Hoefer DALT System - GE Healthcare Life Sciences

Hoefer DALT System
DALT Electrophoresis Tank
DALT Gradient Maker
DALT Multiple Gel Caster
DALT Blotting Kit
User Manual
80-6431-50
Rev A/12-98
Important User Information
English
Please read this entire manual to fully understand the safe
and effective use of this product.
The exclamation mark within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the
user to the presence of important operating and maintenance instructions in
the literature accompanying the instrument.
If you have any comments on this manual, please send them to us at:
Amersham Biosciences Inc.
Marketing Department
654 Minnesota Street
San Francisco, CA 94107 USA
Amersham Biosciences reserves the right to make changes in the specifications
without prior notice.
Warranty and Liability
Amersham Biosciences guarantees that the product delivered has been thoroughly
tested to assure that it meets its published specifications. The warranty included in the
conditions of delivery is valid only if the product has been installed and used according to
the instructions supplied by Amersham Biosciences.
Amersham Biosciences shall in no event be liable for incidental or consequential
damages, including without limitation, lost profits, loss of income, loss of business opportunities, loss of use and other related exposures, however caused, arising from the faulty
and incorrect use of the product.
© 1998 Amersham Biosciences Limited.
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
in any form by any means, without permission in written form from the company.
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Renseignements importants
d’utilization
Français
Pour une bonne compréhension et une utilisation
en sécurité maximale, il convient de lire entièrement ce manuel.
Dans la documentation qui accompagne l’instrument un point d’exclamation dans un triangle équilatéral a pour but d’attirer l’attention de
l’utilisateur sur des instructions importantes de fonctionnment ou de
maintenance.
Tous vos commentaires sur ce manuel seront les bienvenus et veuillez les adresser
à:
Amersham Biosciences Inc.
Marketing Department
654 Minnesota Street
San Francisco, CA 94107 USA
Amersham Biosciences se réserve le droit d’effectuer des modifications de
ces spécifications sans aucun préavis.
Garantie et responsabilité
Deutsch
Für ein vollständiges Verständnis und eine sichere
Handhabung dieses Produktes ist es notwendig, daß
der Benutzer dieses Handbuch vollständig durchliest.
Ein Ausrufezeichen in einem gleichseitigen Dreieck soll den
Benutzer auf die Anwesenheit wichtiger Betriebs- und Wartungsanweisungen in der dem Gerät beiliegenden Dokumentation hinweisen.
Wenn Sie Anmerkungen zu diesem Handbuch haben, dann senden Sie diese bitte
an:
Amersham Biosciences Inc.
Marketing Department
654 Minnesota Street
San Francisco, CA 94107 USA
Amersham Biosciences behält sich das Recht vor, die Spezifikationen
ohne vorhergehende Ankündigung zu ändern.
Gewährleistung and Haftung
Amersham Biosciences garantit à l’utilisateur que le produit livré a subi
avec succès tous les essais prévus pour s’assurer qu’il est conforme aux spécifications et normes en vigueur. La garantie incluse dans les conditions de livraison
n’est valable que si le produit a été installé et utilisé conformément aux instructions fournies par Amersham Biosciences.
La société Amersham Biosciences ne sera en aucun cas responsable de
tout dommage causé directement ou indirectement par toute utilisation incorrecte ou non approuvée du produit ou découlant de cette utilisation, y compris
toute perte de bénéfice ou de recettes, toute perte de perspectives commerciales,
tout empêchement d’utilisation et tout autre risques ayant un rapport avec l’utilisation du produit, mais sans aucune limitation quant à la nature de ces
dommages.
© 1998 Amersham Biosciences Limited .
Tous droits réservés.
La reproduction, le stockage dans un système de récupération d’informations ou
la transmission sous quelque forme que ce soit et par quelque moyen que ce soit
de la présente publication en totalité ou en partie sont strictement interdits sans
autorisation préalable écrite de la société.
Información importante para el usuario
Wichtige Benutzerinformationen
Amersham Biosciences garantiert, daß das gelieferte Produkt sorgfältig
auf die Einhaltung der veröffentlichten Spezifikationen getestet wurde. Die in
den Lieferbedingungen näher erläuterten Gewährleistungsansprüche gelten nur
dann, wenn das Produkt gemäß den von Amersham Biosciences
gelieferten Anweisungen installiert und benutzt wurde.
Amersham Biosciencces übernimmt keinerlei Haftung für Schäden oder
Folgeschäden, einschließlich, aber nicht begrenzt auf Gewinneinbußen, Einkommensverluste, entgangene Geschäftsabschlüsse, Verlust der Gebrauchsfähigkeit
oder andere Verluste, die wie auch immer durch eine fehlerhafte oder
unsachgemäße Verwendung des Produkts verursacht wurden.
© 1998 Amersham Biosciences Limited.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten.
Die vorliegende Veröffentlichung darf nur mit vorhergehender schriftlicher Genehmigung durch das Unternehmen vervielfältigt, in einem Abrufsystem gespeichert oder in irgendeiner Form oder mit irgendwelchen Mitteln übertragen
werden.
Informazioni importanti per l’operatore
Español
Para comprender el producto y utilizarlo con seguridad es necesario leer este manual en su totalidad.
El signo de admiración en un triángulo
equilátero en el manual, advierte al usuario sobre la presencia de
instrucciones importantes de operación y mantenimiento del aparato.
Si desearan hacer algún comentario sobre este manual, tengan la amabilidad de
remitirlo a:
Amersham Biosciences Inc.
Marketing Department
654 Minnesota Street
San Francisco, CA 94107 USA
Amersham Biosciences se reserva el derecho a modificar las especificaciones sin previo aviso.
Garantía y responsabilidad
Amersham Biosciences garantiza que el producto entregado ha sido probado a fondo para comprobar el cumplimiento de las especificaciones publicadas. La garantía incluida en las condiciones de entrega sólo es válida si el
producto se ha instalado y utilizado de acuerdo con las instrucciones entregadas
por Amersham Biosciences.
Amersham Biosciences no será responsable, bajo ningún concepto, de
daños directos o indirectos, incluyendo sin limitación la pérdida de beneficios, la
pérdida de ingresos, la pérdida de oportunidades de negocio, la pérdida de utilización y otras consecuencias relacionadas, cualquiera que sea la causa, que se
deban a la utilización defectuosa e incorrecta del producto.
© 1998 Amersham Biosciences Limited. Reservados todos
los derechos.
No está permitida la reproducción, ni el almacenaje en un sistema de recuperación, ni la transmisión de parte alguna de esta publicación sin la autorización
por escrito de la empresa.
Italiano
Per un utilizzo sicuro del prodotto, leggere attentamente l’intero contenuto del presente manuale.
Il punto esclamativo all’interno di un
triangolo equilatero indica all’operatore la presenza di importanti
istruzioni di funzionamento e manutenzione nella documentazione
allegata al prodotto.
Si prega di inviare eventuali commenti al presente manuale a:
Amersham Biosciences Inc .
Marketing Department
654 Minnesota Street
San Francisco, CA 94107 USA
Amersham Biosciecnes si riserva il diritto di apportare modifiche ai dati
tecnici senza preavviso.
Garanzia e responsabilitá
Amersham Biosciences garantisce che prima della consegna il prodotto è
stato collaudato a fondo per soddisfare i requisiti specificati. La garanzia inclusa
nelle condizioni di consegna risulta valida solamente se il prodotto è stato installato ed utilizzato nel rispetto delle istruzioni fornite da Amersham
Biosciences
Amersham Biosciences non potrà essere ritenuta responsabile di incidenti
o danni consequenziali, inclusi’ma non limitati’a perdite di profitti, mancato
guadagno, perdite di affari, difetti di funzionamento e relative esposizioni, dovuti
ad un utilizzo non corretto del prodotto.
© 1998 Amersham Biosciences Limited.
Tutti i diritti riservati.
Nessuna parte della presente pubblicazione può essere riprodotta, conservata in
sistemi di gestione dati o trasmessa in alcun forma né per nessuno scopo senza
autorizzazione scritta del produttore.
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
CONTENTS
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
DALT System Components
3
Unpacking
7
Important Information/Informations Importantes
8
Specifications
9
Required or Convenient, But not Supplied
11
Preparing the Gel Caster
12
Casting Homogeneous (Non-Gradient) Gels
14
Preparation for Gradient Gel Casting
16
Configuring the Gradient Divider
16
Calibrating the Peristaltic Pump
17
Casting Gradient Gels
18
Gradient Casting Setup
18
Pouring Gel Solutions for Gradient Gels
19
Applying Overlay to DALT Slab Gels
22
Polymerization
22
Unloading the Gel Caster
23
Preparing the DALT Tank for Electrophoresis
24
Connecting a Refrigerated Circulating Bath
24
Filling the Tank with SDS Electrophoresis Buffer
24
Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
27
Equilibrating IPG Strips
27
Loading the IPG Strips onto the DALT Slab Gels
29
Loading Cassettes into the DALT Tank
31
Electrophoresis Conditions in the DALT Tank
32
Unloading the DALT Cassettes
33
Cleaning DALT Cassettes
33
The DALT Blotting Kit
Amersham Biosciences
3
34
Preparing the DALT Tank for Transfer
34
Assemble the Transfer Cassette
35
Loading the Cassettes
37
Hoefer DALT System
Connecting the Power Supply
38
Transfer Conditions
39
Completing the Transfer
39
Factors Affecting the Transfer
40
Recipes
41
Homogeneous Gel Solutions
46
Gradient Gel Solutions
49
For 25 gels, 1 mm
50
For 12 gels, 1 mm
51
For 23 gels, 1.5 mm
52
For 12 gels, 1.5 mm
53
Gel Identification Numbers
54
Care and Maintenance
55
Cleaning
55
Removing the Electrode Panels from the DALT Tank
55
Troubleshooting
56
References
60
Customer Service Information
61
Technical Service and Repair
61
Ordering information
61
Index
2
63
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
In 2-D protein electrophoresis, proteins are separated first according to isoelectric point
by isoelectric focusing, most reliably on immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. The
second dimension electrophoresis separates the proteins on the basis of their molecular
mass on a slab gel containing the denaturing detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS).
The Hoefer DALT System is designed to simplify the handling of multiple second
dimension gels and improve the reproducibility of the second dimension separation.
DALT System Components
The Hoefer DALT System comprises:
•
a multiple vertical slab electrophoresis tank
•
a multiple gel caster
•
a gradient maker with peristaltic pump
•
gel cassettes
•
a blotting kit
Electrophoresis Tank
Figure 1. The DALT
Electrophoresis Tank
Hinged lid
Platinum-core
electrode panels (two)
Buffer
circulation flutes
Alumina
heat exchanger
Barrier combs (two) with
silicone rubber flap seals
(Siphon pump included,
but not shown)
High-voltage leads
The DALT Electrophoresis Tank accommodates up to ten 23 × 19 cm slab gels for
separation under identical conditions. The sample, following focusing in an IPG strip, is
attached to the cathodic surface of the gel by embedding in agarose, then the gel is
turned 90° and run in a “sideways” orientation, with the IPG strip standing vertically at
one edge.
The tank is divided into three chambers by silicone rubber flap seals on the barrier
combs. The seals are not designed to be liquid-tight but they do provide a good barrier
to electrical current, causing most current to flow through the gels. Although there is
Amersham Biosciences
3
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
Hoefer DALT System
some leakage current bypassing the gels, this has little effect on system operation. The
barriers can be raised or removed by loosening the nylon screws which secure them in
place.
The left and right chambers contain platinum wire electrodes, cathode (–) and
anode (+). The center chamber provides cooling via circulating buffer and a tube-type
heat exchanger. Since the gel cassettes are almost entirely exposed to the buffer in the
center chamber, with only their ends protruding into the side chambers, cooling of the
center chamber buffer provides excellent temperature control of the gel slabs during the
run. Electrode panels can be removed by loosening the nylon screws securing them in
place. Removal is not typically necessary unless the platinum wire becomes broken and
requires replacement. See “Removing the Electrode Panels from the DALT Tank” on
page 55.
Figure 2. Rear view of
electrophoresis tank
Pump shield, with foot
for open lid support
Buffer
circulation pump
Pump priming line*
Quick-fit connectors,
attach to circulating
water bath
*WARNING
The liquid in the tank must cover the opening to the pump priming
line when the circulation pump is in operation.
Buffer moves into the pump through the middle of the three flutes running along the
length of the tank’s center chamber, and is expelled back into the tank through the left
and right flutes. The holes in the output flutes are aligned to generate maximum
circulation over both the cassettes and the heat exchanger on the floor of the tank's
centre chamber (beneath the flutes). As described on page 24, run the pump only when
the tank is filled with liquid, to prevent damage to the pump.
The Quick-fit connectors on the ends of the tank port tubing provide a leak-proof seal
when disengaged, eliminating spillage of coolant solution.
4
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
Gel Cassettes
Figure 3. DALT gel
cassettes
The DALT gel cassettes are pre-assembled. Two glass plates are held together along one
edge by a strip of silicone rubber, and the glass spacers (1.5 or 1.0 mm thick) are glued
in position. To complete assembly, close the two plates like a book. Gels are removed by
opening the book after the run and lifting out the slab. The cassette is easily cleaned as a
unit, and can be stood upright in the open to dry. The cassettes are dishwasher-safe.
Cassettes are 20.4 × 25.5 cm and produce a gel about 19 × 23 cm: 46 ml for 1-mm
thick, 68 ml for 1.5-mm thick. The gels make the best use of the standard 20 × 25 cm Xray film.
Multiple Gel Caster
Figure 4. The DALT Gel
Caster
The DALT Gel Caster holds up to 25 gel cassettes, 1 mm thick, or up to 23 cassettes,
1.5 mm thick, with separating sheets, for casting homogeneous or gradient gels. Fewer
cassettes can be filled at one time by inserting filler blocks to occupy unneeded volume.
Amersham Biosciences
5
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
Hoefer DALT System
A removable front plate and cassette separating sheets simplify loading and unloading
cassettes from the unit. A hydrostatic balance chamber allows accurate gradient
positioning and provides a means to flush the fill tubing before polymerization occurs.
The chamber also provides a “make up solution” to accommodate the volume
shrinkage during polymerization.
Pump-Assisted Gradient Maker
Figure 5. The DALT
Gradient Maker
Divider adjusting rod
The DALT Gradient Maker casts gradients of arbitrary shape, up to 2.0 liters total
volume. The solution is delivered at a controlled rate by a peristaltic pump. A flexible
liquid-tight divider partitions the gradient maker into two chambers of complementary
shapes for casting both linear and non-linear gradients. With the divider adjusting rod,
you can configure the gradient divider to adapt to your gradient gel requirements.
6
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
Blotting Kit
Figure 6. The DALT
Blotting Kit
The DALT Blotting Kit consists of a five-place acrylic cassette-holding rack and five
transfer cassettes, complete with cassette packing material— sponges and blotting paper.
The cassettes hold the gel and the transfer membrane secure, with just enough pressure
to assure even transfer.
Unpacking
Unwrap all packages carefully and compare contents with the packing list, making sure
all items arrived. If any part is missing, contact your local Amersham Biosciences
sales office. Inspect all components for damage that may have occurred while the unit
was in transit. If any part appears damaged, contact the carrier immediately. Be sure to
keep all packing material for damage claims or to use should it become necessary to
return the unit.
Rinse the DALT Tank and Gel Caster with distilled water and let air dry. Before initial
use, carefully clean glass plates and spacers with a dilute solution of laboratory cleanser
to remove fingerprints. Rinse thoroughly with tap and distilled water. See “Care and
Maintenance” on page 55 for more detailed instructions.
Amersham Biosciences
7
Hoefer DALT System
Important Information
Informations Importantes
•
Plug the instruments into a properly grounded outlet.
•
Raccorder l’instrument à une prise de terre appropriée.
•
The safety lid must be in place before connecting the
power leads to a power supply.
•
Le couvercle de sécurité doit être en place avant de
brancher les prises au générateur.
•
Turn all power supply controls off and disconnect the
power leads before opening the safety lid.
•
Eteindre le générateur et débrancher les prises avant
d’ouvrir le couvercle de sécurité.
•
Rinse only the electrodes (not the banana plugs) with
distilled water before and after use.
•
Rinser seulement les électrodes (pas les "banana-plugs")
avec de l'eau distillée avant et après l'utilisation.
•
Always disconnect the power cord before servicing.
•
Toujours déconnecter le cordon d’alimentation avant de
réparer l’instrument.
•
Do not operate the circulation pump if the DALT Tank is
empty. The pump is not self-priming and can be damaged
if run dry.
•
•
Circulate only water or 50/50 water/ethylene glycol
through the heat exchanger. Never introduce anti-freeze
or any organic solvent into any part of the instrument.
Organic solvents will cause irreparable damage to the
unit!
Ne pas faire fonctionner la pompe de circulation tampon,
lorsque la cuve d'électrophorèse DALT est vide. La pompe
ne s'amorce pas automatiquement et peut-être
endommagée si elle tourne à sec.
•
Faire circuler seulement de l’eau ou 50/50 d’eau et
d’éthylène glycol dans l’échangeur vertical à cirulation
d’eau. Ne jamais utiliser d’anti-gel ou tout autre solvant
organique avec cet instrument. Les solvants organiques
causeraient des dommages irréparables à l’appareil.
•
Ne pas connecter l’échangeur vertical à circulation d’eau à
un robinet ou quelque source de refroidissement dont la
pression n’est pas régulière.
•
Ne pas utiliser avec un tampon à une température au
dessus de 45 °C. Toutes les piéces en plastique sont
prévues pour résister à une température constante de
45 °C.
•
Do not connect the heat exchanger to a water tap or any
coolant source where the pressure is unregulated.
•
Do not operate with buffer temperature above 45 °C. All
plastic parts are rated for 45 °C continuous duty.
Circulate coolant through the heat exchanger during
electrophoresis to minimize heating. Overheating will
cause irreparable damage to the unit!
Faire circuler l’eau dans l’échangeur vertical durant
l’électrophorèse pour minimiser l’échauffement afin
d’éviter des dommages irréparables à l’instrument.
For longer runs you can control heating somewhat by
chilling the buffer before use, running the unit in a cold
Pour des coulages plus long, on peut aussi contrôler la
température en refroidissant le tampon avant l’utilisation
et/ou en utilisant l’instrument dans une chambre froide.
room, or both.
•
Do not lift the DALT Tank by the buffer pump.
•
Do not autoclave or boil this unit or any of its parts.
•
The casting unit, when filled with glass plates and gel
solutions, is very heavy. Use caution when trying to move
or lift the casting unit.
•
If this equipment is used in a manner not specified by the
manufacturer, the protection provided by the equipment
may be impaired.
•
Only accessories and parts approved or supplied by
Amersham Biosciences may be used for operating,
maintaining, and servicing this product.
•
Ne pas soulever la Cuve DALT en s'appuyant sur la
pompe.
•
Ne pas autoclaver ou stériliser cette unité, ni aucune de ses
pièces détachées.
•
L'unité de coulage des gels, quand elle comprend les
plaques de verre et la solution d'acrylamide, est très
lourde. Prenez toute vos précautions,quand vous déplacez
ou soulevez l'unité.
•
Si l'instrument n'est pas utilisé en conformité avec les
recommandations du fabriquant, les protections de
sécurité qui équipent cet appareil peuvent être rendues
inéfficaces.
•
Seulement les accessoires et piéces detachées approuvés ou
fournis par Amersham Biosciences sont
recommandés pour l’utilisation, l’entretien et réparation
de cet appareil.
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
Specifications
DALT Electrophoresis Tank with Buffer Circulation Pump
Gel capacity, 1.0 or 1.5 mm thick
10 gels
Electrophoresis buffer volume
20 liters
Blotting buffer volume
22 liters
Dimensions (h × w × d)
lid closed: 38 × 48 × 33 cm (15 × 19 × 13 in)
lid open: 50 × 48 × 33 cm (20 × 19 × 13 in)
Weight
16.8 kg
Maximum wattage
200 W
Maximum voltage
500 V DC
Maximum amperage
1000 mA
Maximum temperature
30 °C
Environmental operating conditions
Indoor use: 4 – 40 °C
Humidity up to 90%
Altitude up to 2000 m
Installation category
II
Pollution degree
2
Buffer circulation pump rate
20 liters/min
115 V~
50/60 Hz, 2.4 A, 180 W
230 V~
50/60 Hz, 1/0.83 A
Product certifications*
EN61010-1, UL3101-1, CSA C22.2 1010.1, CE
DALT Multiple Gel Caster
Gel Capacity
1.0 mm thick
1.5 mm thick
25 gels
23 gels
Acrylamide solution volume (total)
1,800 ml
Dimensions (h × w × d)
29 × 34 ϖ 25 cm
Weight
33.5 kg
DALT Gel Cassettes
Amersham Biosciences
Glass cassette dimensions (w × h)
25.5 × 20.4 cm
Slab gel dimensions
1.0 mm × 23.4 × 19.5 cm
1.5 mm × 23.4 × 19.5 cm
9
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
Hoefer DALT System
DALT Gradient Maker
Dimensions (h × w × d)
54 × 19 × 18 cm
Maximum gradient volume
2,000 ml
Weight
5.4 kg
Peristaltic Pump for Gradient Maker
115 V~
37 W, 1.5A
230 V~
37 W, 0.9A
Weight
4.1 kg (9 lbs.)
Dimensions (h × w × d)
13.5 × 18 × 22 cm
Environmental operating conditions
Indoor use: 0 – 40 °C
Humidity: 10 – 90%
Altitude: up to 2000 m
Installation category
II
Pollution degree
2
Product certifications*
EN61010-1, UL508, cUL (115 V), IEC 1010 (230 V),
CE
DALT Blotting Kit
Capacity
5 gels
Rack dimensions (h × w × d)
28 × 23 × 26 cm
Weight
3.2 kg
*This declaration of conformity is only valid for the instrument when it is:
10
•
used in laboratory locations,
•
used as delivered from Amersham Biosciences, except for alterations
described in the User Manual, and
•
connected to other CE-labeled instruments of products recommended or
approved by Amersham Biosciences.
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Hoefer DALT System Function and Description
Required or Convenient, But not Supplied
Refrigerated Cooling Bath
DALT Tank cooling is provided by circulating chilled liquid through the heat exchanger
on the floor of the central chamber. With the aid of Quick-fit connectors, you can
connect a refrigerated circulating bath, such as the MultiTemp III, to the fittings at the
back of the DALT Tank. We strongly recommend active cooling for protein transfers.
Focused IPG Strips
Immobiline DrySrips provide a stable gradient pH gradient (IPG) immobilized onto an
acrylamide matrix and supported by a plastic film backing. They are readily available,
easy to handle and not prone to breakage and stretching. IPG strip focusing is
accomplished on the IPGphor or Multiphor II with the Immobiline DryStrip tray
accessory.
Power Supply
For overnight or full-day runs, a conventional electrophoresis power supply delivering
600 V at 400 mA, such as the EPS 601, is suitable. For multiple tanks or faster runs (8 –
9 h) a higher current power supply, such as the EPS 2A200, is desirable.
Transfer Membranes
The DALT Blotting kit includes 50 pieces of blotting paper. For electrophoresis tank
blotting, Amersham Biosciences offers a complete line of transfer membranes,
including pure nitrocellulose, supported nitrocellulose, PVDF and nylon. Choose the
appropriate transfer membrane for your application.
Small Gadgets
Amersham Biosciences
•
A small plastic spatula or thin plastic ruler to insert and seat IPG gels on the tops of
the slab gels between the glass plates
•
Plastic-covered dish racks (Rubbermaid or equivalent) for holding the DALT gel
cassettes during the loading process
•
A microwave oven or 100 °C heating block for preparing the agarose sealing
solution
•
A Wonder Wedge (80-6127-88) for prying open the gel cassettes after the DALT run
•
Screw-cap culture tubes, 25 × 200 mm, for storing IPG strips at –40 °C
•
GelSeal for lubricating the gradient gasket, to assure a leakproof seal
•
A peristaltic pump is recommended for more rapid removal of buffer than the small
siphon pump supplied with the DALT Tank. The pump can be set up to deliver used
buffer that is not radioactive directly to a lab drain.
•
A vacuum pump for degassing solutions
•
Thick, latex dishwashing gloves, with textured fingers
11
Preparing the Gel Caster
Hoefer DALT System
Preparing the Gel Caster
Set up the gel caster near a sink, in a tray or container that can act as a catch basin for
any liquid that may overflow the unit or empty out of it when you open it to remove the
gels. Alternatively, place the unit on a plastic or rubber kitchen drain board that empties
into a sink.
The DALT Gel Caster can accommodate up to twenty-five 1-mm, or twenty-three
1.5-mm gel cassettes, with separator sheets between each cassette, before the first
cassette and after the last cassette. If you are not preparing the maximum number of
gels, use filler blocks and separator sheets to take up the excess caster volume. Place
separator sheets between the filler blocks.
Cast at least 22 cassettes for two 10-sample runs to allow for the possibility of one or
two imperfect gels.
1. Check that the caster is level. Remove the front plate and rest the caster on its back,
with its feet facing you. Place the triangular sponge in the base of the V-shaped feed
channel.
Plates are more easily loaded in this orientation. Check that the caster is clean, and
free of dust.
2. Lubricate the foam sealing gasket with a light coating of GelSeal to help assure leakproof sealing. Place the gasket in the groove along the front side of the caster. Avoid
stretching the gasket.
3. Start filling the gel caster by placing a separator sheet against the inside wall to
make it easier to remove the cassettes and filler blocks after polymerization.
If you are casting fewer than the maximum number of gels, first add a selection of
filler blocks, with a separator sheet between each block. For example, to cast twelve
1.0-mm gels, you may need four 25-mm blocks and one 3-mm block, with
separator sheets between each block. To cast twelve 1.5-mm gels, you may need
three 25-mm blocks, one 12-mm block, one 6-mm block, and one 3-mm block,
with separator sheets between each block.
Next add the cassettes, with all hinge strips vertical and aligned on the side of the
unit opposite the feed tube. Insert a gel separator sheet between each cassette pair.
End with a separator sheet between the final cassette and the gel caster face plate. If
necessary, use additional separator sheets to bring the level of the stack even with
the edge of the caster.
4. Put the removable front plate of the gel caster in place and screw on the black
knurled knobs. Tighten these hand tight (not over-tight), then carefully place the gel
caster in an upright position.
Be sure the sealing gasket on the front plate forms a tight seal against the face plate.
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Preparing the Gel Caster
5. Prepare a set of gel labels on filter paper, as described on page 53.
Cut the labels apart, leaving little excess around the characters, and place them in
order in front of the gel caster. Then, taking care to keep track of which cassette will
be numbered next, drop the numbers, in order, into the cassettes, on the side
opposite the gradient inlet port. As the gradient is introduced, the numbers fall to
the floor of the caster but remain in the respective cassettes and ultimately are
polymerized into the gels.
6. Insert the end of the plastic feed tube, supplied with the gel caster, into the grommet
in the floor of the side hydrostatic balance chamber of the caster (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Attaching the
feed tube to the gel caster
Feed tube
Balance chamber
Grommet
Identification number
V-well
The feed tube must be snugly in place so that there is no leakage from the balance
chamber into the caster at this point. The feed tube should be connected directly to
the gradient maker tubing or to a funnel with flexible vinyl tubing.
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Casting Homogeneous (Non-Gradient) Gels
Hoefer DALT System
Casting Homogeneous (Non-Gradient) Gels
WARNING
Acrylamide is a neurotoxin. Always use mechanical pipettes and wear
protective gloves when working with acrylamide solutions, IPG strips
or surfaces that come in contact with acrylamide solutions.
1. Be sure the entire gel casting system is clean, dry, and free from any polymerized
acrylamide.
2. Prepare a sufficient volume of gel overlay solution (water-saturated n-butanol). You
need 0.75 ml of overlay for each cassette, or about 20 ml for a set of 25 cassettes.
3. Make up 200 ml of displacing solution (page 42).
4. Make up the gel acrylamide stock solution, without adding the 10% ammonium
persulfate (APS) or 10% N,N,N',N',-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). See
“Homogeneous Gel Solutions” on page 46.
5. Load the gel caster with cassettes, separator sheets and filler blocks, if necessary.
Place a gel label in each cassette. See page 12 for directions.
6. Connect the feed tube to a funnel held in a ring-stand at a level about 12 inches
above the top of the gel caster (Figure 8). Insert the other end of the feed tube in the
grommet in the bottom of the balance chamber.
Figure 8. Setting up the
caster for a non-gradient
gel
Funnel
Feed tube
Balance chamber
Grommet
7. Load the balance chamber with 150 ml heavy displacing solution.
8. Add the appropriate volumes of APS and TEMED only when you are ready to pour
the gel, not before.
Once these reagents are added, polymerization begins. You have about 10 minutes
before the gels begin to solidify. Vary the amount of TEMED added to control the
rate of polymerization.
9. Slowly pour the gel solution into the funnel, taking care to avoid introducing any
bubbles into the feed tube line.
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Casting Homogeneous (Non-Gradient) Gels
10. Once the pouring is complete, remove the feed tube from the balance chamber
grommet.
As soon as the feed tube is removed, the dense blue displacing solution flows down
the connecting tube to the unit, fills the V-well and the sloped trough at the bottom
of the caster. If the V-well is not completely filled and the level of gel in the casettes
is more than 1 cm below the top of the cassettes, you may add up to 50 ml more
displacing solution to the balance chamber.
The displacing solution pushes the remaining acrylamide solution out of the V-well
into the gel cassettes. As gels contract during polymerization, the displacement
solution is drawn in from the bottom.
IMPORTANT Apply overlay immediately! See “Applying Overlay to DALT Slab
Gels” on page 22.
11. Allow non-gradient gels to polymerize for at least 1 hour.
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Preparation for Gradient Gel Casting
Hoefer DALT System
Preparation for Gradient Gel Casting
Successful gel casting requires planning, timing and practice.
A full DALT Gel Caster requires approximately two liters of acrylamide stock.
Polymerization begins as soon as you add TEMED and APS to the acrylamide stock.
Once you have added these reagents, there is no time to adjust the gradient maker
divider, or the cassettes and separators in the gel caster.
To familiarize yourself with the gel caster and gradient maker before casting gels, we
recommend you set up the unit, as described on page 12, and configure the gradient
divider, as described on this page. Follow the gradient pouring procedure on page 18,
substituting water for the appropriate volume of light solution, and a mixture of
glycerol and water for the appropriate volume of heavy solution.
When the angle of the gradient divider is correctly adjusted and you are comfortable
with the gel casting procedure, clean all parts of the caster and gradient maker, including
sponges, separating sheets and filler blocks, with a solution of mild detergent, followed
by a fresh water rinse.
Configuring the Gradient Divider
You can adjust the shape of the gradient divider to suit the number of gels to be cast and
shape of the gradient you want. When casting a full tank of gels, the angle of the
adjustable divider to the floor of the gradient maker should be about 70 °. For fewer
gels, decrease the divider angle (Figure 9). Whatever angle you use, a straight divider
gives a linear gradient.
Figure 9. Gradient divider
configurations for half-full
and full Gel Caster tanks.
Divider angle (approx.)
Number/thickness
40 °
12 gels/1.0 cm
50 °
12 gels/1.5 cm
60 °
70 °
25 gels/1.0 cm
23 gels/1.5 cm
1. Determine the amount of gel solution needed to cast the desired number of gels.
2. Loosen the faceplate screws on the empty gradient maker to adjust the gasket angle.
Refer to the divider configurations in Figure 9 as a guideline to the angle you should
use.
Pull the divider slightly to help move it into position. Use the red adjuster rod
provided with the gradient maker to push the gradient divider down.
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Preparation for Gradient Gel Casting
3. For a linear gradient, straighten the divider, with its upper end almost touching the
left wall at the height determined by the volume of water.
4. To make a funnel for introducing heavy solution into the left side, bend the
remaining top of the divider to the right.
5. Tighten the faceplate screws and close the pinch clamps on the tubing that runs out
of the gradient maker before adding water or gel solutions.
6. Using water in place of gel solution, put half the required volume in the right
chamber and the other half in the left chamber.
7. Adjust the angle of the gradient divider so that the level of liquid in the “heavy”
chamber is about 2 cm below the level of liquid in the “light” chamber.
You may use tape or wax pencil on the outside of the gradient maker to record the
angle of the gradient divider. Avoid using marker ink that can only be removed with
methanol. Most solvents, including methanol, can craze the plastic parts of the
gradient maker.
8. Open the pinch clamps to remove the water, or pour the water out of the top of the
gradient maker.
Repeat this procedure whenever the required volume of acrylamide solution changes as
a result of changing the number or thickness of gels you are casting.
Calibrating the Peristaltic Pump
Install the pump head and tubing to the pump controller, as directed in the manual
supplied with the pump. Calibrate the pump flow before the first use, and after every
ten to twenty uses, to assure proper flow rates.
This calibration procedure assumes a desired flow rate of 440 ml/min for a full tank of
gels (2000 ml acrylamide) and 325 ml/min for 12 gels.
1. Place the inlet side of the tubing in a beaker that contains one liter of water.
2. Place the outlet side of the tubing in a 1-liter graduated cylinder.
3. Set the flow speed at approximately 3 – 3.5 on the dial and start the pump.
4. Stop the flow of liquid after exactly 2 minutes.
5. Measure the water in the outlet cylinder and divide by 2 to determine the flow in
ml/min.
6. To determine the appropriate flow setting, divide the desired flow rate by the flow
rate in step 5; multiply this result times the flow speed used in step 3.
Example. You want to cast a full tank of gels and determine the flow rate is
500 ml/min when you set the flow rate at 3. For a flow rate of 440 ml/min:
(440 ÷ 500) × 3 = 2.6 = the appropriate flow rate setting to deliver 440 ml/min
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Casting Gradient Gels
Hoefer DALT System
Casting Gradient Gels
The gradient maker is a simple unit with two chambers, defined by a silicone rubber
gasket clamped between two acrylic plates. The chambers are separated by a movable
divider, which you can modify to define the shape of the gel gradient.
Solutions flow out of the two chambers, join at the Y-connector and then thoroughly
mix in a “bow-tie” in-line pipe mixer that has no moving parts.
Three pinch clamps control the flow at the exits from the light (a) and heavy (b)
chambers, and after the mixer (c) to control flow into the peristaltic pump (Figure 10).
Figure 10. The pumpassisted gradient maker
Light chamber
Heavy chamber
Gradient divider
Clamp b
Clamp a
Clamp c
Pump
A gradient gel results from using two gel solutions of different acrylamide
concentrations and densities, a light solution and a heavy solution. The heavy gel
solution contains glycerol. During the gradient pouring procedure, the mixing ratio of
heavy solution to light solution gradually increases, with the heavier solution
underlaying the light solution. This generates a downward gradient of increasing gel
percentage. To assure balanced flow, when the gradient maker is filled with equal
volumes on each side of the divider, the height of the heavy gel solution in the gradient
maker should be 1 – 2 cm less than the height of the light solution. Under these
conditions, the two solutions are in hydrostatic equilibrium. See “Configuring the
Gradient Divider” on page 16.
Gradient Casting Setup
WARNING
Acrylamide is a neurotoxin. Always use mechanical pipettes and wear
protective gloves when working with acrylamide solutions, IPG strips
or surfaces that come in contact with acrylamide solutions.
1. Be sure the entire gel casting system is clean, dry, and free from any polymerized
acrylamide.
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Casting Gradient Gels
2. Configure the gradient divider for the number of gels you are casting. If necessary,
calibrate the gradient pump flow rate. See “Calibrating the Peristaltic Pump” on
page 17.
3. Be sure that the faceplate screws on the gradient maker are tightened hand tight and
the gradient-maker lines are all clamped off. There are three clamps: one coming
from each chamber and one after the bow-tie mixer. Close all three.
4. Prepare a sufficient volume of gel overlay solution (water-saturated n-butanol). You
need 0.75 ml of overlay for each cassette, or about 20 ml for a set of 25 cassettes.
5. Make up 200 ml of displacing solution (page 42).
6. Make up the gel acrylamide solutions from the stock mixes, but do not add the
10% ammonium persulfate (APS) and 10% N,N,N',N',-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). See “Gradient Gel Solutions” on page 49.
Pouring Gel Solutions for Gradient Gels
1. Prepare the gel caster, as described on page 12, placing gel labels in each cassette.
2. When you are ready to cast the gels, add the APS and TEMED and mix each gel
solution thoroughly. Vary the amount of TEMED added to control the rate of
polymerization.
Once these reagents are added, polymerization begins. You have about 10 minutes
to cast the gradient before the gels begin to solidify at the top. Work rapidly and
carefully.
3. Pour the light solution into the right side of the gradient maker (the chamber that is
wider at the top—“Light in Right”).
4. Fill the tubing between the light and heavy chambers with light solution.
Carefully open the clamp on the light chamber exit tube (a) and then very slowly
open the heavy chamber exit tube clamp (b). Allow light solution to fill the tube
coming from the light chamber all the way to the “Y” connector and back up to the
point at which the heavy tube enters the heavy chamber. Fill the entire tube with
LIGHT solution (no bubbles), but do not allow light solution into the heavy
chamber itself (Figure 11).
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Casting Gradient Gels
Hoefer DALT System
Figure 11. Priming with
light solution
Light solution
b
a
c
5. Close both clamps again. All three clamps should now be closed.
6. Add the heavy solution to the heavy (left) chamber (the chamber that is wider at the
bottom) until the liquid level reaches a point about 2 cm below the level of light
solution in the adjacent chamber.
7. Load the side balance chamber with 150 ml dense displacing solution (Figure 12).
The grommet seal and gradient feed tube should prevent leakage of displacing
solution into the caster.
Figure 12. Both chambers
of the gradient maker filled
and the balance chamber
of the casting box loaded
with overlay solution.
Light solution
Heavy solution
Displacing solution
a
b
c
8. Open the clamp after the mixer (c), to open the feed tube to the gel caster via the
peristaltic pump.
9. Carefully open the clamp on the light chamber exit tube (a) and turn on the pump
to bring a small amount of solution into the caster.
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Casting Gradient Gels
Light solution should begin to flow through the feed tube and mixer towards the
caster. At this point, a small amount of light solution can enter the caster.
10. When the light solution level in the gradient maker falls to a level about 1 cm above
the level of the heavy solution, open the heavy chamber exit tube clamp (b).
11. Watch the gradient enter the caster.
12. When the caster is filled to within 4 cm from the top of the cassettes, or the gradient
maker is empty, whichever comes first, turn off the pump and close the feed tube
clamp (c). Stop the pump before air enters the feed tube.
13. Pull the gradient feed tube out of the balance chamber grommet. Place its end in a
waste container to collect excess polymerizing acrylamide.
As soon as the feed tube is removed, the dense blue displacing solution flows down
the connecting tube to the unit. It should completely fill the V-well and the sloped
trough at the bottom of the caster. If the V-well is not completely filled and the level
of gel in the casettes is more than 1 cm below the top of the cassettes, you may add
up to 50 ml more displacing solution to the balance chamber. The gradient is now in
hydrostatic equilibrium in the unit, ready to polymerize (Figure 13). Apply overlay
as soon as possible (page 22).
Figure 13. The gradient in
hydrostatic equilibrium
with the feed tube
removed. Displacing
solution fills the sloped
trough at the bottom of the
caster.
Water
c
Displacing solution
14. Quickly reopen clamp c and restart the pump to empty the gradient maker
completely of any excess polymerizing acrylamide from the gradient maker.
Collect the excess in a waste container. Dispose of unpolymerized acrylamide
according to applicable safety guidelines.
15. Rinse the gradient maker well to prevent polymerization within the tubing lines.
Place the feed tube in a larger waste vessel or a sink drain. Pour about a liter of
water into each chamber of the gradient maker and open all clamps.
16. Start the pump to flush the system. Flush 2 liters more water through the gradient
maker and tubing.
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Casting Gradient Gels
Hoefer DALT System
Applying Overlay to DALT Slab Gels
The flatness of the top gel surface is a major determinant of the quality and resolution
of SDS slab gels. Imperfect gel tops can lead to irreproducible protein spot 2-D gel
patterns. A convex or tilted slab top surface can give rise to double spots, as protein at
the front and back gel surfaces starts moving at different points. To avoid this, quickly
and carefully pipette identical volumes of water-saturated n-butanol overlay solution
onto each gel. This results in very flat slab gel tops.
1. Immediately after removing the feed tube from the caster, slowly deliver 0.75 ml of
water-saturated n-butanol to the surface of each gel.
The overlay should spread evenly across the cassette with a minimum of mixing,
resulting in a smooth, flat gel top surface. Apply equal volumes of overlay to each
gel to produce gels of consistent heights.
2. Cover the top of the gel caster with plastic wrap and let the gels polymerize.
Polymerization
Allow non-gradient gels to polymerize for at least 1 hour; allow gradient gels 2 hours to
polymerize. Gradient gel polymerization should proceed from the top down. You can
observe this through the front and sides of the caster. The level of the dense displacing
solution falls farther as the gels contract upon polymerization.
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Unloading the Gel Caster
Unloading the Gel Caster
1. Remove the front of the gel caster.
The dense displacing solution will leak out into the tray or drain board beneath the
casting unit.
2. Carefully unload the cassettes from the unit.
Pull forward on the separator sheets to easily separate gels.
3. Quickly rinse the top surface of each gel with water to remove n-butanol and
unpolymerized acrylamide.
4. Wash the cassette glass plates carefully with water and use a dish brush to remove
any acrylamide adhering to the outer surfaces.
As each cassette is washed, place it, hinged-side-up, in a dish rack standing in a
plastic container with about 0.5 cm of tap water in the bottom. The container
retains the excess liquid as it drains from the surface of the gel. The water in the
container helps maintain humidity near the gels. A dry gel breaks and is useless for
electrophoresis.
5. Remove and clean the thin separator sheets.
6. Examine the gels for air spaces, uneven top surfaces or other defects and discard
any unsatisfactory gels.
7. Put the extra good gels in gel storage solution (see page 42) at 4 °C for later use.
Extra gels may also be stored by wrapping the cassettes individually in plastic wrap
and putting them in a sealed plastic box with several milliliters of diluted Tris buffer.
8. Take the foam funnel out of the bottom of the gel caster and rinse with water to
remove displacing solution. Rinse the gel caster and all tubing with water and mild
detergent, followed by a deionized water rinse.
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Preparing the DALT Tank for Electrophoresis
Hoefer DALT System
Preparing the DALT Tank for Electrophoresis
NOTE Position the DALT Tank near a sink for easy rinsing and draining.
A magnetically coupled centrifugal pump, mounted on the back of the DALT Tank
provides buffer circulation across the heat exchanger tubes and the gels in the center
chamber.
IMPORTANT Never lift or move the tank by holding the pump or the tubing at the
back of the tank.
The heat exchanger consists of four ceramic tubes below the buffer circulation flutes. It
is quite robust, but dropping a heavy, sharp object into the tank could damage it. A
cracked heat exchanger can leak coolant into the tank or buffer out of the tank, either
of which might be hazardous.
Connecting a Refrigerated Circulating Bath
To maintain a constant buffer temperature, connect a refrigerated circulating bath, such
as the MultiTemp III, to the heat exchanger fittings at the back of the DALT Tank. The
pump in the bath circulates chilled liquid through the alumina heat exchanger. The
pump on the DALT Tank circulates the buffer in the central chamber over the heat
exchanger and the gel cassettes, ensuring even gel temperature during the run.
Note For quick and easy
connections, install Quickfit connectors with valves
in the line.
1. Prepare two lengths of vinyl or silicone tubing. Slide hose clamps (4 total) onto each
end of two lengths of tubing. Attach one end of each length of tubing to the Quickfit connector attached to the heat exchanger port. Attach the free ends of each
length of tubing to the circulator bath ports; one to the inlet and the other to the
outlet. Secure the connections to the Quick-fit connectors and the circulating water
bath with the hose clamps.
2. Set the circulating bath temperature to 10 °C.
IMPORTANT The circulator pump must not generate a pressure greater than 0.7 bar
(10 psi) above atmospheric pressure.
If you use a temperature below 10 °C, use a 50/50 water/ethylene glycol solution in
the circulating bath. Do not use any organic solvent other than 50/50 ethylene
glycol/water as a coolant. Most solvents, including methanol and isopropanol, will
craze the plastic parts of the heat exchanger.
WARNING
Do not use automotive antifreeze solution. Ethylene glycol is toxic
and may be fatal if ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
Filling the Tank with SDS Electrophoresis Buffer
Because the DALT Tank has its own circulating pump, you can make the tank buffer
within the tank itself. The size and number of the cassettes used determine the amount
of SDS electrophoresis buffer needed to cover the cassettes. You can run any number of
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Hoefer DALT System
Preparing the DALT Tank for Electrophoresis
gels, up to the tank maximum. The empty slots seal themselves and require no blank
cassette. Since the filled tank is too heavy to empty directly, use a siphon pump to
remove buffer from the tank. Between runs, rinse the tank with water.
1. Two or three hours before the beginning of a run, fill the tank with the appropriate
volume of de-ionized water. Use tape to mark the level of the liquid on the outside
of the tank for future runs.
Always use water near room temperature. Never fill the tank with liquid at a
temperature very different from the tank itself.
IMPORTANT Fill the tank with water before turning the pump on. The pump is not
self-priming and can be damaged if run dry.
2. Turn on the pump after the tank is filled.
At first, the pump blows some bubbles through the circulating flutes in the tank and
then establishes a vigorous circulating action in the tank. If the pump doesn't
“catch” and no circulation is observed, you have an airlock in the pump. Quickly
turn off the pump. Wait a moment for the air to bubble out through the small
“bypass” tube that comes up from the pump outlet and enters the back of the tank
about halfway up, then restart the pump. You may have to do this a few times.
Once the pump is circulating, leave it on.
3. Weigh out the correct SDS electrophoresis buffer mixture. (See page 42.) Add the
dry powder directly to the water in the center chamber, distributing it evenly from
front to back.
The pump circulates the contents enough to dissolve the solids in about 1-2 hours.
Some solids may lie on the bottom for awhile, but they gradually disappear. You
may want to make a number of these buffer packets in 1-liter plastic bottles and
have them on hand.
4. Once the buffer is dissolved, use a Phillip’s head screwdriver to loosen the white,
plastic retaining screws on the exterior of the DALT Tank that hold the barrier
combs in place.
Raise or remove the two barrier combs to mix the total DALT Tank contents with
the dissolved contents of the center chamber. (See Figure 14 on page 26.) You may
tighten the retaining screws to secure the barrier combs in the raised position while
the buffer circulates throughout the tank.
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Preparing the DALT Tank for Electrophoresis
Hoefer DALT System
Figure 14. Raising the
barrier combs to allow
buffer circulation
5. Make a note on a label on the tank lid when you change the buffer.
Although it is possible to use each tank of buffer for 2-3 runs, by mixing the center
and cathode [left] chambers between runs, it is better to change the buffer before
every run. Fresh buffer ensures more consistent results.
When a tank is not going to be used for several days, siphon out the buffer, rinse the
tank with water, and allow the tank to sit empty. This prevents growth of bacteria
and molds which can occur in used buffer. Such contamination can give rise to
“mysterious” protein bands across a whole set of gels.
6. When the buffer is distributed in all chambers, replace the barrier combs in the
outer slots to accommodate the 20 × 25 cm cassettes.
Figure 15. Top view of
DALT Tank, with barrier
combs in place
Pump
Outer barrier comb slot,
accommodates 20 × 25 cm
cassettes
Cassette
When properly positioned, the ends of the silicone rubber flaps face the outer walls
of the tank (Figure 15).
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Hoefer DALT System
Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
Immobiline DryStrip gels provide a pH gradient (IPG) that is immobilized in an
acrylamide gel and supported by a plastic film backing. The Hoefer DALT System can
accommodate the entire length of an 18-cm IPG strip, plus markers, and up to 10 gels
can be run simultaneously.
To prepare for second dimension electrophoresis, first equilibrate the focused IPG strips
in SDS buffer before loading them onto DALT slab gels.
IMPORTANT Prepare the second dimension vertical gel and tank buffer before IPG
strip equilibration. Prepare agarose sealing solution during IPG strip
equilibration.
The exposed edges of the gels tend to dry out over a period of hours. Coordinate both
IPG and DALT runs so that the end of the IPG run coincides with the end of unloading
the DALT casting unit. Start the DALT polymerization 2.5 hours before the IPG
equilibration, to allow up to 2 hours for gel polymerization and 30 minutes for
unloading the cassettes from the casting unit.
Equilibrating IPG Strips
The SDS equilibration buffer contains urea, glycerol, SDS, Tris buffer and tracking dye.
During equilibration, the sample proteins are saturated with SDS for mobility in the
second dimension gel. Urea and glycerol minimize electroendosmosis effects due to the
IPG strip. In addition, the equilibration buffer contains DTT to fully reduce the sample
prior to the second dimension separation.
Equilibration Buffer (50 mM Tris-Cl) maintains strip pH in a range that allows proper
stacking. The pH is typically adjusted to 8.8 to compensate for the acidifying effect of
the optional iodoacetamide treatment.
Urea (6 M), together with glycerol, reduces the effects of electroendosmosis by
increasing the viscosity of the buffer. Electroendosmosis occurs due to the presence of
fixed the charges of the IPG matrix in the electric field and can interfere with protein
transfer from the IPG strip to the second dimension gel.
Glycerol (30%), together with urea, reduces electroendosmosis and improves transfer
of protein from the first to the second dimension.
Dithiothreitol (DTT) preserves the fully reduces state of denatured, unalkylated
proteins.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) denatures proteins and forms negatively-charged
protein-SDS complexes. The amount of SDS bound to protein, and therefore the
additional negative charge, is directly proportional to the mass of the protein. Thus
electrophoresis of proteins through a sieving gel in the presence of SDS separates
proteins on the basis of molecular mass.
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Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
Hoefer DALT System
Iodoacetamide alkylates sulfhydryl groups on proteins, preventing their re-oxidation
during electrophoresis. Protein re-oxidation during electrophoresis can result in
streaking and other artifacts. Iodoacetamide also alkylates residual DTT to prevent
point streaking and other silver staining artifacts. Iodoacetamide is introduced in an
optional second equilibration step.
NOTE The reaction between iodoacetamide and DTT creates hydroiodic acid.
When using iodoacetamide, the pH of the equilibration solution is 8.8 to
compensate for this acid production.
Tracking dye (bromophenol blue) allows monitoring of electrophoresis.
Equilibration Steps
Use the gel number labels that were polymerized into the separating gel to help
orient the IPG strips. Conventionally, the acidic, or pointed, end of the IPG strip is
on the left, or label side.
NOTE To avoid protein contamination, wear gloves when handling the IPG strip
and hold only the protruding end of the gel backing film when moving the
strip.
1. Prepare SDS equilibration buffer (see page 43). Just prior to use, add DTT to the
buffer at a concentration of 100 mg DTT per 10 ml SDS equilibration buffer.
2. Place the IPG strips in individual tubes with the support film toward the wall. Screw
cap culture tubes (25 × 200 mm) work well.
3. Add 10 ml of the DTT-containing solution to each tube. Cap the tube, or seal it
with flexible paraffin film, and place is on its side on a rocker.
Note It takes
approximately 10 minutes
to prepare Agarose Sealing
Solution (page 43).
Prepare the solution during
IPG equilibration.
4. Equilibrate for 10 – 15 minutes. Do not over-equilibrate, as proteins can diffuse out
of the strip during this step.
An optional second 10-min equilibration with iodoacetamide will alkylate
sulfhydryl groups and prevent disulfide reformation. The second equilibration also
removes excess DTT which can lead to vertical point streaking when silver staining.
5. Second Equilibrium (optional). Prepare a solution of 25 mg iodoacetamide per
10 ml SDS equilibration buffer. Add 10 ml of solution to each tube containing an
IPG strip. Cap the tube, or seal it with flexible paraffin film, and place is on its side
on a rocker to equilibrate, for 10 minutes.
IMPORTANT After equilibration, load IPG strips directly onto the DALT slab gels as
soon as possible.
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Hoefer DALT System
Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
Loading the IPG Strips onto the DALT Slab Gels
Place the DALT gels in the dish rack in alphabetical/numerical order, with respect to the
identification label, with the sample application surface of the slab up and the label
readable from the front. Be sure to record gel identification numbers.
1. Dip the equilibrated IPG strip in SDS electrophoresis buffer to lubricate it, then
place the IPG gel strip onto the DALT gel cassette. (See Figure 16.)
Position the IPG strip between the plates, touching the surface of the second
dimension gel, with the plastic backing against one of the glass plates. For a
convenient reference, place the pointed, acidic, end of the IPG strip on the same side
as the gel label.
Figure 16. For reference,
place the pointed end of
the IPG strip above the gel
label
Pointed, acidic (+) end
on same end as gel label.
Use a thin plastic spatula or ruler to push against the plastic backing of the IPG
strip, not the gel itself, and move the strip down into contact with the surface of the
second dimension gel. The edge of the strip should just rest on the surface of the
slab gel. Avoid trapping air bubbles between the plastic backing and the glass plate
or cutting into the SDS gel with the strip. The gel face of the strip should not touch
the opposite glass plate.
2. Optional: Apply size marker proteins.
Apply the markers to a paper IEF sample application piece in a volume of 15 –
20 µl. For less volume, cut the sample application piece proportionally. Place the
IEF application piece on a glass plate and pipette the marker solution onto it. Apply
approximately 50 µl agarose sealing solution to seal markers in the sample
application pieces. Pick up the application piece with forceps and apply to the top
surface of the gel next to one end of the IPG strip. The markers should contain
200 – 1000 ng of each component for Coomassie staining and about 10 – 50 ng of
each component for silver staining.
3. Slowly moving the pipette from left to right across the gel, deliver agarose sealing
solution onto the IPG strip to seal it into place. Carefully avoid bubbles when
sealing with the agarose. (See Figure 17.) Wait 2 – 5 minutes to allow the agarose to
fully solidify before proceeding.
Amersham Bioscienes
29
Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
Hoefer DALT System
Figure 17. Completely
cover the IPG strip with
agarose sealing solution
4. Keep a log of run conditions and the identification number of the DALT gel onto
which each IPG strip is loaded.
30
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
Loading Cassettes into the DALT Tank
1. Carefully load the cassettes after the agarose overlay has fully solidified.
The cassettes are correctly loaded in running orientation in the DALT Tank slot
with the IPG strips vertical along the left, or cathode (-), side and the rubber cassette
hinge along the bottom (Figure 18). Dip the hinge side of the cassette into the tank
buffer first to lubricate it before inserting it into the flap seals. Use both hands to
slide cassettes firmly to the bottom.
Be careful! The plates slip easily once your hands are immersed in tank buffer. Do
not drop the plates into the tank and onto the circulation flutes.
Figure 18. Inserting loaded
cassette into DALT Tank
Cassette
IPG strip
Barrier comb
Hinge
Buffer circulation flutes
2. Adjust the buffer level after all the cassettes are loaded in position.
IMPORTANT The tank buffer level should be even with the uppermost spacer of the
cassette and neither above the top of the cassette nor below the level of
the top edge of the gel. If the level is too low or too high, add SDS
electrophoresis buffer or use the siphon pump to correct the buffer
level.
3. After the last cassette has been introduced into the tank, close the lid (Figure 19).
Figure 19. Lift the lid
slightly at its center hinge
to make sure the banana
leads make contact with
the recessed plugs.
Center lid hinge
Banana plug lead
Banana plug
Amersham Biosciences
31
Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
Hoefer DALT System
4. Attach the electrical leads to make proper electrical contact with the power supply.
Migration proceeds toward the red (+), or right chamber.
5. Turn on the power supply to begin the separation.
Electrophoresis Conditions in the DALT Tank
1. Set the power supply to 100 – 125 V constant voltage for overnight runs or at
40 mA per gel for runs to be completed during the same day.
A set of ten 20 × 25 cm gels can be done in about 9 hours at maximum settings of
600 mA and 200 V. Run times can vary widely, depending on the acrylamide
gradient or concentration, the temperature and pH of the buffers, and the number
and size of cassettes. Observe the progress of your first run and set future schedules
accordingly.
2. Run the gels until the blue tracking dye reaches the right side of the gel cassette (the
“bottom” of the gel) as seen through the front of the DALT Tank.
The bromophenol blue tracking dye, introduced into the IPG strip from the
equilibration buffer or included in the agarose overlay, migrates just ahead of the
smallest proteins (Figure 20). For consistency and reproducibility, establish a
specific “finish line” distance for the dye front. It may be the actual bottom edge, or
a few millimeters before, but when the blue line reaches that point, the run is done.
Figure 20. Tracking dye
progresses from left to right
in the DALT Tank
Closed lid
Red, or right chamber
Buffer level
32
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Loading and Running Second Dimension Gels
Unloading the DALT Cassettes
1. When you are ready to remove the cassettes, unplug the buffer circulation pump
and the circulating water bath, turn off the power supply and disconnect the power
leads. Open the DALT Tank lid only when the power supply is turned off and
disconnected.
NOTE Wear gloves when handling gels that will be silver-stained, since fingerprints
will show after staining.
2. Remove the cassettes carefully, one at a time, using both hands.
The cassettes are slippery because of the presence of SDS. Rubber gloves may
improve your grip on the glass. Unload the cassettes into dish racks (ten per rack),
that are placed in plastic containers of water, to minimize gel drying.
3. Place a cassette on a flat surface and pry it open very carefully with a plastic wedge
such as the Wonder Wedge. Avoid metal wedges or spatulas, which can easily chip
the glass.
Put the stiff wedge end into the top comer of the cassette away from the hinge and
twist it gently. Take care not to chip the glass of the cassette. When opening the
cassette, make sure that the gel adheres to one of the plates and is not sticking partly
to both, to avoid tearing the gel.
If the gel sticks to the plate with the spacers attached, run a single edge razor blade
down between gel and spacers to assure that the gel is not sticking to either spacer.
4. Carefully peel the gel from the glass, lifting it by the bottom (high %T end, if a
gradient), and place it in a tray of fixative solution. Use a fixative appropriate for
your staining technique.
In case of a tear in the gel, remove the torn section last, working toward the tear.
Cleaning DALT Cassettes
1. Soak the used cassettes in distilled water if you can't clean them immediately.
To avoid clogging the sink drain, use a fine, removable sink trap to catch shreds of
polymerized acrylamide.
2. To clean the cassettes, thoroughly rinse them in warm water, going over all surfaces
with a non-scratching, plastic dish-cleaning pad. The SDS already on the plates is
usually sufficient detergent for cleaning.
3. Finally, rinse the cassettes with distilled water and air dry them in the open position
on the lab bench or in a drying rack.
4. Store the cassettes in a closed cabinet to keep them free from dust.
Amersham Biosciences
33
The DALT Blotting Kit
Hoefer DALT System
The DALT Blotting Kit
The DALT Blotting Kit supports the transfer of proteins from up to five large-format
polyacrylamide gels onto a membrane. Gels and membranes are held by a cassette,
which is submerged into the transfer tank. Molecules migrate under an electric field to
the membrane, where they are bound.
The transfer buffer temperature can be controlled by circulating cooled liquid through
the heat exchanger in the base. Coolant is pumped through the alumina heat exchanger
located at the base of the unit. Temperature is maintained by buffer circulation through
tubes in the base of the tank.
We strongly recommend connecting a constant temperature circulation bath to the heat
exchanger to maintain the correct temperature during transfer. A set temperature
between 20 and 30 °C is recommended, although lower temperatures can also be used.
Never operate the unit for more than one hour under high power conditions (>250 mA)
without active cooling.
See page 44 for the recipe for Towbin Buffer. Depending on the membrane type and the
manufacturer’s recommendations, you may add 0.1% SDS and 10 – 20% methanol.
Preparing the DALT Tank for Transfer
IMPORTANT Gels should be transferred immediately after electrophoresis to avoid
sample diffusion. Do not soak gels in fixative. Equilibrate gels with
transfer buffer before they are placed in the cassette, if necessary.
1. Configure the unit for active cooling. See “Connecting a Refrigerated Circulating
Bath” on page 24.
Active cooling is optional but strongly recommended. Start the circulating bath at the
same time as the transfer. The circulator pump must not generate a pressure greater
than 0.7 bar (10 psi) above atmospheric pressure.
2. Loosen the white nylon screws on the exterior of the DALT Electrophoresis Tank
and lift out the barrier combs. (See Figure 21.)
Preparing the Transfer Buffer
Because the DALT Tank has its own circulating pump, you can make the tank buffer
within the tank itself. In the tank, it may take up to two hours for the buffer solids to
dissolve. As an alternative, mix the transfer buffer in a carboy with a magnetic stirbar.
You may reuse the buffer in which you ran the original electrophoresis (25 mM Tris,
192 mM glycine, 0.1% SDS) for the transfer, if you first adjust the SDS and methanol
concentrations for optimum binding.
Prepare an additional 4 liters of Towbin Buffer to use for cassette assembly. See page 44
for this recipe.
34
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
The DALT Blotting Kit
Figure 21. DALT
Electrophoresis Tank, with
barrier combs removed
IMPORTANT Fill the tank with water before turning the pump on. The pump is not
self-priming and can be damaged if run dry.
1. Fill the tank with 15 liters of water or used electrophoresis buffer.
Add the appropriate volumes of water and/or methanol to bring up to 22 liters.
2. Turn on the pump after the tank is filled.
At first, the pump blows some bubbles through the circulating flutes in the tank and
then establishes a vigorous circulating action in the tank. If the pump doesn't
“catch” and no circulation is observed, you have an airlock in the pump. See the
instructions on page 25.
3. If preparing fresh buffer, add the dry buffer mixture.
NOTE Even if no cooling is required for your system, use the pump to circulate the
buffer, to avoid buffer depletion at the electrodes.
Assemble the Transfer Cassette
Note Always wear gloves
when handling membranes
to avoid contamination with
skin proteins.
1. Pre-wet nitrocellulose or nylon membranes with distilled water. Pre-wet PVDF or
other hydrophobic membranes in methanol. Then soak all membrane types in
transfer buffer for 2–5 minutes.
2. If necessary, equilibrate the gel in transfer buffer for 10–15 minutes.
3. Open the cassette by releasing both latch tabs along the edge opposite the hinges.
Place the opened cassette into a tray filled with at least 6 cm of transfer buffer.
4. Assemble the transfer stack so that molecules will migrate toward the membrane.
For negatively charged macromolecules, such as proteins coated with SDS, build the
stack on the anode (+) half of the cassette.
Amersham Biosciences
35
The DALT Blotting Kit
Note Carefully position
the gel. Proteins may begin
to transfer immediately.
Once transfer has begun,
moving the gel will distort
results or cause “shadow
bands” on the membrane.
Hoefer DALT System
Place one 6-mm-thick foam sponge on the opened submersed cassette and press
gently until all air is expelled. Place one sheet of blotting paper on the sponge, and
then place the membrane on the blotting paper. Place the gel—which contains a
sample that has been electrophoretically separated and equilibrated (if required)
with transfer buffer—on the membrane. Gently roll a glass pipet or test tube over
the gel to expel trapped air between the membrane and gel. Cover the gel with a
sheet of blotting paper and an additional 6-mm sponge (see Figure 22) while
pressing gently to expel trapped air.
Check that the gel membrane and sponges fit properly within the blotting cassette.
Figure 22. Transfer stack
assembly
Orient the stack so that the
negatively-charged
molecules migrate toward
the anode (+).
Cathode
Cassette
Sponge
Blotting paper
Gel
Membrane
Blotting paper
Sponge
Anode
Cassette
5. Close the cassette and press lightly to lock the tabs.
The assembled cassette should hold the gel in firm contact with the membrane
without squeezing the gel. If the stack seems loose, add sheets of blotting paper.
36
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
The DALT Blotting Kit
Loading the Cassettes
Work quickly when moving the assembled cassette(s) to the tank to avoid draining the
sponges. Place the tray holding the cassette(s) near the tank, lift out one cassette at a
time, and slide each one into a vertical slot. Do not discard the buffer.
The direction of molecule migration depends on both the characteristics of the sample
and the pH of the transfer buffer. If the species of interest is negatively charged in the
transfer buffer and the stack is assembled so that the membrane faces the anode (+).
Most proteins migrate toward the anode in the Towbin buffer system, independent of
the presence of SDS.
1. Place the support rack for the DALT Blotting Kit into the tank, with the rack
straddling the heat exchanger flutes in the bottom of the tank and the side engraved
“pump” closest to the circulation pump.
2. Lift the cassette sandwich from the tray of buffer and quickly insert it into one of
the sets of vertical slots in the submerged cassette-holding rack.
As many as five gels can be transferred at once in the DALT Blotting Kit. For three
or less gels, use the cassette positions nearest the center.
3. Place the cassettes into the unit so that all gels are oriented the same way, with the
clip side facing up and all anode (–) sides of the cassettes facing the same side of the
transfer unit.
4. After inserting a cassette, tap it a few times to release any air bubbles that may have
been introduced in moving from the buffer tray to the tank. A few bubbles left in
the sponges should not interfere with the transfer.
5. Check the buffer level to make sure buffer covers the cassettes.
WARNING
The banana plugs corrode if exposed to buffer during transfer.
Carefully blot away any buffer that falls into the banana plug recesses.
6. When all transfer cassettes are in the tank, place an empty glass gel cassette
horizontally across the tops of the cassettes to anchor them in the tank.
If you are using only one transfer cassette for blotting, place another empty cassette
in a vertical slot to help support the glass cassette anchor.
Amersham Biosciences
37
The DALT Blotting Kit
Hoefer DALT System
Connecting the Power Supply
If using a power supply that can be set to either constant current or constant voltage
mode, we recommend that it be set to operate in constant current mode. Buffer
conductivity increases with temperature. During blotting in an uncooled chamber at
constant voltage, Joule heating and rising conductivity may result in dangerous
overheating. If a constant voltage power supply must be used, monitor and adjust the
voltage to maintain a current at 1000 mA, or less, and voltage should not exceed 100 V.
1. Close the plastic lid on the chamber. The cassettes are labeled to match the leads in
the lid.
To transfer toward the anode, position the lid so that the (+) side of the cassette
faces the anode (+), or red lead, and the (–) side of the cassette faces the cathode (–),
or black lead.
2. Connect the leads to your power supply.
3. Set the power supply. See Table 1 for typical transfer parameters for proteins.
Constant current mode is recommended. If constant voltage mode is selected,
carefully monitor the current. Increased current increases Joule heating. If the
current exceeds 1.0 A, decrease the voltage.
IMPORTANT The plastics used in the DALT unit may warp at high temperatures.
Because electrophoretic transfers are performed at high currents,
considerable heat is generated during a run. Do not allow the buffer
temperature to exceed approximately 40 °C.
Table 1. Typical Transfer
Parameters for Proteins
Buffer*
Towbin*
Current (A)
up to 1
Voltage (V)
approx. 70
Transfer time
approx. 5 hours
Coolant temperature
10 °C
*Empirically determine the parameters for your sample and buffer system.
If you are planning to do a second transfer or set of transfers in the same buffer, be
sure to maintain constant temperature or to cool the buffer to room temperature
between the two runs. Do not allow the buffer to overheat and damage the unit.
4. Set the timer.
Most transfers are complete with 5 hours, but larger molecules or thicker gels may
require longer transfer times. Determine the optimum transfer time for your system
empirically.
NOTE For overnight transfers, set the current at 400 mA with active cooling.
38
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
The DALT Blotting Kit
Transfer Conditions
The blotting transfer conditions shown in Table 2 are only suggestions. Efficiency of
transfer depends on the percentage of gel used for the electrophoresis run, the physical
characteristics of the proteins being transferred, and on how many times the transfer
buffer has been used.
The conditions were developed using 12% T gels, 193 mM glycine, 25 mM Tris, 20%
methanol, 0.1% SDS. Transfers were made onto nitrocellulose. A refrigerated
circulating water bath set at 4 °C was used for all transfers.
Table 2. Typical Protein
Transfer Conditions
1000 mA for 2 – 3 h
For rapid transfer of proteins, Mr < 70 k
1000 mA for 5 – 6 h
For moderate transfer of proteins, Mr < 100 k
400 mA for 18 h
For most efficient transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins.
Completing the Transfer
1. When the transfer is complete, turn the voltage and current settings to zero and turn
off the power supply. Disconnect the leads from the power supply jacks.
2. Open the lid and lift out the cassettes.
3. Open each cassette carefully and remove the gels. Lift the membranes with blunt
forceps.
Note Transfer buffer
may be re-used two to
three times. Store buffer
in a separate container
and cool to 10 °C before
reuse.
Amersham Biosciences
Discard the blotter paper. Rinse the sponges with ddH2O and reuse them
indefinitely.
4. With a soft-lead pencil, label each membrane and indicate the sample side.
5. Rinse the unit immediately after use.
39
The DALT Blotting Kit
Hoefer DALT System
Factors Affecting the Transfer
Sample characteristics, membrane type, gel pore size, and the transfer buffer used affect
the efficiency of macromolecule transfers. The most widely used buffer system for
transferring proteins is that of Towbin, et al. Conditions required for efficient elution
may not coincide with optimal conditions for binding. To find the optimum conditions
for transferring your sample, balance these effects:
•
If the sample elution rate is slow, a longer transfer period may be required. In our
experience, high current transfers for short periods of time are superior to low
voltage transfers for longer periods.
•
If sample binding is inadequate, try different buffer conditions, methanol or SDS
concentration. For a comprehensive review, see Gershoni and Palade (1983).
If the transfer buffer system is different from the electrophoresis buffer system, the gel
should be equilibrated briefly with the transfer buffer before the transfer to assure
swelling or shrinking occurs before the gel contacts the transfer membrane. If this step is
skipped, band distortion or loss of resolution could result.
40
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Recipes
Recipes
DALT Acrylamide Stock (30.8 %T)
WARNING
Acrylamide is a neurotoxin. Always use mechanical pipettes and wear
gloves when working with acrylamide solutions.
Final Conc.
Amount
Acrylamide (best affordable grade, MW 71.08)
30%
900 g
Bis (N, N’ methylenebis-acrylamide, purest grade, FW 154.17)
0.8%
24 g
Water (purest available)
up to 3000 ml
May need filtration. Weigh acrylamide and bis under a hood; avoid contact with dust. Filter
and store at 4 °C.
1.5 M Tris-Cl, pH 8.8
Final Conc.
Tris (MW 121.14)
1.5 M
6N HCl to pH 8.8
Amount
545 g
about 150 ml
Water
to 3000 ml
Adjust to pH 8.8, store at 4 °C.
10% SDS
Final Conc.
Sodium dodecylsulfate (MW 288.38)
Amount
10%
Water
10 g
up to 100 ml
Store at room temperature.
10% Ammonium Persulfate
Final Conc.
Ammonium persulfate (MW 228.2)
Water
Amount
10%
2g
up to 20 ml
Make fresh.
Amersham Biosciences
41
Recipes
Hoefer DALT System
10% TEMED
Final Conc.
TEMED (v/v, MW 116.2)
10%
Water
Amount
0.5 ml
4.5 ml
Prepare fresh, in glass vessel.
Displacing Solution
(0.375 M Tris-Cl, pH 8.8, 50% glycerol, bromophenol blue, 200 ml)
Amount
Tris-Cl (1.5M, pH 8.8)
50 ml
Glycerol
100 ml
Bromophenol blue
2 mg
Water
50 ml
Prepare fresh. Stored solution may support microbial growth.
Water-saturated n-Butanol
Amount
n-butanol
50 ml
Double-distilled water
5 ml
Combine in a bottle and shake. Use the top phase to overlay gels. Store at room temperature
indefinitely.
Gel Storage Solution
(0.375 M Tris-Cl, pH 8.8, 0.1% SDS, 2.0 liters)
Final Conc.
1.5 M Tris-Cl, pH 8.8
10% SDS
Double distilled H2O
Amount
500 ml
0.1%
20 ml
to 2000 ml
Store at 4 °C.
42
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Recipes
SDS Electrophoresis Buffer
(25 mM Tris, 192 mM glycine, 0.1% SDS, approximate pH 8.3, 20 liters)
Final Conc.
Tris (MW 121.14)
Amount
25 mM
60.5 g
Glycine (MW 75.07)
192 mM
288.0 g
SDS (FW 288.38)
0.1% (w/v)
Double distilled H2O
20.0 g
to 20 liters
Do not adjust the pH of this solution.
SDS Equilibration Buffer
(50 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.8, 6 M urea, 30% glycerol, 2% SDS, bromophenol blue,
200 ml)
Final Conc.
Tris-Cl, pH 8.8 (1.5 M solution)
Amount
50 mM
6.67 ml
6M
72.07 g
30% (v/v)
69 ml
SDS (FW 288.38)
2% (w/v)
4.0 g
Bromophenol blue
trace
a few grains
Urea (FW 60.06)
Glycerol (87% v/v, MW 92.09)
Double distilled H2O
to 200 ml
Store at -20 °C.
This is a stock solution. Add DTT or iodoacetamide before using.
Agarose Sealing Solution
(25 mM Tris, 192 mM glycine, 0.1% SDS, 0.5% agarose, approximate pH 8.3, 25 ml)
Final Conc.
SDS Electrophoresis Buffer (see above)
25 ml
Agarose (NA or M)
Bromophenol blue
Amount
125 mg
trace
a few grains
Combine all ingredients in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Swirl to disperse. On a low setting, heat
in a microwave oven until the agarose is completely dissolved, about 1 minute. Do not allow the
solution to boil over.
Allow the agarose to cool slightly before using. Do not adjust pH.
The volume of sealing solution prepared from this recipe is sufficient for a complete set of
second-dimension DALT gels.
Amersham Biosciences
43
Recipes
Hoefer DALT System
Towbin Buffer for DALT Blotting Tank
(25 mM Tris, 192 mM glycine, approximate pH 8.3, 22 liters [optional 20% v/v
methanol])
Final Conc.
Tris (FW 121.14)
Glycine (FW 75.07)
Amount
25 mM
66.6 g
192 mM
317.1 g
Dissolve in 15 liters distilled water and mix in the DALT Tank itself by turning on the circulation
motor. Remove barrier combs. Add methanol as required.* Alternatively, mix in a carboy with a
magnetic stirbar.
Optional: Adding 0.1% SDS can improve transfer efficiency but may decrease binding to the
membrane.
The pH of this buffer may vary from 8.2 - 8.4. Do not adjust the pH. Adjusting the pH alters the
conductivity of the buffer.
*
Depending on the membrane type, adding 10 – 20% methanol can improve protein binding
and reduce gel swelling during transfer. Buffers containing methanol may deteriorate if stored
for long periods.
Towbin Buffer for Transfer Cassette Assembly
(25 mM Tris, 192 mM glycine, approximate pH 8.3, 4 liters [optional 20% v/v
methanol])
Final Conc.
Tris (FW 121.14)
Glycine (FW 75.07)
Amount
25 mM
12.11 g
192 mM
57.65 g
Dissolve in 3 liters distilled water and mix in a carboy with a magnetic stirbar. Add methanol as
required.* Bring to 4 liters with water.
The pH of this buffer may vary from 8.2 - 8.4. Do not adjust the pH. Adjusting the pH alters the
conductivity of the buffer.
*
44
If recommended by the membrane manufacturer, you may add 10 – 20% methanol.
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Recipes
Preparation of Creatine Kinase (CK) Charge Standards
Use CK charge standards to evaluate first-dimension isoelectric focusing and second
dimension separation.
1. Dissolve 5 mg of rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase (Sigma) in 1 ml of a solution
of 8 M urea and 1% mercaptoethanol, to give a CK concentration of
5 mg/ml.
2. Aliquot the above mixture into 7 tubes.
3. Heat six of the tubes for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 minutes at 95 °C in a heating block,
or in a boiling water bath. After heating, place tubes in an ice bucket.
4. Mix the contents of the 7 tubes together and aliquot 50 µL of the pool into small
microcentrifuge tubes for storage at -70 °C.
5. Thaw out a tube for each experiment and load 2 µL CK mix per IPG strip.
During electrophoresis, the CK charge standards produce a carbamylation chain of
spots, separated according to pI.
Figure 23. An example of
electrophoresis of CK
charge standards for
testing pI separation
-20
Amersham Biosciences
a -15
-10
-5
0
45
Homogeneous Gel Solutions
Hoefer DALT System
Homogeneous Gel Solutions
The amounts of TEMED (0.025 – 0.09% v/v) and APS (0.1% w/v) suggested here are
based on our experience. You may want to change these volumes for your lab because
of differences in temperature and reagent quality. Perform a small-scale test before first
using a new composition to check that your solution polymerizes in about 10 minutes.
1000 ml. Amounts shown in ml.
Final %T
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acryl. Stock
233
267
300
333
367
400
433
467
500
533
567
600
633
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
Water
494
461
428
395
362
329
295
262
229
196
162
129
96
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10% SDS
10% APS
10% TEMED
46
10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
2.45
2.14
1.90
1.71
1.55
1.43
1.32
1.22
1.14
1.07
1.01
0.95
Amersham Biosciences
0.90
Hoefer DALT System
Homogeneous Gel Solutions
25 gels, 1.0 mm
1500 ml. Amounts shown in ml.
Final %T
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acryl. Stock
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
375
741
692
642
592
544
3
493
443
393
343
293
243
194
144
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
Water
10% SDS
10% APS
15.00 15.00 15.00 15.50 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00
3.68
10% TEMED
3.21
2.85
2.57
2.33
2.15
1.98
1.83
1.71
1.61
1.52
1.43
1.35
12 gels, 1.0 mm
800 ml. Amounts shown in ml.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acrylamide
Stock
187
213
240
267
293
320
347
373
400
427
453
480
507
1.5M TrisCl,
pH 8.8
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
Water
395
369
342
316
289
263
236
210
183
156
130
103
77
10% SDS
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
10% APS
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10% TEMED
1.96
1.71
1.52
1.37
1.24
1.14
1.06
0.98
0.91
0.86
0.81
0.76
0.72
Final %T
Amersham Biosciences
47
Homogeneous Gel Solutions
Hoefer DALT System
23 gels, 1.5 mm
1800 ml. Amounts shown in ml.
Final %T
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acrylamide
Stock
420
480
540
600
660
720
780
840
900
960
1020
1080
1140
1.5M TrisCl,
pH 8.8
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
Water
890
830
771
711
651
591
532
472
412
352
292
232
172
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
10% SDS
10% APS
10% TEMED
18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00
4.41
3.85
3.42
3.08
2.79
2.57
2.38
2.20
2.05
1.93
1.82
1.71
1.62
12 gels, 1.5 mm
1300 ml. Amounts shown in ml.
Final %T
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acrylamide
Stock
257
293
330
367
403
440
447
513
550
587
623
660
697
1.5M TrisCl,
pH 8.8
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
Water
544
507
471
434
398
361
325
288
252
215
179
142
105
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
10% SDS
10% APS
10% TEMED
48
11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00
2.70
2.35
2.09
1.88
1.71 1.557
1.45
1.34
1.25
1.18
1.11
1.05
Amersham Biosciences
0.99
Hoefer DALT System
Gradient Gel Solutions
Gradient Gel Solutions
The concentrations of APS and TEMED in gradient solutions vary to assure top-down
polymerization. We suggest: for light solutions, 0.025 – 0.09% (v/v) TEMED and
0.1% (w/v) APS; for heavy solutions 0.0071 – 0.0028% (v/v) TEMED and
0.05% (w/v) APS. The amounts of TEMED and APS suggested here are based on our
experience. You may want to change these volumes for your lab because of differences
in temperature and reagent quality.
Perform a small-scale test before first using a new composition to check that your light
solution polymerizes in about 10 minutes and your heavy solution in about 20 minutes.
Vary the TEMED concentration to control the rate of polymerization.
Note that the light mix is always assumed to have a lower acrylamide concentration
than the heavy mix; the gradient increases in %T from top to bottom. These solutions
can be degassed, though this is not usually necessary.
Light Solution, 1000 ml. Amounts shown in ml.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acryl. Stock
233
267
300
333
367
400
433
467
500
533
567
600
633
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
Water
494
461
428
395
362
329
295
262
229
196
162
129
96
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Final %T
10% SDS
Glycerol
10% APS
10% TEMED
10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
2.45
2.14
1.90
1.71
1.55
1.43
1.32
1.22
1.14
1.07
1.01
0.95
0.90
Heavy Solution, 1000 ml Amounts shown in ml.
Final %T
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Acryl. Stock
267
300
333
367
400
433
467
500
533
567
600
633
667
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
Water
400
366
333
300
267
233
200
167
133
100
67
33
0
10% SDS
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Glycerol
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
10% APS
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
10% TEMED
0.71
0.64
0.57
0.52
0.47
0.44
0.41
0.38
0.35
0.34
0.32
0.30
0.28
Amersham Biosciences
49
Gradient Gel Solutions
Hoefer DALT System
For 25 gels, 1.0 mm
750 ml each Heavy and Light, by volume in ml.
Light Solution
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acryl. Stock
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
Water
371
346
321
296
271
246
222
197
172
147
122
97
72
Final %T
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10% APS
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
10% TEMED
1.84
1.61
1.43
1.28
1.16 11.07
0.99
0.92
0.86 00.80
0.76
0.71
0.68
10% SDS
Glycerol
Heavy Solution
Final %T
50
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Acryl. Stock
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
500
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
188
Water
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0
10% SDS
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
7.50
Glycerol
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
10% APS
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.75
10% TEMED
0.53
0.48
0..43
0.39
0.35
0.33
0.31
0..29
0.26
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.21
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Gradient Gel Solutions
For 12 gels, 1.0 mm
400 ml each Heavy and Light, by volume in ml.
Light Solution
Final %T
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acryl. Stock
93
107
120
133
147
160
173
187
200
213
227
24
253
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Water
198
184
171
158
145
131
118
105
92
78
65
52
38
10% SDS
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Glycerol
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10% APS
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
0.98
0.86
0.76
0.68
0.62
0.57
0.53
0.49
0.46
0.43
0.40
0.38
0.36
10% TEMED
Heavy Solution
Final %T
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Acryl. Stock
107
120
133
147
160
173
187
200
213
227
240
253
267
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Water
160
147
133
120
107
93
80
67
53
40
27
13
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Glycerol
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
10% APS
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
10% TEMED
0.28
0.26
0.23
0.21
0.19
0.18
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
10% SDS
Amersham Biosciences
51
Gradient Gel Solutions
Hoefer DALT System
For 23 gels, 1.5 mm
900 ml each Heavy and Light, by volume in ml:
Light Solution
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acryl. Stock
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
Water
445
415
385
355
326
296
266
236
206
176
146
116
86
10% SDS
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
Glycerol
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10% APS
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
2.21
1.93
1.71
1.54
1.40
1.29
1.19
1.10
1.03
0.96
0.91
0.86
0.81
Final %T
10% TEMED
Heavy Solution
Final %T
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Acryl. Stock
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
225
Water
360
330
300
270
240
210
180
150
120
90
60
30
0
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
Glycerol
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
10% APS
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
10% TEMED
0.64
0.58
0.51
0.47
0.42
0.40
0.37
0.34
0.32
0.31 00.29
0.27
0.25
10% SDS
52
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Gradient Gel Solutions
For 12 gels, 1.5 mm
550
550 ml each Heavy and Light, by volume in ml.
Light Solution
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Acryl. Stock
128
147
165
183
202
220
238
257
275
293
312
330
348
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
Water
272
254
235
217
199
181
162
144
126
108
89
71
53
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10% APS
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
10% TEMED
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
Final %T
10% SDS
Glycerol
Heavy Solution
Final %T
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Acryl. Stock
147
165
183
202
220
238
257
275
293
312
330
348
367
1.5M Tris-Cl,
pH 8.8
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
138
Water
220
201
183
165
147
128
110
92
73
55
37
18
0
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
Glycerol
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
10% APS
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
0.393
0.35
0.31
0.29
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.21
0.19
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.15
10% SDS
10% TEMED
Amersham Biosciences
53
Gel Identification Numbers
Hoefer DALT System
Gel Identification Numbers
For positive identification of gels, label each slab by incorporating a small label printed
on thin filter paper in the bottom corner of the gel. Use a carbon typewriter ribbon,
photocopier or laser printer to make these labels, since many liquid-based inks are
electrophoresed off paper during an SDS electrophoresis run.
A variety of numbering schemes are possible. In our experience the easiest uses three
parts as follows:
•
An upper-case letter to identify the investigator or an extended gel series.
•
A two- or three-digit serial number to identify the slab gel batch.
•
A lower-case letter to identify a gel in the batch. Since a maximum of 22 gels can be
made in a batch, use the letters a-v.
The resulting numbers, in the format A63a, A63b...., etc., provide a useful system for
keeping track of and cross-indexing experiments and gel production.
54
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Care and Maintenance
Care and Maintenance
Cleaning
•
Do not autoclave or heat any part above 45 °C.
•
Do not expose the unit or its parts to organic solvents.
•
If using radioactive reagents, decontaminate the unit with a cleaning agent such as
CONTRAD 70 or Decon 90 from Decon Laboratories, Inc.
Rinse the DALT Tank, cassettes and sponges with distilled water immediately after each
use. Allow the unit to air dry completely. Periodically wash with a dilute solution of a
mild detergent.
Clean gaskets with mild detergent and rinse with distilled water. Allow to air dry.
Clean glass plates and spacers with a dilute solution of a laboratory cleanser such as
RBS-35, from Pierce Chemical Company. Rinse thoroughly with tap and distilled water.
Glass plates can also be treated with (but not stored in) acid cleaning solutions.
Removing the Electrode Panels from the DALT Tank
You can remove each electrode panel for more thorough cleaning, or to replace
damaged electrodes.
1. Use a Phillip’s head screwdriver to loosen the white plastic retaining screws on the
exterior of the DALT Tank. You do not need to remove the screws.
2. Lift and slide the panel out.
Figure 24. Removing the
electrode panels
Electrode panel
Retaining screws
Handle the electrode panel carefully to avoid stretching or breaking the platinum
wire.
Amersham Biosciences
55
Troubleshooting
Hoefer DALT System
Troubleshooting
Gel Casting
Gel caster leaks
•
•
•
Apply a light film of GelSeal to the foam gasket each time the unit is used.
Check the foam gasket for cracks or nicks and replace if necessary.
If the stack is too tall, the front plate may not seat firmly against the gasket.
Remove filler plates or cassettes until the gasket seals.
Incomplete gel polymerization
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use only recent stock of the highest quality reagents.
If the dry ammonium persulfate does not crackle when water is added to it,
replace with fresh stock.
Solutions with extreme pH values (especially acidic) may not polymerize.
Remove oxygen from the gel environment. Degas the monomer solution
5 minutes before pouring and then overlay the gel surface with watersaturated n-butanol.
Adjust the gel solution temperature to a minimum of 20 °C, especially for
low% T gels.
Increase both APS and TEMED by 30 – 50%.
Make up fresh APS daily.
Gel is too soft, too brittle or white
•
Adjust crosslinker concentration. Crosslinker should be at 2.6% C for
standard SDS gels where %C = (g bis × 100) ÷ (g monomer + g bis)
Gel contains swirls
•
•
•
If gel polymerized in <10 min, too much catalyst. Reduce concentration of
ammonium persulfate and TEMED by 25%.
If gel polymerized in >50 min, not enough catalyst. Increase concentration
of ammonium persulfate and TEMED by 50%.
Make up fresh acrylamide stock solution.
Dye front curves up (smiles) at the edges.
•
•
•
•
Fill the lower buffer chamber to the level appropriate for the run.
Circulate coolant.
Pre-chill the buffer.
Decrease the current or voltage setting.
Vertical protein streaks
•
•
•
IPG Strip not properly placed on gel surface. Avoid gouging separating gel
while loading strips.
Perform iodoacetamide treatment.
Make sure IPG strip uniformly contacts the gel surface along the entire
length of the strip.
Gels cast simultaneously are different sizes.
•
•
Wait one minute before overlaying each gel so that the solution “settles.”
Use the same amount of overlay on each separation gel. Add the overlay
as rapidly as possible.
Make sure the cassettes and foam sponges are not clogged with
polyacrylamide.
Gradient gels-uneven layering
•
•
56
Add sucrose (15% final concentration) or glycerol (25% final concentration)
to the high-percent monomer solution.
Add a small amount of bromophenol blue to the heavy solution to track the
gradient formation. Excessive amounts of bromophenol blue inhibit
polymerization.
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Troubleshooting
Power Supply detects current leak
•
Cracked or broken heat exchangers. Call your Amersham Biosciences
Service representative.
Spots are skewed or distorted
•
•
•
Gels run too fast-uneven migration.
Overlay the running gel with water-saturated n-butanol before
polymerization begins to avoid forming an uneven gel surface.
Uneven gel polymerization or gradient formation.
Heavy background after silver staining
•
•
Use reagents specified as electrophoresis purity.
Use only double-distilled water.
Unusually slow or fast run
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check for leaks; all plates and spacers must be clean, dry and free of
grease.
Make sure buffer level is not above the level of the upper spacer.
If the required pH of a solution is exceeded, do not back-titrate. Prepare
fresh buffer.
Check recipes, gel concentrations, and buffer dilutions. (For instance, do
not use Tris·HCl in place of Tris for the SDS electrophoresis buffer.)
Dispose of older acrylamide solutions and use only stock of the highest
quality.
Only use freshly deionized urea.
To increase or decrease the migration rate, adjust the voltage or current by
25–50%
Protein spots are diffuse or broader than usual
•
•
•
•
•
Use only high-quality acrylamide and bis.
Ensure that polymerization is complete.
Fully equilibrate IPG strips before second dimension.
Incomplete IPG focusing.
Make sure the IPG strip rests on the gel surface without gouging or
separating the gel.
Stained Sample Collects:
Near the buffer front
•
•
•
Molecules are not sufficiently restricted by the resolving gel pore size;
increase the %T.
Proteins may be degraded by endogenous proteases; use protease
inhibitors during sample separation.
Adjust the pH of 1.5 M Tris-Cl to pH 8.8. Samples migrate faster when
pH <8.8.
Near the top of the gel when the buffer front has reached the bottom
•
•
The gel pore size is too small. Decrease the %T of the resolving (or
stacking) gel.
Adjust the pH of 1.5 M Tris-Cl to pH 8.8. Samples migrate slower when
pH >8.8
At each end of the gel
•
Amersham Biosciences
The molecular weight range of the sample requires an acrylamide
concentration gradient to resolve the full range of proteins.
57
Troubleshooting
Hoefer DALT System
Poor Spot Resolution
•
•
•
•
Allow gel to polymerize fully.
Begin electrophoresis as soon as the IPG strips are loaded to prevent low
molecular weight species from diffusing.
Conduct the separation at a lower current or voltage setting.
Reduce the temperature setting
Reagent quality and gel preparation
•
•
•
Use only the highest quality reagents.
Only use gels that were recently prepared.
Check pH values of the stacking gel solutions. Do not back-titrate buffers.
Sample preparation
•
•
Store IPG strips at –40 °C or below.
Add a protease inhibitor, such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), if
necessary, to prevent proteolytic degradation of sample.
Insufficient equilibration
•
•
Extend equilibration to 15 minutes.
Add DTT and iodoacetamide fresh before use.
Tracking Dye Doesn’t Sharpen into a Concentrated Zone in the Stacking Gel
•
•
Dispose of outdated acrylamide solutions and use only the highest grade of
acrylamide.
Buffer reused too many times. Prepare fresh each time, for best results.
Incomplete Transfer
Blank areas on the membrane
•
•
•
•
Remove all trapped air pockets in the transfer stack assembly. Assemble
the stack while it is submerged in transfer buffer. Gently press on each
sponge as it is added to the stack. Roll a glass pipette or test tube over the
membranes and gel to eliminate all bubbles.
Process only one strip or membrane in each tray or cassette to prevent
overlapping.
Use buffer with a lower ionic strength.
Check electrode continuity. During the transfer, a continuous stream of gas
is released along the entire length of the electrodes. If bubbles do not form
along the entire length of the electrode, replace the electrode.
Grid pattern on membrane
•
Add sheets of blotting paper to increase the clearance between the
cassette panel and the gel. Take care not to overstuff the cassette. The gel
should be held firmly and evenly between the sponges, but not so tightly
that it is squeezed.
Molecules do not migrate out of gel
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
58
Increase the field strength.
Increase, or double, the transfer period.
Do not use staining or fixing agents on the gel before transfer.
Use a thinner gel.
Reduce the gel acrylamide concentration.
Check that the buffer pH is close to the intended pH. Most buffers should
not be titrated. Make fresh buffer.
Use 3.5 mM SDS (0.1%) in the transfer buffer.
Use reagent-grade chemicals.
Increase the net charge on the protein by changing to a transfer buffer with
a different pH. Lower pH (<6) increases the positive charge on proteins.
Higher pH (>6) increases the negative charge on proteins.
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Troubleshooting
Diffuse band patterns
•
•
•
•
•
Transfer immediately after electrophoretic separation. If equilibrating before
the transfer, shorten or eliminate the equilibration time or move the gel to
the cold room during equilibration.
If transfer buffer contains methanol (≥ 10%), equilibrate the gel before in
transfer buffer for 30 minutes to allow it to shrink before assembling the
stack. Because methanol causes the gel to shrink slightly, large molecules
may migrate more slowly.
Make sure the gel is held firmly against the membrane and that it does not
shift once contact is made.
If excess heating occurs during the transfer, lower the temperature setting
of the circulating cooler.
Check that the preferred binding surface of the membrane, if any, contacts
the gel.
Inefficient binding to membrane
Chemical parameters
•
•
Prepare protein transfer buffer without SDS.
Verify the optimal amount of methanol required for the membrane type and
check the buffer solution. Add 10 - 20% methanol to the transfer buffer to
enhance binding to nitrocellulose.
Membrane parameters
•
•
•
•
•
Amersham Biosciences
Wear gloves when handling membranes.
Store membranes at ambient temperature out of direct sunlight to keep the
membranes activated.
Use a membrane with a smaller pore size (0.10 - 0.20 µm) if proteins pass
through the membrane, or use a different membrane type.
If you suspect one protein is moving in the opposite direction from the
majority of the proteins, place a membrane both over and under the gel.
Check both membranes for proteins.
Check if too much sample is available for the binding surface area by
applying two membranes instead of one. If “blow through” occurs, reduce
the sample load.
59
References
Hoefer DALT System
References
Ames, G.F.-L., and Nikaido, K. 1976. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of
membrane proteins. Biochemistry 15, 616-623.
Berkelman, T. and Stenstedtt, T. 1998. 2-D Electrophoresis Using Immobilized pH
Gradients Principles and Methods. Amersham Biosciences.
Bjellqvist, B., Ek, K., Righetti, P.G., Gianazza, E., Görg, A., Westermeier, R., Postel, W.
1982. Isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients: principle, methodology, and
some applications. J Biochem. Biophys. Methods 6, 317-339.
Bjevllqvist, B., Sanchez, J.-C., Pasquali, C., Ravier, F., Paquet, N., Frutiger, S., Hughes,
G.J., Hochstrasser, D. 1993. Micropreparative two-dimensional electrophoresis
allowing the separation of samples containing milligram amounts of proteins.
Electrophoresis 14, 1375-1378.
Blomberg, A., Blomberg, L., Norbeck, J., Fey, S.J., Larsen, P.M., Larsen, M., Roepstorff,
P., Degand, H., Boutry, M., Posch, A., Görg, A. 1995. Interlaboratory reproducibility of
yeast protein patterns analyzed by immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional gel
electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 16, 1935-1945.
Dunn, M.J., Corbett, J.M. 1996. 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Meth. Enzymol. 271, 177-203.
Gershoni, J.M., and G.E. Palade 1983. Protein Blotting: Principles and Applications.
Anal. Biochem. 131, 1–15.
Görg, A., Postel, W., Weser, J., Günther, S., Strahler, J.R., Hanash, S.M., Somerlot, L.
1987. Elimination of point streaking on silver stained two-dimensional gels by addition
of iodoacetamide to the equilibration buffer. Electrophoresis 8, 122-124.
Görg, A., Postel, W., Günther, S. 1988. The current state of two-dimensional
electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients. Electrophoresis 9, 531-546.
Görg, A. 1993. Two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients:
current state. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 21, 130-132.
Matsudaira, P. 1987. Sequence from Picomole Quantities of Proteins Electroblotted into
Polyvinylidene Difluoride Membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 10035.
O’Farrell, P.H. 1975. High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins. J.
Biol. Chem. 250, 4007-4021.
Stellway, E.J., and Dahlberg, A.E. 1980. Electrophoretic transfer of DNA, RNA, and
protein onto DBM paper. Nucleic Acids Res. 8, 299.
Towbin, H., et al. 1979. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels
to nitrocellulose:procedure and some applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 43504353.
60
Amersham Biosciences
Hoefer DALT System
Customer Service Information
Customer Service Information
Technical Service and Repair
Amersham Biosciences offers complete technical support for all our products. If
you have any questions about how to use this product, or would like to arrange to
repair it, please call or fax your local Amersham Biosciences representative.
IMPORTANT Request a copy of the Amersham Biosciences “Health and
Safety Declaration” Form before returning the item. No items can be
accepted for servicing or return unless this form is properly completed.
Ordering information
Qty.
Code No.
Hoefer DALT Multiple Electrophoresis Tank
with buffer circulation pump
115 V~
1
80-6068-79
230 V~
1
80-6068-98
1
80-6330-61
1
80-6067-27
1
80-6067-46
DALT Multiple Gel Caster
with filler blocks and separator sheets. Cassettes not included.
DALT Gel Cassette
for 1.0 mm thick gel, 25 × 20 cm
for 1.5 mm thick gel, 25 × 20 cm
Separator sheets, 30/pkg
1 pkg 80-6436-63
Filler block set: four 25-mm, one 12-mm, one 6-mm, one 3-mm
1 set
Knobs, 4/pkg
1 pkg 80-6437-58
Sponge funnel, 8 pieces
1 pkg 80-6437-01
Acrylic feed tube, 4.6 mm o.d, 178 mm
Foam sealing gasket
Silicon tubing set, two pieces/pkg: 9 mm o.d., 178 mm long
and 12.5 mm o.d., 16 mm long
80-6436-82
1
80-6437-20
1
80-6023-76
1 pkg 80-6437-39
DALT Gradient Maker
with peristaltic pump
115 VAC
1
80-6067-65
230 VAC
1
80-6067-84
Gradient maker gasket/divider
1
80-6068-41
Gasket adjuster rod
1
80-6068-60
Knobs, 4/pkg
Plastic feed tubing (6 feet)
Amersham Biosciences
1 pkg 80-6437-58
1
80-6068-03
Bow-tie mixer kit
1
80-6068-22
Acrylic feed tube, 4.6 mm o.d., 178 mm
1
80-6437-20
61
Customer Service Information
Hoefer DALT System
Qty.
1
DALT Blotting Kit
Code No.
80-6069-17
with rack, 5 transfer cassettes and sponges, blotting paper (50 pc)
DALT Transfer Cassette, with 2 sponges
1
80-6069-55
Sponges
2
80-6069-74
DALT Blotting Paper, 24 × 20 cm (50/pkg)
1 pkg 80-6069-93
Replacement Parts
GelSeal, 1/4 oz. tube
Wonder Wedge
Knobs, for Gel Caster or Gradient Maker, 4/pkg
1
80-6421-43
1
80-6127-88
1 pkg 80-6437-58
Quick-fit connectors, female, to fit 9 mm i.d. tubing
2
80-6115-15
Quick-fit connectors, male, to fit 9 mm i.d. tubing
2
80-6115-53
1
1
18-1102-77
18-1102-78
Accessories
MultiTemp III Thermostatic Circulator
includes insulation tubing for cooling
115 VAC
230 VAC
Hoefer EPS 2A200 Power Supply, 200V, 2000 mA
1
80-6406-99
EPS 601 Power Supply, 600 V, 400 mA
1
18-1130-02
PlusOne Electrophoresis Chemicals and Reagents
Urea
500 g
17-1319-01
1g
17-1318-01
10 g
17-1329-01
1000 ml
17-1325-01
1 kg
17-1300-02
1000 ml
17-1301-01
25 g
17-1304-01
1000 ml
17-1306-01
10 g
17-0422-01
25 ml
17-1312-01
25 g
17-1311-01
Tris
500 g
17-1321-01
Glycine
500 g
17-1323-01
Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)
100 g
17-1313-01
Dithiothreitol (DTT)
Bromophenol Blue
Glycerol (87%)
Acrylamide IEF (acrylic acid <0.002%)
Acrylamide IEF 40% solution
N,N',-Methylene bisacrylamide
N,N',-Methylene bisacrylamide 2% solution
Agarose NA
N,N,N',N',-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED)
Ammonium persulfate (APS)
Molecular Weight Markers
MW Range 2,512 – 16,949, 2 mg/vial
1 vial
80-1129-83
MW Range 14,400 – 94,000, 575 µg/vial
10 vials
17-0446-01
MW Range 53,000 – 212,000, 175 µg/vial
10 vials
17-0615-01
1
80-6429-60
2-D Technical Manual
2-D Electrophoresis: Using Immobilized pH Gradients
62
Amersham Biosciences
Index
Numerics
D
1.5 M Tris-Cl 41, 57
10% Ammonium persulfate 41
concentration 56
in gradients 49
in homogeneous gels 46
in gradient preparation 19
10% SDS 41
10% TEMED 42
concentration
in gradients 49
in homogeneous gels 46
DALT System
components 3 to 7
specifications 9
unpacking 7
degassing solutions 11
displacing solution 42
recommended volume 14, 20
dithiothreitol, in equilibration 27
A
acrylamide
in IPG strips 27
ordering 62
precautions for use 14, 18
stock 41
active cooling 34
agarose sealing solution 28, 43
B
balance chamber 13
banana plug corrosion 37
blotting kit 34 to 38
description 7
bow-tie mixer 18
bromophenol blue
in heavy solution 56
C
calibrating
peristaltic pump 17
casting gels
gradient 18 to 21
non-gradient 14
configuring the gradient divider 16
cooling bath 11
temperature 24, 34
creatine kinase charge standards 45
crosslinker concentration 56
culture tubes, screw-cap 11
Amersham Biosciences 63
E
electroendosmosis
minimizing 27
electrophoresis
buffer 56
conditions 32
electrophoresis tank
description 3
loading 24
EPS 2A200 11
EPS 601 11
equilibration buffer 27
ethylene glycol, precaution 24
F
flow rate calibration 17
G
gel cassettes
cleaning 33
description 5
loading 31
unloading 33
gel casting unit
description 5
preparation 12
unloading 23
gel labels 54
placement 13
gel overlay 14, 19, 42
application 22
gel storage 23, 42
gels
gradient 18 to 21
non-gradient 14
GelSeal 11, 56
glycerol, in equilibration 27
Index
gradient gels
casting 18 to 21
solutions 49
troubleshooting 56
gradient maker 16
divider configuration 16
description 6
pump-assisted 18
H
heat exchanger 24
homogeneous gel
casting 14
solutions 46
hydrostatic balance chamber 6, 13
hydrostatic equilibrium 21
I
immobilized pH gradient, see IPG strips
iodoacetamide 28
IPG strips 11
description 27
equilibration 27
loading onto slab gels 29
storage 58
Hoefer DALT System
proteins
contamination 26, 35
migration 59
spots on gels 22
transfer from gel 34
transfer parameters 38
proteolytic degradation 58
Q
Quick-fit disconnect fittings 24
R
run conditions
electrophoresis 32
transfer 39
S
SDS electrophoresis buffer 24, 43
SDS equilibration buffer 43
silver-stain 33
sodium dodecyl sulfate 27
specifications 9
T
non-gradient gels 14
solutions 46
TEMED 19, 56
Towbin buffer 44
tracking dye 28
transfer
conditions 39
parameters 38, 40
transfer buffer 44
notes 34
reusing 39
transfer cassette
assembly 35, 58
loading 37
transferring proteins 34
O
U
overlay 22, 42, 57
unpacking the system 7
urea, in equilibration 27
L
labeling gels 54
M
migration direction 37
migration rate, adjusting 57
MultiTemp III 11, 24
N
P
peristaltic pump 11, 18
polymerization
incomplete 56
time 14, 15, 19, 22
power supply
current leak 57
electrophoresis 11
64
W
Wonder Wedge 11
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