe the following precautions to prevent fire、burn、electric shock and personal Injury.
¾
Use a power cable rated for the voltage. Be sure however to use a power cable confirming to
safety standards of your nation when using a product overseas. Do not place anything heavy on
top of the power cable.
¾
When inserting the plug into the electrical outlet, first turn the power switch OFF and then insert
the plug as far as it will go.
¾
When removing the plug from the electrical outlet, first turn the power switch OFF and then pull it
out by gripping the plug. Do not let the power cable pull out by itself. Make sure your hands are
dry at this time.
¾
Before turning on the power, be sure to check that the supply voltage matches the voltage
requirements of the instrument.
¾
Be sure to plug the power cable into an electrical outlet, which has a safety round terminal.
Grounding will be defeated if you use an extension cord which does not include a safety ground
terminal.
¾
Do not use this instrument with the case open.
¾
Do not place objects on top of this product. Also do not place flowerpots or other containers
containing liquid such as chemicals near this product.
¾
When the product has ventilation outlets, do not stick or drop metal or easily flammable objects
into the ventilation outlets.
¾
When using the product on a cart, fix it with belts to avoid its drop.
¾
When connecting the product to peripheral equipment, turn the power OFF.
¾
Don’t throw the battery into the fire, or it’ll explode.
I
INDEX
Contents
1.
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................. 1-1
1.1. Prepare for Use.................................................................................................................................................. 1-2
1.1.1. Check the Instruments ................................................................................................................................ 1-2
1.1.2. About the Charger ...................................................................................................................................... 1-2
1.2. About the User Manual ...................................................................................................................................... 1-2
1.3. ESD (Electrostatic Discharge)............................................................................................................................ 1-2
1.4. Technical Support and other Services................................................................................................................ 1-2
2.
Getting Started ........................................................................................................................................................ 2-1
2.1. Front Panel ........................................................................................................................................................ 2-2
2.1.1. The Subassembly of Front Panel................................................................................................................ 2-2
2.1.2. The Front Panel Keys ................................................................................................................................. 2-3
2.2. Rear Panel ......................................................................................................................................................... 2-5
2.3. Screen Information............................................................................................................................................. 2-6
2.3.1. Spectrum Analyzer Screen ......................................................................................................................... 2-6
2.3.2. QAM Analyzer Window ............................................................................................................................... 2-9
2.4. Menu Tree........................................................................................................................................................ 2-11
3.
Basic Measurement ................................................................................................................................................ 3-1
3.1. Basic Function ................................................................................................................................................... 3-2
3.1.1. Frequency................................................................................................................................................... 3-2
3.1.2. Sweep Span................................................................................................................................................ 3-2
3.1.3. Amplitude.................................................................................................................................................... 3-3
3.2. Basic Parameters Settings................................................................................................................................. 3-7
3.2.1. Band Width ................................................................................................................................................. 3-7
3.2.2. Sweep Mode, Sweep Time and Hold.......................................................................................................... 3-8
3.2.3. Auto ............................................................................................................................................................ 3-9
3.2.4. Mode of Trigger........................................................................................................................................... 3-9
3.3. Basic Usages ................................................................................................................................................... 3-11
3.3.1. Mark Operation ......................................................................................................................................... 3-11
3.3.2. Peak Operation......................................................................................................................................... 3-13
3.3.3. Multi-trace Function .................................................................................................................................. 3-14
3.3.4. Detector Mode .......................................................................................................................................... 3-14
3.3.5. NdB PTS................................................................................................................................................... 3-15
3.3.6. Display Line and Display Delta ................................................................................................................. 3-15
3.3.7. Temperature and Voltage.......................................................................................................................... 3-16
3.3.8. Title ........................................................................................................................................................... 3-16
3.3.9. Double Window......................................................................................................................................... 3-16
4.
Auxiliary Measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.1. Channel Measurements ..................................................................................................................................... 4-2
4.1.1. Unit Exchange ............................................................................................................................................ 4-2
4.1.2. Channel Measurements Menu.................................................................................................................... 4-2
4.1.3. Occupied Bandwidth ................................................................................................................................... 4-3
4.1.4. Adjacent Channel Power ............................................................................................................................ 4-3
4.2. Demodulation Measurements ............................................................................................................................ 4-3
4.2.1. Demodulation Mode.................................................................................................................................... 4-3
4.2.2. Listen On .................................................................................................................................................... 4-3
4.2.3. FM Gain ...................................................................................................................................................... 4-3
4.3. Input Impedance ................................................................................................................................................ 4-3
4.4. Limit Line ........................................................................................................................................................... 4-4
5.
CATV Analyzer (Option 1)....................................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1. CATV Standard and System .............................................................................................................................. 5-2
5.2. Base Noise Calibration ...................................................................................................................................... 5-2
5.3. Channel Table .................................................................................................................................................... 5-2
5.4. CATV Test Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 5-4
5.5. Channel Measurement....................................................................................................................................... 5-5
5.5.1. Channel Select ........................................................................................................................................... 5-5
5.5.2. Listen On .................................................................................................................................................... 5-5
5.5.3. FM Deviation............................................................................................................................................... 5-6
5.5.4. Depth Modulation........................................................................................................................................ 5-6
5.5.5. Carrier Level & Frequency .......................................................................................................................... 5-6
5.5.6. Carrier to Composite Noise......................................................................................................................... 5-7
5.5.7. HUM ........................................................................................................................................................... 5-8
5.5.8. Cross Modulation........................................................................................................................................ 5-8
II
INDEX
5.5.9. CTB/CSO.................................................................................................................................................... 5-8
5.5.10. Leakage ...................................................................................................................................................... 5-9
5.5.11. Chrominance-to-luminance Delay Inequality (CLDI)................................................................................. 5-10
5.5.12. Differential Phase/Gain ............................................................................................................................. 5-10
5.5.13. In-Channel Response ............................................................................................................................... 5-11
5.6. Channel Scan .................................................................................................................................................. 5-12
5.6.1. Standard Channel ..................................................................................................................................... 5-12
5.6.2. User Channel............................................................................................................................................ 5-13
5.6.3. Favorite Channel ...................................................................................................................................... 5-13
5.7. FCC Report...................................................................................................................................................... 5-14
6.
Digital TV (Option 4)................................................................................................................................................ 6-1
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
7.
Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer.................................................................................................................. 7-1
7.1.
8.
Summarize......................................................................................................................................................... 6-2
Constellation Diagram........................................................................................................................................ 6-2
Statistic Graph.................................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Equalizer Display ............................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Settings.............................................................................................................................................................. 6-4
Tracking generator ............................................................................................................................................. 7-2
Other Functions and Settings................................................................................................................................ 8-1
8.1. System Calibration............................................................................................................................................. 8-2
8.2. System config .................................................................................................................................................... 8-2
8.2.1. Serial No. .................................................................................................................................................... 8-2
8.2.2. Print/Save diplex key .................................................................................................................................. 8-2
8.2.3. Baud Rate................................................................................................................................................... 8-4
8.2.4. Clock Setting............................................................................................................................................... 8-4
8.2.5. Language Select......................................................................................................................................... 8-4
8.2.6. Palette ........................................................................................................................................................ 8-4
8.2.7. System Information..................................................................................................................................... 8-5
8.2.8. Status.......................................................................................................................................................... 8-5
8.2.9. Date format ................................................................................................................................................. 8-5
8.3. Software Update ................................................................................................................................................ 8-5
8.4. Other Functions:.............................................................................................................................................. 8-6
9.
Appendix.................................................................................................................................................................. 9-1
9.1.
9.2.
Specifications: .................................................................................................................................................... 9-1
Message Index................................................................................................................................................... 9-5
III
INDEX
Figure Index
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
Figure 2.3
Figure 2.4
Figure 2.5
Figure 2.6
Figure 2.7
Figure 3.1
Figure 3.2
Figure 3.3
Figure 3.4
Figure 3.5
Figure 3.6
Figure 3.7
Figure 3.8
Figure 3.9
Figure 3.10
Figure 3.11
Figure 3.12
Figure 3.13
Figure 3.14
Figure 3.15
Figure 3.16
Figure 3.17
Figure 3.18
Figure 3.19
Figure 3.20
Figure 3.21
Figure 3.22
Figure 3.23
Figure 3.24
Figure 3.25
Figure 3.26
Figure 3.27
Figure 3.28
Figure 3.29
Figure 3.30
Figure 3.31
Figure 3.32
Figure 3.33
Figure 3.34
Figure 3.35
Figure 3.36
Figure 3.37
Figure 3.38
Figure 3.39
Figure 4.1
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.3
Figure 4.4
Figure 4.5
Figure 4.6
Figure 4.7
Figure 4.8
Figure 4.9
Figure 5.1
Figure 5.2
Figure 5.3
Figure 5.4
Figure 5.5
Figure 5.6
Figure 5.7
Figure 5.8
Figure 5.9
Figure 5.10
Figure 5.11
Figure 5.12
Figure 5.13
IV
Front-panel ................................................................................................................................................. 2-2
Front-Panel Key.......................................................................................................................................... 2-3
Rear panel .................................................................................................................................................. 2-5
Single Window Mode .................................................................................................................................. 2-6
Double window ........................................................................................................................................... 2-8
Information Window .................................................................................................................................... 2-8
QAM Analyzer Screen ................................................................................................................................ 2-9
Frequency Menu......................................................................................................................................... 3-2
Frequency Unit Menu ................................................................................................................................. 3-2
Span Menu.................................................................................................................................................. 3-3
Narrow BW ................................................................................................................................................. 3-3
Wide BW..................................................................................................................................................... 3-3
Amplitude Menu.......................................................................................................................................... 3-4
Reference Level.......................................................................................................................................... 3-4
Reference Level Input................................................................................................................................. 3-4
Contrast of “Log” and “Line” State............................................................................................................... 3-5
Amplitude Unit Menu .................................................................................................................................. 3-5
“Scale/Div” .................................................................................................................................................. 3-6
Reference Level Offset Off ......................................................................................................................... 3-6
Reference Level Offset On ......................................................................................................................... 3-6
BW Menu.................................................................................................................................................... 3-7
The Largest RBW That can Distinguish the Signals ................................................................................... 3-7
The Influence of VBW................................................................................................................................. 3-8
Video Average ............................................................................................................................................ 3-8
Sweep Menu............................................................................................................................................... 3-8
Single Sweep.............................................................................................................................................. 3-9
“Auto” Menu................................................................................................................................................ 3-9
Trig Mode ................................................................................................................................................... 3-9
Marker Menu ............................................................................................................................................ 3-11
“Marker To Ref Lvl” and “Marker To Center” ............................................................................................. 3-12
Delta Marker ............................................................................................................................................. 3-12
Multi-Marker.............................................................................................................................................. 3-12
Multi-Markers Selection ............................................................................................................................ 3-12
Marker Table............................................................................................................................................. 3-12
Frequency Counter................................................................................................................................... 3-13
Peak Menu ............................................................................................................................................... 3-13
Peak Table................................................................................................................................................ 3-14
Trace Menu .............................................................................................................................................. 3-14
The Example of “View” ............................................................................................................................. 3-14
Detector Mode .......................................................................................................................................... 3-15
Measure Menu.......................................................................................................................................... 3-15
Display Delta ............................................................................................................................................ 3-16
Temperature and Voltage monitor............................................................................................................. 3-16
Title input .................................................................................................................................................. 3-16
Double Window Menu .............................................................................................................................. 3-16
Zoom Select “On” ..................................................................................................................................... 3-17
Auxiliary Measurements Menu.................................................................................................................... 4-1
Channel Measurements Menu.................................................................................................................... 4-2
Channel Settings Menu .............................................................................................................................. 4-2
Channel Power Menu ................................................................................................................................. 4-2
Occupied Bandwidth Menu ......................................................................................................................... 4-3
Adjacent Channel Power Menu .................................................................................................................. 4-3
Listen On .................................................................................................................................................... 4-3
Input Impedance Menu ............................................................................................................................... 4-3
Limit Line Menu .......................................................................................................................................... 4-4
Mode Menu................................................................................................................................................. 5-1
CATV Root Menu........................................................................................................................................ 5-1
CATV Standard ........................................................................................................................................... 5-2
CATV Settings Menu .................................................................................................................................. 5-2
TV Plans menu ........................................................................................................................................... 5-2
TV Plan Edit Menu...................................................................................................................................... 5-3
Channel Items............................................................................................................................................. 5-3
Channel Edit Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 5-4
TV Plan Download Menu ............................................................................................................................ 5-4
Frequency Setup Menu .............................................................................................................................. 5-4
Amplitude Unit Menu .................................................................................................................................. 5-4
Amplifier Settings in CATV measurement................................................................................................... 5-5
Channel Measure Root Menu..................................................................................................................... 5-5
INDEX
Figure 5.14
Figure 5.15
Figure 5.16
Figure 5.17
Figure 5.18
Figure 5.19
Figure 5.20
Figure 5.21
Figure 5.22
Figure 5.23
Figure 5.24
Figure 5.25
Figure 5.26
Figure 5.27
Figure 5.28
Figure 5.29
Figure 5.30
Figure 5.31
Figure 5.32
Figure 5.33
Figure 5.34
Figure 5.35
Figure 5.36
Figure 5.37
Figure 5.38
Figure 5.39
Figure 5.40
Figure 5.41
Figure 5.42
Figure 5.43
Figure 5.44
Figure 5.45
Figure 5.46
Figure 5.47
Figure 5.48
Figure 5.49
Figure 5.50
Figure 6.1
Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3
Figure 6.4
Figure 6.5
Figure 6.6
Figure 6.7
Figure 6.8
Figure 6.9
Figure 6.10
Figure 6.11
Figure 6.12
Figure 6.13
Figure 6.14
Figure 6.15
Figure 7.1
Figure 7.2
Figure 7.3
Figure 7.4
Figure 7.5
Figure 7.6
Figure 8.1
Figure 8.2
Figure 8.3
Figure 8.4
Figure 8.5
Figure 8.6
Figure 8.7
Figure 8.8
Figure 8.9
Figure 8.10
Figure 8.11
Figure 8.12
Figure 8.13
Notice User to Input Channel Number........................................................................................................ 5-5
Listen ON.................................................................................................................................................... 5-6
FM Deviation .............................................................................................................................................. 5-6
Depth Modulation ....................................................................................................................................... 5-6
Carrier Level & Frequency.......................................................................................................................... 5-6
CCN Measure Step 1.................................................................................................................................. 5-7
CCN Measure Step2................................................................................................................................... 5-7
C/N Gate Measure...................................................................................................................................... 5-7
CCN Gate Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 5-7
Testing Line View........................................................................................................................................ 5-8
HUM ........................................................................................................................................................... 5-8
HUM FFT Result......................................................................................................................................... 5-8
Cross Modulation........................................................................................................................................ 5-8
CTB/CSO Testing Menu ............................................................................................................................. 5-9
CTB/CSO Gate Measure ............................................................................................................................ 5-9
Leakage...................................................................................................................................................... 5-9
CLDI Measure .......................................................................................................................................... 5-10
CLDI Testing Signal .................................................................................................................................. 5-10
Differential Phase/Gain............................................................................................................................. 5-10
Matrix Signal - CCIR Line 330 .................................................................................................................. 5-11
In-Channel Response: Sweep Signal ....................................................................................................... 5-11
Signal Selection........................................................................................................................................ 5-11
In-Channel Response: Insert Test Signal.................................................................................................. 5-11
Vertical Interval Test Signal....................................................................................................................... 5-12
Channel Scan Root Menu ........................................................................................................................ 5-12
Histogram Information .............................................................................................................................. 5-12
Standard Channel Scan............................................................................................................................ 5-13
Reference Line ......................................................................................................................................... 5-13
User Channel Scan Menu ........................................................................................................................ 5-13
Analog Channel Scan Result.................................................................................................................... 5-13
Digital Channel Scan Result ..................................................................................................................... 5-13
Favorite Channel ...................................................................................................................................... 5-13
Create Favorite Channel .......................................................................................................................... 5-14
Favorite Channel Scan ............................................................................................................................. 5-14
FCC menu ................................................................................................................................................ 5-14
FCC View Menu ....................................................................................................................................... 5-14
The Contents of the FCC Report .............................................................................................................. 5-15
Digital TV Menu .......................................................................................................................................... 6-2
Constellation Menu ..................................................................................................................................... 6-2
Constellation of 64QAM after Zoom In........................................................................................................ 6-2
Display Mode .............................................................................................................................................. 6-3
Statistic Graph ............................................................................................................................................ 6-3
Statistic View Menu..................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Equalizer Display ........................................................................................................................................ 6-3
Equalizer Coefficient Display ...................................................................................................................... 6-4
Frequency Response Display ..................................................................................................................... 6-4
Group Delay Display................................................................................................................................... 6-4
Parameter Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 6-4
Amplifier Submenu ..................................................................................................................................... 6-5
Modulation Mode ........................................................................................................................................ 6-5
Standard ..................................................................................................................................................... 6-5
Polarity Menu.............................................................................................................................................. 6-5
Tracking Generator menu ........................................................................................................................... 7-2
TG connection diagram .............................................................................................................................. 7-2
Tracking on ................................................................................................................................................. 7-2
Two Marker Display Mode .......................................................................................................................... 7-2
Tested Component Connection diagram..................................................................................................... 7-3
Testing result............................................................................................................................................... 7-3
Calibration Menu......................................................................................................................................... 8-2
Config Menu ............................................................................................................................................... 8-2
Print/Save Menu ......................................................................................................................................... 8-3
Printer Menu ............................................................................................................................................... 8-3
Save Menu.................................................................................................................................................. 8-3
Transmit Menu ............................................................................................................................................ 8-3
Interface of bmp.exe ................................................................................................................................... 8-3
View Picture................................................................................................................................................ 8-4
Preview Picture........................................................................................................................................... 8-4
Baud Rate Setting Menu ............................................................................................................................ 8-4
Time Setting................................................................................................................................................ 8-4
Palette Setting ............................................................................................................................................ 8-4
System Default Palette ............................................................................................................................... 8-5
V
INDEX
Figure 8.14 About Menu ................................................................................................................................................ 8-5
Figure 8.15 Status Menu................................................................................................................................................ 8-5
Figure 8.16 Date Format Selection menu ...................................................................................................................... 8-5
Figure 8.17 Update Menu .............................................................................................................................................. 8-6
VI
Chapter1 Introduction
1. Introduction
Main Points of This Chapter:
●
Prepare for use
●
About the user manual
●
ESD [Electrostatics Discharge]
●
Technical support & other services
1-1
Chapter1 Introduction
1.1.Prepare for Use
1.2.About the User Manual
1.1.1. Check the Instruments
Check the instrument after you unload it according to the
following steps:
(1) Take out the instrument from the case and check it to
make sure that there is no damage caused by
transportation/shipment.
Unload the case carefully and check the package. If
the package is in good condition, please save the
package for later use. If the package is damaged, it
indicates that the instrument must have felt heavy
impact during the transportation. In such condition,
you’d better keep the original state of the package
and inform the freight Co. to inspect the instrument
together according to the operation regulations
introduced in this manual. You can claim damages to
the freight Co. according to the damage station of the
instrument and connect us to arrange the repair.
(2) Check all the accessories and data.
Check the accessories and data according to Table
1-1. The ordered options will be delivered with the
instrument too. If they are not sufficient, please
contact us and show the delivered invoice.
Accessories
Note
75Ω BNC-BNC testing cable
One
Charger
19V/3.42A
Manual Book / Disk
English
Table 1-1 Accessories
Please read the user manual carefully first before turning
on the power of the instrument so that you can use it to its
best performance level. There are some clues about the
preparing process.
(1) Brief introduction about instrument’s character
You can get a clear idea about the outlook of main part
and accessories and distinguish different function
combinations of them. Also you can know the main
function and characters of the instrument.
(2) Main operating method of the instrument
The user manual gives detailed explanation about the
daily use functions and using the measuring picture to tell
the user the main operating methods.
(3) How to do Self- Calibration?
It is very important for the user / instrument to do
calibration during its first use because it will affect the
accuracy of the test. The user can calibrate the instrument
according to the listed operating steps.
1.3.ESD (Electrostatic Discharge)
Electrostatic discharge can damage or destroy electronic
components, so all work on electronic assemblies should
be performed at an anti-static workstation. The following
suggestions may help to reduce ESD damage that occurs
during testing and servicing operations.
¾
Before connecting any coaxial cable to the
instrument for the first time every day, momentarily
ground the center and outer conductors of the
cable.
¾
Personnel should be grounded
with a
resistor-isolated wrist strap before touching the
center pin of any connector and before removing
any assembly from the unit.
¾
Be sure that all instruments are properly
earth-grounded to prevent a build-up of static
charge.
1.1.2. About the Charger
How to judge the status of the charger:
When charging if the spectrum analyzer is turned off, the
red lamp will shine. Finished, the orange lamp will shine.
When charging if the spectrum analyzer is turned on, the
green lamp will shine. Finished, the orange lamp will
shine.
Battery life span: 300 times recharged.
Cautions:
1.
The charge time is about 5 hours, after the indicative
lamp changed, please add one hour more. When
finished, remember to turn off the power.
1.4.Technical Support and other
Services
The instrument is warranted against defects in material
and workmanship for a period of eighteen months. We
provide the training to warrant that you can master the
application of the instrument soon.
Deviser also provides technical support for your special
use of the instrument including redesign (software for
production, adjustments, alarms, and limit test) which is
charged (only the cost for service), besides the above
service we are ready to answer any questions from the
user and provide you with technical support in updating
the software. We welcome you to contact us on the
following contact details:
2.
Battery short circuit is forbidden.
3.
Disposing the battery in fire is forbidden, otherwise it
will explode.
4.
Do not try to open the battery and change its
structure, nor distort the battery.
5.
Do not throw the battery into water or other liquids.
6.
Do not use or store the battery upon 60 degree
Celsius.
7.
Do not strike the battery and don’t fall it down.
8.
Do not charge the battery in reverse direction.
Overseas Customers: overseasbiz@deviser.com.cn
9.
Charge voltage: 220V @ 50/60 Hz
Visit: www.devisertek.com
1-2
Tel: +86-22-27682088
Fax: +86-22-27645002
Add: No 40, Yibin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin
300113, P.R. China
Domestic Customers: deviser@deviser.com.cn
Chapter1 Introduction
We will continuously improve our software to match the
application developments and the users’ requirements.
We will constantly provide the application datum for the
special uses of different application areas.
DS8821 serial spectrum analyzer has two models
DS8821A (50Ωinput impedance) and DS8821Q (75Ωinput
impedance). There are totally 7 options that can be
chosen by user. (See Table 1-2)
Options
Function description
1.CATV
measurement
Measure the indexes of analog
cable TV
2. Narrow RBW
RBW to 30Hz ,VBW to 1Hz
3. Line Selection in
CATV
Take the on-line measure of
CATV by line selection
4. QAM analyzer
Measure the indexes of Digital TV
5. Tracking
generator
0~-60dbm Tracking generator
6. Q_Lab
Management software of DS8821
serial spectrum analyzer
7. Video output
converter
Convert the VGA signal to RCA
and S_Video output
Table 1-2: Options
If you have the requirement of software or datum, Please
connect us directly or connect the nearest agent of us.
1-3
Chapter 2 Getting Started
2. Getting Started
Main points of this Chapter:
●
Front Panel of Instrument
●
Rear Panel of Instrument
●
Screen Annotation
●
Menu Function and Menu Settings Annotation
2-1
Chapter 2 Getting Started
2.1.Front Panel
2.1.1. The Subassembly of Front Panel
①
②
③
⑥
④
⑧
⑤
⑦
Figure 2.1 Front-panel
① Soft-Power key
⑤ Radio Frequency Input Port(RF Input)
As press the power key to turn-on/off the instrument, the
green light (LED) beside the POWER key will shine to
show that the instrument is working now.
Input port of the RF signal. The frequency range of the
signal is from 1MHz to 1GHz. The type of connector is
standard BNC type and the driving point impedance of it is
75Ω/50Ω.
Note:
After press this key, the software will receive a hardware
interrupt. Then it will finish the current operation as fast as
possible and save the useful characters. After that it will
control the power to switch off. These operations protect
the internal memory of the analyzer from being damaged
by suddenly power supply off.
In some special conditions, such as update the software,
this key will be out of work. At that time, the POWER key
on the rear panel can take place of this key. (See 2.2 (9)
Power switch)
② TFT Colorful LCD
Caution:
If the input signal is overload, the attenuator and the input
mixer of the instrument may be damaged. So you should
be cautious when testing high-power RF sources and
transmission systems. The Maximum input power is
+20dBm.
Moreover if the voltage of the DC with the signal is too
high, the input attenuator may be damaged too. So make
sure that input DC voltage is lower than 100V.
⑥ Soft-key
Activate the corresponding function display on the screen.
Display the wave and parameters. The diagonal of it is 6.4
inches. It can display 640 pixels on X-axis and 480 pixels
on Y-axis.
⑦ RESET
③ USB Interface
⑧ Tracking Generator Output Port
This port is prepared for the USB disk. USB keyboard can
be connected to this port too.
Tracking generator output the tracking signal from
1MHz~1000MHz with the amplitude range from
0~-60dbm.The type of connector is standard BNC type
and the output impedance is 75Ω/50Ω.
④ Calibration Signal Output Port(CAL OUT)
Its’ output is a standard radio frequency signal which
frequency is 150MHz and amplitude is -20dBm. The type
of connector is standard BNC type.
2-2
Reset the instrument.
Chapter 2 Getting Started
2.1.2. The Front Panel Keys
Figure 2.2 Front-Panel Key
(1) FUNC
◆
FREQENCY
menu of this key.
Frequency setting key
◆
BW
Bandwidth setting key
Set the “Center Frequency”, ”Start Frequency”, ”Stop
Frequency” and “Frequency Step” in the corresponding
menu of this key.
Set the value of resolution BW and video BW. Choose the
“On/Off” state of video average and input the needed
average time when the video average is “On”.
◆
◆
SPAN
Span setting key.
Set the value of sweep span.
◆
AMPLITUDE
Amplitude parameter setting key
Set the reference level, attenuator, “Log/Line” state,
amplitude unit and the display scale etc.
◆
WINDOW
Double windows key
After press this key, you can choose “On/Off” state of
double window display mode, switch between two
windows, set zone center and zone position of the
up-window etc by pressing the corresponding soft-key in
the submenu of it.
(2) MARKER
◆
NORMAL
Markers setting key
In the menu of this key, you can set the “On/Off” state, get
the information or do the comparison of every marker. In
spectrum mode, you can set 8 markers at most.
◆
PEAK
Peaks setting key
After pressing this key, the system will set a marker on the
peak value of the wave and display the frequency and
amplitude information of this marker at the same time.
Also you can open the peak table, set the peak track etc in
the corresponding menu of this key.
(3) CONTROL
◆
SWEEP
Sweep parameters setting key
Set sweep time and sweep mode in the corresponding
TRIG
Trigger mode setting key
Set the trigger to “Free Run”, ‘”Video” or “TV-H” and set
the corresponding characters of these triggers.
◆
HOLD
Hold key
Hole current wave and settings on the screen until press
this key again.
◆
AUTO
Auto key
Set the “Auto/Manu” state of RBW, VBW, Sweep etc.
◆
TRACE
Trace and detector select key
Select the active trace A, B or C and set the state of these
traces. Select the detector mode among the 6 modes the
system provided.
◆
SGL
Single sweep key
Press this key to activate a single sweep.
◆
AUX
AUX control key
You can enter the power measure, get the demodulation
result of AM/FM and set the limit line in the menu of this
key.
(4) SYSTEM
◆
CONFIG
Config key
User can configure the system by pressing the
corresponding soft-key in the menu of this key. Also you
can get the serial number and software/Firmware version
by this key.
2-3
Chapter 2 Getting Started
◆
MODE
Mode select key
Select the mode from the instrument supported modes
such as ”Spectrum Analyzer”, ”CATV Analyzer”, ”QAM
Analyzer” or “Tracking Generator”(some modes are
options).
◆
PRINT/SAVE
Screen print /save key
According to the selection state of “Prn/Save”, output/save
current information that display on the screen to the
printer/memory.
◆
MEAS
Measure key
You can get the measure result of NdB BW or display
delta, temperature and current voltage in the menu of this
key.
◆
CAL
Calibration setting key
You can calibrate the frequency, amplitude or both of them
in the menu of this key. Also you set the “On/Off” of
calibrate data and response data.
◆
2-4
RESET
Reset Key
(5) DATA
◆
0
◆
●
◆
◆
~
9
Number key
Dot key
━
←
ENTER
Negative/ Backspace key
Enter key
Press to confirm the input.
◆
ESC
ESC key
Press to escape the current state
(6) SELECT
◆
◆
◆
⇓
Down key
⇑
Up key
KNOB
Chapter 2 Getting Started
2.2.Rear Panel
Figure 2.3 Rear panel
(1) Nameplate
Company information
Caution:
(2) Tag
Please shut down the power before connect a PC with the
analyzer, or it may be damaged.
Instrument information
(3) Video Output (Option 7)
Composite Video output Port of the display screen
(4) S-Video Output (Option 7)
(9) Power switch
Directly power on or off the analyzer.
S-Video output Port of the display screen
(5) VGA Output
Standard VGA output port
(6) Keyboard
Standard PC keyboard output port
Caution:
This key control the power supply directly. The internal
memory of the analyzer may be damaged, if it is pressed
when the system is operating the memory. So it is
recommended to press the soft-power key on the front
panel to power on or off the analyzer unless the
soft-power key can’t work in some special conditions.
Caution:
Please shut down the power before connect a keyboard
with the analyzer, or it may be damaged.
(10) Fan
To protect instrument, if the temperature is too high, fan
will automatically start.
(7) Parallel Port
(11) Charge port
Standard port for printer
Charger input port.
Caution:
Warning:
Please shut down the power before connect a printer with
the analyzer, or it may be damaged.
Make sure to use the charger provided for this instrument.
Otherwise the operator and the instrument may be
damaged.
(8) RS-232
RS-232 port for communication
2-5
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
2.3.Screen Information
2.3.1. Spectrum Analyzer Screen
(1) Single Window
The Spectrum that display in single window mode is shown as figure 2.4.
Figure 2.4 Single Window Mode
The information we can get from the screen of single window mode is listed in table 2-1.
2-6
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
Table 2-1 Spectrum Screen information
Item
Annotation
Description
1
Reference Level
Current reference level
2
Logo
The logo of Deviser
3
Title
Displays the title you have entered to distinguish the current data from other data
4
Detector
The search mode which is currently selected.
5
Log/Line
Current amplitude display mode logarithmic or linear
6
Date & Time
Current date and time
7
Scale
Current amplitude scale graduation
8
Marker Frequency The frequency of the selected marker
9
Marker Amplitude The amplitude of the selected marker
10 “UNCAL”
message
11 Soft-menu
Indicates that the measurement is in an illogical settings
Menu item corresponding to the soft key
12 Position of display Shows values for the display line
line
13 Active area
Used to display the currently active functions (note that the data can be changed) and their
related values
14 Marker
15 Display line delta
Shows change of the current wave to the wave when ‘’’DL Delta’ turn on
16 Display line
The zero position of the Delta wave
17 Average Count
Displays the averaging times
18 Waves
19 Center Frequency Indicates the frequency at the center of the current display
20 RBW
21 VBW
22 Span
23 Sweep Time
24 RF Attenuator
25 Tracking
generator
26 Battery status
Displays the current resolution bandwidth (RBW is preceded by an asterisk (*) when set in
manual mode)
Frequency selected for the video bandwidth filter. VBW value is preceded by an asterisk
(*) when set in manual mode.
Frequency span of the current display
Time required to make a single sweep. SWP is preceded
by an asterisk (*) when set in manual mode
Current attenuator level. ATT is preceded by an asterisk
(*) when set in the manual mode
Indicate the status of tracking generator. (TG display on the screen means TG is on)
The voltage status of the battery
27 Preamplifier status It display on the screen means preamplifier is open now
2-7
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(2) Double Windows
(3) Information Window
Press WINDOW to enter double windows mode, then the
screen will display as Figure 2.5 shows. Except the same
screen information as the single window, there is an “A”
flag on the right-up corner of the up/down screen. It
indicates the current active window.
The information window only appears in some special
conditions, such as in CATV measure, FM demodulation
or channel power measure. Figure 2.6 shows the display
of information window.
Figure 2.5 Double window
2-8
Figure 2.6 Information Window
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
2.3.2. QAM Analyzer Window
The QAM analyzer window is shown as Figure 2.7.
Figure 2.7 QAM Analyzer Screen
The information we can get from the screen is listed in table 2-2.
2-9
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
Table 2-2 Spectrum Screen information
Item
Annotation
Description
1
Modulation mode
Current modulation mode
2
BER before RS
decoder
The ratio of the erroneous bits that before RS decoder and the total number of transmitted
bits.
3
BER after RS decoder The ratio of the erroneous bits that after RS decoder and the total number of transmitted
bits.
4
Modulation Error Ratio Provide a single "figure of merit" analysis of the received signal.
5
Estimated Noise
Margin
6
Error Vector Magnitude Another "figure of merit" calculation
7
Phase Jitter
Indicate the fluctuations of signal phase or frequency
8
Quadrature Error
The quadrature error of the two carriers feeding the I and Q modulators
9
Amplitude Imbalance
Separate the QAM distortions resulting from AI of the I and Q signal from all other kinds of
distortions.
10
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Denotes the ratio of the QAM signal power to the noise power.
11
Carrier Suppression
Denotes the ratio of the QAM signal to an unwanted coherent CW signal.
12
Coherent interferer
Denotes the ratio of the QAM signal to the interference signal
13
Frequency Offset
The frequency offset relative to the current frequency setting
14
Real Symbol Rate
The current real symbol rate (calculated by system)
15
Symbol Lock
The symbol lock flag
16
FEC Lock
The Forward Error Correction lock flag
17
Stream Lock
The code stream lock flag
18
Symbol Rate
The current symbol rate (User or system set)
2-10
Provide an indication of the reliability of the transmission channel without switching off the
service.
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
2.4.Menu Tree
This part lists the menu tree that ordered by characters. Some menus only can be activated in the instrument with
corresponding options.
AMPLITUDE
Amplitude Settings
Ref Level
dBm
Atten
dBmV
Auto/Manu
Scal Log/Line
dBµV
Amp Units>
mV
Scale/Div
Ref Offset
On/Off
Amplitude
On/Off
AUTO
Return
Auto Settings
Auto All
Res BW
Auto/Manu
Video BW
Auto/Manu
Atten
Auto/Manu
Sweep Time
Auto/Manu
CF Step
Auto/Manu
AUX
Power Mea>
Demod>
Impedance
Limit Line>
Auxiliary Settings
Channel Power>
Occupied BW>
Adj Chan Power>
Settings>
Average
On/Off
QAM
Stop Meas
Demod
AM/FM
Listen On On/Off
FM Gain
Single
Continuous
Stop Meas
Channel Spacing
Channel Band Width
Occupied BW %Power
Return
Return
Limit Test
Limit Line
Beep
On/Off
On/Off
On/Off
Save
Settings>
Stop Meas
Return
2-11
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
BW
Band Width Settings
Res BW
Auto/Manu
Video BW
Auto/Manu
Video Avg
On/Off
CAL
Calibration Settings
Calibrate Freq&Amp
Calibrate Frequency
Calibrate Amplitude
Cal Data
On/Off
Resp Data
On/Off
CONFIG
Configuration Settings
SN
9600
Select
Prn/Sav
19200
RS-232 Baud Rate>
38400
Set Clock
57600
On/Off
Language Select>
115200
Print/Save>
1/2,More>
Return
English
Epson-ESC/P
1 Pic/Page
HP-PCL>
2 Pic/Page
Return
Return
Transmit File>
RS-232
Delete File
USB Disk
View
Return
Chinese
Return
Print>
Preview>
Save>
Page Up
Return
Page Down
Return
Return
Service>
RS Update
Palette>
USB
Yes
No
About>
Status>
Return
Return
Date Format>
Info
2/2, More>
Wave
Edit Back
Back
YY-MM-DD
Save
Auto set>
MM-DD-YY
Load
Save
DD-MM-YY
Delete
Return
View
Return
2-12
Return
Return
Indoor
Outdoor
Return
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
FREQUENCY Frequency Settings
Centr Freq
Start Freq
Stop Freq
Freq Step
Auto/Manu
HOLD
Hold current screen (no menu)
MEAS
Measure Settings
NdB PTS
On/Off
Disp Line
On/Off
DL Delta
On/Off
Temper
Select
Voltage
OK
Title>
Return
Marker Settings
NORMAL
Mkr Normal
Delta Mark
Fixed Mark
Marker to Center
Marker to Ref Lvl
All Off
1/2, More>
Count
Select Mkr
Marker 1
Mark Table
Mark Noise
Noise/Hz
2/2,More>
On/Off
12345678
On/Off
On/Off
On/Off
On/Off
Mode Select
MODE
Spectrum Analyzer>
Settings>
Channel Table>
CATV Analyzer>
Channel Meas>(1)
Select Chan/Freq
QAM Analyzer>
Scan Channel>(2)
Frequency Setup>
Tracking Generator>
Cal Base Noise
Amp Unit>
Sys Meas>
Amplifier>
TG
(3)
On/Off
Return
OK
Return
dBm
TG Level
Constell>
(4)
dBmV
Power Cal
Statistic>
(5)
dBµV
Normalize
Equalizer>
(6)
Return
Mark
Initialize
(7)
Auto
Return
Abs/Ret
Settings>
Return
On
1/2, More>
Off
Return
Power Mea>
Return
2/2,More>
2-13
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(1)
Channel Select
Listen OFF
Listen ON>
FM DEV>
Return
Depth MOD
Add Att
Carrier Lvl/Freq
Sub Att
Prev Menu
Cycle/Meas
1/3, More>
Normal>
Line
TV-Line>
Field
Return
Return
Odd/Even
Return
Add Att
Sub Att
Counter
On/Off
Max Hold On/Off
Carrier Noise>
HUM>
Return
Line
Crossmod
Add Att
Field Odd/Even
CSO/CTB>
Sub Att
Average On/Off
Leakage>
Measure
Noise BW Auto/Manu
Prev Menu
Continue
View Meas/Vid
2/3 More>
Gate On/Off
1/2, More>
2/2, More>
Return
Add Att
Sub Att
Measure Time/FFT
Return
Add Att
Sub Att
Average
Line
Add Att
Field Odd/Even
Sub Att
Average On/Off
Measure
Next Chan
Continue
Last Chan
Next Beat
Gate On/Off
View Meas/Vid
1/3, More>
2/3,More>
3/3, More>
Return
DIF Gain & DIF Phase> (1-2)
Add Att
In –Channel Response>(1-3)
Sub Att
3/3, More>
2-14
Return
CLDI> (1-1)
Prev Menu
On/Off
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(1-1)
Line
CCIR LN17 // FCC CTS(Note)
Field Odd/Even
UK ITS
// NTC-7 CTS(Note)
Signal>
GB LN19
//
Add Att
Sub Att
Return
Average On/Off
Return
(1-2)
Line
CCIR LN330 // FCC CTS (Note)
Field Odd/Even
UK ITS
//
Signal>
GB LN19
//
NTC CTS (Note)
Add Att
Sub Att
Return
Average On/Off
Return
Marker 1
Marker 2
(1-3)
Sweep Sig
Max Hold On/Off
GCR
VITS Test
RBW
Multiburst
Return
Signal>
300K/100K
Return
Return
Marker 1
Marker 2
RBW
300K/100K
Line
Field Odd/Even
Return
1/2, More>
View Meas/Vid
Signal>
Return
2/2,More>
NOTE: Right-side in PAL standard, while left-side in NTSC standard.
(2)
Standard Channel>
Measure
User Channel>
Ref Line On/Off
Favorite Channel>
Count
Lvl Limit
Return
On/Off
Return
Analog
Digital
Count
Measure
On/Off
Return
Fav Set 1
Fav Enter
Return
2-15
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(3)
Measure
View>
Page Up
View>
Delete
Page Down
Return
Upload>
Return
Return
RS-232
USB Disk
Return
(4)
Refresh
Grid On/Off
Template On/Off
(5)
Zoom In
Continuous
Zoom Out
Cyclic
Display Mode>
Time Filter
Return
Return
Set Time
Measure Star/Stop
View Last>
Return
Off
(6)
Set Equ>
Freeze
All
UnFreeze
Equalizer
Special
Frequency Response
Distance m/foot
Group Delay
Return
Return
(7)
Centr Freq
Auto
Symb Rate
Auto/Manu
On
Atten
Auto/Manu
Off
Amplifier>
Return
Modulation Mode>
Return
16QAM
1/2, More>
32QAM
64QAM
128QAM
MER Th
Auto/Manu
256QAM
BER-PRE Th
Auto/Manu
QPSK
BERPOST Th Auto/Manu
Standard>
J83ANNEX A
Polarity>
J83ANNEX B
Default
J83ANNEX C
2/2, More>
Reverse
Auto
No FEC Decoding
Normal
Return
Reverse
Return
2-16
Return
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
PEAK
Peak Search
Next Peak
Next Peak Right
Next Peak Left
PK Table On/Off
Marker to Center
PK Sort
Marker to Ref Lvl
PK Track On/Off
1/2,More>
2/2, More>
Freq/Amp
Print / Save Screen
PRINT/SAVE
Single Sweep ( no menu )
SGL
Span Settings
SPAN
Span
Span Zoom
Full Span
Zero Span
Last Span
Sweep Settings
SWEEP
Sweep Time Auto/Manu
Sweep
Cont/Sigl
Trace & Detector Settings
TRACE
Trace A B C
Sample
Write A (B C)
Posi-Peak
View A (B C)
Neg-Peak
Blank A (B C)
Normal
Max Hold A (B C)
Average
Detector>
Return
Trigger Settings
TRIG
Sweep Cont/Sigl
Line
Free Run
Field Odd/Even
B/D/G/I/H/K/K1/L
Video
Standard>
M/N
TV-H>
Return
Slope +/Double Windows
WINDOW
Zone Center
Zone Span
Zone PK Right
Zone PK Left
Win Select
Up/Down
Zoom Sel
On/.Off
Window Off
2-17
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
3. Basic Measurement
Main points of this chapter:
●
Basic Function
●
Basic parameters settings
●
Essential measurement and operation methods
3-1
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
3.1.Basic Function
frequency change.
The basic function of spectrum is to get the frequency and
amplitude characters of the input signal. So the basic keys
are FREQUENCY, SPAN and AMPLITUDE. These keys
locate on the up-left of the keyboard that is shown as
follows.
Figure 3.2 Frequency Unit Menu
For example: If user want to set the center frequency to
20MHz, press the number key “2” and “0” then choose the
“MHz”. The change of center frequency is finished.
Note:
3.1.1. Frequency
1. The frequency range is from 0 to 1000MHz, if the
input is little/ more than 0Hz / 1000MHz it will be
treated as 0Hz / 1000MHz.
2. In most parameter input cases, the information about
the item and the input value will display on the screen.
(See Figure 3.2)
2. Press the “Up/Down” key: change by the step that is
defined by “Freq Step”.
3. Rotate the knob: change by a step of 1/500 of the span.
Press FREQUENCY key, the submenu of it will appear:
User can take the same way to input the value of “Start
Freq”, “Stop Freq” and “Freq Step”. But if the input value is
“Freq Step”, the change step of “Up/Down” key will
become to 1/500 of the span.
(2) Start Frequency
After pressing “Start Freq” soft-key, user can change the
start frequency.
(3) Stop Frequency
After pressing “Stop Freq” soft-key, user can change the
stop frequency.
(4) Frequency Step
The default value of “Freq Step” is 1/10 of the span. After
pressing the “Freq Step” soft-key and set it to “Manu”,
user can input the frequency step.
3.1.2. Sweep Span
Figure 3.1 Frequency Menu
(1)Center Frequency
Press “Centr Freq” soft-key, user can change the current
center frequency. There are three methods to input the
frequency value:
1. Dirrectly input the number: Press the number keys, the
“Unit” menu will appear, which is shown as Figure 3.2.
Select the unit in this menu then user can finish the center
3-2
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
Press the SPAN key, then the submenu will appear,
which is shown as Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.5 Wide BW
Figure 3.3 Span Menu
(1) Span
Span equals the stop frequency minus the start frequency.
The span setting determines the horizontal-axis scale of
the analyzer display. The span range of the instrument is
from 0Hz to 1000MHz. The larger span is set, the more
signal can be viewed, the lower precision the
measurement will get. On the contrary, the narrower span
is set, the fewer signals can be viewed, the higher
precision the measurement will get. So choosing the
appropriate span is important.
There are three methods to change the span: first is
manually input; second is to press the Up/Down key which
change step is 1,2,5, and the change sequence is 200Hz,
500Hz, 1KHz, 2KHz…. 1000MHz; last is to rotate the
knob, the change step is 1/100 of the span.
Note:
1. When the RBW is set to “Manu”, too large span will
cause the imprecision of the measurement. In such
cases the system will give the prompt “UNCAL”. See
also 3.2.1 ---Band Width.
(2) Span Zoom
Press this soft-key, the system will search the peak signal
from all signals and set the frequency of this signal to the
center frequency and then choose an appropriate span for
the display of this signal.
(3) Full Span
Change the span to 1000MHz.
(4) Zero Span
Change the span to 0Hz. This is up to see the time
domain information of selected frequency. Zero span is
very useful to observe the characters of AM and FM signal
and the signal of time domain. (See also 4.2)
(5) Last Span
Change the current span back to last span. User can
directly change between current span and last span by
pressing this soft-key in order to view the difference of the
signal display between these two conditions.
3.1.3. Amplitude
2. Press “Up/Down” key cannot change the span to 0Hz.
3. When press “Up/Down” key to change span, if the
current span isn’t one of the change sequence, it will
be treated as the nearest lower one in the sequence.
For example, 199Hz will be treated as 0Hz, if press
“Up” key now, the span will become to 200Hz.
Pressing AMPLITUDE key, the submenu will appear,
which is shown as Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.4 Narrow BW
3-3
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
3. Input by Knob. The change step of this method is the
amplitude that 1/10 grid correspond to.
Figure 3.6 Amplitude Menu
(1) Reference Level
Reference level is display on the up-left of the screen,
which is sign as “Ref” (See figure 3.7). The default value
of “Ref” is 98.8dBµV.
Figure 3.8 Reference Level Input
(2) Attenuator
Attenuator is an important part of the Instrument. It can
reduce the signal distortion by attenuating the power level
of the mixer input signal. The value of attenuator is from 0
to 55dB with 5dB step, the default value is 10dB.
Increasing the value of attenuator can diminish the mixer
distortion, but the base noise of the system will increase
too that will reduce the range of measurable signal. In
auto mode, the system can automatically provide a
suitable value of attenuator. If user wants to set the
attenuator manually, user should firstly set the “Atten”
softkey in figure 3.7 to “Manu” and then input the value by
number keys, “Up/Down” key or the knob. By “Up/Down”
cursor or the knob, the change step is 5dB and can’t set
attenuator to 0dB.
Caution:
Figure 3.7 Reference Level
The amplitude of signal input to mixer should little than
-20dBm, otherwise the signal may be distorted.
Note:
The smallest value of reference value is changed
according to the different attenuator setting. The details
will be introduced in next section.
User can set the unit of reference to dBm, dBmV, dBµV,
mV, V, µV or nV in the instrument. The exchange formula
between different units is shown as table 3-1.
Formula
Source value
New value
dBm = dBµV - 108.8
68.8 dBµV
-40 dBm
dBm = dBmV - 48.8
8.8 dBmV
-40 dBm
dBm = 20*log(MV) –
48.8
2.778 MV
-40 dBm
Table 3-1 Exchange formula from other units to dBm
Table 3-1 only lists the formula to dBm, if user like user
can deduce the others.
Three methods to change reference level:
1. Input by number key: After inputting the number, the
unit menu will appear. Choose the unit user need to
finish the reference level input.
2. Input by “Up/Down” cursor: The change step of this
method is the amplitude that one grid corresponds to.
3-4
(3) Scale Log/Line
In “Log” state, the difference of Y-coordinate has the direct
ratio to ΔdB, while in line state it has the direct ratio to
voltage difference ΔV. In most cases, the instrument is in
logarithm state, but in some special cases (for example
when measure the modulation degree of AM), the line
state is the better choice.
The common used unit in logarithm state is dBm, dBµV or
dBmV. The wave will not change with the change of unit.
The common used unit in line state is mV, V, µV or nV.
The wave will not change with the change of unit too.
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(5) Scale/Div
The scale/div is displayed on the upside of the screen.
‹ In logarithm state: the default value is 10dB/grid.
After pressing “Scale/Div” soft-key user can enter the
integer number from 1 to 40 or decimal number from 0.1
to 0.9 to change the scale to the state wanted. The
scale/div can be changed by “Up/Down” cursor or by knob
too.
(a) Log State: Ref is 98.8 dBµV
‹ In line State: The “scale/div” state is shown as × n.
After pressing “Scale/Div” soft-key, the submenu of it will
appear. User can choose ×1, ×2, ×5 or ×10 in this
submenu. 1/n is the ratio of voltage difference between
the lowest level displayed on the screen and reference
level. For example when reference level is 1mV, if the
Scale/Div is ×1, the lowest voltage display on the screen
is 0mV, while if the Scale/Div is ×2, the lowest voltage
display on the screen will be 0.5mV.
No matter in “Log” or “Line” state, the change of
“Scale/Div” will not change the measure value.
(b) Line State: Ref is 86.6 mV
Figure 3.9 Contrast of “Log” and “Line” State
Figure 3.9 shows the difference measure results of the
same signal one in “Log” state and the other in “Line”
state.
(a) 10dB/Grid in “Log” State
(4) Unit
Press the “Amp Units” soft-key, the submenu of it will
appear:
(b) 5dB/Grid in “Log” State
Figure 3.10 Amplitude Unit Menu
Choose the unit user wanted and then press the “Return”
soft-key to finish the setting.
Note:
The change of unit will not cause the change of “Log/Line”
state.
3-5
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(c)
×1 in “Line” State
Figure 3.13 Reference Level Offset On
(7) Preamplifier:
There is a preamplifier in DS8821. By pressing “Int Amp”
soft-key, user can set the “On/Off” state of this amplifier
according to the signal intensity.
(d)
×2 in “Line” State
Figure 3.11 “Scale/Div”
(6) Ref Offset:
“Ref Offset” indicate the reference offset level. For
example, if the “Ref Offset” is set to “On” state and its’
level is set to 25dB, then the reference level and the
marker level that display on the screen will be changed as
Figure 3.12 and 3.13 show.
Figure 3.12 Reference Level Offset Off
3-6
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
3.2.Basic Parameters Settings
Basic parameters of spectrum refer to RBW, VBW, sweep
mode, sweep time, trig mode etc. The keys about these
settings are located on the bottom of front panel, which is
shown as the follow picture.
bandwidth of spectrum analyzer. RBW define the
smallest frequency difference of two adjacent signals
that can be distinguished by the spectrum analyzer. So
the narrower the RBW is set, the higher precision the
spectrum has. But it need more establish time with
narrow RBW (see also 3.2.2). If the sweep time can’t
fulfill the requirement of RBW, the system will give the
prompt “UNCAL”.
Figure 3.15 The Largest RBW That can Distinguish the
Signals
If RBW is set to “Manus” state, when span frequency
exceeds the range, which is listed in Table 3-2, the system
will give the prompt “UNCAL”.
Span
3.2.1. Band Width
SWEEP
AUTO
BW
TRACE
TRIG
SGL
HOLD
AUX
Press BW key,the submenu of it will appear which is
shown as Figure 3.12.
RBW
Span <= 5 KHz
30 Hz *
Span <= 10 KHz
100 Hz *
Span <= 20 KHz
300 Hz *
Span <= 50 KHz
1 KHz
Span <= 100 KHz
3 KHz
Span <= 1 MHz
10 KHz
Span <= 5 MHz
30 KHz
Span <= 10 MHz
100 KHz
Span <= 50 MHz
300 KHz
Span <= 500 MHz
1 MHz
Span >
3 MHz
500 MHz
Table 3-2: RBW “Auto” settings
*: Need the option 2.
The RBW can be changed from 30Hz to 3MHz, taking the
step of 1,3,10. After setting the “Res BW” to “Manu” state,
user can change the RBW by inputting the number,
pressing the “Up/Down” cursor or rotating the knob.
(2)Video BW
Video bandwidth(VBW)is the lower pass filter after the IF
filter which can make the display trace noise more
smoothly. It is very useful to detect the signal which level
is near to the noise. To improve the filter’s effect, user
should manually set the VBW to smaller than 1/10 of the
RBW. When VBW is set to “Auto”, the VBW will change
with RBW. The VBW filter need establish time too and the
smaller its value is, the more time it needs.
Figure 3.14 BW Menu
(1)Resolution BW
Resolution bandwidth (RBW) refers to the IF filter
3-7
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(b) Video Average On
(a)VBW=100KHz
Figure 3.17 Video Average
Set the “Video Avg” to “On”, then the spectrum will
calculate the average value of current trace and previous
traces values. The default state of “Video Avg” is “Off”.
Turn on the “Video Avg” can smooth display trace as VBW
but the sweep time will not be increased with it. When
“Video Avg” set “On”, the default detector mode will be
changed to “Sample” mode automatically. (See also 3.3.4)
The default average time is 100. Press number key after
setting the “Video Avg” to “On” can change the average
time.
(b) VBW=300 Hz
Figure 3.16 The Influence of VBW
In Figure 3.16 (b), there is a “*VBW” on the screen, in
which “*” indicates that VBW parameter is in “Manu” state
now. The same * will use to indicate the “Manu” of RBW,
sweep time, attenuator too.
3.2.2. Sweep Mode, Sweep Time and
Hold
SWEEP
BW
TRIG
HOLD
AUTO
TRACE
SGL
AUX
(3)Video Average:
(a) Video Average Off
Figure 3.18 Sweep Menu
Press SWEEP on the front panel, the sweep menu will
appear:
(1)Sweep Time
Sweep time depends on span, RBW and VBW. If the
sweep time can’t fulfill the requirement of span, RBW and
VBW, the system will give the prompt “UNCAL”. User can
set the “Sweep Time” to “Manu” and input the wanted
time.
3-8
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
3.2.3. Auto
(2)Sweep Mode
SWEEP
BW
TRIG
HOL
SWEEP
BW
TRIG
HOLD
AUT
TRACE
SGL
AUX
AUTO
TRACE
SGL
AUX
There two sweep modes; one is continuous (Cont) and
the other is single (Sigl). The default mode is continuous
mode. If user wants to set the sweep mode to single mode,
user can set the “Sweep” soft-key in Figure 3.18 to “Sigl”
state or press the SGL key to activate a single sweep at
the same time the menu shown as Figure 3.19 will appear.
Press SGL key again can activate another single sweep.
If want to change the state to “Cont”, user can select the
“Sweep” soft-key and set the state of it to “Cont”.
Press the AUTO key, in the submenu of it, which is shown
as Figure 3.20 user can select the “Auto/Manu” state of
“Res BW”, “Video BW”, “Atten”, “Sweep Time” or “CF
Step”. By pressing “Auto All” soft-key, user can set all
these parameters state to “Auto”.
Figure 3.20 “Auto” Menu
3.2.4. Mode of Trigger
Figure 3.19 Single Sweep
(3)Hold
SWEEP
AUTO
BW
TRACE
TRIG
SGL
SWEEP
BW
TRIG
HOLD
AUTO
TRACE
SGL
AUX
HOLD
AUX
Press TRIG key, then the submenu of it will appear:
Pressing the HOLD key, the wave display on the screen
will be frozen. Press the key again to activate the wave
again.
Note:
In “Hold” state, no sweep mode can be activated no
matter “Cont” or “Sigl”.
Figure 3.21 Trig Mode
3-9
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(1) Free Run
This is the default mode of the system.
(2) Video
In this mode, user can change the level of start trigger by
rotating the knob. Also user can select the up/down slope
trigger by pressing the “Slope” soft-key and setting it to
“+/-”.
(3) TV-H (option 3)
In this mode, the TV line trigger is selected. User can
change the line and set the field to “Odd/Even”. Also user
can set the standard to “M/N” or “B/D/G/I/H/K/K1/L”.
3-10
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
3.3.Basic Usages
screen is a time domain wave, so the abscissa is changed
from frequency to time. The start time is zero and the stop
time is equal to sweep time. The displayed marker
information is changed to time too.
The abscissa of the marker can be changed by three
methods:
1. Press “Up/Down” cursor. The step change of this
method is 1/10 of span.
2. Rotate the knob. The step change is 1/500 of the span.
3. Manually input the number user needed.
When normal marker is “On”, user can press “Mrk To
Center”/“Mrk To Ref Lvl” to set the frequency/amplitude of
the marked point to center frequency/reference level.
In this section, we will introduce the operations of marker,
peak and trace etc.
3.3.1. Mark Operation
(a) Before Press “Marker To Ref Lvl”
Press NORMAL key,the submenu of it will appear:
(b)
After Press “Marker To Ref Lvl”
Figure 3.22 Marker Menu
After press the “Mkr Normal” softkey, if there is no marker
on, the system will automatically set the normal marker to
on. If there have been some “On” markers, the state of
these markers will remain unchanged.
(1) Normal Marker
After pressing “Mkr Normal” soft-key or pressing
NORMAL key while no marker is set “On”, the normal
marker will appear on the screen. And at the same time
the amplitude and frequency/time information of this
marker will be displayed on the up-right of the screen.
When the span is set to zero, the wave display on the
(c) Before Press “Marker To Center”
3-11
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
(d) After Press “Marker To Center”
Figure 3.23 “Marker To Ref Lvl” and “Marker To Center”
(2) Delta Mark
After pressing this soft-key, two markers will appear on the
screen. The start positions of these two markers are the
same. Rotating the knob, pressing the “Up/Down” cursor
or manually inputting the frequency value can change the
position the second marker. The amplitude and
frequency/time difference between two markers will be
displayed on the up-right of the screen. The main function
of “Delta Mark” is to compare two signals.
Figure 3.25 Multi-Marker
The instrument can display 8 markers simultaneously.
After pressing “Select Mkr” soft-key, User can switch
between these markers and set the “On/Off” state of it. For
example: If the current marker is marker 2 and user want
to change the state of marker 4, the operation steps are
as follows:
Figure 3.26 Multi-Markers Selection
Figure 3.24 Delta Marker
(3) Fixed Mark
After selecting the marker and set the state of it to “On”,
user can change the marker’s position by the same way
of changing “Normal Mkr”.
“Mark Table” displays values of all active markers. (See
Figure 3.25)
“Fixed Mark” is similar to “Delta Mark”: the main function is
also to view the deference of two markers and the method
to change the position of the second signal is the same.
But the first marker will be frozen after setting the “Fixed
Mark” to “On”, and its position will not change with the
signal again except when the reference level or the
frequency is changed (the absolute amplitude and
frequency value of this marker is unchanged).
(4) Multi-marker and Marker Table
Press “1/2 More” soft-key,the second menu will appear:
Figure 3.27 Marker Table
3-12
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
Set “Noise/Hz” to “On” state, the difference between
current amplitude and the average noise power will
display on the screen.
Note:
When switch between “Mkr Normal”, “Delta Mark”, “Fixed
Mark” and multi-markers, the pre-marker will automatically
set to “Off”.
3.3.2. Peak Operation
(5) All Off
Press “All Off” soft-key in Figure 3.22, all markers will be
set to “Off”.
(6) Count
Frequency count can give the accurate frequency of the
strongest signal around the marker, which is working as a
cymometer. The bandwidth of the counter is +/- 100kHz
and the accuracy of it is Hz.
Note:
If the “Count” soft-key is set to “On”, the displayed
frequency will change from the frequency of marker to the
frequency of the strongest signal around the marker.
Figure 3.29 Peak Menu
(1) Peak Search
If there is no marker set to “On”, the system will search the
peak signal in the span and set marker on it when user
press the PEAK key.
(2) Next Peak, Next Right Peak and Next Left Peak
(a) Count “Off”
Next Peak: Search for the hypo-peak value that is lower
than the marked one.
Next Right Peak: Search for the hypo-peak value on the
right side of current marker.
Next Left Peak: Search for the hypo-peak value on the
left side of current marker.
(3) Marker to Center and Marker to Ref Lvl
When there is only one marker is “On”, press “Marker To
Center”/“Marker
To
Ref
Lvl”
can
set
the
frequency/amplitude of current marker to center
frequency/reference level.
(4) Peak Table and Peak Sort
(b) Count “On”
Figure 3.28 Frequency Counter
(7) Mark Noise
Set “Mark Noise” to “On” state, then user can get the
average power of the noise. It will take the place of the
amplitude to display on the up-right of the screen.
Peak table has the similar format as marker table (See
Figure 3.30). Press the “PK Sort” soft-key can sort the
found peaks by “Freq” or “Amp”. When set the “PK Table”
to “On”, the system will search 8 peaks and sort them with
frequency or amplitude. The default state is by amplitude.
The frequency/time and amplitude information of these
peaks will display on the bottom of the screen. The peaks
will change with the wave change.
(8) Noise/Hz
3-13
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
change the reference to 88.8 dBµV, only the trace in
“Write” Mode changed, while trace “A” keeps unchanged.
Figure 3.30 Peak Table
(5) Peak Track
Set the state of “Peak Track” to “On”, the system will
search the “Peak” with the change of the wave
automatically. Otherwise the peak marker will stay on the
firstly searched frequency/time.
Figure 3.32 The Example of “View”
(3) Blank
Erase the display of the selected trace.
(4) Max Hold
3.3.3. Multi-trace Function
SWEEP
BW
TRIG
HOLD
AUTO
TRACE
SGL
AUX
“Max Hold” mode is similar to “Write” Mode, but the wave
shown on the screen will keep the largest value
comparing with the history after “Max Hold” mode is
selected.
3.3.4. Detector Mode
The Instrument has 6 detector modes, which are shown
as figure 3.31.
Press TRACE key,the submenu of it will appear which is
shown as figure 3.31.
There are three traces that user can choose A, B or C.
User can switch between these trace by press “Trace”
soft-key. What are called three traces are the different
waves of the same input that only were viewed in different
time and different parameter settings.
(a) Sample
Figure 3.31 Trace Menu
(1) Write
Write is the default state of all the three trace. In this mode
the wave is continuously refreshed.
(2) View
Press “View” soft-key, the trace will be hold. Change to
other trace and user can see the changes of the wave
with the different parameter settings. Figure 3.30 gives an
example of “View” soft-key. The trace A is in the “View”
state and the reference level of it is 68.8 dBµV. When
3-14
(b)
Posi_Peak
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
This detector continuously samples the positive-peak
value of the signal, while alternately samples the positive
and the negative peak value of the noise and display it.
(5)Average
The output of this detector is the average value of all
detected values for each sweep point.
3.3.5.
NdB PTS
(c) Neg-Peak
(d) Normal
Figure 3.34 Measure Menu
Press MEAS key on the front panel, the submenu of it will
appear which is shown as figure 3.34.
Press “N dB PTS” soft-key and set the state of it to “On”.
The system will display the information of N dB bandwidth
that indicates the character of current used filter on the
up-right of the screen. The default value is -3dB and the
output is the frequency difference of two points which
amplitude is 3dB lower than the peak value.
3.3.6. Display Line and Display Delta
(e)
Average
(f) Quasi-Peak
Figure 3.33 Detector Mode
(1)Sample
Detector sample the data point in the middle time of VBW
filter output of each sweep point, and displayed it. It is
more suitable to view the noise.
Set “Disp Line” to “On”, a red line will appear in the mid of
the screen and the amplitude of it will appear on the
up-right of the screen.
After setting “Disp Line” to “On”, set “DL Delta” to “On”. At
that moment the wave will be memorized and the
amplitude difference of current wave and the memorized
will be displayed around the “Disp Line”.
(2)Positive-Peak
Detector sample the positive value of VBW filter output of
each sweep point, and display it. If the sweep time is long
enough, this detector can put out the maximum envelop of
the modulated signal.
(3)Negative-Peak
This detector is opposite to “Posi-Peak” detector. The
output of it is the minimum envelop of the signal.
(4)Normal
3-15
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
3.3.8. Title
Press “Title>” soft-key, the submenu of it will appear:
(a)
“Disp Line” in Default Position
Figure 3.37 Title input
Rotating the knob, the cursor under the character will
move with it. Set the cursor down the character user
want to choose, then press “Select”. The selected
character will appear in the title position (see Figure
━
3.37). Press
← key can erase the unwanted
character. Press “OK” to finish the title input. Otherwise
the input will be lost after pressing “Return”.
3.3.9. Double Window
(b)
By this function, user can view the integral information
of the signal in one window while observe the detail of it
in the other window.
After “Disp Line” Shift
Figure 3.35 Display Delta
The default position of “Disp Line” is in the mid of the
screen. User can change the position of it by rotating the
knob or pressing the “Up/Down” Key.
Press WINDOW key on the front panel, two windows of
the same size will appear which is shown as figure 3.38.
3.3.7. Temperature and Voltage
Press “Temper/Voltage”, then user can
temperature/voltage message of the analyzer.
get
the
When temperature over the set value, the fan will run and
the flag of it “F” will appear on the down-right of the
screen.
When the voltage is lower than the set value, the system
will give an alarm. If the voltage keeps on descending, the
system will automatically power off.
The system detects the temperature and voltage of the
analyzer every 5 minutes.
Figure 3.38 Double Window Menu
Figure 3.36 Temperature and Voltage monitor
3-16
Chapter 3 Basic Measurement
The upper window shows the wide BW information of the
signal, the parameter settings of this window is the same
as the single window. The nether window shows the
information of the zone plotted by two blue lines. Two
windows can take different settings. So the nether window
can be the stretch of the upper window (When the two
blue lines are set in the sweep span of the upper window).
Also they can work separately too. The start and stop
frequency of the nether window can be set outside the
sweep span of the upper window. At that time the two blue
lines will lays at the leftmost or rightmost side of the upper
window.
User can watch the spectrums with different settings. But
at one time there is only one settings of the window can
be changed. We call this window the active, of which there
is a sign “A” displayed on the up-right.
User can separately set the parameters of two windows
such as reference level, sweep span, RBW, VBW, sweep
time, center frequency etc.
(1) Zone Center
The center frequency of nether window will change with
the change of “Zone Center”, while the span of it will be
unchanged.
There are two ways to change the “Zone Center”:
¾
Press “Up/Down” key: the step is 1/10 of the span.
¾
Rotating the knob: the step is 1/500 of the span.
User can take same ways to change “Zone Span”, “Zone
PK Right” and “Zone PK Left”.
(2) Zone Span
The span of nether window will change with the change of
“Zone Span”. In some cases, the change of “Zone Span”
will cause the RBW, VBW and sweep time changes of
nether window.
(3) Zone PK Right/Left
Press “Zone PK Right/Left” soft-key to change the
right/left limit of the zone.
Note:
“Window” function will be available only when the
instrument is in “Spectrum Analyzer” mode.
2.
Press “Win Select” to activate the window user needed.
3.
1.
Zone Selection
Window Switch
Zoom Selection
Set “Zoom Sel” to “On”, then user can zoom the active
window to full screen.
Zone selected operations include “Zone Center”, “Zone
Span”, “Zone PK Right” and “Zone PK Left”.
The span and frequency of nether window will change
with the change of the zone.
Note :
1. The zone selection is valid only when the upper
window is active.
2. After zone selection, the wave of nether window will
not be refreshed at the time.
Figure 3.39 Zoom Select “On”
3-17
Chapter 4 Auxiliary Measurements
4. Auxiliary Measurements
Main points of this chapter:
●
Channel Measurements
●
Modulation Measurements
●
Input Impedance
●
Limit Lines
AUX
When user press key
on the panel the Auxiliary Measurements Menu will appear on the right side of the
screen, please look at the Figure 4.1 below:
Figure 4.1 Auxiliary Measurements Menu
4-1
Chapter 4 Auxiliary Measurements
4.1.Channel Measurements
4.1.1. Unit Exchange
The contents we introduced before focus on the level
measurement of the signal. Of course, we can measure
the channel power with spectrum analyzer. The units
usually used in spectrum analyzer are : dBm、dBmV and
dBµV , which denote the level value. Please see the
relationship of these units in table 3.1. In fact, we use the
units dBm to denote the power value. In the following we
will talk about the relationship between dBm and dBmV :
dBm is defined by A=10×log(P/P0) , where P0 is the
reference power and P0=1mW , P is the power under test.
dBmV is defined by A=20×log(V/V0) , where V0 is the
reference voltage and V0=1mV , V is the voltage under
test.
Once the port Impedance is fixed on 50ohm or 75 ohm,
we can exchange dBm and dBmV to each other. Though
the physical definitions are different, the exchange is
linear. User should notice that when we measure the
signal power, the units we used are the same as the units
of the reference level.
4.1.2. Channel Measurements Menu
When user presses the soft-key “Channel Measurements”,
the Channel Measurements Menu will appear like the
figure below:
Figure 4.3 Channel Settings Menu
In this menu, user can modify the Channel Spacing,
Channel Bandwidth and Occupied BW %Power.
In Channel Measurements function, user can modify the
Channel Bandwidth manually. Otherwise it will take the
default value 8MHz. In order to measure accurately, the
scan span is fixed on two times of the Channel Bandwidth.
After finishing these settings, it will return to the Channel
Measurements menu and the Channel Power Menu will
appear as figure 4.4, if you press the soft-key “Channel
Power”,
Before measure the “Channel Power” of the selected
channel, analyzer will automatically test the total power of
all the signals and set the state of attenuator and
preamplifier. And during the testing process, the analyzer
will real-timely monitor the tested value of channel power.
If the value change is more 5dB, the analyzer will check
the total power again.
Figure 4.2 Channel Measurements Menu
In this menu, we can choose to measure the Channel
Power, Occupied Bandwidth, ADJ Channel Power and
modify other parameters, if the optional choice “Digital TV
Analyzer“ is selected, another soft-key “QAM” will appear
in the menu, and user can directly come into the Digital TV
analysis function from the Channel Measurements Menu.
Channel Power refers to the whole power of the signal in
certain span. After modifying the center frequency, user
can modify the Channel Bandwidth in “Settings” menu.
After user press the “Settings” soft-key, the “Settings”
Menu will appear which is shown as figure 4.3:
Figure 4.4 Channel Power Menu
In Figure 4.4, the area between the two lines is the
Channel Bandwidth, and in the little window at bottom, the
Power represent the overall power of the channel under
test, the CSP represent the Channel Spacing, the CBW
represent the Channel Bandwidth. Also user can use
single scan or continuous scan function by selecting the
soft-key “Single” or “Continuous”.
Note:
If user wants to use other measure functions, user should
exit the Channel Power menu by press soft-key “Return”
to return step by step, otherwise it will show no response
to user!
4-2
Chapter 4 Auxiliary Measurements
4.1.3. Occupied Bandwidth
Occupied Bandwidth is the frequency range, which
represents certain percent of the whole power. In Channel
Measurement Menu, user can press soft-key “Setting” to
modify the “Channel Spacing” and “Occupied Bandwidth
%Power” manually. The default of “Channel Spacing” is 4
MHz, and 99.9% for “Occupied Bandwidth %Power”.
In Channel Measurement Menu, when user presses
soft-key “Occupied Bandwidth”, the “Occupied Bandwidth”
Menu will appear which is shown as below:
4.2.Demodulation Measurements
4.2.1. Demodulation Mode
In Auxiliary Measurements Menu, user can press soft-key
demodulation to enter the demodulation Menu, and then
user can press related soft-keys to select AM
demodulation or FM demodulation, the default is AM
demodulation.
4.2.2. Listen On
Once user select Listen On, the main window display the
waveform after demodulation, and the information window
at the bottom display the volume, user can use rotate
knob to change the volume, meanwhile user can change
the center frequency also. The following figure shows the
Listen On state.
Figure 4.5 Occupied Bandwidth Menu
In order to measure accurately, the scan span is fixed on
three times of the channel Spacing. The analyzer scans
the setting span and calculates the total power firstly.
Secondly find the greatest signal point, and set the
difference of this signal frequency and the center
frequency as “Fc” and display it on the screen. Finally little
by little expand the power integral span around the
greatest signal, until the equation the integral power =total
power*”Occupied BW %Power”. The integral span is the
OBW that display on the screen. As same as the “Channel
Power” measurement, user can use single scan and
continuous scan function by selecting the soft-key “Single”
and “Continuous”.
4.1.4. Adjacent Channel Power
The bandwidth of adjacent channel is the same as the
bandwidth of the current tested channel. In Channel
Measurement Menu, when user presses soft-key
“Adjacent Channel Power”, the Adjacent Channel Power
Menu will appear that looks like below:
Figure 4.6 Adjacent Channel Power Menu
Figure 4.7 Listen On
4.2.3. FM Gain
FM Gain is the gain of the signal that after demodulation.
Once user presses soft-key “FM Gain”, user can change
the value by using the up-cursor, the down-cursor or the
knob, it provides 100K、50K、25K、12.5K.
4.3.Input Impedance
Once user presses soft-key “Input Impedance”, it will
display the input impedance of this instrument, 75ohm or
50 ohm. The following figure display the Input Impedance
Menu.
Figure 4.8 Input Impedance Menu
4-3
Chapter 4 Auxiliary Measurements
4.4.Limit Line
In Auxiliary Measurement Menu, if user presses soft-key
“Limit Line”, the Limit Line Menu will appear:
Figure 4.10 Edit Limit Line
Figure 4.9 Limit Line Menu
User can use Limit Line function to monitor the signals.
User can select beep on or off to make the analyzer give
alarm or not. User should edit the limit line table firstly
according to the actual demand. After pressing the
“Settings” soft-key, the settings menu will appear:
4-4
From the Figure 4.10 we can know that user can edit eight
items to set the “Limit Line”. User can use knob to select
one of them to edit. There are three types of “Limit Line”,
they are “MAX”, “MIN” and “OFF”. User can use up-cursor
and down-cursor to change it. The “MAX” means the
value that user set is the maximum value ,if the value
measured is higher than this set value , then it is
unqualified , so does the “MIN”, and if user select “OFF” ,
this “Limit Line” will be useless. User can modify the value
of “Start FREQ”, ”Stop FREQ”, “Start AMP” and “Stop
AMP” by using the digital keys, user should press soft-key
“Save” to save settings.
Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
5. CATV Analyzer (Option 1)
Main Points of this Chapter:
●
Channel Measurement
●
Scan Channel
●
FCC Report
●
HFC Measurement
Figure 5.1 Mode Menu
Press “CATV Analyzer” in the Mode Menu to enter the CATV Test Mode:
Figure 5.2 CATV Root Menu
5-1
Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
5.1.CATV Standard and System
5.2.Base Noise Calibration
There are many different TV standards in use around the
world, defining in detail the base band and RF structure of
the signal, but for the broadband engineer and technician
the key parameters are the bandwidth, the dimension of
the lower (vestigial) and upper sidebands, and the
frequency and amplitude relationships of the vision
(luminance), color (chrominance) and audio sub carriers.
In terms of these parameters, the vast majority of TV
transmissions fall into just six categories, which are
illustrated in figure 5.3.
Press “Cal Base Noise” in the CATV root menu, user can
do the system base noise calibration.
The base noise calibration is to collect the analyzer local
noise data overall span in order to calculate the Analyzer
Noise Correction data which is used during some special
measurements, e.g. CCN and CSO/CTB. So during this
process user should cut off all input signals (use the 75Ω
load if possible). It spends about ten minutes for this work.
5.3.Channel Table
Press “Settings” in the CATV root menu, and choose
“Channel Table” in the sub-menu of it. Then all the TV
plans will display on the screen.
Figure 5.3 CATV Standard
Note that Figure 5.3 does not define such parameters as
field frequency, line frequency, or color encoding
technique, which distinguish the NTSC, PAL, and SECAM
systems. The letters B, G, M, etc. are referred to as TV
standards, and the encoding techniques (NTSC, PAL,
etc. ) are referred to as systems.
Standard
Can be used with these Systems
B
PAL, SECAM
D
SECAM
G
PAL, SECAM
H
PAL, SECAM
I
PAL
K
SECAM
K1
SECAM
L
SECAM
M
NTSC, PAL
N
PAL
Figure 5.4 CATV Settings Menu
Table 5-1 CATV Standard and System
Figure 5.5 TV Plans menu
When measuring or specifying CCN, it is important to
define the bandwidth in which the noise is specified. The
bandwidths for various TV systems are as shown in the
following table.
“Activate”: Activate the selected TV plan. Run the knob
or press the Up/Down key, then the arrow display on the
left of the TV plan will move with it. Press “Activate” key,
then the corresponding TV plan will be activated, and the
state of it that display on the screen will change to “In
Use”.
System
I
B, G
K1,L
D, K
M, N
Video bandwidth*
6.75
5.75
7.25
6.75
4.95
5.08
4.75
5.58
5.75
4.00
(* including lower
sideband)
Noise bandwidth
Table 5-2 Video and Noise Bandwidth for Various TV
Systems
5-2
“Edit”: Press this key to edit the selected TV plan. The
basic information of the selected plan will display on the
information window, such as the plan title, total channel
number, analog, digital and enabled channel number. In
the submenu of it, user can choose to create a new
channel, edit or delete the current channel.
Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
Figure 5.6 TV Plan Edit Menu
(b) Page Two
There are 55 items user can edit with a selected channel.
To change the default value of these items, run the arrow
to point to the item firstly. And then change it by the follow
steps. There are totally four methods to change the
current state of different items.
1. Directly Input by the number key and confirm the
input by press ENTER key. “Channel No.”,
“Carrier/Center Frequency”, ”Symbol Rate”, “CTB/CSO
frequency Offset”, “Equivalent Noise BW” and the line
number such as “Depth Modulation Line”, “CDLI Line” etc
are inputted by this way.
2. Press Up/Down key to change between the
permitted
values.
“Analog/Digital”,
“Standard”,
“Suppress/Modulate Type”, gate on/off, field odd/even
and the enable/disable state of the testing item are set by
this method.
(c) Page Three
3. Change with the other items but can’t change
independently, such as “Audio 1 Offset”, “Audio 2 Offset”
and “Channel Bandwidth” that changed with analog TV
standard.
4. The input way of “Channel Caption” is different to the
others all. Make the arrow point to this item, press ENTER
key, then there will be a green short line display under one
character of the current channel caption. Press Up/Down
key the corresponding character will change with it. Run
the knob to move the short line to another character and
change it. After input all the character, press ENTER key
again to confirm the input.
(d) Page Four
Figure 5.7 Channel Items
“New”: Create a new channel. After the settings of all the
items, press “OK” to confirm the new plan definition or
press “return” to quit the former input. If the input channel
No. is the same with the already exist channel, the system
will give the clew and keep the former channel No.
unchanged.
“Edit”: Edit an existing channel. Press “Last Chan/Next
Chan” to enter the Last/Next channel. The arrow will stay
on the current position of the Last/Next channel.
(a) Page One
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Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
All the channel settings will be used in the system
measurement and will be set as the default mode of the
channel measurement items. The “Enable/Disable”
settings of “Channel Enable”, “CCN Enable” etc will be
used in the system measurement. The test result will
show on the FCC report.
5.4.CATV Test Settings
In CATV settings menu which is shown as Figure 5.4, we
can see that except “Channel Table”, there are still four
items need to be set before start the CATV testing.
Figure 5.8 Channel Edit Menu
“Delete”: Delete the selected channel. After press it, the
system will give the note “Delete channel anyway”. Press
ENTER to confirm the delete operation or press ESC to
cancel the command.
“Select Chan/Freq”: Choose the “Channel Select”
mode. Inputting the channel by the channel no. that define
in the active TV plan or the channel frequency directly is
determined by the state of this soft-key.
“Frequency Setup”: This is almost the same as channel
definition. The only difference is that there is no channel
no. and channel caption in the frequency setup. These
settings will be called when the channel input mode is set
to frequency mode.
“Sort by Frequency”: Sort all the channels by the carrier
frequency of channels.
“Save” and “Return”: After edit the TV plan, press
“Save” to confirm the input or press return to exit the “TV
Edit” menu.
“Delete”: Delete the selected TV plan. The active plan
can’t be deleted.
“Download”: Download the TV plan from the USB disk or
the PC to the analyzer. The choice plan will display on the
screen.
“Upload”: Upload the TV plan to the USB disk or the PC.
Figure 5.10 Frequency Setup Menu
“Amp Unit”: Select the amplitude units that will be used
in all of the CATV tests.
“Amplifier”: Define the state of internal amplifier. When it
is set to “Auto”, in channel test, the analyzer will
automatically set the amplifier to on/off according to the
total channel power. While if it is set to “On/Off”, the
analyzer will only change the attenuator to adapt to the
channel power and keep the amplifier state unchanged.
Figure 5.11 Amplitude Unit Menu
Figure 5.9 TV Plan Download Menu
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Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
Figure 5.12 Amplifier Settings in CATV measurement
5.5.Channel Measurement
(c)Page 3/3
Figure 5.13 Channel Measure Root Menu
Channel measurement measures a single channel’s
characters.
5.5.1. Channel Select
Channel measurement mode support 12 measurement
items which are shown as Figure 5.13.
User can input the channel number/frequency by inputting
the digital number, turning the knob or pressing the
up-down key.
Before channel measurement, user should select one
channel with inputting a channel number or frequency
point first. Otherwise an error message “#01 Please Input
channel” will display on the screen and indicated to input
channel firstly. After having specified the channel, user
can start channel measurements.
(a)Page 1/3
Figure 5.14 Notice User to Input Channel Number
5.5.2. Listen On
Press “Listen ON” and user can listen to the sound of
current channel. Turning the knob or pressing the
Up/Down key can change the volume.
(b)Page 2/3
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Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
Figure 5.15 Listen ON
(a) Normal Testing
5.5.3. FM Deviation
(b) TV-Line Testing
Figure 5.17 Depth Modulation
Figure 5.16 FM Deviation
The FM Deviation function enable user to measure the
FM deviation of the select channel. The information
window shows the current deviation value and the
maximum deviation. The default cycle of calculating the
maximum data is 25 times. By pressing “Cycles/Meas”,
user can manually set the cycle.
While measuring the FM deviation, user can also listen to
the sound by turning the knob or pressing UP/DOWN key
to change the volume.
In channel measurement mode, “Sub Att” and “Add Att” if
often used to change to current attenuation if user wants
to.
Depth modulation describes the carrier’s depths of
modulation. If user has option 3, user can press “TV-Line”
to specify one line with white reference to perform a
gate-based measurement.
For getting result precisely, every TV filed should have
one line with white reference
5.5.5. Carrier Level & Frequency
The video carrier level test measures the amplitude and
frequency of the current visual carrier and the amplitude
and frequency difference between the visual and aural
carrier.
5.5.4. Depth Modulation
The depth of modulation test measures the percentage of
amplitude modulation (AM) on the video carrier.
Figure 5.18 Carrier Level & Frequency
In the default status, only the amplitude information
displays on the screen. But if user set counter on, the
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Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
frequency information will be displayed on the screen too.
The frequency now is calculated by the counter with
resolution of 1Hz.
If the carrier waveform is not stable enough, user can turn
Max Hold on.
5.5.6. Carrier to Composite Noise
The result of the carrier-to-composite noise measurement
is the ratio of the peak video carrier level (modulated or
unmodulated) to the noise measured in one of the
manners described below.
(1)Turn Off the Modulation
In menu shown as figure 5.13(b), press “Carrier/Noise” to
perform the Carrier to Composite Noise measurement.
After initialization, system will show a message “Press
Continue to go on” and “Please Remove Mod.” If possible,
user can turn off the modulation and then press
“Continue” to go on the test. The information window
displays the measure result and correction value.
If user cannot turn off the modulation, and press
“Continue” soft-key, the measurement is not very precise.
Correct to measurement BW= 10*Log (Noise BW / RBW).
Noise BW is different according to different CATV
standard. These values have been list on the table 5-2.
RBW is the resolution bandwidth when the CCN test is
performed (30 KHz).
LOG detect Noise: It includes the Gauss envelope
demodulation correction 1.05dB and the change
correction 1.45dB of voltage to logarithm express. Its’
value is 2.5dB.
IF Noise Equal Pwr BW: It is the correction of analyzer IF
detector shape. To DS8821Q, this value is 0.38dB.
Analyzer Noise Correction: When the test result is close to
the analyzer inherent noise, the result need to be
corrected according to the difference of testing result and
analyzer inherent noise.
Analyzer Noise Correction = 10 * log ( 1 – 10 ^ ( - Δ / 10 ) )
For example when Δ=1dB, the Analyzer Noise Correction
is 6.87dB. It can be ignored when Δ > 10dB. The
difference (Δ) will be calculated as 0.7dB when it is lower
then 0.7dB.
(2)Gate Measure
With option 3, user can turn “Gate” on and measure
channel’s CCN non-interfering without turning off the
modulation. User can select one line without modulation
information to measure the CCN without interfering signal.
The detail shows as figure 5.21 and 5.22.
Figure 5.19 CCN Measure Step 1
Figure 5.21 C/N Gate Measure
Figure 5.20 CCN Measure Step2
The current CCN value displays on the information
window. Its calculate method is:
CCN= Carrier Amplitude – N;
N=Nc+ Correct to measurement BW + LOG detect Noise
-IF Noise Equal. Pwr BW -Analyzer Noise Correction
Figure 5.22 CCN Gate Settings
Nc: Noise amplitude. It is the average value of the points
around the minimum value which frequency is close by
1.25MHz down to the carrier.
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Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
Figure 5.23 Testing Line View
Press the “View” soft-key and set it to “Vid” status. Then
user can see the video waveform display of the line you
have selected to do the CCN testing. Change it to “Meas”
status again to go on the CCN testing.
If user wants to exit CCN test, press “Return” and user will
get a message to notice user to turn on the modulation,
and press “Return” again user will exit the CCN test.
5.5.7. HUM
The hum test measures the percentage of amplitude
modulation for low frequency disturbance by measuring
the peak-to-peak variation for total hum.
Figure 5.25 HUM FFT Result
5.5.8. Cross Modulation
The cross modulation test measures the first 15.7 kHz
cross modulation sideband relative to the visual carrier of
the channel.
Modulation must be turned off in order to perform this test.
The analyzer is tuned to the carrier frequency and set the
span to zero to produce the time domain waveform of the
carrier signal. A FFT is performed on the time domain
data and the magnitude of the 15.7 kHz offset signal will
be measured relatively to the carrier level.
Figure 5.26 Cross Modulation
Figure 5.24 HUM
If the hum > 3%, it means the signal is not good enough.
Turn off the modulation can get a more accurate value.
Set the “Measure” state to “FFT” mode, then the analyzer
will perform a single sweep of 250 ms and performs a Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT) on it to separate power line
related components. 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 150 Hz, and 200 Hz
are displayed in PAL standard, while in NTSC standard
the marker point is displayed. This is intended to be used
as a troubleshooting aid. A relatively high 50Hz (in PAL,
60 Hz in NTSC) level implies inadequate grounding or
stray power utility neutral currents. A relatively high 100
Hz (in PAL, 120 Hz in NTSC) level implies poor filtering of
a full-wave rectifier in a power supply.
5-8
5.5.9. CTB/CSO
The instrument can provide the CSO/CTB measurement
result in the same test view. There are two methods of
measuring CSO/CTB describing as below.
(1)Turn off the Carrier
The CTB points are always on the visual frequency. So if
user wants to measure CTB, the system will suggest user
to turn off the carrier firstly.
The measure procedure is similar with the CCN
measurement. Press the “Measure” soft-key. Then after
auto system initialization, press “Continue” soft-key to go
on the test.
Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
(2)Gate Measure
With option 3, user can measure CSO and CTB without
turning off the carrier. User can select one quiet line of the
vertical blanking interval to test CSO and CTB. But to test
CTB, it requires a hardware blanking switch in the head
end to absent the influence of the carrier. In this way, user
can check the selected video line the measure using by
pressing the “View” soft-key.
(a)
Figure 5.28 CTB/CSO Gate Measure
5.5.10.Leakage
(b)
Figure 5.29 Leakage
Leakage is radiant signal from the cable to the air that
cause by the off normal disconnection of the distribute
system.
(c)
Figure 5.27 CTB/CSO Testing Menu
CSO points usually set at the frequency of ±1.25MHz or
±0.25MHz lower to the visual carrier in the PAL standard
and ±1.25MHz or ±0.75MHz lower in the NTSC standard.
Pressing “Next Beat”, the marker will switch among these
points. The marker can be set manually by pressing the
UP/DOWN key or running the Knob.
When testing leakage, user should set the antenna close
to the possible leak point of the cable. The distance
should be less than 3 m and the antenna should be
parallel to the cable. Then tune the antenna to get a
maximum value of the leakage.
“Next Chan” and “Last Chan” function enable user to
measure CTB and CSO of adjacent channel. By this way
user can find an idle channel, and firstly measure the
carrier amplitude of its’ adjacent channel that contains
signal, and then measure the CSO/CTB in the idle
channel. Then user can get an estimation of the system
CSO/CTB without turning off the carrier.
Be similar with CCN, if user wants to exit CTB/CSO test,
user should press “return” twice.
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Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
5.5.11.Chrominance-to-luminance Delay
Inequality (CLDI)
(c)NTC-7 Composite Test Signal
Figure 5.30 CLDI Measure
With option 3, user can measure the CLDI. The
chrominance-to-luminance delay inequality measures the
time delay between the low frequency luminance
component and high frequency chrominance component
of a modulated pulse in the composite test signal. There
four signals can be used to test CLDI. In PAL standard,
CCIR Line 17 and UK ITS 1 are recommended, while in
NTSC standard, the FCC Composite Test Signal and the
NTC-7 Composite Signal can be used.
Because there is a pre-distortion in the testing signal, an
offset of 170ns is added to the result.
(d) FCC Composite Test Signal
Figure 5.31 CLDI Testing Signal
5.5.12.Differential Phase/Gain
With option 3, user can measure the Differential
Phase/Gain:
(a) Matrix Signal – CCIR Line 17
Figure 5.32 Differential Phase/Gain
(b) Matrix Signal – UK ITS 1
The differential gain test measures the change in
amplitude of the chrominance sub carrier as the
luminance changes from a blanking level to a white level.
The five-step riser portion of the composite test signal is
used to perform this measurement.
The differential phase test measures the change in phase
of the chrominance sub carrier as the luminance changes
from a blanking level to a white level. It uses the same test
signals with differential gain. In PAL standard, CCIR Line
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Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
330 and UK ITS 1 are recommended, while in NTSC
standard, the FCC Composite Test Signal and the NTC-7
Composite Signal can be used.
The FCC Multiburst Test Signal is more common but only
provides frequency response data at discrete frequencies.
Note that the 0.5MHz burst packet can’t be resolved in a
resolution bandwidth of 300KHz. However, 300KHz is the
minimum bandwidth required for the analyzer to
accurately measure burst packets greater than 4.25us. If
all the burst packets were the same time duration, a
resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz could be used. The burst
height would not be accurate but they all have the same
relative amplitude.
The NTC-7 combination signal is the least ideal. It would
be useful for relative measurements. The frequency
burst’s lengths are not equal and too short in duration for
the 300 kHz resolution bandwidth to capture them
accurately. Some modified NTC-7 combination test
signals have near equal pulse widths and are more
suitable for this test.
Figure 5.33 Matrix Signal - CCIR Line 330
5.5.13.In-Channel Response
In-channel frequency response measures the baseband
frequency response of the channel under test. There are
two ways to measure the in-channel response: use a
sweep signal or insert a test signal (it needs the option 3):
When we press “Signal” soft-key to choose signal mode,
we call both FCC Multiburst Test Signal and NTC-7
combination signal as “Multiburst”. According to the
settings of signal mode, system will automatically search
the suitable positions of “Marker 1” and “Marker 2”. The
positions of “Marker 1” and “Marker 2” can be set
manually too. The In-Channel Response testing result
that display on the bottom of the screen is calculated by
the level difference of these two markers.
Figure 5.34 In-Channel Response: Sweep Signal
Figure 5.36 In-Channel Response: Insert Test Signal
Figure 5.35 Signal Selection
Single line VITS Testing requires one of the following test
signals in the vertical blanking interval.
The ghost canceling reference signal is the preferred test
signal since it has the most signal level and provide a
swept frequency reference over the range of interest for
measurement.
5-11
Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
(a) Ghost Canceling Reference Signal
Figure 5.38 Channel Scan Root Menu
5.6.1. Standard Channel
(b) FCC Multiburst Test Signal
Standard channel scan will scan all channels in the
channel table include analog and digital channels. To
analog channel the amplitudes of the carrier and the first
sound are measured, when “Count” is set to “On” the
frequency of them is counted. While to the digital channel,
only the channel power is measured. Press the “Measure”
soft-key in the submenu of “Standard Channel”. The test
result will be shown on the screen as a histogram. A white
line will display on the screen while scan the channels.
Running the knob can change the position of the white
line. The channel No., visual frequency, visual carrier
amplitude and the amplitude difference between visual
and aural carrier corresponding to the white line will
display on the screen.
Setting “Ref Line” status to “On”, the minimum visual
carrier amplitude, the difference of maximum and
minimum amplitude of visual carrier, the maximum and
the minimum visual-to-aural ratio will display on the
information window.
(c) NTC-7 Combination Signal
Figure 5.37 Vertical Interval Test Signal
5.6.Channel Scan
Besides measure a single channel, user can also get the
information of multi CATV channels by pressing “Scan
Chan” soft-key in the CATV root menu.
In the submenu of “Scan Chan”, user can choose to scan
the “Standard Channel”, “User Channel” or “Favourite
Channel”. And you can set the limit level by pressing “LVL
Limit” line. The channel which carrier level is lower than
the limit level will be omitted during the channel scan.
Figure 5.39 Histogram Information
5-12
Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
Figure 5.40 Standard Channel Scan
Figure 5.43 Analog Channel Scan Result
Figure 5.41 Reference Line
Figure 5.44 Digital Channel Scan Result
5.6.2. User Channel
5.6.3. Favorite Channel
Select “User Channel” in the Channel Scan Root Menu
(Figure 5.37). In the user channel scan mode, user select
to scan the “Analog” or “Digital” channels separately. The
“Count” can be enabled in analog channel scan.
Favorite channel scan enables user to measure 8
channels at a time:
Figure 5.45 Favorite Channel
Figure 5.42 User Channel Scan Menu
Create a favorite channel should first press “Fav Set n” to
select a channel pointer from 1 to 8, and input the channel
number/frequency. After inputting the value, press “Fav
Enter” to confirm.
Note:
Favorite channel can be settled by inputting the frequency.
But the frequency must be included in the standard table.
Otherwise it will be automatically changed to the nearest
frequency that is included in the standard table.
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Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
Note:
This test will take a long time if most channels and items
are set to “Enable”. And the testing process can’t be
interrupted. So before press this soft-key please check the
TV plan firstly to make sure that all the enable channels
and items are what you want to test.
After measure, the FCC report will be store on the DOC
(Disk-On-Chips). The file name is defined by the two
posterior number of year (such as 06) + month (such as
03) + date (such as 15) + file number. The file number is
from 00 to 99. It is said that in one day the DOC mostly
can save 100 FCC reports.
Figure 5.46 Create Favorite Channel
Press “Measure” to measure the favorite channel:
“View”: View the existed FCC report. As Figure 5.48
shows, there are three reports we can get. Run the knob
to select the report. Press “View” to see the detail of FCC
report. The basic information is displayed in the first page
of the FCC report which is shown as Figure 5.49(a). The
followed are the analog channel testing results. Five
results of analog channels can be displayed in one page.
The digital channel testing results will display on the last
page. There are mostly 15 digital test results can display
on the screen. In the report, “--” means the “Gate” is set to
“On”, but the analyzer can’t successfully trig the line. The
blank corresponds to the “Disable” testing items.
“Delete”: Delete the selected report.
“Upload”: Upload the selected report to the USB disk or
the PC.
Figure 5.47 Favorite Channel Scan
5.7.FCC Report
By pressing the “Sys Meas” soft-key in the CATV root
menu, User can enter the FCC menu. In this menu, the
information about the FCC report will display on the
screen.
Figure 5.49 FCC View Menu
Figure 5.48 FCC menu
Press “Measure” softkey, then the analyzer will
automatically test the system according to the settings
that defined in TV Plan. Every enable items of the enable
channels will be measured.
5-14
(a)
Chapter 5 CATV Analyzer
(b)
(c)
Figure 5.50 The Contents of the FCC Report
5-15
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
6. Digital TV (Option 4)
Main Points of This Chapter:
●
Constellation diagram
●
Statistical Graph Display
●
Equalizer display
●
Reference settings
6-1
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
“Power Mea>”: Provide a directly way change from QAM
analyzer to channel power measurement.
6.1.Summarize
The instrument can measure the main specs of digital
signal such as display constellation diagram, BER,
MER/EVM, etc. After pressing MODE key on the front
panel and select “DTV Analyzer” soft-key, the submenu of
it will appear which is shown as (a) of figure 6.1. By
pressing “1/2 More>” soft-key, User can enter the next
menu of digital TV which is shown as (b) of figure 6.1.
“Parameter>”: Provide constellation diagram analysis
and display some parameters for analysis result. This
function is still under development.
The instrument displays the measurement results on the
left of the screen, including Bit Error Rate( BER
( Pre_Fec ), BER ( Post – Fec )), Modulation Error Ratio
(MER), Estimate Noise Margin(ENM) , Error Vector
Magnitude( EVM) ,Phase Jitter(PJ),Quadrate Error(QE),
Amplitude Imbalance( AI), Frequency offset (Freq Offset)
and Real Symbol Rate(Real Symb).
At the bottom of screen, THE INSTRUMENT shows the
lock status of symbol (SYBM), forward error correction
(FEC), and stream (STREAM).
6.2.Constellation Diagram
Press the “Constell” soft-key, the submenu of it will
appear:
(a) First Page
Figure 6.2 Constellation Menu
“Refresh”: Clear the screen and reset the point counter.
“Grid”: Control the “On/Off” state of the grid that display
on the constellation diagram.
(b)
Second Page
Figure 6.1 Digital TV Menu
“Constell”: User can change the constellation diagram
display state in the submenu of this soft-key, such as
Zoom In, Zoom Out and Display Mode etc.
“Template”: Control the “On/Off” state of the template
that displays on the constellation diagram.
“Zoom In” and “Zoom Out”: Zoom in/out the signed
area (in the blue frame) that can be selected by turning
the knob or pressing the array keys.
“Statistic” Put out the statistic results of MER,BER
(Pre-FEC) and BER (Post-FEC).
“Equalizer”: Put out the coefficient of the equalizer. In the
submenu of this key User can choose the equalizer mode.
“Initialize”: Reset all auto adjusted parameters and
then adjust them again. In the initialization period, the
demodulation system will diagnose the signal
automatically to access the symbol and frequency offset.
According to these offset information the system will
adjust the demodulation process and system coefficient to
match the signal. So if the changes of signal cause the
system unable to demodulate correctly, user can press
“Initialize” soft-key to initial the demodulation. Generally
speaking, if the symbol rate offset is less than 50KS/S and
frequency offset is less than 100KHZ, the demodulation
system can successfully adjust itself to match the signal.
“Settings”: User can set the parameters such as center
frequency, symbol rate, standard type etc in the submenu
of this soft-key.
6-2
Figure 6.3 Constellation of 64QAM after Zoom In
“Display Mode”:
After pressing this soft-key, the
submenu of it which is shown as Figure 6.4.There are
three modes user can choose in this submenu:
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
“Continuous”: In this mode, the Instrument continuously
plot new symbols on the screen and do not clear old
symbols until the “Refresh” soft-key in the figure 6.2 is
pressed or display mod is set again. There is no limit to
the number of symbols that are displayed in this mode.
“Cyclic”: In this mode, the Instrument plot the number of
symbols specified in the sample length on the screen and
then clear them all and start again.
“Time Filter”: In this mode, the Instrument plots the
number of symbols specified in the sample length and
then uses a first in/first out (FIFO) function to clear the
oldest symbols and plot new symbols. The number of
symbols displayed on screen is always the same.
“View last”: After at least one entire measurement, User
can choose this soft-key to view the last measure result. If
user never finished a measurement, the instrument will
show the notice “Half-baked Data”, else user will enter the
submenu of it, which is shown as figure 6.6. In this menu
user can choose “View All” no matter how long the statistic
period is. But the other 4 soft-keys only can be activated
when the statistic period is more than 400 minutes. User
can zoom in the store statistic to see the details of graph,
or User can look the graph page by page.
If user chooses the Cyclic or the Time Filter mode, User
can enter the sample length, for example 8000 (the
default value).
Figure 6.6 Statistic View Menu
6.4.Equalizer Display
Press the “Equalizer” soft-key, the submenu of this key will
appear which is as shown in figure 6.7.
Figure 6.4 Display Mode
6.3.Statistic Graph
Press “Statistic” soft-key, the submenu of this key will
appear which is shown as figure 6.5.
Figure 6.7 Equalizer Display
There are three different messages display in the
equalizer screen.
Figure 6.5 Statistic Graph
The statistic graph provides the statistic graph of MER,
BER (Pre-FEC) and BER (Post-FEC) in a specified period.
At the bottom of the statistic graph, the instrument put out
the average values of these statistic indexes.
“Set Time”: After pressing this soft-key, user can enter a
period of time by inputting the number directly, turning the
knob or pressing the array key. The statistic period can be
set from 1 to 4320 minutes.
“Measure”: After setting time, press “Measure” soft-key
and choose “Start/Stop” of it, then the measure will go as
user’s wish.
1. The output of the Equalizer coefficients. This feature
can be used to diagnose channel distortion (gain tilt,
reflections etc). The bar graph showing the 32 coefficients:
8 Feed-Forward Equalizers (FFE) and 24 Decision
Feedback Equalizers (DFE). The eighth coefficient is the
main signal path, so it is normally very close to 0 dB (unity
gain).
2. Frequency response of the tested channel. The
amplitude is from -5dB to 5dB.
3. Group delay shows the delay in nsec (from -120 to
120 nsec) across the channel bandwidth.
6-3
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
Figure 6.8 Equalizer Coefficient Display
Figure 6.10 Group Delay Display
Equalizer Coefficient Display
6.5.Settings
Press “Equalizer” soft-key, then the equalizer coefficient
will independently display on the screen which is shown
as Figure 6.8. The level, distance and time values
corresponding to the white indicatrix will display on the
screen too.
After pressing the “settings” soft-key, the submenu of this
key will appear which is shown as figure 6.11 (a). By
pressing “1/2, More>”, user can enter the next page of
settings menu.
Frequency Response Display
Independently display the frequency response by
pressing “Frequency Response” soft-key. In this mode,
vertical and horizontal markers are available to perform
specific measurements.
In Figure 6.9, the maximum, minimum values, the
difference of them and current values are displayed on the
screen.
(a)
First Page
Figure 6.9 Frequency Response Display
Group Delay Display:
The group delay response can be viewed independently
from within the Equalizer Display by pressing “Group
Delay” soft-key. The maximum, minimum values, the
difference of them and current values are displayed on the
screen
(b)
Second Page
Figure 6.11 Parameter Settings
In this menu, User can set every adjustable parameter,
such as the center frequency, symbol rate, attenuator etc.
“Centr Freq”: Set the center frequency. Also user can
press FREQUENCY on the front panel, which can also
input a channel number in a standard channel table.
“Symbol Rate”: It can be set automatically or set to a
special value by changing the “Symb Rate” to “Manu”.
“Atten”: Set the attenuator to “Auto” or “Manu”. In auto
6-4
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
mode the attenuator can be adjusted automatically
according to the magnitude of the tested signal. In some
cases user need to adjust the attenuator manually. The
better way to access the befitting value of the attenuator is
to change the screen to the channel power measurement
by pressing the “Power Mea>” soft-key in figure 6.1(b). In
that screen, adjust attenuator to access the best SNR in
conditions of no signal distortion and write down the
corresponding attenuator value. Turn back to the digital
TV measure mode and adjust the attenuator to the signed
value, then user can get the best constellation output.
Note:
In some special conditions (For example: in CATV
measurement when the carrier level difference of different
channels is more than 15 dB), the auto-adjusted
attenuator may not fulfill the measurement, in such
conditions user need to adjust attenuator manually. Add or
subtract the attenuator value and view the constellation
whether it is improved or not. Until user get the satisfied
output.
“BER-PRE Th”: Press this soft-key to set the threshold of
BER(Pre-FEC) which range is from 1e-2 to 1e-9.The
default value is 1e-5.
“BERPOST Th”: Press this soft-key to set the threshold
of BER (Post-FEC) which range is from 1e-2 to 1e-9.The
default value is 1e-8.
Note:
User can change these thresholds according to user
requirement. When the measure result become lower
than the corresponding threshold, the color of the result
will be changed for arresting the user’s attention.
“Standard”: Presses this soft-key, user can choose
different standards in its’ submenu. The instrument
supports J83.ANNEX A, J83.ANNEX B, J83.ANNEX C,
Reverse and NO FEC Decoding. (See Figure 6.14)
“Amplifier”: Press this soft-key, User can enter the
submenu of it and set the state of the pre-amplifier of the
instrument. The default state of amplifier is auto.
Figure 6.14 Standard
Figure 6.12 Amplifier Submenu
“Polarity”: Presses this soft-key, user can enter the
submenu to set the polarity of the signal, such as Auto,
Normal and Reverse. But if user’s manual setting of the
polarity is not in accordance with the real state of input
signal, the analyzer may be unable to decode the signal.
The default state of system is “auto”. (See Figure 6.15)
“Qam Select”: The instrument supports QPSK, 16QAM,
32 QAM, 64 QAM, 128 QAM, and 256 QAM. User can
make a choice in the submenu of “QAM Select” which is
shown as figure 6.13.
Figure 6.15 Polarity Menu
Figure 6.13 Modulation Mode
“MER Th”: Press this soft-key to set the threshold of
MER which range is from 10 to 40dB.The default value is
23.5dB.
“Default”: Press this soft-key, all the manual settings in
DVB mode will be changed to the default values. As the
default conditions, in standard J83.ANNEX-A the symbol
rate of QPSK, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM and 128QAM is
6.875MS/S, and it is 6.952MS/S while 256QAM; in
standard J83.ANNEX-B the symbol rate of QPSK, 16QAM,
32QAM, 64QAM and 128QAM is 5.057MS/S, and it is
5.361MS/S while 256QAM; in standard J83.ANNEX-C the
6-5
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
symbol rate of QPSK, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM and
128QAM is 5.274MS/S, and it is 5.361MS/S while
256QAM.
6-6
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
7. Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
Main points of this Chapter:
●
Tracking Generator (Option 5)
7-1
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
7.1.Tracking generator
Press “Tracking” soft-key in the mode menu, and then the
submenu which is shown as figure 7.1 will appear on the
screen.
Figure 7.3 Tracking on
Figure 7.1 Tracking Generator menu
To use the tracking generator, firstly we should connect
the generator and the analyzer well. The connection
diagram is shown as the figure 7.2
Perform “Normalize” operation, should connect the TG
OUT straight to RF IN too. It is different from power
calibration. The actual output of TG will not be changed.
After pressing this key, the output line is corrected to a
beeline. The difference between this beeline and its
pre-curve is memorized. And correction data will be used
in the future testing. But when frequency, reference level,
attenuator or output level is changed, the correction data
will be lost and user should normalize it again. Also it will
be lost with the power off of the analyzer.
When the unit of reference level is dBm, dBmV or dBµV,
by pressing the “Mark” soft-key and changing the status of
it, the test result of the marker(s) displayed on the
information window can be the absolute value or the
relative value to the TG ideal output level. From the figure
7.4 we can clearly view the difference between these two
display mode.
Figure 7.2 TG connection diagram
After connecting the TG well, set the “TG” status to “On”,
then the screen that is shown as figure 7.3 will display on
the screen.
The level range of the tracking generator is from 0dBm
(108.8 dBµV) to -60dBm ( 48.8 dBµV). The default output
level is 88.8 dBµV when the first time TG was set to be on.
After pressing “TG level” soft-key, by running the knob,
pressing the Up/Down key or directly inputting the number
can change the output level of the TG.
But if it is the first time to use TG or the testing
environment has been changed, it is recommended to do
a power calibration firstly before using it to test devices.
(a)Absolute Value Display
The calibrating step is firstly to connect the TG OUT to the
RF IN with a standard BNC cable (It would be better to
use the accessory cable), and then press the “Power Cal”
soft-key. The TG will be automatically calibrated from
0dBm to -60dBm. This calibration probably needs several
minutes. And you’d better not power off the analyzer when
it shows “Calibrating” on the screen. If the TG cannot fulfill
the requirement that the level flatness in all frequency
range is less than 1dB, the system will give the prompt
“Calibrate Failed”. The calibration data will not be lost with
the power off of the analyzer.
(b)Relative Value Display
Figure 7.4 Two Marker Display Mode
7-2
Chapter 7 Tracking Generator and HFC Analyzer
Here is an instance to use the TG to measure a filter.
1. Press the “CAL” on the front-panel and select
“Calibrate Amplitude” soft-key to do an analyzer
calibration.
2. Turn on the TG, and connect the TG OUT to RF IN,
which is shown as figure 7.2.
3. Do a TG power
“Normalize” soft-key.
calibration
and
then
press
4. Connect the TG OUT, tested component and RF IN
well as figure 7.5 shows.
5.
The testing result will be displayed on the screen.
Figure 7.5 Tested Component Connection diagram
Figure 7.6 Testing result
7-3
Chapter 8 Other Functions and Settings
8. Other Functions and Settings
main points of this chapter:
●
System calibration
●
System config
●
Picture saving
●
Software update
8-1
Chapter 8 Other Functions and Settings
8.1.System Calibration
8.2.System config
For the analyzer to meet its specifications and
characteristics the self-calibration routines should be
performed periodically or whenever the ambient
temperature changes.
System calibration includes frequency calibration and
amplitude calibration. Frequency calibration is to rectify
the frequency error caused by IF filter. Amplitude
calibration is to rectify the amplitude error, which can be
caused by window functions of different RBW or
attenuators, so Amplitude calibration should be taken with
different RBW or attenuators.
Allow the analyzer to warm up for 30 minutes before
performing the following calibration steps:
Connect the “CAL OUT” and “RF INPUT” on the front
panel by the BNC-BNC cable.
Caution:
Make sure that the used BNC-BNC cable is the fitting of
the instrument.
(a)
First Page
Press the “CONFIG” key on the front-panel,then you can
configure the system. Figure 8.2 shows the submenu of
this key.
Press the “CAL” key on the front-panel, the submenu of it
will appear which is shown as figure 8.1.
(b)
Second Page
Figure 8.2 Config Menu
8.2.1. Serial No.
Figure 8.1 Calibration Menu
“Cal Freq and Amp”: Calibrate both amplitude and
frequency.
Serial number is an important symbol of this instrument
and it is very useful for the maintenance. Press the “SN ”
soft-key, the serial No. will be displayed on the up-left
corner of the screen, which is shown as the figure 8.2 (a).
“Cal Frequency”: Calibrate the frequency.
“Cal Amplitude”: Calibrate the amplitude.
8.2.2. Print/Save diplex key
Note :
There is a “PRINT/SAVE” diplex key on the front-panel.
Two soft-keys “Select Prn/Sav” and “Print/Save” in figure
8.2 are defined to cooperate with this diplex key.
During the process of calibration, the instrument is unable
to response to the keyboard commands except the
“RESET” key.
“Cal Data”: Choose to add the calibration data to the
spectrum display or not.
“Resp Data”: Choose to add the frequency response
data to the spectrum display or not. The response data is
set before the instrument leave factory and unable to be
changed.
8-2
“Select” soft-key defines the current state of
“PRINT/SAVE” key. When it is set to “Prn”, after pressing
“PRINT/SAVE” key, the picture that is being displayed on
the screen will be printed out. If the printer isn’t prepared
well, an error message “#37: Not connected” will display
on the screen. When “Sav” state is selected, after
pressing “PRINT/SAVE” key, system will give the prompt
“#41: Input a Name: Enter to continue”. After input the file
name, press “ENTER” key on the front panel, then the
picture that is being displayed on the screen will be saved.
“Print/Save” soft-key is used to do the extend operations
of “PRINT/SAVE” key. Pressing this soft-key, the submenu
which is shown as figure 8.3 will appear on the screen.
Chapter 8 Other Functions and Settings
from the instrument to the PC.
“Delete File”: Delete the signed pictures. After pressing
this soft-key, the system will give the notice “Really del the
file(s)”, press ”ENTER” key to confirm the deletion.
Before run the “Transmit file” and “Delete file” operation,
use should select files firstly by “View” soft-key.
Figure 8.3 Print/Save Menu
“Print”: User can choose the printer type in the submenu
of this soft-key (see figure 8.4).
“Save”: This soft-key is used to manage the pictures that
user has been saved. The submenu of this soft-key is
shown as figure 8.5.
Figure 8.6 Transmit Menu
Figure 8.4 Printer Menu
Figure 8.7 Interface of bmp.exe
“View”: Press this soft-key to select the pictures you want
to deal with. Run the knob and press ”ENTER” key to
finish the selection, and press ”ENTER” key again to
release the selection. You can choose one or several
pictures in this step.
“Preview”: View the saved pictures on the screen page
by page. To preview the pictures, you don’t need to sign
them beforehand. All stored pictures can display on the
screen by pressing “Page Up” or “Page Down” soft-key.
The related information about the current displayed
picture will display on the right side of the screen, such as
the file name the saving time and the position of the
current picture.
Figure 8.5 Save Menu
“Transmit File”: Transmit the signed pictures to the PC
or flash disk. After pressing this soft-key, in the submenu
of it you can choose to send the picture to PC through
“RS-232” or to “USB Disk” (see figure 8.6).
If choose “USB Disk”, the USB Disk should be connected
well before starting the instrument.
If “RS-232” is selected, make sure that PC has been
connected well to the instrument and then run the
“bmp.exe” in the PC which is provided with the instrument.
Figure 8.7 is the interface of “bmp.exe”. After setting the
store path, press “Start”. The picture will be transmitted
8-3
Chapter 8 Other Functions and Settings
8.2.4. Clock Setting
Press the “Set Clock” soft-key, you can set the “On” or
“Off” of the time display. If select “On” state, you can input
the local time. The step of clock setting is that firstly input
number and then select “Sec”, “Minute”, “Hour”, “Day”,
“Month” and “Year”.
The input format is “2006” “Year”, “01” “Month”, “02” “Day”,
“13” “Hour”, “04” “Minute”, “05” “Sec”, and the display
format is “06/01/02 13:04:05”.(see figure 8.11)
Figure 8.8 View Picture
Figure 8.11 Time Setting
8.2.5. Language Select
Figure 8.9 Preview Picture
8.2.3. Baud Rate
Press the “Language Select” soft-key, you can choose the
language between Chinese and English. The selection
will not lose with the power-off of system.
8.2.6. Palette
After pressing “RS-232 Band Rate” soft-key, in the
submenu of it which is shown as figure 8.10 you can set
the band rate of COM port. The default value is
115200bps, and whenever DS8821 is reset, this default
value will be set to COM port.
Note:
The baud rate is set for the transmitting from the
instrument to PC, for example send pictures to the PC or
receive the update files from the PC. So you should make
sure that the PC baud rate is in accordance with the
instrument.
Figure 8.12 Palette Setting
Figure 8.10 Baud Rate Setting Menu
8-4
Chapter 8 Other Functions and Settings
Figure 8.13 System Default Palette
To provide a more comfortable use of different
environment, you can change the color of information,
wave, edit background or background etc. The change
step is firstly to selecting the item you want to change and
then turning the knob until gets the color you wanted.
Figure 8.15 Status Menu
8.2.9. Date format
This soft-key is used to set the date display format for
different convention of different counties.
“Auto Set”: Return to the system default color settings.
There two modes “Indoor” and “Outdoor” can be selected
in the submenu of this soft-key.
“Save”: save the changed colors.
8.2.7.
System Information
Press the “About ” soft-key in the second page shown as
figure 8.2 (b), then you can view the software version, the
firmware version, space information, calibrate information,
option information and so on.
Figure 8.16 Date Format Selection menu
8.3.Software Update
If you need to update the software, you can ask us for new
software. There are also two ways to update the software,
one is by USB disk and the other by COM.
Update by COM: Copy the update folder to the PC, run
“update.exe” in this folder. Press “Service>” soft-key in
figure 8.2(b), select “RS Update” then the update will start.
Figure 8.14 About Menu
8.2.8. Status
Update by USB: Copy the update folder to the root
directory of USB disk, connect it to the instrument and
then reset the instrument. Press “CONFIG” key on the
front-panel to enter the menu display as figure 8.2(b), the
Press “Service>” soft-key and select “USB” then the
update will start.
Press the “Status” menu, then the submenu of it which is
shown as figure 8.15 will appear on the screen. In this
menu, user can choose to “Save” the current status,
“Load” or “Del” an existing status, or “View” all the existing
status user have ever saved.
8-5
Chapter 8 Other Functions and Settings
Figure 8.17 Update Menu
Note:
Make sure that the charger has been connected well
before update. Otherwise if the battery is exhausted
during the update course, the software of the instrument
may be destroyed and can’t be recovered except sending
the instrument back to us.
8.4.Other Functions:
System Reset: The “RESET” key on the front-panel can
realize the system reset.
8-6
Chapter 9 Appendix
9. Appendix
9.1.Specifications:
Frequency Specifications
Frequency range
Frequency reference
Aging
Stability
Temperature stability
Marker count accuracy
Accuracy
Counter resolution
Frequency span
Range
Resolution
Sweep and trigger
Range
Accuracy
Trigger type
Resolution bandwidths
Range
Bandwidth accuracy
Selectivity (60 dB/3 dB bandwidth ratio)
Video bandwidths
Range
Stability
Phase noise (10 kHz RBW, 100 Hz
VBW, and sample detector)
1 MHz - 1000MHz
-6
±1 x10 /year
-6
±2 x10
-6
±2 x10 (0 - 50)℃
(S/N 25 dB, RBW/span 0.01)
-6
±2 x10 ±1count
1 Hz
0 Hz (zero span), 200Hz - 1000MHz
4 digits
20mS - 250S (Span ≥ 200 Hz)
20µS - 250 S(Span = 0 Hz)
≤±1%
free run, single, video
TV(Option 3)
1KHz - 3 MHz in 1-3-10 sequence
30Hz 100Hz 300Hz(option 2)
<±15%
< 5:1
30Hz - 1 MHz in 1-3-10 sequence
< -110 dBc/Hz @100 kHz offset from CW signal
< -90 dBc/Hz @10 kHz offset from CW signal
Amplitude Specifications
Measurement range
Input attenuator
Range
Step
Internal preamplifier
Frequency range
Gain
Noise figure
Max safe input
Gain compression
Displayed average noise level
(input terminated, 0dB attenuator,30 kHz RBW
100 Hz VBW, sample detector)
Spurious responses
Second harmonic
Third order intermod
Residual responses
(input terminated and 0 dB attenuator)
Display range
Log scale
Linear scale
Scale units
Marker readout resolution
Traces
Displayed average noise level to maximum safe input level
0dB - 55dB
5dB
1MHz – 1000MHz
20dB
4dB
+128dBµV(Peak power /input attenuation>15dB)
100VDC
≤0.5 dB (+98.7dBµV ATT=0 Preamplifier OFF)
≤0.5 dB (+78.7dBµV ATT=0 Preamplifier ON)
typ≤10 dBµV, 1 MHz - 1000MHz with Preamplifier OFF
typ≤-10 dBµV, 1 MHz - 1000MHz with
Preamplifier ON
<-68 dBc for +88.7 dBµV tone at input mixer and Preamplifier
O
<-68 dBc for two +88.7 dBµV tone frequency at
input mixer and≥1MHz separation Preamplifier OFF
≤5dBµV 1MHz - 1000MHz
0.1 to 1dB/Division in 0.1dB step
1 to 40dB/Division in 1dB step
8 divisions
dBm, dBmV, dBµV, mV
0.03 dB for log scale
0.03% of ref level for linear scale
3 traces
9-1
Chapter 9 Appendix
Trace detector
Marker functions
Marker display
Reference level
Level accuracy
Resolution bandwidth switching
uncertainty
Input attenuator switching uncertainty
Sample, Posi-peak, Neg-peak, Normal, Average
peak, next peak, marker to center, marker to ref, etc
normal, delta, Fix marker and frequency counter
-38dBµV - +143dBµV
typ≤±1dB@+20℃
<0.1dB
typ<0.3dB
Inputs/outputs
Front panel
Calibrator output
Frequency
Amplitude
RF INPUT
Input
Input impedance
SWR
USB PORT
USB1.1
Rear panel
VGA OUTPUT
KBD INPUT
LPT
RS232
-6
150 MHz ± 2 x10
88.7dBµV±0.5 dB @ +20℃
BNC or F connector
75Ω/50Ω
typ<1.5 (10MHz – 1000MHz, ATT≥10dB)
TG OUT(Option 5)
Output
Frequency range
Phase noise
Level range
Level accuracy
Level flatness
Harmonic distortion
Non-harmonic distortion
Output impedance:
SWR
BNC connector
1MHz – 1000MHz
<-80dBc/Hz@10KHz
-0dBm – -60dBm
±1dB
±1dB
≤–25dBc
≤–35dBc
75Ω/50Ω
≤2 (5MHz - 1000MHz, ATT≥10dB)
POWER Specifications
Battery type
Charger Type
Charge Time
Operating Time
Rechargeable Li-Ion battery 14.4V / 6Ah
Charger 19V /3.42A
<6 hours
>2.5 hours
Other Specifications
Temperature, Operating
Temperature, Storage
Dimensions (W X H X D)
Weight (with battery)
Display type
Display resolution
0°C - +50°C
-20°C - +55°C
340mm X 160mm X 350mm
9 kg
16cm (6.4 inches) TFT color LCD
640 X 480 pixels
CATV Measurement Specifications (Option 1)
Channel selection
Channel plans
TV channel amplitude range
TV Visual Frequency
Accuracy
Resolution
Visual/Aural Delta Frequency
Accuracy
Resolution
Visual/Aural Delta Amplitude
9-2
Frequency, Channel
Custom plans, NTSC, PAL
20 dBµV - 125 dBµV ±1.0 dB@+20℃ for S/N >30 dB
Carrier Frequency, ±2 x10
1Hz
±200Hz
1Hz
±1dB (S/N >30dB)
Chapter 9 Appendix
FM Deviation
Range
Accuracy
HUM/Low Freq. Disturbances
Modes
Range
Accuracy
Modulation Depth
AM range
Resolution
Accuracy
Signal type
Carrier-to-Composite Noise Ratio
Optimum range
Maximum CCN
Resolution
CSO/CTB
Optimum range
Maximum CTB/CSO
Resolution
Cross modulation
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
In-channel Frequency Response
Range
Resolution
Accuracy
Differential Phase
Accuracy
Differential Gain
Accuracy
Luminance to Chrominance Delay
Accuracy
100KHz
±2 KHz ≤80KHz
±3 KHz ≥80KHz and ≤100KHz
CW or Video (In-Service)
1% - 20%
±0.5% from 1 - 5%
±1% from 5 - 20%
40% - 95%
0.1%
±1.5%(CCN>40dB)
Use VITS line with white reference
92dBµV - 97dBµV with 0 dB Attenuation
and preamplifier OFF
72dBµV - 77dBµV with 0 dB Attenuation
and preamplifier ON
60dB with ±1dB accuracy
65dB with ±3dB accuracy
0.1dB
82dBµV - 87 dBµV with 0dB Attenuation
and preamplifier OFF
62dBµV - 67 dBµV with 0dB Attenuation
and preamplifier ON
63dB with ±1.5dB accuracy and 78 channels
70dB with ±4dB accuracy and 78 channels
0.01dB
60dB
0.1dB
±2.0dB(X/mod<55dB,C/N≥40dB)
±4.5dB(X/mod<60dB,C/N≥40dB)
± 10 dB
0.1 dB
± 0.25 dB
(Option 3)
± 3° maximum
(Option 3)
± 2% maximum
(Option 3)
± 40 nsec maximum
Digital Measurement Specifications (Option 4)
Modulation
Modulation type
Interleave capability
Constellation display
Digital Carrier Average Power Measurement
Amplitude range
Resolution
Absolute accuracy
Measurement range
Bandwidth range
Modulation Error Ratio (MER)
Range
Accuracy
16/32/64/128/256QAM, QPSK ITU-T J.83 Annex A,B&C
Up to 128 x 4 In Annex B,
12 x 17 In Annex A/C
QPSK 16/32/64128/256QAM
Full constellation with zoom capability
30dBµV - 120dBµV
0.01 dB
typ ±1.0 dB@+20℃
1MHz - 1000 MHz
200kHz - 200MHz
22 dB - 40 dB
±0.5 dB
22 - 30 dB
±1.0 dB
30 - 35 dB
±1.8 dB
35 - 40 dB
9-3
Chapter 9 Appendix
Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)
Range
0.65% - 4.1%
1 Second Period Bit Error Rate (BER), Before and After R-S Decoding
Range
1e-9 - 2e-3
Symbol Rate
Range
1 - 7 MS/s
9-4
Chapter 9 Appendix
9.2.Message Index
NO
MESSAGE
#01
Please Input Channel
#02
Please Remove Mod.
#03
Press Measure
To Start
Please Turn Carrier Off
#04
#05
Confirm Channel
Press again to exit
#06
Must in Measure
#07
#09
Input Channel NO
Enter to Continue"
Visual Freq: MHz
Enter to Continue
No Channel Table
#10
Table is Full
#11
Channel Added
#12
Invalid Frequency
#13
Channel Deleted
#14
Invalid Channel
#15
Already Exist
Overwrite Anyway?
Remove RF Input
No Such Plan
#08
#16:
#17
#18
#19
#20
#21
#22
#23
Select Time 1
If measured by manu
——
——
Choose FM First
Turn Mode On
Spectrum Analyzer"
Invalid CBW/CSP
#24
Please Turn Off
Peak Table
#25
Please Turn Off
Mark Table
#26
Please Turn Off
Freq Count
#27
Cannot reach N dB points
#28
Please turn the
Displine ON
Calibrate Failed
#29
#30
#31
#32
#33
#34
#35
Not Enough Space
Please Turn Off
redundant Marker(s)
Turn One Trace
on Write Mode
Data’ll be lost
Continue anyway?
Doesn't Support
USB in this version
No Such a File
BECAUSE
Before channel measuring, you haven’t input a
channel NO or a frequency.
In the case of C/N measurement, after
measuring the carrier level, system requires to
turn off the modulation of the signal.
Confirms you to turn off the signal when
measuring CTB/CSO
Signal’s modulate should be off when measuring
CTB/CSO
When exiting CTB/CSO or C/N measurement,
you’d press “Return” twice. It may clue you on
restore the signal.
Want to turn of the reference line before start
scanning the standard channels
Clue you to input a channel NO.
Clue you to input a carrier frequency
User channel scan without a channel table.
When founding user channel tables by manus,
the number of the channel exceeds the limit.
When add a user channel success
RESOLUTION
Input a channel NO or a frequency.
Turn off the modulate (Message will
not disappear)
Press “Measure”
Turn off the signal’s carrier
Press again to exit,
continue measuring
otherwise,
Press “Measure”
Input a channel NO, and press
Enter.
Input a frequency, and press Enter
Found a user channel table by auto
or manus
Delete inutility channels
___
When add a user channel , the input frequency is
out of range
When delete a user channel success
Input Range:1Mz~1000MHz
When add a user channel, the input channel NO
is out of range.
When add a user channel, the input channel is
already exist.
Base noise calibrate with a RF input
In the case of FCC, use a plan, which doesn’t
exist.
If not measured automatically, select Time1
Channel NO range:1~199
——
——
Changing the FM gain
Change mode into double window mode when
the current mode is not in Spectrum Analyzer.
When measuring CSP, Power or OBW, the
Frequency parameter is not suitable
With the peak table on, trying to do follows:
search the next peak, next peak right, next peak
left, move the peak point to the center or top
position; press normal menu.
When mark table is on, trying to do following
things: turn on the frequency counter, normal
mark, delta mark, fixed mark; push the mark to
the center, to the top position; search a peak.
When the frequency counter is on, trying to do
the following things: turn on the delta mark, fixed
mark, multi marks; push the mark to the center,
to the top position.
No peak points on the screen or the peak point is
on the edge of the screen.
Turn on the instant function with the reference
off.
Frequency or amplitude calibration
Not enough space to save pictures
When delta mark, fixed mark or multi marks is
on, trying to turn the mark noise on.
Turn on NdB or Instants function when there is
no trace in write mode
Want to restore to the manufacture
Want to update by the USB, but this version
doesn’t support it.
Transmit or delete a file not exist
___
Press Enter to overwrite, ESC to
cancel
Remove the RF input
Found the plan
Select Time 1
——
——
Change the modulate mode from
AM to FM
Press Mode and then press
Spectrum Analyzer
Try to reduce the CBW or CSP.
Turn off the peak table
Turn off the mark table
Turn off the frequency the frequency
couter.
Modify the center frequency, enlarge
the span or minish the RBW
Turn on the reference line
Confirm the calibrate line
connected.
Delete inutility pictures.
Turn off the reluctant marks
is
Press trace and turn at least on trace
in “write”
If you press yes, all bmp files, user
channels etc. will be lost
_______
Save a picture
9-5
Chapter 9 Appendix
NO
#36
#37
#38
#39
#40
#41
#42
MESSAGE
Translate Failed
Confirm Port
Not Connected
No Paper
Printer is Busy
Select a Printer
Input a Name:
Enter To Continue
Input a Time:
By Press Digital Key
BECAUSE
RESOLUTION
When transmit BMP files can’t connect to the
host
Doesn’t connect to a printer; the printer is not
open, doesn’t support this printer
No paper
Printer is Busy
Haven’t choose a printer
When save a BMP file, input a filename (number)
Confirm the connection and the
baud rate
Confirm the connection;
Confirm the model.
Add some paper
Wait for a while
Press config -> Print/Save -> Print
Input a number, maximum 8 digitals
When time display is on and you choose time
button.
If you want to change the current
time, just press the digital key to
continue.
_______
#43
Calibrate Finish
#44
Please Turn Off Double Window
#45
Please Input 0-9
#46
Please shut down And restart
#47
Please augment RBW
#48
Test unfinished
#49
Please Exit Aux Measure.
#50
Turn Off FM
#51
Turn Off TV Trig
#52
Option not Installed
#53
Please turn off Gate
#54
#55
Already Exist
Overwrite Anyway?
Please Select File(s) First
#56
Really del the flie(s)
Try to delete or transmit file(s) before selecting
them.
Prompt user to confirm
#57
Really Trans the flie(s)
Prompt user to confirm
#58
The limit line frequency setting is illogicality.
#59
Stop FREQ must
Greater than start
Low Battery
#60
#61
Doesn't support USB Devices
No USB devices detected
#62
#63
UpDate File is half-baked
Copy Finished
#64
#65
--Count is closed
#66
Can't trig a line
#67
#68
Turn Off HFC
Can't do FCC measure now
#69
Turn ON TG.
#70
Turn Log ON
#71
Turn Gate ON
#72
Can't delete an active plan
#73
Please use Unfreeze mode
#74
Can't delete the last channel
9-6
After the frequency, amplitude or base noise
calibrate is success finished.
Try to turn on the volume , mark table , peak
table in double window mode;
While saving the file, the file name should be
positive integer.
After update, you should shut down the power
and restart DS8821 again.
Set the count “On” while RBW is smaller than
3kHz
View last statistic result while last statistic is
never finished
Change the parameters while system is in
channel power measure state.
Change the parameters while system is in FM
demodulation state.
Change the parameters while system is in TV-H
trigger state.
Use the functions that need options support.
While measure CSO/CTB in “Gate” “On” state,
press “Next/Last Chan” soft-key.
The file has existed while saving the file.
The electrical voltage is insufficient while user try
to update the software.
Some DS8821 don’t support USB devices.
Before transmitting data to USB disk, the USB
disk must be connect well.
The update file is insufficient.
The file copy from DS8821 to USB disk is
finished.
--The count will automatically change to “Off” while
user set the RBW to smaller than 3kHz.
Can’t find line synchronization signal. Perhaps
the signal is too weak.
In HFC mode user can’t open peak table.
Can’t do FCC measure in scan channel menu.
The tracking generator is closed when
performing the tracking generator’s power
calculation and normalization
When performing the power normalization of the
tracking generator, the analyzer should in the log
mod
In CCN and CSO/CTB measurement, changing
the “View” softkey to “Vid” should firstly setting
the “Gate” to “On”.
In “Channel Table”, user can’t delete the active
plan
In QAM equalizer display, the frequency
response and Group delay only can be refreshed
when equalizer in “Unfreeze” mode.
When there is only one channel in the selected
Press “WINDOW”, and then select”
Window Off ”
Input number 0-9.
Shut down the power
Change RBW to larger than 1kHz
View after finish at least one statistic.
Exit the channel power measure
state.
Turn the demodulation to AM.
Change the trigger to free run mode.
Connect to us and purchase the
options.
Set the gate to “Off”.
Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel.
Select file(s) firstly.
Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel.
Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel.
Set the start frequency smaller than
stop frequency.
Plug in the charger.
It is inextricable.
Plug the USB disk and reset the
system.
Connect to us for update.
User can go on to do other
measures.
--Don’t change the RBW to smaller
than 3kHz if you need the count
“On”.
Decrease the attenuator value.
Change to normal spectrum mode.
Return to normal mode and set the
time again.
Set the tracking generator to “On”.
Change the “Scal” state in the
amplitude menu to “Log”.
Set the “Gate” to “On”.
Activate another plan, then delete
this plan
Set the equalizer to Unfreeze mode
to see the frequency response and
group delay
Delete the selected channel table
Chapter 9 Appendix
NO
MESSAGE
#75
No item
#76
No channel
#77
Channel already Exist
#78
Delete channel anyway?
BECAUSE
channel table, user can’t delete it.
System measure is selected, but there is no test
item in the active TV plan is set to “enable”.
The input channel number doesn’t exist in the
active TV plan
The input channel number has existed, when
user edit the channel number.
Delete an selected channel
RESOLUTION
Edit the active TV plan. Set the
wanted items to enable.
Input another existed channel or edit
the TV plan to add the needed
channel
Input another channel number.
Press “ENTER” to confirm the
“Delete” or press “ESC” to cancel
the command
9-7