M57x Bitronics Compact IED ref: M57x_EN_M_E

M57x (M571, M572) Manual
M57x
Bitronics Compact IED
Publication Reference:
M57x/EN/M/E © 2011. ALSTOM, the ALSTOM logo and any alternative version thereof are trademarks and service marks of ALSTOM. The other names mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies. The technical and other data contained in this document is provided for information only. Neither ALSTOM, its officers or employees accept responsibility for, or should be taken as making any representation or warranty (whether express or implied), as to the accuracy or completeness of such data or the achievement of any projected performance criteria where these are indicated. ALSTOM reserves the right to revise or change this data at any time without further notice. M57x/EN/M/E
GRID User Manual
M57x
M57x/EN M/E
Page 1
CONTENTS
1. DESCRIPTION & SPECIFICATIONS
13 1.1 Introduction
13 1.2 Features
13 1.3 Specifications
13 1.3.1 Definitions:
19 1.4 Digital I/O (optional)
19 1.4.1 Inputs
19 1.4.2 Outputs
19 1.5 Standards and Certifications
20 1.5.1 Revenue
20 1.5.2 Environment
20 2. PHYSICAL CONSTRUCTION & MOUNTING
2.1 Installation
25 2.2 Initial Inspection
25 2.3 Protective Ground/Earth Connections
25 2.4 Overcurrent Protection
25 2.5 Supply/Mains Disconnect
25 2.6 Instrument Mounting
25 2.7 Cleaning
25 3. FRONT PANEL & WIRING
3.1 Auxiliary Power
26 3.1.1 Specifications
26 3.2 VT Inputs (See Appendix A1)
26 3.3 CT Inputs (See Appendix A1)
26 3.4 Serial Ports (See section 4.2)
26 3.5 Digital Inputs/Outputs (optional)
27 3.6 Ethernet (Optional)
27 3.6.1 Indicators
28 4. OPERATION
4.1 Display Port (P1)
29 4.2 Standard Serial Ports (P2, P3)
30 4.2.1 RS485 Connections
30 4.3 Diagnostic Status LED’s (S1, S2, S3)
32 4.4 Digital I/O (optional)
37 4.4.1 Debounce Time Setting
37 22 26 29 M57x/EN M/E
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5. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
38 5.1 Passwords
38 5.2 Configuration
38 5.3 Triggering
39 5.3.1 Threshold Trigger
40 5.3.2 Digital Input Trigger
41 5.3.3 Edge and Level Triggers
41 5.3.4 Manual Trigger
41 5.3.5 Logical Combinations of Triggers
41 5.3.6 Cross Triggering Multiple 70 Series Units (Inter-triggering)
42 5.3.7 Fault Distance Triggers
42 5.3.8 Periodic Triggers
42 5.4 Recording
44 5.4.1 Waveform Recorder
44 5.4.2 Disturbance Recorders
46 5.4.3 Trend Recorder
47 5.4.4 Comtrade Format
47 5.4.5 IEEE Long File Naming Convention
48 5.4.6 Voltage Fluctuation Table (VFT) File
49 5.4.7 Sequence Of Events (SOE) File
51 5.5 M57x File System
51 5.5.1 FTP Server
51 5.5.2 ZMODEM, TELNET and Command Line Interface
52 5.6 Assigning Pulse Outputs to Energy Values
53 5.7 IRIG-B
53 5.7.1 Overview
53 5.7.2 Introduction to IRIG Standards
54 5.7.3 M57x IRIG-B Implementation
55 5.7.4 Determining the Correct Year
56 5.7.5 Methods of Automatic Clock Adjustments
56 5.7.6 Types of M57x Clock Synchronization
56 5.7.7 Stages of IRIG-B Synchronization and Accuracy
57 5.7.8 Notes on Operation
58 5.7.9 IRIG-B Electrical Specifications
58 5.7.10 IRIG-B Port Wiring Instructions (Pulse Width Coded, IRIG-B master, Demodulated)
58 5.7.11 IRIG-B Port Wiring Instructions Modulated IRIG-B Option
58 5.8 Time Sync & Setting
59 5.8.1 Time Sync Status Registers
59 5.8.2 Manual time setting by Command-Line instruction
59 5.8.3 Unsolicited DNP Time set (DNP master sets the IED clock)
60 5.8.4 IRIG-B Time sync (time-synchronization via dedicated IED port)
60 5.8.5 5.8.5 (UCA) Network Time Synchronization - time synchronization over Ethernet
60 User Manual
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5.8.6 SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol) - time synchronization over Ethernet
60 5.8.7 DNP Time sync (slave requesting DNP time be set)
60 5.9 Using the M57x with a Analog Output Converter
60 5.10 Automatic Event Notification
61 5.10.1 Email Notifications
61 5.10.2 Serial Notifications
61 5.10.3 Data Sent
61 5.10.4 Error Recovery
61 5.10.5 Example
62 5.10.6 Control Characters
62 6. MEASUREMENTS
6.1 Changing Transformer Ratios
63 6.1.1 User (External Transformer) Gain and Phase Correction
63 6.2 Current (1/4-Cycle Update)
63 6.2.1 Residual Current (1/4-Cycle Update)
63 6.3 Voltage Channels (1/4-Cycle Update)
64 6.4 Power Factor (1-Cycle Update)
64 6.5 Watts / Volt-Amperes (VAs) / VARs (1-Cycle Update)
64 6.5.1 Geometric VA Calculations
65 6.5.2 Arithmetic VA Calculations
65 6.5.3 Equivalent VA Calculations
65 6.6 Energy (1-Cycle Update)
65 6.7 Frequency (1-Cycle Update)
66 6.8 Demand Measurements (1-Second Update)
67 6.8.1 Ampere and Fundamental Ampere Demand
67 6.8.2 Volt Demand
67 6.8.3 Power Demands (Total Watts, VARs, and VAs)
68 6.8.4 Voltage THD Demand
68 6.8.5 Current TDD Demand
68 6.8.6 Demand Resets
68 6.8.7 Demand Interval
68 6.9 Harmonic Measurements (1-Cycle Update)
68 6.9.1 Voltage Distortion (THD) (1-Cycle Update)
69 6.9.2 Current Distortion (THD and TDD) (1-Cycle Update)
69 6.9.3 Fundamental Current (1-Cycle Update)
70 6.9.4 Fundamental Voltage (1-Cycle Update)
70 6.9.5 Fundamental Watts / Volt-Amperes (VAs) / VARs (1-Cycle Update)
70 6.9.6 K-Factor (1-Cycle Update)
70 6.9.7 Displacement Power Factor (1-Cycle Update)
70 6.9.8 Phase Angle (1-Cycle Update)
70 6.9.9 Resistance, Reactance, Impedance (1-Cycle Update)
71 6.9.10 Slip Frequency (1-Cycle Update)
71 63 M57x/EN M/E
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6.9.11 Individual Phase Harmonic Magnitudes and Phase Angles (1-Cycle Update)
71 6.10 Temperature (1-Second Update)
71 6.11 Symmetrical Components (1-Cycle Update)
71 6.12 Supply Voltage and Current Unbalance (1-Cycle Update)
71 6.13 Flicker
72 6.14 Fault Analysis
72 6.14.1 Line Parameters
72 6.14.2 Peak Current
72 6.14.3 Status Indication and Reset
72 6.14.4 SOELOG Output
73 6.14.5 Protocol Output
73 6.15 List of Available Measurements & Settings
74 6.16 Calibration
77 6.17 Instantaneous Measurement Principles
78 6.17.1 Sampling Rate and System Frequency
78 7. TRANSDUCER INPUT OPTION
79 7.1 Introduction
79 7.2 Features
80 7.3 Specifications
80 7.4 Physical
81 7.5 System Design Considerations
81 7.5.1 Input Type Jumper Settings
81 7.5.2 Transducer Input Scaling Configuration
82 7.5.3 Setting the Data Update Rate (Poll rate) for P40 Transducer Inputs
83 8. APPENDIX A1
8.1 CT/VT Connection Diagrams
9. APPENDIX A2
9.1 ETHERNET TROUBLESHOOTING
10. APPENDIX A3
10.1 SETTING DIGITAL I/O JUMPERS
92 10.1.1 Health Status Digital Output Setting (Optional assignment of Digital Output 1)
93 11. APPENDIX A4 - CROSS TRIGGERING
11.1 Cross-Triggering
94 11.2 Example 1. Discrete Digital I/O:
95 11.2.1 Wiring:
95 11.2.2 Configuration:
95 11.3 Example 2. Ethernet, using GOOSE:
98 11.3.1 Connection:
98 84 84 91 91 92 94 User Manual
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11.3.2 Configuration:
98 11.4 Example 3. Ethernet, using GSSE:
104 11.4.1 Connection:
104 11.4.2 Configuration:
104 M57x/EN M/E
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M57x
FIRMWARE VERSION
The following table provides the most recent firmware and software versions. For best
results, the Configurator version used should match with the firmware version. A complete
list of firmware and software versions is provided on the 70 Series Utilities CD.
NOTE: Host firmware version 3.01 and higher requires 70 Series IEDs with 64 MB SDRAM.
Do not attempt to upgrade older 70 Series IEDs with insufficient memory to v3.01 (or higher).
Firmware Versions
Description
Mx7x Family
Mx7x Product Release,
New Hardware supported
Dual Bus, Analog I/O
Mx7x Updated Release
Mx7x Updated Release
Mx7x Updated Release
Mx7x Product Release, Fault
Location, Adjustable Sample
Rate
Mx7x Product Release; Add
Demand per phase for Watts
,VAr, & VA. Configurator &
Biview improvements w/
modems. Change to Digital
I/O default watchdog contact
(Configurator setup; not
firmware dependent).
Support new version of
hardware on P3x, P4x
modules.
Mx7x Product Release:
Added 1mHz accuracy on
M87x. Improved poll rate from
500ms to 100ms for a single
P40 transducer inputs module
(M87x). Fault distance
configuration is changed.
Time sync with respect to
DNP master is changed from
the DNP master jamming the
time to asking the master
what time to jam. Increased
waveform recording limit from
999 post trigger for longer
recording.
Mx7x Product Release,
IEC61850 & SNTP; Avg 3-Ph
Amps and Avg 3-Ph Volts
Bios
Version
DSP
Firmware
Host
Config Utilities
Firmware urator
CD
2.1/3.0*
2.1/3.0*
2.1/3.0*
2.1/3.0*
1.21
"
1.24
1.24
2.05
2.06
2.12
2.15
2.31
2.32
2.39
2.41
2.43
2.44
2.50
2.52
03/24/06
04/14/06
10/06/06
12/18/06
3.40
1.30
2.17
2.43
2.56
12/21/07
3.40
1.30
2.18
3.00A
2.57
10/17/08
3.40
1.31
2.19
3.02
2.58
09/30/09
3.40
1.30
3.01.0
3.01
3.01
Release
Date
1/30/09
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Firmware Versions
Bios
Description
Version
Mx7x Product Release:
Added 1mHz accuracy on
M87x. Improved poll rate from
500ms to 100ms for a single
P40 transducer inputs module
(M87x). Fault distance
configuration is changed.
Time sync with respect to
DNP master is changed from
the DNP master jamming the
time to asking the master
what time to jam. Increased
waveform recording limit from
999 post trigger for longer
3.40
recording.
DSP
Firmware
Host
Config Utilities
Firmware urator
CD
Release
Date
1.30
3.02.0
3.02
3.02
09/30/09
3.40
1.30
3.04
3.04
3.04
10/15/10
M57x Product Release:
Added support for dual peak
current input range M572
(S56, S57), IEEE C37.232
naming convention, periodic
triggering, and 4 IEC 61850
buffered reports.
3,40
1.32
3.05
3.05
3.05
2/28/2011
M57x Product Release:
Increased pre and post trigger
times for DR recorders,
modified base memory to
1MB
3.40
1.32
3.07
3.07
3.07
11/11/2011
Mx7x Product Release:
Added virtual I/O to DR.
Added Peak Fault Current
Measurement. Improved
password security. Added
support for control characters
for SMS.
* H10/H11
M57x MANUAL SET
M57x User Manual
70 SERIES IEC61850® Protocol Manual
70 SERIES Modbus Protocol
70 SERIES DNP3 Protocol
M870D Remote Display Manual
M570D Remote Display Manual
M57x/EN M/E
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M57x
CERTIFICATION
Alstom Grid certifies that the calibration of our products is based on measurements using
equipment whose calibration is traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards
Technology (NIST).
INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE
Alstom Grid products are designed for ease of installation and maintenance. As with any
product of this nature, installation and maintenance can present electrical hazards and
should be performed only by properly trained and qualified personnel. If the equipment is
used in a manner not specified by Alstom Grid, the protection provided by the equipment
may be impaired.
In order to maintain UL recognition, the following Conditions of Acceptability shall apply:
a)
Terminals and connectors that shall be connected to live voltages are restricted to nonfield wiring applications only.
b)
After installation, all hazardous live parts shall be protected from contact by personnel
or enclosed in a suitable enclosure.
ASSISTANCE
For assistance, contact Alstom Grid Worldwide Contact Centre:
http://www.alstom.com/grid/contactcentre/
Tel: +44 (0) 1785 250 070
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Page 9
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
This manual is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The distribution and sale of this
manual is intended for the use of the original purchaser or his agents. This document may
not, in whole or part, be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated or reduced to any
electronic medium or machine-readable form without prior consent of Alstom Grid, except for
use by the original purchaser.
This manual incorporates information protected by copyright and owned by
Bitronics LLC, 261 Brodhead Road, Bethlehem, PA 18017.
Copyright © 2011 Bitronics, LLC. All rights reserved.
The product described by this manual contains hardware and software that is protected by
copyrights owned by one or more of the following entities:
Bitronics LLC, 261 Brodhead Road, Bethlehem, PA 18017;
VentureCom, Inc., Five Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142;
SISCO, Inc., 6605 192 Mile Road, Sterling Heights, MI 48314-1408;
General Software, Inc., Box 2571, Redmond, WA 98073;
Schneider Automation, Inc., One High Street, North Andover, MA 01845;
Triangle MicroWorks, Inc., 2213 Middlefield Court, Raleigh, NC 27615
Greenleaf Software Inc., Brandywine Place, Suite 100, 710 East Park Blvd, Plano, TX 75074
TRADEMARKS
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of Alstom Grid:
Alstom Grid
the Alstom Grid logo
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of Bitronics LLC:
The Bitronics logo
Bitronics
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of the DNP User's Group:
DNP
DNP3
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of the Electric Power Research
Institute (EPRI):
UCA
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of Schneider Automation, Inc.:
MODSOFT
PLC
Modicon
Modbus Plus
Modbus
Compact 984
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of VentureCom, Inc.:
Phar Lap
the Phar Lap logo
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of Systems Integration Specialists
Company, Inc. (SISCO):
SISCO
MMS-EASE Lite
AX-S4MMS
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of General Software, Inc.:
General Software
DOS
the GS logo
EMBEDDED BIOS
Embedded
The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of the PCI Industrial Computer
Manufacturers Group:
CompactPCI
PICMG the CompactPCI logo
the PICMG logo
M57x/EN M/E
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M57x
SAFETY SECTION
This Safety Section should be read before commencing any work on the equipment.
Health and safety
The information in the Safety Section of the product documentation is intended to ensure
that products are properly installed and handled in order to maintain them in a safe condition.
It is assumed that everyone who will be associated with the equipment will be familiar with
the contents of the Safety Section.
Explanation of symbols and labels
The meaning of symbols and labels that may be used on the equipment or in the product
documentation is given below.
Installing, Commissioning and Servicing
Equipment connections
Personnel undertaking installation, commissioning or servicing work on this equipment
should be aware of the correct working procedures to ensure safety. The product
documentation should be consulted before installing, commissioning or servicing the
equipment.
Terminals exposed during installation, commissioning and maintenance may present a
hazardous voltage unless the equipment is electrically isolated.
If there is unlocked access to the equipment, care should be taken by all personnel to avoid
electric shock or energy hazards.
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Voltage and current connections should be made using insulated crimp terminations to
ensure that terminal block insulation requirements are maintained for safety. To ensure that
wires are correctly terminated, the correct crimp terminal and tool for the wire size should be
used.
Before energizing the equipment, it must be grounded (earthed) using the protective ground
(earth) terminal, or the appropriate termination of the supply plug in the case of plug
connected equipment. Omitting or disconnecting the equipment ground (earth) may cause a
safety hazard.
The recommended minimum ground (earth) wire size is 2.5 mm2 (#12 AWG), unless
otherwise stated in the technical data section of the product documentation.
Before energizing the equipment, the following should be checked:
1.
Voltage rating and polarity
2.
CT circuit rating and integrity of connections
3.
Protective fuse rating
4.
Integrity of ground (earth) connection (where applicable)
5.
Equipment operating conditions
The equipment should be operated within the specified electrical and environmental limits.
Current transformer circuits
Do not open the secondary circuit of a live CT since the high voltage produced may be lethal
to personnel and could damage insulation.
Battery replacement
Where internal batteries are fitted, they should be replaced with the recommended type and
be installed with the correct polarity, to avoid possible damage to the equipment. Internal
battery is 3v lithium coin cell, Panasonic BR2330.
The battery supplies uninterruptible power to the real-time clock when the device is not
powered normally. There are no other loads on the battery but the clock. When the unit is
operating, the auxiliary power supply sources the clock, leaving the battery unloaded through
the majority of its useable life except for brief intervals when the device is powered down
(shipping, storage, etc.)
Maximum expected life is dictated by the manufacturer’s advertised shelf life, about 10 years
which is typical for Lithium batteries in this class. The minimum expected life is determined
by the rated capacity of 255mAh, which can be expected to carry the full load of the clock if
the unit remains unpowered for about three years or more.
If the auxiliary power to the device should be interrupted after the battery has fully
discharged, the time and date settings will initially be lost when the power is restored.
However, if the device’s clock is normally synchronized by an external source such as IRIGB, the correct time and date will be restored by the first IRIG update following the power
interruption. There are no other adverse effects resulting from eventual loss of the battery’s
charge.
There is no automatic provision to indicate the health of the battery. The status can be
determined by cycling the power to the device then checking to determine if the clock has
lost its time and date settings. Measuring the voltage of the battery, although effective, is not
generally considered practical since it also requires powering the device down in order to
gain access to the battery, thus providing no advantage over the recommended method.
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M57x
Insulation and dielectric strength testing
Insulation testing may leave capacitors charged up to a hazardous voltage. At the end of
each part of the test, the voltage should be gradually reduced to zero, to discharge
capacitors, before the test leads are disconnected.
Fibre optic communication
Where fibre optic communication devices are fitted, these should not be viewed directly.
Optical power meters should be used to determine the operation or signal level of the device.
WARNING: Emissions - Class A Device (EN55011)
This is a Class A industrial device. Operation of this device in a residential area may
cause harmful interference, which may require the user to take adequate measures.
Decommissioning and Disposal
1.
Decommissioning
The auxiliary supply circuit in the equipment may include capacitors across the supply or to
ground (earth). To avoid electric shock or energy hazards, after completely isolating the
supplies to the relay (both poles of any dc supply), the capacitors should be safely
discharged via the external terminals before decommissioning.
2.
Disposal
It is recommended that incineration and disposal to watercourses is avoided. The product
should be disposed of in a safe manner. Any products containing batteries should have
them removed before disposal, taking precautions to avoid short circuits. Particular
regulations within the country of operation may apply to the disposal of lithium batteries.
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Page 13
1.
DESCRIPTION & SPECIFICATIONS
1.1
Introduction
The M57x IEDs combines the most accurate and dependable measurement system with
utility-proven innovations in data reporting. The M57x IEDs are based upon the M871, which
has quickly become a benchmark for measurement and control performance. The M57x
IEDs were designed to provide the measurement and data power of an M871 in an
economically priced package for applications not requiring the full functionality of the M871.
1.2
1.3
Features
•
Extensive measurement set including two sets of voltages and currents with
corresponding power and energy on some models
•
Simultaneous support of multiple protocols over multiple physical links
•
Two completely independent Disturbance Recorders
•
Two separate Waveform Recorders
•
Trend Recorder
•
Sequence of Event log
•
Voltage Fluctuation Table to use for sag and swell reporting
•
Two options for analogue inputs, 8 voltages with 3 currents or 8 voltages with 6
currents
•
Two current ranges linear to 20A or linear to 100A
•
128 samples per cycle, 16 bit sampling.
•
32-bit floating point DSP, capable of 180 MFLOPS (Million Floating Point Operations
per Second). A 128-point complex Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is performed in
less than 50 microseconds.
•
486-class Host processor.
•
Watchdog timer maximizes system reliability.
•
3 Configurable serial ports - Two RS232/RS485 ports and an RJ11 Display/RS232
port.
•
Rugged all-aluminium housing.
•
Optional - 4 Digital Inputs and 4 Digital outputs.
•
Optional - Ethernet 10/100 BASE-TX. Also may be ordered with either 10 BASE-FL
or 100 BASE-FX fibre optic port as part of the Ethernet option.
Specifications
Power Supply Input Voltage
Nominal:
Operating Range:
Burden:
24-250Vdc, 69-240Vac (50/60Hz)
21-300Vdc, 55-275Vac (45-65Hz)
46VA max, 17W max
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M57x
Input Signals
CT Current Inputs Configuration
(S51) M571
Nominal
4 Inputs. 3 Phase Currents
5Aac
Peak Current
Linear to 20A symmetrical (28A peak) at all rated temperatures
Overload
30Aac continuous. Withstands 400Aac for 2 seconds
Isolation
2500Vac, minimum
Burden
0.04VA @ 5A rms, 60Hz (0.0016ohms @ 60Hz)
Frequency
15-70Hz
CT Current Inputs Configuration
(S50) M571
Nominal
4 Inputs. 3 Phase Currents.
5Aac
Peak Current
Linear to 100A symmetrical (141A peak) at all rated temperatures.
Overload
30Aac continuous. Withstands 400Aac for 2 seconds.
Isolation
2500Vac, minimum.
Burden
0.04VA @ 5A rms, 60Hz (0.0016ohms @ 60Hz).
Frequency
40-70Hz
CT Current Inputs Configuration
(S53) M572
Nominal
6 Inputs. 3 Phase Currents from 2 Lines.
5Aac
Peak Current
Linear to 100A symmetrical (141A peak) at all rated temperatures.
Overload
30Aac continuous. Withstands 400Aac for 2 seconds.
Isolation
2500Vac, minimum.
Burden
0.04VA @ 5A rms, 60Hz (0.0016ohms @ 60Hz).
Frequency
15-70Hz
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Input Signals
CT Current Inputs Configuration
(S54) M572
Nominal
5Aac
Peak Current
Linear to 20A symmetrical (28A peak) at all rated temperatures.
Overload
30Aac continuous. Withstands 400Aac for 2 seconds.
Isolation
2500Vac, minimum.
Burden
0.04VA @ 5A rms, 60Hz (0.0016ohms @ 60Hz).
Frequency
40-70Hz
CT Current Inputs Configuration
(S56) M572 with
Nominal
dual peak ranges
20A/100A
Peak Current
6 Inputs. 3 Phase Currents from 2 Lines with different peak current ranges.
5Aac
Linear to 20A symmetrical (28A peak)/linear to 100A symmetrical (141A peak) at all rated temperatures.
Overload
30Aac continuous. Withstands 400Aac for 2 seconds.
Isolation
2500Vac, minimum.
Burden
0.04VA @ 5A rms, 60Hz (0.0016ohms @ 60Hz).
Frequency
15-70Hz
CT Current Inputs Configuration
(S57) M572 with
Nominal
dual peak ranges
4A/20A
Peak Current
VT (PT) Voltage
Inputs
6 Inputs. 3 Phase Currents from 2 Lines.
6 Inputs. 3 Phase Currents from 2 Lines with different peak current ranges.
1Aac
Linear to 4A symmetrical (5.7A peak)/linear to 20A symmetrical (28A peak at all rated temperatures.
Overload
30Aac continuous. Withstands 400Aac for 2 seconds.
Isolation
2500Vac, minimum.
Burden
0.04VA @ 5A rms, 60Hz (0.0016ohms @ 60Hz).
Frequency
15-70Hz
Configuration
8 Inputs, Measures 2 Buses, 3 or 4 Wire.
Nominal
120Vac
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M57x
Input Signals
System Voltage
Intended for use on nominal system voltages up to 480V rms, phase-to-phase (277V rms, phase-to-neutral).
Peak Voltage
Reads to 600V peak (425V rms), input-to-case (ground)
Impedance
>7.5Mohms, input-to-case (ground)
Voltage Withstand
5kV rms 1min, input-to-case (ground)
2kV rms 1min, input-to-input
Frequency
15-70Hz
Sampling System
Sample Rate
128 samples per cycle
Data Update Rate
Amps, Volts
Available every ¼ cycle
Watts, VAs, VARs, PF
Available every cycle
Number of Bits
16
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Accuracy
Accuracies are specified at nominal Frequency and 25C, (unless otherwise noted). Unless noted, all values are true RMS and include Harmonics to the
63rd (minimum). See also Revenue Accuracy Standards (1.5.1).
Voltage
AC: Better than 0.1% of reading (20 to 425V rms, input-to-case)
Current (S51, S54, S56 bus 1, S57 Better than 0.1% of reading +/- 100uA (0.5A to 20.0A, -10C to 70C)
bus 2)
Better than 0.1% of reading +/- 250uA (0.05A to 0.5A)
Current (S50, S53, S56 bus 2)
Better than 0.1% of reading +/- 500uA (0.5A to 100.0A, -10C to 70C)
Better than 0.1% of reading +/- 1mA (0.05A to 0.5A)
Current (S57 bus 1)
Better than 0.1% of reading +/- 20uA (0.1A to 4.0A)
Better than 0.1% of reading +/- 50uA (0.01A to 0.1A)
Frequency
+/- 0.01 Hertz
Phase Angle (Volt-to-Volt)
+/- 0.2 Deg (-40C to 70C)
Phase Angle (Volt-to-Amp)
+/- 0.2 Deg (-10C to 70C)
Power
Better than 0.2% of reading (>20% of nominal inputs, 1PF to 0.7PF, -10C to 70C) (VARS are fundamental only)
Communication Ports
Display P1
Display or RS232 service port
Baud rate: 9600 – 38.4 kbps
Serial P2 & P3
RS232, RS485 or IRIG-B, Software configurable ports
(IRIG-B specifications: See section 5.7.9)
Baud rate: 9600 to 115.2 kbps
Ethernet (optional) Single port; copper 10/100 Base-TX;, or, fibre 10Base-FL, or fibre 100Base-FX as ordered
M57x/EN M/E
User Manual
Page 18
M57x
Environmental
Operating Temperature
-40C to 70C
Relative Humidity
0-95% non-condensing
Installation Category
IC III (Distribution Level) Refer to definitions below
Pollution Degree
Pollution Degree 2 Refer to definitions below
Enclosure Protection
IP20 to IEC60529:1989
Altitude
Up to and including 2000m above sea level
Intended Use
Indoor use; Indoor/Outdoor use when mounted in an appropriately rated protective enclosure to NEMA or IP protection classifications,
as required for the installation
Class 1 equipment to IEC61140: 1997
Physical
Connections
Current (CT)
10-32 Studs for current inputs. Recommended Torque: 12 In-Lbs, 1.36 N-m
Voltage (VT)
Terminal Block accepts #22-10 AWG (0.35 to 5mm2) wire, or terminal lugs up to 0.375" (9.53mm) wide. Precautions
must be taken to prevent shorting of lugs at the terminal block.
&
Optional
Connections
Weight (typical)
(AUX PWR)
A minimum distance of 1/8" (3mm) is recommended between uninsulated lugs to maintain insulation requirements.
Recommended Torque: 9 In-Lbs, 1.02 N-m
Display (Serial)
Port P1
RJ11, 6 position modular jack; 50 ft , 15 m for RS232; 4000ft (1200m) for RS485
RJ11 to DB9 adapter used to connect as RS232 service port
Serial Ports
P2 & P3
6 position removable terminal blocks, accepts 26-14AWG solid or 26-12 AWG stranded wire. Recommended Torque 7
in-lbs, 0.79 N-m.
Digital I/O
Status Inputs & Relay Outputs:
6 position removable terminal blocks, accepts 26-14AWG solid or 26-12 AWG stranded wire. Recommended Torque 7
in-lbs, 0.79 N-m.
Ethernet
RJ45, 8 position modular jack, Category 5 for copper connection; 100m (328 ft.) STP (Shielded twisted pair ) cable.
ST connectors 62/125 um glass fiber; 2000m (6500 ft.), (412 m or 1350 ft. for 100Mb half duplex)
3.92 lbs (1.78 kg)
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
1.3.1
Page 19
Definitions:
Installation Category (Overvoltage Category) III: Distribution Level, fixed installation, with
smaller transient overvoltages than those at the primary supply level, overhead lines, cable
systems, etc.
Pollution: Any degree of foreign matter, solid, liquid, or gaseous that can result in a
reduction of electric strength or surface resistivity of the insulation.
Pollution Degree 2: Only non-conductive pollution occurs except that occasionally a
temporary conductivity caused by condensation is to be expected.
1.4
Digital I/O (optional)
1.4.1
Inputs
4 uni-directional inputs, including 1 isolated input. Input terminals have internal 510V clamp.
Channels 1-3 share a common return, however channel 4 has an independent return. The
recommended torque ratings for the terminal block wire fasteners are listed in the Physical
Specifications table (section 1.3).
Voltage Range:
Input Range:
Threshold Voltage:
Input Resistance:
0 to 250Vdc
18V dc +/-1V (at 25C)
33kohm
Input Channel-to-Channel Time Resolution:
1.4.2
200µs (maximum)
Outputs
4 outputs, 1 isolated, jumper selectable for Normally Closed (NC) or Normally Open (NO)
operation and for energized or de-energized condition. Output terminals have internal 510V
clamp. Channels 1-3 share a common return; however channel 4 has an independent
return. The recommended torque ratings for the terminal block wire fasteners are listed in the
Physical Specifications table (section 1.3).
Output Maximum Switched Current (Resistive)
Voltage
Tripping (C37.90
Resistive)
Continuous Carry
Break (Inductive)
24Vdc
30A
5A
8A
48Vdc
30A
5A
700mA
125Vdc
30A
5A
200mA
250Vdc
30A
5A
100mA
Input De-bounce Time: Selectable, from 30us to 1s.
Output Operate Time (time from command by Host, does not include protocol delays)
Assert (Close time with "N.O." jumper):
Release (Open time with "N.O." jumper):
Input Delay Time (from terminals):
8ms
3ms
<100µs
Indicator LEDs
Inputs:
Outputs:
Green, on when input voltage exceeds threshold.
Amber, on when relay coil is energized.
Isolation
I/O Terminals to Case:
I/O Channel to Channel:
2000Vac, 1min
2000Vac, 1min (channel 4 to other channels)
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Page 20
1.5
Standards and Certifications
1.5.1
Revenue
The M57x IEDs exceeds the accuracy requirements of ANSI C12.20 and IEC 60687. The
accuracy class of the instrument to each standard is determined by the Signal Input Type.
Type
Nominal Current
Certification
S50, S53, S56 bus 2
5A
ANSI C12.20, 0.5CA
IEC 60687, 0,5S
S51, S54, S56 bus 1,
5A
ANSI C12.20, 0.2CA
IEC 60687, 0,2S
1A
S57 bus 2
ANSI C12.20 0.5CA
IEC 60687, 0,5S
S57 bus 1
1A
ANSI C12.20, 0.2CA
IEC 60687, 0,2S
The M57x IEDs were tested for compliance with the accuracy portions of the standards only.
The form factor of the M57x IEDs differs from the physical construction of revenue meters
specified by the ANSI/IEC standards and no attempt has been made to comply with the
standards in whole. Revenue accuracy requires firmware version 1.270 or higher. Contact
customer service for more information.
1.5.2
Environment
UL/CSA Recognized, File Number E164178
UL61010-1, 2nd edition (July 12, 2004;
CAN/ CSA No. 61010-1-04 (2nd edition, dated July 12, 2004)
European Community Directive on EMC 2004/108/EC
European Community Directive on Low Voltage 2006/95/EC
Product and Generic Standards
The following generic standards were used to establish conformity:
EN 61326-1: 2006, EN 60255-26: 2006, EN 61000-6-2: 2005, EN 61000-6-4: 2007
EN 61010-1: 2001
Radiated Emissions Electric Field Strength
EN 60255-25: 2000/ EN 55011: 2007/ A2: 2007
Group 1, Class A
Frequency: 30 - 1000 MHz
AC Powerline Conducted Emissions
EN 60255-25: 2000/ EN 55011: 2007/ A2: 2007
Group 1, Class A
Frequency: 150 kHz – 30 MHz
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
EN61000-4-2: 1995/ A1: 1998 / A2: 2001
Discharge voltage: ± 8 KV Air; ± 4 KV Contact (Additionally meets ± 6kv Contact)
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Page 21
Immunity to Radiated Electromagnetic Energy (Radio Frequency)
EN 61000-4-3: 2006/ A1: 2008, Class III (supersedes EN61000-4-3: 1996/ A1: 1998/ A2:
2001 and ENV 50204: 1996, on Immunity to Radiated Electromagnetic Energy – Digital
Radio Telephones 900 MHz & 1890 MHz)
Frequency: 80 – 1000 MHz, Amplitude: 10.0 V/m, Modulation: 80% AM @ 1 kHz
Frequency: 1400 – 2000 MHz, Amplitude: 3.0 V/m, Modulation: 80% AM @ 1 kHz
Frequency: 2000 – 2700 MHz Amplitude: 1.0 V/m Modulation: 80% AM @ 1 kHz
Electrical Fast Transient / Burst Immunity
EN 61000-4-4: 2004 (supersedes EN 61000-4-4: 1995/ A1: 2001 /A2: 2001)
Burst Frequency: 5 kHz
Amplitude, AC Power Port ± 2 KV, Additionally meets ± 4 KV (Severity Level 4)
Amplitude, Signal Port: ± 1 KV, Additionally meets ± 2 KV (Severity Level 3)
Current/Voltage Surge Immunity
EN 61000-4-5: 2006 (supersedes EN 61000-4-5: 1995/ A1: 2001)
Open Circuit Voltage: 1.2 / 50 μs
Short Circuit Current: 8 / 20 μs
Amplitude, AC Power Port: 2 KV common mode, 1 KV differential mode
Amplitude, I/O Signal Port: 1 KV common mode; Additionally meets 2KV common mode
Immunity to Conducted Disturbances Induced by Radio Frequency Fields
EN 61000-4-6: 2007 (supersedes 1996/ A1: 2001)
Level: 3
Frequency: 150 kHz – 80 MHz
Amplitude: 10 V rms
Modulation: 80% AM @ 1 kHz
AC Supply Voltage Dips and Short Interruptions
EN 61000-4-11: 2004 (supersedes EN 61000-4-11: 1994/ A1: 2001)
Surge Withstand Capability Test For Protective Relays and Relay Systems
ANSI/IEEE C37.90.1: 2002
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
2.
Page 22
PHYSICAL CONSTRUCTION & MOUNTING
The M57x IEDs are packaged in a rugged aluminium housing specifically designed to meet
the harsh conditions found in utility and industrial applications.
The Front panel view and connector locations for all M57x versions are shown in Figure 1.
The mechanical dimensions are shown in Figure 2.
FIGURE 1A: M571 20A AND 100A FRONT VIEW
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Page 23
FIGURE 1B - FRONT VIEW M572
Maintain 1-3/4" (44) minimum clearance top and bottom
5.9" (150)
2.025"
(51)
4.350" (110)
5.2" (132)
8.5" (216)
4.000" (102)
8.00" (203)
M0152ENa
FIGURE 2A: MOUNTING AND OVERALL DIMENSIONS (M571 20A VERSION)
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M57x
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FIGURE 2B - MOUNTING AND OVERALL DIMENSIONS (M572/M571 100A VERSION)
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M57x/EN M/E
M57x
2.1
Page 25
Installation
WARNING 2.2
INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE SHOULD ONLY BE PERFORMED
BY PROPERLY TRAINED OR QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
Initial Inspection
Alstom Grid instruments are carefully checked and "burned in" at the factory before
shipment. Damage can occur however, so please check the instrument for shipping damage
as it is unpacked. Notify Alstom immediately if any damage has occurred, and save any
damaged shipping containers.
2.3
Protective Ground/Earth Connections
The device must be connected to Protected Earth Ground. The minimum Protective Ground
wire size is 2.5 mm2 (#12 AWG). Alstom Grid recommends that all grounding be performed
in accordance with ANSI/IEEE C57.13.3-1983.
2.4
Overcurrent Protection
To maintain the safety features of this product, a 3 Ampere time delay (T) fuse must be
connected in series with the ungrounded/non-earthed (hot) side of the supply input prior to
installation. The fuse must carry a voltage rating appropriate for the power system on which
it is to be used. A 3 Ampere slow blow UL Listed fuse in an appropriate fuse holder should
be used in order to maintain any UL product approval.
2.5
Supply/Mains Disconnect
Equipment shall be provided with a Supply/Mains Disconnect that can be actuated by the
operator and simultaneously open both sides of the mains input line. The Disconnect should
be UL Recognized in order to maintain any UL product approval. The Disconnect should
be acceptable for the application and adequately rated for the equipment.
2.6
Instrument Mounting
The instrument may be mounted on a 19" Rack panel if desired. Two M571 20A units will fit
side by side on a standard 5.25" high (3U) panel. See Figure 2 for dimensions. The unit
should be mounted with four #10-32 (M4) screws. Make sure that any paint or other
coatings on the panel do not prevent electrical contact.
2.7
Cleaning
Cleaning the exterior of the instrument shall be limited to the wiping of the instrument using a
soft damp cloth applicator with cleaning agents that are not alcohol based, and are
nonflammable and non-explosive.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
3.
Page 26
FRONT PANEL & WIRING
The M571 20A view is shown below. The M572 has identical wiring for voltages, power
supply, serial ports and digital inputs and outputs. It has an additional set of 3-phase
currents (see Appendix A1 for detailed wiring diagrams and section 2.0 for other front panel
views).
FIGURE 3 – FRONT PANEL VIEW M571 20A
3.1
Auxiliary Power
The M57x IEDs is powered by connections to L1(+) and L2(-).
3.1.1
Specifications
Input (Auxiliary) Voltage
3.2
Nominal:
24-250Vdc, 69-240Vac (50/60Hz)
Operating Range:
21-300Vdc, 55-275Vac (45-65Hz)
VT Inputs
(See Appendix A1)
The M57x IEDs are capable of monitoring two voltage buses, designated as Bus 1
(Terminals 3-6) and Bus 2 (Terminals 7-10). Voltage signals are measured using a
7.5Mohm resistor divider with a continuous voltage rating of 7kV. This ideal impedance
provides a low burden load for the VT circuits supplying the signals. Grounding of VT & CT
signals per ANSI/IEEE C57.13.3-1983 is recommended. The polarity of the applied signals
is important to the function of the instrument.
3.3
CT Inputs (See Appendix A1)
Current inputs are made to terminals (11-16 for M571 and 11-16 and 41-46 for M572). The
current input terminal block features 10-32 terminals to assure reliable connections. This
results in a robust current input with negligible burden to ensure that the user’s external CT
circuit can never open-circuit, even under extreme fault conditions. The instrument can be
connected directly to a current transformer (CT). Grounding of CT signals per ANSI/IEEE
C57.13.3-1983 is required.
3.4
Serial Ports (See section 4.2)
The M57x IEDs are equipped with three completely independent serial ports. The Display
port (P1) is an RJ11 connection that can be used to connect a 70 series display or used as a
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M57x/EN M/E
Page 27
service port. P2 and P3 are software (user) configurable for RS-232. RS-485 or IRIG B
mode. The RS-232 drivers support full and half duplex modes. See Figures 3-5 for signal
assignments. Section 5.7.10 indicates wiring instructions for IRIG-B connections.
3.5
Digital Inputs/Outputs (optional)
Connection to the 4 digital input ports is made to terminals (35-40). The digital outputs are
accessed via connection to terminals (29-34).
To change the output states for the relay
outputs, refer to Appendix A3.
The high speed Digital I/O section features 3 inputs that share a common return and 1 fully
isolated input. The 4 outputs consist of 3 outputs sharing a common return and 1 fully
isolated output. Digital Input transition times are time-stamped. Outputs can be turned on or
off based on commands received over communication links or by internal states generated
by energy pulses, recorders, etc.
3.6
Ethernet (Optional)
The M57x IED Ethernet options meet or exceeds all requirements of ANSI/IEEE Std 802.3
(IEC 8802-3:2000) and additionally meet the requirements of the EPRI Substation LAN Utility
Initiative "Statement of Work" version 0.7. The device also meets the requirements of IEC
61850, parts 3 and 8-1. These documents define an interface designed to inter-operate with
other devices with little user interaction ("Plug-and-Play").
M57x instruments are offered with three Ethernet options. The first features a 10/100
Megabit (Mb) RJ45 (copper) interface (10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX) which automatically
selects the most appropriate operating conditions via auto-negotiation. Option 2 has the
features of the copper-only option plus a 10 Mb fibre-optic port (10BASE-FL) operating at
820 nm (near infra-red) using ST connectors. The final option offers the features of the first,
plus a 100 Mb fibre-optic port (100BASE-FX) operating at 1300 nm (far infra-red) using ST
connectors. All interfaces are capable of operating either as half-duplex (compatible with all
Ethernet infrastructures) or full-duplex interfaces (which allow a potential doubling of network
traffic). Note that only one port may be connected to a network at one time.
This product contains fibre optic transmitters that meet Class I Laser Safety requirements in
accordance with the US FDA/CDRH and international IEC-825 standards.
The 70 Series IEDs come preconfigured for TCP/IP interface with an IP address, a SUBNET
mask, and a ROUTER (GATEWAY) address. They also have a preconfigured NSAP
address for an OSI network. It is very important that the network have no duplicate IP or
NSAP addresses. Configuration of these addresses may be accomplished by using UCA, by
using the 70 Series Configurator, or via a front panel serial port using a terminal emulator
TM
TM
such as HyperTerminal or ProComm . Please refer to sections 4.1 and 5.5.2 that provide
additional information and commands for changing these addresses.
If using the IEC61850 protocol the IP address may be configured from either the 70 Series
Configurator software or from the IEC61850 IED Configurator software. A user radio button
selection is provided on the 70 Series Configurator Identity page, giving a user the flexibility
to decide which software tool will control the IP address configuration setting, which is
loaded upon reboot. IP address configuration settings will be stored in either the INI file or
MCL file. The INI files are loaded by the 70 Series Configurator and the MCL file is loaded
by the IEC61850 IED Configurator.
The units are pre-configured for TCP/IP with an IP address/subnet mask/gateway address
of:
192.168.0.254 / 255.255.255.0 / 192.168.0.1
and for OSI with an NSAP of:
49 00 01 42 49 09 01 01
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The 70 Series IEDs use the following port numbers for each type of protocol:
DNP
FTP (recommend passive mode)
Modbus
MMS (UCA & 61850)
SMTP (electronic mail)
SNTP (network time sync)
Telnet
3.6.1
20000 (TCP, UDP)
20, 21 (TCP)
502 (TCP)
102 (TCP)
25 (TCP)
123 (UDP)
23 (TCP)
Indicators
The Ethernet interface has 2 LEDs for use by users. The "LNK" LED indicates a link with an
Ethernet network. The "ACT" LED indicates network activity (send/receive).
A troubleshooting guide is found in Appendix A2.
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Page 29
4.
OPERATION
4.1
Display Port (P1)
The Display Port can be used to connect to a PC running a terminal emulation program.
Upon startup, the M57x default configuration sets P1 for 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1
stop bit and no flow control handshaking. A small number of messages are sent to P1 and
the M57x then outputs system messages. Enter the command mode by pressing the
ENTER key until the system outputs a prompting message. Allowable commands are listed
below.
Display Port\ZMODEM Commands
c:
dir
reboot
status
cd
exit
receive
time
chp1
getlog
reset
type
chp2
Goose*
router
trigger dr1
d:
ip
send
trigger dr2
date
mac
serial
trigger wv
del
nsap
setlog
ver
dio point
password
subnet
whoami
display on
pulse
software
vio point
display off
Note: *This command is for UCA Goose only and is now referred to as GSSE.
Type “help <command>” to find out more about a particular command. The more commonly
used commands are:
ip - Set Internet Protocol (IP) address information in "dotted decimal" format.
address defaults to "192.168.0.254".
The IP
subnet – Set the Subnet mask. The Subnet mask defaults to "255.255.255.0".
router – Set the Gateway (Router) address. The Gateway (Router) address defaults to
"192.168.0.1".
nsap - Set the OSI network address (NSAP) in "space delimited octet string" format. The
default address is "49 00 01 42 49 09 01 01" which is a local address not attached to the
global OSI network.
The correct value for your network should be obtained from the network administrator. The
default values are valid for a device that is attached to a local intranet with optional access
via a router (such as a device within a substation).
time - Set the time as 24-hour UTC time. Time is entered as HH:MM:SS. The factory
default is set to GMT.
date – Set the date. Date is entered as MM/DD/YYYY.
serial - Display M57x serial number.
exit - Exit command line mode and return to logging mode. If no commands are received for
five minutes the device will revert to logging mode.
Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS) clamp devices are used on the Display P1 port as the
method of protection. The Display P1 port signal lines are clamped to a voltage of 33V max
(24V nominal) rated for a peak pulse current of 12A min. The Display P1 port DC output
voltage is clamped to a voltage of 15V nominal, 24V max. The clamp across the DC output
voltage is rated for a peak pulse current of 24.6A max.
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M57x/EN M/E
M57x
4.2
Page 30
Standard Serial Ports (P2, P3)
These ports can be set to RS-232 or RS-485, and support baud rates up to 115200. Set-up
of the Serial Ports can be accomplished by using the 70 Series Configurator. The default
configuration for the serial ports is:
Serial Port Default Settings
Port
Protocol
Parity
Baud
IED Address
Physical Media
P1
ZMODEM/Display/Log
None
9600
P2
DNP 3.0
None
9600
1
RS-232
P3
Modbus
Even
9600
1
RS-232
RS-232
The configuration of these ports is stored internally in the "COMM.INI" file (Section 5.2). If
for any reason the configuration of the serial ports is erroneously set, the factory default
settings can be restored by using FTP. The file "COMM.INI" can be deleted, which will
return all ports to the factory default setting. The settings can then be changed by using the
70 Series Configurator.
Serial cable requirements for RS485 connection (Ports P2 and P3):
Tie RS-485 cable shields (pin 18 and pin 24) to earth ground at one point in system.
The recommended torque ratings for the terminal block wire fasteners (ports P2, P3) are
listed in the Physical Specifications table (section 1.3).
Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS) clamp devices are used on the serial ports, P2 and P3,
as the method of protection. The serial ports (P2, P3) are clamped to a voltage of 24V
nominal, 33V max. The clamps are rated for a peak pulse current of 12A min.
4.2.1
RS485 Connections
Note that various protocols and services have different port connection requirements. When
making connections to serial ports for Modbus or DNP3 over RS485, 2-wire half duplex is
required. This is because it is necessary to maintain a minimum time period (3 1/3
characters) from the time the transmitter shuts off to the next message on the bus in order to
guarantee reliable communications. However, when using Zmodem or connecting to the
remote display, asynchronous 2 way communications are required, and therefore a 4-wire
full duplex (technically RS422) connection is needed. See figure 6 for RS485 cable wiring
diagrams showing both 2 and 4 wire.
There are special considerations for multi-drop Zmodem connections. Zmodem protocol
was developed for RS232 point-to-point connections so it does not support any standard
convention for addressing. Therefore, it does not facilitate multi-drop communications
buses. In order to make it possible to use one modem to establish remote communications
with multiple 70 Series devices when the Ethernet option (preferred) is not fitted, the
following proprietary convention is employed.
When using HyperTerminal or a dial-up modem with RS485, the port on the IED must be
configured for "Zmodem" protocol, not for "Zmodem/Display/Log". This is done with the pulldown menu in the Configurator program, see illustration below. Selecting Zmodem also
enables an address to be set for the selected COM port. When daisy-chaining multiple
devices on RS485, each device must have a unique address.
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Type the command "connect 01" (use the actual address assigned) to establish
communications with the device in Zmodem protocol using RS485. This command will not
be echoed back as you type it. After striking the enter key, the device will return a command
prompt (for example c:\>, e:\data>, c:\config>, etc.) Once communications are established,
you can now use the command-line interface, exactly as you would with a direct RS232
connection, to control the device (services supported by Zmodem protocol include: download
recording files, control digital outputs, reset demands, set time and date, etc.). In order to
disconnect from one device and connect to another on the same bus, type the command
"exit" to end the session then type “connect 02” (or whatever address you want to connect
to).
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M57x
4.3
Page 32
Diagnostic Status LED’s (S1, S2, S3)
There are three LED’s on the front panel: S1, S2, and S3. They perform the following
functions:
LED
Description
S1
On while flash memory is being written to, otherwise off.
S2
Flashes every 5 power-line cycles, indicates DSP operating properly.
S3
On while CPU is busy. Intensity indicates CPU utilization level.
M57x - RS-232 & IRIG-B Cable Connection
RS-232C M57x to PC DB9F
M57x HOST
SERIAL PORTS
P2, P3
TXD
RXD
RTS
CTS
SHLD
GND
22, 28
21, 27
20, 26
19, 25
18, 24
17, 23
DB9 FEMALE
connected to
PC
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
DSR
DCD
RTS
CTS
RI
2
3
5
4
6
1
7
8
9
RS-232C M57x to PC DB25F
M57x HOST
SERIAL PORTS
P2, P3
TXD
RXD
RTS
CTS
SHLD
GND
22, 28
21, 27
20, 26
19, 25
18, 24
17, 23
RS-232C M57x to Modem DB25M
M57x HOST
SERIAL PORTS
P2, P3
TXD
RXD
RTS
CTS
SHLD
GND
22, 28
21, 27
20, 26
19, 25
18, 24
17, 23
DB25 MALE
connected to
Modem
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
DSR
DCD
RTS
CTS
RI
DB25 FEMALE
connected to
PC
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
DSR
DCD
RTS
CTS
RI
3
2
7
20
6
8
4
5
9
M57x to IRIG-B
M57x HOST
PORTS
P2, P3
2
3
7
20
6
8
4
5
9
SIGNAL
IRIG-B
(Demodulated)
22, 28
21, 27
20, 26
19, 25
18, 24
17, 23
The cable should be Belden 9842 or equivalent.
The maximum cable length for RS-232 is 50 ft (15m).
FIGURE 4: TYPICAL RS-232 & IRIG-B CABLE WIRING
IRIG-B Signal
IRIG-B Common
M0153ENa
User Manual
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M57x
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M57x RS-232 Adapter Cable Connections
Adapter - M57x RJ11 (P1) to DB9 female
RJ-11
connected to
M57x P1
TXD
RXD
GND
+15V
CTS
RTS
3
4
5
2
6
1
DB9F
PORT
(to PC)
RXD
TXD
GND
DSR
RTS
CTS
2
3
5
6
7
8
Part no. : Areva T&D M570-RJ11DB9F
Parts List:
Newark Electronics kit Part No. 50F9354 or Unicom Electric Part No. DEM-25F, Connector Housing kit
Digi-Key H1662-07ND, 7 ft. 6 conductor RJ11 modular flat cable.
For RS232 Serial Port connection, the P1 port or the M57x and the PC must be set to matching baud rate and parity.
A straight through cable is required between the DB9 connector of the Adapter cable and the PC COM port.
Pin Designations for RJ11
1
6
RJ11 Socket
6
1
RJ11 Plug
FIGURE 5: DISPLAY P1 ADAPTER CABLE - RJ11 TO DB9
M0154ENa
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FIGURE 6: TYPICAL RS-485 CABLE WIRING
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M870D RS-232 Cable Connections
M870D Rear Port to M57x RJ11 (P1)
RJ-11
connected to
M57x P1
RXD
TXD
RTS
CTS
3
4
6
1
GND
15V
2
5
M870D DB9F Front Port to PC DB9M
DISPLAY
REAR
PORT
TXD
RXD
RTS
CTS
SHLD
GND
DB9 FEMALE
connected to PC
SERIAL PORT
9
8
7
6
5
4
NC
6 conductor RJ11 flat cable - RTS & CTS are required
for file downloads when connecting a PC thru the
M870D Front port. Otherwise, 4 conductor
RJ11 flat cable will suffice for display operation.
M870D Rear Port to M57x Serial Ports
M57x
SERIAL PORTS
P2, P3
RXD
TXD
RTS
CTS
SHLD
GND
21, 27
22, 28
20, 26
19, 25
18, 24
17, 23
2
3
5
4
6
1
7
8
9
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
2
3
5
4
The RS232 Front (Service) port can be connected using
a PC COM port to download files from an M57x to a PC.
M870D DB9F Front Port to PC DB25M
DISPLAY
REAR
PORT
TXD
RXD
RTS
CTS
SHLD
GND
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
DSR
DCD
RTS
CTS
RI
DB9 MALE
connected to
FRONT PORT
DB25 FEMALE
connected to PC
SERIAL PORT
9
8
7
6
5
4
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
DSR
DCD
RTS
CTS
RI
DB9 MALE
connected to
FRONT PORT
3
2
7
20
6
8
4
5
9
RXD
TXD
GND
DTR
2
3
5
4
The RS232 Front (Service) port can be connected using
a PC COM port to download files from an M57x to a PC.
The rear port of the M870D Display and the port of the M57x must be set to RS-232,
matching Baud rates and parity, and Display protocol.
The cable should be Belden 9842 or equivalent, unless otherwise specified.
The maximum cable length for RS-232 is 50 ft (15m).
M0156ENa
FIGURE 7A: M870D RS-232 CABLE WIRING DIAGRAM
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FIGURE 7B: M870D RS-232 CABLE WIRING DIAGRAM
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M57x
4.4
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Digital I/O (optional)
The high speed Digital I/O section features 3 inputs that share a common return and 1 fully
isolated input. The 4 outputs consist of 3 outputs sharing a common return and 1 fully
isolated output. Digital Input transition times are time-stamped. Outputs can be turned on or
off based on commands received over communication links or by internal states generated
by energy pulses, recorders, etc.
The M57x circuitry reads the state of the digital inputs every time it samples the analogue
inputs, and the sample rate of the digital inputs is tied to the frequency of the analogue
inputs. The Waveform and Disturbance Recorders may be configured to record the status of
the digital inputs.
Consult the appropriate Protocol manual for information on reading the digital inputs or
setting the digital outputs.
4.4.1
Debounce Time Setting
The Digital Inputs can be filtered to compensate for “chattering” relays, etc. The debounce
time may be set using the 70 Series Configurator software or via the various protocols. An
input transition is not recognized until the input remains in the new state for a time longer
than the debounce time. Values between 30 μs and 1 second are acceptable.
An event triggered from the digital inputs will be subject to the debounce time setting for the
digital input.
Digital input traces in the Waveform and Disturbance files are the
instantaneous status of the inputs, and DO NOT reflect any debounce time settings. If a
long debounce time is set, it is possible to see an event on the digital input that does not
cause a trigger.
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5.
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
5.1
Passwords
The M57x IEDs utilise the standard Alstom Grid password scheme. There are three different
access levels:
Level 0: This access level provides read-only access to all settings and data, thus preventing
modification of information that affects system security. The factory default password for
level 0 is 'AAAA'; this is the same as entering no password.
Level 1: This access level includes the read access of level 0. In addition, the user is
permitted to delete recorder files, and reset energy and demand values. The factory default
password for level 1 is 'AAAA'; this is the same as entering no password.
Level 2: This access level includes all lower level functionality. The user is also granted full
read/write/delete access on all files in the M57x, including the configuration files. The factory
default password for level 2 is 'AAAA'; this is the same as entering no password.
NOTE:
5.2
The factory default is to allow level 2 access with no password. For
the password scheme to take affect, the user must change the
passwords with the 70 Series Configurator.
Configuration
Setup of the M57x IEDs is most easily performed using the 70 Series Configurator. This
software runs on a PC and allows the PC to communicate to the M57x using a serial port or
Ethernet connection. The M57x configuration is stored internally by means of several
configuration files, located in the M57x "c:\CONFIG\" directory. Most of these are ASCII text
files, and may be saved, copied, and deleted by any of the various methods of file
manipulation, such as FTP, ZMODEM, and the 70 Series Configurator.
If using IEC61850 protocol, the configuration of the IP and SNTP addresses will be
determined based upon a selection the user makes by way of the radio button selections
found on the 70 Series Configurator Identity page. The radio buttons provide the user with
the flexibility to decide which software tool will control the IP and SNTP address
configuration settings. Configuration settings are loaded upon reboot from either the
Initialization (INI) files or the Micom Configuration Language (MCL) files, depending upon the
radio button selected during configuration. The IP and SNTP addresses will be loaded either
from the respective address settings stored in the INI file by the 70 Series Configurator or
from the address settings stored in the MCL file by the IEC61850 IED Configurator.
Addresses written into the MCL file will be written back into the INI file when the unit reboots.
It is only possible to synchronize the addresses by reading the address information written
into the MCL file back into the INI file upon reboot. (The IP and SNTP Addresses are
rewritten to the INI file though the 70Series Configurator upon reboot since the IEC61850
IED Configurator does not have the ability to rewrite information once the configuration is
written to the MCL file). There is a mechanism to automatically synchronize these
addresses upon rebooting the M57x, so that the current IP address for the M57x will be
updated on the 70 Series Configurator Identity page. For the case when the radio button is
selected as “IEC61850 IED Configurator (MCL file)” the IP networking information will appear
in grey indicating the IEC61850 IED Configurator is the active tool. Only the 70 Series
Configurator allows the user to select which configurator tool loads the IP and SNTP
addresses.
The configuration files are stored in the M57x directory c:\Config. The 70 Series
Configurator will generate the IED Capability Description (ICD) file and automatically store it
on the M57x in directory c:\Config. If using IEC61850 protocol 2 additional files, an MCL file
and an MC2 file, will be generated by the IEC61850 IED Configurator and will be stored on
the M57x in the c:\Config directory. The MCL files are the Micom Configuration Language
files and contain the information pertaining to the IEC61850 Configuration. The MCL file is
stored as the active bank and contains the IEC61850 configuration and the MC2 file
becomes the inactive bank, containing the previous IEC61850 configuration.
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Filename
Directory
Description
COMM.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains serial port information.
DEMANDS.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains demand intervals.
DIO.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains Digital I/O data, i.e. the Digital I/O debounce time.
c:\CONFIG\
Contains setup information for communicating with a remote
display
DNP.BIN
c:\CONFIG\
Contains DNP configurable register information
DR1.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains setup information for Disturbance Recorder 1
DR2.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains setup information for Disturbance Recorder 2
c:\CONFIG\
Contains CT/VT ratios, user gains and phase, harmonic
denominators, and VA calculation types.
c:\CONFIG\
Contains Identity info, i.e. device name of M57x, IP address,
NSAP address.
c:\CONFIG\
Contains Modbus configurable register information
c:\CONFIG\
Contains Modbus, Modbus Plus, and DNP protocol setup
information.
SBO.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains UCA2.0 Select Before Operate parameters
SCALEFAC.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains integer-to-floating point scale factor info for UCA.
TR1.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains setup information for TR1 recorder.
VIO.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains Virtual Input/Output setting information.
WR1.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains Waveform Recorder 1 Configurator parameters
WR2.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains Waveform Recorder 2 Configurator parameters
TRIGGER.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains all trigger configuration info
MEASUSER.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains user defined measurement names
VFT.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains Voltage Fluctuation Table configuration
COM.BIN
c:\PERSIST\
Password file
HARDWARE.INI
c:\CONFIG\
Contains configured hardware info
SYS_CNFG.INI
c:\PERSIST\
Contains hardware found by unit
DISPLAY.BIN
DSP.INI
IDENTITY.INI
MODBUS.BIN
PROTOCOL.INI
There are also several ".BIN" files in the "c:\CONFIG\" directory which contain information on
the protocol register configuration for Modbus, Modbus Plus and DNP. These files are
written by the 70 Series Configurator and are not editable by the user.
AFTER WRITING THE CONFIGURATION FILES, THE M57X MUST BE RESTARTED
(REBOOTED) BEFORE THE NEW CONFIGURATION WILL TAKE EFFECT.
5.3
Triggering
Triggers can be configured in the 70 Series to initiate several different actions:
Waveform Recorders
Disturbance Recorders
Digital Outputs
Virtual Outputs
SOE Entries
Resetting of various measurements (Demands, Energy, etc.)
Up to 120 triggers can be specified, of the following types:
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5.3.1
Page 40
Threshold Trigger
Any measurement can be used to trigger a Waveform Recorder or Disturbance Recorder, or
create an entry in the SOE log. Configuring multiple triggers will cause a logical "OR" to be
applied to the list of triggers. The trigger thresholds are defined by the 70 Series
Configurator. The user specifies the measurement to use, the threshold value, the arithmetic
function of the trigger, and the hysteresis value.
If the measurement is an analog value (such as volts or amperes), the user may choose to
trigger on values greater than or less than the threshold. Additionally, the user may choose
a rate-of-change trigger greater than, less than, or equal to the threshold value. Rate-ofchange intervals are calculated over the interval since the measurement was last updated.
5.3.1.1
Trigger Hysteresis
Hysteresis is used to prevent chattering of contacts or unintended repeat-triggering of
recorders when a measurement fluctuates near the value where the action is intended to
occur. Refer to the Hysteresis column on the Recorder Triggers page of the 70 Series
Configurator program (below). The hysteresis setting is used to make the trigger occur and
re-initialized at different values. In the example below, since 60.3 Hz - 0.1 = 60.2 Hz, the
action takes place when frequency exceeds 60.3 Hz and re-initializes below 60.2 Hz. When
hysteresis is set to zero (default) the action triggers and resets at the same value.
CONFIGURATION OF HYSTERESIS SETTINGS
For example: Suppose an alarm contact is intended to close when the frequency exceeds
60.3 Hz. Frequency is generally regulated very tightly about 60 Hz, so except for the
significant transients that the setting is intended to capture, it would not be unusual for the
frequency to dwell for a prolonged time near 60.3 Hz, fluctuating by only an insignificant
amount but crossing the threshold many times (see illustration below, on the right half of the
trace). To eliminate this chatter, the user might configure the hysteresis to be 0.1 Hz, as
shown above. Then if the frequency were to rise from normal to the high frequency alarm
range as illustrated below, the contact will close exactly as it passes 60.3 and it will remain
closed until the frequency decreases below 60.2, when the contact opens.
The hysteresis function operates symmetrically when used with measurements that trigger
below a threshold. So for Event 2 shown in the 70 Series Configurator screen above, a
trigger would occur when the frequency drops below 59.7 Hz, and reset above 59.8 Hz.
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FIGURE 10:
ILLUSTRATION OF TRIGGER AND RESET (OR OPERATE AND RELEASE) WHEN
USING HYSTERESIS
Hysteresis may be used to constrain chatter in any of the Actions listed on the Recorder
Triggers page (i.e. recorders, contacts, GOOSE messages, SOE Log entries, etc.) It may
also be combined with a setting in the “Min Duration (ms)” column to prevent triggering on
short-duration transients when a trigger might only be desired in connection with steadystate events; tap-changing for voltage control for example.
5.3.2
Digital Input Trigger
A waveform or disturbance record or an SOE log entry can be triggered by using any of the
digital inputs on the Digital Input/Output Module (Section 4.4). Any or all of the digital inputs
can be used to trigger a record. Each input can be independently set to trigger on a state
transition. Assigning the digital inputs to initiate a record MUST be performed by using the
70 Series Configurator.
An event triggered from the digital inputs will be subject to the debounce time setting for the
digital input. Digital input traces in the Waveform Recorder files are the instantaneous status
of the inputs, and do not reflect any debounce time settings. If a long debounce time is set, it
is possible to see an event on the digital input that does not cause a trigger.
5.3.3
Edge and Level Triggers
The user can select between Edge and Level Triggers.
An Edge trigger exists for only an instant in time. The time before the trigger is defined the
Pre-trigger period, and the time after the trigger is the Post-trigger period.
A Level trigger has duration in time. The trigger is valid as long as the trigger condition is
met. The time before the trigger is still defined the Pre-trigger period, but the Post-trigger
period does not begin until after the trigger condition is no longer valid.
5.3.4
Manual Trigger
Refer to the appropriate protocol manual for information. Manual Triggers may also be
activated through BiView using Telnet, Zmodem, or under Modbus or DNP3 protocols
(depending on what register set/ point list is chosen). When a manual trigger is initiated, it
bypasses the standard trigger setup, and directly initiates the action specified by that
command.
5.3.5
Logical Combinations of Triggers
Triggers can be logically combined in groups to perform actions. Each trigger is assigned to
the same Virtual Output in the Configurator, and the type of logic function (AND or OR) is
selected. That Virtual Output is then configured as a new trigger, with the appropriate action
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assigned. If "No Logic" is selected, then only one trigger can be assigned to a particular
Virtual Output.
5.3.6
Cross Triggering Multiple 70 Series Units (Inter-triggering)
Under certain circumstances, it is advantageous that a 70 Series device that captures a
record, also functions in a capacity to send out a pre-determined trigger condition. That
trigger condition, which is based on values measured by the instrument, can be used for the
purpose of cross triggering (also referred to as inter-triggering) other 70 Series devices.
Cross triggering is an essential requirement for synchronizing the equipment in a substation,
where it is necessary that multiple instruments sense the occurrence of particular conditions
There are a number of ways to accomplish cross triggering across 70 Series devices. The
cross triggering mechanism can be accomplished by way of a physical interconnection using
Digital I/O, or by way of virtual messaging, which is communicated over an Ethernet network
connection. Refer to Appendix A for examples of setting up cross triggering through either
Digital I/O connections, GSSE messaging [through UCA], or GOOSE messaging [through
IEC61850].
The Digital I/O option is necessary to set up cross triggering using a Digital I/O
interconnection method. An Ethernet option is necessary in order to set up either GSSE
messaging [through UCA] or GOOSE messaging [through IEC61850].
Units may both send and receive cross triggers from and to multiple other units.
5.3.7
Fault Distance Triggers
Fault distance calculations are initiated as an action from the configurable Triggers. For a
chosen trigger, select the Fault Distance checkbox, and then the associated phase from the
dropdown box. A simple limit trigger such as RMS Amps A 1 > 2000 can be set to calculate
an A1 fault. Similarly, the Digital Inputs can be used to drive the calculations when
connected to the outputs of a protection device. More complex conditions can be specified
with the use of logic functions. For example:
Here, the first three conditions are logically “anded” together to drive Virtual Output 2. VO2,
in turn, is configured to initiate a fault distance calculation on B1. Line to line fault distances
are calculated when more than one of the A1, B1, C1 events are triggered.
5.3.8
Periodic Triggers
Four independent periodic triggers are available that can be used to initiate all of the actions
listed in section 5.3 above. The timers for these triggers are configured to individually set the
period and start time for each trigger on the Timers page of the 70 Series Configurator as
shown below:
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The period can be set in increments of minutes up to a maximum of 24 hours. Likewise, the
time of day for the timer to start can be specified in increments of one minute.
Note that if the number of minutes in a day is not evenly divisible by the configured period,
then the start time has little impact except at boot up. For example, if the period is
configured for 7hrs and the start time is 0430hrs then the first day after the device starts the
timer will activate at 0430hrs, 1130hrs, 1930hrs. And then on the second day, it will activate
at 0230hrs, 0930hrs, 1630hrs, 2330hrs., etc.
The activation status of the timers is available as a binary point in the list of 'Measurements
to Trigger On' in the Recorder Triggers page (see screen below). The point will transition
from 0 to 1 at the timers scheduled activation. It will hold at 1 briefly and then return to 0.
These 'Periodic Trigger' points can then be used to trigger any of the actions selected.
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Recording
The M57x has five different methods of recording data. High-speed samples of the input
signal are captured and stored by the two Waveform Recorders, slower-speed measurement
data is stored by the two Disturbance Recorders, long-term load-profile data is stored by the
Trend Recorder, and a voltage fluctuation table (VFT) and a sequence of event (SOE) log
can be created as well.
The Waveform Recorders save the actual samples from the input channels, as well as from
the Digital I/O modules. The two Disturbance Recorders log values at a user configurable
rate of 1-3600 cycles. The Trend Recorder logs values at a user configurable rate of 1
minute -12 hours. The VFT file records voltage values when pre-selected thresholds are
passed, and the SOE file creates a summary of events in the order they occur.
The Waveform and Disturbance records and the VFT and SOE files are created based on
event conditions. Unlike these other recorders, the trend recorder is not based on triggered
conditions but instead runs constantly when selected to record.
5.4.1
Waveform Recorder
A waveform record can be triggered by a measurement exceeding an upper or lower
threshold, by a manual protocol command, or by a digital or virtual input channel changing
state. When a trigger condition is met, a record is created that contains samples from the
input channels. The waveform record normally contains 20 cycles of pre-trigger and 40
cycles of post-trigger information. The pre- and post- trigger times are configurable by the
user. If additional triggers occur within the post-trigger period, the waveform record will be
extended for the selected number of post-trigger cycles. Optionally, the user can choose to
disable re-triggering.
There is a limit of 2000 cycles (approximately 33.3 seconds at 60Hz) for each waveform
record. The M57x will continue to record waveforms until the memory allocated for the
Waveform Recorder is full. Regardless of the number of records stored, if sufficient memory
exists for the designated number of pre-trigger cycles the M57x will create a new record,
although it may not be full-length.
When selecting the COMTRADE File Type for the Configuration settings in the Waveform
Recorder, the user should be aware that certain processing limitations may be encountered
that can result in data loss for a waveform record.
If the host processor encounters large amounts of data due to creating long length
waveform records and is otherwise overloaded with performing other tasks, the data in the
queue may be overwritten before it could be written onto the Flash drive. This is a possibility
that may be encountered when attempting to handle an excessive volume of data, which
may not be handled adequately by the host processor. To reduce the possibility of this
occurring especially during the processing of large amounts of data, it is a good practice to
tailor the selection of the COMTRADE File Type based on the desired length of the file to be
recorded. As a guideline when configuring the waveform recorder, the following are useful
recommendations: a Binary COMTRADE File Type used along with a lower sample rate is
better for recording longer length waveform files; an ASCII COMTRADE File Type is better
suited for recording short length waveform files. Binary format will generate smaller data
files then ASCII format. A higher sample rate can be more useful when recording short files.
Use the lowest sample rates possible when capturing long waveform records.
If the post trigger times appear to be truncated in the COMTRADE file, that would suggest
that the user adjust the waveform recorder’s configuration settings, accordingly. This will
usually alleviate the issues associated with recording long length waveform files.
The Waveform Recorders share storage space with the Disturbance Recorders and the
Trend Recorder. The 70 Series Configurator allows the user to select the maximum
available memory for each recorder function. Note that if the user wishes to change the
allocation of memory among the recorders after recordings have already been made,
it is necessary to first remove the existing files from memory before making any
change.
Waveform records are presented in industry standard (IEEE C37.111-1999) Comtrade files
which are stored as compressed .zip files. Waveform records may be retrieved and deleted
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from the instrument using the available communications protocols. Please refer to the
specific protocol manual or section 5.5 (Zmodem and FTP) for details. A file cannot be
deleted while being read by another device.
The following table shows the signals that are included in the waveform record. The user
can select a sampling rate of 32, 64 or 128 samples per cycle for all signals on all Mx7x
models. An additional, higher sampling rate of 256 samples per cycle is available when
using the M571 or the M871 models (excludes M572 and M872). Please note, however, that
selecting the 256 sample per cycle sampling rate disables all measurements associated with
bus 2 voltages (Volts A2, B2, and C2) and auxiliary voltages (Volts Aux1-Gnd, Aux2-Gnd,
and AuxDiff). Because the sampling rate is synchronized with the system frequency, the
sample rate (in samples per second) will vary with frequency.
Comtrade Trace
Label
WYE Definition
DELTA Definition (shown with Phase) B
reference)
Volts 1 A
Voltage Bus 1 Phase A to Neutral
Voltage Bus 1 Phase A to B1
Volts 1 B
Voltage Bus 1 Phase B to Neutral
Always = 01
Volts 1 C
Voltage Bus 1 Phase C to Neutral
Voltage Bus 1 Phase C to B1
Amps 1 A
Amps 1 B
Amps 1 C
Amps 1 Phase A Current
Amps 1 Phase B Current
Amps 1 Phase C Current
Amps 1 Phase A Current
Amps 1 Phase B Current
Amps 1 Phase C Current
Volts 2 A
Voltage Bus 2 Phase A to Neutral
Voltage Bus 2 Phase A to B1
Volts 2 B
Voltage Bus 2 Phase B to Neutral
Always = 01
Volts 2 C
Voltage Bus 2 Phase C to Neutral
Voltage Bus 2 Phase C to B1
Amps 2 A (M572)
Amps 2 B (M572)
Amps 2 C (M572)
Dig In 1 (optional)
Dig In 2 (optional)
Dig In 3 (optional)
Dig In 4 (optional)
Amps 2 Phase A Current
Amps 2 Phase B Current
Amps 2 Phase C Current
Digital Input 1
Digital Input 2
Digital Input 3
Digital Input 4
Amps 2 Phase A Current
Amps 2 Phase B Current
Amps 2 Phase C Current
Digital Input 1
Digital Input 2
Digital Input 3
Digital Input 4
1
When the M571 is used on a DELTA (2-element system), one of the Phase Voltage inputs
will be connected to the Neutral Voltage input, and that Phase-to-Neutral voltage will then be
zero. The remaining two Phase-to-Neutral voltages then become Phase-to-Phase voltages.
The reference phase does not have to be Phase B.
5.4.1.1
Default Frequency Setting for Waveform Recorder
The Nominal System Frequency should be selected appropriately for the system in the
“Instrument Transformer Ratio” page (previously the "Advanced" tab) of the Configurator.
Normally the unit will modify the sample rate to track the frequency of any CT or VT signal
present. However, if there are no signals available for frequency tracking, the unit will
default to the Nominal System Frequency setting.
5.4.1.2
Indicating Waveform Records with Digital Outputs
Any of the outputs on the Digital Input / Output Module can be configured to indicate the
status of the recorder. Recorder status includes: Recorder Started, Recorder Completed,
Recorder Memory Low, and Recorder Active. When a waveform record is created, the
assigned output relay will be energized. When an output relay is assigned to indicate the
presence of a waveform record, it can no longer be controlled via protocol commands. If
power is removed from the M57x, the relay will revert to the default state. Assigning
the digital outputs to indicate that a waveform record has been created must be performed
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by using the 70 Series Configurator. See Section 4.4 and Appendix A3 for information
concerning output "Normally Open" and "Normally Closed" settings.
The indication of the status of a waveform record will persist until cleared, except for
Recorder Active, which will reset when the recording is finished. Refer to the appropriate
protocol manual for instructions.
5.4.1.3
Retrieving and Deleting Waveform Recorder Files
Waveform records may be retrieved and deleted from the instrument using the available
communications protocols. Please refer to the specific protocol manual or section 5.5
(Zmodem and FTP) for details. A file cannot be deleted while being read by another device.
5.4.2
Disturbance Recorders
The M57x includes two individually configurable Disturbance Recorders. The most common
method of triggering a disturbance event is by using the 70 Series Configurator to set an
upper or lower threshold on one of the measurements. A disturbance record can also be
initiated by a digital input or by a protocol-specific manual command. (See protocol manual
for details on available commands.)
The Disturbance Recorder will archive samples of up to 64 user-selected measurements.
Any measurement made by the device may be selected, allowing the user a great deal of
flexibility in configuring the system. Additionally, the user may configure the Disturbance
Recorder to calculate the min/max/avg of the selected measurements over the interval, or
store only the present value at the end of the interval.
The number of disturbance records that can be stored is dependent on the number of
measurements to record, the measurement type, and the number of pre- and post-trigger
samples selected.
Please note how the convention for determining time resolution in oscillography records
(WR1, WR2) in samples per cycle is not relevant to long-time disturbance records (DR2,
DR2), where RMS values are plotted using a sample rate measured in an integer number of
cycles for each sample.
If the number of cycles/sample is set to 1, each entry in the Disturbance Record will reflect
data collected over one cycle. The factory default setting provides 20 samples of pre-trigger
recording and 40 samples post-trigger. The pre- and post- trigger times are configurable by
the user, as is the number of cycles per sample. The maximum pre-trigger time is 1800
samples, while the maximum post-trigger time is 300,000 samples. If additional triggers
occur within the post-trigger period, the disturbance record will be extended by the selected
number of post-trigger samples. Optionally, the user can choose to disable re-triggering.
The default cycles/sample setting is 0, which disables the recorder.
The Disturbance Recorders shares storage space with the Waveform Recorder and the
Trend Recorder. The 70 Series Configurator allows the user to select the maximum
available memory for each recorder function, but any record files already made should be
removed before reallocating the memory as mentioned above in the Waveform
Recorder section.
Disturbance records are presented in industry standard (IEEE C37.111-1999) Comtrade files
stored as compressed .zip files. Disturbance records may be retrieved and deleted from the
instrument via a network and protocol (refer to the specific protocol manual for details), or by
using the Host Module serial ports and Zmodem (Section 5.5.2).
5.4.2.1
Indicating Disturbance Records with Digital Outputs
Any of the outputs on the Digital Input / Output Module can be configured to indicate the
status of the recorder. Recorder status includes: Recorder Started, Recorder Completed,
Recorder Memory Low, and Recorder Active. When a waveform record is created, the
assigned output relay will be energized. When an output relay is assigned to indicate the
presence of a disturbance record, it can no longer be controlled via protocol commands. If
power is removed from the M57x, the relay will revert to the default state. Assigning
the digital outputs to indicate that a disturbance record has been created must be performed
by using the 70 Series Configurator. See Section 4.4 and Appendix A3 for information
concerning output "Normally Open" and "Normally Closed" settings.
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M57x/EN M/E
M57x
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The indication of the status of a waveform record will persist until cleared, except for
Recorder Active, which will reset when the recording is finished. Refer to the appropriate
protocol manual for instructions.
5.4.2.2
Retrieving and Deleting Disturbance Recorder Files
Disturbance records may be retrieved and deleted from the instrument using the available
communications protocols. Please refer to the specific protocol manual or section 5.5
(Zmodem and FTP) for details. A file cannot be deleted while being read by another device.
5.4.3
Trend Recorder
The M57x stores the values of a user-configurable set of up to 230 parameters every log
interval. The default setting of this interval is 0 minutes, which disables the Trend Recorder.
This interval can be changed from 1 to 720 minutes (12 hrs.) in 1-minute increments. Once
the log file has reached its maximum length, it will wrap around to the beginning and
overwrite the oldest entries in the file. The log file is stored in non-volatile memory, allowing
for retrieval of a complete log file even after power has been cycled to the instrument.
The user may select between recording the instantaneous values only, or storing the
minimum, maximum, and average values recorded during the previous interval. The
recorded values are based on measurements that are updated every cycle.
Trend Recording is always started at the closest time that is an integral multiple of the log
interval.
Example:
If the trend interval is set to 15 minutes and the M57x system clock time is 9:18, the first
entry will occur at 9:30. Subsequent entries will be made at 15-minute intervals. If the trend
interval is changed to 5 minutes at 9:37, the next entry will occur at 9:40. Subsequent
entries will occur at 5-minute intervals.
For intervals less than 60 minutes, it is recommended that the trend interval be set to a
number that will evenly divide 60 minutes. If the interval is greater than 60 minutes, it should
evenly divide 24 hours.
Recommended intervals:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30 minutes
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 hours
NOTE:
5.4.3.1
If the System Clock setting is to be changed backwards, it is
recommended that all trend recorder files be retrieved, the time
changed, and the trend recorder file be deleted. If this is not done, the
file will effectively contain a section that shows time going backwards!
This will cause problems with the Comtrade file format.
Retrieving Trend Records
The trend file is stored on the unit in a proprietary data format. BiView or the Retriever
program (supplied on the Utilities CD) or the Win DR Manager program is required to
download & convert the raw trend file stored on the unit into an industry standard Comtrade
file. When downloading the raw file, the trend file on the unit will automatically be deleted;
however all programs will preserve a copy of the raw trend file on the PC and append the
new data every time the trend file is downloaded.
5.4.4
Comtrade Format
Waveform and Disturbance Records are available in Comtrade file format (C37.111-1999)
and Trend Records can be converted into this format when retrieved using BiView, Retriever
or Win DR Manager software programs. These are user-selectable binary or ASCII format
files. The files are stored as compressed .zip files to increase storage and decrease user
download times. These files may be retrieved and deleted from the instrument using the
available communications protocols. Please refer to the specific protocol manual or section
5.5 (Zmodem and FTP) for details. A file cannot be deleted while being read by another
device.
User Manual
M57x
M57x/EN M/E
Page 48
The Waveform Recorder file "WR1_nnnn.CFG" or "WR2_nnnn.CFG" will contain the event
parameters including the names of the channels, time of start of file, time of trigger, and
sampling frequency for each cycle. The file "WR1_nnnn.DAT” or "WR2_nnnn.DAT"
contains the time of each sample and the data. The data values are integers and can be
scaled back to primary units using the scale factors in the .CFG file. The file name format,
"WR1_nnnn.CFG" and "WR1_nnnn.DAT,” indexes automatically from "WR1_0001.xxx" to
"WR1_9999.xxx". Similarly, Waveform Recorder 2 files will be stored as "WR2_nnnn.CFG"
and "WR2_nnnn.DAT".
Upon power-up (or re-boot), the M57x notes the highest index number in memory, and will
increment by one for the next file. If there are no waveform records, the next one will be
WR1_0001. If there is a WR1_0034 in memory upon re-boot, the next file will be
WR1_0035. Note that if the stored files are deleted, but the M57x is not re-booted, it will
continue to index in sequence as if the files were still there.
The Disturbance Recorder stores files in the same manner as the Waveform Recorder. Files
from Disturbance Recorder 1 will be saved as "DR1_nnnn.CFG" and "DR1_nnnn.DAT,”
with the same indexing sequence as the waveform files. Similarly, Disturbance Recorder 2
files will be stored as "DR2_nnnn.CFG" and "DR2_nnnn.DAT".
The Trending file "TR1.CFG" will contain the event parameters, including the names of the
channels, time of start of file, and trend interval for each measurement. The file "TR1.DAT"
contains the time of each sample and the data. The data values are integers and can be
scaled back to primary units using the scale factors in the .CFG file.
5.4.4.1
Comtrade ZIP Files
The .CFG and .DAT files are combined into a single .ZIP file, which is placed in the c:\DATA\
or e:\DATA directory (see section 5.5). This file may be retrieved using FTP, Zmodem, or
protocol specific file transfer methods. Note that the .ZIP file may take up to 1 minute to
appear in the c:\DATA\ directory after the records are created.
5.4.5
IEEE Long File Naming Convention
The 70 Series IEDs are capable of creating record files that meet the IEEE C37.232-2007
standard for file names. The long filename feature is enabled and configured on the Identity
Page of the 70 Series Configurator. The Identity Page is shown below with factory default
values. Settings relevant to long filename configuration are highlighted in green.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 49
When the long filename feature is enabled, the Disturbance Recorder and Waveform
Recorder functions of the IED will create IEEE C37.232-2007 compatible names for all
generated Comtrade files. Note, that in all cases the IED compresses and stores Comtrade
files within a Zip file. Generation of Comtrade files for the Trend Recorder function is handled
by the BiView software application. BiView retrieves the Trend Recorder data and the
Identity configuration from the IED and then converts to a Comtrade file. BiView will use the
long filename configuration obtained from the IED.
IEEE C37.232-2007 defines the following disallowed characters: ? “ / \< > * | : ; [ ] $ % { }
(i.e., question mark, quotation mark, forward slash, backward slash, less than, greater than,
asterisk, pipe, colon, semi-colon, brackets, dollar sign, percent, and braces). The 70 Series
Configurator permits the use of these characters on the Identity Page, but they will be
replaced with an underscore (_) in the resulting long filename. Note, the use of periods (.)
and commas (,) while permitted by IEEE C37.232-2007 and properly handled by the 70
Series Configurator, may produce unexpected results when interpreted by a third party
software application.
IEEE C37.232-2007
Field
Source
Notes
Start Date
Start Time
Time Code
Station ID
Device ID
Company Name
Comtrade 'Start Time'
Comtrade 'Start Date'
Always zero
Identity page 'Station Name'
Identity page 'Device Description'
Identity page 'Company Name / Owner'
from CFG file
from CFG file
No time zone offset
Limited to 32 characters
Limited to 32 characters
Limited to 32 characters
User 1
User 2
Identity page 'Location'
Original Zip file name
Limited to 64 characters
Such as DR1_0010 or
WR2_0003
Extension
CFG or DAT
5.4.6
Voltage Fluctuation Table (VFT) File
The 70 Series IEDs are capable of creating a VFT file, which is used in conjunction with an
external software package for monitoring Sags and Swells.
The raw data for each voltage channel is derived from 1 cycle RMS values that are updated
each quarter cycle.
Each table contains one bus of voltages, phases A, B, & C
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 50
For units that have two buses of volts, two separate tables will be created. This currently
includes M871, M571, M872 Breaker & a Half, and M572 Breaker & a Half.
Reference voltages will not be recorded in the table; therefore the M872 Dual Feeder &
M572 Dual Feeder will only have 1 table.
The 70 series will maintain the minimum and maximum value for each voltage channel.
When the voltage for a channel crosses a user configured threshold an entry will be made in
the table. The user can configure up to 30 thresholds but a minimum of 3 thresholds must
be configured. The default configuration for the thresholds are:
−
110% of Nominal
−
90% of Nominal
−
1% of Nominal
A fixed value of 1% of nominal will be used for the hysteresis.
For Dips & Interruptions, the threshold is passed going down on the value the user specifies.
On the way up, the threshold is passed at the value + 1% nominal.
For Swells, the threshold is passed going up on the value the user specifies. On the way
down, the threshold is passed at the value – 1% nominal.
The Voltage Fluctuation Table consists of 2 files:.
−
VFTn.DAT
−
VFTn.INI
Where n is the number of the bus. Currently n may be 1 or 2.
The DAT file is a text file with one entry per line.
semicolon. The order of the data values is:
−
Entry Number
−
Time Tag seconds
−
Time Tag milliseconds
−
Phase Code
−
Minimum Value
−
Maximum Value
−
Current value, that has passed threshold
−
Voltage Ratio
−
Ratio Offset
Each data value is separated by a
An example of 1 line:
1803;351009204;335;20001002;55.734;55.734;79.932;1.0;0.0
The DAT file will be allowed to grow to 100K. This will result in proximally 1700 entries.
Due to flash drive limitations, the M57x can only have a finite number of entries. To prevent
the file from growing too large, and ensure the newest data is always available, the M57x
overwrites the oldest entry as needed.
Because the DAT file will be circular it will have a virtual end of file marker, thus making it
easy to see where the oldest entry is. The end of file marker will be “**** End of File ****”
with out the quotes, and it will be on a line by itself.
A new “Voltage Fluctuation Thresholds” page in the 70 Series Configurator was created that
allow the user to configure the Voltage Fluctuation Table. The user has the following options
for each bus.
Enable/Disable the Voltage Fluctuation Table
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M57x/EN M/E
M57x
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Set the nominal voltage in primary units
Set the thresholds (can have 3-30 thresholds) entered in % of nominal
The files for the Voltage Fluctuation Table are available to download via Ethernet or Serial
ports, Internet Explorer, and HyperTerminal, Zmodem, FTP. The files are not available via
Modbus File Transfer.
5.4.7
Sequence Of Events (SOE) File
The M57x creates a record, in chronological order, of all events that occur, including:
Triggers
Health Check status errors
Change of state of status inputs and outputs
Creation of files
Change of configuration
Setting of clock
Record of Boot up
The SOE.LOG file is an ASCII text format file, and typically can be up to 5000 lines.
5.5
M57x File System
Files are stored in the M57x on internal drives labeled "c:" and "d:". Optional compact flash
memory is accessible as drive "e:" Both FTP and ZMODEM may be used to access any
drive. All other user accessible .files will be stored on the c: drive unless the unit is equipped
with the optional compact flash memory. In this case these files are stored on the e: drive.
The following directories are relevant to the user:
5.5.1
Directory
Function
c:\config
Location of Configuration files
c:\upload
Location of restart.now file
c:\data or e:\data
Location of recorder compressed ZIP files
d:\data
Location of trend recorder files
FTP Server
The M57x incorporates an internet-compatible FTP (File Transfer Protocol) data server. This
allows user access to any program or data file that exists on the M57x. It has the following
primary uses:
1.
Allows remote software updates to be written to the M57x.
2.
Allows determination of the time of last software update.
3.
Allows configuration ".INI" files to be written, copied, and deleted from the M57x.
4.
Allows Comtrade files to be read and deleted from the M57x.
The M57x can support up to 50 simultaneous FTP connections.
5.5.1.1
Introduction to FTP
FTP protocol is a standard component of the Internet protocol suite and is used to transfer
files between computer systems. Every Windows/Unix/Linux operating system contains an
FTP Client program that allows simple access to FTP Servers such as the M57x. FTP is
accessed from the command prompt (sometimes referred to as the DOS prompt). A
(simplified) sample session appears on the screen as:
C:\windows> FTP 192.168.0.254
M57x server, enter user name: anonymous
Enter password: ALSTOM (Any password will work)
FTP> binary
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M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 52
Some Operating Systems default to ASCII mode for FTP. Entering "binary" ensures that the
FTP connection will be in the binary mode necessary for communicating with the M57x.
As shown above, the user specifies the IP address of the server, enters a username and
password, and then is presented with the FTP prompt awaiting commands. The following
table lists commands useful for communicating with the M57x.
Command
Function
BINARY
Changes FTP to binary mode
CD..
Change current directory to parent directory
CD directoryname
Change current directory to directyname
DELETE filename.ext
Delete file from Server
DIR filename.ext
List directory contents
GET source file destination file
Read file from M57x
PUT source file destination file
Write file to M57x
QUIT
Exit FTP server and return to command prompt
Refer to your local operating system documentation for more details.
5.5.1.2
M57x FTP Implementation
The M57x FTP server has three privilege levels that determine the allowed FTP operations.
Description
Username
Password
Read files within the C:\DATA directory
“anonymous” or “guest”
Any
Read files on any drive or directory
Drive\directory
Level 0
Read, Write, or Delete files on any drive or
directory
Drive\directory
Level 2
Access to Levels 1 and 2 require the user to enter the starting (root) directory as the "User
Name". For this purpose, the drive name is treated as a directory. The entire "c" drive would
be accessed by entering a User Name of "c" and the appropriate password. Access to a
subdirectory, for example the configuration files, is obtained by entering a User Name of
"c:\config" and the password. Note that the FTP protocol does not allow access above the
root directory.
The M57x will remotely restart if the file "c:\upload\restart.now" is written. Restart begins
about 10 seconds after the file has been created.
Please consult customer service for information on using FTP for updating the M57x
firmware or BIOS.
5.5.2
ZMODEM, TELNET and Command Line Interface
M57x files may be written, read, and deleted by use of ZMODEM and the front panel serial
ports. Using the 70 Series Configurator, make sure the serial port you wish to use is set to
ZMODEM. By default, port P1 is set to ZMODEM @ 9600 Baud. Connect a terminal, or the
serial port of a PC running a terminal emulator program (such as HyperTerminalTM), to the
serial port of the M57x configured for ZMODEM. Make sure the terminal emulator is set-up
to connect directly to the serial port of the PC, and that the baud rate matches that of the
M57x port. Allowable commands are:
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M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 53
Service Port/ZMODEM Commands
c:
dir
reboot
status
cd
exit
receive
time
chp1
getlog
reset
type
chp2
Goose*
router
trigger dr1
d:
ip
send
trigger dr2
date
mac
serial
trigger wv
del
nsap
setlog
ver
dio point
password
subnet
whoami
display on
pulse
software
vio point
display off
Note: * This command is for UCA Goose only and is now referred to as GSSE.
5.6
NOTE 1:
When connected to the M57x with a terminal emulator program,
remember that the commands you type are operating on the M57x,
not the PC. The terms "RECEIVE" and "SEND" are therefore from the
perspective of the M57x.
NOTE 2:
The location of files to be sent to the M57x from the PC must be set in
the terminal emulator program.
NOTE 3:
The RECEIVE command must be used before telling the terminal
emulator program to transfer a file to the M57x.
NOTE 4:
Some terminal emulator programs cannot transfer more than one file
using the "RECEIVE" command.
NOTE 5:
For a complete list of commands, type “help” at the command prompt.
For help with a specific command, type “help” followed by the
command (i.e. “help send”).
Assigning Pulse Outputs to Energy Values
Any of the relay outputs can be set up to operate as a pulse output, and assigned to any of
the four energy values. Assigning the digital outputs to perform a pulse-output function
MUST be done by using the 70 Series Configurator program. Additionally, Digital Outputs
assigned to operate as a pulse output can be set for Energy per Pulse (in KWh/KVARh per
pulse).
5.7
IRIG-B
5.7.1
Overview
There is a great need in many power measurement and power quality applications for
synchronizing numerous instruments from various manufacturers to within fractions of a
second. These applications include failure analysis, sequence of event recording, distributed
fault recording, and other synchronized data analysis. One means of synchronizing various
instruments to the same clock source is to connect them to a master time device that
generates a standard time code. This scheme can be expanded upon such that two devices
half a world apart could be synchronized to within fractions of a second if each is connected
to an accurate local time master.
There are several vendors who manufacturer these master time devices and there are many
standardized time synchronization protocols. IRIG-B is one of the more commonly
supported standard time code formats.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
5.7.2
Page 54
Introduction to IRIG Standards
IRIG (InteRange Instrumentation Group) standards consist of a family of serial pulse time
clock standards. These standards were initially developed for use by the U.S. Government
for ballistic missile testing. There are several Time Code Formats within the family such as
A, B, E, G, and H. Each Time Code Format has its own unique bit rate.
There are sub-variations within each Time Code Format that specify the Format Designation,
the Carrier/Resolution, and the Coded Expression formats. All standard IRIG serial time
standards use the IRIG B000 configuration.
The first letter following IRIG specifies the Time Code Format and Rate Designation. The
first number following the letter specifies the Format Designation, the second number
specifies the Carrier/Resolution, and the third number specifies the Coded Expressions.
The M57x’s IRIG interface recognizes and decodes the following standard IRIG formats:
IRIG B000, IRIG B002, and IRIG B003.
5.7.2.1
Time Code Format (Rate Generation)
There are six different IRIG Time Code Formats. The M57x supports Time Code Format B.
Time Code Format B specifies a 100-bit frame and a 1 second time frame (10 milliseconds
per bit). The 100 bits consist of:
1 - time reference bit,
7 - BCD bits of seconds information,
7 - BCD bits of minutes information,
6 - BCD bits of hours information,
10 - BCD bits of days information,
27 - optional control bits,
17 - straight binary bits representing seconds of day information
15 - index bits
10 - position identifier bits
5.7.2.2
Format Designation
There are two IRIG Format Designations:
0 - Pulse Width Coded
1 - Sine Wave, Amplitude Modulated.
The Pulse Width Coded format is essentially the envelope of the Amplitude Modulated
format. The M57x supports the Pulse Width Coded format on serial ports P2 and P3. When
the M57x is ordered with the modulated IRIG-B option both IRIG formats are supported on
the dedicated port.
5.7.2.3
Carrier/Resolution
There are six IRIG Carrier/Resolutions:
0 - No Carrier/Index Count Interval
1 - 100 Hz/10 ms
2 - 1 kHz/1 ms
3 - 10 kHz/0.1 ms
4 - 100 kHz/10 us
5 - 1 MHz/1 us
The base M57x supports only the No Carrier/Index Count IRIG Carrier/Resolution. When
the optional modulated IRIG-B receiver is installed the M57x additionally supports the
1kHz/1ms IRIG Carrier/Resolution.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
5.7.2.4
Page 55
Coded Expressions
There are four IRIG Coded Expressions:
0 - BCD, CF, SBS
1 - BCD, CF
2 - BCD
3 - BCD, SBS
The M57x only uses the BCD portion of the expression and as a result can accept any of the
standard IRIG Coded Expressions.
5.7.3
M57x IRIG-B Implementation
The M57x receives the IRIG-B serial pulse code via the serial ports on the Host CPU module
or the dedicated IRIG-B port (optional). The IRIG-B signal is decoded by the Host CPU, and
the resulting IRIG time is compared to the M57x’s time. The M57x processes the time errors
and corrects its local time to coincide with the IRIG time.
5.7.3.1
M57x IRIG-B Receiver
As previously mentioned, the M57x receives the IRIG-B signal via the standard serial ports
located on the M57x front panel. Port P2 or P3 can be configured to accept IRIG-B. The
ports can be configured via the 70 Series Configurator software utility. If the modulated
IRIG-B option is installed there is a dedicated BNC connection to accept the IRIG-B signal.
This port can be set up in the 70 Series Configurator to accept either amplitude modulated or
pulse width coded signals. When configured for an amplitude modulated signal, the MOD
light on the front panel next to the BNC connector is illuminated. When a signal is detected
on the port the ACT light is illuminated.
5.7.3.2
M57x IRIG-B Decoder
The M57x IRIG Decoder parses the bit stream from the IRIG Receiver into registers that
represent the number of days, minutes, and seconds since the beginning of the present
year. The control bits and straight binary seconds portion of the IRIG pulse stream are
ignored. The M57x transducer compares its present time to the IRIG time and stores the
delta time error. These errors are calculated every IRIG frame (every second) and are
accumulated into a sample buffer until the sample buffer is full. Once the buffer is full, the
buffer is passed to the IRIG Time Qualifier.
5.7.3.3
M57x IRIG-B Time Qualifier
The M57x IRIG-B Time Qualifier processes the sample buffer of time errors from the IRIG-B
Decoder. If the IRIG-B Time Qualifier detects several sequential time errors greater than 3
seconds, the IRIG-B Time Qualifier forces the M57x to immediately “jam” its clock to the
present IRIG-B time.
If the time errors are less than 3 seconds, the IRIG-B Time Qualifier examines all the errors
in the sample buffer. The error data is subjected to various proprietary criteria to determine
an accurate time offset. If the sample buffer does not meet the qualifying criteria the sample
buffer is discarded and no clock correction is performed. The IRIG-B Time Qualifier
continues to examine and discard sample buffers from the IRIG-B Decoder until it finds one
that meets the accuracy qualifications.
Once a sample buffer is qualified, the IRIG-B Time Qualifier calculates a clock correction
value and slews the M57x’s clock to match the IRIG-B time. The slew time depends on the
magnitude of the clock correction. The time required to slew the M57x’s clock to match the
IRIG time is approximately 30 times the clock correction value.
Slewing the clock ensures that time always moves forward. The clock may speed up or slow
down to attain proper synchronization, but it never moves backward. This ensures that the
ordering of events is always preserved while changing the clock. Ordering of events cannot
be guaranteed when the clock is jammed.
The IRIG-B Decoder does not sample the IRIG bit stream and build a sample buffer while
the M57x clock is slewing. All IRIG frames received during the M57x’s clock slew are
ignored until the slew has completed.
User Manual
M57x
5.7.4
M57x/EN M/E
Page 56
Determining the Correct Year
The IRIG-B standard provides days of year, minutes of day, and seconds of minute
information. The IRIG standard does not provide any year information. IEEE-1344 specifies
a bit pattern that is encoded into the IRIG control bit steam that specifies year information.
The M57x IRIG driver is capable of decoding the IEEE-1344 year information from the
control bits when connected to an IEEE-1344 compatible IRIG master. If the IRIG master
that is connected to the M57x is not IEEE-1344 compatible, the IEEE-1344 compatibility
configuration switch in the M57x comm port configuration should be turned off. This will
prevent the M57x from incorrectly interpreting the control bits as year information.
If the IRIG master is not IEEE-1344 compatible, the M57x assumes that the year stored in its
non-volatile battery backed-up CMOS clock is correct. If the M57x battery fails or the M57x’s
year is incorrectly set, the IRIG-B Driver will assume that the year is the year reported by the
M57x’s CMOS clock.
If the M57x is connected to an IRIG master that is not IEEE-1344 compatible and the year
reported by the M57x’s CMOS clock is incorrect, the IRIG Driver may also set the M57x’s
day incorrectly (due to leap year) when it tries to synchronize the device time to the IRIG
time. The time, however, will still synchronize correctly. As a result, if the M57x’s battery
fails (or the year was not set correctly), any data time-stamped by the M57x or any waveform
captures stored may have the wrong year and day but will have the correct time accurate to
several microseconds. This data can still be synchronized to other events from other
devices by simply adding the correct day and year offsets to the time.
5.7.5
Methods of Automatic Clock Adjustments
The automated clock adjustments controlled by the IRIG interface include “jamming” the
clock and “slewing” the clock. Depending on the magnitude of the M57x’s absolute clock
error the clock adjustment algorithms will either jam the clock by directly writing a new value
into the clock registers or slew the clock smoothly by adding or subtracting small
adjustments to the clock registers over a period of time.
5.7.6
Types of M57x Clock Synchronization
There are various degrees (or states) of time synchronization. Upon power up, the device
relies on the value stored in the battery backed-up CMOS clock to set the correct time, and
the crystal frequency correction constant stored in non-volatile memory to correct the
crystal’s frequency. The M57x will keep time starting from the values read from the CMOS
clock. There will be an accumulated time error based upon the frequency error of the Real
Time Clock crystal. The crystal frequency correction constant provides a means for
correcting for this error. If the M57x was never synchronized to an external source (i.e. IRIGB or network synchronization protocol), the M57x will not have a value for the crystal
frequency correction constant and the crystal error will be the M57x’s clock error.
5.7.6.1
Frequency Adjustments and Free Wheeling
The M57x has the capability to add a correction factor to compensate for the crystal’s
effective frequency error rate. This frequency adjustment is accomplished by first
determining the crystal’s error rate and then correcting the clock to reflect that error. The
IRIG-B interface serves as an external accurate time source to determine the crystal’s typical
error rate. The frequency error is calculated and stored in non-volatile memory.
When an M57x is connected to an IRIG-B source, it will automatically calculate and store the
crystal’s error. M57x transducers utilize this constant to maintain a more accurate clock. If
the IRIG-B source is removed the M57x will no longer receive time corrections from the
IRIG-B source, but the device clock will keep much better time due to the frequency
correction constant. This mode of operation is referred to as “Free Wheeling.”
Although “Free Wheeling” with constant frequency compensation provides a more accurate
M57x clock, it will still drift and is less accurate than having a constant IRIG-B source
connected to the M57x. The frequency error of the crystal will change with time and
temperature. Having a permanent real time IRIG-B clock source allows for constant minute
adjustments to the M57x clock.
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Permanent IRIG-B Source Connection
Having a permanently connected IRIG-B source provides the most accurate M57x clock. In
addition to correcting the frequency for the crystal error, the M57x will constantly receive
corrections to compensate for any drift that may still occur. This provides for a typical clock
error of less than 10 microseconds.
5.7.7
Stages of IRIG-B Synchronization and Accuracy
There are four basic stages of synchronization with an IRIG-B source: power-up, time lock,
frequency lock, and final lock.
5.7.7.1
Power-Up Stage
Upon Power-up, the M57x obtains the time from its non-volatile battery backed-up CMOS
clock. This clocks resolution is limited to seconds. Therefore, even if the clock was error
free when it was turned off, the M57x could have an error of up to one second when it is
powered-up.
As mentioned previously, the typical crystal error rate is about 50
microseconds per second (50ppm). Therefore, if we assume that the M57x clock was
keeping perfect time before it was reset (or powered down), it would typically be in error by:
(50 microseconds) x (number of seconds off) + 0.5 seconds after power is restored.
The M57x would start with this error and continue to drift by the frequency offset error. If the
M57x were never connected to an IRIG-B source (or other clock synchronizing source), the
drift would be equal to the crystal’s frequency error. If the M57x previously stored a
frequency correction constant in non-volatile memory, the device will include the
compensation and drift by a smaller amount equal to the true crystal frequency error minus
the correction constant.
5.7.7.2
Time Lock Stage
Once the M57x begins to receive IRIG-B frames, validates a sample buffer, and calculates a
clock correction value, it will enter the Time Lock Stage of synchronization. If the clock
correction value exceeds 120 seconds, the clock is jammed with the present IRIG-B time.
Otherwise, the M57x clock is slewed to match the IRIG-B time.
The accuracy of this initial slew depends on whether a frequency correction constant was
previously stored in non-volatile memory, and if so how accurate the constant is. The M57x
will use this constant in the slew calculation to approximate the rate to change the clock to
adjust to the specified IRIG-B correction error.
The M57x will remain in the Time Lock Stage for approximately five minutes plus the time
required to perform the initial clock slew. The clock slew requires approximately 30 times the
clock correction value. For example, if the initial clock correction error was 1.5 seconds, the
Time Lock Stage would require approximately 6 minutes (5 minutes plus 45 seconds to
slew).
The M57x enters the Frequency Lock Mode after completing the first IRIG-B clock
correction. The M57x’s clock is typically synchronized to within 1 millisecond of the true
IRIG-B time after the Time Lock Stage is completed.
5.7.7.3
Frequency Lock Stage
The M57x enters the Frequency Lock Stage of synchronization when it receives the third
valid clock correction value from the IRIG-B interface. At this time the M57x calculates a
crystal frequency correction constant based on the clock correction value. The crystal
frequency correction constant is stored in non-volatile memory to provide improved clock
accuracy during ”Free Wheeling.” The crystal frequency correction constant along with the
clock correction value is used to slew the clock to synchronize to the IRIG-B source.
The Frequency Lock Stage requires approximately five minutes. Once the M57x slews its
clock with the correct crystal frequency correction constant, the M57x’s clock is typically
synchronized to within 50 microseconds of the IRIG-B time source. The M57x then enters
the Final Lock Stage of synchronization.
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5.7.7.4
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Final Lock Stage
In the Final Lock Stage of synchronization, the M57x typically receives clock correction
values from the IRIG-B interface every five minutes. The M57x continues to make slight
adjustments to its crystal frequency correction constant to accommodate for small frequency
drifts due to age and temperature. At this point, the M57x clock is typically synchronized to
within less than 10 microseconds of the IRIG-B source.
5.7.8
Notes on Operation
A new crystal frequency correction constant will be written to non-volatile memory every four
hours while a valid IRIG-B connection exists.
The battery backed-up CMOS clock will be corrected every hour while a valid IRIG-B
connection exists.
Network Time Synchronization requests are refused while a valid IRIG-B connection exists.
5.7.9
IRIG-B Electrical Specifications
Absolute Maximum Input Voltage:
Receiver Input Threshold Low:
Receiver Input Threshold High:
Receiver Input Hysteresis:
Receiver Input Resistance:
-25 Volts to +25 Volts
0.8 Volts (min)
2.4 Volts (max)
0.6 Volts (typical)
5 kohms (typical)
Amplitude Modulated Signal
Input impedance:
>10K ohm
Input Format :IRIG-B120, B123,
1kHz modulated sine wave, amplitude 3Vpp – 10Vpp,
modulation ratio 3:1
Time skew:
5.7.10
600 uSec (Program this offset in Configurator)
IRIG-B Port Wiring Instructions (Pulse Width Coded, IRIG-B master, Demodulated)
The IRIG-B master can be connected to port P2 or P3 of the M57x when IRIG-B signals of
format IRIG B000, IRIG B001, or IRIG B003 are used. The selected port must be configured
for IRIG-B via the 70 Series Configurator software utility. To connect the IRIG-B master to a
port (Figure 4):
- Connect the IRIG-B signal to terminals 19 and 21 (P2), or 25 and 27 (P3).
- Connect the IRIG-B signal common to terminal 17 (P2) or 23 (P3).
- Terminal 18 (P2) or 24 (P3) provides a connection to earth ground via a 100 ohm
resistor for shielding.
5.7.11
IRIG-B Port Wiring Instructions Modulated IRIG-B Option
Connect IRIG-B signal from the master using a standard BNC cable. Use the 70 Series
Configurator to set the port for either an Amplitude Modulated or Pulse Width coded signal
(see figure 8). If Amplitude Modulated is selected go to the IRIG-B page and set the Absolute
Time Offset to 620 usec. (This offset value includes the 600 usec time skew attributed to the
demodulator circuit). The number used for the Absolute Time Offset may need to be
increased, depending on time skew contributed by clock source and cable lengths. The
remaining items on the IRIG-B page can initially be left at the default values. If there are
problems with acquiring synchronization with the IRIG-B source, turning on the debug
messages may help in diagnosing the problem. (Refer to section 4.1; Debug messages are
turned on when service port P1 is running in logging mode). Depending on the installation it
may be necessary to relax some of the qualifying parameters to achieve synchronization. If
necessary, first increase the Max Skew setting from 5 usec to 8 – 10 usec. If this does not
help it may be necessary to reduce the Quality Factor from 0.7 to 0.5 or less.
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Figure 8 – IRIG-B Type Selection in 70 Series Configurator
5.8
Time Sync & Setting
The 70 Series IED utilizes an on-board clock to time stamp communications, SOE Log
entries, and data samples in the Waveform, Disturbance, and Trend Recorders. A variety of
external references may be used to synchronize the on-board clock to either local or
Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) with a high degree of accuracy.
5.8.1
Time Sync Status Registers
Pre-defined status registers indicate the current state for each of the various time
synchronization methods used in 70 Series IEDs
The following time sync registers will return status values of ‘0’ if a time sync master is
inactive and ‘1’ if a time sync master is active:
Status Registers
IrigB Time Sync
Network Time sync (UCA)
SNTP Time Sync
DNP Time Sync
The 70 Series DNP and Modbus manuals define the status register locations within
Appendix A for these time sync status points.
5.8.2
Manual time setting by Command-Line instruction
The command-line instruction is the manual method for setting the IED clock through service
port P1. The “time” instruction in the command-line interface is used to set time for the IED’s
internal clock. Refer to section 4.1 in order to set the IED clock.
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M57x
5.8.3
Page 60
Unsolicited DNP Time set (DNP master sets the IED clock)
DNP Time set is supported by the 70 Series IED. The IED clock simply free-wheels at its
characteristic rate between DNP time updates. Each DNP set-time instruction simply "sets"
the clock as it is received. Setting the clock via DNP supersedes any other time-sync
method that might be in use.
5.8.4
IRIG-B Time sync (time-synchronization via dedicated IED port)
Detailed information on IRIG-B time sync can be found starting in section 5.7. IRIG-B is
expected to produce the greatest accuracy relative to other time sync methods currently
supported. A status bit, named ‘IrigB Time Sync’, is set to indicate the IED is being
synchronized via IRIG-B as long as the IED continues to receive valid IRIG updates. While
this bit is set, time-sync signals received from (UCA) Network Time Sync, SNTP, and
Requested DNP are ignored.
It should be noted that the IED host is not able to distinguish between the Modulated and
Unmodulated IRIG-B signals applied to the input port. Demodulation is accomplished by a
dedicated circuit. The host processor makes no determination as to which type of external
IRIG-B signal is applied. Unmodulated IRIG-B would provide a slightly more accurate time
signal then Modulated IRIG-B, due to additional time latency that is introduced in the demodulation process.
5.8.5
5.8.5 (UCA) Network Time Synchronization - time synchronization over Ethernet
The M57x real-time clock may be synchronized to a UCA network time-sync master. The
network time sync functions as described in IEEE TR-1550 Part 2 Appendix B and is roughly
analogous to the IRIG-B described in Section 5.7, in that the M57x continually “trains” it’s
internal clock to eliminate errors. An algorithm progressively adjusts the on-board clock to
improve its accuracy with subsequent time updates received from the master. This allows
the M57x to “Free Wheel” accurately in the event the UCA network time-sync master is
unavailable.
5.8.6
SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol) - time synchronization over Ethernet
Time synchronization is supported using SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol); this
protocol is used to synchronize the internal real time clock in substation devices, (i.e., control
systems, relays, IEDs). Up to 2 SNTP servers, using optional many-cast (or any-cast) mode
of operation, are supported, along with configurable polling times. SNTP servers can be
polled for configurable time, but only one at a time.
The SNTP page in 70 the Series Configurator software tool allows the user the option of
selecting which tool will be used to load the SNTP (and IP) settings. Radio buttons are
provided for that purpose. SNTP (and IP) settings can be loaded from either the 70Series
Configurator (INI file) or the IEC61850 IED Configurator (MCL file). When using the
70Series Configurator, the initial default configuration will load SNTP settings from the
70Series Configurator (INI file). If IEC61850 protocol is used, it is possible for the user to
change the radio button selected in order to indicate that the IEC61850 IED Configurator
(MCL file) be used to load these settings instead. If the settings on the 70Series
Configurator SNTP page grey out, it is an indication that the SNTP server addresses may
have been set through the other Configurator’s software.
Additionally on the SNTP page of the 70 Series Configurator software, the user may specify
that an offset from the SNTP server time be applied when synchronizing. A common use for
this feature is to allow the 70 Series device to operate in local time when synchronizing with
an SNTP server operating in UTC time. To further support local time, the application
of Daylight Savings adjustments may also be configured.
5.8.7
DNP Time sync (slave requesting DNP time be set)
A slave may request thatDNP time be set in order to have the DNP master set the DNP time.
5.9
Using the M57x with a Analog Output Converter
The M57x may be used with any of the Bitronics AOC units (NAO8101, NAO8102,
NAO8103, or NAO8104). The AOC may be connected to either port P2 or P3. The serial
port must be configured for the appropriate protocol and register set for the AOC that will be
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connected. Setting up the serial ports is accomplished by using the 70Series Configurator.
When using AOCs that communicate via Modbus (NAO8101 and NAO8103) the M57x COM
port must be set for an RxD to TxD Delay of 10ms for proper operation. A separate AOC
may be connected on each serial port. Serial port and connection information is shown
below and in Figure 6. As stated previously, the AOC address must match the protocol
address assigned to the M57x communications port.
Protocol
5.10
Baud
Parity
Media
DNP
9600
NONE
RS485
Modbus
9600
EVEN
RS485
Automatic Event Notification
The 70 Series is capable of sending an Automatic Notification via email, or over a serial port.
The action of automatic notification may be selected in response to any of the available
triggers, similar to triggering a recording or activating an output contact. The type of
notification (email or serial) is selected in the “Automatic Notification Settings" page of the
Configurator.
5.10.1
Email Notifications
A valid SMTP (email) server IP address must be entered. This server must exist on the local
network in order for emails to be sent. Email addresses can then be entered for up to 3
users.
5.10.2
Serial Notifications
The 70 Series can be configured to send text strings out a serial port P2 or P3. These text
strings can be used for various purposes, including operating a modem. This could be used
to send a page to a numeric pager, for example.
5.10.3
Data Sent
The 70 Series meter will send the user-configured string out the specified COM port. It is the
user’s responsibility to ensure the string is properly formatted to communicate through any
port switches, modem switches, and/or modems. The user is also responsible for ensuring
the string specified is meaningful to the user or device that will be receiving it.
If the 70 Series meter is not configured to have a COM port send notifications, then no serial
notifications will be sent.
If the 70 Series meter has multiple COM ports configured to send notifications, then the
notifications will be sent out each port configured for notifications.
5.10.4
Error Recovery
There is no provision to confirm that a message has been successfully transmitted to an end
user or device. There may be a busy signal, an answering machine may take the call, or
another device may be using the phone line.
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Example
Here is an example of a string that can be configured to send the numeric message 123 to a
pager with the phone # 610-555-1212, and then hang up:
ATDT6105551212,,,,,,,,,123,,,,ATH<cr>
Note that it is typically important to enter the <cr> (carriage return character) for the string to
be properly recognized by the modem. Information on modem control characters is available
from your modem manufacturer.
5.10.6
Control Characters
Control characters can be entered in the Configurator by typing “\x” followed by the
hexadecimal representation of the ASCII code for the desired character. For example, the
control-Z character is represented by a hexadecimal 1A; therefore, “\x1a” should be entered
into the serial data string where a control-Z is desired.
If the characters “\x” are desired to appear in the serial data string rather than a control
character, then this special sequence can be escaped by entering “\\x”. The characters “\x”
will appear in the serial data string.
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MEASUREMENTS
Basic measurement quantities are calculated and updated every 1/4 cycle. These quantities
include RMS Amperes and RMS Volts. Watts, VARs, VAs, Power Factor, all harmonicbased measurements (such as fundamental-only quantities), Energy, Frequency, and Phase
Angle are updated every cycle.
NOTE:
6.1
For all of the following measurements, it is important to keep in mind
that the specific protocol used to access the data may affect the data
that is available, or the format of that data. No attempt is made here
to describe the method of accessing measurements - always check
the appropriate protocol manual for details.
Changing Transformer Ratios
The M57x has the capability to store values for Current Transformer (CT) and Potential
Transformer (VT) turns ratios. The VT and CT values are factory set to 1:1 CT and 1:1 VT.
These values can be entered into the M57x over the network or via the Configurator
software, and will be stored in internal non-volatile memory located on the Signal Input
Module. All measurements are presented in primary units, based on these ratios. Refer to
the appropriate protocol manual for information on changing transformer ratios.
6.1.1
User (External Transformer) Gain and Phase Correction
It is possible to correct for both gain and phase errors in external current and voltage
instrument transformers connected to the M57x when these errors are known. These
Correction Factors can be entered via a protocol or by using the 70 Series Configurator
Software.
User Gain Correction is a multiplier (from -2 to +2) that can be used to adjust for known gain
errors in the system. User Gain Correction is "1" by default. For example, a gain correction
of 1.01 would increase the effective ratio by 1%. Entering a negative number will reverse the
phase of an input.
User Phase Correction is used to adjust for known phase errors in the system. User Phase
Correction is measured in degrees from -180 to 180. The default value is "0". When a User
Phase Correction is entered, it will have an effect on Watts and VARs, Fundamental Watts
and VARs, PF and Displacement PF, and the phase angles reported for fundamental values.
It will have no effect on the magnitudes of phase-to-phase Fundamental Volts.
6.2
Current (1/4-Cycle Update)
The M57x has three (M571) or 6 (M572) current inputs, with an internal CT on each channel.
These inputs can read to 20ARMS (symmetrical), or 28.2APEAK (S51 or S54 option) or to
100ARMS (symmetrical), or 141APEAK (S50 or S53 option) under all temperature and input
frequency conditions. No range switching is used, allowing a high dynamic range.
The current signals are transformer coupled, providing a true differential current signal.
Additionally, a continuous DC removal is performed on all current inputs. Instrument
transformer ratios can be entered for each current input, as described above. This can be
accomplished via a network and protocol (refer to the specific protocol manual for details) or
by using the 70 Series Configurator.
When used on 2-element systems, if there are only 2 currents available to measure, a "0"
can be written to the CT Ratio for the missing phase current. This will cause the M57x to
fabricate the missing phase current from the sum of the other 2 phase currents. This feature
is not recommended for WYE connected systems.
The average of the 3 current phases ((Ia + Ib + Ic)/3) is also available. The Average 3-phase
Amps for bus 1 and bus 2 (M572) are calculated and made available on a per cycle basis.
6.2.1
Residual Current (1/4-Cycle Update)
The M57x calculates the vector sum of the three phase currents, which is known as the
Residual Current. The Residual Current is equivalent to routing the common current return
wire through the neutral current input on systems without separate current returns for each
phase, with the exception that individual Harmonics are not measured on Residual Current.
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Voltage Channels (1/4-Cycle Update)
The M57x uses a unique voltage connection method, which is combined with simultaneous
sampling to provide an extremely flexible voltage measurement system. All voltage inputs
are measured relative to a common reference level (essentially panel ground). See
Appendix 1 for input connection information. Because all signals are sampled at the same
instant in time, common mode signals can be removed by subtraction of samples in the
DSP, instead of the more traditional difference amplifier approach. This greatly simplifies the
external analog circuitry, increases the accuracy, and allows measurement of the Neutral-toGround voltage at the panel. The 7kV input divider resistors are accurate to within +/25ppm/DegC, and have a range of 600VPEAK, from any input to panel ground. Each sample
is corrected for offset and gain using factory calibration values stored in non-volatile memory
on the board. Additionally, a continuous DC removal is performed on all inputs.
The M57x calculates voltages in PRIMARY units, based on the VT Ratios entered. There
are separate VT Ratios for each input. Ratios can be entered via a network and protocol
(refer to the specific protocol manual for details) or by running the 70 Series Configurator.
The advantages of this method of voltage measurement are apparent when the M57x is
used on the common 2, 2-1/2, and 3 element systems (refer to Section 6.5). The M57x is
always calculating Line-to-Neutral, Line-to-Line, and Bus-to-Bus voltages with equal
accuracy. On 2 element connections, any phase can serve as the reference phase. Further,
the M57x can accommodate WYE connections on one Bus, and DELTA connections on the
other Bus.
On 2-1/2 element systems, one of the phase-to-neutral voltages is missing, and the M57x
must create it from the vector sum of the other two phase-to-neutral voltages. In order to
configure the M57x for 2-1/2 element mode and which phase voltage is missing, a "0" is
written to the phase-to-neutral VT Ratio for the missing phase voltage.
The average of the 3 voltage phases ((Va + Vb + Vc)/3) is also available. The Average 3phase Volts for bus 1 and bus 2 are calculated and made available on a per cycle basis.
6.4
Power Factor (1-Cycle Update)
The per-phase Power Factor measurement is calculated using the "Power Triangle", or the
per-phase WATTS divided by the per-phase VAs. The Total PF is similar, but uses the Total
WATTS and Total VAs instead. The sign convention for Power Factor is shown in Figure 9 .
Note that the Total PF calculation depends on the Total VA calculation type chosen.
6.5
Watts / Volt-Amperes (VAs) / VARs (1-Cycle Update)
On any power connection type (2, 2-1/2, and 3 element), the M57x calculates per-element
Watts by multiplying the voltage and current samples of that element together. This
represents the dot product of the voltage and current vectors, or the true Watts. The perelement VAs are calculated from the product of the per-element Volts and Amps. The perelement VARs are calculated from fundamental VARs.
In any connection type, the Total Watts and Total VARs is the arithmetic sum of the perelement Watts and VARs. The sign conventions are shown in Figure 9.
When used on 2-element systems, the reference phase voltage (typically phase B) input, is
connected to the Neutral voltage input, and effectively causes one of the elements to be
zero. It is not required to use any particular voltage phase as the reference on 2element systems. When used on 2-element systems the per-element Watts, VARs, and
VAs have no direct physical meaning, as they would on 2-1/2 and 3 element systems
where they represent the per-phase Watts, VARs, and VAs.
When used on 2-1/2 element systems, one of the phase-to-neutral voltages is fabricated, as
described in Section 6.3. In all other respects, the 2-1/2 element connection is identical to
the 3 element connection.
The M57x may be configured to calculate Total VAs in one of several different ways. The
calculation method may be selected either by sending a command to the M57x via a network
and protocol (refer to the specific protocol manual for details) or by using the 70 Series
Configurator. The three methods, Arithmetic, Geometric, and Equivalent (both for WYE and
DELTA), all yield the same results when used on balanced systems with no harmonics
present. The differences are illustrated below:
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Geometric VA Calculations
GEOMETRIC VATOTAL = WattsTOTAL + VARsTOTAL
2
2
This is the traditional definition of Total VAs for WYE or DELTA systems, and is the default
method for Total VAs calculation. The value of Total VAs calculated using this method does
not change on systems with amplitude imbalance, relative to a balanced system.
There is also a relationship to the Total Power Factor, which is described in Section 6.4.
Total Power Factor calculations using the Geometric VA method will still indicate a "1" on a
system with phase amplitude imbalance, or canceling leading and lagging loads.
For example, on a system with a lagging load on one phase and an equal leading load on
another phase, the Geometric VA result will be reduced relative to a balanced system but the
Total Power Factor will still be "1".
6.5.2
Arithmetic VA Calculations
ARITHMETIC VATOTAL = (VA− N × I A ) + (VB − N × I B ) + (VC − N × I C )
The Arithmetic VA calculation is not applicable to DELTA connected systems. The value of
Total VAs calculated using this method also does not change on systems with amplitude
imbalance, relative to a balanced system. The value of Arithmetic VAs will not change on a
system with canceling leading and lagging loads.
There is also a relationship to the Total Power Factor, which is described in Section 6.4.
Total Power Factor calculations using the Arithmetic VA method will still indicate a "1" on a
system with phase amplitude imbalance, but not with canceling leading and lagging loads.
For example, on a system with a lagging load on one phase and an equal leading load on
another phase, the value of the Arithmetic VAs will not change relative to a balanced system,
but the Total Power Factor will be less than "1". The Total Power Factor calculated with
Arithmetic VAs will "see" the reactive elements in this system, while the Total Power Factor
calculated with Geometric VAs will not.
6.5.3
Equivalent VA Calculations
EQUIVALENT WYE VATOTAL = VA2− N + VB2− N + VC2− N × I A2 + I B2 + I C2
EQUIVALENT DELTA VATOTAL =
VA2− B + VB2−C + VC2− A × I A2 + I B2 + I C2
3
The Equivalent VA calculation has not been as commonly used as other approaches, but
has been discussed extensively in technical papers. It is also referred to as "System
Apparent Power". This approach to the VA calculation may yield results which are surprising
to those used to more traditional methods. A system with amplitude imbalance will yield a
greater value of Equivalent VAs than a balanced system.
There is also a relationship to the Total Power Factor, which is described in Section 6.4.
Essentially, Total Power Factor calculations using the Equivalent VA method will not indicate
a "1" on any system unless the loads are purely resistive, and the amplitudes are balanced.
Further, the Equivalent VA method may yield better results in the presence of harmonics,
where Total Power Factor will also be reduced from "1". Refer to industry standards for
more information.
6.6
Energy (1-Cycle Update)
Separate values are maintained for both positive and negative Watt-hours, positive and
negative VAR-hours, and VA-hours. These energy quantities are calculated every cycle
from the Total Watts, Total VARs, and Total VAs, and the values are stored into non-volatile
memory every 15 seconds.
Energy values may be reset.
All values are reset
simultaneously. Refer to the appropriate protocol manual for details.
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Frequency (1-Cycle Update)
Frequency is calculated every cycle for every input. The M57x monitors the change in
Phase Angle per unit time using the Phase Angle measurement for the fundamental
generated by the FFT. The System Frequency is the frequency of the input used for
synchronizing the sampling rate.
REFERENCE DIRECTION
SOURCE
LOAD
METERING
POINT
ACTIVE POWER - WATTS ARE POSITIVE WHEN THE POWER IS FROM
THE SOURCE TO THE LOAD
REACTIVE POWER - VARS ARE POSITIVE WHEN THE LOAD IS INDUCTIVE
Im (+)
QUADRANT 1
QUADRANT 2
WATTS (–)
VARS (–) - LEAD CAPACITIVE
PF (–) - LAG
WATTS (+)
VARS (–) - LEAD CAPACITIVE
PF (+) - LEAD
Re (–)
Re (+)
QUADRANT 3
QUADRANT 4
WATTS (–)
VARS (+) - LAG INDUCTIF
PF (+) - LEAD
WATTS (+)
VARS (–) - LAG INDUCTIF
PF (–) - LAG
Im (–)
FIGURE 9: SIGN CONVENTIONS FOR POWER MEASUREMENTS
M0140ENa
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
6.8
Page 67
Demand Measurements (1-Second Update)
The traditional thermal demand meter displays a value that represents the logarithmic
response of a heating element in the instrument driven by the applied signal. The most
positive value since the last instrument reset is known as the maximum demand (or peak
demand) and the lowest value since the last instrument reset is known as the minimum
demand. Since thermal demand is a heating and cooling phenomenon, the demand value
has a response time T, defined as the time for the demand function to change 90% of the
difference between the applied signal and the initial demand value. For utility applications,
the traditional value of T is 15 minutes, although the M57x can accommodate other demand
intervals (Section 6.8.7).
The M57x generates a demand value using modern microprocessor technology in place of
heating and cooling circuits, it is therefore much more accurate and repeatable over a wide
range of input values. In operation, the M57x continuously samples the basic measured
quantities, and digitally integrates the samples with a time constant T to obtain the demand
value. The calculated demand value is continuously checked against the previous maximum
and minimum demand values. This process continues indefinitely, until the demand is reset
or until the meter is reset (or power removed and reapplied). The demand reset and
power-up algorithms are different for each measurement. These routines are further
described in following paragraphs. The maximum and minimum demand values are stored
in non-volatile memory on the Host Processor module.
NOTE:
Changing VT or CT ratios does NOT reset demand measurements to
zero.
Demand Quantity
6.8.1
Phase Reference
Function
Amperes (1 & 2)
Phase, Neutral, Residual
Present, Max
Fundamental Amperes
Phase, Neutral, Residual
Present, Max
Volts (Bus 1 & 2)
Phase - Neutral, Phase - Phase
Present, Max, Min
Total Watts (1 & 2)
Present, Max, Min
Total VARs (1 & 2)
Present, Max, Min
Total VAs (1 & 2)
Present, Max, Min
THD Volts (Bus 1 & 2)
Phase - Neutral, Phase - Phase
Present, Max
TDD Amperes (1 & 2)
Phase, Neutral, Residual
Present, Max
Ampere and Fundamental Ampere Demand
Present Ampere Demands are calculated via the instantaneous measurement data used to
calculate the per-phase Amperes.
Upon power-up, all Present Ampere Demands are reset to zero. Maximum Ampere
Demands are initialized to the maximum values recalled from non-volatile memory. Upon
Ampere Demand Reset, all per-phase Present and Maximum Ampere Demands are set to
zero. When Ampere Demands are reset, Fundamental Current Demands are also reset.
6.8.2
Volt Demand
Present Volt Demands are calculated via the instantaneous measurement data used to
calculate the per-phase Volts. Upon power-up all Present Volt Demands are reset to zero.
The Maximum Volt Demands and Minimum Volt Demands are initialized to the minimum and
maximum values recalled from non-volatile memory. In order to prevent the recording of
false minimums a new Minimum Volt Demand will not be stored unless two criteria are met.
First, the instantaneous voltage for that particular phase must be greater than 20Vrms
(secondary). Second, the Present Demand for that particular phase must have dipped
(Present Demand value must be less then previous Present Demand value). Upon Voltage
Demand Reset, all per-phase Maximum Voltage Demands are set to zero. Minimum Voltage
Demands are set to full-scale.
User Manual
M57x
6.8.3
M57x/EN M/E
Page 68
Power Demands (Total Watts, VARs, and VAs)
Present Total Watt, VAR, and VA Demands are calculated via the instantaneous
measurement data. The Total VA Demand calculation type is based on the instantaneous
Total VA calculation type (Section 6.5)
Upon power-up, all Present Total Watt, VAR, and VA Demands are reset to the average of
the stored Maximum and Minimum values. The Maximum and Minimum Demands are
initialized to the minimum and maximum values recalled from non-volatile memory. Upon a
demand reset, the Maximum and Minimum Demands are set equal to the Present Total
Watt, VAR, and VA Demand values. A demand reset does not change the value of the
Present Total Watt, VAR, and VA Demands.
6.8.4
Voltage THD Demand
Present Voltage THD Demands are calculated via the instantaneous measurement data
used to calculate the per-phase and phase-to-phase Voltage THDs (Section 6.9.1). Voltage
THDs are calculated for both Bus 1 and Bus 2. By applying a thermal demand to the THD
measurement, the M57x provides a more effective method of determining the severity of a
harmonic problem.
Upon power-up, all Present Voltage THD Demands are reset to zero. Maximum Voltage
THD Demands are initialized to the maximum values recalled from non-volatile memory.
Upon Harmonic Demand Reset, all per-phase Present and Maximum Voltage THD demands
are set to zero.
6.8.5
Current TDD Demand
Present Current TDD Demands are calculated via the instantaneous measurement data. By
applying a thermal demand to the TDD measurement, the M57x provides a more effective
method of determining the severity of a harmonic problem.
Upon power-up, all Present Current TDD Demands are reset to zero. Maximum Current
TDD Demands are initialized to the maximum values recalled from non-volatile memory.
Upon Harmonic Demand Reset, all per-phase Present and Maximum Current TDD demands
are set to zero.
6.8.6
Demand Resets
The demand values are reset in four groups: current, voltage, power, and harmonics. This
can be accomplished via a network and protocol (refer to the specific protocol manual).
6.8.7
Demand Interval
The M57x uses 15 minutes as the default demand interval, however it can be changed. Four
separate, independent demand intervals may be set for current, voltage, power, and
harmonics. The range of demand intervals is 5 to 3600 seconds (1hr). This can be
accomplished via a network and protocol (refer to the specific protocol manual for details) or
by using the 70 Series Configurator. While the Demand Interval is stored internally as a 32bit number, some protocols may place further restrictions on the Demand Interval due to
limitations on numerical format. Please refer to the appropriate protocol manual for details.
6.9
Harmonic Measurements (1-Cycle Update)
M57x instruments continually sample all inputs at 128 samples per cycle, and compute a
128-point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) every cycle for each input. When combined with
high dynamic-range input of up to 28APEAK and 600VPEAK, this allows the M57x to make
extremely accurate measurements of harmonics, regardless of crest factor. All harmonic
and harmonic-based values are calculated every cycle. Both magnitude and phase of each
harmonic are provided. In the following sections, Harmonic 0 indicates DC, Harmonic 1
indicates the fundamental, and Harmonic N is the nth multiple of the fundamental.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
6.9.1
Page 69
Voltage Distortion (THD) (1-Cycle Update)
Voltage Harmonic Distortion is measured by
phase in several different ways. The equation for
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is given in
Equation 1. For Odd Harmonic Distortion, the
summation only uses harmonics where h is odd.
For Even Harmonic Distortion, the summation
only uses harmonics where h is even.
63
%T H D =
∑V
h= 2
2
h
× 1 00%
V1
EQUATION 1 – VOLTAGE THD
Note the denominator is the fundamental magnitude. For Individual Harmonic Distortion
there is no summation, only one component is used in the numerator.
6.9.2
Current Distortion (THD and TDD) (1-Cycle Update)
Current Harmonic Distortion is measured by
phase in several different ways. The first
method is Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The
equation for THD is given in Equation 2. For
Odd Harmonic Distortion, the summation only
uses harmonics where h is odd. For Even
Harmonic Distortion, the summation only uses
harmonics where h is even.
63
%T H D =
∑
I h2
h= 2
× 100%
I1
EQUATION 2 – CURRENT THD
Note the denominator is the fundamental magnitude.
Alternatively, Current Harmonic Distortion can be
measured as Demand Distortion, as defined by
IEEE-519/519A. Demand Distortion differs from
traditional Harmonic Distortion in that the
denominator of the distortion equation is a fixed
value.
63
%T D D =
∑I
h=2
I
2
h
× 100%
L
EQUATION 3 – CURRENT TDD
This fixed denominator value is defined as the average monthly peak demand. By creating a
measurement that is based on a fixed value, TDD is a "better" measure of distortion
problems. Traditional THD is determined on the ratio of harmonics to the fundamental.
While this is acceptable for voltage measurements, where the fundamental only varies
slightly, it is ineffective for current measurements since the fundamental varies over a wide
range. Using traditional THD, 30% THD may mean a 1 Amp load with 30% Distortion, or a
100 Amp load with 30% Distortion. By using TDD, these same two loads would exhibit 0.3%
TDD for the 1 Amp load and 30% TDD for the 100 Amp load (if the Denominator was set at
100 Amps). In the M57x, Current Demand Distortion is implemented using Equation 3. The
TDD equation is similar to Harmonic Distortion (Equation 2), except that the denominator in
the equation is a user-defined number. This number, IL, is meant to represent the average
load on the system. The denominator IL is different for each phase and neutral, and is set by
changing the denominator values within the M57x. Refer to the appropriate protocol manual
for specific information.
Note that in Equation 3, if IL equals the fundamental, this Equation becomes Equation 2 Harmonic Distortion. In the instrument this can be achieved by setting the denominator to
zero amps, in which case the instrument will substitute the fundamental, and calculate
Current THD. For Odd Harmonic Distortion, the summation only uses harmonics where h is
odd. For Even Harmonic Distortion, the summation only uses harmonics where h is even.
For Individual Harmonic Distortions there is no summation, only one component is used in
the numerator.
Note that there is a separate, writeable denominator for each current input channel. The
TDD Denominator Registers are set by the factory to 5 Amps (primary), which is the nominal
full load of the CT input with a 1:1 CT. These writeable denominators can be used in
conjunction with the distortion measurements to obtain the magnitudes of harmonics, in
other words, convert from percent to amps. This is simply done by multiplying the percent
TDD by the TDD Denominator for that phase, and the result will be the actual RMS
magnitude of the selected harmonic(s). This technique can also be used if the THD mode
(denominator set to zero) is used, by multiplying the percent THD by the Fundamental Amps
for that phase.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
6.9.3
Page 70
Fundamental Current (1-Cycle Update)
Fundamental Amps are the nominal component (50/60 Hz) of the waveform. The M57x
measures the magnitude of the fundamental amps for each phase. These measurements
can be used in conjunction with the distortion measurements to obtain the magnitudes of
harmonics, in other words, convert from percent to amps. As was mentioned previously, this
is simply done by multiplying the percent THD by the Fundamental Amps for that phase
(which is the denominator), and the result will be the actual RMS magnitude of the selected
harmonic.
6.9.4
Fundamental Voltage (1-Cycle Update)
Fundamental Volts are the nominal component (50/60 Hz) of the waveform. The M57x
measures the magnitude of the fundamental phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase volts.
These measurements can be used in conjunction with the distortion measurements to obtain
the magnitudes of harmonics, in other words, convert from percent to volts. This is simply
done by multiplying the percent THD by the Fundamental Volts for that phase (which is the
denominator), and the result will be the actual RMS magnitude of the selected harmonic.
Fundamental Volts and Amps can be used in conjunction to obtain Fundamental VAs, and
when used with Displacement Power Factor can yield Fundamental Watts and Fundamental
VARs.
6.9.5
Fundamental Watts / Volt-Amperes (VAs) / VARs (1-Cycle Update)
Fundamental Watt, VAR, and VA Demands are calculated analogous to the True Watts /
Volt-Amperes (VAs) / VARs of Section 6.5, but contain only information about the
fundamental. The Fundamental Total VA calculation type is the same as the True Total VA
calculation type.
6.9.6
K-Factor (1-Cycle Update)
K-Factor is a measure of the heating effects on
transformers, and it is defined in ANSI/IEEE
C57.110-1986. Equation 4 is used by the M57x
to determine K-Factor, where "h" is the harmonic
th
number and "Ih" is the magnitude of the h
harmonic. K-Factor is measured on each of the
three phases of amps, however there is no
"Total" K-Factor.
63
K − Factor =
∑I
h= 1
2
h
63
× h2
∑I
h=1
× 100%
2
h
EQUATION 4 – K-FACTOR
K-Factor, like THD and PF, does not indicate the actual load on a device, since all three of
these measurements are ratios. Given the same harmonic ratio, the calculated K-Factor for
a lightly loaded transformer will be the same as the calculated K-Factor for a heavily loaded
transformer, although the actual heating on the transformer will be significantly different.
6.9.7
Displacement Power Factor (1-Cycle Update)
Displacement Power Factor is defined as the cosine of the angle (phi) between the
Fundamental Voltage Vector and the Fundamental Current Vector. The sign convention for
Displacement Power Factor is the same as for Power Factor, shown in Figure 9.
The Total Displacement Power Factor measurement is calculated using the "Power
Triangle", or the three-phase Fundamental WATTS divided by the three-phase Fundamental
VAs. The per-phase Fundamental VA measurement is calculated from the product of the
per-phase Fundamental Amp and Fundamental Volts values. The three-phase Fundamental
VA measurement is the sum of the per-phase Fundamental VA values (Arithmetic VAs).
6.9.8
Phase Angle (1-Cycle Update)
The Phase Angle is calculated for the Bus 1 to Bus 2 phase Fundamental Voltages and Bus
1 Fundamental Voltage to Bus 1 Fundamental Current. It is the Bus 1 Fundamental Voltage
angle minus either the Bus 1 Fundamental Current or Bus 2 Fundamental Voltage angle for
a given phase. Values are from -180 to +180 Degrees.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
6.9.9
Page 71
Resistance, Reactance, Impedance (1-Cycle Update)
These measurements are calculated for each phase from the fundamental values of voltage
and current. The Impedance value, combined with the voltage-to-current phase angle, gives
the polar form of the impedance. The Resistance and Reactance represent the rectangular
form of the Impedance.
6.9.10
Slip Frequency (1-Cycle Update)
The Slip Frequency is the difference in the Frequency of a phase of Bus 1 Voltage to Bus 2
Voltage. Values are + when Bus 1 Frequency is greater.
6.9.11
Individual Phase Harmonic Magnitudes and Phase Angles (1-Cycle Update)
The M57x measures individual Harmonic Magnitudes and Harmonic Phase Angles for all
Currents, Line-to-Neutral Voltages, and Line-to-Line Voltages. The magnitudes are reported
in units of Amperes or Volts, not in percent. The Harmonic Phase Angles are in degrees,
and all are referenced to the Bus 1 VA-N Voltage, which places all Harmonic Phase Angles in
a common reference system. Values are from -180 to +180 Degrees.
6.10
Temperature (1-Second Update)
The M57x measures the internal temperature of the unit. Values are reported in increments
of 0.5C.
6.11
Symmetrical Components
(1-Cycle Update)
For each three phase input, Voltage, and Current, the M57x generates the positivesequence, negative-sequence, and zero-sequence vectors relative to phase A. These
vectors represent the symmetrical components of their respective busses. The sequence
component vectors are calculated by applying the vector operator a to the fundamental
vectors of each phase according to the following set of well-known equations:
Zero-sequence component (vector)
E 0 = ( Ea + Eb + Ec) / 3
Positive-sequence component (vector)
E1 = ( Ea + a * Eb + a * a * Ec) / 3
Negative-sequence component (vector)
E 2 = ( Ea + a * a * Eb + A * Ec) / 3
Where a = cos(120°) +
given bus.
j * sin(120°) and Ea, Eb, and Ec are the fundamental vectors of a
The configuration parameter phase rotation, swaps the positive and negative sequence
components to accommodate installations with "CBA" phase rotation.
6.12
Supply Voltage and Current Unbalance (1-Cycle Update)
The supply voltage unbalance is evaluated from the symmetrical components, according to
EN61000-4-30:2003. In addition to the positive sequence component under unbalance
conditions, there also exists at least one of the following components: negative sequence
component u2 and/or zero sequence component u0.
The current unbalance is calculated similarly using the current components.
Uu (%) =
U2
U1
x100%
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
6.13
Page 72
Flicker
Flicker measurements are measured and evaluated according to IEC61000-4-15. Specific
settings for Flicker are found in the "Power Quality" tab of the Configurator. The Nominal
System Frequency should be selected appropriately for the system in the "Advanced" tab of
the Configurator.
6.14
Fault Analysis
Fault location and fault type are determined using a single-ended impedance calculation that
is based upon an algorithm using measured values. Following below are the required line
parameters needed to be entered for fault location as well as the outputs obtained in the
SOE log and for protocols. Information on triggering and recording for fault location can be
found in sections 5.3.7.
6.14.1
Line Parameters
Line parameters for Bus 1 and Bus 2 may be entered independently in the Fault Location
Line Settings area of the 70 Series Configurator (version 2.43 and later). The magnitude
and phase angle of the direct line impedance, Zd (positive sequence), and the residual
compensation factor, kZ0, are required, where Zd is measured in ohms and
kZ0 = (Z0 – Zd) / 3Zd. The zero sequence impedance, Z0, is needed when doing the
calculation. In addition, the user may specify the line length and their preferred units of
measure, in place of per unit values (p.u.), for reporting distance in the SOE log.
6.14.2
Peak Current
When the Fault Analysis module is triggered, it will scan for the maximum fundamental
current values in the 10 cycles before and 20 cycles after the trigger point. The maximums
for each of Phase A, Phase B, Phase C, and Residual current are saved. The results are
made available in the SOE log and protocol registers as noted below. Additionally, the
maximum of the three phase (A, B, C) maximums is saved separately and made available
via protocol.
6.14.3
Status Indication and Reset
The availability of measurement points indicating status and which ones can be reset are
indicated as follows:
Fault Type: One point representing the fault type is available on Mx71 (Two points on Mx72
models). The user is able to select Fault Type if it is of interest when creating a userconfigurable point list. The index number will be determined by where the point falls within
the point list. The Fault Type point value represents a set of packed bits. Bit0 represents APhase Involved, Bit1 represents B-Phase Involved, Bit2 represents Phase-C Involved. All
other bits (Bit3 – Bit15) always equal Zero. In that way:
(1)
A-G fault is indicated by binary value of 1 (0001)
(2)
B-G is binary 2 (0010)
(3)
A-B is binary 3 (0011)
(4)
C-G is binary 4 (0100)
(5)
A-C is binary 5 (0101)
(6)
B-C is binary 6 (0110)
(7)
ABC is binary 7 (0111)
Targets: Four points representing targets are available on Mx71 (Eight points on Mx72
models). The user will be able to select any of the points that are of interest when creating a
user-configurable point list. Index numbers will be determined by where the points fall within
the point list. Target Points: Fault Completed is set when the module has completed
analysis. Fault Target A, Fault Target B, and Fault Target C are set when their associated
phases are involved in the fault. Target points are single bit binaries. Possible values are 0
and 1.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 73
Fault Counter: One point (Two points on Mx72 models) is available representing the number
of times the fault location algorithm has been triggered. The user will be able to select Fault
Count if it is of interest when creating a user-configurable point list. The index number will
be determined by where the point falls within the point list. The Fault Count point may be
read as a counter change object. This is intended to facilitate notification (via event polling)
that the value of the peak fault current has been freshly updated. The Fault Count Point
simply increments until it rolls over; it cannot be reset.
Target Resets: The above-mentioned Fault Completed point is available to permit the user
to reset targets once all data associated with a fault has been read. The user will be able to
select Reset Targets when creating a user-configurable point. The index number will be
determined by where the point falls within the point list. When the point is reset by writing a
zero to it, the Fault Type point and the Fault Target A,B,C points will be automatically set to
zero as well.
Related points for Bus1, Mx72 model Bus2 points are similar:
6.14.4
SOELOG Output
The soelog will report the fault type and fault distance. Distance will be shown as “per unit,”
and in terms of the users preferred length units. For example, if the line length is defined as
100km the soelog entry might look like this:
24 30-Jul-2007 01:10:51.300206 Fault AB1 at 0.4949 of line or 49.49 km
6.14.5
Protocol Output
Configurable registers in Modbus and DNP may be used to view the results of the distance
calculations. The following measurements have been added:
Measurement
Modbus
DNP3
Fault Type Bus 1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XAN1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XBN1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XCN1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XAB1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XBC1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XCA1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Type Bus 2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XAN2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XBN2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XCN2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XAB2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XBC2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Distance XCA2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current IA1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current IB1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current IC1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current IR1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current Bus1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 74
Measurement
Modbus
DNP3
Peak Fault Current IA2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current IB2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current IC2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current IR1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Peak Fault Current Bus2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Target A1
DNP Binary Output
Fault Target B1
DNP Binary Output
Fault Target C1
DNP Binary Output
Fault Completed Bus1
Modbus register
DNP Binary Output
Fault Count Bus1
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
Fault Target A2
DNP Binary Output
Fault Target B2
DNP Binary Output
Fault Target C2
DNP Binary Output
Fault Completed Bus2
Modbus register
DNP Binary Output
Fault Count Bus2
Modbus register
DNP Analog Input
The ‘fault type’ registers are a bit-field representation of which phases were driven by the
event system, and are the same information used to generate the faulted phase strings in
the soelog. Bit0 is A, Bit1 is B, Bit2 is C. The ‘fault distance’ registers are integer
representations of the per-unit distance, in DIV1000 or DIV100 format pending exact
configuration implementation.
6.15
List of Available Measurements & Settings
Available Measurements
Accrued Digital IO Module #0-6, Input 1-16
K-factor Amps A (1 and 2)
Accrued Digital IO Module #0-6, Output 1-4
K-factor Amps B (1 and 2)
Accrued DR1/DR2 Active, Completed, Started
K-factor Amps C (1 and 2)
Accrued Pulse KWH, KVARH Positive (Bus 1
and 2)
K-factor Amps Residual (1 and 2)
Accrued Pulse KWH, KVARH Negative (Bus 1
and 2)
Log Interval
Accrued Virtual IO, Inputs 1-32, Outputs 1-32
Meter Type
Accrued WR1/WR2 Active, Completed, Started
Misc. Packed Bits
Amps A, B, C, Residual (Feeder 1 and 2)
Network Time Sync
Any Recorder Active
Peak Fault Current Amps A, B, C, Residual, Bus
(1 and 2)
Any Recorder Memory Full
Phase Angle Amps A Harmonic (1…63 for 1 and
2)
Any Recorder Stored
Phase Angle Amps B Harmonic (1…63 for 1 and
2)
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 75
Available Measurements
Any Recorder Triggered
Phase Angle Amps C Harmonic (1…63 for 1 and
2)
Avg. 3-phase Amps (1 and 2)
Phase Angle Volts A Bus1-Bus2
Avg. 3-phase Volts (1 and 2)
Phase Angle Volts A Harmonic (1…63)
Best Clock
Phase Angle Volts AB Harmonic (1…63)
Class 0 Response Setup
Phase Angle Volts B Bus1-Bus2
CT Scale Factor
Phase Angle Volts B Harmonic (1…63)
CT Scale Factor Divisor
Phase Angle Volts BC Harmonic (1…63)
Demand (Max.) Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 and
2)
Phase Angle Volts C Bus1-Bus2
Demand (Max.) Fund. Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 Phase Angle Volts C Harmonic (1…63)
and 2)
Demand (Max.) TDD Amps A, B, C, Residual (1
and 2)
Phase Angle Volts CA Harmonic (1…63)
Demand (Max.) THD Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN,
AB, BC, CA
Phase Angle Volts to Amps A (1 and 2)
Demand (Max.) THD Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN,
AB, BC, CA
Phase Angle Volts to Amps B (1 and 2)
Demand (Max.) VARs A, B, C, Total (1 and 2)
Phase Angle Volts to Amps C (1 and 2)
Demand (Max.) VAs A, B, C, Total (1 and 2)
Power Factor A, B, C, Total (Bus 1 and 2)
Demand (Max.) Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN, NG,
AB, BC, CA
Power Factor Total Arithmetic (Bus 1 and 2)
Demand (Max.) Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN, NG,
AB, BC, CA
Power Factor Total Equivalent L-L (Bus 1 and 2)
Demand (Max.) Watts A, B, C, Total (1and 2)
Power Factor Total Equivalent L-N (Bus 1 and 2)
Demand (Min.) THD Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN,
AB, BC, CA
Power Factor Total Geometric (Bus 1 and 2)
Demand (Min.) THD Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN,
AB, BC, CA
Protocol Version
Demand (Min.) VARs A, B, C, Total (1 and 2)
PT Scale Factor
Demand (Min.) VAs A, B, C, Total (1 and 2)
PT Scale Factor Divisor
Demand (Min.) Volts Bus1, AN, BN, CN, NG,
AB, BC, CA
Pulse Status- Negative VArHrs (1 and 2)
Demand (Min.) Volts Bus2, AN, BN, CN, NG,
AB, BC, CA
Pulse Status- Negative WHrs (1 and 2)
Demand (Min.) Watts A, B, C, Total (1 and 2)
Pulse Status- Positive VarHrs (1 and 2)
Demand Amps A, B, C, Residual
Pulse Status-Positive WHrs (1 and 2)
Demand Fundamental Amps A, B, C, Residual
Pulse VAR-Hrs Normal (1 and 2)
Demand TDD Amps A, B, C, Residual
Pulse VAR-Hrs Reverse (1 and 2)
Demand THD Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC,
CA
Pulse Watt-Hrs Normal (1 and 2)
Demand THD Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC,
CA
Pulse Watt-Hrs Reverse (1 and 2)
Demand VARs A, B, C, Total
Reactance A, B, C (1 and 2)
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 76
Available Measurements
Demand VAs A, B, C, Total
Resistance A, B, C, (1 and 2)
Demand Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN, NG, AB, BC,
CA
Slip Freq. Volts A Bus1-Bus2
Demand Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
Slip Freq. Volts B Bus1-Bus2
Demand Watts A, B, C, Total
Slip Freq. Volts C Bus1-Bus2
Digital IO#0 Debounce Time
SNTP Time Sync
Digital IO#0 Input Point 1-4
Symmetrical comp. of Bus 1 voltage (mag. and
angle)
Digital IO#0 Output Point 1-4
Symmetrical comp. of Bus 2 voltage (mag. and
angle)
Digital IO Module #0-6 Status Output Point 1-4
Symmetrical comp. of current (mag. and angle, 1
& 2)
Displacement Power Factor A, B, C (1 and 2)
System Frequency
Displacement Power Factor Total (1 and 2)
Tag Register
Displacement Power Factor Total Arithmetic (1
and 2)
TDD Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 and 2)
Displacement Power Factor Total Equivalent L-L TDD Denominator A, B, C, (1 and 2)
(1 & 2)
Displacement Power Factor Total Equivalent L-N TDD, Even, Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 and 2)
(1 & 2)
Displacement Power Factor Total Geometric (1
& 2)
TDD, Odd, Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 and 2)
DNP Time Sync
Temperature
DR 1 Active
THD Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
DR1 Memory Full
THD Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
DR1 Record Count
THD, Even, Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
DR1 Stored
THD, Even, Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
DR1 Triggered
THD, Odd, Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
DR2 Active
THD, Odd, Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
DR2 Memory Full
Time Sync Error (usec, msec, sec)
DR2 Record Count
Trigger Derivative 1-120
DR2 Stored
Unbalance Volts (1 and 2)
DR2 Triggered
Unbalance Amps (1 and 2)
DSP Version
User Gain Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 and 2)
Factory Version Hardware
User Gain Volts Bus1 A, B, C, N
Factory Version Software
User Gain Volts Bus2 A, B, C, N
Fault Completed (Bus 1, Bus 2)
User Gain Volts Bus2 Aux1-Gnd, Aux2-Gnd,
Aux1-Aux2
Fault Count (Bus 1, Bus 2)
User Phase Correction Amps A, B, C, Residual (1
and 2)
Fault Distance AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA (Bus 1,
Bus 2)
User Phase Correction Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN,
NG, AB, BC, CA
Fault Target (A, B, C, Bus 1 and Bus 2)
User Phase Correction Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN,
NG, AB, BC, CA
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 77
Available Measurements
Fault Type (Bus 1, Bus 2)
User Phase Correction Volts Bus2 Aux1-Gnd,
Aux2-Gnd, Aux1-Aux2
Flicker Short (PST VAN, VBN, VCN Bus 1 and
2)
VA/PF Calc. Type (1 and 2)
Flicker Long (PLT VAN, VBN, VCN Bus 1 and 2) VA-Hrs (1 and 2)
Frequency Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 and 2)
VAR-Hrs Lag (1 and 2)
Frequency Volts Bus1 A, B, C
VAR-Hrs Lead (1 and 2)
Frequency Volts Bus2 A, B, C
VARs A, B, C, Total (1 and 2)
Fund. Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 and 2)
VAs A, B, C, Total (1 and 2)
Fund. VAs Tot. Arith (1 and 2).
VAs Tot. Arith. (1 and 2)
Fund. VAs Tot. Equiv. L-L (1 and 2)
VAs Tot. Equiv. L-L (1 and 2)
Fund. VAs Tot. Equiv. L-N (1 and 2)
VAs Tot. Equiv. L-N (1 and 2)
Fund. VAs Tot. Geom. (1 and 2)
VAs Tot. Geom. (1 and 2)
Fund. VAs Total (1 and 2)
Virtual Input Point 1-32
Fund. Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
Virtual Output Point 1-32
Fund. Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN, AB, BC, CA
Volts Aux1-Gnd, Aux2-Gnd, Aux1-Aux2
Harmonic, Individual, Amps A, B, C, (1…63 for 1 Volts Bus1 AN, BN, CN, NG, AB, BC, CA
& 2)
Harmonic, Individual, Bus1, Volts A (1...63)
Volts Bus2 AN, BN, CN, NG, AB, BC, CA
Harmonic, Individual, Bus1, Volts AB (1...63)
Watt-Hrs Normal (1 and 2)
Harmonic, Individual, Bus1, Volts B (1...63)
Watt-Hrs Reverse (1 and 2)
Harmonic, Individual, Bus1, Volts BC (1...63)
Watts A, B, C, Total (1 and 2)
Harmonic, Individual, Bus1, Volts C (1...63)
Waveform Status
Harmonic, Individual, Bus1, Volts CA (1...63)
WV1/WV2 Active
Harmonic, Individual, Bus2, Volts A (1...63)
WV1/WV2 Memory Full
Harmonic, Individual, Bus2, Volts AB (1...63)
WV1/WV2 Record Count
Harmonic, Individual, Bus2, Volts B (1...63)
WV1/WV2 Stored
Harmonic, Individual, Bus2, Volts BC (1...63)
WV1/WV2 Triggered
Harmonic, Individual, Bus2, Volts C (1...63)
Xfmr Ratio Amps A, B, C, Residual (1 and 2)
Harmonic, Individual, Bus2, Volts CA (1...63)
Xfmr Ratio Future Use
Health
Xfmr Ratio Volts Bus1 A, B, C, N
Heartbeat
Xfmr Ratio Volts Bus2 A, B, C, N
Impedance A, B, C (1 and 2)
Xfmr Ratio Volts Bus2 Aux1-Gnd, Aux2-Gnd,
Aux1-Aux2
IrigB Time Sync
6.16
Calibration
Routine re-calibration is not recommended or required. A field calibration check every few
years is a good assurance of proper operation.
User Manual
M57x
6.17
M57x/EN M/E
Page 78
Instantaneous Measurement Principles
The M57x measures all signals at 128 samples/cycle, accommodating fundamental signal
frequencies from 15 to 70 Hz or 40 to 70 Hz depending on model. Samples of all bus
signals are taken at the same instant in time, using a 16-Bit A/D converter, effectively
creating 128 "snapshots" of the system voltage and current per cycle.
6.17.1 Sampling Rate and System Frequency
The sampling rate is synchronized to the frequency of any of the bus voltage or current
inputs, prioritized as follows: V1A-N, V1B-N, V1C-N, V2A-N, V2B-N, V2C-N, I1A, I1B, I1C, I2A, I2B,
I2C. This is the frequency reported as the "System Frequency". The AUX voltage inputs
and Neutrals are not used to synchronize the sampling. The sampling rate is the same for
all channels.
The default system frequency may be set in the Configurator to either 50 or 60 Hz. This will
have no effect on the frequency that is reported, or the sample rate when signals are
present. It is used to set the default sample rate when the unit cannot detect any applied
signal.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 79
7.
TRANSDUCER INPUT OPTION
7.1
Introduction
The Transducer Input option features 4 separate inputs each with two terminals, one which
provides a unique return path for each input. This permits the inputs configured as current
inputs to be series connected to multiple transducer input devices and inputs configured as
voltage inputs to be parallel connected to multiple transducer input devices. The input
terminal assignments are shown in figure 10.
The inputs are jumper-selectable for three different transducer input formats. The inputs can
be jumpered for either 0–1 mA or 4-20 mA current inputs or for 0–10V voltage inputs. Both
the 0-1 mA and 0 -10 V formats are bipolar (bi-directional) such that they span (-)1mA to
(+)1mA and (-)10V to (+)10V respectively. Each format allows for input over-range such that
inputs exceeding the normal range can still be reported accurately. The reportable range for
each input type is approximately: (+/-) 2.5 mA for 0-1mA inputs; (+/-) 12.5V for the 0-10V
inputs; and 0 to 25mA for 4-20mA inputs.
Each transducer input can be independently configured for any of the three input formats.
This permits one Transducer Input option to be used to read four analog inputs with any mix
of the three standard current and voltage formats. The Transducer Input option can only be
ordered pre-configured for one standard input type (all inputs are pre-configured at the
factory for one input type), however, each input on every Transducer Input Module is
calibrated to support all format types. Changing an input’s type is easy and only requires
changing that input’s jumper setting. The jumper settings are documented in section 7.6.1,
below.
Each transducer input is sampled by a 24-Bit delta sigma analog to digital converter,
adjusted by a factory set pre-stored gain and offset calibration constant, and then converted
to a 16-Bit integer value. The Host Processor Board updates the transducer input values in
the floating point database every 500msec by reading each input’s 16-Bit integer value and
converting it to a floating point value. By default the floating point value represents the
actual current (in mA) or voltage (in volts) present at the input. The Host Processor can be
configured (via the 70 Series Configurator software) to independently scale each transducer
input’s floating point value. The scaling is accomplished by assigning a floating point value
to the extreme values of the transducer input’s format. Input scaling is described in detail in
section 7.6.2, below.
Consult the appropriate Protocol manual for information on reading the transducer inputs
and the available calculation types. In order to be read, the transducer input measurements
need to be added into one of the available configurable register/point sets.
FIGURE 10 - TERMINAL ASSIGNMENT
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
7.2
7.3
Page 80
Features
•
Each input has jumper selectable ranges for support of 0 to (+/-)10 volt, 0 to (+/)1mA, and 4-20mA transducer input formats.
•
All input terminals protected with internal transient limiting devices and spark gap
protection.
•
Design includes local microcontroller with 24-bit sigma delta analog-to-digital
converter.
•
Robust local microcontroller design incorporates local watchdog and continuously
monitors offset and gain calibration constants integrity via checksum calculation.
•
Removable terminal block for ease of installation
Specifications
Inputs:
4 bi-directional, jumpers selectable for voltage or current range. Input
terminals have internal transorb clamp and 90V spark gap protection.
0 – 10V Voltage Range
Overload Range:
-12.5 V to +12.5 Vdc
Resolution:
0.381 mV
Input Resistance:
10K ohm
0 – 1mA Current Range
Overload Range:
-2.5 mA to +2.5 mA
Resolution:
0.0763 uA
Input Resistance:
500 ohm
4 – 20mA Current Range
Overload Range:
0 mA to +25 mA
Resolution:
0.381 uA
Input Resistance:
50 ohm
Common Mode Input Range +/- 9V, Input to Chassis
Common Mode Error
Accuracy
Vcm DC:
0.3% of FS @ 9Vp Common Mode
Vcm 50/60Hz AC:
0.1% of FS @ 9Vp Common Mode
0.25% of Full Scale Input
Data Update Rate (poll rate): 100ms minimum
Input Capacitance, any Terminal to Case:
470pF
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
7.4
Page 81
Physical
Connections: Removable Terminal Blocks, accepts #16-28AWG (1,4-0,09mm) wire.
Recommended Torque Rating is 2.2 In-Lbs, 0.25 N-m. Standard 0.200" (5,08mm) header
socket accepts other standard terminal types.
Recommend Wire: Twisted pair, either solid core wire (preferred) or stranded wire with the
use of “bootlace ferrules”, where these are available.
7.5
System Design Considerations
7.5.1
Input Type Jumper Settings
The Transducer Input option is ordered by specifying an input type and the M57x is shipped
from the factory with all inputs configured for that specified transducer input type. The input
type configuration is determined by jumper settings and can easily be re-configured in the
field. Each transducer input can be independently configured to support either the 0 to 1mA,
4 to 20mA, or 0 to 10V transducer input formats. To gain access to the jumpers follow the
procedure outlined below:
1. De-energize all circuits connected to the M57x.
2. Disconnect wiring connected to the M57x
3. Remove the screws shown in Fig 11
4. Carefully slide front panel assembly away from chassis exposing circuit boards.
5. Locate analog input module and jumpers as shown in Fig 12.
6. Modify jumper settings as required. See jumper explanation below.
7. Reassemble.
Input # 4
Input # 3
Input # 2
Input # 1
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 82
FIGURE 11 – ANALOG INPUT TYPE JUMPER LOCATIONS
Each input has two configurable jumper blocks. One jumper block configures the hardware
(the actual input circuitry), the other jumper control block configures the firmware and
software driver (informs drivers of the status of the hardware selection). It is extremely
important that when reconfiguring any input, that both the hardware jumper setting and
firmware jumper setting for that input match (select the same input type).
Figure 11 (Analog Input Type Jumper Locations) shows the location of each input’s jumper
block pair. Each jumper block pair consists of two three pin headers and each header is
shipped with a shorting block. The position of the shorting block on the header determines
the input type configuration. Figure 12 (Transducer Input Type Jumper Configuration)
demonstrates the shorting block positions for the three valid input configuration options.
0 - 10V
1
1
0 - 1mA
1
1
4 - 20 mA
1
1
FIGURE 12 – TRANSDUCER INPUT TYPE JUMPER CONFIGURATION
7.5.2
Transducer Input Scaling Configuration
The floating point values for the Transducer Input points on all present Transducer Input
Modules will appear in the M57x floating point database. By default, values for Transducer
Inputs configured as voltage inputs will be in volts and values for Transducer Inputs
configured as currents will be in milliamps. Database points for which there are no
corresponding Transducer Input points will report as zero.
The 70 Series Configurator software provides for gain and offset scaling for each Transducer
Input. This permits transducer inputs to appear in primary units. The 70 Series Configurator
allows the user to enter two specific primary values for the associated transducer input
values and automatically calculates the correct offset and gain corrections. See Figure 13
(70 Series Configurator Software Transducer I/O Configuration Screen).
In the screen snap shot shown in the Figure 13, the first Transducer Input card has the first
input configured for type 0-1mA, input 2 configured for type 4-20mA input, and the remaining
two inputs configured as type 0-10V inputs. All inputs will appear in the database in default
units (milliamps for inputs 1, 2 and volts for inputs 3, 4).
User Manual
M57x
7.5.3
M57x/EN M/E
Page 83
Setting the Data Update Rate (Poll rate) for P40 Transducer Inputs
The poll rate is now settable through the Transducer Input page. Poll rate has been added
as a settable value starting with the release of Configurator v3.02. A poll rate as low as 100
ms can now be set. See Figure 13, which shows an example of settings made using the 70
Series Configurator Software on the Transducer Input page.
FIGURE 13 – 70 SERIES CONFIGURATOR SOFTWARE TRANSDUCER INPUT CONFIGURATION
SCREEN
Suppose the device connected to input 2 is a temperature transducer with an output range
from 4 to 20mA that corresponds to a temperature of 0 to 100 degrees C. Configuring the
4mA setting to report as 0 and the 20mA setting to report as 100 will scale the value in the
M57x database to the primary units of the transducer. If this same transducer is connected
to input 3 with the scalings changed to -32 and 212 respectively, the value will appear in the
M57x database in degrees F.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 84
8.
APPENDIX A1
8.1
CT/VT Connection Diagrams
FIGURE 14 - SIGNAL CONNECTIONS – M571
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 85
FIGURE 14 (CONTINUED) - SIGNAL CONNECTIONS – M571
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 86
FIGURE 14 (CONTINUED) - SIGNAL CONNECTIONS – M571
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 87
A
B
BUS (POTENTIALS COMMON TO BOTH FEEDERS)
FEEDER 1
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
3
10
VA1
VR1
4
9
VRN1
VB1
5
8
VC1
VR2
6
VN1
13
BHI
14
BLO
“Reference” potentials
VR1 and VR2 are
intended for synchcheck across the
respective feederbreakers.
FEEDER 2
C
7
BUS 1
VRN2
BUS 2
11
AHI
41
AHI
15
CHI
45
CHI
12
ALO
42
ALO
16
CLO
46
CLO
CURRENT
43
BHI
44
BLO
CURRENT
CB
CB
A B C
A B C
LOAD
LOAD
2-ELEMENT 3-WIRE (DELTA) CONFIGURED FOR DUAL FEEDER COMMON BUS
A
B
BUS (POTENTIALS COMMON TO BOTH FEEDERS)
C
N
VOLTAGE
3
10
FEEDER 1
VA1
VR1
4
9
VRN1
VB1
5
8
VC1
VR2
6
VN1
13
BHI
14
BLO
“Reference” potentials VR1
and VR2 are intended for
synch-check across the
respective feeder-breakers.
FEEDER 2
VOLTAGE
7
BUS 1
VRN2
BUS 2
11
AHI
41
AHI
15
CHI
45
CHI
12
ALO
42
ALO
16
CLO
46
CLO
CURRENT
43
BHI
44
BLO
CURRENT
CB
CB
A B C N
A B C N
LOAD
LOAD
3-ELEMENT 4-WIRE (WYE) CONFIGURED FOR DUAL FEEDER COMMON BUS
FIGURE 15 - SIGNAL CONNECTIONS – M572
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 88
A
CB
B
CB
CB
C
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
3
10
VA2
4
9
VB2
5
8
VC2
VA1
VB1
VC1
7
VN2
6
VN1
BUS 1
11
AHI
41
AHI
15
CHI
45
CHI
12
ALO
42
ALO
16
CLO
46
CLO
13
BHI
14
BLO
BUS 2
CURRENT
43
BHI
44
BLO
CURRENT
2-ELEMENT 3-WIRE (DELTA) CONFIGURED FOR BREAKER-AND-A-HALF (CURRENT CONNECTIONS SHOWN)
A
CB
B
CB
CB
C
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
3
10
VA2
4
9
VB2
5
8
VC2
VA1
VB1
VC1
7
VN2
6
VN1
13
BHI
14
BLO
A B C
LINE 1
BUS 1
BUS 2
11
AHI
41
AHI
15
CHI
45
CHI
12
ALO
42
ALO
16
CLO
46
CLO
CURRENT
43
BHI
44
BLO
CURRENT
A B C
LINE 2
2-ELEMENT 3-WIRE (DELTA) CONFIGURED FOR BREAKER-AND-A-HALF (VOLTAGE CONNECTIONS SHOWN)
FIGURE 15 (CONTINUED) - SIGNAL CONNECTIONS – M572
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 89
A
CB
B
CB
CB
C
N
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
3
10
VA2
4
9
VB2
5
8
VC2
VA1
VB1
VC1
7
VN2
6
VN1
13
BHI
14
BLO
BUS 1
BUS 2
11
AHI
41
AHI
15
CHI
45
CHI
12
ALO
42
ALO
16
CLO
46
CLO
CURRENT
43
BHI
44
BLO
CURRENT
3-ELEMENT 4-WIRE (WYE) CONFIGURED FOR BREAKER-AND-A-HALF (CURRENT CONNECTIONS SHOWN)
A
CB
B
CB
CB
C
N
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
3
10
VA2
4
9
VB2
5
8
VC2
VA1
VB1
VC1
7
VN2
6
VN1
13
BHI
14
BLO
A B C N
LINE 1
BUS 1
BUS 2
11
AHI
41
AHI
15
CHI
45
CHI
12
ALO
42
ALO
16
CLO
46
CLO
CURRENT
43
BHI
44
BLO
A B C N
CURRENT
LINE 2
3-ELEMENT 4-WIRE (WYE) CONFIGURED FOR BREAKER-AND-A-HALF (VOLTAGE CONNECTIONS SHOWN)
FIGURE 15 (CONTINUED) - SIGNAL CONNECTIONS – M572
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 90
A
CB
B
CB
CB
C
N
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
3
10
VA2
4
9
VB2
5
8
VC2
VA1
VB1
VC1
7
VN2
6
VN1
13
BHI
14
BLO
A B C N
LINE 1
BUS 1
BUS 2
11
AHI
41
AHI
15
CHI
45
CHI
12
ALO
42
ALO
16
CLO
46
CLO
CURRENT
43
BHI
44
BLO
A B C N
LINE 2
CURRENT
2½ ELEMENT (WYE) CONFIGURED FOR BREAKER-AND-A-HALF (VOLTAGE CONNECTIONS SHOWN, WITH BPHASE MISSING) CURRENT CONNECTIONS ARE THE SAME AS FOR 3-ELEMENT 4-WIRE (WYE) SHOWN ON
THE PRECEDING PAGE.
WHEN CONFIGURING THE UNIT, SET THE VT RATIO FOR THE MISSING PHASE EQUAL TO 0. THIS WILL
CAUSE THE M572 TO CALCULATE THE VOLTAGE OF THE MISSING PHASE FROM THE VECTOR SUM OF THE
TWO PHASES PRESENT (ASSUMES BALANCED VOLTAGE).
A
B
BUS (POTENTIALS COMMON TO BOTH FEEDERS)
C
N
VOLTAGE
3
10
VA1
VR1
4
9
VRN1
VB1
5
8
VC1
VR2
6
VN1
13
BHI
14
BLO
7
BUS 1
VRN2
BUS 2
11
AHI
41
A HI
15
CHI
45
CHI
12
ALO
42
ALO
16
CLO
46
CLO
CURRENT
CB
“Reference” potentials VR1
and VR2 are intended for
synch-check across the
respective feeder-breakers.
FEEDER 2
FEEDER 1
VOLTAGE
43
BHI
44
BLO
CURRENT
CB
A B C N
A B C N
LOAD
LOAD
2½ ELEMENT (WYE) CONFIGURED FOR DUAL FEEDER COMMON BUS (SHOWN WITH B-PHASE MISSING).
WHEN CONFIGURING THE UNIT, SET THE VT RATIO FOR THE MISSING PHASE EQUAL TO 0. THIS WILL
CAUSE THE M572 TO CALCULATE THE VOLTAGE OF THE MISSING PHASE FROM THE VECTOR SUM OF THE
TWO PHASES PRESENT (ASSUMES BALANCED VOLTAGE).
FIGURE 15 (CONTINUED) - SIGNAL CONNECTIONS – M572
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 91
9.
APPENDIX A2
9.1
ETHERNET TROUBLESHOOTING
If the Link LED fails to illuminate, this is an indication that there is trouble with the connection
and communication will not proceed without solving the problem. If a copper connection is
used between the M57x and the hub/switch, check the following items:
1.
Verify that the connectors are fully engaged on each end.
2.
Verify that the cable used is a "straight-through" cable connected to a "normal" port.
Alternatively, a "cross-over" cable could be connected to an "uplink" port (this could
later cause confusion and is not recommended).
3.
Verify that both the M57x and hub/switch are powered.
4.
Try another cable.
5.
If a long CAT-5 cable is used, verify that is has never been kinked. Kinking can cause
internal discontinuities in the cable.
If a fibre-optic connection is used:
1.
Verify that the hub/switch matches the Ethernet card port. A 100BASE-FX port will
NEVER inter-operate with the 10BASE-FL port (fibre auto-negotiation does not exist).
2.
Try swapping the transmit and receive connector on one end.
3.
Verify that the hub/switch uses the proper optical wavelength (10BASE-FL should be
820 nm and 100BASE-FX should be 1300 nm). Note that the Ethernet card may take
up to 12 seconds before it enables the 10BASE-FL transmitter, but it leaves the
transmitter on for about 5 seconds before giving up.
If a copper connection is used to an off-board fibbers converter:
1.
Verify that the LINK LED on the converter is lit on at least one side. Both sides need to
be lit for a valid connection to be established.
2.
At least one brand of converters will not output an optical idle unless it receives a forced
10 Mb copper link pulse (for some reason, auto-negotiation pulses confuse it). Some
hubs/switches will not output an optical idle unless they receive an optical idle. This
then inhibits the converter from outputting a copper link pulse enabling the M57x to link.
In this condition, no device completes the link.
3.
Follow the suggestions for the all copper and all fibre system troubleshooting.
User Manual
M57x/EN M/E
M57x
Page 92
10.
APPENDIX A3
10.1
SETTING DIGITAL I/O JUMPERS
The Digital I/O jumpers described below are accessible by removing the four corner screws
on the front panel of the M57x. Carefully remove the front panel assembly from the case.
The jumpers can be found on the left side of PCB729, where it joins the front panel.
The M57x has jumper blocks (P4005) to set the output relay power-up configuration, which is
the state (coil energized or de-energized) at which the relays go to when power is first
applied to the module. The actual contact state is determined by the relay Normally Open
(NO) or Normally Closed (NC) jumper (see below). By default, no jumpers are installed at
the factory, which sets the output contact state to de-energized (open when configured for
NO), which should be sufficient for most applications. If it is necessary to change the powerup configuration, jumpers may be installed as follows:
Power Up Configuration
Jumper Function
ON
OFF
Block Function Installed Open
P4005
P4005
P4005
P4005
P4005
P4005
P4005
P4005
PUC1
PUC1
PUC2
PUC2
PUC3
PUC3
PUC4
PUC4
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Output Relay NO
(with relay set to N.O.)
Output Relay NC
(with relay set to N.O.)
(with relay set to N.C.)
Output 1 set to OPEN
Output 1 set to CLOSED
Output 2 set to OPEN
Output 2 set to CLOSED
Output 3 set to OPEN
Output 3 set to CLOSED
Output 4 set to OPEN
Output 4 set to CLOSED
Output 1 set to CLOSED
Output 1 set to OPEN
Output 2 set to CLOSED
Output 2 set to OPEN
Output 3 set to CLOSED
Output 3 set to OPEN
Output 4 set to CLOSED
Output 4 set to OPEN
The relay outputs can be set for Normally Open (NO) or Normally Closed (NC) operation. To
enable Normally Open operation, which is the factory setting, place the jumper from "C"
(common) to "NO". To enable Normally Closed operation, place the jumper from "C" to
"NC". The relay outputs can be disabled if desired by placing the jumper vertically, from the
"NC" to the "NO" contacts, or by removing the jumper entirely.
A - Normally Open (factory default)
B - Normally Closed
C- Relay Disconnected (Storage)
FIGURE 16: RELAY OUTPUT CONFIGURATION JUMPER
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Health Status Digital Output Setting (Optional assignment of Digital Output 1)
Digital Output 1 may be assigned to operate when the value of the Health variable is <1. To
set up Digital Output 1 in this manner, it is necessary that the Relay Output 1 Connection
Jumper be set for Normally Closed operation (see Setting Digital I/O jumpers section which
is included in this Appendix A3). Therefore, during normal operation, the unit is actively
holding the contacts of the output relay open (no alarm). If an erroneous operation is
detected, or there is a power supply failure, the contacts of the output relay will close (alarm).
The function of this output may be assigned for Health status by using the 70 Series
Configurator along with the Normally Closed jumper connection installed for Relay output 1.
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11.
APPENDIX A4 - CROSS TRIGGERING
11.1
Cross-Triggering
There are many possible uses for the Input / Output functions available from 70 Series
Recorders, but Cross-Triggering deserves special attention since it is prerequisite to the
application of distributed recording.
Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) like microprocessor-based relays or 70 Series
Recorders are generally used to measure the electrical parameters associated with a
particular load, such as a feeder for example. In contrast, most dedicated Sequence-ofEvents (SOE) Recorders or Digital Fault Recorders (DFRs) collect measurements from all
points of interest throughout an entire substation or load centre. Those devices generally
produce recordings that include the activity of all points in a single document facilitating
analysis by showing everything on a common time scale. A consolidated document like that
can be produced by time-synchronized distributed IEDs by combining files captured by each
of the recorders.
In order to consolidate all the recordings from IEDs distributed throughout a substation, all
the IEDs must first be made to trigger simultaneously whenever an event of interest is
sensed by any one unit in the substation. That mechanism is referred to as CrossTriggering. Recordings are then downloaded and combined by software designed for that
purpose (described elsewhere). This appendix will concentrate on methods available for
cross-triggering distributed IEDs.
70 Series Recorders support two mechanisms for cross-triggering one another. These
mechanisms are vendor-independent so may be used in combination with protective relays
and other IEDs to the extent that status and control points are available or that protocols are
supported by the other devices.
1.
Hard-wired, using discrete digital I/O. Contacts wired in parallel on a dedicated cable
pass a voltage signal to the status inputs on each IED when an event is sensed. The status
input on each device can then be configured to trigger a recording.
2.
Ethernet:
a.
using GOOSE. Status points are communicated across an Ethernet LAN using the
IEC-61850 standard. The principal advantage of GOOSE messaging is that it does not
require a separate dedicated control cable for physical contacts.
b.
using GSSE. Status points are communicated across an Ethernet LAN. The principal
advantages of GSSE are interoperability with legacy equipment and simplicity of
configuration. All 70 Series firmware released from April 2004 to June 2008 supported UCA.
The term “GOOSE” when used in the UCA context is equivalent to GSSE as defined by IEC61850. GSSE messaging can be set up with the 70 Series Configurator alone. The IED
Configurator is not required for GSSE.
The 70 Series Recorder provides considerable flexibility in how a user could customize these
methods to fit the constraints of any particular application. An exhaustive description of all
possible variations is not practical, but it is useful to provide an example of each method in a
typical application.
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Example 1. Discrete Digital I/O:
Please refer to Figure A1 for wiring, Figure A2 through A4 for configuration, Section 1.4 and,
section 3 for the pin-out of the Digital I/O points that are not shown in Figure A1.
Note: Digital Input 4 and Digital Output 4 have been selected in this example because they
are fully isolated from other I/O points. Digital Inputs 1, 2, and 3 and Digital Outputs 1, 2,
and 3 are all wired internally to common return pins.
FIGURE A 1
11.2.1
Wiring:
Figure A1 illustrates one digital output pins 33 and 34 from each of three M57x units wired in
parallel. Closing the Output 4 contact on any M57x will energize the switched conductor.
Pins 39 and 40, are digital inputs wired in parallel between the switched and negative
conductors. All three units will sense a status change on Input 4 whenever the switched
conductor is energized or de-energized. All digital inputs on the M57x incorporate an
internal current limiting resistor of approximately 33kΩ so no external resistor is required to
prevent shorting (+) to (-) when digital outputs operate. It may be advisable, however, to
place one pull-down resistor (RP, in Figure A1) between the switched and negative
conductors to prevent chatter on the inputs. Acceptable values for RP depend on the
application, but something in the 100kΩ to 500kΩ range should generally be safe in most
cases.
11.2.2
Configuration:
Figure A2 illustrates a typical configuration that will initiate an oscillography recording and an
SOE Log entry when the current exceeds a threshold on any of the three phases.
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FIGURE A 2
Since a high current on one feeder would not normally be sensed by any other IEDs in a
substation, a cross-trigger is necessary to initiate the oscillography recorders on all other
IEDs. Figure A3 shows how any condition that triggers Waveform Recorder 1 also operates
Digital Output 1 which initiates the cross-trigger. In this example, the contact dwells in the
closed position for the length of time that Waveform Recorder 1 is running. (The
characteristics of WR1 are set on a different page of the 70 Series Configurator.)
FIGURE A 3
Figure A4 shows the action taken when a cross-trigger on Digital Input 5 is sensed. In
general, receiving a cross-trigger from another device should have the same effect as
triggering on something sensed directly by the IED.
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FIGURE A 4
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Example 2. Ethernet, using GOOSE:
GOOSE is a function defined within the context of the IEC-61850 standard but there is no
requirement to make use of any other aspect of 61850 just to use GOOSE for crosstriggering 70 Series IEDs. Due to the level of multi-vendor support for IEC-61850, crosstriggering between 70 Series IEDs, microprocessor based relays, and other devices may be
an advantage of using GOOSE for cross-triggering. If a broader use of IEC-61850 is not
intended, however, the user may find cross-triggering via GSSE (see Example 3) just as
effective and somewhat simpler to set up.
In a broader application of IEC-61850, GOOSE could be used for much more than what is
described in this example, but when applied simply for cross-triggering, it can be envisioned
as a method to communicate a binary status over an Ethernet medium, exactly analogous to
status and control performed by discrete I/O points (see Example 1). GOOSE messages are
reliable enough to be used for controlling interlocks and protective relay blocking schemes,
and can be propagated even faster than discrete digital contacts because of the time that it
takes for moving mechanical parts to operate.
GOOSE operates by means of publication and subscription to unsolicited, unacknowledged,
multicast (sometimes anycast) messages on an Ethernet LAN, so GOOSE messages can
not pass through a router into another network. In its simplest form, such a network could
consist of as little as an Ethernet switch and the inter-triggered IEDs connected via
conventional Cat. 5 cables. There is no need to uplink into any wider LAN or to operate with
any other clients or servers on the network (except for the purpose of configuring the IEDs).
So in a substation, security could be accomplished easily just by restricting physical access
to the network.
Otherwise, when used in a secure general purpose network, GOOSE messaging can coexist
unobtrusively with other network traffic including file transfer services useful for collecting the
recordings captured by the IEDs.
11.3.1
Connection:
The M57x must be manufactured with one of the available Ethernet options and be
connected to a Local Area Network (LAN). The minimum hardware requirement for an M57x
to support 61850 is 64MB SDRAM on the Host Processor. Older units built with 16MB
SDRAM do not support any mechanism for RAM to be upgraded, so cross-triggering can
only be accomplished via GSSE (see Example 3).
11.3.2
Configuration:
As implemented on the 70 Series IED, IEC-61850 requires two separate software programs
to configure. These are the IED Configurator (used to set up functions specific to 61850, like
defining Datasets, GOOSE publication and subscription, etc.) and the 70 Series Configurator
(for trigger logic, recorder settings, and other legacy functions). Both programs are supplied
at no cost with the M57x.
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The following steps illustrate a typical configuration:
1.
In the 70 Series Configurator, Figure A5 shows how any event of interest measured
directly by an M571 is configured to initiate an oscillography recording and make an SOE
Log entry. (Only Phase-A Amps is shown, but the Trigger window scrolls vertically and can
hold up to 120 separate independent events.)
FIGURE A 5
2.
The condition “Waveform Recorder 1 Started” is represented by a soft bit which is an
element in the IEC-61850 Object Model (Records/WrxRDRE1.ST.RcdStr.stVal). Other soft
bits are available to represent recorders WR2, DR1 and DR2 as needed (see 70 Series IEC61850 manual, MICS document). The IED Configurator will be used in steps 4 and 5 below
to make the M571 publish a GOOSE message when this bit changes status. The bit is set
when WR1 begins recording. It remains set until it is re-initialized.
Note: No self-initializing bits are defined by the 61850 object model so an entry must
be made in the 70 Series Configurator to re-initialize the bit a short time after it is set. Event
2 in Figure A6 illustrates that instruction. The choice of a particular duration (Event 2, far
right column) as the dwell time before the bit is reset is more-or-less arbitrary, but should
generally be shorter than the run-time of the recorder. No new cross-trigger can be sent via
GOOSE until the bit is re-initialized and WR1 has completed recording.
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FIGURE A 6
3.
When a cross-trigger is received from another unit, it comes in the form of a GOOSE
subscription (set up in the IED Configurator in step 7, below). GOOSE subscriptions are
represented in the 70 Series Configurator by binary inputs that can be used to trigger WR1
and make an entry in the SOE Log. In this example, events 3, 4, and 5 shown in Figure A7
are the binary inputs received by subscribing to the GOOSE messages published by three
other M571s on the network. This completes the settings that are made in the 70 Series
Configurator.
FIGURE A 7
4.
The following settings must be made in the IED Configurator: Configuring an M571 to
publish a GOOSE is a two step process. Figures A8 and A9 illustrate the first step, defining
a
Dataset
that
includes
the
soft
bit
described
in
step
2,
above
(Records/WrxRDRE1.ST.RcdStr.stVal).
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FIGURE A 8
Note: In order to be used for GOOSE publication, the Dataset must be defined under
System\LLN0 as shown in Figure A9.
FIGURE A 9
5.
The second step in publication is defining a GOOSE message, Figure A10. Up to
eight independent GOOSE publications may be defined for each device. Only one is
required for cross-triggering any number of other devices. System\LLN0\gcb01 is used in this
example. All default entries shown in Figure A10 should generally be used in most cases,
but the user must select the dataset defined in step 4, above, from the pull-down menu in the
box Dataset Reference. Then the Configuration Revision must be incremented to at least 1
(usually incremented automatically by the IED Configurator). This Revision number must
match the corresponding GOOSE subscription settings on all the other inter-triggered IEDs
on the network (see step 7, below).
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FIGURE A 10
6.
Each IED only needs to publish one GOOSE to cross-trigger any number of other
devices. When setting up subscriptions, however, the device must subscribe to every other
device from which a cross-trigger may be expected. For example, in a substation with four
inter-triggered M571 units, each unit would publish one and subscribe to three GOOSE
messages. Up to thirty-two separate status points may be defined for each device. These
status points correspond to elements in the Dataset transmitted by the GOOSE message.
Refer
to
the
points
named
System\GosGGIO1\Ind1.stVal
through
System\GosGGIO1\Ind32.stVal in Figure A11.
These are the points in the IED
Configurator that correspond to the points in the 70 Series Configurator which were
described in step 3, above. In the 70 Series Configurator these points are named GOOSE
binary input Ind1 through GOOSE binary input Ind32. See Figure A7, Events 3, 4, 5, etc.
FIGURE A 11
7.
The IED Configurator makes it relatively simple to configure subscriptions when the
MCL files for all devices are open at the same time and the GOOSE publications have
already been configured on each of the other devices. See Figure A12. By clicking on the
Browse button, a window appears allowing the user to select the status point (green dot
shown in Figure A12). Selecting the point (Records/WrxRDRE1.ST.RcdStr.stVal) causes a
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subscription to be configured for the GOOSE message that contains that status point. After
selecting that point, next click on System\GosGGIO1\Ind2.stVal (see left side of Figure
A11) and repeat step 7 selecting the same status point from the second M571 for the second
subscription, and again with System\GosGGIO1\Ind3.stVal for the third subscription, etc.
until a subscription has been made to each of the other IEDs on the network.
FIGURE A 12
8.
Under Destination Parameters (see Figure A11 near bottom) verify that the pulldown menu labelled Evaluation Expression indicates Pass through. This completes the
configuration settings for GOOSE subscription.
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Example 3. Ethernet, using GSSE:
The GSSE service, as defined by IEC-61850, is identical to what has been called GOOSE in
connection with UCA2.0 in past years. In order to reduce confusion as far as possible, all
previous references to GOOSE in the UCA context have been replaced by the expression
GSSE in 70 Series documentation because IEC-61850 supersedes UCA as a
communications standard.
The use of GSSE to perform cross-triggering carries all the practical advantages of GOOSE
and is simpler to set up, but has much narrower multi-vendor support. It is, however,
available on all 70 Series IED firmware versions released since April 2004, so GSSE may be
a better choice when it is either unnecessary to trigger other devices, or when triggering
other vendors’ devices might as easily be accomplished with discrete digital I/O while using
GSSE among the 70 Series IEDs installed.
As with GOOSE, there is no need to make use of any other aspect of 61850 or UCA
protocols just to use GSSE for cross-triggering.
GSSE can generally be envisioned as a way to communicate a binary status over an
Ethernet medium, exactly analogous to status and control performed by discrete I/O points
(see Example 1). GSSE messages are reliable enough to be used for controlling interlocks
and protective relay blocking schemes, and can be propagated even faster than discrete
digital contacts because of the time that it takes for moving mechanical parts to operate.
GSSE operates by means of transmitting and receiving unsolicited, unacknowledged,
multicast messages on an Ethernet LAN, so GSSE messages can not pass through a router
into another network. In its simplest form, such a network could consist of as little as an
Ethernet switch and the inter-triggered IEDs connected via conventional Cat. 5 cables.
There is no need to uplink into any wider LAN or to operate with any other clients or servers
on the network (except for the purpose of configuring the IEDs). So in a substation, security
could be accomplished easily just by restricting physical access to the network.
Otherwise, when used in a secure general purpose network, GSSE messaging can coexist
unobtrusively with other network traffic including file transfer services useful for collecting the
recordings captured by the IEDs.
11.4.1
Connection:
The M85x must be manufactured with one of the available Ethernet options and be
connected to a Local Area Network (LAN). There is no other minimum hardware
requirement for an M57x to support GSSE. Older units that support UCA but not 61850 can
exchange cross-triggers via GSSE from newer units that support 61850.
11.4.2
Configuration:
All settings required for cross-triggering with GSSE are made in the 70 Series Configurator.
The following steps illustrate a typical configuration:
1.
In the 70 Series Configurator, Figure A13 shows how any event of interest measured
directly by an M571 is configured to initiate an oscillography recording and make an SOE
Log entry. (Only Phase-A Amps is shown, but the Trigger window scrolls vertically and can
hold up to 120 separate independent events.)
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FIGURE A 13
2.
The condition “Waveform Recorder 1 Active” is used to drive a Virtual Output that is
linked to a GSSE message as illustrated in Figure A14. A Virtual Output can be driven by
individual conditions (like RMS Amps A1 > 2000, in this example) or it could be the result of
a combination of several conditions defined through rudimentary triggering logic.
FIGURE A 14
Note: “Waveform Recorder 1 Active” can be considered to be a self-initializing
condition since it transitions from 0 to 1 when the recorder starts then returns to 0 (its
initialized state) when the recording is completed. Therefore, no deliberate step is necessary
to re-initialize a soft bit, as was required for “Waveform Recorder 1 Started” in step 2 of
Example 2.
3.
On the GSSE (Virtual I/O) page, define a GSSE Tx Name (“Unit_1” in this example)
which is unique to the device sending the GSSE message as illustrated near the bottom of
Figure A15.
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FIGURE A 15
4.
When a cross-trigger is received from another unit, it comes in the form of a GSSE
message. Each unique GSSE message must be associated with specific numbered Virtual
Input as seen on top half of the GSSE (Virtual I/O) page of the 70 Series Configurator shown
in Figure A15. Each device only needs to transmit one GSSE to cross-trigger any number of
other devices. When setting up for receiving a cross-trigger, however, the device must be
configured to receive GSSE messages from every other device from which a cross-trigger
may be expected. For example, in a substation with four inter-triggered M571 units, each
unit would transmit one GSSE and be configured to receive GSSE messages from all three
other units. Up to thirty-two separate Virtual Inputs may be defined for each device.
5.
On the Recorder Triggers page of the 70 Series Configurator, each of the Virtual
Inputs defined in step 4, above, is then used to initiate the oscillography recorder and make
an entry in the SOE Log. See Figure A16. This completes the configuration settings for
cross-triggering by means of GSSE.
FIGURE A 16
PXXX
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