SOYUZ-IKAR-FREGAT (new window)

CIS
SOYUZ-IKAR-FREGAT
1. IDENTIFICATION
1.1
Name
SOYUZ-IKAR-FREGAT
1.2
Classification
Ø Family
Ø Series
Ø Version
:
:
:
SOYUZ
SOYUZ
SOYUZ-IKAR
SOYUZ-FREGAT
1.3
Manufacturer
:
1.4
Development manager :
Ts SKB
1.5
Vehicle operator
Ts SKB
1.6
Launch service agency :
:
Ø FRANCE
1.7
Launch cost
Ø Category
Ø Class
Ø Type
:
:
:
SPACE LAUNCH VEHICLE
Medium Launch Vehicle (MLV)
Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV)
Ts SKB
18, Pskovskaya Str.
SAMARA 443 008
Russian Federation
Telephone: (78462) 22 28 14
Fax:
(78462) 27 20 70
STARSEM (joint venture between
RKA (25%)
Ts SKB-Progress (25%), EADS
(35%), ARIANESPACE (15%)
Tour Maine-Montparnasse
33, avenue du Maine - BP 30
75755 PARIS Cedex 15
Telephone: 01.56.80.09.60
Fax:
01.40.64.05.62
:
About 40 M$ (Starsem commercial price)
2. STATUS
2.1
Vehicle status
:
Operationnal
2.2
Development period
:
1996-1998 (SOYUZ-IKAR version)
For basic version, see SOYUZ data sheet
2.3
First launch
:
SOYUZ-IKAR:
09.02.1999
SOYUZ-FREGAT: 08.02.2000
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3. PAYLOAD CAPABILITY AND CONSTRAINTS
3.1
Payload capability
3.1.1 Low Earth Orbits
Ø SOYUZ-IKAR
ORBIT TYPE
Altitude
(km)
Inclination (°)
Site
mass
(kg)
MEO - LEO CIRCULAR (1)
LEO ELLIPTICAL (2)
SUN SYNCH.
400
400
1 400
250/1 000
250/1 000
400
51.8
67.0
51.8
51.8
90.0
97.0
Baïkonur
Plesetsk
Baïkonur
Baïkonur
Plesetsk
Plesetsk
3 600
3 850
2 500
3 350
3 100
3 100
(1) See Figure 1
(2) See Figure 2
FIGURE 1 - PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES IN CIRCULAR ORBITS (BAIKONUR)
FIGURE 2 - PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES IN ELLIPTICAL ORBITS
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Ø SOYUZ-FREGAT
ORBIT TYPE
Altitude
(km)
Inclination (°)
MEO - LEO CIRCULAR
SUN SYNCH.
500
700
1 000
1 500
200/10 000
800
51.8
65.0
51.8
51.8
51.8
98.0
3 100
2 700
BAIKONUR
Site
mass
LEO
ELLIPTICAL
(kg)
5 900
4 900
5 400
4 900
FIGURE 3 - PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES IN LOW CIRCULAR ORBITS
FIGURE 4 - PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES IN MEDIUM CIRCULAR ORBITS
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3.1.2 Geosynchronous and Interplanetary Orbits
Ø SOYUZ-IKAR
No capability
Ø SOYUZ-FREGAT
ORBIT TYPE
Altitude
GTO
200 x 35 786 km
(km)
Inclination (°)
BAIKONUR
Site
mass
28.5
7.0
(kg)
1 100
1 350
(km)
FIGURE 5 - PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES IN GTO
3.1.3 Injection accuracy
Ø IKAR upper stage; 3-SIGMA
For circular orbit (altitude 1 400 km; inclination 51.8°):
Ø radius
: + 25 km,
Ø inclination : + 0.1°,
Ø period
: + 2 s.
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Ø FREGAT upper stage; 3-SIGMA
ORBITAL PARAMETERS
CIRCULAR ORBIT ALTITUDE
(km)
GTO ALTITUDE
(km)
1 000
20 000
35 786 x 4 200
Semi-major axis
(km)
± 10
± 60
± 70
Altitude of apogee
(km)
-
-
± 120
Altitude of perigee
(km)
-
-
± 20
± 0.002
± 0.001
-
Eccentricity
Inclination
(°)
±6
±7
±5
Period
(s)
± 12
± 120
± 170
Argument of perigee
(°)
-
-
± 11
RAAN(*)
(°)
±9
± 15
± 15
(*) Right Ascension of the Ascending Node
3.2
Spacecraft orientation and separation
Ø Thermal control manœuvres
:-
Ø Nominal payload separation velocity
: ≥ 0.5 m/s
Ø Rotation rate
: 0 rpm
Ø Deployment mechanism type
: pyrotechnic initiators and springs (multiple satellite
dispenser)
3.3
Payload interfaces
3.3.1 Payload compartments and adaptors
Ø Payload fairing description
Among the four fairings available as standard, the "type A" is used with the IKAR upper stage. It consists
of a two half-shell carbon fiber structure with a longitudinal type separation system. Aluminium foil is
applied to the internal and external surfaces of the nose fairing to protect against static electricity and to
provide for optimal thermal conditions; thermal insulation is applied to the forward cone external surface.
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The "type S" fairing is used with the FREGAT upper stage.
IKAR "A" type
FREGAT "S" type
Length
8.34 m
7.7 m
External diameter
3.3 m
3.7 m
Volume
3
27 m
3
52 m
FIGURE 6 - SOYUZ-IKAR TYPE A FAIRING
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FIGURE 7 - SOYUZ-FREGAT TYPE S FAIRING
Ø Payload access provisions
Users can access the spacecraft for physical operations up to 10 h before lift-off by removing specially
designed access doors. The allowable and locations of these doors (as well as those of the radiotransparent windows) vary with the fairing selected.
Doors can be installed in all parts of the fairing except in areas close to the separation plane and in the
vicinity of its interface with the intermediate bay.
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FIGURE 8 - ACCESS DOORS AND RF WINDOWS ACCEPTABLE AREAS FOR SOYUZ-IKAR
Ø Payload adaptor interface and dispenser
STARSEM may provide a standard 2 650 mm separation interface. In addition, user provided adaptor can
be bolted to the reference interface or designed to meet existing western interfaces such as ARIANE 937
or 1194.
Multiple launch configuration may imply the use of a dispenser such as in Globalstar missions to carry
4 satellites:
3.4
-
overall height: 2.7 m,
-
empty mass: 390 kg,
-
four attach points used for each satellite deployed by pyrotechnic initiators and springs.
Environments
3.4.1 Mechanical environment
DESIGNATION
Steady state
acceleration
(see Figure 9)
Low frequency
vibration
Random vibrations
December 2001
LEVEL (g) AT THE BASE
OF THE SPACECRAFT
Longitudinal
≤ 4.3
NOTE
st
Occurs at 1 stage cut-off
Lateral
≤ 0.4
Longitudinal
≤ 0.5
5 to 40 Hz
≤ 0.8
1 to 10 Hz
≤ 0.6
10 to 40 Hz
Lateral
Longitudinal
and lateral
See Figure 10
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FIGURE 9 - TYPICAL LONGITUDINAL STEADY STATE ACCELERATION (STAGE 1 TO 3)
FIGURE 10 - SOYUZ-IKAR AND UPPER STAGE FLIGHT RANDOM VIBRATION (LATERAL)
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3.4.2 Acoustic vibrations
Acoustic pressure values are presented with allowances made for possible variations of flight values at
maximal dynamic pressure. They correspond to launch vehicle lift-off and flight phases at maximal dynamic
pressure and applies to the payload volume.
FIGURE 11 - TYPICAL ACOUSTIC FLIGHT LEVEL FOR STANDARD SOYUZ-IKAR FAIRING
3.4.3 Shock
Stages separation and fairing jettisoning shock spectrum are presented in Figure 12.
FIGURE 12 - SOYUZ-IKAR INTERSTAGE AND FAIRING SEPARATION SHOCKS
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3.4.4 Thermal environment
Ø Prelaunch temperature within the fairing
The system is compatible with cleanliness class 100 000 and has the following characteristics:
-
inlet temperature of injected air ajustable between 15 and 25°C with accuracy of + 2°C,
-
relative humidity ≤ 60%,
-
filtration 0,2 µm,
-
flow rate: 6 000 m /h.
3
Ø In-flight temperature under fairing
2
The thermal flux density radiated by the fairing does not exceed 800 W/m at any point.
Ø Aerothermal flux after fairing jettisoning
2
Typically it varies from 1 135 W/m to zero within 50 s after fairing jettisoning.
FIGURE 13 - TYPICAL VARIATION OF AIR TEMPERATURE UNDER SOYUZ-IKAR FAIRING
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3.4.5 Variation of static pressure under fairing
FIGURE 14 - VARIATION OF STATIC PRESSURE UNDER SOYUZ-IKAR FAIRING
3.5
Operation constraints
Ø Ground constraints
Coordination is exercised by Russian Space Agency (RSA) and the Ts SKB General Designer
representing the entire launch authority. The "safety regulations" define the rules applicable to all
operations including the use of hazardous systems or products.
Ø Launch rate capability: 12-15 per year (Ts SKB wants to increase production to at least 25)
Ø Procurement lead time: about 23 months between contract signature and launch
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4. LAUNCH INFORMATION
4.1
Launch site
Ø Location
The Baikonur cosmodrome (45° 60'N, 63° 40'E) in Kazakhstan (2 100 km to the South-East of Moscow) is
used for commercial launches.
FIGURE 15 - BAIKONUR SOYUZ LAUNCH COMPLEX
Ø Payload processing
For STARSEM operations at Baikonur, a modern new facility called STARSEM Payload Processing
Facility has been built; it consists of:
2
-
the Payload Preparation Facility (PPF): the 290 m PPF includes a class 100 000 clean room and two
control rooms,
-
the Hazardous Processing Facility (HPF): it covers a 290 m surface and incorporates a class
100 000 clean room, control room and safety shower,
-
the Upper Composite Integration Facility (UCIF): this 550 m site has a class 200 000 clean room.
2
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2
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The customer payload is transported to the Baikonur Cosmodrome in its protective container, then
delivered to the STARSEM Payload Processing Facility. The spacecraft is installed in the Payload
Preparation Facility clean room, where final assembly is performed along with functional tests (nonhazardous mechanical and electrical tests).
After completion of final assembly and the functional test, the satellite is then moved to the Hazardous
Processing Facility for propellant filling.
The payload is transferred to the Upper Composite Integration Facility to be integrated with the launch
vehicle's upper stage. Integration is performed with the spacecraft and upper stage in the vertical
position.
Fairing encapsulation of the payload is performed in the Upper Composite Integration Facility and this
completed upper composite is moved to the horizontal position using a special tilting unit and crane.
The upper composite is transferred to the SOYUZ launch vehicle assembly building (MIK) where it is
integrated with the launch vehicle and electrical checks are carried out before the complete launcher is
transferred to the launch pad.
Ø Launch vehicle processing
The following operations are carried out in the launch vehicle preparation MIK:
-
assembling of launch vehicle stages,
-
mating the upper stage/payload with the launch vehicle,
-
checking electrical circuits,
-
installation of the assembled launcher on the rail guided transportation and erection unit.
The SOYUZ-IKAR and the SOYUZ-FREGAT are transported to the launch pad in a horizontal position.
4.2
Sequence of flight events
4.2.1 SOYUZ-IKAR
A typical flight sequence for LEO mission is given.
TIME AFTER
LIFT-OFF
- 4.5 s
0
EVENTS
Ignition of stage 1 and 2 engines
Lift-off
118 s
Stage 1 separation
158 s
Payload fairing separation
283 s
Stage 2 separation
528 s
Stage 3 separation; IKAR/Payload enter into parking orbit
2 h 29 min 31 s Ignition of IKAR upper stage
3 h 33 min 30 s Payload separation
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FIGURE 16 - TYPICAL ASCENT PROFILE FOR A SOYUZ-IKAR MISSION
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4.2.2 SOYUZ-FREGAT
The typical suborbital ascent profile for a SOYUZ-FREGAT mission and its associated sequence of events is
described in the following figure.
FIGURE 17 - TYPICAL SUBORBITAL ASCENT PROFILE FOR A SOYUZ-FREGAT MISSION
4.3
Launch record data
LAUNCH
DATE
SITE
NUMBER OF
SATELLITES
ORBIT
RESULT
09.02.99
SOYUZ-IKAR
BAIKONUR
4
LEO
Success
15.03.99
SOYUZ-IKAR
BAIKONUR
4
LEO
Success
15.04.99
SOYUZ-IKAR
BAIKONUR
4
LEO
Success
22.09.99
SOYUZ-IKAR
BAIKONUR
4
LEO
Success
18.10.99
SOYUZ-IKAR
BAIKONUR
4
LEO
Success
22.11.99
SOYUZ-IKAR
BAIKONUR
4
LEO
Success
08.02.00
SOYUZ-FREGAT
BAIKONUR
2
LEO
Success
20.03.00
SOYUZ-FREGAT
BAIKONUR
2
LEO
Success
16.07.00
SOYUZ-FREGAT
BAIKONUR
2
LEO
Success
09.08.00
SOYUZ-FREGAT
BAIKONUR
2
LEO
Success
Ø Failures
REMARK
: none
Ø Previsional reliability : Ø Success ratio
4.4
: SOYUZ-IKAR:
6/6 = 100%
SOYUZ-FREGAT: 4/4 = 100%
Planned launches
Not available
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5. DESCRIPTION
5.1
Launch vehicle
FIGURE 18 - SOYUZ-IKAR
5.2
FIGURE 19 - SOYUZ-FREGAT
Overall vehicle
Overall length
Maximum diameter
Lift-off mass (approx.)
December 2001
SOYUZ-IKAR
SOYUZ-FREGAT
43.42 m
10.30 m
305 t
42.50 m
10.30 m
308 t
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5.3
SOYUZ-IKAR-FREGAT
General characteristics of the stages
STAGE
Designation
Manufacturer
Structure
1 (Boosters)
2
3
4
B, V, G, D Blocks
Block A
Block I
IKAR
FREGAT
Ts SKB
Ts SKB
Ts SKB
Ts SKB
LAVOCHKIN
Aluminium Skinstringer
Length (m)
19.8
28
6.7
2.61
1.5
Diameter (m)
2.68
2.15-2.95
2.66
2.72
3.35
Dry mass (t)
3 810
6 875
2 355
2 352
1 000
Ø Type
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
Ø Fuel
Kerosene
Kerosene
Kerosene
UDMH
UDMH
LO2
LO2
LO2
N2O4
N2O4
Ø Fuel
11 260 x 4
26 300
6 480
-
-
Ø Oxidizer
27 900 x 4
63 800
14 900
-
-
TOTAL
39 160 x 4
90 100
21 380
300 up to
900
5 350
Tank pressure (bar)
-
-
-
-
-
Total lift-off mass (t)
176 800
101 900
25 200
3 290
6 535
Propellant:
Ø Oxidizer
Propellant mass (kg)
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Ø FREGAT upper stage overview
1 - S5.92 main engine
2 - Fuel tanks
3 - Hydrazine bottle
4 - ACS thrusters
5 - Oxidizer tanks
6 - Telemetry system
antenna
7 - Control system
8 - Equipment bay coverradiator
9 - Telemetry and
tracking system
10 - Helium bottles
11 - Chemical batteries
FIGURE 20 - THE FREGAT UPPER STAGE
Ø Launch vehicle growth
In the future, STARSEM wants to launch an upgraded version called SOYUZ/ST which could use the
ARIANE 4 fairing and is supposed to be able to accommodate both the IKAR and the FREGAT upper
stages.
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5.4
SOYUZ-IKAR-FREGAT
Propulsion
STAGE
1
2
3
RD-117
RD-118
RD-0110
17 D 61
S5.92
Manufacturer
ENERGOMASH
ENERGOMASH
KHIMAUTOMATIKI
KB
MELNIKOV
KB
KHIMMASH
Number of engines
4 (4 chambers
+ 2 verniers
each)
1 (4 chambers
+ 4 verniers)
1 (4 chambers + 4
verniers)
1 (16
verniers)
1 (+ 8 ACS
thrusters)
1 155
1 250
408
357
75
Turbopump
Turbopump
Turbopump
Gaz
pressure
Turbopump
Mixture ratio
2.47
2.39
-
-
1.95 to 2.10
Chamber pressure
(bar)
58.5
54.2
68.0
9.0
0.1
Liquid
(Kerosene)
Liquid
(Kerosene)
-
-
-
Ø Sea level
245
264
-
-
-
Ø Vacuum
310
311
330
307
330
Ø Sea level
813 x 4
779
-
-
-
Ø Vacuum
997 x 4
997
298
2.943
19.6
120
< 300
230-250
600
-
Nozzle expansion
ratio
-
-
-
-
-
Restart capability
No
No
No
Yes (up to
50)
Yes (up to
20)
Designation
Engine mass (kg)
Feed syst. type
Cooling
4
Specific impulse (s)
Thrust (kN)
Burning time (s)
5.5
Guidance and control
5.5.1 Guidance
Inertial
Two avionics systems are used. One is located on stage 2 and controls this stage and stage 1 (boosters). A
second avionics package is located on stage 3 (intertank section) and is similar to the lower package.
IKAR upper stage has its own semi-autonomous 3-axis inertial unit.
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5.5.2 Control
STAGE
Pitch, yaw, roll
1
Movable
aerodynamic
fins and
8 gimballed
verniers
(deviation
angles up to
45°)
2
4 gimballed
verniers
(deviation
angles up to
45°)
3
4 gimballed
verniers
(deviation
angles up to
40°)
4
IKAR: by gimballing nozzle
(pitch, yaw) 16 thrusters
(roll) (+ all control during
ballistic phase)
FREGAT: by translation of
S5.92 engine or use of
8 ACS thrusters
6. DATA SOURCE REFERENCES
1
-
SOYUZ User's manual - Issue 2 - June 1997
2
-
Jane's Space Directory 1998-1999 - p 252
3
-
STARSEM documentation - 1999 - http://www.starsem.com
4
-
Orbireport.com
5
-
SOYUZ User’s manual - Issue 3 - April 2001
December 2001
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