SmartShare User Manual

SmartShare® User Manual
SmartShare® User Manual
For Models: RM-50, RM-100, RM-200.
Copyright © SmartShare Systems, October 2006. All rights reserved.
SmartShare® User Manual
Introduction
The SmartShare® is an integrated bandwidth distributor and NAT router with
built-in DHCP Server. The SmartShare® can replace a traditional NAT router or
supplement an existing Internet router.
Key Features
Bandwidth Distributor with QOS. The patent pending SmartShare® bandwidth
distributor technology monitors and manages the Internet connection, so every active
user on the local network gets a fair amount of the shared Internet bandwidth, and
ensures that the Internet connection always is available for all users on the local
network. It also optimizes the use of bandwidth, so the Internet connection can be
fully utilized, regardless of the number of active users – if only one user is active, that
one user gets all the bandwidth. The Quality of Service (QOS) technology ensures
that IP telephony and online gaming is not affected by other applications.
NAT Router with SPI Firewall and Port forwarding. The network address
translation (NAT) technology makes it possible for multiple PCs to share a single
Internet IP address, by translating the individual IP addresses of each PC on the local
network to the shared IP address and keeping track of each translation, thereby
maintaining the connection from each PC on the local network to the Internet. The
stateful packet inspection (SPI) firewall ensures that no PC outside the local network
can establish a connection to any PC on the local network, and thus protects the PCs
on the local network from intruders coming from the Internet. When port forwarding
is enabled, dedicated PCs on the local network can be accessed from the Internet, so
e.g. a public web server can be set up on the local network.
DHCP Server. The DHCP server technology automatically assigns the required
network information to the PCs on the local network. This means that the users do not
have to worry about configuring their PCs with the correct IP address, netmask,
gateway and DNS servers.
Developed in Denmark.
Made in Taiwan.
SmartShare Systems
Meteorvej 61
DK-2730 Herlev
Denmark
www.smartsharesystems.com
Patents pending. SmartShare® and Network Overclocking® are registered trademarks.
–1–
SmartShare® User Manual
Table of Contents
Introduction.................................................................................................................... 1
Key Features............................................................................................................... 1
Table of Contents........................................................................................................... 2
Installation Guide........................................................................................................... 3
1. Connect to the local network equipment................................................................ 3
2. Start the setup menu............................................................................................... 3
3. Configure the Internet connection.......................................................................... 3
4. Connect to the Internet equipment......................................................................... 3
5. Test the configured Internet connection speed....................................................... 3
The SmartShare® Bandwidth Distribution System....................................................... 4
Bandwidth Distribution per IP Address..................................................................... 4
Download and Upload Limiters................................................................................. 4
Quality-of-Service...................................................................................................... 4
Flow Management...................................................................................................... 5
LowLatency Network Overclocking®....................................................................... 5
Status menu.................................................................................................................... 6
WAN.......................................................................................................................... 6
Bandwidth Usage....................................................................................................... 6
Bandwidth Distributor................................................................................................ 6
Internet/WAN (Wide Area Network) configuration menu............................................ 7
Internet Service Provider connection type................................................................. 7
WAN with Static IP................................................................................................ 7
WAN with DHCP................................................................................................... 7
WAN with PPPoE.................................................................................................. 7
Connection Speed....................................................................................................... 7
LowLatency Network Overclocking®....................................................................... 8
LAN (Local Area Network) configuration menu........................................................... 9
Domain Name.............................................................................................................9
IP Address Range....................................................................................................... 9
Local DNS Servers (optional).................................................................................... 9
Local NTP Server (optional)...................................................................................... 9
Built-in DHCP Server................................................................................................ 9
Port Forwarding to Local Servers.............................................................................. 9
System menu................................................................................................................ 10
Download Firmware................................................................................................. 10
Restore Factory Defaults.......................................................................................... 10
Reboot System.......................................................................................................... 10
Password menu............................................................................................................. 10
Using the Serial Port.....................................................................................................10
LED Indicators............................................................................................................. 10
Security Considerations................................................................................................ 11
Physical Access........................................................................................................ 11
Password Protection................................................................................................. 11
Firewall..................................................................................................................... 11
Shielding Local Users From Eachother....................................................................11
Troubleshooting............................................................................................................12
Glossary........................................................................................................................ 12
–2–
SmartShare® User Manual
Installation Guide
1. Connect to the local network equipment
Connect the LAN port on the SmartShare® to any ethernet port on the the local
network switch, using a straight ethernet patch cable.
2. Start the setup menu
Use a web browser on a PC connected to the local network to start the setup menu in
the SmartShare®.
The setup menu address is: http://192.168.2.1/
The default password is: admin
Please note that for the first 5 minutes after the SmartShare® has been powered on, the
default password can be used to get access – in case the password has been lost.
3. Configure the Internet connection
Go to the WAN page and configure the Internet connection and enter the download
and upload speeds in kbit/s.
The information that must be entered on the WAN page must be obtained from the
Internet service provider. The Internet service provider usually supplies this
information in a letter accompanying the confirmation of the Internet subscription.
Please note that the connection speed advertised by most Internet service providers
are the gross speeds, while the settings in the SmartShare® must be entered as the net
speeds, which means that the settings may need some adjustment to compensate for
the difference.
Entering the speeds as 80% of the ISP’s advertised speeds is a good rule of thumb.
Go to the Save page to save and activate the new settings.
4. Connect to the Internet equipment
Connect the WAN port on the SmartShare® to the ethernet LAN port on the Internet
modem, using a straight ethernet patch cable.
5. Test the configured Internet connection speed
Test that the download speed settings are correct by downloading from a very fast
server on the Internet from two PCs simultaneously. Go to the Status page and check
that the Download Limiter status changes from READY to ACTIVE while the
download connection is saturated. If it does not change, try decreasing the download
speed entered on the WAN page by 10-30%. Keep testing and decreasing the values
until satisfied.
Test that the upload speed settings are correct by uploading to a very fast server on the
Internet from two PCs simultaneously, while monitoring the Upload Limiter status.
–3–
SmartShare® User Manual
The SmartShare® Bandwidth Distribution System
This section describes the SmartShare® bandwidth distribution system in details, and
is written for network experts only.
Bandwidth Distribution per IP Address
The SmartShare® identifies individual users by their IP address presented to the LAN
interface on the SmartShare®.
This also means that if a group of users in an apartment shares the apartment’s
network connection through another NAT router in the apartment, they will be treated
as one single user, because that NAT router only presents one IP address to the
SmartShare®.
The IP address range controlled by the SmartShare® is visible on the LAN
configuration menu. Each IP address in this range is considered an individual user.
All IP addresses outside the controlled address range are considered overflow users,
and will be crammed together and treated as a single virtual user by the SmartShare®.
This means that the overflow users can access the Internet, but the entire group of
overflow users will only get the bandwidth of one single user.
There is no bandwidth distribution within the group of overflow users. A single heavy
user in the group of overflow users can consume all the bandwidth assigned to the
group of overflow users, and thus block the connection for the other overflow users.
Download and Upload Limiters
The SmartShare® monitors the download and upload bandwidth, and while there is
bandwidth enough, all users can use all the bandwidth they like.
When the download bandwidth becomes overloaded, the SmartShare® starts
restricting the heavy users by activating the Download Limiter.
When the upload bandwidth becomes overloaded, the SmartShare® starts restricting
the heavy users by activating the Upload Limiter.
The SmartShare® Download Limiters are designed to ensure that no single user is
limited more than appropriate.
Quality-of-Service
The SmartShare® always prioritizes timing critical traffic flows, such as IP telephony
and online gaming, over ordinary traffic flows.
The priority assignment is based on analysis of the traffic pattern of each flow. It is
not based on the TCP/UDP port number, TOS precedence, DSCP or other marks set
in the packet, because those properties can be spoofed by peer-to-peer applications or
malicious users.
QOS is an integral part of the SmartShare® bandwidth distribution system, so it does
not require any configuration or allocation of bandwidth.
The SmartShare® typically recognizes a timing sentitive flow within one second.
–4–
SmartShare® User Manual
Flow Management
All NAT routers contain a table, where each flow is registered while established. Each
entry in the flow table contains the public IP addresses and TCP/UDP port numbers of
the flow and the corresponding IP address and TCP/UDP port number of the
computer on the LAN. The same principle applies to the NAT router in SmartShare®.
The SmartShare® flow table is large enough to handle the many flows that can be
expected when many users are active. In addition to having a very large flow table,
the SmartShare® flow manager is designed to handle excessive flows without crashing
or freezing.
LowLatency Network Overclocking®
As the name suggests, any Network Overclocking® may have unwanted side effects,
and should be disabled if it causes problems.
When LowLatency is enabled, the TCP MTU is lowered significantly, and thus the
packets become smaller. When the packets are smaller, the packet rate is increased,
and thus the delay and jitter is decreased.
Obviously, using smaller packets means that more packets must be used to convey the
same amount of data, so it does not increase the effective bandwidth.
Modifying the TCP MTU is known from PPPoE connections, where the MTU is
lowered slightly to make room for the PPPoE header added to the packets.
–5–
SmartShare® User Manual
Status menu
This page shows the current status of the Internet connection.
WAN
This shows the status of logical connection to the ISP, regardless of the physical
connection’s link status.
If the WAN is configured to use a Static IP address, the status will always show the
link as being up, because the SmartShare® can not know if the ISP will respond to
traffic or not.
When the WAN has received its configuration from the ISP, the status will show the
link as being up and the assigned IP Address will be visible.
The permanent MAC address of the WAN is visible, because some ISP’s ask for the
MAC address when they set up their customer’s access.
Bandwidth Usage
This table shows the current bandwidth utilization in kbit/s.
Bandwidth Distributor
Flows
When analyzing the utilization of the Internet connection, it is not only interesting to
know the bandwidth utilization, but also how many flows are established, because
each flow uses memory in the SmartShare®. Flows are sometimes called sessions or
connections. A high number of flows means that the computers on the local net are
connected to many servers on the Internet, but it does not nescessarily mean that
packets are flowing and bandwidth is being used.
Download Limiter
The SmartShare® monitors the download bandwidth, and while there is bandwidth
enough, all users can use all the bandwidth they like. In this situation, the Download
Limiter status is shown as READY.
When the download bandwidth becomes overloaded, the SmartShare® starts
restricting the heavy users by activating the Download Limiter. In this situation, the
Download Limiter status is shown as ACTIVE.
Upload Limiter
The SmartShare® monitors the upload bandwidth, and while there is bandwidth
enough, all users can use all the bandwidth they like. In this situation, the Upload
Limiter status is shown as READY.
When the upload bandwidth becomes overloaded, the SmartShare® starts restricting
the heavy users by activating the Upload Limiter. In this situation, the Upload Limiter
status is shown as ACTIVE.
–6–
SmartShare® User Manual
Internet/WAN (Wide Area Network) configuration menu
The Internet service provider usually supplies all the information that is needed to set
the WAN configuration in a letter accompanying the confirmation of the Internet
subscription.
Internet Service Provider connection type
The WAN can be configured for 3 types of connection to the Internet service
provider:
• Static IP
• DHCP
• PPPoE
WAN with Static IP
The following information is required:
• IP address
• Netmask
• Router (Default Gateway)
The following information is optional:
• Primary DNS Server
• Secondary DNS Server
• NTP Server
WAN with DHCP
This type of connection is fully automatic.
WAN with PPPoE
The following information is required:
• PPPoE username
• PPPoE password
Connection Speed
The Internet connection speed must be set correctly, or the bandwidth distribution will
not function as intended.
The following information is required:
• Download speed in kbit/s
• Upload speed in kbit/s
If the connection speed advertised by the Internet service provider (ISP) contains two
numbers, for example 256/1024; the download speed is normally the larger of the
numbers and the upload speed is the lesser.
Please note that an advertised speed of 1M sometimes means 1024 and 2M sometimes
means 2048, but 10M always means 10000 and 100M always means 100000.
Many ISPs advertise the gross connection speed, which does not include overhead in
the ISP’s network (e.g. PPPoE encapsulation and ATM cell alignment). The speed
settings in the SmartShare® must be entered as net values, which means that they may
need some adjustment to compensate for the overhead in ISP’s network. Entering the
speeds as 80% of the ISP’s advertised speeds is a good rule of thumb.
–7–
SmartShare® User Manual
LowLatency Network Overclocking®
Enabling LowLatency has the following effects:
• The “ping time” in online games is lowered.
• The delay and jitter for IP telephony is minimized.
LowLatency works by reducing the TCP MTU significantly, and may not be
compatible with all web sites and Internet services. If it causes problems, it can be
disabled again.
The default setting for LowLatency is: Disabled.
–8–
SmartShare® User Manual
LAN (Local Area Network) configuration menu
Domain Name
The LAN domain name must be set. This information is used by the built-in DHCP
server (if enabled) to configure clients on the LAN using DHCP for automatic IP
configuration.
The default domain name is: local
IP Address Range
The IP address range must be set. This information is used to distribute the bandwidth
among the active users and by the built-in DHCP server (if enabled) to configure
clients on the LAN using DHCP for automatic IP configuration.
The default IP address range is: 192.168.2.1-192.168.2.255
Local DNS Servers (optional)
If there are any DNS servers on the LAN, their IP addresses can be set. This
information (in addition to the DNS server information from the WAN) is used by the
built-in DHCP server (if enabled) to configure clients on the LAN using DHCP for
automatic IP configuration.
The default configuration is: (empty)
Local NTP Server (optional)
If there is an NTP server on the LAN, its IP address can be set. This information is
used by the built-in DHCP server (if enabled) to configure clients on the LAN using
DHCP for automatic IP configuration.
The default configuration is: (empty)
Built-in DHCP Server
If enabled, the built-in DHCP server automatically configures clients on the LAN
using DHCP for automatic IP configuration.
The default configuration is: Enabled
Port Forwarding to Local Servers
These fields can be configured to make servers on the local network available from
the Internet.
The default configuration is: (empty)
–9–
SmartShare® User Manual
System menu
Download Firmware
The SmartShare® firmware can be upgraded from the firmware server at SmartShare
Systems or any other firmware server. Firmware upgrade is a two step process. First,
enter the URL of the firmware to be downloaded, and click the Download Firmware
button. Second, when the firmware has been downloaded and is ready for installation,
you can choose to cancel the upgrade or to proceed with the installation of the
downloaded firmware.
Restore Factory Defaults
If you have messed up the configuration, or just want to start all over, you can restore
the factory defaults.
Reboot System
If for some reason the SmartShare® has become unstable or overloaded, you can
reboot it to clear its memory. Rebooting the system does not clear the configuration.
Password menu
The administrator password can be set in this menu. The chosen password must be
entered twice to prevent typos.
The default password is: admin
Using the Serial Port
The serial port can be used with a terminal emulator such as Hyperterm or Tera Term
Pro as a fallback solution if the LAN connection has been lost.
The speed is: 115200 8N1 (115200 baud, 8 bits, No parity, 1 stop bit).
The following commands are available:
• ? – Show help.
• reboot – Reboot the SmartShare®.
• restore – Restore factory defaults.
The serial port is not password protected.
LED Indicators
The two LEDs for each LAN/WAN/Ext1/Ext2 ethernet port indicate as follows:
LINK/ACT = Off
No connection.
LINK/ACT = On, 10/100 = Off 10Mbit link to other device established.
LINK/ACT = On, 10/100 = On
100Mbit link to other device established.
LINK/ACT = Blink
Link is active with transmissions.
The POWER LED indicates as follows:
POWER = Off
Power is off.
POWER = Orange Light
Power is on.
– 10 –
SmartShare® User Manual
The STATUS LED indicates as follows:
STATUS = Green Light
The SmartShare® is booting.
STATUS = Green Blink Slow
Data connection to ISP is established.
Download Limiter is ready.
STATUS = Green Blink Fast
Data connection to ISP is established.
Download Limiter is active.
STATUS = Red Blink Slow
Connection to ISP is down or not established yet.
STATUS = Red Blink Fast
(Not used.)
STATUS = Red Light
Internal System Error.
Security Considerations
Physical Access
The SmartShare® should be installed in a locked patch panel. Anyone with physical
access to the SmartShare® can power it off, disconnect it or change the configuration
via the Serial port.
Password Protection
The SmartShare® configuration menu is password protected. Keep your password
safe.
Firewall
The SmartShare® firewall prevents hackers connected on the Internet from accessing
computers on the local network.
The firewall does not prevent users on the local network from downloading virus or
other malware from the Internet to their computers.
The firewall does not prevent hackers connected on the local network from accessing
other computers on the local network For further information about this topic, please
refer to the chapter about shielding local users from eachother.
Shielding Local Users From Eachother
Before selecting and installing the local network equipment, it should be considered if
the local network should be an open network, where all local users can connect to
eachother and share files etc. (with the risk of spreading virus on the local network),
or if it should be a shielded network, where all users are separated from eachother, so
each user only has access to the Internet. This does not affect the SmartShare®, and
the SmartShare® works with both types of local network equipment.
– 11 –
SmartShare® User Manual
Troubleshooting
Q: After the SmartShare® was installed, some of the computers on the local network
can no longer access the Internet.
A: This is probably because the computers still have the old configuration from the
previous Internet router. In Microsoft Windows, start a Command Prompt (Start ->
Run; cmd.exe), and run the command ipconfig /release and then run the
command ipconfig /renew.
Q: It doesn’t work after the LAN has been configured on the SmartShare®.
A: The LAN can not use the same IP addresses as the WAN. Try configuring the
LAN for using another IP address range.
Q: After powering on the SmartShare®, the WAN connection does not come up.
A: First, check that everything is correctly connected. It may take a few minutes for
the WAN connection to stabilize; if it hasn’t come up after a few minutes, check that
the configuration on the WAN page is correct. If it still doesn’t work, disconnect the
SmartShare® and use a laptop to check that the connection from the ISP is OK.
Q: Users with peer-to-peer applications have problems accessing the Internet.
A: Configure the peer-to-peer application to use fewer simultaneous flows (a.k.a.
connections or sessions).
Q: I can not remember the administrator password for the SmartShare®.
A: Power off and on the SmartShare® and login before the 5 minutes login grace
period has passed, using the fallback password: admin
Q: I have messed something up in the configuration and can not access the
SmartShare® any more.
A: Use the Serial port to restore the factory defaults.
Glossary
DHCP
DNS
IP
ISP
LAN
LED
MTU
NAT
NTP
QOS
SPI
WAN
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Domain Name System
Internet Protocol
Internet Service Provider
Local Area Network
Light Emitting Diode
Maximum Transmision Unit
Network Address Translation
Network Time Protocol
Quality Of Service
Stateful Packet Inspection
Wide Area Network
– 12 –